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Sample records for comet encke meteor

  1. Asteroids, Comets, Meteors 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muinonen, K.; Penttilä, A.; Granvik, M.; Virkki, A.; Fedorets, G.; Wilkman, O.; Kohout, T.

    2014-08-01

    Asteroids, Comets, Meteors focuses on the research of small Solar System bodies. Small bodies are the key to understanding the formation and evolution of the Solar System, carrying signals from pre-solar times. Understanding the evolution of the Solar System helps unveil the evolution of extrasolar planetary systems. Societally, small bodies will be important future resources of minerals. The near-Earth population of small bodies continues to pose an impact hazard, whether it be small pieces of falling meteorites or larger asteroids or cometary nuclei capable of causing global environmental effects. The conference series entitled ''Asteroids, Comets, Meteors'' constitutes the leading international series in the field of small Solar System bodies. The first three conferences took place in Uppsala, Sweden in 1983, 1985, and 1989. The conference is now returning to Nordic countries after a quarter of a century. After the Uppsala conferences, the conference has taken place in Flagstaff, Arizona, U.S.A. in 1991, Belgirate, Italy in 1993, Paris, France in 1996, Ithaca, New York, U.S.A. in 1999, in Berlin, Germany in 2002, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in 2005, in Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A. in 2008, and in Niigata, Japan in 2012. ACM in Helsinki, Finland in 2014 will be the 12th conference in the series.

  2. Vectorial Modeling Of NH In Comet 2P/Encke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, Garrett; Pierce, D.; Cochran, A.

    2010-10-01

    Encke is an ideal comet for studying the relationship of radicals to their photodissociative parent molecules due to its low dust content. On 2003 October 22 - 24, we used the the 2.7 m telescope at the McDonald Observatory of the University of Texas to obtain spectra of several cometary radical species. Using a version of the Vectorial Model that has been modified to simulate Encke's prominent sunward-facing fan, we examined the spacial distribution of NH in the coma. Potential photochemical parents of NH were studied in order to understand its production and spacial distribution in the coma. Derived production rates are compared to values in other comets to constrain the primary parent of NH in Encke.

  3. Meteors, comets, and millennialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBeath, A.

    1999-12-01

    An overview of meteoric and cometary activity between circa 250 BC and circa 1600 AD is discussed with especial regard to the inclusion of meteoric imagery in Christian religious texts. Evidence is presented to suggest meteorite images played a leading role in the creation of millennial fears among adherents of the early medieval Church in Europe, which fears still persist into modern times, but which may have their origins in Mesopotamia circa 2200 BC. An extended discussion of meteoric imagery in Christian writings is also presented.

  4. THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF OH AND CN RADICALS IN THE COMA OF COMET ENCKE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihalawela, Chandrasiri A.; Pierce, Donna M.; Dorman, Garrett R.; Cochran, Anita L.

    2011-01-01

    Multiple potential parent species have been proposed to explain CN abundances in comet comae, but the parent has not been definitively identified for all comets. This study examines the spatial distribution of CN radicals in the coma of comet Encke and determines the likelihood that CN is a photodissociative daughter of HCN in the coma. Comet Encke is the shortest orbital period (3.3 years) comet known and also has a low dust-to-gas ratio based on optical observations. Observations of CN were obtained from 2003 October 22 to 24, using the 2.7 m telescope at McDonald Observatory. To determine the parent of CN, the classical vectorial model was modified by using a cone shape in order to reproduce Encke's highly aspherical and asymmetric coma. To test the robustness of the modified model, the spatial distribution of OH was also modeled. This also allowed us to obtain CN/OH ratios in the coma. Overall, we find the CN/OH ratio to be 0.009 ± 0.004. The results are consistent with HCN being the photodissociative parent of CN, but we cannot completely rule out other possible parents such as CH 3 CN and HC 3 N. We also found that the fan-like feature spans ∼90°, consistent with the results of Woodney et al..

  5. The spatial distribution of C2, C3, and NH in comet 2P/Encke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorman, Garrett; Pierce, Donna M.; Cochran, Anita L.

    2013-01-01

    We examine the spatial distribution of C 2 , C 3 , and NH radicals in the coma of comet Encke in order to understand their abundances and distributions in the coma. The observations were obtained from 2003 October 22-24, using the 2.7 m telescope at McDonald Observatory. Building on our original study of CN and OH, we have used our modified version of the vectorial model, which treats the coma as one large cone, in order to reproduce Encke's highly aspherical and asymmetric coma. Our results suggest that NH can be explained by the photodissociation of NH 2 , assuming that NH 2 is produced rapidly from NH 3 in the innermost coma. Our modeling of C 2 and C 3 suggests a multi-generational photodissociation process may be required for their production. Using the results of our previous study, we also obtain abundance ratios with respect to OH and CN. Overall, we find that Encke exhibits typical carbon-chain abundances, and the results are consistent with other studies of comet Encke.

  6. The Spatial Distribution of C2, C3, and NH in Comet 2P/Encke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, Garrett; Pierce, Donna M.; Cochran, Anita L.

    2013-12-01

    We examine the spatial distribution of C2, C3, and NH radicals in the coma of comet Encke in order to understand their abundances and distributions in the coma. The observations were obtained from 2003 October 22-24, using the 2.7 m telescope at McDonald Observatory. Building on our original study of CN and OH, we have used our modified version of the vectorial model, which treats the coma as one large cone, in order to reproduce Encke's highly aspherical and asymmetric coma. Our results suggest that NH can be explained by the photodissociation of NH2, assuming that NH2 is produced rapidly from NH3 in the innermost coma. Our modeling of C2 and C3 suggests a multi-generational photodissociation process may be required for their production. Using the results of our previous study, we also obtain abundance ratios with respect to OH and CN. Overall, we find that Encke exhibits typical carbon-chain abundances, and the results are consistent with other studies of comet Encke.

  7. Observations of Comet 2P/Encke During the Fall 2013 Apparition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Paul; Woodney, L.; Fernandez, Yanga R.; Mueller, Beatrice E.; Samarasinha, Nalin H.; Chi, Brian; Farr, Cynthia; Redinger, Haley; Schlueter, Lindsey

    2013-01-01

    We will present preliminary results from our observational campaign of Comet 2P/Encke during its 2013 perihelion passage. At optical wavelengths Encke is an extremely dust poor comet that has in past perihelion passages emitted a gas jet in the form a sunward fan. We expect to characterize both the morphology and lightcurve of the comet. The low optical dust means that even near perihelion the nuclear signature can be obtained in lightcurve data taken with narrowband continuum filters which cut out the gas emission. The campaign will consist of both narrowband and broadband imaging as well as infrared spectroscopy. Imaging will be obtained from 8 nights on the KPNO 2.1m between Sept. 7 and 14 UT. Additionally, the Murillo Family Observatory, a 0.5m telescope on the CSUSB campus which is equipped with both broadband filters and a narrowband Hale-Bopp set of filters will be used to observe the comet every clear night the moon allows between late August and early October to obtain extensive lightcurve data. These data will overlap both the Kitt Peak observations and the infrared spectroscopy which will be obtained with the SpeX instrument at the IRTF on four nights between September 26 UT and October 2 UT.

  8. Chandra Observations of a Collisionally and Optically Thin Charge Exchange System - Comet 2P/Encke 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, D. J.; Lisse, C. M.; Dennerl, K.; Wolk, S. J.; Bodewits, D.; Combi, M. R.; Hoekstra, R.; Makinen, J. T. T.; Weaver, H. A.

    2004-11-01

    The highly favorable perigee passage of the x-ray bright comet 2P/Encke in late 2003 provided an excellent opportunity to use Chandra's high spatial, spectral, and temporal resolution to study cometary x-ray emission in the low neutral target density, low x-ray flux regime. The 1997 ROSAT/EUVE observations of Encke (Lisse et al. 1999) and the nucleus rotation studies of Luu and Jewitt (1990, most likely rotation period = 15 hours) suggested a simple Chandra experiment - continuous ACIS-S observations of Encke over 15 hours during the time of its closest approach to Earth. Here we report initial results from our X-ray observations. X-ray emission from comet Encke was found only in a small, asymmetric region between 1500 km - 40,000 km from the nucleus. The Encke ACIS-S3 200 -- 1000 eV spectrum shows many of the same x-ray emission lines previously observed from comets (C+5, O+6,O+7), including confirmation of several emission lines in the 800 to 1000 eV range. However, the Encke spectrum shows very different line ratios in the 200 - 700 eV range than any previous comet. A lightcurve with peak-to-peak amplitude of 20% and period 11.7 hours was found over the 15 hour observing period. Comparing the observations to contemporaneous measurements of the coma and solar wind made by other means, we find the combination of a low density, collisionally thin (to charge exchange) coma and a post-massive X-flare, high temperature, moderate density solar wind can explain our unusual Encke x-ray observations.

  9. Comet P/Machholtz and the Quadrantid meteor stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcintosh, B.A.

    1990-01-01

    Attention is drawn to the suggestive similarities between the calculated perturbation behavior of Comet P/Machholtz 1986 VIII, on the one hand, and on the other those of the Quadrantid, Delta Aquarid, and Arietid meteor streams. There appears to be adequate evidence for the formation by the Comets P/Machholtz and 1491-I, together with the three meteor streams, of a related complex controlled by Jupiter's gravitational perturbations; there is no comparably compelling information, however, bearing on the questions of parent-offspring or sibling relationships among these comets and meteor streams. 13 refs

  10. High-Resolution Infrared Spectroscopic Measurements of Comet 2PlEncke: Unusual Organic Composition and Low Rotational Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radeva, Yana L.; Mumma, Michael J.; Villanueva, Geronimo L.; Bonev, Boncho P.; DiSanti, Michael A.; A'Hearn, Michael F.; Dello Russo, Neil

    2013-01-01

    We present high-resolution infrared spectroscopic measurements of the ecliptic comet 2P/Encke, observed on 4-6 Nov. 2003 during its close approach to the Earth, using the Near Infrared Echelle Spectrograph on the Keck II telescope. We present flux-calibrated spectra, production rates, and mixing ratios for H2O, CH3OH, HCN, H2CO, C2H2, C2H6, CH4 and CO. Comet 2P/Encke is a dynamical end-member among comets because of its short period of 3.3 years. Relative to "organics-normal" comets, we determined that 2PlEncke is depleted in HCN, H2CO, C2H2, C2H6, CH4 and CO, but it is enriched in CH3OH. We compared mixing ratios of these organic species measured on separate dates, and we see no evidence of macroscopic chemical heterogeneity in the nucleus of 2P/Encke, however, this conclusion is limited by sparse temporal sampling. The depleted abundances of most measured species suggest that 2P/Encke may have formed closer to the young Sun, before its insertion to the Kuiper belt, compared with "organics-normal" comets - as was previously suggested for other depleted comets (e.g. C/1999 S4 (LINEAR)). We measured very low rotational temperatures of 20 - 30 K for H2O, CH3OH and HCN in the near nucleus region of 2P/Encke, which correlate with one of the lowest cometary gas production rates (approx. 2.6 x 10(exp 27) molecules/s) measured thus far in the infrared. This suggests that we are seeing the effects of more efficient radiative cooling, insufficient collisional excitation, and/or inefficient heating by fast H-atoms (and icy grains) in the observed region of the coma. Its extremely short orbital period, very low gas production rate, and classification as an ecliptic comet, make 2PlEncke an important addition to our growing database, and contribute significantly to the establishment of a chemical taxonomy of comets.

  11. A Seasonal Feature in Mercury's Exosphere Caused by Meteoroids from Comet Encke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, M. H.; Christou, A.; Killen, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    The planet Mercury is enveloped in a tenuous atmosphere, the result of a delicate balance between poorly understood sources and sinks (Killen et al, 2007). Meteoroid impacts are a contributing source process (eg Wurz et al, 2010), but their importance compared to other production mechanisms is uncertain. Killen and Hahn (2015) found that seasonal variations in Mercury's calcium exosphere as observed by the MASCS spectrometer onboard the MESSENGER spacecraft (Burger et al, 2014) may be due to impact vaporization of surface material by the infall of interplanetary dust. However, an additional dust source was required to explain a Ca excess at a True Anomaly Angle (TAA) of 25±5 deg. Killen and Hahn suggested that dust from comet 2P/Encke, crossing Mercury's orbital plane at TAA=45 deg, may be the culprit. We have simulated numerically the stream of meteoroids ejected from Encke to test the Killen and Hahn conjecture. We find that Encke particles evolving solely under the gravity of the major planets and the Sun encounter Mercury at TAA=50-60 deg, well after the peak of the Ca excess emission. However, the addition of Poynting-Robertson (P-R) drag in our model couples the age and size of the meteoroids to the TAA at encounter, causing smaller, older particles to encounter Mercury progressively earlier in the Hermean year. In particular, mm-sized grains ejected between 10 and 20 kyr ago impact on the nightside hemisphere of Mercury at TAA = 350-30 deg, near the observed peak time of the exospheric feature. During this presentation, we will describe our model results and discuss their implications for the physical mechanism that injects impact-liberated Ca into sunlight as well as the origin and evolution of the Encke stream of meteoroids. Astronomical research at the Armagh Observatory is funded by the Northern Ireland Department of Culture, Arts and Leisure (DCAL). RMK was supported by NASA Grant NNX07AR78G-S01 as a Participating Scientist on the NASA MESSENGER

  12. A seasonal feature in Mercury’s exosphere caused by meteoroids from comet Encke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christou, Apostolos; Killen, Rosemary M.; Burger, Matthew H.

    2015-11-01

    The planet Mercury is enveloped in a tenuous atmosphere, the result of a delicate balance between poorly understood sources and sinks (Killen et al, 2007). Meteoroid impacts are a contributing source process (eg Wurz et al, 2010), but their importance compared to other production mechanisms is uncertain.Killen and Hahn (2015) found that seasonal variations in Mercury's calcium exosphere as observed by Mercury Atmospheric, and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) onboard the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft (Burger et al, 2014) may be attributed to impact vaporization of surface material by the infall of interplanetary dust. However, an additional dust source was required to explain a Ca excess at a True Anomaly Angle (TAA) of 25±5 deg. Killen and Hahn suggested that dust from comet 2P/Encke, crossing Mercury's orbital plane at TAA=45 deg, may be the culprit.We have simulated numerically the stream of meteoroids ejected from Encke in order to identify those particles that impact Mercury at the present epoch and test the Killen and Hahn conjecture. We find that Encke particles evolving solely under the gravity of the major planets and the Sun encounter Mercury at TAA=50-60 deg, well after the peak of the Ca excess emission. This result is independent of the time of ejection. However, the addition of Poynting-Robertson (P-R) drag in our model couples the age and size of the meteoroids to the TAA at encounter, causing smaller, older particles to encounter Mercury progressively earlier in the Hermean year. In particular, mm-sized grains ejected between 10 and 20 kyr ago impact on the nightside hemisphere of Mercury at TAA = 350-30 deg, near the observed peak time of the exospheric feature.During this presentation, we will describe our model results and discuss their implications for the physical mechanism that injects impact-liberated Ca into sunlight as well as the origin and evolution of the Encke stream of

  13. On the formation of meteor showers of comet Halley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babadzhanov, P.B.; Obrubov, J.V.; Pushkarev, A.N.; Hajduk, A.

    1987-01-01

    The orbits of test particles ejected from the nucleus of Halley comet at its perihelion passage in 1910 with different velocities are studied for the next three passages of the comet up to 2134 taking into consideration perturbations from all planets. Some characteristics of the stream formation are presented. The calculations show that the return of the comet to its perihelion cannot produce an immediate influence on the activity of its meteor showers. (author). 2 figs., 1 tab., 13 refs

  14. Political astronomy: Comet and meteor observations by Muslim historians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chander Kapoor, Ramesh

    2015-08-01

    Eclipses and unexpected phenomena like comets, meteors, novae and earthquakes were viewed among various cultures as violating the established order of the heavens. They were considered to be ill omens for kings and emperors and were routinely monitored. The present work looks into the texts of history and literature by Muslim historians and chroniclers in West Asia and India that carry stray references to such phenomena. The accounts often relate the apparitions to specific disastrous events or prognosticate revolts, deaths, epidemics, earthquakes all that that took place in later times. Obviously, the occurrences interested the astrologers more. Comet appearances would last for days and weeks but nearly all the writings lack sequential observations. Meteor showers are annual features but the Islamic calendar being lunar would not easily lead one to notice periodic nature of the incidents, let alone sensing a periodicity in comet appearances. These are non-astronomy texts with little scientific content but being from different ages permit us to see how the astronomical perceptions changed over the times. The recorded details and firm chronology, tested against modern back calculations, can provide valuable information on them, keeping in mind the text and the context in which the original reference was made. We also notice a qualitative change in the Indian writings of the 18th century and later where the authors begin to show up with influence of exposure to the European scientific progress.

  15. MESSENGER's Special Delivery: Gas and Dust Production from Comets 2P/Encke and C/2012 S1 (ISON) at Small Heliocentric Distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Y. R.; Vervack, R. J., Jr.; Knight, M. M.; McCandliss, S. R.; Dello Russo, N.; Feldman, P.; Lisse, C. M.; Tamblyn, P.

    2017-12-01

    Observations of comets when they are close to the Sun can potentially reveal interesting aspects of their behavior, composition, and structure, thanks to the rapid change both of seasons on the nucleus and of the local insolation environment. However this is typically a difficult time to make observations from Earth, so studies of comets that are near the Sun generally require special facilities. In late 2013, the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft observed comets C/2012 S1 (ISON) and 2P/Encke from its vantage point at Mercury when both comets were poorly located for most Earth-based telescopes. The observations included visible-wavelength, multi-filter imaging as well as ultraviolet spectroscopy, using the MDIS and MASCS instruments. Both comets were observed down to about 0.3 AU from the Sun. In Encke's case, it was followed through perihelion, which has rarely been done before. In ISON's case, it was observed while rapidly changing in the days preceding its catastrophic breakup just before perihelion. The data let us constrain the dust and gas production rates of both comets over several weeks, and we can investigate how the rates change with time, rotational phase, and heliocentric distance. We will present preliminary analyses of this time-series photometry and spectroscopy, and compare results to other studies of these comets' behavior when they are farther from the Sun. This work is supported by NASA grant NNX16AJ02G, and makes use of data from the Planetary Data System.

  16. A test of the comet hypothesis of the Tunguska Meteor Fall - Nature of the meteor 'thermal' explosion paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, V. C.

    1978-01-01

    The hypothesis that a comet was responsible for the Tunguska Meteor Fall is rejected because the hypothesis does not seem to account for the intense terminal spherical shock. A porous meteoroid model is proposed, and an analysis indicates that an entity of this type might produce an aerodynamic heat flux large enough to account for the terminal meteor explosion. It is suggested that the presence of olivine and of highly irregular macrostructure in meteors might indicate the presence of some porosity. For a highly porous meteoroid, it is postulated that during entry into the atmosphere the aerodynamic heat transfer at its external or pore walls would become so intensified as to cause either complete ablation with popping or a solid-liquid-vapor phase transition accompanied by an explosion.

  17. Bangs and meteors from the quiet comet 15P/Finlay

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ye, Q.Z.; Brown, P. G.; Bell, Ch.; Gao, X.; Mašek, Martin; Hui, M.T.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 814, č. 1 (2015), s. 1-10, č. článku 79. ISSN 0004-637X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13007 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 283783 - GLORIA Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : comet s * 15P/Finlay * meteorites * meteors * meteoroids Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 5.909, year: 2015

  18. DYNAMICS OF DUST PARTICLES RELEASED FROM OORT CLOUD COMETS AND THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO RADAR METEORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesvorný, David; Vokrouhlický, David; Pokorný, Petr; Janches, Diego

    2011-01-01

    The Oort Cloud Comets (OCCs), exemplified by the Great Comet of 1997 (Hale-Bopp), are occasional visitors from the heatless periphery of the solar system. Previous works hypothesized that a great majority of OCCs must physically disrupt after one or two passages through the inner solar system, where strong thermal gradients can cause phase transitions or volatile pressure buildup. Here we study the fate of small debris particles produced by OCC disruptions to determine whether the imprints of a hypothetical population of OCC meteoroids can be found in the existing meteor radar data. We find that OCC particles with diameters D ∼ 1 mm have a very low Earth-impact probability. The intermediate particle sizes, D ∼ 100 μm, represent a sweet spot. About 1% of these particles orbitally evolve by Poynting-Robertson drag to reach orbits with semimajor axis a ∼ 1 AU. They are expected to produce meteors with radiants near the apex of Earth's orbital motion. We find that the model distributions of their impact speeds and orbits provide a good match to radar observations of apex meteors, except for the eccentricity distribution, which is more skewed toward e ∼ 1 in our model. Finally, we propose an explanation for the long-standing problem in meteor science related to the relative strength of apex and helion/antihelion sources. As we show in detail, the observed trend, with the apex meteors being more prominent in observations of highly sensitive radars, can be related to orbital dynamics of particles released on the long-period orbits.

  19. DIRBE Comet Trails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Richard G.

    2015-01-01

    Re-examination of the COBE DIRBE data reveals the thermal emission of several comet dust trails.The dust trails of 1P/Halley, 169P/NEAT, and 3200 Phaethon have not been previously reported.The known trails of 2P/Encke, and 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 are also seen. The dust trails have 12 and 25 microns surface brightnesses of trails are very difficult to see in any single daily image of the sky, but are evident as rapidly moving linear features in movies of the DIRBE data. Some trails are clearest when crossing through the orbital plane of the parent comet, but others are best seen at high ecliptic latitudes as the Earth passes over or under the dust trail. All these comets have known associations with meteor showers. This re-examination also reveals one additional comet and 13 additional asteroids that had not previously been recognized in the DIRBE data.

  20. Collecting Comet Samples by ER-2 Aircraft: Cosmic Dust Collection During the Draconid Meteor Shower in October 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastien, Ron; Burkett, P. J.; Rodriquez, M.; Frank, D.; Gonzalez, C.; Robinson, G.-A.; Zolensky, M.; Brown, P.; Campbell-Brown, M.; Broce, S.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Many tons of dust grains, including samples of asteroids and comets, fall from space into the Earth's atmosphere each day. NASA periodically collects some of these particles from the Earth's stratosphere using sticky collectors mounted on NASA's high-flying aircraft. Sometimes, especially when the Earth experiences a known meteor shower, a special opportunity is presented to associate cosmic dust particles with a known source. NASA JSC's Cosmic Dust Collection Program has made special attempts to collect dust from particular meteor showers and asteroid families when flights can be planned well in advance. However, it has rarely been possible to make collections on very short notice. In 2012, the Draconid meteor shower presented that opportunity. The Draconid meteor shower, originating from Comet 21P/Giacobini-Zinner, has produced both outbursts and storms several times during the last century, but the 2012 event was not predicted to be much of a show. Because of these predictions, the Cosmic Dust team had not targeted a stratospheric collection effort for the Draconids, despite the fact that they have one of the slowest atmospheric entry velocities (23 km/s) of any comet shower, and thus offer significant possibilities of successful dust capture. However, radar measurements obtained by the Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar during the 2012 Draconids shower indicated a meteor storm did occur October 8 with a peak at 16:38 (+/-5 min) UTC for a total duration of approximately 2 hours.

  1. Water production rates of recent comets (2016-2017) by SOHO/SWAN: 2P/Encke, 41P/Tuttle-Giacobini-Kresak, 45P/ Honda-Mrkos-Pajdusakova, and C/2015 ER61 (PanSTARRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combi, Michael R.; Mäkinen, Terhi; Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Quémerais, Eric; Ferron, Stephane

    2017-10-01

    The all-sky hydrogen Lyman-alpha camera, SWAN (Solar Wind Anisotropies), on the SOlar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) satellite makes observations of the hydrogen coma of comets. Most water molecules produced by comets are ultimately photodissociated into two H atoms and one O atom producing a huge atomic hydrogen coma that is routinely observed in the daily full-sky SWAN images in comets of sufficient brightness. Water production rates are calculated using our time-resolved model (Mäkinen & Combi, 2005, Icarus 177, 217), typically yielding about 1 observation every 2 days on the average for each comet over the brightest part of its apparition. Here we describe the progress in analysis of observations of comets observed in 2016 and 2017. These include comets 2P/Encke, 41P/Tuttle-Giacobini-Sresak, 45P/ Honda-Mrkos-Pajdusakova, and C/2015 ER61 (PanSTARRS). A status update on the entire SOHO/SWAN archive of water production rates in comets will also be given.SOHO is an international cooperative mission between ESA and NASA. Support from grants NNX15AJ81G from the NASA Solar System Observations Planetary Astronomy Program and a previous grant NNX13AQ66G from the NASA Planetary Mission Data Analysis Program are gratefully acknowledged, as is support from CNRS, CNES, and the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI).

  2. The Inner Coma Physical Environments of Ecliptic Comets 45P/Honda-Mrkos-Pajdusakova, 2P/Encke, and 41P/Tuttle-Giacobini-Kresak Revealed Through Long-Slit Spectroscopy at NASA IRTF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonev, Boncho P.; DiSanti, Michael A.; Roth, Nathan; Dello Russo, Neil; Vervack, Ronald J.; Gibb, Erika L.; Villanueva, Geronimo Luis; Combi, Michael R.; Fougere, Nicolas; Kawakita, Hideyo; McKay, Adam J.; Saki, Mohammad; Cordiner, Martin; Protopapa, Silvia; de Val-Borro, Miguel

    2017-10-01

    Understanding the physical processes in the inner regions of cometary atmospheres is vital for interpretation of molecular cometary emission at all wavelengths. Furthermore, because ecliptic comets are continuously evaluated as space mission targets, understanding their coma environments is a central theme in both enhancing the science return of past missions (EPOXI, Rosetta) and in selecting future mission targets. With this motivation, we report long-slit high-resolution observations of H2O emission in the comae of three ecliptic comets observed in early 2017: 45P/Honda-Mrkos-Pajdusakova, 2P/Encke, and 41P/Tuttle-Giacobini-Kresak. Using the new crossed-dispersed spectrograph iSHELL at NASA IRTF, we detected a suite of water rovibrational emission lines from these comets and measured the spatial distributions of H2O rotational temperatures and molecular column densities. Both parameters are highly diagnostic of the physical environment in cometary comae, the competition between cooling and heating processes in these environments, and the presence (or lack thereof) of extended coma sources of gas-phase H2O. Comets 2P and 45P allowed a rare glimpse into coma physics at small (staff for their help with these challenging observations, most of which were done during daytime.

  3. 2P/Encke, the Taurid complex NEOs and the Maribo and Sutter’s Mill meteorites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tubiana, C.; Snodgrass, C.; Michelsen, Rene

    2015-01-01

    Aims. 2P/Encke is a short period comet that was discovered in 1786 and has been extensively observed and studied for more than 200 years. The Taurid meteoroid stream has long been linked with 2P/Encke owing to a good match of their orbital elements, even though the comet’s activity is not strong......, 2012, respectively. Their pre-atmospheric orbits place them in the middle of the Taurid meteoroid stream, which raises the intriguing possibility that comet 2P/Encke could be the parent body of CM chondrites. Methods. To investigate whether a relationship between comet 2P/Encke, the Taurid complex...

  4. Optical observations of the Phoenicid meteor shower in 2014 and activity of comet 289P/Blanpain in the early 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Yasunori; Nakamura, Takuji; Uehara, Satoshi; Sagayama, Toru; Toda, Hiroyuki

    2017-08-01

    Optical observations of the Phoenicid meteor shower were made in North Carolina, USA, with seven video cameras and two digital cameras over a period of about 5 hr between 22:30 UT on 2014 December 1 and 04:00 UT on December 2. Activity of the Phoenicids was confirmed during this period, including the predicted maximum around 00 h UT on December 2. The activity level was not high, considering that 29 Phoenicid meteors and 109 non-Phoenicid meteors were detected. A gentle peak in the activity was recognized between 01:00 UT and 03:00 UT on December 2. The compact radiant of the Phoenicids agreed well with what was predicted. A comparison of the observed and predicted peak times, radiant position, bright meteors' dominance, and radiants' spread revealed that the observed meteors originated from the dust trails formed by comet 289P/Blanpain at the perihelion passage in the early 20th century. This indicates that the parent body of the Phoenicids, comet 289P/Blanpain, was still active as a comet in the early 20th century and provided meteoroids, although its activity level was significantly weaker than that at the beginning of the 19th century.

  5. DRBE comet trails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arendt, Richard G.

    2014-01-01

    Re-examination of the Cosmic Background Explorer Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) data reveals the thermal emission of several comet dust trails. The dust trails of 1P/Halley, 169P/NEAT, and 3200 Phaethon have not been previously reported. The known trails of 2P/Encke and 73P/Schwassmann–Wachmann 3 are also seen. The dust trails have 12 and 25 μm surface brightnesses of <0.1 and <0.15 MJy sr −1 , respectively, which is <1% of the zodiacal light intensity. The trails are very difficult to see in any single daily image of the sky, but are evident as rapidly moving linear features in movies of the DIRBE data. Some trails are clearest when crossing through the orbital plane of the parent comet, but others are best seen at high ecliptic latitudes as the Earth passes over or under the dust trail. All these comets have known associations with meteor showers. This re-examination also reveals 1 additional comet and 13 additional asteroids that had not previously been recognized in the DIRBE data.

  6. DRBE comet trails

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arendt, Richard G., E-mail: Richard.G.Arendt@nasa.gov [CREST/UMBC, Code 665, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Re-examination of the Cosmic Background Explorer Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) data reveals the thermal emission of several comet dust trails. The dust trails of 1P/Halley, 169P/NEAT, and 3200 Phaethon have not been previously reported. The known trails of 2P/Encke and 73P/Schwassmann–Wachmann 3 are also seen. The dust trails have 12 and 25 μm surface brightnesses of <0.1 and <0.15 MJy sr{sup −1}, respectively, which is <1% of the zodiacal light intensity. The trails are very difficult to see in any single daily image of the sky, but are evident as rapidly moving linear features in movies of the DIRBE data. Some trails are clearest when crossing through the orbital plane of the parent comet, but others are best seen at high ecliptic latitudes as the Earth passes over or under the dust trail. All these comets have known associations with meteor showers. This re-examination also reveals 1 additional comet and 13 additional asteroids that had not previously been recognized in the DIRBE data.

  7. DUST FROM COMET 209P/LINEAR DURING ITS 2014 RETURN: PARENT BODY OF A NEW METEOR SHOWER, THE MAY CAMELOPARDALIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishiguro, Masateru [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Gwanak, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kuroda, Daisuke [Okayama Astrophysical Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Asakuchi, Okayama 719-0232 (Japan); Hanayama, Hidekazu [Ishigakijima Astronomical Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Ishigaki, Okinawa 907-0024 (Japan); Takahashi, Jun; Takagi, Yuhei; Morihana, Kumiko; Honda, Satoshi; Arai, Akira [Nishi-Harima Astronomical Observatory, Center for Astronomy, University of Hyogo, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5313 (Japan); Hasegawa, Sunao; Sarugaku, Yuki [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Watanabe, Makoto; Imai, Masataka; Goda, Shuhei [Department of Cosmosciences, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Akitaya, Hiroshi [Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, Higashihiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Sekiguchi, Kazuhiro [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, National Institute of Natural Sciences, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Oasa, Yumiko [Faculty of Education, Saitama University, Sakura, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Saito, Yoshihiko [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Morokuma, Tomoki [Institute of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Murata, Katsuhiro [Department of Astrophysics, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Nogami, Daisaku [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); and others

    2015-01-10

    We report a new observation of the Jupiter family comet 209P/LINEAR during its 2014 return. The comet is recognized as a dust source of a new meteor shower, the May Camelopardalids. 209P/LINEAR was apparently inactive at a heliocentric distance r{sub h} = 1.6 AU and showed weak activity at r{sub h} ≤ 1.4 AU. We found an active region of <0.001% of the entire nuclear surface during the comet's dormant phase. An edge-on image suggests that particles up to 1 cm in size (with an uncertainty of factor 3-5) were ejected following a differential power-law size distribution with index q = –3.25 ± 0.10. We derived a mass-loss rate of 2-10 kg s{sup –1} during the active phase and a total mass of ≈5 × 10{sup 7} kg during the 2014 return. The ejection terminal velocity of millimeter- to centimeter-sized particles was 1-4 m s{sup –1}, which is comparable to the escape velocity from the nucleus (1.4 m s{sup –1}). These results imply that such large meteoric particles marginally escaped from the highly dormant comet nucleus via the gas drag force only within a few months of the perihelion passage.

  8. Comets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, D.W.

    1982-01-01

    Comets are objects of considerable fascination and this paper reviews the present knowledge of the physical structure of the cometary nucleus, coma and tail, the orbits of comets in the Solar System, the proposed mechanisms of cometary origin, the decay processes suffered by comets, and the ways in which they can be observed from Earth and by spacecraft. (author)

  9. Meteors, meteorites and cosmic dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedinets, V.N.

    1987-01-01

    The problem of meteorite origin and meteorite composition is discussed. Nowadays, most scientists suppose that the giant Oort cloud consisting of ice comet nuclei is the sourse of the meteor matter. A principle unity of the matter of meteorites falling to the Earth and cosmic dust is noted as well as that of meteorite bodies evaporating in the atmosphere and bearing meteors and bodies

  10. Meteor Beliefs Project: Meteors in the Maori astronomical traditions of New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Tui R.; Hamacher, Duane W.

    2014-02-01

    We review the literature for perceptions of meteors in the Maori culture of Aotearoa or New Zealand. We examine representations of meteors in religion, story, and ceremony. We find that meteors are sometimes personified as gods or children, or are seen as omens of death and destruction. The stories we found highlight the broad perception of meteors found throughout the Maori culture, and note that some early scholars conflated the terms comet and meteor.

  11. The Composition of the Y2K Meteor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulson, S. G.

    During the Leonid meteor shower of November 1999 a very bright meteor train, subsequently called the Y2K meteor, was observed. Analysis of the trajectory of the meteor suggests that it was composed of two distinct materials. The bulk of the meteor was composed of a comet-like material, while a much smaller fraction was of a denser carbonaceous material. A simple model is used to analytically determine the mass of the meteor fragments.

  12. Lorentz-Shaped Comet Dust Trail Cross Section from New Hybrid Visual and Video Meteor Counting Technique - Implications for Future Leonid Storm Encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenniskens, Peter; Crawford, Chris; Butow, Steven J.; Nugent, David; Koop, Mike; Holman, David; Houston, Jane; Jobse, Klaas; Kronk, Gary

    2000-01-01

    A new hybrid technique of visual and video meteor observations was developed to provide high precision near real-time flux measurements for satellite operators from airborne platforms. A total of 33,000 Leonids. recorded on video during the 1999 Leonid storm, were watched by a team of visual observers using a video head display and an automatic counting tool. The counts reveal that the activity profile of the Leonid storm is a Lorentz profile. By assuming a radial profile for the dust trail that is also a Lorentzian, we make predictions for future encounters. If that assumption is correct, we passed 0.0003 AU deeper into the 1899 trailet than expected during the storm of 1999 and future encounters with the 1866 trailet will be less intense than. predicted elsewhere.

  13. Expected Increase of Activity of Eta Aquariids Meteor Shower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikova, N. V.; Chepurova, V. M.

    2018-04-01

    Analysis of the results of modeling disintegration of Comet 1P/Halley after its flare in 1991 has allowed us to predict an increase of the activity of the associated Eta Aquariids meteor shower in April-May 2018.

  14. Halley's Comet: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, Ruth S., Comp.

    Included in this bibliography are over 3,200 references to publications on Halley's Comet, its history, orbital motion, and physical characteristics, meteor streams associated with it, preparations for space missions to study it in 1986, and popular reaction to its appearances. Also cited are a few papers that, although they devote little…

  15. Meteor trajectory estimation from radio meteor observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kákona, J.

    2016-01-01

    Radio meteor observation techniques are generally accepted as meteor counting methods useful mainly for meteor flux detection. Due to the technical progress in radio engineering and electronics a construction of a radio meteor detection network with software defined receivers has become possible. These receivers could be precisely time synchronized and could obtain data which provide us with more information than just the meteor count. We present a technique which is able to compute a meteor trajectory from the data recorded by multiple radio stations.

  16. Meteor Beliefs Project: ``Year of Meteors''

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBeath, Alastair; Drobnock, George J.; Gheorghe, Andrei Dorian

    2011-10-01

    We present a discussion linking ideas from a modern music album by Laura Veirs back to a turbulent time in American history 150 years ago, which inspired poet Walt Whitman to compose his poem "Year of Meteors", and the meteor beliefs of the period around 1859-1860, when collection of facts was giving way to analyses and theoretical explanations in meteor science.

  17. Spectrophotometry of seventeen comets. II - The continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newburn, R. L., Jr.; Spinrad, H.

    1985-01-01

    One-hundred-twenty IDS scans of the continua in 17 comets are analyzed to determine dust production rates and color as a function of heliocentric distance. Improved theory indicates that the dust loading of gas typically varies between 0.05 and 0.3 by mass (assuming a geometric albedo of 0.05 and oxygen expansion at 1 km/s) except during outbursts, when it rises much higher. P/Encke near perihelion falls much lower yet, to 0.004 or less. Dust loading is not always constant as a function of time in a given comet. Dust color is typically reddish, as has often been noted before.

  18. Encke-Beta Predictor for Orion Burn Targeting and Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Shane; Scarritt, Sara; Goodman, John L.

    2016-01-01

    The state vector prediction algorithm selected for Orion on-board targeting and guidance is known as the Encke-Beta method. Encke-Beta uses a universal anomaly (beta) as the independent variable, valid for circular, elliptical, parabolic, and hyperbolic orbits. The variable, related to the change in eccentric anomaly, results in integration steps that cover smaller arcs of the trajectory at or near perigee, when velocity is higher. Some burns in the EM-1 and EM-2 mission plans are much longer than burns executed with the Apollo and Space Shuttle vehicles. Burn length, as well as hyperbolic trajectories, has driven the use of the Encke-Beta numerical predictor by the predictor/corrector guidance algorithm in place of legacy analytic thrust and gravity integrals.

  19. Meteor activity from 2001XQ on 2-3 December 2016?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roggemans, Paul

    2016-04-01

    The minor shower 66 Draconid (541 SDD) which was discovered by the Croatian Meteor Network has a mean orbit based on 43 meteors, similar to the orbit of 2001 XD. The asteroid 2001 XD has an orbit typical for Jupiter family comets and therefore may be a dormant comet. The shower activity ranges from November 23 until December 21. All meteor observers are encouraged to pay attention to any possible meteors from this source, although no outburst or any anything spectacular has to be expected.

  20. Constraints on Comet 332P/Ikeya-Murakami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Man-To; Ye, Quan-Zhi; Wiegert, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Encke-type comet 332P/Ikeya-Murakami is experiencing cascading fragmentation events during its 2016 apparition. It is likely the first splitting Encke-type comet ever observed. A nongravitational solution to the astrometry reveals a statistical detection of the radial and transverse nongravitational parameters, {A}1=(1.54+/- 0.39)× {10}-8 au day‑2 and {A}2=(7.19+/- 1.92)× {10}-9 au day‑2, respectively, which implies a nucleus erosion rate of (9.1+/- 1.7)‰ per orbital revolution. The mass-loss rate likely has to be supported by a much larger fraction of an active surface area than known cases of short-period comets; it may be relevant to the ongoing fragmentation. We failed to detect any serendipitous pre-discovery observations of the comet in archival data from major sky surveys, whereby we infer that 332P used to be largely inactive, and is perhaps among the few short-period comets that have been reactivated from weakly active or dormant states. We therefore constrain an upper limit to the nucleus size as 2.0 ± 0.2 km in radius. A search for small bodies in similar orbits to that of 332P reveals comet P/2010 B2 (WISE) to be the best candidate. From an empirical generalized Jupiter-family (Encke-type included) comet population model, we estimate the likelihood of a chance alignment of the 332P–P/2010 B2 pair to be 1 in 33, a small number indicative of a genetic linkage between the two comets on a statistical basis. The pair possibly originated from a common progenitor, which underwent a disintegration event well before the twentieth century.

  1. Origin of meteor swarms of the Arietid and Geminid types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedinets, V.N.

    1985-01-01

    The author proposes a physical mechanism for the formation of meteor swarms on orbits of small size and very small perihelion distance, similar to the orbits of Arietid and Geminid meteor swarms, which are rarely encountered among the larger bodies of the solar system, and he justifies the mechanism mathematically. He shows that comets can transfer to such orbits from orbits of large size during evaporation of their ice nuclei under the action of reactive drag

  2. The Implications of the Excited Rotation of Comet 252P/2000 G1 (LINEAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Yang; Samarasinha, Nalin H.; Kelley, Michael S. P.; Farnocchia, Davide; Mutchler, Max J.; Ren, Yanqiong; Lu, Xiaoping; Tholen, David J.; Lister, Tim; Micheli, Marco

    2018-01-01

    Jupiter Family comet (JFC) 252P/LINEAR had a close encounter to Earth on 2016 March 21. We imaged the comet with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 UVIS channel through the V- and r’-band filters spanning ~8 hours on 2016 April 4. The pixel scale of 2.7 km/pixel allowed us to study the structure of the cometary coma at scales of a few kilometers to a few hundred kilometers from the nucleus, a characteristic that is unique to our data. The dust coma of 252P showed a strong, well defined, narrow and nearly linear feature in the sunward direction, and its projected position angle moved about the nucleus for ~60 deg in 8 hours, consistent with an apparent periodicity of ~7.24 hours. On the other hand, the lightcurve measured in both V- and r’-band images from a 13 km radius aperture, after corrected for color term, showed a variability of >0.14 mag that is consistent with an apparent periodicity of ~5.4 hours or its multiples. We suggest that the two different periodicities derived from coma morphology and the lightcurve is a strong indication that the nucleus of 252P is in a non-principal axis (NPA) rotation, joining two other confirmed NPA rotators (1P/Halley and 103P/Hartley 2) and comets that are potentially in NPA rotational states (e.g., 2P/Encke). However, this apparition has been unusual for 252P. In the past three perihelion passages since discovery, the comet was very weakly active compared to other JFCs. Meteor evidence also exists that it probably has been very weakly active for a few hundred years. But in our data, we saw a very active comet in this 2016 apparition with an active fraction of 40% to >100%, representing an increase of 100x with respect to its recent past. Based on our observations, 252P has a small nucleus with a radius of ~0.3 km, which suggests that its rotational state could be relatively easily changed by torques caused by outgassing. Since the very weak outgassing in the past is not likely to change the rotational state

  3. Meteor Beliefs Project: Shakespeare revisited and the Elizabethan stage's `blazing star'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghe, Andrei Dorian; McBeath, Alastair

    2007-06-01

    Some fresh Shakespearean citations of meteors, further to those given previously in the Project, are presented, along with a discussion of the Elizabethan stage's use of the `blazing star', with especial reference to the great comet of 1577.

  4. Reconstructing the orbit of the Chelyabinsk meteor using satellite observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proud, Simon Richard

    2013-01-01

    The large number of objects in a range of orbits around the Sun means that some will inevitably intersect the Earth, becoming a meteor. These objects are commonly comet fragments or asteroids. To determine the type of a particular meteor requires knowledge of its trajectory and orbital path...... that is typically estimated by using ground-based observations such as images or radar measurements. A lack of data can, however, make this difficult and create large uncertainties in the reconstructed orbit. Here I show a new method for estimating a meteor's trajectory, and hence allowing computation of the orbit...

  5. Meteor observation by the Kyoto meteor radar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, S.; Tsuda, T.

    1987-01-01

    The Kyoto Meteor Radar is a monostatic coherent pulsed Doppler radar operating on the frequency of 31.57 MH. The system is computer controlled and uses radio interferometry for echo height determination. The antenna, an improvement, can be directed either to the north or the east. The system has been continuously collecting data on winds at meteor heights by radar observation. The meteor echo rate was also measured, the echo rate distribution with height and the daily variation in height integrated echo rate are discussed. Investigations of atmospheric tides are being pursued by cooperative observations. A novel approach to the study of gravity waves was attempted using the meteor radar which is able to detect the horizontal propagation of the waves by observing the changing phase through the region illuminated by the radar

  6. Periodic Comet Machholz and its idiosyncrasies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekanina, Z.

    1990-01-01

    The dynamics and physical characteristics of Comet P/Machholz are analyzed. The discovery of the comet (Machholz, 1986) is discussed, including the observational conditions and the theory that the comet is inactive over extensive periods of time. Consideration is given to observations of the two tails of Comet P/Machholz (Emerson, 1986), the brightness variations and light curve of the comet, and nuclear photometry of the comet (Green, 1987). It is suggested that the increase in activity beginning one day after perihelion was triggered by a discrete source within 15 deg of the rotation pole that became sunlit after perihelion. Also, the possibility that Comet P/Machholz is associated with a meteor stream is examined. 45 refs

  7. Meteorites, Bolides and Comets: A Tale of Inconsistency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakes, P.; Padevet, V.

    1992-07-01

    Inhomogeneity of cometary nuclei has been established through the observed disruptions of comets [1] and through the determination of dust particle composition during the encounter of the Vega and Giotto satellites with comet Halley [2,3,4]. The raisin bread model of cometary nuclei [5,6] assumes the presence of solid (rock) and dust particle material set in the volatile rich, ice- cemented material. Rock material may contribute to the formation of dust particles. Gombosi and Houpis [5] argued that only the composition of dust particles derived from the icy, volatile component of the comet were analyzed and implied thus that the third cometary component present (raisins/rocks) has not been examined. The compositions of the cometary (Halley) dust and the interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) are "chondritic" (Blanford et al., 1988). It is difficult, therefore to estimate the proportion of cometary to asteroid-derived dust in near Earth space, e.g., among the IDPs [7] unless other criteria are available. Bolide multistation photographic tracking allows the determination of the orbital preencounter parameters of solid bodies (0.01-100,000 kg in mass) with the Earth, and allows us to classify them according to their ablation coefficient (tau), penetration depth into the atmosphere (PE), theoretical densities (sigma), and terminal velocities (V(sub)E). Four groups are recognized (Table 1). Three of the type I bolides were recovered as ordinary chondrites (Pribram, Lost City, and Innisfree). Ceplecha [8] has shown that 38% of bolides (fireballs) come from cometary orbits (11% from highly eccentric orbits typical of new comets), but most of the bolides (62%) originate at asteroidal orbits. Seven of the 14 known meteoric showers could be attributed to known comets: N,S Taurids to 1970 P/Encke, Lyrids to 1861 I Thatcher-Beaker, Perseids to 1862 III Swift-Tuttle- Simons, Orionids to 1835 III P/Halley, Draconids to 1946 V P/Giacobini-Zinner, Leonids to 1966 I Tempel

  8. Meteor researches at KHNURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolomiyets, Svitlana V.; Voloshchuk, Yuri I.; Kashcheyev, Boris L.; Slipchenko, Nikolay I.

    2005-01-01

    The Scientific Educational Center of Radioengineering of the Kharkiv National University of Radioelectronics (KHNURE: ) is one of the oldest radar meteor centers which was founded by B. L. Kashcheyev in 1958. The first automatic meteor radar system in Ukraine “MARS” is connected with our University. There are long-term observational series of meteor rates and orbital data in the Center. Fields of the KHNURE researches are: a structure of meteor showers a determination of meteoroid orbits an influx of cosmic rubbish in the Earth atmosphere search of parental bodies of meteoroids a statistic analysis of measurement results of radiometeors an estimation of errors of meteor radar measurements a search for real hyperbolic orbits and interstellar meteoroids. KHNURE disposes a unique electronic orbital catalogue. This catalogue contains the primary information velocities radiants and orbits of nearly 250000 radiometeoroids with masses from 0.001 to 0.000001 g. The “MARS” registered these data during observations of 1972 1978. From these data 5160 meteor streams are singled out. New classification of streams is made in view of their structure. The study of meteor stream orbits from the KHNURE data bank allow to predict orbits of a big number of undiscovered “dangerous” NEOs.

  9. Meteoroid Streams from Sunskirter Comet Breakup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenniskens, P. M.

    2012-12-01

    In its first year of operations, the CAMS project (Cameras for Allsky Meteor Surveillance) has measured 47,000 meteoroid orbits at Earth, including some that pass the Sun as close as 0.008 AU. The population density increases significantly above perihelion distance q = 0.037 AU. Meteoroid streams are known with q about 0.1 AU. The Sun has a profound effect on comets that pass at 0.04-0.16 AU distance, called the sunskirter comets. SOHO and STEREO see families of small comets called the Marsden and Kracht groups. Sunlight is efficiently scattered by small 10-m sized fragments, making those fragments visible even when far from Earth. These comet groups are associated with meteor showers on Earth, in particular the Daytime Arietids and Delta Aquariids. All are related to 96P/Machholz, a highly inclined short-period (5.2 year) Jupiter family comet that comes to within 0.12 AU from the Sun, the smallest perihelion distance known among numbered comets. The proximity of the Sun speeds up the disintegration process, providing us a unique window on this important decay mechanism of Jupiter family comets and creating meteoroid streams. These are not the only sunskirting comets, however. In this presentation, we will present CAMS observations of the complete low-q meteoroid population at Earth and review their association with known parent bodies.

  10. Observing comets

    CERN Document Server

    James, Nick

    2003-01-01

    Since comet Shoemaker-Levy collided with the planet Jupiter with stupendous force in 1994 there has been an upsurge of amateur interest in comets Most comets are first discovered by amateur astronomers because there are so many amateurs looking for them, and techniques and instruments have improved dramatically in the past few years After a short but detailed introduction to the comets themselves Nick James and Gerald North describe comet hunting, photographing and imaging comets, and digital image processing The use of computers for orbital calculations and even helping to discover new comets is given a full chapter, as are advanced techniques including comet photometry and spectroscopy This comprehensive book has an accompanying CD-ROM and is at once a "primer" for comet hunters and a reference text for more advanced amateur astronomers

  11. Observations of faint comets at McDonald Observatory: 1978-1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, E. S.; Cochran, A. L.; Rybski, P. M.

    1981-01-01

    Modern observational techniques, developed for spectroscopy and photometry of faint galaxies and quasars, successfully applied to faint comets on the 2.7 m telescope. The periodic comets Van Biesbrock, Ashbrook-Jackson, Schwassmann-Wachmann 1, Tempel 2, Encke, Forbes, Brooks 2, Stephan-Oterma and the new comets Bradfield (19791), Bowell (1980b), Chernis-Petrauskas (1980k) were observed. The comets ranged in magnitude from 10th to 20th magnitude. For comets fainter than 19th magnitude, reflectance spectra at 100A resolution and area photometry were obtained. On comets of 17th or 18th magnitude, spectrometric scans (6A resolution) of the nucleus or inner coma region. On those comets which are brighter than 16th magnitude spatial spectrophotometric (6A resolution) studies of the inner and extended comae were done. An extensive spatial study of the comae of P/Encke and P/Stephen-Oterma, correlated with heliocentric distance is taking place. The observing process used is described and examples of the results obtained to date are discussed.

  12. Detection of the Phoenicids meteor shower in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Mikiya; Watanabe, Jun-ichi; Tsuchiya, Chie; Moorhead, Althea V.; Moser, Danielle E.; Brown, Peter G.; Cooke, William J.

    2017-09-01

    An appearance of the Phoenicids meteor shower was predicted in 2014 by using a dust trail simulation of an outburst of 1956. We detected Phoenicids meteors on December 2 through multiple observation methods. The NASA All Sky Fireball Network and the Southern Ontario Meteor Network detected five meteors of Phoenicids via video observation. The Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar (CMOR) found fourteen candidate meteors, eight of which were confirmed as Phoenicids. The observed radiant point is consistent with that of our model predictions. In addition to the above observations, a visual observation was carried out by the Japanese team near the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (ORM) of Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC) in La Palma Island. The obtained zenithal hourly rate (ZHR) was 16.4±4.9. The maximum ZHR was roughly estimated to be between 20 and 30, which indicates that the cometary activity of parent object 289P/Blanpain in the early 20th century was only about one fifth or one eighth as high as its activity in the late 18th and early 19th century. Accordingly, it seems to be the case that 289P/Blanpain is gradually transforming from a comet to a dormant object.

  13. Evolution of comets into asteroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissman, P.R.; A'hearn, M.F.; Rickman, H.; Mcfadden, L.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents observational evidence, together with recent theoretical developments, supporting the hypothesis that at least some asteroids might be extinct or dormant cometary nuclei. The observations include the discovery of a number of apparent asteroids in chaotic Jupiter-crossing orbits; the IRAS discovery of 1983 TB, an asteroid in the same orbit as the Geminid meteor shower; the apparent low activity levels determined for several short-period comet nuclei including Comet Halley; and observations of possible cometary activity in some earth-crossing asteroids. Theoretical developments include explorations of dynamical mechanisms capable of delivering main-belt asteroids into earth-crossing orbits, and an understanding of possible processes which may affect comets during their long residence in the Oort cloud and lead to the formation of nonvolatile crusts before and after they enter the planetary system. 143 refs

  14. Origin of Short-Perihelion Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guliyev, A. S.

    2011-01-01

    New regularities for short-perihelion comets are found. Distant nodes of cometary orbits of Kreutz family are concentrated in a plane with ascending node 76 and inclination 267 at the distance from 2 up to 3 a.u. and in a very narrow interval of longitudes. There is a correlation dependence between q and cos I concerning the found plane (coefficient of correlation 0.41). Similar results are received regarding to cometary families of Meyer, Kracht and Marsden. Distant nodes of these comets are concentrated close three planes (their parameters are discussed in the article) and at distances 1.4; 0.5; 6 a.u. accordingly. It is concluded that these comet groups were formed as a result of collision of parent bodies with meteoric streams. One more group, consisting of 7 comets is identified. 5 comet pairs are selected among sungrazers.

  15. New meteor showers – yes or not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukal, Jakub

    2018-01-01

    The development of meteor astronomy associated with the development of CCD technology is reflected in a huge increase in databases of meteor orbits. It has never been possible before in the history of meteor astronomy to examine properties of meteors or meteor showers. Existing methods for detecting new meteor showers seem to be inadequate in these circumstances. The spontaneous discovery of new meteor showers leads to ambiguous specifications of new meteor showers. There is a duplication of already discovered meteor showers and a division of existing meteor showers based on their own criteria. The analysis in this article considers some new meteor showers in the IAU MDC database.

  16. Atmospheric trajectories and light curves of shower meteors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koten, Pavel; Borovička, Jiří; Spurný, Pavel; Betlem, H.; Evans, S.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 428, č. 2 (2004), s. 683-690 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP205/02/P038; GA ČR GA205/02/0982; GA ČR GA205/03/1404 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : meteors * meteoroids * general-comets Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.694, year: 2004

  17. The "silent world" of Comet 15P/Finlay

    CERN Document Server

    Beech, M; Jones, J

    1999-01-01

    Comet 15P/Finlay is unusual in that, contrary to ab initio expectations, it demonstrates no apparent linkage to any known meteor shower. Using data contained within the Electronic Atlas of Dynamical Evolutions of Short-Period Comets, the authors evaluate theoretical shower radiants for Comet 15P/Finlay, but find no evidence to link it to any meteoric anomalies in recorded antiquity. This result, however, must be tempered by the fact that any Comet 15P/Finlay- derived meteoroids will have a low, 16 km s/sup -1/, encounter velocity with Earth's atmosphere. Typically, therefore, one would expect mostly faint meteors to be produced during an encounter with a Comet 15P/Finlay-derived meteoroid stream. they have conducted a D- criterion survey of meteoroid orbits derived from three southern hemisphere meteor radar surveys conducted during the 1960s, and again they find no evidence for any Comet 15P/Finlay-related activity. Numerical calculations following the orbital evolution of hypothetical meteoroids ejected fro...

  18. Dynamical Model for the Zodiacal Cloud and Sporadic Meteors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesvorný, David; Janches, Diego; Vokrouhlický, David; Pokorný, Petr; Bottke, William F.; Jenniskens, Peter

    2011-12-01

    The solar system is dusty, and would become dustier over time as asteroids collide and comets disintegrate, except that small debris particles in interplanetary space do not last long. They can be ejected from the solar system by Jupiter, thermally destroyed near the Sun, or physically disrupted by collisions. Also, some are swept by the Earth (and other planets), producing meteors. Here we develop a dynamical model for the solar system meteoroids and use it to explain meteor radar observations. We find that the Jupiter Family Comets (JFCs) are the main source of the prominent concentrations of meteors arriving at the Earth from the helion and antihelion directions. To match the radiant and orbit distributions, as measured by the Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar (CMOR) and Advanced Meteor Orbit Radar (AMOR), our model implies that comets, and JFCs in particular, must frequently disintegrate when reaching orbits with low perihelion distance. Also, the collisional lifetimes of millimeter particles may be longer (gsim 105 yr at 1 AU) than postulated in the standard collisional models (~104 yr at 1 AU), perhaps because these chondrule-sized meteoroids are stronger than thought before. Using observations of the Infrared Astronomical Satellite to calibrate the model, we find that the total cross section and mass of small meteoroids in the inner solar system are (1.7-3.5) × 1011 km2 and ~4 × 1019 g, respectively, in a good agreement with previous studies. The mass input required to keep the zodiacal cloud in a steady state is estimated to be ~104-105 kg s-1. The input is up to ~10 times larger than found previously, mainly because particles released closer to the Sun have shorter collisional lifetimes and need to be supplied at a faster rate. The total mass accreted by the Earth in particles between diameters D = 5 μm and 1 cm is found to be ~15,000 tons yr-1 (factor of two uncertainty), which is a large share of the accretion flux measured by the Long Term Duration

  19. DYNAMICAL MODEL FOR THE ZODIACAL CLOUD AND SPORADIC METEORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesvorný, David; Vokrouhlický, David; Pokorný, Petr; Bottke, William F.; Janches, Diego; Jenniskens, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The solar system is dusty, and would become dustier over time as asteroids collide and comets disintegrate, except that small debris particles in interplanetary space do not last long. They can be ejected from the solar system by Jupiter, thermally destroyed near the Sun, or physically disrupted by collisions. Also, some are swept by the Earth (and other planets), producing meteors. Here we develop a dynamical model for the solar system meteoroids and use it to explain meteor radar observations. We find that the Jupiter Family Comets (JFCs) are the main source of the prominent concentrations of meteors arriving at the Earth from the helion and antihelion directions. To match the radiant and orbit distributions, as measured by the Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar (CMOR) and Advanced Meteor Orbit Radar (AMOR), our model implies that comets, and JFCs in particular, must frequently disintegrate when reaching orbits with low perihelion distance. Also, the collisional lifetimes of millimeter particles may be longer (∼> 10 5 yr at 1 AU) than postulated in the standard collisional models (∼10 4 yr at 1 AU), perhaps because these chondrule-sized meteoroids are stronger than thought before. Using observations of the Infrared Astronomical Satellite to calibrate the model, we find that the total cross section and mass of small meteoroids in the inner solar system are (1.7-3.5) × 10 11 km 2 and ∼4 × 10 19 g, respectively, in a good agreement with previous studies. The mass input required to keep the zodiacal cloud in a steady state is estimated to be ∼10 4 -10 5 kg s –1 . The input is up to ∼10 times larger than found previously, mainly because particles released closer to the Sun have shorter collisional lifetimes and need to be supplied at a faster rate. The total mass accreted by the Earth in particles between diameters D = 5 μm and 1 cm is found to be ∼15,000 tons yr –1 (factor of two uncertainty), which is a large share of the accretion flux measured by the

  20. Photoacoustic Sounds from Meteors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spalding, Richard E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tencer, John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sweatt, William C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hogan, Roy E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Boslough, Mark B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Spurny, Pavel [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (ASCR), Prague (Czech Republic)

    2015-03-01

    High-speed photometric observations of meteor fireballs have shown that they often produce high-amplitude light oscillations with frequency components in the kHz range, and in some cases exhibit strong millisecond flares. We built a light source with similar characteristics and illuminated various materials in the laboratory, generating audible sounds. Models suggest that light oscillations and pulses can radiatively heat dielectric materials, which in turn conductively heats the surrounding air on millisecond timescales. The sound waves can be heard if the illuminated material is sufficiently close to the observer’s ears. The mechanism described herein may explain many reports of meteors that appear to be audible while they are concurrently visible in the sky and too far away for sound to have propagated to the observer. This photoacoustic (PA) explanation provides an alternative to electrophonic (EP) sounds hypothesized to arise from electromagnetic coupling of plasma oscillation in the meteor wake to natural antennas in the vicinity of an observer.

  1. The EISCAT meteor code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Wannberg

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The EISCAT UHF system has the unique capability to determine meteor vector velocities from the head echo Doppler shifts measured at the three sites. Since even meteors spending a very short time in the common volume produce analysable events, the technique lends itself ideally to mapping the orbits of meteors arriving from arbitrary directions over most of the upper hemisphere. A radar mode optimised for this application was developed in 2001/2002. A specially selected low-sidelobe 32-bit pseudo-random binary sequence is used to binary phase shift key (BPSK the transmitted carrier. The baud-length is 2.4 μs and the receiver bandwidth is 1.6 MHz to accommodate both the resulting modulation bandwidth and the target Doppler shift. Sampling is at 0.6 μs, corresponding to 90-m range resolution. Target range and Doppler velocity are extracted from the raw data in a multi-step matched-filter procedure. For strong (SNR>5 events the Doppler velocity standard deviation is 100–150 m/s. The effective range resolution is about 30 m, allowing very accurate time-of-flight velocity estimates. On average, Doppler and time-of-flight (TOF velocities agree to within about one part in 103. Two or more targets simultaneously present in the beam can be resolved down to a range separation <300 m as long as their Doppler shifts differ by more than a few km/s.

  2. Meteors in Australian Aboriginal Dreamings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2010-06-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of Australian Aboriginal accounts of meteors. The data used were taken from anthropological and ethnographic literature describing oral traditions, ceremonies, and Dreamings of 97 Aboriginal groups representing all states of modern Australia. This revealed common themes in the way meteors were viewed between Aboriginal groups, focusing on supernatural events, death, omens, and war. The presence of such themes around Australia was probably due to the unpredictable nature of meteors in an otherwise well-ordered cosmos.

  3. Atmospheric deceleration and light curves of Draconid meteors and implications for the structure of cometary dust

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Borovička, Jiří; Spurný, Pavel; Koten, Pavel

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 473, č. 2 (2007), s. 661-672 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/05/0543; GA AV ČR KJB300030502 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : meteor * meteoroid * comet Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2007

  4. The EISCAT meteor code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Wannberg

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The EISCAT UHF system has the unique capability to determine meteor vector velocities from the head echo Doppler shifts measured at the three sites. Since even meteors spending a very short time in the common volume produce analysable events, the technique lends itself ideally to mapping the orbits of meteors arriving from arbitrary directions over most of the upper hemisphere.

    A radar mode optimised for this application was developed in 2001/2002. A specially selected low-sidelobe 32-bit pseudo-random binary sequence is used to binary phase shift key (BPSK the transmitted carrier. The baud-length is 2.4 μs and the receiver bandwidth is 1.6 MHz to accommodate both the resulting modulation bandwidth and the target Doppler shift. Sampling is at 0.6 μs, corresponding to 90-m range resolution. Target range and Doppler velocity are extracted from the raw data in a multi-step matched-filter procedure. For strong (SNR>5 events the Doppler velocity standard deviation is 100–150 m/s. The effective range resolution is about 30 m, allowing very accurate time-of-flight velocity estimates. On average, Doppler and time-of-flight (TOF velocities agree to within about one part in 103. Two or more targets simultaneously present in the beam can be resolved down to a range separation <300 m as long as their Doppler shifts differ by more than a few km/s.

  5. International Halley watch amateur observers' manual for scientific comet studies. Part 1: Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edberg, S. J.

    1983-01-01

    The International Halley Watch is described as well as comets and observing techniques. Information on periodic Comet Halley's apparition for its 1986 perihelion passage is provided. Instructions are given for observation projects valuable to the International Halley Watch in six areas of study: (1) visual observations; (2) photography; (3) astrometry; (4) spectroscopic observations; (5) photoelectric photometry; and (6) meteor observations.

  6. Meteor Beliefs Project: Meteoric references in Ovid's Metamorphoses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghe, A. D.; McBeath, A.

    2003-10-01

    Three sections of Ovid's Metamorphoses are examined, providing further information on meteoric beliefs in ancient Roman times. These include meteoric imagery among the portents associated with the death of Julius Caesar, which we mentioned previously from the works of William Shakespeare (McBeath and Gheorghe, 2003b).

  7. Tabulation of comet observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-01

    Concerning comets: 1957 III Arend-Roland, 1957 V Mrkos, 1958 III Burnham, 1959 III Bester-Hoffmeister, 1959 VI Alcock, 1959 VIII P/Giacobini-Zinner, 1960 I P/Wild 1, 1960 II Burnham, 1960 III P/Schaumasse, 1960 VIII P/Finlay, 1961 V Wilson-Hubbard, 1961 VIII Seki, 1962 III Seki-Lines, 1962 VIII Humason, 1963 I Ikeya, 1963 III Alcock, 1963 V Pereyra, 1964 VI Tomita-Gerber-Honda, 1964 VIII Ikeya, 1964 IX Everhart, 1979 X Bradfield, 1980 X P/Stephan-Oterma, 1980 XII Meier, 1980 XIII P/Tuttle, 1981 II Panther, 1982 I Bowell, 1982 IV P/Grigg-Skjellerup, 1982 VII P/d'Arrest, 1986 III P/Halley, 1987 IV Shoemaker, 1987 XII P/Hartley 3, 1987 XIX P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 2, 1987 XXIX Bradfield, 1987 XXX Levy, 1987 XXXII McNaught, 1987 XXXIII P/Borrelly, 1987 XXXVI P/Parker-Hartley, 1987 XXXVII P/Helin- Roman-Alu 1, 1988 III Shoemaker-Holt, 1988 V Liller, 1988 VIII P/Ge-Wang, 1988 XI P/Shoemaker-Holt 2, 1988 XIV P/Tempel 2, 1988 XV Machholz, 1988 XX Yanaka, 1988 XXI Shoemaker, 1988 XXIV Yanaka, 1989 III Shoemaker, 1989 V Shoemaker-Holt-Rodriquez, 1989 VIII P/Pons-Winnecke, 1989 X P/Brorsen-Metcalf, 1989 XI P/Gunn, 1989 XIII P/Lovas 1, 1989 XVIII McKenzie-Russell, 1989 XIX Okazaki-Levy-Rudenko, 1989 XX P/Clark, 1989 XXI Helin-Ronan-Alu, 1989 XXII Aarseth-Brewington, 1989h P/Van Biesbroeck, 1989t P/Wild 2, 1989u P/Kearns-Kwee, 1989c1 Austin, 1989e1 Skorichenko-George, 1990a P/Wild 4, 1990b Černis-Kiuchi-Nakamura, 1990c Levy, 1990e P/Wolf-Harrington, 1990f P/Honda-Mrkos-Pajdušáková, 1990g McNaught-Hughes, 1990i Tsuchiya-Kiuchi, 1990n P/Taylor, 1990ο P/Shoemaker-Levy 1, 1991a P/Metcalf-Brewington, 1991b Arai, 1991c P/Swift-Gehrels, 1991d Shoemaker-Levy, 1991e P/Shoemaker-Levy 3, 1991h P/Takamizawa, 1991j P/Hartley 1, 1991k P/Mrkos, 1991l Helin-Lawrence, 1991n P/Faye, 1991q P/Levy, 1991t P/Hartley 2, P/Encke, P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1.

  8. Association between meteor showers and asteroids using multivariate criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitru, B. A.; Birlan, M.; Popescu, M.; Nedelcu, D. A.

    2017-10-01

    Context. Meteoroid streams are fragments of matter produced by comets or asteroids which intersects the orbit of Earth. Meteor showers are produced when Earth intersects these streams of matter. The discoveries of active asteroids and extinct comets open a new view of the relation between these objects as possible parent bodies at the origin of meteor showers. Aims: The aim of this work is to identify the asteroids that can produce or re-populate meteoroid streams by determining the similarity of their orbits and orbital evolution over 10 000 yr. Methods: The identification was carried out by evaluating several well known D-criteria metrics, the orbits being taken from the IAU Meteor Data Center database and from IAU Minor Planet Center. Finally, we analyzed the physical properties and the orbital stability (in the Lyapunov time sense) of the candidates as well as their possible relationship with meteorites. Results: 206 near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) were associated as possible parent bodies with 28 meteor showers, according to at least two of the criterion used. 50 of them satisfied all the criteria. Notable finds are: binary asteroid 2000UG11 associated with Andromedids (AND), while the tumbling asteroid (4179)Toutatis could be associated with October Capricornids (OCC). Other possible good candidates are 2004TG10, 2008EY5, 2010CF55, 2010TU149 and 2014OY1. These objects have low albedo, therefore can be primitive objects. Asteroid 2007LW19 which is a fast rotator and most probably has monolithic structure and so its physical characteristic does not support the association found based on the dynamical criteria.

  9. COMET concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsmeyer, H.; Tromm, W.

    1995-01-01

    Studies of the COMET core catcher concept developed for a future PWR have been continued. The concept is based on the spreading of a core melt on a sacrificial layer and its erosion, until a subsequent addition of water from below causes a fragmentation of the melt. A porous solidification of the melt would then admit a complete flooding within a short period. (orig.)

  10. Meteor showers an annotated catalog

    CERN Document Server

    Kronk, Gary W

    2014-01-01

    Meteor showers are among the most spectacular celestial events that may be observed by the naked eye, and have been the object of fascination throughout human history. In “Meteor Showers: An Annotated Catalog,” the interested observer can access detailed research on over 100 annual and periodic meteor streams in order to capitalize on these majestic spectacles. Each meteor shower entry includes details of their discovery, important observations and orbits, and gives a full picture of duration, location in the sky, and expected hourly rates. Armed with a fuller understanding, the amateur observer can better view and appreciate the shower of their choice. The original book, published in 1988, has been updated with over 25 years of research in this new and improved edition. Almost every meteor shower study is expanded, with some original minor showers being dropped while new ones are added. The book also includes breakthroughs in the study of meteor showers, such as accurate predictions of outbursts as well ...

  11. COMET concept; COMET-Konzept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsmeyer, H.; Tromm, W.

    1995-08-01

    Studies of the COMET core catcher concept developed for a future PWR have been continued. The concept is based on the spreading of a core melt on a sacrificial layer and its erosion, until a subsequent addition of water from below causes a fragmentation of the melt. A porous solidification of the melt would then admit a complete flooding within a short period. (orig.)

  12. Comet formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, J.

    2014-07-01

    There has been vast progress in our understanding of planetesimal formation over the past decades, owing to a number of laboratory experiments as well as to refined models of dust and ice agglomeration in protoplanetary disks. Coagulation rapidly forms cm-sized ''pebbles'' by direct sticking in collisions at low velocities (Güttler et al. 2010; Zsom et al. 2010). For the further growth, two model approaches are currently being discussed: (1) Local concentration of pebbles in nebular instabilities until gravitational instability occurs (Johansen et al. 2007). (2) A competition between fragmentation and mass transfer in collisions among the dusty bodies, in which a few ''lucky winners'' make it to planetesimal sizes (Windmark et al. 2012a,b; Garaud et al. 2013). Predictions of the physical properties of the resulting bodies in both models allow a distinction of the two formation scenarios of planetesimals. In particular, the tensile strength (i.e, the inner cohesion) of the planetesimals differ widely between the two models (Skorov & Blum 2012; Blum et al. 2014). While model (1) predicts tensile strengths on the order of ˜ 1 Pa, model (2) results in rather compactified dusty bodies with tensile strengths in the kPa regime. If comets are km-sized survivors of the planetesimal-formation era, they should in principle hold the secret of their formation process. Water ice is the prime volatile responsible for the activity of comets. Thermophysical models of the heat and mass transport close to the comet-nucleus surface predict water-ice sublimation temperatures that relate to maximum sublimation pressures well below the kPa regime predicted for formation scenario (2). Model (1), however, is in agreement with the observed dust and gas activity of comets. Thus, a formation scenario for cometesimals involving gravitational instability is favored (Blum et al. 2014).

  13. Search for OH(A–X) and detection of N2+(B–X) in ultraviolet meteor spectrum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abe, S.; Ebizuka, N.; Yano, H.; Watanabe, J.; Borovička, Jiří

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 4 (2007), s. 538-543 ISSN 0273-1177 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : astrobiology * comets * meteors Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.774, year: 2007

  14. DYNAMICAL MODEL FOR THE ZODIACAL CLOUD AND SPORADIC METEORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesvorny, David; Vokrouhlicky, David; Pokorny, Petr; Bottke, William F. [Department of Space Studies, Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut St., Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Janches, Diego [Space Weather Laboratory, Code 674, GSFC/NASA, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Jenniskens, Peter [Carl Sagan Center, SETI Institute, 515 N. Whisman Road, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States)

    2011-12-20

    The solar system is dusty, and would become dustier over time as asteroids collide and comets disintegrate, except that small debris particles in interplanetary space do not last long. They can be ejected from the solar system by Jupiter, thermally destroyed near the Sun, or physically disrupted by collisions. Also, some are swept by the Earth (and other planets), producing meteors. Here we develop a dynamical model for the solar system meteoroids and use it to explain meteor radar observations. We find that the Jupiter Family Comets (JFCs) are the main source of the prominent concentrations of meteors arriving at the Earth from the helion and antihelion directions. To match the radiant and orbit distributions, as measured by the Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar (CMOR) and Advanced Meteor Orbit Radar (AMOR), our model implies that comets, and JFCs in particular, must frequently disintegrate when reaching orbits with low perihelion distance. Also, the collisional lifetimes of millimeter particles may be longer ({approx}> 10{sup 5} yr at 1 AU) than postulated in the standard collisional models ({approx}10{sup 4} yr at 1 AU), perhaps because these chondrule-sized meteoroids are stronger than thought before. Using observations of the Infrared Astronomical Satellite to calibrate the model, we find that the total cross section and mass of small meteoroids in the inner solar system are (1.7-3.5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} km{sup 2} and {approx}4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} g, respectively, in a good agreement with previous studies. The mass input required to keep the zodiacal cloud in a steady state is estimated to be {approx}10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} kg s{sup -1}. The input is up to {approx}10 times larger than found previously, mainly because particles released closer to the Sun have shorter collisional lifetimes and need to be supplied at a faster rate. The total mass accreted by the Earth in particles between diameters D = 5 {mu}m and 1 cm is found to be {approx}15

  15. Physical processes affecting the motion of small bodies in the solar system and their application to the evolution of meteor streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, I.P.

    1983-01-01

    In addition to planetary perturbations, the small particles which make up a meteor stream are subject to outward radiation pressure and the Poynting-Robertson effect. New particles can also be generated in a stream through being released from the nucleus of a comet. The author summarises the main physical effects, discusses models for meteor stream evolution and gives a brief account of the observational data available. (Auth.)

  16. Meteor Crater, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The Barringer Meteorite Crater (also known as 'Meteor Crater') is a gigantic hole in the middle of the arid sandstone of the Arizona desert. A rim of smashed and jumbled boulders, some of them the size of small houses, rises 50 m above the level of the surrounding plain. The crater itself is nearly a 1500 m wide, and 180 m deep. When Europeans first discovered the crater, the plain around it was covered with chunks of meteoritic iron - over 30 tons of it, scattered over an area 12 to 15 km in diameter. Scientists now believe that the crater was created approximately 50,000 years ago. The meteorite which made it was composed almost entirely of nickel-iron, suggesting that it may have originated in the interior of a small planet. It was 50 m across, weighed roughly 300,000 tons, and was traveling at a speed of 65,000 km per hour. This ASTER 3-D perspective view was created by draping an ASTER bands 3-2-1image over a digital elevation model from the US Geological Survey National Elevation Dataset.This image was acquired on May 17, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, along

  17. Catalogue of representative meteor spectra

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vojáček, Vlastimil; Borovička, Jiří; Koten, Pavel; Spurný, Pavel; Štork, Rostislav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 580, August (2015), A67/1-A67/31 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/11/1382 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : meteorites * meteors * meteoroids Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.378, year: 2014

  18. Comet and meteorite traditions of Aboriginal Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2014-06-01

    This research contributes to the disciplines of cultural astronomy (the academic study of how past and present cultures understand and utilise celestial objects and phenomena) and geomythology (the study of geological events and the formation of geological features described in oral traditions). Of the hundreds of distinct Aboriginal cultures of Australia, many have oral traditions rich in descriptions and explanations of comets, meteors, meteorites, airbursts, impact events, and impact craters. These views generally attribute these phenomena to spirits, death, and bad omens. There are also many traditions that describe the formation of meteorite craters as well as impact events that are not known to Western science.

  19. Strategy for infrared photometry of comets with ISO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solc, M.; Vanysek, V.; Gruen, E.

    1994-07-01

    The launch of the ISO (Infrared Satellite Observatory) by the European Space Agency is scheduled for autumn 1995. Photometry and spectrophotometry observing programs of comets in the wavelength range 2.5-200 microns for the onboard spectrophotometer ISOPHOT is now under final preparation. Technical details for preparing propasals are given. Phenomena in comets to be studied are surface properties of bare cometary nuclei at large heliocentric distances, onset of coma activity, and coma dust and gas emission (in inner solar system). Dust production, dust/gas mass ratio, dust distribution in coma, and their temporal variability are important for understanding the physical processes on nuclei, and spectrophotometry in the range of 2.5-12 microns could provide us with data of the chemical composition of cometary dust. Several active comets expected for the 18-month lifetime of ISO in 1995-1997 were selected for the ISO Central Program according to their orbital and physical parameters: P/Schwassman-Wachmann 1, P/Encke, P/d'Arrest, P/Honda-Mrkos-Pajdusakova, P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, P/Kopff, P/IRAS, P/Wirtanen, P/Wild 2, P/Grigg-Skjellerup, P/Schwassman-Wachmann 3, P/Machholz, and (2060) Chiron. Four of them match well various constraints put on the observations by the technical arrangement of the satellite and instrument. A simple four-parameter model (size, albedo, rotation, optical thickness)was developed to estimate the temperatures and thermal fluxes of both solid nuclei and dust coma.

  20. International cooperation and amateur meteor work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roggemans, P.

    Today, the existing framework for international cooperation among amateur meteor workers offers numerous advantages. However, this is a rather recent situation. Meteor astronomy, although popular among amateurs, was the very last topic within astronomy to benefit from a truly international approach. Anyone attempting long term studies of, for instance, meteor stream structures will be confronted with the systematic lack of usable observations due to the absence of any standards in observing, recording and reporting, any archiving or publishing policy. Visual meteor observations represent the overall majority of amateur efforts, while photographic and radio observing were developed only in recent decades as technological specialties of rather few meteor observing teams.

  1. Meteors Without Borders: a global campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heenatigala, T.

    2012-01-01

    "Meteors Without Borders" is a global project, organized by Astronomers Without Borders and launched during the Global Astronomy Month in 2010 for the Lyrid meteor shower. The project focused on encouraging amateur astronomy groups to hold public outreach events for major meteor showers, conduct meteor-related classroom activities, photography, poetry and art work. It also uses social-media platforms to connect groups around the world to share their observations and photography, live during the events. At the International Meteor Conference 2011, the progress of the project was presented along with an extended invitation for collaborations for further improvements of the project.

  2. Migration of Interplanetary Dust and Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipatov, S. I.; Mather, J. C.

    . The fraction of particles started from Encke-type comets is not large (<0.15) in order to fit the observational distributions of particles over their distances from the Sun. Studies of velocities of MgI line and corresponding eccentricities and inclinations in our runs showed that the mean eccentricity of zodiacal dust particles is about 0.5. [1] Ipatov S.I. and Mather J.C. (2004) Annals of the New York Acad. of Sciences, 1017, 46- 65. [2] Ipatov S.I., Mather J.C., and Taylor P. (2004) Annals of the New York Acad. of Sciences, 1017, 66-80. [3] Ipatov S.I. and Mather J.C. (2006) Advances in Space Research, 37, 126-137. [4] Ipatov S.I. et al. (2006) 37th LPSC, #1471.

  3. Determination of the Meteor Limiting Magnitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingery, A.; Blaauw, R.; Cooke, W. J.

    2016-01-01

    The limiting meteor magnitude of a meteor camera system will depend on the camera hardware and software, sky conditions, and the location of the meteor radiant. Some of these factors are constants for a given meteor camera system, but many change between meteor shower or sporadic source and on both long and short timescales. Since the limiting meteor magnitude ultimately gets used to calculate the limiting meteor mass for a given data set, it is important to have an understanding of these factors and to monitor how they change throughout the night, as a 0.5 magnitude uncertainty in limiting magnitude translates to a uncertainty in limiting mass by a factor of two.

  4. Giant comets and mass extinctions of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napier, W. M.

    2015-03-01

    I find evidence for clustering in age of well-dated impact craters over the last 500 Myr. At least nine impact episodes are identified, with durations whose upper limits are set by the dating accuracy of the craters. Their amplitudes and frequency are inconsistent with an origin in asteroid breakups or Oort cloud disturbances, but are consistent with the arrival and disintegration in near-Earth orbits of rare, giant comets, mainly in transit from the Centaur population into the Jupiter family and Encke regions. About 1 in 10 Centaurs in Chiron-like orbits enter Earth-crossing epochs, usually repeatedly, each such epoch being generally of a few thousand years' duration. On time-scales of geological interest, debris from their breakup may increase the mass of the near-Earth interplanetary environment by two or three orders of magnitude, yielding repeated episodes of bombardment and stratospheric dusting. I find a strong correlation between these bombardment episodes and major biostratigraphic and geological boundaries, and propose that episodes of extinction are most effectively driven by prolonged encounters with meteoroid streams during bombardment episodes. Possible mechanisms are discussed.

  5. New radio meteor detecting and logging software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Wolfgang

    2017-08-01

    A new piece of software ``Meteor Logger'' for the radio observation of meteors is described. It analyses an incoming audio stream in the frequency domain to detect a radio meteor signal on the basis of its signature, instead of applying an amplitude threshold. For that reason the distribution of the three frequencies with the highest spectral power are considered over the time (3f method). An auto notch algorithm is developed to prevent the radio meteor signal detection from being jammed by a present interference line. The results of an exemplary logging session are discussed.

  6. Disintegration of comet nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksanfomality, Leonid V.

    2012-02-01

    The breaking up of comets into separate pieces, each with its own tail, was seen many times by astronomers of the past. The phenomenon was in sharp contrast to the idea of the eternal and unchangeable celestial firmament and was commonly believed to be an omen of impending disaster, especially for comets with tails stretching across half the sky. It is only now that we have efficient enough space exploration tools to see comet nuclei and even - in the particular case of small comet Hartley-2 in 2010 - to watch their disintegration stage. There are also other suspected candidates for disintegration in the vast family of comet nuclei and other Solar System bodies.

  7. Physics of comets

    CERN Document Server

    Krishna Swamy, K S

    1997-01-01

    The study of Comet Halley in 1986 was a tremendous success for cometary science. In March of that year, six spacecrafts passed through Comet Halley as close as 600 km from the nucleus and made the in situ measurements of various kinds. These space missions to Comet Halley and that of the ICE spacecraft to Comet Giacobini-Zinner combined with studies, both ground-based and above the atmosphere, have increased our knowledge of cometary science in a dramatic way.This new edition of Physics of Comets incorporates these new and exciting findings. The emphasis of the book is on the physical processe

  8. Photochemistry of comets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebner, W.F.

    1985-01-01

    The classification of comets, chemically rich mixtures of volatile materials and refractory grains, is described. The developments of coma and tails, and the composition and structure of coma, plasma tails, dust, and nucleus are examined. The differences between comets and planetary atmospheres are investigated. Three hypotheses on the origin of comets are proposed; one states that comets formed in the region of the giant planets, the second theory has the development of comets occuring in the outer parts of the solar nebula, and the third states that comets formed in a companion fragment of the nebula. The use of radar, photometric, spectral, and laboratory measurements for modeling comets is discussed. The physics and main photolytic and chemical reaction processes of a collision-dominated coma are analyzed; the influence of the solar wind on the coma is studied. A comparison of the model with observed data is presented; good correlation of data is observed. The features of Halley's Comet and other comets with distinctive characteristics are examined. Future comet exploration missions and the need to improve comet models are discussed. 31 references

  9. Visually observing comets

    CERN Document Server

    Seargent, David A J

    2017-01-01

    In these days of computers and CCD cameras, visual comet observers can still contribute scientifically useful data with the help of this handy reference for use in the field. Comets are one of the principal areas for productive pro-amateur collaboration in astronomy, but finding comets requires a different approach than the observing of more predictable targets. Principally directed toward amateur astronomers who prefer visual observing or who are interested in discovering a new comet or visually monitoring the behavior of known comets, it includes all the advice needed to thrive as a comet observer. After presenting a brief overview of the nature of comets and how we came to the modern understanding of comets, this book details the various types of observations that can usefully be carried out at the eyepiece of a telescope. Subjects range from how to search for new comets to visually estimating the brightness of comets and the length and orientation of tails, in addition to what to look for in comet heads a...

  10. Isotopic meteoric line for Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez N, Cesar O

    2004-01-01

    Isotope analyses from representative rainfall samples taken from different areas in Colombia were processed to yield the meteoric line. Stable isotope composition in precipitation reflects the effects of temperature, altitude and of the continental site, being affected by different sources of atmospheric humidity over the Colombian territory. There is a seasonal variation in isotopic composition of precipitation with grater σ deviation during the rainy season and lower values in the dry season. In coastal areas the variation is smaller and is more pronounced than at continental stations. Correlation between altitude and isotope content led to equations, which indicate, on a regional level, a change in isotopic composition with altitude, of about 0.5 σ units per 200 m, for O 18 and 4 σ units per 200 m for H 2 . Such equations may be used to identify the original altitude of precipitation water, in hydrological surface and groundwater studies. Meteoric line and the concepts derived from the resulting equations presented in this paper may be applied to the interpretation of isotope analysis in future hydrological studies, particularly in areas without available data

  11. Mission to the comets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, D.

    1980-01-01

    The plans of space agencies in the United States and Europe for an exploratory comet mission including a one year rendezvous with comet Temple-2 and a fast fly-by of comet Halley are discussed. The mission provides an opportunity to make comparative measurements on the two different types of comets and also satisfies the three major scientific objectives of cometary missions namely: (1) To determine the chemical nature and the physical structure of cometary nuclei, and the changes that occur with time and orbital position. (2) To study the chemical and physical nature of the atmospheres and ionospheres of comets, the processes that occur in them, and their development with time and orbital position. (3) To determine the nature of the tails of comets and the processes by which they are formed, and to characterise the interaction of comets with solar wind. (UK)

  12. Direct Characterization of Comets and Asteroids via Cosmic Dust Analysis from the Deep Space Gateway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, M.; Fisher, K.

    2018-01-01

    The Deep Space Gateway (DSG) may provide a platform for direct sampling of a large number of comets and asteroids, through employment of an instrument for characterizing dust from these bodies. Every year, the Earth traverses through debris streams of dust and small particles from comets and asteroids in Earth-crossing orbits, generating short-lived outbursts of meteor activity commonly known as "meteor showers" (Figure 1). The material in each debris stream originates from a distinct parent body, many of which have been identified. By sampling this material, it is possible to quantitatively analyze the composition of a dozen or more comets and asteroids (See Figure 2, following page) without leaving cislunar space.

  13. Radar meteors range distribution model. I. Theory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pecinová, Drahomíra; Pecina, Petr

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 2 (2007), s. 83-106 ISSN 1335-1842 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/03/1405 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : physics of meteors * radar meteors * range distribution Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  14. Global variation of meteor trail plasma turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Dyrud

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We present the first global simulations on the occurrence of meteor trail plasma irregularities. These results seek to answer the following questions: when a meteoroid disintegrates in the atmosphere, will the resulting trail become plasma turbulent? What are the factors influencing the development of turbulence? and how do these trails vary on a global scale? Understanding meteor trail plasma turbulence is important because turbulent meteor trails are visible as non-specular trails to coherent radars. Turbulence also influences the evolution of specular radar meteor trails; this fact is important for the inference of mesospheric temperatures from the trail diffusion rates, and their usage for meteor burst communication. We provide evidence of the significant effect that neutral atmospheric winds and ionospheric plasma density have on the variability of meteor trail evolution and on the observation of non-specular meteor trails. We demonstrate that trails are far less likely to become and remain turbulent in daylight, explaining several observational trends for non-specular and specular meteor trails.

  15. Radar meteor rates and solar activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prikryl, P.

    1983-01-01

    The short-term variation of diurnal radar meteor rates with solar activity represented by solar microwave flux Fsub(10.7), and sunspots relative number Rsub(z), is investigated. Applying the superposed-epoch analysis to the observational material of radar meteor rates from Christchurch (1960-61 and 1963-65), a decrease in the recorded radar rates is found during days of enhanced solar activity. No effect of geomagnetic activity similar to the one reported for the Swedish and Canadian radar meteor data was found by the author in the Christchurch data. A possible explanation of the absence of the geomagnetic effect on radar meteor rates from New Zealand due to a lower echo ceiling height of the Christchurch radar is suggested. The variation of the atmospheric parameters as a possible cause of the observed variation in radar meteor rates is also discussed. (author)

  16. Comet Giacobini-Zinner - a normal comet?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochran, A.L.; Barker, E.S.

    1987-01-01

    Observations of Comet Giacobini-Zinner were obtained during its 1985 apparition using an IDS spectrograph at McDonald Observatory. Column densities and production rates were computed. The production rates were compared to observations of other normal comets. Giacobini-Zinner is shown to be depleted in C2 and C3 relative to CN. These production rates are down by a factor of 5. 12 references

  17. Mystery of comets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whipple, F.L.

    1985-01-01

    An account is given of the growth of human understanding of comets with emphasis initially placed on theories developed before the twentieth century and subsequently on information regarding the nature of comets, their origin and possible relation to life on earth. Special consideration is given to a description of how the author arrived at his own model of the origin and nature of comets, the dirty snowball theory. The significance of comets (i.e. the hazards they may represent) is assessed and space missions to Halley's comet together with the first landing on a comet (tentatively planned for 1995) are described. It is noted that this growth of cometary understanding is presented as an integral part of the growth of science and technology. 14 references

  18. Ammonia abundances in comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyckoff, S.; Tegler, S.; Engel, L.

    The emission band strengths of the NH2 bands of Comets Halley, Hartley-Good, Thiele, and Borrelly were measured to determine the NH2 column densities for the comets. Production rates obtained using the Haser and vectorial models are in agreement within the observational errors, suggesting that a simple two-step decay model may be used to approximate the NH2 distribution in a comet's coma. Ammonia-to-water abundance ratios from 0.01 to 0.4 percent were found for the four comets. The ratio in Comet Halley is found to be Q(NH3)/Q(H2O) = 0.002 + or - 0.001. No significant difference in the ammonia abundance was found before or after perihelion in Comet Halley.

  19. The Zodiacal Cloud Model applied to the Martian atmosphere. Diurnal variations in meteoric ion layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Sánchez, J. D.; Plane, J. M. C.; Withers, P.; Fallows, K.; Nesvorny, D.; Pokorný, P.

    2016-12-01

    Sporadic metal layers have been detected in the Martian atmosphere by radio occultation measurements using the Mars Express Orbiter and Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft. More recently, metallic ion layers produced by the meteor storm event following the close encounter between Comet Siding Spring (C/2013 A1) and Mars were identified by the Imaging UltraViolet Spectrograph (IUVS) and the Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer (NGIMS) on the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) spacecraft. Work is now in progress to detect the background metal layers produced by the influx of sporadic meteors. In this study we predict the likely appearance of these layers. The Zodiacal Dust Cloud (ZDC) model for particle populations released by asteroids (AST), and dust grains from Jupiter Family Comets (JFCs) and Halley-Type Comets (HTCs) has been combined with a Monte Carlo sampling method and the Chemical ABlation MODel (CABMOD) to predict the ablation rates of Na, K, Fe, Si, Mg, Ca and Al above 40 km altitude in the Martian atmosphere. CABMOD considers the standard treatment of meteor physics, including the balance of frictional heating by radiative losses and the absorption of heat energy through temperature increases, melting phase transitions and vaporization, as well as sputtering by inelastic collisions with the air molecules. The vertical injection profiles are input into the Leeds 1-D Mars atmospheric model which includes photo-ionization, and gas-phase ion-molecule and neutral chemistry, in order to explore the evolution of the resulting metallic ions and atoms. We conclude that the dominant contributor in the Martian's atmosphere is the JFCs over other sources. Finally, we explore the changes of the neutral and ionized Na, Mg and Fe layers over a diurnal cycle.

  20. Postencounter view of comets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendis, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    Ground-based and space observations of Comet Halley during its 1986 perihelion passage are reviewed, with an emphasis on their implications for theoretical models. Consideration is given to the shape, surface morphology, and composition of the comet nucleus; the shape, dynamics, and composition of the dust tail; neutral and ionic gas species in the head and plasma tail; and the comet/solar-wind interaction. Extensive diagrams, graphs, and sample images are provided, and the potential value of the new kinds of data to be obtained with the NASA Comet-Rendezvous/Asteroid-Flyby spacecraft is discussed. 139 references

  1. An Investigation of the Fine Spatial Structure of Meteor Streams Using the Relational Database ``Meteor''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpov, A. V.; Yumagulov, E. Z.

    2003-05-01

    We have restored and ordered the archive of meteor observations carried out with a meteor radar complex ``KGU-M5'' since 1986. A relational database has been formed under the control of the Database Management System (DBMS) Oracle 8. We also improved and tested a statistical method for studying the fine spatial structure of meteor streams with allowance for the specific features of application of the DBMS. Statistical analysis of the results of observations made it possible to obtain information about the substance distribution in the Quadrantid, Geminid, and Perseid meteor streams.

  2. The KUT meteor radar: An educational low cost meteor observation system by radio forward scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madkour, W.; Yamamoto, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Kochi University of Technology (KUT) meteor radar is an educational low cost observation system built at Kochi, Japan by successive graduate students since 2004. The system takes advantage of the continuous VHF- band beacon signal emitted from Fukui National College of Technology (FNCT) for scientific usage all over Japan by receiving the forward scattered signals. The system uses the classical forward scattering setup similar to the setup described by the international meteor organization (IMO), gradually developed from the most basic single antenna setup to the multi-site meteor path determination setup. The primary objective is to automate the observation of the meteor parameters continuously to provide amounts of data sufficient for statistical analysis. The developed software system automates the observation of the astronomical meteor parameters such as meteor direction, velocity and trajectory. Also, automated counting of meteor echoes and their durations are used to observe mesospheric ozone concentration by analyzing the duration distribution of different meteor showers. The meteor parameters observed and the methodology used for each are briefly summarized.

  3. Mesospheric temperature estimation from meteor decay times of weak and strong meteor trails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Han; Kim, Yong Ha; Jee, Geonhwa; Lee, Changsup

    2012-11-01

    Neutral temperatures near the mesopause region were estimated from the decay times of the meteor echoes observed by a VHF meteor radar during a period covering 2007 to 2009 at King Sejong Station (62.22°S, 58.78°W), Antarctica. While some previous studies have used all meteor echoes to determine the slope from a height profile of log inverse decay times for temperature estimation, we have divided meteor echoes into weak and strong groups of underdense meteor trails, depending on the strength of estimated relative electron line densities within meteor trails. We found that the slopes from the strong group are inappropriate for temperature estimation because the decay times of strong meteors are considerably scattered, whereas the slopes from the weak group clearly define the variation of decay times with height. We thus utilize the slopes only from the weak group in the altitude region between 86 km and 96 km to estimate mesospheric temperatures. The meteor estimated temperatures show a typical seasonal variation near the mesopause region and the monthly mean temperatures are in good agreement with SABER temperatures within a mean difference of 4.8 K throughout the year. The meteor temperatures, representing typically the region around the altitude of 91 km, are lower on average by 2.1 K than simultaneously measured SATI OH(6-2) rotational temperatures during winter (March-October).

  4. Comparison with Russian analyses of meteor impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canavan, G.H.

    1997-06-01

    The inversion model for meteor impacts is used to discuss Russian analyses and compare principal results. For common input parameters, the models produce consistent estimates of impactor parameters. Directions for future research are discussed and prioritized.

  5. Problems in the design of multifunction meteor-radar networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechitailenko, V. A.; Voloshchuk, Iu. I.

    The design of meteor-radar networks is examined in connection with the need to conduct experiments on a mass scale in meteor geophysics and astronomy. Attention is given to network architecture features and procedures of communication-path selection in the organization of information transfer, with allowance for the features of the meteor communication link. The meteor link is considered as the main means to ensure traffic in the meteor-radar network.

  6. Optical observation of comets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Hiroyoshi

    1974-01-01

    The observation of comets is proposed to study the state of interplanetary space. The behavior of the tails of comets shows the state of solar wind. On July 4, 1964, large bending was seen in the tail of the Tomita-Gerber-Handa comet. Then, on July 7, 1964, geomagnetic disturbance was observed. Disturbance in the tail of Kohoutek comet was seen on Jan. 19, 1974, and Ksub(p)--5 on the ground on Jan. 25. The effort for the quantitative measurement of the parameters of solar wind has been continued in various countries. Recently, the large scale observation of the Kohoutek comet was carried out in the world. Preliminary report is presented in this paper. Waving in the type 1 tail of the comet was seen, and this phenomenon may show some instability due to the interaction between the tail and the solar wind. Periodic variation of the direction of the tail has been reported. The present result also confirmed this report. In case of small comets, flare-up occurs and original luminous intensity is regained after several days. Measurement of the spectrum at the time of flare-up may show information concerning temporary variation of the state of interplanetary space. For the tracking of time variation of comets, cooperation of a number of stations at different positions is required. (Kato, T.)

  7. METEOR v1.0 - User's Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palomo, E.

    1994-01-01

    This script is a User's Guide for the software package METEOR for statistical analysis of meteorological data series. The original version of METEOR have been developed by Ph.D. Elena Palomo, CIEMAT-IER, GIMASE. It is built by linking programs and routines written in FORTRAN 77 and it adds the graphical capabilities of GNUPLOT. The shape of this toolbox was designed following the criteria of modularity, flexibility and agility criteria. All the input, output and analysis options are structured in three main menus: i) the first is aimed to evaluate the quality of the data set; ii) the second is aimed for pre-processing of the data; and iii) the third is aimed towards the statistical analyses and for creating the graphical outputs. Actually the information about METEOR is constituted by three documents written in spanish: 1) METEOR v1.0: User's guide; 2) METEOR v1.0: A usage example; 3) METEOR v1.0: Design and structure of the software package. (Author)

  8. Comet thermal modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissman, P.R.; Kieffer, H.H.

    1987-01-01

    The past year was one of tremendous activity because of the appearance of Halley's Comet. Observations of the comet were collected from a number of sources and compared with the detailed predictions of the comet thermal modeling program. Spacecraft observations of key physical parameters for cometary nucleus were incorporated into the thermal model and new cases run. These results have led to a much better understanding of physical processes on the nucleus and have pointed the way for further improvements to the modeling program. A model for the large-scale structure of cometary nuclei was proposed in which comets were envisioned as loosely bound agglomerations of smaller icy planetesimals, essentially a rubble pile of primordial dirty snowballs. In addition, a study of the physical history of comets was begun, concentrating on processes during formation and in the Oort cloud which would alter the volatile and nonvolatile materials in cometary nuclei from their pristine state before formation

  9. Disintegration of comet nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ksanfomality, Leonid V

    2012-01-01

    The breaking up of comets into separate pieces, each with its own tail, was seen many times by astronomers of the past. The phenomenon was in sharp contrast to the idea of the eternal and unchangeable celestial firmament and was commonly believed to be an omen of impending disaster, especially for comets with tails stretching across half the sky. It is only now that we have efficient enough space exploration tools to see comet nuclei and even - in the particular case of small comet Hartley-2 in 2010 - to watch their disintegration stage. There are also other suspected candidates for disintegration in the vast family of comet nuclei and other Solar System bodies. (physics of our days)

  10. Composition of faint comets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, L.W.

    1986-01-01

    The study uses an emission line, differential imaging camera built by the Science Operations Branch. This instrument allows photometric data to be obtained over a large area of a comet in a large number of resolution elements. The detector is a 100x100 Reticon array which with interchangeable optics can give resolutions from 2'' to 30'' over a field of 1' to 15'. The camera through its controlling computer can simultaneously take images in on-line and continuum filters and through computer subtraction and calibration present a photometric image of the comet produced by only the emission of the molecule under study. Initial work has shown two significant problems. First the auxiliary equipment of the telescope has not allowed the unambiguous location of faint comets so that systematic observations could be made, and secondly initial data has not shown much molecular emission from the faint comets which were located. Work last year on a software and hardware display system and this year on additional guide motors on the 36-inch telescope has allowed the differential camera to act as its own finder and guide scope. Comet IRAS was observed in C2 and CO+, as well as an occultation by the comet of SAO029103. The perodic comet Giacobini-Zinner was also observed in C2

  11. Realm of the comets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissman, P.R.

    1987-01-01

    Studies of Jovian perturbations of the orbits of long-period comets led to the concept of the Oort cloud of 180 billion comets at 50,000-150,000 AU from the sun. Several comets are induced to move toward the sun every million years by the passage of a star at a distance of a few light years. The location of the cloud has since been revised to 20,000-100,000 AU, and comets are now accepted as remnant material fron the proto-solar system epoch. The galactic disk and random, close-passing stars may also cause rare, large perturbations in the orbits of the cloud comets, sending large numbers of comets through the inner solar system. The resulting cometary storm is a candidate cause for the wholesale extinction of dinosaurs in the Cretaceous-Terniary transition due to large number of planetesimals, or one large comet, striking the earth, in a short period of time. The IRAS instruments have detected similar clouds of material around other stars

  12. Finding Long Lost Lexell's Comet: The Fate of the First Discovered Near-Earth Object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Quan-Zhi; Wiegert, Paul A.; Hui, Man-To

    2018-04-01

    Jupiter-family Comet D/1770 L1 (Lexell) was the first discovered Near-Earth Object (NEO) and passed the Earth on 1770 July 1 at a recorded distance of 0.015 au. The comet was subsequently lost due to unfavorable observing circumstances during its next apparition followed by a close encounter with Jupiter in 1779. Since then, the fate of D/Lexell has attracted interest from the scientific community, and now we revisit this long-standing question. We investigate the dynamical evolution of D/Lexell based on a set of orbits recalculated using the observations made by Charles Messier, the comet’s discoverer, and find that there is a 98% chance that D/Lexell remains in the solar system by the year of 2000. This finding remains valid even if a moderate non-gravitational effect is imposed. Messier’s observations also suggest that the comet is one of the largest known near-Earth comets, with a nucleus of ≳10 km in diameter. This implies that the comet should have been detected by contemporary NEO surveys regardless of its activity level if it has remained in the inner solar system. We identify asteroid 2010 JL33 as a possible descendant of D/Lexell, with a 0.8% probability of chance alignment, but a direct orbital linkage of the two bodies has not been successfully accomplished. We also use the recalculated orbit to investigate the meteors potentially originating from D/Lexell. While no associated meteors have been unambiguously detected, we show that meteor observations can be used to better constrain the orbit of D/Lexell despite the comet being long lost.

  13. Origin and development of comets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kresak, L.

    1989-01-01

    The comets are the most primitive and probably also the oldest members of the solar system. Comet cores are brittle bodies of an irregular shape and of a size of 1 to 10 km whose main component is ice. Around 130 comets move along short-period paths whose aphelia are concentrated in the area of Jupiter. They are in the last stage of development. About 20 comets have periods of 20 to 200 years and feature higher motion stability. Roughly 180 comets have elliptical orbits of a period exceeding 200 years, 200 comets have parabolic and 120 comets have hyperbolic orbits. The most distant comets form the Oort cloud around the solar system consisting of about one billion comets. Comets originated roughly 4.6 thousand million years ago together with planets, probably inside the Oort cloud. (M.D.). 11 figs

  14. Comets in UV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shustov, B.; Sachkov, M.; Gómez de Castro, A. I.; Vallejo, J. C.; Kanev, E.; Dorofeeva, V.

    2018-04-01

    Comets are important "eyewitnesses" of Solar System formation and evolution. Important tests to determine the chemical composition and to study the physical processes in cometary nuclei and coma need data in the UV range of the electromagnetic spectrum. Comprehensive and complete studies require additional ground-based observations and in situ experiments. We briefly review observations of comets in the ultraviolet (UV) and discuss the prospects of UV observations of comets and exocomets with space-borne instruments. A special reference is made to the World Space Observatory-Ultraviolet (WSO-UV) project.

  15. Physics of comets

    CERN Document Server

    Krishna Swamy, K S

    2010-01-01

    This revised edition places a unique emphasis on all the new results from ground-based, satellites and space missions - detection of molecule H2 and prompt emission lines of OH for the first time; discovery of X-rays in comets; observed diversity in chemical composition among comets; the puzzle of the constancy of spin temperature; the well-established mineralogy of cometary dust; extensive theoretical modeling carried out for understanding the observed effects; and, the similarity in the mineralogy of dust in circumstellar shell of stars, comets, meteorites, asteroids and IDPs, thus indicatin

  16. A spectral analysis of ablating meteors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloxam, K.; Campbell-Brown, M.

    2017-09-01

    Meteor ablation features in the spectral lines occurring at 394, 436, 520, and 589 nm were observed using a four-camera spectral system between September and December 2015. In conjunction with this multi-camera system the Canadian Automated Meteor Observatory was used to observe the orbital parameters and fragmentation of these meteors. In total, 95 light curves with complete data in the 520 and 589 nm filters were analyzed; some also had partial or complete data in the 394 nm filter, but no usable data was collected with the 436 nm filter. Of the 95 events, 70 exhibited some degree of differential ablation, and in all except 3 of these 70 events the 589 nm filter started or ended sooner compared with the 520 nm filter, indicating early ablation at the 589 nm wavelength. In the majority of cases the meteor showed evidence of fragmentation regardless of the type of ablation (differential or uniform). A surprising result was the lack of correlation found concerning the KB parameter, linked to meteoroid strength, and differential ablation. In addition, 22 shower-associated meteors were observed; Geminids showed mainly slight differential ablation, while Taurids were more likely to ablate uniformly.

  17. Mineralogy of Interplanetary Dust Particles from the Comet Giacobini-Zinner Dust Stream Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Messenger, S.; Westphal, A. J.; Palma, R. L.

    2015-01-01

    The Draconoid meteor shower, originating from comet 21P/Giacobini-Zinner, is a low-velocity Earth-crossing dust stream that had a peak anticipated flux on Oct. 8, 2012. In response to this prediction, NASA performed dedicated stratospheric dust collections to target interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) from this comet stream on Oct 15-17, 2012 [3]. Twelve dust particles from this targeted collection were allocated to our coordinated analysis team for studies of noble gas (Univ. Minnesota, Minnesota State Univ.), SXRF and Fe-XANES (SSL Berkeley) and mineralogy/isotopes (JSC). Here we report a mineralogical study of 3 IDPs from the Draconoid collection..

  18. Comet prospects for 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanklin, J. D.

    2003-12-01

    2004 sees the return of 18 periodic comets. None are particularly bright and the best are likely to be 78P/Gehrels and 88P/Howell. Three new long period comets are likely to put on a good show: 2001 Q4 (NEAT) reaches perihelion in May, when it could make at least 3rd magnitude. Northern hemisphere observers will first pick it up just after perihelion as it rapidly moves north. 2002 T7 (LINEAR) could also reach 3rd magnitude at closest approach in May, however northern hemisphere observers will have lost it as a binocular object in mid-March. Observers at far southern latitudes may be able to see these two naked eye comets at the same time. 2003 K4 (LINEAR) could reach 6th magnitude as it brightens on its way to perihelion. Several other long period comets discovered in previous years are also still visible.

  19. Comets and their composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinrad, H.

    1987-01-01

    Recent theoretical and observational studies of comets are reviewed, with an emphasis on in situ data from spacecraft encounters with P/Giacobini-Zinner (September 1985) and P/Halley (March 1986). Topics addressed include clues on the origin and permanence of the Oort cometary cloud, observations of cometary nuclei far from the sun, the Halley nucleus, compositional and physical data from comae studies, and the parent molecules in comet ices. Also discussed are quantitative analyses of coma production; special features in the tail of P/Giacobini-Zinner; and proposals for (1) observations to detect distant giant comets, (2) high-resolution spectroscopic studies of comae, and (3) additional spacecraft missions such as the NASA Comet Rendezvous and Asteroid Flyby. 121 references

  20. Meteor head echoes - observations and models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pellinen-Wannberg

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Meteor head echoes - instantaneous echoes moving with the velocities of the meteors - have been recorded since 1947. Despite many attempts, this phenomenon did not receive a comprehensive theory for over 4 decades. The High Power and Large Aperture (HPLA features, combined with present signal processing and data storage capabilities of incoherent scatter radars, may give an explanation for the old riddle. The meteoroid passage through the radar beam can be followed with simultaneous spatial-time resolution of about 100m-ms class. The current views of the meteor head echo process will be presented and discussed. These will be related to various EISCAT observations, such as dual-frequency target sizes, altitude distributions and vector velocities.

  1. Advances in Meteoroid and Meteor Science

    CERN Document Server

    Trigo-Rodríguez, J. M; Llorca, J; Janches, D

    2008-01-01

    This volume is a compilation of articles that summarize the most recent results in meteor, meteoroid and related fields presented at the Meteoroids 2007 conference held at the impressive CosmoCaixa Science Museum in Barcelona, Spain. The conference took place between the 11th and the 15th of June and was organized by the Institute of Space Sciences (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, CSIC) and the Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC). Researchers in meteor science and supporting fields representing more than 20 countries participated at this international conference. The papers contained in this volume underwent the rigorous refereeing process, and they are good examples of the continuous progress being made in this research field. Technological advances in meteor and metoroid detection, the ever-increasing sophistication of computer modeling, and the proliferation of autonomous monitoring stations continue to create new niches for exciting research on meteoroids and their parent bo...

  2. Physical processes in comets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newburn, R.L. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    When this program began in 1975 only limited photometry had been carried out on comets at any wavelength. Program goals were to observe many comets, including faint periodic comets, at a range of heliocentric distances in order to begin to understand the range of behavior among comets and in a given comet during its approach and departure from the sun. Then a study of the continuum of scattered light from dust was added. More recently the value of joint team observations in visible and infrared light has been recognized and utilized as often as possible. All 1978 to 1982 data was reanalyzed and 1983 to 1986 data analyzed in the framwork of the post-Halley paradigm, covering 25 comets in all. Four observing runs (June, July, Sept., and Jan.) with Hanner produced excellent results on Wilson, Bradfield, P/Klemola, and P/Borrelly and lesser data on other objects, including the last reported IR photometry of P/Halley. The Wilson and Halley data have been reduced

  3. The First Year of Croatian Meteor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreic, Zeljko; Segon, Damir

    2010-08-01

    The idea and a short history of Croatian Meteor Network (CMN) is described. Based on use of cheap surveillance cameras, standard PC-TV cards and old PCs, the Network allows schools, amateur societies and individuals to participate in photographic meteor patrol program. The network has a strong educational component and many cameras are located at or around teaching facilities. Data obtained by these cameras are collected and processed by the scientific team of the network. Currently 14 cameras are operable, covering a large part of the croatian sky, data gathering is fully functional, and data reduction software is in testing phase.

  4. Modern Meteor Science An Interdisciplinary View

    CERN Document Server

    Hawkes, Robert; Brown, Peter

    2005-01-01

    This volume represents a blend of leading edge research and authoritative reviews in meteor science. It provides a comprehensive view of meteoroid research including the dynamics, sources and distribution of these bodies, and their chemistry and physical processes in the interplanetary medium and the Earth’s atmosphere. Techniques for investigation of meteor phenomena in the book include conventional and large aperture radar systems, spacecraft detection, optical systems, spectral measurements, and laboratory based interplanetary dust particle studies. The book will be of interest to researchers and students in astronomy, astrophysics, cosmochemistry, space engineering and space science. Cover photograph was taken by Masayuki Toda.

  5. Dust Production of Comet 21P/Giacobini-Zinner Using Broadband Photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaauw, R. C.; Suggs, R. M.; Cooke, W.

    2012-01-01

    Comet 21P/Giacobini-Zinner is a Jupiter family comet, approximately 2 km in diameter, and is established to be the parent of the Draconids, a meteor shower known to outburst. In 1933 and 1946 up to 10,000 meteors per hour were reported for the Draconids, and 2011 saw a minor Draconid outburst. Meteor stream modeling/forecasting being a primary focus for the NASA Meteoroid Environment Office, it was decided to monitor 21P for three purposes: firstly to find the apparent and absolute magnitude with respect to heliocentric distance; second to calculate Af , a quantity that describes the dust production rate and is used in models to predict the activity of the Draconids; and thirdly to detect possible increases in cometary activity, which could correspond to future Draconid meteor outbursts. A similar study was done for 21P during its 2004-2006 close approach to the Sun in which apparent and absolute magnitudes were found with various heliocentric distances, as well as the dust production. At 2.32 AU from the Sun, 21P possessed an apparent magnitude of 17.05 and Af of 83 cm, and an apparent magnitude of 15.91 and Af of 130.66 cm at 1.76 AU from the sun.

  6. Comets in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2011-03-01

    We present 25 accounts of comets from 40 Australian Aboriginal communities, citing both supernatural perceptions of comets and historical accounts of historically bright comets. Historical and ethnographic descriptions include the Great Comets of 1843, 1861, 1901, 1910, and 1927. We describe the perceptions of comets in Aboriginal societies and show that they are typically associated with fear, death, omens, malevolent spirits, and evil magic, consistent with many cultures around the world. We also provide a list of words for comets in 16 different Aboriginal languages.

  7. The California All-sky Meteor Surveillance (CAMS) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gural, P. S.

    2011-01-01

    A unique next generation multi-camera, multi-site video meteor system is being developed and deployed in California to provide high accuracy orbits of simultaneously captured meteors. Included herein is a description of the goals, concept of operations, hardware, and software development progress. An appendix contains a meteor camera performance trade study made for video systems circa 2010.

  8. All-sky Meteor Orbit System AMOS and preliminary analysis of three unusual meteor showers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tóth, J.; Kornoš, L.; Zigo, P.; Gajdoš, Š.; Kalmančok, D.; Világi, J.; Šimon, J.; Vereš, P.; Šilha, J.; Buček, M.; Galád, Adrián; Rusňák, P.; Hrábek, P.; Ďuriš, F.; Rudawska, R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 118, December (2015), s. 102-106 ISSN 0032-0633 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : meteor * meteorite * meteoroid streams Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 1.942, year: 2015

  9. CONTENUTO DI URANIO E TORIO NELLE METEORITI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SANTANGELO

    1955-06-01

    Full Text Available Molti ricercatori in questi ultimi anni si sono interessati al problema
    della composizione delle meteoriti; dai risultati sperimentali si
    è cercato trarre elementi circa la genesi di questi materiali, questione
    ancora aperta, ed avere informazioni sui processi chimici e termodinamici
    cui le meteoriti furono soggette prima della loro caduta sulla
    terra.
    Uno degli aspetti del problema è quello dell'abbondanza percentuale
    degli elementi chimici e della loro composizione isotopica nella
    materia meteorica dei diversi tipi : ciò perché esso è connesso con
    quello piii generale dell'origine e distribuzione degli elementi nel cosmo
    e nella terra, nonché con quello dell'età delle meteoriti (l .
    In un recente lavoro Urey e collaboratori (-, esaminando un gran
    numero di analisi chimiche effettuate su questi materiali, sono pervenuti
    alla formulazione di alcuni criteri di classificazione in base alla
    percentuale dei componenti più abbondanti ed alla presenza o meno
    di disomogeneità strutturali nella massa fondamentale. Fra gli elementi
    meno abbondanti presentano particolare interesse quelli delle due famiglie
    radioattive naturali Torio e Uranio; le loro concentrazioni sono
    state determinate per alcune meteoriti siliciche (stonv ineteorites e
    per qualcuna ferrica (iron meteorites

  10. Jupiter Laser Facility - COMET Laser

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — COMET has 4 beam configurations with uncompressed pulse lengths from 500 ps to 6 ns, compressed pulses to 0.5 ps, and beam energies up to 20 J. COMET can fire every...

  11. The Halley comet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Encrenaz, T.; Festou, M.

    1985-01-01

    The conspicuous part of a comet, made of tenuous gas and dusts, represents only a tiny part of its mass. The main information is hidden in the central part: a solid nucleus, ice and rock blocks with a radius less than 10 km, completely invisible from the Earth. The knowledge of the nucleus structure and its composition could give the key of the planet creation mechanisms. That is a reason why it has been decided to send an automatic device to penetrate the Halley comet atmosphere and that two Soviet probes, Vega 1 and 2, one European probe Giotto, and two Japanese, Planet-A and MS-TS, will explore in-situ in March 1986, for the first time, a comet at atmosphere [fr

  12. Astrobiology of Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Wickramasinghe, Nalin C.; Wallis, Max K.; Sheldon, Robert B.

    2004-01-01

    We review the current state of knowledge concerning microbial extremophiles and comets and the potential significance of comets to Astrobiology. We model the thermal history of a cometary body, regarded as an assemblage of boulders, dust, ices and organics, as it approaches a perihelion distance of - IAU. The transfer of incident energy from sunlight into the interior leads to the melting of near surface ices, some under stable porous crust, providing possible habitats for a wide range of microorganisms. We provide data concerning new evidence for indigenous microfossils in CI meteorites, which may be the remains of extinct cometary cores. We discuss the dominant microbial communities of polar sea-ice, Antarctic ice sheet, and cryoconite environments as possible analogs for microbial ecosystems that may grow in sub-crustal pools or in ice/water films in comets.

  13. Comet: Multifunction VOEvent broker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinbank, John

    2014-04-01

    Comet is a Python implementation of the VOEvent Transport Protocol (VTP). VOEvent is the IVOA system for describing transient celestial events. Details of transients detected by many projects, including Fermi, Swift, and the Catalina Sky Survey, are currently made available as VOEvents, which is also the standard alert format by future facilities such as LSST and SKA. The core of Comet is a multifunction VOEvent broker, capable of receiving events either by subscribing to one or more remote brokers or by direct connection from authors; it can then both process those events locally and forward them to its own subscribers. In addition, Comet provides a tool for publishing VOEvents to the global VOEvent backbone.

  14. Nature and origin of comets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.A.; Jockers, K.

    1983-01-01

    The review examines basic history and morphology, motion, dynamic evolution, physical properties of neutral gaseous matter, vaporization of gases and outflow from the nucleus, chemistry of the coma gases, the comet nucleus, dust particles, solar wind-comet interactions and tail formation and the origin of comets. (U.K.)

  15. Comets - cosmic 'snowballs'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luest, R.

    1979-01-01

    Non-periodic comets come from regions at the limit of our solar system and have conserved their original structure and composition since they have originated from a pre-solar nebuly together with the sun and the planets about 4.5 x 10 9 years ago. They are icy bodies of kilometer size whose structure and chemical composition is of great interest also with respect to the origin of the solar system. It is hoped to send a space craft to comet Halley in 1986 to get more detailed informations. (orig.) [de

  16. Solar influence on meteor rates and atmospheric density variations at meteor heights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellyett, C.

    1977-01-01

    A full analysis of radar-determined meteor rates from New Zealand, involving 3,085,574 meteors recorded over a total of 3 1/2 years, and 12,391,976 meteors recorded by the National Research Council of Canada in 8 1/2 years confirms an inverse relationship between meteor rates and solar activity as measured by sunspot numbers. The relationship, significant at the 1% level, appears in the Canadian annual average when the abnormal 1963 increase is removed, in monthly and 1/3-monthly results for the total Canadian period, and in monthly intervals for 1 year of the New Zealand data. This proven relationship of meteor rates with the solar cycle calls for a significant density gradient change over the solar cycle in the 70- to-120-km height range. Although some definite negative results have been reported, no unambiguous positive results are yet available supporting such a density gradient change. It is possible that density variations due to annual, semiannual, diurnal, and latitudinal changes obscure any 11-year density gradient change occurring at these heights. It is uncertain whether the 1963 increase represents density gradient changes in the meteor ablation region regularly brought about 1-2 years before each sunspot minimum or is a special event due to volcanic dust. The following additional facts have emerged from the present analysis. (1) Within a 1-year period the seasonal rate change of astronomical origin overrides any density gradient change in controlling the meteor rates in one of the two hemispheres. (2) The earth's daily rotation alters rates in phase with probable diurnal density gradient changes. (3) An effect due to D region absorption has been observed in the Canadian data

  17. Interferometric Meteor Head Echo Observations using the Southern Argentina Agile Meteor Radar (SAAMER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janches, D.; Hocking, W.; Pifko, S.; Hormaechea, J. L.; Fritts, D. C.; Brunini, C; Michell, R.; Samara, M.

    2013-01-01

    A radar meteor echo is the radar scattering signature from the free-electrons in a plasma trail generated by entry of extraterrestrial particles into the atmosphere. Three categories of scattering mechanisms exist: specular, nonspecular trails, and head-echoes. Generally, there are two types of radars utilized to detect meteors. Traditional VHF meteor radars (often called all-sky1radars) primarily detect the specular reflection of meteor trails traveling perpendicular to the line of sight of the scattering trail, while High Power and Large Aperture (HPLA) radars efficiently detect meteor head-echoes and, in some cases, non-specular trails. The fact that head-echo measurements can be performed only with HPLA radars limits these studies in several ways. HPLA radars are very sensitive instruments constraining the studies to the lower masses, and these observations cannot be performed continuously because they take place at national observatories with limited allocated observing time. These drawbacks can be addressed by developing head echo observing techniques with modified all-sky meteor radars. In addition, the fact that the simultaneous detection of all different scattering mechanisms can be made with the same instrument, rather than requiring assorted different classes of radars, can help clarify observed differences between the different methodologies. In this study, we demonstrate that such concurrent observations are now possible, enabled by the enhanced design of the Southern Argentina Agile Meteor Radar (SAAMER) deployed at the Estacion Astronomica Rio Grande (EARG) in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina. The results presented here are derived from observations performed over a period of 12 days in August 2011, and include meteoroid dynamical parameter distributions, radiants and estimated masses. Overall, the SAAMER's head echo detections appear to be produced by larger particles than those which have been studied thus far using this technique.

  18. Comet radar explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnham, Tony; Asphaug, Erik; Barucci, Antonella; Belton, Mike; Bockelee-Morvan, Dominique; Brownlee, Donald; Capria, Maria Teresa; Carter, Lynn; Chesley, Steve; Farnham, Tony; Gaskell, Robert; Gim, Young; Heggy, Essam; Herique, Alain; Klaasen, Ken; Kofman, Wlodek; Kreslavsky, Misha; Lisse, Casey; Orosei, Roberto; Plaut, Jeff; Scheeres, Dan

    The Comet Radar Explorer (CORE) is designed to perform a comprehensive and detailed exploration of the interior, surface, and inner coma structures of a scientifically impor-tant Jupiter family comet. These structures will be used to investigate the origins of cometary nuclei, their physical and geological evolution, and the mechanisms driving their spectacular activity. CORE is a high heritage spacecraft, injected by solar electric propulsion into orbit around a comet. It is capable of coherent deep radar imaging at decameter wavelengths, high resolution stereo color imaging, and near-IR imaging spectroscopy. Its primary objective is to obtain a high-resolution map of the interior structure of a comet nucleus at a resolution of ¿100 elements across the diameter. This structure shall be related to the surface geology and morphology, and to the structural details of the coma proximal to the nucleus. This is an ideal complement to the science from recent comet missions, providing insight into how comets work. Knowing the structure of the interior of a comet-what's inside-and how cometary activity works, is required before we can understand the requirements for a cryogenic sample return mission. But more than that, CORE is fundamental to understanding the origin of comets and their evolution in time. The mission is made feasible at low cost by the use of now-standard MARSIS-SHARAD reflec-tion radar imaging hardware and data processing, together with proven flight heritage of solar electric propulsion. Radar flight heritage has been demonstrated by the MARSIS radar on Mars Express (Picardi et al., Science 2005; Plaut et al., Science 2007), the SHARAD radar onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (Seu et al., JGR 2007), and the LRS radar onboard Kaguya (Ono et al, EPS 2007). These instruments have discovered detailed subsurface structure to depths of several kilometers in a variety of terrains on Mars and the Moon. A reflection radar deployed in orbit about a comet

  19. Comets in Indian Scriptures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Gupta, P.

    2016-01-01

    The Indo-Aryans of ancient India observed stars and constellations for ascertaining auspicious times in order to conduct sacrificial rites ordained by the Vedas. Naturally, they would have sighted comets and referred to them in the Vedic texts. In Rigveda (circa 1700-1500 BC) and Atharvaveda (circa 1150 BC), there are references to dhumaketus and ketus, which stand for comets in Sanskrit. Rigveda speaks of a fig tree whose aerial roots spread out in the sky (Parpola 2010). Had this imagery been inspired by the resemblance of a comet's tail with long and linear roots of a banyan tree (ficus benghalensis)? Varahamihira (AD 550) and Ballal Sena (circa AD 1100-1200) described a large number of comets recorded by ancient seers, such as Parashara, Vriddha Garga, Narada, and Garga, to name a few. In this article, we propose that an episode in Mahabharata in which a radiant king, Nahusha, who rules the heavens and later turns into a serpent after he kicked the seer Agastya (also the star Canopus), is a mythological retelling of a cometary event.

  20. Comet 2001 Q2

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pravec, Petr; Kušnirák, Peter; Bouma, R. J.; Raymundo, P. M.

    č. 7687 (2001), s. 1 ISSN 0081-0304 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/99/0255 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : comet s * astrometry Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  1. Death of a comet

    CERN Multimedia

    Hawkes, N

    2000-01-01

    The comet Linear dissolved as it made its closest approach to the sun on July 25th. The first stages of its breakup had been witnessed by the Hubble telescope when it threw off a piece of its crust (3 paragraphs).

  2. Asteroids, meteorites, and comets

    CERN Document Server

    Elkins-Tanton, Linda T

    2010-01-01

    Asteroids, Comets, and Meteorites provides students, researchers, and general readers with the most up-to-date information on this fascinating field. From the days of the dinosaurs to our modern environment, this book explores all aspects of these cosmic invaders.

  3. Meteor detection on ST (MST) radars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avery, S.K.

    1987-01-01

    The ability to detect radar echoes from backscatter due to turbulent irregularities of the radio refractive index in the clear atmosphere has lead to an increasing number of established mesosphere - stratosphere - troposphere (MST or ST) radars. Humidity and temperature variations are responsible for the echo in the troposphere and stratosphere and turbulence acting on electron density gradients provides the echo in the mesosphere. The MST radar and its smaller version, the ST radar, are pulsed Doppler radars operating in the VHF - UHF frequency range. These echoes can be used to determine upper atmosphere winds at little extra cost to the ST radar configuration. In addition, the meteor echoes can supplement mesospheric data from an MST radar. The detection techniques required on the ST radar for delineating meteor echo returns are described

  4. Disappearance and disintegration of comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekanina, Z.

    1984-01-01

    The present investigation has the objective to provide a summary of the existing evidence on the disappearance of comets and to draw conclusions regarding the physical processes involved in the disappearance. Information concerning the classification of evidence and the causes of apparent disappearance of comets is presented in a table. Attention is given to the dissipating comets, the headless sungrazing comet 1887 I, and the physical behavior of the dissipating comets and the related phenomena. It is found that all comets confined to the planetary region of the solar system decay on astronomically short time scales. However, only some of them appear to perish catastrophically. Some of the observed phenomena could be successfully interpreted. But little insight has been obtained into the character of the processes which the dissipating comets experience.

  5. Ammonia abundances in four comets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickoff, S.; Tegler, S.C.; Engel, L.

    1991-01-01

    NH2 emission band strengths were measured in four comets and the NH2 column densities were determined in order to measure the ammonia content of the comets. The mean ammonia/water abundance ratio derived for the four comets is found to be 0.13 + or - 0.06 percent, with no significant variation among the comets. The uniformity of this abundance attests to a remarkable degree of chemical homogeneity over large scales in the comet-forming region of the primordial solar nebula, and contrasts with the CO abundance variations found previously in comets. The N2 and NH3 abundances indicate a condensation temperature in the range 20-160 K, consistent with virtually all comet formation hypotheses. 64 refs

  6. Cometography a catalog of comets

    CERN Document Server

    Kronk, Gary W; Seargent, David A J

    2017-01-01

    Cometography is a multi-volume catalog of every comet observed from ancient times up to the 1990s, when the internet took off as a medium of scientific record. It uses the most reliable orbits known to determine the distances from the Earth and Sun at the time of discovery and last observation, as well as the largest and smallest angular distance to the Sun, most northerly and southerly declination, closest distance to the Earth, and other details, to enable the reader to understand each comet's physical appearance. Volume 6, the final volume in the catalog, covers the observations and pertinent calculations for every comet seen between 1983 and 1993. The comets are listed in chronological order, with complete references to publications relating to each comet and physical descriptions of each comet's development throughout its apparition. Cometography is the definitive reference on comets through the ages, for astronomers and historians of science.

  7. Meteors, space aliens, and other exotic encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom. Hofacker

    1998-01-01

    Exotics have had a big impact on our environment. If you do not think so, just look at how many people believe that humans would not exist on this planet were it not for exotics. This belief centers on two main theories: (1) that humans could not have evolved were it not for a huge meteor from outer space striking the earth resulting in extinction of the dinasours, the...

  8. A Global Atmospheric Model of Meteoric Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wuhu; Marsh, Daniel R.; Chipperfield, Martyn P.; Janches, Diego; Hoffner, Josef; Yi, Fan; Plane, John M. C.

    2013-01-01

    The first global model of meteoric iron in the atmosphere (WACCM-Fe) has been developed by combining three components: the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM), a description of the neutral and ion-molecule chemistry of iron in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT), and a treatment of the injection of meteoric constituents into the atmosphere. The iron chemistry treats seven neutral and four ionized iron containing species with 30 neutral and ion-molecule reactions. The meteoric input function (MIF), which describes the injection of Fe as a function of height, latitude, and day, is precalculated from an astronomical model coupled to a chemical meteoric ablation model (CABMOD). This newly developed WACCM-Fe model has been evaluated against a number of available ground-based lidar observations and performs well in simulating the mesospheric atomic Fe layer. The model reproduces the strong positive correlation of temperature and Fe density around the Fe layer peak and the large anticorrelation around 100 km. The diurnal tide has a significant effect in the middle of the layer, and the model also captures well the observed seasonal variations. However, the model overestimates the peak Fe+ concentration compared with the limited rocket-borne mass spectrometer data available, although good agreement on the ion layer underside can be obtained by adjusting the rate coefficients for dissociative recombination of Fe-molecular ions with electrons. Sensitivity experiments with the same chemistry in a 1-D model are used to highlight significant remaining uncertainties in reaction rate coefficients, and to explore the dependence of the total Fe abundance on the MIF and rate of vertical transport.

  9. Definitions of terms in meteor astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koschny, Detlef; Borovicka, Jiri

    2017-10-01

    Over the last year, the IAU commission F1 (Meteors, Meteorites and Interplanetary Dust) has discussed and agreed a new definition of terminology related to our field of interest. It is available online at this link: https://www.iau.org/static/science/scientific_bodies/commissions/f1/meteordefinitions_approved.pdf. For your convenience it is reproduced here. Please keep these definitions in mind in any future communications about our topic.

  10. From interstellar dust to comets - A unification of observational constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, J.M.; Hage, J.I.

    1990-01-01

    The interstellar dust model of comets is numerically worked out to satisfy simultaneously several basic constraints provided by observations of Comet Halley, and to derive the porosity of coma dust. The observational constraints are (1) the strengths of the 3.4 and 9.7 micron emission bands, (2) the shape of the 9.7 micron band, (3) the amount of silicates relative to organic materials, and (4) the mass distribution of the dust. The method used involves precise calculations of temperatures and the emission characteristics of porous aggregates of interstellar dust as a function of their mass, porosity, and distance to the sun and the wavelength. The results indicate that coma dust has a porosity in the range 0.93-0.975, i.e., a packing factor of 0.07 or less, consistent with independent observations of comet densities of 0.6 to 0.26 g/cu cm and meteor densities of less than 0.2 g/cu cm. 63 refs

  11. 67P, Singing Comet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Ekaterina

    2017-04-01

    I would like to propose to present a short science-art-music collaboration film called "67P, Singing Comet" (5:27 min). If time of the session will allow, prior to the film I would like to make a slide show introduction to this project, highlighting the inspiration - the mission Rosetta by the European Space Agency (ESA) - and the artistic collaboration that took place in creating this piece. Inspired by the ESA Rosetta mission to the comet 67P, Ekaterina Smirnova (artist and project director, New York), Lee Mottram (clarinetist, Wales), Takuto Fukuda (composer, Japan) and Brian Hekker (video editor, New York) collaborated to create a unique atmospheric piece. Water and the origins of life throughout the Universe (specifically the Earth) is an element of the mission and the focus of Ekaterina's artistic vision. Ekaterina literally and figuratively paints a sensory assemblage using a combination of synthetic and natural elements to shape this artistic creation. To paint her watercolor works she is using a replica of the water found on the comet and implementing her own heartbeat into the music to create a recognizable inward sound of life. The Electro-Acoustic composition by Takuto Fukuda features an electronically manipulated performance by clarinetist Lee Mottram. The piece ceremoniously begins with reverberant bursts of low-register atonal bells transporting the listener to their ethereal inner origins of body and mind. The imagination takes the experience to an unknown destination as it gains speed gliding through the visual and audible textures of space and time. The comet's water similarly reacts with an ebb and flow thawing ice to potentially give life a chance as it is thrust along an orbit around the Sun. Near then far from the heat the comet forms frozen particles from vapors as it reaches it's furthest stretches creating an aerodynamic tail of icicles that slowly dissipate in a cycle that repeats itself until the comet's ultimate collision with an

  12. Numerical simulations of comets - predictions for Comet Giacobini-Zinner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedder, J.A.; Lyon, J.G.; Giuliani, J.L. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Simulations of Comet Giacobini-Zinner's interaction with solar wind are described and results are presented. The simulations are carried out via the numerical solution of the ideal MHD equations as an initial value problem in a uniform solar wind. The calculations are performed on a Cartesian mesh centered at the comet. Results reveal that the first significant modifications of the solar wind along the ISEE/ICE trajectory will occur 100,000 km from the solar wind comet axis. 6 references

  13. CINE: Comet INfrared Excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Val-Borro, Miguel; Cordiner, Martin A.; Milam, Stefanie N.; Charnley, Steven B.

    2017-08-01

    CINE calculates infrared pumping efficiencies that can be applied to the most common molecules found in cometary comae such as water, hydrogen cyanide or methanol. One of the main mechanisms for molecular excitation in comets is the fluorescence by the solar radiation followed by radiative decay to the ground vibrational state. This command-line tool calculates the effective pumping rates for rotational levels in the ground vibrational state scaled by the heliocentric distance of the comet. Fluorescence coefficients are useful for modeling rotational emission lines observed in cometary spectra at sub-millimeter wavelengths. Combined with computational methods to solve the radiative transfer equations based, e.g., on the Monte Carlo algorithm, this model can retrieve production rates and rotational temperatures from the observed emission spectrum.

  14. Comets and their origin the tools to decipher a comet

    CERN Document Server

    Meierhenrich, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    Divided into two parts, the first four chapters of Comets and their Origin refer to comets and their formation in general, describing cometary missions, comet remote observations, astrochemistry, artificial comets, and the chirality phenomenon.The second part covers the cometary Rosetta mission, its launch, journey, scientific objectives, and instrumentations, as well as the landing scenario on a cometary nucleus. Along the way, the author presents general questions concerning the origin of terrestrial water and the molecular beginnings of lifeon Earth, as well as how the instruments used on

  15. Encounter with comet Halley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagdeev, R.Z.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on an international armada of six spacecraft which encountered the comet Halley and performed in-situ measurements. These encounters led to the discovery of a number of cometary plasma physics phenomena. Another important result was that a value for the average density of the cometary nucleus could be estimated, which is found to be compatible with snow ball models for the nucleus

  16. A Global Model of Meteoric Sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Daniel R.; Janches, Diego; Feng, Wuhu; Plane, John M. C.

    2013-01-01

    A global model of sodium in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere has been developed within the framework of the National Center for Atmospheric Research's Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM). The standard fully interactive WACCM chemistry module has been augmented with a chemistry scheme that includes nine neutral and ionized sodium species. Meteoric ablation provides the source of sodium in the model and is represented as a combination of a meteoroid input function (MIF) and a parameterized ablation model. The MIF provides the seasonally and latitudinally varying meteoric flux which is modeled taking into consideration the astronomical origins of sporadic meteors and considers variations in particle entry angle, velocity, mass, and the differential ablation of the chemical constituents. WACCM simulations show large variations in the sodium constituents over time scales from days to months. Seasonality of sodium constituents is strongly affected by variations in the MIF and transport via the mean meridional wind. In particular, the summer to winter hemisphere flow leads to the highest sodium species concentrations and loss rates occurring over the winter pole. In the Northern Hemisphere, this winter maximum can be dramatically affected by stratospheric sudden warmings. Simulations of the January 2009 major warming event show that it caused a short-term decrease in the sodium column over the polar cap that was followed by a factor of 3 increase in the following weeks. Overall, the modeled distribution of atomic sodium in WACCM agrees well with both ground-based and satellite observations. Given the strong sensitivity of the sodium layer to dynamical motions, reproducing its variability provides a stringent test of global models and should help to constrain key atmospheric variables in this poorly sampled region of the atmosphere.

  17. Meteor Beliefs Project: some meteoric imagery in the works of William Shakespeare

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBeath, A.; Gheorghe, A. D.

    2003-08-01

    Passages from three of William Shakespeare's plays are presented, illustrating some of the beliefs in meteors in 16th-17th century England. They also reflect earlier beliefs and information which it is known Shakespeare drew on in constructing his works.

  18. Meteor Beliefs Project: Meteoric imagery associated with the death of John Brown in 1859

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobnock, G. J.; McBeath, A.; Gheorghe, A. D.

    2009-12-01

    An examination is made of metaphorical meteor imagery used in conjunction with the death of American anti-slavery activist John Brown, who was executed in December 1859. Such imagery continues to be used in this regard into the 21st century.

  19. Dust Production of Comet 21P/Giacobini Zinner Using Broadband Photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaauw, Rhiannon; Suggs, Robert M.; Cooke, William

    2012-01-01

    Comet 21P/Giacobini-Zinner is a Jupiter family comet that was discovered in December of 1900 by the French astronomer Michel Giacobini, and rediscovered two orbits later by German astronomer Ernst Zinner in 1913. 21P is approximately 2 km in diameter, and is the parent of the Draconids, a meteor shower known to undergo dramatic outbursts. In 1933 and 1946, up to 10,000 meteors per hour were reported for the Draconids; and 2011 saw a minor Draconid outburst. As meteor stream modeling/ forecasting is a primary focus for the NASA Meteoroid Environment Office, it was decided to monitor 21P for three purposes: firstly to find the apparent and absolute magnitude with respect to heliocentric distance; second to calculate Af(rho), a quantity that describes the dust production rate and is used in models to predict the activity of the Draconids; thirdly to detect possible increases in cometary activity, which could correspond to future Draconid meteor outbursts. Giacobini-Zinner is unique in several ways. It was the first comet to have measurements made in situ. Comet 21P was visited by ICE (International Cometary Explorer) in 1985 to study the interaction of the cometary atmosphere with the flowing solar-wind plasma. It is a carbon-depleted comet, and most studies show that it peaks in gas and dust production pre-perihelion, specifically in two very studied passages; 1985 and 1998. A prior study was conducted by Pittichova et al (2008) for 21P during its 2004-2006 close approach to the Sun. Apparent and absolute magnitudes were measured at various heliocentric distances as well as the dust production. At 2.32 AU from the Sun, 21P exhibited an apparent magnitude of 17.05 and Af of 83 cm, and an apparent magnitude of 15.91/Af(rho) of 130.66 cm at 1.76 AU. Another such study performed by Lara et al.on 21P s 1998 apparition found values of Af(rho) of 1010 cm when 1.05 AU from the Sun, two weeks before perihelion, and 669 cm at perihelion, when 1.03 AU from the Sun

  20. The METEOR/TRANSURANUS fuel performance code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struzik, C.; Guerin, Y.

    1996-01-01

    The first calculations for the FUMEX exercise were performed using version 1.1 of the METEOR/TRANSURANUS code. Since then, important improvements have been implemented on several models. In its present state, the code describes fuel rod behaviour in standard PWR conditions. Its validity extends to UO 2 and MOX fuels clad in Zircaloy-4. Power transient calculations for UO 2 and Gd doped fuel calculations are possible, but further developments are in progress, and the applications will be fully qualified in version 2.0. A considerable effort is made to replace semi-empirical models with models that have a sounder physical basis. (authors). 14 refs

  1. Singing comet changes its song

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volwerk, M.; Goetz, C.; Delva, M.; Richter, I.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Eriksson, A.; Odelstad, E.; Meier, P.; Nilsson, H.; Glassmeier, K.-H.

    2017-09-01

    The singing comet was discovered at the beginning of the Rosetta mission around comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Large amplitude compressional waves with frequencies between 10 and 100 mHz were observed. When the comet became more active this signal was no longer measured. During the so-called tail excursion, late in the mission after perihelion, with again a less active comet, the singing was observed again and interestingly, going from 26 March to 27 March 2016 the character of the singing changed.

  2. Radar meteors range distribution model. IV. Ionization coefficient

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pecinová, Drahomíra; Pecina, Petr

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 1 (2008), s. 12-20 ISSN 1335-1842 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/03/1405 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : physics of meteors * radar meteors * range distribution Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  3. Meteoric Impact and Ion Density Calculation in the Nighttime ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bhavin

    2013-11-08

    Nov 8, 2013 ... Pandya, B. M., and S. A. Haider (2012), Meteor impact perturbation in the lower ionosphere of Mars: MGS observations,. Planet. Space Sci., 63, 105-109, doi: 10.1016/j.pss.2011.09.013. Page 6. Pandya, B. M., and S. A. Haider (2012), Meteor impact perturbation in the lower ionosphere of Mars: MGS ...

  4. Goals, technique and equipment of meteor study in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartashova, A.; Bagrov, A. V.; Bolgova, G. T.; Kruchkov, S. V.; Leonov, V. A.; Mazurov, V. A.

    2013-09-01

    Institute of Astronomy RAS is one of the science institutes in the Russian Federation providing systematic optical meteor observations and supervises several meteor groups in our country. The main tasks of our investigations are dedicated to study meteoroid nature as well as meteoroid streams and meteoroid population in the Solar System. In the XXI century we in Russia carry out the reconstruction of our meteor astronomy due to possibilities of new meteor observation equipment (more powerful than were used before as visual and photographic methods) had made possible to select more interesting goals. First of our task is investigation of meteoroid streams crossing the Earth's orbit, and character of meteoroid distributions along of them. The multi stations meteor monitoring from located in the both hemispheres of the Earth can help in this study. According to the analysis of the evolution of meteor orbits, the compact and long lived meteoroid streams consist mainly from large particles. The observation equipment (cheap TV-cameras) with low limiting magnitude we use for gathering observational data. On the other hand, the observations of weak meteors are needed for new meteor shower indication (or confirmation of known meteor shower). The more effective way to do it is comparison of individual meteor orbits parameters (then calculation of radiants of meteor showers). The observations of space debris (as the meteors with low velocity - less 11.2 km/s) can be taking up within this task. The combination of high sensitive TV-cameras WATEC and super-fast lenses COMPUTAR are widely used for meteor TV-monitoring. The TVsystems for round-year meteor observations are fixed and are permanently oriented to the zenith area (the patrol camera - PatrolCa). The mobile TV-cameras (MobileCa) are used for double station observations (if it is possible) and located not far from main cameras PatrolCa (20-30 km). The mobile TVcameras observe 90% of main PatrolCa cameras FOV at altitudes

  5. SQCX X-ray Observations Of The Deep Impact Spacecraft Close Encounters With Comets 9P/Tempel 1 And 103P/Hartley 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisse, Carey M.; Dennerl, K.; Wolk, S. J.; Christian, D. J.; Bodewits, D.; Zurbuchen, T. H.; Combi, M.

    2010-03-01

    We present results from the extensive Chandra, SWIFT, Spitzer, and groundbased observing campaigns studying Comet 9P/Tempel 1 in support of NASA's Deep Impact (DI) mission as an indication of the results expected for the next DI flyby of comet 103P/Hartley 2 at 0.1 AU geocentric distance in November 2010. 9P/Tempel 1 was observed for 300 ksec between 30th June and 24th July 2005, and continuously for 60 ksec on July 4th during the impact event. X-ray emission qualitatively similar to that observed for the collisionally thin, cold wind comet 2P/Encke system (Lisse et al. 2005) was found, with emission morphology centered on the nucleus and emission lines due to C, N, O, and Ne solar wind minor ions. The comet was relatively faint on July 4th, and the total increase in x-ray flux due to the Deep Impact excavation was small, 20% of the immediate pre-impact value, consistent with estimates that the total coma neutral gas release due to the impact was 5 x 106 kg ( 10 hrs of normal coma outflow). Over time, other temporally variable spectral features due to changing solar wind flux densities and charge states were clearly seen. Good agreement between the Chandra and SWIFT x-ray photometry was found. Two flares, much stronger than the man-made increase due to Deep Impact, were found in the observed x-rays on June 30th and July 8th, 2005, and are coincident with increases in the solar wind flux arriving at the comet. Modeling of the Chandra data using observed Spitzer gas production rates and ACE solar wind ion fluxes with a SWCX mechanism for the emission was found to be consistent with the temporal- and spectral behavior expected for a slow, hot wind typical of low latitude emission from the solar corona interacting with the comet's neutral coma.

  6. Technical manual for COMET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jin Ho; Kwon, Young Min; Kim, Taek Mo; Lee, Sang Jong; Jeong, Hae Yong

    1996-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a description for a COMET computer code which is to be used in the analysis of mass and energy releases during post-blowdown phase of LOCA. The mass and energy data re to be used as input data for the containment functional design. This report contains a brief description of analytical models and guidelines for the usage of the computer code. This computer code is to be used for both cold leg and hot leg break analyses. A verification analyses are performed for Ulchin 3 and 4 cold and hot leg break. 11 figs (Author)

  7. On the origin of comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendis, A.; Alfven, H.

    1976-01-01

    Physico-chemical processes leading to the dynamic formation and physical evolution of comets are reviewed in relationship to the various theories that propose solar origins, protoplanetary origins, planetary origins and interstellar origins. Evidence points to the origins of comets by the growth and agglomeration of small particles from gas and dust at very low temperatures at undetermined regions in space.

  8. Inside look at Halley's comet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beatty, J.K.

    1986-01-01

    The 1985-1986 emergence of Halley's comet, the first since the advent of the space age, was explored by a variety of spacecraft. The Vega 1, launched by the USSR together with the Eastern-block alliance, passed 5523 miles from the comet's nucleus at 7:20:06 Universal time. It indicated that the comet was about 300 miles closer to the sun than had been predicted. The Japanese spacecraft, Suisei, was created to map the distribution of neutral hydrogen atoms outside Halley's visible coma. Its pictures indicated that the comet's output of water varied between 25 and 60 tons per second. Five days after the Vega 2's passage through the comet, the Giotto (sponsored by the European Space Agency) probe appeared. Giotto's close approach took place 3.1 minutes after midnight UT on March 14th; the craft had passed 376 miles from its target. Giotto's data indicated that the nucleus was bigger than expected, and that the comet was composed primarily of water, CO2 and N2. The Vegas and Giotto found that as the solar wind approaches Halley, it slows gradually and the solar magnetic lines embedded in the wind begin to pile up. Pick-up ions, from the comet's halo of neutral hydrogen, were found in this solar wind. Sensors on the Vega spacecraft found a variety of plasma waves propagating inside the bow wave. In order to synthesize all the results, a conference on the exploration of Halley's comet will be held this October

  9. Molecular ions in comet tails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyckoff, S.; Wehinger, P.A.

    1976-01-01

    Band intensities of the molecular ions CH + , CO + , N 2 + , and H 2 O + have been determined on an absolute scale from tail spectra of comet Kohoutek (1973f) and comet Bradfield (1974b). Photoionization and photodissociation rates have been computed for CH, CO, and N 2 . Also emission rate excitation g-factors for (1) photoionization plus excitation and (2) resonance fluorescence have been computed for the observed ions. It is shown that resonance fluorescence is the dominant excitation mechanism for observed comet tail ions at rapprox. =1 AU. Band system luminosities and molecular ion abundances within a projected nuclear distance rho 4 km have been determined for CH + , CO + , N 2 + , and H 2 O + in comet Kohoutek, and for H 2 O + in comet Bradfield. Estimates are also given for column densities of all observed ions at rhoapprox. =10 4 km on the tailward side of the coma. The observed H 2 O + column densities were found to be roughly the same in comet Kohoutek and comet Bradfield et equal heliocentric distances, while CO + was found to be approximately 100 times more abundant than H 2 O + , N 2 + , and CH + at rhoapprox. =10 4 km in comet Kohoutek. Finally, the relative abundances of the observed ions and of the presumed parent neutral species are briefly discussed

  10. Detecting active comets with SDSS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solontoi, Michael; Ivezic, Zeljko; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; West, Andrew A.; /MIT, MKI; Claire, Mark; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Juric, Mario; /Princeton U. Observ.; Becker, Andrew; Jones, Lynne; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Hall, Patrick B.; /York U., Canada; Kent, Steve; /Fermilab; Lupton, Robert H.; /Princeton U. Observ.; Quinn, Tom; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept. /Princeton U. Observ.

    2010-12-01

    Using a sample of serendipitously discovered active comets in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), we develop well-controlled selection criteria for greatly increasing the efficiency of comet identification in the SDSS catalogs. After follow-up visual inspection of images to reject remaining false positives, the total sample of SDSS comets presented here contains 19 objects, roughly one comet per 10 million other SDSS objects. The good understanding of selection effects allows a study of the population statistics, and we estimate the apparent magnitude distribution to r {approx} 18, the ecliptic latitude distribution, and the comet distribution in SDSS color space. The most surprising results are the extremely narrow range of colors for comets in our sample (e.g. root-mean-square scatter of only {approx}0.06 mag for the g-r color), and the similarity of comet colors to those of jovian Trojans. We discuss the relevance of our results for upcoming deep multi-epoch optical surveys such as the Dark Energy Survey, Pan-STARRS, and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), and estimate that LSST may produce a sample of about 10,000 comets over its 10-year lifetime.

  11. Processing method and results of meteor shower radar observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belkovich, O.I.; Suleimanov, N.I.; Tokhtasjev, V.S.

    1987-01-01

    Studies of meteor showers permit the solving of some principal problems of meteor astronomy: to obtain the structure of a stream in cross section and along its orbits; to retrace the evolution of particle orbits of the stream taking into account gravitational and nongravitational forces and to discover the orbital elements of its parent body; to find out the total mass of solid particles ejected from the parent body taking into account physical and chemical evolution of meteor bodies; and to use meteor streams as natural probes for investigation of the average characteristics of the meteor complex in the solar system. A simple and effective method of determining the flux density and mass exponent parameter was worked out. This method and its results are discussed

  12. First results on video meteors from Crete, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maravelias, G.

    2012-01-01

    This work presents the first systematic video meteor observations from a, forthcoming permanent, station in Crete, Greece, operating as the first official node within the International Meteor Organization's Video Network. It consists of a Watec 902 H2 Ultimate camera equipped with a Panasonic WV-LA1208 (focal length 12mm, f/0.8) lens running MetRec. The system operated for 42 nights during 2011 (August 19-December 30, 2011) recording 1905 meteors. It is significantly more performant than a previous system used by the author during the Perseids 2010 (DMK camera 21AF04.AS by The Imaging Source, CCTV lens of focal length 2.8 mm, UFO Capture v2.22), which operated for 17 nights (August 4-22, 2010) recording 32 meteors. Differences - according to the author's experience - between the two softwares (MetRec, UFO Capture) are discussed along with a small guide to video meteor hardware.

  13. Comet Halley and interstellar chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, L.E.

    1989-01-01

    How complex is the chemistry of the interstellar medium? How far does it evolve and how has it interacted with the chemistry of the solar system? Are the galactic chemical processes destroyed, preserved, or even enhanced in comets? Are biogenic molecules formed in space and have the formation mechanisms interacted in any way with prebiotic organic chemical processes on the early earth? Radio molecular studies of comets are important for probing deep into the coma and nuclear region and thus may help answer these questions. Comets are believed to be pristine samples of the debris left from the formation of the solar system and may have been the carrier between interstellar and terrestrial prebiotic chemistries. Recent observations of Comet Halley and subsequent comets have given the author an excellent opportunity to study the relationship between interstellar molecular chemistry and cometary chemistry

  14. Comet or Asteroid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-11-01

    When is a minor object in the solar system a comet? And when is it an asteroid? Until recently, there was little doubt. Any object that was found to display a tail or appeared diffuse was a comet of ice and dust grains, and any that didn't, was an asteroid of solid rock. Moreover, comets normally move in rather elongated orbits, while most asteroids follow near-circular orbits close to the main plane of the solar system in which the major planets move. However, astronomers have recently discovered some `intermediate' objects which seem to possess properties that are typical for both categories. For instance, a strange object (P/1996 N2 - Elst-Pizarro) was found last year at ESO ( ESO Press Photo 36/96 ) which showed a cometary tail, while moving in a typical asteroidal orbit. At about the same time, American scientists found another (1996 PW) that moved in a very elongated comet-type orbit but was completely devoid of a tail. Now, a group of European scientists, by means of observations carried out at the ESO La Silla observatory, have found yet another object that at first appeared to be one more comet/asteroid example. However, continued and more detailed observations aimed at revealing its true nature have shown that it is most probably a comet . Consequently, it has received the provisional cometary designation P/1997 T3 . The Uppsala-DLR Trojan Survey Some time ago, Claes-Ingvar Lagerkvist (Astronomical Observatory, Uppsala, Sweden), in collaboration with Gerhard Hahn, Stefano Mottola, Magnus Lundström and Uri Carsenty (DLR, Institute of Planetary Exploration, Berlin, Germany), started to study the distribution of asteroids near Jupiter. They were particularly interested in those that move in orbits similar to that of Jupiter and which are located `ahead' of Jupiter in the so-called `Jovian L4 Lagrangian point'. Together with those `behind' Jupiter, these asteroids have been given the names of Greek and Trojan Heroes who participated in the famous Trojan war

  15. Crowdsourcing, the great meteor storm of 1833, and the founding of meteor science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littmann, Mark; Suomela, Todd

    2014-06-01

    Yale science professor Denison Olmsted used crowdsourcing to gather observations from across the United States of the unexpected deluge of meteors on 13 November 1833--more than 72,000/h. He used these observations (and newspaper accounts and correspondence from scientists) to make a commendably accurate interpretation of the meteor storm, overturning 2100 years of erroneous teachings about shooting stars and establishing meteor science as a new branch of astronomy. Olmsted's success was substantially based on his use of newspapers and their practice of news pooling to solicit observations from throughout the country by lay and expert observers professionally unaffiliated with Yale College and him. In today's parlance, Olmsted was a remarkably successful early practitioner of scientific crowdsourcing, also known as citizen science. He may have been the first to use mass media for crowdsourcing in science. He pioneered many of the citizen-science crowdsourcing practices that are still in use today: an open call for citizen participation, a clearly defined task, a large geographical distribution for gathering data and a rapid response to opportunistic events. Olmsted's achievement is not just that he used crowdsourcing in 1833 but that crowdsourcing helped him to advance science significantly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. METEOR v1.0 - A usage example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palomo, E.

    1994-01-01

    This script describes a detailed example of the use of the software package METEOR for statistical analysis of meteorological data series. A real spanish meteorological data set is chosen to show the capabilities of METEOR. Output files and resultant plots provided of their interpretations are compiled in three appendixes. The original version of METEOR have been developed by Ph. D.Elena Palomo, CIEMAT-IER, GIASE. It is built by linking programs and routines written in FORTRAN 77 and it adds the graphical capabilities of GNUPLOT. The shape of this toolbox was designed following the criteria of modularity, flexibility and agility criteria. All the input, output and analysis options are structured in three main menus: i) the first is aimed to evaluate the quality of the data set; ii) the second is aimed for pre-processing of the data; and iii) the third is aimed towards the statistical analyses and for creating the graphical outputs. Actually the information about METEOR is constituted by three documents written is spanish: 1) METEOR v1.0: User's guide; 2) METEOR v1.0: A usage example; 3) METEOR v1 .0: Design and structure of the software package. (Author)

  17. EPOXI at comet Hartley 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A'Hearn, Michael F; Belton, Michael J S; Delamere, W Alan; Feaga, Lori M; Hampton, Donald; Kissel, Jochen; Klaasen, Kenneth P; McFadden, Lucy A; Meech, Karen J; Melosh, H Jay; Schultz, Peter H; Sunshine, Jessica M; Thomas, Peter C; Veverka, Joseph; Wellnitz, Dennis D; Yeomans, Donald K; Besse, Sebastien; Bodewits, Dennis; Bowling, Timothy J; Carcich, Brian T; Collins, Steven M; Farnham, Tony L; Groussin, Olivier; Hermalyn, Brendan; Kelley, Michael S; Kelley, Michael S; Li, Jian-Yang; Lindler, Don J; Lisse, Carey M; McLaughlin, Stephanie A; Merlin, Frédéric; Protopapa, Silvia; Richardson, James E; Williams, Jade L

    2011-06-17

    Understanding how comets work--what drives their activity--is crucial to the use of comets in studying the early solar system. EPOXI (Extrasolar Planet Observation and Deep Impact Extended Investigation) flew past comet 103P/Hartley 2, one with an unusually small but very active nucleus, taking both images and spectra. Unlike large, relatively inactive nuclei, this nucleus is outgassing primarily because of CO(2), which drags chunks of ice out of the nucleus. It also shows substantial differences in the relative abundance of volatiles from various parts of the nucleus.

  18. Comets in the space age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whipple, F.L.

    1989-01-01

    The historical development of the study of the nature of comets and their origin is discussed, emphasizing the use of aerospace technology in cometary science. The use of satellites to study the Comet Kohoutek 1973 XII, advances between Kohoutek and P/Halley, and studies of P/Halley during its 1986 return are examined. Consideration is given to data from ground, air, and space sensors, and from the Giotto and Vega spacecraft missions. Also, the physical structure of the nucleus of Comet Halley is described. 136 refs

  19. Comets, impacts, and atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Tobias; Bar-Nun, Akiva

    Studies of element abundances and values of D/H in the atmospheres of the giant planets and Titan have emphasized the important role of icy planetesimals in the formation of these bodies. In these atmospheres, C/H and D/H increase as the relative masses of the 'cores' of the planets increase. N/H appears to deviate from this trend in an interesting way. In the inner solar system, the traditional approach of using carbonaceous chondrites as the source of planetary volatiles is in serious trouble because of the depletion of xenon and the unusual pattern of xenon isotopes found in the atmospheres of Earth and Mars, and because of the solar-type abundance ratios of argon, krypton and xenon and the large amounts of neon and argon on Venus. Recent studies of elemental abundances in comets, especially P/Halley, coupled with laboratory studies of the trapping of gas in ice formed at low temperatures by A. Bar-Nun et al. provide a consistent interpretation of all of these results. This interpretation emphasizes the fundamental importance of icy planetesimals (comets) and the randomness of early impacts in the formation of planetary systems. Cometary delivery by itself will not explain the noble gas abundances on the inner planets. There is good evidence for at least one additional source, which presumably consists of the rocky material making up the bulk of the planets. The existence of this rocky reservoir is manifested in the nucleogenic isotopes and in the neon which is found in all these atmospheres and is also present in the Earth's mantle. This neon may well be a relic of the planets' earliest, accretional atmospheres.

  20. METEOR v1.0 - A usage example; METEOR v1.0 - Un ejemplo de uso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomo, E.

    1994-07-01

    This script describes a detailed example of the use of the software package METEOR for statistical analysis of meteorological data series. A real spanish meteorological data set is chosen to show the capabilities of METEOR. Output files and resultant plots provided of their interpretations are compiled in three appendixes. The original version of METEOR have been developed by Ph. D.Elena Palomo, CIEMAT-IER, GIASE. It is built by linking programs and routines written in FORTRAN 77 and it adds the graphical capabilities of GNUPLOT. The shape of this toolbox was designed following the criteria of modularity, flexibility and agility criteria. All the input, output and analysis options are structured in three main menus: i) the first is aimed to evaluate the quality of the data set; ii) the second is aimed for pre-processing of the data; and iii) the third is aimed towards the statistical analyses and for creating the graphical outputs. Actually the information about METEOR is constituted by three documents written is spanish: 1) METEOR v1.0: User's guide; 2) METEOR v1.0: A usage example; 3) METEOR v1 .0: Design and structure of the software package. (Author)

  1. Nitrogen abundance in Comet Halley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyckoff, S.; Tegler, S.C.; Engel, L.

    1991-01-01

    Data on the nitrogen-containing compounds that observed spectroscopically in the coma of Comet Halley are summarized, and the elemental abundance of nitrogen in the Comet Halley nucleus is derived. It is found that 90 percent of elemental nitrogen is in the dust fraction of the coma, while in the gas fraction, most of the nitrogen is contained in NH3 and CN. The elemental nitrogen abundance in the ice component of the nucleus was found to be deficient by a factor of about 75, relative to the solar photosphere, indicating that the chemical partitioning of N2 into NH3 and other nitrogen compounds during the evolution of the solar nebula cannot account completely for the low abundance ratio N2/NH3 = 0.1, observed in the comet. It is suggested that the low N2/NH3 ratio in Comet Halley may be explained simply by physical fractionation and/or thermal diffusion. 88 refs

  2. Automatic Video System for Continues Monitoring of the Meteor Activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koten, Pavel; Fliegel, K.; Vítek, S.; Páta, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 108, č. 1 (2011), s. 69-76 ISSN 0167-9295 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/1302 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP102/10/1320 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : meteor * meteor showers * instrumentation Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.667, year: 2011

  3. The number of Jupiter family comets as a constraint on the transneptunian population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tancredi, G.; et al.

    Several duynamical studies point out that the comets of the Jupiter family were originated in a flat belt in the transneptunian region. The Jupiter family is a transient dynamical state between the injection from the outer region and i) the ejection out of the Solar System, ii) the collision against one of its members or iii) the desintegration into a meteor stream. It has been generally assumed that the Jupiter family (JF) is in a steady state; i.e. the injection is balanced by the ejection+collision+ desintegration. Knowing the duration of a typical visit into the Jupiter family and the number of JF comets we could infer the injection rate. The rate of escapes from the transneptunian region and the fraction that reach the Jupiter family can be computed from massive integrations of particles starting in the outer region. An estimate of the required population of transneptunian objects can then be inferred from these numbers. There have been published several estimates of the dynamical parameters mentioned above but the total number of JF comets has been difficult to estimate. Based on a compilation of all the reported nuclear magnitudes of JF comets, we derive the total number of objects in the cometary population. The observed population (~ 200) is a tiny fraction of the total population (several thousands). Compiling all these numbers, we then derive the required trasneptunian population.

  4. Craters on comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, J.; Oklay, N.; Marchi, S.; Höfner, S.; Sierks, H.

    2014-07-01

    This paper reviews the observations of crater-like features on cometary nuclei. ''Pits'' have been observed on almost all cometary nuclei but their origin is not fully understood [1,2,3,4]. It is currently assumed that they are created mainly by the cometary activity with a pocket of volatiles erupting under a dust crust, leaving a hole behind. There are, however, other features which cannot be explained in this way and are interpreted alternatively as remnants of impact craters. This work focusses on the second type of pit features: impact craters. We present an in-depth review of what has been observed previously and conclude that two main types of crater morphologies can be observed: ''pit-halo'' and ''sharp pit''. We extend this review by a series of analysis of impact craters on cometary nuclei through different approaches [5]: (1) Probability of impact: We discuss the chances that a Jupiter Family Comet like 9P/Tempel 1 or the target of Rosetta 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko can experience an impact, taking into account the most recent work on the size distribution of small objects in the asteroid Main Belt [6]. (2) Crater morphology from scaling laws: We present the status of scaling laws for impact craters on cometary nuclei [7] and discuss their strengths and limitations when modeling what happens when a rocky projectile hits a very porous material. (3) Numerical experiments: We extend the work on scaling laws by a series of hydrocode impact simulations, using the iSALE shock physics code [8,9,10] for varying surface porosity and impactor velocity (see Figure). (4) Surface processes and evolution: We discuss finally the fate of the projectile and the effects of the impact-induced surface compaction on the activity of the nucleus. To summarize, we find that comets do undergo impacts although the rapid evolution of the surface erases most of the features and make craters difficult to detect. In the case of a collision between a rocky body and a highly porous

  5. An early look of comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring): Breathtaker or nightmare?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Quan-Zhi; Hui, Man-To

    2014-01-01

    The dynamically new comet, C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring), is to make a close approach to Mars on 2014 October 19 at 18:30 UT at a distance of 40 ± 1 Martian radii. Such an extremely rare event offers a precious opportunity for the spacecrafts on Mars to closely study a dynamically new comet itself as well as the planet-comet interaction. Meanwhile, the high-speed meteoroids released from C/Siding Spring also pose a threat to physically damage the spacecrafts. Here we present our observations and modeling results of C/Siding Spring to characterize the comet and assess the risk posed to the spacecrafts on Mars. We find that the optical tail of C/Siding Spring is dominated by larger particles at the time of the observation. Synchrone simulation suggests that the comet was already active in late 2012 when it was more than 7 AU from the Sun. By parameterizing the dust activity with a semi-analytic model, we find that the ejection speed of C/Siding Spring is comparable to comets such as the target of the Rosetta mission, 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Under a nominal situation, the simulated dust cone will miss the planet by about 20 Martian radii. At the extreme ends of uncertainties, the simulated dust cone will engulf Mars, but the meteoric influx at Mars is still comparable to the nominal sporadic influx, seemly indicating that an intense and enduring meteoroid bombardment due to C/Siding Spring is unlikely. Further simulation also suggests that gravitational disruption of the dust tail may be significant enough to be observable at Earth.

  6. ``Hiss, clicks and pops'' - The enigmatic sounds of meteors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnegan, J. A.

    2015-04-01

    The improbability of sounds heard simultaneously with meteors allows the phenomenon to remain on the margins of scientific interest and research. This is unjustified, since these audibly perceived electric field effects indicate complex, inconsistent and still unresolved electric-magnetic coupling and charge dynamics; interacting between the meteor; the ionosphere and mesosphere; stratosphere; troposphere and the surface of the earth. This paper reviews meteor acoustic effects, presents illustrating reports and hypotheses and includes a summary of similar and additional phenomena observed during the 2013 February 15 asteroid fragment disintegration above the Russian district of Chelyabinsk. An augmenting theory involving near ground, non uniform electric field production of Ozone, as a stimulated geo-physical phenomenon to explain some hissing `meteor sounds' is suggested in section 2.2. Unlike previous theories, electric-magnetic field fluctuation rates are not required to occur in the audio frequency range for this process to acoustically emit hissing and intermittent impulsive sounds; removing the requirements of direct conversion, passive human transduction or excited, localised acoustic `emitters'. Links to the Armagh Observatory All-sky meteor cameras, electrophonic meteor research and full construction plans for an extremely low frequency (ELF) receiver are also included.

  7. Green corona, geomagnetic activity and radar meteor rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prikryl, P.

    1979-01-01

    The short-term dependence of radar meteor rates on geomagnetic activity and/or central meridian passage (CMP) of bright or faint green corona regions is studied. A superimposed-epoch analysis was applied to radar meteor observations from the Ottawa patrol radar (Springhill, Ont.) and Ksub(p)-indices of geomagnetic activity for the period 1963 to 1967. During the minimum of solar activity (1963 to 1965) the CMP of bright coronal regions was followed by the maximum in the daily rates of persistent meteor echoes (>=4s), and the minimum in the daily sums of Ksub(p)-indices whereas the minimum or the maximum, respectively, occurs after the CMP of faint coronal regions. The time delay between the CMP of coronal structures and the corresponding maxima or minima is found to be 3 to 4 days. However, for the period immediately after the minimum of solar activity (1966 to 1967) the above correlation with the green corona is void both for the geomagnetic activity and radar meteor rates. An inverse correlation was found between the radar meteor rates and the geomagnetic activity irrespective of the solar activity. The observed effect can be ascribed to the solar-wind-induced ''geomagnetic'' heating of the upper atmosphere and to the subsequent change in the density gradient in the meteor zone. (author)

  8. A surprise southern hemisphere meteor shower on New-Year's Eve 2015: the Volantids (IAU#758, VOL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenniskens, P.; Baggaley, J.; Crumpton, I.; Aldous, P.; Gural, P. S.; Samuels, D.; Albers, J.; Soja, R.

    2016-04-01

    A new 32-camera CAMS network in New Zealand, spread over two stations on South Island, has detected a high southern declination shower that was active on New Year's Eve, 2015 December 31. During the observing interval from 09h12m - 15h45m UT, 21 out of 59 detected meteors radiated from the constellation of Volans, the flying fish, with a geocentric radiant at RA = 122.9 deg +- 4.7 deg, Dec = -71.9 deg +- 1.9 deg, and speed V_g = 28.4 +- 1.5 km/s. The new year arrived in New Zealand at 11h00m UT. Two more were detected the next night. No activity from this shower was observed the year prior. The meteoroids move in a 48 deg-inclined Jupiter-family comet orbit. The parent body has not yet been identified.

  9. METEOR v1.0 - User's Guide; METEOR v1.0 - Guia de Usuarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomo, E.

    1994-07-01

    This script is a User's Guide for the software package METEOR for statistical analysis of meteorological data series. The original version of METEOR have been developed by Ph.D. Elena Palomo, CIEMAT-IER, GIMASE. It is built by linking programs and routines written in FORTRAN 77 and it adds the graphical capabilities of GNUPLOT. The shape of this toolbox was designed following the criteria of modularity, flexibility and agility criteria. All the input, output and analysis options are structured in three main menus: i) the first is aimed to evaluate the quality of the data set; ii) the second is aimed for pre-processing of the data; and iii) the third is aimed towards the statistical analyses and for creating the graphical outputs. Actually the information about METEOR is constituted by three documents written in spanish: 1) METEOR v1.0: User's guide; 2) METEOR v1.0: A usage example; 3) METEOR v1.0: Design and structure of the software package. (Author)

  10. Seasonal Variation in Meteor Decay Time Profiles Measured by a Meteor Radar at King Sejong Station (62°S, 58°W), Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Kim, J.; Lee, C.; Jee, G.

    2008-12-01

    A VHF meteor radar at King Sejong Station (62°S, 58°W), Antarctica has been detecting echoes from more than 20,000 meteors per day since March 2007. Meteor echoes are decayed typically within seconds as meteor trail plasma spread away or are neutralized. Assuming that diffusion is the only process for decay of meteor echo signals, the atmospheric temperatures and pressures have been inferred from the measured meteor decay times at the peak meteor altitudes around 90 km. In this study, we analyze altitude profiles of meteor decay times in each month, which clearly show a maximum at 80 ~ 85 km. The maximum appears at higher altitude during austral summer than winter. The fast decay of meteor signals below the maximum cannot be explained by atmospheric diffusion which decreases with increasing atmospheric densities. We find that the measured meteor decay time profiles can be fitted with a loss rate profile, in addition to diffusion, with a peak altitude of 55 ~ 73 km and a peak rate of 4 ~ 15 sec- 1. The additional loss of meteor plasma may be due to electron absorption by icy particles in the mesosphere, but the estimated peak altitudes are much lower than the layers of NLC or PME. The estimated peak loss rates seem to be too large to be accounted by absorption by icy or dust particles. We will discuss other processes to explain the fast meteor times and their variation over season.

  11. Comet showers and Nemesis, the death star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hills, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    The recently proposed hypothesis that the periodic extinctions of terrestrial species are the result of comet showers catalyzed by a hypothetical distant solar companion, Nemesis, a tale of global death by comet bombardment of the earth, is discussed

  12. American Meteor Society Fireball reporting system and mobile application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankey, M.

    2014-07-01

    The American Meteor Society (AMS) founded in 1911 pioneered the visual study of meteors and has collected data relating to meteor observations and bright fireballs for over 100 years. In December 2010, the online fireball reporting system was upgraded to an interactive application that utilizes Google Maps and other programmatic methods to pinpoint the observer's location, azimuth and elevation values with a high degree of precision. The AMS has collected 10s of 1000s of witness reports relating to 100s of events each year since the new application was released. Three dimensional triangulation methods that average the data collected from witnesses have been developed that can determine the start and end points of the meteor with an accuracy of web application. Users can file a new report directly on the phone or update the values submitted through a web report. After web users complete their fireball report online, they are prompted to download the app and update their observation with the more precise data provided by the sensors in the mobile device. The mobile app also provides an accurate means for the witness to report the elapsed time of the fireball. To log this value, the user drags the device across the sky where they saw the fireball. This process is designed to require no button click or user interaction to start and stop the time recording. A count down initiates the process and once the user's phone crosses the plane of azimuth for the end point of the fireball the velocity timer automatically stops. Users are asked to log the recording three times in an effort to minimize error. The three values are then averaged into a final score. Once enough witnesses have filed reports, elapsed time data collected from the mobile phone can be used to determine the velocity of the fireball. With the velocity, trajectory solution and RA/DEC the AMS can plot orbital estimates for significant fireball events reported to the society. Our hope is that overtime this

  13. CO2 Orbital Trends in Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michael; Feaga, Lori; Bodewits, Dennis; McKay, Adam; Snodgrass, Colin; Wooden, Diane

    2014-12-01

    Spacecraft missions to comets return a treasure trove of details of their targets, e.g., the Rosetta mission to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, the Deep Impact experiment at comet 9P/Tempel 1, or even the flyby of C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) at Mars. Yet, missions are rare, the diversity of comets is large, few comets are easily accessible, and comet flybys essentially return snapshots of their target nuclei. Thus, telescopic observations are necessary to place the mission data within the context of each comet's long-term behavior, and to further connect mission results to the comet population as a whole. We propose a large Cycle 11 project to study the long-term activity of past and potential future mission targets, and select bright Oort cloud comets to infer comet nucleus properties, which would otherwise require flyby missions. In the classical comet model, cometary mass loss is driven by the sublimation of water ice. However, recent discoveries suggest that the more volatile CO and CO2 ices are the likely drivers of some comet active regions. Surprisingly, CO2 drove most of the activity of comet Hartley 2 at only 1 AU from the Sun where vigorous water ice sublimation would be expected to dominate. Currently, little is known about the role of CO2 in comet activity because telluric absorptions prohibit monitoring from the ground. In our Cycle 11 project, we will study the CO2 activity of our targets through IRAC photometry. In conjunction with prior observations of CO2 and CO, as well as future data sets (JWST) and ongoing Earth-based projects led by members of our team, we will investigate both long-term activity trends in our target comets, with a particular goal to ascertain the connections between each comet's coma and nucleus.

  14. Disintegration phenomena in Comet West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekanina, Z.

    1976-01-01

    Two peculiarities of Comet West, the multiple splitting of the nucleus as seen in telescope observations and the complex structure of the dust tail, are discussed. A method of analysis based on the premise that the observed rate of separation of a fragment from the principal nucleus is determined by the difference in effective solar attraction acting on the bodies is applied to investigate the motion of the four fragments that separated from the nucleus of Comet West. The predicted motion of the fragments is in good agreement with available observations. It is suggested that the 'synchronic' bands of the dust tail consist of tiny fragments from relatively large particles that burst after release from the comet. The unusual orientation of these bands and their high surface brightness relative to the diffuse tail are explained by a sudden increase in the particle acceleration and in the total scattering surface as the result of the disintegration of the larger particles.

  15. CATASTROPHIC DISRUPTION OF COMET ISON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keane, Jacqueline V.; Kleyna, Jan T.; Riesen, Timm-Emmanuel; Meech, Karen J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Milam, Stefanie N.; Charnley, Steven B. [Astrochemistry Laboratory, NASA GSFC, MS 690, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Coulson, Iain M. [Joint Astronomy Center, 660 North Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Sekanina, Zdenek [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Kracht, Rainer, E-mail: keane@ifa.hawaii.edu [Ostlandring 53, D-25335 Elmshorn, Schleswig-Holstein (Germany)

    2016-11-10

    We report submillimeter 450 and 850 μ m dust continuum observations for comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) obtained at heliocentric distances 0.31–0.08 au prior to perihelion on 2013 November 28 ( r {sub h} = 0.0125 au). These observations reveal a rapidly varying dust environment in which the dust emission was initially point-like. As ISON approached perihelion, the continuum emission became an elongated dust column spread out over as much as 60″ (>10{sup 5} km) in the anti-solar direction. Deconvolution of the November 28.04 850 μ m image reveals numerous distinct clumps consistent with the catastrophic disruption of comet ISON, producing ∼5.2 × 10{sup 10} kg of submillimeter-sized dust. Orbital computations suggest that the SCUBA-2 emission peak coincides with the comet's residual nucleus.

  16. Comet-Narval acquisition notice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Bris, J.; Sellem, R.; Artiges, J.C.; Clavelin, J.F.; Du, S.; Grave, X.; Hubert, O.; Sauvage, J.; Roussiere, B.

    2006-01-01

    The COMET cards (encoding and time marking) serve to determine the energies and the time correlations of radiations detected during a multiparameter experiment while avoiding any extra specific module like coincidence circuits or delays) to set this time correlation. For each detected radiation, the arrival time information as well as the amplitude of the detected signal, are encoded. The results of these amplitude and time coding are associated to create an event. In this way, each detector is an independent source which provides a building block of the general information obtained by all the detectors. The COMET cards are associated with a NARVAL data acquisition system. This document is the instruction booklet of the COMET-NARVAL acquisition system

  17. Catastrophic Disruption of Comet ISON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Jacqueline V.; Milam, Stefanie N.; Coulson, Iain M.; Kleyna, Jan T.; Sekanina, Zdenek; Kracht, Rainer; Riesen, Timm-Emmanuel; Meech, Karen J.; Charnley, Steven B.

    2016-01-01

    We report submillimeter 450 and 850 microns dust continuum observations for comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) obtained at heliocentric distances 0.31-0.08 au prior to perihelion on 2013 November 28 (rh?=?0.0125 au). These observations reveal a rapidly varying dust environment in which the dust emission was initially point-like. As ISON approached perihelion, the continuum emission became an elongated dust column spread out over as much as 60? (greater than 10(exp 5) km in the anti-solar direction. Deconvolution of the November 28.04 850 microns image reveals numerous distinct clumps consistent with the catastrophic disruption of comet ISON, producing approximately 5.2?×?10(exp 10) kg of submillimeter-sized dust. Orbital computations suggest that the SCUBA-2 emission peak coincides with the comet's residual nucleus.

  18. Hummingbird Comet Nucleus Analysis Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojiro, Daniel; Carle, Glenn C.; Lasher, Larry E.

    2000-01-01

    Hummingbird is a highly focused scientific mission, proposed to NASA s Discovery Program, designed to address the highest priority questions in cometary science-that of the chemical composition of the cometary nucleus. After rendezvous with the comet, Hummingbird would first methodically image and map the comet, then collect and analyze dust, ice and gases from the cometary atmosphere to enrich characterization of the comet and support landing site selection. Then, like its namesake, Hummingbird would carefully descend to a pre-selected surface site obtaining a high-resolution image, gather a surface material sample, acquire surface temperature and then immediately return to orbit for detailed chemical and elemental analyses followed by a high resolution post-sampling image of the site. Hummingbird s analytical laboratory contains instrumentation for a comprehensive molecular and elemental analysis of the cometary nucleus as well as an innovative surface sample acquisition device.

  19. Charles Olivier and the rise of meteor science

    CERN Document Server

    Taibi, Richard

    2017-01-01

    This fascinating portrait of an amateur astronomy movement tells the story of how Charles Olivier recruited a hard-working cadre of citizen scientists to rehabilitate the study of meteors. By 1936, Olivier and members of his American Meteor Society had succeeded in disproving an erroneous idea about meteor showers. Using careful observations, they restored the public’s trust in predictions about periodic showers and renewed respect for meteor astronomy among professional astronomers in the United States. Charles Olivier and his society of observers who were passionate about watching for meteors in the night sky left a major impact on the field. In addition to describing Olivier’s career and describing his struggles with competitive colleagues in a hostile scientific climate, the author provides biographies of some of the scores of women and men of all ages who aided Olivier in making shower observations, from the Leonids and Perseids and others. Half of these amateur volunteers were from 13 to 25 years of...

  20. Mesospheric sodium over Gadanki during Geminid meteor shower 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokanadham, B.; Rakesh Chandra, N.; Bhaskara Rao, S. Vijaya; Raghunath, K.; Yellaiah, G.

    Resonance LIDAR system at Gadanki has been used for observing the mesospheric sodium during the night of 12-13 Dec 2007 when the peak activity of Geminid meteor shower occurred. Geminid meteor shower is observed along with the co-located MST radar in the altitude range 80-110 km. Sodium density profiles have been obtained with a vertical resolution of 300 m and a temporal resolution of 120 s with sodium resonance scattering LIDAR system. The sodium layers were found to exist in the altitude range 90-100 km. The enhanced Geminid meteor rates were recorded with the co-located MST radar in the same altitude range. The sodium concentration in the atmospheric altitude of ~93 km is estimated to be 2000 per cc where the meteoric concentration of Geminid is maximum and reduced to around 800 on the non activity of Geminid. These observations showed that the sodium levels in the E-region are found to be increasing during meteor shower nights at least by a factor of two.

  1. Catalogue of Meteor Showers and Storms in Korean History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Hyeon Ahn

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a more complete and accurate catalogue of astronomical records for meteor showers and meteor storms appeared in primary official Korean history books, such as Samguk-sagi, Koryo-sa, Seungjeongwon-ilgi, and Choson-Wangjo-Sillok. So far the catalogue made by Imoto and Hasegawa in 1958 has been widely used in the international astronomical society. The catalogue is based on a report by Sekiguchi in 1917 that is mainly based on secondary history books. We observed that the catalogue has a number of errors in either dates or sources of the records. We have thoroughly checked the primary official history books, instead of the secondary ones, in order to make a corrected and extended catalogue. The catalogue contains 25 records of meteor storms, four records of intense meteor-showers, and five records of usual showers in Korean history. We also find that some of those records seem to correspond to some presently active meteor showers such as the Leonids, the Perseids, and the ¥ç-Aquarids-Orionids pair. However, a large number of those records do not correspond to such present showers. This catalogue we obtained can be useful for various astrophysical studies in the future.

  2. Improving Photometric Calibration of Meteor Video Camera Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlert, Steven; Kingery, Aaron; Suggs, Robert

    2017-01-01

    We present the results of new calibration tests performed by the NASA Meteoroid Environment Office (MEO) designed to help quantify and minimize systematic uncertainties in meteor photometry from video camera observations. These systematic uncertainties can be categorized by two main sources: an imperfect understanding of the linearity correction for the MEO's Watec 902H2 Ultimate video cameras and uncertainties in meteor magnitudes arising from transformations between the Watec camera's Sony EX-View HAD bandpass and the bandpasses used to determine reference star magnitudes. To address the first point, we have measured the linearity response of the MEO's standard meteor video cameras using two independent laboratory tests on eight cameras. Our empirically determined linearity correction is critical for performing accurate photometry at low camera intensity levels. With regards to the second point, we have calculated synthetic magnitudes in the EX bandpass for reference stars. These synthetic magnitudes enable direct calculations of the meteor's photometric flux within the camera bandpass without requiring any assumptions of its spectral energy distribution. Systematic uncertainties in the synthetic magnitudes of individual reference stars are estimated at approx. 0.20 mag, and are limited by the available spectral information in the reference catalogs. These two improvements allow for zero-points accurate to 0.05 - 0.10 mag in both filtered and unfiltered camera observations with no evidence for lingering systematics. These improvements are essential to accurately measuring photometric masses of individual meteors and source mass indexes.

  3. Meteoric 10Be in soil profiles - A global meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graly, Joseph A.; Bierman, Paul R.; Reusser, Lucas J.; Pavich, Milan J.

    2010-01-01

    In order to assess current understanding of meteoric 10Be dynamics and distribution in terrestrial soils, we assembled a database of all published meteoric 10Be soil depth profiles, including 104 profiles from 27 studies in globally diverse locations, collectively containing 679 individual measurements. This allows for the systematic comparison of meteoric 10Be concentration to other soil characteristics and the comparison of profile depth distributions between geologic settings. Percent clay, 9Be, and dithionite-citrate extracted Al positively correlate to meteoric 10Be in more than half of the soils where they were measured, but the lack of significant correlation in other soils suggests that no one soil factor controls meteoric 10Be distribution with depth. Dithionite-citrate extracted Fe and cation exchange capacity are only weakly correlated to meteoric 10Be. Percent organic carbon and pH are not significantly related to meteoric 10Be concentration when all data are complied.The compilation shows that meteoric 10Be concentration is seldom uniform with depth in a soil profile. In young or rapidly eroding soils, maximum meteoric 10Be concentrations are typically found in the uppermost 20 cm. In older, more slowly eroding soils, the highest meteoric 10Be concentrations are found at depth, usually between 50 and 200 cm. We find that the highest measured meteoric 10Be concentration in a soil profile is an important metric, as both the value and the depth of the maximum meteoric 10Be concentration correlate with the total measured meteoric 10Be inventory of the soil profile.In order to refine the use of meteoric 10Be as an estimator of soil erosion rate, we compare near-surface meteoric 10Be concentrations to total meteoric 10Be soil inventories. These trends are used to calibrate models of meteoric 10Be loss by soil erosion. Erosion rates calculated using this method vary based on the assumed depth and timing of erosional events and on the reference data selected.

  4. Linear feature detection algorithm for astronomical surveys - II. Defocusing effects on meteor tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bektešević, Dino; Vinković, Dejan; Rasmussen, Andrew; Ivezić, Željko

    2018-03-01

    Given the current limited knowledge of meteor plasma micro-physics and its interaction with the surrounding atmosphere and ionosphere, meteors are a highly interesting observational target for high-resolution wide-field astronomical surveys. Such surveys are capable of resolving the physical size of meteor plasma heads, but they produce large volumes of images that need to be automatically inspected for possible existence of long linear features produced by meteors. Here, we show how big aperture sky survey telescopes detect meteors as defocused tracks with a central brightness depression. We derive an analytic expression for a defocused point source meteor track and use it to calculate brightness profiles of meteors modelled as uniform brightness discs. We apply our modelling to meteor images as seen by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and Large Synoptic Survey Telescope telescopes. The expression is validated by Monte Carlo ray-tracing simulations of photons travelling through the atmosphere and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope telescope optics. We show that estimates of the meteor distance and size can be extracted from the measured full width at half-maximum and the strength of the central dip in the observed brightness profile. However, this extraction becomes difficult when the defocused meteor track is distorted by the atmospheric seeing or contaminated by a long-lasting glowing meteor trail. The full width at half-maximum of satellite tracks is distinctly narrower than meteor values, which enables removal of a possible confusion between satellites and meteors.

  5. French Meteor Network for High Precision Orbits of Meteoroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atreya, P.; Vaubaillon, J.; Colas, F.; Bouley, S.; Gaillard, B.; Sauli, I.; Kwon, M. K.

    2011-01-01

    There is a lack of precise meteoroids orbit from video observations as most of the meteor stations use off-the-shelf CCD cameras. Few meteoroids orbit with precise semi-major axis are available using film photographic method. Precise orbits are necessary to compute the dust flux in the Earth s vicinity, and to estimate the ejection time of the meteoroids accurately by comparing them with the theoretical evolution model. We investigate the use of large CCD sensors to observe multi-station meteors and to compute precise orbit of these meteoroids. An ideal spatial and temporal resolution to get an accuracy to those similar of photographic plates are discussed. Various problems faced due to the use of large CCD, such as increasing the spatial and the temporal resolution at the same time and computational problems in finding the meteor position are illustrated.

  6. Comet Mineralogy as Inferred from Infrared Spectra of Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooden, Diane H.

    2006-01-01

    For most comets, infrared (IR) spectroscopy (remote sensing) is the method through which we diagnose the mineralogy and size distribution of dust in their comae. The shape and contrast of the IR spectral features depend on the particle size: optically active minerals (absorbing of visible and near-IR solar photons) and submicron solid grains or highly porous (> 90% vacuum) grains primarily contribute to the shapes of the observed resonances. Comet mineralogies typically are determined by fitting thermal emission models of ensembles of discrete mineral grains to observed IR spectral energy distributions. The absorptivities (Q-abs) and scattering efficiencies (Q-scat) of the discrete mineral grains are computed using Mie scattering, Maxwell-Garnet mixing, Discrete Dipole Approximation, and Multi-Layered Sphere codes. These techniques when applied to crystalline minerals, specifically olivine (Mg_x, Fe_1-x)2 Si04, x>0.9, require the use of ellipsoidal shaped particles with elongated axial ratios or hollow spheres to produce the shapes of the resonances observed both from comet comae and laboratory samples. The wavelength positions of the distinct resonances from submicron-radii crystalline silicates, as well as their thermal equilibrium temperatures, constrain the crystalline olivine to have a relatively high Mg-content (x>0.9, or Fo>90). Only resonances computed for submicron Mg-rich crystalline olivine and crystalline orthopyroxene match the observed IR spectral features. However, this has led to the interpretation that micron-radii and larger crystals are absent from comet comae. Furthermore, the mass fraction of silicate crystals is dependent upon whether just the submicron portion of the size distribution is being compared or the submicron crystals compare to the aggregates of porous amorphous silicates that are computationally tractable as porous spheres. We will discuss the Deep Impact results as examples of these challenges to interpreting mid-IR spectra of

  7. Physics-Based Modeling of Meteor Entry and Breakup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Dinesh K.; Agrawal, Parul; Allen, Gary A., Jr.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Brandis, Aaron M.; Chen, Yih-Kang; Jaffe, Richard L.; Palmer, Grant E.; Saunders, David A.; Stern, Eric C.; hide

    2015-01-01

    A new research effort at NASA Ames Research Center has been initiated in Planetary Defense, which integrates the disciplines of planetary science, atmospheric entry physics, and physics-based risk assessment. This paper describes work within the new program and is focused on meteor entry and breakup.Over the last six decades significant effort was expended in the US and in Europe to understand meteor entry including ablation, fragmentation and airburst (if any) for various types of meteors ranging from stony to iron spectral types. These efforts have produced primarily empirical mathematical models based on observations. Weaknesses of these models, apart from their empiricism, are reliance on idealized shapes (spheres, cylinders, etc.) and simplified models for thermal response of meteoritic materials to aerodynamic and radiative heating. Furthermore, the fragmentation and energy release of meteors (airburst) is poorly understood.On the other hand, flight of human-made atmospheric entry capsules is well understood. The capsules and their requisite heatshields are designed and margined to survive entry. However, the highest speed Earth entry for capsules is 13 kms (Stardust). Furthermore, Earth entry capsules have never exceeded diameters of 5 m, nor have their peak aerothermal environments exceeded 0.3 atm and 1 kW/sq cm. The aims of the current work are: (i) to define the aerothermal environments for objects with entry velocities from 13 to 20 kms; (ii) to explore various hypotheses of fragmentation and airburst of stony meteors in the near term; (iii) to explore the possibility of performing relevant ground-based tests to verify candidate hypotheses; and (iv) to quantify the energy released in airbursts. The results of the new simulations will be used to anchor said risk assessment analyses. With these aims in mind, state-of-the-art entry capsule design tools are being extended for meteor entries. We describe: (i) applications of current simulation tools to

  8. Comet C/2001 J1

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pravec, Petr; Helin, E.; Lawrence, K.; Kotková, Lenka; Tichá, J.; Tichý, M.

    č. 7623 (2001), s. 1 ISSN 0081-0304 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/99/0255 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : comet s * astrometry Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  9. The COMET Sleep Research Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Deborah A; DeSalvo, Steven; Miller, Richard A; Jónsson, Darrell; Griffin, Kara S; Hyde, Pamela R; Walsh, James K; Kushida, Clete A

    2014-01-01

    The Comparative Outcomes Management with Electronic Data Technology (COMET) platform is extensible and designed for facilitating multicenter electronic clinical research. Our research goals were the following: (1) to conduct a comparative effectiveness trial (CET) for two obstructive sleep apnea treatments-positive airway pressure versus oral appliance therapy; and (2) to establish a new electronic network infrastructure that would support this study and other clinical research studies. The COMET platform was created to satisfy the needs of CET with a focus on creating a platform that provides comprehensive toolsets, multisite collaboration, and end-to-end data management. The platform also provides medical researchers the ability to visualize and interpret data using business intelligence (BI) tools. COMET is a research platform that is scalable and extensible, and which, in a future version, can accommodate big data sets and enable efficient and effective research across multiple studies and medical specialties. The COMET platform components were designed for an eventual move to a cloud computing infrastructure that enhances sustainability, overall cost effectiveness, and return on investment.

  10. Grain coma production by comet nuclei during their vaporization, under solar radiation action and through collision with meteoroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, O.T.

    1976-07-01

    For a model of compact cometary nucleus made up of hydrates mixed or unmixed with meteoric dust, some observable properties for long period comets are derived. The dust production is first considered to be due only to the vaporization of the nucleus under the action of the solar radiation. Then, taking into account the probability for the occurrence of collision of a nucleus with a meteoroid, a production due to a collisional process is studied. Using previously catalogued observational data, an evaluation of the main results coming from the present model is carried out. (Author) [pt

  11. Modeling Formaldehyde Emission in Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disanti, M. A.; Reuter, D. C.; Bonev, B. P.; Mumma, M. J.; Villanueva, G. L.

    Modeling fluorescent emission from monomeric formaldehyde (H2CO) forms an integral part of our overall comprehensive program of measuring the volatile composition of comets through high-resolution (RP ~ 25,000) infrared spectroscopy using CSHELL at the IRTF and NIRSPEC at Keck II. The H2CO spectra contain lines from both the nu1 (symmetric CH2 stretch) and nu5 (asymmetric CH2 stretch) bands near 3.6 microns. We have acquired high-quality spectra of twelve Oort cloud comets, and at least six of these show clear emission from H2CO. We also detected H2CO with NIRSPEC in one Jupiter Family comet, 9P/Tempel 1, during Deep Impact observations. Our H2CO model, originally developed to interpret low-resolution spectra of comets Halley and Wilson (Reuter et al. 1989 Ap J 341:1045), predicts individual line intensities (g-factors) as a function of rotational temperature for approximately 1300 lines having energies up to approximately 400 cm^-1 above the ground state. Recently, it was validated through comparison with CSHELL spectra of C/2002 T7 (LINEAR), where newly developed analyses were applied to obtain robust determinations of both the rotational temperature and abundance of H2CO (DiSanti et al. 2006 Ap J 650:470). We are currently in the process of extending the model to higher rotational energy (i.e., higher rotational quantum number) in an attempt to improve the fit to high-J lines in our spectra of C/T7 and other comets. Results will be presented, and implications discussed.Modeling fluorescent emission from monomeric formaldehyde (H2CO) forms an integral part of our overall comprehensive program of measuring the volatile composition of comets through high-resolution (RP ~ 25,000) infrared spectroscopy using CSHELL at the IRTF and NIRSPEC at Keck II. The H2CO spectra contain lines from both the nu1 (symmetric CH2 stretch) and nu5 (asymmetric CH2 stretch) bands near 3.6 microns. We have acquired high-quality spectra of twelve Oort cloud comets, and at least six of

  12. An Automatic Video Meteor Observation Using UFO Capture at the Showa Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Y.; Nakamura, T.; Ejiri, M.; Suzuki, H.

    2012-05-01

    The goal of our study is to clarify meteor activities in the southern hemi-sphere by continuous optical observations with video cameras with automatic meteor detection and recording at Syowa station, Antarctica.

  13. Survival of Glycolaldehyde and Production of Sugar Compounds via Comet Impact Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellner, N.; McCaffrey, V.; Crake, C.; Butler, J.; Robbins, J.; Fodor, A.

    2017-12-01

    Impact experiments using glycolaldehyde (GLA), a two-carbon sugar precursor that has been detected in regions of the interstellar medium and on comets, have been conducted at the Experimental Impact Laboratory at NASA's Johnson Space Center. Samples of GLA and GLA mixed with montmorillonite clays were subjected to the pressure conditions that are found during impact delivery of biomolecules by comets, asteroids, or meteors; pressures ranged from 4.5 GPa to 25 GPa. Results show that large amounts of GLA survived the impacts and moderate amounts of threose, erythrose, and glycolic acid were produced in these impacts. Total amounts are dependent on impact pressure. Ethylene glycol, a reduced variant of GLA that has also been detected in the interstellar medium and on comets, was also produced. The results of these experimental impacts provide evidence that large amounts of GLA, EG, and other biomolecules were available on habitable moons or planets, especially during the era of late heavy bombardment ( 4.2 to 3.7 billion years ago) when life may have been developing on Earth. The presence and availability of these biomolecules, under appropriate conditions, may be important for understanding the origin of life as we know it. Glycolaldehyde in particular, may be an important molecule in the production of ribose, the five-carbon sugar in RNA.

  14. The 2011 Draconids: The First European Airborne Meteor Observation Campaign

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaubaillon, J.; Koten, Pavel; Margonis, A.; Toth, J.; Rudawska, R.; Gritsevich, M.; Zender, J.; McAuliffe, J.; Pautet, D.; Jenniskens, P.; Koschny, D.; Colas, F.; Bouley, S.; Maquet, L.; Leroy, A.; Lecacheux, J.; Borovička, Jiří; Watanabe, J.; Oberst, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 114, 3-4 (2015), s. 137-157 ISSN 0167-9295 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-25251S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : meteors * Draconids * 21P/Giacobini-Zinner Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.659, year: 2015

  15. Activity of the Leonid meteor shower on 2009 November 17

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koten, Pavel; Borovička, Jiří; Kokhirova, G.I.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 528, April (2011), A94/1-A94/4 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/1302 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : meteorites * meteors * meteoroids Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.587, year: 2011

  16. Building single-page web apps with meteor

    CERN Document Server

    Vogelsteller, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    If you are a web developer with basic knowledge of JavaScript and want to take on Web 2.0, build real-time applications, or simply want to write a complete application using only JavaScript and HTML/CSS, this is the book for you.This book is based on Meteor 1.0.

  17. Spectroscopic Observations of the 2011 Draconids Meteor Shower

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rudawska, R.; Zender, J.; Jenniskens, P.; Vaubaillon, J.; Koten, Pavel; Margonis, A.; Toth, J.; McAuliffe, J.; Koschny, D.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 112, 1-4 (2014), s. 45-57 ISSN 0167-9295 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/1302 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : meteorites * meteors * meteoroids Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.667, year: 2014

  18. CAMS newly detected meteor showers and the sporadic background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenniskens, P.; Nénon, Q.; Gural, P. S.; Albers, J.; Haberman, B.; Johnson, B.; Morales, R.; Grigsby, B. J.; Samuels, D.; Johannink, C.

    2016-03-01

    The Cameras for Allsky Meteor Surveillance (CAMS) video-based meteoroid orbit survey adds 60 newly identified showers to the IAU Working List of Meteor Showers (numbers 427, 445-446, 506-507, and part of 643-750). 28 of these are also detected in the independent SonotaCo survey. In total, 230 meteor showers and shower components are identified in CAMS data, 177 of which are detected in at least two independent surveys. From the power-law size frequency distribution of detected showers, we extrapolate that 36% of all CAMS-observed meteors originated from ∼700 showers above the N = 1 per 110,000 shower limit. 71% of mass falling to Earth from streams arrives on Jupiter-family type orbits. The transient Geminids account for another 15%. All meteoroids not assigned to streams form a sporadic background with highest detected numbers from the apex source, but with 98% of mass falling in from the antihelion source. Even at large ∼7-mm sizes, a Poynting-Robertson drag evolved population is detected, which implies that the Grün et al. collisional lifetimes at these sizes are underestimated by about a factor of 10. While these large grains survive collisions, many fade on a 104-y timescale, possibly because they disintegrate into smaller particles by processes other than collisions, leaving a more resilient population to evolve.

  19. Limits on radio emission from meteors using the MWA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang; Hancock, Paul; Devillepoix, Hadrien A. R.; Wayth, Randall B.; Beardsley, A.; Crosse, B.; Emrich, D.; Franzen, T. M. O.; Gaensler, B. M.; Horsley, L.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Kaplan, D. L.; Kenney, D.; Morales, M. F.; Pallot, D.; Steele, K.; Tingay, S. J.; Trott, C. M.; Walker, M.; Williams, A.; Wu, C.; Ji, Jianghui; Ma, Yuehua

    2018-04-01

    Recently, low frequency, broadband radio emission has been observed accompanying bright meteors by the Long Wavelength Array (LWA). The broadband spectra between 20 and 60 MHz were captured for several events, while the spectral index (dependence of flux density on frequency, with Sν∝να) was estimated to be -4 ± 1 during the peak of meteor afterglows. Here we present a survey of meteor emission and other transient events using the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) at 72-103 MHz. In our 322-hour survey, down to a 5σ detection threshold of 3.5 Jy/beam, no transient candidates were identified as intrinsic emission from meteors. We derived an upper limit of -3.7 (95% confidence limit) on the spectral index in our frequency range. We also report detections of other transient events, like reflected FM broadcast signals from small satellites, conclusively demonstrating the ability of the MWA to detect and track space debris on scales as small as 0.1 m in low Earth orbits.

  20. Comet Halley and its historic passages during the past millennium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legrand, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    The March 12, 1759 return of Comet Halley verified Halley's hypothesis on the existence of periodic comets and supported Newton's principle of universal attraction. Comet Halley's appearances before the 16th century are traced and it is noted that the length of the comet's tail has varied greatly. The comet's rendezvous with ESA's satellite Giotto is discussed briefly

  1. ISO's analysis of Comet Hale-Bopp

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-03-01

    The European Space Agency's Infrared Space Observatory ISO inspected Comet Hall-Bopp during the spring and autumn of 1996. The need to keep ISO's telescope extremely cold restricts the spacecraft's pointing in relation to the Sun and the Earth and it ruled out observations at other times. The analyses of the 1996 observations are not yet complete, but already they give new insight into the nature of comets. Comet Hale-Bopp is believed to be a large comet with a nucleus up to 40 kilometres wide. It was discovered in July 1995 by two American astronomers working independently, Alan Hale and Thomas Bopp. At that time, the comet was a billion kilometres away from the Sun, but 200 times brighter than Halley's Comet was, when at a comparable distance. Comet Hale-Bopp will make its closest approach to the Earth on 22 March, and its closest approach to the Sun (perihelion) on 1 April 1997. Some scientific results from ISO The discovery of Comet Hale-Bopp occurred before ISO's launch in November 1995. When first observed by ISO in March and April 1996, the comet was still 700 million kilometres from the Sun, and almost as far from the Earth and ISO. With its privileged view of infrared wavebands inaccessible from the Earth's surface, ISO's photometer ISOPHOT discovered that carbon dioxide was an important constituent of the comet's emissions of vapour.ISOPHOT measured the temperature of the dust cloud around Comet Hale-Bopp. In March 1996, when the comet was still more than 700 million kilometres from the Sun, the dust cloud was at minus 120 degrees C. When ISOPHOT made similar observations in October 1996, the comet was 420 million kilometres from the Sun, and the dust cloud had warmed to about minus 50 degrees C. Intensive observations of Comet Hale-Bopp were also made by ISO's Short-Wave Spectrometer SWS, the Long-Wave Spectrometer LWS, and the ISOPHOT spectrometer PHOT-S. Results are due for publication at the end of March. They will give details about the composition

  2. Rationalization of Comet Halley's periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belton, Michael J. S.

    1990-01-01

    The sense of long axis orientation of Comet Halley during the Vega 1 encounter must be reversed from that deduced by Sagdeev et al. (1986) in order to harmonize the comet nucleus' Vega/Giotto-observed orientations with periodicities extracted from time-series brightness data. It is also demonstrated that Vega/Giotto observations can be satisfied by either a 2.2- or 3.7-day long-axis free precession period. A novel Fourier algorithm is used to reanalyze five independent data sets; strong evidence is adduced for periods harmonically related to a 7.4-day period. The preferred candidate models for Halley's nuclear rotation are characterized by a long-axis precession period of 3.7 days.

  3. Comet Assay in Cancer Chemoprevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Raffaela; Ferraiuolo, Maria; Morgano, Gian Paolo; Muti, Paola; Strano, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    The comet assay can be useful in monitoring DNA damage in single cells caused by exposure to genotoxic agents, such as those causing air, water, and soil pollution (e.g., pesticides, dioxins, electromagnetic fields) and chemo- and radiotherapy in cancer patients, or in the assessment of genoprotective effects of chemopreventive molecules. Therefore, it has particular importance in the fields of pharmacology and toxicology, and in both environmental and human biomonitoring. It allows the detection of single strand breaks as well as double-strand breaks and can be used in both normal and cancer cells. Here we describe the alkali method for comet assay, which allows to detect both single- and double-strand DNA breaks.

  4. Radar observations of Comet Halley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D.B.; Harmon, J.K.; Shapiro, I.I.

    1989-01-01

    Five nights of Arecibo radar observations of Comet Halley are reported which reveal a feature in the overall average spectrum which, though weak, seems consistent with being an echo from the comet. The large radar cross section and large bandwidth of the feature suggest that the echo is predominantly from large grains which have been ejected from the nucleus. Extrapolation of the dust particle size distribution to large grain sizes gives a sufficient number of grains to account for the echo. The lack of a detectable echo from the nucleus, combined with estimates of its size and rotation rate from spacecraft encounters and other data, indicate that the nucleus has a surface of relatively high porosity. 33 references

  5. Comet Halley, parameter study I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebner, W.F.; Fikani, M.M.

    1982-06-01

    To aid in defining a mission to comet P/Halley, its inner coma is simulated by a computer program that models time-dependent chemical reactions in a radially and isentropically expanding gas, taking into account attenuation of solar ultraviolet radiation in the subsolar direction. Column density predictions are based on intelligently selected combinations of poorly known values for nucleus parameters that include size, visual albedo, and infrared emissivity. Only one chemical composition and a minor modification of it are considered here; the dust-to-gas ratio in this model is zero. Although the somewhat optimistically volatile composition chosen here favors a smaller nucleus, a mean nuclear radius of only 0.5 km is unlikely. No significant increase of molecular column density is predicted by this model as a spacecraft approaches, once it is less than a few 10 4 km from the nucleus. Predictions are made for various heliocentric distances of interest for comet missions and for ground observations

  6. Comet Halley: nucleus and jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagdeev, R.Z.; Avanesov, G.A.; Barinov, I.V.

    1986-06-01

    The VEGA-1 and VEGA-2 spacecrafts made their closest approach to Comet Halley on 6 and 9 March, respectively. In this paper results of the onboard imaging experiment are discussed. The nucleus of the comet was clearly identifyable as an irregularly shaped object with overall dimensions of (16+-1)x(8+-1)x(8+-1) km. The nucleus rotates around its axis which is nearly perpendicular to the orbital plane, with a period of 53+-2 hours. Its albedo is only 0.04+-002. Most of the jet features observed during the second fly-by were spatially reconstructed. These sources form a quasi-linear structure on the surface. The dust above the surface is shown to be optically thin except certain specific dust jets. Brightness features on the surface are clearly seen. Correlating the data with other measurements it is concluded that the dirty snow-ball model probably has to be revised. (author)

  7. Solar wind stagnation near comets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galeev, A.A.; Cravens, T.E.; Gombosi, T.I.

    1983-03-01

    The nature of the solar wind flow near comets is examined analytically. In particular, the typical values for the stagnation pressure and magnetic barrier strength are estimated, taking into account the magnetic field line tension and the charge exchange cooling of the mass loaded solar wind. Knowledge of the strength of the magnetic barrier is required in order to determine the location of the contact discontinuity which separates the contaminated solar wind plasma and the outflowing plasma of the cometary ionosphere. (author)

  8. Comet coma sample return instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albee, A. L.; Brownlee, Don E.; Burnett, Donald S.; Tsou, Peter; Uesugi, K. T.

    1994-01-01

    The sample collection technology and instrument concept for the Sample of Comet Coma Earth Return Mission (SOCCER) are described. The scientific goals of this Flyby Sample Return are to return to coma dust and volatile samples from a known comet source, which will permit accurate elemental and isotopic measurements for thousands of individual solid particles and volatiles, detailed analysis of the dust structure, morphology, and mineralogy of the intact samples, and identification of the biogenic elements or compounds in the solid and volatile samples. Having these intact samples, morphologic, petrographic, and phase structural features can be determined. Information on dust particle size, shape, and density can be ascertained by analyzing penetration holes and tracks in the capture medium. Time and spatial data of dust capture will provide understanding of the flux dynamics of the coma and the jets. Additional information will include the identification of cosmic ray tracks in the cometary grains, which can provide a particle's process history and perhaps even the age of the comet. The measurements will be made with the same equipment used for studying micrometeorites for decades past; hence, the results can be directly compared without extrapolation or modification. The data will provide a powerful and direct technique for comparing the cometary samples with all known types of meteorites and interplanetary dust. This sample collection system will provide the first sample return from a specifically identified primitive body and will allow, for the first time, a direct method of matching meteoritic materials captured on Earth with known parent bodies.

  9. Halley comet, implication on the origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Festou, M.C.

    1990-01-01

    One will first give a rapid description of the different parts that compose a comet coma. Then one will describe the spectrum of comets from the UV to the IR regions with special emphasis on how information relative to the physico-chemistry of comet atmospheres can be retrieved. Our basic knowledge about the composition of comets before 1985 will be summarized and the input of the 1985-86 observing campaign of comet Halley will be shown (in situ, ground-based and space borne observations). One will see then that the chemical composition of comets appears as of today completely compatible with a formation from pre-solar matter that condensed inside the solar system [fr

  10. Opportunities for in-depth compositional studies of comets: Summary from semester 2017A observations and prospects for a 2018 observing campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiSanti, Michael A.; Dello Russo, Neil; Bonev, Boncho P.; Gibb, Erika L.; Roth, Nathan; Vervack, Ronald J.; McKay, Adam J.; Kawakita, Hideyo; Cochran, Anita L.

    2017-10-01

    The period from late 2016 to mid 2017 provided unusually rich observational opportunities for compositional studies of comets using ground-based IR and optical spectroscopy. Three ecliptic comets - Jupiter-family comet (JFC) 45P/Honda-Mrkos-Pajdusakova, JFC 41P/Tuttle-Giacobini-Kresak, and 2P/Encke - as well as two moderately bright nearly istotropic comets from the Oort cloud (C/2015 ER61 PanSTARRS and C/2015 V2 Johnson) experienced highly favorable appritions.In the IR, very long on-source integration times were accumulated on all targets, primarily with the powerful new high-resolution, cross-dispersed iSHELL spectrograph at the IRTF (Rayner et al. 2016 SPIE 9908:1) but also with NIRSPEC at Keck II. This enabled accurate production rates and abundance ratios for 8-10 native ices, and spatially resolved studies of coma physics (H2O rotational temperatures and column abundances). The recent availability of iSHELL coupled with the daytime observing capability at the IRTF has opened a powerful window for conducting detailed compositional studies of comets over a range of heliocentric distances (Rh), particularly at small Rh where studies are relatively sparse. Our campaign provided detections of (or stringent abundance limits for) hyper-volatiles CO and CH4, which are severely lacking in compositional studies of JFCs.For all of these targets, optical spectra measured photo-dissociation product species using the Tull Coude spectrograph at McDonald Observatory, and ARCES at Apache Point Observatory. When possible optical and IR observations were obtained contemporaneously, with the goal of addressing potential parent-product relationships.We summarize our campaign and highlight related presentations. Prospects for investigations during the upcoming favorable apparitions of JFCs 21P/Giacobini-Zinner and 46P/Wirtanen will also be discussed, along with increased capabilities for serial studies (i.e., measurements at multiple Rh) of newly discovered (Oort cloud) comets

  11. Chandra ACIS-S imaging spectroscopy of anomalously faint X-ray emission from Comet 103P/Hartley 2 during the EPOXI encounter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisse, C. M.; Christian, D. J.; Wolk, S. J.; Dennerl, K.; Bodewits, D.; Combi, M. R.; Lepri, S. T.; Zurbuchen, T. H.; Li, J. Y.; Dello-Russo, N.; Belton, M. J. S.; Knight, M. M.

    2013-02-01

    We present results from the Chandra X-ray Observatory's characterization of the X-ray emission from Comet 103P/Hartley 2, in support of NASA's Deep Impact Extended close flyby of the comet on 04 November 2010. The comet was observed 4 times for a total on target time of ˜60 ks between the 17th of October and 16th of November 2010, with two of the visits occurring during the EPOXI close approach on 04 November and 05 November 2010. X-ray emission from 103P was qualitatively similar to that observed for collisionally thin Comets 2P/Encke (Lisse, C.M. et al. [2005]. Astrophys. J. 635, 1329-1347) and 9P/Tempel 1 (Lisse, C.M. et al. [2007]. Icarus 190, 391-405). Emission morphology offset sunward but asymmetrical from the nucleus and emission lines produced by charge exchange between highly stripped C, N, and O solar wind minor ions and coma neutral gas species were found. The comet was very under-luminous in the X-ray at all times, representing the 3rd faintest comet ever detected (LX = 1.1 ± 0.3 × 1014 erg s-1). The coma was collisionally thin to the solar wind at all times, allowing solar wind ions to flow into the inner coma and interact with the densest neutral coma gas. Localization of the X-ray emission in the regions of the major rotating gas jets was observed, consistent with the major source of cometary neutral gas species being icy coma dust particles. Variable spectral features due to changing solar wind flux densities and charge states were also seen. Modeling of the Chandra observations from the first three visits using observed gas production rates and ACE solar wind ion fluxes with a charge exchange mechanism for the emission is consistent with the temporal and spectral behavior expected for a slow, hot wind typical of low latitude emission from the solar corona interacting with the comet's neutral coma. The X-ray emission during the 4th visit on 16 November 2010 is similar to the unusual behavior seen for Comet 17P/Holmes in 2007 (Christian, D.J. et

  12. Modelling the motion of meteors in the Earth's atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Hilário

    2013-01-01

    This work discusses the motion of meteors in the Earth's atmosphere. The equations of motion of the projectile are presented and a simplified numerical approach to solve them is discussed. An algorithm for solving the equations of motion is constructed, and implemented in a very simple way using Excel software. The paper is intended as an example of the application of Newton's laws of motion at undergraduate level. (paper)

  13. Spectral, Photometric, and Dynamic Analysis of Eight Draconid Meteors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Borovička, Jiří; Koten, Pavel; Shrbený, Lukáš; Štork, Rostislav; Hornoch, Kamil

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 113, 1-4 (2014), s. 15-31 ISSN 0167-9295 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/11/1382; GA ČR GPP209/11/P651; GA ČR GA205/09/1302 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : meteors * meteoroids * Draconids Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.667, year: 2014

  14. Origin Of The Near-earth Asteroid Phaethon And The Geminids Meteor Shower

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leon, Julia; Campins, H.; Tsiganis, K.; Morbidelli, A.; Licandro, J.

    2010-10-01

    Asteroid (3200) Phaethon is a remarkable Near Earth Asteroid (NEA). It was the first asteroid associated with a meteor shower, namely the Geminid stream1. Phaethon's unusual orbit has a high inclination and a very low perihelion distance (0.14 AU). Its reflectance spectrum suggests a connection with primitive meteorites, best fitting with CI/CM carbonaceous chondrites2, aqueously altered and rich in hydrated silicates. However, its origin is not well determined. Recent studies suggest a connection with the population of main-belt comets3, classifying Phaethon as an activated asteroid. Here we show that the most likely source of Phaethon and the Geminids is the asteroid (2) Pallas, one of the largest asteroids in the main belt, which is surrounded by a collisional family, containing several Phaethon-sized objects. Pallas’ highly inclined orbit and surface composition, also primitive and with evidence of hydration4, support this connection. Our analysis reveals a striking similarity between Phaethon's visual spectrum and those of Pallas family members. Moreover, our numerical simulations show the existence of a robust dynamical pathway, connecting the orbital neighborhood of Pallas with that of Phaethon. In this respect, the Pallas family may constitute a source of primitive NEAs. (The author gratefully acknowledges support from the Spanish "Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación" projects AYA2005-07808-C03-02 and AYA2008-06202-C03-02.) References 1. Whipple, F. L. 1983, IAU Circular, 3881 2. Licandro, J., Campins, H., Mothe-Diniz, T., Pinilla-Alonso, N. & de Leon, J. 2007, Astron. Astrophys. 461, 751-757 3. Hsieh, H. H., & Jewitt, D. 2006, Science, 312, 561-563 4. Rivkin, A. S., Howell, E. S., Vilas, F. & Lebofsky, L. A. in Asteroids III (eds Bottke, W. F., Cellino, A., Paolicchi, P. & Binzel, R. P.) 235-253 (Univ. Arizona Press, 2002).

  15. Spectrophotometry of 25 comets - Post-Halley updates for 17 comets plus new observations for eight additional comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newburn, Ray L., Jr.; Spinrad, Hyron

    1989-01-01

    The best possible production figures within the current post-Halley framework and available observations are given for H2O, O(1D), CN, C3, C2 and dust in 25 comets. Of these, the three objects with the smallest mixing ratios of all minor species have moderate to little or no dust and appear 'old'. Comets with large amounts of CN are very dusty, and there is a clear correlation of CN with dust, although comets with little or no dust still have some CN. Thus, CN appears to have at least two sources, dust and one or more parent gases. Also, the C2/CN production ratio changes continuously with heliocentric distance in every comet considered, suggesting that C2 production may be a function of coma density as well as parental abundance. Dust production ranges from essentially zero in Comet Sugano-Saigusa-Fujikawa up to 67,000 kg/s for Halley on March 14, 1986.

  16. Comet Dust After Deep Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooden, Diane H.; Harker, David E.; Woodward, Charles E.

    2006-01-01

    When the Deep Impact Mission hit Jupiter Family comet 9P/Tempel 1, an ejecta crater was formed and an pocket of volatile gases and ices from 10-30 m below the surface was exposed (A Hearn et aI. 2005). This resulted in a gas geyser that persisted for a few hours (Sugita et al, 2005). The gas geyser pushed dust grains into the coma (Sugita et a1. 2005), as well as ice grains (Schulz et al. 2006). The smaller of the dust grains were submicron in radii (0-25.3 micron), and were primarily composed of highly refractory minerals including amorphous (non-graphitic) carbon, and silicate minerals including amorphous (disordered) olivine (Fe,Mg)2SiO4 and pyroxene (Fe,Mg)SiO3 and crystalline Mg-rich olivine. The smaller grains moved faster, as expected from the size-dependent velocity law produced by gas-drag on grains. The mineralogy evolved with time: progressively larger grains persisted in the near nuclear region, having been imparted with slower velocities, and the mineralogies of these larger grains appeared simpler and without crystals. The smaller 0.2-0.3 micron grains reached the coma in about 1.5 hours (1 arc sec = 740 km), were more diverse in mineralogy than the larger grains and contained crystals, and appeared to travel through the coma together. No smaller grains appeared at larger coma distances later (with slower velocities), implying that if grain fragmentation occurred, it happened within the gas acceleration zone. These results of the high spatial resolution spectroscopy (GEMINI+Michelle: Harker et 4. 2005, 2006; Subaru+COMICS: Sugita et al. 2005) revealed that the grains released from the interior were different from the nominally active areas of this comet by their: (a) crystalline content, (b) smaller size, (c) more diverse mineralogy. The temporal changes in the spectra, recorded by GEMIM+Michelle every 7 minutes, indicated that the dust mineralogy is inhomogeneous and, unexpectedly, the portion of the size distribution dominated by smaller grains has

  17. Character of meteoric leaks in the salt mines of south Louisiana, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Madhurendu B.

    1983-10-01

    The brine leaks of salt mines of south Louisiana are of two genetic categories: meteoric and non-meteoric (connate/formation water type), as established essentially on the basis of oxygen- and hydrogen-isotope analyses. This paper highlights the hydrochemical aspects of those mine leaks and develops simple non-isotopic criteria to differentiate the meteoric leaks from the non-meteoric. The meteoric leaks of the salt mines generally occur down to a depth level of 214 m (700 ft.) (below mean sea level) below which the leaks are mostly non-meteoric. The meteoric brine is essentially Na1bCl in type, reflecting the mineralogy of almost pure halite (with ˜ 1-2% anhydrite) of the Gulf (of Mexico) Coast dome salt. The meteoric leaks are distinctly different from the non-meteoric leaks on the log-log plots of chloride concentrations vs. those of Ca 2+, Mg 2+, K +, Sr + and Br -, in all of which the meteoric brines are conspicuously low. This study is potentially useful in the development of a mine or crypt in salt dome(s) under consideration for possible nuclear-waste isolation in the Gulf Coast region.

  18. Development of the mesospheric Na layer at 69° N during the Geminids meteor shower 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Dunker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The ECOMA sounding rocket campaign in 2010 was performed to investigate the charge state and number density of meteoric smoke particles during the Geminids meteor shower in December 2010. The ALOMAR Na lidar contributed to the campaign with measurements of sodium number density, temperature and line-of-sight wind between 80 and 110 km altitude over Andøya in northern Norway. This paper investigates a possible connection between the Geminids meteor shower and the mesospheric sodium layer. We compare with data from a meteor radar and from a rocket-borne in situ particle instrument on three days. Our main result is that the sodium column density is smaller during the Geminids meteor shower than the winter average at the same latitude. Moreover, during two of the three years considered, the sodium column density decreased steadily during these three weeks of the year. Both the observed decrease of Na column density by 30% and of meteoric smoke particle column density correlate well with a corresponding decrease of sporadic meteor echoes. We found no correlation between Geminids meteor flux rates and sodium column density, nor between sporadic meteors and Na column density (R = 0.25. In general, we found the Na column density to be at very low values for winter, between 1.8 and 2.6 × 1013 m−2. We detected two meteor trails containing sodium, on 13 December 2010 at 87.1 km and on 19 December 2010 at 84 km. From these meteor trails, we estimate a global meteoric Na flux of 121 kg d−1 and a global total meteoric influx of 20.2 t d−1.

  19. Amino Acids from a Comet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jamie Elisla

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Stardust spacecraft returned samples from comet 81P/Wild 2 to Earth in January 2006. Examinations of the organic compounds in cometary samples can reveal information about the prebiotic organic inventory present on the early Earth and within the early Solar System, which may have contributed to the origin of life. Preliminary studies of Stardust material revealed the presence of a suite of organic compounds including several amines and amino acids, but the origin of these compounds (cometary- vs. terrestrial contamination) could not be identified. We have recently measured the carbon isotopic ratios of these amino acids to determine their origin, leading to the first detection of a coetary amino acid.

  20. Thermal alteration in carbonaceous chondrites and implications for sublimation in rock comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springmann, Alessondra; Lauretta, Dante S.; Steckloff, Jordan K.

    2015-11-01

    Rock comets are small solar system bodies in Sun-skirting orbits (perihelion q CO2, etc.). B-class asteroid (3200) Phaethon, considered to be the parent body of the Geminid meteor shower, is the only rock comet currently known to periodically eject dust and form a coma. Thermal fracturing or thermal decomposition of surface materials may be driving Phaethon’s cometary activity (Li & Jewitt, 2013). Phaethon-like asteroids have dynamically unstable orbits, and their perihelia can change rapidly over their ~10 Myr lifetimes (de León et al., 2010), raising the possibility that other asteroids may have been rock comets in the past. Here, we propose using spectroscopic observations of mercury (Hg) as a tracer of an asteroid’s thermal metamorphic history, and therefore as a constraint on its minimum achieved perihelion distance.B-class asteroids such as Phaethon have an initial composition similar to aqueously altered primitive meteorites such as CI- or CM-type meteorites (Clark et al., 2010). Laboratory heating experiments of ~mm sized samples of carbonaceous chondrite meteorites from 300K to 1200K at a rate of 15K/minute show mobilization and volatilization of various labile elements at temperatures that could be reached by Mercury-crossing asteroids. Samples became rapidly depleted in labile elements and, in particular, lost ~75% of their Hg content when heated from ~500-700 K, which corresponds to heliocentric distances of ~0.15-0.3 au, consistent with our thermal models. Mercury has strong emission lines in the UV (~ 185 nm) and thus its presence (or absence) relative to carbonaceous chondrite abundances would indicate if these bodies had perihelia in their dynamical histories inside of 0.15 AU, and therefore may have previously been Phaethon-like rock comets. Future space telescopes or balloon-borne observing platforms equipped with a UV spectrometer could potentially detect the presence or absence of strong ultraviolet mercury lines on rock comets or rock

  1. On the nature of the Halley comet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrovol'skij, O.V.; Ioffe, Z.M.

    1987-01-01

    The results of study of the Halley comet by means of the ''Vega'', ''Suisej'', ''Sakigaki'' and ''Jotton'' space probes are presented in the popular form. The form and composition of the comet nucleus, its atmosphere and processes ocurring when moving in the near-the-solar space are described

  2. Origin of comets - implications for planetary formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissman, P.R.; Arizona Univ., Tucson)

    1985-01-01

    Primordial and episodic theories for the origin of comets are discussed. The implications of the former type for the origin of the solar system are considered. Candidate sites for the formation of comets are compared. The possible existence of a massive inner Oort cloud is discussed

  3. Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 meets Jupiter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, D. H.; Shoemaker, E. M.; Shoemaker, C. S.

    1995-08-01

    The impact of comet D/1993 F2 (Shoemaker-Levy 9) with Jupiter was unforgettable, an event probably not to be repeated for millennia to come. One year later the astronomers who first spotted the comet reflect on their discovery, on the anxious months of anticipation before the collision and on what has been learned since.

  4. Comet mission hopes to uncover Earth's origins

    CERN Multimedia

    Henderson, M

    2004-01-01

    "A European spacecraft that will hunt down a comet in search of clues to the origin of life on Earth will blast off tomorrow from the Kourou spaceport in French Guiana. The Rosetta probe will take 12 years to catch up with Churyumov-Gerasimenko before becoming the first spacecraft to make a soft, controlled landing on a comet's nucleus" (1 page).

  5. Comets and How to Observe Them

    CERN Document Server

    Schmude, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Comets have inspired wonder, excitement and even fear ever since they were first observed. They contain material from early in the life of the Solar System, held in deep-freeze. This makes them key in our understanding of the formation and evolution of many Solar System bodies. Recent ground- and space-based observations have changed much in our understanding of comets. Comets and How to Observe Them gives a summary of our current knowledge and describes how amateur astronomers can contribute to the body of scientific knowledge of comets. This book contains many practical examples of how to construct comet light-curves, measure how fast a comet’s coma expands, and determine the rotation period of the nucleus. All these examples are illustrated with drawings and photographs.

  6. Instrument for the detection of meteors in the infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svedhem, H.; Koschny, D.; Ter Haar, J.

    2014-07-01

    The flux of interplanetary particles in the size range 2 mm to 20 m is poorly constrained due to insufficient data --- the larger bodies may be observed remotely by ground-based or space-based telescopes and the smaller particles are measured by in-situ impact detectors in space or by meteor cameras from ground. An infrared video rate imager in Earth orbit would enable a systematic characterization for an extended period, day and night, of the flux in this range by monitoring the bright meteor/fireball generated during atmospheric entry. Due to the low flux of meteoroids in this range a very large detector is required. With this method a large portion of the Earth atmosphere is in fact used as a huge detector. Such an instrument has never flown in Earth orbit. The only sensors of a similar kind fly on US defense satellites for monitoring launches of ballistic missiles. The data from these sensors, however, is largely inaccessible to scientists. The knowledge on emission of light by meteors/bolides at infrared wavelengths is very limited while it can be suspected that the continuum emission from meteors/bolides have stronger emission at infrared wavelengths than in the visible due to the likely low temperatures of these events. At the same time line emission is dominating over the continuum in the visible so it is not clear how this will compare with the continuum in the infrared. We have developed a bread-board version of an IR video rate camera, the SPOSH-IR. The instrument is based on an earlier technology development, SPOSH --- Smart Panoramic Optical Sensor Head, for operation in the visible range, but with the sensor replaced by a cooled IR detector and new infrared optics. The earlier work has proven the concept of the instrument and of automatic detection of meteors/bolides in the visible wavelength range. The new hardware has been built by Jena-Optronik, Jena, Germany and has been tested during several meteor showers in the Netherlands and at ESA's OGS

  7. Antioxidants and the Comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cemeli, Eduardo; Baumgartner, Adolf; Anderson, Diana

    2009-01-01

    It is widely accepted that antioxidants, either endogenous or from the diet, play a key role in preserving health. They are able to quench radical species generated in situations of oxidative stress, either triggered by pathologies or xenobiotics, and they protect the integrity of DNA from genotoxicants. Nevertheless, there are still many compounds with unclear or unidentified prooxidant/antioxidant activities. This is of concern since there is an increase in the number of compounds synthesized or extracted from vegetables to which humans might be exposed. Despite the well-established protective effects of fruit and vegetables, the antioxidant(s) responsible have not all been clearly identified. There might also be alternative mechanisms contributing to the protective effects for which a comprehensive description is lacking. In the last two decades, the Comet assay has been extensively used for the investigation of the effects of antioxidants and many reports can be found in the literature. The Comet assay, a relatively fast, simple, and sensitive technique for the analysis of DNA damage in all cell types, has been applied for the screening of chemicals, biomonitoring and intervention studies. In the present review, several of the most well-known antioxidants are considered. These include: catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, selenium, iron chelators, melatonin, melanin, vitamins (A, B, C and E), carotenes, flavonoids, isoflavones, tea polyphenols, wine polyphenols and synthetic antioxidants. Investigations showing beneficial as well as non-beneficial properties of the antioxidants selected, either at the in vitro, ex vivo or in vivo level are discussed.

  8. comets in the STIP context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallis, M.K.

    1977-01-01

    Fluid descriptions of plasma motion through a cometary coma are briefly sketched, distinguishing the bow shock and ionizing flow region mainly within it, the tail region and ray structure, and the 'ionosphere' coupled closely to the expanding cometary gas. Whether there is a contact discontinuity or continuous transition between the incoming flow and the ionosphere depends on solar fluxes rather than comet size. A discontinuity as observed requires much faster ionization in the inner coma or severe collisional cooling of incoming plasma. Changes in structure and brightness may reflect solar UV and solar plasma variations, but may also be evidence of intrinsic instabilities of hydrodynamic/MHD or chemically-reactive flow. Molecular ionization and dissociation processes strongly influence the stagnation region ahead of the comet, and make it particularly susceptible to flow instabilities. Solar UV variations are energetically dominant within the ionosphere, changing the evaporation and chemical reaction rates, and probably stimulate dust halos. Shocked changes in the solar wind propagating through the head can trigger structural and intensity fluctuations in the plasma, notably disruptions of the plasma tail. (Auth.)

  9. OpenComet: An automated tool for comet assay image analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin M. Gyori

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive species such as free radicals are constantly generated in vivo and DNA is the most important target of oxidative stress. Oxidative DNA damage is used as a predictive biomarker to monitor the risk of development of many diseases. The comet assay is widely used for measuring oxidative DNA damage at a single cell level. The analysis of comet assay output images, however, poses considerable challenges. Commercial software is costly and restrictive, while free software generally requires laborious manual tagging of cells. This paper presents OpenComet, an open-source software tool providing automated analysis of comet assay images. It uses a novel and robust method for finding comets based on geometric shape attributes and segmenting the comet heads through image intensity profile analysis. Due to automation, OpenComet is more accurate, less prone to human bias, and faster than manual analysis. A live analysis functionality also allows users to analyze images captured directly from a microscope. We have validated OpenComet on both alkaline and neutral comet assay images as well as sample images from existing software packages. Our results show that OpenComet achieves high accuracy with significantly reduced analysis time.

  10. Detection and Characterisation of Meteors as a Big Data Citizen Science project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritsevich, M.

    2017-12-01

    Out of a total around 50,000 meteorites currently known to science, the atmospheric passage was recorded instrumentally in only 30 cases with the potential to derive their atmospheric trajectories and pre-impact heliocentric orbits. Similarly, while the observations of meteors, add thousands of new entries per month to existing databases, it is extremely rare they lead to meteorite recovery. Meteor studies thus represent an excellent example of the Big Data citizen science project, where progress in the field largely depends on the prompt identification and characterisation of meteor events as well as on extensive and valuable contributions by amateur observers. Over the last couple of decades technological advancements in observational techniques have yielded drastic improvements in the quality, quantity and diversity of meteor data, while even more ambitious instruments are about to become operational. This empowers meteor science to boost its experimental and theoretical horizons and seek more advanced scientific goals. We review some of the developments that push meteor science into the Big Data era that requires more complex methodological approaches through interdisciplinary collaborations with other branches of physics and computer science. We argue that meteor science should become an integral part of large surveys in astronomy, aeronomy and space physics, and tackle the complexity of micro-physics of meteor plasma and its interaction with the atmosphere. The recent increased interest in meteor science triggered by the Chelyabinsk fireball helps in building the case for technologically and logistically more ambitious meteor projects. This requires developing new methodological approaches in meteor research, with Big Data science and close collaboration between citizen science, geoscience and astronomy as critical elements. We discuss possibilities for improvements and promote an opportunity for collaboration in meteor science within the currently

  11. A Numerical Model to Assess Soil Fluxes from Meteoric 10Be Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campforts, B.; Govers, G.; Vanacker, V.; Vanderborght, J.; Smolders, E.; Baken, S.

    2015-12-01

    Meteoric 10Be may be mobile in the soil system. The latter hampers a direct translation of meteoric 10Be inventories into spatial variations in erosion and deposition rates. Here, we present a spatially explicit 2D model that allows us to simulate the behaviour of meteoric 10Be in the soil system. The Be2D model is then used to analyse the potential impact of human-accelerated soil fluxes on meteoric 10Be inventories. The model consists of two parts. A first component deals with advective and diffusive mobility of meteoric 10Be within the soil profile including particle migration, chemical leaching and bioturbation, whereas a second component describes lateral soil (and meteoric 10Be) fluxes over the hillslope. Soil depth is calculated dynamically, accounting for soil production through weathering and lateral soil fluxes from creep, water and tillage erosion. Model simulations show that meteoric 10Be inventories can indeed be related to erosion and deposition, across a wide range of geomorphological and pedological settings. However, quantification of the effects of vertical mobility is essential for a correct interpretation of the observed spatial patterns in 10Be data. Moreover, our simulations suggest that meteoric 10Be can be used as a tracer to unravel human impact on soil fluxes when soils have a high retention capacity for meteoric meteoric 10Be. Application of the Be2D model to existing data sets shows that model parameters can reliably be constrained, resulting in a good agreement between simulated and observed meteoric 10Be concentrations and inventories. This confirms the suitability of the Be2D model as a robust tool to underpin quantitative interpretations of spatial variability in meteoric 10Be data for eroding landscapes.

  12. Comet Halley Returns. A Teacher's Guide, 1985-1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Robert D.; Bondurant, R. Lynn, Jr.

    This booklet was designed as an aid for elementary and secondary school teachers. It is divided into two distinct parts. Part I is a brief tutorial which introduces some of the most important concepts about comets. Areas addressed include: the historical importance of Comet Halley; how comets are found and names; cometary orbits; what Comet Halley…

  13. The Comet Halley Handbook: An Observer's Guide. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeomans, Donald K.

    This handbook contains information on: (1) the orbit of comet Halley; (2) the expected physical behavior of comet Halley in 1985-1986, considering brightness estimates, coma diameters, and tail lengths; (3) observing conditions for comet Halley in 1985-1986; and (4) observing conditions for the dust tail of comet Halley in 1985-1986. Additional…

  14. METEOR v1.0 - Design and structure of the software package; METEOR v1.0 - Estructura y modulos informaticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomo, E.

    1994-07-01

    This script describes the structure and the separated modules of the software package METEOR for the statistical analysis of meteorological data series. It contains a systematic description of the subroutines of METEOR and, also, of the required shape for input and output files. The original version of METEOR have been developed by Ph.D. Elena Palomo, CIEMAT-IER, GIMASE. It is built by linking programs and routines written in FORTRAN 77 and it adds thc graphical capabilities of GNUPLOT. The shape of this toolbox was designed following the criteria of modularity, flexibility and agility criteria. All the input, output and analysis options are structured in three main menus: i) the first is aimed to evaluate the quality of the data set; ii) the second is aimed for pre-processing of the data; and iii) the third is aimed towards the statistical analyses and for creating the graphical outputs. Actually the information about METEOR is constituted by three documents written in spanish: 1) METEOR v1.0: User's guide; 2) METEOR v1.0: A usage example; 3) METEOR v 1.0: Design and structure of the software package. (Author)

  15. Impact Vaporization as a Possible Source of Mercury's Calcium Exosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, Rosemary M.; Hahn, Joseph M.

    2015-01-01

    Mercury's calcium exosphere varies in a periodic way with that planet's true anomaly. We show that this pattern can be explained by impact vaporization from interplanetary dust with variations being due to Mercury's radial and vertical excursions through an interplanetary dust disk having an inclination within 5 degrees of the plane of Mercury's orbit. Both a highly inclined dust disk and a two-disk model (where the two disks have a mutual inclination) fail to reproduce the observed variation in calcium exospheric abundance with Mercury true anomaly angle. However, an additional source of impacting dust beyond the nominal dust disk is required near Mercury's true anomaly (?) 25deg +/-5deg. This is close to but not coincident with Mercury's true anomaly (?=45deg) when it crosses comet 2P/Encke's present day orbital plane. Interestingly, the Taurid meteor storms at Earth, which are also due to Comet Encke, are observed to occur when Earth's true anomaly is +/-20 or so degrees before and after the position where Earth and Encke orbital planes cross. The lack of exact correspondence with the present day orbit of Encke may indicate the width of the potential stream along Mercury's orbit or a previous cometary orbit. The extreme energy of the escaping calcium, estimated to have a temperature greater than 50000 K if the source is thermal, cannot be due to the impact process itself but must be imparted by an additional mechanism such as dissociation of a calcium-bearing molecule or ionization followed by recombination.

  16. COLOR SYSTEMATICS OF COMETS AND RELATED BODIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jewitt, David, E-mail: jewitt@ucla.edu [Department of Earth, Planetary and Space Sciences, UCLA, 595 Charles Young Drive East, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1567 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Most comets are volatile-rich bodies that have recently entered the inner solar system following long-term storage in the Kuiper belt and the Oort cloud reservoirs. These reservoirs feed several distinct, short-lived “small body” populations. Here, we present new measurements of the optical colors of cometary and comet-related bodies including long-period (Oort cloud) comets, Damocloids (probable inactive nuclei of long-period comets) and Centaurs (recent escapees from the Kuiper belt and precursors to the Jupiter family comets). We combine the new measurements with published data on short-period comets, Jovian Trojans and Kuiper belt objects to examine the color systematics of the comet-related populations. We find that the mean optical colors of the dust in short-period and long-period comets are identical within the uncertainties of measurement, as are the colors of the dust and of the underlying nuclei. These populations show no evidence for scattering by optically small particles or for compositional gradients, even at the largest distances from the Sun, and no evidence for ultrared matter. Consistent with earlier work, ultrared surfaces are common in the Kuiper belt and on the Centaurs, but not in other small body populations, suggesting that this material is hidden or destroyed upon entry to the inner solar system. The onset of activity in the Centaurs and the disappearance of the ultrared matter in this population begin at about the same perihelion distance (∼10 AU), suggesting that the two are related. Blanketing of primordial surface materials by the fallback of sub-orbital ejecta, for which we calculate a very short timescale, is the likely mechanism. The same process should operate on any mass-losing body, explaining the absence of ultrared surface material in the entire comet population.

  17. Seismic characterization of the Chelyabinsk meteor's terminal explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Álvaro; Heimann, Sebastian; Wang, Rongjiang; Cesca, Simone; Dahm, Torsten

    2014-05-01

    On February 15th, 2013, an exceptionally large meteor in the region of Chelyabinsk, Russia, produced a powerful shock wave which caused unprecedented damage to people and property, the strongest atmospheric infrasound signal ever recorded, and remarkable ground motion. Here we describe and model the resulting Rayleigh waves, recorded at broadband seismic stations at distances from ~230 to ~4,100 km. Our full-waveform modeling uses a seismogram simulation code specifically tailored to consider wave propagation in the atmosphere and solid Earth, and the coupling at the interface between them. An isotropic point-like airburst reproduces very well the available seismic observations, without requiring a more complex explanation, such as a moving source. The measured seismic shaking was generated by direct coupling of the atmospheric shock wave to the ground, and then it propagated outwards faster than the atmospheric shock wave itself, at up to 3.9 km/s. The best-fitting airburst location (61.22° E, 54.88° N) is SW of Chelyabinsk city, exactly at the terminal part of the meteor's trajectory, just after it experienced a dramatic flare, with apparent brightness larger than the Sun's. We estimated the meteor's ground path from published trajectory data, eyewitness observations, and detailed satellite imagery of the exact location where a major meteorite fragment landed, in the frozen Lake Chebarkul (60.32074° E, 54.95966° N). Fixing the source origin time allowed us calculating that the explosion took place in the stratosphere, at an altitude of 22.5 ± 1.5 km. This value is lower than the reported altitude of peak brightness (about 29.5 km), but more consistent with the observations of shock wave travel times. Such results highlight the importance of terminal energy release down to lower altitude. We analyzed a surveillance video recorded inside a factory (61.347° E, 54.902° N) at Korkino, a locality close to the airburst. It shows a time delay of 87.5 seconds

  18. A Comet Engulfs Mars: MAVEN Observations of Comet Siding Spring's Influence on the Martian Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espley, Jared R.; Dibraccio, Gina A.; Connerney, John E. P.; Brain, David; Gruesbeck, Jacob; Soobiah, Yasir; Halekas, Jasper S.; Combi, Michael; Luhmann, Janet; Ma, Yingjuan

    2015-01-01

    The nucleus of comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) passed within 141,000?km of Mars on 19 October 2014. Thus, the cometary coma and the plasma it produces washed over Mars for several hours producing significant effects in the Martian magnetosphere and upper atmosphere. We present observations from Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN's (MAVEN's) particles and field's instruments that show the Martian magnetosphere was severely distorted during the comet's passage. We note four specific major effects: (1) a variable induced magnetospheric boundary, (2) a strong rotation of the magnetic field as the comet approached, (3) severely distorted and disordered ionospheric magnetic fields during the comet's closest approach, and (4) unusually strong magnetosheath turbulence lasting hours after the comet left. We argue that the comet produced effects comparable to that of a large solar storm (in terms of incident energy) and that our results are therefore important for future studies of atmospheric escape, MAVEN's primary science objective.

  19. Knut Lundmark, meteors and an early Swedish crowdsourcing experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kärnfelt, Johan

    2014-10-01

    Mid twentieth century meteor astronomy demanded the long-term compilation of observations made by numerous individuals over an extensive geographical area. Such a massive undertaking obviously required the participation of more than just professional astronomers, who often sought to expand their ranks through the use of amateurs that had a basic grasp of astronomy as well as the night sky, and were thus capable of generating first-rate astronomical reports. When, in the 1920s, renowned Swedish astronomer Knut Lundmark turned his attention to meteor astronomy, he was unable to rely even upon this solution. In contrast to many other countries at the time, Sweden lacked an organized amateur astronomy and thus contained only a handful of competent amateurs. Given this situation, Lundmark had to develop ways of engaging the general public in assisting his efforts. To his advantage, he was already a well-established public figure who had published numerous popular science articles and held talks from time to time on the radio. During the 1930s, this prominence greatly facilitated his launching of a crowdsourcing initiative for the gathering of meteor observations. This paper consists of a detailed discussion concerning the means by which Lundmark's initiative disseminated astronomical knowledge to the general public and encouraged a response that might directly contribute to the advancement of science. More precisely, the article explores the manner in which he approached the Swedish public, the degree to which that public responded and the extent to which his efforts were successful. The primary aim of this exercise is to show that the apparently recent Internet phenomenon of 'crowdsourcing', especially as it relates to scientific research, actually has a pre-Internet history that is worth studying. Apart from the fact that this history is interesting in its own right, knowing it can provide us with a fresh vantage point from which to better comprehend and appreciate

  20. A dynamical study on extrasolar comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loibnegger, B.; Dvorak, R.

    2017-09-01

    Since the detection of absorption features in spectra of beta Pictoris varying on short time scales it is known that comets exist in other stellar systems. We investigate the dynamics of comets in two differently build systems (HD 10180 and HIP 14810). The outcomes of the scattering process, as there are collisions with the planets, captures and ejections from the systems are analysed statistically. Collisions and close encounters with the planets are investigated in more detail in order to conclude about transport of water and organic material. We will also investigate the possibility of detection of comets in other planetary systems.

  1. The spacecraft encounters of Comet Halley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asoka Mendis, D.; Tsurutani, Bruce T.

    1986-01-01

    The characteristics of the Comet Halley spacecraft 'fleet' (VEGA 1 and VEGA 2, Giotto, Suisei, and Sakigake) are presented. The major aims of these missions were (1) to discover and characterize the nucleus, (2) to characterize the atmosphere and ionosphere, (3) to characterize the dust, and (4) to characterize the nature of the large-scale comet-solar wind interaction. While the VEGA and Giotto missions were designed to study all four areas, Suisei addressed the second and fourth. Sakigake was designed to study the solar wind conditions upstream of the comet. It is noted that NASA's Deep Space Network played an important role in spacecraft tracking.

  2. Automated Meteor Detection by All-Sky Digital Camera Systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Suk, Tomáš; Šimberová, Stanislava

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 3 (2017), s. 189-215 ISSN 0167-9295 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-16928S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 ; RVO:67985556 Keywords : meteor detection * autonomous fireball observatories * fish-eye camera * Hough transformation Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science; BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics (ASU-R) OBOR OECD: Computer sciences, information science, bioinformathics (hardware development to be 2.2, social aspect to be 5.8); Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) (ASU-R) Impact factor: 0.875, year: 2016

  3. A New Orbit for Comet C/1865 B1 (Great Southern Comet of 1865)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branham, Richard L., Jr.

    2018-04-01

    Comet C/1865 B1 (Great southern comet of 1865), observed only in the southern hemisphere, is one of a large number of comets with parabolic orbits. Given that there are 202 observations in right ascension and 165 in declination it proves possible to calculate a better orbit than that Körber published in 1887, the orbit used in various catalogs and data bases. C/1865 B1's orbit is hyperbolic and statistically distinguishable from a parabola. This object, therefore, cannot be considered an NEO. The comet has a small perihelion distance of 0.026 AU.

  4. Kinematic Characteristics of Meteor Showers by Results of the Combined Radio-Television Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narziev, Mirhusen

    2016-07-01

    One of the most important tasks of meteor astronomy is the study of the distribution of meteoroid matter in the solar system. The most important component to address this issue presents the results of measurements of the velocities, radiants, and orbits of both showers and sporadic meteors. Radiant's and orbits of meteors for different sets of data obtained as a result of photographic, television, electro-optical, video, Fireball Network and radar observations have been measured repeatedly. However, radiants, velocities and orbits of shower meteors based on the results of combined radar-optical observations have not been sufficiently studied. In this paper, we present a methods for computing the radiants, velocities, and orbits of the combined radar-TV meteor observations carried out at HisAO in 1978-1980. As a result of the two-year cycle of simultaneous TV-radar observations 57 simultaneous meteors have been identified. Analysis of the TV images has shown that some meteor trails appeared as dashed lines. Among the simultaneous meteors of d-Aquariids 10 produced such dashed images, and among the Perseids there were only 7. Using a known method, for such fragmented images of simultaneous meteors - together with the measured radar distance, trace length, and time interval between the segments - allowed to determine meteor velocity using combined method. In addition, velocity of the same meteors was measured using diffraction and radar range-time methods based on the results of radar observation. It has been determined that the mean values of meteoroid velocity based on the combined radar-TV observations are greater in 1 ÷ 3 km / c than the averaged velocity values measured using only radar methods. Orbits of the simultaneously observed meteors with segmented photographic images were calculated on the basis of the average velocity observed using the combined radar-TV method. The measured results of radiants velocities and orbital elements of individual meteors

  5. IAU Meteor Data Center-the shower database: A status report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jopek, Tadeusz Jan; Kaňuchová, Zuzana

    2017-09-01

    Currently, the meteor shower part of Meteor Data Center database includes: 112 established showers, 563 in the working list, among them 36 have the pro tempore status. The list of shower complexes contains 25 groups, 3 have established status and 1 has the pro tempore status. In the past three years, new meteor showers submitted to the MDC database were detected amongst the meteors observed by CAMS stations (Cameras for Allsky Meteor Surveillance), those included in the EDMOND (European viDeo MeteOr Network Database), those collected by the Japanese SonotaCo Network, recorded in the IMO (International Meteor Organization) database, observed by the Croatian Meteor Network and on the Southern Hemisphere by the SAAMER radar. At the XXIX General Assembly of the IAU in Honolulu, Hawaii in 2015, the names of 18 showers were officially accepted and moved to the list of established ones. Also, one shower already officially named (3/SIA the Southern iota Aquariids) was moved back to the working list of meteor showers. At the XXIX GA IAU the basic shower nomenclature rule was modified, the new formulation predicates ;The general rule is that a meteor shower (and a meteoroid stream) should be named after the constellation that contains the nearest star to the radiant point, using the possessive Latin form;. Over the last three years the MDC database was supplemented with the earlier published original data on meteor showers, which permitted verification of the correctness of the MDC data and extension of bibliographic information. Slowly but surely new database software options are implemented, and software bugs are corrected.

  6. Scientists Revise Thinking on Comets, Planet Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Discusses scientific information obtained from Pioneer 10's Jupiter flyby and the comet Kohoutek's first trip around the sun, including the high hydrogen emission of Jupiter's principal moon, Io. (CC)

  7. Comet C/2004 P1 (NEAT)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tichá, J.; Tichý, M.; Kušnirák, Peter

    -, č. 8383 (2004), s. 1 ISSN 0081-0304 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3003204 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : new comet * astrometry Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  8. Comet P/2004 F3 (NEAT)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tichá, J.; Tichý, M.; Kušnirák, Peter

    -, č. 8313 (2004), s. 1 ISSN 0081-0304 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3003204 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : comet * astrometry Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  9. Spatial distribution of errors associated with multistatic meteor radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, W. K.

    2018-06-01

    With the recent increase in numbers of small and versatile low-power meteor radars, the opportunity exists to benefit from simultaneous application of multiple systems spaced by only a few hundred km and less. Transmissions from one site can be recorded at adjacent receiving sites using various degrees of forward scatter, potentially allowing atmospheric conditions in the mesopause regions between stations to be diagnosed. This can allow a better spatial overview of the atmospheric conditions at any time. Such studies have been carried out using a small version of such so-called multistatic meteor radars, e.g. Chau et al. (Radio Sci 52:811-828, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1002/2016rs006225 ). These authors were able to also make measurements of vorticity and divergence. However, measurement uncertainties arise which need to be considered in any application of such techniques. Some errors are so severe that they prohibit useful application of the technique in certain locations, particularly for zones at the midpoints of the radars sites. In this paper, software is developed to allow these errors to be determined, and examples of typical errors involved are discussed. The software should be of value to others who wish to optimize their own MMR systems.

  10. Meteoric ions in the corona and solar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaire, J.

    1990-01-01

    The total mass of refractory material of interplanetary origin penetrating and evaporated in the meltosphere surrounding the sun has been inferred from observations of meteoroids and fireballs falling in earth's atmosphere. The amount of iron atoms deposited this way in the solar corona is of the order of 3000 t/s or larger. The measured flux of outflowing solar wind iron ions is equal to 2200 t/s. The close agreement of both fluxes is evidence that a significant fraction of iron ions observed in the solar wind and in the corona must be of meteoric origin. A similar accord is also obtained for silicon ions. The mean velocity of meteoroid ions formed in the solar corona is equal to the free-fall velocity: i.e., independent of their atomic mass as the thermal speed of heavy ion measured in low-density solar wind streams at 1 AU. Furthermore, the heavy ions of meteoric origin escape out of the corona with a larger bulk velocity than the protons which are mainly of solar origin. These differences of heavy ion and proton bulk velocities are also observed in the solar wind. 52 refs

  11. X-ray emission from comets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennerl, Konrad

    1999-01-01

    When comet Hyakutake (C/1996 B2) encountered Earth in March 1996 at a minimum distance of only 15 million kilometers (40 times the distance of the moon), x-ray and extreme ultraviolet emission was discovered for the first time from a comet. The observations were performed with the astronomy satellites ROSAT and EUVE. A systematic search for x-rays from comets in archival data, obtained during the ROSAT all-sky survey in 1990/91, resulted in the discovery of x-ray emission from four additional comets. They were detected at seven occasions in total, when they were optically 300 to 30 000 times fainter than Hyakutake. These findings indicated that comets represent a new class of celestial x-ray sources. Subsequent detections of x-ray emission from additional comets with the satellites ROSAT, EUVE, and BeppoSAX confirmed this conclusion. The x-ray observations have obviously revealed the presence of a process in comets which had escaped attention until recently. This process is most likely charge exchange between highly charged heavy ions in the solar wind and cometary neutrals. The solar wind, a stream of particles continuously emitted from the sun with ≅ 400 km s -1 , consists predominantly of protons, electrons, and alpha particles, but contains also a small fraction (≅0.1%) of highly charged heavier ions, such as C 6+ ,O 6+ ,Ne 8+ ,Si 9+ ,Fe 11+ . When these ions capture electrons from the cometary gas, they attain highly excited states and radiate a large fraction of their excitation energy in the extreme ultraviolet and x-ray part of the spectrum. Charge exchange reproduces the intensity, the morphology and the spectrum of the observed x-ray emission from comets very well

  12. Comet Halley - Chapter I in cometary exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newburn, R.L. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The information gained on the Comet Halley by the international probe studies is presented. The new information includes data on the true size and shape of the cometary nucleus and the mass of its dust grains, the chemical composition of the nucleus, and the characteristics of the bow wave of the comet. The requirements of future missions for solving the many questions that are still open are discussed

  13. Radar meteors range distribution model. II. Shower flux density and mass distribution index

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pecinová, Drahomíra; Pecina, Petr

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 2 (2007), s. 107-124 ISSN 1335-1842 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/03/1405 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : physics of meteors * radar meteors * range distribution Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  14. Radar meteors range distribution model. III. Ablation, shape-density and self-similarity parameters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pecinová, Drahomíra; Pecina, Petr

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 3 (2007), s. 147-160 ISSN 1335-1842 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/03/1405 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : physics of meteors * radar meteors * range distribution Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  15. Optical observations of enhanced activity of the 2005 Draconid meteor shower

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koten, Pavel; Borovička, Jiří; Spurný, Pavel; Štork, Rostislav

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 466, č. 2 (2007), s. 729-735 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB300030502; GA ČR GA205/05/0543 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : meteors * meteor shower s * Draconids Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2007

  16. Plasma distributions in meteor head echoes and implications for radar cross section interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Robert A.; Brown, Peter; Close, Sigrid

    2017-09-01

    The derivation of meteoroid masses from radar measurements requires conversion of the measured radar cross section (RCS) to meteoroid mass. Typically, this conversion passes first through an estimate of the meteor plasma density derived from the RCS. However, the conversion from RCS to meteor plasma density requires assumptions on the radial electron density distribution. We use simultaneous triple-frequency measurements of the RCS for 63 large meteor head echoes to derive estimates of the meteor plasma size and density using five different possible radial electron density distributions. By fitting these distributions to the observed meteor RCS values and estimating the goodness-of-fit, we determine that the best fit to the data is a 1 /r2 plasma distribution, i.e. the electron density decays as 1 /r2 from the center of the meteor plasma. Next, we use the derived plasma distributions to estimate the electron line density q for each meteor using each of the five distributions. We show that depending on the choice of distribution, the line density can vary by a factor of three or more. We thus argue that a best estimate for the radial plasma distribution in a meteor head echo is necessary in order to have any confidence in derived meteoroid masses.

  17. PMN-Portuguese Meteor Network and OLA-Observatório do Lago Alqueva agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, C.

    2018-01-01

    The PMN-Portuguese Meteor Network has two new video meteor detecting systems at OLA- Observartório do Lago Alqueva, situated at the South East Portuguese territory with a pristine night sky and more than 290 clear nights each year.

  18. Comet showers and the steady-state infall of comets from the Oort cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hills, J.G.

    1981-01-01

    The appearance of an inner edge to the Oort comet cloud at a semimajor axis of a = (1--2) x 10 4 AU is an observational artifact. Stellar perturbations are frequent enough and strong enough to assure that a constant fraction of the comets with semimajor axes greater than this are in orbits which bring them within the planetary region. Only infrequent, close stellar encounters are able to repopulate the planet-crossing orbits of comets with smaller semimajor axes. Owing to their relatively short orbital periods which return them frequently to the planetary system, the comets in these more tightly bound orbits will be deflected by Jupiter into drastically different orbits or be destroyed by solar heating before another close stellar passage repopulates their numbers. Comets with semimajor axes less than 2 x 10 4 AU appear in the inner solar system only in intense bursts or showers which last for a few orbital periods after the close passage of a star to the Sun. This is followed by a much longer span of time during which only comets with a>2 x 10 4 AU enter the planetary system. The theoretically determined location of the boundary between the semimajor axes of those comets which enter the planetary system only in bursts or showers and those which arrive in a steady stream is very abrupt and falls at the observed inner edge of the Oort cloud. We propose that the comets formed in the outer parts of the collapsing protosun, which had a radius of less than 5 x 10 3 AU. If this produced a first-generation comet cloud with a radius of 10 3 AU or greater, the coupled dynamical perturbations of passing stars and Jupiter will, of necessity, lead to the formation of a comet cloud similar that of the observed Oort comet cloud

  19. The Comet Radar Explorer Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asphaug, Erik; Belton, Mike; Bockelee-Morvan, Dominique; Chesley, Steve; Delbo, Marco; Farnham, Tony; Gim, Yonggyu; Grimm, Robert; Herique, Alain; Kofman, Wlodek; Oberst, Juergen; Orosei, Roberto; Piqueux, Sylvain; Plaut, Jeff; Robinson, Mark; Sava, Paul; Heggy, Essam; Kurth, William; Scheeres, Dan; Denevi, Brett; Turtle, Elizabeth; Weissman, Paul

    2014-11-01

    Missions to cometary nuclei have revealed major geological surprises: (1) Global scale layers - do these persist through to the interior? Are they a record of primary accretion? (2) Smooth regions - are they landslides originating on the surface? Are they cryovolcanic? (3) Pits - are they impact craters or sublimation pits, or rooted in the interior? Unambiguous answers to these and other questions can be obtained by high definition 3D radar reflection imaging (RRI) of internal structure. RRI can answer many of the great unknowns in planetary science: How do primitive bodies accrete? Are cometary nuclei mostly ice? What drives their spectacular activity and evolution? The Comet Radar Explorer (CORE) mission will image the detailed internal structure of the nucleus of 10P/Tempel 2. This ~16 x 8 x 7 km Jupiter Family Comet (JFC), or its parent body, originated in the outer planets region possibly millions of years before planet formation. CORE arrives post-perihelion and observes the comet’s waning activity from safe distance. Once the nucleus is largely dormant, the spacecraft enters a ~20-km dedicated Radar Mapping Orbit (RMO). The exacting design of the RRI experiment and the precise navigation of RMO will achieve a highly focused 3D radar reflection image of internal structure, to tens of meters resolution, and tomographic images of velocity and attenuation to hundreds of meters resolution, tied to the gravity model and shape. Visible imagers will produce maps of the surface morphology, albedo, color, texture, and photometric response, and images for navigation and shape determination. The cameras will also monitor the structure and dynamics of the coma, and its dusty jets, allowing their correlation in 3D with deep interior structures and surface features. Repeated global high-resolution thermal images will probe the near-surface layers heated by the Sun. Derived maps of thermal inertia will be correlated with the radar boundary response, and photometry and

  20. Radar observations of meteor trails, and their interpretation using Fresnel holography: a new tool in meteor science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. G. Elford

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A Fresnel transform technique has been developed at Adelaide to analyse radar meteor echoes detected in the transverse mode. The genesis for this technique was the study of the structure of the scattering ionization immediately behind the head of the trail, in order to deduce the degree of fragmentation of the ablating meteoroid. The technique has been remarkably successful in not only giving insight into the fragmentation of meteoroids, but also revealing other significant features of the trails including diffusion, lateral motion of the trail during formation due to wind drift, and phase of the scattered signal in the vicinity of the head of the trail. A serendipitous outcome of the analysis is the measurement of the speed and deceleration of the meteoroid producing the trail to a precision far exceeding that available from any other method applied to transverse scatter data. Examples of the outcomes of the technique applied to meteor echoes obtained with a 54MHz narrow beam radar are presented.

  1. Diurnal and annual variations of meteor rates at the arctic circle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Singer

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Meteors are an important source for (a the metal atoms of the upper atmosphere metal layers and (b for condensation nuclei, the existence of which are a prerequisite for the formation of noctilucent cloud particles in the polar mesopause region. For a better understanding of these phenomena, it would be helpful to know accurately the annual and diurnal variations of meteor rates. So far, these rates have been little studied at polar latitudes. Therefore we have used the 33 MHz meteor radar of the ALOMAR observatory at 69° N to measure the meteor rates at this location for two full annual cycles. This site, being within 3° of the Arctic circle, offers in addition an interesting capability: The axis of its antenna field points (almost towards the North ecliptic pole once each day of the year. In this particular viewing direction, the radar monitors the meteoroid influx from (almost the entire ecliptic Northern hemisphere. We report on the observed diurnal variations (averaged over one month of meteor rates and their significant alterations throughout the year. The ratio of maximum over minimum meteor rates throughout one diurnal cycle is in January and February about 5, from April through December 2.3±0.3. If compared with similar measurements at mid-latitudes, our expectation, that the amplitude of the diurnal variation is to decrease towards the North pole, is not really borne out. Observations with the antenna axis pointing towards the North ecliptic pole showed that the rate of deposition of meteoric dust is substantially larger during the Arctic NLC season than the annual mean deposition rate. The daylight meteor showers of the Arietids, Zeta Perseids, and Beta Taurids supposedly contribute considerably to the June maximum of meteor rates. We note, though, that with the radar antenna pointing as described above, all three meteor radiants are close to the local horizon but all three radiants were detected.

  2. Estimation of Mesospheric Densities at Low Latitudes Using the Kunming Meteor Radar Together With SABER Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Wen; Xue, Xianghui; Reid, Iain M.; Younger, Joel P.; Chen, Jinsong; Chen, Tingdi; Li, Na

    2018-04-01

    Neutral mesospheric densities at a low latitude have been derived during April 2011 to December 2014 using data from the Kunming meteor radar in China (25.6°N, 103.8°E). The daily mean density at 90 km was estimated using the ambipolar diffusion coefficients from the meteor radar and temperatures from the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument. The seasonal variations of the meteor radar-derived density are consistent with the density from the Mass Spectrometer and Incoherent Scatter (MSIS) model, show a dominant annual variation, with a maximum during winter, and a minimum during summer. A simple linear model was used to separate the effects of atmospheric density and the meteor velocity on the meteor radar peak detection height. We find that a 1 km/s difference in the vertical meteor velocity yields a change of approximately 0.42 km in peak height. The strong correlation between the meteor radar density and the velocity-corrected peak height indicates that the meteor radar density estimates accurately reflect changes in neutral atmospheric density and that meteor peak detection heights, when adjusted for meteoroid velocity, can serve as a convenient tool for measuring density variations around the mesopause. A comparison of the ambipolar diffusion coefficient and peak height observed simultaneously by two co-located meteor radars indicates that the relative errors of the daily mean ambipolar diffusion coefficient and peak height should be less than 5% and 6%, respectively, and that the absolute error of the peak height is less than 0.2 km.

  3. Photometry and Polarimetry of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko at the 6-m Telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory (SAO RAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolokolova, L.; Ivanova, O.; Rosenbush, V.; Kiselev, N.; Afanasiev, V.

    2016-12-01

    We report observations of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, performed by the co-authors from MAO NASU and SAO RAS at the SAO 6-m telescope with a focal reducer SCORPIO-2 used in the modes of broad-band photometry and of imaging polarimetry. Three sets of post-perihelion observations were made in November and December of 2015 and in April of 2016 covering heliocentric distance of the comet from 1.61 au to 2.72 au and phase angle from 33.2° to 10.4°. Imaging photometry of the comet in the g-sdss (465/65 nm) and r-sdss (620/60 nm) filters allowed us to derive maps of intensity and color. The tail and two bright persistent jets, observed from November 2015 to April 2016, had colors redder than the rest of the coma, indicating a difference in the dust particles. Color of the coma becomes bluer with increasing distance from the nucleus. Linear polarization maps and scans through the coma revealed that in April, at phase angle about 10°, the polarization varied from -0.6% in the near-nucleus area to -4% in the outer coma. In November and December, the polarization near the nucleus was 8%, dropped sharply to 2% at the distance 5000 km, and then gradually increased to >8% at 40000 km. The radial variations of polarization suggest an evolution of the dust properties. We suppose that they reflect decreasing particle size. This assumption is consistent with the laboratory studies by Hadamcik et al. (JQSRT, 2009), which showed that with decreasing size of particles from hundreds of micron (the size of dominating particles measured by the Rosetta dust instruments in the vicinity of the nucleus) to dozens of microns, their polarization decreases, whereas at smaller particle sizes polarization increases with decreasing size. Changing the color to a more blue with the nucleocentric distance is also consistent with decreasing particle size. Note that Jewitt (ApJ, 2004) observed similar dependences of polarization and color for comet 2P/Encke that may have a similar explanation.

  4. Development of a Remote Monitoring System Using Meteor Burst Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewanic, M.A.; Dunstan, M.T.; Reichhardt, D.K.

    2006-01-01

    Monitoring the cleanup and closure of contaminated sites requires extensive data acquisition, processing, and storage. At remote sites, the task of monitoring often becomes problematical due to the lack of site infrastructure (i.e., electrical power lines, telephone lines, etc.). MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE) has designed an economical and efficient remote monitoring system that will handle large amounts of data; process the data, if necessary; and transmit this data over long distances. Design criteria MSE considered during the development of the remote monitoring system included: the ability to handle multiple, remote sampling points with independent sampling frequencies; robust (i.e., less susceptible to moisture, heat, and cold extremes); independent of infrastructure; user friendly; economical; and easy to expand system capabilities. MSE installed and tested a prototype system at the Mike Mansfield Advanced Technology Center (MMATC), Butte, Montana, in June 2005. The system MSE designed and installed consisted of a 'master' control station and two remote 'slave' stations. Data acquired at the two slave stations were transmitted to the master control station, which then transmits a complete data package to a ground station using meteor burst technology. The meteor burst technology has no need for hardwired land-lines or man-made satellites. Instead, it uses ionized particles in the Earth's atmosphere to propagate a radio signal. One major advantage of the system is that it can be configured to accept data from virtually any type of device, so long as the signal from the device can be read and recorded by a standard data-logger. In fact, MSE has designed and built an electrical resistivity monitoring system that will be powered and controlled by the meteor burst system components. As sites move through the process of remediation and eventual closure, monitoring provides data vital to the successful long term management of the site. The remote

  5. Reasonable threshold value used to segment the individual comet from the comet assay image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Xuekun; Chen Ying; Du Jie; Zhang Xueqing; Luo Yisheng

    2009-01-01

    Reasonable segmentation of the individual comet contour from the Comet Assay (CA) images is the precondition for all of parameters analysis during the automatic analyzing for the CA. The Otsu method and several arithmetic operators for image segmentation, such as Sobel, Prewitt, Roberts and Canny were used to segment the comet contour, and characters of the CA images were analyzed firstly. And then the segmentation methods which had been adopted in the software for CA automatic analysis, such as the CASP, the TriTek CometScore TM , were put for-ward and compared. At last, a two-step procedure for threshold calculation based on image-content analysis is adopted to segment the individual comet from the CA images, and several principles for the segmentation are put forward too.(authors)

  6. The McDonald Observatory Faint Comet Survey - Gas production in 17 comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Anita L.; Barker, Edwin S.; Ramseyer, Tod F.; Storrs, Alex D.

    1992-01-01

    The complete Intensified Dissector Scanner data set on 17 comets is presented, and production rates are derived and analyzed. It is shown that there is a strong degree of homogenization in the production rate ratios of many comets. It also appears that the ratio of the production rates of the various species has no heliocentric distance dependence, except for the case of NH2. When speaking of the gas in the coma of a comet, it appears that comets must have been formed under remarkably uniform conditions, and that they must have evolved and formed their comae in a similar manner. The data presented here constitute strong evidence that the minor species must be bound up in a lattice and that the interior of a comet must be reasonably uniform.

  7. Particle acceleration near Halley's comet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somogyi, Antal

    1987-01-01

    Vega and Giotto space probes observed energetic ions of cometary origin near Halley's comet. The water molecules evaporating from the cometary nucleus were ionized by the solar UV radiation. These 'standing' ions were accelerated from 1 km/s to a few 1000 km/s. Present paper analyses the possible mechanisms of acceleration based on the data of TUENDE detector (constructed by CRIP, Hungary) working on board of Vega probes. The basic mechanism is the ExB Lorentz acceleration by interplanetary magnetic field and electric field induced by magnetic field frozen into solar wind plasma. It is followed by an acceleration caused by the adiabatic compression of the plasma at shock wave front. These processes can not explain the observed velocity of ions. It is shown that the second order Fermi acceleration which dissipates the ion distribution in the velocity space can lead to the observed velocities. The circumstances required to the occurrence of this process are present at the cometary environment. (D.G.) 2 figs

  8. Spectrophotometry of 25 comets - Post-Halley updates for 17 comets plus new observations for eight additional comets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newburn, R.L. Jr.; Spinrad, H.

    1989-01-01

    The best possible production figures within the current post-Halley framework and available observations are given for H2O, O(1D), CN, C3, C2 and dust in 25 comets. Of these, the three objects with the smallest mixing ratios of all minor species have moderate to little or no dust and appear 'old'. Comets with large amounts of CN are very dusty, and there is a clear correlation of CN with dust, although comets with little or no dust still have some CN. Thus, CN appears to have at least two sources, dust and one or more parent gases. Also, the C2/CN production ratio changes continuously with heliocentric distance in every comet considered, suggesting that C2 production may be a function of coma density as well as parental abundance. Dust production ranges from essentially zero in Comet Sugano-Saigusa-Fujikawa up to 67,000 kg/s for Halley on March 14, 1986. 61 references

  9. Comet Tempel 1 Went Back to Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Astronomers Having Used ESO Telescopes Start Analysing Unique Dataset on the Comet Following the Deep Impact Mission Ten days after part of the Deep Impact spacecraft plunged onto Comet Tempel 1 with the aim to create a crater and expose pristine material from beneath the surface, astronomers are back in the ESO Offices in Santiago, after more than a week of observing at the ESO La Silla Paranal Observatory. In this unprecedented observing campaign - among the most ambitious ever conducted by a single observatory - the astronomers have collected a large amount of invaluable data on this comet. The astronomers have now started the lengthy process of data reduction and analysis. Being all together in a single place, and in close contacts with the space mission' scientific team, they will try to assemble a clear picture of the comet and of the impact. The ESO observations were part of a worldwide campaign to observe this unique experiment. During the campaign, ESO was connected by phone, email, and videoconference with colleagues in all major observatories worldwide, and data were freely exchanged between the different groups. This unique collaborative spirit provides astronomers with data taken almost around the clock during several days and this, with the largest variety of instruments, making the Deep Impact observing campaign one of the most successful of its kind, and thereby, ensuring the greatest scientific outcome. From the current analysis, it appears most likely that the impactor did not create a large new zone of activity and may have failed to liberate a large quantity of pristine material from beneath the surface. ESO PR Photo 22/05 ESO PR Photo 22/05 Evolution of Comet Tempel 1 (FORS2/VLT) [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 701 pix - 128k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 1401 pix - 357k] ESO PR Photo 22/05 Animated Gif Caption: ESO PR Photo 22/05 shows the evolution of Comet Tempel 1 as observed with the FORS2 instrument on Antu (VLT). The images obtained at the VLT show that

  10. New aspects in single-body meteor physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecina, P.; Ceplecha, Z.

    1983-03-01

    An exact analytical solution of the atmospheric meteoroid single-body problem is presented expressing the distance along the trajectory as a function of time, which yields a least-square fit of the observed trajectory, and analytical expressions for the velocity at the point of maximum deceleration are derived. These results are used to determine the ablation coefficient from observations. These methods are applied to 17 Prairie Network fireballs observed below the maximum deceleration point and to the Innisfree fireball, and the results are found to be superior to the ones obtained with the usual interpolation formula. A model of luminous efficiencies for small velocities and for masses up to several hundred grams based on data on Innisfree and on artificial rocketry meteors is proposed and applied to separate the shape-density coefficient from the meteoroid mass.

  11. Automated Meteor Detection by All-Sky Digital Camera Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suk, Tomáš; Šimberová, Stanislava

    2017-12-01

    We have developed a set of methods to detect meteor light traces captured by all-sky CCD cameras. Operating at small automatic observatories (stations), these cameras create a network spread over a large territory. Image data coming from these stations are merged in one central node. Since a vast amount of data is collected by the stations in a single night, robotic storage and analysis are essential to processing. The proposed methodology is adapted to data from a network of automatic stations equipped with digital fish-eye cameras and includes data capturing, preparation, pre-processing, analysis, and finally recognition of objects in time sequences. In our experiments we utilized real observed data from two stations.

  12. A Method for Calculating the Mean Orbits of Meteor Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voloshchuk, Yu. I.; Kashcheev, B. L.

    An examination of the published catalogs of orbits of meteor streams and of a large number of works devoted to the selection of streams, their analysis and interpretation, showed that elements of stream orbits are calculated, as a rule, as arithmetical (sometimes, weighed) sample means. On the basis of these means, a search for parent bodies, a study of the evolution of swarms generating these streams, an analysis of one-dimensional and multidimensional distributions of these elements, etc., are performed. We show that systematic errors in the estimates of elements of the mean orbits are present in each of the catalogs. These errors are caused by the formal averaging of orbital elements over the sample, while ignoring the fact that they represent not only correlated, but dependent quantities, with nonlinear, in most cases, interrelations between them. Numerous examples are given of such inaccuracies, in particular, the cases where the "mean orbit of the stream" recorded by ground-based techniques does not cross the Earth's orbit. We suggest the computation algorithm, in which the averaging over the sample is carried out at the initial stage of the calculation of the mean orbit, and only for the variables required for subsequent calculations. After this, the known astrometric formulas are used to sequentially calculate all other parameters of the stream, considered now as a standard orbit. Variance analysis is used to estimate the errors in orbital elements of the streams, in the case that their orbits are obtained by averaging the orbital elements of meteoroids forming the stream, without taking into account their interdependence. The results obtained in this analysis indicate the behavior of systematic errors in the elements of orbits of meteor streams. As an example, the effect of the incorrect computation method on the distribution of elements of the stream orbits close to the orbits of asteroids of the Apollo, Aten, and Amor groups (AAA asteroids) is examined.

  13. Abundant Solar Nebula Solids in Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messenger, S.; Keller, L. P.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Nguyen, A. N.; Clemett, S.

    2016-01-01

    Comets have been proposed to consist of unprocessed interstellar materials together with a variable amount of thermally annealed interstellar grains. Recent studies of cometary solids in the laboratory have shown that comets instead consist of a wide range of materials from across the protoplanetary disk, in addition to a minor complement of interstellar materials. These advances were made possible by the return of direct samples of comet 81P/Wild 2 coma dust by the NASA Stardust mission and recent advances in microscale analytical techniques. Isotopic studies of 'cometary' chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles (CP-IDPs) and comet 81P/Wild 2 Stardust samples show that preserved interstellar materials are more abundant in comets than in any class of meteorite. Identified interstellar materials include sub-micron-sized presolar silicates, oxides, and SiC dust grains and some fraction of the organic material that binds the samples together. Presolar grain abundances reach 1 weight percentage in the most stardust-rich CP-IDPs, 50 times greater than in meteorites. Yet, order of magnitude variations in presolar grain abundances among CP-IDPs suggest cometary solids experienced significant variations in the degree of processing in the solar nebula. Comets contain a surprisingly high abundance of nebular solids formed or altered at high temperatures. Comet 81P/Wild 2 samples include 10-40 micron-sized, refractory Ca- Al-rich inclusion (CAI)-, chondrule-, and ameboid olivine aggregate (AOA)-like materials. The O isotopic compositions of these refractory materials are remarkably similar to their meteoritic counterparts, ranging from 5 percent enrichments in (sup 16) O to near-terrestrial values. Comet 81P/Wild 2 and CP-IDPs also contain abundant Mg-Fe crystalline and amorphous silicates whose O isotopic compositions are also consistent with Solar System origins. Unlike meteorites, that are dominated by locally-produced materials, comets appear to be composed of

  14. A GREAT search for Deuterium in Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumma, Michael

    2013-10-01

    Comets are understood to be the most pristine bodies in the Solar System. Their compositions reflect the chemical state of materials at the very earliest evolutionary stages of the protosolar nebula and, as such, they provide detailed insight into the physical and chemical processes operating in planet-forming disks. Isotopic fractionation ratios of the molecular ices in the nucleus are regarded as signatures of formation processes. These ratios provide unique information on the natal heritage of those ices, and can also test the proposal that Earth's water and other volatiles were delivered by cometary bombardment. Measurement of deuterium fractionation ratios is thus a major goal in contemporary cometary science and the D/H ratio of water - the dominant volatile in comets - holds great promise for testing the formation history of cometary matter. The D/H ratio in cometary water has been measured in only eight comets. Seven were from the Oort Cloud reservoir and the D/H ratio was about twice that of the Earth's oceans. However, the recent Herschel measurement of HDO/H2O in 103P/Hartley-2 (the first from the Kuiper Belt) was consistent with exogenous delivery of Earth's water by comets. Outstanding questions remain: are cometary HDO/H2O ratios consistent with current theories of nebular chemical evolution or with an interstellar origin? Does the HDO/H2O ratio vary substantially among comet populations? Hartley-2 is the only Kuiper Belt comet with measured HDO/H2O, are there comets with similar ratios in the Oort cloud? These questions can only be addressed by measuring HDO/H2O ratios in many more suitable bright comets. We therefore propose to measure the D/H ratio in water in a suitable target-of-opportunity comet by performing observations of HDO and OH with the GREAT spectrometer on SOFIA. A multi-wavelength, ground-based observing campaign will also be conducted in support of the airborne observations.

  15. Meteor Crater (Barringer Meteorite Crater), Arizona: Summary of Impact Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roddy, D. J.; Shoemaker, E. M.

    1995-09-01

    Meteor Crater in northern Arizona represents the most abundant type of impact feature in our Solar System, i.e., the simple bowl-shaped crater. Excellent exposures and preservation of this large crater and its ejecta blanket have made it a critical data set in both terrestrial and planetary cratering research. Recognition of the value of the crater was initiated in the early 1900's by Daniel Moreau Barringer, whose 27 years of exploration championed its impact origin [1]. In 1960, Shoemaker presented information that conclusively demonstrated that Meteor Crater was formed by hypervelocity impact [2]. This led the U.S. Geological Survey to use the crater extensively in the 1960-70's as a prime training site for the Apollo astronauts. Today, Meteor Crater continues to serve as an important research site for the international science community, as well as an educational site for over 300,000 visitors per year. Since the late 1950's, studies of this crater have presented an increasingly clearer view of this impact and its effects and have provided an improved view of impact cratering in general. To expand on this data set, we are preparing an upgraded summary on the Meteor Crater event following the format in [3], including information and interpretations on: 1) Inferred origin and age of the impacting body, 2) Inferred ablation and deceleration history in Earth's atmosphere, 3) Estimated speed, trajectory, angle of impact, and bow shock conditions, 4) Estimated coherence, density, size, and mass of impacting body, 5) Composition of impacting body (Canyon Diablo meteorite), 6) Estimated kinetic energy coupled to target rocks and atmosphere, 7) Terrain conditions at time of impact and age of impact, 8) Estimated impact dynamics, such as pressures in air, meteorite, and rocks, 9) Inferred and estimated material partitioning into vapor, melt, and fragments, 10) Crater and near-field ejecta parameters, 11) Rock unit distributions in ejecta blanket, 12) Estimated far

  16. The comet rendezvous asteroid flyby mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, D.; Neugebauer, M.; Weissman, P.R.

    1989-01-01

    The Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby (CRAF) mission is designed to answer the many questions raised by the Halley missions by exploring a cometary nucleus in detail, following it around its orbit and studying its changing activity as it moves closer to and then away from the Sun. In addition, on its way to rendezvous with the comet, CRAF will fly by a large, primitive class main belt asteroid and will return valuable data for comparison with the comet results. The selected asteroid is 449 Hamburga with a diameter of 88 km and a surface composition of carbonaceous chondrite meteorites. The expected flyby date is January, 1998. The CRAF spacecraft will continue to make measurements in orbit around the cometary nucleus as they both move closer to the Sun, until the dust and gas hazard becomes unsafe. At that point the spacecraft will move in and out between 50 and 2,500 kilometers to study the inner coma and the cometary ionosphere, and to collect dust and gas samples for onboard analysis. Following perihelion, the spacecraft will make a 50,000 km excursion down the comet's tail, further investigating the solar wind interaction with the cometary atmosphere. The spacecraft will return to the vicinity of the nucleus about four months after perihelion to observe the changes that have taken place. If the spacecraft remains healthy and adequate fuel is still onboard, an extended mission to follow the comet nucleus out to aphelion is anticipated

  17. Comet assay on mice testicular cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoop Kumar Sharma

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Heritable mutations may result in a variety of adverse outcomes including genetic disease in the offspring. In recent years the focus on germ cell mutagenicity has increased and the “Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS” has published classification criteria for germ cell mutagens (Speit et al., 2009. The in vivo Comet assay is considered a useful tool for investigating germ cell genotoxicity. In the present study DNA strand breaks in testicular cells of mice were investigated. Different classes of chemicals were tested in order to evaluate the sensitivity of the comet assay in testicular cells. The chemicals included environmentally relevant substances such as Bisphenol A, PFOS and Tetrabrombisphenol A. Statistical power calculations will be presented to aid in the design of future Comet assay studies on testicular cells. Power curves were provided with different fold changes in % tail DNA, different number of cells scored and different number of gels (Hansen et al., 2014. An example is shown in Figure 1. A high throughput version of the Comet assay was used. Samples were scored with a fully automatic comet assay scoring system that provided faster scoring of randomly selected cells.

  18. Study of Comets Composition and Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaf, S. Z.; Selman, A. A.; Ali, H. S.

    2008-12-01

    The present paper focuses on the nature of the different interactions between cometary nucleus and tail with solar wind. The dynamics of the comet will impose many features that provide unique behavior of the comet when entering the solar system. These features are reviewed in this paper and few investigations are made. The calculations made in this work represent the analysis and interpretation of the different features of the comet, such as perihelion and eccentricity dependence on the gas production rate, and the dependence of the latter on the composition of the comet nucleus. The dependences of the heliocentric, bow shock, contact surface, and stand-off distances with gas production rate for many types of comets that cover linear and non-linear types are studied in this work. Important results are obtained which indicated the different physical interactions between cometary ions and solar wind. Furthermore, the important relation between mean molecular weight and gas production rate are analyzed and studied in this work and a conclusion is made that, as the gas production rate increases, the mean molecular weight will decrease exponentially. A detailed discussion for this unique relation is given.

  19. Comments on comet shapes and aggregation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, W.K.

    1989-01-01

    An important question for a comet mission is whether comet nuclei preserve information clarifying aggregation processes of planetary matter. New observational evidence shows that Trojan asteroids, as a group, display a higher fraction of highly-elongated objects than the belt. More recently evidence has accumulated that comet nuclei, as a group, also display highly-elongated shapes at macro-scale. This evidence comes from the several comets whose nuclear lightcurves or shapes have been well studied. Trojans and comet nuclei share other properties. Both groups have extremely low albedos and reddish-to neutral-black colors typical of asteroids of spectral class D, P, and C. Both groups may have had relatively low collision frequencies. An important problem to resolve with spacecraft imaging is whether these elongated shapes are primordial, or due to evolution of the objects. Two hypotheses that might be tested by a combination of global-scale and close-up imaging from various directions are: (1) The irregular shapes are primordial and related to the fact that these bodies have had lower collision frequencies than belt asteroids; or (2) The irregular shapes may be due to volatile loss

  20. The effect of recombination and attachment on meteor radar diffusion coefficient profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C. S.; Younger, J. P.; Reid, I. M.; Kim, Y. H.; Kim, J.-H.

    2013-04-01

    Estimates of the ambipolar diffusion coefficient producedusing meteor radar echo decay times display an increasing trend below 80-85 km, which is inconsistent with a diffusion-only theory of the evolution of meteor trails. Data from the 33 MHz meteor radar at King Sejong Station, Antarctica, have been compared with observations from the Aura Earth Observing System Microwave Limb Sounder satellite instrument. It has been found that the height at which the diffusion coefficient gradient reverses follows the height of a constant neutral atmospheric density surface. Numerical simulations of meteor trail diffusion including dissociative recombination with atmospheric ions and three-body attachment of free electrons to neutral molecules indicate that three-body attachment is responsible for the distortion of meteor radar diffusion coefficient profiles at heights below 90 km, including the gradient reversal below 80-85 km. Further investigation has revealed that meteor trails with low initial electron line density produce decay times more consistent with a diffusion-only model of meteor trail evolution.

  1. METEOR v1.0 - Design and structure of the software package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palomo, E.

    1994-01-01

    This script describes the structure and the separated modules of the software package METEOR for the statistical analysis of meteorological data series. It contains a systematic description of the subroutines of METEOR and, also, of the required shape for input and output files. The original version of METEOR have been developed by Ph.D. Elena Palomo, CIEMAT-IER, GIMASE. It is built by linking programs and routines written in FORTRAN 77 and it adds thc graphical capabilities of GNUPLOT. The shape of this toolbox was designed following the criteria of modularity, flexibility and agility criteria. All the input, output and analysis options are structured in three main menus: i) the first is aimed to evaluate the quality of the data set; ii) the second is aimed for pre-processing of the data; and iii) the third is aimed towards the statistical analyses and for creating the graphical outputs. Actually the information about METEOR is constituted by three documents written in spanish: 1) METEOR v1.0: User's guide; 2) METEOR v1.0: A usage example; 3) METEOR v 1.0: Design and structure of the software package. (Author)

  2. Developing Dynamic Single Page Web Applications Using Meteor : Comparing JavaScript Frameworks: Blaze and React

    OpenAIRE

    Yetayeh, Asabeneh

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies Meteor which is a JavaScript full-stack framework to develop interactive single page web applications. Meteor allows building web applications entirely in JavaScript. Meteor uses Blaze, React or AngularJS as a view layer and Node.js and MongoDB as a back-end. The main purpose of this study is to compare the performance of Blaze and React. A multi-user Blaze and React web applications with similar HTML and CSS were developed. Both applications were deployed on Heroku’s w...

  3. Comets As Objects of High Energy Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibadov, S.

    2000-10-01

    Strong soft X-ray emission from comet Hyakutake C/1996 B2 was discovered with ROSAT in March 27, 1996 (Lisse et al. 1996, Science 274, 205-209) and the results of a theoretical approach (Ibadov 1990, Icarus 86, 283-288) served as a motive for that observations (Dennerl, Lisse and Truemper 1998, Private Communications). It is now well established that comets emit EUV and X-rays regularly (Dennerl, Englhauser and Truemper 1997, Science 277, 1625-1630; Dennerl 1998, Proc. 16th Int. Conf. Atomic Physics, Windsor, Ontario, Canada). To explain this phenomenon different theoretical models were proposed (Krasnopolsky 1997, Icarus 128, 365-385; Ibadov 1998, Proc. First XMM Workshop, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, and references therein). In the paper the problem of identifying X-ray generation mechanisms in comets will be considered.

  4. Dynamics of comets: their origin and evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carusi, A.; Valsecchi, G.B.

    1985-01-01

    Comets can be considered as remnants of the original population of planetesimals and the study of their origin and dynamical histories can provide insight into the accretion phenomena; the original mass, energy and angular momentum distribution across the solar system; the collisional fragmentation of minor bodies; the impact rates on planets and the nature of impacting bodies. The interaction of comets with other solar system bodies certainly provides one of the best possibilities for a deeper understanding of the dynamics of the whole system, and a challenging test for all theories of celestial mechanics dealing with the gravitational behaviour of multiple-body systems. Comets could also be considered as the last footprints left by the interaction of the protosun and its original galactic environment. (orig.)

  5. Dynamical evolution and disintegration of comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresak, L.

    Current concepts of the origin and evolution of comets are reviewed. The place of their formation from which they have been delivered into the Oort reservoir is still an open problem, but the region of the outermost planets appears most probable. The interplay of stellar and planetary perturbations can be traced by model computations which reveal both the general trends and the variety of individual evolutionary paths. The present structure of the system of comets is controlled by the dynamical evolution of its individual members, limited by their physical aging by disintegration. Where the lifetimes are short, as in the Jupiter family of short-period comets, an equilibrium between elimination and replenishment is established. The role of different destructive processes and the resulting survival times are discussed.

  6. Dynamical evolution and disintegration of comets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kresak, L.

    1982-01-01

    Current concepts of the origin and evolution of comets are reviewed. The place of their formation from which they have been delivered into the Oort reservoir is still an open problem, but the region of the outermost planets appears most probable. The interplay of stellar and planetary perturbations can be traced by model computations which reveal both the general trends and the variety of individual evolutionary paths. The present structure of the system of comets is controlled by the dynamical evolution of its individual members limited by their physical aging by disintegration. Where the lifetimes are short, as in the Jupiter family of short-period comets, an equilibrium between elimination and replenishment is established. The role of different destructive processes and the resulting survival times are discussed. (Auth.)

  7. Spiral arms, comets and terrestrial catastrophism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clube, S.V.M.; Napier, W.M.

    1982-01-01

    A review is presented of an hypothesis of terrestrial catastrophism in which comets grow in molecular clouds and are captured by the Sun as it passes through the spiral arms of the Galaxy. Assuming that comets are a major supplier of the Earth-crossing (Appollo) asteroid population, the latter fluctuates correspondingly and leads to episodes of terrestrial bombardment. Changes in the rotational momentum of core and mantle, generated by impacts, lead to episodes of magnetic field reversal and tectonic activity, while surface phenomena lead to ice-ages and mass extinctions. An episodic geophysical history with an interstellar connection is thus implied. If comets in spiral arms are necessary intermediaries in the process of star formation, the theory also has implications relating to early solar system history and galactic chemistry. These aspects are briefly discussed with special reference to the nature of spiral arms. (author)

  8. The mass disruption of Jupiter Family comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belton, Michael J. S.

    2015-01-01

    I show that the size-distribution of small scattered-disk trans-neptunian objects when derived from the observed size-distribution of Jupiter Family comets (JFCs) and other observational constraints implies that a large percentage (94-97%) of newly arrived active comets within a range of 0.2-15.4 km effective radius must physically disrupt, i.e., macroscopically disintegrate, within their median dynamical lifetime. Additional observational constraints include the numbers of dormant and active nuclei in the near-Earth object (NEO) population and the slope of their size distributions. I show that the cumulative power-law slope (-2.86 to -3.15) of the scattered-disk TNO hot population between 0.2 and 15.4 km effective radius is only weakly dependent on the size-dependence of the otherwise unknown disruption mechanism. Evidently, as JFC nuclei from the scattered disk evolve into the inner Solar System only a fraction achieve dormancy while the vast majority of small nuclei (e.g., primarily those with effective radius <2 km) break-up. The percentage disruption rate appears to be comparable with that of the dynamically distinct Oort cloud and Halley type comets (Levison, H.F., Morbidelli, A., Dones, L., Jedicke, R., Wiegert, P.A., Bottke Jr., W.F. [2002]. Science 296, 2212-2215) suggesting that all types of comet nuclei may have similar structural characteristics even though they may have different source regions and thermal histories. The typical disruption rate for a 1 km radius active nucleus is ∼5 × 10-5 disruptions/year and the dormancy rate is typically 3 times less. We also estimate that average fragmentation rates range from 0.01 to 0.04 events/year/comet, somewhat above the lower limit of 0.01 events/year/comet observed by Chen and Jewitt (Chen, J., Jewitt, D.C. [1994]. Icarus 108, 265-271).

  9. Meteoric 10Be as a tool to investigate human induced soil fluxes: a conceptual model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campforts, Benjamin; Govers, Gerard; Vanacker, Veerle; De Vente, Joris; Boix-Fayos, Carolina; Minella, Jean; Baken, Stijn; Smolders, Erik

    2014-05-01

    The use of meteoric 10Be as a tool to understand long term landscape behavior is becoming increasingly popular. Due its high residence time, meteoric 10Be allows in principle to investigate in situ erosion rates over time scales exceeding the period studied with classical approaches such as 137Cs. The use of meteoric 10Be strongly contributes to the traditional interpretation of sedimentary archives which cannot be unequivocally coupled to sediment production and could provide biased information over longer time scales (Sadler, 1981). So far, meteoric 10Be has successfully been used in geochemical fingerprinting of sediments, to date soil profiles, to assess soil residence times and to quantify downslope soil fluxes using accumulated 10Be inventories along a hill slope. However, less attention is given to the potential use of the tracer to directly asses human induced changes in soil fluxes through deforestation, cultivation and reforestation. A good understanding of the processes governing the distribution of meteoric 10Be both within the soil profile and at landscape scale is essential before meteoric 10Be can be successfully applied to assess human impact. We developed a spatially explicit 2D-model (Be2D) in order to gain insight in meteoric 10Be movement along a hillslope that is subject to human disturbance. Be2D integrates both horizontal soil fluxes and vertical meteoric 10Be movement throughout the soil prolife. Horizontal soil fluxes are predicted using (i) well studied geomorphical laws for natural erosion and soil formation as well as (ii) human accelerated water and tillage erosion. Vertical movement of meteoric 10Be throughout the soil profile is implemented by inserting depth dependent retardation calculated using experimentally determined partition coefficients (Kd). The model was applied to different environments such as (i) the Belgian loess belt, characterized by aeolian deposits enriched in inherited meteoric 10Be, (ii) highly degraded and stony

  10. Comet nuclei and Trojan asteroids - A new link and a possible mechanism for comet splittings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, W.K.; Tholen, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    Relatively elongated shapes, implied by recent evidence of a greater incidence of high amplitude lightcurves for comet nuclei and Trojan asteroids than for similarly scaled main belt asteroids, are suggested to have evolved among comet nuclei and Trojans due to volatile loss. It is further suggested that such an evolutionary course may account for observed comet splitting; rotational splitting may specifically occur as a result of evolution in the direction of an elongated shape through sublimation. Supporting these hypotheses, the few m/sec separation velocities projected for rotationally splitting elongated nuclei are precisely in the observed range. 40 refs

  11. Detection of radiation-induced apoptosis using the comet assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Seiichi; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Funayama, Tomoo; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Khoa, Tran Van; Natsuhori, Masahiro; Ito, Nobuhiko

    2003-01-01

    The electrophoresis pattern of apoptotic cells detected by the comet assay has a characteristic small head and spread tail. This image has been referred to as an apoptotic comet, but it has not been previously proven to be apoptotic cells by any direct method. In order to identify this image obtained by the comet assay as corresponding to an apoptotic cell, the frequency of appearance of apoptosis was examined using CHO-K1 and L5178Y cells which were exposed to gamma irradiation. As a method for detecting apoptosis, the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay was used. When the frequency of appearance of apoptotic cells following gamma irradiation was observed over a period of time, there was a significant increase in appearance of apoptosis when using the TUNEL assay. However, there was only a slight increase when using the comet assay. In order to verify the low frequency of appearance of apoptosis when using the comet assay, we attempted to use the TUNEL assay to satin the apoptotic comets detected in the comet assay. The apoptotic comets were TUNEL positive and the normal comets were TUNEL negative. This indicates that the apoptotic comets were formed from DNA fragments with 3'-hydroxy ends that are generated as cells undergo apoptosis. Therefore, it was understood that the characteristic pattern of apoptotic comets detected by the comet assay corresponds to cells undergoing apoptosis. (author)

  12. To Catch A Comet...Learning From Halley's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    Comet chronicles and stories extend back over thousands of years. A common theme has been that comets are a major cause of catastrophe and tragedy here on earth. In addition, both Aristotle and Ptolemy believed that comets were phenomena within the earth's atmosphere, and it wasn't until the 16th century, when Danish astronomer Tycho Brache…

  13. The shortage of long-period comets in elliptical orbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everhart, E.

    1979-01-01

    Based on the number of 'new' comets seen on near-parabolic orbits, one can predict the number of comets that should be found on definitely elliptical orbits on their subsequent returns. The author shows that about three out of four of these returning comets are not observed. (Auth.)

  14. Optical Detection of Anomalous Nitrogen in Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    VLT Opens New Window towards Our Origins Summary A team of European astronomers [1] has used the UVES spectrograph on the 8.2-m VLT KUEYEN telescope to perform a uniquely detailed study of Comet LINEAR (C/2000 WM1) . This is the first time that this powerful instrument has been employed to obtain high-resolution spectra of a comet. At the time of the observations in mid-March 2002, Comet LINEAR was about 180 million km from the Sun, moving outwards after its perihelion passage in January. As comets are believed to carry "pristine" material - left-overs from the formation of the solar system, about 4,600 million years ago - studies of these objects are important to obtain clues about the origins of the solar system and the Earth in particular. The high quality of the data obtained of this moving 9th-magnitude object has permitted a determination of the cometary abundance of various elements and their isotopes [2]. Of particular interest is the unambiguous detection and measurement of the nitrogen-15 isotope. The only other comet in which this isotope has been observed is famous Comet Hale-Bopp - this was during the passage in 1997, when it was much brighter than Comet LINEAR. Most interestingly, Comet LINEAR and Comet Hale-Bopp display the same isotopic abundance ratio, about 1 nitrogen-15 atom for each 140 nitrogen-14 atoms ( 14 N/ 15 N = 140 ± 30) . That is about half of the terrestrial value (272). It is also very different from the result obtained by means of radio measurements of Comet Hale-Bopp ( 14 N/ 15 N = 330 ± 75). Optical and radio measurements concern different molecules (CN and HCN, respectively), and this isotopic anomaly must be explained by some differentiation mechanism. The astronomers conclude that part of the cometary nitrogen is trapped in macromolecules attached to dust particles . The successful entry of UVES into cometary research now opens eagerly awaited opportunities for similiar observations in other, comparatively faint comets. These

  15. CometQ: An automated tool for the detection and quantification of DNA damage using comet assay image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapathy, Sreelatha; Muraleedharan, Aparna; Sathidevi, Puthumangalathu Savithri; Chand, Parkash; Rajkumar, Ravi Philip

    2016-09-01

    DNA damage analysis plays an important role in determining the approaches for treatment and prevention of various diseases like cancer, schizophrenia and other heritable diseases. Comet assay is a sensitive and versatile method for DNA damage analysis. The main objective of this work is to implement a fully automated tool for the detection and quantification of DNA damage by analysing comet assay images. The comet assay image analysis consists of four stages: (1) classifier (2) comet segmentation (3) comet partitioning and (4) comet quantification. Main features of the proposed software are the design and development of four comet segmentation methods, and the automatic routing of the input comet assay image to the most suitable one among these methods depending on the type of the image (silver stained or fluorescent stained) as well as the level of DNA damage (heavily damaged or lightly/moderately damaged). A classifier stage, based on support vector machine (SVM) is designed and implemented at the front end, to categorise the input image into one of the above four groups to ensure proper routing. Comet segmentation is followed by comet partitioning which is implemented using a novel technique coined as modified fuzzy clustering. Comet parameters are calculated in the comet quantification stage and are saved in an excel file. Our dataset consists of 600 silver stained images obtained from 40 Schizophrenia patients with different levels of severity, admitted to a tertiary hospital in South India and 56 fluorescent stained images obtained from different internet sources. The performance of "CometQ", the proposed standalone application for automated analysis of comet assay images, is evaluated by a clinical expert and is also compared with that of a most recent and related software-OpenComet. CometQ gave 90.26% positive predictive value (PPV) and 93.34% sensitivity which are much higher than those of OpenComet, especially in the case of silver stained images. The

  16. ''Meteor'' radio/television satellites for study of earth's natural resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selivanov, A S; Tuchin, Yu M

    1981-01-01

    Two types of wide sweep multi-zonal scanning devices are included in the Meteor units, including radio-transmitting, and memory units. Data is transmitted within the wave range assigned to meteorologic earth satellites.

  17. Meteor Shower Forecast Improvements from a Survey of All-Sky Network Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorhead, Althea V.; Sugar, Glenn; Brown, Peter G.; Cooke, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Meteoroid impacts are capable of damaging spacecraft and potentially ending missions. In order to help spacecraft programs mitigate these risks, NASA's Meteoroid Environment Office (MEO) monitors and predicts meteoroid activity. Temporal variations in near-Earth space are described by the MEO's annual meteor shower forecast, which is based on both past shower activity and model predictions. The MEO and the University of Western Ontario operate sister networks of all-sky meteor cameras. These networks have been in operation for more than 7 years and have computed more than 20,000 meteor orbits. Using these data, we conduct a survey of meteor shower activity in the "fireball" size regime using DBSCAN. For each shower detected in our survey, we compute the date of peak activity and characterize the growth and decay of the shower's activity before and after the peak. These parameters are then incorporated into the annual forecast for an improved treatment of annual activity.

  18. Assessing soil fluxes using meteoric 10Be: development and application of the Be2D model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campforts, Benjamin; Govers, Gerard; Vanacker, Veerle; Baken, Stijn; Smolders, Erik; Vanderborght, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Meteoric 10Be is a promising and increasingly popular tool to better understand soil fluxes at different timescales. Unlike other, more classical, methods such as the study of sedimentary archives it enables a direct coupling between eroding and deposition sites. However, meteoric 10Be can be mobilized within the soil. Therefore, spatial variations in meteoric 10Be inventories cannot directly be translated into spatial variations in erosion and sedimentation rates: a correct interpretation of measured 10Be inventories requires that both lateral and vertical movement of meteoric 10Be are accounted for. Here, we present a spatially explicit 2D model that allows to simulate the behaviour of meteoric 10Be in the soil system over timescales of up to 1 million year and use the model to investigate the impact of accelerated erosion on meteoric 10Be inventories. The model consists of two parts. A first component deals with advective and diffusive mobility within the soil profile, whereas a second component describes lateral soil (and meteoric 10Be) fluxes over the hillslope. Soil depth is calculated dynamically, accounting for soil production through weathering and lateral soil fluxes. Different types of erosion such as creep, water and tillage erosion are supported. Model runs show that natural soil fluxes can be well reconstructed based on meteoric 10Be inventories, and this for a wide range of geomorphological and pedological conditions. However, extracting signals of human impact and distinguishing them from natural soil fluxes is only feasible when the soil has a rather high retention capacity so that meteoric 10Be is retained in the top soil layer. Application of the Be2D model to an existing data set in the Appalachian Mountains [West et al.,2013] using realistic parameter values for the soil retention capacity as well as for vertical advection resulted in a good agreement between simulated and observed 10Be inventories. This confirms the robustness of the model. We

  19. Comets and the origin and evolution of life

    CERN Document Server

    McKay, Christopher P

    2006-01-01

    Nine years after the publication of Comets and the Origin and Evolution of Life, one of the pioneering books in Astrobiology, this second edition revisits the role comets may have played in the origins and evolution of life. Recent analyses of Antarctic micrometeorites and ancient rocks in Australia and South Africa, the continuing progress in discovering complex organic macromolecules in comets, protostars and interstellar clouds, new insights into organic synthesis in comets, and numerical simulations of comet impacts on the Earth and other members of the solar system yield a spectacular wea

  20. Double station observation of Draconid meteor outburst from two moving aircraft

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koten, Pavel; Vaubaillon, J.; Margonis, A.; Toth, J.; Ďuriš, F.; McAulliffe, J.; Oberst, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 118, December (2015), s. 112-119 ISSN 0032-0633 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-25251S; GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/11/1382; GA MŠk 7AMB13FR006 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : meteors * meteor showers * Draconids Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 1.942, year: 2015

  1. Data Reduction and Control Software for Meteor Observing Stations Based on CCD Video Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madiedo, J. M.; Trigo-Rodriguez, J. M.; Lyytinen, E.

    2011-01-01

    The SPanish Meteor Network (SPMN) is performing a continuous monitoring of meteor activity over Spain and neighbouring countries. The huge amount of data obtained by the 25 video observing stations that this network is currently operating made it necessary to develop new software packages to accomplish some tasks, such as data reduction and remote operation of autonomous systems based on high-sensitivity CCD video devices. The main characteristics of this software are described here.

  2. On the influence of neutral turbulence on ambipolar diffusivities deduced from meteor trail expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Hall

    Full Text Available By measuring fading times of radar echoes from underdense meteor trails, it is possible to deduce the ambipolar diffusivities of the ions responsible for these radar echoes. It could be anticipated that these diffusivities increase monotonically with height akin to neutral viscosity. In practice, this is not always the case. Here, we investigate the capability of neutral turbulence to affect the meteor trail diffusion rate.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; turbulence

  3. On the influence of neutral turbulence on ambipolar diffusivities deduced from meteor trail expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Hall

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available By measuring fading times of radar echoes from underdense meteor trails, it is possible to deduce the ambipolar diffusivities of the ions responsible for these radar echoes. It could be anticipated that these diffusivities increase monotonically with height akin to neutral viscosity. In practice, this is not always the case. Here, we investigate the capability of neutral turbulence to affect the meteor trail diffusion rate.Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; turbulence

  4. OpenComet: An automated tool for comet assay image analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gyori, Benjamin M.; Venkatachalam, Gireedhar; Thiagarajan, P.S.; Hsu, David; Clement, Marie-Veronique

    2014-01-01

    Reactive species such as free radicals are constantly generated in vivo and DNA is the most important target of oxidative stress. Oxidative DNA damage is used as a predictive biomarker to monitor the risk of development of many diseases. The comet assay is widely used for measuring oxidative DNA damage at a single cell level. The analysis of comet assay output images, however, poses considerable challenges. Commercial software is costly and restrictive, while free software generally requires ...

  5. COMETARY VOLATILES AND THE ORIGIN OF COMETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A' Hearn, Michael F.; Feaga, Lori M.; Sunshine, Jessica M.; Besse, Sebastien; Bodewits, Dennis; Farnham, Tony L.; Kelley, Michael S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Keller, H. Uwe [Institute for Geophysics and Extraterrestrial Physics, Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, D-38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Kawakita, Hideyo [Department of Physics, Kyoto Sangyo University, Kamigamo JP Kita-ku, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan); Hampton, Donald L. [Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska Fairbanks, 903 Koyukuk Drive, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States); Kissel, Jochen [Max-Planck-Institut for Solar System Research, Max-Planck-Strasse 2, D-37191 Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany); Klaasen, Kenneth P.; Yeomans, Donald K. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory/Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); McFadden, Lucy A. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Meech, Karen J. [Institute for Astronomy, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Schultz, Peter H. [Department of Geological Sciences, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912 (United States); Thomas, Peter C.; Veverka, Joseph [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Groussin, Olivier [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille, Universite d' Aix-Marseille and CNRS, UMR7326, 38 rue F. Joliot-Curie, F-13388 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Lisse, Carey M., E-mail: ma@astro.umd.edu [Space Department, JHU-APL, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); and others

    2012-10-10

    We describe recent results on the CO/CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O composition of comets together with a survey of older literature (primarily for CO/H{sub 2}O) and compare these with models of the protoplanetary disk. Even with the currently small sample, there is a wide dispersion in abundance ratios and little if any systematic difference between Jupiter-family comets (JFCs) and long-period and Halley-type comets (LPCs and HTCs). We argue that the cometary observations require reactions on grain surfaces to convert CO to CO{sub 2} and also require formation of all types of comets in largely, but not entirely, overlapping regions, probably between the CO and CO{sub 2} snow lines. Any difference in the regions of formation is in the opposite direction from the classical picture with the JFCs having formed closer to the Sun than the LPCs. In the classical picture, the LPCs formed in the region of the giant planets and the JFCs formed in the Kuiper Belt. However, these data suggest, consistent with suggestions on dynamical grounds, that the JFCs and LPCs formed in largely overlapping regions where the giant planets are today and with JFCs on average forming slightly closer to the Sun than did the LPCs. Presumably at least the JFCs passed through the scattered disk on their way to their present dynamical family.

  6. COMETARY VOLATILES AND THE ORIGIN OF COMETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A'Hearn, Michael F.; Feaga, Lori M.; Sunshine, Jessica M.; Besse, Sebastien; Bodewits, Dennis; Farnham, Tony L.; Kelley, Michael S.; Keller, H. Uwe; Kawakita, Hideyo; Hampton, Donald L.; Kissel, Jochen; Klaasen, Kenneth P.; Yeomans, Donald K.; McFadden, Lucy A.; Meech, Karen J.; Schultz, Peter H.; Thomas, Peter C.; Veverka, Joseph; Groussin, Olivier; Lisse, Carey M.

    2012-01-01

    We describe recent results on the CO/CO 2 /H 2 O composition of comets together with a survey of older literature (primarily for CO/H 2 O) and compare these with models of the protoplanetary disk. Even with the currently small sample, there is a wide dispersion in abundance ratios and little if any systematic difference between Jupiter-family comets (JFCs) and long-period and Halley-type comets (LPCs and HTCs). We argue that the cometary observations require reactions on grain surfaces to convert CO to CO 2 and also require formation of all types of comets in largely, but not entirely, overlapping regions, probably between the CO and CO 2 snow lines. Any difference in the regions of formation is in the opposite direction from the classical picture with the JFCs having formed closer to the Sun than the LPCs. In the classical picture, the LPCs formed in the region of the giant planets and the JFCs formed in the Kuiper Belt. However, these data suggest, consistent with suggestions on dynamical grounds, that the JFCs and LPCs formed in largely overlapping regions where the giant planets are today and with JFCs on average forming slightly closer to the Sun than did the LPCs. Presumably at least the JFCs passed through the scattered disk on their way to their present dynamical family.

  7. Comet assay. Pt.1. Theory and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruszewski, M.; Wojewodzka, M.; Iwanenko, T.

    1996-01-01

    Comet assay is a new method for measuring DNA breakage in a single cell. The main applications of the method are estimation of DNA single and double strand breaks, oxidative damage, pyrimidine dimers and (6-4)photoproducts, DNA-DNA and DNA-protein crosslinks. The method is used for studying DNA damage and its repair. (author).19 refs, 9 figs

  8. Comet C/2001 A1 (Linear)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blythe, M.; Dawson, M.; Kornos, L.; Koleny, P.; Kotková, Lenka; Tichá, J.; Tichý, M.

    č. 7561 (2001), s. 1 ISSN 0081-0304 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/99/0255 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : comet s * astrometry Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  9. Comet C/2001 Q1 (Neat)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lawrence, K. J.; Helin, E. F.; Pravdo, S. H.; Pravec, Petr; Kušnirák, Peter; Kočer, M.; Spahr, T. B.

    č. 7685 (2001), s. 1 ISSN 0081-0304 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/99/0255 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : comet s * astrometry Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  10. Comet P/2001 T3 (Neat)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lawrence, K. J.; Pravdo, S. H.; Helin, E. F.; Pravec, Petr; Kušnirák, Peter; Tichá, J.; Tichý, M.; Jelínek, P.

    č. 7733 (2001), s. 1 ISSN 0081-0304 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/99/0255 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : comet s * astrometry Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  11. Comet P/2001 MD 7 (Linear)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blythe, M.; Kotková, Lenka; Marsden, B. G.

    č. 7660 (2001), s. 1 ISSN 0081-0304 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/99/0255 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : comet s * astrometry Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  12. New Application of the Comet Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Gutiérrez, Elva I.; Dávila-Rodríguez, Martha I.; Fernández, José Luís; López-Fernández, Carmen; Gosálbez, Altea; Gosálvez, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    The comet assay is a well-established, simple, versatile, visual, rapid, and sensitive tool used extensively to assess DNA damage and DNA repair quantitatively and qualitatively in single cells. The comet assay is most frequently used to analyze white blood cells or lymphocytes in human biomonitoring studies, although other cell types have been examined, including buccal, nasal, epithelial, and placental cells and even spermatozoa. This study was conducted to design a protocol that can be used to generate comets in subnuclear units, such as chromosomes. The new technique is based on the chromosome isolation protocols currently used for whole chromosome mounting in electron microscopy, coupled to the alkaline variant of the comet assay, to detect DNA damage. The results show that migrant DNA fragments can be visualized in whole nuclei and isolated chromosomes and that they exhibit patterns of DNA migration that depend on the level of DNA damage produced. This protocol has great potential for the highly reproducible study of DNA damage and repair in specific chromosomal domains. PMID:21540337

  13. Comet C/2001 A2 (Linear)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pravec, Petr; Kotková, Lenka; Tichý, M.; Kočer, M.

    č. 7564 (2001), s. 1 ISSN 0081-0304 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/99/0255 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : comet s * astrometry Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  14. Comet C/2001 Q6 (Neat)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pravdo, S. H.; Helin, E. F.; Lawrence, K. J.; Tichý, M.; Kotková, Lenka; Wolf, M.; Balam, D.; Shelus, P. J.

    č. 7698 (2001), s. 1 ISSN 0081-0304 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/99/0255 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : comet s * astrometry Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  15. Report of Some Comets: The Discovery of Uranus and Comets by William, Caroline, and John Herschel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Olson, R. J. M.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the discovery and drawings of comets by William, Caroline, and John Herschel. The first discovery, by William Herschel, in 1781 from Bath, published in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society with the title "Report of a Comet," turned out to be Uranus, the first planet ever discovered, Mercury through Saturn having been known since antiquity. William's sister Caroline was given duties of sweeping the skies and turned out to be a discoverer of 8 comets in her own right, in addition to keeping William's notes. Caroline's comets were discovered from Slough between 1786 and 1797. In the process, we also discuss original documents from the archives of the Royal Society and of the Royal Astronomical Society. We conclude by showing comet drawings that we have recently attributed to John Herschel, including Halley's Comet from 1836, recently located in the Ransom Center of the University of Texas at Austin. Acknowledgments: Planetary astronomy at Williams College is supported in part by grant NNX08AO50G from NASA Planetary Astronomy. We thank Peter Hingley of the Royal Astronomical Society and Richard Oram of the Harry Ransom Center of The University of Texas at Austin for their assistance.

  16. Results of the first continuous meteor head echo survey at polar latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schult, Carsten; Stober, Gunter; Janches, Diego; Chau, Jorge L.

    2017-11-01

    We present the first quasi continuous meteor head echo measurements obtained during a period of over two years using the Middle Atmosphere ALOMAR Radar System (MAARSY). The measurements yield information on the altitude, trajectory, vector velocity, radar cross section, deceleration and dynamical mass of every single event. The large statistical amount of nearly one million meteor head detections provide an excellent overview of the elevation, altitude, velocity and daily count rate distributions during different times of the year at polar latitudes. Only 40% of the meteors were detected within the full width half maximum of the specific sporadic meteor sources. Our observation of the sporadic meteors are compared to the observations with other radar systems and a meteor input function (MIF). The best way to compare different radar systems is by comparing the radar cross section (RCS), which is the main detection criterion for each system. In this study we aim to compare our observations with a MIF, which provides information only about the meteoroid mass. Thus, we are using a statistical approach for the elevation and velocity dependent visibility and a specific mass selection. The predicted absolute count rates from the MIF are in a good agreement with the observation when it is assumed that the radar system is only sensitive to meteoroids with masses higher than one microgram. The analysis of the dynamic masses seems to be consistent with this assumption since the count rate of events with smaller masses are low and decrease even more by using events with relatively small errors.

  17. Physical Mechanism of Comet Outbursts: The Movie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, William K.

    2014-11-01

    During experiments conducted in 1976 at the NASA Ames Research Center’s Vertical Gun Facility (VGF), the author studied low velocity impacts into simulated regolith powders and gravels, in order to examine physics of low-velocity collisions during early solar system planetesimal formation. In one “accidental” experiment, the bucket of powder remained gas-charged during evacuation of the VGF vacuum chamber. The impactor, moving at 5.5 m/s, disturbed the surface, initiating eruptions of dust-charged gas, shooting in jets from multiple vents at speeds up to about 3 m/s, with sporadic venting until 17 seconds after the impact. This experiment was described in [1], which concluded that it simulated comet eruption phenomena. In this hypothesis, a comet nucleus develops a lag deposit of regolith in at least some regions. At a certain distance from the sun, the thermal wave penetrates to an ice-rich depth, causing sublimation. Gas rises into the regolith, collects in pore spaces, and creates a gas-charged powder, as in our experiment. Any surface disturbance, such as a meteoroid, may initiate a temporary eruption, or eventually the gas pressure becomes sufficient to blow off the overburden. Our observed ejection speed would be sufficient to launch dust off of a kilometer-scale comet nucleus.Film (100 frames/s) of the event was obtained, but was partially torn up in a projector. It has recently been reconstituted (Centric Photo Labs, Tucson) and dramatically illustrates various cometary phenomena. Parabolic curtains of erupted material resemble curtains of material photographed from earth in real comet comas, “falling back” under solar wind forces. In retrospect, the mechanism photographed here helps explain:*sporadic eruptions in Comet P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1 (near-circular orbit at ~6 A.U., where repeated recharge may occur).*sporadic eruptions on “asteroid” 2060 Chiron (which stays beyond 8.5 A.U.). *the thicker dust curtain (and longer eruption?) than

  18. [Abdominal spasms, meteorism, diarrhea: fructose intolerance, lactose intolerance or IBS?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litschauer-Poursadrollah, Margaritha; El-Sayad, Sabine; Wantke, Felix; Fellinger, Christina; Jarisch, Reinhart

    2012-12-01

    Meteorism, abdominal spasms, diarrhea, casually obstipation, flatulence and nausea are symptoms of fructose malabsorption (FIT) and/or lactose intolerance (LIT), but are also symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Therefore these diseases should be considered primarily in patients with digestive complaints. For diagnosis an H(2)-breath test is used.In 1,935 patients (526 m, 1,409 f) a fructose intolerance test and in 1,739 patients (518 m,1,221 f) a lactose intolerance test was done.FIT is found more frequently than LIT (57 versus 52 % in adults (p intolerance (HIT). Headache (ca. 10 %), fatigue (ca. 5 %) and dizziness (ca. 3 %) may occur after the test, irrespective whether the test was positive or negative.In more than 2/3 of patients a diet reduced in fructose or lactose may lead to improvement or remission of these metabolic disorders. IBS, which is often correlated with FIT (183/221 patients = 83 %), can be improved by relevant but also not relevant diets indicating that irritable bowel disease seems to be caused primarily by psychological disorders.

  19. Novel Experimental Simulations of the Atmospheric Injection of Meteoric Metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gómez Martín, J. C.; Bones, D. L.; Carrillo-Sánchez, J. D.; James, A. D.; Plane, J. M. C. [School of Chemistry, University of Leeds, Woodhouse Lane, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Trigo-Rodríguez, J. M. [Meteorites, Minor Bodies and Planetary Science Group, Institute of Space Sciences (CSIC-IEEC). Campus UAB, C/Can Magrans s/n, E-08193 Cerdanyola del Vallés (Barcelona) (Spain); Fegley, B. Jr., E-mail: J.M.C.Plane@leeds.ac.uk [Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2017-02-20

    A newly developed laboratory, Meteoric Ablation Simulator (MASI), is used to test model predictions of the atmospheric ablation of interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) with experimental Na, Fe, and Ca vaporization profiles. MASI is the first laboratory setup capable of performing time-resolved atmospheric ablation simulations, by means of precision resistive heating and atomic laser-induced fluorescence detection. Experiments using meteoritic IDP analogues show that at least three mineral phases (Na-rich plagioclase, metal sulfide, and Mg-rich silicate) are required to explain the observed appearance temperatures of the vaporized elements. Low melting temperatures of Na-rich plagioclase and metal sulfide, compared to silicate grains, preclude equilibration of all the elemental constituents in a single melt. The phase-change process of distinct mineral components determines the way in which Na and Fe evaporate. Ca evaporation is dependent on particle size and on the initial composition of the molten silicate. Measured vaporized fractions of Na, Fe, and Ca as a function of particle size and speed confirm differential ablation (i.e., the most volatile elements such as Na ablate first, followed by the main constituents Fe, Mg, and Si, and finally the most refractory elements such as Ca). The Chemical Ablation Model (CABMOD) provides a reasonable approximation to this effect based on chemical fractionation of a molten silicate in thermodynamic equilibrium, even though the compositional and geometric description of IDPs is simplistic. Improvements in the model are required in order to better reproduce the specific shape of the elemental ablation profiles.

  20. Be2D: A model to understand the distribution of meteoric 10Be in soilscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campforts, Benjamin; Vanacker, Veerle; Vanderborght, Jan; Govers, Gerard

    2016-04-01

    Cosmogenic nuclides have revolutionised our understanding of earth surface process rates. They have become one of the standard tools to quantify soil production by weathering, soil redistribution and erosion. Especially Beryllium-10 has gained much attention due to its long half-live and propensity to be relatively conservative in the landscape. The latter makes 10Be an excellent tool to assess denudation rates over the last 1000 to 100 × 103 years, bridging the anthropogenic and geological time scale. Nevertheless, the mobility of meteoric 10Be in soil systems makes translation of meteoric 10Be inventories into erosion and deposition rates difficult. Here we present a coupled soil hillslope model, Be2D, that is applied to synthetic and real topography to address the following three research questions. (i) What is the influence of vertical meteoric Be10 mobility, caused by chemical mobility, clay translocation and bioturbation, on its lateral redistribution over the soilscape, (ii) How does vertical mobility influence erosion rates and soil residence times inferred from meteoric 10Be inventories and (iii) To what extent can a tracer with a half-life of 1.36 Myr be used to distinguish between natural and human-disturbed soil redistribution rates? The model architecture of Be2D is designed to answer these research questions. Be2D is a dynamic model including physical processes such as soil formation, physical weathering, clay migration, bioturbation, creep, overland flow and tillage erosion. Pathways of meteoric 10Be mobility are simulated using a two step approach which is updated each timestep. First, advective and diffusive mobility of meteoric 10Be is simulated within the soil profile and second, lateral redistribution because of lateral soil fluxes is calculated. The performance and functionality of the model is demonstrated through a number of synthetic and real model runs using existing datasets of meteoric 10Be from case-studies in southeastern US. Brute

  1. Unveiling the formation and evolution of comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasue, J.; Levasseur-Regourd, A. C.; Botet, R.; Coradini, A.; Desanctis, M. C.; Kofman, W.

    2007-08-01

    Comet nuclei are considered as the most pristine bodies of the solar system and consequently their study sheds an important light on the processes occurring during the initial stages of the solar system formation. The analysis of the porosity and bulk density of such primordial bodies is especially important to understand their capacity to retain volatile components (organics and ices) present in the early solar nebula. Typical tensile strengths deduced for comet nuclei range from below 102N.m-2 from the Deep Impact mission [1] up to 104N.m-2 from the study of comet C/1999 S4 LINEAR breakup [2] and meteoroids [3]. A bulk density of about 350 kg/m3 has been obtained for 9P/Tempel 1 from the Deep Impact mission [4]. Moreover the properties of dust released from the comets strongly confirm such values. Instruments flying-by comet 1P/Halley had discovered the presence of organics, and pointed out the dust low albedo and extremely low density while analyses of Interplanetary Dust Particles collected in the stratosphere and remote spectroscopic observations have indicated that cometary dust consists of an un-equilibrated heterogeneous mixture of organic refractory materials and of amorphous and crystalline silicate minerals [5], as recently confirmed by Stardust [6]. Observations of the solar scattered light, together with elaborate simulations, give an estimation of the mass ratio between silicates and absorbing organics, the size distribution and the structure of the dust particles, suggesting that a fair amount consists in fluffy aggregates built up from submicronic grains [7,8], as recently confirmed by the analysis of dust craters and aerogel tracks on Stardust collector showing for some large particles (up to 100 μm) an extraordinary fluffy structure [9]. Simulations have been developed in our teams to describe the aspects of comet aggregation and evolution that have not been thoroughly explained yet. Particle aggregation simulations taking into account cohesive

  2. An orbital meteoroid stream survey using the Southern Argentina Agile MEteor Radar (SAAMER) based on a wavelet approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorný, P.; Janches, D.; Brown, P. G.; Hormaechea, J. L.

    2017-07-01

    Over a million individually measured meteoroid orbits were collected with the Southern Argentina Agile MEteor Radar (SAAMER) between 2012-2015. This provides a robust statistical database to perform an initial orbital survey of meteor showers in the Southern Hemisphere via the application of a 3D wavelet transform. The method results in a composite year from all 4 years of data, enabling us to obtain an undisturbed year of meteor activity with more than one thousand meteors per day. Our automated meteor shower search methodology identified 58 showers. Of these showers, 24 were associated with previously reported showers from the IAU catalogue while 34 showers are new and not listed in the catalogue. Our searching method combined with our large data sample provides unprecedented accuracy in measuring meteor shower activity and description of shower characteristics in the Southern Hemisphere. Using simple modeling and clustering methods we also propose potential parent bodies for the newly discovered showers.

  3. ESA Unveils Its New Comet Chaser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-07-01

    The objective is to study one of these primordial objects at close quarters by placing a lander on its surface and chasing, with an orbiter, the comet for millions of kilometres through space. Comets - among the oldest (4.6 billion years!) and last altered objects in the solar system - are regarded as the building blocks from which the planets formed. Thus the Rosetta's discoveries will allow the scientists to learn more about birth and evolution of the planets and about the origin of life on the Earth. The final design of the Rosetta orbiter will be revealed for the first time at the Royal Society in London on 1 July when a 1:4 scale model will be unveiled by ESA's Director of Science, Prof.. Roger Bonnet. (The full size version of the spacecraft is 32 metres across, so large that it would stretch the entire width of a football pitch. Almost 90 of this is accounted for by the giant solar panels which are needed to provide electrical power in the dark depths of the Solar System). "Rosetta is a mission of major scientific importance," said Prof. Bonnet. "It will build on the discoveries made by Giotto and confirm ESA's leading role in the exploration of the Solar System and the Universe as a whole." The timing of this event has been chosen to coincide with the London meeting of the Rosetta Science Working Team and the second Earth flyby of the now non-operational Giotto spacecraft. In addition, the opening of the British Museum's 'Cracking Codes' Exhibition, for which the Rosetta Stone is the centrepiece, is set to take place on 10 July. The Rosetta mission. Rosetta is the third Cornerstone in ESA's 'Horizon 2000' long-term scientific programme. It will be launched by Ariane 5 rocket from Kourou spaceport in French Guiana in January 2003. In order to gain sufficient speed to reach the distant comet, Rosetta will require gravity assists from the Earth (twice) and Mars. After swinging around Mars in May 2005, Rosetta will return to Earth's vicinity in October 2005 and

  4. Photochemical versus biological production of methyl iodide during Meteor 55

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, U.; Wallace, D.

    2003-04-01

    The flux of methyl iodide from sea to air represents the largest flux of iodine from the ocean to the atmosphere. Surface water concentrations and hence fluxes are particularly high in tropical regions. This flux may be responsible for the enrichment of iodine in the marine aerosol and may contribute to important processes in the marine boundary layer, including particle formation. Methyl iodide is commonly referred to as a biogenic gas, with both macroalgae and phytoplankton identified as important sources. On the other hand experimental and field data have shown the importance of photochemical production that is not necessarily associated directly with biological activity. During the Meteor cruise 55 along 11°N in the tropical Atlantic Ocean, a series of experiments were conducted to examine the biological vs. photochemical production of methyl iodide. A total of eight separate experiments were conducted. Production of CH3I in quartz glass flasks during 24 hour incubations (dark and natural sunlight) was measured under three experimental treatments: untreated seawater, filtered seawater (0.1 um pore size filter to exclude most phytoplankton and bacteria), and seawater that was poisoned with mercuric chloride. There were two clear findings from these experiments: (1) methyl iodide production was significantly higher in all the incubations that were exposed to the light than in the dark incubations; (2) there was no significant difference between CH3I production under the three experimental treatments. These results argue very strongly for the primary importance of photochemical production of CH3I as opposed to biogenic production at least for the tropical open ocean surface waters. Further experiments are required to investigate the reactants involved, their sources, the wavelength and depth dependence of production, etc. as well as (possibly related) sink processes.

  5. Simulating the mobility of meteoric 10Be in the landscape through a coupled soil-hillslope model (Be2D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campforts, Benjamin; Vanacker, Veerle; Vanderborght, Jan; Baken, Stijn; Smolders, Erik; Govers, Gerard

    2016-04-01

    Meteoric 10Be allows for the quantification of vertical and lateral soil fluxes over long time scales (103-105 yr). However, the mobility of meteoric 10Be in the soil system makes a translation of meteoric 10Be inventories into erosion and deposition rates complex. Here, we present a spatially explicit 2D model simulating the behaviour of meteoric 10Be on a hillslope. The model consists of two parts. The first component deals with advective and diffusive mobility of meteoric 10Be within the soil profile, and the second component describes lateral soil and meteoric 10Be fluxes over the hillslope. Soil depth is calculated dynamically, accounting for soil production through weathering as well as downslope fluxes of soil due to creep, water and tillage erosion. Synthetic model simulations show that meteoric 10Be inventories can be related to erosion and deposition across a wide range of geomorphological and pedological settings. Our results also show that meteoric 10Be can be used as a tracer to detect human impact on soil fluxes for soils with a high affinity for meteoric 10Be. However, the quantification of vertical mobility is essential for a correct interpretation of the observed variations in meteoric 10Be profiles and inventories. Application of the Be2D model to natural conditions using data sets from the Southern Piedmont (Bacon et al., 2012) and Appalachian Mountains (Jungers et al., 2009; West et al., 2013) allows to reliably constrain parameter values. Good agreement between simulated and observed meteoric 10Be concentrations and inventories is obtained with realistic parameter values. Furthermore, our results provide detailed insights into the processes redistributing meteoric 10Be at the soil-hillslope scale.

  6. Identification of irradiated pepper with comet assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto Miranda, Enrique Fco.; Moreno Alvarez, Damaris L.; Carro Palacio, Sandra; Iglesia Enriquez, Isora

    2007-01-01

    The treatment of foods with ionizing radiations is a technological process utilized in order to increase the hygienic quality and the storage time of the foods. Several methods of detection of irradiated foods have been recommended. The comet assay of DNA is one fast and economical technique for the qualitative identification of irradiated foods. The objective of the present paper was to identify with the comet assay technique the modifications of the DNA molecule of irradiated pepper storage at environment and refrigeration temperatures and different post-irradiation times for different absorbed dose values, (0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 kGy). It was demonstrated that for the high absorbed dose values was observed a greater break into fragments of the DNA molecule, which shows the application of this technique for the identification of irradiated foods. (author)

  7. Comet assay on tetraploid yeast cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rank, Jette; Syberg, Kristian; Jensen, Klara

    2009-01-01

    Tetraploid yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) were used in the comet assay with the intention of developing a new, fast and easy assay for detecting environmental genotoxic agents without using higher organisms. Two DNA-damaging chemicals, H2O2 and acrylamide, together with wastewater from...... three municipal treatment plants were tested for their effect on the yeast-cell DNA. The main problem with using yeast in the comet assay is the necessity to degrade the cell wall. This was achieved by using Zymolase 100 T twice during the procedure, since Zymolase 20 T did not open the cell wall....... Analytical problems that arose due to the small amount of DNA in the yeast nuclei in haploid and diploid cells, which contain 13 Mbp and 26 Mbp DNA per cell, respectively, were solved by using tetraploid yeast cells (52 Mbp) instead. DNA damage was shown after exposure to H2O2 and acrylamide. The lowest dose...

  8. On the photometric parameters of comet Halley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, I.

    1984-12-01

    Halley's comet is one of the brightest comets in the absolute sense. The paper describes the expectations about its brightness parameters, and the main physical properties of the nucleus can be derived from photometry up to the last opposition. Results were obtained relating to the decrease of absolute magnitude and the possible period of brightness fluctuation according to data obtained at CFHT on 4 th Feb. 1984. The slope of decrease of absolute magnitude is about 0.17 magnitude per revolution. On 4th Feb. 1984, the brightness fluctuations had a period about 9.0+-0.5 hr but it seems that the general form of fluctuations on a large time-scale is not a clear sinosoidal shape, and the most probable periods are between 9 and 48 hrs. (author)

  9. The cyanogen band of Comet Halley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatum, J. B.; Campbell, E. C.

    The results of improved whole disk solar irradiance spectrum calculations performed for projected Halley's Comet heliocentric radial velocity and distance are provided. The computations were carried out to account for Doppler effects in the Fraunhofer lines of rotational excitation bands of violet CN emissions from the comet in its encounters with solar radiation. The calculations spanned every half-day for 200 days before and after perihelion. The 801 computer images of the expected intensities were photographed in sequence to form an animated film paced by background music from Liszt's Second Hungarian Rhapsody. The results are intended for accounting for spectral changes observed due to Doppler effects induced by changing velocity and distance, rather than physical mechanisms of the emitting processes.

  10. Eclipses, transits, and comets of the nineteenth century how America's perception of the skies changed

    CERN Document Server

    Cottam, Stella

    2015-01-01

    Grabbing the attention of poets, politicians and the general public alike, a series of spectacular astronomical events in the late 1800s galvanized Americans to take a greater interest in astronomy than ever before. At a time when the sciences were not yet as well established in the United States as they were in Europe, this public interest and support provided the growing scientific community in the United States with the platform they needed to advance the field of astronomy in the United States.   Earlier in the 19th century comets, meteors and the discovery of the planet Neptune were all sources of inspiration to the general public. The specific events to be considered here are the total solar eclipses of 1868, 1869 and 1878 and the transits of Venus of 1874 and 1882. The available media responded to public interest as well as generating more interest. These events laid the groundwork that led to today's thriving network of American amateur astronomers, and provide a fascinating look at earlier conc...

  11. Systematic random sampling of the comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArt, Darragh G; Wasson, Gillian R; McKerr, George; Saetzler, Kurt; Reed, Matt; Howard, C Vyvyan

    2009-07-01

    The comet assay is a technique used to quantify DNA damage and repair at a cellular level. In the assay, cells are embedded in agarose and the cellular content is stripped away leaving only the DNA trapped in an agarose cavity which can then be electrophoresed. The damaged DNA can enter the agarose and migrate while the undamaged DNA cannot and is retained. DNA damage is measured as the proportion of the migratory 'tail' DNA compared to the total DNA in the cell. The fundamental basis of these arbitrary values is obtained in the comet acquisition phase using fluorescence microscopy with a stoichiometric stain in tandem with image analysis software. Current methods deployed in such an acquisition are expected to be both objectively and randomly obtained. In this paper we examine the 'randomness' of the acquisition phase and suggest an alternative method that offers both objective and unbiased comet selection. In order to achieve this, we have adopted a survey sampling approach widely used in stereology, which offers a method of systematic random sampling (SRS). This is desirable as it offers an impartial and reproducible method of comet analysis that can be used both manually or automated. By making use of an unbiased sampling frame and using microscope verniers, we are able to increase the precision of estimates of DNA damage. Results obtained from a multiple-user pooled variation experiment showed that the SRS technique attained a lower variability than that of the traditional approach. The analysis of a single user with repetition experiment showed greater individual variances while not being detrimental to overall averages. This would suggest that the SRS method offers a better reflection of DNA damage for a given slide and also offers better user reproducibility.

  12. Comet C/2012 S1 (Ison)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granslo, B. H.; Nakano, S.

    2013-12-01

    16.88 16 11 31.6 +19 45 05 0.07+ 0.14+ 15.5 Unsuccessful visual searches for the comet, with estimated limiting magnitudes: Dec. 4.26 UT, [8.0 (B. H. Granslo, Roverkollen, Oslo, Norway, 0.08-m refractor; altitude 5 degrees in twilight); Dec. 8.8, [10.6 (Akie Hashimoto, Chichibu, Saitama-ken, Japan, 25x150 binoculars; communicated by S. Nakano, Sumoto, Japan).

  13. Comets: Role and importance to exobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delsemme, Armand H.

    1992-01-01

    The transfer of organic compounds from interstellar space to the outskirts of a protoplanetary disk, their accretion into cometary objects, and the transport of the latter into the inner solar system by orbital diffusion throw a new light on the central problem of exobiology. It suggests the existence of a cosmic mechanism, working everywhere, that can supply prebiotic compounds to ubiquitous rocky planets, in search of the proper environment to start life in many places in the Universe. Under the heading of chemistry of the cometary nucleus, the following topics are covered: radial homogeneity of the nucleus; the dust-to-ice ratio; nature of the dust grains; origin of the dust in comets; nature of the volatile fraction; the CO distribution in comet Halley; dust contribution to the volatile fraction; elemental balance sheet of comet Halley; quantitative molecular analysis of the volatile fraction; and isotopic ratios. Under the heading of exogenous origin of carbon on terrestrial planets the following topics are covered: evidence for a high-temperature phase; from planetesimals to planets; a veneer of volatile and organic material; and cometary contribution.

  14. Comet Halley: An optical continuum study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoban, S.M.

    1989-01-01

    From an analysis of narrowband CCD images of Comet Halley from 1986 January, March, and April, certain dust structures which are redder than the remainder of the dust coma have become apparent. Mie calculations suggest that this reddening is due to an enhancement of particles with sizes comparable to the observing wavelengths. Although the mass range derived from the calculations presented here is somewhat uncertain as a result of the limitations of Mie theory, these values are in the expected range derived from the calculations presented here is somewhat uncertain as a result of particle sizes which would be both sensitive to radiation pressure and significantly reddened with respect to the solar spectrum at the observing wavelengths. Thus, the red envelopes are plausibly the result of size sorting by solar radiation pressure. The red jets observed on 1986 January 10, March 1 and March 9 can then be explained by the enhanced dust flux at the jet sources, and the subsequent trapping of a relative excess of intermediate mass (i.e. red) particles into the jets which are visible in the continuum images. Analysis of narrowband photometry of the optical continuum of Comet Halley reveals no correlation between the color of the dust and heliocentric distance, phase angle, strength of the continuum or gas-to-dust ratio. The photometric data are thus consistent with a post-ejection sorting mechanism. Chemical inhomogeneities of the nucleus are therefore not necessary to explain the observed structure in the color of the dust in Comet Halley

  15. The C-12/C-13 abundance ratio in Comet Halley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyckoff, S.; Lindholm, E.; Wehinger, P.A.; Peterson, B.A.; Zucconi, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    The individual (C-13)N rotational lines in Comet Halley are resolved using high-resolution spectra of the CN B2Sigma(+)-X2Sigma(+) (0,0) band. The observe C-12/C-13 abundance ratio excludes a site of origin for the comet near Uranus and Neptune and suggests a condensation environment quite distinct from other solar system bodies. Two theories are presented for the origin of Comet Halley. One theory suggest that the comet originated 4.5 Gyr ago in an inner Oort cloud at a heliocentric distance greater than 100 AU where chemical fractionation led to the C-13 enrichment in the CN parent molecule prior to condensation of the comet nucleus. According to the other, more plausible theory, the comet nucleus condensed relatively recently from the interstellar medium which has become enriches in C-13 and was subsequently gravitationally captured by the solar system. 107 refs

  16. Solar wind interaction with type-1 comet tails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ershkovich, A.I.

    1977-01-01

    A comet tail is considered as a plasma cylinder separated by a tangential discontinuity surface from the solar wind. Under typical conditions a comet tail boundary is shown to undergo the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. With infinite amplitude the stabilizing effect of the magnetic field increases, and waves become stable. The proposed model supplies the detailed quantitative description of helical waves observed in type-1 comet tails. This theory enables the evaluation of the comet tail magnetic field by means of the observations of helical waves. The magnetic field in the comet tail turns out to be of the order of the interplanetary field. This conclusion seems to be in accordance with Alfven's idea that the magnetic field in type-1 comet tails is a captured interplanetary field. (Auth.)

  17. Nucleus of Comet IRAS-Araki-Alcock (1983 VII)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekanina, Z.

    1988-01-01

    Optical, radar, infrared, UV, and microwave-continuum observations of Comet IRAS-Araki-Alcok were obtained in May 1983, the week of the comet's close approach to earth. The comet has a nucleus dimension and a rotation period which are similar to those of Comet Halley, but a different morphological signature (a persisting sunward fan-shaped coma). Time variations are noted in the projected nucleus cross section. Results suggest significant limb-darkening effects in the relevant domains of radio waves, and that the comet's interior must be extremely cold. It is found that the thermal-infrared fluxes from the inner coma of the comet are dominated by the nucleus. 63 references

  18. Stardust: Catching a Comet and Bringing it Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownlee, Donald E.

    2007-01-01

    The NASA STARDUST mission collected thousands of particles from Comet Wild 2 that are now being studied by two hundred scientists around the world. The spacecraft captured the samples during a close flyby of the comet in 2004 and returned them to Earth with a dramatic entry into the atmosphere early in 2006. The precious cargo of comet dust is being studied to determine new information about the origin of the Sun and planets. The comet formed at the edge of the solar system, beyond the orbit of Neptune, and is a sample of the material from which the solar system was formed. One of the most dramatic early findings from the mission was that a comet that formed in the coldest place in the solar system contained minerals that formed in the hottest place in the solar system. The comet samples are telling stories of fire and ice and they providing fascinating and unexpected information about our origins.

  19. METEOR: An Enterprise Health Informatics Environment to Support Evidence-Based Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puppala, Mamta; He, Tiancheng; Chen, Shenyi; Ogunti, Richard; Yu, Xiaohui; Li, Fuhai; Jackson, Robert; Wong, Stephen T C

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose the design and implementation of next-generation enterprise analytics platform developed at the Houston Methodist Hospital (HMH) system to meet the market and regulatory needs of the healthcare industry. For this goal, we developed an integrated clinical informatics environment, i.e., Methodist environment for translational enhancement and outcomes research (METEOR). The framework of METEOR consists of two components: the enterprise data warehouse (EDW) and a software intelligence and analytics (SIA) layer for enabling a wide range of clinical decision support systems that can be used directly by outcomes researchers and clinical investigators to facilitate data access for the purposes of hypothesis testing, cohort identification, data mining, risk prediction, and clinical research training. Data and usability analysis were performed on METEOR components as a preliminary evaluation, which successfully demonstrated that METEOR addresses significant niches in the clinical informatics area, and provides a powerful means for data integration and efficient access in supporting clinical and translational research. METEOR EDW and informatics applications improved outcomes, enabled coordinated care, and support health analytics and clinical research at HMH. The twin pressures of cost containment in the healthcare market and new federal regulations and policies have led to the prioritization of the meaningful use of electronic health records in the United States. EDW and SIA layers on top of EDW are becoming an essential strategic tool to healthcare institutions and integrated delivery networks in order to support evidence-based medicine at the enterprise level.

  20. Unusual Radar Echo from the Wake of Meteor Fireball in Nearly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Sook Lee

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The summer polar lower thermosphere (90–100 km has an interesting connection to meteors, adjacent to the mesopause region attaining the lowest temperature in summer. Meteors supply condensation nuclei for charged ice particles causing polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSE. We report the observation of meteor trail with nearly horizontal transit at high speed (20–50 km/s, and at last with re-enhanced echo power followed by diffusive echoes. Changes in phase difference between radar receivers aligned in meridional and zonal directions are used to determine variations in horizontal displacements and speeds with respect to time by taking advantage of radar interferometric analysis. The actual transit of echo target is observed along the straight pathway vertically and horizontally extended as much as a distance of at least 24 km and at most 29 km. The meteor trail initially has a signature similar to ‘head echoes’, with travel speeds from 20 – 50 km/s. It subsequently transforms into a different type of echo target including specular echo and then finally the power reenhanced. The reenhancement of echo power is followed by fume-like diffusive echoes, indicating sudden release of plasma as like explosive process probably involved. We discuss a possible role of meteor-triggered secondary plasma trail, such as fireball embedded with electrical discharge that continuously varies the power and transit speed.

  1. Giacobini-Zinner comet: polarimetric and physical observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martel, M.T.; Maines, P.; Grudzinska, S.; Stawikowski, A.

    1984-10-01

    The results of observations of the Giacobini-Zinner comet on 25 and 31 October 1959 are presented. The magnitude of the comet was measured photoelectrically in two spectral regions. The radius is on the order of one kilometer. The photoelectric measurements of comets 1959b and 1957c were used to measure the abundances of the CN and C2 radicals and of solid particles in the heads

  2. Reservoirs for Comets: Compositional Differences Based on Infrared Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disanti, Michael A.; Mumma, Michael J.

    Tracing measured compositions of comets to their origins continues to be of keen interest to cometary scientists and to dynamical modelers of Solar System formation and evolution. This requires building a taxonomy of comets from both present-day dynamical reservoirs: the Kuiper Belt (hereafter KB), sampled through observation of ecliptic comets (primarily Jupiter Family comets, or JFCs), and the Oort cloud (OC), represented observationally by the long-period comets and by Halley Family comets (HFCs). Because of their short orbital periods, JFCs are subjected to more frequent exposure to solar radiation compared with OC comets. The recent apparitions of the JFCs 9P/Tempel 1 and 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 permitted detailed observations of material issuing from below their surfaces—these comets added significantly to the compositional database on this dynamical class, which is under-represented in studies of cometary parent volatiles. This chapter reviews the latest techniques developed for analysis of high-resolution spectral observations from ˜2-5 μm, and compares measured abundances of native ices among comets. While no clear compositional delineation can be drawn along dynamical lines, interesting comparisons can be made. The sub-surface composition of comet 9P, as revealed by the Deep Impact ejecta, was similar to the majority of OC comets studied. Meanwhile, 73P was depleted in all native ices except HCN, similar to the disintegrated OC comet C/1999 S4 (LINEAR). These results suggest that 73P may have formed in the inner giant planets' region while 9P formed farther out or, alternatively, that both JFCs formed farther from the Sun but with 73P forming later in time.

  3. The persistent coma of Comet P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jewitt, D.

    1990-01-01

    Time-series photometry of Comet P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1 in both 1987 and 1988 shows that this comet is continually active despite its large heliocentric distance. The observed activity, upon which the famous outbursts of this comet are superposed, may be driven by the sublimation of crystalline water ice at the nucleus surface. A simple model which accounts for both the continuous activity and the sporadic outbursts is suggested. 34 refs

  4. Hyakutake, Hale-Bopp and the chemistry of comets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachiller, R.; Planesas, P.

    1997-01-01

    Comets can be regarded as messengers from the primitive solar system which can provide precious pieces of information on the composition of the protosolar nebula. Physical and chemical phenomena within comets (shock waves, photodissociation caused by solar radiation, some endothermic chemical reactions, etc) are of the highest interest and cannot be reproduced at terrestrial laboratories in many cases. The passage of Hyakutake in 1996 and that of Hale-Bopp in 1997 are allowing remarkable progress in the understanding of the physico-chemistry of comets. Observations of such comets can be crucial in the study of the origin of life on Earth. (Author)

  5. Comet West: a view from the HELIOS zodiacal light photometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benensohn, R.M.; Jackson, B.V.

    1987-01-01

    Comet West passed through perihelion on February 25, 1976. The comet crossed the HELIOS A and B spacecraft zodiacal light photometer fields of view as the spacecraft orbited the Sun, allowing them to record the brightness, polarization, and color of the comet and its surrounding interplanetary medium. Data from the U, B, and V photometers across the tail shows a distinct bluing followed by a slight reddening corresponding to the ion and dust tails, respectively, entering the field of view. The non-Earth perspective of the HELIOS photometers allows a comparison of the tail with Earth observations at the same time. Precise location of the nucleus and tail allow the photometer data to be searched for evidence of the comet bow shock and orbital dust. A brightness bump present in the data before the comet reaches some photometer positions, can be shown to approximately form a parabolic shape Sunward and ahead of the orbital motion of the Comet West nucleus. If this is the comet bow shock or bow compression, then it corresponds to a density enhancement of the ambient medium by 1.5 to 2 times in the vicinity of the comet. The distance of the brightness increase from the nucleus by comparison with Comet Halley implies a neutral gas production rate of approximately 3 times that of Halley

  6. X-rays from comets - a surprising discovery

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2000-01-01

    Comets are kilometre-size aggregates of ice and dust, which remained from the formation of the solar system. It was not obvious to expect X-ray emission from such objects. Nevertheless, when comet Hyakutake (C/1996 B2) was observed with the ROSAT X-ray satellite during its close approach to Earth in March 1996, bright X-ray emission from this comet was discovered. This finding triggered a search in archival ROSAT data for comets, which might have accidentally crossed the field of view during observations of unrelated targets. To increase the surprise even more, X-ray emission was detected from four additional comets, which were optically 300 to 30 000 times fainter than Hyakutake. For one of them, comet Arai (C/1991 A2), X-ray emission was even found in data which were taken six weeks before the comet was optically discovered. These findings showed that comets represent a new class of celestial X-ray sources. The subsequent detection of X-ray emission from several other comets in dedicated observations confir...

  7. Studying Short-Period Comets and Long-Period Comets Detected by WISE/NEOWISE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Emily A.; Fernández, Yanga R.; Bauer, James M.; Stevenson, Rachel; Mainzer, Amy K.; Grav, Tommy; Masiero, Joseph; Walker, Russell G.; Lisse, Carey M.

    2014-11-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission surveyed the sky in four infrared wavelength bands (3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22-micron) between January 2010 and February 2011 [1, 2]. During the mission, WISE serendipitously observed 160 comets, including 21 newly discovered objects. About 89 of the comets observed by WISE displayed a significant dust tail in the 12 and 22-micron (thermal emission) bands, showing a wide range of activity levels and dust morphology. Since the observed objects are a mix of both long-period comets (LPCs) and short-period comets (SPCs), differences in their activity can be used to better understand the thermal evolution that each of these populations has undergone. For the comets that displayed a significant dust tail, we have estimated the sizes and ages of the particles using dynamical models based on the Finson-Probstein method [3, 4]. For a selection of 40 comets, we have then compared these models to the data using a novel tail-fitting method that allows the best-fit model to be chosen analytically rather than subjectively. For comets that were observed multiple times by WISE, the dust tail particle properties were estimated separately, and then compared. We find that the dust tails of both LPCs and SPCs are primarily comprised of ~mm to cm sized particles, which were the result of emission that occurred several months to several years prior to the observations. The LPCs nearly all have strong dust emission close to the comet's perihelion distance, and the SPCs mostly have strong dust emission close to perihelion, but some have strong dust emission well before perihelion. Acknowledgments: This publication makes use of data products from (1) WISE, which is a joint project of UCLA and JPL/Caltech, funded by NASA; and (2) NEOWISE, which is a project of JPL/Caltech, funded by the Planetary Science Division of NASA. EK was supported by a NASA Earth and Space Sciences Fellowship. RS gratefully acknowledges support from the NASA

  8. The extra-atmospheric masses of small meteoric fireballs from the Prairie and the Canadian camera networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popelenskaya, N.

    2007-08-01

    Existing methods of definition of extra-atmospheric masses of small meteoric bodies according to supervision of their movement in an atmosphere contain the certain arbitrariness. Vigorous attempts to overcome a divergence of results of calculations on the basis of various approaches often lead to physically incorrect conclusions. The output consists in patient accumulation of estimations and calculations for gradual elimination uncertainties. The equations of meteoric physics include two dimensionless parameters - factor ablation ? and factor of braking ?. In work are cited the data processing supervision of small meteors Prairie and Canadian networks, by a finding of values of parameters ? and ? with use of a method of the least squares. Also values of heights blackout a meteor which turn out from conditions of full destruction or final braking with use of the received values of ? and ? are considered. In prevailing number of supervision for considered meteors braking is insignificant. Results of calculations of height of blackout meteors confirm suitability of the approximations used in work for the description of movement of small meteors. In work results of calculation of extra-atmospheric masses with use of factor of braking for meteoric bodies of the spherical form with density of an ice and a stone are presented. On the basis of the received results discrepancy of photometric masses to values of masses of the input, received on observable braking proves to be true. In most cases received magnitude of masses essentially less photometric masses. Processing of supervision of small meteors Prairie and Canadian camera networks has shown, that the so-called photometric mass mismatches values of mass of the input, defined on observable braking. Acceptance of photometric value as the mass defining braking of a body, leads to obviously underestimated values of density of substance meteoric body. The further researches on specification of interpretation of supervision

  9. The Innisfree meteorite: Dynamical history of the orbit - Possible family of meteor bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galibina, I. V.; Terent'eva, A. K.

    1987-09-01

    Evolution of the Innisfree meteorite orbit caused by secular perturbations is studied over the time interval of 500000 yrs (from the current epoch backwards). Calculations are made by the Gauss-Halphen-Gorjatschew method taking into account perturbations from the four outer planets - Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. In the above mentioned time interval the meteorite orbit has undergone no essential transformations. The Innisfree orbit intersected in 91 cases the Earth orbit and in 94 - the Mars orbit. A system of small and large meteor bodies (producing ordinary meteors and fireballs) which may be genetically related to the Innisfree meteorite has been found, i.e. there probably exists an Innisfree family of meteor bodies.

  10. Changes of 2H and 18O enrichment of meteoric water and Pleistocene glaciation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmon, R.S.; Schwarcz, H.P.

    1981-01-01

    Isotopic data on fluid inclusions and host speleothems are presented which support the hypothesis that the deltaD-delta 18 O relationship for modern meteoric waters may have changed during the Pleistocene glacial periods in response to increased ocean surface air humidity. Palaeotemperatures for five areas of east-central North America and Bermuda, calculated assuming the present deltaDdelta 18 O meteoric water relationship for fluid inclusion waters, are observed to be too low during late Pleistocene glacial periods (in some instances falling below O 0 C) while interglacial palaeotemperatures are largely equivalent to those in the areas at present. As speleothem deposition cannot occur at subzero temperatures, a possible solution to this dilemma is a shift in the intercept of the meteoric water relationship. (U.K.)

  11. Meteor localization via statistical analysis of spatially temporal fluctuations in image sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukal, Jaromír.; Klimt, Martin; Šihlík, Jan; Fliegel, Karel

    2015-09-01

    Meteor detection is one of the most important procedures in astronomical imaging. Meteor path in Earth's atmosphere is traditionally reconstructed from double station video observation system generating 2D image sequences. However, the atmospheric turbulence and other factors cause spatially-temporal fluctuations of image background, which makes the localization of meteor path more difficult. Our approach is based on nonlinear preprocessing of image intensity using Box-Cox and logarithmic transform as its particular case. The transformed image sequences are then differentiated along discrete coordinates to obtain statistical description of sky background fluctuations, which can be modeled by multivariate normal distribution. After verification and hypothesis testing, we use the statistical model for outlier detection. Meanwhile the isolated outlier points are ignored, the compact cluster of outliers indicates the presence of meteoroids after ignition.

  12. About Catalogue of Orbit and Atmospheric Trajectory of 4500 Radio Meteors Brighter +5m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narziev, M.; Tshebotaryov, P.

    2017-09-01

    Published by this time the majority of catalogues of a radiant, speeds and elements of orbits of meteors, basically, are based on a interpretation of the given radio observations by diffraction-time a method. However the given method is applicable for processing of 15-25 % of observed meteors that leads to loss of the most part of an observed material. Besides, the error of measurement of an antiaircraft corner of a radiant σZr with increase in a corner to 60°÷70 ° will be increased in 2-3 times, and at the further increase in a corner the error grows even faster, so measurements lose meaning. In 1968-1970 in action period of the Soviet equatorial meteor expedition to Somalia, simultaneously and radio observations of meteors in HisAO from four points have been resulted. For interpretation of the radar data the bearing-time method radio method developed and applied for the first time in Tajikistan is used. This approximately twice increases number of the measured radiant and speeds. What's more, the error of measurement of an antiaircraft corner does not depend on antiaircraft distance of a radiant. The velocity of meteor is determined by the bearing-time method, and by the diffraction picture. In the catalogue along with a radiant, speeds and elements of orbits, for the first time the height, value of linear electronic density, radio magnitude and masses of each of 4500 radio meteors registered since December 1968 till May, 1969 are resulted.

  13. An Initial Meteoroid Stream Survey in the Southern Hemisphere Using the Southern Argentina Agile Meteor Radar (SAAMER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janches, D.; Hormaechea, J. L.; Brunini, C.; Hocking, W.; Fritts, D. C.

    2013-01-01

    We present in this manuscript a 4 year survey of meteor shower radiants utilizing the Southern Argentina Agile Meteor Radar (SAAMER). SAAMER, which operates at the southern most region of South America, is a new generation SKiYMET system designed with significant differences from typical meteor radars including high transmitted power and an 8-antenna transmitting array enabling large detected rates at low zenith angles. We applied the statistical methodology developed by Jones and Jones (Jones, J., Jones, W. [2006]. Month. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 367, 1050-1056) to the data collected each day and compiled the results into 1 composite representative year at 1 resolution in Solar Longitude. We then search for enhancements in the activity which last for at least 3 days and evolve temporally as is expected from a meteor shower. Using this methodology, we have identified in our data 32 shower radiants, two of which were not part of the IAU commission 22 meteor shower working list. Recently, SAAMER's capabilities were enhanced by adding two remote stations to receive meteor forward scatter signals from meteor trails and thus enable the determination of meteoroid orbital parameters. SAAMER started recording orbits in January 2012 and future surveys will focus on the search for unknown meteor streams, in particular in the southern ecliptic sky.

  14. Carbonaceous Components in the Comet Halley Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomenkova, M. N.; Chang, S.; Mukhin, L. M.

    1994-01-01

    Cometary grains containing large amounts of carbon and/or organic matter (CHON) were discovered by in situ measurements of comet Halley dust composition during VEGA and GIOTTO flyby missions. In this paper, we report the classification of these cometary, grains by means of cluster analysis, discuss the resulting compositional groups, and compare them with substances observed or hypothesized in meteorites, interplanetary dust particles, and the interstellar medium. Grains dominated by carbon and/or organic matter (CHON grains) represent approx. 22% of the total population of measured cometary dust particles. They, usually contain a minor abundance of rock-forming elements as well. Grains having organic material are relatively more abundant in the vicinity of the nucleus than in the outer regions of the coma, which suggests decomposition of the organics in the coma environment. The majority of comet Halley organic particles are multicomponent mixtures of carbon phases and organic compounds. Possibly, the cometary CHON grains may be related to kerogen material of an interstellar origin in carbonaceous meteorites. Pure carbon grains, hydrocarbons and polymers of cyanopolyynes, and multi-carbon monoxides are present in cometary dust as compositionally simple and distinctive components among a variety of others. There is no clear evidence of significant presence of pure formaldehyde or HCN polymers in Halley dust particles. The diversity of types of cometary organic compounds is consistent with the inter-stellar dust model of comets and probably reflects differences in composition of precursor dust. Preservation of this heterogeneity among submicron particles suggest the gentle formation of cometary, nucleus by aggregation of interstellar dust in the protosolar nebula without complete mixing or chemical homogenization at the submicron level.

  15. The Comet Assay: Tails of the (Unexpected. Use of the comet assay in pharmaceutical development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bas-jan Van Der Leede

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In genotoxicity testing of pharmaceuticals the rodent alkaline comet assay is being increasingly used as a second in vivo assay in addition to the in vivo micronucleus assay to mitigate in vitro positive results as recommended by regulatory guidance. In this presentation we want to give insight into the circumstances in vivo comet assay is deployed in a Genetic Toxicology Department of a pharmaceutical company. As the in vivo comet assay is a salvage assay, it means that some events have occurred in an in vitro assay and that the compound (or metabolite responsible for this signal is potentially deselected for further development. More than often the decision to perform an in vivo comet assay is at a very early stage in development and the first time that the compound will be tested in vivo at high/toxic dose levels. As almost no toxicokinetic data and tissue distribution data are available a careful design with maximizes the chances for successful mitigation is necessary. Decisions on acute or repeated dosing need to be made and arrangements for combining the in vivo comet assay with the in vivo micronucleus assay are to be considered. Often synthesis methods need to be scaled up fast to provide the required amount of compound and information on suitable formulations needs to be in place. As exposure data is crucial for interpretation of results, analytical methods need to be brought in place rapidly. An experienced multi skilled and communicative team needs to be available to deploy successfully this kind of assays at an early stage of development. We will present a few scenarios on study conduct and demonstrate how this assay can make a difference for the further development of a new drug.

  16. Planetary perturbations and the origins of short-period comets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, T.; Tremaine, S.; Duncan, M.

    1990-01-01

    To investigate the dynamical plausibility of possible sources for the short-period comets, a representative sample of comet orbits in the field of the sun and the giant planets was integrated, with the aim to determine whether the distribution of orbits from a proposed source that reach observable perihelia (q less than 2.5 AU) matches the observed distribution of short-period orbits. It is found that the majority of the short-period comets, those with orbital period P less than 20 yr (the Jupiter family), cannot arise from isotropic orbits with perihelia near Jupiter's orbit, because the resulting observable comet orbits have the wrong distribution in period, inclination, and argument of perihelion. The simulations also show that Jupiter-family comets cannot arise from isotropic orbits with perihelia in the Uranus-Neptune region. On the other hand, a source of low-inclination Neptune-crossing orbits yields a distribution of observable Jupiter-family comets that is consistent with the data in all respects. These results imply that the Jupiter-family comets arise from a disk source in the outer solar system rather than from the Oort comet cloud. 30 refs

  17. On the existence of a comet belt beyond Neptune

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    The possible existence of a comet belt in connection with the origin of the short-period comets is analysed. It is noted that the current theory - that these comets originate as near-parabolic comets captured by Jupiter and the other giant planets - implies an excessive wastage of comets lost in hyperbolic orbits, which is avoided in the present model. The following picture is predicted. Solid conglomerates up to approximately 10 18 g were formed by gravitational instabilities in the belt region (about 35 to 50 AU). A further fragmentation-accretion process led to a power-law mass distribution similar to that observed in the asteroids. Since then, close encounters between members of the belt have provoked the diffusion of some of them with the effect that they have become subject to the strong perturbations of Neptune. Of these a small number pass from one planet to the next inside and end as short-period comets. By means of a Monte Carlo method, the influence of close encounters between belt comets is then studied in relation to the diffusion of their orbits. It is concluded that if such a belt contains members with masses equal to or greater than that of Ceres, the orbital diffusion could proceed fast enough to maintain the number of observed short-period comets in a steady state. (author)

  18. Mission to a comet that could save earth

    CERN Multimedia

    Utton, T

    2003-01-01

    Scientists are going to attempt to land a probe on the comet Wirtanen. The GBP640million unmanned craft will travel four billion miles before catching up with the comet Wirtanen and launching a robotic lander called Rosetta, on to its surface (1/2 page).

  19. Ensemble Properties of Comets in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solontoi, Michael; /Adler Planetarium, Chicago; Ivezic, Zeljko; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Juric, Mario; /Harvard Coll. Observ.; Becker, Andrew C.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Jones, Lynne; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; West, Andrew A.; /Boston U.; Kent, Steve; /Fermilab; Lupton, Robert H.; /Princeton U. Observ.; Claire, Mark; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Knapp, Gillian R.; /Princeton U. Observ.; Quinn, Tom; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept. /Princeton U. Observ.

    2012-02-01

    We present the ensemble properties of 31 comets (27 resolved and 4 unresolved) observed by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). This sample of comets represents about 1 comet per 10 million SDSS photometric objects. Five-band (u, g, r, i, z) photometry is used to determine the comets colors, sizes, surface brightness profiles, and rates of dust production in terms of the Afp formalism. We find that the cumulative luminosity function for the Jupiter Family Comets in our sample is well fit by a power law of the form N(comets. The resolved comets show an extremely narrow distribution of colors (0.57 {+-} 0.05 in g - r for example), which are statistically indistinguishable from that of the Jupiter Trojans. Further, there is no evidence of correlation between color and physical, dynamical, or observational parameters for the observed comets.

  20. The exploration of Halley's comet - An example of international cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahe, Jurgen H.; Newburn, Ray L., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The history of international cooperation in studies of comets started with observations in 1577 and 1680, when Tycho Brahe and Newton, respectively, collected position measurements made in different countries to determine the paths of the comets observed. In the fall of 1979, a worldwide Comet Halley watch was proposed. As a result of international cooperation, Comet Halley was explored during its recent appearance from the ground, earth orbit, Venus orbit, interplanetary space, and from within the comet itself. The various activities in space were coordinated by the ESA, the USSR Intercosmos, the Japanese ISAS, and NASA, through the Inter-Agency Consultative Group. The activities of the ground-based observers were coordinated by the International Halley Watch.

  1. COMET Multimedia modules and objects in the digital library system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangler, T. C.; Lamos, J. P.

    2003-12-01

    Over the past ten years of developing Web- and CD-ROM-based training materials, the Cooperative Program for Operational Meteorology, Education and Training (COMET) has created a unique archive of almost 10,000 multimedia objects and some 50 web based interactive multimedia modules on various aspects of weather and weather forecasting. These objects and modules, containing illustrations, photographs, animations,video sequences, audio files, are potentially a valuable resource for university faculty and students, forecasters, emergency managers, public school educators, and other individuals and groups needing such materials for educational use. The COMET Modules are available on the COMET educational web site http://www.meted.ucar.edu, and the COMET Multimedia Database (MMDB) makes a collection of the multimedia objects available in a searchable online database for viewing and download over the Internet. Some 3200 objects are already available at the MMDB Website: http://archive.comet.ucar.edu/moria/

  2. The beginning heights and light curves of high-altitude meteors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koten, Pavel; Spurný, Pavel; Borovička, Jiří; Evans, S.; Elliott, A.; Betlem, H.; Štork, Rostislav; Jobse, K.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 9 (2006), s. 1305-1320 ISSN 1086-9379 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP205/02/P038 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : bright Leonid meteors * atmospheric trajectories Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 2.524, year: 2006

  3. Dynamical modeling validation of parent bodies associated with newly discovered CMN meteor showers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šegon, D.; Vaubaillon, J.; Gural, P.S.; Vida, D.; Andreić, Z.; Korlević, K.; Skokić, Ivica

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 598, February (2017), A15/1-A15/13 E-ISSN 1432-0746 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : meteorites * meteors * meteoroids Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy , Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 5.014, year: 2016

  4. Meteor reporting made easy- The Fireballs in the Sky smartphone app

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansom, E.; Ridgewell, J.; Bland, P.; Paxman, J.

    2016-01-01

    Using smartphone technology, the award-winning 'Fireballs in the Sky' app provides a new approach to public meteor reporting. Using the internal GPS and sensors of a smartphone, a user can record the start and end position of a meteor sighting with a background star field as reference. Animations are used to visualize the duration and characteristics of the meteor. The intuitive application can be used in situ, providing a more accurate eye witness account than after-the-fact reports (although reports may also be made through a website interface). Since its launch in 2013, the app has received over 2000 submissions, including 73 events which were reported by multiple users. The app database is linked to the Desert Fireball Network in Australia (DFN), meaning app reports can be confirmed by DFN observatories. Supporting features include an integrated meteor shower tool that provides updates on active showers, their visibility based on moon phase, as well as a tool to point the user toward the radiant. The locations of reports are also now shown on a live map on the Fireballs in the Sky webpage.

  5. An analysis of the physical, chemical, optical, and historical impacts of the 1908 Tunguska meteor fall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turco, R. P.; Toon, O. B.; Park, C.; Whitten, R. C.; Pollack, J. B.; Noerdlinger, P.

    1982-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the physical characteristics and photochemical aftereffects of the 1908 Tunguska explosive cometary meteor, whose physical manifestations are consistent with a five million ton object's entry into the earth's atmosphere at 40 km/sec. Aerodynamic calculations indicate that the shock waves emanating from the falling meteor could have generated up to 30 million tons of nitric oxide in the stratosphere and mesosphere. A fully interactive one-dimensional chemical-kinetics model of atmospheric trace constituents is used to estimate the photochemical consequences of such a large NO injection. The 35-45% hemispherical ozone depletion predicted by the model is in keeping with the 30 + or - 15% ozone variation reported for the first year after the Tunguska fall. Attention is also given to the optical anomalies which followed the event for indications of NO(x)-O(x) chemiluminescent emissions, NO2 solar absorption, and meteoric dust turbidity, along with possible climate changes due to the nearly one million tons of pulverized dust deposited in the mesosphere and stratosphere by the meteor.

  6. MU head echo observations of the 2010 Geminids: radiant, orbit, and meteor flux observing biases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kero

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We report Geminid meteor head echo observations with the high-power large-aperture (HPLA Shigaraki middle and upper atmosphere (MU radar in Japan (34.85° N, 136.10° E. The MU radar observation campaign was conducted from 13 December 2010, 08:00 UTC to 15 December, 20:00 UTC and resulted in 48 h of radar data. A total of ~ 270 Geminids were observed among ~ 8800 meteor head echoes with precisely determined orbits. The Geminid head echo activity is consistent with an earlier peak than the visual Geminid activity determined by the International Meteor Organization (IMO. The observed flux of Geminids is a factor of ~ 3 lower than the previously reported flux of the 2009 Orionids measured with an identical MU~radar setup. We use the observed flux ratio to discuss the relation between the head echo mass–velocity selection effect, the mass distribution indices of meteor showers and the mass threshold of the MU radar.

  7. Effects of probiotics on the faecal production of hydrogen and methane in patients with meteorism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Julie Bernstorf; Jespersen, Lene; Westermann, Peter

    Meteorism is a dominating problem in the western world, especially in women. The condition is very difficult to quantify, and effective and documented therapies are not avaiable. We wanted to develop a method for measuring anaerobic production of hydrogen and methane in faeces, and to correlate t...

  8. Long-Term Continuous Double Station Observation of Faint Meteor Showers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vítek, S.; Páta, P.; Koten, Pavel; Fliegel, K.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 9 (2016), 1493/1-1493/10 ISSN 1424-8220 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-25251S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : faint meteor shower * meteoroid * CCD camera Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 2.677, year: 2016

  9. Chemical abundances determined from meteor spetra. I. Rations of the main chemical clements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trigo-Rodríguez, J.M.; Llorca, J.; Borovička, Jiří; Fabregat, J.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 8 (2003), s. 1283-1294 ISSN 0026-1114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : meteors * spectra * composition Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 2.992, year: 2003

  10. The challenge associated with the robust computation of meteor velocities from video and photographic records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egal, A.; Gural, P. S.; Vaubaillon, J.; Colas, F.; Thuillot, W.

    2017-09-01

    The CABERNET project was designed to push the limits for obtaining accurate measurements of meteoroids orbits from photographic and video meteor camera recordings. The discrepancy between the measured and theoretic orbits of these objects heavily depends on the semi-major axis determination, and thus on the reliability of the pre-atmospheric velocity computation. With a spatial resolution of 0.01° per pixel and a temporal resolution of up to 10 ms, CABERNET should be able to provide accurate measurements of velocities and trajectories of meteors. To achieve this, it is necessary to improve the precision of the data reduction processes, and especially the determination of the meteor's velocity. In this work, most of the steps of the velocity computation are thoroughly investigated in order to reduce the uncertainties and error contributions at each stage of the reduction process. The accuracy of the measurement of meteor centroids is established and results in a precision of 0.09 pixels for CABERNET, which corresponds to 3.24‧‧. Several methods to compute the velocity were investigated based on the trajectory determination algorithms described in Ceplecha (1987) and Borovicka (1990), as well as the multi-parameter fitting (MPF) method proposed by Gural (2012). In the case of the MPF, many optimization methods were implemented in order to find the most efficient and robust technique to solve the minimization problem. The entire data reduction process is assessed using simulated meteors, with different geometrical configurations and deceleration behaviors. It is shown that the multi-parameter fitting method proposed by Gural(2012)is the most accurate method to compute the pre-atmospheric velocity in all circumstances. Many techniques that assume constant velocity at the beginning of the path as derived from the trajectory determination using Ceplecha (1987) or Borovicka (1990) can lead to large errors for decelerating meteors. The MPF technique also allows one to

  11. THE PHOTODISSOCIATION OF FORMALDEHYDE IN COMETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, Paul D., E-mail: pfeldman@jhu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2015-10-20

    Observations of comets in the 905–1180 Å spectral band made with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer in 2001 and 2004 show unusual features in the fluorescent emissions of CO and H{sub 2}. These include emission from a non-thermal high-J rotational population of CO and solar Lyα induced fluorescence from excited vibrational levels of H{sub 2}, both of which are attributed to the photodissociation of formaldehyde. In this paper we model the large number of observed H{sub 2} lines and demonstrate the dependence of the pumping on the heliocentric velocity of the comet and the solar line profiles. We also derive the rotational and vibrational populations of H{sub 2} and show that they are consistent with the results of laboratory studies of the photodissociation of H{sub 2}CO. In addition to the principal series of H i and O i, the residual spectrum is found to consist mainly of the Rydberg series of C i multiplets from which we derive the mean carbon column abundance in the coma. Fluorescent emissions from N i and N{sub 2} are also searched for.

  12. Model of Comet P/Giacobini-Zinner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boice, D.C.; Huebner, W.F.; Keady, J.J.; Schmidt, H.U.; Wegmann, R.

    1986-01-01

    A computer model of Comet P/Giacobini-Zinner is presented which contains photo-processes, gas-phase chemical kinetics, energy balance. Multifluid hydrodynamics with a transition to free molecular flow, and solar wind interaction. Recently, the physics for electrons in the model has been improved by including electron impact ionization and dissociation and separately accounting for electron energetics. Electron heating and cooling mechanisms include photoprocesses, recombination processes, inelastic and elastic collisions with heavy molecules, and expansion cooling. The model incorporates an internally consistent interaction of the solar wind with the coma gas using the axisymmetric ideal fluid dynamic equations. The nuclear size and composition have been chosen to make the calculations relevant to the 11 September 1985 International Cometary Explorer (ICE) encounter with Comet P/Giacobini-Zinner. Model profiles of the temperature, velocity, and number density of the electrons are in good agreement with measurements along ICE's trajectory. These results indicate that the probe passed through a region of the coma at the onset of the plasma tail

  13. Theories of comets to the age of Laplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidarzadeh, Tofigh

    Although the development of ideas about cometary motion has been investigated in several projects, a comprehensive and detailed survey of physical theories of comets has not been conducted. The available works either illustrate relatively short periods in the history of physical cometology or portray a landscape view without adequate details. The present study is an attempt to depict the details of the major physical theories of comets from Aristotle to the age of Laplace. The basic question from which this project originated was simple: how did natural philosophers and astronomers define the nature and place of a new category of celestial objects--the comets--after Brahe's estimation of cometary distances? However, a study starting merely from Brahe without covering classical and medieval thought about comets would be incomplete. Thus, based on the fundamental physical characteristics attributed to comets, the history of cometology may be divided into three periods: from Aristotle to Brahe, in which comets were assumed to be meteorological phenomena; from Brahe to Newton, when comets were admitted as celestial bodies but with unknown trajectories; and from Newton to Laplace, in which they were treated as members of the solar system having more or less the same properties of the planets. By estimating the mass of comets in the 1800s, Laplace diverted cometology into a different direction wherein they were considered among the smallest bodies in the solar system and deprived of the most important properties that had been used to explain their physical constitution during the previous two millennia. Ideas about the astrological aspects of comets are not considered in this study. Also, topics concerning the motion of comets are explained to the extent that is helpful in illustrating their physical properties. The main objective is to demonstrate the foundations of physical theories of comets, and the interaction between observational and mathematical astronomy, and

  14. Meteor head echo polarization at 930 MHz studied with the EISCAT UHF HPLA radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Wannberg

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The polarization characteristics of 930-MHz meteor head echoes have been studied for the first time, using data obtained in a series of radar measurements carried out with the tristatic EISCAT UHF high power, large aperture (HPLA radar system in October 2009. An analysis of 44 tri-static head echo events shows that the polarization of the echo signal recorded by the Kiruna receiver often fluctuates strongly on time scales of tens of microseconds, illustrating that the scattering process is essentially stochastic. On longer timescales (> milliseconds, more than 90 % of the recorded events show an average polarization signature that is independent of meteor direction of arrival and echo strength and equal to that of an incoherent-scatter return from underdense plasma filling the tristatic observation volume. This shows that the head echo plasma targets scatter isotropically, which in turn implies that they are much smaller than the 33-cm wavelength and close to spherically symmetric, in very good agreement with results from a previous EISCAT UHF study of the head echo RCS/meteor angle-of-incidence relationship. Significant polarization is present in only three events with unique target trajectories. These all show a larger effective target cross section transverse to the trajectory than parallel to it. We propose that the observed polarization may be a signature of a transverse charge separation plasma resonance in the region immediately behind the meteor head, similar to the resonance effects previously discussed in connection with meteor trail echoes by Herlofson, Billam and Browne, Jones and Jones and others.

  15. Anisotropic diffusion of meteor trails due to the geomagnetic field over King Sejong Station (62.2°S, 58.8°W), Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jong-Min; Kwak, Young-Sil; Kim, Yong Ha; Lee, Changsup; Kim, Jeong-Han; Jee, Geonhwa; Yang, Tae-Yong

    2018-06-01

    We analyzed meteor decay times measured by a VHF meteor radar at King Sejong Station, Antarctica (62.22°S, 58.78°W) to study diffusion processes of the meteor trails above the altitude of ˜93 km. Above this altitude, where the atmospheric density is so dilute that collisions between trail ions and ambient molecules become rare, diffusion of a meteor trail can be greatly affected by the geomagnetic field, resulting in anisotropic distribution of measured decay times over the azimuthal and elevation angles. Our preliminary analysis confirm the anisotropic nature of meteor decay times due to geomagnetic field.

  16. What's Causing the Activity on Comet 67P?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-09-01

    Comet 67P/ChuryumovGerasimenko made famous by the explorations of the Rosetta mission has been displaying puzzling activity as it hurtles toward the Sun. However, recent modeling of the comet by a group of scientists from the Cte dAzur University may now explain whats causing 67Ps activity.Shadowed ActivityA model of comet 67P, with the colors indicating the rate of change of the temperature on the comets surface. The most rapid temperature changes are seen at the comets neck, in the same locations as the early activity seen in the Rosetta images. [Al-Lagoa et al. 2015] Between June and September of 2014, Rosetta observed comet 67P displaying early activity in the form of jets of dust emitted from near the neck of the comet (its narrowest point). Such activity is usually driven by the sublimation of volatiles from the comets surface as a result of sun exposure. But the neck of the comet is frequently shadowed as the comet rotates, and it receives significantly less sunlight than the rest of the comet. So why would the early activity originate from the comets neck?The authors of a recent study, led by Victor Al-Lagoa, hypothesize that its precisely because the neck is receiving alternating sunlight/shadows that its displaying activity. They suggest that thermal cracking of the surface of the comet is happening faster in this region, due to the rapid changes in temperature that result from the shadows cast by the surrounding terrain. The cracking exposes subsurface ices in the neck faster than in other regions, and the ensuing sublimation of that ice is what creates the activity were seeing.Temperature Models: To test their hypothesis, the authors study the surface temperatures on comet 67P by means of a thermophysical model a model used to calculate the temperatures on an airless body, both on and below the surface. The model takes into account factors like thermal inertia (how quickly the bodys temperature responds to changes in the incident energy), shadowing, and

  17. A quantitative comet infection assay for influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Stephen M.; Timm, Andrea; Yin, John

    2011-01-01

    Summary The virus comet assay is a cell-based virulence assay used to evaluate an antiviral drug or antibody against a target virus. The comet assay differs from the plaque assay in allowing spontaneous flows in 6-well plates to spread virus. When implemented quantitatively the comet assay has been shown to have an order-of-magnitude greater sensitivity to antivirals than the plaque assay. In this study, a quantitative comet assay for influenza virus is demonstrated, and is shown to have a 13-fold increase in sensitivity to ribavirin. AX4 cells (MDCK cells with increased surface concentration of α2–6 sialic acid, the influenza virus receptor) have reduced the comet size variability relative to MDCK cells, making them a better host cell for use in this assay. Because of enhanced antiviral sensitivity in flow-based assays, less drug is required, which could lead to lower reagent costs, reduced cytotoxicity, and fewer false-negative drug screen results. The comet assay also serves as a readout of flow conditions in the well. Observations from comets formed at varying humidity levels indicate a role for evaporation in the mechanism of spontaneous fluid flow in wells. PMID:22155578

  18. CLATHRATE HYDRATES FORMATION IN SHORT-PERIOD COMETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marboeuf, Ulysse; Mousis, Olivier; Petit, Jean-Marc; Schmitt, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    The initial composition of current models of cometary nuclei is only based on two forms of ice: crystalline ice for long-period comets and amorphous ice for short-period comets. A third form of ice, i.e., clathrate hydrate, could exist within the short-period cometary nuclei, but the area of formation of this crystalline structure in these objects has never been studied. Here, we show that the thermodynamic conditions in the interior of short-period comets allow the existence of clathrate hydrates in Halley-type comets. We show that their existence is viable in the Jupiter family comets only when the equilibrium pressure of CO clathrate hydrate is at least 1 order of magnitude lower than the usually assumed theoretical value. We calculate that the amount of volatiles that could be trapped in the clathrate hydrate layer may be orders of magnitude greater than the daily amount of gas released at the surface of the nucleus at perihelion. The formation and the destruction of the clathrate hydrate cages could then explain the diversity of composition of volatiles observed in comets, as well as some pre-perihelion outbursts. We finally show that the potential clathrate hydrate layer in comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko would, unfortunately, be deep inside the nucleus, out of reach of the Rosetta lander. However, such a clathrate hydrate layer would show up by the gas composition of the coma.

  19. Autonomous Onboard Science Data Analysis for Comet Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David R.; Tran, Daniel Q.; McLaren, David; Chien, Steve A.; Bergman, Larry; Castano, Rebecca; Doyle, Richard; Estlin, Tara; Lenda, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Coming years will bring several comet rendezvous missions. The Rosetta spacecraft arrives at Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in 2014. Subsequent rendezvous might include a mission such as the proposed Comet Hopper with multiple surface landings, as well as Comet Nucleus Sample Return (CNSR) and Coma Rendezvous and Sample Return (CRSR). These encounters will begin to shed light on a population that, despite several previous flybys, remains mysterious and poorly understood. Scientists still have little direct knowledge of interactions between the nucleus and coma, their variation across different comets or their evolution over time. Activity may change on short timescales so it is challenging to characterize with scripted data acquisition. Here we investigate automatic onboard image analysis that could act faster than round-trip light time to capture unexpected outbursts and plume activity. We describe one edge-based method for detect comet nuclei and plumes, and test the approach on an existing catalog of comet images. Finally, we quantify benefits to specific measurement objectives by simulating a basic plume monitoring campaign.

  20. Vaporization of comet nuclei: Light curves and life times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowan, J J [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (USA). Center for Astrophysics; A' Hearn, M F [Maryland Univ., College Park (USA)

    1979-10-01

    The authors have examined the effects of vaporization from the nucleus of a comet and show that a latitude dependence of vaporization can, in some cases, explain asymmetries in commetary light curves. They also find that a non-uniform distribution of solar radiation over a comet can considerably shorten the vaporization lifetime compared to the results normally obtained by assuming that the nuclear surface is isothermal. Independent of any latitude effects, comets with CO/sub 2/-dominated nuclei and with periherlion distances less than 0.5 AU have vaporization lifetimes less than or comparable to their dynamical ejection times. This may explain the observed deficit of comets with small perihelion distances. Similarly comets with CO/sub 2/-dominated nuclei and perihelia near Jupiter's orbit have vaporization lifetimes that are shorter than the time for capture into short-period orbits. They suggest, therefore, that at least some new comets are composed in large part of CO/sub 2/, while only H/sub 2/O-dominated comets, with lower vaporization rates, can survive to be captured into short-period orbits.

  1. COMET SHOWERS ARE NOT INDUCED BY INTERSTELLAR CLOUDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, D.E.

    1985-11-01

    Encounters with interstellar clouds (IC) have been proposed by Rampino and Stothers as a cause of quasi-periodic intense comet showers leading to earth impacts, in order to explain the periodicity in marine mass extinctions found by Raup and Sepkoski. The model was described further, criticized and defended. The debate has centered on the question of whether the scale height of the clouds is small enough (in comparison to the amplitude of the oscillation of the solar system about the plane of the Galaxy) to produce a modulation in the rate of encounters. We wish to point out another serious, we believe fatal, defect in this model - the tidal fields of ICs are not strong enough to produce intense comet showers leading to earth impacts by bringing comets of the postulated inner Oort cloud into earth crossing orbits, except possibly during very rare encounters with very dense clouds. We will show that encounters with abundant clouds of low density cannot produce comet showers; cloud density N > 10{sup 3} atoms cm{sup -3} is needed to produce an intense comet shower leading to earth impacts. Furthermore, the tidal field of a dense cloud during a distant encounter is too weak to produce such showers. As a consequence, comet showers induced by ICs will be far less frequent than showers caused by passing stars. This conclusion is independent of assumptions about the radial distribution of comets in the inner Oort cloud.

  2. Halley comet position in structure of the comet origin general scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davydov, V.D.

    1988-01-01

    Attempt to explain data on the Halley comet nucleus figure by photographes received from space probes in 1986 was undertaken. Peanut-like nucleus might be formed from two bodies former system under specific conditions. This hypothesis preliminary development is made; solution way for the problem about quantitative characteristics of collision and destruction is found. Quantitative assessments confirm retention possibility of two space icebergs original form after their ''docking'' within relative velocity range up to a few meters per second. Then complex with visible saddle point between two jointed fragments is formed. The hypothesis suggested is well inscribed in the origin general scheme of comets with nucleus different types, and from general scheme one may draw up the most important details to this hypothesis (for example, power mechanism of binary system formation and reasons of its destabilization)

  3. Fast Variations In Spectrum of Comet Halley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borysenko, S. A.

    The goal of this work is to research fast variations of spectral lines intensities in spectra of comet Halley. The present research was made on the basis of more then 500 high- resolution spectrogram obtained by L.M. Shulman and H.K. Nazarchuk in November- December, 1985 at the 6-m telescope (SAO, Russia). Some fast variations with different quasiperiods were detected in all the spectrograms. Quasiperiods of these variations were from 15 - 40 min to 1.5 - 2 hours. As data from spacecraft "Vega-2" show, more fast variations with quasiperiods 5 - 10 min are obviously present in cometary time variations. Only the most important lines so as C2, C3, CN, CH and NH2 were analyzed. False periods were checked by comparison of the power spectra of the variations with the computed spectral window of the data. Only false periods about 400 sec (the avarage period of exposition) were detected. An algorithm for analysis of locally Poisson's time series was proposed. Two types of fast variations are detected: 1)high amplitude variations with more long quasiperiods (1.5 - 2 hours) and the coefficient of crosscorrelations between line intensities about 0.9 - 0.95; 2)low amplitude variations with short periods (15 - 40 min), which look like white noise and have the coefficient of crosscorrelations about 0.1 - 0.3. This difference may be caused by nature of variations. The first type variations may be an effect of both active processes in cometary nucleus and streams of solar protons. Analysis of solar proton flux variation with energies >1 MeV in November - Decem- ber 1985 confirms the above-mentioned version. In the second case it may by only inner processes in the nucleus that generate the observed variations. For determination of general parameters of cometary atmosphere, such as the produc- tion rates of radicals C2, C3, CN, CH, and NH2 it was necessary to estimate the contri- bution of dust grains luminiscence into the continuum of the comet. Space and wave- length distribution

  4. Localized irradiations, Evaluation through ''comet assay''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giorgio, M.D.; Taja, M.R.; Nasazzi, N.B.; Bustos, N.; Cavalieri, H.; Bolgiani, A.

    2000-01-01

    During the last 50 years various radiation accidents involving localized irradiations occurred, resulting mainly from improper handling of sealed sources Co 60 , Cs 137 or Ir 192 at workplaces for industrial gammagraphy. Severe skin reaction may develop at the contact sites. Such inhomogeneous irradiations lead to a differential exposure of lymphocytes in lymphatic tissues or other organs that may recirculate into the peripheral blood producing a mixed irradiated and unirradiated population of lymphocytes. Applying the mathematical models ''Contaminated Poisson'' of Dolphin and Qdr method of Sasaki, a mean dose in the irradiated body area and its size can be estimated from unstable chromosome aberration scoring. This give an indication of the proportion of haemopoietic stem cell compartment involved in the overexposure. There are also different biophysical techniques that can give responses in biological dosimetry. The ''Comet Assay'' (single cell gel electrophoresis) is a sensitive and rapid method for DNA strand break detection in individual cells. The advantages of the technique include: collection of data at the level of individual cell; the need for small numbers of cells per sample; its sensitivity for detecting DNA damage and that virtually any eukaryote cell population is amenable to analysis. The objective of this work is to apply ''Comet Assay'' method to evaluate the effect of radiation on skin and subcutaneous tissues, differentiating irradiated from unirradiated body areas. It could provide a useful tool to estimate the extension and the dose in the irradiated region, contributing with the current techniques. In this first study, we evaluate the alkaline comet assay as a method for detection of DNA radiation induced damage in keratinocytes from primary culture obtained from full thickness skin biopsies of patients requiring grafts. Skin and, particularly, keratinocytes were selected as an appropriate cellular system due to: Skin, the first barrier

  5. Localized irradiations, evaluation through 'Comet Assay'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giorgio, Marina; Taja, Maria R.; Nasazzi, Nora B.; Bustos, N.; Cavalieri, H.; Bolgiani, A.

    2000-01-01

    During the last 50 years various radiation accidents involving localized irradiations occurred, resulting mainly from improper handling of sealed sources of Cobalt 60, Cesium 137 or Iridium 192 at work placed for industrial gammagraphy and other radiation sources. Severe skin reaction may developed at the contact sites. Such inhomogeneous irradiations lead to a differential exposure of lymphocytes in lymphatic tissues or other organs that may recirculate into the peripheral blood producing a mixed irradiated and unirradiated population of lymphocytes. Applying the mathematical models 'Contaminated Poisson' of Dolphin and Qdr method of Sasaki, a mean dose in the irradiated body area and its size can be estimated from unstable chromosome aberration scoring. There are also different biophysical techniques that can give response in localized irradiations. Biological dosimetry is a necessary complement to physical and clinical dosimetries. Thus, there is increasing interest in the assessment of biological markers that permit the detection of radiation induced damage in the localized irradiations. The 'Comet Assay' (single cell gel electrophoresis) is a sensitive, rapid and relatively inexpensive method for measuring DNA damage in individual cells. Single cells are embedded in agarose on microscope slides, lysed to remove the majority of the proteins, electrophoresed, then stained with ethidium bromide in order to visualize the DNA. When visualized using a fluorescent microscope, DNA of undamaged cells appears as a spherical mass occupying the cavity formed by the lysed cell. Following radiation damage, the smaller the fragment size and the grater the number of fragments of DNA, the grater the percentage of DNA that it is able to migrate in an electric field, forming a comet image. The assay can be performed under alkaline conditions to examine DNA single strand breaks (SSBs), or in non denaturing (neutral) conditions to measure double strand breaks (DSBs) in individual

  6. Outbursting comet P/2010 V1 (Ikeya-Murakami): A miniature comet Holmes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishiguro, Masateru [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Gwanak, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Jewitt, David [Department of Earth, Planetary and Space Sciences, University of California at Los Angeles, 595 Charles Young Drive East, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1567 (United States); Hanayama, Hidekazu; Miyaji, Takeshi; Fukushima, Hideo; Watanabe, Jun-ichi [Ishigakijima Astronomical Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Ishigaki, Okinawa 907-0024 (Japan); Usui, Fumihiko [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Sekiguchi, Tomohiko [Department of Teacher Training, Hokkaido University of Education, 9 Hokumon, Asahikawa 070-8621 (Japan); Yanagisawa, Kenshi; Kuroda, Daisuke [Okayama Astrophysical Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Asaguchi, Okayama 719-0232 (Japan); Yoshida, Michitoshi [Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Ohta, Kouji [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Kawai, Nobuyuki [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)

    2014-05-20

    The short-period comet P/2010 V1 (Ikeya-Murakami, hereafter {sup V}1{sup )} was discovered visually by two amateur astronomers. The appearance of the comet was peculiar, consisting of an envelope, a spherical coma near the nucleus and a tail extending in the anti-solar direction. We investigated the brightness and the morphological development of the comet by taking optical images with ground-based telescopes. Our observations show that V1 experienced a large-scale explosion between UT 2010 October 31 and November 3. The color of the comet was consistent with the Sun (g' – R {sub C} = 0.61 ± 0.20, R {sub C} – I {sub C} = 0.20 ± 0.20, and B – R {sub C} = 0.93 ± 0.25), suggesting that dust particles were responsible for the brightening. We used a dynamical model to understand the peculiar morphology, and found that the envelope consisted of small grains (0.3-1 μm) expanding at a maximum speed of 500 ± 40 m s{sup –1}, while the tail and coma were composed of a wider range of dust particle sizes (0.4-570 μm) and expansion speeds 7-390 m s{sup –1}. The total mass of ejecta is ∼5 × 10{sup 8} kg and kinetic energy ∼5 × 10{sup 12} J. These values are much smaller than in the historic outburst of 17P/Holmes in 2007, but the energy per unit mass (1 × 10{sup 4} J kg{sup –1}) is comparable. The energy per unit mass is about 10% of the energy released during the crystallization of amorphous water ice suggesting that crystallization of buried amorphous ice can supply the mass and energy of the outburst ejecta.

  7. Recommendations for safety testing with the in vivo comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Marie Z

    2012-08-30

    While the in vivo comet assay increases its role in regulatory safety testing, deliberations about the interpretation of comet data continue. Concerns can arise regarding comet assay publications with limited data from non-blind testing of positive control compounds and using protocols (e.g. dose concentrations, sample times, and tissues) known to give an expected effect. There may be a tendency towards bias when the validation or interpretation of comet assay data is based on results generated by widely accepted but non-validated assays. The greatest advantages of the comet assay are its sensitivity and its ability to detect genotoxicity in tissues and at sample times that could not previously be evaluated. Guidelines for its use and interpretation in safety testing should take these factors into account. Guidelines should be derived from objective review of data generated by blind testing of unknown compounds dosed at non-toxic concentrations and evaluated in a true safety-testing environment, where the experimental design and conclusions must be defensible. However, positive in vivo comet findings with such compounds are rarely submitted to regulatory agencies and this data is typically unavailable for publication due to its proprietary nature. To enhance the development of guidelines for safety testing with the comet assay, and with the permission of several sponsors, this paper presents and discusses relevant data from multiple GLP comet studies conducted blind, with unknown pharmaceuticals and consumer products. Based on these data and the lessons we have learned through the course of conducting these studies, I suggest significant adjustments to the current conventions, and I provide recommendations for interpreting in vivo comet assay results in situations where risk must be evaluated in the absence of carcinogenicity or clinical data. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Where are the mini Kreutz-family comets?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Quan-Zhi; Wiegert, Paul A.; Hui, Man-To; Kracht, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    The Kreutz family of sungrazing comets contains over 2000 known members, many of which are believed to be under ∼100 m sizes (mini comets) and have only been studied at small heliocentric distances (r H ) with space-based SOHO/STEREO spacecraft. To understand the brightening process of mini Kreutz comets, we conducted a survey using CFHT/MegaCam at moderate r H guided by SOHO/STEREO observations. We identify two comets that should be in our search area but are not detected, indicating that the comets have either followed a steeper brightening rate within the previously reported rapid brightening stage (the brightening burst), or the brightening burst starts earlier than expected. We present a composite analysis of the pre-perihelion light curves of five Kreutz comets that cover to ∼1 AU. We observe significant diversity in the light curves that can be used to grossly classify them into two types: C/Ikeya-Seki and C/SWAN follow the canonical r H −4 while the others follow r H −7 . In particular, C/SWAN seems to have undergone an outburst (Δm > 5 mag) or a rapid brightening (n ≳ 11) between r H = 1.06 AU and 0.52 AU, and shows hints of structural/compositional differences compared to other bright Kreutz comets. We also find evidence that the Kreutz comets as a population lose their mass less efficiently than the dynamically new comet, C/ISON, and are relatively devoid of species that drive C/ISON's activity at large r H . Concurrent observations of C/STEREO in different wavelengths also suggest that a blueward species such as CN may be the main driver for brightening bursts, instead of sodium as previously thought

  9. Comet LINEAR C/1999 S4 - an absolutely well-behaved comet before breakup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peschke, S. B.; Lisse, C. M.; Fernandez, Y. R.; Ressler, M.; Stickel, M.; Kaminski, C.; Golish, B.

    2000-10-01

    We present results from infrared imaging of comet LINEAR C/1999 S4 on June 17 - 19, 2000 (pre-breakup), using the near-IR camera NSFCAM and the mid-IR camera MIRLIN at the 3m NASA/IRTF. Images and multi-wavelength spectroscopy were obtained in the zJHK'L'MNQ bands, and were used to create a 1.0 - 25 μ m SED of the comet's dust and nucleus. The coma's contribution at each wavelength was modeled using spatial fitting (Fernandez 1999, PhD thesis; Lisse et al. 1999, Icarus 140, 189). The resulting comatic and nuclear SEDs were then modeled using modified Mie theory (Lisse et al. 1998, ApJ 496, 971) and the standard nuclear thermal models (Lebofsky and Spencer 1989, Asteroids II, 128), respectively. We report the resulting dust PSD, mass loss rate, and albedo, as well as the nuclear radius, and we compare these results to those obtained by others from optical data both before and after the comet's breakup in late July 2000.

  10. Nonlinear low frequency (LF) waves - Comets and foreshock phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurutani, Bruce T.

    1991-01-01

    A review is conducted of LF wave nonlinear properties at comets and in the earth's foreshock, engaging such compelling questions as why there are no cometary cyclotron waves, the physical mechanism responsible for 'dispersive whiskers', and the character of a general description of linear waves. Attention is given to the nonlinear properties of LF waves, whose development is illustrated by examples of waves and their features at different distances from the comet, as well as by computer simulation results. Also discussed is a curious wave mode detected from Comet Giacobini-Zinner, both at and upstream of the bow shock/wave.

  11. Atlas of Comet Halley 1910 II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, J.C.; Donn, B.

    1986-01-01

    An Atlas of Comet Halley 1910 II photographs and spectra is being prepared. The major section consists of 838 photographic observations from fifteen observatories around the world. Multiple images of many photographs are reproduced to bring out detail in the near nucleus region, in the coma and in the tail. The Atlas contains a total of 1209 photographic images of the 1910 apparition. In addition there are sections showing drawings from 1935 and 1910. A short section compares 1910 drawings and photographs. The final two sections display digitally processed images from 1910 and 1910 spectra. A three part appendix contains diagrams of various data associated with the 1910 apparition, a set of tables of all 1910 images and a bibliography

  12. Spectrophotometry of Comet West 1976 VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenbush, V.K.

    1986-01-01

    Spectra obtained for the coma, nuclear fragments A and D, and tail of Comet West 1976 VI on April 1, 2 and 7, 1976 are noted to encompass coma spectra which differed from those of the nuclear fragments, which exhibited a strong continuum with superimposed emissions that included a stronger CO(+)-band system than that of the coma. A detailed comparison between fragment spectra has revealed great differences in both quasi-simultaneously obtained and five-day-separated cases. The relative intensities of different CO(+) bands are compared to the theoretical ones, and the abundances of CO(+) ions corresponding to different vibrational transitions are determined relative to that of CN. 24 references

  13. Insights into Meteoric 10Be Dynamics and Climate Stability along the Hawaiian Kohala Climosequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, J. L.; Chadwick, O.

    2017-12-01

    We measure meteoric 10Be in soils across a well-studied climate gradient spanning Kohala, Hawaii to provide new understanding of the isotope behavior in soils and constraints on nuclide delivery rates to Earth's surface. Annual rainfall across the Kohala climogradient varies from 16 - 300 cm, with Hawaiian soils reflecting evolution over the past 150 ka, the nominal age of the volcanic parent material. We analyzed a sequence of nine soil profiles for meteoric 10Be and compared with previously measured data on soil chemistry and dust fluxes. In the Kohala system, soil inventories of 10Be span 40-300 x 109 atom/cm2 and generally increase linearly with rainfall, consistent with precipitation-driven fluxes and the high retention of 10Be in clay-rich soil horizons. However, nuclide inventories dramatically decrease for soils at rainfall >140 cm/y. The observed decrease corresponds with other strong changes in weathering intensity across the climate gradient, associated with previously studied and recognized pedogenic thresholds. These thresholds represent abrupt transitions in soil chemistry related to increased throughflow of soil solutions, decreases in base saturation and pH, and the destruction of phyllosilicates and replacement with amorphous oxyhydroxides. Meteoric-derived ages, based on 10Be-flux estimates and measured inventories are uniform for dry soils ( 60ka), but far less than the known substrate age (150ka), indicating that actual delivery rates are lower than predicted from current models in this region. Despite the offset in predicted and substrate ages, the consistency in pattern suggests that the rainfall gradient over the 150 thousand years of soil development has not deviated significantly from its present structure. Furthermore, based on clear 10Be losses in soils with high moisture availability, our results indicate meteoric 10Be may not be a robust tracer of soil age and movement in systems with high rainfall and weathering intensity and low soil

  14. The determination of parameters of the upper atmosphere by the radio-meteor measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamukov, Damir; Fahrutdinova, Antonina; Nugmanov, Ildus

    Study of the parameters of the upper atmosphere on the basis of amplitude-time characteristics of meteor ionization. Together with various methods meteor observations (optical, photographic, visual, spectral, television), the most effective modern method of studying meteors means is radar. The development of modern radar technology allows us to apply this tool to monitor meteors. This method allows to determine the parameters of temperature and atmospheric pressure. Actual issue is the development of methods of determining the coefficient of ambipolar diffusion, pressure, density and temperature of the atmosphere in the meteor zone. Graph of amplitude-time characteristic has the exponential form. This fact allows to determine the coefficient of ambipolar diffusion. New algorithm for estimation of the ambipolar diffusion coefficient based on a set of statistical methods and techniques of digital signal processing. There are decomposition of data on singular values and Prony's method. This method of modeling the sample data as a linear combination of exponential. Prony’s method approximates the amplitude-time characteristics of using a deterministic exponential model. Input data is amplitude-time characteristics of the meteor trail x[1]…x[N]. The method allows to estimate x[n] p-membered exponential model: begin{center} x[n]=Sigma2A_{k}exp[a _{k}(n-1)]Cos[2Pif_{k}(n-1)T+Fi_{k}] (1) end{center} 1<=n<=N, T - time range in seconds, A_{k} and a_{k} - amplitude and damping coefficient, f_{k} and Fi_{k} - frequency and initial phase. The equation describing the decay of radio signal: begin{center} A=A_{0}exp(-16Pi^{2}$D_{a}t/λ (2) ). (2) lambdaλ - radar wavelength. The output of the algorithm - the ambipolar diffusion coefficient values D_{a}. begin{center} T=0.5lnD-T_{0}+mg/2kT_{0} (3) Last equation allows to obtain temperature values using the coefficient of ambipolar diffusion depends on the height.

  15. Mesospheric temperatures estimated from the meteor radar observations at Mohe, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Libo; Liu, Huixin; Chen, Yiding; Le, Huijun

    2017-04-01

    In this work, we report the estimation of mesospheric temperatures at 90 km height from the observations of the VHF all-sky meteor radar operated at Mohe (53.5 °N, 122.3° E), China, since August 2011. The kinetic temperature profiles retrieved from the observations of Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) onboard the Thermosphere, Ionosphere, Mesosphere, Energetics, and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite are processed to provide the temperature (TSABER) and temperature gradient (dT/dh) at 90 km height. Based on the SABER temperature profile data an empirical dT/dh model is developed for the Mohe latitude. First, we derive the temperatures from the meteor decay times (Tmeteor) and the Mohe dT/dh model gives prior information of temperature gradients. Secondly, the full-width of half maximum (FWHM) of the meteor height profiles is calculated and further used to deduce the temperatures (TFWHM) based on the strong linear relationship between FWHM and TSABER. The temperatures at 90 km deduced from the decay times (Tmeteor) and from the meteor height distributions (TFWHM) at Mohe are validated/calibrated with TSABER. The temperatures present a considerable annual variation, being maximum in winter and minimum in summer. Harmonic analyses reveal that the temperatures have an annual variation consistent with TSABER. Our work suggests that the FWHM has a good performance in routine estimation of the temperatures. It should be pointed out that the slope of FWHM and TSABER is 10.1 at Mohe, which is different from that of 15.71 at King Sejong (62.2° S, 58.8° E) station. Acknowledgments The TIMED/SABER kinetic temperature (version 2.0) data are provided by the SABER team through http://saber.gats-inc.com/. The temperatures from the NRLMSISE-00 model are calculated using Aerospace Blockset toolbox of MATLAB (2016a). This research was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (41231065, 41321003). We acknowledge the use of meteor radar

  16. Controlling variation in the comet assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Richard Collins

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Variability of the comet assay is a serious issue, whether it occurs from experiment to experiment in the same laboratory, or between different laboratories analysing identical samples. Do we have to live with high variability, just because the comet assay is a biological assay rather than analytical chemistry? Numerous attempts have been made to limit variability by standardising the assay protocol, and the critical steps in the assay have been identified; agarose concentration, duration of alkaline incubation, and electrophoresis conditions (time, temperature and voltage gradient are particularly important. Even when these are controlled, variation seems to be inevitable. It is helpful to include in experiments reference standards, i.e. cells with a known amount of specific damage to the DNA. They can be aliquots frozen from a single large batch of cells, either untreated (negative controls or treated with, for example, H2O2 or X-rays to induce strand breaks (positive control for the basic assay, or photosensitiser plus light to oxidise guanine (positive control for Fpg- or OGG1-sensitive sites. Reference standards are especially valuable when performing a series of experiments over a long period - for example, analysing samples of white blood cells from a large human biomonitoring trial - to check that the assay is performing consistently, and to identify anomalous results necessitating a repeat experiment. The reference values of tail intensity can also be used to iron out small variations occurring from day to day. We present examples of the use of reference standards in human trials, both within one laboratory and between different laboratories, and describe procedures that can be used to control variation.

  17. THE PLASMA ENVIRONMENT IN COMETS OVER A WIDE RANGE OF HELIOCENTRIC DISTANCES: APPLICATION TO COMET C/2006 P1 (MCNAUGHT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shou, Y.; Combi, M.; Gombosi, T.; Toth, G. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Jia, Y.-D. [IGPP, and EPSS, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Rubin, M. [Physikalisches Institut, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse. 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland)

    2015-08-20

    On 2007 January 12, comet C/2006 P1 (McNaught) passed its perihelion at 0.17 AU. Abundant remote observations offer plenty of information on the neutral composition and neutral velocities within 1 million kilometers of the comet nucleus. In early February, the Ulysses spacecraft made an in situ measurement of the ion composition, plasma velocity, and magnetic field when passing through the distant ion tail and the ambient solar wind. The measurement by Ulysses was made when the comet was at around 0.8 AU. With the constraints provided by remote and in situ observations, we simulated the plasma environment of Comet C/2006 P1 (McNaught) using a multi-species comet MHD model over a wide range of heliocentric distances from 0.17 to 1.75 AU. The solar wind interaction of the comet at various locations is characterized and typical subsolar standoff distances of the bow shock and contact surface are presented and compared to analytic solutions. We find the variation in the bow shock standoff distances at different heliocentric distances is smaller than the contact surface. In addition, we modified the multi-species model for the case when the comet was at 0.7 AU and achieved comparable water group ion abundances, proton densities, plasma velocities, and plasma temperatures to the Ulysses/SWICS and SWOOPS observations. We discuss the dominating chemical reactions throughout the comet-solar wind interaction region and demonstrate the link between the ion composition near the comet and in the distant tail as measured by Ulysses.

  18. THE PLASMA ENVIRONMENT IN COMETS OVER A WIDE RANGE OF HELIOCENTRIC DISTANCES: APPLICATION TO COMET C/2006 P1 (MCNAUGHT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shou, Y.; Combi, M.; Gombosi, T.; Toth, G.; Jia, Y.-D.; Rubin, M.

    2015-01-01

    On 2007 January 12, comet C/2006 P1 (McNaught) passed its perihelion at 0.17 AU. Abundant remote observations offer plenty of information on the neutral composition and neutral velocities within 1 million kilometers of the comet nucleus. In early February, the Ulysses spacecraft made an in situ measurement of the ion composition, plasma velocity, and magnetic field when passing through the distant ion tail and the ambient solar wind. The measurement by Ulysses was made when the comet was at around 0.8 AU. With the constraints provided by remote and in situ observations, we simulated the plasma environment of Comet C/2006 P1 (McNaught) using a multi-species comet MHD model over a wide range of heliocentric distances from 0.17 to 1.75 AU. The solar wind interaction of the comet at various locations is characterized and typical subsolar standoff distances of the bow shock and contact surface are presented and compared to analytic solutions. We find the variation in the bow shock standoff distances at different heliocentric distances is smaller than the contact surface. In addition, we modified the multi-species model for the case when the comet was at 0.7 AU and achieved comparable water group ion abundances, proton densities, plasma velocities, and plasma temperatures to the Ulysses/SWICS and SWOOPS observations. We discuss the dominating chemical reactions throughout the comet-solar wind interaction region and demonstrate the link between the ion composition near the comet and in the distant tail as measured by Ulysses

  19. Organic chemistry of cosmic dusts for understanding an intra-relationship between meteorites and comets: Toward a new frontier of astromaterial science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabuta, Hikaru

    2012-07-01

    and terrestrial contamination will be expected. A silica aerogel (0.03 and 0.01 g/cc) will be used for the sampling. As a ground-based experiment, we have been conducting a carefully-implemented, high-velocity double gas gun experiment of Murshison meteorite grains into a silica aerogel. It has been concluded that a major portion of aromatic carbon compositions of meteoritic organics are preserved at an impact velocity of 4 km/s, but the decrease of abundances of aliphatic carbon and slight modification of their compositions (e.g., CH2/CH3 ratio) are observed after the impact. This result will provide helpful knowledge not only for the correct interpretation of the chemical compositions of the collected IDP organics but also for that of comet dust particles collected by Stardust mission. References: [1] Brearley et al. (2006) Science 314, 1711. [2] Sandford et al. (2006) Science 314, 1720. [3] Cody et al. (2008) Meteor. Planet. Sci. 43, 353. [4] Messenger et al. (2000) Nature 404, 968. [5] Flynn et al. (2003). [6] Keller et al. (2004) GCA 68, 2577. [7] Busemann et al. (2009) EPSL 288, 44. [8] Nakamura et al. (2005) Meteor. Planet. Sci. 40, A110. [9] Duprat et al (2010) Science, 328, 742. [10] Yabuta et al. (2012) LPSC Abstract #2239

  20. Remote comets and related bodies - VJHK colorimetry and surface materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, W. K.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Degewij, J.

    1982-01-01

    VJHK colors for a number of asteroids and eight comets at various solar distances and levels of activity were obtained, and the observations are interpreted in terms of a two-component mixing model in which outer solar system interplanetary bodies are viewed as mixtures of ice and dark carbonaceous-type (RD and C) dirt. It is inferred that the observed comets have comae, and perhaps surfaces, of dirty ice or ice dirt grains colored by an RD-dirt component. This inference is supported by systematics of an 'alpha index' based on VJHK colors and empirically correlated with albedo and ice/dirt ratio. Among comets the alpha index correlates with solar distance in a way that suggests comets emit dirty ice grains which are stable at large solar distance but from which the ice component sublimes and leaves dirt grains at small solar distance.

  1. Comet P/2004 T1 (LINEAR-NEAT)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tichý, M.; Kušnirák, Peter

    -, č. 8416 (2004), s. 1 ISSN 0081-0304 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3003204 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : new comet * astrometry Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  2. Alkaline Comet Assay for Assessing DNA Damage in Individual Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Xinzhu; Wang, Zemin; Klaunig, James E

    2015-08-06

    Single-cell gel electrophoresis, commonly called a comet assay, is a simple and sensitive method for assessing DNA damage at the single-cell level. It is an important technique in genetic toxicological studies. The comet assay performed under alkaline conditions (pH >13) is considered the optimal version for identifying agents with genotoxic activity. The alkaline comet assay is capable of detecting DNA double-strand breaks, single-strand breaks, alkali-labile sites, DNA-DNA/DNA-protein cross-linking, and incomplete excision repair sites. The inclusion of digestion of lesion-specific DNA repair enzymes in the procedure allows the detection of various DNA base alterations, such as oxidative base damage. This unit describes alkaline comet assay procedures for assessing DNA strand breaks and oxidative base alterations. These methods can be applied in a variety of cells from in vitro and in vivo experiments, as well as human studies. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  3. The Meteoroid Fluence at Mars Due to Comet Siding Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorhead, Althea V.

    2014-01-01

    Long-period comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) is headed for a close encounter with Mars on 2014 Oct 19. A collision between the comet and the planet has been ruled out, but the comets coma may envelop Mars and its man-made satellites. We present an analytic model of the dust component of cometary comae that describes the spatial distribution of cometary dust and meteoroids and their size distribution. If the coma reaches Mars, we estimate a total incident particle fluence on the planet and its satellites of 0.01 particles per square meter. We compare our model with numerical simulations, data from past comet missions, and recent Siding Spring observations.

  4. Physical Mechanism of Comet (and Asteroid) Outbursts: The Movie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, W. K.

    2015-07-01

    A film made during impact experiments at NASA Ames illustrates a mechanism in which regolith can become gas charged and then erupt to create outbursts as observed on comets (and "asteroids" such as 2060 Chiron).

  5. Comets Nature, Dynamics, Origin, and their Cosmogonical Relevance

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández, Julio Angel

    2005-01-01

    The book covers the most recent ideas about the nature and dynamics of comets, including a thorough discussion on Oort cloud dynamics which has not received due attention in other books on the subject. It also discusses the most relevant aspects of the physics and chemistry of comet nuclei, highlighting their importance as relics of the protoplanetary disk and, perhaps, as carriers of water and organics that permitted the development of life on Earth. The book contains several tables with useful data, and an ample bibliography covering the most recent work as well as some historical key contributions to the subject. It may be suitable as a textbook for graduate students with some basic knowledge of celestial mechanics and astrophysics, as well as a consult book for comet researchers, or researchers from other related fields willing to start working on comets, or get an updated view of the subject.

  6. Generation of a severe convective ionospheric storm under stable Rayleigh–Taylor conditions: triggering by meteors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Kelley

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Here we report on four events detected using the Jicamarca Radio Observatory (JRO over an 18-year period, in which huge convective ionospheric storms (CISs occur in a stable ionosphere. We argue that these rare events could be initiated by meteor-induced electric fields. The meteor-induced electric fields map to the bottomside of the F region, causing radar echoes and a localized CIS. If and when a localized disturbance reaches 500 km, we argue that it becomes two-dimensionally turbulent and cascades structure to both large and small scales. This leads to long-lasting structure and, almost certainly, to scintillations over a huge range of latitudes some ±15° wide and to 3 m irregularities, which backscatter the VHF radar waves. These structures located at high altitudes are supported by vortices shed by the upwelling bubble in a vortex street.

  7. The Rosetta Mission to Comet 67P/ Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buratti, Bonnie J.

    2017-06-01

    As remnant bodies left over from the formation of the Solar System, comets offer clues to the physical conditions and architecture of the protosolar nebula. The Rosetta spacecraft, which included an orbiter and a lander that were built and managed by the European Space Agency with NASA contributing four instruments and scientific expertise, was the first mission to orbit and study a comet through a perihelion passage. The targeted Jupiter-family comet 67P/ Churyumov-Gerasimenko, is seemingly two distinct planetesimals stuck together. The comet has not melted or been processed substantially, except for its outer layers, which consist of reaccreted dust and a crust of heated, devolatized, and annealed refractory materials and organics. The exceptionally low density (0.53 gm/cc) of 67P/ implies it is a rubble pile. The comet also appears to contain a hierarchy of building blocks: smaller spherically shaped meter-sized bodies can be seen in its interior, and even smaller cm-sized pebbles were imaged by the camera as the spacecraft made a soft crash landing on the comet’s surface on 30 September 2016. The unexpected discovery of molecular oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen imply that 67P/ was formed under cold conditions not exceeding 30K. The discovery of many organic compounds, including the amino acid glycine, lends support to the idea that comets, which originate in the Kuiper Belt and the Oort Cloud, brought the building blocks of life to Earth. More laboratory data on organic compounds would help to identify additional organic compounds on the comet. The differences between cometary and terrestrial D/H ratios suggest that comets are not the primary source of terrestrial water, although data on more comets is needed to confirm this result.Besides being primordial objects offering a window into the formation of solar systems, comets are astrophysical laboratories, ejecting dust and charged particles into the plasma comprising the solar wind. Several unusual phenomena

  8. Effect of ionic composition of meteor trace on its relaxation time in the presence of external electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimov, M.P.; Lyatskaya, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    The dissipation of meteor trace as the function of ionic composition and electric field is investigated numerically. Critical values of electric field E 1 and E 2 are determined. At E 1 the dissipation process is similar to the diffusion one; lifetimes are proportional to diffusion coefficient. At E 1 2 - the dissipation process falls into two phases with different character of lifetime dependence on meteor trace mass. At E>E 2 lifetime does not depend on the electric field

  9. The Meteor and Fireball Network of the Sociedad Malagueña de Astronomía

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar, J. C.; Castellón, A.; Gálvez, F.; Martínez, E.; Troughton, B.; Núñez, J. M.; Villalba, F.

    2016-12-01

    One of the most active fields in which has been dedicated the Málaga Astronomical Society (SMA) is the meteors and meteor showers. Since 2006 the SMA refers parts of visual observations and photographic detections from El Pinillo station (Torremolinos, Spain). In 2013 it was decided to give an extra boost to get a camera network that allowed the calculation of the atmospheric trajectory of a meteoroid and, where possible, obtaining the orbital elements.

  10. Colour, albedo and nucleus size of Halley's comet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruikshank, D. P.; Tholen, D. J.; Hartmann, W. K.

    1985-01-01

    Photometry of Halley's comet in the B, J, V, and K broadband filters during a time when the coma was very weak and presumed to contribute negligibly to the broadband photometry is reported. The V-J and J-K colors suggest that the color of the nucleus of Halley's comet is similar to that of the D-type asteroids, which in turn suggests that the surface of the nucleus has an albedo less than 0.1.

  11. An analysis of the BVRI colors of 22 active comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betzler, A. S.; Almeida, R. S.; Cerqueira, W. J.; Araujo, L. A.; Prazeres, C. J. M.; Jesus, J. N.; Bispo, P. A. S.; Andrade, V. B.; Freitas, Y. A. S.; Betzler, L. B. S.

    2017-08-01

    Our aim was to analyze the variation of Johnson-Kron-Cousins BVRI color indexes of a sample with 22 active comets of various dynamic groups with the time, geometrical, observational and dynamical parameters. We performed photometric observations of 16 comets between 2010 and 2014, using robotic telescopes in three continents. In addition to the sample, we used data of six comets available in the literature. A statistical comparison between the distributions of color indexes was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis H-test. The color indexes of active comets can vary a few tenths up to a magnitude on time scales that range from hours to weeks. Using the B-V colors of the observed comets, we generated a relationship that correlates the cometary visual and CCD magnitudes. We did not identify any relationship between B-V and V-R colors with heliocentric distance and phase angle. The color B-V is correlated with the photometric aperture that can be described by a logarithmic function. We did not identify any differences in the distribution of B-V color among the comets analyzed at a confidence level equal to or greater than 95%. The mean color of active comets are B-R = 1.20 ± 0.24 , B-V = 0.76 ± 0.16 and V-R = 0.42 ± 0.16 . Active comets with V-R colors outside the three standard deviation interval can be considered objects with unusual physical characteristics.

  12. 3 micron spectrophotometry of Comet Halley - Evidence for water ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregman, Jesse D.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Witteborn, Fred C.; Rank, David M.; Wooden, Diane

    1988-01-01

    Structure has been observed in the 3-3.6 micron preperihelion spectrum of Comet Halley consistent with either an absorption band near 3.1 microns or emission near 3.3 microns. The results suggest that a large fraction of the water molecules lost by the comet are initially ejected in the form of small ice particles rather than in the gas phase.

  13. Comets, Charisma, and Celebrity: Reflections on Their Deep Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, R. J. M.; Pasachoff, J. M.

    In celebration of the Deep Impact Mission, this essay explores the influence of comets on the arts and sciences since the beginning of recorded time. Through images, ranging from the sublime to the humorous, it probes the reasons why comets are among the most charismatic visual spectacles in the universe and why, even as scientific missions unmask their mysteries, they remain iconic symbols and harbingers of change.

  14. [COMETE: a tool to develop psychosocial competences in patient education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saugeron, Benoit; Sonnier, Pierre; Marchais, Stéphanie

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a detailed description of the development and use of the COMETE tool. The COMETE tool is designed to help medical teams identify, develop or evaluate psychosocial skills in patient education and counselling. This tool, designed in the form of a briefcase, proposes methodological activities and cards that assess psychosocial skills during a shared educational assessment, group meetings or during an individual evaluation. This tool is part of a support approach for medical teams caring for patients with chronic diseases.

  15. Radar observations of Taurid complex meteor showers in 2003: activity and mass distribution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pecina, Petr; Pecinová, Drahomíra; Porubčan, V.; Toth, J.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 95, 1-4 (2005), s. 681-688 ISSN 0167-9295. [Meteoroids 2004. London, Ontario, 16.08.2004-20.08.2004] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/03/1405 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : Taurid complex * meteor showers * activity Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.975, year: 2005

  16. Meteoroid orbits from video meteors. The case of the Geminid stream

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hajduková jr., M.; Koten, Pavel; Kornoš, L.; Toth, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 143, SI (2017), s. 89-98 ISSN 0032-0633. [Meteoroids 2016. Nordwijk, 06.06.2016-10.06.2016] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-25251S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : meteors * meteoroid orbits * meteoroid streams Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science ) Impact factor: 1.892, year: 2016

  17. Is electric charge separation the main process for kinetic energy transformation into the meteor phenomenon?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spurný, Pavel; Ceplecha, Zdeněk

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 489, č. 1 (2008), s. 449-454 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/0411 Grant - others:EU(XE) MRTN-CT-2006-035519 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : meteors * meteoroids Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.153, year: 2008

  18. Rocket Detection of Argon in Comet Hale-Bopp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, S. A.; Festou, M. C.; Parker, J. Wm.; Slater, D. C.; Gladstone, G. R.; A'Hearn, M. F.

    1998-12-01

    The EUVS planetary sounding rocket spectrograph was flown on 30.2 March 1997 (UT) from White Sands, New Mexico to observe comet Hale-Bopp in the bandpass from 830--1120 A. At the time of launch the comet was near perihelion, 0.915 AU from the Sun, 1.340 AU from Earth, and traveling at a heliocentric radial velocity of +0.70 km/s. EUVS obtained its primary spectra of the comet at resolution near 12 A, collecting 9340 counts over approximately 330 seconds of integration time. To our knowledge, the resulting dataset is both the most sensitive and the highest spectral resolution probe of a comet in the UV below 1200 A as yet achieved, and contains signatures of both the 1048.2 A and 1066.7 A Ar I resonance lines. These features represent the first-ever detections of any noble gas in a comet. The spectrum also includes significant detections which we tentatively attribute to due to 834 A 0 II, 972 A Lyman gamma, 989 A O I, the 1026 A H I Lyman beta/O I. We will discuss the Ar features, retrieve the Ar column in the coma, and discuss the implications of the total Ar/O abundance ratio in Hale-Bopp for the comet's origin.

  19. A catalog of observed nuclear magnitudes of Jupiter family comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tancredi, G.; Fernández, J. A.; Rickman, H.; Licandro, J.

    2000-10-01

    A catalog of a sample of 105 Jupiter family (JF) comets (defined as those with Tisserand constants T > 2 and orbital periods P International Comet Quarterly Archive of Cometary Photometric Data, the Minor Planet Center (MPC) data base, IAU Circulars, International Comet Quarterly, and a few papers devoted to some particular comets, together with our own observations. Photometric data previous to 1990 have mainly been taken from the Comet Light Curve Catalogue (CLICC) compiled by Kamél (\\cite{kamel}). We discuss the reliability of the reported nuclear magnitudes in relation to the inherent sources of errors and uncertainties, in particular the coma contamination often present even at large heliocentric distances. A large fraction of the JF comets of our sample indeed shows various degrees of activity at large heliocentric distances, which is correlated with recent downward jumps in their perihelion distances. The reliability of coma subtraction methods to compute the nuclear magnitude is also discussed. Most absolute nuclear magnitudes are found in the range 15 - 18, with no magnitudes fainter than H_N ~ 19.5. The catalog can be found at: http://www.fisica.edu.uy/ ~ gonzalo/catalog/. Table 2 and Appendix B are only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org Table 5 is also available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

  20. Results from the UMD physical properties of comets survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisse, Carey M.; A'Hearn, Michael F.; Fernandez, Yanga R.

    2005-01-01

    We report on an ongoing statistical study of the emitted dust and exposed nuclei of a survey of the brightest near-Earth comets over the last 13 years. Combined thermal infrared and optical observations are analyzed using dynamical spectral and morphological coma models [123] to update and improve dust emission rates [4] and nucleus size estimates [5]. Using these results we show that 1) there is more than enough dust emitted from short period comets into bound solar system orbits to create and support the current interplanetary dust cloud (IPD); 2) that a population of dormant or extinct comets in the solar system is quite plausible; and 3) that the lifetime versus sublimation for the short period comets is much longer than their dynamical lifetime. [1] C.M. Lisse et al. (1998) Ap J 496 971. [2] C.M. Lisse et al. (1999) Icarus 140 189. [3] Y.R. Fernandez et al. (2000) Icarus 147 145 [4] L. Kresak and M. Kresakova (1987) in Symposium on Diversity and Similarity of Comets ESA SP-278 739 [5] D.C.Jewitt (1991) in Comets in the Post-Halley Era (R.L. Newburn M. Neugebauer and J. Rahe Eds.) Kluwer Academic Dordecht 19.

  1. The comet assay: ready for 30 more years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Peter

    2018-02-24

    During the last 30 years, the comet assay has become widely used for the measurement of DNA damage and repair in cells and tissues. A landmark achievement was reached in 2016 when the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development adopted a comet assay guideline for in vivo testing of DNA strand breaks in animals. However, the comet assay has much more to offer than being an assay for testing DNA strand breaks in animal organs. The use of repair enzymes increases the range of DNA lesions that can be detected with the assay. It can also be modified to measure DNA repair activity. Still, despite the long-term use of the assay, there is a need for studies that assess the impact of variation in specific steps of the procedure. This is particularly important for the on-going efforts to decrease the variation between experiments and laboratories. The articles in this Special Issue of Mutagenesis cover important technical issues of the comet assay procedure, nanogenotoxicity and ionising radiation sensitivity on plant cells. The included biomonitoring studies have assessed seasonal variation and certain predictors for the basal level of DNA damage in white blood cells. Lastly, the comet assay has been used in studies on genotoxicity of environmental and occupational exposures in human biomonitoring studies and animal models. Overall, the articles in this Special Issue demonstrate the versatility of the comet assay and they hold promise that the assay is ready for the next 30 years.

  2. Extension of the comet method to 2-D hexagonal geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, Kevin John; Rahnema, Farzad; Zhang, Dingkang

    2011-01-01

    The capability of the heterogeneous coarse mesh radiation transport (COMET) method developed at Georgia Tech has been expanded. COMET is now able to treat hexagonal geometry in two dimensions, allowing reactor problems to be solved for those next-generation reactors which utilize prismatic block structure and hexagonal lattice geometry in their designs. The COMET method is used to solve whole core reactor analysis problems without resorting to homogenization or low-order transport approximations. The eigenvalue and fission density distribution of the reactor are determined iteratively using response functions. The method has previously proven accurate in solving PWR, BWR, and CANDU eigenvalue problems. In this paper, three simple test cases inspired by high temperature test reactor material cross sections and fuel block geometry are presented. These cases are given not in an attempt to model realistic nuclear power systems, but in order to test the ability of the improved method. Solutions determined by the new hexagonal version of COMET, COMET-Hex, are compared with solutions determined by MCNP5, and the results show the accuracy and efficiency of the improved COMET-Hex method in calculating the eigenvalue and fuel pin fission density in sample full-core problems. COMETHex determines the eigenvalues of these simple problems to an order of within 50 pcm of the reference solutions and all pin fission densities to an average error of 0.2%, and it requires fewer than three minutes to produce these results. (author)

  3. MOLECULAR OXYGEN IN OORT CLOUD COMET 1P/HALLEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, M.; Altwegg, K. [Physikalisches Institut, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Dishoeck, E. F. van [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Schwehm, G. [ESA (retired) Science Operations Department, ESTEC, Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk (Netherlands)

    2015-12-10

    Recently, the ROSINA mass spectrometer suite on board the European Space Agency's Rosetta spacecraft discovered an abundant amount of molecular oxygen, O{sub 2}, in the coma of Jupiter family comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko of O{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O = 3.80 ± 0.85%. It could be shown that O{sub 2} is indeed a parent species and that the derived abundances point to a primordial origin. Crucial questions are whether the O{sub 2} abundance is peculiar to comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko or Jupiter family comets in general, and also whether Oort cloud comets such as comet 1P/Halley contain similar amounts of molecular oxygen. We investigated mass spectra obtained by the Neutral Mass Spectrometer instrument during the flyby by the European Space Agency's Giotto probe of comet 1P/Halley. Our investigation indicates that a production rate of O{sub 2} of 3.7 ± 1.7% with respect to water is indeed compatible with the obtained Halley data and therefore that O{sub 2} might be a rather common and abundant parent species.

  4. Telescopic and meteor observation of `Oumuamua, the first known interstellar asteroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Quan-Zhi

    2018-04-01

    1I/2017 U1 ('Oumuamua), a recently discovered asteroid in a hyperbolic orbit, is the first macroscopic object of extrasolar origin identified in the solar system. I will present imaging and spectroscopic observations of 'Oumuamua as well as a search of meteor activity potentially linked to this object using the Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar. We find that 'Oumuamua exhibits a moderate spectral gradient of 10%+-6% per 100 nm, a value lower than that of outer solar system bodies, indicative of a formation and/or previous residence in a warmer environment. Imaging observation and spectral line analysis show no evidence that 'Oumuamua is presently active. Negative meteor observation is as expected, since ejection driven by sublimation of commonly known cometary species such as CO requires an extreme ejection speed of ~40 m/s at ~100 au in order to reach the Earth. No obvious candidate stars are proposed as the point of origin for 'Oumuamua. Given a mean free path of ~109 ly in the solar neighborhood, 'Oumuamua has likely spent a very long time in interstellar space before encountering the solar system.

  5. Two-dimensional computer simulation of hypervelocity impact cratering: some preliminary results for Meteor Crater, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, J.B.; Burton, D.E.; Cunningham, M.E.; Lettis, L.A. Jr.

    1978-04-01

    A computational approach used for subsurface explosion cratering has been extended to hypervelocity impact cratering. Meteor (Barringer) Crater, Arizona, was selected for our first computer simulation because it was the most thoroughly studied. It is also an excellent example of a simple, bowl-shaped crater and is one of the youngest terrestrial impact craters. Shoemaker estimates that the impact occurred about 20,000 to 30,000 years ago [Roddy (1977)]. Initial conditions for this calculation included a meteorite impact velocity of 15 km/s. meteorite mass of 1.57E + 08 kg, with a corresponding kinetic energy of 1.88E + 16 J (4.5 megatons). A two-dimensional Eulerian finite difference code called SOIL was used for this simulation of a cylindrical iron projectile impacting at normal incidence into a limestone target. For this initial calculation a Tillotson equation-of-state description for iron and limestone was used with no shear strength. A color movie based on this calculation was produced using computer-generated graphics. Results obtained for this preliminary calculation of the formation of Meteor Crater, Arizona, are in good agreement with Meteor Crater Measurements

  6. Radiative heat exchange of a meteor body in the approximation of radiant heat conduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilyugin, N.N.; Chernova, T.A.

    1986-01-01

    The problem of the thermal and dynamic destruction of large meteor bodies moving in planetary atmospheres is fundamental for the clarification of optical observations and anomalous phenomena in the atmosphere, the determination of the physicochemical properties of meteoroids, and the explanation of the fall of remnants of large meteorites. Therefore, it is important to calculate the coefficient of radiant heat exchange (which is the determining factor under these conditions) for large meteor bodies as they move with hypersonic velocities in an atmosphere. The solution of this problem enables one to find the ablation of a meteorite during its aerodynamic heating and to determine the initial conditions for the solution of problems of the breakup of large bodies and their subsequent motion and ablation. Hypersonic flow of an inviscid gas stream over an axisymmetric blunt body is analyzed with allowance for radiative transfer in a thick-thin approximation. The gas-dynamic problem of the flow of an optically thick gas over a large body is solved by the method of asymptotic joined expansions, using a hypersonic approximation and local self-similarity. An equation is obtained for the coefficient of radiant heat exchange and the peculiarities of such heat exchange for meteor bodies of large size are noted

  7. Meteor Film Recording with Digital Film Cameras with large CMOS Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slansky, P. C.

    2016-12-01

    In this article the author combines his professional know-how about cameras for film and television production with his amateur astronomy activities. Professional digital film cameras with high sensitivity are still quite rare in astronomy. One reason for this may be their costs of up to 20 000 and more (camera body only). In the interim, however,consumer photo cameras with film mode and very high sensitivity have come to the market for about 2 000 EUR. In addition, ultra-high sensitive professional film cameras, that are very interesting for meteor observation, have been introduced to the market. The particular benefits of digital film cameras with large CMOS sensors, including photo cameras with film recording function, for meteor recording are presented by three examples: a 2014 Camelopardalid, shot with a Canon EOS C 300, an exploding 2014 Aurigid, shot with a Sony alpha7S, and the 2016 Perseids, shot with a Canon ME20F-SH. All three cameras use large CMOS sensors; "large" meaning Super-35 mm, the classic 35 mm film format (24x13.5 mm, similar to APS-C size), or full format (36x24 mm), the classic 135 photo camera format. Comparisons are made to the widely used cameras with small CCD sensors, such as Mintron or Watec; "small" meaning 12" (6.4x4.8 mm) or less. Additionally, special photographic image processing of meteor film recordings is discussed.

  8. Applicability of meteor radiant determination methods depending on orbit type. I. High-eccentric orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svoren, J.; Neslusan, L.; Porubcan, V.

    1993-07-01

    It is evident that there is no uniform method of calculating meteor radiants which would yield reliable results for all types of cometary orbits. In the present paper an analysis of this problem is presented, together with recommended methods for various types of orbits. Some additional methods resulting from mathematical modelling are presented and discussed together with Porter's, Steel-Baggaley's and Hasegawa's methods. In order to be able to compare how suitable the application of the individual radiant determination methods is, it is necessary to determine the accuracy with which they approximate real meteor orbits. To verify the accuracy with which the orbit of a meteoroid with at least one node at 1 AU fits the original orbit of the parent body, we applied the Southworth-Hawkins D-criterion (Southworth, R.B., Hawkins, G.S.: 1963, Smithson. Contr. Astrophys 7, 261). D0.2 the fit is rather poor and the change of orbit unrealistic. The optimal methods with the smallest values of D for given types of orbits are shown in two series of six plots. The new method of rotation around the line of apsides we propose is very appropriate in the region of small inclinations. There is no doubt that Hasegawa's omega-adjustment method (Hasegawa, I.: 1990, Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan 42, 175) has the widest application. A comparison of the theoretical radiants with the observed radiants of seven known meteor showers is also presented.

  9. Improved analysis of all-sky meteor radar measurements of gravity wave variances and momentum fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Andrioli

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of using a composite day analysis for all-sky interferometric meteor radars when measuring mean winds and tides are widely known. On the other hand, problems arise if this technique is applied to Hocking's (2005 gravity wave analysis for all-sky meteor radars. In this paper we describe how a simple change in the procedure makes it possible to use a composite day in Hocking's analysis. Also, we explain how a modified composite day can be constructed to test its ability to measure gravity wave momentum fluxes. Test results for specified mean, tidal, and gravity wave fields, including tidal amplitudes and gravity wave momentum fluxes varying strongly with altitude and/or time, suggest that the modified composite day allows characterization of monthly mean profiles of the gravity wave momentum fluxes, with good accuracy at least at the altitudes where the meteor counts are large (from 89 to 92.5 km. In the present work we also show that the variances measured with Hocking's method are often contaminated by the tidal fields and suggest a method of empirical correction derived from a simple simulation model. The results presented here greatly increase our confidence because they show that our technique is able to remove the tide-induced false variances from Hocking's analysis.

  10. Meteor Observational Data Visualisation in the Equatorial Coordinate System Using Information Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovashchenko, V. A.; Kolomiyets, S. V.

    As a result of dynamic evolution of IT industry and astronomical research in the XXI century, which have resulted in obtaining large and complex data sets known as Big Data (e.g. data from the European Space Agency missions, such as GAIA mission, etc.), as well as due to rapid development of computer technologies, astronomy and computer science have become closely linked to each other. In the XXI century, Information technology has become an essential part of understanding the world around. This paper presents a solution to the problem of meteor data representation in the second equatorial coordinate (RA-Dec) system using Information Technology. Such a visualisation solution is needed to analyse the results of experiments based on the radar observations conducted in 1972-1978 (stage 1 - the data obtained in 1972 comprise 10,247 meteor orbits), which have been accumulated and stored in the Meteor Database of the Kharkiv National University of Radio Electronics (KNURE). A sample set of data with their characteristics and details about their delivery has been presented by (Kashcheyev & Tkachuk, 1980). An electronic calculator application was developed by employing the model of data visualisation in the form of celestial hemispheres using the object-oriented programming language C#.

  11. Calibration-free quantitative elemental analysis of meteor plasma using reference laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of meteorite samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferus, Martin; Koukal, Jakub; Lenža, Libor; Srba, Jiří; Kubelík, Petr; Laitl, Vojtěch; Zanozina, Ekaterina M.; Váňa, Pavel; Kaiserová, Tereza; Knížek, Antonín; Rimmer, Paul; Chatzitheodoridis, Elias; Civiš, Svatopluk

    2018-03-01

    Aims: We aim to analyse real-time Perseid and Leonid meteor spectra using a novel calibration-free (CF) method, which is usually applied in the laboratory for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopic (LIBS) chemical analysis. Methods: Reference laser ablation spectra of specimens of chondritic meteorites were measured in situ simultaneously with a high-resolution laboratory echelle spectrograph and a spectral camera for meteor observation. Laboratory data were subsequently evaluated via the CF method and compared with real meteor emission spectra. Additionally, spectral features related to airglow plasma were compared with the spectra of laser-induced breakdown and electric discharge in the air. Results: We show that this method can be applied in the evaluation of meteor spectral data observed in real time. Specifically, CF analysis can be used to determine the chemical composition of meteor plasma, which, in the case of the Perseid and Leonid meteors analysed in this study, corresponds to that of the C-group of chondrites.

  12. Assessment and reduction of comet assay variation in relation to DNA damage: studies from the European Comet Assay Validation Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Peter; Möller, Lennart; Godschalk, Roger W L

    2010-01-01

    The alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay has become a widely used method for the detection of DNA damage and repair in cells and tissues. Still, it has been difficult to compare results from different investigators because of differences in assay conditions and because the data...... are reported in different units. The European Comet Assay Validation Group (ECVAG) was established for the purpose of validation of the comet assay with respect to measures of DNA damage formation and its repair. The results from this inter-laboratory validation trail showed a large variation in measured level...... reliability for the measurement of DNA damage by the comet assay but there is still a need for further validation to reduce both assay and inter-laboratory variation....

  13. Comets, Asteroids, and the Origin of the Biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2006-01-01

    During the past few decades, the role of comets in the delivery of water, organics, and prebiotic chemicals to the Biosphere of Earth during the Hadean (4.5-3.8 Ga) period of heavy bombardment has become more widely accepted. However comets are still largely regarded as frigid, pristine bodies of protosolar nebula material that are entirely devoid of liquid water and consequently unsuitable for life in any form. Complex organic compounds have been observed comets and on the water rich asteroid 1998 KY26, which has color and radar reflectivity similar to the carbonaceous meteorites. Near infrared observations have indicated the presence of crystalline water ice and ammonia hydrate on the large Kuiper Belt object (50000) Quaoar with resurfacing that may indicate cryovolcanic outgassing and the Cassini spacecraft has detected water-ice geysers on Saturn s moon Enceladus. Spacecraft observations of the chemical compositions and characteristics of the nuclei of several comets (Halley, Borrelly, Wild 2, and Tempel 1) have now firmly established that comets contain a suite of complex organic chemicals; water is the predominant volatile; and that extremely high temperatures (approx.350-400 K) can be reached on the surface of the very black (albedo-0.03) nuclei when the comets are with 1.5 AU from the Sun. Impact craters and pinnacles observed on comet Wild 2 suggest a thick crust and episodic outbursts and jets observed on the nuclei of several comets are interpreted as indications that localized regimes of liquid water and water vapor can periodically exist beneath the crust of some comets. The Deep Impact observations indicate that the temperature on the nucleus of of comet Tempel 1 at 1.5 AU varied from 330K on the sunlit side to a minimum of 280+/-8 K. It is interesting that even the coldest region of the comet surface was slightly above the ice/liquid water phase transition temperature. These results suggest that pools and films of liquid water can exist in a wide

  14. Perfil do idoso acusado de cometer crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Vieira Brandão

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available É verdade que o idoso, muitas vezes, é vítima de diversas formas de agressões, mas também é agente da prática de delitos. Por meio de pesquisa documental realizada em 2013 com todos os boletins de ocorrência registrados na delegacia de polícia de Imbé, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, realizamos análise estatística e evidenciamos o perfil do idoso acusado de cometer crime e os tipos de crimes cometidos. No período pesquisado, 3,28% do total de idosos de Imbé foi acusado de cometer algum tipo de crime. Este artigo recomenda uma ação contínua e integrada da rede de saúde e de segurança pública com as demais áreas sociais para antecipar situações de risco para idosos (e comunidade em geral, de modo a promover a cidadania, gerenciar conflitos e reduzir a violência urbana. It is genuine that the elderly frequently are victims of several kinds of hostility, but the fact remains that he or she, too, is also an agent of the committal of criminal offenses. Through documentary research realized in 2013 with the total occurrences bulletins registered in police stations in Imbé, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, we realize statistical analysis and show the profile of the elderly accused of committing crime and the types of crimes committed. In the period surveyed, 3.28% of the total number of elderly of Imbé was accused of committing some type of crime. Profile of the Elderly Accused of Committing Crime recommends a continuous and integrated action of the health and public safety network with the other social areas to anticipate risk situations for the elderly (and the community in general, in order to promote citizenship, manage conflicts and reduce urban violence. Keywords: violence, seniors, aging, public health, crime

  15. Ambilpolar Electric Field and Diffusive Cooling of Electrons in Meteor Trails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasko, V. P.; Kelley, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    Kelley and Price [GRL, 44, 2987, 2017] recently indicated that ambipolar electric fields may play a role in dynamics of dense plasmas generated by meteors. In the present work we discuss time dynamics of relaxation of electron temperature in meteor trails under relatively common conditions when meteor trail diffusion is not affected by the geomagnetic field (i.e., at low altitudes where both electrons and ions are not magnetized, or at higher altitudes in the plane defined by the trail and magnetic field when meteor trail is not aligned with the geomagnetic field [Ceplecha et al., Space Sci. Rev., 84, 327, 1998, and references therein]). The rate of ambipolar diffusion is a function of temperature and pressure [e.g., Hocking et al., Ann. Geophys., 34, 1119, 2016; Silber et al., Mon. Not. RAS, 469, 1869, 2017] and there is a significant spectroscopic evidence of initial plasma temperatures in meteor trails on the order 4400 deg K [Jennikens et al., Astrobiology, 4, 81, 2004]. For a representative altitude of 105 km chosen for our studies the results are consistent with previous analysis conducted in [Baggeley and Webb, J. Atm. Terr. Phys., 39, 1399, 1977; Ceplecha et al., 1998] indicating that the electron temperature remains elevated for significant time durations measured in tens of milliseconds. Our results indicate that in terms of their magnitudes the ambipolar electric fields can exceed the critical breakdown field of air, consistent with ideas expressed by Kelley and Price [GRL, 44, 2987, 2017], however, under considered conditions these fields lead to acceleration of electron cooling, with electron temperatures falling below the ambient air temperature (below 224 deg K at 105 km altitude). These effects are referred to as diffusive cooling [e.g., Rozhansky and Tsendin, Transport phenomena in partially ionized plasma, Taylor & Francis, 2001, p. 449] and represent a process in which diffusing electrons move against the force acting on them from ambipolar

  16. Revised interpretations of stable C and O patterns in carbonate rocks resulting from meteoric diagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swart, Peter K.; Oehlert, Amanda M.

    2018-02-01

    A positive correlation between the δ13C and δ18O values of carbonate rocks is a screening tool widely used to identify the overprint of meteoric diagenesis on the original isotopic composition of a sample. In particular, it has been suggested that systematic change from negative to positive δ13C and δ18O values with increasing depth in the core is an indicator of alteration within the zone of mixing between meteoric and marine waters. In this paper, we propose that such covariance is not generated within the traditionally defined mixing zone, and that positive correlations between δ13C and δ18O values in marine carbonates are not necessarily indicators of meteoric alteration. This new interpretation is based on data collected from the shallow sub-surface of the Bahamas, a region unequivocally influenced by meteoric waters to depths of at least 200 m below the current sediment-water interface. The classic interpretation of the diagenetic environments, based on changes in the δ13C and δ18O values, would suggest the maximum penetration of freshwater occurs between 65 and 100 m below seafloor. Below these depths, a strong positive covariation between the δ13C and δ18O values exists, and would traditionally be defined as the mixing zone. However, based upon known changes in sea level, the penetration of the freshwater lens extends significantly below this limit. We contend that the zone showing covariance of δ13C and δ18O values is actually altered within the freshwater lens, and not the mixing zone as previously proposed. The co-varying trend in δ13C and δ18O values is the result of diagenetic processes occurring at the interface between vadose and phreatic zones. Significantly greater rates of recrystallization and neomorphism are driven by the increased rates of oxidation of organic matter at this transition with progressively less alteration occurring with increasing depth. As sea level oscillates, the position of this interface moves through the

  17. Terrestrial cometary tail and lunar corona induced by small comets: Predictions for Galileo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dessler, A.J.; Sandel, B.R.; Vasyliunas, V.M.

    1990-01-01

    A search for small comets near 1 AU is an objective of the Galileo mission. If small comets are as numerous and behave as has been proposed, two near-Earth signatures of small comets should be observable by the UVS experiment on the Earth flybys of Galileo; (1) a comet-like tail of Earth created by small comets that come close to Earth, break up and vaporize, but just miss the atmosphere and proceed back into interplanetary space, and (2) a corona surrounding the Moon induced by lunar impact of small comets

  18. Time-dependent injection of Oort Cloud comets into earth-crossing orbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.A.; Ip, W.H.; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Aeronomie, Katlenburg-Lindau, West Germany)

    1987-01-01

    The present consideration of close stellar encounter-induced modulations of the influx rate of Oort Cloud comets notes that comet showers sufficiently intense for emergence in cratering statistics are produced at 80-Myr intervals, on the assumption of an Oort Cloud heavy comet core. Numerical simulations of the time evolution of comet showers or bursts indicate that a long tail of residual shower comets follows the major event with an intensity of about 0.01 of the peak rate after 20-30 Myr, thereby suggesting that residual comet showers are primarily clustered in certain areas of the sky, rendering them observable at virtually any time. 33 references

  19. Comet 67P Through the Lens of Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Ekaterina

    2017-04-01

    My proposal is to share my artistic exploration of a comet through the bodily senses, while finding inspiration in scientific data. I will present my artwork as a slideshow, showcasing: large scale paintings, ceramic sculptures, music and interactive augmented reality. The Rosetta mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) to comet 67P/ Churyumov-Gerasimenko is remarkable. The scientific investigation of the comet's composition, atmosphere, dust, vapor, surface and internal structure are crucial to help researchers understand the origin of the solar system and our own planet. Sight: Paintings Rosetta mission discovered that the water on the comet is different from the water on Earth; as measured with the ROSINA-DFMS instrument on Rosetta, water on 67P contains approximately 3 times more hydrogen­deuterium oxide - HDO, than found in Earth's oceans. In the art studio I re-create water that is close in composition to the water on the comet, by concentrating the level of HDO. With this water I paint large scale watermedia paintings, based on the photographs by Rosetta (OSIRIS, Nav. Cam.). Touch: Sculptures While exploring the comet's three-dimensional form, I focus more deeply on the composition of the comet. Stoneware clay and my choice of a glaze both include iron oxide, a common constituent of meteorites and comets. Hearing: Music An audio piece "A Singing Comet", by Manuel Senfft, based on the Rosetta Plasma Consortium data, inspired me to make a musical piece. In collaboration with clarinetist Lee Mottram (Wales) and composer Takuto Fukuda (Japan) we created an electro­acoustic composition in which we tell the story of comets visiting our Solar System, repeating their cycle, curving around the sun and releasing water, carrying away dust to form their tails. Smell In collaboration with The Open University, UK, postcards with a smell of the comet were created, introducing the chemical components of the comet. The smell was recreated by combining several molecules

  20. Comets and the origin of life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delsemme, A H

    1981-01-01

    Current understandings of the nature and evolution of the universe and of the earth are summarized as a background to the discussion of the origin of life on earth as the result of the transport of the necessary materials to earth by comets. Evidence for the origin of the universe in the Big Bang supplied by observations of the expansion of the universe and the cosmic microwave background is discussed, and the condensation of primordial matter into galaxies and stars and the chemical processes in stars converting primordial hydrogen and helium into heavy elements as the stars evolve giving rise to an interstellar medium are considered. Attention is then given to the birth of the solar system from the contraction of a dark interstellar cloud containing gas, dust and interstellar molecules, and in particular to the origin of the terrestrial planets and the cometary contributions to the terrestrial crust, oceans and atmosphere. Finally, the chronology of the universe from the Big Bang to the present and that of the earth from its formation to the present are reviewed.

  1. Autonomous Navigation Performance During The Hartley 2 Comet Flyby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamson, Matthew J; Kennedy, Brian A.; Bhaskaran, Shyam

    2012-01-01

    On November 4, 2010, the EPOXI spacecraft performed a 700-km flyby of the comet Hartley 2 as follow-on to the successful 2005 Deep Impact prime mission. EPOXI, an extended mission for the Deep Impact Flyby spacecraft, returned a wealth of visual and infrared data from Hartley 2, marking the fifth time that high-resolution images of a cometary nucleus have been captured by a spacecraft. The highest resolution science return, captured at closest approach to the comet nucleus, was enabled by use of an onboard autonomous navigation system called AutoNav. AutoNav estimates the comet-relative spacecraft trajectory using optical measurements from the Medium Resolution Imager (MRI) and provides this relative position information to the Attitude Determination and Control System (ADCS) for maintaining instrument pointing on the comet. For the EPOXI mission, AutoNav was tasked to enable continuous tracking of a smaller, more active Hartley 2, as compared to Tempel 1, through the full encounter while traveling at a higher velocity. To meet the mission goal of capturing the comet in all MRI science images, position knowledge accuracies of +/- 3.5 km (3-?) cross track and +/- 0.3 seconds (3-?) time of flight were required. A flight-code-in-the-loop Monte Carlo simulation assessed AutoNav's statistical performance under the Hartley 2 flyby dynamics and determined optimal configuration. The AutoNav performance at Hartley 2 was successful, capturing the comet in all of the MRI images. The maximum residual between observed and predicted comet locations was 20 MRI pixels, primarily influenced by the center of brightness offset from the center of mass in the observations and attitude knowledge errors. This paper discusses the Monte Carlo-based analysis that led to the final AutoNav configuration and a comparison of the predicted performance with the flyby performance.

  2. Infrared Spectroscopy of Parent Volatiles in Comets: Implications for Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiSanti, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Current cometary orbits provide information on their recent dynamical history. However, determining a given comet's formation region from its current dynamical state alone is complicated by radial migration in the proto-planetary disk and by dynamical interactions with the growing giant planets. Because comets reside for long periods of time in the outer Solar System, the ices contained in their nuclei (native ices) retain a relatively well-preserved footprint of when and where they formed, and this in turn can provide clues to conditions in the formation epoch. As a comet approaches the Sun, sublimation of its native ices releases parent volatiles into the coma where they can be measured spectroscopically. The past to - 15 years have seen the advent of infrared spectrometers with high sensitivity between about 2.8 and 5.0 micron, enabling a taxonomy among comets based on abundances of parent volatiles (e.g., H2O, CO, CH4, C2H6, HCN, CH30H, H2CO, NH3). Such molecules are of keen interest to Astrobiology, as they include important pre-biotic species that likely were required for the emergence of life on Earth and perhaps elsewhere. Approximately 20 comets have thus far been characterized, beginning with C/1996 82 (Hyakutake) in 1996. Molecular production rates are established through comparison of observed emission line intensities with those predicted by quantum mechanical fluorescence models. Abundances of parent volatiles (relative to H2O) vary among even the relatively small number of comets sampled, with the most volatile species (CO and CH4) displaying the largest variations. Techniques developed for measuring parent volatile abundances in comets will be discussed, as will possible implications for their formation.

  3. Comet Hyakutake to Approach the Earth in Late March 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-03-01

    Astronomers Prepare for a Rare Event In the early morning of January 31, 1996, Japanese amateur astronomer Yuji Hyakutake made his second comet discovery within five weeks. He found the new comet near the border between the southern constellations of Hydra (The Water-Snake) and Libra (The Scales), amazingly just three degrees from the position where he detected another comet on December 26, 1995. After two weeks of hectic activity among amateur and professional astronomers all over the world, much interesting information has now been gathered about the new comet which has been designated C/1996 B2 (Hyakutake) . In particular, it has been found to move in a near-parabolic orbit that will bring it unusually close to the Earth next month. It is then expected to become bright enough to be seen with the unaided eye and to remain so during several weeks thereafter. Preparations are now made to observe the celestial visitor with a large number of telescopes, on the ground and in space. This event offers a rare opportunity to study the immediate surroundings of a cometary nucleus in detail and the specialists intend to make the most of it. Discovery and orbit Yuji Hyakutake, of profession photoengraver and a well-known amateur astronomer, announced his new discovery without delay, and within 24 hours, it had been sighted by several other observers in Japan and Australia. Experienced comet-watchers described its appearance as `diffuse with central condensation and of magnitude 11-12', i.e. a little more than 100 times fainter than what can be seen with the unaided eye. This brightness is not unusual for a comet discovered by an amateur, although it would probably have been missed, had it been just a little fainter. In the present case, the decisive factors for Hyakutake's success were undoubtedly his very powerful equipment (25 x 150 binoculars) and the advantageous combination of the comet's southern position in the sky and his location in Kagoshima, the southernmost

  4. Comets, Asteroids, Meteorites, and the Origin of the Biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2006-01-01

    During the past few decades, the delivery of water, organics, and prebiotic chemicals to the Biosphere of Earth during the Hadean (4.5-3.8 Ga) period of heavy bombardment by comets and asteroids has become more widely accepted. Comets are still largely regarded as frigid, pristine bodies of protosolar nebula material that are devoid of liquid water and therefore unsuitable for life. Complex organic compounds have been observed in comets and on the water-rich asteroid 1998 KY26 and near IR observations have indicated the presence of crystalline water ice and ammonia hydrate on the large Kuiper Belt object (50000) Quaoar that has resurfacing suggesting cryovolcanic outgassing. Spacecraft observations of the chemical compositions and characteristics of the nuclei of several comets (Halley, Borrelly, Wild 2, and Tempel 1) have shown that comets contain complex organic chemicals; that water is the predominant volatile; and that extremely high temperatures (approx. 350-400 K) can be reached on the surfae of the very black (albedo approx. 0.03) nuclei of comets when they approach the Sun. Impact craters and pinnacles observed on comet Wild 2 suggest a thick crust. Episodic outbursts and jets from the nuclei of several comets indicate that localized regimes of liquid water and water vapor can periodically exist beneath the comet crust. The Deep Impact mission found the temperature of the nucleus of comet Tempel 1 at 1.5 AU varied from a minimum of 280 plus or minus 8 K the 330K (57 C) on the sunlit side. In this paper it is argued that that pools and films of liquid water exist (within a wide range of temperatures) in cavities and voids just beneath the hot, black crust. The possibility of liquid water existing over a wide range of temperatures significantly enhances the possibility that comets might contain niches suitable for the growth of microbial communities and ecosystems. These regimes would be ideal for the growth of psychrophilic, mesophilic, and thermophilic

  5. The use of comet assay in plant toxicology: recent advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conceição LV Santos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The systematic study of genotoxicity in plants induced by contaminants and other stress agents has been hindered to date by the lack of reliable and robust biomarkers. The comet assay is a versatile and sensitive method for the evaluation of DNA damages and DNA repair capacity at single-cell level. Due to its simplicity and sensitivity, and the small number of cells required to obtain robust results, the use of plant comet assay has drastically increased in the last decade. For years its use was restricted to a few model species, e.g. Allium cepa, Nicotiana tabacum, Vicia faba, or Arabidopsis thaliana but this number largely increased in the last years. Plant comet assay has been used to study the genotoxic impact of radiation, chemicals including pesticides, phytocompounds, heavy metals, nanoparticles or contaminated complex matrices. Here we will review the most recent data on the use of this technique as a standard approach for studying the genotoxic effects of different stress conditions on plants. Also, we will discuss the integration of information provided by the comet assay with other DNA-damage indicators, and with cellular responses including oxidative stress, cell division or cell death. Finally, we will focus on putative relations between transcripts related with DNA damage pathways, DNA replication and repair, oxidative stress and cell cycle progression that have been identified in plant cells with comet assays demonstrating DNA damage.

  6. The use of comet assay in plant toxicology: recent advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Conceição L. V.; Pourrut, Bertrand; Ferreira de Oliveira, José M. P.

    2015-01-01

    The systematic study of genotoxicity in plants induced by contaminants and other stress agents has been hindered to date by the lack of reliable and robust biomarkers. The comet assay is a versatile and sensitive method for the evaluation of DNA damages and DNA repair capacity at single-cell level. Due to its simplicity and sensitivity, and the small number of cells required to obtain robust results, the use of plant comet assay has drastically increased in the last decade. For years its use was restricted to a few model species, e.g., Allium cepa, Nicotiana tabacum, Vicia faba, or Arabidopsis thaliana but this number largely increased in the last years. Plant comet assay has been used to study the genotoxic impact of radiation, chemicals including pesticides, phytocompounds, heavy metals, nanoparticles or contaminated complex matrices. Here we will review the most recent data on the use of this technique as a standard approach for studying the genotoxic effects of different stress conditions on plants. Also, we will discuss the integration of information provided by the comet assay with other DNA-damage indicators, and with cellular responses including oxidative stress, cell division or cell death. Finally, we will focus on putative relations between transcripts related with DNA damage pathways, DNA replication and repair, oxidative stress and cell cycle progression that have been identified in plant cells with comet assays demonstrating DNA damage. PMID:26175750

  7. Infrared imaging and photometry of Comet Giacobini-Zinner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campins, H.

    1986-01-01

    Infrared images and photometry were obtained to determine the spatial distribution and physical characteristics (temperature, albedo, size distribution, total mass, etc.) of the grains in the coma of Comet GZ. A 10.8 m image of Comet GZ obtained on August 4 represents the first ground-based thermal-infrared image of a Comet. Among the most significant results are: (1) an estimate of the number of grains that the ICE spacecraft must have encountered, which led the plasma wave team to conclude that they could only detect impacts on the antennae and not on the whole body of the ICE spacecraft; (2) the discovery of a population of large grains (radius > 100 micrometer), not observed in most other comets, which formed a curved tail near the nucleus (within 80 arcsec or 34,000 km); and (3) the detection of structure in the spatial distribution in the coma of the particle albedo, which was tentatively attributed to the presence of very fluffy grains which are likely to have multiple internal scattering of incident sunlight. The albedo map of Comet GZ was obtained by combining the 10.8 micrometer image shown with a simultaneous image taken at 0.68 micrometer, a bandpass which isolates the scattered continuum

  8. Isotopic ratios in outbursting comet C/2015 ER61

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Hutsemékers, Damien; Shinnaka, Yoshiharu; Opitom, Cyrielle; Manfroid, Jean; Jehin, Emmanuël; Meech, Karen J.; Hainaut, Olivier R.; Keane, Jacqueline V.; Gillon, Michaël

    2018-02-01

    Isotopic ratios in comets are critical to understanding the origin of cometary material and the physical and chemical conditions in the early solar nebula. Comet C/2015 ER61 (PANSTARRS) underwent an outburst with a total brightness increase of 2 magnitudes on the night of 2017 April 4. The sharp increase in brightness offered a rare opportunity to measure the isotopic ratios of the light elements in the coma of this comet. We obtained two high-resolution spectra of C/2015 ER61 with UVES/VLT on the nights of 2017 April 13 and 17. At the time of our observations, the comet was fading gradually following the outburst. We measured the nitrogen and carbon isotopic ratios from the CN violet (0, 0) band and found that 12C/13C = 100 ± 15, 14N/15N = 130 ± 15. In addition, we determined the 14N/15N ratio from four pairs of NH2 isotopolog lines and measured 14N/15N = 140 ± 28. The measured isotopic ratios of C/2015 ER61 do not deviate significantly from those of other comets.

  9. Detection of irradiation treatment of foods using DNA 'comet assay'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Hasan M.; Delincee, Henry

    1998-01-01

    Microgel electrophoresis of single cells (DNA comet assay) has been investigated to detect irradiation treatment of some food samples. These samples of fresh and frozen rainbow trout, red lentil, gram and sliced almonds were irradiated to 1 or 2 kGy using 10 MeV electron beam from a linear accelerator. Rainbow trout samples yielded good results with samples irradiated to 1 or 2 kGy showing fragmentation of DNA and, therefore, longer comets with no intact cells. Unirradiated samples showed shorter comets with a significant number of intact cells. For rainbow trout stored in a freezer for 11 days the irradiated samples can still be discerned by electrophoresis from unirradiated samples, however, the unirradiated trouts also showed some longer comets besides some intact cells. Radiation treatment of red lentils can also be detected by this method, i.e. no intact cells in 1 or 2 kGy irradiated samples and shorter comets and some intact cells in unirradiated samples. However, the results for gram and sliced almond samples were not satisfactory since some intact DNA cells were observed in irradiated samples as well. Probably, incomplete lysis has led to these deviating results

  10. Catastrophic disruptions as the origin of bilobate comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Stephen R.; Michel, Patrick; Jutzi, Martin; Marchi, Simone; Zhang, Yun; Richardson, Derek C.

    2018-05-01

    Several comets observed at close range have bilobate shapes1, including comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P/C-G), which was imaged by the European Space Agency's Rosetta mission2,3. Bilobate comets are thought to be primordial because they are rich in supervolatiles (for example, N2 and CO) and have a low bulk density, which implies that their formation requires a very low-speed accretion of two bodies. However, slow accretion does not only occur during the primordial phase of the Solar System; it can also occur at later epochs as part of the reaccumulation process resulting from the collisional disruption of a larger body4, so this cannot directly constrain the age of bilobate comets. Here, we show by numerical simulation that 67P/C-G and other elongated or bilobate comets can be formed in the wake of catastrophic collisional disruptions of larger bodies while maintaining their volatiles and low density throughout the process. Since this process can occur at any epoch of our Solar System's history, from early on through to the present day5, there is no need for these objects to be formed primordially. These findings indicate that observed prominent geological features, such as pits and stratified surface layers4,5, may not be primordial.

  11. Rosetta - a comet ride to solve planetary mysteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Comets are very interesting objects for scientists, since their composition reflects how the Solar System was when it was very young and still 'unfinished', more than 4600 million years ago. Comets have not changed much since then. By orbiting Comet Wirtanen and landing on it, Rosetta will collect essential information to understand the origin and evolution of our Solar System. It will also help discover whether comets contributed to the beginnings of life on Earth. In fact comets are carriers of complex organic molecules, that - delivered to Earth through impacts - perhaps played a role in the origin of living forms. Furthermore, “volatile” light elements carried by comets may have also played an important role in forming the Earth’s oceans and atmopshere. “Rosetta is one of the most challenging missions ever undertaken so far”, says Prof. David Southwood, ESA Director of Science, “No one before attempted a similar mission, unique for its scientific implications as well as for its complex and spectacular interplanetary space manoeuvres”. Before reaching its target in 2011, Rosetta will circle the Sun almost four times on wide loops in the inner Solar System. During its long trek, the spacecraft will have to endure some extreme thermal conditions. Once it is close to Comet Wirtanen, scientists will take it through a delicate braking manoeuvre; then the spacecraft will closely orbit the comet, and gently drop a lander on it. It will be like landing on a small, fast-moving cosmic bullet that still has - at present - an almost unknown 'geography'. An amazing 8-year interplanetary trek Rosetta is a 3-tonne box-type spacecraft about 3 metres high, with two 14-metre long solar panels. It consists of an orbiter and a lander. The lander is approximately 1 metre across and 80 centimetres high. It will be attached to the side of the Rosetta orbiter during the journey to Comet Wirtanen. Rosetta carries 21 experiments in total, 10 of them on the lander. They will

  12. DUSTER: collection of meteoric CaO and carbon smoke particles in the upper stratosphere .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Corte, V.; Rietmeijer, F. J. M.; Rotundi, A.; Ferrari, M.; Palumbo, P.

    Nanometer- to micrometer-size particles present in the upper stratosphere are a mixture of terrestrial and extra-terrestrial origins. They can be extraterrestrial particles condensed after meteor ablation. Meteoric dust in bolides is occasionally deposited into the lower stratosphere around 20 km altitude. Nanometer CaO and pure carbon smoke particles were collected at 38 km altitude in the upper stratosphere in the Arctic during June 2008 using DUSTER (Dust in the Upper Stratosphere Tracking Experiment and Retrieval), a balloon-borne instrument for the non-destructive collection of solid particles between 200 nm to 40 microns. We report the collection of micron sized CaCO_3 (calcite) grains. Their morphologies show evidence of melting and condensation after vaporization suggest at temperatures of approximately 3500 K. The formation environment of the collected grains was probably a dense dust cloud formed by the disintegration of a carbonaceous meteoroid during deceleration in the Earth� atmosphere. For the first time, DUSTER collected meteor ablation products that were presumably associated with the disintegration of a bolide crossing the Earth's atmosphere. The collected mostly CaO and pure carbon nanoparticles from the debris cloud of a fireball, included: 1) intact fragments; 2) quenched melted grains; and 3) vapor phase condensation products. The DUSTER project was funded by the Italian Space Agency (ASI), PRIN2008/MIUR (Ministero dell'Istruzione dell'Universitá e della Ricerca), PNRA 2013(Piano Nazionale Ricerca Antartide). CNES graciously provided this flight opportunity. We thank E. Zona and S. Inarta at the Laboratorio di Fisica Cosmica INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte-Universitá di Napoli Parthenope. F.J.M.R. was supported by grant NNX07AI39G from the NASA Cosmochemistry Program. We thank three anonymous reviewers who assisted us in introducing our new instrument.

  13. Isotopic characteristic of meteoric water and groundwater in Ahaggar massif (central Sahara)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saighi, O.; Michelot, J.L.; Filly, A.

    2001-01-01

    The mean contents of both oxygen-18 and deuterium in precipitation from the Ahaggar massif (central Sahara) are: δ 18 O = -3 per mille and 2 H = -15 per mille. The heterogeneity in meteoric events and the great scattering of these isotopic contents can be ascribed to the origins and the histories of air masses. The main contribution comes from the inflow of the Guinean monsoon during summer months. During winter, the N/W winds, arriving in the area from the Moroccan coast, provide some rains. The deuterium excess of these precipitation are up to +10 per mille, indicating that the air masses generating these rains are supplied by the recycling of the continental air moisture. Groundwater resources are produced in some little phreatic aquifers, which are recharged by sporadic wadi floods. Aquifer zones that are the most favourable are located in the valleys and occur as three overlying levels of unequal importance: the alluvial aquifer, the weathered zone of the underlying substratum and the deep aquifer of fissured basement. The alluvial aquifer contain weakly mineralised water (0.3 g/l). Their stable isotopes contents (δ 18 O∼ -2.7 per mille) and 14 C activity of them (> 100 pmc) are comparable to present meteoric water, allowing modern meteoric waters to be identified. The weathered zone groundwater's are more mineralised (0.8 g/l) and its isotopic contents (δ 18 O∼ -4.2 per mille) and intermediate radiocarbon activity, prove their old water component. The basement's groundwater are more mineralised (> 1 g/l) and their very depleted isotopic contents (δ 18 O∼ -9 per mille) diverge clearly from the present precipitation. Furthermore, the absence of 3 H and 14 C activity of them, prove an old heritage, resulting from recharge during the last humid episode of the Holocene. (author)

  14. Measurements of meteor smoke particles during the ECOMA-2006 campaign: 2. Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strelnikova, Irina; Rapp, Markus; Strelnikov, Boris; Baumgarten, Gerd; Brattli, Alvin; Svenes, Knut; Hoppe, Ulf-Peter; Friedrich, Martin; Gumbel, Jörg; Williams, Bifford P.

    2009-03-01

    The first sounding rocket of the European ECOMA-project (ECOMA, Existence and Charge state Of Meteoric smoke particles in the middle Atmosphere) was launched on 8 September 2006. Measurements with a new particle detector described in the companion paper by Rapp and Strelnikova [2008. Measurements of meteor smoke particles during the ECOMA-2006 campaign: 1. Particle detection by active photoionization. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, this issue, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2008.06.002] clearly showed meteor smoke particle (MSP) signatures in both data channels. The data channels measure particles directly impacting on the detector electrode and photoelectrons from the particles actively created using ionization by the UV-photons of a xenon-flashlamp. Measured photoelectron currents resemble model expectations of the shape of the MSP layer almost perfectly, whereas derived number densities in the altitude range 60-90 km are larger than model results by about a factor of 5. Given the large uncertainties inherent to both model and the analysis of our measurements (e.g., the composition of the particles is not known and must be assumed) we consider this a satisfactory agreement and proof that MSPs do extend throughout the entire mesosphere as predicted by models. The measurements of direct particle impacts revealed a confined layer of negative charge between 80 and 90 km. This limited altitude range, however, is quantitatively shown to be the consequence of the aerodynamics of the rocket flight and does not have any geophysical origin. Measured charge signatures are consistent with expectations of particle charging given our own measurements of the background ionization. Unfortunately, however, a contamination of these measurements from triboelectric charging cannot be excluded at this stage.

  15. A time-resolved model of the mesospheric Na layer: constraints on the meteor input function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. C. Plane

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A time-resolved model of the Na layer in the mesosphere/lower thermosphere region is described, where the continuity equations for the major sodium species Na, Na+ and NaHCO3 are solved explicity, and the other short-lived species are treated in steady-state. It is shown that the diurnal variation of the Na layer can only be modelled satisfactorily if sodium species are permanently removed below about 85 km, both through the dimerization of NaHCO3 and the uptake of sodium species on meteoric smoke particles that are assumed to have formed from the recondensation of vaporized meteoroids. When the sensitivity of the Na layer to the meteoroid input function is considered, an inconsistent picture emerges. The ratio of the column abundance of Na+ to Na is shown to increase strongly with the average meteoroid velocity, because the Na is injected at higher altitudes. Comparison with a limited set of Na+ measurements indicates that the average meteoroid velocity is probably less than about 25 km s-1, in agreement with velocity estimates from conventional meteor radars, and considerably slower than recent observations made by wide aperture incoherent scatter radars. The Na column abundance is shown to be very sensitive to the meteoroid mass input rate, and to the rate of vertical transport by eddy diffusion. Although the magnitude of the eddy diffusion coefficient in the 80–90 km region is uncertain, there is a consensus between recent models using parameterisations of gravity wave momentum deposition that the average value is less than 3×105 cm2 s-1. This requires that the global meteoric mass input rate is less than about 20 td-1, which is closest to estimates from incoherent scatter radar observations. Finally, the diurnal variation in the meteoroid input rate only slight perturbs the Na layer, because the residence time of Na in the layer is several days, and diurnal effects are effectively averaged out.

  16. Learned modesty and the first lady's comet: a commentary on Caroline Herschel (1787) 'An account of a new comet'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterburn, Emily

    2015-04-13

    Long before women were allowed to become Fellows of the Royal Society, or obtain university degrees, one woman managed to get her voice heard, her discovery verified and her achievement celebrated. That woman was Caroline Herschel, who, as this paper will discuss, managed to find ways to fit comet discoveries into her domestic life, and present them in ways that were socially acceptable. Caroline lived in a time when strict rules dictated how women (and men) should behave and present themselves and their work. Caroline understood these rules, and used them carefully as she announced each discovery, starting with this comet which she found in 1786. Caroline discovered her comets at a time when astronomers were mainly concerned with position, identifying where things were and how they were moving. Since her discoveries, research has moved on, as astronomers, using techniques from other fields, and most recently sending experiments into space, have learned more about what comets are and what they can tell us about our solar system. Caroline's paper marks one small, early step in this much bigger journey to understand comets. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society.

  17. The Source of Solar Energy, ca. 1840-1910: From Meteoric Hypothesis to Radioactive Speculations

    OpenAIRE

    Kragh, Helge

    2016-01-01

    Why does the Sun shine? Today we know the answer to the question and we also know that earlier answers were quite wrong. The problem of the source of solar energy became an important part of physics and astronomy only with the emergence of the law of energy conservation in the 1840s. The first theory of solar heat based on the new law, due to J. R. Mayer, assumed the heat to be the result of meteors or asteroids falling into the Sun. A different and more successful version of gravitation-to-h...

  18. Automated systems for the analysis of meteor spectra: The SMART Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madiedo, José M.

    2017-09-01

    This work analyzes a meteor spectroscopy survey called SMART (Spectroscopy of Meteoroids in the Atmosphere by means of Robotic Technologies), which is being conducted since 2006. In total, 55 spectrographs have been deployed at 10 different locations in Spain with the aim to obtain information about the chemical nature of meteoroids ablating in the atmosphere. The main improvements in the hardware and the software developed in the framework of this project are described, and some results obtained by these automatic devices are also discussed.

  19. Seasonal and diurnal variability of the meteor flux at high latitudes observed using PFISR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, J. J.; Janches, D.; Nicolls, M. J.; Heinselman, C. J.

    2009-05-01

    We report in this and a companion paper [Fentzke, J.T., Janches, D., Sparks, J.J., 2008. Latitudinal and seasonal variability of the micrometeor input function: A study using model predictions and observations from Arecibo and PFISR. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, this issue, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2008.07.015] a complete seasonal study of the micrometeor input function (MIF) at high latitudes using meteor head-echo radar observations performed with the Poker Flat Incoherent Scatter Radar (PFISR). This flux is responsible for a number of atmospheric phenomena; for example, it could be the source of meteoric smoke that is thought to act as condensation nuclei in the formation of ice particles in the polar mesosphere. The observations presented here were performed for full 24-h periods near the summer and winter solstices and spring and autumn equinoxes, times at which the seasonal variability of the MIF is predicted to be large at high latitudes [Janches, D., Heinselman, C.J., Chau, J.L., Chandran, A., Woodman, R., 2006. Modeling of the micrometeor input function in the upper atmosphere observed by High Power and Large Aperture Radars, JGR, 11, A07317, doi:10.1029/2006JA011628]. Precise altitude and radar instantaneous line-of-sight (radial) Doppler velocity information are obtained for each of the hundreds of events detected every day. We show that meteor rates, altitude, and radial velocity distributions have a large seasonal dependence. This seasonal variability can be explained by a change in the relative location of the meteoroid sources with respect to the observer. Our results show that the meteor flux into the upper atmosphere is strongly anisotropic and its characteristics must be accounted for when including this flux into models attempting to explain related aeronomical phenomena. In addition, the measured acceleration and received signal strength distribution do not seem to depend on season; which may suggest that these observed

  20. Probing the use of spectroscopy to determine the meteoritic analogues of meteors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouard, A.; Vernazza, P.; Loehle, S.; Gattacceca, J.; Vaubaillon, J.; Zanda, B.; Birlan, M.; Bouley, S.; Colas, F.; Eberhart, M.; Hermann, T.; Jorda, L.; Marmo, C.; Meindl, A.; Oefele, R.; Zamkotsian, F.; Zander, F.

    2018-05-01

    Context. Determining the source regions of meteorites is one of the major goals of current research in planetary science. Whereas asteroid observations are currently unable to pinpoint the source regions of most meteorite classes, observations of meteors with camera networks and the subsequent recovery of the meteorite may help make progress on this question. The main caveat of such an approach, however, is that the recovery rate of meteorite falls is low (100) within a reasonable time frame (10-20 years), the optimal solution may be the spatial extension of existing fireball observation networks. The movie associated to this article is available at http://www.aanda.org

  1. Plasma Waves Associated with Mass-Loaded Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurutani, Bruce; Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz

    2015-01-01

    Plasma waves and instabilities are integrally involved with the plasma "pickup" process and the mass loading of the solar wind (thus the formation of ion tails and the magnetic tails). Anisotropic plasmas generated by solar wind-comet interactions (the bow shock, magnetic field pileup) cause the generation of plasma waves which in turn "smooth out" these discontinuities. The plasma waves evolve and form plasma turbulence. Comets are perhaps the best "laboratories" to study waves and turbulence because over time (and distance) one can identify the waves and their evolution. We will argue that comets in some ways are better laboratories than magnetospheres, interplanetary space and fusion devices to study nonlinear waves and their evolution.

  2. Direct imaging and spectrophotometry of Comet P/Tempel 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehnhardt, H.; Beisser, K.; Vanysek, V.; Mueller, B.E.A.; Weiss, M.

    1990-01-01

    Both direct imaging and spectrophotometry of Comet P/Tempel 2 during May-November 1988 have led to a nuclear diameter determination of the order of about 10 km. Sekanina's (1987) spin-vector model for this comet is judged capable of qualitatively accounting for both the visual light curve of the comet during this period, which exhibited a steep increase perihelion despite the normal, moderate-decrease perihelion, and an asymmetric extension of the fanlike coma in the solar direction. The late activity onset, the possible constant visual brightness immediately afterward, and the deviation of the fan axis orientation from the predicted value in May 1988, may all furnish additional constraints for P/Tempel 2 nucleus modeling. 24 refs

  3. Detection of garlic gamma-irradiated by assay comet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno Alvarez, Damaris L.; Miranda, Enrique F. Prieto; Carro, Sandra; Iglesias Enrique, Isora; Matos, Wilberto

    2009-01-01

    The garlic samples were irradiated in a facility with 60 Co sources, at absorbed dose values of 0-0,15 kGy. The detection method utilized for the identification of the irradiated garlic was biological comet assay. The samples were classified post-irradiation several times. The irradiated samples showed high strand breaks of DNA exhibiting comets of several forms, while the not irradiated and lower dose samples showed a behavior like round shape and light comets. Significant differences were found for higher absorbed dose values at 0.06 kGy, this absorbed dose value is corresponding with the applied dose value at this food in order to avoid the germination. (author)

  4. Evaluating In Vitro DNA Damage Using Comet Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanxin; Liu, Yang; Yang, Chunzhang

    2017-10-11

    DNA damage is a common phenomenon for each cell during its lifespan, and is defined as an alteration of the chemical structure of genomic DNA. Cancer therapies, such as radio- and chemotherapy, introduce enormous amount of additional DNA damage, leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis to limit cancer progression. Quantitative assessment of DNA damage during experimental cancer therapy is a key step to justify the effectiveness of a genotoxic agent. In this study, we focus on a single cell electrophoresis assay, also known as the comet assay, which can quantify single and double-strand DNA breaks in vitro. The comet assay is a DNA damage quantification method that is efficient and easy to perform, and has low time/budget demands and high reproducibility. Here, we highlight the utility of the comet assay for a preclinical study by evaluating the genotoxic effect of olaparib/temozolomide combination therapy to U251 glioma cells.

  5. Triple F - A Comet Nucleus Sample Return Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueppers, Michael; Keller, Horst Uwe; Kuhrt, Ekkehard; A'Hearn, Michael; Altwegg, Kathrin; Betrand, Regis; Busemann, Henner; Capria, Maria Teresa; Colangeli, Luigi

    2008-01-01

    The Triple F (Fresh From the Fridge) mission, a Comet Nucleus Sample Return, has been proposed to ESA s Cosmic Vision program. A sample return from a comet enables us to reach the ultimate goal of cometary research. Since comets are the least processed bodies in the solar system, the proposal goes far beyond cometary science topics (like the explanation of cometary activity) and delivers invaluable information about the formation of the solar system and the interstellar molecular cloud from which it formed. The proposed mission would extract three samples of the upper 50 cm from three locations on a cometary nucleus and return them cooled to Earth for analysis in the laboratory. The simple mission concept with a touch-and-go sampling by a single spacecraft was proposed as an M-class mission in collaboration with the Russian space agency ROSCOSMOS.

  6. Comet C/2017 K2 (PANSTARRS): Dynamically Old or New?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente Marcos, Raúl; de la Fuente Marcos, Carlos

    2018-04-01

    At discovery time, C/2017 K2 (PANSTARRS) was the second most distant inbound active comet ever observed. It has been argued that this object is in the process of crossing the inner Solar System for the first time, but other authors have concluded that it is dynamically old. We have performed full N-body simulations for 3 Myr into the past using the latest public orbit determination for this object and most of them, 67%, are consistent with a bound and dynamically old Oort cloud comet, but about 29% of the studied orbits are compatible with an interstellar origin. Our independent calculations strongly suggest that C/2017 K2 is not a dynamically new Oort cloud comet.

  7. Detection of garlic gamma-irradiated by assay comet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno Alvarez, Damaris L.; Miranda, Enrique F. Prieto; Carro, Sandra; Iglesias Enrique, Isora; Matos, Wilberto [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Desarrollo Nuclear (CEADEN), Ciudad de La Habana (Cuba)], e-mail: damaris@ceaden.edu.cu

    2009-07-01

    The garlic samples were irradiated in a facility with {sup 60}Co sources, at absorbed dose values of 0-0,15 kGy. The detection method utilized for the identification of the irradiated garlic was biological comet assay. The samples were classified post-irradiation several times. The irradiated samples showed high strand breaks of DNA exhibiting comets of several forms, while the not irradiated and lower dose samples showed a behavior like round shape and light comets. Significant differences were found for higher absorbed dose values at 0.06 kGy, this absorbed dose value is corresponding with the applied dose value at this food in order to avoid the germination. (author)

  8. Application of MCM image construction to IRAS comet observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlapfer, Martin F.; Walker, Russell G.

    1994-01-01

    There is a wealth of IRAS comet data, obtained in both the survey and pointed observations modes. However, these measurements have remained largely untouched due to difficulties in removing instrumental effects from the data. We have developed a version of the Maximum Correlation Method for Image Construction algorithm (MCM) which operates in the moving coordinate system of the comet and properly treats both real cometary motion and apparent motion due to spacecraft parallax. This algorithm has been implemented on a 486/33 PC in FORTRAN and IDL codes. Preprocessing of the IRAS CRDD includes baseline removal, deglitching, and removal of long tails due to dielectric time constants of the detectors. The resulting images are virtually free from instrumental effects and have the highest possible spatial resolution consistent with the data sampling. We present examples of high resolution IRAS images constructed from survey observations of Comets P/Tempel 1 and P/Tempel 2, and pointed observations of IRAS-Araki-Alcock.

  9. Spectroscopic Profiles of Comets Garradd and McNaught

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Ien; Pierce, Donna M.; Cochran, Anita L.

    2017-10-01

    We have used the integral-field unit spectrograph (the George and Cynthia Mitchell Spectrograph) on the 2.7m Harlan J. Smith telescope at McDonald Observatory to obtain spectroscopic images of the comae of several comets. The images were obtained for various radical species (C2, C3, CN, NH2). Radial and azimuthal average profiles of the radical species were created to enhance any observed cometary coma morphological features. We compare the observed coma features across the observed species and over the different observation periods in order to constrain possible rotational states of the observed comets, as well as determine possible source differences in the coma between the observed radical species. We will present results for several comets, including C/2009 P1 (Garradd) and 260P (McNaught).

  10. Comet Dust: The Diversity of Primitive Particles and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Bradley; Zolensky, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    Comet dust is primitive and shows significant diversity. Our knowledge of the properties of primitive particles has expanded significantly through microscale investigations of cosmic dust samples (IDPs and AMMs) and of comet dust samples (Stardust and Rosetta's COSIMA), as well as through remote sensing (spectroscopy and imaging) via Spitzer and via spacecraft encounters with 103P/Hartley 2 and 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Microscale investigations show that comet dust and cosmic dust are particles of unequilibrated materials, including aggregates of materials unequilibrated at submicron scales. We call unequilibrated materials "primitive" and we deduce they were incorporated into ice-­-rich (H2O-, CO2-, and CO-ice) parent bodies that remained cold, i.e., into comets, because of the lack of aqueous or thermal alteration since particle aggregation; yet some Stardust olivines suggest mild thermal metamorphism. Primitive particles exhibit a diverse range of: structure and typology; size and size distribution of constituents; concentration and form of carbonaceous and organic matter; D-, N-, and O- isotopic enhancements over solar; Mg-, Fe-contentsof thesilicate minerals; the compositions and concentrations of sulfides, and of less abundant mineral species such as chondrules, CAIs and carbonates. The unifomity within a group of samples points to: aerodynamic sorting of particles and/or particle constituents; the inclusion of a limited range of oxygen fugacities; the inclusion or exclusion of chondrules; a selection of organics. The properites of primitive particles imply there were disk processes that resulted in different comets having particular selections of primitive materials. The diversity of primitive particles has implications for the diversity of materials in the protoplanetary disk present at the time and in the region where the comets formed.

  11. Epithelial cells as alternative human biomatrices for comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Emilio; Lorenzo, Yolanda; Haug, Kristiane; Nicolaissen, Bjørn; Valverde, Mahara

    2014-01-01

    The comet assay is a valuable experimental tool aimed at mapping DNA damage in human cells in vivo for environmental and occupational monitoring, as well as for therapeutic purposes, such as storage prior to transplant, during tissue engineering, and in experimental ex vivo assays. Furthermore, due to its great versatility, the comet assay allows to explore the use of alternative cell types to assess DNA damage, such as epithelial cells. Epithelial cells, as specialized components of many organs, have the potential to serve as biomatrices that can be used to evaluate genotoxicity and may also serve as early effect biomarkers. Furthermore, 80% of solid cancers are of epithelial origin, which points to the importance of studying DNA damage in these tissues. Indeed, studies including comet assay in epithelial cells have either clear clinical applications (lens and corneal epithelial cells) or examine genotoxicity within human biomonitoring and in vitro studies. We here review improvements in determining DNA damage using the comet assay by employing lens, corneal, tear duct, buccal, and nasal epithelial cells. For some of these tissues invasive sampling procedures are needed. Desquamated epithelial cells must be obtained and dissociated prior to examination using the comet assay, and such procedures may induce varying amounts of DNA damage. Buccal epithelial cells require lysis enriched with proteinase K to obtain free nucleosomes. Over a 30 year period, the comet assay in epithelial cells has been little employed, however its use indicates that it could be an extraordinary tool not only for risk assessment, but also for diagnosis, prognosis of treatments and diseases.

  12. Comet Dust: The Diversity of "Primitive" Particles and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooden, Diane H.; Ishii, Hope A.; Bradley, John P.; Zolensky, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    Comet dust is primitive and shows significant diversity. Our knowledge of the properties of primitive particles has expanded significantly through microscale investigations of cosmic dust samples ( IDP's(Interplanetary Dust Particles) and AMM's (Antarctic Micrometeorites)) and of comet dust samples (Stardust and Rosetta's COSIMA), as well as through remote sensing (spectroscopy and imaging) via Spitzer and via spacecraft encounters with 103P/Hartley 2 and 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Microscale investigations show that comet dust and cosmic dust are particles of unequilibrated materials, including aggregates of materials unequilibrated at submicron scales. We call unequilibrated materials "primitive" and we deduce they were incorporated into ice-rich (H2O-, CO2-, and CO-ice) parent bodies that remained cold, i.e., into comets, because of the lack of aqueous or thermal alteration since particle aggregation; yet some Stardust olivines suggest mild thermal metamorphism. Primitive particles exhibit a diverse range of: structure and typology; size and size distribution of constituents; concentration and form of carbonaceous and organic matter; D-, N-, and O- isotopic enhancements over solar; Mg-, Fe-contents of the silicate minerals; the compositions and concentrations of sulfides, and of less abundant mineral species such as chondrules, CAIs and carbonates. The uniformity within a group of samples points to: aerodynamic sorting of particles and/or particle constituents; the inclusion of a limited range of oxygen fugacities; the inclusion or exclusion of chondrules; a selection of organics. The properties of primitive particles imply there were disk processes that resulted in different comets having particular selections of primitive materials. The diversity of primitive particles has implications for the diversity of materials in the protoplanetary disk present at the time and in the region where the comets formed.

  13. Comets, Carbonaceous Meteorites, and the Origin of the Biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2007-01-01

    Evidence for indigenous microfossils in carbonaceous meteorites suggests that the paradigm of the endogenous origin of life on Earth should be reconsidered. It is now widely accepted that comets and carbonaceous meteorites played an important role in the delivery of water, organics and life critical biogenic elements to the early Earth and facilitated the origin and evolution of the Earth's Biosphere. However; the detection of embedded microfossils and mats in carbonaceous meteorites implies that comets and meteorites may have played a direct role in the delivery of intact microorganisms and that the Biosphere may extend far into the Cosmos. Recent space observations have found the nuclei of comets to have very low albedos (approx.0.03) and. these jet-black surfaces become very hot (T approx. 400 K) near perihelion. This paper reviews recent observational data-on comets and suggests that liquid water pools could exist in cavities and fissures between the internal ices and rocks and the exterior carbonaceous crust. The presence of light and liquid water near the surface of the nucleus enhances the possibility that comets could harbor prokaryotic extremophiles (e.g., cyanobacteria) capable of growth over a wide range of temperatures. The hypothesis that comets are the parent bodies of the CI1 and the CM2 carbonaceous meteorites is advanced. Electron microscopy images will be presented showing forms interpreted as indigenous-microfossils embedded' in freshly. fractured interior surfaces of the Orgueil (CI1) and Murchison (CM2) meteorites. These forms are consistent in size and morphologies with known morphotypes of all five orders of Cyanobacteriaceae: Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) elemental data shows that the meteoritic forms have anomalous C/O; C/N; and C/S as compared with modern extremophiles and cyanobacteria. These images and spectral data indicate that the clearly biogenic and embedded remains cannot be interpreted as recent biological

  14. Properties of comet Halley derived from thermal models and astrometric data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hechler, F.W.; Morley, T.A.; Mahr, P.

    1986-01-01

    The motion of a comet nucleus is influenced by outgassing forces. The orbit determination from astrometric data of comet Halley using empiric force and observation bias models and the incorporation of thermal models developed at ESOC into the orbit determination allows to draw some conclusions on the comet Halley dynamics and physics. 21 references

  15. Comet Kohoutek, 1973-1974, A Teachers' Guide with Student Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Robert D.

    This teacher's guide provides background information, curriculum source materials, and suggested class activities for class discussion and study. Information related to the discovery of the comet is presented as well as photographic and schematic pictures showing the sky through which the comet travels. Historical data regarding comets of the past…

  16. Gamma ray bursts from comet neutron star magnetosphere interaction, field twisting and Eparallel formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgate, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    Consider the problem of a comet in a collision trajectory with a magnetized neutron star. The question addressed in this paper is whether the comet interacts strongly enough with a magnetic field such as to capture at a large radius or whether in general the comet will escape a magnetized neutron star. 6 refs., 4 figs

  17. Observations of Halley's Comet by the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedner, M. B.

    1986-01-01

    Solar Maximum Mission coronagraph/polarimeter observations of large scale phenomena in Halley's Comet are discussed. Observations of the hydrogen coma with the UV spectrometer are considered. It is concluded that coronograph/polarimeter observations of the disconnection event, in which the entire plasma tail uproots itself from the head of the comet, is convected away in the solar wind at speeds in the 50 to 100 km/sec range (relative to the head), and is replaced by a plasma tail constructed from folding ion-tail rays, are the most interesting.

  18. The split comets: gravitational interaction between the fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekanina, Z.

    1979-01-01

    The n-body computer program by Schubart and Stumpff (1966) has been slightly modified to study the gravitational interaction between two fragments of a split comet nucleus in the sun's gravitational field. All calculations refer to the orbit of Comet West (1976 VI), the velocity of separation of the fragments is assumed to be equal in magnitude to the velocity of escape from the parent nucleus, and the numerical integration of the relative motion of one fragment (called the companion) with respect to the other (principal fragment) is carried over the period of 200 days from separation. (Auth.)

  19. Observations of Comets and Eclipses in the Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziółkowski, Mariusz

    There is no doubt that the Incas possessed a system for observing and interpreting unusual astronomical phenomena, such as eclipses or comets. References to it, however, are scarce, often of anecdotal nature and are not collected into any coherent "Inca observation catalog". The best documented of such events is the "Ataw Wallpa's comet", seen in Cajamarca in July of 1533 and the solar eclipse, that in 1543, prevented conquistador Lucas Martínez from discovering the rich silver mines in northern Chile. Archived descriptions of the Andean population's reaction to these phenomena indicate that they were treated as extremely important omens, that should not, under any circumstances, be ignored.

  20. Comet P/2010 V1 as a Natural Disintegration Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewitt, David; Weaver, Harold A.; Mutchler, Maximilian J.; Agarwal, Jessica; Meech, Karen Jean; Li, Jing; Kleyna, Jan; Ishiguro, Masateru; Wainscoat, Richard J.; Hui, Man-To

    2016-10-01

    Discovered in outburst in 2010, Jupiter-family comet P/2010 V1 (Ikeya-Murukami) was found to be split in observations at the end of 2015. We used the Hubble Space Telescope to obtain deep images of P/2010 V1 at high angular resolution in the 2016 January to March period. The resulting data, by far the best yet obtained for any split or disrupting comet, show the astrometric, photometric and morphological evolution of about 30 fragments. We will present the first results for the velocity dispersion, photometric distribution and variability and discuss the measurements in terms of models for the breakup.