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Sample records for combustion du gaz

  1. Contribution to the study of the fission-gas release in metallic nuclear fuels; Contribution a l'etude du degagement des gaz de fission dans les combustibles nucleaires metalliques

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    Kryger, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-10-01

    In order to study the effect of an external pressure on the limitation of swelling due to fission-gas precipitation, some irradiations have been carried out at burn-ups of about 35.000 MWd/ton, and at average sample temperatures of 575 Celsius degrees, of non-alloyed uranium and uranium 8 per cent molybdenum gained in a thick stainless steel can. A cylindrical central hole allows a fuel swelling from 20 to 33 per cent according to the experiment. After irradiation, the uranium samples showed two types of can rupture: one is due to the fuel swelling, and the other, to the pressure of the fission gases, released through a network of microcracks. The cans of the uranium-molybdenum samples are all undamaged and it is shown that the gas release occurs by interconnection of the bubbles for swelling values higher than those obtained in the case of uranium. For each type of fuel, a swelling-fission gas release relationship is established. The results suggest that good performances with a metallic fuel intended for use in fast reactor conditions can be obtained. (author) [French] Afin d'etudier l'effet d'une pression exterieure sur la limitation du gonflement due a la precipitation des gaz de fission, on a irradie a des taux de combustion d'environ 35.000 MWj/t et a des temperatures moyennes de 575 degres des echantillons d'uranium non allie et d'uranium-molybdene 8 pour cent contenus dans une gaine en acier inoxydable epaisse. Un trou cylindrique central permet au combustible de gonfler librement de 20 a 33 pour cent suivant les cas. Apres irradiation les echantillons d'uranium presentent deux types de ruptures de gaine: l'une due au gonflement du combustible, l'autre a la pression des gaz degages, ce degagement des gaz etant provoque par un reseau de micro-fissures. Les gaines des echantillons d'alliage uranium-molybdene sont toutes intactes et l'on montre que le relachement des gaz opere par interconnexion des bulles pour des valeurs de gonflement plus elevees que dans

  2. Natural gas combustion and indoor air quality in domestic premises; Combustion du gaz naturel et qualite de l'air a l'interieur des habitations

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    Occhio, L.; Riva, A. [Snam, (Italy); Canci, F.; Scevarolli, V. [Italgas, Torino (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    Indoor air quality depends on many factors; combustion appliances are one of the sources of emissions inside dwellings. Their installation is regulated by UNI-CIG standards which also establish the ventilation and aeration requirements needed to guarantee the safety and healthiness of the environment. In order to critically evaluate the effect on indoor air quality of using gas appliances under different operational regimes and in different types of building, Snam and Italgas have developed a research project in co-operation with Enitecnologie and Turin Polytechnic, even to provide theoretical and experimental support for standardisation activities. The results of the presented research include experimental measurements made in real buildings, mathematical modelling and analysis of Italian and international literature. The results show that use of combustion appliances has little influence on indoor air quality and does not affect people's health. (authors)

  3. Visualisation of Gasoline and Exhaust Gases Distribution in a 4-Valve Si Engine; Effects of Stratification on Combustion and Pollutants Visualisation de la répartition du carburant et des gaz brûlés dans un moteur à 4 soupapes à allumage commandé ; effet de la stratification sur la combustion et les polluants

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    Deschamps B.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available sAn indirect method to map the burned gases in SI engine has been developed. It is based on visualisation by Laser Induced Fluorescence of the unburned mixture seeded with biacetyl. Both internally and externally recirculated burned gases are monitored. This diagnostic is complementary to the LIF technique applied to measure the gasoline distribution. These LIF gasoline and burned gases measurements are applied in a 4-valve optical access SI engine for a large range of operating conditions. These include variations of both fuel injection and burned gas recirculation modes causing different types of stratification leading to very distinct heat release and exhaust emissions characteristics. Tumble level and spark location are also modified. The observation of the actual stratification in the engine forms a sound basis explanation of the engine performance. Parameters allowing an optimisation of NOx and HC levels can be inferred, and in particular the effectiveness of recirculation and fuel injection strategies. The conclusions are confirmed by measurements in a single engine cylinder conventional head with the same geometry. Une méthode indirecte pour cartographier les gaz brûlés dans un moteur à allumage commandé a été développée. Elle est fondée sur une visualisation à partir de la fluorescence induite par laser (LIF du mélange air-carburant non brûlé et ensemencé avec du biacétyl. Les gaz brûlés provenant à la fois des recirculations internes et externes sont observés. Ce type de diagnostic est complémentaire des techniques de LIF utilisées pour observer la distribution du carburant. Ces mesures de concentration sont réalisées dans un moteur à 4 soupapes avec accès optiques, pour une gamme étendue de conditions opératoires. Celles-ci comprennent des variations des modes d'injection du carburant et des modes de recirculation des gaz brûlés, provoquant ainsi différents types de stratifications qui correspondent

  4. Recent and future developments at the Regie du gaz naturel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giroux, J.

    1995-01-01

    The history of the Quebec Regie du gaz naturel, dating back to 1932, and its role in distributing natural gas in Quebec was described. Among more recent developments construction of a natural gas distribution system on the south shore of Quebec City was discussed. Unlinked mini-systems were built in St-Romuald and Levis. Gas was delivered by truck until an underwater crossing was completed. The federal-provincial infrastructures program was also summarized. The most important ruling by the Regie was the D-94-19 decision on GMi's supply policy and the concept of u mbrella buy-sell . Although this policy was originally approved by the Regie, after consideration of all factors, it was decided that this system was not in line with the deregulation trend and that buyers and sellers could do without GMi's intrusion in their contractual agreements. Issues to be addressed by the Regie in the coming months included transportation service, unbundling, cost allocation and rate of return adjustments mechanism in regards to the recent National Energy Board (NEB) decision on the subject, and separation of (LDC) distribution activities from LDC sales

  5. The Use of Fuel Gas as Stripping Medium in Atmospheric Distillation of Crude Oil L’utilisation de gaz combustible comme moyen d’extraction des fractions légères en distillation atmosphérique du pétrole brut

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    Plellis-Tsaltakis C.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Stripping of petroleum fractions aims to remove the light ends that spoil some of their properties, such as the flash point. Stripping usually employs steam for that purpose. Except for steam, other substances can perform the same function, among them light hydrocarbons. In this article, we investigate the use of refinery fuel gas as stripping medium for a crude oil atmospheric distillation unit. L’extraction des fractions légères du pétrole vise à enlever les produits nuisibles à certaines propriétés comme le point d’éclair. Cette opération utilise habituellement de la vapeur d’eau. D’autres substances peuvent remplir la même fonction, comme les hydrocarbures légers. Dans cet article, on étudie l’utilisation du gaz combustible de la raffinerie comme moyen d’extraction des fractions légères dans une unité de distillation atmosphérique.

  6. Experimental study of a separated jets burner: application to the natural gas-pure oxygen combustion; Etude experimentale du comportement de bruleurs a jets separes: application a la combustion gaz naturel-oxygene pur

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    Salentey, L.

    2002-04-15

    The evolution of pollution standards and the optimisation of furnaces performances require a development of new burner generation and also the improvement of combustion techniques. Actually, the use of oxy-combustion in separated jets burners offers interesting prospects for NO{sub x} emission reduction and on the modularity of flames properties (lift off, flame front topology, flame length). The complex geometry of those burners leads to several problems like the three-dimensional character of the flow, which may sometimes disturb the flame stability as flames are lifted above the burner. This experimental study deals with a simplified version of that kind of burner constituted with a central natural gas jet surrounded by two oxygen jets. Primary, the study of non-reactive jet was planned in order to understand dynamic and mixture phenomena involved between jets and to provide a database useful for the computer code validation. The reactive flow developed in a furnace, which simulates the real conditions, had been characterised. The studies of the dynamic field using Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) and of the turbulent mixture by conditional Laser tomography were supplemented in combustion by the visualisation of the spontaneous emission of radical OH, in the initial and final zone of the oxy-flames, like by the measurement of pollutants like NO{sub x} and soot. The measurements carried out while varying speeds of injection as well as the gap between the jets made possible the highlight of the influence of these parameters upon the stabilisation of the oxy-flames as well as the modification of the topology and the characteristics of the flows. The comparison of the measurements made in non-reactive and reactive flow shows the influence of oxy-combustion on the dynamic and scalar development of the flow for this type of burners. (author)

  7. Magnesium and uranium ignition in different gaseous atmospheres; Inflammabilite du magnesium et de l'uranium dans l'air et le gaz carbonique

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    Darras, R; Baque, P; Leclercq, D [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    Magnesium, uranium and some of their alloys burning temperatures have been systematically determined in an air or carbon dioxide atmosphere, either dry or wet. Two different ways of heating have been used: either continuously rising up the temperature, or heating to and then maintaining a constant temperature. The results are clearly different in the two cases. Besides, if moisture has little effect on the magnesium burning temperatures in air, it does lower them by about 130-140 deg. C in CO{sub 2}. The differences of sight between the burning of magnesium and uranium have been noticed; this leads to distinguish between an 'ignition' and an 'inflammation'. (author) [French] Les temperatures auxquelles apparait la combustion vive du magnesium, de l'uranium et certains de leurs alliages ont ete determinees systematiquement dans l'air et le gaz carbonique, soit secs, soit humidifies. On a mis en evidence l'influence du mode de chauffage sur les resultats: soit montee en temperature continue, soit stabilisation a partir d'une certaine temperature. En outre, si la presence d'humidite affecte peu les temperatures de combustion vive du magnesium dans l'air, elle les abaisse de 130 a 140 deg. C dans le gaz carbonique. Les differences d'aspect entre la combustion vive du magnesium et de l'uranium ont egalement ete remarquees, ce qui amene notamment a distinguer une 'ignition' d'une 'inflammation'. (auteur)

  8. New combustion, environment regulations: the answers for natural gas; Nouvelles reglementations, combustion, environnement: les reponses pour le gaz naturel

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    Le Peltier-Marc, A. [Gaz de France (GDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper reports on the point of view from Gaz de France (GdF) company concerning the potential consequences of the use of natural gas in combustion systems with respect to the new regulations about combustion and environment. Details concerning the measures relative to the limitation of pollutants in small combustion installations (2 - 20 MW) are given (chimney height, SO{sub x}, NO{sub x} and dusts content in exhaust gases). (J.S.)

  9. A Geochemical Approach for Monitoring a CO2 Pilot Site: Rousse, France. A Major gases, CO2-Carbon Isotopes and Noble Gases Combined Approach Une méthode géochimique pour la surveillance d’un site pilote de stockage de CO2 : Rousse, France. Approche combinant les gaz majeurs, l’isotopie du carbone du CO2 et les gaz rares

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    Garcia B.

    2012-02-01

    . Le gaz naturel de Rousse et le gaz domestique du site de Lacq sont tous les deux enrichis en helium, appauvris en neon, argon et krypton par rapport aux valeurs de l’air (standard naturel. Le procede de combustion produit un CO2 enrichi en helium, herite du gaz domestique de Lacq, et une composition en neon, argon et krypton refletant celle de l’oxygene produit par l’unite de separation d’air. En effet, le neon est appauvri relativement a l’air, tandis que le krypton est enrichi de 10 fois, resultant de la separation cryogenique des gaz rares au sein de l’unite de separation d’air. Les gaz rares des echantillons de sols ont une composition equivalente a celle de l’air. A partir de ces resultats, les compositions des poles purs impliques dans le site pilote de stockage de CO2 montrent que les compositions en gaz rares produits par le procede d’oxycombustion sont suffisamment exotiques en comparaison a celles trouvees dans la nature (reservoir, aquifere et air et peuvent donc etre directement utilisees comme traceurs du CO2 injectes, et donc de detecter et quantifier les fuites au niveau du sol et des aquiferes.

  10. Contribution to the study of can deformations in the fuel elements of gas-graphite reactors during thermal cycling; Contribution a l'etude des deformations des gaines des elements combustibles de reacteur graphite-gaz au cours du cyclage thermique

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    Gauthron, M; Boudouresques, B; Delpeyroux, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The cans of fuel cartridges used in reactors of the gas-graphite type have either longitudinal fins of variable thickness, short herring-bone fins, or else a mixture of the two. An important test of the strength of these cartridges is their behaviour during thermal cycling carried out in cells reproducing in-pile conditions. It has been observed during with rapid cooling that there occurs a shortening at the base of the fins which can be accompanied in particular by a compression effect at the fin type, which has a tendency to curl, and by a tractive force acting on the body of the can at the ends of the longitudinal fins; this last phenomenon can result in a fracturing of the welds at the extremities or of the ends of the cartridge. This report presents first of all the way in which the stress diagram can be drawn for a can touching the fuel, and then the effect of the ratchet along a fin fixed to a bar with or without grooves. Finally the importance is shown of the test cycling variables (temperature, heating and cooling rates). (authors) [French] Les gaines des cartouches combustibles des reacteurs de la filiere graphite-gaz comportent soit des ailettes longitudinales plus ou moins epaisses, soit de courtes ailettes a chevrons, soit un ensemble des deux. Un test important de la tenue des cartouches, est la tenue au cyclage thermique en cellule pour reproduire le comportement en pile. On a observe au cours des cyclages a refroidissement rapide, un raccourcissement a la base des ailettes qui peut s'accompagner notamment d'une mise en compression du sommet de l'ailette qui a tendance a friser, et d'une traction exercee sur le corps des gaines au bout des ailettes longitudinales; ce dernier phenomene peut se traduire par des ruptures de soudures d'extremites ou des parties terminales de la cartouche. Ce rapport presente d'abord la maniere dont peut etre trace le diagramme des contraintes dans une gaine liee au combustible, puis l'effet du rochet le long d

  11. Les perspectives du gaz naturel dans le Monde World Natural Gas Prospects

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    Valais M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Dans un monde en quête de diversification énergétique, le gaz naturel apparaît comme une source d'énergie particulièrement attrayante. Par son abondance, sa facilité de substitution aux produits pétroliers dans une gamme très large d'usages, il pourrait assurément jouer un rôle beaucoup plus important dans la couverture des besoins énergétiques mondiaux. Toutefois, de nombreux obstacles semblent devoir ralentir sa progression. Cet article dégage les grands paramètres techniques et économiques qui devraient conditionner le développement de l'industrie du gaz dans le monde et présente des perspectives d'évolution de sa production et de son commerce international d'ici à la fin du siècle. For a world in search of energy diversification, natural gas is a particularly attractive source. Its abundance and its facility for being substituted for petroleum products over a wide range of uses should certainly mean that it will play a much more important rote in filling world energy needs. Nonetheless, many obstacles are hindering its progress. This article outlines the leading technical and economic parameters which should influence the development of the world gas industry, and the prospects for its production and international trade evolution between now and the end of the century.

  12. Case-book of all decisions taken by the Regie du gaz naturel from April 1, 1995 - March 31, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Precourt, L.; L'Heureux, L.

    1996-01-01

    All decisions taken by the Regie du gaz naturel du Quebec during the period of April 1, 1995 to March 31, 1996 were presented. The case-book includes all legal decisions concerning the supply, transmission and storage of natural gas delivered or intended for delivery by pipeline distribution in the Province of Quebec. The text of the Act, amendments and revisions to the Act, and summaries of Board decisions are provided in French and English. Also included are a number of indexes for ease of reference and a glossary of relevant terms

  13. Study of a device for the direct measurement of the fission gas pressure inside an in-pile fuel element; Etude d'un dispositif pour la mesure directe de la pression des gaz de fission a l'interieur d'un element combustible en pile

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    Lavaud, B; Uschanoff, S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The fission gas pressure inside a fuel element made of a refractory fuel constitutes an important limiting factor for the burn-up. Although it is possible to calculate approximately the volume of gas produced outside the fuel during its life-time; it is nevertheless very difficult to evaluate the pressure since the volume allowed to the fission gases, as well as their temperature are known only very approximately. This physical value, which is essential for the technologist, can only be known by direct in-pile measurement of the pressure. The report describes the equipment which has been developed for this test. (authors) [French] La pression des gaz de fission a l'interieur d'un element combustible a combustible refractaire constitue une des limitations importantes du taux de combustion. Si on peut approcher par calcul la determination du volume, des gaz degages hors du combustible au cours de sa vie, il est par contre tres difficile d'evaluer la pression car le volume alloue aux gaz de fission et leur temperature sont tres mal connus. Cette donnee essentielle pour le technologue ne peut etre atteinte que par une mesure directe en pile de la pression. Le rapport decrit l'appareillage qui a ete mis au point pour cet essai. (auteurs)

  14. Construction of the core of the 'heavy water-gas' reactor EL 4; Structures du coeur du reacteur 'eau- lourde-gaz EL 4'

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    Bernard, J L; Foulquier, H; Thome, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    problem of thermal insulation around a zirconium alloy liner tube. The neutron absorption equivalent is about 1, 1 mm of Al, and the mean loss around 2 p. 100 of the thermal power of the reactor. The methods proposed have proved practicable as a result of important research and developments on automatic remote control for all the operations which make up the sequences of mounting, demounting and repairing of the construction components. In particular the possibilities opened up by the new techniques of welding tubes from the inside have been extended to other problems connected with the assembling of a reactor. (authors) [French] Le coeur de ce reacteur est constitue par une cuve contenant l'eau lourde, cuve traversee d'une serie de tubes de force dans lesquels circule le gaz caloporteur sous pression de 60 at. Les specifications de depart qui ont joue un role important dans la conception de ces structures concernent des aspects de securite de fonctionnement (chargement du combustible par les deux faces du reacteur, remplacement des structures sur les deux faces du reacteur), des necessites neutroniques (absorption des structures minimum, pas du reseau, diametre des tubes de force) et des considerations thermiques (temperature de sortie 500 C). Ces specifications ont entraine une disposition horizontale des tubes de force et des problemes d'encombrement tres delicats qui ont elimine (pour les dimensions d'EL 4) toute possibilite de recourir a des compensateurs de dilatation sur les tubes de force. II s'ensuit un dessin de cuve semi-rigide dans lequel les tubes de force contribuent pour une part importante a la resistance mecanique de l'ensemble en jouant le role de tirant, d'ou des contraintes elevees sur les jonctions et tubes de force (et le choix des alliages de zirconium). Les structures comprennent le tube de force, les jonctions, l'isolement thermique et le tube de guidage. On expose brievement les moyens d'essais mis en oeuvre et les performances de ces diverses

  15. Globalization of the natural gas industry; La mondialisation de l`industrie du gaz naturel

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    Deyirmendjan, J. [Gaz de France (GDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-05-01

    After presenting a panorama of the international gas industry, a description of changes affecting the world gas industry, and an analysis of how environment-related demands give gas an opportunity to become the leading source of energy in the 21. century, Mr Jacques Deyirmendjan, Senior Executive-Vice-President of Gaz de France, tells his interviewer how French industry and national companies are designing their strategies to respond effectively to these changes.

  16. A Comprehensive Numerical Study on Effects of Natural Gas Composition on the Operation of an HCCI Engine Une étude numérique complète sur les effets de la composition du gaz naturel carburant sur le réglage d’un moteur HCCI

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    Jahanian O.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI engine is a promising idea to reduce fuel consumption and engine emissions. Natural Gas (NG, usually referred as clean fuel, is an appropriate choice for HCCI engines due to its suitable capability of making homogenous mixture with air. However, varying composition of Natural Gas strongly affects the auto-ignition characteristics of in-cylinder mixture and the performance of the HCCI engine. This paper has focused on the influence of Natural Gas composition on engine operation in HCCI mode. Six different compositions of Natural Gas (including pure methane have been considered to study the engine performance via a thermo-kinetic zero-dimensional model. The simulation code covers the detailed chemical kinetics of Natural Gas combustion, which includes Zeldovich extended mechanism to evaluate NOx emission. Validations have been made using experimental data from other works to ensure the accuracy needed for comparison study. The equivalence ratio and the compression ratio are held constant but the engine speed and mixture initial temperature are changed for comparison study. Results show that the peak value of pressure/temperature of in-cylinder mixture is dependent of fuel Wobbe number. Furthermore, engine gross indicated power is linearly related to fuel Wobbe number. Gross indicated work, gross mean effective pressure, and NOx are the other parameters utilized to compare the performance of engine using different fuel compositions. Le moteur HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition, ou à allumage par compression d’une charge homogène est une idée prometteuse pour réduire la consommation de carburant et les émissions polluantes. Le gaz naturel, considéré généralement comme un carburant propre, est un choix approprié pour les moteurs HCCI en raison de sa capacité à former avec l’air un mélange homogène. Cependant, la composition du gaz naturel influe fortement sur les caract

  17. Gasification in Petroleum Refinery of 21st Century La gazéification dans la raffinerie du pétrole du XXIe siècle

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    Furimsky E.

    2006-12-01

    goudrons, le coke et l'asphalte, résultant respectivement de la viscoréduction, de la carbonisation et du désasphaltage. Les résidus finaux peuvent être, à leur tour, convertis en produits utilisables comme l'hydrogène, la vapeur, l'électricité, l'ammoniac et des produits chimiques. Dans ce contexte, la gazéification est apparue comme la technologie de choix pour la valorisation des résidus en raison de ses meilleures performances. De même, les boues de raffinerie peuvent être cogazéifiées avec les résidus finaux et devenir alors des produits valorisables. Intégrée à la raffinerie de pétrole, la gazéification peut aider à résoudre les problèmes environnementaux liés à l'élimination des résidus et des boues. Les résultats économiques de la raffinerie peuvent également être améliorés. Les tendances de déréglementation du marché de l'énergie permettent aux raffineries de pétrole d'y pénétrer, soit toutes seules, soit en partenariat avec les fournisseurs d'utilités. Le potentiel de coproduction de produits chimiques et de vapeur avec l'électricité offre une souplesse de réaction permettant de répondre aux demandes du marché. L'intérêt de la technologie de la gazéification est commercialement démontré. Parmi d'autres, les gazéificateurs à lit entraîné sont les gazéificateurs de prédilection. Plusieurs projets commerciaux en Europe, en Asie et aux États-Unis font appel à un gazéificateur utilisant soit un système d'alimentation en suspension, soit un système d'alimentation par voie sèche.

  18. Gas market is today strategical; Le marche du gaz est aujourd'hui strategique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darricarrere, Y.L. [Total, 92 - Courbevoie (France)

    2006-07-01

    The energy market, and in particular the gas market, is today seething with excitement. In France, in Europe and in the rest of the world, the energy stakes are in the center of preoccupations. This article is an interview of Y.L. Darricarrere, general director of the gas and electricity division of Total group, who explains his opinions about the opening of European and French energy markets, presents the ambitions of Total group on these markets, and comments some recent events of the European energy scene: concentration between gas and electric utilities, the Suez and Gaz de France (GdF) project of merger, the risks linked with the coming in of national companies from producing countries, like Gazprom and Sonatrach, on the European market, the restriction of access of foreign companies to hydrocarbon reserves in Russia and Latin America (come back of the 'energy nationalism'), Total's policy for anticipating the increase of the world energy demand and the depletion of fossil fuel reserves. (J.S.)

  19. Dosage du mercure dans le gaz naturel par absorption atomique sans flammes Mercury Titration in Natural Gas by Flameless Atomic Absorption

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    La Villa F.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article présente la méthode mise au point par l'Institut Français du Pétrole pour déterminer par absorption atomique sans flamme, les traces de mercure métallique contenu dans un gaz naturel. La méthode d'analyse nécessite une extraction du mercure soit sous forme d'ion mercurique en faisant passer le gaz dans une solution oxydante, soit sous forme d'amalgame avec de l'or ou de l'argent. Le premier mode opératoire s'applique aux échantillons dont la concentration en mercure est supérieure à I ttg/Nm3, le second pour des concentrations inférieures à 5 pg/Nm3. Les seuils de détection sont respectivement 10 ng (en solution et 0,3 ng (en amalgame. La répétabilité pour 100 ng de mercure (en amalgame est de ± 7% pour une probabilité de.95 %. En conclusion, dans un échantillon de gaz naturel, compte tenu du volume des prélèvements effectués, il est possible de détecter des concentrations de l'ordre du nanogramme de mercure par mètre cube de gaz. This article describes the method developed by IFP using flameless atomic absorption to determine metallic mercury traces in a natural gas. The analyst method requires a mercury extraction either in the form of mercuric ions by making the gas pass through an oxidizing solution or in the form of an amalgam with gold or silver. The former operating method applies ta samples having a mercury concentration greater than I !ag/Nm3, and the latter for concentrations smaller than 5 (-Lg/Nm3. Detection thresholds are respectively 10 ng (in solution and 0.3 ng (in amalgam. The repeatability for 100 ng of mercury (in amalgam is ± 7 % with a probability of 95%. To conclude, in a sample of natural gas, considering the volume of the samples taken, it is possible ta detect concentrations in the vicinity of one nanogrom of mercury per cubic meter of gas.

  20. Study of the strength of the internal can for internally and externally cooled fuel elements intended for gas graphite reactors; Etude de la tenue de la gaine interne pour-element combustible a refroidissement interne et externe d'un reacteur graphite-gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudouresque, B; Courcon, P; Lestiboubois, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The cartridge of an internally and externally cooled annular fuel element used in gas-graphite reactors is made up of an uranium fuel tube, an external can and an internal can made of magnesium alloy. For the thermal exchange between the internal can and the fuel to be satisfactory, it is necessary for the can to stay in contact with the uranium under all temperature conditions. This report, based on a theoretical study, shows how the internal can fuel gap varies during the processes of canning, charging into the reactor and thermal cycling. The following parameters are considered: tube diameter, pressure of the heat carrying gas, gas entry temperature, plasticity of the can alloy. It is shown that for all operating conditions the internal can of a 77 x 95 element, planned for a gas-graphite reactor with a 40 kg/cm{sup 2} gas pressure, should remain in contact with the fuel. (authors) [French] La cartouche d'un element combustible annulaire, a refroidissement interne et externe pour reacteur graphite-gaz, est composee d'un tube combustible en uranium, d'une gaine externe et d'une gaine interne en alliage de magnesium. Pour que l'echange thermique entre la gaine interne et le combustible soit bon, il faut que la gaine reste appliquee sur l'uranium quel que soit le regime de temperature. Cette note a pour but de montrer comment, d'apres une etude theorique, le jeu combustible-gaine interne varie au cours des operations de gainage, de chargement dans le reacteur, et des cyclages thermiques. Les parametres suivants sont etudies: diametres de tube, pression du gaz caloporteur, temperature d'entree du gaz, plasticite de l'alliage de gaine. Il est montre que, quel que soit le regime de fonctionnement, la gaine interne d'un element 77 x 95, en projet pour un reacteur graphite-gaz sous pression de 40 kg/cm{sup 2}, doit rester appliquee sur le combustible. (auteurs)

  1. Carbon dioxide capture and storage; Captage et stockage du gaz carbonique (CSC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durand, B.

    2011-07-01

    The author first highlights the reasons why storing carbon dioxide in geological formations could be a solution in the struggle against global warming and climate change. Thus, he comments various evolutions and prospective data about carbon emissions or fossil energy consumption as well as various studies performed by international bodies and agencies which show the interest of carbon dioxide storage. He comments the evolution of CO{sub 2} contributions of different industrial sectors and activities, notably in France. He presents the different storage modes and methods which concern different geological formations (saline aquifers, abandoned oil or gas fields, not exploitable coal seams) and different processes (sorption, carbonation). He discusses the risks associated with these storages, the storable quantities, evokes some existing installations in different countries. He comments different ways to capture carbon dioxide (in post-combustion, through oxy-combustion, by pre-combustion) and briefly evokes some existing installations. He evokes the issue of transport, and discusses efficiency and cost aspects, and finally has few words on legal aspects and social acceptability

  2. The Use of Fuel Gas as Stripping Medium in Atmospheric Distillation of Crude Oil L’utilisation de gaz combustible comme moyen d’extraction des fractions légères en distillation atmosphérique du pétrole brut

    OpenAIRE

    Plellis-Tsaltakis C.; Lygeros A.I.

    2011-01-01

    Stripping of petroleum fractions aims to remove the light ends that spoil some of their properties, such as the flash point. Stripping usually employs steam for that purpose. Except for steam, other substances can perform the same function, among them light hydrocarbons. In this article, we investigate the use of refinery fuel gas as stripping medium for a crude oil atmospheric distillation unit. L’extraction des fractions légères du pétrole vise à enlever les produits nuisibles à cer...

  3. New regulations, combustion, environment: responses for natural gas; Nouvelles reglementations, combustion, environnement: les reponses pour le gaz naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Peltier-Marc, A. [Gaz de France (GDF), 75 - Paris (France). Direction Commerciale

    1997-12-31

    The impacts of the new French regulations concerning low- to medium-power combustion equipment with regards to their energy sources, energy efficiency and pollution control, on natural gas fired boilers, are discussed: lower pollutant emission limits are set for SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and ashes. The decree gives new regulations concerning plant location, combustion control systems, plant monitoring and maintenance, and air pollution control measures such as chimney stack height and emission limits. The French national gas utility promotes environmental high performance boilers

  4. World Gas Prospects: Which Role for the Middle East? Perspectives mondiales du gaz naturel : quel rôle pourrait jouer le Moyen-Orient ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chabrelie M. F.

    2006-12-01

    vingt dernières années, le gaz naturel a enregistré le taux de croissance le plus élevé parmi les énergies fossiles, et sa part de marché est progressivement passée de 18,9 % en 1975 à 23 % en 1997. Aujourd'hui, des facteurs d'ordres économiques et environnementaux font du gaz naturel l'énergie de choix sur de nombreux marchés. Le gaz jouit en effet d'un certain nombre d'atouts (réserves importantes, flexibilité, utilisations performantes qui lui confèrent une place majeure dans tous les scénarios de prévision de demande énergétique. Le développement le plus spectaculaire se fera sans conteste dans le secteur électrique. Doté de réserves gazières considérables, le Moyen-Orient représentera une source d'approvisionnement essentielle pour bon nombre de pays industrialisés et plusieurs projets d'exportation de gaz par méthaniers ou par gazoducs sont déjà à l'étude. Par ailleurs, au cours des dix dernières années, la contribution du gaz naturel dans le bilan énergétique a augmenté de façon significative dans la plupart des pays du Moyen-Orient. La croissance de l'utilisation du gaz devrait se poursuivre à un rythme soutenu, en particulier sous l'influence du secteur électrique, de la pétrochimie et de l'autoconsommation de l'industrie pétrolière. Ces perspectives prometteuses de demande de gaz sur la plupart des marchés de la région pourraient conduire au développement d'un réseau de transport intrarégional. Toutefois, bien que des opportunités existent, elles ne doivent pas masquer les nombreux défis que cette région devra relever pour contribuer plus largement au bilan gazier mondial dans les années à venir.

  5. Contribution to the dosimetry of tritium in the presence of inactive or active gases; Contribution a la dosimetrie du tritium en presence de gaz inactifs ou actifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soudain, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    Tritium is a dangerous gas for man and the maximum admissible doses in the atmosphere are sufficiently low for the dosage to be fairly difficult. We have developed an apparatus for measuring selectively the contamination of air by this gas when it is alone or when it is associated with other gaseous contaminants. The differential apparatus using two ionization chambers makes it possible to eliminate a parasitic {gamma} radiation field. In a few particular cases, the presence of the radio-active gas has been studied. From the practical point of view, the use of these chambers made of stainless steel makes for easier use since the problems connected with wall adsorption have been satisfactorily resolved. The method can be applied without restriction and very easily to the dosage of traces tritium in air or in the form of tritiated water or tritiated steam in the atmosphere. (author) [French] Le tritium est un gaz dangereux pour l'homme et les concentrations maximales admissibles dans l'atmosphere sont suffisamment basses pour que le dosage soit delicat. Nous avons etudie et realise un appareil qui permet de mesurer selectivement la contamination de l'air par ce gaz lorsqu'il est seul ou lorsqu'il est associe a d'autres agents gazeux contaminants. Le montage differentiel a deux chambres d'ionisation permet d'eliminer un champ de rayonnement {beta} parasite. Dans certains cas particuliers, la presence du gaz radioactif a ete etudiee. Sur le plan pratique, l'utilisation des chambres en acier inoxydable facilite les applications car les problemes d'adsorption aux parois ont ete bien resolus. La methode peut s'appliquer sans restriction et tres pratiquement au dosage des traces de tritium dans l'air ou encore sous forme d'eau tritiee ou de vapeur d'eau tritiee dans l'atmosphere. (auteur)

  6. Fuel elements for pressurised-gas reactors; Elements combustibles des piles a gaz sous pression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stohr, J A; Englander, M; Gauthron, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The design and fabrication of fuel elements for the first CO{sub 2} pressurized reactors have induced to investigate: various cladding materials, natural uranium base fuels, canning processes. The main analogical tests used in connection with the fuel element study are described. These various tests have enabled, among others, the fabrication of the fuel element for the EL2 reactor. Lastly, future solutions for electrical power producing reactors are foreseen. (author)Fren. [French] L'etude et la realisation d'elements combustibles pour les premieres piles a CO{sub 2} sous pression ont conduit a examiner: les divers materiaux de gaine, les combustibles a base d'uranium naturel, les modes de gainage. Les principaux essais analogiques ayant servi au cours de l'etude de la cartouche sont decrits. Ces divers essais ont notamment permis la realisation de la cartouche de la pile EL2. Enfin sont envisagees les solutions futures pour les piles productrices d'energie electrique. (auteur)

  7. Spatial flux instabilities, and their control in the graphite gas power reactors; Les instabilites spatiales du flux et leur controle dans les reacteurs de puissance graphite-gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cailly, J L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    Radial-azimuthal and axial spatial flux instabilities in graphite-gas reactors are studied by means of an analytical approach. Results are checked with those which are given by two dimensional (r, z and r, {theta}) kinetic models programmed for an IBM 7094 computer. At least, conclusions on the control of instabilities obtained from these models are reported. (author) [French] Les instabilites spatiales du flux dans les reacteurs graphite-gaz, radiales et azimutales d'une part, axiales d'autre part, sont etudiees au moyen d'une formulation analytique. Les resultats sont confrontes avec ceux que fournissent des modeles cinetiques a deux dimensions (r, z et r, {theta}) programmes sur IBM 7094. On donne enfin les conclusions relatives au controle de ces instabilites que ces modeles ont permis de degager. (auteur)

  8. The reactions of magnesium and its alloys with moist gases at high temperatures; Les reactions du magnesium et de ses alliages avec les gaz humides aux temperatures elevees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darras, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-02-15

    The kinetics and mechanisms of the reaction of pure or low alloyed magnesium with various gas saturated by water vapor: oxygen, argon, nitrogen, air, carbon dioxide, have been studied and compared in the temperature range 350-600 deg C. After picturing the large chemical reactivity of magnesium surface, the more or less properties of the oxide film, always made of magnesia, have been shown depending on the nature of the gas carrying water vapor; in fact, metal sublimation occurs the more easily as the surrounding atmosphere is less oxidizing. Moreover, an activation energy change is systematic, but at a temperature which depends also on the latter. In the case of the alloys, the linear oxidation rate is generally obtained only after short induction periods, parabolic in nature. Two possibilities of corrosion inhibition of magnesium by water vapor are then demonstrated and explained: either by a partial superficial fluoridation, or when the carrier gas is carbon dioxide. Also, the extreme conditions of oxidation were studied, that is the ignition processes that occur at a particular temperature in every gas mixture. Finally, it is tried to evolve the fundamental and practical significance of all the results. (author) [French] On a etudie et compare par voie thermogravimetrique, micrographique et radiocristallographique, les cinetiques et les mecanismes de reaction du magnesium et de certains de ses alliages avec diverses atmospheres saturees en vapeur d'eau: oxygene, argon, azote, air, gaz carbonique, dans un domaine de temperatures s'etendant de 350 a 600 deg C, Apres avoir illustre l'extreme sensibilite chimique de la surface du magnesium, on a tout d'abord montre que la valeur plus ou moins protectrice de la couche d'oxyde formee, pourtant toujours constituee de magnesie normale, depend de la nature du gaz porteur de la vapeur d'eau; en effet, la sublimation du metal intervient d'autant plus facilement que les atmospheres en presence sont moins oxydantes. De plus

  9. Etude du déplacement de l'huile par le gaz Analysis of Oil Displacement by Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delclaud J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les ingénieurs « réservoir u prévoient avec beaucoup de difficultés l'exploitation des gisements en utilisant les relations perméabilités relatives-saturations fournies par les laboratoires. Ceci amène à se demander si le concept est valide en écoulement transitoire, si les mesures sont effectuées selon des procédures convenables, si la relation statique entre la pression capillaire et la saturation est conservée en régime variable, si enfin la méconnaissance des lois de combinaison de ces fonctions n'est pas la cause de l'insatisfaction des ingénieurs. Le travail présenté ici traite des trois premiers points. Deux séries d'expériences sont réalisées à cet effet : - d'une part, des expériences de déplacement de l'huile par le gaz, où l'on s'intéresse à l'établissement et à la caractérisation de phénomènes pseudo-stationnaires. Les échantillons poreux choisis sont de faibles dimensions. Ils permettent ainsi de réduire la durée des périodes transitoires; - d'autre part, des expériences de déplacement sur des échantillons homogènes de grandes dimensions où l'on étudie les phénomènes transitoires. On mesure, tout au long du massif, la pression dans les deux phases et la saturation. Les perméabilités relatives sont calculées en tout point et à tout instant, à partir des équations de continuité. II ressort de ces travaux que la relation perméabilité relative-saturation est la même en tout point du milieu poreux, tout au long de l'écoulement transitoire, qu'elle ne dépend pas de la vitesse d'écoulement et que la relation pression capillaire-saturation coïncide avec celle établie par la méthode des états restaurés. La validité du concept en écoulement transitoire est donc prouvée. La méthode de WELGE, JOHNSON, BOSSLER et NAUMANN conduit à des résultats différents de ceux obtenus. On montre, pour expliquer ces écarts, que les hypothèses théoriques de cette méthode sont

  10. Corrosion of magnesium and some magnesium alloys in gas cooled reactors; Corrosion du magnesium et de certains de ses alliages dans les piles refroidies par gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caillat, R; Darras, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The results of corrosion tests on magnesium and some magnesium alloys (Mg-Zr and Mg-Zr-Zn) in moist air (like G1 reactor) and in CO{sub 2}: (like G2, G3, EDF1 reactors) are reported. The maximum temperature for exposure of magnesium to moist air without any risk of corrosion is 350 deg. C. Indeed, the oxidation rate follows a linear law above 350 deg. C although it reaches a constant level and keeps on very low under 350 deg. C. However, as far as corrosion is concerned this temperature limit can be raised up to 500 deg. C if moist air is very slightly charged with fluorinated compounds. Under pressure of CO{sub 2}, these three materials oxidate much more slowly even if 500 deg. C is reached. The higher is the temperature, the higher is the constant level of the weight increase and the quicker is reached this one. However, Mg-Zr alloy behaves quite better than pure magnesium and especially than Mg-Zr-Zn alloy. (author)Fren. [French] On expose essentiellement les resultats d'etudes sur la corrosion du magnesium et de certains de ses alliages (Mg-Zr et Mg-Zr-Zn) dans l'air humide (cas de la pile G1) et dans le gaz carbonique (cas des piles G2, G3, EDF1, etc...). La temperature limite d'exposition du magnesium dans l'air humide sans risque de corrosion se situe a 350 deg. C; en effet l'oxydation a un caractere lineaire au-dessus de cette temperature, alors qu'elle atteint un palier et reste tres limitee au-dessous de 350 deg. C. Du point de vue de la corrosion, cette temperature limite d'emploi peut cependant etre elevee jusqu'a 500 deg. C si l'on introduit dans l'air humide de tres faibles teneurs de composes fluores. Dans le gaz carbonique sous pression, l'oxydation est beaucoup plus faible, meme jusqu'a 50g. C pour les trois materiaux: l'augmentation de poids atteint un palier d'autant plus eleve et ceci d'autant plus rapidement que la temperature est elle-meme plus elevee. Cependant, l'alliage Mg-Zr se comporte nettement mieux que le magnesium pur et surtout que l

  11. Corrosion of magnesium and some magnesium alloys in gas cooled reactors; Corrosion du magnesium et de certains de ses alliages dans les piles refroidies par gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caillat, R.; Darras, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The results of corrosion tests on magnesium and some magnesium alloys (Mg-Zr and Mg-Zr-Zn) in moist air (like G1 reactor) and in CO{sub 2}: (like G2, G3, EDF1 reactors) are reported. The maximum temperature for exposure of magnesium to moist air without any risk of corrosion is 350 deg. C. Indeed, the oxidation rate follows a linear law above 350 deg. C although it reaches a constant level and keeps on very low under 350 deg. C. However, as far as corrosion is concerned this temperature limit can be raised up to 500 deg. C if moist air is very slightly charged with fluorinated compounds. Under pressure of CO{sub 2}, these three materials oxidate much more slowly even if 500 deg. C is reached. The higher is the temperature, the higher is the constant level of the weight increase and the quicker is reached this one. However, Mg-Zr alloy behaves quite better than pure magnesium and especially than Mg-Zr-Zn alloy. (author)Fren. [French] On expose essentiellement les resultats d'etudes sur la corrosion du magnesium et de certains de ses alliages (Mg-Zr et Mg-Zr-Zn) dans l'air humide (cas de la pile G1) et dans le gaz carbonique (cas des piles G2, G3, EDF1, etc...). La temperature limite d'exposition du magnesium dans l'air humide sans risque de corrosion se situe a 350 deg. C; en effet l'oxydation a un caractere lineaire au-dessus de cette temperature, alors qu'elle atteint un palier et reste tres limitee au-dessous de 350 deg. C. Du point de vue de la corrosion, cette temperature limite d'emploi peut cependant etre elevee jusqu'a 500 deg. C si l'on introduit dans l'air humide de tres faibles teneurs de composes fluores. Dans le gaz carbonique sous pression, l'oxydation est beaucoup plus faible, meme jusqu'a 50g. C pour les trois materiaux: l'augmentation de poids atteint un palier d'autant plus eleve et ceci d'autant plus rapidement que la temperature est elle-meme plus elevee. Cependant, l

  12. Les Cahiers du CREAD

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    politique de bas prix exercée par la Russie et le Qatar vient confirmer ce constat ; s'ajoute à cela l'entrée éventuelle du gaz non conven- tionnel, dont son prix actuel de 3/4 $US, offre aux USA l'opportunité d'être exportateur de ..... les compagnies à produire en matière du gaz naturel, tels le prix du gaz naturel, le prix des ...

  13. Cellular properties of slug flow in vertical co-current gas-liquid flow: slug-churn transition; Caracteristiques cellulaires du regime a poches en ecoulement gaz-liquide co-courant vertical. Transition vers le regime destructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lusseyran, Francois

    1990-12-13

    This research thesis reports the study and description of the structure of a slug flow regime in a co-current vertical cylindrical duct, and the characterization and prediction of its transition towards a slug-churn (de-structured) regime. Flow physical mechanisms highlighted by the measurement of two important dynamics variables (wall friction and thickness of liquid films) are related to hypotheses of cellular models. The author first proposes an overview of slug flow regimes: theoretical steady and one-dimensional analysis, mass assessment equations of cellular models, application to the assessment of the flow rate and of the thickness of the film surrounding the gas slug. In the second part, the author addresses the slug flow regime transition towards the slug-churn regime: assessment of the evolution of flow dynamic properties, use of average wall friction analysis to obtain a relevant transition criterion. The third part presents experimental conditions, and measurement methods: conductometry for thickness measurement, polarography for wall friction measurement, and gas phase detection by using an optic barrier or optic fibres [French] Les ecoulements gaz-liquide en conduite verticale presentent quatre configurations ou regimes d'ecoulement. Ce travail porte sur le regime a poches et sur la transition vers la configuration qui lui succede: le regime destructure (churn flow). Les mesures sont effectuees a 200D du point d'injection du gaz, dans une conduite de 12.2 mm de diametre et pour le couple de fluides eau-azote. Les deux principales grandeurs mesurees en fonction des flux d'entree sont: le frottement parietal instantane (methode electrochimique) et l'epaisseur de film instantanee (methode conductimetrique). Une detection optique simultanee de la presence des phases permet un traitement conditionnel de la base de donnees. Les caracteristiques de la cellule moyenne representative de chaque point de fonctionnement en sont deduites: longueur de la cellule

  14. A study on the isotope effects in the reduction of carbon dioxide by zinc; Etude des effets isotopiques dans la reduction du gaz carbonique par le zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senegacnik, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-06-15

    We have determined the isotope effects which occur in the reduction of carbon dioxide by zinc. It has been shown that in the case of irreversible surface reactions, Bernstein's equation which permits the calculation of the fractionation factor is still valid. These experimental factors are in good agreement with those obtained by calculating the partition functions of the adsorbed activated complexes. In the reaction mechanism used, the model of the activated complex corresponds to the dissociation of one of the carbon oxygen bonds CO{sub 2} {yields} CO + O. Perturbations arising from the slight reversibility of the reaction Zn + CO{sub 2} {r_reversible} ZnO + CO on the isotope effects on the carbon and oxygen atoms have also been calculated. (author) [French] Nous avons etudie les effets isotopiques qui ont lieu dans la reduction du gaz carbonique par le zinc. La validite de l'equation de Bernstein qui permet de calculer le facteur de fractionnement a ete demontree pour le cas d'une reaction irreversible de surface. Ces facteurs de fractionnement experimentaux sont en bon accord avec ceux obtenus par le calcul des fonctions de partition isotopiques des complexes actives adsorbes. Dans le mecanisme de reaction utilise, le modele du complexe active correspond a la dissociation d'une des liaisons carbone oxygene CO{sub 2} {yields} CO + O. Les effets perturbateurs de la reversibilite de la reduction Zn + CO{sub 2} {r_reversible} ZnO + CO sur les effets isotopiques du carbone et ceux de l'oxygene ont ete egalement evalues. (auteur)

  15. A study on the isotope effects in the reduction of carbon dioxide by zinc; Etude des effets isotopiques dans la reduction du gaz carbonique par le zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senegacnik, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-06-15

    We have determined the isotope effects which occur in the reduction of carbon dioxide by zinc. It has been shown that in the case of irreversible surface reactions, Bernstein's equation which permits the calculation of the fractionation factor is still valid. These experimental factors are in good agreement with those obtained by calculating the partition functions of the adsorbed activated complexes. In the reaction mechanism used, the model of the activated complex corresponds to the dissociation of one of the carbon oxygen bonds CO{sub 2} {yields} CO + O. Perturbations arising from the slight reversibility of the reaction Zn + CO{sub 2} {r_reversible} ZnO + CO on the isotope effects on the carbon and oxygen atoms have also been calculated. (author) [French] Nous avons etudie les effets isotopiques qui ont lieu dans la reduction du gaz carbonique par le zinc. La validite de l'equation de Bernstein qui permet de calculer le facteur de fractionnement a ete demontree pour le cas d'une reaction irreversible de surface. Ces facteurs de fractionnement experimentaux sont en bon accord avec ceux obtenus par le calcul des fonctions de partition isotopiques des complexes actives adsorbes. Dans le mecanisme de reaction utilise, le modele du complexe active correspond a la dissociation d'une des liaisons carbone oxygene CO{sub 2} {yields} CO + O. Les effets perturbateurs de la reversibilite de la reduction Zn + CO{sub 2} {r_reversible} ZnO + CO sur les effets isotopiques du carbone et ceux de l'oxygene ont ete egalement evalues. (auteur)

  16. CO{sub 2} direct cycles suitable for AGR type reactors; Cycles directs de gaz carbonique applicables aux reacteurs du genre AGR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maillet, E [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique. Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1967-10-01

    The perspectives given by the gas turbines under pressure, to build simple nuclear power plants and acieving significantly high yield, are specified. The CO{sub 2} is characterised by by good efficiency under moderate temperature (500 to 750 Celsius degrees), compactness and the simpleness of machines and the safe exploitation (supply, storage, relief cooling, thermosyphon). The revision of thermal properties of the CO{sub 2} and loss elements show that several direct cycles would fit in particular to the AGR type reactors. Cycles that would diverge a little from classical models and able to lead to power and heat generation can lead by simple means to the best results. Several satisfying solutions present for the starting up, the power regulation and the stopping. The nuclear power plant components and the functioning safety are equally considered in the present report. The conclusions stimulate the studies and realizations of carbon dioxide gas turbines in when approprite. [French] Les perspectives offertes par la turbine a gaz sous pression, pour construire des centrales nucleaires simples et de rendement progressivement eleve, se precisent actuellement. le CO{sub 2} se distingue par sa bonne efficacite a temperature moderee (500 a 750 degres celsius), la compacite et la simplicite des machines, et la surete qu'il apporte a l'exploitation ( approvisionnement, stockage, refroidissement de secours, thermosiphon). La revision des proprietes thermophysiques du CO{sub 2} et des elements de pertes montre que divers cycles directs conviendraient en particulier aux reacteurs agr ou derives. Des cycles s'ecartant peu des modeles classiques, et se pretant ulterieurement a la production simultanee d'electricite et de chaleur, peuvent conduire par des moyens simples aux meilleurs resultats d'ensemble. Plusieurs solutions satisfaisantes se presentent pour le demarrage, le reglage de la puissance et l'arret. Les composants de la centrale et la surete de fonctionnement sont

  17. Reconsideration of Methane Isotope Signature As a Criterion for the Genesis of Natural Gas: Influence of Migration on Isotopic Signatures Reconsidération de la signature isotopique du méthane comme critère pour la genèse du gaz naturel : influence de la migration sur les signatures isotopiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernaton E.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were performed in the purpose of studying the isotopic consequences of the diffusional transport of hydrocarbon gases through sediment rocks. Linked to a numerical model, these gas diffusion experiments through a shale porous plug allowed us to correlate porosity and diffusivity of the migration medium. Significant isotopic fractionations (carbon and hydrogen of methane, and ethane at a lesser degree were observed. This is in contradiction with the actual dogma of isotope geochemistry of natural gases which claims that no fractionation occurs during gas migration. The genetic characterization of natural gases by using the isotopic signature of methane appears as an ambiguous method. Plusieurs expériences ont été réalisées dans le but d'étudier les conséquences isotopiques du transport par diffusion des gaz hydrocarbures au travers des roches sédimentaires. Associées à un modèle numérique, ces expériences de diffusion au travers d'une membrane d'argile reconstituée nous ont permis de corréler deux paramètres pétrophysiques du milieu de migration : la porosité et la diffusivité. D'importants fractionnements isotopiques ont été observés au cours de la diffusion du méthane et, à plus petite échelle, lors de la diffusion de l'éthane. Ces résultats remettent en cause le dogme actuel de la géochimie isotopique des gaz naturels qui stipule que la migration des gaz ne peut induire de fractionnements isotopiques. En conséquence, les méthodes de caractérisation génétique des gaz naturels utilisant la signature isotopique du méthane apparaissent comme insuffisantes.

  18. The Cyrano program. 1 - description and operation of an irradiation device 'Cyrano'. 2 - results of the experiments Cyrano 1 and 2 (study of the EL 4 first-bach pencil); measurement of the thermal conductivity integral for UO{sub 2} sintered up to 2300 deg C; evolution of fission gases at constant power; Programme Cyrano. 1 - description et exploitation d'un dispositif d'irradiation ''cyrano''. 2 - resultats des experiences cyrano 1 et 2 (etude du crayon EL4 1. jeu). Mesure de l'integrale de conductibilite thermique d'UO{sub 2} fritte jusqu'a 2300 deg C. Evolution des gaz de fission a puissance constante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stora, J P; Chenebault, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 91 - Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    Two rods of the type 'EL 4 first score' have been irradiated in 'Cyrano' capsules which are suited for continuous measurement of the nuclear power evolved and equipped with thermocouples. The variations of the integral of conductivity of sintered 96 per cent theoretical dense UO{sub 2} has been established until 2300 deg. C; these variations are coherent with those previously measured out-of-pile. The released fission gases have been recovered at different times during the irradiation: the kinetics of release of stable gases is such that, in the experimental conditions (T{sub surface} = 610 deg. C, {integral}{sub T{sub s}}{sup T{sub c}} kdT = 34.7 W cm{sup -1}) the fraction of released gases is still widely increasing after 12 days of irradiation. Numerous observations have been made on concentrations of rare gases locally present in the irradiated fuel. (authors) [French] L'irradiation de deux crayons combustibles type EL 4, 1er jeu, a ete menee a bien dans des capsules 'Cyrano' equipees de dispositifs de mesure continue de la puissance nucleaire et de plusieurs reperes de temperatures; la variation de l'integrale de conductibilite thermique de l'oxyde d'uranium fritte (96 pour cent d. th.) a ete tracee jusqu'a 2300 deg. C; la courbe representative de ces variations est coherente avec celle obtenue precedemment hors pile. Les gaz de fission apparus hors du combustible ont ete extraits du crayon a plusieurs reprises pendant l'experience: la cinetique d'accumulation des gaz stables est telle que dans les conditions etudiees (T{sub surface} = 610 deg. C, {integral}{sub T{sub s}}{sup T{sub c}} kdT = 34.7 W cm{sup -1}) la fraction des gaz degages est encore largement croissante apres 12 jours d'irradiation. De nombreuses observations ont ete recueillies sur la nature et la concentration des gaz rares presents en differents points du combustible irradie. (auteurs)

  19. Controlling processes that are sensitive to natural gas quality; Procedes de controle sensibles a la qualite du gaz naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wild, K R [BG Technology Ltd (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    In the UK, and in many other countries throughout the world, the quality of natural gas supplied to customers is maintained to a safe specification. Nevertheless, the specification usually allows some variation in the calorific value of the gas. For a small number of industrial or commercial consumers, this variation can present some difficulties. Measurement of these small, and sometimes rapid, changes is required to allow suitable control systems to be implemented. In the past, the measurement of gas quality has been either inadequate for accurate control or too expensive. BG Technology has developed an acceptable cost solution to this long-standing problem. This paper describes how this novel technology presents exciting new opportunities for gas combustion control and other applications. (author)

  20. Une installation expérimentale pour l'étude du traitement par combustion des fumées industrielles An Experimental Plant for Processing Industrial Fumes by Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morillon R.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le rejet à l'atmosphère d'effluents gazeux d'origine industrielle entraîne un accroissement sensible de la pollution atmosphérique ; en outre, il s'accompagne souvent d'une perte d'énergie lorsque l'élément polluant est un hydrocarbure. Dans ce cas, l'utilisation du gaz naturel pour le traitement par combustion des fumées industrielles apporte une solution élégante et souvent peu coûteuse grâce à la récupération d'énergie qu'il est possible de faire. La première partie de l'article rappelle les aspects théoriques de ce traitement ; en particulier, l'influence des divers éléments sur son efficacité y est discutée (composition de l'atmosphère polluée, température, temps de séjour, etc.. II apparaît ainsi que diverses conditions doivent être remplies simultanément pour obtenir une efficacité satisfaisante. Afin de disposer d'éléments d'ingénierie permettant de construire les unités de traitement les plus efficaces et les plus sûres possible, au coût le plus bas possible, la Direction des études et techniques nouvelles du Gaz de France a réalisé une installation expérimentale qui est présentée dans la deuxième partie de l'article. Enfin, quelques examples d'utilisation de cette installation expérimentale, qui constitue un nouvel outil de travail mis à la disposition des utisitateurs et des constructeurs, sont décrits dans la troisième partie de l'article. The discharge into the atmosphere of industrial waste gases causes substantially increased air pollution. Moreover, it is often accompanied by loss of energy when the polluting element is a hydrocarbon. In such cases, the use of natural gas for processing industrial fumes by combustion provides an elegant solution, which moy often prove economical too becouse of the recovery of energy it makes possible. The first part of this article reviews the theoretical aspects of such processing. The way in which its effectiveness is affected by various parameters

  1. Analysis of Simultaneous Gas-Liquid Flow Through an Orifice and Its Application to Flow Metering Etude de l'écoulement simultané d'un mélange gaz-liquide à travers un orifice et son application à la mesure du débit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal H.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to show a more accurate orifice equation for a two-phase flow, such a compressible mixture of gas and liquid. The orifice equation given here con be used for the measurement of a gas-liquid mixture of fine emulsions by the orificemeter method. From the thermodynamic point of view, an equation of state has been formulated which provides the relationship between the specific mass of the mixture and pressure, under conditions of adiabatic expansion. The results obtained enable the mass flow rates of gas and liquid ta be determined without separation of the phases, provided thot the gas liquid mass ratio is known. The critical pressure ratio corresponding ta sonic velocity is also determined. Cet article présente une relation plus précise pour l'écoulement d'un système à deux phases, tel qu'un mélange compressible gaz-liquide, à travers un diaphragme. Cette relation peut être utilisée pour des mesures de mélanges gaz-liquide très finement divisés, c'est-à-dire des émulsions ou brouillards, par la méthode du diaphragme en paroi mince. Du point de vue thermodynamique, on a formulé une équation d'état donnant la relation entre la masse spécifique du mélange et la pression dans des conditions d'expansion adiabatique. Les résultats obtenus per-mettent de déterminer le débit massique du gaz et du liquide, sans séparation des deux phases, à condition que le rapport de masse gaz-liquide soit connu. On détermine également le rapport de pression critique correspondantà la vitesse du son.

  2. Contribution to the study of the ionization and heating of gases by laser radiation; Contribution a l'etude de l'ionisation et du chauffage des gaz par le rayonnement d'un laser declenche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veyrie, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Limeil-Brevannes (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1968-01-01

    The ionization and heating of gases by the concentrated radiation of a neodymium laser is studied. The power is 300 MW, the gas studied is primarily deuterium between 300 mm and 2280 mm. The first part concerns a certain number of experimental results on the absorption of the radiation and on changes produced in the plasma as a function of time. From these results are deduced a certain number of consequences, amongst which may be mentioned the definition of a pre-ionization threshold. These experimental results are interpreted in the second part. A calculation is made of the length of the period during which the electrons multiply up to when the absorption becomes measurable. The last phase corresponds to the hydrodynamics evolution, the calculations are compared with the experiments. The agreement between theory and experiment is satisfactory for the different phases. (author) [French] On etudie l'ionisation et le chauffage des gaz par le rayonnement concentre d'un laser au neodyme. La puissance est de 300 MW, le gaz etudie est principalement le deuterium entre 300 mm et 2280 mm. La premiere partie concerne un certain nombre de resultats experimentaux. Il s'agit de l'absorption du rayonnement et de l'evolution chronologique du plasma. De ces resultats on deduit un certain nombre de consequences parmi lesquelles il faut citer la definition d'un seuil de preionisation. Ces resultats experimentaux sont interpretes dans la deuxieme partie. On calcule la duree de la phase pendant laquelle se multiplient les electrons jusqu'a ce que l'absorption soit mesurable. La derniere phase correspond a l'evolution hydrodynamique. Les calculs sont confrontes avec l'experience. L'accord entre theorie et experience est satisfaisant pour les differentes phases. (auteur)

  3. Contribution to the study of the ionization and heating of gases by laser radiation; Contribution a l'etude de l'ionisation et du chauffage des gaz par le rayonnement d'un laser declenche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veyrie, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Limeil-Brevannes (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1968-01-01

    The ionization and heating of gases by the concentrated radiation of a neodymium laser is studied. The power is 300 MW, the gas studied is primarily deuterium between 300 mm and 2280 mm. The first part concerns a certain number of experimental results on the absorption of the radiation and on changes produced in the plasma as a function of time. From these results are deduced a certain number of consequences, amongst which may be mentioned the definition of a pre-ionization threshold. These experimental results are interpreted in the second part. A calculation is made of the length of the period during which the electrons multiply up to when the absorption becomes measurable. The last phase corresponds to the hydrodynamics evolution, the calculations are compared with the experiments. The agreement between theory and experiment is satisfactory for the different phases. (author) [French] On etudie l'ionisation et le chauffage des gaz par le rayonnement concentre d'un laser au neodyme. La puissance est de 300 MW, le gaz etudie est principalement le deuterium entre 300 mm et 2280 mm. La premiere partie concerne un certain nombre de resultats experimentaux. Il s'agit de l'absorption du rayonnement et de l'evolution chronologique du plasma. De ces resultats on deduit un certain nombre de consequences parmi lesquelles il faut citer la definition d'un seuil de preionisation. Ces resultats experimentaux sont interpretes dans la deuxieme partie. On calcule la duree de la phase pendant laquelle se multiplient les electrons jusqu'a ce que l'absorption soit mesurable. La derniere phase correspond a l'evolution hydrodynamique. Les calculs sont confrontes avec l'experience. L'accord entre theorie et experience est satisfaisant pour les differentes phases. (auteur)

  4. Development of Non-Metallic Fuel Elements for a High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor; Mise au point d'elements combustibles non metalliques pour un reacteur a haute temperature, refroidi par un gaz; Razrabotka nemetallicheskikh teplovydelyashchikh ehlementov dlya vysokotemperaturnogo reaktora s gazovym okhlazhdeniem; Elementos combustibles no metalicos para un reactor de temperatura elevada refrigerado por gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebmann, B.; Schafer, L.; Spener, G. [NUKEM, Nuklear-Chemie und -Metallurgie G.m.b.H., Wolfgang bei Hanau, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1963-11-15

    un gaz, de la societe Brown-Boveri/Krupp Reaktorbau GmbH, on a retenu et mis au point deux types differents d'elements combustibles. Dans les deux cas, l'element combustible est constitue par une sphere en graphite de 6 cm de diametre enrobant un noyau de matiere combustible ayant la forme d'une pastille cylindrique d'environ 20 mm de diametre et de 16 mm de hauteur. Les deux types different par le noyau aussi bien que par la preparation de la sphere en graphite. Dans le premier type, le noyau est un melange d'UO{sub 2} et de graphite. La preparation consiste a melanger U{sub 3}O{sub 8} et du graphite, a les comprimer en pastilles et a faire reagir les deux composants du melange dans un four sous vide a 1800{sup o}C. Le rapport atomique U : C est 1:45. Etant donne que ce type de pastille ne retient pas completement les produits de fission, il a fallu impregner la sphere en graphite, de maniere a la rendre etanche aux produits de fission. On a pu realiser des permeabilites de l'ordre de 10{sup -6}cm{sup 2}/s . Dans le deuxieme type, le noyau est une solution solide de UC dans ZrC; il est revetu d'une couche de ZrC. Le rapport molaire UC : ZrC est 1 : 20. La preparation de la pastille de combustible s'effectue de la maniere suivantes UO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2} et le graphite sont melanges et comprimes en pastilles. On fait reagir le melange pour obtenir les carbures. Le broyage des carbures est suivi d'un pressage a chaud a des temperatures de l'ordre de 2000{sup o}C. On est parvenu a des densites egales a 95% de la densite theorique. Les auteurs decrivent en detail la preparation des pastilles de combustible et mentionnent un certain nombre de leurs proprietes physiques. On pense qu'en raison de leur capacite de retention des gaz de fission, des noyaux de ce type pourront etre enrobes dans des spheres en graphite non impregne. L'etude fait encore etat d'autres avantages de ce genre de combustible. [Spanish] En relacion con el perfeccionamiento de los elementos combustibles

  5. Application de l'A.D.L, pour la mesure du champ de vitesses instationnaires de llecoulement a Ilechappement d'un moteur a combustion interne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutrif, M. S.; Thelliez, M.

    1993-01-01

    We present experimental results of instantaneous velocity measurement, which were obtained by application of the laser Doppler anemometry (L.D.A.) at the exhaust pipe of a reciprocating engine under real working conditions. First of all, we show that the instantaneous velocity is monodimensional along a straight exhaust pipe, and that the boundary layer develops within a 2mm thickness. We also show that the cylinder discharges in two phases : the blow down period and the final part of exhaust stroke. We also make obvious, that the flow escapes very quickly : its velocity varies between - 100m/s and 200m/s within a period shorter than 1ms ; thereby, we do record the acoustic resonance phenomenon, when the engine speed is greater than 3 000rpm. Finally, we show that in the exhaust pipe the apparent fluctuation - i.e. the cyclic dispersion and the actual turbulence - may reach 15%. Nous présentons des résultats expérimentaux du champ de vitesses instationnaires, obtenus par adaptation et application de la vélocimétrie laser interférentielle communément appelée à effet Doppler (L.D.A.), à l'échappement d'un moteur altematif à combustion inteme en fonctionnement nominal. Tout d'abord, nous montrons que dans un tube d'échappement long et droit, la vitesse instantanée est bien monodimensionnelle et que l'écoulement occupe la quasitotalité de la section droite géométrique du tube (une couche limite d'épaisseur inférieure à 2mm se développe très près de la paroi du tube). Nous pouvons également décrire la vidange du cylindre du moteur étudié en deux phases principales : bouffée d'échappement et refoulement des gaz brûlés par le piston. Nous mettons de même en évidence l'état très pulsé de l'écoulement, puisqu'en un intervalle de temps inférieur à 1ms, la vitesse de l'écoulement varie de - 100m/s à 200m/s ; nous enregistrons ainsi l'apparition du phénomène de résonance acoustique à des vitesses de rotation supérieures à 3 500

  6. Contribution to the study on the flow rate adjustment for gas cooled power reactors (1964); Contributiom a l'etude de reglage du debit pour les reacteurs industriels refroidis par gaz (1964)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milliot, B. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-06-15

    1. This original study firstly defines the problem of the adjustment of the coolant flow rate in a reactor channel as a function of the corresponding heat transfer equations and of the local and temporal neutron flux. The necessity of such an adjustment is pointed out and the modifying parameters are studied. An adjustment study using the envelope of the possible flux curves is developed. A short study on the technology and the economical advantage of this adjustment is presented. Some measurements, made on G-1 and G-2, show the precision one can obtain from adjustment apparatus itself as well as from the complete reactor adjustment system. 2. Evolution of nuclear properties of fuel in an heterogeneous thermal reactor. In the first port of this paper, the phenomena of fuel evolution have been mainly pointed out. Now a bibliographical study more qualitatively than quantitatively has been done. This survey specifies the present theories and relates to a real effective cross section and also yields to the bases of such a nuclear calculation. (author) [French] 1. Cette etude originale definit d'abord le probleme du reglage du debit de refrigerant dans un canal de reacteur en fonction de la formulation du calcul des performances thermodynamiques de ce canal et des variations du flux neutronique dans l'espace et le temps. La necessite du reglage est ensuite mise en evidence et les parametres le modifiant sont etudies. Une methode de reglage, basee sur l'emploi d 'une courbe enveloppe des courbes de flux possibles, est donnee. Une breve etude de la technologie et des incidences economiques du reglage est presentee. Des mesures effectuees sur les reacteurs G-1 et G-2 montrent la precision que l'on peut attendre des dispositifs de reglage comme du reglage d'ensemble du reacteur lui-meme. 2. Evolution des proprietes nucleaires du combustible dans un reacteur heterogene a neutrons thermiques. Les phenomenes d'evolution du combustible

  7. Contribution to the study on the flow rate adjustment for gas cooled power reactors (1964); Contributiom a l'etude de reglage du debit pour les reacteurs industriels refroidis par gaz (1964)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milliot, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-06-15

    1. This original study firstly defines the problem of the adjustment of the coolant flow rate in a reactor channel as a function of the corresponding heat transfer equations and of the local and temporal neutron flux. The necessity of such an adjustment is pointed out and the modifying parameters are studied. An adjustment study using the envelope of the possible flux curves is developed. A short study on the technology and the economical advantage of this adjustment is presented. Some measurements, made on G-1 and G-2, show the precision one can obtain from adjustment apparatus itself as well as from the complete reactor adjustment system. 2. Evolution of nuclear properties of fuel in an heterogeneous thermal reactor. In the first port of this paper, the phenomena of fuel evolution have been mainly pointed out. Now a bibliographical study more qualitatively than quantitatively has been done. This survey specifies the present theories and relates to a real effective cross section and also yields to the bases of such a nuclear calculation. (author) [French] 1. Cette etude originale definit d'abord le probleme du reglage du debit de refrigerant dans un canal de reacteur en fonction de la formulation du calcul des performances thermodynamiques de ce canal et des variations du flux neutronique dans l'espace et le temps. La necessite du reglage est ensuite mise en evidence et les parametres le modifiant sont etudies. Une methode de reglage, basee sur l'emploi d 'une courbe enveloppe des courbes de flux possibles, est donnee. Une breve etude de la technologie et des incidences economiques du reglage est presentee. Des mesures effectuees sur les reacteurs G-1 et G-2 montrent la precision que l'on peut attendre des dispositifs de reglage comme du reglage d'ensemble du reacteur lui-meme. 2. Evolution des proprietes nucleaires du combustible dans un reacteur heterogene a neutrons thermiques. Les phenomenes d'evolution du combustible tiennent une place importante dans l

  8. Behaviour of rare gases in solids at high temperature; Comportement des gaz rares dans les solides a haute temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blin, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    In this article a number of simple results regarding the solubility and displacement of rare gases in solids have been assembled. These results were obtained from elementary considerations on highly compressed gases and on dislocations. They provide a better understanding of the now fairly numerous experiments dealing with the swelling of irradiated fuels, this swelling being due to the presence of a high proportion of gases in the fission products. Finally, the chances of success of the various methods which may be devised to diminish the swelling are examined. (author) [French] Nous avons rassemble dans ce texte un certain nombre de resultats simples relatifs a la solubilite et au deplacement des gaz rares dans les solides. Ces resultats ont ete obtenus par des considerations elementaires sur les gaz tres comprimes et sur les dislocations. Ils permettent de mieux comprendre les experiences, maintenant assez nombreuses, qui ont trait au gonflement des combustibles irradies; gonflement qui est du a la presence d'une forte proportion de gaz dans les produits de fission. On examine finalement les chances de succes des differents moyens que l'on peut imaginer pour attenuer le gonflement. (auteur)

  9. Production of Methanol-Higher Alcohol Mixtures from Natural Gas via Syngas Chemistry Production de mélanges méthanol-alcools supérieurs à partir du gaz, via (CO + H2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courty P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite the prevailing position of ethers (MTBE, TAME as octane boosters, and the low oil prices at present, alcohol synthesis remains one of the near future means of natural gas upgrading via syngas chemistry. After a review of the available process development data in the field, this paper focuses on the IFP process studies, based on the CuCo and CuNi catalysts developed by Institut Français du Pétrole (IFR, France and Idemitsu Kosan (Japan. The adequacy between the product specifications, and the optimization of the performances is then discussed in a technico-economic context, together with a presentation of lab scale, pilot scale and demonstration scale test results. As a conclusion, a prospective overall view brings together todays economics and some improvement guidelines dealing with investments, operating cost and catalyst performances. Cette publication présente les travaux de R & D (Recherche et Développement menés par l'Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP, France et Idemitsu Kosan (Japon en synthèse d'alcools. Elle situe les résultats dans le contexte technique et économique actuel. L'accroissement constant des ressources prouvées en gaz et, chronologiquement, les deux crises pétrolières, la suppression du plomb dans les essences, ont conduit le monde industriel à intensifier les recherches concernant la synthèse d'alcools. Très récemment, les effets bénéfiques de l'addition d'alcools sur les émissions de polluants ont été mis en évidence. Toutefois, l'additivation de carburants par les alcools est en voie de disparition au profit des éthers, alors que, indépendamment, les procédés de production d'ammoniac, de méthanol, d'acide acétique, également fondés sur le gaz, se sont seuls développés. La synthèse d'alcools a fait l'objet de nombreux travaux, résumés dans les tableaux 1 et 2. L'étude des différents aspects réactionnels amène à prendre en compte l'exothermicité importante des r

  10. The gas market opens out to competition: how will the French system of distributions evolve?; Ouverture a la concurrence du marche du gaz: quelle evolution pour le systeme francais des concessions de distribution?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbonnier, R. [Strasbourg-3 Universite, Robert Schuman, 67 (France)]|[Strasbourg-1 Univ. Louis Pasteur, 67 (France)

    1998-10-01

    Th public distribution of natural gas in France is organised around a system of franchises allocated by the communes to a unique designated distributor (Gaz de France in most cases). This system, which was recently eased by a legislative provision, seems to have an uncertain future faced with the opening of competition that is encouraged by the European authorities and with the demands of some local communities which would like to lay a greater role in the future organisational plan for gas. This article looks at the possible evolutions, from the reactivation of franchises to their complete disappearance. (author)

  11. Effect of Ash on Oxygen Carriers for the Application of Chemical Looping Combustion to a High Carbon Char Effet des cendres sur l’activité des porteurs d’oxygène dans la combustion du charbon en boucle chimique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubel A.

    2011-02-01

    activity of the OCs and both OCs performed well. The results were promising for the application of CLC directly to solid fuels. L’application de la combustion en boucle chimique (CLC aux combustibles solides est actuellement étudiée à l’Université du Kentucky, au Centre de Recherche de l’Energie Appliquée (CAER dans le but de développer un procédé de gazéification/combustion en boucle chimique pressurisé (PCLC/G afin de générer de l’électricité à partir de charbon. Un des principaux aspects de la combustion en boucle chimique de combustibles solides est la compréhension de l’effet des cendres sur la réactivité des porteurs d’oxygène (OCs. L’effet des cendres sur la capacité de transfert d’oxygène et sur l’aptitude à oxyder le charbon est étudié avec deux porteurs d’oxygène à base d’oxydes de fer. Les cendres utilisées sont des cendres volantes provenant d’une centrale thermique au charbon. Les expériences sont réalisées dans un système composé d’une thermo-balance couplée à un spectrographe de masse (TGMS dans lequel on utilise d’abord 500 mg d’un mélange de cendres/porteurs d’oxygène à différentes concentrations de cendres allant jusqu’à 75 %. Le gaz réducteur est composé de 10 % de H2, 15 % de CO, 20 % de CO2 et de 55 % de Ar; et le gaz oxydant est composé de 20 % de O2 dans Ar. Les réactions d’oxydation/réduction sont quasi totales. D’après ces expériences, les cendres ont une activité propre de porteur d’oxygène, liée à la présence de fer dans les cendres, confirmée par les analyses DRX. Cela génère une augmentation du gain ou de la perte de masse du mélange pendant l’oxydation/réduction. Les vitesses d’oxydation/réduction augmentent avec la concentration des cendres à cause de l’augmentation de la porosité du mélange de porteurs d’oxygène avec les cendres, ce qui permet un meilleur accès des gaz réactifs sur les sites actifs des porteurs d’oxygène. Dans un

  12. Enjeux juridiques du contrôle des émissions personnelles de gaz à effet de serre par un dispositif de carte carbone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine Rousseaux

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available La carte carbone individuelle est un dispositif innovant, qui permet d’impliquer les particuliers dans la lutte face au changement climatique. Ce dispositif consiste à limiter leurs émissions de gaz à effet de serre, ce qui suppose de suivre leur consommation de certains produits et services. Ce mode de contrôle des émissions personnelles soulève parfois des controverses, la carte carbone pouvant être perçue comme un instrument de rationnement potentiellement liberticide. Ces deux aspects sont discutés sur la base d’une analyse comparative de la conception et des modalités de mise en œuvre des différents dispositifs de carte carbone, établis ou envisagés en Europe et aux États-Unis. Il en ressort que les controverses ne sont pas réellement fondées.The individual carbon card is an innovative mechanism that helps involve individuals in the fight against climate change. It consists in limiting their greenhouse gas emissions, which requires monitoring a part of their goods and services consumption. This method of personal emissions control is much debated since the carbon card may be perceived as a rationing tool and raises civil liberty issues. Both of these controversial aspects are discussed on the basis of a comparative analysis of how the various carbon card programs, established or contemplated in Europe and in the USA, are designed and implemented. The findings are these controversies are somewhat groundless.

  13. Aerodynamic and thermal studies of cans of gas cooled fuel elements; Etudes aerodynamiques et thermiques de gaines d'elements combustibles refroidis par gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelin, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Milliat, J P [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    1964-07-01

    Research on clusters was undertaken at the CEA in 1959, while studies on herring-bone cans were developed at the EDF Laboratory at Chatou and the CEA laboratory at Saclay at the end of 1959. In 1962, a general study on corrugations was begun at the Saclay Laboratory with a view to improving the clusters, and continued later in both laboratories relative to the internal cooling of annular fuel elements. As these studies progressed, trial facilities were extended while experimental methods have improved constantly. At the present time, both laboratories, working in complete collaboration, have powerful means at their disposal. Work on the clusters has been concerned chiefly with pressure losses due to the assembly parts, and with the temperature variations around the elements of the cluster. In this way, we have been able to determine satisfactorily the hot points of the can, the deformations of the rods and the conditions of stability of these deformations. In the case of the herring-bone cans, studies have been directed to the evolution of performances as a function of the geometric parameters on the one hand, and to the special aerodynamic and thermal features caused by the fins and by interruptions of cartridge on the other hand. These studies have led to a very thorough knowledge of the cartridges chosen for the reactors EDF 2 and EDF 3, and now open up very hopeful prospects for future reactors, particularly those fitted with annular elements; among the alternatives suitable for the inner surface of the annular element can, corrugations and longitudinal fins have been fairly extensively tested over a wide range of Reynolds number. (authors) [French] Les etudes de grappes ont ete entreprises au C.E.A. en 1959, tandis que les etudes de gaines a chevrons se sont developpees au Laboratoire de Chatou de l'EDF et au Laboratoire de Saclay du C.E.A. a la fin de l'annee 1959. En 1962, une etude generale sur les corrugations a ete commencee au Laboratoire de Saclay pour

  14. Geochemical Study of Natural CO2 Emissions in the French Massif Central: How to Predict Origin, Processes and Evolution of CO2 Leakage Étude géochimique des émissions naturelles de CO2 du Massif Central : origine et processus de migration du gaz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Battani A.

    2010-05-01

    de surveillance des futurs sites de stockage de CO2. Au cours des campagnes de terrain, nous avons analysé des flux de CO2 entre le sol et l’atmosphère, et nous avons prélevé et analysé à la fois des gaz des sols, et du gaz provenant de sources carbo-gazeuses, présentes dans toute la région. Un dispositif de « monitoring continu » dans le temps a également été testé, afin d’enregistrer conjointement les teneurs en CO2 de l’atmosphère et dans le sol en un point précis. Nous avons pu mettre au point un suivi géochimique basé sur la composition isotopique des gaz rares prélevés dans les sols. L’ensemble de nos résultats, confronté à la géologie de terrain, nous a permis de mettre en évidence l’origine mantellique du CO2. Ce CO2 remonte rapidement à la surface à l’état gazeux, le long de failles normales et/ou décrochantes, actives actuellement. Les teneurs et flux de CO2 dans le sol sont spatialement variables et élevés, et montrent également une origine mantellique. Les teneurs atmosphériques semblent faiblement augmenter par rapport à l’important dégazage observé dans la région.

  15. Inflammability of magnesium and its alloys in carbon dioxide either pure or mixed with water vapour, air or oxygen; Inflammabilite du magnesium et de ses alliages dans le gaz carbonique et ses melanges avec la vapeur d'eau, l'air ou l'oxygene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baque, P; Chevilliard, C; Darras, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    Whereas low contents of metallic additions have only a small influence on the temperature at which magnesium begins to burn in carbon dioxide, an increase in the specific surface area of the samples is likely to reduce it considerably, the self-heating phenomena being then more pronounced. On the other hand, the exact nature of the surrounding atmosphere is a very important factor; thus the temperature at which ignition begins increases with increasing carbon dioxide pressure, decreases very rapidly when the moisture content of this gas increases up to 3000 v.p.m., and decreases regularly when the partial pressure of air or oxygen increases. (authors) [French] Alors que de faibles teneurs en additions metalliques n'ont que peu d'influence sur la temperature d'inflammation du magnesium dans le gaz carbonique, l'augmentation de la surface specifique des echantillons est susceptible de l'abaisser fortement, le phenomene d'autochauffage se trouvant alors accru. D'autre part, la nature exacte de l'atmosphere gazeuse ambiante est un facteur tres important; ainsi la temperature d'inflammation croit avec la pression du gaz carbonique, decroit tres rapidement lorsque sa teneur en humidite augmente jusqu'a 3000 v.p.m., et diminue regulierement lorsque la pression partielle d'air ou d'oxygene augmente. (auteurs)

  16. Contribution to the study of the reactivity of graphite with respect to carbon dioxide and air; Contribution a l'etude de la reactivite du graphite vis-a-vis du gaz corbonique et de l'air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquet, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-09-15

    The oxidation of nuclear-quality graphite by air and carbon dioxide has been studied at temperatures at which the reaction becomes measurable. These experiments have been carried out on graphites differing in the concentration and nature of their ash, and in their mode of preparation. The reaction velocities measured have been compared in an attempt to correlate these two factors. Ten types of graphite have thus been studied. Since the oxidation reactions are of the type gas-solid, their velocities have also been compared to the BET surface areas of the graphite studied and to the diameter distribution of the pores of this surface. The conclusion is that, even for these low impurity contents, the law relating the reaction velocity to the surface is masked by the impurities which appear to behave as preferential reaction sites. This has been shown by carrying out successive purifications on various types of graphite, which treatment results in an important decrease in the reactivity of all the samples studied. (author) [French] On a etudie l'oxydation de graphites de qualites nucleaires par l'air et par le gaz carbonique, a des temperatures telles que la reaction commence a etre mesurable. Ces essais ont porte sur des graphites differents aux points de vue de la concentration et de la nature des cendres, et differents par le mode de preparation. Les vitesses de reaction mesurees ont ete comparees afin de tenter de les relier a ces deux facteurs. Dix qualites de graphite ont ainsi ete etudiees. Les reactions d'oxydation etant des reactions gaz-solide, les vitesses ont ete egalement comparees aux surfaces specifiques B.E.T. des echantillons de graphite etudies et a la repartition par diametres des pores de cette surface. La conclusion est que, meme a ces teneurs faibles en impuretes, la loi de variation de la vitesse de reaction en fonction de la surface est masquee par les impuretes qui paraissent jouer le role de sites privilegies de reaction comme l'ont montre les

  17. Etude d'un procédé d'hydroliquéfaction du charbon pour la production simultanée de gaz et de carburant . . . . . Studies of a Coal Hydrogenation Process to Produce CO-Currently Gas and Gasoline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franckowiak S.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Un des principaux moyens de réintroduire le charbon dans le marché énergétique français est de le transformer en produits utiles comme le gaz de réseau ou les carburants. Les procédés d'oxyvapogazéification permettent d'obtenir un gaz de synthèse qui peut être ensuite converti en gaz riche ou en produits liquides. L'hydrogénation en phase liquide (ou hydroliquéfaction se présente pour le long terme comme une seconde voie qui offre des avantages spécifiques - taux de conversion du charbon et rendement élevés, - production directe de gaz de substitution (GNS et de carburant, - possibilité d'utilisation d'hydrogène provenant de l'électricité nucléaire. Un programme d'étude a été lancé avec la participation du Gaz de France (GDF, du Centre d'études et de recherches des Charbonnages de France (Cerchar, de l'institut Français du Pétrole (lFP et du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS dans le cadre du Groupe d'Étude de la Conversion du Charbon par Hydrogénation (GECH. Un banc d'essai d'hydroliquéfaction situé au Cerchar, d'un débit de 10 kg/h de mélange charbon-solvant, permet d'obtenir des hydrogénats dans des conditions variées et en présence de divers catalyseurs. L'étude de la valorisation de ces hydrogénats est effectuée dans les laboratoires de l'lFP. Les essais et les études effectués permettent d'envisager la production à volonté du GNS, de carburants ou des deux ensemble. Un modèle d'optimisation a été réalisé au GDF pour étudier et comparer les différentes filières en prenant en compte l'utilisation d'hydrogène d'électrolyse ou d'hydrogène produit sur place à partir du résidu de liquéfaction. One of the main ways to bring coal in the future french energy market is to transform it into valuable products. The oxygen steam gasification processes give a synthesis gas which can be converted into SNG or gasoline in a catalytic stage. The liquid phase hydrogenation process is a

  18. Study of new structures adapted to gas-graphite and gas-heavy water reactors; Etude de structures nouvelles adaptees aux reacteurs graphite-gaz et eau lourde-gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, R; Roche, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    'EDF d'une part, les conclusions des etudes et essais effectues hors pile d'autre part, conduisent a un changement considerable de la physionomie des reacteurs de la filiere Graphite-Gaz, Les principales modifications envisagees sont analysees dans la communication. L'adoption d'un element combustible annulaire et d'un soufflage descendant permettront d'accroitre considerablement la puissance specifique et la puissance developpee par canal; il en resultera une reduction sensible du nombre des canaux et un accroissement correlatif de la maille du reseau - L'empilement de graphite devra etre adapte a ces nouvelles conditions - Des raisons de securite conduisent a generaliser l'emploi du beton precontraint pour la construction du caisson; elles pourront amener a integrer a l'interieur de celui-ci les echangeurs et l'appareil de manutention du combustible (dispositif dit: 'en grenier'). Une maquette en vraie grandeur de ce grenier a ete construite a Saclay avec la participation d'EURATOM; les resultats d'exploitation en sont presentes, ainsi que des idees de barres de controle de conception nouvelle. En ce qui concerne la filiere Eau-Lourde-Gaz, les etudes sont poursuivies dans deux voies principales; la premiere, qui conserverait l'usage de tubes de force horizontaux, tient compte de l'experience acquise au cours de la construction du reacteur EL4 dont elle constituerait une extrapolation; la seconde, inspiree des etudes poursuivies au titre de la filiere Graphite-Gaz, ferait appel a un caisson en beton precontraint pour tenir la pression, le moderateur etant sensiblement a la pression du fluide refrigerant et le combustible etant dispose dans des canaux verticaux. Les merites respectifs de ces deux variantes sont analyses dans la communication. (auteurs)

  19. Un nouveau moyen de mesure absolue du taux gazeux des mélanges gaz-liquides : le SMAC A New Absolute Measurement of the Volumetric Gas Ratio of Gas-Liquid Mixture: the Smac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porot P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Du graphe (P, V de la compression d'un mélange gaz-liquide, on peut tirer la valeur du taux volumique de gaz dans le mélange. La vérification théorique et expérimentale de ce principe ainsi que ses limites d'application comme moyen de mesure sont présentées. Ce résultat a été utilisé pour développer un système de mesure de l'aération de l'huile moteur, le SMAC (Système de Mesure d'Aération par Compressibilité. Des exemples d'application, tels que l'étude de la sensibilité de certaines huiles à l'aération, sont exposés. Oil aeration can be a real problem in engine oil circuit. The involved lubrication power decrease and thermic properties changes can damage the engine. Furthermore, the increased compressibility is very dangerous for hydraulic systems like valve lash adjusters. A first step to control this aeration is to be able to measure it. Gammametry is often used but this measurement needs a very precise calibration and is quite complicated and dangerous. A new absolute measurement has been discovered, based on the difference of compressibility between air and oil. It is absolute because the measurement principle is independant of the conditions, The system does not need a new calibration at each new environment. It is valid for any gas-liquid mixture. From the (P, V graph of a gas-liquid mixture compression, one can derive the gas-liquid volumetric ratio. The log-log graph (P/PO, 1-V/VO of a mixture sample pressurization always shows an inflexion point. The y value of this inflexion point (1-V/VO is equal to the volumetric gas ratio of the sample (before compression. This phenomenon is obvious on hydraulic curves (see Annexe 1. To check it, we have proceeded to a theoretical demonstration and an experimental verification. The theoretical demonstration of this principle concludes that the principle is verified as long as the ration P index 0 / alpha B is small. B is the oil bulk modulus, alpha is the volumetric gas ratio

  20. Natural gas news; Gaz actualites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon,

    1998-12-01

    This brochure is a compilation of practical information concerning the Gaz de France group: organization chart, daughter companies, services, economical activity, natural gas market, trade, regulations etc. A list of partners, directions, centres, groups, associations and other various organisms in relation with Gaz de France company is given. (J.S.)

  1. Aspects chimiques de la combustion du charbon pulvérisé. Première partie Chemical Aspects of the Combustion of Pulverized Coal. Part One

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Soete G. G.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available II n'est pas facile de parvenir à une vue complète des multiples phénomènes chimiques dont la flamme de charbon pulvérisé est le siège. La présente étude bibliographique s'efforce de donner plus qu'une juxtaposition des données de la littérature récente, en risquant une tentative de présentation cohérente des mécanismes chimiques clés qui s'affrontent dans cette combustion. Ces mécanismes font intervenir des réactions en phase gazeuse relativement rapides (combustion des produits gazeux de pyrolyse, formation d'oxydes d'azote à partir de l'azote organique ainsi qu'un certain nombre de réactions hétérogènes très importantes (dévolatilisation pyrolysante rapide, oxydation du coke, réduction hétérogène d'oxydes d'azote qui peuvent se dérouler de façon beaucoup plus lente. En ce qui concerne ces dernières, le régime non isotherme, auquel les soumet l'existence de gradients de température dans la flamme industrielle, entraîne souvent des conséquences non négligeables pour le déroulement de ces mécanismes cinétiques complexes : ainsi la quantité et la composition des produits de pyrolyse est fortement tributaire de ces conditions non isothermes. Carrefour de plusieurs mécanismes chimiques complexes, la flamme de charbon est caractérisée chimiquement par un grand nombre de cas de compétition : a compétition entre différentes voies réactionnelles à l'intérieur d'un mécanisme donné ; à titre d'exemple typique : la pyrolyse du charbon ; b compétition entre phénomènes chimiques et physiques, également à l'intérieur d'un même mécanisme, entraînant la transition éventuellement réversible d'un régime cinétique vers un régime diffusionnel, comme c'est le cas dans l'oxydation du coke, avec des conséquences sensibles pour la vitesse réactionnelle globale et sa dépendance par rapport à la température, pouvant même aller jusqu'à l'extinction de la combustion du coke ; c compétition entre

  2. Combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Glassman, Irvin

    1987-01-01

    Combustion, Second Edition focuses on the underlying principles of combustion and covers topics ranging from chemical thermodynamics and flame temperatures to chemical kinetics, detonation, ignition, and oxidation characteristics of fuels. Diffusion flames, flame phenomena in premixed combustible gases, and combustion of nonvolatile fuels are also discussed. This book consists of nine chapters and begins by introducing the reader to heats of reaction and formation, free energy and the equilibrium constants, and flame temperature calculations. The next chapter explores the rates of reactio

  3. Gaz de France. Operation note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This note was published for the public at the occasion of the admission to Euronext's Eurolist of the existing shares that make the capital of Gaz de France company, the French gas utility. The note gives some informations about Gaz de France activity, and about its strategy of development in the European gas market. Then it describes the offer relative to the opening of Gaz de France capital. Some selected financial data and some precision about the risk factors and the management of the company complete the document. (J.S.)

  4. Techniques de combustion Combustin Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perthuis E.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'efficacité d'un processus de chauffage par flamme est étroitement liée à la maîtrise des techniques de combustion. Le brûleur, organe essentiel de l'équipement de chauffe, doit d'une part assurer une combustion complète pour utiliser au mieux l'énergie potentielle du combustible et, d'autre part, provoquer dans le foyer les conditions aérodynamiques les plus propices oux transferts de chaleur. En s'appuyant sur les études expérimentales effectuées à la Fondation de Recherches Internationales sur les Flammes (FRIF, au Groupe d'Étude des Flammes de Gaz Naturel (GEFGN et à l'Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP et sur des réalisations industrielles, on présente les propriétés essentielles des flammes de diffusion aux combustibles liquides et gazeux obtenues avec ou sans mise en rotation des fluides, et leurs répercussions sur les transferts thermiques. La recherche des températures de combustion élevées conduit à envisager la marche à excès d'air réduit, le réchauffage de l'air ou son enrichissement à l'oxygène. Par quelques exemples, on évoque l'influence de ces paramètres d'exploitation sur l'économie possible en combustible. The efficiency of a flame heating process is closely linked ta the mastery of, combustion techniques. The burner, an essential element in any heating equipment, must provide complete combustion sa as to make optimum use of the potential energy in the fuel while, at the same time, creating the most suitable conditions for heat transfers in the combustion chamber. On the basis of experimental research performed by FRIF, GEFGN and IFP and of industrial achievements, this article describesthe essential properties of diffusion flames fed by liquid and gaseous fuels and produced with or without fluid swirling, and the effects of such flames on heat transfers. The search for high combustion temperatures means that consideration must be given to operating with reduced excess air, heating the air or

  5. Modélisation et analyse exergetique d'un système de gazéification des résidus de bois en vue de la production d'électricité

    OpenAIRE

    Razanajatovo , Tahiry Landry; Morau , Dominique; Rakotondramiarana , Hery Tiana

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Cette étude s'est focalisée sur l'opportunité de l'utilisation des ressources renouvelables, comme le bois, dans le domaine énergétique. La modélisation de chaque étape de transformation de l'énergie des résidus bois en électricité est présentée : transformation du bois en gaz de synthèse par le biais d'un gazogène – conversion de l'énergie calorifique du syngaz en énergie mécanique par l'utilisation d'un moteur à combustion interne – conversion de l'énergie mécanique ...

  6. Combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Glassman, Irvin

    2008-01-01

    Combustion Engineering, a topic generally taught at the upper undergraduate and graduate level in most mechanical engineering programs, and many chemical engineering programs, is the study of rapid energy and mass transfer usually through the common physical phenomena of flame oxidation. It covers the physics and chemistry of this process and the engineering applications-from the generation of power such as the internal combustion automobile engine to the gas turbine engine. Renewed concerns about energy efficiency and fuel costs, along with continued concerns over toxic and particulate emissions have kept the interest in this vital area of engineering high and brought about new developments in both fundamental knowledge of flame and combustion physics as well as new technologies for flame and fuel control. *New chapter on new combustion concepts and technologies, including discussion on nanotechnology as related to combustion, as well as microgravity combustion, microcombustion, and catalytic combustion-all ...

  7. Influence of the heat flux and of the gas on heat transfer and friction coefficients in a smooth cylindrical tube; Influence du flux de chaleur et de la nature du gaz sur les coefficients d'echange et le frottement dans un tube cylindrique lisse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delpont, J P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-12-15

    paroi peut atteindre 430 deg C, le flux de chaleur atteignant 16 watts/cm{sup 2}. Les nombres de Reynolds Re{sub m}, de Margoulis M{sub m} et le coefficient de frottement f sont calcules en evaluant les proprietes physiques du gaz a la temperature moyenne T{sub m}. Pour un nombre de Reynolds Re{sub m} donne, on observe une diminution de M{sub m} et de f lorsque le flux de chaleur augmente: elle peut atteindre 10 pour cent dans les essais presentes. Une formulation est proposee qui permet de traduire cet effet au moyen d'un parametre de flux (T{sub m} - T{sub m}) / T{sub p} utilise comme terme correctif (T{sub p} = temperature de la paroi). Les formules de correlation proposees sont: M{sub m} = 0,0168 Re{sub m}{sup -0,18} P{sub m}{sup -0,6} (1 - 0,4 [(T{sub p} - T{sub m}) / T{sub p}]) pour l'air f = f{sub 0} (1 - 0,25 [(T{sub p} - T{sub m}) / T{sub p}]) pour l'air M{sub m} 0,0171 Re{sub m}{sup -0,18} P{sub m}{sup -0,6} (1 - 0,2 [(T{sub p} - T{sub m}) / T{sub p}]) pour le CO{sub 2} f = f{sub 0} (1 - 0,20 [(T{sub p} - T{sub m}) / T{sub p}]) pour le gaz carbonique avec f{sub 0} coefficient de frottement en ecoulement isotherme. (auteur)

  8. Study of the aqueous chemical treatment of uranium zirconium fuels; Etude du traitement chimique des combustibles uraniumzirconium par voie seche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeois, M; Nollet, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    A dry process has been studied for separating the uranium from the zirconium-either for recovering the enriched uranium from fuel element production waste, or with a view to treating this waste after irradiation. In this process the alloy is treated with hydrochloric acid at 400 deg. C in a fluidized corundum bed which causes the zirconium to volatilize as tetrachloride and the uranium to form the trichloride. This latter is then converted to the hexafluoride by attack with fluorure. After the laboratory tests, a first pilot plant with a capacity of 1 kg of alloy was tried out at the Fontenay-aux-Roses Nuclear Research Centre; this made it possible to fix the operational conditions for the process. An industrial scale plant was then built with the collaboration of the from Kuhlmann, and operated until a satisfactory process had been developed for treating the waste. This installation treats 3 kg/h of alloy with a yield for the hydrochloric acid of about 50 per cent and with a uranium loss in the zirconium tetrachloride of about 0.1 per cent. An active pilot plant capable of treating of treating a few kilos of irradiated alloy is now being studied. (authors) [French] On a etudie un procede de voie seche pour effectuer la separation de l'uranium et du zirconium - soit en vue de la recuperation de l'uranium enrichi contenu dans les dechets de fabrication des elements combustibles - soit en vue du traitement de ceux-ci apres irradiation. Ce procede consiste a attaquer l'alliage par l'acide chlorhydrique a 400 deg. C dans un lit fluidise de corindon, ce qui a pour effet de volatiliser le zirconium sous forme de tetrachlorure et de transformer l'uranium en trichlorure. Ce dernier est ensuite converti en hexafluorure par action du fluor. Apres des essais de laboratoire, un premier pilote a l'echelle de 1 kg d'alliage a ete experimente au Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses et a permis de determiner les conditions operatoires du procede. En collaboration avec

  9. Gaz de France. Source document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document was issued by Gaz de France, the French gas utility, at the occasion of the opening of the capital of the company. It is intended to shareholders and presents some informations relative to the stocks admitted to Euronext's Eurolist, some general informations about the company and its capital, some informations about the activities of Gaz de France group, about its financial situation and results, about its management, and about its recent evolution and future perspectives. (J.S.)

  10. Incineration/vitrification of radioactive wastes and combustion of pyrolysis gases in thermal plasmas; Incineration/vitrification de dechets radioactifs et combustion de gaz de pyrolyse en plasma d`arc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girold, Ch. [CEA de la Vallee du Rhone, Departement de Retraitement des Dechets et du Demantelemnet, 30 - Marcoule (France)]|[Limoges Univ., 87 (France)

    1997-03-01

    Two thermal plasma processes used for incineration of radioactive technological wastes (cellulose, plastics, rubber...) have been investigated. First, the different types of radioactive wastes are presented, with a special attention to those which may benefit from a high temperature thermal treatment. The most significant thermal plasma processes, suitable for this goal, are described. Then, the author deals with the post-combustion, in an oxygen plasma jet reactor, of gases from burnable radioactive waste pyrolysis. An experimental planning method as been used to evaluate the combustion performances in the reactor, with a wide range of gas composition and running parameters such as oxygen excess and electrical power. The results of a modeling of kinetics, based on 116 chemicals reactions between 25 species, are compared with experimental values. Finally, an oxygen plasma reactor where the arc is transferred on a basalt melt is experimented. The efficiency of the combustion and the homogeneity of the glass are discussed. The volatility of some glass elements and tracers added to the wastes is also approached in two different ways: by post-trial material balance and by an optical emission spectroscopic method. The author built a diagnostic method that allows the following versus time of the metallic vapours above the melt. (author) 51 refs.

  11. Combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Glassman, Irvin

    1997-01-01

    This Third Edition of Glassman's classic text clearly defines the role of chemistry, physics, and fluid mechanics as applied to the complex topic of combustion. Glassman's insightful introductory text emphasizes underlying physical and chemical principles, and encompasses engine technology, fire safety, materials synthesis, detonation phenomena, hydrocarbon fuel oxidation mechanisms, and environmental considerations. Combustion has been rewritten to integrate the text, figures, and appendixes, detailing available combustion codes, making it not only an excellent introductory text but also an important reference source for professionals in the field. Key Features * Explains complex combustion phenomena with physical insight rather than extensive mathematics * Clarifies postulates in the text using extensive computational results in figures * Lists modern combustion programs indicating usage and availability * Relates combustion concepts to practical applications.

  12. Theory of high frequency discharge in gases under low pressures. Experimental investigation of high-frequency type ion sources; Theorie de la decharge haute frequence dans les gaz aux faibles pressions. Etude experimentale des sources d'ions du type haute frequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmon, Jean

    1955-03-02

    The first part of this research thesis addresses the theory of high frequency discharge in gases under low pressures, and first proposes a calculation of the distribution function for electrons present within the gas. The author then studies the evolution of electron density within a discharge tube by assigning the governing role in electron multiplication to the secondary emission of tube walls. The second part proposes a detailed description of a source operating at 96.5 Mc/s, a discussion of measurements performed on this source, and the search for a theoretical explanation of some of its properties. The author then briefly analyses various existing types of high frequency sources, and finally discusses their use in corpuscular microscopy and in particle accelerators [French] La presente these comprend deux parties. La premiere est consacree a la theorie de la decharge haute frequence dans les gaz aux faibles pressions et comporte tout d'abord le calcul de la fonction de distribution des electrons presents au sein du gaz. Nous etudions ensuite l'evolution de la densite electronique a l'interieur d'un tube a decharge en attribuant, a l'emission secondaire des parois de ce dernier, le role essentiel dans la multiplicalion des electrons. Nous obtenons ainsi les conditions d'amorcage. Tout au long de cette etude, on doit distinguer soigneusement le cas ou le libre parcours moyen des electrons dans le gaz est inferieur aux dimensions de l'enceinte et le cas ou il leur est superieur. La deuxieme partie comprend la description detaillee d'une source fonctionnant sur 96.5 Mc/s, l'expose des mesures effectuees sur celle-ci et la recherche d'une explication theorique de certaines de ses proprietes. Nous faisons ensuite une breve analyse des divers types de sources d'ions haute frequence existant a l'heure actuelle et nous terminons en traitant de leur utilisation en microscopie corpusculaire et dans les accelerateurs de particules.

  13. Thermally accurate LES of the stability-emission performance of staged gas-turbine combustion; Simulation aux grandes echelles de la combustion etagee dans les turbines a gaz et son interaction stabilite-polluants-thermique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, P.

    2005-06-15

    Modern gas turbines use turbulent lean partially premixed combustion in order to minimise nitrous oxide (NO{sub X}) emissions while ensuring flashback safety. The Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) of such a device is the goal of this work. Focus is laid on correctly predicting the NO{sub X} emissions, which are influenced by four factors: heat transfer, mixing quality, combustion modelling and thermo-acoustic stability. As NO{sub X} reaction rates are strongly influenced by temperature, heat transfer by radiation and convection is included. Radiation is predicted by a model, which assumes that the gases are optically thin. Convective heat transfer is included via a newly developed and validated wall-function approach based on the logarithmic law of the wall for temperature. An optimised 2-step reduced chemical reaction scheme for lean methane combustion is presented. This scheme is used for the LES in conjunction with an additional third reaction, fitted to produce the same NO{sub X} reaction rates as in the complete reaction mechanism. Turbulence is accounted for with the thickened flame model in a form, which is optimised for changing equivalence ratios and mesh-resolutions. Mixing is essential not only for predicting flame stabilisation, but also for pollutant emissions as NO{sub X} reaction rates depend exponentially on equivalence ratio. Therefore the full burner geometry, including 16 fuel injections is resolved in LES. Additionally, effusion cooling and film cooling is accounted for in a simplified manner. The non-reacting flow is extensively validated with experimental results. As mixture-fraction fluctuations do not only arise from turbulence, but also from thermo-acoustic instabilities, care was taken to provide acoustic boundary conditions that come close to reality. The resulting LES shows a strong thermo-acoustic instability, comparing well with experimental observations. By making the boundaries completely anechoic it is shown that when the instability

  14. Starting up a programme of atomic piles using compressed gas; Le demarrage d'un programme de piles atomiques a gaz comprime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horowitz, J; Yvon, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    1) An examination of the intellectual and material resources which have directed the French programme towards: a) the natural uranium and plutonium system, b) the use of compressed gas as heat transfer fluid (primary fluid). 2) The parts played in exploring the field by the pile EL2 and G1, EL2 a natural uranium, heavy water and compressed gas pile, G1 a natural uranium, graphite and atmospheric air pile. 3) Development of the neutronics of graphite piles: physical study of G1. 4) The examination of certain problem posed by centres equipped with natural uranium, graphite and compressed carbon dioxide piles: structure, special materials, fluid circuits, maximum efficiency. Economic aspects. 5) Aids to progress: a) piles for testing materials and for tests on canned fuel elements, b) laboratory and calculation facilities. 6) Possible new orientations of compressed gas piles: a) raising of the pressure, b) enriched fuel, c) higher temperatures, d) use of heavy water. (author) [French] 1) Examen des ressources - intellectuelles et materielles - qui ont oriente le programme fran is vers: a) la voie de l'uranium naturel et du plutonium; b) l'emploi comme fluide pour le transfert de la chaleur (fluide primaire) d'un gaz comprime. 2) Le role d'exploration des piles EL2 et G1, EL2 pile a uranium naturel, eau lourde et gaz comprime, G1 pile a uranium naturel, graphite et air atmospherique. 3) Developpement de la neutronique des piles a graphite: l'etude physique de G1. 4) Examen de certains problemes poses par les centrales equipees de piles a uranium naturel, graphite et gaz carbonique comprime: structure, materiaux speciaux, circuits de fluides, optimisation. Aspects economiques. 5) Les auxiliaires du progres: a) piles pour essai de materiaux et pour essais de cartouches, b) moyens de laboratoire et moyens de calcul. 6) Orientations nouvelles possibles des piles a gaz comprime: a) elevation de la pression, b) combustible enrichi, c) temperatures elevees, d) emploi de l

  15. Economical and geopolitical aspects bond to the foreseen development of the natural gas in an open market; Aspects economiques et geopolitiques lies au developpement prevu du gaz naturel dans un marche ouvert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-15

    For the first time in 2000, the part of natural gas is equal to those of coal in the world energy accounting. The economy and the geo-policy of this developing energy is analyzed, showing an economy dominated by the transport costs, the specificity of the european sector and the opening market since 1980. The european market opening incertitudes and opportunities are detailed. In conclusion the Gaz De France role in the european energy pole and the new regulations are discussed. (A.L.B.)

  16. General design and main problems of a gas-heavy-water power reactor contained in a pressure vessel; Conception generale et principaux problemes d'un reacteur de puissance eau lourde-gaz contenu dans un caisson resistant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roche, R; Gaudez, J C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    In the framework of research carried out on a CO{sub 2}-cooled power reactor moderated by heavy water, the so-called 'pressure vessel' solution involves the total integration of the core, of the primary circuit (exchanges and blowers) and of the fuel handling machine inside a single, strong, sealed vessel made of pre-stressed concrete. A vertical design has been chosen: the handling 'attic' is placed above the core, the exchanges being underneath. This solution makes it possible to standardize the type of reactor which is moderated by heavy-water or graphite and cooled by a downward stream of carbon dioxide gas; it has certain advantages and disadvantages with respect to the pressure tube solution and these are considered in detail in this report. Extrapolation presents in particular.problems due specifically to the heavy water (for example its cooling,its purification, the balancing of the pressures of the heavy water and of the gas, the assembling of the internal structures, the height of the attic, etc. (authors) [French] Dans le cadre des etudes d'un reacteur de puissance modere a l'eau lourde et refroidi-au gaz carbonique, la solution dite 'en caisson' consiste en une integration totale du coeur, du circuit primaire (echangeurs et soufflantes) et du dispositif de manutention du combustible a l'interieur d'un meme caisson etanche et resistant en beton precontraint. La disposition envisagee est verticale; le grenier de manutention est dispose au-dessus du coeur, les echangeurs en dessous. Cette solution, qui permet d'uniformiser les types de reacteurs moderes a l'eau lourde ou au graphite et refroidis par une circulation descendante de gaz carbonique presente, par rapport a la solution a tube de force, des avantages et des inconvenients qui sont analyses dans cette etude. L'extrapolation pose, en particulier, des problemes specifiques a l'eau lourde (tels que son refroidissement, son epuration, l'equilibrage des pression entre l'eau lourde et le gaz, le montage

  17. General design and main problems of a gas-heavy-water power reactor contained in a pressure vessel; Conception generale et principaux problemes d'un reacteur de puissance eau lourde-gaz contenu dans un caisson resistant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roche, R.; Gaudez, J.C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    In the framework of research carried out on a CO{sub 2}-cooled power reactor moderated by heavy water, the so-called 'pressure vessel' solution involves the total integration of the core, of the primary circuit (exchanges and blowers) and of the fuel handling machine inside a single, strong, sealed vessel made of pre-stressed concrete. A vertical design has been chosen: the handling 'attic' is placed above the core, the exchanges being underneath. This solution makes it possible to standardize the type of reactor which is moderated by heavy-water or graphite and cooled by a downward stream of carbon dioxide gas; it has certain advantages and disadvantages with respect to the pressure tube solution and these are considered in detail in this report. Extrapolation presents in particular.problems due specifically to the heavy water (for example its cooling,its purification, the balancing of the pressures of the heavy water and of the gas, the assembling of the internal structures, the height of the attic, etc. (authors) [French] Dans le cadre des etudes d'un reacteur de puissance modere a l'eau lourde et refroidi-au gaz carbonique, la solution dite 'en caisson' consiste en une integration totale du coeur, du circuit primaire (echangeurs et soufflantes) et du dispositif de manutention du combustible a l'interieur d'un meme caisson etanche et resistant en beton precontraint. La disposition envisagee est verticale; le grenier de manutention est dispose au-dessus du coeur, les echangeurs en dessous. Cette solution, qui permet d'uniformiser les types de reacteurs moderes a l'eau lourde ou au graphite et refroidis par une circulation descendante de gaz carbonique presente, par rapport a la solution a tube de force, des avantages et des inconvenients qui sont analyses dans cette etude. L'extrapolation pose, en particulier, des problemes specifiques a l'eau lourde (tels que son refroidissement, son epuration

  18. Dosage of plutonium by isotopic dilution in irradiated fuels; Dosage du plutonium par dilution isotopique dans les combustibles irradies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    Plutonium determination in irradiated fuels has been carried out for several years by isotopic dilution by Sebaci and SSM in collaboration. SECACI has made available to the SSM the necessary space and equipment in its Fontenay laboratories. This work has shown the importance of the valency cycle which should make it possible to obtain a uniform isotopic distribution in sample tracer mixtures, and also a satisfactory U/Pu separation. Now it has been noticed that the presence of an excess of uranium considerably modifies the oxidation-reduction reaction kinetics of the plutonium. We have therefore been led to change certain parts of the operational technique so as to have an efficient cycle and to thereby improve the U/Pu separation; the stability of the thermionic emission of the plutonium, connected to the quantity of residual uranium, has at the same time been improved and we can now carry out more precise isotopic analyses. We have also tried to eliminate as far as possible the isotopic contaminations by:using a more rational operational method; the equipment used has been the object of a special study. The evaporations are carried out so as to prevent the formation of saturated vapours inside the glove box. The material which cannot be changed after each operation is carefully cleaned every time a new sample is treated. With this technique, a second calibration of the tracer T{sub 2} has been undertaken using a new standard solution. This solution has been prepared very carefully by weighing uranium and plutonium of known chemical purity, and we believe that it can be guaranteed to be a good reference solution. The value of the {sup 233}U/{sup 242}Pu ratio of the tracer has been obtained with a relative accuracy of 0,5 per cent. This modified method is now being applied to the analysis of rods irradiated in G-3. (author) [French] La determination du plutonium par dilution isotopique dans les combustibles irradies est pratiquee depuis plusieurs annees en

  19. 3d Modeling of Combustion for Di-Si Engines Modélisation 3D de la combustion dans les moteurs à injection directe d'essence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duclos J. P.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Direct injection of gasoline is a promising concept to reduce fuel consumption of SI engines. The development of GDI engines is difficult and 3D CFD is a way to support its design. It requires models able to describe the spray and its evaporation and combustion. This paper presents a model, the ECFM, that enables to compute combustion for stratified load in the GDI engines. This model is a development of the Coherent Flame Model which includes thermal expansion effects, and is coupled with a burnt/unburnt gases conditionnal thermodynamic properties description. The model is validated by comparing measurements and computations on the GDI Mitsubishi engine in production. L'injection directe d'essence (IDE est un concept prometteur pour les moteurs à allumage commandé. La mise au point de ce type de moteur est néanmoins délicate, et le calcul 3D des chambres de combustion est un moyen d'aider à leur conception. Ceci nécessite cependant de disposer de modèles adaptés, à même de décrire le jet d'essence, son évaporation et la combustion du mélange créé. Cet article présente un modèle ECFM de simulation de la combustion dans les moteurs IDE, y compris en fonctionnement stratifié. C'est un développement du modèle flamme cohérente qui comprend des effets d'expansion thermique et est couplé avec une description conditionnelle gaz frais/gaz brûlés des grandeurs thermodynamiques. Ce modèle a été validé par rapprochement de mesures et simulations sur le moteur GDI Mitsubishi.

  20. Récupération du platine contenu dans les piles à combustible basse température par voie hydrométallurgique Platinum Recovery from used PEMFC by hydrometallurgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Denis

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available La récupération du platine contenu dans la couche catalytique des piles à combustible est nécessaire pour viabiliser cette technologie vers le secteur industriel. Dans cette étude la voie purement hydrométallurgique a été privilégiée au procédé de récupération pyrométallurgique, évitant la destruction des autres constituants de la pile (membrane, … et limitant la formation de gaz toxique. Le procédé mise en œuvre est constitué d'une étape de lixiviation à partir d'un mélange HCl/HNO3, suivie par la précipitation d'un sel de platine (NH42PtCl6 pouvant soit servir à la synthèse d'un nouveau catalyseur soit à l'obtention de platine métallique. Sur l'ensemble de la chaîne un rendement de récupération de plus de 80 % a pu être obtenu mettant en avant le potentiel de cette stratégie. The recovery of platinum in the catalyst layers of PEMFCs (proton exchange membrane fuel cells is required to allow a transfer in industry. In this study, hydrometallurgical route was preferred to pyrometallurgical process, reducing both the destruction of the other components of the cell (membrane, … and the formation of hazardous gas. In this work, the process includes a leaching step from a diluted aqua regia solution, followed by a precipitation step of platinum under the (NH42PtCl6 form. This salt can be used either for the synthesis of a new catalyst or to obtain a metallic platinum. Considering these steps the recovery efficiency has been found to be over 80 %, which bring out the potential of this strategy.

  1. Simplified theory of gas-jet pumps and experimental verification; Theorie simplifiee des trompes a gaz et verification experimentale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costes, D [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    With a view to using the gas-jet pump in the fuel-study loops of gas reactors, a theory is developed for an unidimensional mixer, applicable to the case of low compression ratios in the induced current. This theory makes it possible to optimize the diameter of the mixer if the pressure-drop coefficient {alpha} of the mixer is known with respect to the induced current. An experimental study has made it possible to define the geometry suitable for such pumps, and to provide a remarkably constant value of {alpha} for the economically advantageous designs; this makes it possible to define simply the geometry of the optimized pump as a function of the geometry of the circuit in use, and independently of the flow-rate conditions. (author) [French] Dans le but d'utiliser la pompe a jet (ou trompe) dans des boucles d'etude de combustible des piles a gaz, on etablit une theorie du melangeur unidimensionnel, applicable dans la cas des faibles rapports de compression dans le courant induit. Cette theorie permet l'optimisation du diametre de melangeur, moyennant la connaissance du coefficient {alpha} de pertes de charge de celui-ci, relativement au courant induit. Une recherche experimentale a permis de preciser la geometrie a adopter dans de telles pompes, et fourni pour {alpha} une valeur remarquablement constante dans les configurations economiquement interessantes, ce qui permet de definir simplement la geometrie de la pompe optimisee en fonction de la geometrie du circuit d'utilisation et independamment des conditions de debit. (auteur)

  2. Project of law relative to the electricity and gas public utilities and to the power and gas companies; Projet de loi relatif au service public de l'electricite et du gaz et aux entreprises electriques et gazieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This document is the definitive text of this project of law adopted by the French house of commons. The aim of this law is to allow the administrations to avoid to use their eligibility right with the opening of the electricity and gas markets to competition. It changes the juridical status of the two public utilities Electricite de France (EdF) and Gaz de France (GdF) into two anonymous companies and creates two additional companies for the management of the power and gas networks. It ensures also the transposition of the European directives from June 26, 2003 (2003/54/CE and 2003/55/CE). It contains some proper dispositions and modifies various existing French laws, in particular the law no. 46-628 from April 8, 1946 about the electricity and gas nationalization and the law no. 2000-108 from February 10, 2000 relative to the modernization and development of the electric public utility. (J.S.)

  3. Simulation numérique du transfert de chaleur dans un moteur-fusée à propergol liquide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. KHELIDJ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ce travail est une contribution à l'étude du refroidissement d'un moteur-fusée à propergol liquide. En effet pour protéger la paroi de la chambre propulsive, un système de refroidissement est nécessaire, car la température des gaz de combustion du propergol liquide dans la chambre de combustion, est très élevée. C'est pour montrer l'intérêt du refroidissement de la paroi de la chambre propulsive qu'une étude de simulation numérique, des phénomènes de combustion et de refroidissement dans la chambre propulsive, a été réalisée en régime permanent à l'aide du code de calcul Fluent. Les résultats de simulation, notamment ceux relatifs aux températures des parois le long de la chambre propulsive ont été confrontés à ceux trouvés dans la littérature.

  4. Les recherches menées par le Gaz de France dans le domaine de l'hydrogène Research on Hydrogen by Gaz de France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donat G.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les besoins en énergie de l'humanité allant croissant et les ressources en combustibles de la Terre étant obligatoirement limitées, le temps viendra où la demande en hydrocarbures excédera la capacité mondiale de production; cette situation s'aggravera encore ultérieurement du fait de l'épuisement des réserves récupérables. Un recours massif aux énergies nucléaire et solaire semble donc indispensable et l'utilisation de l'hydrogène comme vecteur de ces énergies retient depuis quelques années l'attention, notamment en France où les ressources propres en pétrole sont faibles. Le Gaz de France a entrepris des recherches sur la production massive de l'hydrogène par décomposition de l'eau et vient de parvenir à des conclusions pessimistes quant à la compétitivité, par rapport à la voie électrolytique, de la filière utilisant des cycles thermochimiques. Par contre, l'électrolyse de l'eau offre des perspectives intéressantes à condition d'améliorer ses performances et son économie. D'autre part, des études concernant le stockage et le transport de l'hydrogène ont permis d'ores et déjà de tirer quelques conclusions dans ces domaines où les vecteurs gazeux disposent d'excellents atouts. With the increasing energy needs of mankind and the earth's necessarily limited resources of fuel, the time will come when the demand for hydrocarbons will exceed the world production capacity. This situation will subsequently get even worse becouse of the depletion of recoverable reserves. Massive recourse ta nuclear and solar energy thus appears indispensable, and the use of hydrogen as a vector for such energies has been under consideration for several years, especially in France where petroleum resources are very limited. Gaz de France has been doing research on the mass production of hydrogen by the decomposition of water and has just come ta rather pessimistic conclusions as ta the competitiveness of thermochemical processes in

  5. Burnup determination of power reactor fuel elements by gamma spectrometry; Determination par spectrometrie {gamma} du taux d'irradiation des elements combustibles des reacteurs de puissance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin, M; Jastrzeb, M; Boisliveau, S; Boyer, R; Vidal, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    This report describes a method for determining by {gamma} spectrometry the burn up and the specific power of fuel elements irradiated in power reactors. The energy spectrum of {gamma} rays emitted by fission products is measured by means of a simple equipment using a sodium iodide detector and a multichannel analyzer. In order to extract from the spectrum a quantity proportional to the burn up, it is necessary to: - isolate an activity specific of one emitter,- give the same importance to fissions in uranium and plutonium - take into account the radioactive decay during and after irradiation. One hundred fuel elements were studied and burn up values obtained by {gamma} spectrometry are compared to results given by chemical analyses. Preliminary measurements show that the accuracy of the results is greatly increased by the use of a germanium detector, due to its good resolution. (authors) [French] Ce rapport expose une methode de determination par spectrometrie {gamma} du taux d'irradiation et de la puissance specifique des elements combustibles irradies dans les reacteurs de puissance. Une installation simple utilisant un detecteur d'iodure de sodium et un selecteur multicanaux mesure le spectre en energie du rayonnement {gamma} emis par les produits de fission. Afin d'extraire du spectre une quantite proportionnelle au taux de combustion, il faut: - isoler une activite specifique a un emetteur, - donner la meme importance aux fissions survenues dans l'uranium et le plutonium, - prendre en compte la decroissance radioactive pendant et apres l'irradiation. Les mesures ont porte sur une centaine d'elements combustibles et les taux de combustion obtenus par spectrometrie {gamma} sont compares aux resultats des analyses chimiques. Des mesures preliminaires montrent que l'utilisation d'un detecteur de germanium augmente considerablement la precision des resultats, en raison de son excellente resolution. (auteurs)

  6. Seminar on the news energy utilization in rural area of April 3 to March 24 , 1980 in Reo, Upper Volta[Energie renouvelable ; Zone rurale ; Gaz biologique ; Energie solaire ; Sechoir solaire]; Seminaire sur l'utilisation des energies nouvelles en zone rurale du 24 mars au3 avril 1980 a Reo, Haute Volta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-04-15

    volume of transport much more reduced. Mastering these new technologies will help fight efficiently against desertification, and fruits and vegetables rotting. [French] L'acces a l'energie par toutes les populations reste une des preoccupations du Gouvernement de Haute Volta (Burkina Faso). C'est ainsi que sous l'egide de la Communaute Economique de l Afrique de l'Ouest (CEAO), de l'Agence Canadienne de Developpement International et du Mouvement Scout, un seminaire sur l'utilisation des energies renouvelables en zone rurale y a ete organise. Il s'agit pour les participants venus de plusieurs pays, d'apprendre a mettre en pratique, l'utilisation des energies nouvelles telles la cuisiniere a feu ferme, le gaz biologique, le chauffe- eau solaire et le sechoir solaire. L'adoption de ces nouvelles sources d'energie par les populations permettrait de pallier les problemes de desertification lies au deboisement intensif dans le pays. Tous les participants a cette rencontre sont donc sensibilises pour qu'ils apportent leur contribution et celle des populations de leurs terroirs respectifs pour une meilleure conservation des ressources naturelles disponibles. Cela passe aussi par la construction de cuisinieres a feu ferme qui permettent d'avoir deux sources d'energie. Ce type de foyer est d'une construction facile et utilisable seulement trois jours apres. Il permet d'eviter la perte d'energie qui caracterisait le foyer traditionnel (pres de 95% de perte d'energie) ; ce qui revient a consommer moins de bois tout en assurant un rendement de l'ordre de 60 a 70%. Il s'est agi pour les participants aux travaux de s'initier a l'installation de gaz suivant des modeles chinois et indien . Ils ont donc ete inities a la realisation des technologies de production de gaz biologique a travers la maitrise du schema de principe du procede de fermentation discontinue. De meme, ils ont acquis le savoir- faire sur les techniques de mise en place du chauffe- eau solaire par insolateur et du

  7. Fission gas pressure build-up and fast-breeder economy; Accumulation de la pression des gaz de fission et economie des reacteurs surgenerateurs a neutrons rapides; Nakoplenie davleniya gazov produktov deleniya i ehkonomika reaktorov-razmnozhitelej na bystrykh nejtronakh; Aumento de la presion de los gases de fision y economia de los reactores reproductores rapidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelmann, P [Kernforschungszentrum, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1962-03-15

    Fuel-cycle costs and doubling time of fast-breeder reactors are strongly affected by the fuel-burn-up obtainable. Use of oxide or carbide fuel offers the possibility of reaching a burn-up of 100 000 MWd/t. In fuel-clad elements, a limiting factor is the fission-gas-pressure build-up. At the high burn-up considered, an appreciable fraction of the fission gases gets into the pores and thus contributes to the pressure on the can. Starting from the known fission-product yields and decay chains, gas production and pressure build-up have been calculated. Three physical models have been employed in calculating the pressure acting upon the can : the gas is contained either in interconnected pores, in separate pores, or in a central hole. The pressure-dependence upon free volume (fuel density) and temperature will be discussed. Cans made of high-strength materials as Ineonel-X and molybdenum could stand the fission-gas pressure at operating temperatures. Unfortunately, these materials have higher absorption cross-sections than stainless steel. Results of a multi-group calculation are given, showing the effect of using these can materials and of decreasing the fuel density on critical mass and breeding ratio in small and medium-size breeders. (author) [French] Le cout du cycle de combustible et la periode de doublement des reacteurs surgenerateurs a neutrons rapides dependent etroitement du taux de combustion. En utilisant pour combustible un oxyde ou un carbure, on peut atteindre un taux de combustion de 100 000 MW j/t. Avec des combustibles gaines, l'accumulation de la pression des gaz de fission est un facteur limitatif. Pour le fort taux de combustion envisage, une fraction non negligeable des gaz de fission penetre dans les interstices et contribue ainsi a la pression sur la gaine. A partir des rendements en produits de fission et des chaines de desintegration connus, l'auteur a calcule la production de gaz et l'accumulation de pression. Pour calculer la pression

  8. New results concerning the behaviour of fission gases in in-pile UO{sub 2} at high temperatures; Resultats nouveaux sur le comportement des gaz de fission a haute temperature dans l'UO{sub 2} en pile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soulhier, R; Schurenkamper, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The authors consider in the first part the various phenomena giving rise to the production of fission gases towards the exterior of nuclear fuels. The following aspects are dealt with: diffusion, for which is considered the influence of the predecessors of the radioactive gases, the fission recoil, atom expulsion along the fission paths and the evaporation. In the second part the authors present the results obtained on UO{sub 2} samples subjected to irradiation at temperatures of between 150 and 2000 deg C: - At low temperatures the variation of the amount produced as a function of the half-life of the isotopes studied shows that recoil is hot the only cause of gas production. - Above 1800 deg C, a weight loss by evaporation has been observed and the influence of this phenomenon on gas liberation has been studied; thus the fraction of {sup 135}Xe liberated at 2000 deg C by processes other than evaporation is of the order of 10 per cent. - The influence of the various mechanism on the overall effect as a function of temperature is discussed. (authors) [French] Dans une premiere partie, les auteurs etudient les differents phenomenes pouvant donner lieu au degagement des gaz de fission hors d'un combustible. Sont traites successivement: la diffusion, pour laquelle on discute l'influence des predecesseurs des gaz radioactifs, le recul de fission, l'expulsion des atomes le long des trajets de fission et l'evaporation. Dans une deuxieme partie ils exposent les resultats obtenus sur des echantillons d'UO{sub 2} portes sous irradiation a des temperatures comprises entre 150 deg C et 2000 deg C: - A basse temperature la variation de la quantite degagee suivant la periode des isotopes etudies montre que le recul n'est pas la seule cause du degagement des gaz. - Au-dessus de 1800 deg C on a note une perte de poids par evaporation et on a evalue l'influence de ce phenomene sur la liberation des gaz: ainsi la fraction du {sup 135}Xe liberee a 2000 deg C par d'autres processus

  9. Contribution to the study of the desorption of fission gases formed in irradiated uranium oxide; Contribution a l'etude de la desorption des gaz de fission formes dans l'oxyde d'uranium irradie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, J -L; Darras, R; Roger, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1966-09-01

    The release of {sup 133}Xe from irradiated UO{sub 2} has been studied in the temperature range 1300 to 1900 deg C, using various monocrystalline or sintered samples. Up to 1600 deg C, this release is proportional to the square root of the time and thus occurs essentially by diffusion. The apparent diffusion constant D' decreases and the activation energy of the corresponding process increases as the integrated neutron flux received by the fuel increases. As the density of the sintered samples decreases however, the activation energy of the release also decreases, so that the difference between D' values for sintered samples of different densities decreases as the temperature rises. Finally, above 1600 deg C, the fission gas release phenomenon is governed by UO{sub 2} evaporation, and all the different types of oxide studied have similar behaviors, characterized by poor retention of these gases. (authors) [French] La desorption du xenon 133 forme dans le bioxyde d'uranium irradie a ete etudiee dans l'intervalle de 1300 a 1900 C, a l'aide de differents echantillons monocristallins ou frittes. Jusqu'a 1600 C, elle s'effectue proportionnellement a la racine carree du temps, donc essentiellement par diffusion. La pseudo-constante de desorption D' decroit et l'energie d'activation du processus correspondant croit lorsque le flux de neutrons integre recu par le combustible augmente. Cependant, lorsque la densite des frittes diminue, l'energie d'activation de desorption diminue egalement, de sorte que l'ecart entre les valeurs de D' relatives a des frittes de densites differentes se restreint lorsque, la temperature s'eleve. Finalement, au-dessus de 1600 C, l'evaporation de l'UO{sub 2} regit le phenomene de liberation des gaz de fission, et toutes les qualites d'oxyde etudiees presentent alors des comportements voisins a cet egard, caracterises par une mediocre retention de ces gaz. (auteurs)

  10. Le Gaz Naturel Véhicule Natural Gas for Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Chauveron S.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article présente le GNV (Gaz Naturel Véhicule. Le GNV a en effet de sérieux atouts, à la fois comme carburant de substitution et comme carburant propre. Ces atouts sont aussi bien économiques que techniques. La première partie est consacrée aux enjeux du développement du GNV. Les premiers pays utilisateurs ont été ceux qui disposent sur leur sol de ressources de gaz naturel. Aujourd'hui, alors que de nombreux pays doivent faire face à l'inquiétude croissante relative à l'augmentation de la pollution urbaine, le gaz naturel apparaît également comme un carburant propre, permettant de réduire rapidement les émissions de polluants des véhicules. Dans une deuxième partie, nous donnons une description technique sommaire des stations GNV et des véhicules GNV. Il s'agit de familiariser le lecteur avec les quelques spécificités techniques du GNV, par rapport à l'essence et au gazole. On constatera d'ailleurs que les technologies GNV sont très proches des technologies classiques. Enfin, la dernière partie est consacrée aux actions en cours, qui permettront le développement du GNV en France et en Europe : programmes de recherche, réduction des coûts de la filière, actions réglementaires, communication, etc. This article presents compressed natural gas for vehicles (CNG, which can provide considerable advantages both as an alternative fuel and as a clean fuel. These assets are not only economic but also technical. The first part deals with what is at stake in developing natural gas as a motor fuel. The first countries to use CNG were those with natural gas resources in their subsoil. Today, with a large number of countries having to cope with growing concern about increasing urban pollution, natural gas is also seen as a clean fuel that can help cut vehicle pollutant emissions dramatically. In the second part a brief technical description is given of CNG stations and vehicles, with the aim of acquainting the reader with

  11. Évaluation des émissions de gaz à effet de serre des filières de traitement et de valorisation des boues issues du traitement des eaux usées

    OpenAIRE

    Reverdy, A.L.; Pradel, M.

    2011-01-01

    / Ce rapport présente l'inventaire des différentes consommations énergétiques, en consommables et des GES pour chaque poste de traitement et de valorisation des boues issues du traitement des eaux usées.

  12. The reprocessing of irradiated fuels improvement and extension of the solvent extraction process; Le traitement des combustibles irradies amelioration et extension du procede utilisant les solvants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faugeras, P; Chesne, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    Improvements made in the conventional tri-butylphosphate process are described, in particular. the concentration and the purification of plutonium by one extraction cycle using tri-butyl-phosphate with reflux; and the use of an apparatus working continuously for precipitating plutonium oxalate, for calcining the oxalate, and for fluorinating the oxide. The modifications proposed for the treatment of irradiated uranium - molybdenum alloys are described, in particular, the dissolution of the fuel, and the concentration of the fission product solutions. The solvent extraction treatment is used also for the plutonium fuels utilized for the fast breeder reactor (Rapsodie) An outline of the process is presented and discussed, as well as the first experimental results and the plans for a pilot plant having a capacity of 1 kg/day. The possible use of tn-lauryl-amine in the plutonium purification cycle is now under consideration for the processing plant at La Hague. The flowsheet for this process and its performance are presented. The possibility of vitrification is considered for the final treatment of the concentrated radioactive wastes from the Marcoule (irradiated uranium) and La Hague (irradiated uranium-molybdenum) Centers. Three possible processes are described and discussed, as well as the results obtained from the operation of the corresponding experimental units using tracers. (authors) [French] On decrit les ameliorations apportees au procede classique utilisant le phosphate tributylique, et notamment la concentration et la purification du plutonium par un cycle d'extraction au tributylphosphate avec reflux, l'utilisation d'un appareillage continu de precipitation d'oxalate de plutonium, de calcination de l'oxalate, et de fluoration de l'oxyde. On presente les modifications envisagees pour le traitement des alliages uranium-molybdene irradies, principalement en ce qui concerne la dissolution du combustible et la concentration des solutions de produits de fission

  13. Gas quality prediction in ligno-cellulosic biomass gasification in a co-current gas producer; Prediction de la qualite du gaz en gazeification de la biomasse ligno-cellulosique dans un gazogene a co-courant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J [Universite Catholique de Louvain (UCL), Faculte des Sciences Appliquees, Dept. de Mecanique, Unite Thermodynamique et Turbomachines, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Nganhou, J [Universite de Yaounde, Ecole National Superieur Polytechnique de Yaounde, Dept. de Genies Mecanique et Industriel (Cameroon); Amie Assouh, A [Ecole National Superieur Polytechnique de Yaounde, Lab. d' Energetique (Cameroon)

    2008-03-15

    Our research covers the energetic valuation of the biomass for electricity production. As electrical energy production is the main drive behind a modern economy, we wanted to make our contribution to the debate by describing a tried technique, whose use on an industrial scale can still be perfected, failing control over the basic principles that support the gasification processes called upon in this industry. Our study describes gasification, which is a process to transform a solid combustible into a gas combustible. The resulting gas can be used as combustible in an internal combustion motor and produce electricity. Our work interprets the experimental results of gasification tests conducted on an available and functional experimental centre and the ENSPY's Decentralized Energy Production Lab. The work involved developing a tool to appreciate the results of the gasification of the ligneous biomass from the stoichiometric composition of the combustible to be gasified and the chemical and mathematical bases of the gasification process. It is an investigation with a view to elaborating a mathematical model based on the concept of compatibility. Its original lies in the quality prediction method for the gas obtained through the gasification of a biomass whose chemical composition is known. (authors)

  14. Perspectives d'amélioration du rendement à très faible charge des moteurs d'automobile Prospects for Lmprovinq the Very-Low-Load Efficiency of Automotive Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douaud A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le mauvais rendement énergétique des véhicules utilisés à très faible charge (circulation urbaine, vitesses limitées provient entre autres des combustions non optimales. Celles-ci sont de plusieurs types : combustion lente et/ou tardive, ratés de propagation. L'acquisition de cycles de pression au moyen du système DIGITAP développé à l'In-titut Français du Pétrole (IFP est décrite et le calcul instantané du travail cycle-à-cycle permet de définir un critère de stabilité de fonctionnement du moteur. L'analyse thermodynamique des cycles montre que la composition du mélange air + carburant + gaz résiduels, trop proche des limites de propagabilité de flamme, est à l'origine des phénomènes observés. Des voies d'action portant sur les gaz résiduels, la turbulence et les paramètres du système d'allumage sont dégagées et permettent des améliorations importantes du rendement. The poor energy efficiency of vehicles used at very low engine load (urban traffic, limited speeds comes from non-optimum combustion, among other causes. Such combustion may be of several types, i. e. slow and/or late combustion, propagation misfiring. The recording of pressure cycles by the DIGITAP system developed at Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP is described, and the instantaneous computing of the cycle-to-cycle work enables a stability criterion for engine operating to be described. The thermodynamic analysis of the cycles shows that the composition of the air + fuel + residuel gas mixture which is too close to flame propagation limits is at the origin of the phenomena observed. Methods of action concerning residual gases, turbulence and the parameters of the ignition system are determined and make for great improvements in efficiency and stability for such types of running.

  15. Étude des équilibres thermodynamiques des réactions de gazéification en vue de l'optimisation du rapport vapeur/comburant injecté dans un gazogène souterrain Study of Thermodynamic Equilibria in Gasification Reactions So As to Optimise the Steam/Oxidizer Ratio Injected Into an Underground Gas Generator

    OpenAIRE

    Pirard J. P.

    2006-01-01

    Le but de cette étude est de déterminer sur la base des équilibres thermodynamiques des réactions de gazéification le rapport vapeur/comburant à injecter dans un gazogène fonctionnant sous pression pour optimaliser les compositions, les pouvoirs calorifiques, les rendements de gazéification et la consommation d'agent gazéifiant. The aim of this study is to determine, on the basis of the thermodynamic equilibria of gazification reactions, the steam/oxidizer ratio to be injected into a gas g...

  16. Determining a pool - type reactor fuel policy; Recherche d'une politique de gestion du combustible d'une pile piscine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1964-07-01

    Refuelling the 10 to 15 MW pool type reactor considered here will occur frequently (some 10 elements every 3 to 4 weeks). It is therefore necessary to determine the most economic fuel policy. This study proposes to define a strategy that will make it possible to decide on the number and characteristics of the shipment containers, as well as on the means of storage, so as to reduce the risks as much as possible should the basic parameters of the study vary. Among these parameters, the respective influence of which is investigated, chemical reprocessing costs play a vital part. Two examples of optimum fuel management are given according to whether the reprocessing charges applied are those of the old or of the 1961 U.S. AEC base charges for reprocessing highly enriched irradiated fuel. (authors) [French] Les renouvellements du combustible de la pile piscine de 10 a 15 MW consideree ici, seront frequents (quelques 10 elements toutes les 3 ou 4 semaines). Il est donc important de connaitre les meilleures conditions de gestion economique de ce combustible. Cette etude se propose de definir une strategie permettant de choisir le nombre et les caracteristiques des containers de transport, ainsi que les moyens de stockage, de facon a minimiser les risques si les parametres de base de l'etude varient. Parmi ces parametres dont l'influence respective est successivement examinee, le cout du traitement chimique joue un role fondamental. Deux exemples d'optimum de gestion sont donnes selon que le tarif de retraitement est conforme a l'ancien tarif de l'U.S. AEC ou au tarif 1961 de traitement des combustibles irradies tres enrichis. (auteurs)

  17. Méthode analytique généralisée pour le calcul du coning. Nouvelle solution pour calculer le coning de gaz, d'eau et double coning dans les puits verticaux et horizontaux Generalized Analytical Method for Coning Calculation. New Solution to Calculation Both the Gas Coning, Water Coning and Dual Coning for Vertical and Horizontal Wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietraru V.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Une nouvelle méthode analytique d'évaluation du coning d'eau par bottom water drive et/ou de gaz par gas-cap drive dans les puits horizontaux et verticaux a été développée pour les réservoirs infinis [1]. Dans cet article, une généralisation de cette méthode est présentée pour les réservoirs confinés d'extension limitée dont le toit est horizontal. La généralisation proposée est basée sur la résolution des équations différentielles de la diffusivité avec prise en compte des effets de drainage par gravité et des conditions aux limites pour un réservoir confiné. La méthode est applicable aux réservoirs isotropes ou anisotropes. L'hypothèse de pression constante à la limite de l'aire de drainage dans l'eau et/ou dans le gaz a été adoptée. Les pertes de charge dans l'aquifère et dans le gas-cap sont donc négligées. Les principales contributions de cet article sont : - L'introduction de la notion de rayon de cône, différent du rayon de puits. La hauteur du cône et le débit critique dépendent du rayon de cône alors qu'ils sont indépendants du rayon du puits. - Une nouvelle corrélation pour le calcul du débit critique sous forme adimensionnelle en fonction de trois paramètres : le temps, la longueur du drain horizontal (nulle pour un puits vertical et le rayon de drainage. - Des corrélations pour le calcul du rapport des débits gaz/huile (GOR ou de la fraction en eau (fw, pendant les périodes critique et postcritique, qui tiennent compte de la pression capillaire et des perméabilités relatives. - Des corrélations pour le calcul des rapports de débits gaz/huile et eau/huile pendant les périodes pré, post et supercritique en double coning. - Des critères pour le calcul du temps de percée au puits en simple coning de gaz ou d'eau, ou en double coning de gaz et d'eau. A new analytical method for assessing water and/or gas coning in horizontal and vertical wells has been developed for infinite

  18. Non-Destructive Methods for Determining Burn-Up in Nuclear Fuel; Methodes Non Destructives d'Evaluation du Taux de Combustion dans le Combustible Nucleaire; Metody opredeleniya vygoraniya v yadernom toplive bez razrusheniya obraztsa; Metodos No Destructivos para Determinai el Grado de Combustion de los Elementos Combustibles Nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGonnagle, W. J. [Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1966-02-15

    is of secondary importance and the cooling time is unimportant. Also, there is more precise nuclear data for the stable fission products. Of the stable isotopes produced during the fission process, zirconium, molybdenum, ruthenium, and neodymium appear to be the most useful. The proposed non-destructive methods using stable isotopes will be discussed. (author) [French] Il est a la fois utile et souhaitable d'utiliser des methodes non destructives pour proceder a la mesure quantitative du taux de combustion des elements combustibles d'un reacteur nucleaire. L'ideal serait de pouvoir analyser le combustible a l'aide d'une methode ne necessitant pas de renseignements particuliers sur les spectres des neutrons, le schema d'irradiation ou le temps de refroidissement. Les isotopes radioactifs et les isotopes stables resultant du processus de fission qui sont presents dans un element combustible irradie caracterisent son irradiation. Malheureusement, que l'analyse soit effectuee au moyen de methodes destructives ou non destructives, les resultats obtenus varient en fonction du spectre de neutrons, du schema d'irradiation et du temps de refroidissement. Deplus, l'absence de donnees nucleaires precises, comme les valeurs des section efficaces, influe sur tous les calculs qui peuvent etre effectues. L'analyse non destructive est egalement genee par la presence de champs de rayonnements intenses qui augmentent le bruit de fond. Il est difficile d'etablir des normes utiles et realistes. Bien que, dans l'etat actuel de la technique, les methodes non destructives n'aient pas toute la precision et l'exactitude voulues, elles presentent neanmoins un grand interet' notamment dans les cas ou il faut obtenir rapidement et economiquement une valeur approximative du taux de combustion. Plusieurs methodes non destructives d'evaluation du taux de combustion sont actuellement appliquees, a l'etude ou en projet. Plusieurs types de spectrometres sont utilises pour la mesure du rayonnement

  19. Mixture preparation and combustion in an optically-accessible HCCI, diesel engine; La preparation du melange et de la combustion dans un moteur Diesel, HCCI a acces optique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashdan, J.; Bruneaux, G. [Institut Francais du Petrole, 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    2006-07-01

    Planar laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) imaging techniques have been applied in order to study the mixture preparation and combustion process in a single cylinder, optically-accessible homogeneous charge, compression ignition (HCCI) engine. In particular, the influence of piston bowl geometry on the in-cylinder mixture distribution and subsequent combustion process has been investigated. A new optically-accessible piston design enabled the application of LIF diagnostics directly within the combustion chamber bowl. Firstly, laser-induced exciplex fluorescence (LIEF) was exploited in order to characterise the in-cylinder fuel spray and vapour distribution. Subsequently a detailed study of the two-stage HCCI combustion process was conducted by a combination of direct chemiluminescence imaging, laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) of the intermediate species formaldehyde (CH{sub 2}O) which is present during the cool flame and LIF of the OH radical which is subsequently present in the reaction and burned gas zones at higher temperature. Finally, spectrometry measurements were performed with the objective of determining the origin of the emitting species of the chemiluminescence signal. The experiments were performed on a single cylinder optical engine equipped with a direct-injection, common rail injection system and narrow angle injector. The experimental results presented reveal the significant role of the combustion chamber geometry on the mixture preparation and combustion characteristics for late HCCI injection strategies particularly in such cases where liquid impingement is unavoidable. Planar LIF 355 imaging revealed the presence of the intermediate species formaldehyde allowing the temporal and spatial detection of auto-ignition precursors prior to the signal observed by chemiluminescence in the early stages of the cool flame. Formaldehyde was then rapidly consumed at the start of main combustion which was marked not only by the increase in the main heat release

  20. Law no. 2004-803 from August 9, 2004 relative to electricity and gas public utilities and to the power and gas companies; Loi no. 2004-803 du 9 aout 2004 relative au service public de l'electricite et du gaz et aux entreprises electriques et gazieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-09-01

    The aim of this law is to allow the administrations to avoid to use their eligibility right with the opening of the electricity and gas markets to competition. It changes the juridical status of the two public utilities Electricite de France (EdF) and Gaz de France (GdF) into two anonymous companies and creates two additional companies for the management of the power and gas networks. It ensures also the transposition of the European directives from June 26, 2003 (2003/54/CE and 2003/55/CE). It contains some proper dispositions and modifies various existing French laws, in particular the law no. 46-628 from April 8, 1946 about the electricity and gas nationalization and the law no. 2000-108 from February 10, 2000 relative to the modernization and development of the electric public utility. (J.S.)

  1. Dosage of fission products in irradiated fuel treatment effluents (radio-chemical method); Dosage des produits de fission dans les effluents du traitement des combustibles irradies (methode radiochimique)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auchapt, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Marcoule (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    The dosage methods presented here are applicable to relatively long-lived fission products present in the effluents resulting from irradiated fuel treatment processes (Sr - Cs - Ce - Zr - Nb - Ru - I). The methods are based on the same principle: - addition of a carrying-over agent - chemical separation over several purification stages, - determination of the chemical yield by calorimetry - counting of an aliquot liquid portion. (author) [French] Les methodes de dosage presentees concernent les produits de fission a vie relativement longue presents dans les effluents de traitement des combustibles irradies (Sr - Cs - Ce - Zr - Nb - Ru - I). Elles sont toutes basees sur le meme principe: - addition d'entraineur, - separation chimique en plusieurs stades de purification, - determination du rendement chimique par calorimetrie, - comptage d'une aliquote liquide. (auteur)

  2. Experimental and numerical study of the active control of jets inside combustion chambers; Etude experimentale et numerique du controle actif de jets dans des chambres de combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faivre, V

    2003-12-15

    Combustion instabilities occur when the flame heat release couples with the acoustic waves propagating in the combustion chamber. This phenomenon can lead to strong vibrations and noise but also, sometimes, to the complete combustion device failure. That is the reason why so many studies focus on the control of those instabilities. The method chosen in this study consists in an active control device (or set of actuators) having a strong effect on the mixing of the burner exhaust flow with the ambient fluid. The model configuration studied consists in a non reactive jet of air controlled by four small tangential secondary jets. Experiments have been carried out to optimize the control device geometry. The configuration identified as the most efficient, in terms of mixing enhancement, has been simulated through Large Eddy Simulations (LES). The objective of the numerical part of the present work is double. First, the numerical simulations provide a better understanding of the phenomena occurring when the control is on. Then, it is shown that LES can be considered as a tool to predict the effects of a control device on a flow. (author)

  3. Étude des équilibres thermodynamiques des réactions de gazéification en vue de l'optimisation du rapport vapeur/comburant injecté dans un gazogène souterrain Study of Thermodynamic Equilibria in Gasification Reactions So As to Optimise the Steam/Oxidizer Ratio Injected Into an Underground Gas Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirard J. P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le but de cette étude est de déterminer sur la base des équilibres thermodynamiques des réactions de gazéification le rapport vapeur/comburant à injecter dans un gazogène fonctionnant sous pression pour optimaliser les compositions, les pouvoirs calorifiques, les rendements de gazéification et la consommation d'agent gazéifiant. The aim of this study is to determine, on the basis of the thermodynamic equilibria of gazification reactions, the steam/oxidizer ratio to be injected into a gas generator operating under pressure so as to optimize the compositions, the heating values, the gasification efficiencies and the consumption of gasifying agent.

  4. Natural Gas Storage Seismic Monitoring Suivi sismique des stockages de gaz naturel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari J.L.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available IFP Energies nouvelles, CGGVeritas and GDF Suez have conducted together, since 1980, a series of seismic monitoring experiments in order to detect and follow the movements of the gas plume in natural gas geologic storages. Surface and well seismic surveys were carried out at different stages of the storage life. Permanent receiver arrays have been set down in wells. Permanent sources have been designed. Sources and receivers have been used to follow continuously the storage cycle during several years, providing time measurement accuracy within a tenth of a millisecond. Gas intrusion into an aquifer leads to an increase in the arrival times of reflections beneath the storage reservoir and to a variation of the reflection amplitudes at top and bottom of the reservoirs. Progressive variations of the seismic parameters may be followed during the initial infill period. Further movements of the gas plume with the annual in/out cycles are more difficult to follow, because of the simultaneous presence of gas and water in the pores. Arrival time variations of some tenths of a millisecond may be detected and measured. Saturations, using accurate picking of the arrival times, can be estimated in favourable cases. Because of the higher density of carbon dioxide, when stored in a supercritical phase, sensitivity of the seismic parameters, velocity, density and acoustic impedance to saturation variations will be about twice smaller for CO2 storages than it is for methane. IFP Energies nouvelles, la CGGVeritas et GDF Suez ont mené ensemble, depuis 1980, de nombreuses expériences de monitoring sismique afin de détecter et de suivre les mouvements du gaz dans des stockages géologiques de gaz naturel. Des acquisitions ont été réalisées à différents stades de la vie du stockage tant en sismique de surface qu’en sismique de puits. Des antennes de récepteurs permanentes ont été construites et implantées dans des puits. Des sources permanentes ont

  5. Pétrole, gaz, environnement : quelle approche de la R&D en exploration-production pour la fin du siècle ? Oil, Gas and the Environment: What Approach by R&D in Exploration-Production for the End of the Century?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tissot B.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article rappelle tout d'abord, un constat du XVe Congrès du Conseil Mondial de l'Énergie (Madrid, septembre 1992 : au cours des 30 prochaines années, les énergies fossiles vont continuer à être à la base de tout approvisionnement énergétique . Examinant les conditions de ce maintien dans un contexte géopolitique difficile, il montre qu'une des voies à privilégier est d'accroître les efforts de recherches pour réaliser les progrès scientifiques et technologiques qui permettront de satisfaire la demande en pétrole et en gaz pour le début du 21ème siècle. L'effort de R & D nécessaire pour disposer des technologies pétrolières et gazières de la prochaine décennie nécessite une recherche faite en commun, car seule une recherche coordonnée évitera une dispersion des efforts français. L'élargissement des réserves économiquement exploitables, la maîtrise du coût de production et la réduction des coûts des chaînes gaz des champs de production aux régions consommatrices, tout en assurant la protection de l'environnement sont les prochains défis à relever. Pour faire face à ces attentes de l'industrie, d'importants efforts de recherche doivent être menés dans les domaines scientifiques correspondants, afin de mieux appréhender les phénomènes et de développer les solutions les plus appropriées. En définitive, les progrès scientifiques et technologiques, nécessaires à l'élargissement des réserves économiques exploitables, à une plus grande accessibilité aux ressources pétrolières et gazières, ainsi qu'à une utilisation mieux ciblée de l'énergie face à la protection de l'environnement, demandent un accroissement sensible des efforts de recherche. Une telle politique ne peut se concevoir sans recourir à un partenariat plus large et sans une incitation et un financement substantiel de la part de la puissance publique, française ou européenne. This article begins by recalling a statement made

  6. Gaz de France. Operation note; Gaz de France. Note d'operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This note was published for the public at the occasion of the admission to Euronext's Eurolist of the existing shares that make the capital of Gaz de France company, the French gas utility. The note gives some informations about Gaz de France activity, and about its strategy of development in the European gas market. Then it describes the offer relative to the opening of Gaz de France capital. Some selected financial data and some precision about the risk factors and the management of the company complete the document. (J.S.)

  7. Ecoulements intermittents de gaz et de liquide en conduite verticale Intermittent Gas and Liquid Flows in a Vertical Pipe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Line A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le modèle présenté ici permet la pré-détermination du gradient de pression, du taux global de gaz, et de grandeurs caractéristiques de l'intermittence, dans un écoulement à poches et bouchons en conduite verticale. L'écriture des lois de conservation en moyenne phasique conditionnelle conduit à la définition d'une cellule moyenne équivalente. La fermeture du modèle est assurée par des lois de contrainte de cisaillement film-paroi, film-poche, bouchon-paroi, par une loi d'arrachage du gaz au culot de la poche, une loi de glissement du gaz dans les bouchons et par une loi de la vitesse moyenne de propagation des fronts de poches. Le calibrage et la qualification du modèle s'appuient sur deux banques de données, dont l'une a été obtenue avec des fluides pétroliers dans des conditions proches des situations industrielles (boucle diphasique de Boussens. The model described here can be used to predetermine the pressure gradient, the overall gas rate and the characteristic intermittence magnitudes in pocket and slug flow in a vertical pipe. The way governing equations in the conditional phase average are written defines an equivalent average cell. The model is closed by film/wall, film/pocket and slug/wall shear-stress laws, by a pulloff law for the gas at the bottom of the pocket, a slippage law for the gas in the slugs, and a mean propagation velocity law for the pocket fronts. The calibration and qualification of the model are based on two data banks, one of which contains data on petroleum fluids under conditions close to industrial situations (two-phase loop at Boussens.

  8. Gaz de France annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Today, Gaz de France Group ranks as one of the largest gas utilities in Europe. This success is the fruit of a growth strategy that fuses economic, social and environmental imperatives. To respond more efficiently to fluctuations in the natural gas market and continue to expand its range of competitive products and services, Gaz de France has committed to integrated development across the full spectrum of natural gas activities, from exploration and production to the sale of energy and related services. As the leading supplier of natural gas in France, Gaz de France has honed a targeted policy to acquire equity interests and assets, mainly in Europe, assuring the Group of a privileged place at the heart of the European gas grid. As European energy markets continue to open more widely to competition, the Group intends to benefit from its presence in all the sectors of the natural gas industry and in the European market to confirm its position as an integrated energy operator, focused on gas, among Europe's leaders. To achieve this goal, Gaz de France will concentrate in a balanced fashion on activities linked to infrastructures and activities related to energy supply and services. While assuming its public service responsibilities, the Group will expand the range of products and services to customers. This activity report presents: consolidated financial highlights, profile, corporate governance, Gaz de France's ambition, panorama of activities: energy supply and services (exploration - production, purchase and sale of energy, services), infrastructures (transmission and storage - France, distribution - France, transmission and distribution - international), Commitments of Gaz de France (human resources, research and development, sustainable development, map of main subsidiaries and affiliates)

  9. Thermodynamic modeling of LPG combustion in dual-fuel engines; Modelisation thermodynamique de la combustion du GPL dans les moteurs dual-fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilcan, A.; Le Corre, O.; Tazerout, M. [Ecole des Mines de Nantes, 44 (France); Ramesh, A. [Indian Institute of Technology Madras (India)

    2002-07-01

    Dual-fuel engines are modified diesel engines burning simultaneously two fuels inside the cylinder: a gaseous one, called the primary fuel and a liquid one, called the pilot fuel. The thermal efficiency of the dual-fuel engine and of the diesel engine are comparable; the level of emissions is lower compared to the diesel one. This article presents a new procedure for the combustion modeling in a LPG-diesel dual-fuel engine. The procedures deals with the ignition delay period and with the rate of heat release inside the cylinder. This procedure is validated using experimental data issued front a collaboration with the Indian Institute of Technology from Madras, India. The used engine is a single-cylinder one, air-cooled. The pilot fuel is direct injected inside the cylinder The engine was run at constant load and with different diesel substitutions, i.e. for different air to fuel ratios of the primary fuel-air mixture. The general error of the procedure is below 10%. (authors)

  10. Gaz de France. Source document; Gaz de France. Document de base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document was issued by Gaz de France, the French gas utility, at the occasion of the opening of the capital of the company. It is intended to shareholders and presents some informations relative to the stocks admitted to Euronext's Eurolist, some general informations about the company and its capital, some informations about the activities of Gaz de France group, about its financial situation and results, about its management, and about its recent evolution and future perspectives. (J.S.)

  11. Development of the control assembly pattern and dynamic analysis of the generation IV large gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR); Developpement du design d'un assemblage de controle et analyse dynamique des reacteurs a neutrons rapides de quatrieme generation refroidis au gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girardin, G.

    2009-07-09

    'AC. Plus particulierement, les transitoires ont ete etudies du point de vue des effets spatiaux. Les modeles couples ont ete developpes en utilisant le code PARCS pour la cinetique 3D et le code TRACE pour la modelisation thermo-hydraulique. Un interet particulier a ete de representer, de maniere individuelle, chaque assemblage de combustible et chaque AC, pour permettre, l'analyse des deformations locales des distributions 3D de parametres liees a la surete, telles que les temperatures du caloporteur, de la gaine et du combustible. La validation des modeles complets et couples du coeur a ete realisee par rapport a des resultats de reference ERANOS-VARIANT et CATHARE.

  12. Gaz de France annual report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    One of Europe's leading gas utilities, the Gaz de France Group operates in all sectors of the natural gas industry, from exploration and production to energy distribution and services, to respond to customer demand efficiently and achieve sustained and profitable growth. To this end, the Group is organized in five lines of business: exploration and production, supply and trading, transmission, distribution and services. Active in 33 countries, the Gaz de France Group first targets growth in Europe, its natural environment. The opening of energy markets and its position at the center of Europe's gas grids offers the Group many opportunities in trading, transmission for third parties, distribution and services. Since August 10, 2000, Gaz de France has made it possible for other gas operators to access its transmission system. The Group capitalizes on its expertise at the global level as well, in emerging markets like Mexico and in fields in which it has recognized know-how, such as liquefied natural gas (LNG). To ensure this growth and pursue its penetration of European and world markets, the Gaz de France Group implements a policy of cooperation and partnership with other energy sector operators, demonstrates its well-developed ability to innovate and practices a customer-focused organization that offers competitive, tailored services to residential users, companies and local governments. The Group has chosen to pursue this growth through a strategy of sustainable development. By making natural gas more accessible and promoting its uses, Gaz de France integrates demand-side management of energy, fosters human development and ensures environmental protection in France, Europe and the world. This activity report presents: the corporate profile of the group, the international natural gas businesses, the financial highlights, the growth objectives of the group in all its businesses (exploration and production, supply and trading, transmission, distribution, services

  13. Contribution to the chromatography of atmospheric gases (1963); Contribution a la chromatographie des gaz de l'air (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghalamsiah, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-06-15

    In the first part, the author studies the gas-phase chromatographic separation of the atmospheric rare gases, of hydrogen, and of some gaseous compounds of carbon (CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}) using inactive gases to obtain the most favourable operational conditions far this separation. In the second part, the optimum conditions for detecting non-active gases using an ionisation chamber and a {sup 239}Pu radioactive source emitting 5.15 MeV {alpha} particles are determined. (author) [French] Dans une premiere partie, l'auteur etudie la separation par chromatographie en phase gazeuse des gaz rares de l'air, de l'hydrogene, et de quelques composes gazeux du carbone (CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}) en utilisant des gaz inactifs an vue d'obtenir les conditions experimenales les plus favorables en vue de cette separation. Dans une deuxieme partie, les conditions optimales de detection de gaz non actifs a l'aide d'une chambre d'ionisation, en utilisant comme source radioactive du {sup 239}Pu qui emet des particules {alpha} de 5,15 MeV, sont determinees. (auteur)

  14. Natural gas, the comfort stamina; Le gaz nerf du confort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Bail, L. [Gaz de France (GDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-09-01

    According to consumers and thermal engineers opinion, natural gas is the most performing and the less expensive energy source for domestic uses. In this optimistic context, the customers expectations for more performing, economical and aesthetic appliances and systems is growing up. This paper gives a general overview of the recent improvements of natural gas heating systems and appliances: high efficiency heating plants, mural and airtight central heating plants, condensation heating plants, heaters, mono- or dual-pipe heating installations, heating floors etc.. All these products have a significant effect on the thermal comfort of residential buildings and on the reduction of energy costs. (J.S.)

  15. Catalytic removal of methane and NO{sub x} in lean-burn natural-gas engine exhaust; Elimination par catalyse du methane et des NO{sub x} dans les echappements de moteur au gaz naturel a basse combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, H.; Satokawa, S.; Yahagi, M.; Yamaseki, K.; Hoshi, F.; Uchida, H.; Yokota, H. [Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd. (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    We have developed a new catalytic system to reduce the emissions of hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) contained in the exhaust gases from a lean-burn natural-gas engine. Catalytic oxidation of unburned hydrocarbons and CO in the exhaust has been studied for noble metals supported on alumina. (1) A low-loading catalyst comprising platinum supported on alumina (Pt/alumina) was efficient for the oxidation of CO and hydrocarbons without methane. The CO conversions were maintained at more than 98 % for 20,000 hours over the Pt/alumina. (2) A catalyst comprising platinum and palladium supported on alumina (Pt-Pd/alumina) exhibited higher levels of oxidation of hydrocarbons (including methane) than a catalyst comprising only palladium supported on alumina (Pd/alumina). Its oxidation also lasted longer. The combined effects of the platinum and palladium metals achieved high sulfur dioxide resistance. Increasing the palladium content in the Pt-Pd/alumina catalyst increased the level of oxidation and extended the lifetime of the catalyst. (3) A catalyst comprising silver supported on alumina (Ag/alumina) was effective at reducing the amount of NO{sub X} by using the unburned hydrocarbons in the exhaust gas. The NO{sub x} conversions over Ag/alumina were maintained at more than 30 % for 3,500 hours. We describe a total clean-up system consisting of a Ag/alumina catalyst and a Pt-Pd/alumina catalyst in series on the exhaust gas stream. (authors)

  16. Evolution dans la gestion de la détection gaz

    CERN Document Server

    Bonthond, F

    1999-01-01

    Cet article présente l'interface graphique qui a été développée pour gérer d'une façon visuelle et globale la détection des gaz inflammables utilisés dans les expériences du hall EHN1 (NA49, NA56, tests pour ATLAS, CMS, Alice, etc.). A cet effet, on utilise des détecteurs catalytiques connectés à une centrale. Afin de retransmettre les alarmes à la salle de contrôle des pompiers, cette centrale est couplée à un automate programmable connecté au réseau Ethernet du CERN. Une liaison filaire entre l'automate et le synoptique câblé des alarmes de niveau 3 assure la redondance nécessaire à ce type d'alarmes. Le logiciel de contrôle LabView a été utilisé pour développer l'interface graphique. Elle permet de visualiser sur n'importe quel PC ou X-Terminal le taux de remplissage des bouteilles de gaz, la position des électrovannes ainsi que les asservissements qui pilotent lors d'une alarme, notamment les ventilations, les panneaux de signalisation et les arrêts d'urgence.

  17. Cell for studying electron-adsorbed gas interactions; Cellule d'etudes des interactions electron-gaz adsorbe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golowacz, H; Degras, D A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 91 - Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires, Deptartement de Physique des Plasmas et de la Fusion Controlee, Service de Physique Appliquee, Service de Physique des Interractions Electroniques, Section d' Etude des Interactions Gaz-Solides

    1967-07-01

    The geometry and the technology of a cell used for investigations on electron-adsorbed gas interactions are described. The resonance frequencies of the surface ions which are created by the electron impact on the adsorbed gas are predicted by simplified calculations. The experimental data relative to carbon monoxide and neon are in good agreement with these predictions. (authors) [French] Les caracteristiques geometriques et technologiques generales d'une cellule d'etude des interactions entre un faisceau d'electrons et un gaz adsorbe sont donnees. Un calcul simplifie permet de prevoir les frequences de resonance des ions de surface crees par l'impact des electrons sur le gaz adsorbe. Les donnees experimentales sur l'oxyde de carbone et le neon confirment les previsions du calcul. (auteurs)

  18. Compatibility problems of canning materials with carbon dioxide at high temperatures; Problemes de comptabilite des materiaux de gainage avec le gaz carbonique aux temperatures elevees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darras, R; Loriers, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    and iron-aluminium alloys should increase as a result of the research carried out with a view to improving their technological and mechanical properties. (authors) [French] L'adoption, en France, du gaz carbonique sous pression comme fluide caloporteur dans les reacteurs avances des filieres graphite-gaz et eau lourde-gaz, a impose la recherche de materiaux de gainage susceptibilite prendre la releve des alliages de magnesium. En effet, ces derniers deviennent inutilisables au dessus de 500 C environ, en raison de la proximite de leur point de fusion et de leurs proprietes mecaniques alors defaillantes, quoique leur compatibilite avec le gaz carbonique reste relativement bonne. Le beryllium, particulierement seduisant en raison de sa faible section de capture pour les neutrons thermiques, presente, entre autres, un inconvenient grave: son utilisation dans le gaz carbonique n'est possible, des 600 C, que si ce gaz est rigoureusement desseche, la pression partielle de vapeur d'eau etant le facteur determinant imposant une dessication d'autant plus poussee que la pression nominale est plus elevee. Dans le cas contraire, apres une courte periode d'incubation, l'oxydation s'accelere, conduisant a une corrosion intergranulaire rapidement destructrice. Neanmoins, les alliages beryllium-calcium ou beryllium-magnesium, a 0,5 pour cent environ d'element d'addition, permettent de surmonter cette difficulte; ils restent utilisables en presence de quelques centaines de vpm de vapeur d'eau jusqu'a 700 C au moins. Les problemes metallurgiques lies a la mise en oeuvre du beryllium ou de ses alliages ont cependant conduit a envisager provisoirement l'utilisation d'aciers inoxydables austenitiques. Ces materiaux sont intrinsequement tres resistants a l'oxydation; mais, comme ils ne peuvent etre employes qu'en faible epaisseur, etant donne leur section de capture importante, il y a lieu de choisir les nuances comparativement les moins oxydables. Au dessus de 600 C, les nuances

  19. Gaz de France annual report 2003; Gaz de France rapport annuel 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Today, Gaz de France Group ranks as one of the largest gas utilities in Europe. This success is the fruit of a growth strategy that fuses economic, social and environmental imperatives. To respond more efficiently to fluctuations in the natural gas market and continue to expand its range of competitive products and services, Gaz de France has committed to integrated development across the full spectrum of natural gas activities, from exploration and production to the sale of energy and related services. As the leading supplier of natural gas in France, Gaz de France has honed a targeted policy to acquire equity interests and assets, mainly in Europe, assuring the Group of a privileged place at the heart of the European gas grid. As European energy markets continue to open more widely to competition, the Group intends to benefit from its presence in all the sectors of the natural gas industry and in the European market to confirm its position as an integrated energy operator, focused on gas, among Europe's leaders. To achieve this goal, Gaz de France will concentrate in a balanced fashion on activities linked to infrastructures and activities related to energy supply and services. While assuming its public service responsibilities, the Group will expand the range of products and services to customers. This activity report presents: consolidated financial highlights, profile, corporate governance, Gaz de France's ambition, panorama of activities: energy supply and services (exploration - production, purchase and sale of energy, services), infrastructures (transmission and storage - France, distribution - France, transmission and distribution - international), Commitments of Gaz de France (human resources, research and development, sustainable development, map of main subsidiaries and affiliates)

  20. Gaz de France annual report 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    A leader in the natural gas market in Europe, Gaz de France is an integrated group active in all sectors of the natural gas industry. In exploration and production, trading of natural gas, transmission, storage, distribution, energy management, air conditioning and heating, the Group has developed recognized skills and know-how both upstream and down to assure its customers of diversified, efficient and competitive services. A leader in liquefied natural gas, storage and distribution technologies, the Gaz de France Group has strong positions in Europe and operates throughout the world by promoting a strategy of alliances and partnerships at all levels of the gas industry. The goal of the Gaz de France Group is to continue to expand and develop its activities from the wellhead to the burner tip, and to seize, in France and throughout the world, the best opportunities offered to capitalize on its strengths. This activity report presents: the corporate profile, the financial highlights, the principal subsidiaries and affiliates, the major European trunk lines the responsive, customer-focused services (exploration-production, trading, transmission, distribution, services), the actions to ensure performance (productive research, comprehensive quality assurance, mobilized workforce ready for the opening of the markets)

  1. Gaz de France 2006 sustainable development report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    A major European energy utility, the Gaz de France Group produces, purchases, transports, distributes and sells natural gas, electricity and related services for its residential, corporate and local government customers. this report presents the actions implemented by the group to incorporate sustainable development into its strategy. From the point of view of risks and opportunities, the group analyzes what it takes to ensure development that respects people and the environment, and it implements them in all its business lines and management systems. Content: Gaz de France, portrait of a major energy utility, highlights of 2006, challenges and strategy (defining strategy and sustainable development policy, specific risks and opportunities, activities of the Gaz de France group: challenges, impact for stakeholders, transparency and independence in governing), ranking and implementing (defining sustainable development policy: reviewing priorities, meeting all the challenges, publicizing and defending positions, increasing awareness, overseeing and monitoring results), results of the 2004-2006 sustainable development action plan, dialogue and action with stakeholders, performance assessment, performance in response to challenges: energy challenges (guaranteeing regular supplies, controlling atmospheric emissions, promoting energy conservation, developing renewable energy), industrial challenges (ensuring health and safety, limiting the overall environmental impact of group activities), social responsibility challenges (advocating corporate social responsibility, promoting human rights and fighting corruption, encouraging commitment to solidarity, promoting regional development through local initiatives, reconciling acquisitions, procurement and sustainable development, ensuring transparency in natural gas rates, providing shareholders with quality information, promoting diversity, a source of enrichment, making working conditions a performance factor), indicators and

  2. Research into zirconium alloys resistant to carbon dioxide under pressure at temperatures of up to 600 deg C (1963); Recherche d'alliages de zirconium compatibles avec le gaz carbonique sous pression jusqu'a 500 ou 600 deg C (1063)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baque, P; Dominget, R; Bossard, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    Zirconium is a metal having a relatively low neutron capture cross-section and a high melting point; it is thus possible to consider its use in particular as a canning material for fuel elements in CO{sub 2}-cooled nuclear reactors. A preliminary study of several types of zirconium showed that the metal is already strongly oxidised in this gas at 500 deg C. The 'breakaway' phenomenon is generalised; the oxidation rate is then linear and depends on the carbon dioxide pressure. An attempt was therefore made to find binary and tertiary alloys in order to improve the metal behaviour. Several interesting compositions were found: 1, 1.6 and 2.5 per cent of copper, 2 per cent of vanadium, and 0.05 and 0.5 per cent of calcium. Tertiary copper-molybdenum and copper-phosphorus alloys are also less liable to oxidation and in particular do not exhibit the 'breakaway' phenomenon even after a prolonged treatment at 600 deg C. (authors) [French] Le zirconium se trouve parmi les metaux a section de capture neutronique relativement faible et possede une temperature de fusion elevee; aussi peut on songer a l'employer notamment comme materiau de gainage d'elements combustibles pour reacteurs nucleaires refroidis au gaz carbonique. Une etude prealable de plusieurs qualites de zirconium a montre que le metal est deja assez fortement oxyde dans ce gaz des 500 deg C. En effet, le phenomene de ''breakaway'' est general; la vitesse d'oxydation devient alors lineaire et depend de la pression du gaz carbonique. La recherche d'alliages binaires et ternaires a donc ete entreprise afin de tenter d'ameliorer le comportement du metal. Elle a permis d'aboutir a quelques compositions interessantes: cuivre 1, 1,6 et 2,5 pour cent, vanadium 2 pour cent, et calcium 0,05 et 0,5 pour cent. Des alliages ternaires au cuivre-molybdene et cuivre-phosphore sont egalement moins oxydables, et en particulier ne presentent pas le phenomene de ''breakaway'', meme apres une longue exposition a 600 deg C. (auteurs)

  3. Oxidation of steel heated in CO{sub 2} medium under pressure; Oxydation d'un acier ordinaire chauffe dans le gaz carbonique sous pression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darras, R.; Leclercq, D.; Bunard, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    Behaviour of low-alloyed steels heated in CO{sub 2} medium under pressure is reported. Tests are carried out in the range of erature reached in the CO{sub 2} cooled reactors (vessel, thermal shield, pipes). The observed weight increases are small, even after more than a thousand hours of heating at 350 deg. C, but oxidation curve looks like progressing linearly. Furthermore, the oxide formed under a pressure of 15 kg/cm{sup 2} is undoubtedly more compact and adherent than the one formed under a pressure of 1 kg/cm{sup 2}. Finally, for practical use, CO{sub 2} steel pipes surface has to be sand blast and pickled. A following phosphatizing protects it from atmospheric corrosion during assembling, but these treatments have no influence on the behaviour of these steels heated in CO{sub 2}. (author)Fren. [French] On etudie le comportement d'aciers au carbone faiblement allies, chauffes dans le gaz carbonique sous pression, aux temperatures atteintes dans les reacteurs refroidis par ce gaz (caisson, bouclier thermique, canalisations). Les augmentations de poids observees sont faibles, meme apres plus de 1000 heures de chauffage a 350 deg. C, mais l'oxydation semble se poursuivre lineairement. De plus, l'oxyde forme dans le gaz carbonique sous pression de 15 kg/cm{sup 2} est nettement plus compact et adherent que celui forme sous pression atmospherique de gaz carbonique. Enfin, dans la pratique, les surfaces d'acier du circuit de gaz carbonique sont necessairement sablees ou decapees; une phosphatation ulterieure le protege de la corrosion atmospherique pendant le montage. Ces traitements sont sans influence sur le comportement de ces aciers dans le gaz carbonique a chaud. (auteur)

  4. Oxidation of steel heated in CO{sub 2} medium under pressure; Oxydation d'un acier ordinaire chauffe dans le gaz carbonique sous pression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darras, R; Leclercq, D; Bunard, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    Behaviour of low-alloyed steels heated in CO{sub 2} medium under pressure is reported. Tests are carried out in the range of erature reached in the CO{sub 2} cooled reactors (vessel, thermal shield, pipes). The observed weight increases are small, even after more than a thousand hours of heating at 350 deg. C, but oxidation curve looks like progressing linearly. Furthermore, the oxide formed under a pressure of 15 kg/cm{sup 2} is undoubtedly more compact and adherent than the one formed under a pressure of 1 kg/cm{sup 2}. Finally, for practical use, CO{sub 2} steel pipes surface has to be sand blast and pickled. A following phosphatizing protects it from atmospheric corrosion during assembling, but these treatments have no influence on the behaviour of these steels heated in CO{sub 2}. (author)Fren. [French] On etudie le comportement d'aciers au carbone faiblement allies, chauffes dans le gaz carbonique sous pression, aux temperatures atteintes dans les reacteurs refroidis par ce gaz (caisson, bouclier thermique, canalisations). Les augmentations de poids observees sont faibles, meme apres plus de 1000 heures de chauffage a 350 deg. C, mais l'oxydation semble se poursuivre lineairement. De plus, l'oxyde forme dans le gaz carbonique sous pression de 15 kg/cm{sup 2} est nettement plus compact et adherent que celui forme sous pression atmospherique de gaz carbonique. Enfin, dans la pratique, les surfaces d'acier du circuit de gaz carbonique sont necessairement sablees ou decapees; une phosphatation ulterieure le protege de la corrosion atmospherique pendant le montage. Ces traitements sont sans influence sur le comportement de ces aciers dans le gaz carbonique a chaud. (auteur)

  5. Tariff proposal of the Commission of energy regulation from February 28, 2008 for the use of public natural gas distribution networks; Proposition tarifaire de la Commission de regulation de l'energie du 28 fevrier 2008 pour l'utilisation des reseaux publics de distribution de gaz naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    With the complete opening of natural gas markets to competition and the legal separation of distribution networks, Gaz de France Reseau Distribution requested the implementation of a new tariff of use of gas distribution networks to the Commission of energy regulation (CRE). A new tariff of networks utilisation has thus been proposed by CRE after a public consultation and the audition of gas suppliers. This tariff foresees a 5.6% increase of the present day tariff by July 1, 2008. The impact on the end-users' gas retail price will be a 1.5% rise of the regulated tariff. (J.S.)

  6. Heavy water moderated gas-cooled reactors; Filiere eau lourde - gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailly du Bois, B; Bernard, J L; Naudet, R; Roche, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    long terme de reacteurs rapides, s'est engagee egalement dans le developpement des reacteurs a eau lourde refroidis par gaz, qui semblent presenter les meilleures perspectives pour le moyen terme. L'economie de ces reacteurs, comme dans le cas du graphite, repose sur l'utilisation d'uranium naturel ou extremement peu enrichi. L'eau lourde permet d'en tirer le maximum d'avantages, tout en donnant lieu grace a ses performances plus poussees a des perspectives de developpement tres interessantes. Une centrale prototype EL 4 (70 MWe) est actuellement en construction: elle est decrite en detail dans un autre memoire. La presente communication fait le point du programme consacre en France au developpement de cette filiere. On indique d'abord quelles sont les raisons qui ont conduit a choisir ce type de reacteur: on montre l'Interet de la filiere, en soulignant ses atouts et ses difficultes. Passant en revue les principaux problemes technologiques et les travaux de developpement qui leur sont consacres, on analyse ensuite les resultats deja acquis et les points restant a confirmer. EL 4 est la premiere grande realisation: sa construction constitue une etape importante, aussi bien du point de vue demonstration de performances que possibilites d'experimentation et d'epreuve. Mais deja se pose le probleme de la conception d'une centrale de grande puissance unitaire. On a etudie a la fois l'adaptation ou l'amelioration des solutions mecaniques mises en oeuvre dans EL 4 et des variantes dont quelques-unes reposent sur des conceptions assez differentes. On indique ensuite quelles sont les caracteristiques envisagees pour une grande centrale dans l'etat actuel de la technique, compte tenu des etudes d'optimisation en cours. Des possibilites d'amelioration techniques existent d'ailleurs notamment en ce qui concerne les materiaux, ce qui pourrait conduire a des performances encore plus interessantes. Quelques perspectives a plus long terme sont evoquees. Finalement on aborde les

  7. The fuel element of the first charge for EL 4; presentation, main problems arising in the research, production problems; L'element combustible du 1. jeu de EL 4; presentation, problemes essentiels poses par l'etude, problemes de fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringot, C; Bailly, H; Bujas, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The fuel element making up the first charge for EL-4 is made of slightly enriched uranium oxide canned in stainless steel. This fuel element makes it possible to operate the reactor in the safest conditions awaiting the development of the fuel which will be finally adopted; this will have a low absorption can: beryllium, or a zirconium copper alloy. The 500 mm assembly is made up of 19 small rods placed on 3 rings, inside a graphite jacket. The solution adopted was a solution using completely independent small rods. This report deals with possible problems resulting from their study and production. (authors) [French] L'element combustible du 1er jeu EL-4 est un element combustible a oxyde d'uranium legerement enrichi gaine d'acier inoxydable. C'est un element combustible permettant de faire fonctionner le reacteur EL 4 dans des conditions aussi sures que possible avant de mettre au point le combustible definitif qui sera a gaine peu absorbante: beryllium, ou alliage zirconium-cuivre. L'assemblage de longueur 500 mm est constitue de 19 crayons places sur 3 couronnes, a l'interieur d'une chemise de graphite. La solution adoptee a ete une solution a crayons independants les uns des autres. Ce rapport traite des problemes eventuels poses par leur etude et leur fabrication. (auteurs)

  8. Gaz de France annual report 2001; Gaz de France rapport annuel 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    One of Europe's leading gas utilities, the Gaz de France Group operates in all sectors of the natural gas industry, from exploration and production to energy distribution and services, to respond to customer demand efficiently and achieve sustained and profitable growth. To this end, the Group is organized in five lines of business: exploration and production, supply and trading, transmission, distribution and services. Active in 33 countries, the Gaz de France Group first targets growth in Europe, its natural environment. The opening of energy markets and its position at the center of Europe's gas grids offers the Group many opportunities in trading, transmission for third parties, distribution and services. Since August 10, 2000, Gaz de France has made it possible for other gas operators to access its transmission system. The Group capitalizes on its expertise at the global level as well, in emerging markets like Mexico and in fields in which it has recognized know-how, such as liquefied natural gas (LNG). To ensure this growth and pursue its penetration of European and world markets, the Gaz de France Group implements a policy of cooperation and partnership with other energy sector operators, demonstrates its well-developed ability to innovate and practices a customer-focused organization that offers competitive, tailored services to residential users, companies and local governments. The Group has chosen to pursue this growth through a strategy of sustainable development. By making natural gas more accessible and promoting its uses, Gaz de France integrates demand-side management of energy, fosters human development and ensures environmental protection in France, Europe and the world. This activity report presents: the corporate profile of the group, the international natural gas businesses, the financial highlights, the growth objectives of the group in all its businesses (exploration and production, supply and trading, transmission, distribution, services

  9. Gaz de France annual report 2001; Gaz de France rapport annuel 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    One of Europe's leading gas utilities, the Gaz de France Group operates in all sectors of the natural gas industry, from exploration and production to energy distribution and services, to respond to customer demand efficiently and achieve sustained and profitable growth. To this end, the Group is organized in five lines of business: exploration and production, supply and trading, transmission, distribution and services. Active in 33 countries, the Gaz de France Group first targets growth in Europe, its natural environment. The opening of energy markets and its position at the center of Europe's gas grids offers the Group many opportunities in trading, transmission for third parties, distribution and services. Since August 10, 2000, Gaz de France has made it possible for other gas operators to access its transmission system. The Group capitalizes on its expertise at the global level as well, in emerging markets like Mexico and in fields in which it has recognized know-how, such as liquefied natural gas (LNG). To ensure this growth and pursue its penetration of European and world markets, the Gaz de France Group implements a policy of cooperation and partnership with other energy sector operators, demonstrates its well-developed ability to innovate and practices a customer-focused organization that offers competitive, tailored services to residential users, companies and local governments. The Group has chosen to pursue this growth through a strategy of sustainable development. By making natural gas more accessible and promoting its uses, Gaz de France integrates demand-side management of energy, fosters human development and ensures environmental protection in France, Europe and the world. This activity report presents: the corporate profile of the group, the international natural gas businesses, the financial highlights, the growth objectives of the group in all its businesses (exploration and production, supply and trading, transmission, distribution

  10. Synthesis Gas Purification Purification des gaz de synthèse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiche D.

    2013-10-01

    ce faire, une étape de gazéification convertit la charge carbonée en un gaz de synthèse (mélange de CO et H2, lequel, après ajustement du ratio H2/CO et élimination du CO2, subit ensuite la réaction de FischerTropsch. Les gaz de synthèse contiennent cependant de nombreuses impuretés qui nécessitent d’être éliminées afin d’éviter l’empoisonnement des catalyseurs Fischer-Tropsch. En raison de la grande variété de charges pouvant être mises en oeuvre, la composition des gaz de synthèse est susceptible de subir d’importantes variations, en particulier de part la nature des impuretés (éléments, spéciation présentes ainsi que leurs teneurs relatives. La composition des gaz de synthèse est également soumise à des spécifications extrêmement sévères en terme de pureté liées à l’importante sensibilité aux poisons des catalyseurs FT. Pour ces raisons, la purification des gaz de synthèse constitue un défi majeur pour le développement des procédés B-XTL. Dans cet article, nous présentons les principaux enjeux liés à la purification des gaz de synthèse. Les différents types d’impuretés pouvant être présentes dans les gaz de synthèse sont présentées. L’influence de la nature de la charge, des technologies de gazéification ainsi que des conditions opératoires associées sur la nature des impuretés et leurs teneurs relatives est discutée. Une attention particulière est portée au devenir des composés soufrés, azotés, des halogènes, métaux lourds et métaux de transition. Les principales technologies de purification des gaz de synthèse (adsorption, absorption, réactions catalytiques, etc. sont finalement décrites, ainsi que les défis associés.

  11. Some economic aspects of natural uranium graphite gas reactor types. Present status and trends of costs in France; Quelques aspects economiques de la filiere uranium naturel - Graphite - gaz. Etat actuel et tendance des couts en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaussens, J; Tanguy, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Leo, B [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    1964-07-01

    reduction in investment costs can be obtained without relying on fuel enrichment, and that this development is accompanied moreover by improvements in the operational safety of the reactor. The economic aspects of the main technical problems entailed by these developments are discussed: loading and unloading machines, blowers etc... (authors) [French] Dans une premiere partie, on situe l'interet economique de l'utilisation de l'uranium naturel comme combustible. Cet interet reside a la fois dans le nombre limite et la simplicite relative des operations de mise en forme des elements combustibles, dans le faible cout du produit fini par kwh et dans les immobilisations modestes en capital qu'implique ce cycle par rapport ou cycle de l'uranium enrichi. Tous ces elements permettent de reduire le caractere aleatoire des evaluations des couts, particulierement marque dans le cas de l'uranium enrichi, en raison de la complexite de son cycle et des incertitudes concernant le prix du plutonium. Enfin, la diversite des sources d'approvisionnement en concentre d'uranium naturel opposee au quasi monopole actuel de la separation isotopique, et le faible cout du stockage de ce concentre, offrent des garanties en matiere de securite d'approvisionnement et d'independance economique et politique appreciables par rapport a l'uranium enrichi. En ce qui concerne l'ensemble des capitaux immobilises, on montre que si le cout des centrales au graphite-gaz est plus eleve que celui des centrales eau legere pour certaines gammes de puissance, ce resultat est fortement nuance des que l'on fait intervenir dans un souci d'independance nationale le cout de l'equipement de production des combustibles de l'une et l'autre filiere. Enfin, le cout marginal de la puissance du reacteur au graphite est faible, ses limitations technologiques ont considerablement recule (grace en particulier a l'utilisation du beton precontraint). On sait que la tendance actuelle est a l'accroissement de la puissance unitaire des

  12. Gaz de France. 2006 reference document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document was issued by Gaz de France, the French gas utility, at the occasion of the opening of the capital of the company. It is intended to shareholders and presents the relevant informations relative to the annual consolidated financial statements of the group according to IFRS and French standards for the year 2005 (selected financial information, business overview, liquidity and capital resources, profit forecasts or estimates, compensation and benefits, issuer assets etc..). It includes also some complementary information about the activities of the group, its estate property, plants and equipments, its R and D and patenting activities, its management and administration, its 2005 and 2006 contracts etc.. (J.S.)

  13. Fuel location, homogeneity and amount in flat and tubular configurations; Repartition, Homogeneite et Quantite du Combustible dans les Elements a Configuration Plate ou Tubulaire; Polozhenie, gomogennost' i kolichestvo topliva v ploskikh i trubchatykh konfiguratsiyakh; Disposicion, Homogeneidad y Cantidad de Combustibles en Configuraciones Planas y Tubulares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meester, P. de [Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie, Mol (Belgium)

    1965-10-15

    standards are considered. Accuracy and elimination of errors are discussed. Some possible future improvements in the tests are proposed. (author) [French] Les elements combustibles pour le reacteur d'essai de materiaux BR-2 peuvent etre-realises, soit avec des plaques obtenues par cadrages, soit avec des tubes obtenus par coextrusion. Au cours de la fabrication et avant le chargement dans le reacteur, il faut verifier ou mesurer la repartition, l'homogeneite et la quantite du combustible. Il faut connaitre la repartition du combustible pour le positionnement de l'ame dans les plaques et tubes ainsi que pour une premiere evaluation qualitative du produit du point de vue des specifications geometriques. On a procede a des radiographies 3 80-90 keV, ainsi qu'a des autoradiographies et gammagraphies avec une source au thulium-170. Pour l'examen radiographique des tubes de combustible, on a introduit dans le tube un mandrin en plomb auquel etait fixe un film sensible aux rayons X , puis on a fait des radiographies sous divers angles. En utilisant une source radioactive se deplacant le long de l'axe du tube et un film place autour du tube, on a obtenu des enregistrements avec un tres bon contraste. Il faut controler l'homogeneite du combustible pour assurer la securite du fonctionnement du reacteur, c'est-a-dire pour eviter toute concentration excessive de combustible pouvant donner lieu a des formations de vapeur pendant le fonctionnement du reacteur et pour garantir que le chargement de combustible est suffisant et regulierement reparti. On peut faire appel a des radiographies en vue d'une verification visuelle. Cependant, s'il est necessaire de faire une analyse quantitative, il est preferable d'utiliser un spectrometre g a m m a a scintillation permettant de mesurer le rayonnement propre emis par l'uranium-235. Le memoire contient une' analyse des resultats obtenus pour quelque 400 plaques de combustible et pour un premier lot de tubes de combustible. Il est possible de

  14. Nitrous Oxide from Combustion and Industry: Chemistry, Emissions and Control Protoxyde d'azote provenant de la combustion et de l'industrie : chimie, émissions et techniques de réduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Soete G.

    2006-11-01

    'oxygène (fig. 7; en règle générale la réduction hétérogène du N2O sur carbone est plus rapide que celle du NO (fig. 4. La production de NO et de N2O, à partir des atomes d'azote constitutifs des cokes, se déroule parallèlement et proportionnellement à l'oxydation du carbone constitutif avec l'oxygène comme co-réactif (fig. 5 et 6 ; la fraction d'azote constitutif transformée en N2O et NO à la fin de la combustion rend également compte de la réduction concomitante de ces deux espèces sur le carbone constitutif, et montre une dépendance par rapport à la nature du combustible (tableau 2. Un mécanisme adsorptionnel/désorptionnel global est présenté (tableau 3. L'addition de carbonate de calcium aux combustibles solides, particulièrement efficace pour la capture du SO2 dans les lits fluidisés, peut indirectement contribuer à la formation de N2O : le sulfate de calcium ainsi obtenu est partiellement réduit par le carbone solide, avec la possibilité de s'oxyder de nouveau avec le NO, transformant ce dernier en N2O (tableau 4; fig. 8 à 10. La réduction hétérogène, catalytique du NO est une source potentielle non négligeable de protoxyde d'azote. En milieu réducteur elle est utilisée pour la destruction du NO dans les gaz d'échappement des moteurs à allumage commandé (catalyseurs trois-voies, utilisant principalement des métaux précieux. Basé sur des essais de laboratoire (fig. 11 un mécanisme global est présenté (fig. 12. Avec l'age du catalyseur, les phénomènes de la réduction du NO et de la formation de N2O à partir de ce dernier, se déplacent vers des températures progressivement plus élevées (fig. 13, expliquant l'accroissement des émissions de protoxyde d'azote. En milieu oxydant on a recours à des gaz réducteurs plus sélectifs vis à vis du NO : l'ammoniac (cas des catalyseurs SCR pour le traitement des fumées ou des hydrocarbures (envisagés pour la réduction catalytique du NO dans les gaz d'échappement des moteurs

  15. Impact environnemental d'une désulfuration poussée des gazoles Environmental Impact of Gaz Oil Desulfurization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armengol C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available En une dizaine d'années, le diesel a connu un développement spectaculaire sur les marchés automobile français et européen et pourrait atteindre, en 1995, la moitié des immatriculations de véhicules particuliers en France et le quart en Europe de l'Ouest. Cette situation n'est évidemment pas sans poser de problèmes. Problèmes environnementaux puisque le moteur diesel est une source plus importante d'émissions d'oxydes d'azote et de particules que le convertisseur essence, mais également au niveau de l'industrie du raffinage qui, en France, n'est plus en mesure de satisfaire la demande en gazole. De plus, à compter du 1er octobre 1996, la teneur en soufre du gazole routier ne devra pas excéder 0,05 %, conformément aux nouvelles spécifications européennes. Cette perspective de production de carburants fortement désulfurés va affecter directement l'équilibre en hydrogène de la raffinerie et donc les autoconsommations et les émissions de CO2. L'objectif de cette étude est de mesurer l'impact sur l'environnement d'une réduction de la teneur en soufre des gazoles de 0,3 à 0,05 %. Le bilan est réalisé sur l'ensemble de la filière énergétique, depuis l'extraction du pétrole jusqu'à la combustion du carburant dans le moteur. Les gains et les pertes en termes de pollution locale ou globale sont évalués suivant la nature de l'hydrogène utilisé (oxydation partielle de résidus sous vide ou de charbon, reformage à la vapeur de gaz naturel ou de naphta électrolyse et la nature de la charge à traiter (gazole straight run ou light cycle oil lors de l'hydrodésulfuration. Over the past decade, diesel had made large advances in the French and European automobile markets. In 1995, diesel could account for half of all private vehicle registrations in France, and a quarter in Western Europe. This situation inevitably raises a number of problems : environmental problems, because the diesel engine emits more nitrogen oxides and

  16. Combustion of Solid Propellants (La Combustion des Propergols Solides)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-01

    the of ether and ethyl alcohol and removing objective of these lectures to give a this solvent. Instead of having a fibrous comprehensive understanding...do cetto esrne do Les propergols composites, A matrice confifrences une description tout A fait A polymarique charg~o pst, un oxydant at un jour des...rusa., De nouveaux souvant suppos6 qua la vitesa des gaz de oxydes de for ultrafirts mont aujourd’hui combustion est n~gligeable at qua d~velopps pour

  17. Gaz de France interim financial report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This financial report contains the unaudited condensed financial statements of Gaz de France Group for the first half ended June 30, 2007, which were reviewed by the audit committee on August 27, 2007 and by the board of directors at its meeting on August 28, 2007. It includes forward-looking statements concerning the objectives, strategies, financial position, future operating results and the operations of Gaz de France Group. These statements reflect the Group's current perception of its activities and the markets in which it operates, as well as various estimates and assumptions considered to be reasonable. Content: interim management report (highlights of the first half of 2007, revenues and results for the period, financial structure, data on outstanding stock, outlook); interim consolidated financial statements (consolidated statements of income, consolidated balance sheets, consolidated statements of cash flows, recognized income and expenses, statements of changes in shareholders' equity, note to the consolidated financial statements); statement by the person responsible for the interim financial report; statutory auditors' report. (J.S.)

  18. Gaz de France 2006 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Gaz de France is major European energy utility, which produces, purchases, transports, distributes and sells natural gas, electricity and related services for its residential, corporate and local government customers. Its strategic focuses are to develop an ambitious marketing strategy, pursue a supply and procurement policy that guarantees the Group's competitiveness, confirm its position as a benchmark infrastructure manager, and speed up its profitable growth in Europe. Gaz de France aligns its strategy with a concrete and ambitious sustainable development policy. Its growth model is based on responsiveness to customers and constructive dialogue with its employees and partners. This document is the activity report of the group for the year 2006. It presents: 1 - the corporate profile of the group; 2 - its strategies (energy, energy supply, infrastructures); 3 - its financial highlights; 4 - its governance, shareholders and human resources; 5 - the activities of the group (exploration and production, energy procurement, energy sales, services, transmission France, storage France, LNG terminals, distribution France, transmission and distribution international, research and development); 6 - its 2006 financial data and financial summary

  19. Gaz de France and the sustainable development in 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This booklet provides information on the Gaz de France group involvement in the sustainable development: the stakes, the approach, the energy challenge answers, the security and the solidarity and the active part in the territories development. (A.L.B.)

  20. Gaz de France annual report 2000; Gaz de France rapport annuel 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    A leader in the natural gas market in Europe, Gaz de France is an integrated group active in all sectors of the natural gas industry. In exploration and production, trading of natural gas, transmission, storage, distribution, energy management, air conditioning and heating, the Group has developed recognized skills and know-how both upstream and down to assure its customers of diversified, efficient and competitive services. A leader in liquefied natural gas, storage and distribution technologies, the Gaz de France Group has strong positions in Europe and operates throughout the world by promoting a strategy of alliances and partnerships at all levels of the gas industry. The goal of the Gaz de France Group is to continue to expand and develop its activities from the wellhead to the burner tip, and to seize, in France and throughout the world, the best opportunities offered to capitalize on its strengths. This activity report presents: the corporate profile, the financial highlights, the principal subsidiaries and affiliates, the major European trunk lines the responsive, customer-focused services (exploration-production, trading, transmission, distribution, services), the actions to ensure performance (productive research, comprehensive quality assurance, mobilized workforce ready for the opening of the markets)

  1. Gaz de France 2006 sustainable development report; Gaz de France 2006 rapport developpement durable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    A major European energy utility, the Gaz de France Group produces, purchases, transports, distributes and sells natural gas, electricity and related services for its residential, corporate and local government customers. this report presents the actions implemented by the group to incorporate sustainable development into its strategy. From the point of view of risks and opportunities, the group analyzes what it takes to ensure development that respects people and the environment, and it implements them in all its business lines and management systems. Content: Gaz de France, portrait of a major energy utility, highlights of 2006, challenges and strategy (defining strategy and sustainable development policy, specific risks and opportunities, activities of the Gaz de France group: challenges, impact for stakeholders, transparency and independence in governing), ranking and implementing (defining sustainable development policy: reviewing priorities, meeting all the challenges, publicizing and defending positions, increasing awareness, overseeing and monitoring results), results of the 2004-2006 sustainable development action plan, dialogue and action with stakeholders, performance assessment, performance in response to challenges: energy challenges (guaranteeing regular supplies, controlling atmospheric emissions, promoting energy conservation, developing renewable energy), industrial challenges (ensuring health and safety, limiting the overall environmental impact of group activities), social responsibility challenges (advocating corporate social responsibility, promoting human rights and fighting corruption, encouraging commitment to solidarity, promoting regional development through local initiatives, reconciling acquisitions, procurement and sustainable development, ensuring transparency in natural gas rates, providing shareholders with quality information, promoting diversity, a source of enrichment, making working conditions a performance factor), indicators and

  2. Gaz de France and the sustainable development in 2005; Gaz de France et le developpement durable en 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This booklet provides information on the Gaz de France group involvement in the sustainable development: the stakes, the approach, the energy challenge answers, the security and the solidarity and the active part in the territories development. (A.L.B.)

  3. Research on hydrogen by Gaz de France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donat, G.; Lecoanet, A.; Roncato, J.-P.

    1978-01-01

    With the increasing energy needs of mankind and the earth's necessarily limited resources of fuel, the time will come when the demand for hydrocarbons will exceed the world production capacity. This situation will subsequently get even worse because of the depletion of recoverable reserves. Massive recourse to nuclear and solar energy thus appears indispensable, and the use of hydrogen as a vector for such energies has been under consideration for several years, especially in France where petroleum resources are very limited. Gaz de France has been doing research on the mass production of hydrogen by the decomposition of water and has just come to rather pessimistic conclusions as to the competitiveness of thermochemical processes in comparison with electrolytic methods. However, the electrolysis of water offers interesting prospects providing its efficiency and economics can be improved. Furthermore research on the storage and transportation of hydrogen has already enabled some conclusions to be drawn in these fields where gaseous vectors have very encouraging possibilities [fr

  4. Processing Th C{sub 2} - UC{sub 2} fuel extracted from high temperature reactors HTGCR; Etude du traitement des combustibles Th C{sub 2} - UC{sub 2} issus de reacteurs a haute temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derrien, C; Lessart, P; Pianezza, E; Verry, C; Villain, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    The object of this investigation is solubilisation head-end (from crushing and grinding phase to non included first purification phase) of pulverulent ({sup 233}U/{sup 232}Th)C{sub 2} (200 - 500 microns diameter) contained in a graphite matrix extracted from a 4.10{sup 13} n.cm{sup -2}.s{sup -1} thermalized neutrons average flux with an irradiation of 80000 MWjT{sup -1} HTGCR reactor. After having succinctly described different bibliographic processes we have chosen the burn - leach of reactor fuel and graphite matrix containing it. The technology of burner is original in nuclear field and still more by utilizing ultra-sounds to intensify burning reaction and to minimize the weight of unburnables. The mixture of ThO{sub 2}, U{sub 3}O{sub 8}, and fission products oxides is solubilized by boiling HNO{sub 3} 13 M + HF 0.05 M. This process is profit-learning in a thorium recuperation and reprocessing point of view. In the contrary-case it would be interesting to consider a dry-process which would permit to separate solid ThF{sub 4} from gaseous UF{sub 6}. (authors) [French] Cette etude a pour objet le traitement initial de mise en solution ou 'head-end' (allant de la phase broyag-concassage a la phase de premiere purification exclue) d'un combustible ({sup 233}U/{sup 232}Th)C{sub 2} pulverulent (de 200 a 500 {mu} de diametre) contenu dans une matrice de graphite issu d'un reacteur HTGCR surgenerateur a neutrons thermiques de flux moyen 4. l0{sup 13} n.cm{sup -2}.s{sup -1} et taux d'irradiation 80000 MWjT{sup -1}. Apres exposition succincte des differents procedes bibliographiques decrits, nous avons finalement choisi le traitement par combustion-attaque ('Burn-Leach') du combustible et de la matrice etanche graphite qui le contient. La technologie du bruleur est originale dans le domaine nucleaire d'autant qu'elle utilise les ultra-sons pour ameliorer le rendement de la reaction de combustion et reduire au minimum le poids des imbrules. Le melange ThO{sub 2}, U{sub 3}O

  5. Methods for continuous or semi-continuous analysis of gases dissolved in pressurized water; Methodes d'analyses continue et semi-continue de gaz dissous dans l'eau surpressee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vignet, P; Gabilly, R; Lutz, J; Zermizogilou, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    }/kg of water. (authors) [French] Trois appareils ont ete mis au point pour permettre la mesure de gaz en solution dans l'eau sous une pression pouvant atteindre 200 kg/cm{sup 2}. 1 - Analyseur d'hydrogene: On mesure la variation relative de resistance d'un filament immerge dans l'eau, constitue par du palladium pur ou par un alliage palladium-platine 75.25, lors de l'absorption de l'hydrogene. On a trace les courbes d'etalonnage pour un fil de palladium pour des temperatures allant de 180 a 280 deg. C. A temperature ambiante, on a utilise un ruban en alliage palladium-platine. L'etude theorique et experimentale de la cinetique d'absorption de l'hydrogene dissous dans l'eau par un metal a permis de definir les meilleures conditions de fonctionnement de l'analyseur pour obtenir une reponse rapide, de l'ordre de quelques minutes. On utilise actuellement pour la mesure un pont alimente en courant alternatif (pont de Kohlrausch) avec compensation de temperature et systeme de regeneration periodique du filament. 2 - Analyseur d'oxygene: On sait que l'oxygene dissous dans l'eau reagit sur le thallium pour former l'hydroxyde de thallium, compose soluble dont la presence augmente la conductibilite electrique de l'eau. Pour realiser une methode de dosage basee sur ce principe, on a mis au point un conductimetre differentiel dont les caracteristiques permettent d'atteindre une excellente precision dans une gamme de 0,001 ppm a quelques dizaines de ppm d'oxygene. On examine dans quelles conditions le bruit de fond de l'appareil, du a des reactions parasites, peut etre rendu negligeable; puis on etudie la cinetique de la reaction d'oxydation du thallium par l'oxygene dissous, qui est de type diffusionnel. On a ainsi pu relier quantitativement le taux de transformation aux parametres physiques et hydrodynamiques. 3 - Analyse globale des gaz en solution: On isole, dans une bombe placee en derivation sur un circuit surpresse un volume d'eau a pression et temperature elevees. Apres

  6. Modernization of the gas utility; La modernisation du service public du gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    After a large discussion, the project of law for the modernization of the French gas utility and for the development of gas companies was finally adopted by the government on May 17, 2000. This legislative project aims at modernizing and strengthening the gas public utility and adapting the gas sector to the progressive opening of this market to international competition with keeping up the quality and security of supplies and the position of French gas operators. (J.S.)

  7. Report made on behalf of the commission of economic affairs, environment and territory about the law project (no. 1613), relative to the electric and gas public utilities and to the power and gas companies; Rapport fait au nom de la Commission des affaires economiques, de l'environnement et du territoire sur le projet de loi (no. 1613), relatif au service public de l'electricite et du gaz et aux entreprises electriques et gazieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenoir, J.C.

    2004-06-01

    The aim of this report is to present to the French deputies the comments made by the commission of economic affairs, environment and territory about the law project relative to the change of status of the power and gas public utilities in the framework of the deregulation of European energy markets. This law changes the juridical status of the two state monopolies Electricite de France (EdF) and Gaz de France (GdF) into two anonymous companies and creates two additional companies for the management of the power and gas networks. It ensures also the transposition of the European directives from June 26, 2003 (2003/54/CE and 2003/55/CE). It contains some proper dispositions and modifies various existing French laws, in particular the law no. 46-628 from April 8, 1946 about the electricity and gas nationalization and the law no. 2000-108 from February 10, 2000 relative to the modernization and development of the electric public utility. The first part of the document reports on the general discussions about the law project while the second part makes a detailed analysis of each article with some proposals of modifications. A comparative table puts in parallel the existing texts, the law project and the proposals made by the commission. (J.S.)

  8. Advice presented on behalf of the commission of finances, economy and plan about the law project (no. 1613) relative to the electric and gas public utilities and to the power and gas companies; Avis presente au nom de la Commission des finances, de l'economie generale et du plan sur le projet de loi (no. 1613), relatif au service public de l'electricite et du gaz et aux entreprises electriques et gazieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carayon, B.

    2004-06-01

    The aim of this report is to present to the French deputies the advice of the commission of finances and economy about the law project relative to the change of status of the power and gas public utilities in the framework of the deregulation of European energy markets. This law changes the juridical status of the two state monopolies Electricite de France (EdF) and Gaz de France (GdF) into two anonymous companies and creates two additional companies for the management of the power and gas networks. It ensures also the transposition of the European directives from June 26, 2003 (2003/54/CE and 2003/55/CE). It contains some proper dispositions and modifies various existing French laws, in particular the law no. 46-628 from April 8, 1946 about the electricity and gas nationalization and the law no. 2000-108 from February 10, 2000 relative to the modernization and development of the electric public utility. The first part of the document reports on the general discussions and comments made by the commission about the law project while the second part concerns the detailed analysis of the articles 16 and 22 about the pension funds of EdF and GdF agents and the change of the status of both utilities. The amendments adopted by the commission for these articles conclude the report. (J.S.)

  9. Nouveaux critères pour juger de l'efficacité d'un fourneau à la combustion du charbon de bois

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndaysenga, M.

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available New Criteria to Judge Stove Efficiency in the Charcoal Combustion. The water boil test efficiency for choosing the most economic stove in combustion is estimated on the basis of four stoves. In addition to the heating and boiling energy usually considered as selection criterion, other criteria such as the boiling time and the combustion rate have been taken to indicate efficiency. Strangely, it appeared that the stove which maintains water at its boiling point for a long time and has the lowest combustion rate doesn 't valorize fuel energy efficiently if you only keep to the heating and boiling energy. The cooking test made it possible to explain that apparent contradiction : the fuel energy fraction which doesn't enter in the calculation of the heating and boiling energy isn't really lost. A low combustion rate associated with a long boiling time proved to be the best criteria of choosing the most economic stove in fuel. Therefore, the only water boil test doesn't make it possible to identify the most economically efficient stove. Resorting to the cooking test is compelling.

  10. Law project modified by the Senate after urgency declaration relative to the electric and gas public utilities and to the power and gas companies; Projet de loi modifie par le Senat apres declaration d'urgence relatif au service public de l'electricite et du gaz et aux entreprises electriques et gazieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This document is the modifications made by the French Senate after the first reading of the law project adopted by the House of Commons and relative to the change of status of the power and gas public utilities in the framework of the deregulation of European energy markets. This law changes the juridical status of the two state monopolies Electricite de France (EdF) and Gaz de France (GdF) into two anonymous companies and creates two additional companies for the management of the power and gas networks. It ensures also the transposition of the European directives from June 26, 2003 (2003/54/CE and 2003/55/CE). It contains some proper dispositions and modifies various existing French laws, in particular the law no. 46-628 from April 8, 1946 about the electricity and gas nationalization and the law no. 2000-108 from February 10, 2000 relative to the modernization and development of the electric public utility. The document lists the modifications made by the Senate article by article. (J.S.)

  11. Project of law modified by the Senate relative to the electric and gas public utilities and to the electric and gas companies; Projet de loi modifie par le Senat relatif au service public de l'electricite et du gaz et aux entreprises electriques et gazieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This project of law aims to adapt the electricity and gas sector to the new economical context of opening of the energy markets to competition. It gives to energy companies the internal organization base necessary to warrant a high level of service and a transparent and non-discriminatory access of third parties to transport and distribution networks. These evolutions will allow Electricite de France (EdF) and Gaz de France (GdF) companies to compete on equal terms with their European competitors. It confirms first the prime role of public utility of both companies and then transposes the dispositions of the European directives relative to the organization of EdF and GdF integrated companies. It foresees the creation of two daughter companies for the management of energy transport activities. The project of law foresees also the change of the status of EdF and GdF companies and the reform of the retirement pensions of the personnel. This report presents the modifications added by the Senate to the text of law adopted at first reading by the House of Commons. (J.S.)

  12. Gaz de France. 2006 reference document; Gaz de France. Document de reference 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This document was issued by Gaz de France, the French gas utility, at the occasion of the opening of the capital of the company. It is intended to shareholders and presents the relevant informations relative to the annual consolidated financial statements of the group according to IFRS and French standards for the year 2005 (selected financial information, business overview, liquidity and capital resources, profit forecasts or estimates, compensation and benefits, issuer assets etc..). It includes also some complementary information about the activities of the group, its estate property, plants and equipments, its R and D and patenting activities, its management and administration, its 2005 and 2006 contracts etc.. (J.S.)

  13. Contribution to the activation analysis of the rare gases. Contribution to the analysis of carbon monoxide and water vapour in gases (1963); Contribution a l'analyse par activation des gaz rares. Contribution a l'analyse de l'oxyde de carbone et de la vapeur d'eau dans les gaz (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diebolt, J [Commisariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-15

    In the present work, we have applied radioactive analysis to the general technique of rare gas separation. This separation is carried out on active charcoal, at constant pressure. The desorption of the gas is caused by an increase in the initial temperature of adsorption. These separations are quantitative and can be confirmed by chemical analysis. The volumes of desorbed gas are measured by radioactive counting. We have also used radioactivation to study the reduction of palladous chloride by carbon monoxide. Since this reduction is quantitative, we can have a knowledge of the mass of palladium reduced by measuring its activity. We have used the property which have organic chlorides of being hydrolysed by water vapour and of liberating hydrochloric acid to study quantitatively the amount of water vapour which a gas contains. The hydrochloric acid formed is measured by activation of the chlorine in the acid. (author) [French] Dans les travaux que nous presentons, nous avons applique l'analyse par radioactivation, a la technique generale de separation des gaz rares. Cette separation est faite sur charbon active, a pression constante. La desorption des gaz est provoquee par une augmentation de la temperature initiale d'adsorption. Ces separations sont quantitatives, et peuvent etre exploitees par l'analyse chimique. Les volumes de gaz dedorbes sont mesures par comptage de la radioactivite. Nous avons egalement utilise la radioactivation pour l'etude de la reduction du chlorure palladeux par l'oxyde de carbone. Cette reduction etant quantitative, nous pouvons connaitre la masse de palladium reduit par la mesure de son activite. Nous avons exploite la propriete que possede un chlorure organique d'etre hydrolise par la vapeur d'eau et de liberer de l'acide chlorhydrique pour etudier quantitativement la vapeur d'eau contenue dans un gaz. L'acide chlorhydrique forme est mesure par l'activation du chlore de l'acide. (auteur)

  14. Contribution of Gaz de France offers to the environmental quality of buildings; Les offres de Gaz de France au service de la qualite environnementale des batiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Cegibat, the information-recommendation agency of Gaz de France for building engineering professionals, has organized this conference meeting to present the contributions of Gaz de France offers in the improvement of the environmental quality of residential and tertiary buildings: environmental quality in France and in Europe, Gaz de France and the 'high environmental quality' (HQE) approach, experience feedback: combined solar-gas systems, examples of realizations. (J.S.)

  15. Experimental apparatus for in-pile studies of: creep of nuclear fuels, and Young's-modulus of structural materials; Dispositifs experimentaux pour etudes en pile du fluage des materiaux combustibles, et du module d'elasticite des materiaux de structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautier, A; Le Bret, P; Alfille, L; Pesenti, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    Creep test under compression: the apparatus described allows to study, in an horizontal beam hole of a research reactor such as EL2, the creep behaviour of nuclear fuel samples under neutron flux. The maximum stress applied on the specimens is a constant compression chooses between 0.200 and 0.400 kg/mm{sup 2} (285 psi and 570 psi). - Young's Modulus measurement: in another horizontal beam hole of such a reactor, an apparatus allows to study the irradiation effect on Young's Modulus of a structural material specimen. (author)Fren. [French] Essai de fluage en compression: l'appareillage decrit permet d'etudier, dans un canal horizontal d'une pile experimentale type EL2, le fluage en compression d'eprouvettes de materiaux fissiles sous le flux de neutrons, sous une contrainte maximum de 500 g/mm{sup 2}. - Mesure du module d'Young: dans un canal identique au precedent, un appareillage permet de suivre l'influence du rayonnement sur le module d'elasticite d'une eprouvette d'un materiau de structure. (auteur)

  16. Gaz de France 2006 annual report; Gaz de France 2006 rapport d'activite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Gaz de France is major European energy utility, which produces, purchases, transports, distributes and sells natural gas, electricity and related services for its residential, corporate and local government customers. Its strategic focuses are to develop an ambitious marketing strategy, pursue a supply and procurement policy that guarantees the Group's competitiveness, confirm its position as a benchmark infrastructure manager, and speed up its profitable growth in Europe. Gaz de France aligns its strategy with a concrete and ambitious sustainable development policy. Its growth model is based on responsiveness to customers and constructive dialogue with its employees and partners. This document is the activity report of the group for the year 2006. It presents: 1 - the corporate profile of the group; 2 - its strategies (energy, energy supply, infrastructures); 3 - its financial highlights; 4 - its governance, shareholders and human resources; 5 - the activities of the group (exploration and production, energy procurement, energy sales, services, transmission France, storage France, LNG terminals, distribution France, transmission and distribution international, research and development); 6 - its 2006 financial data and financial summary.

  17. Gaz de France and market regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carriere, J.F.; Balard, Th.

    2004-01-01

    Following an overview of the specific features of the European gas sector (characterised by highly concentrated production and increasing levels of production outside Europe and over long distances), the article describes the lead up to the opening of the market place in France. Following the application of the first directive in 2000, Gaz de France has carried out various measures, the aim of which was to achieve immediate efficiency (with the organizational separation of the transport and trading divisions, the separation of activities from an accounting viewpoint and the publication of a transparent TPA tariff as opposed to a discriminatory one). This opening of the gas sector has seen the start of a gradual process based on this experience. In addition to these initial measures, the opening of the gas markets has been subject to a regulatory framework as from January 2003, and the task of regulating the French gas sector has been given to the CRE (Commission de regulation de l'electricite). Thanks to the ongoing dialogue initiated by the latter with all key players in the market, progress has been achieved in various fields related to regulation. Even if this process is not complete, the French example demonstrates that the combined actions of the regulator and the market operators working together in a constructive manner and in stages, makes it possible to successfully introduce a genuinely open market. (authors)

  18. Gaz de France: first half 2007 results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Paris, 29 August 2007, Gaz de France Group presents its first half 2007 results (billion euros): Sales revenue 13.78 (-11% with respect to 2006), EBITDA 3.11 (-4.9%), Operating income 2.33 ( -8.7%), Net income Group share 1.51 (-11%), Net income Group share per share 1.53 euro (-11%). The half-year results are attributable primarily to three factors: - A very difficult environment with exceptionally mild climate conditions in the first half, impacting nearly all of the businesses, and unfavourable market conditions, reflected in particular in the low gas prices on the markets; - A tariff context which did not negatively impact the sales margins following a very difficult year 2006; - Good performance in international activities. Despite the environment, the Group is maintaining its financial target for 2007, as announced in March this year: 2007 will be a year of consolidation. EBITDA is expected to be in line with that of 2006. This target assumes average climate conditions during the second half 2007.

  19. Gaz de France: first half 2007 results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Paris, 29 August 2007, Gaz de France Group presents its first half 2007 results (billion euros): Sales revenue 13.78 (-11% with respect to 2006), EBITDA 3.11 (-4.9%), Operating income 2.33 ( -8.7%), Net income Group share 1.51 (-11%), Net income Group share per share 1.53 euro (-11%). The half-year results are attributable primarily to three factors: - A very difficult environment with exceptionally mild climate conditions in the first half, impacting nearly all of the businesses, and unfavourable market conditions, reflected in particular in the low gas prices on the markets; - A tariff context which did not negatively impact the sales margins following a very difficult year 2006; - Good performance in international activities. Despite the environment, the Group is maintaining its financial target for 2007, as announced in March this year: 2007 will be a year of consolidation. EBITDA is expected to be in line with that of 2006. This target assumes average climate conditions during the second half 2007

  20. A Study on the Role of Reaction Modeling in Multi-phase CFD-based Simulations of Chemical Looping Combustion; Impact du modele de reaction sur les simulations CFD de la combustion en boucle chimique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruggel-Emden, H.; Stepanek, F. [Department of Chemical Engineering, South Kensington Campus, Imperial College London, SW7 2AZ, London (United Kingdom); Kruggel-Emden, H.; Munjiza, A. [Department of Engineering, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, E1 4NS, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-15

    Chemical Looping Combustion is an energy efficient combustion technology for the inherent separation of carbon dioxide for both gaseous and solid fuels. For scale up and further development of this process multi-phase CFD-based simulations have a strong potential which rely on kinetic models for the solid/gaseous reactions. Reaction models are usually simple in structure in order to keep the computational cost low. They are commonly derived from thermogravimetric experiments. With only few CFD-based simulations performed on chemical looping combustion, there is a lack in understanding of the role and of the sensitivity of the applied chemical reaction model on the outcome of a simulation. The aim of this investigation is therefore the study of three different carrier materials CaSO{sub 4}, Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} and NiO with the gaseous fuels H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} in a batch type reaction vessel. Four reaction models namely the linear shrinking core, the spherical shrinking core, the Avrami-Erofeev and a recently proposed multi parameter model are applied and compared on a case by case basis. (authors)

  1. Unconventional Gas Resources in the Paleozoic of Central Europe Ressources de gaz non conventionnels dans le Paléozoïque de l’Europe Centrale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Littke R.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Whereas gas production from unconventional reserves has greatly increased over the past decades, there is still a largely unexplored potential in the Paleozoic of Central Europe. For this area, the paper summarizes some important aspects of the geology of tight sandstone gas reservoirs, gas shales and coalbed methane. Tight sandstones with low permeabilities are especially present in the Permian (Rotliegend Formation of The Netherlands and northern Germany, but also in the underlying Carboniferous. There is already active production from some of these reservoirs. Further development greatly depends on understanding of gas charge as well as the regional distribution of porosity and permeability which in turn depend on facies and diagenesis. In contrast exploration for gas shales is just at the very beginning. Whereas Mesozoic shales in the southern Lower Saxony Basin have to be regarded as prime targets due to thickness, maturity and organic matter content, there are additional targets in the Mississippian, but also in older rocks. Currently an international gas shale research programme (Gas shales in Europe, GASH gathers relevant data for these units. Coalbed methane exploration started already about 20 years ago in the Ruhr Basin, but was not successful at that time due to small flow rates. On the other hand, production from abandoned coal mines provided substantial amounts of gas. Due to the abundance of coal seams and the suitable maturity conditions and gas contents, there is a high potential for future substantial coalbed methane in the area. Alors que l’extraction du gaz naturel des gisements non conventionnels a fortement augmenté ces dernières dizaines d’années, un large potentiel de ressources reste inexploré dans les couches paléozoïques de l’Europe Centrale. Cet article présente, pour cette région, quelques aspects importants de la géologie des grès de faible perméabilité (tight gas sands, des gaz de schiste (gas

  2. OPERATION DU FOISONNEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Djelveh

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Mousses alimentaires sont un sous-ensemble des aliments connus sous le nom de produits fouettés ou des produits aérés. Ils sont des produits formulés avec des qualités telles que la légèreté et la souplesse et sont principalement consommés à l'apéritif ou au dessert. Les produits en mousse obtenue par dispersion d'un gaz dans une matrice alimentaire (la phase continue ont connu un développement croissant au cours des années 80 et 90. Le processus d'aération liés à leurs activités de production est appelée l'expansion ou à fouetter. Le document présente les principaux-paramètres du procédé du point permanent de la formulation, la mise en œuvre processus dans les installations pilotes et à l'échelle industrielle, la caractérisation des produits finis, la base énergétique de l'échelle de processus en place, et le lien entre la formulation, émulsion préparation de l'expansion. Cette vue d'ensemble de l'opération d'expansion continue, nous a permis de mettre en évidence le fait qu'il ya des opérations de l'unité encore mal décrite par le génie des procédés et pour lesquels les méthodes et outils pour l'extrapolation et la prédiction sont encore à leurs balbutiements.

  3. A Physics and Tabulated Chemistry Based Compression Ignition Combustion Model: from Chemistry Limited to Mixing Limited Combustion Modes Un modèle de combustion à allumage par compression basé sur la physique et la chimie tabulée : des modes de combustion contrôlés par la chimie jusqu’aux modes contrôlés par le mélange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bordet N.

    2011-11-01

    experimental measurements carried out on a 2 liter Renault Diesel engine and good agreements are found. Ce papier présente une nouvelle approche 0D phénoménologique pour prédire le déroulement de la combustion dans les moteurs Diesel à injection directe pour toutes les conditions d’utilisation usuelles. Le but de ce travail est de développer une approche physique en vue d’améliorer la prédiction de la pression cylindre et du dégagement d’énergie, avec un nombre minimum d’essais nécessaires à la calibration. Les contributions principales de cette étude sont la modélisation de la phase de pré-mélange de la combustion et une extension du modèle pour les stratégies d’injections multiples. Dans ce modèle, le taux de dégagement d’énergie dû à la combustion pour la phase pré-mélangée est relié à un taux de réaction moyen du carburant. Ce taux de réaction moyen de carburant est évalué à l’aide d’une approche basée sur un taux de réaction local de carburant tabulé et la détermination d’une fonction de densité de probabilité (PDF de la fraction de mélange (Z. Cette PDF permet de prendre en compte la distribution de richesse existante dans la zone pré-mélangée. L’allure de cette PDF présumée est une β-fonction standardisée. Les fluctuations de la fraction de mélange sont décrites avec une équation de transport pour la variance de Z. La définition standard de la fraction de mélange, établie dans le cas de flammes de diffusion, est ici adaptée à une combustion pré-mélangée de type Diesel pour décrire l’inhomogénéité de la richesse dans le volume de contrôle. La chimie détaillée est décrite au travers de la tabulation du taux de réaction relatif à la flamme principale et du délai d’auto-inflammation relatif à la flamme froide, ces tabulations sont fonction de la variable d’avancement c, du taux de gaz brûlé ainsi que des grandeurs thermodynamiques telles que la température et la pression. Le

  4. Accidental behaviour of nuclear fuel in a warehousing site under air: investigation of the nuclear ceramic oxidation and of fission gas release; Comportement accidentel du combustible nucleaire dans un site d'entreposage sous air: Etude de l'oxydation de la ceramique nucleaire et du relachement des gaz de fission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desgranges, L.

    2006-12-15

    After a brief presentation of the context of his works, i.e. the nuclear fuel, its behaviour in a nuclear reactor, and studies performed in high activity laboratory, the author more precisely presents its research topic: the behaviour of defective nuclear fuel in air. Then, he describes the researches performed in three main directions: firstly, the characterization and understanding of fission gas localisation (experimental localisation, understanding of the bubble forming mechanisms), secondly, the determination of mechanisms related to oxidation (atomic mechanisms related to UO{sub 2} oxidation, oxidation of fragments of irradiated fuel, the CROCODILE installation). He finally presents his scientific project which notably deals with fission gas release (from UO{sub 2} to U{sub 3}O{sub 7}, and from U{sub 3}O{sub 7} to U{sub 3}O{sub 8}), and with further high activity laboratory experiments

  5. Formation and destruction mechanisms of nitrogen oxides during coal combustion in circulating fluidized beds; Mecanismes de formation et de destruction des oxydes d`azote lors de la combustion du charbon en lit fluidise circulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borrel, G.; Lecuyer, I. [Universite du Haut-Rhin, 68 - Mulhouse (France)

    1997-01-01

    Formation and reduction of nitrogen oxides (NO and N{sub 2}O) during coal combustion in a circulating fluidized bed (CFBC) are very complicated and yet badly known. The aim of the present study was to better characterize these phenomena on a small-sized experimental unit (reactor diameter: 5 cm), with the possibility to re-inject the solids in the bottom of the furnace, as in a real industrial unit. This should allow then to develop a numerical set of chemical reactions involving the nitrogen oxides. The experimental results showed that coal ash plays a great role in reducing nitrogen oxides, the determining parameter being the quantity of unburnt carbon remaining in the ash. The study then detailed the interaction between nitrogen oxides and de-volatilized (char) according to the temperature, NO{sub x} concentration and the mass of solid. In the absence of oxygen small quantities of char can very significantly reduce NO as well as N{sub 2}O. It was possible to establish destruction kinetics on these particles, and orders of reaction could be determined versus the NO{sub x} concentration and the char particle mass (heterogeneous phase chemical reactions). Then, the coal pyrolysis study enabled to identify the products released during coal devolatilization and thermogravimetric analyses displayed several successive weight losses due CO, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} releases, during a linear temperature increase. Lastly coal combustion was studied in the small pilot with variable experimental conditions. Using the previous experimental was studied in the small pilot with variable experimental conditions. Using the previous experimental results, a model was developed to calculate NO{sub x} concentrations during the coal combustion and validated. The NO and N{sub 2}O contents calculated are thoroughly correlated with the experimental data whatever the injection carbon/oxygen ratio is. (author) 96 refs.

  6. High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Critical Experiment and its Application to Thorium Absorption Rates; Experience Critique pour l'Etude d'un Reacteur a Haute Temperature, Refroidi par un Gaz et son Application a la Determination des Taux d'Absorption du Thorium; Kriticheskij opyt, postavlennyj na vysokotemperaturnom reaktore s gazovym okhlazhdeniem, i primenenie ego dlya opredeleniya stepeni pogloshcheniya toriya; Experimento Critico Efectuado en un Reactor de Elevada Temperatura Refrigerado por Gas y su Aplicacion para Calcular los Indices de Absorcion del Torio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardes, R. G.; Brown, J. R.; Drake, M. K.; Fischer, P. U.; Pound, D. C.; Sampson, J. B.; Stewart, H. B. [General Dynamics Corporation,San Diego, CA (United States)

    1964-04-15

    the fact that the thorium is dispersed in graphite and the usual cadmium-ratio technique is difficult to apply. Comparison of experimental and theoretical results shows excellent agreement over a range of variables. In addition, the results of both activation and reactivity measurements of Doppler coefficient are in agreement, a fact which is felt to be significant in view of the disparity between results from these two techniques in the literature. (author) [French] Lors de l'etude du reacteur HTGR a haute temperature refroidi par un gaz, et de son premier prototype a Peach Bottom, la General Atomic Division de la societe General Dynamics a decide qu'il fallait proceder a une experience critique pour obtenir certaines donnees d'entree necessaires pour l'analyse nucleaire. Aux fins de l'etude nucleaire theorique, les besoins particuliers en donnees d'entree relatives aux absorptions par le thorium ont amene les ingenieurs a concevoir un assemblage experimental critique compose d'un reseau central entoure d*une region tampon et d'une region de commande. Ce type.d'assemblage, dans lequel on peut creer le spectre a mesurer dans le reseau central relativement petit ayant la geometrie voulue, permet d'obtenir des donnees d'entree tres diverses pour les etudes de projets nouveaux, au point de vue de l'analyse nucleaire. Le memoire indique les avantages particuliers que presente cette methode par rapport a celle qiu consiste a construire une maquette, ainsi que le role de la theorie pour determiner quelles experiences sont le plus utiles et comment utiliser ensuite ces experiences dans la verification des procedes d'etude. Les auteurs ont mis au point deux methodes relativement nouvelles qui peuvent etre utilisees avec l'assemblage decrit ci-dessus: une methode d'oscillation de la reactivite pour determiner le coefficient Doppler pour le thorium; une methode d'activation pour determiner a la fois l'integrale de resonance pour le thorium disperse dans le graphite et ses

  7. L'évolution des combustibles pour moteurs thermiques Evolution of Fuels for Thermal Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaceanu J. C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Depuis la crise pétrolière, l'accroissement des prix et les craintes de pénurie ont conduit à adapter les moteurs aux combustibles disponibles. Si la situation apparaît comme moins tendue, l'industrie des machines thermiques, qui pendant longtemps a eu comme partenaire une industrie du pétrole très sûre, se trouve cependant confrontée à un marché des combustibles incertain dans son ravitaillement et surtout dans ses prix. Les progrès des moteurs diesel et des turbines à gaz, dûs à une meilleure adaptation à leur usage et aussi à l'évolution de la technologie, supposent que les combustibles n'apporteront aucune contrainte majeure en quantité ou en qualité. La modification des usages dévolus désormais au pétrole entraînera une réduction de la coupe lourde et un raffinage plus profond des bruts avec en particulier un développement du craquage catalytique et de la viscoréduction. Or, ces différentes opérations de conversion peuvent conduire à une détérioration de la qualité des combustibles moins grave pour le gazole que pour le fuel lourd. Dans les différents domaines impliqués, les parades technologiques sont en cours de développement. L'industrie des machines thermiques, qui poursuit l'amélioration des engins, et l'industrie du pétrole, qui recherche une réduction des prix des combustibles, sont donc conduites à un compromis optimal auquel elles ne peuvent accéder efficacement qu'en définissant les règles du jeu c'est-à-dire des spécifications internationales rigoureuses des combustibles. Since the oil crisis, the increase in prices and fears of a shortage have led to the adapting of engines to what fuels are available. Whereas the situation now seems somewhat less tense, the thermal machinery industry, which for a long time had a very reliable petroleum industry as its partner, nonetheless finds itself confronted with an uncertain fuel market with regard to supplies and especially to prices. Progress

  8. The industrial production of fuel elements; La fabrication en france des elements combustibles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boussard, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Nadal, J [Societe Industrielle de Combustible Nucleaire (SICN), 75 - Paris (France); Pellen, A [Compagnie pour l' Etude et la Realisation de Combustibles Atomiques (CERCA), 75 - Paris (France)

    1964-07-01

    -pool type reactors. The authors show how the problem of the industrial production of rolled fuel elements has been solved in France, and give the three steps involved: 1 - Assembly of the plates made in the U.S.A., 2 - Rolling of the cores made in the U.S.A. to obtain the plates, 3 - Fabrication of the U-Al alloy and production of the cores. They then recall briefly the characteristics of the different fuel elements now in production. A description is given of the various stages of the production including information about the equipment; stress is laid on the extent of the controls carried out at each stage. In conclusion the authors consider the future development of this type of production taking into account the improvements planned and those which are possible. (authors) [French] Les auteurs traitent successivement de la fabrication industrielle des elements combustibles pour reacteurs de puissance de la filiere U naturel graphite-gaz et plus particulierement pour les centrales energetiques d'E.D.F. et de celle des elements combustibles a base d'U enrichi destines aux reacteurs experimentaux du type 'piscine'. 1ere Partie - LES ELEMENTS COMBUSTIBLES AVANCES POUR LES REACTEURS E.D.F.: Apres un bref rappel des caracteristiques des elements combustibles actuellement fabriques industriellement pour les reacteurs de MARCOULE et de CHINON, les auteurs indiquent les differentes etapes suivies pour aboutir au stade de la fabrication industrielle d'un element combustible nouveau, tant en ce qui concerne la gaine et eventuellement la chemise de graphite que le combustible lui-meme. Pour ce qui est de l'elaboration du combustible, ils decrivent les differentes operations en insistant sur les points originaux de la fabrication et de l'appareillage tels que: - coulees en moules chauds, - traitement thermique des alliages U.Mo 1 p. 100, - soudure des pastilles de fermeture des tubes, - gainage - controle aux differents stades. En ce qui concerne la fabrication des gaines, ils

  9. Activities of Gaz de France Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2003-01-01

    The Board of Directors of Gaz de France approved the Group's consolidated accounts for 2004. In a more dynamic economic environment than in 2003, the Gaz de France Group reports enhanced results and has continued to pursue its growth in Europe. Increase in net sales driven by sustained growth in sales (+ 8.9%): In 2004, net sales rose 8.9% compared with the 2003 financial year to reach a total of euro 18,129 m. This strong increase in business activities was driven by sustained growth in sales volumes both in France and Europe. Total Group sales volumes amounted to 730 TWh (approximately 66 billion cubic metres), equal to growth of 10.3%. Natural gas sales volumes increased by approximately 10% in France, and are almost 18% higher in Europe, notably in the United Kingdom, Italy, Belgium and the Netherlands. The Group has pursued the profitable development of its activities outside France. As a result, international activities account for 29% of total sales in 2004, against 23% in 2003. The contribution made by international subsidiaries - particularly those specializing in exploration and production - grew by a very substantial 44.3% to reach a total of euro 502 m in 2004. Energy and Services Offering Branch: this core business line, which includes natural gas and oil exploration and production, energy trading and sales, and services associated with the supply of energy, boasts net sales of euro 16,498 m, equal to growth of 10.8% compared with 2003. Infrastructures Branch: this division, which groups together all activities related to the management of transmission and distribution infrastructures in both the French domestic and international markets, generated net sales of euro 6,794 m in 2004, virtually unchanged from the previous year. This situation is the result of higher sales generated by the distribution subsidiaries operating outside France (+9.2%) offset by a decline in the sales performance of the Transmission, Storage and Distribution in France

  10. Structure of distribution gas network operation system; Structure du systeme d'exploitation du reseau de distribution du gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzirba, E. [Institute of Oil and Gas (Poland); Osiadacz, A. [Warsaw Technical Uniwersity (Poland)

    2000-07-01

    Distribution networks have become increasingly complex to manage and potentially labor-intensive to operate safely and efficiently. Remote monitoring enables the operator to continually monitor the performance of the system from a central point(s). Where the system operates outside known parameters, the operator can respond very quickly. Remote control provides the additional functionality of enabling plant to be operated from a central point(s) directly or indirectly via operator. Communication can be through one or a combination of different communication media. The whole system for operation of gas distribution network may be looked at as 5-level general model based on ISO proposals adapted for modern control and management systems. The structure and requirements imposed on such a system are described in this paper. (authors)

  11. EdF-Gaz de France. No merger without dismembering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepetit, V.

    2007-01-01

    Gathering together the two historical French energy monopolies, Electricite de France (EdF) and Gaz de France (GdF), and warranting low electricity and gas prices is still an attractive idea for some political and syndicate representatives. However, such a merger would create a dominating position which is forbidden with respect to Brussels criteria. (J.S.)

  12. The results of Gaz de France in 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadonneix, P.

    1997-01-01

    The principle results of the national company activity for 1996 have been presented by Mr Gadonneix, president of Gaz de France. These results will allow to face in the best economic conditions the realisation of the next contract which has to be signed with the government. Financial results, commercial results, supplies, transport and storage, distribution system, research and development are detailed. (N.C.)

  13. Chemical Looping Combustion of Solid Fuels in a 10 kWth Unit Combustion de charge solide en boucle chimique dans une unité de 10 kWth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berguerand N.

    2011-02-01

    transporteur d’oxygène et les données expérimentales mesurées puis de modéliser le taux de captage en fonction du temps de séjour du charbon et de sa réactivité. La cinétique de conversion du charbon a de plus été établie et permet de représenter les résultats expérimentaux de manière satisfaisante. Cette étude vise à compléter la modélisation entreprise pour prédire la conversion du gaz de synthèse résultant de la gazéification du charbon au contact de l’ilménite, en s’appuyant sur des données obtenues par ATG et dans un lit fluidisé en batch. Les résultats obtenus par modélisation sont comparés aux conversions mesurées expérimentalement dans l’unité de 10 kWth.

  14. Study of gases contained in an Antarctica glacier; Etude des gaz contenus dans un glacier antarctique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raynaud, D [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-15

    This report presents a study of gases contained in ice samples taken from a drilling 97.8 meters deep in the coastal zone of Adelie Land (Antarctica). Simultaneously, a study has been made of the composition of the atmospheric air and of the gases extracted in situ from the firn. Carbon dioxyde was analysed by means of gas-phase chromatography and argon, oxygen and nitrogen by means of mass spectrometry. The results obtained show that for the most part the oxygen concentration decreases with an increase in the depth of the drilling. The values range from a maximum of 20,83 per cent of the volume at the surface to a minimum of 19,46 per cent of the volume at a depth of 87 meters. The results also show that the distribution of carbon dioxide concentration does not vary with the depth. These concentrations are either in the same range as or lower than the concentration of CO{sub 2} found in atmospheric air. The different results are discussed. (author) [French] Le present travail rend compte d'analyses de gaz contenus dans des echantillons de glace provenant d'un forage de 97,8 m de profondeur, realise dans la zone cotiere de la Terre Adelie (Antarctique). Parallelement, la composition d'air atmospherique et de gaz extraits in situ du neve a ete etudiee. La chromatographie en phase gazeuse a ete utilisee pour analyser le CO{sub 2} et la spectrometrie de masse pour analyser l'argon, l'oxygene et l'azote. Les resultats obtenus indiquent essentiellement le long du forage: - une decroissance de la teneur en oxygene avec la profondeur, les valeurs extremes etant de 20.83 pour cent en volume a la surface et de 19,46 pour cent en volume a - 87 metres, - une repartition des teneurs en CO{sub 2} sans correlation nette avec la profondeur, ces teneurs etant de l'ordre ou inferieures a la teneur atmospherique. Les differents resultats sont discutes. (auteur)

  15. Optimal use of the Gaz de France underground gas storage facilities; Utilisation optimale des stockages souterrains de Gaz de France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favret, F.; Rouyer, E.; Bayen, D.; Corgier, B. [Gaz de France (GDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes the tools developed by Gaz de France to optimize the use of its whole set of underground gas storage facilities. After a short introduction about the context and the purposes, the methodology and the models are detailed. The operational results obtained during the last three years are presented, and some conclusions and perspectives are given. (authors)

  16. Compatibility of various magnesium alloys with pressurized carbon dioxide at high temperatures; Compatibilite de divers alliages de magnesium avec le gaz carbonique sous pression aux temperatures elevees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewanckel, B; David, R; Hulin, C; Leclercq, D [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 38 - Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    This work on the compatibility of magnesium alloys with pressurized carbon dioxide has been carried out along three lines: - testing of special alloys containing additions of zirconium, manganese, cerium, zinc, beryllium and yttrium. The results are satisfactory, generally speaking, and the corrosion kinetics are often comparable to those of conventional magnesium-zirconium alloy; - influence of the quality of the carbon dioxide, in particular the presence of water vapour or of carbon monoxide in this gas. It appears that oxidation is reduced if the carbon dioxide contains traces of water vapour, but is more pronounced if carbon monoxide is also present; - study of certain phenomena related to corrosion: size changes in the samples during tests, structural modifications in the alloys (grain-size changes, formation of a cortical zone in the case of alloys containing zirconium). The influence of thermal cycling has also been studied in a few specific tests. The results obtained make it possible to compare the behaviour of various alloys under varying conditions of long-term use, and to choose, if required, the best composition for a given application. (authors) [French] Ce travail sur la compatibilite des alliages de magnesium avec le gaz carbonique sous pression a ete particulierement oriente dans trois directions: - epreuve, d'alliages speciaux comportant des additions de zirconium, manganese, cerium, zinc, beryllium et yttrium. Les resultats sont generalement satisfaisants et les cinetiques de corrosion souvent comparables a celles de l'alliage magnesium-zirconium classique; - influence de la qualite du gaz carbonique, et notamment de la presence de vapeur d'eau ou d'oxyde de carbone dans ce gaz. Il est apparu que l'oxydation est reduite si le gaz carbonique contient des traces d'eau, mais accrue si l'oxyde de carbone est egalement present; - etude de certains phenomenes lies a la corrosion: variations dimensionnelles des echantillons au cours des essais

  17. Study of the thermal drop at the uranium-can interface for fuel elements in gas-graphite reactors; Etude de la chute thermique au contact uranium-gaine pour des elements combustibles de reacteur de la filiere graphite-gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faussat, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Levenes, G; Michel, M [Societe Industrielle de Combustible Nucleaire (France)

    1964-07-01

    The report reviews the tests now under way at the CEA, for determining the thermal contact resistance at the uranium-can interface for fuel elements used in gas-graphite type reactors. These are laboratory tests carried out with equipment based on the principle of a heat flow across a stack of test pieces having planar contact surfaces. The following points emerge from this work: - for a metallic uranium element canned in magnesium, of the type G-2 or EDF-2, a value of 0.2 deg C/W/cm{sup 2} seems reasonable for can temperatures of 400 deg C and above. - this value is independent of the micro-geometric state of the uranium surface in a range of roughness which easily includes those observed on tubes and rods produced industrially. - for the internal cans of elements cooled internally and externally, the value of the contact resistance for temperatures of under 400 deg C as a function of the stresses in the can has not yet been measured exactly. (authors) [French] Le rapport fait le point des essais actuellement en cours au CEA pour determiner la resistance thermique de contact uranium-gaine pour des reacteurs de la filiere graphite-gaz. Ces essais sont effectues en laboratoire sur des appareils bases sur le principe d'une circulation de flux de chaleur a travers un empilement d'eprouvettes dont les faces en contact sont planes. De l'etude, il ressort essentiellement que: - pour un element a uranium metallique et gaine de magnesium type G-2 ou EdF-2, on peut admettre la valeur de 0,2 deg C/W/cm{sup 2} pour des temperatures de gaines de 400 deg C et plus. - cette valeur ne depend pas de l'etat de surface microgeometrique de l'uranium pour un domaine de rugosites couvrant largement celles que l'on observe sur des tubes et barreaux fabriques en serie. - pour les gaines internes d'elements a refroidissement interne et externe la valeur de la resistance de contact reste a preciser pour les temperatures inferieures a 400 deg C, en fonction des contraintes existant dans les

  18. Oil and Gas Prospects in Egypt Recherches d'huile et de gaz en Égypte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Ayouti M. K.

    2006-10-01

    and gas pools mainly vvithin the Upper and Lower Cretaceous. Recent advances in seismic techniques are helping in locating deeper structures, which might prove instrumental in the upgrading of the oil possibilites of the region. At present, the exploration activities are going on in the different oil and gas provinces in Egypt. These activilles are expected to increase and are also expected to expand to new areas in the eastern part of the Gulf of Suez Basin, offshore and onland, in Northern Sinai and in the Offshore Mediterranean. These new areas are believed to house very good prospects which will be tested not before long. It is also hoped that progress in seismic tools and techniques will add to the possibilities of finding more oil and gas. On connaît des accumulations d'huiles depuis 1868, quelque 10 ans après le célèbre puits de Drake en Pennsylvanie (août 1859. Ces accumulations ont été trouvées comme des suintements dans des tunnels forés pour l'extraction du soufre dans la région de Gemsa sur la côte ouest du golfe de Suez. Depuis cette époque, les activités d'exploration se sont poursuivies à travers une longue histoire d'opérations qui témoignaient des derniers développement dans les outils et les techniques. Jusqu'à maintenant, la principale province à huile d'Egypte est le bassin du golfe de Suez où la majorité des réserves ont été trouvées. D'autres provinces à hydrocarbures sont le bassin du delta du Nil, celui d'Abu Garadig et la ride d'El Alamein, les deux derniers situés dans le désert occidental. Il y a eu trois importantes découvertes de gaz dans le delta du Nil, dont deux en mer, en plus de quelques indices de gaz encore non commerciaux. Outre les découvertes mentionnées, les activités d'exploration au cours de cette longue période ont apporté une masse d'informations géologiques et géophysiques qui ont contribué largement à la connaissance géologique de l'Egypte, et en particulier à la géologie p

  19. 74 Résolution du problème d'engagement d'unités de production d ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mr PERABI

    énergies fossiles dans les différentes centrales. De ce fait, le DE doit aussi respecter les contraintes environnementales. Le dispatching économique et environnemental (DEE) a pour objectif, non seulement de produire à un coût de combustible réduit mais aussi de réduire les émissions de gaz de ces combustibles.

  20. Plasmas pour valorisation totale ou partielle des gaz contenant de l'H2S Plasmas for Total Or Partial Upgrading of H2s Containing Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czernichowski A.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Des procédés par plasmas alternatifs au procédé Claus sont proposés pour produire de l'hydrogène et récupérer du soufre à partir des gaz contenant une forte teneur en H2S. Quand la teneur en H2S est moins importante, des techniques plasma peuvent également être utiles pour assister certains étages du procédé classique Claus ou réaliser ce procédé pour des gaz non conventionnels. Les tests allant jusqu'à l'échelle industrielle sont menés dans divers réacteurs à plasmas et les résultats encourageants rapportés de la littérature et de la recherche propre laissent envisager des prochaines applications. Plasma assisted processes are proposed to act as an alternative to the Claus process in order to recover hydrogen and sulphur from high H2S gases. For less concentrated gases plasma techniques may also be inserted into classical Claus plant or may allow treatment of non conventional gases. Up to industrial scale tests are performed using different plasma reactors. The literature-based results as well as our own ones make the future applications quite optimistic.

  1. Gas transport through porous media; Sur le transport des gaz a travers les milieux poreux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breton, J P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-06-01

    In the first part of this work we derive a rigorous transport theory for a mixture of gases passing through a bed of spheres, when the temperature is uniform. We solve the Boltzmann equation, putting boundary conditions in the solution. Two different methods are used, according to the nature of the flow. The second part deals with the experimental work: measurements of permeability, of separation and of interdiffusion. In the last part, with the help of the new theory presented here, we are for the first time able to explain all the experimental data. (author) [French] Dans la premiere partie de ce travail nous developpons une theorie rigoureuse du transport d'un melange de gaz a travers un lit de spheres, quand la temperature est uniforme. Nous integrons l'equation de Boltzmann en introduisant des conditions aux limites dans la solution. Nous utilisons deux methodes differentes selon le regime d'ecoulement. La seconde partie est consacree a l'etude experimentale: mesures de permeametrie, de separation et d'interdiffusion. Dans la derniere partie, a l'aide de la nouvelle theorie developpee ici, nous expliquons tous les resultats experimentaux, ce qui n'avait pas ete fait jusque la. (auteur)

  2. The merging of Suez and 'Gaz de France'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    The merging of 'Gaz de France' and Suez has been approved by the shareholders on the 16 july 2008, and the decree for the privatization of 'Gaz de France' has been published to the 'Journal Officiel'. The French state will hold 35.6% of the capital of the new group GDF-Suez. The board of directors will be composed of 24 members: 7 officials from the state, 1 representative of the share-holding staff, 3 representatives of the elected employees and 13 members named by the general assembly of the shareholders. This group, which is officially born on the 22. of july 2008, is the fourth bigger group worldwide in the domain of energy. (A.C.)

  3. Study of physico-chemical release of uranium and plutonium oxides during the combustion of polycarbonate and of ruthenium during the combustion of solvents used in the reprocessing of nuclear fuel; Etude de la mise en suspension physico-chimique des oxydes de plutonium et d'uranium lors de la combustion de polycarbonate et de ruthenium lors de la combustion des solvants de retraitement du combustible irradie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouilloux, L

    1998-07-01

    The level of consequences concerning a fire in a nuclear facility is in part estimated by the quantities and the physico-chemical forms of radioactive compounds that may be emitted out of the facility. It is therefore necessary to study the contaminant release from the fire. Because of the multiplicity of the scenarios, two research subjects were retained. The first one concerns the study of the uranium or plutonium oxides chemical release during the combustion of the polycarbonate glove box sides. The second one is about the physico chemical characterisation of the ruthenium release during the combustion of an organic solvent mixture (tributyl phosphate-dodecane) used for the nuclear fuel reprocessing. Concerning the two research subjects, the chemical release, i.e. means the generation of contaminant compounds gaseous in the fire, was modelled using thermodynamical simulations. Experiments were done in order to determine the ruthenium release factor during solvent combustion. A cone calorimeter was used for small scale experiments. These results were then validated by large scale tests under conditions close to the industrial process. Thermodynamical simulations, for the two scenarios studied. Furthermore, the experiments on solvent combustion allowed the determination of a suitable ruthenium release factor. Finally, the mechanism responsible of the ruthenium release has been found. (author)

  4. Gaz Metropolitain's experience in regards to transmission access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, J.-P.

    1994-01-01

    The natural gas industry in Canada is briefly reviewed as it applies to the sale of transported gas in Quebec. The deregulation of the industry which occurred in 1985 brought many changes to the relationships among natural gas consumers, suppliers, transmission companies, and distribution utilities. It is noted that only the producers' natural gas sale price has been deregulated, not the rates of transmission companies or distributors. Deregulation offered two possibilities for natural gas users in Quebec: the client can contract a transmission service between the Alberta (source of supply) and Quebec borders, separately from contracting a delivery service from Gaz Metropolitain, the company supplying the vast majority of natural gas in Quebec; or the client can contract those two services from Gaz Metropolitain who then gathers the gas at the Alberta border. The adoption of Gaz Metropolitain services to meet the need for transmission access are discussed in the areas of supply contracts, and services offered (buy/sell, rate unbundling, delivery). The opportunities and risks for the customer are assessed in the areas of costs, speculation on transportation capacity, operational flexibility, and the possiblity of unused capacities. Opportunities and issues for the distributor include maintenance of client satisfaction, shortening of the duration of contracts, maintenance of the role of the distributor in natural gas sales, take-or-pay commitments, rate unbundling, accounting methods, inventories, and pricing

  5. Determination of the Effectiveness of Control Rods in the VVER Reactor Fuel Assemblies; Determination de l'Efficacite des Barres de Reglage dans les Ensembles Combustibles du reacteur VVER; Opredelenie ehffektivnosti reguliruyushchikh sterzhnej v sborkakh reaktora VVEHR; Determinacion de la Eficacia de las Barras de Control en los Conjuntos de Elementos Combustibles del Reactor VVER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semenov, V. N.; Lunin, G. L.; Komissarov, L. V.; Kamyshan, A. N.; Halizev, V. I.; Andrianov, G. Ja.; Voznesenskij, V. A.; Kuz' micheva, V. A.; Lebedev, V. I. [Ordena Lenina Institut Atomnoj Energii Im. I.V. Kurchatova, Moskva, SSSR (Russian Federation)

    1964-06-15

    The paper describes experiments done in homogeneous mock-ups of the fuel assemblies from the VVER Reactor (at one level of enrichment) to determine the effectiveness of absorbing systems comprising shim fuel assemblies or water cavities and of absorbing rods clad in jackets made of differing materials. The paper also gives data on some experiments that have been done in mock-ups of assemblies with differing levels of enrichment. These experiments make it possible to verify the methods used in calculation and to evaluate the prospects of using them for heterogeneous reactors. (author) [French] Le memoire decrit les experiences qui ont ete faites pour determiner l 'efficacite des absorbants contenus dans les barres de compensation, l'effet cavitaire et l 'efficacite des absorbants gaines de materiaux divers, au moyen d'assemblages homogenes de cartouches de combustible du reacteur VVER (reacteur de puissance ralenti et refroidi a l 'eau ayant le meme taux d'enrichissement. On y trouve en outre des donnees sur certaines experiences executees a l 'aide d'assemblages de cartouches de combustible taux d'enrichissement differents. Ces travaux permettent de verifier la methode de calcul et d'evaluer ses possibilites d'application aux reacteurs non homogenes. (author) [Spanish] Se describen en la memoria experimentos para determinar la eficacia de los materiales absorbentes contenidos en las barras de compensacion, el efecto de cavitacion y la eficacia de los materiales absorbentes revestidos de diversos materiales, realizados con ayuda de los conjuntos homogeneos de elementos combustibles del reactor VVER (reactor de potencia moderado y refrigerado por agua) con un solo grado de enriquecimiento. Ademas, se exponen datos sobre los experimentos efectuados con ayuda de conjuntos de grados de enriquecimientos; variados. Tales experimentos permiten verificar el metodo de calculo teorico, utilizad o y evaluar la posibilidad de aplicarlo a los reactores no homogeneos. (author

  6. Possibilités de contribution de la gazéification Lurgi à notre approvisionnement énergétique futur Potential Contribution of Lurgi Gasification to Our Future Energy Supplies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eckert G.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Pour la valorisation du charbon, la gazéification est une possibilité immédiatement utilisable et industriellement éprouvée, qui présente l'avantage de permettre la production des formes d'énergie secondaire, auxquelles nous sommes habitués. Indépendamment du produit final, une unité de conversion du charbon est toujours constituée d'étapes de transformation successives, mettant en oeuvre des procédés adaptés, parmi lesquels la gazéification de charbon proprement dite constitue la première étape qui n'est cependant qu'une opération parmi d'autres. Le traitement des gaz et la séparation des produits secondaires sont mis en oeuvre également et sont importants dans l'ensemble du complexe de traitement. Dans la communication présentée, trois possibilités différentes sont évoquées : - production de gaz de chauffage de différents pouvoirs calorifiques ; - production de méthanol et transformation éventuelle de celui-ci en essence ; - production d'hydrocarbures par la synthèse de Fischer-Tropsch. Une approche économique générale dégage une idée d'ensemble sur la situation et l'intérêt des techniques de conversion du charbon à l'heure actuelle. For the upgrading of coal, gasification is an immediately available and industrially well-proven possibility which has the advantage of making it possible to produce the types of secondary energy to which we have become accustomed. Independently of the end product, a coal conversion plant always consists of successive transformation steps making use of suitable processes, among which coal gasification itself is the first such step, although being only one operation among others. Gas processing and secondary products separation are also implemented and are important in the overall processing complex. This article brings out three different possibilities: (a production of fuel gas with different heating values; (b production of methanol and eventual transformation into gasoline

  7. Mass-spectrometric analysis of trace oxygen in carbon dioxide; Analyse de traces d'oxygene dans le gaz carbonique par spectrometrie de masse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nief, G; Severin, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    The mass spectrum of pure CO{sub 2} contains a peak of weight 32 whose relationship to peak at 44 varies greatly depending on the previous history of the source of ions and even during the course of an analysis. The fact that this peak is more or less proportional to the pressure and that its appearance potential is the same as that of oxygen leads us to suppose that it is produced from oxygen formed by dissociation of the carbon dioxide on the tungsten filament. A prior treatment of the ion source with acetylene reduces the ratio 32/44 to a value of about 15.10{sup -5}. This same treatment also stabilises the spectrometer's sensitivity to oxygen. Two lines of introduction enable pure carbon dioxide, the specimen to be estimated and a reference mixture of known oxygen content to be sent into the mass spectrometer in quick succession. Oxygen in the carbon dioxide in amounts ranging between 0 and 500 p.p.m. can thus be determined to an accuracy of {+-} 5 p.p.m., the analysis taking 30 minutes. (author) [French] Le spectre de masse de CO{sub 2} pur contient un pic de masse 32 dont le rapport au pic 44 varie enormement suivant l'histoire anterieure de la source d'ions et meme au cours d'une analyse. Le fait que ce pic soit grossierement proportionnel a la pression et que son potentiel d'apparition soit le meme que celui de l'oxygene permet de supposer qu'il est engendre a partir de l'oxygene produit par dissociation du gaz carbonique sur le filament de tungstene. Un conditionnement prealable de la source d'ions avec de l'acetylene reduit le rapport 32/44 a une valeur d'environ 15.10{sup -5}. Ce meme traitement stabilise egalement la sensibilite du spectrometre vis-a-vis de l'oxygene. Une double ligne d'introduction de gaz permet d'envoyer en successions rapides dans le spectrometre de masse le gaz carbonique pur, l'echantillon a doser et un melange de reference de teneur en oxygene connue. On arrive ainsi a doser l'oxygene dans le gaz carbonique dans la gamme de 0 a

  8. Improvements in gas supply systems for heavy-water moderated reactors; Etudes de perfectionnements aux systemes d'alimentation en gaz d'un reacteur modere a l'eau lourde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, G; Hassig, J M; Laurent, N; Thomas, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    In a heavy-water moderated reactor cooled by pressurized gas, an important problem from the point of view, of the reactor block and its economics is the choice of the gas supply system. In the pressure tube solution, the whole of the reactor block structure is at a relatively low temperature, whereas the gas supply equipment is at that of the gas, which is much higher. These parts, through which passes the heat carrying fluid have to present as low a resistance as possible to it so as to avoid costly extra blowing power. Finally, they may only be placed in the reactor block after it has been built; the time required for putting them in position should therefore not be too long. The work reported here concerns the various problems arising in the case of each channel being supplied individually by a tube at the entry and the exit which is connected to a main circuit made up of large size collectors. This individual tubing is sufficiently flexible to absorb the differential expansion and the movement of its ends without stresses or prohibitive reactions being produced; the tubing is also of relatively short length so as to reduce the pressure head of the pressurized gas outside the channels; the small amount of space taken up by the tubing makes it possible to assemble it in a manner which is satisfactory from the point of view both of the time required and of the technical quality. (authors) [French] Dans un reacteur modere a l'eau lourde et refroidi au gaz sous pression, un probleme important du point de vue du trace du bloc pile et de son economie est le choix du systeme d'alimentation en gaz. Pour une solution a tubes de force, l'ensemble des structures du bloc reacteur est a temperature relativement faible, alors que les organes d'alimentation en gaz sont a celle, notablement plus elevee, du gaz. Ces organes, traverses par le debit du caloporteur, doivent lui opposer le minimum de resistance afin de ne pas necessiter un supplement onereux de puissance de

  9. A contribution from Gaz de France to the economic performance of industries; Contribution de Gaz de France a la perfomance economique des industriels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depail, J.C. [Gaz de France (GDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    1996-12-31

    The aim of the policy of the French national gas utility, Gaz de France, towards industries, is to promote natural gas as a competitive fuel compared to fuels and electric power, with energy efficient solutions that are easy to implement and maintain: space heating, paint curing, surface cleaning, bath heating, vapour generation, waste treatment (especially for molding sand and volatile organic compounds, sludge drying). Gaz de France proposes also expertise schemes and audits

  10. Instruments used to measure or check {alpha}, {beta}, {gamma} activity and neutron emission in the course of processing ore or irradiated fuel; Appareils de mesure ou de controle {alpha}, {beta}, {gamma}, n, des circuits des usines de traitement du minerai ou du combustible irradie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanc, A; Brunet, M; Kermagoret, M; Labeyrie, J; Roux, G; Vasseur, J; Weil, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    One of the methods checking ores in the course of treatment is the rapid quantitative determination of thorium. This measurement is carried out by means of a scintillation instrument which shows the {beta} and {alpha} coincidences of ThC and ThC'. The treatment of irradiated fuel is accompanied by a large number of radioactive checks relative to the performance of the fixation and elution operations of uranium in the ion exchangers, to the concentration of radioactivity of effluent sent from the plant into watercourses. The operations of fixation and elution of the uranium are checked automatically by an instrument which takes a sample of 5 cm{sup 3} of solution, evaporates it and measures its activity every 10 or 20 minutes. Plutonium concentrations are measured: - in the presence of strong {beta} {gamma} activities, by means of rotating cylinder detectors; - in the presence of weak {beta} {gamma} activities, by means of {alpha} detectors scanning a constant level liquid surface; - by means of fission chambers relatively insensitive to {gamma}. Fission product concentrations are measured by chambers, counters or scintillators, according to the amount of {gamma} activity present. Finally, the activity of effluent to be emptied into watercourses is checked by means of a scintillation instrument, which measures the {alpha} activity on the one hand, and on the other hand the {beta} {gamma} activity of residue from a 100 cm{sup 3} sample taken and evaporated in 20 minutes. (author) [French] Parmi les controles relatifs au minerai en cours de traitement, figure le dosage rapide de thorium. Cette mesure est realisee au moyen d'un appareillage a scintillation qui met en evidence la coincidence des emissions {beta} et {alpha} du ThC et du ThC'. Le traitement des combustibles irradies s'accompagne d'un grand nombre de controles radioactifs portant sur le fonctionnement des operations de fixation et d'elution de l'uranium dans les echangeurs d'ions, sur la concentration du

  11. Optical Engines as Representative Tools in the Development of New Combustion Engine Concepts Moteurs transparents comme outils représentatifs dans le développement de nouveaux concepts des moteurs à combustion interne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashdan J.

    2011-11-01

    de s’assurer que le fonctionnement des moteurs transparents est tout à fait comparable et représentatif de celui des moteurs standards (opaques. Une comparaison du comportement de la combustion et des émissions des moteurs transparents et opaques a été réalisée. L’objectif était d’étudier les différences principales entre le moteur transparent et le moteur opaque et de comprendre comment ces différences peuvent influencer les phases de préparation du mélange, la combustion et la formation de polluants. Les résultats expérimentaux révèlent l’influence significative des différences liées à la température des parois de la chambre de combustion. Des mesures de la température des parois ont été effectuées par la technique de phosphorescence induite par laser. Ces mesures ont permis de définir des stratégies de fonctionnement moteur permettant de compenser les différences de température de paroi entre les deux moteurs. En outre, l’impact des différences géométriques des chambres a été investiguée. La réhausse piston peut subir soit un chargement mécanique dynamique (effets de compression ou de traction soit une expansion thermique. Ces effets peuvent faire varier le taux de compression effectif. La charge admise dans les moteurs transparents est souvent diluée par de l’EGR simulé au lieu d’utiliser l’EGR réel. Dans les conditions de Diesel LTC, une comparaison a été effectuée entre l’utilisation d’EGR réel et d’EGR simulé par un gaz diluant pur. Enfin, les carburants mono-composants (carburants purs sont souvent utilisés dans les moteurs Diesel transparents en raison des contraintes imposées par l’utilisation de techniques de diagnostics optiques. Cependant, les carburants purs diffèrent quelque peu des carburants Diesel réels, en particulier au travers de leur indice de cétane et de leur volatilité. Ces différences peuvent influencer fortement le comportement de la combustion et des

  12. Detection of radioactive gases in the CO{sub 2} cooling the reactors G 2 - G 3; Detection des gaz radioactifs dans le CO{sub 2} de refroidissement des piles G2 - G3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pouthier, J; Rossi, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Chusclan (France). Centre de Production de Plutonium de Marcoule

    1968-07-01

    The carbon dioxide cooling the reactors G2 - G3 contains activation gases and fission gases. It is of interest to know their concentration, for example to be able to deduce rapidly the norms which would have to be applied in the case of an incident in the circuit. Gas-phase chromatography is applied daily for carrying out analyses. The chromatogram has separate peaks due to tritium, argon 41, krypton 85 and the 133 and 135 isotopes of xenon. By integrating each peak it is possible to calculate the specific activity of each product. The construction of an apparatus for carrying out continuous measurements is under consideration. (authors) [French] Le gaz carbonique, refroidissant les reacteurs G2 - G3, contient des gaz d'activation et des gaz de fission. Il est interessant de connaitre leur teneur par exemple pour etre en mesure de deduire rapidement les normes qu'il y aurait lieu d'appliquer en cas d'incidents sur le circuit. La methode de chromatographie en phase gazeuse est employee quotidiennement pour faire des analyses. Le chromatogramme se presente sous forme de pics distincts dus au tritium, a l'argon 41, au krypton 85 et aux isotopes 133 et 135 du xenon. L'integration de chaque pic permet de calculer l'activite specifique de chaque compose. Il est envisage de construire un appareil pour des mesures en continu. (auteurs)

  13. Detection of high energy gamma radiations with liquid rare gases as scintillators; Detection des rayonnements Gamma de grande energie avec les gaz rares liquides comme scintillateurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Phan Xuan

    1965-11-25

    This research thesis reports the study of a sensor based on a liquid scintillator for the detection of high energy (10 to 30 MeV) gamma radiations. The scintillator is a liquefied argon or xenon rare gas. The author first studies the process of energy transfer from the particle to the sensing medium. He addresses the different involved elements and phenomena: electromagnetic radiations (Compton Effect, photoelectric effect, pair production, and total gamma absorption), charged particles (braking radiation, collisions) and application to gamma spectrometry. He describes and discusses the scintillation mechanisms (scintillation of organic and inorganic materials), the general characteristics of scintillators (impurities, converters), and then reports the practical realisation of the sensor. Results are presented and discussed [French] Dans ce travail, nous nous proposons d'etudier une technique. Il s'agit d'un detecteur a scintillateur liquide pour la detection des rayonnements gamma energiques (10 a 30 MeV). Le scintillateur utilise est un gaz rare liquefie argon ou xenon. Nous examinerons d'abord les processus de transfert de l'energie de la particule au milieu detecteur puis les mecanismes de scintillation en general pour pouvoir exploiter au mieux les phenomenes favorables. Nous presenterons ensuite la realisation pratique du detecteur. Ses qualites (et defauts) trouveront leur place dans la fin de ce memoire. Bien qu'a l'heure actuelle, par la methode de Kyropoulos, on puisse faire pousser des gros cristaux d'iodure de sodium, l'utilisation des 'gaz rares' liquefies comme scintillateurs est, grace a la brievete de la scintillation, tres utile lorsqu'on recherche un fort taux de comptage (jusqu'a 10 impulsions par seconde) ou lorsqu'on veut resoudre certains problemes de coincidence. Les cristaux NaI(Tl) de grandes dimensions sont d'un montage facile mais leur manipulation requiert beaucoup de precautions du fait qu'ils supportent tres mal les chocs thermiques

  14. La formation de l'oxyde azotique dans les flammes de diffusion de gaz naturel Nitrogen. Oxyde Formation in Natural-Gas Diffusion Flams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Portrait L. M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'étude de la formation de l'oxyde azotique dans des flammes de diffusion de ga naturel est effectuée depuis deux ans sur le four expérimental du Groupe d'Etude des Flammes de Gaz Naturel situé à Toulouse. Un certain nombre de variables ont été explorées : type de flamme, excès d'air, préchauffage de l'air, teneur en oxygène du comburant, puissance calorifique, et débit de moment cinétique. L'étude a mis en évidence une corrélation générale, quelle que soit la variable considérée, entre la quantité maximale d'oxyde d'azote formé et la température maximale de la flamme. Certains des résultats précédents ont été exploités à l'Institut Français du Pétrole, en vue d'établir une équation de vitesse de formation de NO applicable aux flammes axiales de diffusion de gaz naturel. Les calculs s'appuient sur les connaissances obtenues lors de l'étude cinétique de formation de NO effectuée au Laboratoire d'Aérothermique Fondamentale. Les résultats du calcul théorique confirment ceux de l'étude sur le four expérimental en ce qui concerne l'influence prépondérante de la température sur la formation de l'oxyde azotique. Par ailleurs, le calcul théorique retrouve bien les résultats obtenus lors de l'étude fondamentale, selon lesquels la cinétique de formation de NO évolue le long de la flamme depuis le front de flamme jusqu'aux gaz brûlés. La généralisation à un grand nombre de flammes de l'équation cinétique expérimentale obtenue nécessite maintenant de prendre en compte certains phénomènes de diffusion négligés jusqu'à présent. Research on the formation of nitrogen oxide in natural-gas diffusion flammes has been going on for two years in the experimental furnace of the Groupe d'Etude des Flammes de Gaz Naturel located in Toulouse. Different variables have been investigoted such as type of flamme, air excess, air preheating, oxygen content in the oxidant, heating power and kinetic moment output

  15. Fabrication of the 4. set of fuel elements for the experimental pile EL2; Fabrication du 4. jeu de barreaux de la pile d'essai EL2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringot, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The reactor EL2 is the second atomic reactor built in France. It is a laboratory reactor using heavy water and natural uranium. Its cooling circuit operates with compressed CO{sub 2} gas at 8 kg/cm{sup 2} pressure. The subject of this lecture is the manufacturing of the fourth set of rods. The principle of uranium-can connection is exposed: that is the principle of a pre-pressed bound can. The EL2 reactor has been a prototype with respect to this aspect of the question, and a prototype which has been quite satisfactory. The main steps of the fabrication are exposed: the {gamma} phase extension of uranium, the machining, the three canning (die canning, hydraulic canning, compressed air treatment), the automatic argon arc welding of cups and the different manufacturing controls. (author) [French] Le reacteur EL2 est le deuxieme reacteur construit en France. C'est un reacteur de recherches qui utilise de l'eau lourde et de l'uranium naturel. Il est refroidi par du gaz carbonique sous 8 kg/cm{sup 2} de pression. On etudie dans cet expose la fabrication du quatrieme jeu d'elements combustibles. Le principe de la liaison uranium-gaine est expose: c'est celui d'une gaine precontrainte. La pile EL2 a constitue un prototype a ce point de vue, prototype qui a donne entiere satisfaction. Les principales etapes de la fabrication sont ensuite expliquees: le filage {gamma} de l'uranium, l'usinage des barreaux, les trois operations de gainages (gainage par filiere, gainage hydraulique, gainage a chaud), la soudure automatique des bouchons a l'argon-arc et les differents controles de fabrication. (auteur)

  16. Mortal waiting for EdF and Gaz de France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jemain, A.

    2003-01-01

    Electricite de France (EdF) and Gaz de France (GdF) utilities have announced important investment programs for the forthcoming opening of gas and electricity markets to 2.5 millions of professionals by July 1, 2004. However, nothing can be done before the approval of the French government has been given for the change of their statuses (from the industrial and commercial public company status to the anonymous company status) and for the opening of their capital. Short paper. (J.S.)

  17. Heat transfer by gas-liquid mixture in forced turbulent flow with weak vaporization of the liquid phase (1962); Transfert de chaleur par melange de liquide et de gaz en convection forcee turbulente avec faible vaporisation de la phase liquide (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huyghe, J; Mondin, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    The present study deals with measures of heat transfer and pressure drop in two-phase liquid flow. The stream is of annular dispersed type, obtained by introducing a small quantity of liquid in a gas turbulent flow. The heat transfer experiments are performed without vaporization of the liquid phase. A notable improvement of the heat transfer coefficient of such a stream is observed, compared with a gas-alone or liquid-alone flow. The improvement concerning the gas-alone is of about 20 when it is compared with the same gas Reynolds's number, of about 8 when it is compared with the same total mass flow rate. A hydrodynamic study of the flow pattern lets us know the original structure of the flow, and allows to foresee the experimental results by means of a simplified theory. (authors) [French] II est fait etat de mesures de transfert thermique et de perte de charge dans un ecoulement en double phase gaz-liquide. L'ecoulement est du type annulaire disperse, obtenu par injection d'une faible quantite de liquide dans un ecoulement gazeux en regime turbulent. Les experiences de transfert thermique sont menees sans vaporisation de la phase liquide. On note une amelioration sensible du coefficient de transfert thermique dans un tel ecoulement par rapport a un ecoulement de gaz seul ou de liquide seul. L'augmentation est de l'ordre de 20 par rapport au gaz seul si on opere a meme nombre de REYNOLDS du gaz, de l'ordre de 8 si on opere a meme debit massique total. Une etude hydrodynamique rapide de l'ecoulement permet de connaitre la structure originale de l'ecoulement, puis de prevoir par une theorie simplifiee le phenomene thermique observe. (auteurs)

  18. Analyse de la dynamique non-linéaire et du contrôle des instabilités de combustion fondée sur la "Flame Describing Function" (FDF)

    OpenAIRE

    Boudy , Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with an investigation of combustion instabilities in premixed combustors. This problem has been the subject of a continuous effort in relation with the many issues encountered in practical systems like those used in propulsion and energy production. Combustion instabilities usually arise from the coupling between combustion and acoustic eigenmodes of the system. In most cases such resonances lead to vibrations, structural fatigue and intensified heat fluxes to the cha...

  19. The Application of Various Nondestructive Testing Methods to Fuel Elements of the Orgel Type; Application des Differentes Methodes d'Essais Non Destructifs aux Elements Combustibles du Type Orgel; Primenenie razlichnykh nedestruktivnykh metodov ispytanij k toplivnym ehlementam tipa ''orgel''; Aplicacion de Distintos Metodos de Ensayo No Destructivo a los Elementos Combustibles de Tipo Orgel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnet, P.; Jansen, J. [EURATOM, C.C.R., Ispra (Italy)

    1965-09-15

    . There is a device making it possible to examine four or six fuel elements simultaneously, or two or three separately. Standard radiographic tests. Particular stress is laid on the study of welds, and the limits of the experimental conditions in order to obtain good definition are given. In conclusion, the authors present a plan for a semi-industrial inspection system, describing the various possibilities for treatment, and try to define a general policy of non-destructive tests applied to fuel elements. (author) [French] Le memoire presente les differentes methodes employees pour la detection des defauts dans les tubes de gaine des elements combustibles (defauts de type dimensionnel ou defauts structuraux). Les auteurs evoquent egalement les tests finaux sur elements combustibles complets, en particulier: radiographie des soudures et tests d'etanchete. Ce sujet a deja ete partiellement traite. La recherche des caracteristiques dimensionnelles sur tube de gaine lisse en poudre d'aluminium frittee (SAP) a fait l'objet de recherches assez poussees. En particulier: 1. Mesures des diametres internes et externes par utilisation de capteurs pneumatiques et enregistrement des resultats; 2. Mesures des epaisseurs par utilisation, soit des ultrasons en methode de resonance, soit des rayons y (contrat EURATOM - Istituto Sperimentale Metalli Leggeri); 3. Controle de la fleche; 4. Tests sur tubes a ailettes. La detection des defauts sur tube de gaine lisse a egalement fait l'objet de travaux et un critere de rejet a ete adopte suivant l'utilisation future des tubes de gaines. a) La creation de defauts artificiels en fonction de la nocivite des defauts reels dans la poudre d'aluminium frittee est expliquee dans le memoire. Cette etude a montre, en effet, une grande sensibilite aux defauts du type longitudinal crees generalement lors de la transformation par de grosses inclusions. b) Tests par ultrasons. Defauts longitudinaux: Une comparaison entre la methode a deux capteurs et la

  20. Document de base d'un nouveau projet régional : Réduction des émissions de polluants dans le secteur du transport dans trois pays du Maghreb (Algérie, Maroc, Tunisie)

    OpenAIRE

    Joumard , Robert; BOUGHEDAOUI , Ménouèr

    2003-01-01

    présenté lors du Forum régional sur les changements climatiques, Les pays du Maghreb face aux changements climatiques : bilan et perspectives (Algérie, Maroc, Tunisie), Marrakech, 27-28 mars 2003; Pour répondre à une demande croissante de la mobilité des personnes et des marchandises, le transport routier évolue rapidement alors que les infrastructures, la réglementation et plus généralement les politiques n'intègrent guère la problématique de réduction des gaz polluants et à effet de serre, ...

  1. Can-rupture detection in gas-cooled nuclear reactors; La detection des ruptures de gaine dans les piles nucleaires refroidies par gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roguin, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    Can-rupture detection (DRG) is one important aspect of pile safety, more particularly so in the case of gas-cooled reactors. A rapid and sure detection constitutes also an improvement as far as the efficiency of electricity-producing nuclear power stations are concerned. Among the numerous can-rupture detection methods, that based on the measurement of the concentration of short-lived fission gases in the heat-carrying fluid has proved to be the most sensitive and the most rapid. A systematic study of detectors based on the electrostatic collection of the daughter products of fission gases has been undertaken with a view to equip the reactors EL 2, G 3, EDF 1, EDF 2 and EDF 3, the gas loops of PEGASE and EL 4. The different parameters are studied in detail in order to obtain a maximum sensitivity and to make it possible to construct detection devices having the maximum operational reliability and requiring the minimum maintenance. The primary applications of these devices are examined in the case of the above-mentioned reactors. (author) [French] La Detection des Ruptures de Gaines (D. R. G.) est un aspect important de la securite des piles et plus particulierement des piles refroidies par un gaz. Une detection rapide et sure constitue aussi un element d'amelioration du rendement des centrales nucleaires productrices d'energie electrique. Parmi les nombreuses methodes de detection des ruptures de gaines, la mesure de la concentration dans le fluide caloporteur des gaz de fission a vie courte s'est revelee comme la plus sensible et la plus rapide. Une etude systematique des detecteurs a collection electrostatique des descendants des gaz de fission a ete entreprise en vue d'equiper les piles EL 2, G 3, EDF 1, EDF 2 et EDF 3, les boucles a gaz de la pile Pegase et la pile EL 4. Les divers parametres sont etudies en detail pour obtenir une sensibilite maximum et permettre la realisation de dispositifs de detection ayant le maximum de securite de

  2. Can-rupture detection in gas-cooled nuclear reactors; La detection des ruptures de gaine dans les piles nucleaires refroidies par gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roguin, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    Can-rupture detection (DRG) is one important aspect of pile safety, more particularly so in the case of gas-cooled reactors. A rapid and sure detection constitutes also an improvement as far as the efficiency of electricity-producing nuclear power stations are concerned. Among the numerous can-rupture detection methods, that based on the measurement of the concentration of short-lived fission gases in the heat-carrying fluid has proved to be the most sensitive and the most rapid. A systematic study of detectors based on the electrostatic collection of the daughter products of fission gases has been undertaken with a view to equip the reactors EL 2, G 3, EDF 1, EDF 2 and EDF 3, the gas loops of PEGASE and EL 4. The different parameters are studied in detail in order to obtain a maximum sensitivity and to make it possible to construct detection devices having the maximum operational reliability and requiring the minimum maintenance. The primary applications of these devices are examined in the case of the above-mentioned reactors. (author) [French] La Detection des Ruptures de Gaines (D. R. G.) est un aspect important de la securite des piles et plus particulierement des piles refroidies par un gaz. Une detection rapide et sure constitue aussi un element d'amelioration du rendement des centrales nucleaires productrices d'energie electrique. Parmi les nombreuses methodes de detection des ruptures de gaines, la mesure de la concentration dans le fluide caloporteur des gaz de fission a vie courte s'est revelee comme la plus sensible et la plus rapide. Une etude systematique des detecteurs a collection electrostatique des descendants des gaz de fission a ete entreprise en vue d'equiper les piles EL 2, G 3, EDF 1, EDF 2 et EDF 3, les boucles a gaz de la pile Pegase et la pile EL 4. Les divers parametres sont etudies en detail pour obtenir une sensibilite maximum et permettre la realisation de dispositifs de detection ayant le maximum de securite de fonctionnement et le

  3. Gaz Metropolitain 2002 report : connecting with the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Gaz Metropolitain is the major natural gas distributor in Quebec. In 2002, the utility had its best year ever in terms of Partners' income of $154.6 million, representing a 9.5 per cent increase from 2001. Income from its core business, the distribution of natural gas in Quebec and Vermont, was $7.5 million higher than in 2001. This increase in income was due in part to better transportation and load balancing transactions. The main business effort in 2002 was on cogeneration plant projects developed with Boralex and Hydro Quebec. The projects, however, were not retained. This annual report presented consolidated financial and operating data for the distribution and transmission sectors of the company. It included information about Gaz Metropolitain's customers, the transmission and supply system, mission objectives, partnerships, corporate structure, and the year in review. The consolidated financial statements included income and cash flows, consolidated normalized volumes, and consolidated balance sheets. Revenue and expenditure statements were summarized by source. tabs., figs

  4. Optimization of fuel cycles: marginal loss values; Optimisation des cycles de combustibles: valeurs marginales des pertes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaussens, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 75 - Paris (France); Lasteyrie, B de; Doumerc, J [Compagnie pour l' Etude et la Realisation de Combustibles Atomiques, 75 - Paris (France)

    1965-07-01

    comme definitivement perdue, alors que le reste pourrait etre recupere et recycle. Le cout eleve des pertes, recyclees ou non, d'autant plus eleve que l'uranium est plus enrichi, exige qu'il en soit tenu compte dans l'optimisation generale des cycles de combustible. Il importe donc de determiner leur niveau le plus souhaitable economiquement, aux diverses etapes d'elaboration du combustible nucleaire. Mais en France et dans d'autres pays, la production de matieres fissiles est geree par l'Etat, tandis que la fabrication de l'element combustible est effectuee par l'industrie privee. Les criteres d'optimisation et l'interet economique accorde aux pertes sont donc differents pour les deux parties de la chaine de fabrication. Pour tenter neanmoins d'atteindre un optimum conforme a l'interet collectif sans intervenir dans la politique de prix de l'entreprise, on peut utiliser la propriete des couts marginaux d'etre egaux entre eux a l'optimum, pour un volume de production donne. On peut donc ajuster le niveau des pertes pour realiser cette egalite des couts marginaux dont le calcul est plus facile a obtenir de la firme que la justification des prix eux-memes. On s'apercoit d'ailleurs que, bien qu'axee essentiellement sur les pertes, cette analyse globale peut conduire a une meilleure utilisation d'autres facteurs de production. On donne un expose theorique et des exemples pratiques de cette methode d'optimisation economique dans le cadre de la fabrication d'elements combustibles destines a des reacteurs du type: uranium naturel, moderes au graphite et refroidis par le gaz carbonique. (auteurs)

  5. The petroleum challenge. Present day questions about oil and gas; Le defi petrolier. Questions actuelles du petrole et du gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boussena, S.; Locatelli, C.; Pauwels, J.P.; Swartenbroekx, C

    2006-04-15

    Will the 21. century be the petroleum challenge century? The petroleum problem is no longer the affair of experts and journalists, it challenges also governments and consumers in pressing terms. If there is today a petroleum problem, there is no oil or gas shortage for the moment. The cumulated oil and gas reserves would allow to face the demand of the century, with the condition that investments in exploration, field development, production, and back-end of oil and gas industries will be done in time. This book, written by specialists of energy economics and geopolitics shows up some of the key questions of our energy future. In particular, it invites us to never forget the basic heavy trends of the hydrocarbons sector in order to never be trapped by superficial extrapolations of short term phenomena. Content: heavy trend of oil prices at the 2020 prospects, natural gas take over?; oil and gas geopolitics: enough of hydrocarbons for the 21. century; Russia and Caspian sea oil and gas weight; China: a new strategic actor of the energy scene; influence of 'futures' market, of speculation, and of stocks on hydrocarbon prices; which future for LNG?; natural gas in the USA: towards a new foreign dependence. (J.S.)

  6. Report made on behalf of the mixed parity commission in charge of the text proposal about the remaining dispositions to be discussed of the project of law relative to the electric and gas public utilities and to the electric and gas companies; Rapport fait au nom de la Commission mixte paritaire chargee de proposer un texte sur les dispositions restant en discussion du projet de loi relatif au service public de l'electricite et du gaz et aux entreprises electriques et gaziere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenoir, J.C.; Poniatowski, L

    2004-07-01

    This project of law aims to adapt the electricity and gas sector to the new economical context of opening of the energy markets to competition. It gives to energy companies the internal organization base necessary to warrant a high level of service and a transparent and non-discriminatory access of third parties to transport and distribution networks. These evolutions will allow Electricite de France (EdF) and Gaz de France (GdF) companies to compete on equal terms with their European competitors. It confirms first the prime role of public utility of both companies and then transposes the dispositions of the European directives relative to the organization of EdF and GdF integrated companies. It foresees the creation of two daughter companies for the management of energy transport activities. The project of law foresees also the change of the status of EdF and GdF companies and the reform of the retirement pensions of the personnel. This report presents, first, in a comparative table the articles adopted by the French house of commons and the changes adopted by the Senate. Then, a common text is proposed by the mixed parity commission for the articles that remained under discussion. (J.S.)

  7. The natural gas performance in the professional restoration; La performance du gaz naturel en restauration professionnelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The utilization of the natural gas in the professional cooking presents many advantages detailed in this paper. Examples of this technology performance and reliability, the implementing and operating cost and competition are discussed. (A.L.B.)

  8. Gas war, the Russian threat; Guerre du gaz, la menace russe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ougartchinska, R. [Institut de criminologie de Paris, 75 (France); Carre, J.M

    2008-07-01

    This book presents an anticipated vision of tomorrow's Western Europe's dependence of Russia's gas reserves. With an overpriced oil and diminishing reserves, Europe is standing by. The energy majors are considering the possibility to reconvert their activities towards clean gas, cheaper and available. Energy needs are going to double within the next twenty years but the question remains: where supplying from? A 'blue gold' rush is preparing, accompanied by inextricable conflicts. Gas is in the center of this east-west 'big game' with one certainty: Russia owns more than a third of the World's natural gas reserves, Russia is the first world gas producer and exporting country, and tomorrow it is going to become the inescapable supplier who imposes its law. An excessive power is offered to the former soviet empire which has patiently weaved its gas web for more than 30 years. According to the authors, if Europe got caught in Russia's net, it is also because it let it do so.

  9. Report of working committee 3 ''liquefied gases''; Rapport du comite de travail 3 ''gaz liquefies''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudino, M

    2000-07-01

    Working Committee 3's report concerns the evolution of the liquefied gas industry: both liquefied natural gas (LNG) and liquefied petroleum gases (LPG). Given the current state of the LNG market the Committee decided to concentrate on this area in particular. A number of aspects have been identified which the Committee has been looking at, while others have been given to Study Groups set up specifically for the purpose. The first aspects regard: - the development of LNG and LPG, new installations, future chains and relevant statistical data; - the role of LNG and LPG in starting up a gas industry; - operating and technological improvements in the LNG industry; - energy savings, cold utilization and reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions. The Study Groups which were set up dealt with the following subjects: Technological and Economical Developments for cost Reduction of LNG/LPG Facilities. Small Scale LNG Projects and Modular Systems. LNG/LPG Peak Shaving and Satellite Plants. LNG versus Pipeline Infrastructure. (author)

  10. Electric power and gas markets; Marches de l'electricite et du gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    These two days organized by EFE in Paris, dealt with the european market of the gas and the electrical power. The first day developed the actual situation and the tendencies. The french market deregulation, the possibility of a united market and the energy transportation sector are discussed. The second day dealt with the new commercial technologies, the convergence of Gas and Electricity and the competing in a change world, the opportunities of the NTIC (new technologies of the information and communication). (A.L.B.)

  11. Irreversibility of Gas-Condensate Flow in Gas Cycling Projects: Kinetically Stable Saturation Patterns Irréversibilité des écoulements de gaz à condensat dans les projets de recyclage de gaz : profils stationnaires de saturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitlin V.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of a two-phase multicomponent reservoir system which is approaching the steady-state flow regime are studied. First, the compositional model is analyzed in the linear approximation, for the case of a small initial deviation from the steady-state regime. An analytical expression is obtained for the characteristic relaxation time. Next, numerical simulations are performed for situations where there is a substantial deviation from the steady-state regime. The linear injection of an enriched gas into a gas-condensate reservoir, followed by the extraction regime, is simulated. It is shown that the change in phase compositions and pressure on the way to equilibrium proceeds with characteristic times of the order of the injection time. However, the change in the saturation and overall composition takes approximately 200 times longer than the injection time. Thus, the reservoir system manifests a spatially inhomogeneous saturation distribution for an abnormally long time. Similar kinetically stable patterns have been also discovered in the nonlinear dynamics of phase transitions, plasma, and thin films. The question of the existence of discontinuous steady states for this multicomponent flow is considered. In the case of a binary mixture, it is shown that such solutions do not exist. Cet article présente une étude de la dynamique d'un réservoir biphasique multiconstituant approchant le régime d'écoulement stationnaire. En premier lieu, nous procédons à une approximation linéaire du modèle compositionnel dans le cas des petites fluctuations autour du régime permanent. Une expression analytique est ainsi obtenue pour le temps caractéristique de transition. Des simulations numériques sont ensuite effectuées pour les déviations importantes par rapport au régime permanent. Nous avons ainsi pu étudier le déplacement linéaire d'un mélange gaz/condensat par un gaz enrichi suivi d'un régime de production. On montre alors que le

  12. Combustion engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Ragland, Kenneth W

    2011-01-01

    Introduction to Combustion Engineering The Nature of Combustion Combustion Emissions Global Climate Change Sustainability World Energy Production Structure of the Book   Section I: Basic Concepts Fuels Gaseous Fuels Liquid Fuels Solid Fuels Problems Thermodynamics of Combustion Review of First Law Concepts Properties of Mixtures Combustion StoichiometryChemical EnergyChemical EquilibriumAdiabatic Flame TemperatureChemical Kinetics of CombustionElementary ReactionsChain ReactionsGlobal ReactionsNitric Oxide KineticsReactions at a Solid SurfaceProblemsReferences  Section II: Combustion of Gaseous and Vaporized FuelsFlamesLaminar Premixed FlamesLaminar Flame TheoryTurbulent Premixed FlamesExplosion LimitsDiffusion FlamesGas-Fired Furnaces and BoilersEnergy Balance and EfficiencyFuel SubstitutionResidential Gas BurnersIndustrial Gas BurnersUtility Gas BurnersLow Swirl Gas BurnersPremixed-Charge Engine CombustionIntroduction to the Spark Ignition EngineEngine EfficiencyOne-Zone Model of Combustion in a Piston-...

  13. Les techniques de séparation de gaz par membranes Gas Separation Techniques by Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avrillon R.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Deux types de membranes peuvent être utilisés pour la séparation des gaz. Les unes sont poreuses et séparent les gaz sur la base de leur masse moléculaire selon un mécanisme de diffusion de Knudsen dans des micropores. Les facteurs de séparation obtenus sont généralement trop faibles pour présenter un intérêt industriel. Les autres, appelées membranes non poreuses, mettent en oeuvre un mécanisme de dissolution-diffusion des gaz dans une fine couche de polymère dénuée de toute porosité. C'est de ces dernières que nous allons parler. Commencé il y a une vingtaine d'années, le développement de ce type de membranes a conduit aux premières applications industrielles en 1979 avec l'introduction par Monsanto des séparateurs PRISM pour la récupération d'hydrogène à partir de différents gaz de raffinerie et de pétrochimie. Après des débuts modestes par suite de la compétition avec des technologies éprouvées comme la cryogénie, l'adsorption et l'absorption, la perméation gazeuse est en train de conquérir sa place parmi les techniques de séparation de gaz. Elle est aujourd'hui l'une des techniques membranaires présentant le plus fort taux de progression (30 % par an. Après un rappel des principes de base de la perméation gazeuse on abordera successivement les points suivants : - le choix du polymère constituant la couche séparatrice, - l'élaboration des membranes à structure asymétrique présentant une peau dense et fine, - les principales applications industrielles. Cela permettra de mettre en évidence les avantages et les limitations actuelles de la perméation gazeuse et de souligner les différents domaines où les efforts de R et D peuvent amener des progrès significatifs. Principle of Gas permeation - Gas permeation is a technique for fractionating gas mixtures by using nonporous polymer membranes having a selective permeability to gas according to a dissolution-diffusion mechanism. Gas is made to pass

  14. Fractionation of Hydrocarbons Between Oil and Gas Phases Fractionnement des hydrocarbures entre les phases huile et gaz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruffier-Meray V.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of hydrocarbon fractionation between oil and gas phases is of interest for several purposes in reservoir exploitation. In reservoir geochemistry, the evolution of light hydrocarbon fractions of oils may explain some migration phenomena. In gas injection projects, the preferred dissolution of some components in gas may alter the composition as well as the properties of the oil. Underground gas storage in depleted oil reservoirs may also be concerned by these problems. Results of several IFP studies are described here to illustrate and to quantify the phenomenon. Two of them, using real reservoir fluids, concern reservoir geochemistry, while the third, which is a swelling test, aimed to study gas injection, investigated a synthetic reservoir fluid with hydrocarbon components up to C30. Two pieces of equipment were used: a sapphire cell with a maximum pressure rating of 400 bar and a high pressure apparatus called Hercule with a maximum pressure of 1500 bar. For each fluid, the saturation pressure was measured. For various pressure levels below saturation, the coexisting liquid and gas phases were sampled at constant pressure, and subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography. In the gas injection study, sampling was repeated with different quantities of injection gas. Compared to a n-paraffin with the same number of carbon atoms, aromatic hydrocarbons appear to stay preferentially in the liquid phase, as do cycloalkanes to a lesser extent. The gaseous phase is slightly enriched in isoalkanes. These fractionation effects are less pronounced near the critical region. These phenomena have been modeled with a cubic equation of state combined with a group contribution mixing rule. L'étude du fractionnement des hydrocarbures légers entre les phases gazeuses et liquides intéresse plusieurs domaines dans le cadre de l'exploitation des gisements. En géochimie de réservoir l'évolution de la composition de la fraction légère peut

  15. Model-Based Throttle Control using Static Compensators and Pole Placement Commande des gaz basée sur un modèle utilisant des compensateurs statiques et un placement de pôles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomasson A.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In modern spark ignited engines, the throttle is controlled by the Electronic Control Unit (ECU, which gives the ECU direct control of the air flow and thereby the engine torque. This puts high demands on the speed and accuracy of the controller that positions the throttle plate. The throttle control problem is complicated by two strong nonlinear effects, friction and limp-home torque. This paper proposes the use of two, simultaneously active, static compensators to counter these effects and approximately linearize the system. A PID controller is designed for the linearized system, where pole placement is applied to design the PD controller and a gain scheduled I-part is added for robustness against model errors. A systematic procedure for generating compensator and controller parameters from open loop experiments is also developed. The controller performance is evaluated both in simulation, on a throttle control benchmark problem, and experimentally. A robustness investigation pointed out that the limp-home position is an important parameter for the controller performance, this is emphasized by the deviations found in experiments. The proposed method for parameter identification achieves the desired accuracy. Au sein des moteurs à allumage commandé modernes, les gaz sont régulés par le boîtier de commande électronique (ECU; Electronic Control Unit, qui permet la régulation directe par l’ECU du flux d’air et ainsi du couple moteur. Cela conduit à des exigences élevées quant à la vitesse et à la précision du régulateur qui positionne le papillon des gaz. Le problème de commande des gaz est compliqué par deux forts effets non linéaires, le frottement et le couple de mode de secours (“limp-home”. Cet article propose l’utilisation de deux compensateurs statiques, actifs simultanément, pour contrer ces effets et linéariser approximativement le système. Un régulateur PID est conçu pour le système linéarisé, où un

  16. Optimization of Hybrid Power Trains by Mechanistic System Simulations Optimisation de groupes motopropulseurs électriques hybrides par simulation du système mécanique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrašnik T.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a mechanistic system level simulation model for mode/big hybrid and conventional vehicle topologies. The paper addresses the Dynamic interaction between different domains: internal combustion engine. exhaust after treatment devices, electric components. mechanical drive train. cooling circuit system and corresponding control units. To achieve a good ratio between accuracy. predictability and computational speed of the model an innovative time domain decoupling is presented, which is based on applying domain specific integration steps to ditferent domains and subsequent consistent cross-domain coupling ol’thefluxes. In addition, a computationally efficient frunieveork for transporting active and passive gaseous species is introduced to combine computational efficiency with the need for modeling pollutant transport in the gas path. The applicability and versatility of the mechanistic system level simulations model is presented through analyses of transient phenomena caused by the high interdependency of the sub-systems, i.e. domains. Results of a hyt’hrid vehicle are compared to results of a conventional vehicle to highlight differences in operating regimes of partiular components that are inherent to particular poster train topology. L’article présente un modèle de simulation au niveau mécanique destiné à la modélisation de topologies de véhicules hydrides et conventionnels. L’article décrit l’interaction dynamique entre différents domaines : moteur à combustion interne, dispositifs de post-traitement d’échappement, composants électriques, chaîne cinématique mécanique, circuit de refroidissement et les unités de contrôle correspondantes. Afin d’obtenir un rapport correct entre précision, prévisibilité et vitesse de calculs du modèle, un découplage innovant du domaine temporel est présenté, lequel est basé sur l’application à différents domaines, d’étapes d’intégration sp

  17. Plutonium, nuclear fuel; Le plutonium, combustible nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grison, E [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay aux Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires, Saclay

    1960-07-01

    A review of the physical properties of metallic plutonium, its preparation, and the alloys which it forms with the main nuclear metals. Appreciation of its future as a nuclear fuel. (author) [French] Apercu sur les proprietes physiques du plutonium metallique, sa preparation, ses alliages avec les principaux metaux nucleaires. Consideration sur son avenir en tant que combustible nucleaire. (auteur)

  18. Results of the irradiation of mixed UO{sub 2} - PuO{sub 2} oxide fuel elements; Resultats d'irradiation d'elements combustibles en oxyde mixte UO{sub 2} - PuO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikailoff, H.; Mustelier, J.P.; Bloch, J.; Ezran, L.; Hayet, L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    gaine en acier inoxydable etait compris entre 0,06 et 0,27 mm. Les puissances specifiques ont varie de 1230 a 2700 W/cm{sup 3} et la temperature de la gaine etait situee entre 450 et 630 C, Le taux de combustion maximal atteint a ete de 22000 MWj/t. L'examen des aiguilles (metrologie, radiographie et spectrographie {gamma}) a revele certaines modifications macroscopiques, et l'evolution du combustible a ete mise en evidence par la micrographie. On a utilise ces observations, avec les resultats des mesures de flux, pour calculer la repartition des temperatures a l'interieur du combustible. Le volume des gaz de fission degages a ete mesure dans certaines aiguilles: les resultats sont interpretes en liaison avec la repartition des temperatures dans l'oxyde et le taux de combustion atteint. Enfin on a examine d'une part, le comportement d'un element combustible dont la partie centrale etait fondue pendant l'irradiation, et d'autre part, l'action du sodium entre dans certaines aiguilles dont la gaine s'etait rompue. (auteur)

  19. Results of the irradiation of mixed UO{sub 2} - PuO{sub 2} oxide fuel elements; Resultats d'irradiation d'elements combustibles en oxyde mixte UO{sub 2} - PuO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikailoff, H; Mustelier, J P; Bloch, J; Ezran, L; Hayet, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    inoxydable etait compris entre 0,06 et 0,27 mm. Les puissances specifiques ont varie de 1230 a 2700 W/cm{sup 3} et la temperature de la gaine etait situee entre 450 et 630 C, Le taux de combustion maximal atteint a ete de 22000 MWj/t. L'examen des aiguilles (metrologie, radiographie et spectrographie {gamma}) a revele certaines modifications macroscopiques, et l'evolution du combustible a ete mise en evidence par la micrographie. On a utilise ces observations, avec les resultats des mesures de flux, pour calculer la repartition des temperatures a l'interieur du combustible. Le volume des gaz de fission degages a ete mesure dans certaines aiguilles: les resultats sont interpretes en liaison avec la repartition des temperatures dans l'oxyde et le taux de combustion atteint. Enfin on a examine d'une part, le comportement d'un element combustible dont la partie centrale etait fondue pendant l'irradiation, et d'autre part, l'action du sodium entre dans certaines aiguilles dont la gaine s'etait rompue. (auteur)

  20. Cycle e-business: the e-business of Gaz De France; Cycle e-business: l'e-business de Gaz de France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This paper deals with the Gaz De France Group position in the e-business context. In terms of e-business, all is done to put Internet at the marketing service. Three examples of Internet sites realization and the future policy are presented. (A.L.B.)

  1. A Survey of the Fuel Cycles Operated in the United Kingdom; Etude d'ensemble sur les cycles de combustible au Royaume-Uni; Obzor toplivnykh tsiklov, ispol'zuemykh v soedinennom korolevstve; Estudio de los ciclos de combustible utilizados en el Reino Unido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allday, C. [United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Risley, Warrington, Lancs (United Kingdom)

    1963-10-15

    son programme d'energie d'origine nucleaire sur la filie re des reacteurs a l'uranium naturel et au graphite, refroidis par un gaz. Les reacteurs de Calder Hall et de Chapelcross fonctionnent depuis sept ans; ceux de Berkeley et de Bradwell, qui dependent du Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB), sont maintenant en service et sept autres reacteurs sont en construction ou en projet. Le combustible destine a ces reacteurs est etudie et fabrique dans l'usine de l'Atomic Energy Authority (AEA) a Springfields, puis transporte jusqu'au reacteur. Apres irradiation et dechargement, le combustible est transporte a l'usine de l'AEA, situee a Windscale, ou l'uranium et le plutonium sont separes des produits de fission. L'auteur decrit l'experience britannique en matiere d'etude et de fabrication du combustible, d'exploitation du reacteur, de transport et de traitement chimique du combustible irradie. Il examine brievement le comportement du combustible dans le reacteur et les differents programmes possibles de chargement et de dechargement, ce sujet etant developpe dans un autre memoire. b) Reacteurs utilisant les combustibles enrichis. Le Royaume-Uni met au point un reacteur perfectionne refroidi par un gaz (Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor = AGR), dont le prototype a ete mis en service en 1963. Le combustible est fabrique a partir d'oxyde d'uranium enrichi gaine d' acier inoxydable; apres irradiation, il sera traite dans une novelle installation qui sera ajoutee a l'usine de separation de Windscale ou est actu ellement traite le combustible gaine de magnox. L'uranium enrichi destine a AGR est produit par l'usine de diffusion situee a Capenhurst. L'oxyde d'uranium naturel enrichi au plutonium peut remplacer, comme combustible, l'oxyde d'uranium enrichi. L'auteur decrit l'experience acquise dans la transformation de l'oxyde destine a AGR et dans le fonctionnement du reacteur et indique comment on envisage de traiter le combustible irradie. Il examine le cas de l'utilisation d

  2. Simulations of a Circulating Fluidized Bed Chemical Looping Combustion System Utilizing Gaseous Fuel Simulation de la combustion en boucle chimique d’une charge gazeuse dans un lit fluidisé circulant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahalatkar K.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Numerical studies using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD have been carried out for a complete circulating fluidized bed chemical looping combustor described in the literature (Abad et al., 2006 Fuel 85, 1174-1185. There have been extensive experimental studies in Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC, however CFD simulations of this concept are quite limited. The CLC experiments that were simulated used methane as fuel. A 2-D continuum model was used to describe both the gas and solid phases. Detailed sub-models to account for fluid-particle and particleparticle interaction forces were included. Global models of fuel and carrier chemistry were utilized. The results obtained from CFD were compared with experimental outlet species concentrations, solid circulation rates, solid mass distribution in the reactors, and leakage and dilution rates. The transient CFD simulations provided a reasonable match with the reported experimental data. Des études numériques de simulation des écoulements (CFD ont été réalisées sur un lit fluidisé circulant opérant en combustion par boucle chimique (CLC décrit dans la littérature (Abad et al., 2006 Fuel 85, 1174-1185. Si de nombreuses études expérimentales ont été conduites pour étudier le procédé CLC, les études concernant la simulation des écoulements par CFD de ce concept sont très limitées. Le système de combustion en boucle chimique simulé dans cette étude concerne la combustion d’une charge gazeuse (méthane. Un modèle 2-D à deux phases continues a été utilisé pour décrire les phases gaz et solide avec des sous-modèles détaillés pour décrire les forces d’interactions entre fluideparticule et particule-particule. Des modèles cinétiques globaux ont été intégrés pour décrire les réactions de combustion et de transformation du matériau transporteur d’oxygène. Les résultats obtenus par CFD ont été comparés aux concentrations expérimentales mesurées des diff

  3. Program Energy of the CNRS. Topic 10 combustion and capture of CO{sub 2}. PRI 10.1. Capture by adsorption of the CO{sub 2} in thermal power plants gas and their injection in petroleum wells. Final report period 2002-2004; Programme energie du CNRS. Theme 10 combustion et capture du CO2. PRI 10.1. Capture par adsorption du CO2 dans des gaz de centrales thermiques et leur injection en puits de petrole. Rapport final periode 2002-2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tondeur, D

    2005-07-01

    In the framework of the global warming resulting of the greenhouse gases emission increase, the carbon dioxide capture and storage in deep underground cavities of old petroleum and gas deposits, are studied. This report presents the researches realized by the CNRS (France) in the domain: technology and knowledge assessment concerning the carbon dioxide capture and storage, active coals for the CO{sub 2} capture, methodology of thermo-economical optimization of the combined cycle, global simulation of an IGCC (Integrated gasification combined cycle) with CO{sub 2} capture and integration in the process scheme, petroleum recovery-aided by CO{sub 2} injection, storage in geological deposits. (A.L.B.)

  4. Toprak Radon (222Rn Gazı Anomalilerinin ARIMA Analizi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miraç KAMIŞLIOĞLU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Özet: Zaman serileri analizi, istatistik, ekonomi, fizik ve mühendislik gibi bilim dallarında geniş uygulama alanına sahiptir. Zaman serisi analizi, değişkenlerin gelecekteki değerlerinin doğru bir şekilde tahmin edilmesi için kullanılan bir yöntemdir. Bu çalışmada, bir deprem öncüsü olarak bilinen toprak radon gazı (222Rn ölçümleri ile bir zaman serisi oluşturulmuştur. Bu veriler kullanılarak, otoregresif süreçler (ARIMA yardımıyla dinamik sistem modellemesi yapılmıştır. ARIMA; zaman serileri analizinde, zaman içerisinde rastgele gerçekleşen bir stokastik (olasılıksal sürecin veya hatalarının modellenmesidir. ARIMA modeli, temelde Box-Jenkins modeline dayanmaktadır. Box-Jenkins modeli, tek değişkenli zaman serilerinin ileriye dönük tahmin ve kontrolünde kullanılan istatistiksel tabanlı bir yöntemdir. Elde edilen sonuçlar, ARIMA modellerinin tahmin konusundaki başarısını göstermektedir. Anahtar kelimeler: Zaman Serileri Analizi, Radon Gazı (222Rn, ARIMA ARIMA Analysis of Soil Radon (222Rn Gas Anomalies Abstract: Time series analysis, has wide applications in statistics, economics, physics and engineering such disciplines. This method used for estimate correctly future values of the variables. In this study, is formed a time series with soil radon gas (222Rn measurements known as a pioneer of an earthquake. Dynamic system modelling was performed with autoregressive (ARIMA modelling process by used these measurements. ARIMA; time series analysis is modelled of the recoverable over time a random stochastic (probabilistic process or its errors. ARIMA model is based on Box-Jenkins model. Box-Jenkins model is a statistically based method which is used forward-looking forecasting and control of univariate time series. The obtained results, ARIMA model is indicating success in predict subject. Key words: Time Series Analysis, Radon Gas (222Rn, ARIMA

  5. Safety report concerning the reactor Pegase - volume 1 - Description of the installation - volume 2 - Safety of the installations; Rapport de surete du reacteur pegase - tome 1 - Description des installations - tome 2 - Surete des installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacour, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Legoin, P. [S.E.M. Hispano-Suiza, 92 - Colombes (France)

    1964-07-01

    In the first volume: This report is a description of the reactor Pegase, given with a view to examine the safety of the installations. The Cadarache site at which they are situated is briefly described, in particular because of the consequences on the techniques employed for building Pegase. A description is also given of the original aspects of the reactor. The independent loops which are designed for full-scale testing of fuel elements used in natural uranium-gas-graphite reactor systems are described in this report, together with their operational and control equipment. In the second volume: In the present report are examined the accidents which could cause damage to the Pegase reactor installation. Among possible causes of accidents considered are the seismicity of the region, an excessive power excursion of the reactor and a fracture in the sealing of an independent loop. Although all possible precautions have been taken to offset the effects of such accidents, their ultimate consequences are considered here. The importance is stressed of the security action and regulations which, added to the precautions taken for the construction, ensure the safety of the installations. (authors) [French] Dans le volume 1: Ce rapport est une description du reacteur Pegase, afin d'examiner la surete des installations. Le site de CADARACHE ou elles sont situees, a ete sommairement decrit, en particulier, a cause des consequences sur les techniques mises en oeuvre pour la realisation de Pegase. Nous nous sommes egalement attache a decrire les aspects originaux du reacteur. Les boucles autonomes destinees a tester en vraie grandeur des elements combustibles de la filiere uranium naturel graphite-gaz, ainsi que leurs dispositifs de controle et d'exploitation, figurent egalement dans ce rapport. Dans le volume 2: Dans le present rapport, nous examinons des accidents pouvant endommager des installations du reacteur Pegase. Les origines d'accidents examines

  6. Safety report concerning the reactor Pegase - volume 1 - Description of the installation - volume 2 - Safety of the installations; Rapport de surete du reacteur pegase - tome 1 - Description des installations - tome 2 - Surete des installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacour, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Legoin, P [S.E.M. Hispano-Suiza, 92 - Colombes (France)

    1964-07-01

    In the first volume: This report is a description of the reactor Pegase, given with a view to examine the safety of the installations. The Cadarache site at which they are situated is briefly described, in particular because of the consequences on the techniques employed for building Pegase. A description is also given of the original aspects of the reactor. The independent loops which are designed for full-scale testing of fuel elements used in natural uranium-gas-graphite reactor systems are described in this report, together with their operational and control equipment. In the second volume: In the present report are examined the accidents which could cause damage to the Pegase reactor installation. Among possible causes of accidents considered are the seismicity of the region, an excessive power excursion of the reactor and a fracture in the sealing of an independent loop. Although all possible precautions have been taken to offset the effects of such accidents, their ultimate consequences are considered here. The importance is stressed of the security action and regulations which, added to the precautions taken for the construction, ensure the safety of the installations. (authors) [French] Dans le volume 1: Ce rapport est une description du reacteur Pegase, afin d'examiner la surete des installations. Le site de CADARACHE ou elles sont situees, a ete sommairement decrit, en particulier, a cause des consequences sur les techniques mises en oeuvre pour la realisation de Pegase. Nous nous sommes egalement attache a decrire les aspects originaux du reacteur. Les boucles autonomes destinees a tester en vraie grandeur des elements combustibles de la filiere uranium naturel graphite-gaz, ainsi que leurs dispositifs de controle et d'exploitation, figurent egalement dans ce rapport. Dans le volume 2: Dans le present rapport, nous examinons des accidents pouvant endommager des installations du reacteur Pegase. Les origines d'accidents examines comprennent la seismicite

  7. Combustion physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. R.

    1985-11-01

    Over 90% of our energy comes from combustion. By the year 2000 the figure will still be 80%, even allowing for nuclear and alternative energy sources. There are many familiar examples of combustion use, both domestic and industrial. These range from the Bunsen burner to large flares, from small combustion chambers, such as those in car engines, to industrial furnaces for steel manufacture or the generation of megawatts of electricity. There are also fires and explosions. The bountiful energy release from combustion, however, brings its problems, prominent among which are diminishing fuel resources and pollution. Combustion science is directed towards finding ways of improving efficiency and reducing pollution. One may ask, since combustion is a chemical reaction, why physics is involved: the answer is in three parts. First, chemicals cannot react unless they come together. In most flames the fuel and air are initially separate. The chemical reaction in the gas phase is very fast compared with the rate of mixing. Thus, once the fuel and air are mixed the reaction can be considered to occur instantaneously and fluid mechanics limits the rate of burning. Secondly, thermodynamics and heat transfer determine the thermal properties of the combustion products. Heat transfer also plays a role by preheating the reactants and is essential to extracting useful work. Fluid mechanics is relevant if work is to be performed directly, as in a turbine. Finally, physical methods, including electric probes, acoustics, optics, spectroscopy and pyrometry, are used to examine flames. The article is concerned mainly with how physics is used to improve the efficiency of combustion.

  8. Study of the formation and of the distribution of dissolved gases and hydrogen peroxide in water from a swimming-pool reactor (triton) (1961); Etude de la formation et de la repartition des gaz dissous et de l'eau oxygenee dans l'eau d'un reacteur piscine (triton) (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenouard, J; Rozenberg, J; Dolle, L; Dirian, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    In order to determine experimentally the amount of radiolysis in the swimming-pool reactor Triton, direct measurements have been made of the quantity of radiolysis gas and hydrogen peroxide in the water, at the entry and exit of the core. The concentration distribution of these gases in the reactor was also determined. An explanation is given as to why no gases evolution is seen in the swimming-pool reactors of the C.E.A. The overall amount of radiolysis is zero, and a simple interpretation of this result is possible. The real amount of radiolysis occurring in the reactor core can be calculated. This is in satisfactory agreement with certain measurement mad elsewhere. (authors) [French] Pour determiner experimentalement le taux de radiolyse dans la pile piscine Triton, des mesures directes de la quantite de gaz de radiolyse et d'eau oxygenee dans l'eau a l'entree et a la sortie du coeur ont ete faites. La repartition de la concentration de ces gaz dans la piscine a egalement ete determinee. On explique pourquoi aucun degagement gazeux n'est observe dans les piles piscines du CE.A. Le taux de radiolyse global est nul, et une interpretation simple de ce resultat est possible. Un taux de radiolyse reel dans le coeur du reacteur peut etre calcule. Celui-ci est en accord satisfaisant avec certaines determinations faites ailleurs. (auteurs)

  9. Gas-flow detector for uranium contamination on finned-can surface of a reactor fuel; Detecteur a courant gazeux pour deceler la contamination en uranium des nervures des gaines de combustible nucleaire; Gazopotochnyj detektor zagryazneniya uranom rebristoj poverkhnosti obolochki reaktornykh teplovydelyayushchikh ehlementov; Detector de flujo gaseoso para medir la contaminacion de uranio en la superficie de la vaina de aletas de los elementos combustibles para reactores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miwa, H; Shiojiri, T; Maeda, Y [Kobe Kogyo Corporation, Okubo, Akashi, Hyogo (Japan)

    1962-04-15

    Calder Hall-type reactor-fuel and all JRR-3 fuels are to be inspected by this counter. (author) [French] Le detecteur a courant gazeux presente par les auteurs est un compteur proportionnel a grille, specialement concu pour deceler la contamination en uranium des nervures des gaines de combustible nucleaire. Un compteur proportionnel classique, compose seulement d'une cathode et d'un collecteur, n'est guere capable de deceler les particules alpha emises par l'uranium contaminant une surface rugueuse telle que les nervures d'une gaine de combustible nucleaire, par suite du manque d'uniformite du champ electrique pres de la surface. C'est pourquoi les auteurs ont construit un compteur proportionnel a grille. Cet appareil, de forme cylindrique, comprend le combustible, une grille, des collecteurs et une cathode, tous les elements etant disposes suivant le meme axe. Le combustible est place au centre de la grille a laquelle on applique une tension negative. L'espace entre le combustible et la grille sert de collecteur d'ions. La grille, faite de fils paralleles minces en tungstene, disposes suivant un cylindre autour du combustible, est reliee a la terre. Les collecteurs sont constitues de 16 minces fils de tungstene disposes de la meme maniere que la grille, mais chaque fil est isole electriquement des autres. Tous les collecteurs sont interconnectes par des resistances de 5 x 10{sup 4} ohms et relies au positif de la haute tension par une resistance. L'espace entre la grille, les collecteurs et la cathode sert a la multiplication du gaz, tout comme dans un compteur proportionnel classique. Chaque resistance de 5 x 10{sup 4} ohms isole la capacite parasite de chaque collecteur. La sortie du detecteur est couplee a un amplificateur a faible impedance d'entree. La faible impedance d'entree diminue aussi l'influence facheuse de la capacite parasite du circuit d'entree. Il en resulte un rapport favorable signal/bruit de fond, ce qui permet une bonne detection des particules

  10. Corrosion by cooling gases in nuclear reactors; la corrosion par les gaz caloporteurs dans les reacteurs nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darras, R. [Commissariat a l' energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA, Centre de Saclay, Section d' etude de la corrosion par gaz et metaux liquides (France)

    1960-07-01

    This article begins with a review of the various materials which can be used and the cooling gases in which they may be heated, emphasis being placed on the importance of reaching temperatures as high as possible. This is followed by a few general remarks on the dry oxidation of metals and alloys, particularly with regard to diffusion phenomena and their various possible mechanisms, and also the methods of investigation employed. Finally, the behaviour of the chief nuclear materials heated in the various gases is studied successively. Materials used for fuel (metallic uranium, uranium oxide, carbides and silicides), canning materials (magnesium, aluminium, zirconium, beryllium, stainless and refractory steels), structural materials (ordinary or slightly alloyed steels), and finally moderators (graphite, beryllium oxide) are deal with in this way. This account is backed up both by the results obtained at the CEA and by work published outside or abroad up to the present day. In conclusion, every effort has been made to direct future research on the basis of the foregoing. Reprint of a paper published in Industries Atomiques - no. 9/10, 1959, p. 3-23 [French] Dans cet article, on passe tout d'abord en revue les divers materiaux utilisables et les gaz de refroidissement dans lesquels ils peuvent etre chauffes, en insistant sur l'interet d'atteindre des temperatures aussi elevees que possible. On rappelle ensuite quelques generalites sur l'oxydation seche des metaux et alliages, notamment en ce qui concerne les phenomenes de diffusion et leurs divers mecanismes possibles ainsi que les methodes d'etude. Enfin, le comportement des principaux materiaux nucleaires chauffes dans les divers gaz est etudie successivement. On traita ainsi des materiaux combustibles (uranium metallique, oxyde, carbures et siliciures d'uranium), des materiaux de gainage (magnesium, aluminium, zirconium, beryllium, aciers inoxydables et refractaires), des materiaux de structure (aciers ordinaires

  11. Review of safety precautions derived from six-year experience of a spent fuel reprocessing plant - Centre de Marcoule; Elements de securite tires de six annees d'exploitation de l'usine de traitement de combustibles irradies du Centre de Marcoule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodier, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre de Production de Plutonium, Marcoule (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    an organization of the work aimed at eliminating the causes of incidents. They investigate the following points in particular: - frequency of entry into forbidden zones during normal functioning - the distribution of exceptional tasks - the prevention of criticality risks - zone contamination incidents - the volume and nature of decontaminated material and eliminated residues - the evolution and distribution of external irradiation doses received by the workers - the frequency of cases of body contamination - internal contamination fixed in the organisms of workers. Conclusions are drawn from the different incidents which have occurred during the years of operating the plant. (author) [French] Dans une usine de traitement de combustibles irradies comme dans toute autre usine, la continuite de la production ne peut etre obtenue que par une recherche constante de la securite. Les auteurs examinent les elements de securite apportes par la conception des installations tant au point de vue de la securite classique que de la securite radiologique. Dans l'industrie nucleaire, il ne suffit pas, en effet, d'adopter seulement les precautions habituelles prises contre les risques d'explosion, d'incendie...; il faut aussi apporter beaucoup d'attention aux problemes poses par le confinement des matieres, la radioactivite et les risques de criticite. Les principes generaux de la prevention technique contre les risques radioactifs sont maintenant bien connus. Leur application doit se traduire des la conception des installations par des dispositions concernant: - la conception et la realisation des installations vis-a-vis des risques deja enumeres, - la division de l'usine en zones, - la circulation du personnel et du materiel, - la ventilation et l'epuration de l'air. Les facteurs techniques de securite ne sont toutefois pas suffisants a eux seuls. Quelle que soit la qualite du materiel et le degre d'automatisme atteint, la continuite de fonctionnement d'une usine implique l

  12. Design of the Small Rods Forming the Fuel Element of the First Charge of the EL4 Reactor. Cladding Problems; Etude des crayons constituant l'element combustible du premier jeu d'EL4 - probleme de la gaine; Problema pokrytiya nebol'shikh steeknej, obrazushchikh toplivnyj ehlement pervoj zagruzki reaktora EL.4; Estudio de las barras que constituyen los elementos combustibles de la primera carga del reactor EL4 - el problema de las vainas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailly, H.; Ringot, C.; Weisz, M. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay (France)

    1963-11-15

    The fuel element for the first charge of EL4 makes use of stainless steel cans. The grade of steel chosen and the can thickness depend on the corrosion resistance and mechanical strength required. The operating stresses and temperatures are such that fabrication of a can lasting throughout the life of the fuel element calls for a highly resistant grade of steel, of thickness greater than 0.5 mm. When the can bears on the fuel as a result of creep, deformation in diametrical clearance may lead to ovalization and folding, while deformation in longitudinal clearance may cause buckling of the can. Numerous tests have been carried out on cans of thickness 0.3 and 0.4 mm to determine type of deformation as a function of clearance. To be certain of avoiding ovalization with the thicknesses proposed and to keep the internal temperature of the fuel as low as possible, the clearance must be reduced to zero in fabrication. (author) [French] L'element combustible du premier jeu EL4 utilise des gaines en acier inoxydable. Le choix de la nuance et de l'epaisseur de la gaine est lie a des considerations de tenue a la corrosion et de tenue mecanique. Les contraintes et les temperatures d'utilisation ne permettent pas de concevoir une gaine resistante pendant toute la vie de l'element combustible a moins d'utiliser une nuance tres resistante et d'epaisseur superieure a 0,5 mm. On admet que la gaine s'applique par fluage sur le combustible: la deformation dans les jeux diametraux peut conduire a la formation d'une ovalisation et d'un pli; la deformation dans les jeux longitudinaux peut conduire a des flambages de la gaine. De nombreux essais ont ete realises sur des gaines d'epaisseurs 0,3 et 0,4 mm pour connaitre le mode de deformation en fonction des jeux. Pour etre certain de ne jamais avoir d'ovalisation avec les epaisseurs envisagees, et pour avoir la temperature a coeur du combustible la plus basse possible, on est conduit a reduire a zero le jeu en fabrication. (author

  13. Natural gas and laundry: an efficient duo; Conference Cegibat: Gaz naturel et blanchisserie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Cegibat, the information-recommendation agency of Gaz de France for building engineering professionals, has organized this conference about the use of natural gas in the laundry sector. This document summarizes the content of the different talks dealing with: the history and evolution of laundry activity, the energy consumption problem, the gas appliances (dryers) and their advantages, some testimonies in the health sector (hospitals), the regulatory aspects, the economic aspects (tariffs), Gaz de France energy diagnostic offer, and the testimony of a launderette. (J.S.)

  14. Algeria facing the challenges of Europe natural gas supply and the respect of the environment.; L'Algerie face aux defis de l'approvisionnement de l'Europe en gaz naturel et le respect de l'environnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Nadia Nait

    2010-09-15

    Taking into account the expectations, for the next decades, of a strong increase in the demand for gas in Europe, Algeria has committed to large structuring projects, adding to the two gas pipeline linking Algeria to Spain via Morocco and Algeria to Italy via Tunisia. Two more undertakings are added linking Algeria directly to two European partners. Sonatrach will play an important role in global environment protection, natural gas being less polluting than oil and coal and emitting less co2. Substitution of coal by natural gas will generate socio economical advantages and will preserve the environment. [French] Compte tenu des attentes, pour les decennies prochaines, d'une forte croissance de la demande de gaz en Europe, l'Algerie s'est engagee dans de grands projet structurants s'ajoutant aux deux gazoducs reliant l'Algerie a l'Espagne via le Maroc et l'Algerie a l'Italie via la Tunisie, viennent s'ajouter deux autres ouvrages reliant directement l'Algerie a deux partenaires europeens. Sonatrach Jouera un role important dans la protection de l'environnement a l'echelle mondiale, le gaz naturel est moins polluants que le petrole, le charbon et emet moins de co2. La substitution du charbon par le gaz naturel generera des avantages socio-economiques, preservation de l'environnement.

  15. Study of the combustion of aluminium and magnesium particulates: influence of the composition of the gaseous mixture and of pressure; Etude de la combustion de particules d'aluminium et de magnesium: influence de la composition du melange gazeux et de la pression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legrand, B.

    2000-07-01

    The combustion of metal particulates has a major interest in the domain of space propulsion. Aluminium is today used as doping material in the solid propellant of Ariane 5 rocket engines. Magnesium represents a possible fuel for propellers allowing a come back from Mars. An electrostatic levitation device has been used to study the combustion in controlled environment of particulates having a size representative of those encountered in propellers. The particulates are ignited with a laser and observed by fast cinematography. The inhibitive property of hydrogen chloride, an important constituent of the propellant atmosphere, on the combustion of aluminium particulates has been evidenced. These results have been compared with those obtained with a kinetic model in gaseous phase. The combustion of magnesium particulates in carbon dioxide has been studied for 53-63 {mu}m and 1-2 mm particulates. It is shown that the ignition of small particulates is controlled by the chemical kinetics and that the limit ignition pressure is reversely proportional to the particulates size. A study on big samples, performed in normal gravity but also in reduced gravity to get rid of the natural convection phenomena, has permitted to show a pulsed combustion regime linked with the presence of heterogenous reactions. The measurement of the combustion durations for the different sizes of particulates has permitted to propose a correlation between these two parameters for the particulate diameters comprised between 50 {mu}m and 2 mm. (J.S.)

  16. Approche économique de l'exploration des stockages souterrains de gaz en nappe aquifère Economic Approach to Exploration for Underground Gas Storage Facilities in Aquifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colonna J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Dans le cadre de la recherche des stockages souterrains de gaz, le Département Réservoirs Souterrains de Gaz de France est amené à établir un programme d'exploration destiné à sélectionner définitivement, et au moindre coût, les structures capables de satisfaire la demande. Cette sélection passe par une estimation des probabilités de rejet ou d'abandon affectant les différentes structures susceptibles de donner lieu à une exploration. Il faut ensuite constituer le programme d'exploration de chacun des sites retenus après cet examen; ce programme consiste en une liste d'opérations (forage, sismique, essai hydraulique, forage à faible profondeur etc. qui mettront le plus vite possible en évidence : - d'une part les défauts; - d'autre part les principales caractéristiques techniques de la structure étudiée. La règle est d'atteindre la décision sur la faisabilité du site au stockage avec le moindre coût d'exploration. Pour ce faire, une analyse détaillée des causes potentielles d'abandon (recensement des défauts permet de choisir les opérations à effectuer, et d'associer à chacun des défauts recensés, l'opération ou l'ensemble d'opérations permettant de le détecter de façon certaine. Alors les estimateurs économiques tels que l'espérance de dépense, le risque financier, l'espérance de gain, sont calculés pour chacun des programmes, en vue de déterminer l'ordre d'exécution optimal des opérations. L'intérêt d'une telle approche, en ce qui concerne la réduction des dépenses d'exploration, est illustré par un exemple. As part of its work concerning the search for underground gas storage sites, the Underground Storage Department of Gaz de France has established an exploration program for the definitive and lowcost selection of suitable geological structures. This selection involves estimating probabilities of rejecting or abandoning different structures liable to be targets for exploration. The

  17. Description d'un nouveau brûleur compact. Fonctionnement en régime de gaz prémélangés Description of a New Compact Premixed Gas Burner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minetti R.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available On décrit un nouveau brûleur compact à gaz, de haut rendement et d'une puissance variable de 1 à 5 kW. La source de chaleur est une flamme plate d'un prémélange stoechiométrique de gaz naturel et d'air stabilisé sur une grille d'une surface de 100 cm2. Plusieurs grilles en acier inoxydable sont comparées. Elles diffèrent par leur épaisseur, le nombre et la dimension des trous. Un échangeur de chaleur en laiton à circulation d'eau peut être approché jusqu'à 7 mm de la surface du brûleur. La température des gaz frais, le débit et la position de l'échangeur ont été modifiés et les conditions optimales de fonctionnement sont décrites. Les températures à travers les gaz frais, la flamme, les gaz brûlés et les fumées, ont été mesurées. Un modèle simple des échanges de chaleurs est présenté. Il permet une meilleure compréhension des processus de transfert et facilite le choix des conditions opératoires. Dans les meilleures conditions, 93 % du contenu thermique du mélange gazeux est transféré à l'échangeur. Some general characteristics of a compact and efficient gas burner are described (1-5 kW. The heat source is a premixed flat flame stabilized on a 100 cm2 grid fed by a stoechiometric mixture of air and natural gas. Various types of stainless steel grids have been investigated. They differ according to their thickness and to the number and size of the holes. A circulating water heat exchanger made of brass can be approached to the flame as close as 7 mm above the burner surface. The temperature of the inlet gas mixture, the flow rate, and the position of the heat exchanger have been varied. The best working conditions are given as well as the temperature through the fresh gaseous mixture, the temperature profiles of the flame and the temperature of the fumes. From heat transfer calculations a simple model is presented. It gives better insight into the heat transfer processes and facilitates a judicious

  18. Graphite suspension in carbon dioxide; Suspension de graphite dans le gaz carbonique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roche, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Moussez, C; Rouvillois, X; Brevet, R [Societe Nationale d' Etude et de Construction de Moteurs d' Aviation (SNECMA), 75 - Paris (France)

    1965-07-01

    Since 1963 the Atomic Division of SNECMA has been conducting, under a contract with the CEA, an experimental work with a two-component fluid comprised of carbon dioxide and small graphite particles. The primary purpose was the determination of basic engineering information pertaining to the stability and the flowability of the suspension. The final form of the experimental loop consists mainly of the following items: a light-phase compressor, a heavy-phase pump, an electrical-resistance type heater section, a cooling heat exchanger, a hairpin loop, a transparent test section and a separator. During the course of the testing, it was observed that the fluid could be circulated quite easily in a broad range of variation of the suspension density and velocity - density from 30 to 170 kg/m{sup 3} and velocity from 2 to 24 m/s. The system could be restarted and circulation maintained without any difficulty, even with the heavy-phase pump alone. The graphite did not have a tendency to pack or agglomerate during operation. No graphite deposition was observed on the wall of the tubing. A long period run (250 hours) has shown the evolution of the particle dimensions. Starting with graphite of surface area around 20 m{sup 2}/g (graphite particles about 1 {mu}), the powder surface area reaches an asymptotic value of 300 m{sup 2}/g (all the particles less than 0.3 {mu}). Moisture effect on flow stability, flow distribution between two parallel channels, pressure drop in straight tubes, recompression ratio in diffusers were also investigated. (author) [French] Depuis 1963 la Division Atomique de la SNECMA conduit, dans le cadre d'un contrat avec le Commissariat A l'Energie Atomique, l'etude experimentale d'une suspension de fines particules de graphite dans le gaz carbonique. L'objectif principal est d'obtenir des informations d'ordre mecanique et technologique sur la mise en oeuvre de l'ecoulement de ce fluide diphase. Le circuit experimental comprend principalement: un

  19. Biofuels combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Charles K

    2013-01-01

    This review describes major features of current research in renewable fuels derived from plants and from fatty acids. Recent and ongoing fundamental studies of biofuel molecular structure, oxidation reactions, and biofuel chemical properties are reviewed, in addition to combustion applications of biofuels in the major types of engines in which biofuels are used. Biofuels and their combustion are compared with combustion features of conventional petroleum-based fuels. Two main classes of biofuels are described, those consisting of small, primarily alcohol, fuels (particularly ethanol, n-butanol, and iso-pentanol) that are used primarily to replace or supplement gasoline and those derived from fatty acids and used primarily to replace or supplement conventional diesel fuels. Research efforts on so-called second- and third-generation biofuels are discussed briefly.

  20. Black and blue gas, the Gaz de France story during the last forty years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltran, A.; Williot, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    This book narrates Gaz de France story during the last forty years. The author describes the great events such change from coal gas to methane (black and blue gas), building of a national distribution network, natural gas promoting, negotiating on great supply contracts, research programs. 61 refs., 12 figs., 29 photos

  1. Report of visiting Laboratoire de Physique des Gaz et des Plasmas, Universite Paris-Sud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, J.L.

    1991-03-01

    The activities carried out by identification mission to the Laboratoire de Physique des Gaz et des Plasmas (LPGP) of Paris-Sud University are related. The mission is part of the project of Study on Plasma wave and Plasma turbulence which is part of international agreement between CAPES and COFECUB in France. (M.C.K.)

  2. Risk Analysis of Flare Flame-out Condition in a Gas Process Facility Analyse des risques des conditions d’extinction de torche au sein d’une installation de traitement de gaz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zadakbar O.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Flaring is a common method of disposal of flammable waste gases in the downstream industries. Flare flame out (flame lift-off or blow-outs often occurs causing toxic vapors to discharge. The toxic gases released may have hazardous effects on the surrounding environment. To study the effect of inhalation exposure of these toxic gases on human health, the four steps of the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency framework with the field data to quantify the cancer and non-cancer health risks are integrated in this paper. As a part of exposure assessment, gas dispersion modeling using AERMOD and UDM-PHAST is applied in two different conditions of normal flaring and flare flame out during a particular climate condition in Khangiran region. Recommendations to avoid flare flame out conditions are also presented here. Le torchage est un procédé courant d’élimination des gaz résiduaires inflammables dans les industries de traitement. L’extinction de la torche (par décollage ou soufflage de flamme provoque souvent une émission de vapeurs toxiques. Ces gaz toxiques libérés peuvent présenter des effets dangereux sur le milieu environnant. Pour étudier l’effet d’une exposition par inhalation de ces gaz toxiques sur la santé, cet article croise les quatre étapes de la démarche de l’EPA (Environmental Protection Agency, Agence de protection de l’environnement avec les données d’exploitation afin de quantifier le risque sanitaire cancérologique et non cancérologique. Dans le cadre de l’estimation d’exposition, une modélisation de dispersion des gaz utilisant AERMOD et UDM-PHAST est évaluée dans deux configurations différentes de torchage normal et d’extinction de torche à l’occasion de conditions climatiques particulières dans la région du Khangiran. L’article propose également des recommandations destinées à éviter les conditions d’une extinction de flamme de torche.

  3. Visual Investigation of Retrograde Phenomena and Gas Condensate Flow in Porous Media Étude visuelle des phénomènes rétrogrades et de l'écoulement des gaz de condensat en milieux poreux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danesh A.

    2006-11-01

    és avec des mélanges synthétiques d'hydrocarbures gazeux multicomposants, mais aussi avec un condensat naturel provenant de la mer du Nord. Le comportement en écoulement polyphasique des systèmes soumis à l'essai, observé et enregistré en vidéo, est présenté ici, accompagné des données mesurées. En milieu poreux mouillé à l'eau, on a observé que le condensat se forme en film mince continu sur l'eau connée, site préférentiel de condensation. En abaissant la pression au-dessous de la cricondenbar du système, on a provoqué la croissance du condensat presque exclusivement sur les anneaux d'eau à l'entrée des pores et sur les pores aveugles. On a constaté que le condensat passe à travers les films minces même en cas de saturation faible, sans que cela améliore sa récupération. Le rythme de la baisse de pression influence le cisaillement de l'écoulement de gaz et influence fortement, on l'a constaté, la propagation du condensat. Des instabilités localisées pourraient entraîner des mouvements importants du condensat dans certaines zones poreuses, mais en aval les effets capillaires exerceraient une action retardatrice qui diminuerait la récupération du condensat. On ne doit pas penser que les rapports entre la perméabilité relative et la saturation du gaz de condensat prendront la même forme que la perméabilité relative pétrole-gaz dans le cas de récupération par un gaz en solution ou un gaz injecté.

  4. Effet de la rugosité de surface sur les performances du contact ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effet de la rugosité de surface sur les performances du contact segment- chemise dans un moteur à combustion interne. The effect of surface roughness on the performances of liner-piston ring contact in internal combustion engine. Amar Ayad. *. , Amar Skendraoui & Ammar Haiahem. Laboratoire de Mécanique Industrielle ...

  5. Fluctuations Magnetiques des Gaz D'electrons Bidimensionnels: Application AU Compose Supraconducteur LANTHANE(2-X) Strontium(x) Cuivre OXYGENE(4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benard, Pierre

    Nous presentons une etude des fluctuations magnetiques de la phase normale de l'oxyde de cuivre supraconducteur La_{2-x}Sr _{x}CuO_4 . Le compose est modelise par le Hamiltonien de Hubbard bidimensionnel avec un terme de saut vers les deuxiemes voisins (modele tt'U). Le modele est etudie en utilisant l'approximation de la GRPA (Generalized Random Phase Approximation) et en incluant les effets de la renormalisation de l'interaction de Hubbard par les diagrammes de Brueckner-Kanamori. Dans l'approche presentee dans ce travail, les maximums du facteur de structure magnetique observes par les experiences de diffusion de neutrons sont associes aux anomalies 2k _{F} de reseau du facteur de structure des gaz d'electrons bidimensionnels sans interaction. Ces anomalies proviennent de la diffusion entre particules situees a des points de la surface de Fermi ou les vitesses de Fermi sont tangentes, et conduisent a des divergences dont la nature depend de la geometrie de la surface de Fermi au voisinage de ces points. Ces resultats sont ensuite appliques au modele tt'U, dont le modele de Hubbard usuel tU est un cas particulier. Dans la majorite des cas, les interactions ne determinent pas la position des maximums du facteur de structure. Le role de l'interaction est d'augmenter l'intensite des structures du facteur de structure magnetique associees a l'instabilite magnetique du systeme. Ces structures sont souvent deja presentes dans la partie imaginaire de la susceptibilite sans interaction. Le rapport d'intensite entre les maximums absolus et les autres structures du facteur de structure magnetique permet de determiner le rapport U_ {rn}/U_{c} qui mesure la proximite d'une instabilite magnetique. Le diagramme de phase est ensuite etudie afin de delimiter la plage de validite de l'approximation. Apres avoir discute des modes collectifs et de l'effet d'une partie imaginaire non-nulle de la self-energie, l'origine de l'echelle d'energie des fluctuations magnetiques est examinee

  6. The Non-Destructive Testing of Fuel Elements and Their Components for the United Kingdom Power-Reactor Development Programme; Controle Non Destructif des Elements Combustibles et de Leurs Parties Constitutives dans le Cadre du Programme de Developpement des Reacteurs de Puissance au Royaume-Uni; Nedestruktivnoe ispytanie teplovydelyayushchikh ehlementov i ikh komponentov dlya osushchestvleniya programmy soedinennogo korolevstva po razrabotke ehnergeticheskikh reaktorov; Ensayo No Destructivo de Elementos Combustibles y sus Componentes, en el Marco del Programa de Reactores de Potencia del Reino Unido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, C. A.; Campsie, I. C. [U.K.A.E.A., Reactor Fuel Element Laboratories, Springfields, Salwick, Preston, Lancs. (United Kingdom)

    1965-10-15

    and the ends closed. In addition, the integrity of end closures is established, by radiography. Multiple exposures are commonly made to examine the whole of circumferential weld adequately. The disposition of the fuel can also be recorded accurately by using a panoramic technique. The use of colour radiography is also discussed. Pins are normally tested for leakage after filling with helium, using a mass-spectrometer leak detector. Pins not filled with helium may be tested using a ''back-pressurizing'' technique. Conventional ''probing'' and ''sniffing'' methods are used when it is desirable to locate the sites of leaks. The bubble test in liquids is also used, as a cheap and simple test. The use of krypton-85 as a tracer gas is discussed. (author) [French] Les auteurs decrivent les methodes d'essai que les laboratoires charges des elements combustibles ont elaborees dans le cadre du programme etabli par le en vue de mettre au point des aiguilles de combustible pour diverses filieres de reacteurs. Ces aiguilles sont contenues dans des gaines de 5 a 15 mm de diametre, les materiaux utilises etant des aciers inoxydables et des alliages de zirconium, a) Detection de defauts dans les gaines. Examen par ultrasons a l'aide de deux traducteurs immerges. Les tubes sont animes d'un mouvement helicoidal rapide dans un reservoir fixe. Chaque signal de defaut est verifie et enregistre. Pour regler le dispositif et verifier sa stabilite, on utilise comme temoins des fentes'pratiquees a l'arc a la surface des tubes. Dans certains cas, on a egalement recours au controle par courants de Foucault. Les auteurs decrivent deux procedes: l'un, a debit rapide, est fonde sur un systeme de bobines encerclant le tube; l'autre, a exploration heliccfldale, utilise une bobine se deplacant le long du tube. Les signaux fournis par un circuit a pont sont selectionnes selon la phase et filtres, pour des frequences de 30 a 60 kHz. b) Controle des dimensions de tubes et de

  7. Study of the consequences of the rupture of a pressure tube in the tank of a gas-cooled, heavy-water moderated reactor; Etude des consequences de la rupture d'un tube de force dans la cuve d'un reacteur modere a l'eau lourde et refroidi au gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hareux, F; Roche, R; Vrillon, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    Bursting of a pressure tube in the tank of a heavy water moderated-gas cooled reactor is an accident which has been studied experimentally about EL-4. A first test (scale 1) having shown that the burst of a tube does not cause the rupture of adjacent tubes, tests on the tank resistance have been undertaken with a very reduced scale model (1 to 10). It has been found that the tank can endure many bursts of tube without any important deformation. Transient pressure in the tank is an oscillatory weakened wave, the maximum of which (pressure peak) has been the object of a particular experimental study. It appears that the most important parameters which affect the pressure peak are; the pressure of the gas included in the bursting pressure tube, the volume of this gas, the mass of air included in the tank and the nature of the gas. A general method to calculate the pressure peak value in reactor tanks has been elaborated by direct application of experimental data. (authors) [French] L'eclatement d'un tube de force dans la cuve d'un reacteur de puissance modere a l'eau lourde et refroidi par un gaz sous pression est un accident qui a ete etudie experimentalement a propos d'EL-4. Un premier essai a l'echelle 1 ayant montre que l'eclatement d'un tube ne provoque pas celui des tubes voisins, des essais relatifs a la tenue de la cuve ont ete effectues sur maquettes a echelle tres reduite (l/lO). Il a ete trouve que la cuve peut supporter plusieurs eclatements de tubes sans deformations notables. La pression transitoire dans la cuve a une allure oscillatoire amortie dont le maximum (pression de pic) a fait l'objet d'une etude experimentale detaillee. Il apparait que les parametres essentiels influant sur cette pression sont: la pression du gaz contenu dans le tube de force, le volume du gaz qui participe a l'eclatement, la flexibilite de la cuve, la masse d'air empoisonnee dans la cuve, la nature du gaz explosant. Une methode generale d'estimation des pics de pression dans

  8. Tubular combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Ishizuka, Satoru

    2014-01-01

    Tubular combustors are cylindrical tubes where flame ignition and propagation occur in a spatially confined, highly controlled environment, in a nearly flat, elongated geometry. This allows for some unique advantages where extremely even heat dispersion is required over a large surface while still maintaining fuel efficiency. Tubular combustors also allow for easy flexibility in type of fuel source, allowing for quick changeover to meet various needs and changing fuel pricing. This new addition to the MP sustainable energy series will provide the most up-to-date research on tubular combustion--some of it only now coming out of private proprietary protection. Plentiful examples of current applications along with a good explanation of background theory will offer readers an invaluable guide on this promising energy technology. Highlights include: * An introduction to the theory of tubular flames * The "how to" of maintaining stability of tubular flames through continuous combustion * Examples of both small-scal...

  9. Advanced Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, Gordon R. [NETL

    2013-03-11

    The activity reported in this presentation is to provide the mechanical and physical property information needed to allow rational design, development and/or choice of alloys, manufacturing approaches, and environmental exposure and component life models to enable oxy-fuel combustion boilers to operate at Ultra-Supercritical (up to 650{degrees}C & between 22-30 MPa) and/or Advanced Ultra-Supercritical conditions (760{degrees}C & 35 MPa).

  10. Energy Equation Derivation of the Oil-Gas Flow in Pipelines Dérivation de l’équation d’énergie de l’écoulement huile-gaz dans des pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan J.M

    2012-09-01

    well describe the oil-gas two-phase flow. Lors de la simulation d’un écoulement multiphasique huile-gaz dans une conduite, le calcul thermodynamique représente un processus important en interaction avec le calcul hydraulique; il influence la convergence du programme et la précision des résultats. La forme de l’équation d’énergie constitue la clef du calcul thermodynamique. Basée sur l’équation d’énergie de l’écoulement huile-gaz dans un pipeline, la formule de chute de température explicite (ETDF; Explicit Temperature Drop Formula est dérivée pour un calcul de température d’état stable huile-gaz. Cette nouvelle équation d’énergie prend en compte de nombreux facteurs, tels que l’effet Joule-Thomson, le travail de pression, le travail de frottement, ainsi que l’incidence des ondulations de terrain et le transfert de chaleur avec le milieu extérieur le long de la ligne. Ainsi, il s’agit d’une forme globale de l’équation d’énergie, laquelle pourrait décrire précisément la réalité d’un pipeline à phases multiples. Pour cette raison, un certain nombre de points de vue de la littérature à propos du calcul de température d’un écoulement diphasique huile-gaz dans des pipelines sont passés en revue. L’élimination de la boucle d’itération de température et l’intégration de l’équation de température explicite, au lieu de l’équation d’énergie d’enthalpie, dans le calcul conjugué hydraulique et thermique, se sont avérées améliorer l’efficacité de l’algorithme. Le calcul a été appliqué non seulement au modèle de composants mais aussi au modèle Black-Oil. Ce modèle est incorporé respectivement dans le modèle de composants ainsi que le modèle Black-Oil et deux simulations sont effectuées sur deux pipelines en service, les pipelines multiphasiques Yingmai-Yaha et Lufeng; les résultats de température sont comparés à la simulation calculée par OLGA et aux résultats mesurés. Il

  11. Reactor Physics Development for Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactors; Recherches en Physique des Reacteurs, pour des Reacteurs Perfectionnes Refroidis par un Gaz; Razrabotka metodov v oblasti reaktornoj fiziki dlya usovershenstvovannogo reaktora s gazovym okhlazhdeniem; Progresos de la Fisica de los Reactores de Tipo Avanzado Refrigerados por Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, J. [United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (United Kingdom)

    1964-04-15

    effects in APEX, HERO and AGR and for determining fine structure data and power distribution in the complex fuel assemblies are of particular interest. Current and future theoretical work is concentrated primarily on development of an alternative method to hetrecontrol and FTD2 for dealing with reactor cores after considerable burn-up of the fuel. The experimental programme on HERO is designed to test these methods with complex cores including plutonium bearing fuel. Additional information on the effect of plutonium will be derived from operation of AGR and physics measurements on fuel after irradiation. (author) [French] Le memoire relate les recherches experimentales et theoriques auxquelles on a procede lois de l'etude, de la realisation et de la mise en service du reacteur perfectionne refroidi par un gaz (AGR) de Windscale et, d'une facon generale, pour la mise au point d'un filiere de ce type en vue de la production d'energie electrique industrielle. Il decrit l'important volume de travail qui a ete necessaire en vue d'elaborer les methodes theoriques voulues pour calculer: a) la repartition du flux et l'equilibre de la reactivite dans un coeur complexe; b) la repartition de la puissance dans des geometries de combustible complexes-, c) les effets de l'irradiation sur le cycle du combustible et la repartition de la puissance. A titre d'introduction, le memoire resume la documentation experimentale et les methodes theoriques qui sont le resultat des recherches sur la filiere a uranium gaine de magnox et decrit la documentation experimentale obtenue par le programme commun des industries britanniques (BICEP); toutes ces donnees ont servi de point de depart pour l'elaboration de methodes theoriques applicables a l'AGR. On s'est servi de l'ensemble critique APEX et du reacteur HERO de puissance zero avec des configurations de reseau regulieres et diverses combinaisons de perturbateurs (notamment des barres de commande) pour calculer les parametres de reseau de l'AGR et

  12. Checking the sealing of fuel elements by helium sweating - case of the reactors G2 (1960); Controle de l'etancheite des elements combustibles par ressuage d'helium - cas du reacteur G2 (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanc, B; D' Orival, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Choumoff, S [Compagnie Francaise Thomson-Houston, 75 - Paris (France)

    1960-07-01

    The G2 slug is a welded, hermetically sealed unit; the seal is checked by placing the fuel element in a helium atmosphere under pressure, then measuring the quantity of helium it releases in a vessel under vacuum. The theoretical aspect and the conditions of industrial application are reviewed, and the installations described. (author) [French] La cartouche G2 se presente comme un ensemble soude, hermetique; le controle d'etancheite s'effectue en immergeant l'element combustible dans une atmosphere d'helium sous pression puis en mesurant la quantite d'helium qu'il restitue dans une enceinte sous vide. L'aspect theorique et les conditions d'exploitation industrielle sont evoques et les installations decrites. (auteur)

  13. Performance Analysis of Compositional and Modified Black-Oil Models For a Gas Lift Process Analyse des performances de modèles black-oil pour le procédé d’extraction par injection de gaz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmudi M.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Artificial gas lift is frequently used to boost production rate of mature oil fields. An integrated mathematical model was developed in order to track the spatial and temporal changes in various components of the continuous gas lift process. The computational demand for solving the comprehensive gas lift model highly depends on the thermodynamic treatment of the hydrocarbon fluids involved. A full compositional treatment using an equation of state provides the most accurate results but at a high computational cost. The results of this article showed that the computational cost can be halved without sacrificing accuracy by using reduced parameter stability and flash calculation procedures. It was also demonstrated that a Modified Black-Oil treatment of the fluids can provide reasonable accuracy at a much-reduced computational cost. The Modified Black-Oil treatment provides a valuable tool when the model has to be solved many hundreds of times to find the optimal combination of the gas lift parameters. Les procédés artificiels d’extraction par injection de gaz sont utilisés pour améliorer le taux de récupération des champs pétroliers matures. Un modèle mathématique intégré a été développé pour détecter de faibles changements temporels et spatiaux dans plusieurs composants des procédés continus d’extraction par injection de gaz. La solution numérique utilisée pour résoudre le modèle du procédé d’extraction dépend fortement du comportement thermodynamique des hydrocarbures impliqués. Un traitement complet de la composition utilisant une équation d’état offre les résultats les plus précis, mais à un coût de calcul très élevé. Les résultats de nos travaux de recherche montrent que l’implication des paramètres de stabilité et des procédures de calcul flash, peut diviser par deux le coût du calcul tout en gardant la précision attendue. Ces travaux montrent que la précision admissible peut être

  14. Measurement, with steady pressure rise, of the permeability of a gas through a porous membrane; Mesure, en montee continue de pression, de la permeabilite d'un gaz a travers une membrane poreuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davion, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    compartiments, proprietes physiques du gaz, rayon de pore, valeur de {delta} P en regime stationnaire) et la pression variable P-bar. Lorsque w est grand devant un, condition qui limite superieurement le debit pour une membrane donnee, le developpement equivaut pratiquement son premier terme; les variations de {delta} P et de la permeabilite sont alors inversement proportionnelles. Les influences perturbatrices de divers effets secondaires (variations de temperature dans l'enceinte par exemple) sur la mesure du rayon de pore ont ete estimees. (auteur)

  15. Le problème des hydrates dans le contexte de la production et du transport polyphasiques des pétroles bruts et des gaz naturels. Deuxième partie : les solutions possibles aux difficultés d'exploitation générées par les hydrates Hydrates Problem Within the Framework of Multiphase Production and Transport of Crude Oils and Natural Gases. Part Two: Possible Solutions to Exploitation Difficulties Generated by Hydrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behar E.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'exploitation en mer des gisements de combustibles fossiles fluides a amplifié le besoin d'accroître nos connaissances sur les hydrates qui sont susceptibles de boucher les installations de production, de traitement et de transport. La première partie rappelait la structure moléculaire des hydrates I, Il et H et décrivait ensuite succinctement l'analyse physico-chimique de leur formation, tant sur les plans thermodynamique que cinétique. Dans cette deuxième partie, les remèdes possibles aux problèmes rencontrés par les compagnies opératrices sont indiqués, essentiellement les inhibiteurs thermodynamiques classiques tels que les alcools ou les sels qui diminuent la température de formation des hydrates, et les additifs dispersants qui évitent la croissance et/ou l'agglomération des cristaux. Pour terminer, une boucle pilote de circulation originale est présentée, ses caractéristiques qui permettent la validation des additifs dispersants dans des conditions hydrodynamiques et physico-chimiques représentatives étant soulignées. Offshore exploitation of fossil fluid fuels has emphasized the need of improving our knowledge on hydrates which can plug production, treatment and transport facilities. The first part recalled the molecular structure of I, II and H hydrates, then the physical-chemistry of their formation was briefly reviewed from both the thermodynamic and the kinetic points of view. In this second part, the possible remedies to the problems met by operating companies are described, mainly classical thermodynamic inhibitors such as alcohols or salts which decrease the hydrates formation temperature, and dispersant additives which avoid crystals growth and/or agglomeration. At last an original circulation loop at pilot scale is presented, its characteristics which allow the testing of dispersant additives under representative hydrodynamic and physico-chemical conditions being outlined.

  16. Le problème des hydrates dans le contexte de la production et du transport polyphasiques des pétroles bruts et des gaz naturels. Première partie : physico-chimie de la formation et de la dissociation des hydrates Hydrates Problem Within the Framework of Multiphase Production and Transport of Crude Oils and Natural Gases. Part One: Physical-Chemistry of Hydrates Formation and Dissociation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behar E.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'exploitation en mer des gisements de combustibles fossiles fluides a amplifié le besoin d'accroître nos connaissances sur les hydrates qui sont susceptibles de boucher les installations de production, de traitement et de transport. Dans cette publication, la structure moléculaire des hydrates I, II et H est rappelée, ensuite l'analyse physico-chimique de leur formation est succinctement décrite tant sur les plans thermodynamique que cinétique. Enfin, les remèdes possibles aux problèmes rencontrés par les compagnies opératrices sont indiqués, essentiellement les inhibiteurs thermodynamiques classiques tels que les alcools ou les sels qui diminuent la température de formation des hydrates, et les additifs dispersants qui évitent la croissance et/ou l'agglomération des cristaux. Pour terminer, une boucle pilote de circulation originale est présentée, ses caractéristiques qui permettent la validation des additifs dispersants dans des conditions hydrodynamiques et physico-chimiques représentatives étant soulignées. Offshore exploitation of fossil fluid fuels has emphasized the need of improving our knowledge on hydrates which can plug production, treatment and transport facilities. In this paper, the molecular structure of I, II and H hydrates is recalled, then the physical-chemistry of their formation is briefly reviewed from both the thermodynamic and the kinetic points of view. Finally, the possible remedies to the problems met by operating companies are described, mainly classical thermodynamic inhibitors such as alcohols or salts which decrease the hydrates formation temperature, and dispersant additives which avoid crystals growth and/or agglomeration. At last an original circulation loop at pilot scale is presented, its characteristics which allow the testing of dispersant additives under representative hydrodynamic and physico-chemical conditions being outlined.

  17. Preparation and properties of carbonaceous products prepared by the cracking of natural gas; Fabrication et proprietes de corps carbones prepares par craquage de gaz naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, P L; Bochirol, L; Rappeneau, J; Cornuault, P; Blanchard, R; Moreau, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    . Plusieurs voies ont ete etudiees: 1 - En utilisant comme supports des graphites industriels de qualite courante (densite voisine de 1,50) on obtient des corps d'une densite proche de 1,80. Leur porosite ouverte (6 a 7 pour cent) est inferieure a celle des graphites traditionnels, et plusieurs de leurs proprietes sensiblement egales ou superieures a celles resultant habituellement d'une double inpregnation au brai. 2 - L'utilisation comme supports de demi-produits ('cuits') cycle traditionnel de fabrication des graphites ne conduit pas a des resultats satisfaisants. On en donne les raisons principales. 3 - Un procede nouveau, dit 'BB5', a ete mis au point. Il part, directement des matieres de corps pulverulentes (coke de petrole ou graphite) mises en forme au moyen d'un liant dispersable dans l'eau. Les supports ainsi constitues permettent, du fait de leur structure poreuse, de tirer le meilleur parti de la densification par craquage, en dessous de 1000 deg. C: du gaz naturel. Les produits obtenus, composes a parts a peu pres egales de la matiere de corps et de pyrocarbone, peuvent avoir des densites depassant 1,90. Leur porosite ouverte, tres faible, peut etre rendue pratiquement nulle, leur impermeabilite etant alors excellente (k = 10{sup -8} cm{sup 2}sec{sup -1}). Ils sont egalement remarquables par leur resistance elevee a la compression, qui peut se situer entre 15 et 20 kg/mm{sup 2} pour les versions ne subissant pas un traitement final de graphitation. On indique quelques exemples d'applications possibles, dans le domaine, nucleaire, des materiaux ainsi prepares. (auteurs)

  18. Materials Control in the Fabrication of Enriched Uranium Fuels; Controle des Matieres au Cours de la Fabrication des Combustibles a Base d'Uranium Enrichi; Uchet materialov pri izgotovlenii topliva na obogashchennom urane; Control de Materiales en la Elaboracion de Combustibles de Uranio Enriquecido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardwell, Jr., R. G. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1966-02-15

    measurement were successfully used where alloy fuel content was critical. Scrap handling had an important effect on the materials balance, by which fuel content was confirmed and good accountability was assured. Records and handling procedures, including batching and physical marking methods, were formulated in a manner that assisted the fabricator in criticality control. (author) [French] Grace aux efforts intenses qui ont ete accomplis au cours des 15 dernieres annees dans le domaine de la technologie des elements de combustible par le Laboratoire national d'Oak Ridge, il a ete possible d'etablir des methodes rationnelles de fabrication et de controle des combustibles eraichis, qui trouvent une iaige application dans la fabrication industrielle des elements de combustible a l'heure actuelle. Des techniques eprouvees de manipulation du combustible enrichi en alliages, en dispersion et sous forme d'oxyde en vrac ont ete mises au point et appliquees a l'etude et a la' fabrication des prototypes d'elements combustibles utilises pour le demarrage du reacteur d'essai de materiaux, du reacteur a protection constituee par la masse du ra- lentisseur ou reacteur piscine, du reacteur de puissance transportable construit pat V, du reacteur protection en tour, du reacteur expose a la Conference de Geneve, du reacteur a haut flux pour la production de radioisotopes et du reacteur experimental refroidi par un gaz. L'experience acquise est la base du present memoire qui traite essentiellement des problemes de controle des matieres qui se posent au cours de la fabrication de differents types d'elements de combustible a base d'uranium enrichi et montre comment ils ont ete resolus. Les objectifs principaux d'un systeme rationnel de controle des matieres sont les suivants: 1. reduire le plus possible le nombre des postes matiere a controler; 2. etablir des releves distincts pour chacune des phases principales des operations et les coordonner de maniere a pouvoir relever les ecarts avec un

  19. Automatic welding of fuel elements; Soudure automatique des elements combustibles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briola, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The welding process depends on the type of fuel element, the can material and the number of cartridges to be welded: - inert-gas welding (used for G2 and the 1. set of EL3), - inert atmosphere arc welding (used for welding uranium and zirconium), - electronic welding (used for the 2. set of EL3 and the tank of Proserpine). (author) [French] Suivant le type d'element combustible, le materiau de gaine et l'importance de la serie a fabriquer, le soudeur dispose des differents procedes examines dans cette communication: - soudure classique a l'arc sous gaz inerte (utilisee pour G2 et le premier jeu EL3), - soudure en atmosphere complete d'argon (utilisee pour la soudure d'uranium et de zirconium), - soudure electronique (utilisee pourdeuxieme jeu EL3 et la cuve de Proserpine). (auteur)

  20. Fiche technique du spermogramme et du spermocytogramme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    En Afrique la stérilité du couple constitue un drame social. Selon l'OMS, environ 8 à 12 % des couples africains sont touchés par une infertilité. La responsabilité masculine dans la stérilité est comprise entre 30 à 40%. Les causes de l'infertilité masculine peuvent être l'impuissance et/ ou l'altération du sperme. L'étude de ...

  1. Gaz de France and Ruhrgas have made commitments towards the European commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    The European Commission's DG Competition has decided to close its investigation into the alleged refusal by the French and German gas companies Gaz de France and Ruhrgas to grant the Norwegian subsidiary of the US gas producer Marathon access to their gas networks. Both companies have offered commitments to improve third party access to their respective transport networks in order to allow customers in France and Germany to benefit more effectively from the opening of the gas markets to competition. (author)

  2. Bulletin du CRDI #124

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les femmes jouent un rôle important dans les exploitations minières artisanales et à petite échelle en Afrique subsaharienne. De concert ... Couverture du livre: Une vie saine pour les femmes et les enfants vulnérables · Couverture du livre: Entre el activismo y la intervención · Couverture du livre: Revitalizing Health for All.

  3. Bulletin du CRDI #125

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    L'IOSRS remporte le prix de la diplomatie scientifique · GrowInclusive : la plateforme tant attendue est en construction · Toutes les nouvelles. Activités à venir. Semaine du développement international 2018. Le CRDI célébrera la Semaine du développement international du 4 au 10 février 2018. Suivez-nous sur Twitter et ...

  4. Improvements of the sensitivity of burst cartridge detection; Amelioration du seuil de detection des ruptures de gaine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasnier, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    I - Special tests for improving the sensitivity of burst cartridge detection equipment in power reactors II - Scintillator purge-flow tests using aged gas in the B.C.D. /E.D.F. 2 Summary. - The first part of this report describes the tests carried out on fission product detectors by a process in which gas is continuously injected in front of the scintillator. Using this system, the background is reduced and perturbations caused by pneumatic switches on the prospecting circuits are eliminated. The quality of the signals thus obtained permits better processing of the data and thus leads to a possible improvement in the sensitivity of burst cartridge detection. The second part gives results of tests carried out with both fresh and aged gases, the economic advantage of the latter being that it permits recycling through the reactor. Reduction of the background is less pronounced but the advantage of the stable signals is conserved. (author) [French] I - Essais speciaux pour ameliorer le seuil de detection des installations de D.R.G. des reacteurs de puissance II- Essais de balayage sous scintillateur avec gaz vieilli a la D.R.G. /E.D.F. 2 Sommaire. - La premiere partie de ce rapport decrit les essais effectues sur les detecteurs de produits de fission par un procede d'injection continue de gaz sous le scintillateur. Grace a ce systeme on obtient une reduction du bruit de fond et l'elimination des perturbations causees par les commutations pneumatiques des circuits de prospection. La qualite des signaux obtenus ainsi permet un meilleur traitement des informations d'ou une amelioration possible du seuil de detection des ruptures de gaines. La seconde partie donne les resultats d'essais effectues avec du gaz propre et vieilli, l'utilisation de ce dernier presentant l'avantage economique d'etre recycle du reacteur. La reduction du bruit de fond est moins importante mais on conserve l'avantage de la stabilisation des signaux. (auteur)

  5. High Combustion Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At NETL's High-Pressure Combustion Research Facility in Morgantown, WV, researchers can investigate new high-pressure, high-temperature hydrogen turbine combustion...

  6. Combustion Research Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Combustion Research Laboratory facilitates the development of new combustion systems or improves the operation of existing systems to meet the Army's mission for...

  7. Combustion chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, N.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This research is concerned with the development and use of sensitivity analysis tools to probe the response of dependent variables to model input variables. Sensitivity analysis is important at all levels of combustion modeling. This group`s research continues to be focused on elucidating the interrelationship between features in the underlying potential energy surface (obtained from ab initio quantum chemistry calculations) and their responses in the quantum dynamics, e.g., reactive transition probabilities, cross sections, and thermal rate coefficients. The goals of this research are: (i) to provide feedback information to quantum chemists in their potential surface refinement efforts, and (ii) to gain a better understanding of how various regions in the potential influence the dynamics. These investigations are carried out with the methodology of quantum functional sensitivity analysis (QFSA).

  8. Biomass Conversion to Hydrocarbon Fuels Using the MixAlcoTM Process Conversion de la biomasse en combustibles hydrocarbonés au moyen du procédé MixAlcoTM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taco-Vasquez S.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The MixAlcoTM process converts biomass to hydrocarbons (e.g., gasoline using the following generic steps: pretreatment, fermentation, descumming, dewatering, thermal ketonization, distillation, hydrogenation, oligomerization and saturation. This study describes the production of bio-gasoline from chicken manure and shredded office paper, both desirable feedstocks that do not require pretreatment. Using a mixed culture of microorganisms derived from marine soil, the biomass was fermented to produce a dilute aqueous solution of carboxylate salts, which were subsequently descummed and dried. The dry salts were thermally converted to raw ketones, which were distilled to remove impurities. Using Raney nickel catalyst, the distilled ketones were hydrogenated to mixed secondary alcohols ranging from C3 to C12. Using zeolite HZSM-5 catalyst, these alcohols were oligomerized to hydrocarbons in a plug -flow reactor. Finally, these unsaturated hydrocarbons were hydrogenated to produce a mixture of hydrocarbons that can be blended into commercial gasoline. Le procédé MixAlcoTM convertit la biomasse en hydrocarbures (par exemple, en essence selon les étapes génériques suivantes : prétraitement, fermentation, écumage, déshydratation, cétonisation thermique, distillation, hydrogénation, oligomérisation et saturation. Cette étude décrit la production de bioessence à partir de fumier de poulet et de papier en lambeaux, ces deux sources étant des matières premières convoitées ne nécessitant pas de prétraitement. À l’aide d’une culture mixte de microorganismes dérivés de sols marins, la biomasse a été soumise à une fermentation de manière à produire une solution aqueuse diluée de sels de carboxylates, ultérieurement écumés et séchés. Les sels séchés ont été thermiquement convertis en cétones brutes, ensuite distillées afin d’éliminer les impuretés. À l’aide du catalyseur à base de nickel de Raney, les c

  9. "Cirque du Freak."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivett, Miriam

    2002-01-01

    Considers the marketing strategies that underpin the success of the "Cirque du Freak" series. Describes how "Cirque du Freak" is an account of events in the life of schoolboy Darren Shan. Notes that it is another reworking of the vampire narrative, a sub-genre of horror writing that has proved highly popular with both adult and…

  10. Rotary combustion device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    Rotary combustion device (1) with rotary combustion chamber (4). Specific measures are taken to provide ignition of a combustible mixture. It is proposed that a hollow tube be provided coaxially with the axis of rotation (6), so that a small part of the mixture is guided into the combustion chamber.

  11. Heat transfer in gas-cooled piles; Echanges thermiques dans les piles a gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Foll, J; Gelin, P; Robert, E de [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    . Technological studies led to such developments as special machining of the caps, using high conductibility metanes, anodic oxidation of thin discs. They provided the basis for solving the problem by removing the more trouble-some heat sources and providing heat insulation of the caps. Experimental study of convection around the fuel rod extremities led then to formulate specific boundary conditions of conduction inside the caps for any given geometry. Conduction in turn was studied by electrical analogy and permitted to map the temperature distribution of the critical region. (author) [French] Des mesures de coefficients d'echange locaux effectuees en regime etabli sur une gaine a ailettes longitudinales montrent que la distribution de ces coefficients le long du contour chauffant d'une section droite presente en general des singularites tres accentuees qui rendent inapplicables les calculs classiques de conduction dans les ailettes. Une etude systematique de cette distribution etablit cependant que deux coefficients numeriques calcules par integration dans le plan de section droite suffisent a rattacher les proprietes thermiques globales a celles d'un canal circulaire de contour isotherme, avec une approximation suffisante dans la plupart des cas. Bien qu'assez delicat, le calcul de ces deux coefficients est rendu accessible par deux analogies rheoelectriques et on peut meme atteindre directement l'influence d'une petite deformation du contour de gaine. Pour une valeur donnee de la temperature limite de gaine, le calcul des performances du canal entier est effectue en considerant que cette limite est effectivement atteinte dans une section droite courante. En pratique, la division du combustible en cartouches courtes risque d'introduire des singularites importantes par rapport a ce cas ideal et le probleme se pose de determiner la forme des extremites de cartouches pour eviter que ces singularites n'affectent les performances. Or, les bouchons qui assurent la fermeture des

  12. Mobility of Rb{sup +} and Cs{sup +} ions in gases at high pressures; Mobilite des ions Rb{sup +} et Cs{sup +} dans les gaz a haute pression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacconnet, E. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    A theoretical study and mobility measurements have been made of Rb{sup +} and Cs{sup +} ions moving in gases at high pressures (10{sup -2} to 25 kg/cm{sup 2}). The theoretical study has been effected using the results of P. Langevin who considers the ions and molecules as elastic spheres and takes into account the electrical polarization forces. The practical work has been carried out using the Rb{sup +} and Cs{sup +} ions emitted by a thermal source; for the measurement of their velocity the method using an ionic beam cut by four grids was employed. Since the source does not work in atmospheres containing oxygen (even in the combined state) the tests only involved pure gases: nitrogen, argon, helium at pressures of from 10{sup -2} to 12 kg/cm{sup 2}. The overall results show that the Rb{sup +} and Cs{sup +} ionic mobilities are very similar and that for fairly-short times spent by the ions in the gas, the measurement results are in agreement with theory. An increase in these times favours a degradation of the ions, which always leads to a decrease in the mobility. This effect is most marked in helium. The gases argon and nitrogen behave identically towards Rb{sup +} and Cs{sup +} ions. (author) [French] Une etude theorique et des mesures de mobilite ont ete effectuees pour des ions Rb{sup +} et Cs{sup +} se deplacant dans des gaz a haute pression (10{sup -2} a 25 kg/cm{sup 2}). L'etude theorique a ete effectuee en utilisant les resultats de P. Langevin qui assimile les ions et les molecules a des spheres elastiques et tient compte des forces de polarisation electrique. L'etude pratique a ete realisee en utilisant des ions Rb{sup +} et Cs{sup +} emis par une source thermique et pour la mesure de leur vitesse, la methode de coupure du faisceau ionique au moyen de quatre grilles a ete adoptee. La source ne fonctionnant pas dans des atmospheres contenant de l'oxygene (meme a l'etat combine) les essais ont seulement porte sur des gaz purs: azote

  13. Mobility of Rb{sup +} and Cs{sup +} ions in gases at high pressures; Mobilite des ions Rb{sup +} et Cs{sup +} dans les gaz a haute pression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacconnet, E [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    A theoretical study and mobility measurements have been made of Rb{sup +} and Cs{sup +} ions moving in gases at high pressures (10{sup -2} to 25 kg/cm{sup 2}). The theoretical study has been effected using the results of P. Langevin who considers the ions and molecules as elastic spheres and takes into account the electrical polarization forces. The practical work has been carried out using the Rb{sup +} and Cs{sup +} ions emitted by a thermal source; for the measurement of their velocity the method using an ionic beam cut by four grids was employed. Since the source does not work in atmospheres containing oxygen (even in the combined state) the tests only involved pure gases: nitrogen, argon, helium at pressures of from 10{sup -2} to 12 kg/cm{sup 2}. The overall results show that the Rb{sup +} and Cs{sup +} ionic mobilities are very similar and that for fairly-short times spent by the ions in the gas, the measurement results are in agreement with theory. An increase in these times favours a degradation of the ions, which always leads to a decrease in the mobility. This effect is most marked in helium. The gases argon and nitrogen behave identically towards Rb{sup +} and Cs{sup +} ions. (author) [French] Une etude theorique et des mesures de mobilite ont ete effectuees pour des ions Rb{sup +} et Cs{sup +} se deplacant dans des gaz a haute pression (10{sup -2} a 25 kg/cm{sup 2}). L'etude theorique a ete effectuee en utilisant les resultats de P. Langevin qui assimile les ions et les molecules a des spheres elastiques et tient compte des forces de polarisation electrique. L'etude pratique a ete realisee en utilisant des ions Rb{sup +} et Cs{sup +} emis par une source thermique et pour la mesure de leur vitesse, la methode de coupure du faisceau ionique au moyen de quatre grilles a ete adoptee. La source ne fonctionnant pas dans des atmospheres contenant de l'oxygene (meme a l'etat combine) les essais ont seulement porte sur des gaz purs: azote, argon, helium et pour

  14. Mesure et modélisation multidimensionnelle des transferts thermiques gaz-paroi dans le cas des moteurs à allumage commandé Measurement and Multidimensional Modeling of Gas-Wall Heat Transfers in Spark-Ignition Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilaber P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available A cette fin, deux étapes de recherche ont été mises en oeuvre : une phase expérimentale et une phase calcul. Dans la phase expérimentale, des mesures ont été faites sur un moteur monocylindre équipé de flux-mètres à réponse rapide. Chaque flux-mètre est composé d'un cylindre d'acier, contenant deux thermocouples. Dans le but de montrer l'influence de l'aérodynamique sur les échanges thermiques, un anémomètre à Laser a été utilisé à l'aide d'une entretoise placée entre culasse et cylindre. L'entretoise comportait deux hublots et deux flux-mètres permettant la mesure simultanée des flux thermiques et des paramètres aérodynamiques à l'extérieur de la couche limite. Deux flux-mètres supplémentaires ont été placés dans la culasse et le système d'acquisition permettait d'enregistrer simultanément dix voies de mesure à chaque degré vilebrequin, parmi lesquelles deux composantes de vitesse et la pression cylindre. Une étude paramétrique a révélé les tendances suivantes : - les pertes globales aux parois au cours d'un cycle thermodynamique diminuent lorsque le régime augmente, mais la valeur maximale des flux locaux augmente en raison de l'élévation du niveau de turbulence; - le remplissage a peu d'effet sur l'aérodynamique; son influence sur les transferts thermiques est due principalement à l'augmentation de la densité des gaz, qui se traduit par une augmentation des flux. Dans la phase calcul, deux idées de base ont guidé notre travail : - pour des raisons de temps de calcul prohibitif, il est impossible de mailler la couche limite; les échanges thermiques ont donc été estimés à l'aide d'une loi de paroi; - on fait l'hypothèse que les champs locaux de densité, vitesse et turbulence conditionnent fortement les flux thermiques; ce seront les paramètres de la loi de paroi. Dans cet esprit, le modèle de transferts thermiques de DIWAKAR a été introduit dans le code multi-dimensionnel KIVA. Une

  15. Report of working committee 2 production of manufactured gases; Rapport du comite de travail 2 production de gaz manufactures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, F.S.

    2000-07-01

    The Committee's work during this triennium focused on 4 topic areas. They are: the potential of hydrogen in meeting long term energy demands, future development prospects for manufactured gas units/gasification of coal, biomass, and opportunity materials for the production of electricity and chemicals, recovery of methane from coal seams, and update on management of contaminated gas sites. This report presents the status and the potentials of present and future opportunities for the gas industry in the areas of manufactured gases including hydrogen and coal bed/mine methane. The idea of hydrogen as an energy carrier is getting increased attention these days for its promise of super clean emissions at the point of use. The development of fuel cells for stationary and mobile applications has highlighted the need of hydrogen production, storage and infrastructure. Hydrogen appears destined to be a major energy source of the future. The industry for gasification is growing, particularly for the production of electricity and chemicals from opportunity fuels, such as petroleum coke from refineries. Coal and biomass are also getting increased interests due to their promise of high efficiency and lower emissions. Methane from coal mines is also getting increased attention due not only to its environmental benefits but also to its favorable own economics. The future of the energy industry will be price and environmentally driven. A well-informed gas industry will be in a position to continue to play a major role in the future of the energy industry world-wide. (author)

  16. Qatar, the gas factory of the world; Le Qatar, l'usine a gaz du monde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupin, L.

    2010-11-15

    This article describes the huge development of a natural gas industrial site in Qatar through which this country will soon become the first world liquefied natural gas producer. It also describes the huge works in which the French company Technip is involved on this site which comprises gas production factories, a polyethylene factory, electricity and water supply buildings, storage tanks, a harbour for gas carriers

  17. Principle of gas storage in salt caverns; Principe du stockage de gaz en cavites creusees dans le sel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durup, J.G. [Mining Research Institute, CA (United States)]|[Gaz de France (GDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    2001-08-15

    The principle of the exploitation of a gas storage cavity is analogue to the one of a cylinder of compressed gas. Such a reservoir has remarkable dimensions with a volume of several thousands of m{sup 3}, a height of few hundred meters and a diameter of about 100 m. The mechanical resistance with respect to the gas pressure is ensured by the 'pre-stress' corresponding to the weight of the geologic strata. Salt (halite) is the ideal material for the digging out of such facilities because of its excellent tightness, its solubility in water (allowing the dissolution digging technique), and its good mechanical resistance. Natural gas storage is in general performed in natural porous and permeable environments, like depleted hydrocarbon fields or aquifers. The storage in salt caverns has the advantage of allowing important emission flow rates with respect to the quantities of immobilized gases. In some Northern Europe countries, like Germany, the salt deposits are well developed and abundant, in particular near the North Sea and its important natural gas fields. In France, there exists 3 gas storage sites in salt caverns, with about 40 cavities as a whole. This document briefly presents the main elements of the gas storage technique in salt caverns: characteristics and geology of salt deposits, geo-technique, wells, dissolution digging, gas injection and exploitation. (J.S.)

  18. Ecologie du phytoplancton du lac Kivu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarmento, H.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Speciation within the African Coffee Pathogen. Cet article analyse s'il est avantageux d'utiliser le compost au lieu de l'engrais minéral pour produire la laitue dans la zone urbaine et péri-urbaine de Yaoundé. Les résultats de terrain montrent l'obtention de rendements et profits plus élevés lorsqu'on utilise le compost. Les résultats de la fonction de production Cobb-Douglas prouvent que l'utilisation du compost est statistiquement significative pour expliquer la variation de rendement de la laitue et que le compost est l'intrant le plus productif. D'autres résultats montrent que le compost fournit la matière organique utile au sol et que les besoins d'irrigation en eau de la culture sont réduits grâce à l'utilisation du compost. Par conséquent, malgré le fait que l'application du compost demande une main-d'oeuvre beaucoup plus élevée, son utilisation est généralement bénéfique pour les agriculteurs vivant aux alentours de Yaoundé. Les programmes de vulgarisation de cet intrant pour encourager son adoption devraient donc figurer parmi les points prioritaires dans la politique agricole du gouvernement camerounais.

  19. Magnox Fuel Cycles; Cycles des combustibles gaines de magnox; Toplivnye tsikly magnoks; Ciclos de combustible magnox

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, A. [United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Risley, Warrington, Lancs (United Kingdom)

    1963-10-15

    The interaction between reactivity flux and temperature distributions and irradiation patterns caused by different refuelling policies is considered and present calculation methods outlined. Various refuelling schemes for both batch and continuous discharge systems are compared. The problem of the efficient irradiation of the first charge is considered together with delayed onset refuelling and shuffling schemes. The economic advantages and problems of using non-natural uranium in flattened reactors are discussed. The practical consideration of on-load refuelling schemes on new reactors are considered and reference is made to the experience gained on Bradwell and Berkeley. The effect of the variation of fuel cost and endurance on fuel-cycle economics is outlined. (author) [French] L'auteur etudie en premier lieu l'interaction entre les distributions de la temperature du flux et de la reactivite, d'une part, et le regime de l'irradiation, d'autre part, dans le cas de differents programmes de rechargement du combustible et il decrit brievement les methodes de calcul actuelles. Il compare ensuite differents programmes de rechargement du combustible pour le dechargement par lots et le dechargement continu. Il etudie le probleme de l'irradiation effica ce de la premiere charge dans le cadre de programmes de remplacement et de deplacement des cartouches a action retardee. Il analyse les avantages economiques de l'utilisatio n d'uranium non naturel dans les reacteurs a flux aplati et les problemes qu'elle pose. Il examine les aspects pratiques des programmes de rechargement en marche pour les nouveaux reacteurs, en se referant a l'experience acquise au moyen des reacteurs de Bradwell et de Berkeley. Enfin, il decrit brievement les effets des variations du cout et de la resistance du combustible sur l'economie des cycles de combustible. (author) [Spanish] La memoria estudia la interaccion entre el flujo de reactividad y la distribucion de temperaturas, asi como los

  20. Optimization of fuel cycles: marginal loss values; Optimisation des cycles de combustibles: valeurs marginales des pertes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaussens, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 75 - Paris (France); Lasteyrie, B. de; Doumerc, J. [Compagnie pour l' Etude et la Realisation de Combustibles Atomiques, 75 - Paris (France)

    1965-07-01

    'uranium doit etre consideree comme definitivement perdue, alors que le reste pourrait etre recupere et recycle. Le cout eleve des pertes, recyclees ou non, d'autant plus eleve que l'uranium est plus enrichi, exige qu'il en soit tenu compte dans l'optimisation generale des cycles de combustible. Il importe donc de determiner leur niveau le plus souhaitable economiquement, aux diverses etapes d'elaboration du combustible nucleaire. Mais en France et dans d'autres pays, la production de matieres fissiles est geree par l'Etat, tandis que la fabrication de l'element combustible est effectuee par l'industrie privee. Les criteres d'optimisation et l'interet economique accorde aux pertes sont donc differents pour les deux parties de la chaine de fabrication. Pour tenter neanmoins d'atteindre un optimum conforme a l'interet collectif sans intervenir dans la politique de prix de l'entreprise, on peut utiliser la propriete des couts marginaux d'etre egaux entre eux a l'optimum, pour un volume de production donne. On peut donc ajuster le niveau des pertes pour realiser cette egalite des couts marginaux dont le calcul est plus facile a obtenir de la firme que la justification des prix eux-memes. On s'apercoit d'ailleurs que, bien qu'axee essentiellement sur les pertes, cette analyse globale peut conduire a une meilleure utilisation d'autres facteurs de production. On donne un expose theorique et des exemples pratiques de cette methode d'optimisation economique dans le cadre de la fabrication d'elements combustibles destines a des reacteurs du type: uranium naturel, moderes au graphite et refroidis par le gaz carbonique. (auteurs)

  1. Les méthodes thermiques de production des hydrocarbures. Chapitre 5 : Combustion "in situ". Pricipes et études de laboratoire Thermal Methods of Hydrocarbon Production. Chapter 5 : "In Situ" Combustion. Principles and Laboratory Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burger J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available II existe plusieurs variantes de la combustion in situ, suivant le sens de déplacement du front de combustion, à co-courant ou à contre-courant, et suivant la nature des fluides injectés, air seul ou injection combinée d'air et d'eau. Les réactions de pyrolyse, d'oxydation et de combustion mises en jeu par ces techniques sont discutées, en particulier la cinétique des principaux mécanismes réactionnels, l'importance du dépôt de coke et l'exothermicité des réactions d'oxydation et de combustion. Les résultats d'essais de déplacement unidirectionnel du front de combustion dans des cellules de laboratoire sont présentés et discutés. Enfin on indique les conditions pratiques d'application des méthodes de combustion in situ sur champ. Possible variations of in situ combustion technique ore as follows : forward or reverse combustion depending on the relative directions of the air flow and the combustion front, dry combustion if air is the only fluid injected into the oil-bearing formation, or fixe/woter flooding if water is injected along with air. The chemical reactions of pyrolysis, oxidation and combustion involved in these processes are described. The kinetics of these reactions is discussed as well as fuel availability in forward combustion and the exothermicity of the oxidation and combustion reactions. The results obtained in the laboratory when a combustion front propagates in unidirectional adiabatic tells are described and discussed. This type of experimentation provides extensive information on the characteristics of the processes. Screening criteria for the practical application of in situ combustion techniques are presented.

  2. Combustion 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Levasseur; S. Goodstine; J. Ruby; M. Nawaz; C. Senior; F. Robson; S. Lehman; W. Blecher; W. Fugard; A. Rao; A. Sarofim; P. Smith; D. Pershing; E. Eddings; M. Cremer; J. Hurley; G. Weber; M. Jones; M. Collings; D. Hajicek; A. Henderson; P. Klevan; D. Seery; B. Knight; R. Lessard; J. Sangiovanni; A. Dennis; C. Bird; W. Sutton; N. Bornstein; F. Cogswell; C. Randino; S. Gale; Mike Heap

    2001-06-30

    . To achieve these objectives requires a change from complete reliance of coal-fired systems on steam turbines (Rankine cycles) and moving forward to a combined cycle utilizing gas turbines (Brayton cycles) which offer the possibility of significantly greater efficiency. This is because gas turbine cycles operate at temperatures well beyond current steam cycles, allowing the working fluid (air) temperature to more closely approach that of the major energy source, the combustion of coal. In fact, a good figure of merit for a HIPPS design is just how much of the enthalpy from coal combustion is used by the gas turbine. The efficiency of a power cycle varies directly with the temperature of the working fluid and for contemporary gas turbines the optimal turbine inlet temperature is in the range of 2300-2500 F (1260-1371 C). These temperatures are beyond the working range of currently available alloys and are also in the range of the ash fusion temperature of most coals. These two sets of physical properties combine to produce the major engineering challenges for a HIPPS design. The UTRC team developed a design hierarchy to impose more rigor in our approach. Once the size of the plant had been determined by the choice of gas turbine and the matching steam turbine, the design process of the High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF) moved ineluctably to a down-fired, slagging configuration. This design was based on two air heaters: one a high temperature slagging Radiative Air Heater (RAH) and a lower temperature, dry ash Convective Air Heater (CAH). The specific details of the air heaters are arrived at by an iterative sequence in the following order:-Starting from the overall Cycle requirements which set the limits for the combustion and heat transfer analysis-The available enthalpy determined the range of materials, ceramics or alloys, which could tolerate the temperatures-Structural Analysis of the designs proved to be the major limitation-Finally the commercialization

  3. Together on the same planet. Gaz de France and sustainable development in 2006; Ensemble sur la meme planete. Gaz de France et le developpement durable en 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This document presents the sustainable development policy of Gaz de France group. It identifies the challenges the group has to face in order to control the environmental impact of the Group's activities (exploration, production, procurement, re-gasification, transmission, storage, distribution, marketing and shares, services). The approach used is based on a voluntary commitment of the Group to dialogue and share current challenges with all its stakeholders, and to imagine other roads to development. The initiatives consist in clean production practices, development of renewable energy sources, energy conservation, investment in research, safety improvement, solidarity with underprivileged people, respect of local environment and of codes of conduct, accompanying local economic development and development of clean transport systems. (J.S.)

  4. Together on the same planet. Gaz de France and sustainable development in 2006; Ensemble sur la meme planete. Gaz de France et le developpement durable en 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This document presents the sustainable development policy of Gaz de France group. It identifies the challenges the group has to face in order to control the environmental impact of the Group's activities (exploration, production, procurement, re-gasification, transmission, storage, distribution, marketing and shares, services). The approach used is based on a voluntary commitment of the Group to dialogue and share current challenges with all its stakeholders, and to imagine other roads to development. The initiatives consist in clean production practices, development of renewable energy sources, energy conservation, investment in research, safety improvement, solidarity with underprivileged people, respect of local environment and of codes of conduct, accompanying local economic development and development of clean transport systems. (J.S.)

  5. Reduced NOX combustion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delano, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a method for combusting fuel and oxidant to achieve reduced formation of nitrogen oxides. It comprises: It comprises: heating a combustion zone to a temperature at least equal to 1500 degrees F.; injecting into the heated combustion zone a stream of oxidant at a velocity within the range of from 200 to 1070 feet per second; injecting into the combustion zone, spaced from the oxidant stream, a fuel stream at a velocity such that the ratio of oxidant stream velocity to fuel stream velocity does not exceed 20; aspirating combustion gases into the oxidant stream and thereafter intermixing the aspirated oxidant stream and fuel stream to form a combustible mixture; combusting the combustible mixture to produce combustion gases for the aspiration; and maintaining the fuel stream substantially free from contact with oxidant prior to the intermixture with aspirated oxidant

  6. L’interface Habitat / Habitant : quand le lieu de vie est porteur de maladie - Le cas du radon en PACA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cissé E.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Les préoccupations sont croissantes pour étudier les liens entre des conditions environnementales spécifiques et la fréquence de certaines pathologies. Nous proposons d’analyser ici le lien présupposé entre une exposition au radon et le cancer du poumon. Le radon, est un gaz radioactif d’origine naturelle (issu de la désintégration naturelle de l’uranium présent dans la croûte terrestre et plus particulièrement dans certaines formations géologiques. A partir du sol et de l’eau, le radon se diffuse dans l’air (exhalation et se trouve, par effet de confinement, à des concentrations plus élevées à l’intérieur des bâtiments qu’à l’extérieur. Les descendants solides du radon sont alors inhalés avec l’air respiré et se déposent dans le poumon. Il est établi par diverses études scientifiques que le radon a un impact non négligeable sur certains cancers, notamment du poumon (augmentation de 16 % du risque de cancer du poumon par tranche de 100 Bq/m3, et des cancers digestifs via la consommation d’eau qui s’est chargée en radon au contact du socle. Le nombre annuel de décès par cancer du poumon attribuable à l’exposition domestique au radon en France métropolitaine varie entre 1 200 à 3 575 en fonction des relations exposition-réponse utilisées. Plusieurs régions en France se caractérisent par une problématique radon reconnue et étudiée depuis longtemps (Bretagne, Massif central, Corse. Or, si le radon ne recouvre pas l’ensemble de la région PACA, certaines zones géographiques sont particulièrement concernées et méritent d’être étudiées : le Massif des Maures dans le Var, du Mercantour dans les Alpes-Maritimes et du Briançonnais dans les Hautes-Alpes. La région PACA est une des régions de France et d’Europe les plus touchées par la pollution atmosphérique principalement due à l’augmentation du trafic routier et des contributions de régions industrialisées telles que

  7. 2006 annual results: Gaz de France announces record-high results and exceeds its objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Paris, 13 March 2007 - In fiscal year 2006, Gaz de France had the best operational performance in its history. The Group confirms the strength of its business model, with sound Infrastructure business and sharp growth in Exploration - Production, Trading and Sales: - Net income, Group share: 2.3 billion euros; - EBITDA: 5.15 billion euros; - Dynamic dividend policy: 1.1 euro per share (+62%); - Investments at stepped-up pace: 4 billion euros (+38%); - Contribution of Group's international activities doubled in two years (39% of sales); - Many operational advances: strengthened operations, Exploration-Production, LNG Infrastructures and Electricity; - Major steps completed in merger project with Suez.

  8. 2006 annual results: Gaz de France announces record-high results and exceeds its objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Paris, 13 March 2007 - In fiscal year 2006, Gaz de France had the best operational performance in its history. The Group confirms the strength of its business model, with sound Infrastructure business and sharp growth in Exploration - Production, Trading and Sales: - Net income, Group share: 2.3 billion euros; - EBITDA: 5.15 billion euros; - Dynamic dividend policy: 1.1 euro per share (+62%); - Investments at stepped-up pace: 4 billion euros (+38%); - Contribution of Group's international activities doubled in two years (39% of sales); - Many operational advances: strengthened operations, Exploration-Production, LNG Infrastructures and Electricity; - Major steps completed in merger project with Suez

  9. Du Pont de Nemours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ros JPM; LAE

    1994-01-01

    Dit rapport over Du Pont de Nemours (produktie van o.a. chemische stoffen) is gepubliceerd binnen het Samenwerkingsproject Procesbeschrijvingen Industrie Nederland (SPIN). In het kader van dit project is informatie verzameld over industriele bedrijven of industriele processen ter ondersteuning

  10. Les Cahiers du CREAD

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    6 juil. 2007 ... La problématique du développement du secteur de l'artisanat en. Algérie a été très peu abordée par les chercheurs, qu'ils soient universitaires ou .... La loi a institué une taxe d'apprentissage dont le taux a été fixé à. 1% de la ...

  11. Les outils du CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    C'est le plus grand centre mondial de recherche en physique des particules. Les outils du Laboratoire, accélérateurs et détecteurs de particules, figurent parmi les instruments scientifiques les plus complexes au monde. Des prix Nobels ont d'ailleurs été attribués aux physiciens du CERN pour leurs développements.

  12. Bulletin du CRDI #127

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    La mise à l'échelle de la recherche et de l'innovation en vue de créer un impact social constitue une priorité pour la communauté du développement. Toutefois ... Nous avons renouvelé notre soutien à la recherche auprès du gouvernement de l'Inde ... Des femmes étudient à l'École supérieure d'infotronique d'Haïti.

  13. Study of the oxidation risks during the sintering of uranium dioxide, and characterization of the excess oxygen; Etude du risque d'oxydation lors du frittage du bioxyde d'uranium et caracterisation de l'oxygene excedentaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conte, M; Brandela, M

    1966-05-01

    During sintering in reducing atmospheres, UO{sub 2} pellets can be oxidized by gaseous impurities. The effects of temperature cycles, the partial pressure of O{sub 2} and the flow rate of the gas over the pellets were investigated. In these atmospheres, the O{sub 2} partial pressure during sintering is low at high temperatures, as a consequence of the dissociation rate of the combined water, but below 1000 deg C, it can be high enough to result in a noticeable oxidation of the surface of the pellets during cooling. The crystalline phases which can occur have been identified and two methods of detection have been proposed: a micrographic examination after chemical etching and radiocrystallography. (authors) [French] Lors du frittage industriel du bioxyde d'uranium en atmosphere reductrice (hydrogene ou ammoniac dissocie) la presence d'impuretes oxydantes dans l'atmosphere peut provoquer l'oxydation des pastilles d'UO{sub 2}; les auteurs ont etudie les phenomenes en faisant varier le cycle de temperature, la pression partielle d'oxygene introduit dans l'hydrogene, la vitesse de passage du gaz sur les pastilles. Dans les atmospheres considerees la pression partielle d'oxygene au-dessus de l'UO{sub 2} en cours de frittage est faible a temperature elevee car elle resulte de la dissociation de l'eau formee, mais a t < 1000 degrees C elle, peut etre assez importante pour provoquer une oxydation notable de la surface des pastilles lors du refroidissement. Les phases cristallines susceptibles d'etre formees ont ete reperees et deux methodes de detection proposees: la micrographie apres attaque chimique specifique et la radiocristallographie. (auteurs)

  14. Structure and operation of the natural gas market in France; La structure et le fonctionnement du marche du gaz naturel en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The French natural gas market is organized around six main activities: production, transport, methane terminals, storage, distribution and commercialization. This paper describes the facilities related to each activity: gas fields, pipelines network and distribution systems, terminals capacity and underground storage facilities. The selling activity is opened to competition but the French gas market follows a progressive and controlled opening which will be complete in July 2007. (J.S.)

  15. Government information report to the parliament. The gas distribution in France; Rapport d'information du gouvernement au parlement. La desserte en gaz du territoire francais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-11-01

    This report evaluates the gas distribution state in France and presents the forecasts of the gas energy use development by the gas utilities users. In this framework the following points are presented: the juridical aspects of the gas distribution, the national plan of distribution, the new legislation occurring from the gas market deregulation and some statistical data on the gas use, consumption and demand in France. (A.L.B.)

  16. Gasification in Petroleum Refinery of 21st Century La gazéification dans la raffinerie du pétrole du XXIe siècle

    OpenAIRE

    Furimsky E.

    2006-01-01

    The worldwide trends in the crude oil supply indicate a continuous increase of the heavy crudes. The increase in the yield of distillation residues is complemented by an increase in their sulfur content. Additional distillates are produced by upgrading the residues. The upgrading step generates final residues, such as visbreaking tar, coke and asphalt which are produced by visbreaking, coking and deasphalting, respectively. The final residues can be converted to usable products such as hydrog...

  17. Report of working committee 9 ''world gas prospects, strategies and economics''; Rapport du comite de travail 9 ''perspective, strategie et economie du gaz dans le monde''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokumoto, T

    2000-07-01

    This report is the product of investigations carried out by the following Study Groups in WOC9 in the triennium 1997-2000 based on the information supplied by the IGU member countries. - Study Group 9.1: World Gas Supply Prospects - Study Group 9.2: Prospects for World Gas Demand - Study Group 9.3: Gas Trade and World Investment Prospects - Study Group 9.4: Ultra Long-term Global Energy Scenario, Role of Natural Gas. The report includes the long-term prospects of natural gas supply, demand and inter-regional trade up to 2030 as well as various categories of natural gas reserves originally reviewed by WOC9. It was concluded that there are abundant reserves sufficient to support the expanding demand of natural gas well beyond 2030. Necessary investments to develop the infrastructure are also investigated. The role of natural gas throughout the 21. century in relation with other energy options was also analysed for the first time in IGU. All the results are presented in the Committee report session, and additional information is provided in Round Table sessions. The Statistics Team was also created in WOC9 to collect data on the current status of the gas industry through the IGU original data collection network. The results have been published on IGU web site, and will be revised regularly. (author)

  18. Kinetic study of the reaction of uranium with various carbon-containing gases; Etude cinetique de la reaction sur l'uranium de differents gaz carbones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feron, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-09-15

    The kinetic study of the reaction U + CO{sub 2} and U + CO has been performed by a thermogravimetric method on a spherical uranium powder, in temperature ranges respectively from 460 to 690 deg. C and from 570 to 850 deg. C. The reaction with carbon dioxide leads to uranium dioxide. A carbon deposition takes place at the same time. The global reactions is the result of two reactions: U + 2 CO{sub 2} {yields} UO{sub 2} + 2 CO U + CO{sub 2} {yields} UO{sub 2} + C The reaction with carbon monoxide leads to a mixture of dioxide UO{sub 2}, dicarbide UC{sub 2} and free carbon. The main reaction can be written. U + CO {yields} 1/2 UO{sub 2} + 1/2 UC{sub 2} The free carbon results of the disproportionation of the carbon monoxide. A remarkable separation of the two phases UO{sub 2} and UC{sub 2} can be observed. A mechanism accounting for the phenomenon has been proposed. The two reactions U + CO{sub 2} and U + CO begin with a long germination period, after which, the reaction velocity seems to be limited in both cases by the ionic diffusion of oxygen through the uranium dioxide. (author) [French] L'etude cinetique des reactions U sol + CO{sub 2} gaz et U sol + CO gaz a ete effectuee par thermogravirnetrie sur une poudre d'uranium a grains spheriques, les domaines de temperature etudies s'etendant respectivement de 460 a 690 deg. C et de 570 a 850 deg. C. L'action du dioxyde de carbone conduit au dioxyde d'uranium UO{sub 2}; il se produit en meme temps un depot de carbone. La reaction globale resulte des deux reactions: U + 2 CO{sub 2} {yields} UO{sub 2} + 2 CO U + CO{sub 2} {yields} UO{sub 2} + C Le mono-oxyde de carbone conduit a un melange de dioxyde UO{sub 2}, de dicarbure UC{sub 2} et de carbone libre. La reaction principale s'ecrit: U + CO {yields} 1/2 UO{sub 2} + 1/2 UC{sub 2} Le carbone libre provient de la dismutation du mono-oxyde de carbone. On observe une separation remarquable des deux phases UO{sub 2} et UC{sub 2}; un mecanisme rendant compte de ce phenomene a

  19. Experimental study of improvement of exchanged power in gases by catalytic dissociation: ammonia (1961); Etude experimentale de l'amelioration des echanges de chaleur avec les gaz par dissociation catalytique: ammoniac (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perroud, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; De La Harpe, A [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique(CNRS), 75 - Paris (France)

    1961-07-01

    Rates of ammonia dissociation and resulting coefficients of improvement of exchanged power have been measured in an annular channel under following conditions: mean wall temperature until 1500 deg. C (tungsten rod, diameter 3 mm), mass velocity until 11 g/cm{sup 2}.s and absolute pressure between 1.5 and 7 kg/cm{sup 2}. Rate of dissociation is mainly function of wall temperature and total mass flow rate of ammonia; it depends little on entrance gas temperature and is practically independent of pressure. Apparent coefficients of improvement of exchanged power under above conditions (including radiation) have reached 1.8; this maximum was obtained for a mean wall temperature of 1250 deg. C. These coefficients decrease when Reynolds number increases. Finally, a theoretical analysis of the phenomenon is given as well as possibilities of application. (authors) [French] Les taux de dissociation d'ammoniac et les coefficients d'amelioration de puissance echangee resultants ont ete mesures en espace annulaire dans les conditions suivantes: temperature moyenne de paroi jusqu'a 1500 deg. C (barreau de tungstene de diametre 3 mm), vitesse massique jusqu'a 11 g/cm{sup 2}.s et pression absolue comprise entre 1,5 et 7 kg/cm{sup 2}. Le taux de dissociation est surtout fonction de la temperature de paroi et du debit en masse total d'ammoniac; il depend peu de la temperature d'entree du gaz et est pratiquement independant de la pression. Les coefficients d'amelioration apparents de la puissance echangee dans les conditions d'experience (rayonnement compris) ont atteint 1,8. Ce maximum observe se place vers une temperature moyenne de la paroi de 1250 deg. C. Ces coefficients decroissent quand le nombre de Reynolds de l'ecoulement croit. Finalement, une analyse theorique du phenomene est donnee ainsi que les perspectives d'applications. (auteurs)

  20. Combustion Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — For more than 30 years The Combustion Research Facility (CRF) has served as a national and international leader in combustion science and technology. The need for a...

  1. Alcohol combustion chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani; Oß wald, Patrick; Hansen, Nils; Kohse-Hö inghaus, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    . While biofuel production and its use (especially ethanol and biodiesel) in internal combustion engines have been the focus of several recent reviews, a dedicated overview and summary of research on alcohol combustion chemistry is still lacking. Besides

  2. The use and evolution of the CEA research reactors; Utilisation et evolution des reacteurs de recherche du C.E.A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossillon, F; Chauvez, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    reacteurs en montrant ce qu'a ete jusqu'a present leur utilisation, et comment certaines modifications ont permis de les adapter a l'evolution des programmes. Ils precisent egalement les raisons qui ont conduit a l'elaboration du projet de la nouvelle pile OSIRIS, La pile ZOE, la plus ancienne du CEA, est en service au Centre de Fontenay-aux-Roses depuis 1948. Elle est principalement utilisee pour les mesures de section efficace d'absorption du graphite, et pour diverses irradiations de courte duree ne necessitant que des flux peu eleves. La Pile EL2, en service depuis 1952, a permis les premieres etudes liees au refroidissement par gaz. Elle a ete tres utilisee pour la production des radioisotopes et pour de nombreuses experiences de physique, de metallurgie et de physico-chimie - le vieillissement de certaines parties du reacteur a conduit a decider l'arret prochain de cette installation. La Pile EL. 3 a ete tres utilisee pour les experiences de physique et pour l'etude des combustibles. L'adoption d'une nouvelle structure pour le coeur (solution 'Cristal de neige') va permettre d'accroitre considerablement les possibilites de la pile pour les irradiations en neutrons rapides. La pile TRITON-I, piscine de 2 MW, est surtout utilisee pour les irradiations en neutrons rapides et en gamma. Certaines modifications, actuellement en cours, permettront d'accroitre la puissance du reacteur jusqu'a 4 ou 5 MW. Dans un compartiment voisin de TRITON-I est implantee la Pile TRITON-II, de meme structure generale, mais dont la puissance maximum est de 100 kW. TRITON-II est utilisee exclusivement pour les etudes de protections. MELUSINE, pile piscine de 2 MW est en fonctionnement au Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble depuis 1959. Elle a permis l'execution d'un programme important concernant surtout la physique du solide, l'etude fondamentale de combustibles refractaires et de graphites speciaux, et l'etude du comportement des liquides organiques sous radiations. Les installations de

  3. Energy of solution of rare gases in metals; Energie de dissolution des gaz rares dans les metaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blin, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    In order to calculate the energy of solution of rare gases in metals, a method which has given good results in the case of solid solutions in metals has been applied. Nevertheless, it was necessary for this, to know the compressibility of gases under conditions which are not feasible in a laboratory. H. Jensen has studied this compressibility in a precise way for the rare gases Ar, Kr, Xe. It has thus been possible to calculate the energy of solution of these gases in different metals. These calculations have been carried out most thoroughly for the case of uranium. (author) [French] Nous avons applique au calcul de l'energie de dissolution des gaz rares dans les metaux, une methode qui a donne de bons resultats dans le cas des solutions solides metalliques. Il fallait pour cela connaitre la compressibilite des gaz rares dans des conditions impossibles a realiser en laboratoire. Cette compressibilite a ete etudiee par H. Jensen de facon precise pour les gaz rares A, Kr, Xe. Nous avons pu, de ce fait, calculer les energies de dissolution de ces gaz dans les differents metaux. Les calculs ont ete faits plus completement dans le cas de l'uranium. (auteur)

  4. Energy of solution of rare gases in metals; Energie de dissolution des gaz rares dans les metaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blin, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    In order to calculate the energy of solution of rare gases in metals, a method which has given good results in the case of solid solutions in metals has been applied. Nevertheless, it was necessary for this, to know the compressibility of gases under conditions which are not feasible in a laboratory. H. Jensen has studied this compressibility in a precise way for the rare gases Ar, Kr, Xe. It has thus been possible to calculate the energy of solution of these gases in different metals. These calculations have been carried out most thoroughly for the case of uranium. (author) [French] Nous avons applique au calcul de l'energie de dissolution des gaz rares dans les metaux, une methode qui a donne de bons resultats dans le cas des solutions solides metalliques. Il fallait pour cela connaitre la compressibilite des gaz rares dans des conditions impossibles a realiser en laboratoire. Cette compressibilite a ete etudiee par H. Jensen de facon precise pour les gaz rares A, Kr, Xe. Nous avons pu, de ce fait, calculer les energies de dissolution de ces gaz dans les differents metaux. Les calculs ont ete faits plus completement dans le cas de l'uranium. (auteur)

  5. Annual report on theoretical work of the S.T.G.I. (Section de theorie des gaz ionises)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This report presents in a detailed form the theoretical work of the STGI (Section Theorie des Gaz Ionises). It is thus hoped that the present report will be useful for physicists interested in additional information. Works an plasma equilibrium and its evolution are shortly presented together with works on plasma heating and current drive. Kinetic theory and spectroscopy are not forgotten

  6. Maximal combustion temperature estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golodova, E; Shchepakina, E

    2006-01-01

    This work is concerned with the phenomenon of delayed loss of stability and the estimation of the maximal temperature of safe combustion. Using the qualitative theory of singular perturbations and canard techniques we determine the maximal temperature on the trajectories located in the transition region between the slow combustion regime and the explosive one. This approach is used to estimate the maximal temperature of safe combustion in multi-phase combustion models

  7. Economic Aspects of Air and Gas Cleaning for Nuclear Energy Processes; Aspects Economiques de l'Epuration de l'Air et des Gaz au Cours des Operations Nucleaires; 042d 041a 041e 041d 041e 0414 0; Aspectos Economicos de la Depuracion del Aire y de los Gases en los Procesos de Obtencion de Energia Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, Leslie [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States)

    1960-07-01

    ont des effluents toxiques ou nuisibles, qui doivent egalement faire l'objet d'un controle relativement peu onereux. L'auteur du memoire procede a un examen detaille des facteurs qui interviennent dans le prix d'achat et les frais d'exploitation du materiel d'epuration des gaz; il decrit en outre les divers systemes utilises aux Etats-Unis. On s'est naturellement efforce de resoudre le probleme des effluents gazeux et plusieurs systemes ont ete mis au point a cet effet mais on a en outre mesure, en donnees comparables, leur degre d'efficacite. On est ainsi en mesure de proceder, du point de vue economique, a un examen critique des differentes caracteristiques de fonctionnement en ce qui concerne la consommation d'energie, les depenses relatives a l'adsorption, le cout de l'encombrement, les problemes de corrosion et d'autres aspects du fonctionnement des appareils. En execution d'un contrat conclu avec le Laboratoire d'epuration de l'air de l'Universite d'Harvard, la Commission de l'energie atomique des Etats- Unis a entrepris la realisation d'un programme d'evaluation en collaboration avec les diverses entreprises ou personnes privees auxquelles la Commission a octroye des contrats. Cette etude a deja permis de determiner quels sont les facteurs a prendre en consideration pour dresser un schema des couts et analyser ceux-ci; certaines conclusions preliminaires seront ulterieurement formulees. Le memoire donne en outre un apercu des autres etudes economiques qui ont ete effectuees, aux Etats-Unis, sur certains procedes ou applications particuliers. (author) [Spanish] En este trabajo, el autor enuncia las normas basicas a las que ha de ajustarse el control de los efluentes gaseosos y en forma de particulas en las siguientes esferas: produccion de materiales para reactores, separacion de isotopos, elaboracion de elementos combustibles, recuperacion de combustibles y funcionamiento de reactores. Existen asimismo casos (produccion de berilio y zirconio, por ejemplo) en

  8. Replacing Sugar by Date Syrup in Gaz and Investigation of Texture Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Raiesi Ardali

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Date Syrup is a natural sweetener that is suitable replacement for sugar in food stuffs formulation. In this Research Amounts of 25-100 percent of sugar in Gaz formulation were replaced with date syrup and to study effect of its use in product formulation, characteristics of texture, color and sensory analyse of treatments were investigated. Statistical analyse of data was also done by SPSS software and Dankan test. The results of this research showed that amount of used date syrup in formulation had a significant effect on  color parameters  (L*,a*,b*, texture characteristics and sensory analyse of samples. By increase of date syrup in Gaz formulation, samples texture became softer than control sample and yellowness and redness index of samples were increasedDoi: DOI: 10.12777/ijse.6.1.11-15 [How to cite this article:  Shafiei, Z., Hojjatoleslami, M.,  Soha, S., and Shariati, M.A. 2014. The Influence of Malt Extraction Adding to UF Fresh Low Fat Cheese on Its Textural Properties. International Journal of Science and Engineering, 6(1:57-60. Doi: 10.12777/ijse.6.1.11-15

  9. Natural gas cogeneration in the residential sector; La cogeneration au gaz naturel en residentiel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lancelot, C.; Gaudin, S. [Gaz de France, GDF, Dir. de la Recherche, 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-07-01

    The natural gas cogeneration offer is now available and operational in the industrial sector. It is based on technologies of piston engines and gas turbines. Currently, this offer is sufficiently diversified, so much from the point of view of the range of powers available (from 1 MW to more than 40 MW electric) that number of manufacturers. In order to widen the cogeneration market in France to the markets of the commercial and residential sectors, Gaz De France has undertaken a technical economic study to validate the potential of those markets. This study led to work on the assembly of a french die to cogeneration packages of low power (less than 1 MW electric). This step has emerged at the beginning of 1999 with the launching of a commercial offer of cogeneration packages. In margin to this work Gaz De France Research division also initiated a study in order to evaluate the offer of micro cogeneration, products delivering an electric output lower than 10 kW. (authors)

  10. The take-over of Gaz Metropolitain by Hydro-Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, J-T.

    1997-01-01

    The implications of a take-over of Gaz Metropolitain by Hydro-Quebec in early 1997 and the pricing of electricity and natural gas in Quebec were discussed. In January 1997, Hydro-Quebec purchased all the shares in Noverco that were formerly owned by SOQUIP. With this purchase, Hydro-Quebec became the major share holder in Noverco, the company that controls Gaz Metropolitain. This type of take-over, where an electrical utility purchases the interests in a natural gas distributor, has also been observed in the United States and is believed to be a consequence of the recent deregulation of the electricity market. In the near future, it is believed that consumers will probably pay for equivalent energy use (like heating or cooling) rather than separate tariffs for electricity or natural gas consumption. The recent popularity of gas-fueled electrical cogenerating stations is also believed to be an important factor in this take-over. 1 ref., 3 tabs

  11. Law project on the gas utility modernization and gas industries development. Law project synthesis on the gas utility modernization and gas industries development; Projet de loi relatif a la modernisation du service public du gaz naturel et au developpement des entreprises gazieres.Synthese du projet de loi sur la modernisation du service public du gaz et le developpement des entreprises gazieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-01

    The french government would like to develop a law concerning the gas utility modernization and gas industries development, which completes the today system, more particularly, the law of 1946. This project specifies and comforts the gas utility, it gives to the energy policy tools adapted to the new european context. It helps the natural gas industry to become more competitive. The method chosen by the government is presented and discussed in these three documents. (A.L.B.)

  12. Improvement of heat transfer to gases by mean of electric fields (1962); Etude de l'amelioration des echanges de chaleur dans les gaz au moyen de champs electriques (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1962-07-01

    The effects of electric fields on heat transfer to the following gases: air, argon, nitrogen, carbon dioxyde, helium, hydrogen, were studied in an annular channel, the inner part of which is the heating element. Experiments were made both in free convection and forced convection, the latter case with and without an external source of ionisation. Two causes of improvement of heat transfer were found: electro-convection and ionic convection; the influence of various parameters (electric fields, current of ionisation, temperatures, pressures, flow rate, etc...) is also investigated. Increasing of exchanged power was measured: in free convection this increasing reached 400 per cent and, in forced convection, it was found to be mainly dependent on stream velocity, decreasing from 300 per cent at Re = 6000 to few per cent for Re {>=} 30000 for a given gas pressure. Experiments in pile have shown that the use of an external source of ionisation allowed to obtain the same order of improvement as above but with a voltage much lower. This fact would make easier the use of this process of heat transfer in a channel of a reactor. (authors) [French] On a etudie l'action du champ electrique sur les echanges de chaleur dans les gaz suivants: air, argon, azote, anhydride carbonique, helium, hydrogene, avec un element chauffant cylindrique dans un canal concentrique. Des experiences ont ete effectuees en convection libre et en convection forcee en l'absence et en presence d'une source exterieure d'ionisation. On a distingue deux sortes de mecanismes d'accroissement des echanges, l'un d'electroconvection proprement dite et l'autre de convection ionique, et on precise l'influence des divers parametres (champ electrique, courant d'ionisation, temperature, pression, debit, etc...). On a pu chiffrer les ordres de grandeur des accroissements d'echanges observes qui, en convection libre, atteignent 300 a 400 pour cent et, en convection forcee, dependent beaucoup de la vitesse d

  13. Possibilities of gas-phase radio-chromatography application to permanent-gas analysis; Possibilites de la radiochromatographie en phase gazeuse applications a l'analyse des gaz permanents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupuis, M C; Charrier, G; Alba, C; Massimino, D [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1970-07-01

    The gas-phase radio-chromatography technique has been applied to the rapid analysis of permanent gases (H{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, A, Kr, Xe, CO, CH{sub 4}) labelled with radioactive indicators ({sup 3}H, {sup 37}A, {sup 85}Kr, {sup 133}Xe). After calibration, the components of such a mixture can be identified and their concentrations measured in less than two hours, using a sample volume of from 0.1 to 10 cm{sup 3}. The minimum detectable activity is of the order of 10{sup -4} {mu}C for each radioactive isotope. The measurements are reproducible to about 2 to 3 per cent. This work has been mainly concerned with the influence of parameters affecting the response of the radioactivity detector (ionization chamber or gas flow proportional counter). The method has very numerous applications both theoretically, for the study of chromatographic phenomena under ideal conditions (infinitesimal concentrations made possible by the use of radioactive tracers), and practically, for rapid and accurate radiochemical analysis of radioactive gas mixtures. (authors) [French] La technique de radiochromatographie en phase gazeuse est appliquee a l'analyse rapide de gaz permanents (H{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, A, Kr, Xe, CO, CH{sub 4}) marques par des indicateurs radioactifs ({sup 3}H, {sup 37}A, {sup 85}Kr, {sup 133}Xe). Apres etalonnage, l'identification et la mesure des concentrations des constituants d'un tel melange requierent moins de deux heures, sur un volume d'echantillon de 0.1 a 10 cm{sup 3}. L'activite minimum detectable est de l'ordre de 10{sup -4} {mu}C pour chaque isotope radioactif. La reproductibilite des mesures est de l'ordre de 2 a 3 pour cent. L'etude porte principalement sur l'influence des parametres affectant la reponse du detecteur de radioactivite (chambre d'ionisation, ou compteur proportionnel a circulation). La methode est extremement fertile en applications tant sur le plan theorique pour l'etude du phenomene chromatographique dans les conditions

  14. Possibilities of gas-phase radio-chromatography application to permanent-gas analysis; Possibilites de la radiochromatographie en phase gazeuse applications a l'analyse des gaz permanents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupuis, M.C.; Charrier, G.; Alba, C.; Massimino, D. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1970-07-01

    The gas-phase radio-chromatography technique has been applied to the rapid analysis of permanent gases (H{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, A, Kr, Xe, CO, CH{sub 4}) labelled with radioactive indicators ({sup 3}H, {sup 37}A, {sup 85}Kr, {sup 133}Xe). After calibration, the components of such a mixture can be identified and their concentrations measured in less than two hours, using a sample volume of from 0.1 to 10 cm{sup 3}. The minimum detectable activity is of the order of 10{sup -4} {mu}C for each radioactive isotope. The measurements are reproducible to about 2 to 3 per cent. This work has been mainly concerned with the influence of parameters affecting the response of the radioactivity detector (ionization chamber or gas flow proportional counter). The method has very numerous applications both theoretically, for the study of chromatographic phenomena under ideal conditions (infinitesimal concentrations made possible by the use of radioactive tracers), and practically, for rapid and accurate radiochemical analysis of radioactive gas mixtures. (authors) [French] La technique de radiochromatographie en phase gazeuse est appliquee a l'analyse rapide de gaz permanents (H{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, A, Kr, Xe, CO, CH{sub 4}) marques par des indicateurs radioactifs ({sup 3}H, {sup 37}A, {sup 85}Kr, {sup 133}Xe). Apres etalonnage, l'identification et la mesure des concentrations des constituants d'un tel melange requierent moins de deux heures, sur un volume d'echantillon de 0.1 a 10 cm{sup 3}. L'activite minimum detectable est de l'ordre de 10{sup -4} {mu}C pour chaque isotope radioactif. La reproductibilite des mesures est de l'ordre de 2 a 3 pour cent. L'etude porte principalement sur l'influence des parametres affectant la reponse du detecteur de radioactivite (chambre d'ionisation, ou compteur proportionnel a circulation). La methode est extremement fertile en applications tant sur le plan theorique pour l

  15. Effet du Pediococcus acidilactici sur le bilan lipidique sanguin du ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les résultats relatifs aux performances zootechniques ont montré que l'addition du probiotique a amélioré significativement le gain de poids pendant la phase de croissance se traduisant par un indice de consommation meilleur. Les dosages du cholestérol total, des triglycérides, du HDL et du LDL ont été déterminés à la ...

  16. The nuclear fuel cycle; Le cycle du combustible nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    After a short introduction about nuclear power in the world, fission physics and the French nuclear power plants, this brochure describes in a digest way the different steps of the nuclear fuel cycle: uranium prospecting, mining activity, processing of uranium ores and production of uranium concentrates (yellow cake), uranium chemistry (conversion of the yellow cake into uranium hexafluoride), fabrication of nuclear fuels, use of fuels, reprocessing of spent fuels (uranium, plutonium and fission products), recycling of energetic materials, and storage of radioactive wastes. (J.S.)

  17. Improved Oxidation Resistance of Zirconium Resulting from Addition of Small Amounts of Copper; Amelioration de la Resistance a l'Oxydation du Zirconium par de Faibles Additions de Cuivre; Povyshenie soprotivlyaemosti k okisleniyu tsirkoniya posle dobavlenij nebol'shikh kolichestv medi; Aumento de la Resistencia del Circonio a la Oxidacion por Agregado de Pequenas Cantidades de Cobre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loriers, H.; Darras, R.; Baque, P. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay (France)

    1966-02-15

    600 et 700 Degree-Sign C. En effet, les alliages correspondants, notamment celui a 2,5% de cuivre, semblent offrir des possibilites interessantes comme materiaux de gainage ou de structure pour les elements combustibles des reacteurs de la filiere eau lourde-gaz carbonique. La corrosion du zirconium par le gaz carbonique se ramene essentiellement a une oxydation, au cours de laquelle deux processus interferent: 1. l'edification d'une couche de zircone monoclinique, a travers laquelle l'oxygene diffuse par migration des lacunes anioniques, 2. la dissolution et la diffusion de l'oxygene, qui passe en insertion dans le metal. La combinaison des donnees gravimetriques et des mesures d'epaisseur des couches d'oxyde permet d'evaluer les deux coefficients de diffusiqn correspondants. Ce calcul a ete etendu par analogie au cas des alliages binaires zirconium-cuivre, de concentration en cuivre inferieure ou egale a 4% en poids. La comparaison des resultats obtenus montre que le coefficient de diffusion apparent de l'oxygene dans la couche d'oxyde formee decroit lorsque la teneur en cuivre de l'alliage envisage augmente; d'autre part, le coefficient de diffusion apparent de l'oxygene dans l'alliage, s'il est peu modifie a 600 Degree-Sign C, decroit a 700 Degree-Sign C lorsque la teneur en cuivre augmente jusqu'a 2,5%. L'amelioration de la resistance a l'oxydation, liee au ralentissement des processus de diffusion, se traduit en particulier par le maintien prolonge d'une cinetique du type parabolique, alors que, dans le cas du zirconium non allie ou d'autres alliages, la fissuration de la couche d'oxyde conduit rapidement a une cinetique d'oxydation lineaire, a la suite du phenomene de desquamation. (author) [Spanish] Los autores procuraron interpretar el efecto favorable que pequenas cantidades de cobre ejercen sobre la resistencia del circonio a la oxidacion por accion del anhidrido carbonico a presion, entre 600 y 700 Degree-Sign C. Las aleaciones correspondientes y, en

  18. The Use of Research Reactors and Short-Lived Isotopes in the Study of Nuclear-Reactor Fuel Materials; Emploi de Reacteurs de Recherche et de Radioisotopes de Courte Periode dans l'Etude des Combustibles pour Reacteurs Nucleaires; ИСПОЛЬЗОВАНИЕ ИССЛЕДОВАТЕЛЬСКИХ РЕАКТОРОВ И КОРОТКОЖИВУЩИХ ИЗОТОПОВ ПРИ ИЗУЧЕНИИ ТОПЛИВНЫХ МАТЕРИАЛОВ ДЛЯ ЯДЕРННХ РЕАКТОРОВ; Empleo de Reactores de Investigacion y de Isotopos de Periodo Corto en el Estudio de Combustibles Nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elleman, T. S.; Townley, C. W.; Sunderman, D. N. [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1963-03-15

    can often exhibit preferential release of particular elements, rapid fission- product release during temperature changes, and fission-gas release after reactor shutdown. The use of this technique allows fundamental information to be obtained on the performance of prototype fuel materials without the necessity for large testing reactors or high-level cave facilities for handling irradiated specimens. (author) [French] On peut employer avec profit un reacteur de recherche pour etudier la mobilite des produits de fission dans les prototypes de combustibles nucleaires en creant un milieu analogue a celui dans lequel le combustible est appele a fonctionner normalement, et en controlant rigoureusement les conditions de l'experience, tout en prevoyant une certaine souplesse dans le dispositif d'experimentation. Si l'on fait varier les conditions d'irradiation et que l'on procede a une analyse quantitative des produits de fission de courte periode liberes par l'echantillon, on pourra determiner les mecanismes de la liberation des produits de fission et leurs rapports avec les proprietes physiques et chimiques tant du combustible servant d'echantillon que des produits de fission eux-memes. On pourra en outre obtenir des donnees de technogenie utiles sur la valeur brute de la radioactivite liberee et la duree de vie probable du combustible. En regle generale, on irradie les echantillons dans des capsules a double paroi qu'on chauffe et introduit dans la piscine ou dans les canaux d'irradiation du reacteur, les produits de fission volatils liberes etant elimines de la capsule par un gaz de balayage. Etant donne .que le rapport entre la vitesse de degagement et la periode du radioisotope constitue un indice important du mecanisme, on recueille et analyse les gaz de fission- krypton et xenon - dont la periode va de 1,7 s jusqu'a 5,3 d. On determine les gaz rares de courte periode (krypton-89, krypton-91, krypton-92, xenon-137, xenon-138, xenon-139, xenon-140 et xenon-141) en

  19. Uncertainties in hydrogen combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamps, D.W.; Wong, C.C.; Nelson, L.S.

    1988-01-01

    Three important areas of hydrogen combustion with uncertainties are identified: high-temperature combustion, flame acceleration and deflagration-to-detonation transition, and aerosol resuspension during hydrogen combustion. The uncertainties associated with high-temperature combustion may affect at least three different accident scenarios: the in-cavity oxidation of combustible gases produced by core-concrete interactions, the direct containment heating hydrogen problem, and the possibility of local detonations. How these uncertainties may affect the sequence of various accident scenarios is discussed and recommendations are made to reduce these uncertainties. 40 references

  20. The performance of the natural gas solutions in the accommodation; La performance des solutions gaz naturel dans l'habitat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This paper presents the Gaz De France Group policy concerning the utilization of the gas as energy source in residential buildings for heating and cooking. The market and more specially the manufacturers importance are discussed. (A.L.B.)

  1. Interesting Developments in UO{sub 2} Technology; Progres interessants dans la technologie du bioxyde d'uranium; Interesnye usovershenstvovaniya tekhnologii UO{sub 2}; Recientes progresos en la tecnologia del UO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, J. A.L. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    1963-11-15

    et diametrales etaient liees entre elles et etaient l'expression de la dilatation cubique du combustible dont le noyau chaud a une plasticite sensiblement elevee. Les connaissances empiriques sur les facteurs qui conditionnent le degagement de produits de fission gazeux liberes par UO{sub 2} ce sont ameliorees. On a constate notamment qu'en portant de 10{sup 15} a 10{sup 18} le nombre de fissions par cm{sup 3}, on peut abaisser d' un facteur de 10{sup 3} les vitesses apparentes de diffusion du xenon dans UO{sub 2}, au cours de recuits subsequents. Le gaz est probablement immobilise dans des pieges minuscules, les uns preexistant dans le materiau original, les autres resultant des dommages dus a l'irradiation. Une analyse minutieuse montre que le gaz s'echappe lentement des pieges, peut-etre en raison de la valeur finie de la solubilite du xenon dans UO{sub 2}. La possibilite que l'on a maintenant de faire des mesures en pile marque le debut d'une nouvelle serie d'experiences plus interessantes, qui permettront dorenavant de se rendre compte directement si la mise au point de nouveaux types de combustible offre des avantages economiques. En attendant, les efforts se poursuivront, suscitant une competition serree, pour ameliorer les elements en bioxyde d'uranium fritte, composes de barreaux en geometrie simple. (author) [Spanish] Ahora que funcionan regularmente varios reactores alimentados con UO{sub 2}, el buen rendimiento de este material frente a la irradiacion se da por supuesto. Por ello, es estimulante observar que todavia se producen novedades significativas en este terreno. Una de las mas interesantes fue el descubrimiento, recientemente realizado por los investigadores del Instituto Battelle, de que determinados monocristales de UO{sub 2} poseen gran conductibilidad termica a temperaturas elevadas. A raiz de la controversia habida sobre la materia, un experimento de irradiacion efectuado en Chalk River demostro que los granos de gran tamafio que se forman en

  2. Research of combustion in older generation spark-ignition engines in the condition of use leaded and unleaded petrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulatović Željko M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the potential problems in the exploitation of the older generation of spark-ignition engines with higher octane number of petrol (unleaded petrol BMB 95 than required (leaded petrol MB 86. Within the experimental tests on two different engines (STEYR-PUCH model 712 and GAZ 41 by applying piezoelectric pressure sensors integrated with the engine spark plugs, acceleration sensors (accelerometers and special electronic block connected with distributor, show that the cumulative first and second theoretical phase of combustion when petrol of higher octane number (BMB 95 is used lasts slightly longer than when the low-octane petrol MB 86 is used. For new petrol (BMB 95 higher optimal angles of pre-ignition have been determined by which better performances of the engine are achieved without a danger of the combustion with detonation (also called knocking.

  3. Les mots du jazz

    OpenAIRE

    Roueff, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    L’ouvrage d’André Schaeffner constitue la première analyse savante du jazz (1926). Il a marqué une étape importante dans le processus de réinvention du jazz en France en contribuant notamment, par sa réception et les polémiques qu’il a suscitées, à transformer l’identification du jazz d’une musique « américaine » à une musique « noire-américaine » (c’est-à-dire aux « racines » africaines). Les analyses proposées dans cet ouvrage, alors qu’elles désignaient des musiques que la critique de jazz...

  4. New class of combustion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merzhanov, A.G.; Borovinskaya, I.P.

    1975-01-01

    A short review is given of the results of work carried out since 1967 on studying the combustion processes caused by the interaction of chemical elements in the condensed phase and leading to the formation of refractory compounds. New phenomena and processes are described which are revealed when investigating the combustion of the systems of this class, viz solid-phase combustion, fast combustion in the condensed phase, filtering combustion, combustion in liquid nitrogen, spinning combustion, self-oscillating combustion, and repeated combustion. A new direction in employment of combustion processes is discussed, viz. a self-propagating high-temperature synthesis of refractory nitrides, carbides, borides, silicides and other compounds

  5. A study of the fluorescence of the rare gases excited by nuclear particles. Use of the principle for the detection of nuclear radiation by scintillation; Etude de la fluorescence des gaz rares excites par des particules nucleaires. Utilisation pour la detection des rayonnements nucleaires par scintillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-12-15

    composantes, l'une tres breve due a la desexcitation directe du gaz rare, l'autre relativement plus lente, due au transfert d'energie sur les impuretes. La mesure des durees de vie des etats excites a confirme l'hypothese precedente, la partie breve de l'impulsion est extremement courte: inferieure a 2,25.10{sup -9} s dans le cas du xenon, la partie plus lente a une duree qui depend etroitement de la concentration d'azote, l'azote etant l'impurete dont le role est preponderant dans tous les cas. L'etude des gaz rares soumis a un champ electrique a permis de montrer que la quantite de lumiere produite par une particule {alpha} peut etre multipliee (par 60 dans un champ de 600 V/cm par exemple) ce qui correspond a un rendement de luminescence superieur a celui de INa TI. Dans la deuxieme partie on a etudie les caracteristiques des gaz rares comme scintillateurs, la plus importante est l'absence de saturation de la fluorescence lorsque la densite d'excitation transmise au gaz devient tres grande. Ceci joint au temps de scintillation tres court a permis d'etudier un certain nombre d'applications a la physique nucleaire (mesure d'energie des particules lourdes, etude cinetique des reacteurs nucleaires, spectroscopie des neutrons...). (auteur)

  6. fibrosarcome du larynx

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pie du lit tumoral est employée comme complément thé- rapeutique [9] alors que la chimiothérapie est générale- ment indiquée dans les formes métastatiques. Le pronos- tic dépend essentiellement du degré de différentiation his- tologique. En fait, le fibrosarcome bien différencié est caractérisé par la fréquence de récidive ...

  7. du Chott Marouane

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    plancton de 90 µm de vide de maille. Ils ont été conservés dans du formol à 5%. L'identification de l'espèce est basée sur des critères morphologiques [20]: la forme des furcas, les lobes frontaux des antennes des mâles, de l'organe copulateur (pénis) et du sac ovigère. Le comptage des soies furcales a été réalisé. L'étude ...

  8. Combustion modeling in internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeleznik, F. J.

    1976-01-01

    The fundamental assumptions of the Blizard and Keck combustion model for internal combustion engines are examined and a generalization of that model is derived. The most significant feature of the model is that it permits the occurrence of unburned hydrocarbons in the thermodynamic-kinetic modeling of exhaust gases. The general formulas are evaluated in two specific cases that are likely to be significant in the applications of the model.

  9. Boiler using combustible fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, H.; Meier, J.G.

    1974-07-03

    A fluid fuel boiler is described comprising a combustion chamber, a cover on the combustion chamber having an opening for introducing a combustion-supporting gaseous fluid through said openings, means to impart rotation to the gaseous fluid about an axis of the combustion chamber, a burner for introducing a fluid fuel into the chamber mixed with the gaseous fluid for combustion thereof, the cover having a generally frustro-conical configuration diverging from the opening toward the interior of the chamber at an angle of between 15/sup 0/ and 55/sup 0/; means defining said combustion chamber having means defining a plurality of axial hot gas flow paths from a downstream portion of the combustion chamber to flow hot gases into an upstream portion of the combustion chamber, and means for diverting some of the hot gas flow along paths in a direction circumferentially of the combustion chamber, with the latter paths being immersed in the water flow path thereby to improve heat transfer and terminating in a gas outlet, the combustion chamber comprising at least one modular element, joined axially to the frustro-conical cover and coaxial therewith. The modular element comprises an inner ring and means of defining the circumferential, radial, and spiral flow paths of the hot gases.

  10. les cahiers du cread

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our Journal “les cahiers du cread” is a quarterly economic review publishing original findings of empirical research and theoretical debates on fields pertaining to our mission coverage (Macro Economics, Industrial Economics and Firms, Human Development & Social Economics, Agriculture & Environment). Other websites ...

  11. Measurements and Application of Partition Coefficients of Compounds Suitable for Tracing Gas Injected Into Oil Reservoirs Mesures et applications des coefficients de partage de composants utilisables comme gaz traceurs injectés dans des réservoirs de pétrole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugstad O.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Tracing of injection gas in oil reservoirs is a technique used to improve the description of permeability distributions in situ. Results from dynamic laboratory experiments of gas tracers are reported. Gas tracers are delayed when flooding through a reservoir by the partitioning into the oil phase. A knowledge of this effect is important to optimize the interpretation of field tracer tests. The partition is quantified by the partition coefficient K. Two chemical tracers perfluoromethylcyclopentane (PMCP and perfluoromethylcyclohexane (PMCH and the radioactive 14C labelled ethane have been studied here. The two chemical compounds are new as reservoir tracers and no field results with these tracers are reported in the open literature. Our group has, however, recently applied these compound successfully as tracers in a North Sea reservoir. Les traceurs représentent un outil précieux pour améliorer la description des gisements. On les a utilisés pour obtenir des renseignements sur la configuration de l'écoulement des fluides injectés et sur leur vitesse, sur l'instant de percé des venues d'eau et sur leur origine précise, sur les traitements d'amélioration du balayage, sur les hétérogénéités importantes telles que fractures, barrières d'écoulement et stratifications de la perméabilité. Dans les gisements importants comportant plusieurs puits de production et plusieurs puits d'injection, il est donc souhaitable de disposer de plusieurs traceurs afin de pouvoir injecter différents traceurs ou mélanges de traceurs dans les différents puits. L'article présenté ici est une contribution a l'effort fait pour étendre le nombre de gaz traceurs fiables applicables aux gisements. L'article présente les résultats d'essais dynamiques en laboratoires dans lesquels on injecte des traceurs à travers un milieu poreux. Lorsqu'ils traversent un réservoir, les gaz traceurs sont retardés du fait de leur ségrégation dans la phase huile. La

  12. Lump wood combustion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubesa, Petr; Horák, Jiří; Branc, Michal; Krpec, Kamil; Hopan, František; Koloničný, Jan; Ochodek, Tadeáš; Drastichová, Vendula; Martiník, Lubomír; Malcho, Milan

    2014-08-01

    The article deals with the combustion process for lump wood in low-power fireplaces (units to dozens of kW). Such a combustion process is cyclical in its nature, and what combustion facility users are most interested in is the frequency, at which fuel needs to be stoked to the fireplace. The paper defines the basic terms such as burnout curve and burning rate curve, which are closely related to the stocking frequency. The fuel burning rate is directly dependent on the immediate thermal power of the fireplace. This is also related to the temperature achieved in the fireplace, magnitude of flue gas losses and the ability to generate conditions favouring the full burnout of the fuel's combustible component, which, at once ensures the minimum production of combustible pollutants. Another part of the paper describes experiments conducted in traditional fireplaces with a grate, at which well-dried lump wood was combusted.

  13. Together on the same planet. Gaz de France and sustainable development in 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document presents the sustainable development policy of Gaz de France group. It identifies the challenges the group has to face in order to control the environmental impact of the Group's activities (exploration, production, procurement, re-gasification, transmission, storage, distribution, marketing and shares, services). The approach used is based on a voluntary commitment of the Group to dialogue and share current challenges with all its stakeholders, and to imagine other roads to development. The initiatives consist in clean production practices, development of renewable energy sources, energy conservation, investment in research, safety improvement, solidarity with underprivileged people, respect of local environment and of codes of conduct, accompanying local economic development and development of clean transport systems. (J.S.)

  14. Fusion special: E.ON/Ruhrgas, EDF/Gaz de France? Trends. Interview. Inquiry. Portrait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneid, O.; Carbier, M.Ch.

    2003-01-01

    This issue of 'Energies news' newsletter comprises 6 articles dealing with: the E.ON/Ruhrgas fusion and the birth of a leader of the gas-electric power convergence in Europe (the serial story of the fusion, the compromise with the adverse parties); the key economical data of RWE; the proposal of fusion between EdF (Electricite de France) and Gaz de France (interview of M. Boiteux, honorary president of EdF); the reorganization of RWE activities in France (interview of R. Felgentreff, head of RWE Solutions France); travel inside the French power market (part.2: opening of the power market to all professionals); portrait of J. Masdeu-Arus, co-president of a study group at the French house of commons, who made a report about the economical and financial situation of EdF. (J.S.)

  15. Containment for Heavy-Water Gas-Cooled Reactors; Le Confinement des Reacteurs a Eau Lourde Refroidis par Gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verstraete, P.; Lehmann, D.; Lafitte, R. [Bonard et Gardel, Ingenieurs-Conseils, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1967-09-15

    par gaz sont passes en revue dans le but d'etablir les specifications des enceintes de confinement en fonction des conditions des sites disponibles en Suisse pour la construction de centrales nucleaires. Ces specifications sont etablies d'apres les taux de dose consideres comme admissibles pour les populations vivant aux environs de la centrale en cas d 'accident grave du reacteur, en se basant sur des conditions meteorologiques et demographiques representatives de la plupart des sites du pays. Differents modes de construction de l ' enceinte de confinement, prenant en consideration les conditions qui s'etablissent dans l'enceinte a la suite de l'accident maximal concevable du reacteur, sont consideres. Les enceintes etudiees sont les suivantes: beton precontraint; beton precontraint avec coupole d'acier; beton precontraint avec peau d' etancheite interieure en acier; acier avec ecran lateral en beton pour la protection contre les radiations; et double confinement. Le degre d'etancheite des enceintes etudiees a ete considere comme une caracteristique lie e au mode de construction particulier et non comme une valeur prescrite en vue de laquelle la construction devait etre adaptee. Les caracteristiques d'etancheite de chaque enceinte sont estimees et les prix de chaque construction ont ete determines sur la base de plans precis avec le concours de diverses entrepises specialisees. L'estimation de l'efficacite des differentes enceintes, sous l'an gle de la securite, a ete faite en prenant en consideration differentes procedures en cas d' accident parmi lesquelles on citera principalement le rejet atmospherique, au travers de filtres adequats, et la decontamination de l 'atmosphere de l 'enceinte par recyclage dans des batteries de filtres. Une dizaine de cas, correspondant a differentes combinaisons de modes de construction et procedures en cas d'accident, font l 'objet d'une comparaison tres detaillee qui a ete realisee grace a un programme pour ordinateur electronique

  16. Numerical simulations of stationary and transient spray combustion for aircraft gas turbine applications

    OpenAIRE

    Fossi, Athanase Alain

    2017-01-01

    Le développement des turbines à gaz d’aviation actuelles et futures est principalement axé sur la sécurité, la performance, la minimisation de la consommation de l’énergie, et de plus en plus sur la réduction des émissions d’espèces polluantes. Ainsi, les phases de design de moteurs sont soumises auxaméliorations continues par des études expérimentales et numériques. La présente thèse se consacre à l’étude numérique des phases transitoires et stationnaires de la combustion au sein d’une turbi...

  17. Flameless Combustion Workshop

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gutmark, Ephraim

    2005-01-01

    .... "Flameless Combustion" is characterized by high stability levels with virtually no thermoacoustic instabilities, very low lean stability limits and therefore extremely low NOx production, efficient...

  18. Research Combustion Laboratory (RCL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Research Combustion Laboratory (RCL) develops aerospace propulsion technology by performing tests on propulsion components and materials. Altitudes up to 137,000...

  19. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    Ashlines: To promote and support the commercially viable and environmentally sound recycling of coal combustion byproducts for productive uses through scientific research, development, and field testing.

  20. Study of total ionization by {alpha} particles, in pure gases and gaseous mixtures containing metastable atoms, as a function of temperature; Etude de l'ionisation totale par les paricules {alpha}, dans les gaz purs et les melanges gazeux contenant des atomes metastables, en fonction de la temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bristeau, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    Experiments have been carried out on the total ionization by alpha particles, in pure gases and gaseous mixtures containing metastable atoms, as a function of temperature. Using a different experimental method, the results for the mean ionization energy at 300 K given by Jesse in 1953 have been confirmed to within 1 per cent. It is established that in pure gases the mean energy W required to form a pair of ions remains constant as the temperature varies from 77 to 300 K. It is shown that there is a temperature effect for W in binary gas mixtures of the type A-B containing meta-stable atoms A{sup *} and an 'impurity' B. A systematic study is made of the change {delta}W in W as a function of the temperature and of the B 'impurity' concentration in the mixtures Ne - Ar, Ne - Kr, Ne - H{sub 2}, Ne - N{sub 2}, Ne - CH{sub 4} and He - Ar. Experiments have been carried out on a ternary gas mixture of the type A - B - C, where C is a second ionizable 'impurity' added to the binary mixture A - B; they show the existence of excited atoms B{sup *} formed from the 'impurity' B. Finally, it is shown that the amount of metastable atoms formed in a pure gas must be very close to the number N{sub 0} of ion pairs, and that there must exist a correlation between the number N{sub 0} of ion pairs and the number {approx_equal} N{sub 0} of metastable atoms created in the pure rare gases. (author) [French] On realise des experiences sur l'ionisation totale par les particules alpha, dans les gaz purs et les melanges gazeux contenant des atomes metastables, en fonction de la temperature. Avec une methode experimentale differente, on retrouve a mieux que 1 pour cent pres les valeurs de l'energie moyenne d'ionisation que JESSE a obtenues en 1953 et a 300 K. On etablit que dans les gaz purs, l'energie moyenne W pour creer une paire d'ions demeure constante, quand la temperature varie entre 77 et 300 K. On met en evidence un effet de temperature sur W, dans les melanges gazeux binaires du type

  1. Experimental Investigation of the Asphaltene Deposition Process during Different Production Schemes Étude expérimentale du processus de dépôt d’asphaltènes au cours de différents modes de production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagheri M.B.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of asphaltene precipitation and deposition during lean gas injection, CO2 injection and natural depletion in reservoir conditions. In addition, the effect of variations in operating pressure, injection gas concentration and production rate on asphaltene precipitation and deposition were investigated. The severity of asphaltene deposition was found to be more pronounced in lean gas injection in comparison with CO2 injection and natural depletion. Increasing the flow rate in natural depletion experiments showed a considerable increase in asphaltene deposition, and consequently permeability reduction in the core matrix. Moreover, more asphaltene deposition was observed along the porous media in the gas injection experiments when the gas mol percent of the mixture was increased. Cet article présente les résultats d’une étude de la précipitation et du dépôt d’asphaltènes qui peuvent se produire lors d’une injection de gaz pauvre, d’une injection de CO2 ou d’une déplétion naturelle en conditions de réservoir. En outre, les effets de la pression de fonctionnement, de la concentration en gaz injecté et du débit de production sur la précipitation et le dépôt d’asphaltènes ont été étudiés. Il a été constaté que l’importance du dépôt d’asphaltènes est plus prononcée dans le cas d’une injection de gaz pauvre comparativement à une injection de CO2 ou à une déplétion naturelle. Une augmentation du débit au cours d’expériences de déplétion naturelle a montré un accroissement considérable du dépôt d’asphaltènes et, en conséquence, une réduction de perméabilité au sein de la matrice poreuse. Par ailleurs, un dépôt d’asphaltènes plus important a été observé au cours des expériences d’injection de gaz lorsque la concentration molaire gazeuse dans le mélange était augmentée.

  2. Comparaison du filtre adaptatif RIF et du filtre a base de reseau de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparaison du filtre adaptatif RIF et du filtre a base de reseau de neurones pour le filtrage du courant de reference pour la commande du filtre actif parallele. C Benachaiba, A Bassou, B Mazari ...

  3. Combustion Stratification for Naphtha from CI Combustion to PPC

    KAUST Repository

    Vallinayagam, R.; Vedharaj, S.; An, Yanzhao; Dawood, Alaaeldin; Izadi Najafabadi, Mohammad; Somers, Bart; Johansson, Bengt

    2017-01-01

    This study demonstrates the combustion stratification from conventional compression ignition (CI) combustion to partially premixed combustion (PPC). Experiments are performed in an optical CI engine at a speed of 1200 rpm for diesel and naphtha (RON

  4. Front end of the nuclear fuel cycle; Amont du cycle du combustible nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leroux, S.; Gueneau, C.; Le Ny, J.; Camel, D.; Drevet, B.; Granier, J.; Doneddo, F.; Roblin, P.; Van Wambeke, C.; Bouty, O.; Michel, N.; Thro, P.U.; Dupuy, P.; Farcage, D.; Schildknecht, J.; Lompre, L.A.; L' Hermite, D.; Comte, M.; Gobert, O.; De Lamare, J

    1999-07-01

    In this chapter of the DCC 1999 scientific report, the following theoretical studies are detailed: condensation and flow of a binary metallic alloy in a two phase domain, a model of gas centrifuge separative performance called TRYPHON, an estimation of electron gun cathodes erosion. It also provides technological developments and instrumentation studies: a power improvement of diode-pumped solid state lasers, measurement using intracavity near resonant propagation in atomic vapours. (A.L.B.)

  5. Back end of the nuclear fuel cycle; Aval du cycle du combustible nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dognon, J.P.; Rabbe, C.; Beudaert, Ph.; Lamare, V.; Wipff, G.; Moisy, Ph.; Charrin, N.; Blanc, P.; Den Auwer, Ch.; Revel, R.; Charbonnel, M.C.; Presson, M.T.; Cau Dit Coumes, C.; Chopin-Dumas, J.; Devisme, F.; Rat, B.; Hill, C.; Guillaneux, D.; Madic, C.; Carrera, A.; Dozol, J.F.; Rouquette, H.; Allain, F.; Virelizier, H.; Moulin, Ch.; Lemort, F.; Orlhac, X.; Fillet, C.; Carpena, J.; Advocat, T.; Leturcq, G.; Lacombe, J.; Bonnetier, A.; Ribet, I.; Poitou, S.; Richaud, D.; Fiquet, O.; Gramondi, P.; Massit, H.; Meyer, D.; Conocar, O.; Pettier, J.L.; Raphael, T.; Bouniol, P.; Sercombe, J.; Badouix, P.; Adenot, F.; Le Bescop, P.; Mazoin, C.; Motellier, S.; Charles, Y.; Richet, C.; Ayache, R.; Pitsch, H.; Ly, J.; Beaucaire, C.; Devol-Brown, I.; Libert, M.F.; Besnainou, B

    1999-07-01

    In this chapter of the DCC 1999 scientific report, the following theoretical studies are detailed: electronic structure of lanthanides or actinides complexes, forecasting of the stoichiometry of europium nitrate complexes, actinides aqueous solutions analytical and thermodynamical chemistry, actinides complexes structural determination. It also provides experimental studies: actinides and lanthanides separation, radioactive wastes processing and conditioning, plasma torch vitrification process, simulation of the wastes packages characterization, wastes storage with concrete behaviour and biodegradation. (A.L.B.)

  6. Quantitative measurements of small isotopic samples in gaseous mixtures by utilization of some nuclear properties; Etude des possibilites de mesures de faibles quantites de gaz radioactifs dans un melange en utilisant simultanement plusieurs proprietes nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maragnon, J; Delperie, C

    1967-12-01

    The question is to define the characteristics of a group of measurements allowing the analysis of traces of radioactive rare gases in gas mixtures of different composition. To distinguish the radioactive isotopes from each other and the activity level reaching 10{sup 6} due to their nuclear properties, the method was chosen to use several nuclear properties: gamma radiation energy, beta particle energy, lifetime of excited states. The choice of a plastic scintillator as beta detector allows to answer satisfactorilly to this demand by measurement of nuclear constants because of the short de/excitation time of this detector. Another advantage is that it can be a reservoir for the sample without any destruction nor modification of the sample. The study has been based on the mixture of Kr-85, the analysis of other rare gases follwos immediately from the adopted principle. [French] Les auteurs ont oriente leur recherche vers une solution permettant de distinguer les isotopes radioactifs les uns des autres et dans des rapports d'activite pouvant atteindre 10{sup 6}, grace a plusieurs de leurs proprietes nucleaires, energie de rayonnement gamma, energie de la particule beta, temps de vie des niveaux excites. Le choix d'un scintillateur plastique comme detecteur beta permet de repondre d'une maniere satisfaisante a la mesure des constantes nucleaires en raison du temps de de/excitation rapide de ce scintillateur. Il offre en outre l'avantage de pouvoir servir de reservoir a l'echantillon sans entrainer aucune destruction ni modification de celui-ci. L'etude a ete basee sur la mixture de Kr-85, l'analyse des autre gaz rares decoulant immediatement du principe adopte. (auteur)

  7. NOx processing on Solar gas turbines; Turbines, traitement des nox sur les turbines a gaz solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chausse, X. [Spie Trindel, 95 - Cergy (France). Service TAG

    1997-12-31

    The Solar Company, in cooperation with Tuma Turbomach, has developed the SoLoNOx combustion system with a dry, lean, premixed compound, allowing for reduced NOx and CO emission levels (respectively 42 ppmv and 50 ppmv at 15 pc O{sub 2}). The combustor size is larger than a conventional combustor in order to maintain combustion efficiency and reduce carbon monoxide levels. Leaner combustion occurs at lower temperatures which produce less nitrogen oxides but require more volume to complete the combustion process. New developments should allow for a further reduction of NOx level at 25 ppmv

  8. Le ministre du Commerce international du Canada rencontre des ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    17 juil. 2017 ... La promotion de l'entrepreneuriat, la façon dont le commerce peut profiter aux femmes et à leur famille, et la création d'emplois pour les plus vulnérables étaient au coeur de la discussion en table ronde du ministre du Commerce international du Canada, l'honorable François-Philippe Champagne, et des ...

  9. EPA/IFP EUROPEAN WORKSHOP ON THE EMISSION ON NITROUS OXIDE FROM FOSSIL FUEL COMBUSTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes the proceedings of an EPA/Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP) cosponsored workshop addressing direct nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from fossil fuel combustion. The third in a series, it was held at the IFP in Rueil-Malmaison, France, on June 1-2, 1988. Increas...

  10. Strobes: An oscillatory combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corbel, J.M.L.; Lingen, J.N.J. van; Zevenbergen, J.F.; Gijzeman, O.L.J.; Meijerink, A.

    2012-01-01

    Strobe compositions belong to the class of solid combustions. They are mixtures of powdered ingredients. When ignited, the combustion front evolves in an oscillatory fashion, and flashes of light are produced by intermittence. They have fascinated many scientists since their discovery at the

  11. Catalytically enhanced combustion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, C.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a fuel having improved combustion efficiency. It comprises a petroleum based liquid hydrocarbon; and a combustion catalyst comprising from about 18 to about 21 weight percent naphthalene, from about 75 to about 80 weight percent toluene, and from about 2.8 to about 3.2 weight percent benzyl alcohol

  12. Fifteenth combustion research conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The BES research efforts cover chemical reaction theory, experimental dynamics and spectroscopy, thermodynamics of combustion intermediates, chemical kinetics, reaction mechanisms, combustion diagnostics, and fluid dynamics and chemically reacting flows. 98 papers and abstracts are included. Separate abstracts were prepared for the papers

  13. Portage vaginal du streptocoque du groupe B chez la femme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: le streptocoque du groupe B est le principal agent impliqué dans les infections materno-fœtales, les septicémies et les méningites du nouveau-né à terme. L'objectif est de déterminer le taux de portage maternel du streptocoque du groupe B (SGB) à terme. Méthodes: un prélèvement vaginal a été réalisé de ...

  14. Aux origines du monde

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    "C'est l'histoire d'une aventure humaine, scientifique, international qui a vu le jour il y a cinquante ans, aux confins de la Suisse et du département de l'Ain. Le plus grand laboratoire de physique des particules du monde, le Cern, a été fondé en 1954. Les festivités organisées à l occasion de cet anniversaire connaîtront leur point d'orgue le 16 octobre prochain, avec portes-ouvertes, accueil de personallités et inauguration d'un monumnet spécifique, le Globe de l'innovation" (2 pages)

  15. CHOEUR DU CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CHOEUR DU CERN

    2010-01-01

    Les répétitions du chœur du CERN reprendront le mercredi 15 septembre à 20.00 heures à l’amphithéâtre principal – bâtiment 500. Au programme la préparation de notre concert de Noël avec la Missa Brevis, KV115, de Léopold Mozart et de la musique de Noël d’Europe. Les personnes qui aiment chanter, notamment des sopranes et des ténors, sont les bienvenues. Pour tout contact s’adresser à : Baudouin Bleus - (tél.CERN 767 82 44) -(baudouin.bleus@cern.ch) ou Martin Gatehouse ( martin.gatehouse@wanadoo.fr) ou Jean-Paul Diss (jean-pauldiss@wanadoo.fr).  

  16. Hepatiques du Surinam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jovet-Ast, S.

    1957-01-01

    Il n’existe pas, actuellement, de catalogue des Hépatiques du Surinam. Les Hépatiques de ce pays restent très peu connues. Cependant, certaines ont attiré l’attention des Bryologues et ont été citées dans quelques ouvrages anciens ou récents. Je ne ferai pas ici une révision complète de ces

  17. (l.) Medik du Maroc

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PR BOKO

    Résumé. Dipcadi serotinum (L.) Medik, est une plante de la famille des Hyacinthaceae, elle est largement utilisée comme réchauffant et aussi pour combattre la jaunisse. Cette plante trouve une large utilisation par la population de la région côtière du Maroc. À notre connaissance l'huile essentielle de cette espèce n'a ...

  18. Fuels and Combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Johansson, Bengt

    2016-08-17

    This chapter discusses the combustion processes and the link to the fuel properties that are suitable for them. It describes the basic three concepts, including spark ignition (SI) and compression ignition (CI), and homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI). The fuel used in a CI engine is vastly different from that in an SI engine. In an SI engine, the fuel should sustain high pressure and temperature without autoignition. Apart from the dominating SI and CI engines, it is also possible to operate with a type of combustion: autoignition. With HCCI, the fuel and air are fully premixed before combustion as in the SI engine, but combustion is started by the increased pressure and temperature during the compression stroke. Apart from the three combustion processes, there are also a few combined or intermediate concepts, such as Spark-Assisted Compression Ignition (SACI). Those concepts are discussed in terms of the requirements of fuel properties.

  19. Fuels and Combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Johansson, Bengt

    2016-01-01

    This chapter discusses the combustion processes and the link to the fuel properties that are suitable for them. It describes the basic three concepts, including spark ignition (SI) and compression ignition (CI), and homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI). The fuel used in a CI engine is vastly different from that in an SI engine. In an SI engine, the fuel should sustain high pressure and temperature without autoignition. Apart from the dominating SI and CI engines, it is also possible to operate with a type of combustion: autoignition. With HCCI, the fuel and air are fully premixed before combustion as in the SI engine, but combustion is started by the increased pressure and temperature during the compression stroke. Apart from the three combustion processes, there are also a few combined or intermediate concepts, such as Spark-Assisted Compression Ignition (SACI). Those concepts are discussed in terms of the requirements of fuel properties.

  20. Instrument for continuous supervision of the radioactivity of CO{sub 2} coolant in piles - DCCA -CO{sub 2} (1960); Dispositif de controle continu de la radioactivite du CO{sub 2} de refroidissement des piles - DCCA - CO{sub 2} (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitoussi, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    This paper describes an apparatus for continuous measurement of CO{sub 2} activity, which can be used on piles cooled by circulation of gas. The first part is devoted mainly to describing the apparatus used and the character of the radioactivity and thermodynamic measurements carried out, and giving the general characteristics of the gas circuit required if the instrument is to be suitably gas-tight. In the second part theoretical calculations are given, particularly on the determination of the ionisation current in an ionisation chamber with circulating gas. Several parameters enter into this determination, such as the mean path of {beta} particles in the ionisation chamber, the linear number of ion pairs formed in the gas by these {beta} particles as a function of their energy, the temperature and pressure of the gas in the ionisation chamber. This part also evaluates the sensitivity areas of the apparatus for measuring the concentrations of radioactive gases such as argon-41 and fission gases from uranium-235 in the CO{sub 2} coolant. In the last part are described the results of measurements performed with such an apparatus on the pile EL2, the special investigations carried out on the CO{sub 2} coolant of this pile, and the information gained during normal operation and during accidents. The DCCA - CO{sub 2} which has just been put in operation at G2 is briefly presented. In the conclusion the possibilities offered by this apparatus are underlined. (author) [French] Ce rapport a pour but de presenter le Dispositif de Controle continu de l'Activite du CO{sub 2} pouvant etre utilise aupres des piles refroidies par une circulation de gaz. La premiere partie du rapport consiste essentiellement a decrire l'ensemble de l'appareillage mis en oeuvre, a preciser la nature des mesures de radioactivite et de thermodynamique effectuees et a citer les caracteristiques generales du circuit de gaz pour avoir un dispositif presentant une etancheite efficace. Dans la seconde

  1. Instrument for continuous supervision of the radioactivity of CO{sub 2} coolant in piles - DCCA -CO{sub 2} (1960); Dispositif de controle continu de la radioactivite du CO{sub 2} de refroidissement des piles - DCCA - CO{sub 2} (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitoussi, L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    This paper describes an apparatus for continuous measurement of CO{sub 2} activity, which can be used on piles cooled by circulation of gas. The first part is devoted mainly to describing the apparatus used and the character of the radioactivity and thermodynamic measurements carried out, and giving the general characteristics of the gas circuit required if the instrument is to be suitably gas-tight. In the second part theoretical calculations are given, particularly on the determination of the ionisation current in an ionisation chamber with circulating gas. Several parameters enter into this determination, such as the mean path of {beta} particles in the ionisation chamber, the linear number of ion pairs formed in the gas by these {beta} particles as a function of their energy, the temperature and pressure of the gas in the ionisation chamber. This part also evaluates the sensitivity areas of the apparatus for measuring the concentrations of radioactive gases such as argon-41 and fission gases from uranium-235 in the CO{sub 2} coolant. In the last part are described the results of measurements performed with such an apparatus on the pile EL2, the special investigations carried out on the CO{sub 2} coolant of this pile, and the information gained during normal operation and during accidents. The DCCA - CO{sub 2} which has just been put in operation at G2 is briefly presented. In the conclusion the possibilities offered by this apparatus are underlined. (author) [French] Ce rapport a pour but de presenter le Dispositif de Controle continu de l'Activite du CO{sub 2} pouvant etre utilise aupres des piles refroidies par une circulation de gaz. La premiere partie du rapport consiste essentiellement a decrire l'ensemble de l'appareillage mis en oeuvre, a preciser la nature des mesures de radioactivite et de thermodynamique effectuees et a citer les caracteristiques generales du circuit de gaz pour avoir un dispositif presentant une etancheite efficace

  2. PDF Modeling of Turbulent Combustion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pope, Stephen B

    2006-01-01

    .... The PDF approach to turbulent combustion has the advantages of fully representing the turbulent fluctuations of species and temperature, and of allowing realistic combustion chemistry to be implemented...

  3. La mesure du danger

    CERN Document Server

    Manceron, Vanessa; Revet, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    La mesure du danger permet d’explorer des dangers de nature aussi diverse que la délinquance, la pollution, l’écueil maritime, la maladie ou l’attaque sorcellaire, l’extinction d’espèces animales ou végétales, voire de la Planète tout entière. Au croisement de la sociologie, de l’anthropologie et de l’histoire, les différents articles analysent les pratiques concrètes de mesure pour tenter de comprendre ce qui se produit au cours de l’opération d’évaluation du danger sans préjuger de la nature de celui-ci. L’anthropologie a contribué à la réflexion sur l’infortune en s’intéressant aux temporalités de l’après : maladies, catastrophes, pandémies, etc. et en cherchant à rendre compte de l’expérience des victimes, de leur vie ordinaire bouleversée, de la recomposition du quotidien. Elle s’intéresse aussi aux autres types de mesures, les savoirs incorporés, qui reposent sur l’odorat, la vue ou le toucher et ceux qui ressortent d’une épistémologie « non ...

  4. Measurement of the activity of beta emitting gases using an ionisation chamber; Mesure de l'activite des gaz emetteurs beta au moyen d'une chambre d'ionisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebouleux, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique. Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1962-07-01

    An ionization chamber was developed for measuring directly the activity of a {beta}-emitting gas whatever the gas may be. The following two parameters are defined and determined: p, the average specific ionization produced by a {beta} disintegration, and i, the average {beta} path in the chamber. It was shown, during the determination of i, that the {beta} particles are reflected on the walls of the ionization chamber when the latter are made of a high atomic number material. It was possible to eliminate this effect by constructing an electrode chamber made of graphite. With this chamber a direct measurement can be made of the activity of a gaseous {beta} emitter with a precision of about {+-}10%. Some applications are given of the graphite electrode chamber (calibration of the chambers built industrially and determination of the activation cross section of a gaseous emitter). It was possible to determine the activation cross section of {sup 134}Xe; a value of 0.18 {+-} 0.03 barn was found. (author) [French] Le but de l'etude est de realiser une chambre d'ionisation permettant d'effectuer une mesure directe de l'activite d'un gaz emetteur {beta} quel que soit l'emetteur considere. On definit et l'on determine les deux parametres suivants: p: ionisation specifique moyenne produite par une desintegration {beta}. La determination est effectuee par une methode graphique, i: moyenne des parcours des {beta} dans la chambre. La determination est effectuee experimentalement par introduction dans la chambre d'un gaz radioactif dont on peut calculer l'activite. On a mis en evidence, au cours de la determination de i, la reflexion des particules {beta} sur les parois des chambres d'ionisation lorsque celles-ci sont constituees d'un materiau de numero atomique eleve. La construction d'une chambre a electrodes de graphite nous a permis d'eliminer ce phenomene. Avec cette chambre, on effectue une mesure directe de l'activite d'un emetteur {beta} gazeux avec une precision de l

  5. Fuel Combustion Laboratory | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuel Combustion Laboratory Fuel Combustion Laboratory NREL's Fuel Combustion Laboratory focuses on designs, using both today's technology and future advanced combustion concepts. This lab supports the combustion chamber platform for fuel ignition kinetics research, was acquired to expand the lab's

  6. Comportment of various magnesium alloys in carbon dioxide under pressure, between 400 and 600 deg; Compatibilite de divers alliages de magnesium avec le gaz carbonique sous pression entre 400 et 600 deg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darras, R; Baque, P; Chevilliard, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    'magnesium oxyde fritte'. Les echantillons, preleves dans des produits files, sont convenablement polis, deux etats de surface reproductibles etant realises a titre comparatif. Les essais ont ete effectues dans le gaz carbonique purifie, aux pressions de 25 et 60 atmospheres, et a des temperatures allant de 400 a 600, au moyen d'autoclaves speciaux en acier inoxydable, chauffes exterieurement. Leur duree est en general superieure a 1000 heures. Les equations des courbes d'augmentation de poids obtenues sont du type ({delta}p){sup n} = k.t (({delta}p en mg/cm{sup 2} et t en heures), l'exposant n etant voisin de 2, du moins jusqu'a 500 deg. C. En se referant a des resultats precedemment acquis quant a certains de ces materiaux exposes dans le gaz carbonique sous pression atmospherique et sous 15 atmospheres, il apparait que: 1) Pour un materiau determine: - a une pression donnee, l'oxydation augmente avec la temperature, - a une temperature donnee, l'oxydation augmente avec la pression, - dans les memes conditions de temperature et de pression, les resultats obtenus varient peu suivant les deux etats de surface etudies; 2) les alliages Mg-Zr presentent une resistance a l'oxydation amelioree par rapport au magnesium non allie; 3) l'alliage magnox est beaucoup moins avantageux dans le gaz carbonique que dans l'air, par rapport aux autres alliages. D'une facon generale, les courbes d'oxydation tendant vers un palier apres un certain temps d'exposition, la compatibilite de tous les alliages consideres avec le gaz carbonique apparait satisfaisante jusqu'a une temperature voisine de 500 deg. C, dans les conditions operatoires presentement definies; au dessus de 500 deg. C, des differences notables apparaissent entre les divers alliages, mais des phenomenes de sublimation interferent avec ceux d'oxydation, de sorte qu'un classement des divers materiaux ne peut etre base que sur leur resultante. (auteur)

  7. Dépollution des gaz d'échappement des moteurs diesel au moyen de pots catalytiques Depolluting Exhaust Gases from Diesel Engines by Catalytic Mufflers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldenberg E.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available On présente dans cet article les résultats d'une première série de recherches sur la dépollution des gaz d'échappement des moteurs diesel au moyen de pots catalytiques. L'efficacité des catalyseurs à base de platine pour l'oxydation du monoxyde de carbone et des hydrocarbures imbrûlés a pu être établie par des essais sur banc moteur et sur véhicule. L'emploi de certaines phases actives à base de métaux non nobles permet d'autre part d'abaisser la température de début d'oxydation des particules de suie de 380 à 250 °C environ, avec, entre 250 et 350 °C, élimination de 15 à 20 % des produits piégés. L'essai de divers media filtrants a mis en évidence l'importance des phénomènes d'adsorption des revêtements en alumine et a orienté la recherche vers de nouveaux supports pour filtres catalytiques. This article describes the results of a first series of research on the depollution of exhaust gases from diesel engines by catalytic mufflers. The effectiveness of platinum-base catalysts for the oxidation of carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons was determined by test on an engine test bed and on vehicles on the road. The use of some active non-noble metal phases reduced on the other hand the starting oxidation temperature of soot particulates from 380°C to about 250°C, eliminating 15 to 20% of the trapped products between 250 and 350° C. Tests of different filtering media revealed the importance of adsorption phenomena on alumina coatings and directed research toward new supports for catalytic filters.

  8. Sandia Combustion Research: Technical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This report contains reports from research programs conducted at the Sandia Combustion Research Facility. Research is presented under the following topics: laser based diagnostics; combustion chemistry; reacting flow; combustion in engines and commercial burners; coal combustion; and industrial processing. Individual projects were processed separately for entry onto the DOE databases.

  9. Géochimie organique du bassin de Paris Organic Geochemistry of the Paris Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espitalie J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available On présente ici les principaux résultats de l'étude géochimique réalisée, dans le bassin de Paris, à partir des déblais et des carottes provenant de 100 sondages pétroliers ou miniers, et des huiles prélevées dans les réservoirs du Mésozoïque (Trias, Bathonien supérieur, Néocomien. Les différentes méthodes géochimiques utilisées sont la pyrolyse, particulièrement bien adaptée à l'étude des nombreux échantillons de déblais recueillis, la chromatographie en phase gazeuse pour l'analyse détaillée des huiles et des extraits de roche, la spectrométrie de masse pour l'étude des biomarqueurs. Les époques principales de formation de l'huile et du gaz ont été déterminées par simulation sur ordinateur d'un modèle mathématique de genèse des hydrocarbures. Les méthodes de pyrolyse ont permis de dresser des logs géochimiques des forages étudiés et de déterminer, par le calcul, les paramètres de pyrolyse initiaux des roches-mères, avant leur enfouissement. On a pu ainsi établir, dans le périmètre étudié, des cartes de carbone organique initial, de potentiels pétroliers totaux et de quantités d'HC migrés. L'ensemble de ces résultats montre que les roches-mères de la grande majorité des huiles du Mésozoïque sont situées dans le Lias, s'échelonnant depuis le Toarcien jusqu'à l'Hettangien et que les meilleures zones de potentiel pétrolier du Bassin sont localisées à l'emplacement des régions de forte subsidence à l'époque du Lias. L'étude détaillée des hydrocarbures et celle des biomarqueurs ne permettent pas de distinguer les différentes huiles entre elles, quelle que soit leur profondeur, ni de leur attribuer une origine précise à partir des différents niveaux du Lias. Les cartes de migration mettent en évidence des déplacements latéraux des hydrocarbures dans certaines roches-mères (cas du Toarcien inférieur. Elles montrent aussi un déficit important en hydrocarbures à la base du

  10. Archives: les cahiers du cread

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 24 of 24 ... Archives: les cahiers du cread. Journal Home > Archives: les cahiers du cread. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 24 of 24 Items. 2016 ...

  11. Le commerce du Nord

    OpenAIRE

    Pourchasse, Pierrick; Bouëdec, Gérard Le

    2015-01-01

    Au XVIIIe siècle, la France s'approvisionne abondamment dans les pays du Nord : bois, chanvre et goudron de la Baltique, tonnellerie de Poméranie, pêche de rogue de Norvège, graines de lin de Courlande, barres de fer suédois… Sa balance commerciale est pourtant positive grâce aux sels, aux vins et surtout des nouvelles marchandises coloniales. Or, la plupart des transactions passent par l’incontournable intermédiaire hollandais. Les explications sur l’absence des Français dans le Nord sont re...

  12. La voie du Centre

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    Après avoir quelque peu louvoyé dans un discours apparemment anarchique où les souvenirs semblent se bousculer sans autre fil conducteur que la référence obsédante au mal satanique, brusquement le narrateur annonce un événement primordial : Foi um fato que se deu, um dia, se abriu. O primeiro. Depois o senhor verá por quê, me devolvendo minha razão (79). Cette introduction situe la rencontre du Menino comme fondatrice d’un destin dont il reviendrait au narrataire de dégager les enchaînements....

  13. Bulletin du CRDI #126

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    26 févr. 2018 ... Dans ce numéro, découvrez comment la recherche financée par le CRDI permet d'améliorer la santé des mères et des enfants dans les pays du Sud et comment les innovations techniques et sociales de l'initiative SEARCH permettent de surmonter les défis liés à la cybersanté. N'oubliez pas non plus de ...

  14. Shale oil combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-dabbas, M.A.

    1992-05-01

    A 'coutant' carbon steel combustion chamber cooled by water jacket was conslructed to burn diesel fuel and mixlure of shale oil and diesel fuels. During experimental work nir fuel ratio was determined, temperaturces were measured using Chromel/ Almel thermocouple, finally the gasous combustion product analysis was carricd out using gas chromatograph technique. The constructed combustion chamber was operating salisfactory for several hours of continous work. According to the measurements it was found that: the flame temperature of a mixture of diesel and shale oil fuels was greater than the flame temperature of diesel fuel. and the sulfer emissious of a mixture of diesel and shale oil fuels was higher than that of diesel fuel. Calculation indicated that the dry gas energy loss was very high and the incomplete combustion energy loss very small. (author). 23 refs., 35 figs

  15. Shale oil combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-dabbas, M A

    1992-05-01

    A `coutant` carbon steel combustion chamber cooled by water jacket was conslructed to burn diesel fuel and mixlure of shale oil and diesel fuels. During experimental work nir fuel ratio was determined, temperaturces were measured using Chromel/ Almel thermocouple, finally the gasous combustion product analysis was carricd out using gas chromatograph technique. The constructed combustion chamber was operating salisfactory for several hours of continous work. According to the measurements it was found that: the flame temperature of a mixture of diesel and shale oil fuels was greater than the flame temperature of diesel fuel. and the sulfer emissious of a mixture of diesel and shale oil fuels was higher than that of diesel fuel. Calculation indicated that the dry gas energy loss was very high and the incomplete combustion energy loss very small. (author). 23 refs., 35 figs.

  16. Indoor combustion and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanger, Kathleen; Triche, Elizabeth W

    2008-08-01

    Indoor combustion produces both gases (eg, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide) and particulate matter that may affect the development or exacerbation of asthma. Sources in the home include both heating devices (eg, fireplaces, woodstoves, kerosene heaters, flued [ie, vented] or nonflued gas heaters) and gas stoves for cooking. This article highlights the recent literature examining associations between exposure to indoor combustion and asthma development and severity. Since asthma is a chronic condition affecting both children and adults, both age groups are included in this article. Overall, there is some evidence of an association between exposure to indoor combustion and asthma, particularly asthma symptoms in children. Some sources of combustion such as coal stoves have been more consistently associated with these outcomes than other sources such as woodstoves.

  17. Gas Well Testing Analysis Using Finite-Difference Models and Optimization Techniques Analyse d'essais de puits de gaz par des modèles utilisant la méthode des différences finies et par des techniques d'optimisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darderes E. A.

    2006-11-01

    paramètres à partir d'essais de puits de gaz. Une des plus performantes est l'analyse du régime pseudo-permanent pour lequel on trouve, sur un graphique semi-logarithmique, une relation linéaire entre la pseudo-pression d'un gaz réel et le temps. Une autre méthode est l'ajustement à des courbes types. Les deux méthodes présentent l'inconvénient de ne pouvoir être rigoureusement appliquées qu'à des cas spécifiques. Cet article expose une méthode générale permettant d'analyser les données des essais de puits par ajustement automatisé des courbes types. Elle est basée sur le meilleur accord d'un modèle numérique avec les données obtenues dans les essais de puits de gaz grâce à des techniques d'optimisation. Le modèle numérique fournit la solution d'une équation différentielle à dérivées partielles du 2e ordre et fortement non linéaire qui régit le flux radial des gaz réels vers un puits de production. L'équation différentielle est résolue par la méthode des différences finies en tenant compte des variations des propriétés des gaz avec la pression. Pour simuler n'importe quel type d'essais de puits de gaz, on impose des conditions initiales et aux limites appropriées. On minimise les différences résiduelles entre les pressions réelles mesurées pendant l'essai et les pressions calculées par la méthode des moindres carrés. On utilise deux techniques d'optimisation pour obtenir la meilleure estimation des paramètres qui minimisent la somme des carrés des résidus : la méthode monovariante de Fibonacci [1] et la méthode polyvariante de Marquardt [1, 2]. On applique ce mode opératoire à des essais de puits menés à un débit constant et à deux débits constants. Les résultats numériques concordent très bien avec les données des essais de puits.

  18. Sandia Combustion Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, S.C.; Palmer, R.E.; Montana, C.A. (eds.)

    1988-01-01

    During the late 1970s, in response to a national energy crisis, Sandia proposed to the US Department of Energy (DOE) a new, ambitious program in combustion research. Shortly thereafter, the Combustion Research Facility (CRF) was established at Sandia's Livermore location. Designated a ''user facility,'' the charter of the CRF was to develop and maintain special-purpose resources to support a nationwide initiative-involving US inventories, industry, and national laboratories--to improve our understanding and control of combustion. This report includes descriptions several research projects which have been simulated by working groups and involve the on-site participation of industry scientists. DOE's Industry Technology Fellowship program, supported through the Office of Energy Research, has been instrumental in the success of some of these joint efforts. The remainder of this report presents results of calendar year 1988, separated thematically into eleven categories. Referred journal articles appearing in print during 1988 and selected other publications are included at the end of Section 11. Our traditional'' research activities--combustion chemistry, reacting flows, diagnostics, engine and coal combustion--have been supplemented by a new effort aimed at understanding combustion-related issues in the management of toxic and hazardous materials.

  19. Choeur du CERN : Concert

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Choir

    2017-01-01

    Une œuvre à découvrir! La grande Missa pro defunctis de François-Joseph Gossec (1734-1829) est le chef-d’œuvre tôt venu (à vingt-cinq ans) d’un compositeur qui vivra encore 70 ans après sa création. Elle a connu la gloire, puis s’est fait un peu oublier. Pas du tout le monde cependant : des musicologues ont montré ce que le Requiem de Mozart lui devait ; et il suffit de l’avoir entendue pour comprendre pourquoi Berlioz (qui avait vingt-six ans à la mort de Gossec) en a été impressionné : les nombreux cuivres et bois répartis dans des endroits plus ou moins cachés de la salle de concert pour exprimer les frayeurs du Jugement dernier annoncent son Requiem – et celui de Verdi. Mais « plus encore que par...

  20. Les risques du travail

    CERN Document Server

    Thébaud-Mony, Annie

    2015-01-01

    Depuis les années 1990, les conditions de travail se sont peu à peu imposées dans le débat social. Néanmoins, la situation reste critique. Les risques traditionnels n'ont pas disparu : les manutentions lourdes, l'exposition professionnelle aux cancérogènes, au bruit ou aux vibrations demeurent répandues... De plus, certaines " améliorations " n'ont fait que déplacer et dissimuler les problèmes, telle l'externalisation des risques grâce à la sous-traitance. Dans le même temps, les transformations du travail et des modalités de gestion de la main-d'œuvre ont fragilisé les collectifs et accru l'isolement des salariés, conduisant à une montée visible de la souffrance psychique. Face à ces évolutions, il est plus que jamais nécessaire que tous les acteurs concernés, en particulier les salariés eux-mêmes et leurs représentants, s'approprient les connaissances indispensables pour améliorer la protection de la santé sur les lieux du travail. Tel est le but de ce livre, qui renouvelle int�...

  1. Electrically fired incineration of combustible radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlesworth, D.; Hill, M.

    1985-01-01

    Du Pont Company and Shirco, Inc. are developing a process to incinerate plutonium-contaminated combustible waste in an electrically fired incineration system. Preliminary development was completed at Shirco, Inc. prior to installing an incineration system at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL), which is operated by Du Pont for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The waste consists of disposable protective clothing, cleaning materials, used filter elements, and miscellaneous materials exposed to plutonium contamination. Incinerator performance testing, using physically representative nonradioactive materials, was completed in March 1983 at Shirco's Pilot Test Facility in Dallas, TX. Based on the test results, equipment sizing and mechanical begin of a full-scale process were completed by June 1983. The full-scale unit is being installed at SRL to confirm the initial performance testing and is scheduled to begin in June 1985. Remote operation and maintenance of the system is required, since the system will eventually be installed in an isolated process cell. Initial operation of the process will use nonradioactive simulated waste. 2 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Measurement of the in-pile core temperature of an EL-4 pencil element, first charge (can of type-347 stainless steel, 0.4 mm thick, UO{sub 2} fuel, 11 mm diameter). Determination of the apparent thermal conductivity integral of in-pile UO{sub 2}; Mesure de la temperature a coeur en pile d'un crayon EL-4 1er jeu (gaine acier inoxydable, nuance 347 - epaisseur 0,4 mm - combustible UO{sub 2} - diametre 11 mm). Determination de l'integrale de conductibilite thermique apparente de l'UO{sub 2} en pile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavaud, B; Ringot, C; Vignesoult, N [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1966-11-01

    'un element combustible EL-4, type premier jeu, a gaine en acier inoxydable. On mesure cette temperature au coeur du crayon en pile a l'aide d'un thermocouple pour haute temperature: tungstene-rhenium a gaine tantale. Le crayon est place dans des conditions de fonctionnement analogues a celles de EL-4, tant en ce qui concerne la puissance specifique et la temperature sur gaine que la pression externe sur la gaine. La puissance specifique est obtenue dans le reacteur EL-3 avec un enrichissement de l'UO{sub 2} legerement superieur a celui normalement prevu pour EL-4. La temperature de gaine et la pression visees sont realisees a l'aide d'un conteneur d'irradiation en zircaloy-2 et a remplissage NaK, adapte, aux conditions du reacteur EL-3. - Les temperatures de l'UO{sub 2} a coeur, et de la surface de la gaine etant mesurees; - La puissance etant calculee a partir des echanges thermiques dans le conteneur etalonne en laboratoire; - La chute de temperature au contact UO{sub 2}-gaine etant deduite de mesures faites en laboratoire dans des conditions de flux calorifique comparables et sous une atmosphere de gaz correspondant au debut de la vie de l'element combustible; on peut tracer la courbe integrale de conductibilite. Les examens micro-graphiques de la structure de l'oxyde permettent de verifier la repartition des temperatures dans l'oxyde, deduite de l'integrale de conductibilite thermique. (auteurs)

  3. Calculation programme for the accidental transients in reactors of the gas-graphite type; Programme de calcul des transitoires accidentels des piles de la filiere graphite-gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henri, Ch.; Bayard, J.P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The study of the behaviour of the fuel during certain incidents or accidents in reactors is closely connected to the study of the changes in temperature. This document describes in the first part the main physical phenomena governing the kinetics of the accident. The aim is to know the temperatures at all points and at all times during the irregular regime which can follow the initial stable regime. In the second part an explanation is given of the numerical methods used. (authors) [French] L'etude du comportement du combustible lors de certains incidents ou accidents de pile est etroitement liee a l'etude de l'evolution des temperatures. Dans sa premiere partie, ce document decrit les phenomenes physiques principaux intervenant dans la cinetique de l'accident. Le but recherche est la connaissance des temperatures en tout point et a tout instant d'un regime varie, faisant suite a un regime initial stable. Dans la deuxieme partie les methodes numeriques employees sont explicitees. (auteurs)

  4. Study of gas-solid contact in an ultra-rapid reactor for cumene catalytic cracking; Etude du contact gaz-solide dans un reacteur a co-courant descendant par la mise en oeuvre du craquage catalytique du cumene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayle, J

    1996-11-05

    Few studies have been carried out on the notion of gas-solid contact in ultra-rapid reactors. Both gas and solid move in the reactor and the contact can be directly estimated when using a chemical reaction such as cumene cracking. It`s a pure and light feedstock whose kinetics can be determined in a fixed bed. The study was carried out on a downflow ultra-rapid reactor (ID = 20 mm, length = 1 m) at the University of Western Ontario. It proved that the quench and the ultra-rapid separation of gas and solid must be carefully designed in the pilot plant. Cumene conversion dropped when reducing gas-solid contact, which led to push the temperature over 550 deg. C and increase the cat/oil ratio at 25 working at solid mass fluxes below 85 kg/m{sup 2}.s. Change of selectivity at very short residence time were also observed due to deactivation effects. Experiments made by Roques (1994) with phosphorescent pigments on the Residence Time Distribution of solids gave Hydrodynamic data on a cold flow copy of the pilot plant. Experiments made on packed bed gave kinetic data on the cracking of cumene. These data were combined to optimize a mono dimensional plug flow model for cumene cracking. (author)

  5. Gas distribution management; elaboration of Gas Supply Triennial Plan. Circular of 21 April 1999; Organisation de la distribution du gaz; elaboration du Plan triennal de desserte gaziere. Circulaire du 21 avril 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-07

    The circular of 21 April 1999 issued by the Secretary of State for Industry of the French government concerns the gas distribution and the manner of elaboration of the Plan of gas supply. The recipients are asked, by observing the legislative and regulatory provisions, to contribute by working out the departmental components of the national gas distribution plan. They should establish the list of localities where works for gas distribution should start within three years from the data of plan launching. The circular mentions: I. the context and the concept of the Gas Supply Plan; II. the transitory period; III. criteria of setting in the plan; IV. request for setting, treatment of the request and publication of the plan. The juridical context is established as well as the application field of the circular. Concerning the criteria of setting in the plan one appeals to minimal requirements of economic efficiency and profitableness. Steps from submitting the demand through transmission of the departmental plan proposal to minister in charge with energy are explained. Appendix I establishes the criteria of payback and the evaluation method, Appendix II and Appendix III give models for calculation form and tables for incomes and expenses, respectively. The circular contains also attached two documents, one titled 'The large gas infrastructures' and the other 'Structure of gas sector in France'. The development of European grid, as prelude to a more open market and the development strategies for European operators are presented, as well as the present situation and evolution of the gas sector in France.

  6. The Pegase reactor loops; Les boucles du reacteur Pegase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1968-07-01

    After 4 years operation, experimentation and maintenance of the gas loops built especially for the nuclear fuel testing reactor Pegase, it appears desirable not only to gather together in a single document the essential characteristics and particularities of these devices and of their associated equipment, but also to give the reasons for the technical modifications and the way in which they were carried out; this is done here by the persons themselves who were responsible, day after day, for operating these loops. This essentially practically experience thus complements the careful research and preliminary testing carried out on these loops or on their prototypes. It should be of interest to those who deal with problems concerned with the design or operation of irradiation loops in experimental reactors or of similar equipment. (authors) [French] Apres 4 annees de fonctionnement, d'experimentation et d'entretien sur les boucles a gaz, construites specialement pour le reacteur d'essai des combustibles nucleaires Pegase, il a paru souhaitable non seulement de rassembler dans un meme document les caracteristiques et les particularites essentielles de ces dispositifs et des appareillages qui leur sont associes, mais aussi d'y preciser les raisons et les modalites des mises au point techniques, apportees par ceux qui, jour apres jour pendant cette periode, ont eu la charge de mettre en oeuvre ces boucles. Cette experience essentiellement pratique complete donc les etudes minutieuses et les essais preliminaires de ces boucles ou de leurs prototypes. Elle doit etre de quelque interet pour ceux qui sont confrontes aux problemes de conception ou d'exploitation de boucles d'irradiation dans des reacteurs experimentaux ou des dispositifs analogues. (auteurs)

  7. Jouer du piano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fériel Kaddour

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available La réflexion s’appuie dans un premier temps sur une opposition entre deux attitudes de pianistes  à l’égard du travail à l’instrument : Gould, qui revendique une séparation d’avec le clavier pour ne privilégier que la lecture; Arrau, dont la technique au contraire vise à « faire corps » avec son piano. L’étude de ces deux démarches d’interprètes conduit à une conclusion croisée : l’abstraction gouldienne n’est rien d’autre qu’un déplacement du jeu vers d’autres instruments (ceux qui servent à la prise de son et au montage de ses enregistrements ; le « faire-corps » hérité de la culture pianistique romantique est plus dialectique que fusionnel, et en cela implique une capacité de mise à distance. A partir de cette double conclusion, on tâche enfin de repenser la place du jeu à l’instrument dans la mise en œuvre d’une interprétation, en interrogeant le dialogue qui s’instaure entre la partition telle qu’elle s’écrit et le geste tel qu’il se joue.Our study leans on an opposition between two pianists' attitudes about their work with the instrument. Gould claims a necessary separation from the keyboard in order to prioritize reading. Arrau, on the contrary, relies on a technique which consists in “being one” with his piano. The analysis of these two interprets’ behaviours leads to a crossed conclusion: the gouldian abstraction is nothing else than a displacement of the playing towards another kind of instruments, the ones he uses in sound recording and cut up; Arrau’s “being one” is more dialectic than at first sight, and it therefore implies a real distancing from the piano. This constatation leads to rethink the place of the piano playing in the setting of an interpretation, and to highlight the real dialogue which develops itself between the score as it has been written and the gesture as it is played.

  8. Deliberations of the 29. of December 2010 bearing opinion of the order project setting electricity purchase conditions; Deliberation du 29 decembre 2010 portant avis sur le projet d'arrete fixant les conditions d'achat de l'electricite produite par les installations utilisant a titre principal l'energie degagee par la combustion de matieres non fossiles d'origine vegetale ou animale telles que visees au 4 de l'article 2 du decret n 2000-1196 du 6 decembre 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This document reports deliberations of the Energy Regulation Commission about purchase conditions of electricity produced by installations using mainly the energy released by the combustion of vegetal or animal non fossil materials. As this project aims at decreasing by 3,6% the current purchase tariffs, this document discusses the profitability analysis of projects of more than 5 MW for which the projected decrease still leaves some profitability margin. It comments the case of projects from 1 to 5 MW aimed at supplying sawmills with heat, comments the possible adoption of a winter-summer pricing principle and the impact of the tariff structure on public service expenses

  9. Etude de la cristallisation du bicarbonate de sodium raffiné:contribution au modèle des colonnes à bulles

    OpenAIRE

    Gutierrez, Vanessa

    2010-01-01

    La société Solvay est le plus grand producteur de bicarbonate de sodium raffiné au monde. Le NaHCO3 est un des produits parmi les plus connus et utilisés. Sa production a lieu dans des colonnes à bulles de volumes très importants. La production du bicarbonate de sodium raffiné dans ces réacteurs peut se résumer par la réaction entre une solution saturée de carbonate de sodium (Na2CO3) et le CO2(gaz) Cette production implique la connaissance et le contrôle des réacteurs de type triphasique. E...

  10. Behaviour of heavy water in nuclear reactors of the CEA; Comportement de l'eau lourde dans les piles du C.E.A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenouard, J; Dirian, G; Roth, E [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    In the two heavy water reactors of the CEA: Zoe and P-2, we do: A) the supervision of the isotopic composition of the heavy water; B) the supervision of gases released by the decomposition of the heavy water under radiation, and to their recombination; C) periodic analyses of impurities. (M.B.) [French] Dans les deux piles a eau lourde du Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique: Zoe et P 2, nous effectuons: A) la surveillance de la composition isotopique de l'eau lourde; B) la surveillance des gaz degages par la decomposition de l'eau lourde sous radiation, et a leur recombinaison; C) des analyses periodiques d'impuretes. (M.B.)

  11. Burn up physics; Physique des combustibles irradies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tretiakoff, O [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    requires samples of the order of several kilograms only. The relationships between these measurements and the investigations of lattices are discussed, and an outline is given of the way of carrying out the systematic study of fuels of various compositions. The method has been successfully applied to the systematic study of irradiated fuels (analysed independently by the methods mentioned above) thus giving the possibility of measuring in situ the absorption of fission products. (author) [French] Cette communication expose un ensemble d'etudes theoriques et d'experiences, effectuees au CEA et destinees a faire progresser la connaissance de l'evolution de la reactivite (au cours de l'irradiation du combustible) dans les reacteurs a uranium naturel ou faiblement enrichi.,. On rappelle les difficultes de l'experimentation directe sur des masses importantes de combustible irradie - en particulier dans les reacteurs de puissance en fonctionnement - et on souligne la necessite d'experiences a caractere fondamental distinguant: d'une part l'evolution de la composition des combustibles (chaines de noyaux lourds, produits de fission), d'autre part l'effet des modifications de composition sur le bilan de neutrons. Avant de presenter trois categories d'experiences que l'on est conduit a entreprendre, on rappelle l'importance des problemes lies aux spectres de neutrons et on decrit rapidement les methodes pratiques de calcul utilisees. L'irradiation systematique de quelques types de combustibles, suivie de leur analyse chimique et isotopique est en cours depuis plusieurs annees. On donne un apercu de l'ensemble du programme experimental et on decrit les moyens et les methodes mis en oeuvre: chaine {alpha}, {beta}, {gamma} pour la preparation des echantillons, dosage du Plutonium par coulommetrie et double dilution isotopique, separation du Bore utilise dans certains cas pour la mesure des densites de neutrons integrees. On discute sur quelques exemples l'interpretation des mesures

  12. Transient flow combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacina, R. R.

    1984-01-01

    Non-steady combustion problems can result from engine sources such as accelerations, decelerations, nozzle adjustments, augmentor ignition, and air perturbations into and out of the compressor. Also non-steady combustion can be generated internally from combustion instability or self-induced oscillations. A premixed-prevaporized combustor would be particularly sensitive to flow transients because of its susceptability to flashback-autoignition and blowout. An experimental program, the Transient Flow Combustion Study is in progress to study the effects of air and fuel flow transients on a premixed-prevaporized combustor. Preliminary tests performed at an inlet air temperature of 600 K, a reference velocity of 30 m/s, and a pressure of 700 kPa. The airflow was reduced to 1/3 of its original value in a 40 ms ramp before flashback occurred. Ramping the airflow up has shown that blowout is more sensitive than flashback to flow transients. Blowout occurred with a 25 percent increase in airflow (at a constant fuel-air ratio) in a 20 ms ramp. Combustion resonance was found at some conditions and may be important in determining the effects of flow transients.

  13. Combustion and regulation; Combustion et reglementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This conference was organized after the publication of the French by-law no 2010 relative to combustion installations and to the abatement of atmospheric pollution. Five topics were discussed during the conference: the new regulations, their content, innovations and modalities of application; the means of energy suppliers to face the new provisions and their schedule; the manufacturers proposals for existing installations and the new equipments; the administration control; and the impact of the new measures on exploitation and engineering. Twenty papers and 2 journal articles are reported in these proceedings. (J.S.)

  14. La grammaticalisation du monde.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Pingaud

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ouvrage atypique par le fond comme par la forme, Le devoir et la grâce rend compte du minutieux travail d’élaboration théorique auquel s’attelle Cyril Lemieux depuis plusieurs années. Et le résultat final se veut pour le moins ambitieux : l’auteur propose un système total supposé dépasser d’un même élan le relativisme, le mentalisme, l’universalisme ethnocentrique, l’historicisme, le naturalisme et l’herméneutisme, tout en réconciliant les sciences sociales avec le ...

  15. Le sacre du printemps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Pumain

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Cybergeo aura six ans en avril : dans la réalité du virtuel, dans l'univers récent et fluctuant de la publication en ligne, cela fait de nous, tout à la fois, des pionniers et des vétérans. De façon plus surprenante, il se trouve que nous sommes aussi uniques : parmi toutes les revues électroniques de sciences sociales, aucune ne combine comme Cybergeo ancienneté, publication exclusivement électronique, liberté d'accès au texte intégral, édition et gestion par des chercheurs, et comité de lec...

  16. Le Brahmane du Komintern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Burgos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Le Brahmane du Komintern, largometraje documental del realizador francés Vladimir León, constituye un ejercicio ejemplar de investigación histórica y  de lograda factura de realización. Y, pese a no haber contado con la ayuda de ninguno organismo público, se trata de un ambicioso proyecto que cubre una amplia extensión geográfica que abarca: Estados Unidos, México, Moscú, Berlín, y la India. Gira en torno a una figura que tuvo en su tiempo su hora de gloria. Un bengalí, hijo de braman, la c...

  17. (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) du Nord du Burkina Faso

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    29 déc. 2014 ... sorghos à grains sucrés ont un cycle court et arrivent donc à maturité avant les autres sorghos et le mil d'où leur exploitation comme aliment de soudure par les paysans. L'organisation de la diversité morphologique des accessions de sorghos à grains sucrés du Nord du. Burkina autour principalement des ...

  18. Alimentation du nouveau-ne et du nourrisson dans la region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alimentation du nouveau-ne et du nourrisson dans la region centrale du togo : pratiques familiales et communautaires avant la mise en oeuvre de la strategie « prise en charge integree des maladies de l'enfant »

  19. Combustible structural composites and methods of forming combustible structural composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Michael A.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Steffler, Eric D.; Swank, W. David

    2013-04-02

    Combustible structural composites and methods of forming same are disclosed. In an embodiment, a combustible structural composite includes combustible material comprising a fuel metal and a metal oxide. The fuel metal is present in the combustible material at a weight ratio from 1:9 to 1:1 of the fuel metal to the metal oxide. The fuel metal and the metal oxide are capable of exothermically reacting upon application of energy at or above a threshold value to support self-sustaining combustion of the combustible material within the combustible structural composite. Structural-reinforcing fibers are present in the composite at a weight ratio from 1:20 to 10:1 of the structural-reinforcing fibers to the combustible material. Other embodiments and aspects are disclosed.

  20. Optical Tomography in Combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evseev, Vadim

    spectral measurements at several line-of-sights with a view to applications for tomographic measurements on full-scale industrial combustion systems. The system was successfully applied on industrial scale for simultaneous fast exhaust gas temperature measurements in the three optical ports of the exhaust......D project, it was also important to investigate the spectral properties of major combustion species such as carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide in the infrared range at high temperatures to provide the theoretical background for the development of the optical tomography methods. The new software....... JQSRT 113 (2012) 2222, 10.1016/j.jqsrt.2012.07.015] included in the PhD thesis as an attachment. The knowledge and experience gained in the PhD project is the first important step towards introducing the advanced optical tomography methods of combustion diagnostics developed in the project to future...

  1. Internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Quentin A.; Mecredy, Henry E.; O'Neal, Glenn B.

    1991-01-01

    An improved engine is provided that more efficiently consumes difficult fuels such as coal slurries or powdered coal. The engine includes a precombustion chamber having a portion thereof formed by an ignition plug. The precombustion chamber is arranged so that when the piston is proximate the head, the precombustion chamber is sealed from the main cylinder or the main combustion chamber and when the piston is remote from the head, the precombustion chamber and main combustion chamber are in communication. The time for burning of fuel in the precombustion chamber can be regulated by the distance required to move the piston from the top dead center position to the position wherein the precombustion chamber and main combustion chamber are in communication.

  2. Fuel and combustion stratification study of Partially Premixed Combustion

    OpenAIRE

    Izadi Najafabadi, M.; Dam, N.; Somers, B.; Johansson, B.

    2016-01-01

    Relatively high levels of stratification is one of the main advantages of Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) over the Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) concept. Fuel stratification smoothens heat release and improves controllability of this kind of combustion. However, the lack of a clear definition of “fuel and combustion stratifications” is obvious in literature. Hence, it is difficult to compare stratification levels of different PPC strategies or other combustion concepts. T...

  3. 1. round table - Spent fuels composition. Back-end of the fuel cycle and reprocessing, plutonium and other nuclear materials management. 2. round table - Separation-transmutation. 3. round table - Scenarios for a long term inventory of nuclear materials and wastes; 1. table ronde - La composition des combustibles uses. L'aval du combustible et le retraitement, la gestion du plutonium et des autres matieres nucleaires. 2. table ronde - Separation-transmutation. 3. table ronde - Scenarii pour un inventaire des matieres et des dechets nucleaires a LT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The law from December 30, 1991, precisely defines 3 axes of researches for the management of high level and long-lived radioactive wastes: separation/transmutation, surface storage and underground disposal. A global evaluation report about these researches is to be supplied in 2006 by the French government to the Parliament. A first synthesis of the knowledge gained after 14 years of research has led the national commission of the public debate (CNDP) to organize a national debate about the general options of management of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes before the 2006 date line. The debate comprises 4 public hearings (September 2005: Bar-le-Duc, Saint-Dizier, Pont-du-Gard, Cherbourg), 12 round-tables (October and November 2005: Paris, Joinville, Caen, Nancy, Marseille), a synthesis meeting (December 2005, Dunkerque) and a closing meeting (January 2006, Lyon). This document is the synthesis of the round table debates which took place at Paris on the reprocessing of spent fuels. Three aspects are discussed: the risks linked with the recovery of valorizable materials, the economical viability of the separation/transmutation option, and the future of the nuclear option in the French energy policy. Six presentations (transparencies) are attached with these proceedings which treat of: the reprocessing/recycling to the test, perspectives of future wastes, present day wastes/valorizable materials and future scenarios, critical analysis scenarios, why reprocessing spent fuels?, processing of spent fuels and recycling, separation and transmutation of long-lived radioactive wastes, thorium-uranium cycle. (J.S.)

  4. Aerosols from biomass combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nussbaumer, T

    2001-07-01

    This report is the proceedings of a seminar on biomass combustion and aerosol production organised jointly by the International Energy Agency's (IEA) Task 32 on bio energy and the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE). This collection of 16 papers discusses the production of aerosols and fine particles by the burning of biomass and their effects. Expert knowledge on the environmental impact of aerosols, formation mechanisms, measurement technologies, methods of analysis and measures to be taken to reduce such emissions is presented. The seminar, visited by 50 participants from 11 countries, shows, according to the authors, that the reduction of aerosol emissions resulting from biomass combustion will remain a challenge for the future.

  5. High Gravity (g) Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-01

    UNICORN (Unsteady Ignition and Combustion with Reactions) code10. Flame propagation in a tube that is 50-mm wide and 1000-mm long (similar to that...turbine engine manufacturers, estimating the primary zone space heating rate. Both combustion systems, from Company A and Company B, required a much...MBTU/atm-hr-ft3) Te m pe ra tu re R is e (K ) dP/P = 2% dP/P = 2.5% dP/P = 3% dP/P = 3.5% dP/P = 4% Company A Company B Figure 13: Heat Release Rate

  6. Alcohol combustion chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2014-10-01

    Alternative transportation fuels, preferably from renewable sources, include alcohols with up to five or even more carbon atoms. They are considered promising because they can be derived from biological matter via established and new processes. In addition, many of their physical-chemical properties are compatible with the requirements of modern engines, which make them attractive either as replacements for fossil fuels or as fuel additives. Indeed, alcohol fuels have been used since the early years of automobile production, particularly in Brazil, where ethanol has a long history of use as an automobile fuel. Recently, increasing attention has been paid to the use of non-petroleum-based fuels made from biological sources, including alcohols (predominantly ethanol), as important liquid biofuels. Today, the ethanol fuel that is offered in the market is mainly made from sugar cane or corn. Its production as a first-generation biofuel, especially in North America, has been associated with publicly discussed drawbacks, such as reduction in the food supply, need for fertilization, extensive water usage, and other ecological concerns. More environmentally friendly processes are being considered to produce alcohols from inedible plants or plant parts on wasteland. While biofuel production and its use (especially ethanol and biodiesel) in internal combustion engines have been the focus of several recent reviews, a dedicated overview and summary of research on alcohol combustion chemistry is still lacking. Besides ethanol, many linear and branched members of the alcohol family, from methanol to hexanols, have been studied, with a particular emphasis on butanols. These fuels and their combustion properties, including their ignition, flame propagation, and extinction characteristics, their pyrolysis and oxidation reactions, and their potential to produce pollutant emissions have been intensively investigated in dedicated experiments on the laboratory and the engine scale

  7. Combustibility of tetraphenylborate solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D.D.

    1989-01-01

    Liquid slurries expected under normal in-tank processing (ITP) operations are not ignitible because of their high water content. However, deposits of dry solids from the slurries are combustible and produce dense, black smoke when burned. The dry solids burn similarly to Styrofoam and more easily than sawdust. It is the opinion of fire hazard experts that a benzene vapor deflagration could ignite the dry solids. A tetraphenylborate solids fire will rapidly plug the waste tank HEPA ventilation filters due to the nature of the smoke produced. To prevent ignition and combustion of these solids, the waste tanks have been equipped with a nitrogen inerting system

  8. Studies in combustion dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koszykowski, M.L. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The goal of this program is to develop a fundamental understanding and a quantitative predictive capability in combustion modeling. A large part of the understanding of the chemistry of combustion processes comes from {open_quotes}chemical kinetic modeling.{close_quotes} However, successful modeling is not an isolated activity. It necessarily involves the integration of methods and results from several diverse disciplines and activities including theoretical chemistry, elementary reaction kinetics, fluid mechanics and computational science. Recently the authors have developed and utilized new tools for parallel processing to implement the first numerical model of a turbulent diffusion flame including a {open_quotes}full{close_quotes} chemical mechanism.

  9. Analytical methods used in plutonium purification cycles by trilaurylamine; Methodes analytiques utilisees dans les cycles de purification du plutonium par la trilaurylamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, J J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    The utilisation of trilaurylamine as a solvent extractant for the purification of plutonium has entailed to perfect a set of analytical methods which involves, various techniques. The organic impurities of the solvent can be titrated by gas-liquid chromatography. The titration of the main degradation product, the di-laurylamine, can be accomplished also by spectro-colorimetry. Potentiometry is used for the analysis of the different salts of amine-nitrate-sulfate-bisulfate as also the extracted nitric acid. The determination of the nitrate in aqueous phase is carried out by constant current potentiometry. The range of application, the accuracy and the procedure of these analysis are related in the present report. (author) [French] L'utilisation de la trilaurylamine comme solvant d'extraction pour la purification du plutonium a necessite la mise au point d'un ensemble de methodes analytiques qui ressortent de techniques diverses. Les impuretes organiques du solvant peuvent etre dosees par chromatographie gaz-liquide. Le dosage du principal produit de degradation, la dilaurylamine, peut egalement etre effectue par spectrocolorimetrie. La potentiometrie est utilisee pour les analyses des differents sels d'amine: nitrate, sulfate, bisulfate, ainsi que de l'acide nitrique extrait. La determination des nitrates en phase aqueuse est executee par potentiometrie a courant impose. Le domaine d'application, la precision et le mode operatoire de ces analyses sont indiques dans le present rapport. (auteur)

  10. Combustion stratification for naphtha from CI combustion to PPC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vallinayagam, R.; Vedharaj, S.; An, Y.; Dawood, A.; Izadi Najafabadi, M.; Somers, L.M.T.; Johansson, B.H.

    2017-01-01

    This study demonstrated the change in combustion homogeneity from conventional diesel combustion via partially premixed combustion towards HCCI. Experiments are performed in an optical diesel engine at a speed of 1200 rpm with diesel fuel. Single injection strategy is employed and the fuel is

  11. La fonction logistique, un outil performant d'analyse et de prévision à moyen terme. Application à la production de pétrole et de gaz aux Etats-Unis, en URSS et dans d'autres pays The Logistic Function, an Efficient Medium-Range Analysis and Forecasting Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seguret J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available A partir de la similitude observée entre l'évolution de la production pétrolière d'un pays et celle de la pénétration d'un produit dans un marché (fonction logistique, l'auteur expose le principe d'une méthode originale qui permet, sous certaines conditions, de prévoir quelle sera la production annuelle probable d'un pays producteur à un horizon de 10 à 15 ans. La validité de cette méthode est d'abord démontrée sur l'exemple de la production pétrolière aux Etats-Unis. Elle est ensuite illustrée par les résultats obtenus pour un certain nombre de pays : production future de gaz aux Etats-Unis, production pétrolière future du Canada, de l'URSS, du Venezuela et de l'ensemble du monde hors Moyen-Orient. On the basis of the similarity observed between the variation in the petroleum production of a country and that of the penetration of a product into the market (logistic function, this article describes the principle of an original method that can be used, under certain conditions, to forecast the probable annual production of a producing country in 10 to 15 years. The validity of this method is first demonstrated for the example of oil production in the United States. It is then illustrated by results obtained for various other countries, i. e. future gas production in the United States, future oil production of Canada, the Soviet Union, Venezuela and the world as a whole outside of the Middle East.

  12. Toxicology of Biodiesel Combustion products

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. Introduction The toxicology of combusted biodiesel is an emerging field. Much of the current knowledge about biological responses and health effects stems from studies of exposures to other fuel sources (typically petroleum diesel, gasoline, and wood) incompletely combusted. ...

  13. Influence sur les imbrûlés solides de composés métalliques particuliers et du taux de dispersion des asphaltènes dans les fuels lourds Influence of Unburned Solids Made of Unusual Metal Compounds and of the Asphaltene Dispersion Rate in Heavy Fuel Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audibert F.

    2006-11-01

    des asphaltes précipités au pentane dilués avec un gaz oil aromatique de raffinerie. Il a été notamment mis en évidence le rôle joué par les résines dans les dispersions des agglomérats d'asphaltènes et par voie de conséquence dans l'émission d'imbrûlés solides. L'ensemble des observations faites permet de mieux comprendre certains mécanismes intervenant en combustion de fuels lourds. Si l'on se situe sur le plan des émissions particulaires, celles-ci peuvent être largement réduites par l'utilisation de taux suffisants de vapeur auxiliaire au niveau de l'injection. The growing diversity of the origins of crude oils has led to giving consideration to the metal content in combustion models in addition of Conradson carbon or C7 asphaltenes in heavy fuel oils. Such models have been developed by Exxon (1979 and Shell (1981 in particular. Recent research done at Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP on a 2 MW package boiler has shown the influence of unusual metal compounds present in fuel oil in the form of sulfides impregnating porous carbon particles. These microparticles may be formed when severe operating conditions are applied to the visbreaking of residual fuel oils in the presence of hydrogen and a suitable catalyst. These microparticles have proved to be very active in combustion and have shown that the metal concentration is not the only factor to be taken into consideration but that the way in which it is combined may be preponderant. To widen the field of application of models, other parameters, such as the operating conditions of the boiler and the spraying of the fuel oil, have been taken into consideration together with the actual parameters of the influence of the fuel oil (research by the MIT Energy Laboratory, publications in 1986. Concerning the predicting of particulate emissions, a method in addition to tests for Conradson residue and n-heptane insolubility has been applied at IFP as part of a project to upgrade heavy oils in

  14. Underground treatment of combustible minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarapuu, E

    1954-10-14

    A process is described for treating oil underground, consisting in introducing several electrodes spaced one from the other in a bed of combustibles underground so that they come in electric contact with this bed of combustibles remaining insulated from the ground, and applying to the electrodes a voltage sufficient to produce an electric current across the bed of combustibles, so as to heat it and create an electric connection between the electrodes on traversing the bed of combustibles.

  15. Le plurilinguisme du perroquet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Mühlbacher

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available La figure du perroquet occupe une position ambiguë face à la question de la traduction. Il est capable d’imiter des paroles en toutes les langues, mais il n’est capable d’en comprendre aucune — il ne peut que répéter des sons, c’est-à-dire des signifiants. Le traducteur semble faire le contraire quand il passe d’une langue à une autre en tâchant de transmettre une signification semblable par d’autres signes. L’article vise à discuter le rôle du traducteur et sa relation, éventuellement équivoque, au perroquet, en analysant la traduction allemande de Trois Contes par André Stoll et Cora van Kleffens. Un décalage au niveau sémantique peut éclairer l’interprétation du texte, par exemple en explicitant des allusions sous-jacentes, tandis que le transfert de la syntaxe française en allemand pose souvent des problèmes considérables. Comment le traducteur peut-il reproduire des structures syntaxiques qui n’existent pas en allemand, mais qui ne cessent de revenir dans le texte français ? Que faire si le texte se met à jouer au perroquet et finit par se singer lui-même ? André Stoll et Cora van Kleffens ont su trouver des stratégies pour affronter ces difficultés.The figure of the parrot holds an ambiguous position towards the question of translation. It is able to imitate all languages, but it will never understand any of them – its only skill is to mimic sounds, i.e. mere signifiers. On the contrary, the translator seems to be the antithesis of the parrot when he moves from one language to another. He endeavours to convey a similar meaning, but by different signs. The article aims at discussing the role of the translator and his or her eventually equivocal relation to the parrot by means of analysing the German translation of Trois Contes by André Stoll and Cora van Kleffens. Whereas a semantic divergence can result in a different tendency on the level of interpretation, as in the case of an underlying

  16. Supersonic Combustion Ramjet Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    was in collaboration with Prof. R. Bowersox (Texas A&M University) and Dr. K. Kobayashi ( Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency, JAXA). 4.2 Ignition... cinema stereoscopic PIV system for the measurement of micro- and meso-scale turbulent premixed flame dynamics,” Paper B13, 5th US Combustion

  17. Infrared monitoring of combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, S.C.; Morrison, P.W. Jr.; Solomon, P.R.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, the use of Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy for combustion monitoring is described. A combination of emission, transmission, and reflection FT-IR spectroscopy yields data on the temperature and composition of the gases, surfaces and suspended particles in the combustion environment. Detection sensitivity of such trace exhaust gases as CO, CO 2 , SO 2 , NO x , and unburned hydrocarbons is at the ppm level. Tomographic reconstruction converts line-of-sight measurements into spatially resolved temperature and concentration data. Examples from various combustion processes are used to demonstrate the capabilities of the technique. Industrial measurements are described that have been performed directly in the combustion zone and in the exhaust duct of a large chemical recovery boiler. Other measurements of hot slag show how FT-IR spectroscopy can determine the temperature and optical properties of surfaces. In addition, experiments with water droplets show that transmission FT-IR data yield spectra that characterize particle size and number density

  18. Combustible dust tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sugar dust explosion in Georgia on February 7, 2008 killed 14 workers and injured many others (OSHA, 2009). As a consequence of this explosion, OSHA revised its Combustible Dust National Emphasis (NEP) program. The NEP targets 64 industries with more than 1,000 inspections and has found more tha...

  19. Etat Du Magnesium Dans Quelques Sols Sales Du Sud Et Du ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    étude a été réalisée sur 86 échantillons de sols provenant du Centre et du Sud de l´Irak. L\\'expérimentation a consisté, d´une part, à calculer les différents sels dominants dans les sols salés par la méthode de combinaison hypothétique et, ...

  20. Caractérisation des sables et morphologie du fond du lac du ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Une analyse sédimentologique et minéralogique réalisée sur un cycle hydrologique entre octobre 2004 et août 2005 a permis d\\'évaluer les charges solides en suspension et de caractériser les sédiments du lac du barrage de Taabo. La concentration moyenne en matières en suspension (12 mg.L-1) et la turbidité ...

  1. Caractérisation des sables et morphologie du fond du lac du ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrateur

    Une analyse sédimentologique et minéralogique réalisée sur un cycle hydrologique entre octobre 2004 et août 2005 a permis d'évaluer les charges solides en suspension et de caractériser les sédiments du lac du barrage de Taabo. La concentration moyenne en matières en suspension (12 mg.L-1) et la turbidité ...

  2. Proposition d'explication de la formation d'hydrogène sulfuré dans les stockages souterrains de gaz naturel par réduction des sulfures minéraux de la roche magasin Proposed Explanation of Hydrogen-Sulfide Formation in Underground Natural-Gas Storage Structures by Reduction of Mineral Sulfides in the Reservoir Rock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bourgeois J. P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available La formation d'hydrogène sulfuré dans les structures de stockage peu expliquer autrement que par l'action de bactéries sulfato-réductrices. La contenue dans la roche magasin constitue une source de sulfures capable d'alimenter en H2S le gaz naturel. La réduction de la pyrite en sulfures du type Fe 1-x S et l'équilibre de dissolution précipitation, lié principalement à la pression de CO2, dans les structures stockages, constituent un processus de formation d'H2S capable d'expliquer tativement et quantitativement les phénomènes observés sur le terrain. Un modèle simplifié de stockage reprend ce schéma et teste la sensibililté de la teneur en H2S à la valeur des paramètres physiques et chimiques définissant le stockage. Cette étude permet de proposer un certain nombre d'actions susceptibles de limiter la formation d'H2S et d'orienter les choix futurs du couple gaz naturel - structures de stockage. The formation of hydrogen sulfide in storage structures can be explained otherwise thon by the action of sulfate-reducing bacteria. The pyrite contained in the reservoir rock makes up a source of sulfides capable of supplying the natural gas with H2S.Reduction of pyrite ta sulfides of the Fe,-,S type and the dissolution precipitation equilibrium, linked mainly ta C02 pressure in storage structures, make up an H2S for-mation process capable of qualitatively and quantitatively explained phenomena observed in the field.A simplified storage model reflects this scheme and can be used ta test the sensi-tivity of the H2S content ta the value of the physical and chemical parameters defining the storage structure.This investigation can be used to propose various means of action (sable ta "mit H2S formation and ta guide future choices of natural gas/storage-structure pairs.

  3. Le bal du loup

    CERN Multimedia

    Happy Children's Home

    2013-01-01

    The Bord'eau amateur theatre group will graciously perform a play of their creation Le bal du loup Saturday 19 October 2013 at 20:00 Sunday 20 October at 17:00 in the Théâtre des Grottes Rue Louis Favre 43, 1201 Genève Children from age 12 upwards. Summary: The new-elected mayoress of a small village would like to clean up the town by prohibiting alcohol and getting rid of its prostitutes. Then along comes « Massimo Lupo » the pimp... The performances will be given to support the Happy Children's Home charity, which runs a foster-home in Pokhara for Nepali children:  http://www.happychildrenshome.org/ Admission : minimum charge of 10 CHF per person requested, to cover the cost of technical assistance and theatre rental. Any profit will be used solely for the foster-home. At the end of each performance members of the HCH charity will be happy to answer any questions you may have. The theatre has 86 seats, thank you for reserv...

  4. Low emission internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaba, Albert M.

    1979-01-01

    A low emission, internal combustion compression ignition engine having a cylinder, a piston movable in the cylinder and a pre-combustion chamber communicating with the cylinder near the top thereof and in which low emissions of NO.sub.x are achieved by constructing the pre-combustion chamber to have a volume of between 70% and 85% of the combined pre-chamber and main combustion chamber volume when the piston is at top dead center and by variably controlling the initiation of fuel injection into the pre-combustion chamber.

  5. Hydrogen assisted diesel combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilik, Gregory K.; Boehman, Andre L. [The EMS Energy Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Zhang, Hedan; Haworth, Daniel C. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Herreros, Jose Martin [Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Castilla La-Mancha, Avda. Camilo Jose Cela s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    Hydrogen assisted diesel combustion was investigated on a DDC/VM Motori 2.5L, 4-cylinder, turbocharged, common rail, direct injection light-duty diesel engine, with a focus on exhaust emissions. Hydrogen was substituted for diesel fuel on an energy basis of 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, 10% and 15% by aspiration of hydrogen into the engine's intake air. Four speed and load conditions were investigated (1800 rpm at 25% and 75% of maximum output and 3600 rpm at 25% and 75% of maximum output). A significant retarding of injection timing by the engine's electronic control unit (ECU) was observed during the increased aspiration of hydrogen. The retarding of injection timing resulted in significant NO{sub X} emission reductions, however, the same emission reductions were achieved without aspirated hydrogen by manually retarding the injection timing. Subsequently, hydrogen assisted diesel combustion was examined, with the pilot and main injection timings locked, to study the effects caused directly by hydrogen addition. Hydrogen assisted diesel combustion resulted in a modest increase of NO{sub X} emissions and a shift in NO/NO{sub 2} ratio in which NO emissions decreased and NO{sub 2} emissions increased, with NO{sub 2} becoming the dominant NO{sub X} component in some combustion modes. Computational fluid dynamics analysis (CFD) of the hydrogen assisted diesel combustion process captured this trend and reproduced the experimentally observed trends of hydrogen's effect on the composition of NO{sub X} for some operating conditions. A model that explicitly accounts for turbulence-chemistry interactions using a transported probability density function (PDF) method was better able to reproduce the experimental trends, compared to a model that ignores the influence of turbulent fluctuations on mean chemical production rates, although the importance of the fluctuations is not as strong as has been reported in some other recent modeling studies. The CFD results confirm

  6. The Hydrodynamic Characteristics of Cocurrent Downflow and Cocurrent Upflow Gas-Liquid-Solid Catalytic Fixed Bed Reactors: the Effect of Pressure Les caractéristiques hydrodynamiques des réacteurs gaz-liquide-solide à lit de catalyseur fixe à écoulement cocourant montant et descendant : l'influence de la pression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wild G.

    2006-11-01

    ésultats de quelques années de recherches expérimentales sur les caractéristiques hydrodynamiques des réacteurs à écoulement cocourant ruisselant et enfin de réacteurs en cocourant montant. Au cours des dernières années, des résultats ont également pu être obtenus sous des pressions pouvant aller jusqu'à 8 MPa, les mesures étant faites à petite échelle (23 mm de diamètre dans une maquette froide. Différents liquides aqueux et organiques plus ou moins visqueux, éventuellement inhibiteurs de coalescence, 4 gaz et un certain nombre de particules plus ou moins mouillables non poreuses ont été utilisés. La rétention liquide a, dans tous les cas, été déterminée en mesurant la distribution des temps de séjour de la phase liquide, à l'aide de différents traceurs. Les conclusions suivantes ont pu être tirées : - Pour le régime à forte interaction, c'est l'inertie du gaz et des phases liquides qui constitue la cause principale de la dissipation d'énergie mécanique. Dans ce régime, les résultats obtenus en cocourant montant et descendant sont à peu près identiques. - La plupart des corrélations relevées dans la littérature ne permettent pas de prévoir l'influence de la pression sur la chute de pression ou la retenue liquide. - La viscosité du gaz n'influence pas l'hydrodynamique. Il est donc possible de simuler, par exemple, l'hydrogène sous forte pression par un autre gaz de même densité (à pression beaucoup plus basse. Une étude critique des corrélations et/ou des modèles de la littérature est présentée du point de vue de leur aptitude à représenter les différentes caractéristiques en fonction de la pression.

  7. Effets de la microdose sur la production du niébé, du mil et du ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effets de la microdose sur la production du niébé, du mil et du sorgho en fonction la toposéquence. Fatimata Saba, Sibiri Jean Baptiste Taonda, Idriss Serme, Alimata A. Bandaogo, Augustin P. Sourwema, Adama Kabre ...

  8. Dynamique des populations du foreur des tiges du cacaoyer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 nov. 2014 ... déprédateur dans la région du Haut-Sassandra, la deuxième plus grande région de production de cacao en. Côte d'ivoire. Méthodologie et résultats : L'étude a été réalisée de 2009 à 2013 dans les plantations villageoises de la région du Haut-Sassandra en Côte d'Ivoire. Les variations des taux d'attaques ...

  9. Dynamique des populations du foreur des tiges du cacaoyer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectif : Le foreur de tiges du cacaoyer, Eulophonotus myrmeleon Felder cause aujourd'hui d'énormes dégâts dans les cacaoyères ivoiriennes. La présente étude vise à déterminer les périodes de fortes attaques de ce déprédateur dans la région du Haut-Sassandra, la deuxième plus grande région de production de ...

  10. Combustion strategy : United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenhalgh, D. [Heriot-Watt Univ., Edingburgh, Scotland (United Kingdom). School of Engineering and Physical Sciences

    2009-07-01

    The United Kingdom's combustion strategy was briefly presented. Government funding sources for universities were listed. The United Kingdom Research Councils that were listed included the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) and the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC); the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC); the Economic and Social Research Council; the Medical Research Council; the Natural Environment Research Council; and the Science and Technology Facilities Council. The EPSRC supported 65 grants worth 30.5 million pounds. The combustion industry was noted to be dominated by three main players of which one was by far the largest. The 3 key players were Rolls-Royce; Jaguar Land Rover; and Doosan Babcock. Industry and government involvement was also discussed for the BIS Technology Strategy Board, strategy technology areas, and strategy application areas.

  11. Aerosols from biomass combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nussbaumer, T.

    2001-07-01

    This report is the proceedings of a seminar on biomass combustion and aerosol production organised jointly by the International Energy Agency's (IEA) Task 32 on bio energy and the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE). This collection of 16 papers discusses the production of aerosols and fine particles by the burning of biomass and their effects. Expert knowledge on the environmental impact of aerosols, formation mechanisms, measurement technologies, methods of analysis and measures to be taken to reduce such emissions is presented. The seminar, visited by 50 participants from 11 countries, shows, according to the authors, that the reduction of aerosol emissions resulting from biomass combustion will remain a challenge for the future.

  12. Gestion durable du paysage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-David Gerber

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Le paysage est de plus en plus perçu comme une ressource. À ce titre, il est nécessaire de trouver des instruments juridiques, politiques ou économiques susceptibles de gérer cette « ressource-paysage » sur le long terme. Le gouvernement suisse a introduit récemment l’instrument des parcs naturels régionaux, organisés selon le modèle français, dans sa législation de protection de la nature et du paysage. Une mise en regard des nouveaux parcs avec des structures de gestion beaucoup plus anciennes, les bourgeoisies et les corporations, permet de mettre en évidence les forces et les faiblesses de chacun de ces instruments dans leur contribution à résoudre les rivalités d’usage entre acteurs utilisant ou influençant la ressource paysage. Cette comparaison permet de formuler des recommandations pratiques concernant la gestion de cette ressource.The landscape is increasingly perceived as a resource. For this reason, it is necessary to find legal, political and economic instruments that will succeed in managing this “resource landscape” in the long term. The Swiss government recently introduced the instrument of regional nature parks into the legislation governing nature and landscape preservation; the proposed parks are organized on the basis of the French model. The examination of the new parks from the perspective of much older management structures, i.e. the civic municipalities (bourgeoisies and corporations, makes it possible to demonstrate the strengths and weaknesses of each of these instruments in their contribution to the resolution of use rivalries between actors who use or influence the resource landscape. This comparison also enables the formulation of practical recommendations regarding the management of this resource.

  13. Plasma Assisted Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-28

    Tracking an individual streamer branch among others in a pulsed induced discharge J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 35 2823--9 [29] van Veldhuizen E M and Rutgers...2005) AIAA–2005–0405. [99] E.M. Van Veldhuizen (ed) Electrical Discharges for Environmental Purposes: Fun- damentals and Applications (New York: Nova...Vandooren J, Van Tiggelen P J 1977 Reaction Mechanism and Rate Constants in Lean Hydrogen–Nitrous Oxide Flames Combust. Flame 28 165 [201] Dean A M, Steiner

  14. Fluid-bed combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, G.; Schoebotham, N.

    1981-02-01

    In Energy Equipment Company's two-stage fluidized bed system, partial combustion in a fluidized bed is followed by burn-off of the generated gases above the bed. The system can be retrofitted to existing boilers, and can burn small, high ash coal efficiently. It has advantages when used as a hot gas generator for process drying. Tests on a boiler at a Cadbury Schweppes plant are reported.

  15. Combustion science and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Annamalai, Kalyan

    2006-01-01

    Introduction and Review of Thermodynamics Introduction Combustion Terminology Matter and Its Properties Microscopic Overview of Thermodynamics Conservation of Mass and Energy and the First Law of Thermodynamics The Second Law of Thermodynamics Summary Stoichiometry and Thermochemistry of Reacting Systems Introduction Overall Reactions Gas Analyses Global Conservation Equations for Reacting Systems Thermochemistry Summary Appendix Reaction Direction and Equilibrium Introduction Reaction Direction and Chemical Equilibrium Chemical Equilibrium Relations Vant Hoff Equation Adi

  16. Le Developmental Entrepreneurship Program du Massachusetts ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Faire en sorte que les étudiants venant des pays en développement pour étudier au MIT retournent ensuite dans leurs pays respectifs afin d'y concrétiser leurs idées est un souci majeur du MIT, des bailleurs de fonds et du milieu du développement. Ce projet palliera à ce souci en soutenant la formation des fellows du ...

  17. Issues in waste combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsson, Lennart; Robertson, Kerstin; Tullin, Claes [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden); Sundquist, Lena; Wrangensten, Lars [AaF-Energikonsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Blom, Elisabet [AaF-Processdesign AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-05-01

    The main purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the state-of-the-art on research and development issues related to waste combustion with relevance for Swedish conditions. The review focuses on co-combustion in grate and fluidised bed furnaces. It is primarily literature searches in relevant databases of scientific publications with to material published after 1995. As a complement, findings published in different report series, have also been included. Since the area covered by this report is very wide, we do not claim to cover the issues included completely and it has not been possitile to evaluate the referred studies in depth. Basic knowledge about combustion issues is not included since such information can be found elsewhere in the literature. Rather, this review should be viewed as an overview of research and development in the waste-to-energy area and as such we hope that it will inspire scientists and others to further work in relevant areas.

  18. Les dispositifs du Net art

    OpenAIRE

    Fourmentraux, Jean-Paul

    2010-01-01

    La pratique du Net art radicalise la question du potentiel communicationnel d’un média —Internet— qui constitue tout à la fois le support technique, l’outil créatif et le dispositif social de l’œuvre. Les technologies de l’information et de la communication (TIC) placent en effet l’œuvre d’art au cœur d’une négociation socialement distribuée entre l’artiste et le public. L’article est focalisé sur cette construction collective du Net art et sur ses mises en scènes. Il montre le travail artist...

  19. L'administration du travail et la production du droit du travail (1906-1960). : Note de synthèse du rapport de recherche

    OpenAIRE

    Le Crom , Jean-Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Synthèse d'un rapport de recherche dont l'objectif est d'appréhender le rôle de l'administration centrale du travail dans la production du droit du travail. Deux dimensions sont explorées : le profil des rédacteurs et l'organisation des structures.

  20. The Diesel Combustion Collaboratory: Combustion Researchers Collaborating over the Internet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. M. Pancerella; L. A. Rahn; C. Yang

    2000-02-01

    The Diesel Combustion Collaborator (DCC) is a pilot project to develop and deploy collaborative technologies to combustion researchers distributed throughout the DOE national laboratories, academia, and industry. The result is a problem-solving environment for combustion research. Researchers collaborate over the Internet using DCC tools, which include: a distributed execution management system for running combustion models on widely distributed computers, including supercomputers; web-accessible data archiving capabilities for sharing graphical experimental or modeling data; electronic notebooks and shared workspaces for facilitating collaboration; visualization of combustion data; and video-conferencing and data-conferencing among researchers at remote sites. Security is a key aspect of the collaborative tools. In many cases, the authors have integrated these tools to allow data, including large combustion data sets, to flow seamlessly, for example, from modeling tools to data archives. In this paper the authors describe the work of a larger collaborative effort to design, implement and deploy the DCC.

  1. Internal combustion engine using premixed combustion of stratified charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, Craig D [Rochester Hills, MI; Reitz, Rolf D [Madison, WI

    2003-12-30

    During a combustion cycle, a first stoichiometrically lean fuel charge is injected well prior to top dead center, preferably during the intake stroke. This first fuel charge is substantially mixed with the combustion chamber air during subsequent motion of the piston towards top dead center. A subsequent fuel charge is then injected prior to top dead center to create a stratified, locally richer mixture (but still leaner than stoichiometric) within the combustion chamber. The locally rich region within the combustion chamber has sufficient fuel density to autoignite, and its self-ignition serves to activate ignition for the lean mixture existing within the remainder of the combustion chamber. Because the mixture within the combustion chamber is overall premixed and relatively lean, NO.sub.x and soot production are significantly diminished.

  2. Development of flameless combustion; Desarrollo de la combustion sin flama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores Sauceda, M. Leonardo; Cervantes de Gortari, Jaime Gonzalo [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: 8344afc@prodigy.net.mx; jgonzalo@servidor.unam.mx

    2010-11-15

    The paper intends contribute to global warming mitigation joint effort that develops technologies to capture the CO{sub 2} produced by fossil fuels combustion and to reduce emission of other greenhouse gases like the NO{sub x}. After reviewing existing combustion bibliography is pointed out that (a) touches only partial aspects of the collective system composed by Combustion-Heat transfer process-Environment, whose interactions are our primary interest and (b) most specialists think there is not yet a clearly winning technology for CO{sub 2} capture and storage. In this paper the study of combustion is focused as integrated in the aforementioned collective system where application of flameless combustion, using oxidant preheated in heat regenerators and fluent gas recirculation into combustion chamber plus appropriated heat and mass balances, simultaneously results in energy saving and environmental impact reduction. [Spanish] El trabajo pretende contribuir al esfuerzo conjunto de mitigacion del calentamiento global que aporta tecnologias para capturar el CO{sub 2} producido por la combustion de combustibles fosiles y para disminuir la emision de otros gases invernadero como NOx. De revision bibliografica sobre combustion se concluye que (a) trata aspectos parciales del sistema compuesto por combustion-proceso de trasferencia de calor-ambiente, cuyas interacciones son nuestro principal interes (b) la mayoria de especialistas considera no hay todavia una tecnologia claramente superior a las demas para captura y almacenaje de CO{sub 2}. Se estudia la combustion como parte integrante del mencionado sistema conjunto, donde la aplicacion de combustion sin flama, empleando oxidante precalentado mediante regeneradores de calor y recirculacion de gases efluentes ademas de los balances de masa y energia adecuados, permite tener simultaneamente ahorros energeticos e impacto ambiental reducido.

  3. Price cap regulation: the case of natural gas transport in the UK; La reglementation par price cap: le cas du transport de gaz naturel au Royaume Uni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, L. [ATER, Paris-1 Univ., 75 (France)

    1999-09-01

    The transport and storage activities of British Gas company are controlled by a distinct organization named Transco. The access charges paid by the suppliers for the use of Transco's network are regulated by a price cap since October 1, 1994. However, Ofgas, the office of gas supply which is the regulation authority in charge of the control of competition and of British Gas activities, considers this control system as inefficient and has chosen a RPI (retail price index)-X (expected productivity factor)-type price cap for the control of gas transport tariffs. This has led to a disagreement between Transco and Ofgas which has delayed the implementation of the new system up to February 1998. This article compares the choices made by Ofgas for the control of gas transport tariffs with the economical theory. It recalls first, the reasons why the price cap appears as more efficient than the service cost regulation, the alternate method used by regulation authorities to control the tariffs of natural monopolies. Then, the difficulties linked with the implementation of the price cap for the transport of natural gas in the UK are analyzed in order to explain the reasons that led Ofgas to change its formula. Finally, the bases of an optimum hybrid formula are proposed. (J.S.)

  4. Electricity and gas market observatory. 3. 2005 quarter; Observatoire des marches de l'electricite et du gaz. 3. trimestre 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Since July 2004, all electricity and gas consumers can be eligible according to their consumption site, as long as all or part of the electricity or gas consumed is designed for non-residential use. The purpose of the observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr). It completes the information already published by CRE: practical information for eligible customers: consumer guide, list of suppliers, communications regarding markets running, CRE annual activity report. (author)

  5. Observatory of the electric power and gas markets. 16 February 2005; Observatoire des marches de l'electricite et du gaz. 16 fevrier 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-02-15

    Since July 2004, all electricity and gas consumers can be eligible according to their consumption site, as long as all or part of the electricity or gas consumed is designed for non-residential use. The purpose of the observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr). It completes the information already published by CRE: practical information for eligible customers: consumer guide, list of suppliers, communications regarding markets running, CRE annual activity report. (author)

  6. Electricity and gas market observatory. 4. 2005 quarter; Observatoire des marches de l'electricite et du gaz. 4. trimestre 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Since July 2004, all electricity and gas consumers can be eligible according to their consumption site, as long as all or part of the electricity or gas consumed is designed for non-residential use. The purpose of the observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr). It completes the information already published by CRE: practical information for eligible customers: consumer guide, list of suppliers, communications regarding markets running, CRE annual activity report. (author)

  7. Electricity and gas market observatory. 1. 2005 quarter; Observatoire des marches de l'electricite et du gaz. 1. trimestre 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Since July 2004, all electricity and gas consumers can be eligible according to their consumption site, as long as all or part of the electricity or gas consumed is designed for non-residential use. The purpose of the observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr). It completes the information already published by CRE: practical information for eligible customers: consumer guide, list of suppliers, communications regarding markets running, CRE annual activity report. (author)

  8. Electricity and gas market observatory. 2. quarter 2006; Observatoire des marches de l'electricite et du gaz. 2. trimestre 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Since July 2004, all electricity and gas consumers can be eligible according to their consumption site, as long as all or part of the electricity or gas consumed is designed for non-residential use. The purpose of the observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr). It completes the information already published by CRE: practical information for eligible customers: consumer guide, list of suppliers, communications regarding markets running, CRE annual activity report. (author)

  9. Gazéification du GNL par cycle de Brayton associé à une boucle caloportrice et une pompe à chaleur

    OpenAIRE

    Hadid , Zoheir

    2012-01-01

    The market of liquefied natural gas (LNG) is growing and presents the advantage of diversifying supplies. The LNG is fed at a temperature of -162°C and at atmospheric pressure. The main objective of the thesis aims at the valorization of the LNG exergy during its gasification and heating before being delivered through the network. The thesis investigates a new concept of gasification that differs from the current developments by the use of ambient air as the only heat source and by partial va...

  10. Latest information about development of gas-fueled steam convection ovens; Ou en est la mise au point du four a gaz a convection de vapeur au Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, T. [Tokyo-gas co., Ltd. (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    In Japan, gas has been the main source of heat for heating-type culinary equipment in the food service industry, however, this situation has been recently changing. One reason for this is the introduction of electric steam convection ovens. To promote the use of gas steam convection ovens that can compete with electric appliances, Tokyo Gas has conducted the following development projects. Firstly, we set development targets for gas appliances to out-perform the best electric appliances, and were able to develop appliance products that met the targets. Secondly, in order to develop new markets for gas appliances, we worked on the development of compact appliances with a comparatively low initial cost, launching the world's smallest product in this category in October 1998. Thirdly, in order to make gas appliances as widely used here as they are in Europe and America, we developed appliances with costs cut by 30%, and in October 1999 we launched the cheapest gas steam convection oven in the domestic market. We plan to continue providing technological expertise to domestic manufacturers, enhancing our line-up with top performance gas appliances at even lower cost. (author)

  11. Report of working committee 3 ''liquefied gases''; Rapport du comite de travail 3 ''gaz liquefies''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudino, M.

    2000-07-01

    Working Committee 3's report concerns the evolution of the liquefied gas industry: both liquefied natural gas (LNG) and liquefied petroleum gases (LPG). Given the current state of the LNG market the Committee decided to concentrate on this area in particular. A number of aspects have been identified which the Committee has been looking at, while others have been given to Study Groups set up specifically for the purpose. The first aspects regard: - the development of LNG and LPG, new installations, future chains and relevant statistical data; - the role of LNG and LPG in starting up a gas industry; - operating and technological improvements in the LNG industry; - energy savings, cold utilization and reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions. The Study Groups which were set up dealt with the following subjects: Technological and Economical Developments for cost Reduction of LNG/LPG Facilities. Small Scale LNG Projects and Modular Systems. LNG/LPG Peak Shaving and Satellite Plants. LNG versus Pipeline Infrastructure. (author)

  12. Dictionary of the gas industry. Dictionnaire de l'industrie du gaz; Fachwoerterbuch der Gasindustrie; Slovar'po gazovo prom'shlennosti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    The new English, French, German, and Russian Dictionary of the Gas Industry is the only comprehensive dictionary for this important field of engineering. More than 6,000 terms, numerous definitions and 11 appendices cover the entire range of the industry's operations from reservoir engineering to appliance manufacture and from the properties of coal used for gas production to the wide variety of tariffs and rates at which gas is sold to users. The Dictionary has been edited by a committee of linguists and engineers set up by the International Gas Union.

  13. Towards a competitive european market of the natural gas: uncertainties and tariff choices; Vers un marche europeen concurrentiel du gaz naturel: incertitudes et choix tarifaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    This document reveals that, by reason of external supply and contract pregnancy, the gas market deregulation will not present the same effects as for the electricity market. The first part deals with the competition in Europe in the natural gas sector (prices policy, transportation prices, administrative procedures). The second part deals with the tariffing in France and the access to the LNG networks and installations. (A.L.B.)

  14. Greenhouse effect: a point about the sequestration of carbonic gas; Effet de serre: le dossier de la sequestration du gaz carbonique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chesnais, L.

    2005-10-01

    'Factor 4' is the name of a working group whose aim is to propose different ways to cut the emission of greenhouse gases in France by a factor 4. One of solutions is to store in deep geological layers a great part of the carbonic gas produced on earth. The storing capacities of aquifers are 10 folds as important as the capacities of gas and oil natural reservoirs currently in service throughout the world. Feasibility tests have been made in Norway, Canada and Algeria. A lot of uncertainties concerning the behaviour of CO{sub 2} in geological layers over very large time periods (from 500.000 to 1 million years) have to be cleared before considering an industrial scale use. As a consequence no industrial use is planned before 10 to 15 years from now. Furthermore the industrial use requires a cost below 20 euros the tonne which is far from the estimation of the cost based on the today's technology (50 to 70 euros the tonne of carbonic gas collected). (A.C.)

  15. Loss of confinement of liquefied gases. Evaluation of the source term; Perte de confinement de gaz liquefies. Evaluation du terme source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alix, P.; Novat, E.; Hocquet, J.; Bigot, J.P. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines, Centre SPIN, 42 - Saint-Etienne (France)

    2001-07-01

    In this work, the states law corresponding to flow rate measurements of two-phase flows performed with five different fluid (water, butane, R11, ethyl acetate, methanol) is applied. This allows to show that the critical mass flux (which is used as source term in the scenario of loss of confinement in liquefied gas reservoirs) is a 'universal' function of the reduced initial pressure P{sub 0}{sup *}, which can be used for most of the single-constituent fluids of the processes industry. Thus it is easy to make a relatively precise estimation of the critical mass flux (uncertainty < 20% for P{sub 0}{sup *} < 15%) without the need of any model. It is shown also that no improvement of the models can be expected from the use of the vaporization kinetics. On the contrary, a qualitative consideration indicates that the use of the slip seems more promising. (J.S.)

  16. Experience in developing control integrated multilevel systems for gas transport; Developpement de systemes integres de gestion multi-niveaux pour le transport du gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostyukov, V.Y. [NIIIS, (Russian Federation); Bityukov, V.S. [Gasprom, (Russian Federation)

    2000-07-01

    This report describes the experience of the integrated control multilevel system (IACS) development and implementation for gas transport at the regional enterprises of JSC 'Gasprom', specificity of IACS creation by the Russian enterprises on the basis of the technical and licensed basic software SCADA Geamatics purchased from AEG company under the contract. (authors)

  17. Pluri annual indicative plan of the investments in the gas sector; Plan indicatif pluriannuel des investissements dans le secteur du gaz Periode 2006-2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-03-15

    This indicative plan constitutes the first report to the Parliament. It is a prospective document for the period 2006-2015 containing: a forecast of the gas demand increase, a description of main investments decided in matter of gas infrastructures, a diagnostic concerning the adequation between the supplying capacities in natural gas and the national needs, a series of recommendations on the State tools to guarantee the national supplying security and on the investment. The four parts deal with the stakes and perspectives of the national natural gas supplying, the demand evolution, the offer evolution and the equilibrium offer. (A.L.B.)

  18. Social tariff of the natural gas. Part of the receivers and the lessors; Tarif social du gaz naturel. Role des syndics et des bailleurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Since the fifteen of August 2008, low resources customers can buy their natural gas at a special social cost. This document presents the content of this derogation and the corresponding administrative procedures. A particular attention is given to the case of the group housing. (A.L.B.)

  19. Electricity and gas market observatory. 3. quarter 2006; Observatoire des marches de l'electricite et du gaz. 3. trimestre 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Since July 2004, all electricity and gas consumers can be eligible according to their consumption site, as long as all or part of the electricity or gas consumed is designed for non-residential use. The purpose of the observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr). It completes the information already published by CRE: practical information for eligible customers: consumer guide, list of suppliers, communications regarding markets running, CRE annual activity report. (author)

  20. The gas industry in Brazil and the new regulatory framework; L'industrie du gaz au Bresil et le nouveau cadre des reglementations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwyter, A.A. [Comgas, Cia. de Gas de Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    In the last tem years many things have changes in the economic and political environment in the world, especially in Brazil. The new federal government elected in 1994 has started a new economic program and one of the most important points is to reduce government interference in the economy. For this reason, the Federal Constitution was changed and now private companies can operate in the natural gas upstream and downstream sectors. The aim of this policy is to increase efficiency in the energy sector with more investment and better prices. Brazil is now facing a new challenge, which is to establish a complete regulatory framework for the gas industry, for its development, with private as well as state owned companies. The purpose of this work is to study the main characteristics of the Brazilian natural gas sector and how to set up regulatory issues to service it. The Brazilian Natural Gas Industry has specific characteristics, very different from other countries', even from those in Latin America. It is necessary, in order to more adequately develop the industry: new suppliers, guaranty of supply, definition of open access, definition of concession models, setting the role of the state and federal powers, transportation systems and the development of a gas network, definition of exports and imports, production, safety, product quality and service, principle of tariffs and prices and all those aspects which are not regulated yet. (author)

  1. The changing world of gas exploration present and future trends; Les evolutions dans le secteur de l'exploration du gaz tendances actuelles et futures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duval, B.C. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France); Maisonnier, G. [Gedigaz, France (France)

    2000-07-01

    The industry has, in the past decade, added much more gas than it has produced, resulting in a 36% increase in world reserves. Therefore the resource base is no longer considered a serious constraint in satisfying the industry's needs. Under such circumstances, one may ask the question: is exploration for gas still needed? One way in which we may deal with this major issue would be to analyse the changes that occur in the upstream world, in relation to technology, the general business context and industry's strategies and their potential impact on future trends. Dramatic advancements in exploration technologies have helped to improve success ratios and prediction of fluid, and to open new prospective areas, while also reducing costs. From a State point of view, exploration constitutes a long term objective to contend with natural gas consumption growth without depending too much on imports, or to develop resources for exports. From a company perception, exploration appears as a necessity not only for future growth but also for geographical or geopolitical opportunities. Gas reserve additions will come increasingly from a combination of exploration and production deals. The numerous new opportunities created by a more open business environment will facilitate such developments. (authors)

  2. Applications of the automatic meter reading techniques at the Brazilian gas domestic market; Application des techniques de releve automatique des compteurs sur le marche domestique Bresilien du gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venancio, J.; Monteiro, F. [Comgas, Sao Paulo (Brazil); D' Oliveira, R.D. [ORBIS, Curitiba (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    This article will describe applications of the automation and automatic meter reading techniques at the internal gas pipes installations design, considering residential and commercial buildings, and taking in account the tendency of rapid growth of the activities related to the natural gas industry in Brazil, as well as the recently development of new technologies that can be applied with affordable prices. It will be analysed the application of an automatic meter reading technology in a building of several floors in Sao Paulo, which gas installations design is being carried up, with be purpose of making a comparative cost-effectiveness study with the traditional constructive methods applied in Brazil. As a result, it will be purposed a new commercialization model for the gas in Brazil at the residential and commercial market. (authors)

  3. Profession. Gas triumph celebrated in Nice. Globalization at all levels; Profession. Le triomphe du gaz celebre a Nice. Globalisation a tous les etages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert, J.

    2000-08-01

    These columns comprise two articles. The first article presents a status of the conclusions of the 21. world gas congress held in Nice (France) in June 6-9, 2000. Natural gas has been promoted 'energy of the 21. century' and presented as a vector of economic development and environment protection. The deregulation of markets, the new forms of competition and partnership and the new technologies were in the center of debates and presentations. The second article concerns the 16. world oil congress, held in Calgary (Canada) in June 2000. Durable economic development, environment and Internet were the three main topics of the congress. In front of the globalization of economies and the development of Internet, oil companies need to change their working procedures which will lead to the acceptance of the durable development concept. The objective is to take into consideration the environment and the social dimension in any new project. (J.S.)

  4. Electricity and gas market observatory. 3. Quarter 2007; Observatoire des marches de l'electricite et du gaz. 3. trimestre 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of the observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr). Since the 1 of July 2007, all customers can choose their gas and electricity suppliers. The present observatory is including residential customer's statistics. Content: A - The electricity market: The retail electricity market (Introduction, Customer segments and their respective weight, Status at September 30, 2007, Dynamic analysis: 3. Quarter 2007); The wholesale electricity market (Introduction, Wholesale market activity in France, Wholesale market activity in France, Prices on the French wholesale market and European comparison, Import and export volumes, Concentration of the French electricity market); B - The gas market: The retail gas market (Introduction, Customer segments and their respective weight, Status on September 30, 2007, Dynamic analysis: 3. Quarter 2007); The wholesale gas market (Gas pricing and gas markets in Europe, The wholesale market in France); C - Appendices: Electricity and gas market observatories combined glossary, Specific electricity market observatory glossary, Specific gas market observatory glossary.

  5. Electricity and gas market observatory. 4. Quarter 2007; Observatoire des marches de l'electricite et du gaz 4. trimestre 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of the observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr). Since the 1. of July 2007, all customers can choose their gas and electricity suppliers. Content: A - The electricity market: The retail electricity market (Introduction, Customer segments and their respective weight, Status at December 31, 2007, Dynamic analysis: 4. Quarter 2007); The wholesale electricity market (Introduction, Wholesale market activity in France, Prices on the French wholesale market and European comparison, Import and export volumes, Concentration of the French electricity market, Striking fact of the fourth quarter 2007); B - The gas market: The retail gas market (Introduction, Customer segments and their respective weight, Status on December 31. 2007, Dynamic analysis: 4. Quarter 2007); The wholesale gas market (Gas pricing and gas markets in Europe, The wholesale market in France, Striking fact of the fourth quarter 2007); C - Appendices: Electricity and gas market observatories combined glossary, Specific electricity market observatory glossary, Specific gas market observatory glossary.

  6. Electricity and gas market observatory. 2. Quarter 2008; Observatoire des marches de l'electricite et du gaz 2. trimestre 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of the observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr). Since the 1 of July 2007, all customers can choose their gas and electricity suppliers. Content: A - The electricity market: The retail electricity market (Introduction, Customer segments and their respective weight, Status at June 30, 2008, Dynamic analysis: 2. Quarter 2008); The wholesale electricity market (Introduction, Wholesale market activity in France, Prices on the French wholesale market and European comparison, Import and export volumes, Concentration of the French electricity market); B - The gas market: The retail gas market (Introduction, Customer segments and their respective weight, Status on June 30, 2008, Dynamic analysis: 2. Quarter 2008); The wholesale gas market (Gas pricing and gas markets in Europe, The wholesale market in France); C - Appendices: Electricity and gas market observatories combined glossary, Specific electricity market observatory glossary, Specific gas market observatory glossary.

  7. Electricity and gas market observatory. 1. Quarter 2008; Observatoire des marches de l'electricite et du gaz 1. trimestre 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of the observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr). Since the 1. of July 2007, all customers can choose their gas and electricity suppliers. Content: A - The electricity market: The retail electricity market (Introduction, Customer segments and their respective weight, Status at March 31, 2007, Dynamic analysis: 1. Quarter 2008); The wholesale electricity market (Introduction, Wholesale market activity in France, Prices on the French wholesale market and European comparison, Import and export volumes, Concentration of the French electricity market); B - The gas market: The retail gas market (Introduction, Customer segments and their respective weight, Status on March 31, 2008, Dynamic analysis: 1. Quarter 2008); The wholesale gas market (Gas pricing and gas markets in Europe, The wholesale market in France, Striking fact of the first quarter 2008); C - Appendices: Electricity and gas market observatories combined glossary, Specific electricity market observatory glossary, Specific gas market observatory glossary.

  8. Electricity and gas market observatory. 3. Quarter 2008; Observatoire des marches de l'electricite et du gaz 3. trimestre 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of the observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr). Since the 1 of July 2007, all customers can choose their gas and electricity suppliers. Content: A - The electricity market: The retail electricity market (Introduction, Customer segments and their respective weight, Status at September 30, 2008, Dynamic analysis: 3. Quarter 2008); The wholesale electricity market (Introduction, Wholesale market activity in France, Prices on the French wholesale market and European comparison, Import and export volumes, Concentration of the French electricity market); B - The gas market: The retail gas market (Introduction, Customer segments and their respective weight, Status on September 30, 2008, Dynamic analysis: 3. Quarter 2008); The wholesale gas market (Gas pricing and gas markets in Europe, The wholesale market in France); C - Appendices: Electricity and gas market observatories combined glossary, Specific electricity market observatory glossary, Specific gas market observatory glossary.

  9. Electricity and gas market observatory. 4. Quarter 2008; Observatoire des marches de l'electricite et du gaz 4. trimestre 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of the observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr). Since the 1 of July 2007, all customers can choose their gas and electricity suppliers. Content: A - The electricity market: The retail electricity market (Introduction, Customer segments and their respective weight, Status on December 31, 2008, Dynamic analysis: 4. Quarter 2008); The wholesale electricity market (Introduction, Wholesale market activity in France, Prices on the French wholesale market and European comparison, Import and export volumes, Concentration of the French electricity market); B - The gas market: The retail gas market (Introduction, Customer segments and their respective weight, Status on December 31, 2008, Dynamic analysis: 4. Quarter 2008); The wholesale gas market (Gas pricing and gas markets in Europe, The wholesale market in France, Prices on the French wholesale market and European comparison, Concentration of the French gas market); C - Appendices: Electricity and gas market observatories combined glossary, Specific electricity market observatory glossary, Specific gas market observatory glossary.

  10. Electricity and gas market observatory. 2. 2005 quarter; Observatoire des marches de l'electricite et du gaz. 2. trimestre 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Since July 2004, all electricity and gas consumers can be eligible according to their consumption site, as long as all or part of the electricity or gas consumed is designed for non-residential use. The purpose of the observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr). It completes the information already published by CRE: practical information for eligible customers: consumer guide, list of suppliers, communications regarding markets running, CRE annual activity report. (author)

  11. Portable multi-sensor system for gas detection using the temporal window technique; Systeme multicapteurs de detection de gaz, portable, utilisant la technique du fenetrage temporel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazaubon, Ch. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., CRED, 33 - Talence (France); Levi, H.; Bordieu, Ch.; Rebiere, D.; Pistre, J. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., Lab. IXL, UMR CNRS 5818, 33 (France)

    1999-07-01

    An autonomous and portable multi-sensor system was constructed. It can drive four gas sensors (surface acoustic waves. SAW. for examples) and four voltage output gas sensors (semiconductor metal oxide sensors, for example). Two micro-controllers. MC68HC11F1 and MC68HC711E9, used as master and slave respectively, are mounted on two cards. The first card contains the signal processing treatment algorithm using a neural network and a shifting temporal window technique: it allows real time gas selection. The second card insure the overall temperature control by an auto-adaptive PID. GB gas SAW responses were applied to the device in order to test his performances. (authors)

  12. Study on underground gas storage in Europe and Central Asia; Etude sur le stockage souterrain du gaz en Europe et en Asie Centrale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedlacek, R. [NlfB, Germany (Germany); Rott, W. [Wintershall AG, Celle (Germany); Rokosz, W. [POGC, Poland (PL)] (and others)

    2000-07-01

    The Working Party on Gas of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN/ECE), at its sixth session in 1996, decided to undertake a study on 'Underground gas storage in Europe and Central Asia'. The study was launched by the Working Party on Gas in the recognition of the role of underground gas storage (UGS) in the creation of unified European gas market, its liberalization, security of gas supply and cooperation among gas enterprises. The data analysed by the study was collected through the comprehensive questionnaire, circulated among gas companies/organizations of the ECE member-countries. To carry out the study, a special Ad Hoc Group of Experts, representing leading gas companies of the region, was set up. The study deals with a wide range of issues related to the underground storage of gas, such as current status of UGS in Europe and Central Asia, new and emerging technologies, new and existing UGS projects, regulatory framework, cost of storage in USA and in Europe, future gas markets development. An attempt was also made to identify the UGS facilities that play (and could provide in the future) the international contract border services. (authors)

  13. Electricity and gas market observatory. 4. Quarter 2006; Observatoire des marches de l'electricite et du gaz. 4. trimestre 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Since July 1, 2004, all electricity and gas consumers can be eligible according to their consumption site, as long as all or part of the electricity or gas consumed is designed for non-residential use. The purpose of the observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr). It completes the information already published by CRE: - practical information for eligible customers: consumer guide, list of suppliers, - communications regarding markets running; CRE's annual activity report. Content: A - The electricity market: The retail electricity market (Introduction, Eligible customer segments and their respective weights, Status at January 1, 2007, Dynamic analysis: 4. Quarter 2006); The wholesale electricity market (Introduction, Traded volumes on the French wholesale electricity market and comparison with European markets, Prices on the French wholesale electricity market and European comparison, Import and export volumes, Concentration of the French electricity market, Striking facts of the 4. 2006 quarter); B - The gas market: The retail gas market (Introduction, The eligible customer segments and their respective weights, Status at January 1, 2007); The wholesale gas market (Gas pricing and gas markets in Europe, The wholesale market in France); C - Appendices: Electricity and gas market observatories combined glossary, Specific electricity market observatory glossary, Specific gas market observatory glossary.

  14. Electricity and gas market observatory. 1. quarter 2006; Observatoire des marches de l'electricite et du gaz. 1. trimestre 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Since July 2004, all electricity and gas consumers can be eligible according to their consumption site, as long as all or part of the electricity or gas consumed is designed for non-residential use. The purpose of the observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr). It completes the information already published by CRE: practical information for eligible customers: consumer guide, list of suppliers, communications regarding markets running, CRE annual activity report. (author)

  15. Commission in charge of a reflexion on the gas tariffs; Commission chargee d'une mission de reflexion sur les tarifs du gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brochard, B. [Maire de Cannes, 06 (France); Durieux, B. [Inspection General des Finances, 75 - Paris (France); Chevalier, J.M

    2006-03-15

    The presentation covered the recommendations and the major conclusions of the commission. The commission proposes a new method of tariffs fixing, asks a better answer to consumers expectations by the implementing of commercial offers, proposes more stable and open tariffs fixing rules and recommends an increase of the prices of 5,8%. (A.L.B.)

  16. The changing world of gas exploration present and future trends; Les evolutions dans le secteur de l'exploration du gaz tendances actuelles et futures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duval, B C [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France); Maisonnier, G [Gedigaz, France (France)

    2000-07-01

    The industry has, in the past decade, added much more gas than it has produced, resulting in a 36% increase in world reserves. Therefore the resource base is no longer considered a serious constraint in satisfying the industry's needs. Under such circumstances, one may ask the question: is exploration for gas still needed? One way in which we may deal with this major issue would be to analyse the changes that occur in the upstream world, in relation to technology, the general business context and industry's strategies and their potential impact on future trends. Dramatic advancements in exploration technologies have helped to improve success ratios and prediction of fluid, and to open new prospective areas, while also reducing costs. From a State point of view, exploration constitutes a long term objective to contend with natural gas consumption growth without depending too much on imports, or to develop resources for exports. From a company perception, exploration appears as a necessity not only for future growth but also for geographical or geopolitical opportunities. Gas reserve additions will come increasingly from a combination of exploration and production deals. The numerous new opportunities created by a more open business environment will facilitate such developments. (authors)

  17. Wobbe index control system in gas industry processes; Systeme de controle de l'index de Wobbe du gaz naturel dans les processus industriels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassibba, M.; Bertani, M. [SNAM, (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    Natural gas supplied to industry for process utilizations originates from different sources and that can cause fluctuations in gas composition. Changing gas composition may lead to production problems in industry with sensitive thermal processes (particularly glass industry and thermal metal treatments), such as efficiency and product quality. An equipment suitable to control and adjust such variations has been developed. Experimental tests in laboratory were carried out in order to investigate the control system accuracy and reliability. In particular five different settings were tested: at a preset thermal input by adjusting the natural gas flow rate in respect to Wobbe Index variations; at a set furnace temperature and stack oxygen level with variable thermal input by monitoring the Wobbe Index value; at constant Wobbe Index value by adding air to natural gas; at constant thermal input and prefixed Wobbe Index value by adding air to natural gas and varying the air and gas mixture flow rate; gross calorific value control by adding air or LPG to natural gas. All the tested settings gave good results. This report illustrates these results and the main features of the control system. The control and regulation system was installed in two glass factories for field tests. (authors)

  18. Producing energy without greenhouse effect gases: the CEA action; Produire de l'energie sans gaz a effet de serre: l'action du CEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Major actor in the domain of new energy technologies, the CEA manages the french research on the hydrogen and the fuel cells. It is also implied with INES (National Institute for the Solar Energy) in the photovoltaic and thermal solar. With the IFP (French Petroleum Institute), it manages research on biofuels. Of course the thermonuclear fusion, for the development of the energy of the future, is in its research program too. This information document presents the possibilities of these energies and the associated research programs. (A.L.B.)

  19. Development and training for the professional of the gas distribution industry in Brazil; Formation des professionnels de l'industrie de la distribution du gaz au Bresil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatsumi Nagato, D. [Workout Energy Business (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    This work will present a Training and Development model for professionals of the gas distribution industry. Today's there are not schools developing gas related subjects. It's important to give to the future gas man, the knowledge needed to develop their activities. This can be achieved by focusing on criteria based on The Competency Concept and Learning Organization. To develop professional 'competency' we consider this tree of basic points: to know, to know how to do and wish to do ( willing ). We are going to present the 'minimum' 'competences' required for gas distribution companies and the methods used to qualify people for emergent gas industries, considering basically four professionals groups: workers, technicians, engineers and managers. (author)

  20. Taking advantage of the Kyoto mechanisms in the natural gas industry; Benefices des mecanismes de Kyoto pour l'industrie du gaz naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, J. [Institute for Economy and the environment at the University of St. Gallen, IWOe-HSG (Switzerland)

    2000-07-01

    The Kyoto Protocol has laid the basis of global markets for greenhouse gas emission reductions. By means of the Kyoto Mechanisms Joint Implementation, the Clean Development Mechanism and International Emissions Trading it will be possible to produce abroad and trade internationally the greenhouse gas emission reductions needed to satisfy cost-efficiently the respective demand of industrialized countries. The paper analyses options available in the natural gas sector for realizing Joint Implementation and Clean Development Mechanism projects. Furthermore, it examines strategies that might be economically viable for companies operating in the natural gas sector for taking advantage of the Kyoto Mechanisms. (author)

  1. The gas industry of Trinidad and Tobago - A case study of development; L'industrie du gaz de Trinidad et Tobago une etude de cas de developpement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jupiter, A. [Ministry of Energy and Energy Industries, Trinidad and Tobago (Trinidad and Tobago); Look Kin, F. [National gas company of Trinidad and Tobago Limited and Tobago (Trinidad and Tobago)

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents a case study of the development of the gas industry in Trinidad and Tobago. Recognition is given to State's role in providing a friendly regulatory, administrative and fiscal regime for investment in the upstream and downstream sectors and that of the National Gas Company of Trinidad and Tobago Limited in the promotion and development of Natural Gas Based Industries. At present, initiatives for additional gas based industries are ongoing and it is expected that this portfolio of gas utilization will be expanded to include Aluminum manufacture, additional LNG, Methanol, Ammonia, Iron reduction and Steel manufacture and Ethylene. The provision of infrastructure to support these industries include a phased development of gas transmission network, industrial estates with multi-user piers and harbour facilities for export based projects. The evolution of an energy policy framework within which the full potential of the nation's energy resources can be realized is viewed as crucial to the development of the industry. The gas pricing policy used in conjunction with other factors provide a competitive advantage for foreign investment in gas based industries and have served to attract gas based manufacturing facilities. The country has realized employment opportunities, export earnings and increased financial and economic activities from these investments. (authors)

  2. Réflexion sur l’origine du processus de segmentation du marche du travail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attia Nicole

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available (francuski Ce travail propose une réflexion sur l'origine du processus de segmentation du marché du travail par rapport à l'entreprise. Se situe-t-elle au sein même de l'entreprise ou en amont, c'est à dire entre les entreprises? Cela revient à se demander si on peut avoir une approche microéconomique ou macroéconomique de la segmentation et, à s'interroger sur le rôle réel tenu par les firmes dans le processus. Déterminant pour la théorie, ce rôle est à repenser selon la réponse apportée à notre question.

  3. Suez-Gaz de France merger, E.ON's public takeover bid on Endesa... The new energy fight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepetit, V.; Rouaud, P.O.; Mairet, C.

    2006-01-01

    The energy sector is in fever. In less than a week (February 21 to 26, 2006), the Europe of energy has fallen into a frenzy of mergers and acquisitions: the German E.ON offered 29.1 billion euros to get the Spanish Endesa, Electricite de France (EdF), who already got the Italian Edison in 2005, is ready for more major acquisitions, the Italian Enel is candidate for the repurchasing of Suez, while Gaz de France (GdF) and Suez have started a surprise merger. The stake of this match between giants is their growing up and the penetration of foreign markets before their complete liberalization in July 2007. The potential victims of these actions are the competition and the clients, the industrial ones first. (J.S.)

  4. Corrosion of copper by chlorine trifluoride; Corrosion du cuivre par le trifluorure de chlore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    The research described called for a considerable amount of preliminary development of the test methods and equipment in order that the various measurements and observations could be carried out without contaminating either the samples or this highly reactive gas. The chlorine trifluoride was highly purified before use, its purity being checked by gas-phase chromatography, micro-sublimation and infrared spectrography. The tests were carried out on copper samples of various purities, in particular a 99.999 per cent copper in the form of mono-crystals. They involved kinetic measurements and the characterization of corrosion products under different temperature and pressure conditions. The kinetics showed reactions of the same order of magnitude as those obtained with elementary fluorine. At atmospheric pressure there occurs formation of cupric fluoride and cuprous chloride. The presence of this latter product shows that it is not possible to consider ClF{sub 3} simply as a fluorinating agent. At low pressures an unknown product has been characterized. There are strong grounds for believing that it is the unstable cuprous fluoride which it has not yet been possible to isolate. A germination phenomenon has been shown to exist indicating an analogy between the initial phases of fluorination and those of oxidation. Important effects resulting from the dissociation of the copper fluorides and the solubility of chlorine in this metal have been demonstrated. Finally, tests have shown the considerable influence of the purity of the gas phase and of the nature of the reaction vessel walls on the rates of corrosion which can in certain cases be increased by a factor of several powers of ten. (author) [French] Le travail a comporte une importante mise au point des appareillages et methodes d'essai, en vue de pouvoir effectuer differentes mesures et observations sans contaminer les echantillons, ni polluer ce gaz hautement reactif. Une purification poussee du trifluorure de

  5. Sulfur Chemistry in Combustion I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsson, Jan Erik; Glarborg, Peter

    2000-01-01

    of the sulphur compounds in fossil fuels and the possibilities to remove th