WorldWideScience

Sample records for combined brazilian household

  1. Combining remote sensing and household level data for regional scale analysis of land cover change in the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souza Soler, de L.; Verburg, P.H.

    2010-01-01

    Land cover change in the Brazilian Amazon depends on the spatial variability of political, socioeconomic and biophysical factors, as well as on the land use history and its actors. A regional scale analysis was made in Rondônia State to identify possible differences in land cover change connected to

  2. Education, Employment and Household Dynamics: Brazilian Migrants in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Paul

    2013-01-01

    By treating the household as a primary unit of analysis and social production, this article considers the mutually influential ways in which migrant families shape the educational pathways and experiences of Brazilian children living in Japan. Through an ethnographic exploration of relations between parents, children and their working siblings I…

  3. Household food insecurity, nutritional status and morbidity in Brazilian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubert, Muriel Bauermann; Spaniol, Ana Maria; Bortolini, Gisele Ane; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2016-08-01

    To identify the association of household food insecurity (HFI) with anthropometric status, the risk of vitamin A deficiency and anaemia, morbidities such as cough and fever, and hospitalizations for diarrhoea and pneumonia in children under 5 years old. Cross-sectional study using data from the 2006 Brazilian Demographic and Health Survey. HFI was measured with the Brazilian Food Insecurity Measurement Scale (EBIA). Vitamin A deficiency and anaemia were assessed in blood samples. Child morbidities were reported by the child's mother and included cough, fever, and hospitalizations for diarrhoea and pneumonia. Regression results were expressed as unadjusted and adjusted OR and corresponding 95 % CI for severe food insecurity, with statistical significance set at Ppneumonia, wasting or overweight. The prevalence of cough, fever, hospitalization for diarrhoea and stunting were associated with degree of HFI severity. There was a significant association of morbidities and stunting with severe food insecurity (v. food secure). After controlling for confounders, the association between severe food insecurity (v. food secure/rest of food insecurity categories) and the prevalence of common morbidities remained strong, showing that severely food-insecure children had a greater likelihood of experiencing cough (adjusted OR=1·79) and of being hospitalized for diarrhoea (adjusted OR=2·55). Severe HFI was associated with cough and severe diarrhoea among Brazilian children.

  4. Refinement of the Brazilian Household Food Insecurity Measurement Scale: Recommendation for a 14-item EBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Segall-Corrêa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To review and refine Brazilian Household Food Insecurity Measurement Scale structure. METHODS: The study analyzed the impact of removing the item "adult lost weight" and one of two possibly redundant items on Brazilian Household Food Insecurity Measurement Scale psychometric behavior using the one-parameter logistic (Rasch model. Brazilian Household Food Insecurity Measurement Scale psychometric behavior was analyzed with respect to acceptable adjustment values ranging from 0.7 to 1.3, and to severity scores of the items with theoretically expected gradients. The socioeconomic and food security indicators came from the 2004 National Household Sample Survey, which obtained complete answers to Brazilian Household Food Insecurity Measurement Scale items from 112,665 households. RESULTS: Removing the items "adult reduced amount..." followed by "adult ate less..." did not change the infit of the remaining items, except for "adult lost weight", whose infit increased from 1.21 to 1.56. The internal consistency and item severity scores did not change when "adult ate less" and one of the two redundant items were removed. CONCLUSION: Brazilian Household Food Insecurity Measurement Scale reanalysis reduced the number of scale items from 16 to 14 without changing its internal validity. Its use as a nationwide household food security measure is strongly recommended.

  5. [AmostraBrasil: an R package for household sampling in Brazilian municipalities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Ricardo; Stephan, Celso; Donalísio, Maria Rita

    2016-11-01

    Given the relevance of epidemiological surveys and the difficulties in establishing an adequate sampling plan to conduct them, this article present the AmostraBrasil package, part of the open-access R software, which automatizes the taking of random samples - simple, systematic, and stratified - from households in any Brazilian municipalities (counties). The package also allows automatically obtaining the sampled households' geographic coordinates, was well as shapefiles of the municipality's perimeter and the sample's spatial distribution. The article describes the steps for installing and using the package in the Windows OS. Examples are provided of the package's applications: sampling and spatial distribution of 2,500 residential households in the city of Rio de Janeiro and generation of controls in estimating risk spatial distribution.

  6. Ultra-processed food products and obesity in Brazilian households (2008-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canella, Daniela Silva; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Martins, Ana Paula Bortoletto; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Baraldi, Larissa Galastri; Cannon, Geoffrey; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2014-01-01

    Production and consumption of industrially processed food and drink products have risen in parallel with the global increase in overweight and obesity and related chronic non-communicable diseases. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between household availability of processed and ultra-processed products and the prevalence of excess weight (overweight plus obesity) and obesity in Brazil. The study was based on data from the 2008-2009 Household Budget Survey involving a probabilistic sample of 55,970 Brazilian households. The units of study were household aggregates (strata), geographically and socioeconomically homogeneous. Multiple linear regression models were used to assess the relationship between the availability of processed and ultra-processed products and the average of Body Mass Index (BMI) and the percentage of individuals with excess weight and obesity in the strata, controlling for potential confounders (socio-demographic characteristics, percentage of expenditure on eating out of home, and dietary energy other than that provided by processed and ultra-processed products). Predictive values for prevalence of excess weight and obesity were estimated according to quartiles of the household availability of dietary energy from processed and ultra-processed products. The mean contribution of processed and ultra-processed products to total dietary energy availability ranged from 15.4% (lower quartile) to 39.4% (upper quartile). Adjusted linear regression coefficients indicated that household availability of ultra-processed products was positively associated with both the average BMI and the prevalence of excess weight and obesity, whereas processed products were not associated with these outcomes. In addition, people in the upper quartile of household consumption of ultra-processed products, compared with those in the lower quartile, were 37% more likely to be obese. Greater household availability of ultra-processed food products in

  7. Diabetes, hypertension and mobility among Brazilian older adults: findings from the Brazilian National Household Sample Survey (1998, 2003 and 2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Clarissa de Matos; Mambrini, Juliana Vaz de Melo; de Oliveira, Cesar Messias; Giacomin, Karla Cristina; Peixoto, Sérgio Viana

    2015-06-27

    The rapid population ageing has been accompanied by a growing number of older adults experiencing chronic conditions, especially diabetes and hypertension, which are conditions associated to the decline in physical functioning. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the strength of the association between mobility and two chronic conditions (hypertension and diabetes) in a large representative sample of Brazilian older adults over a ten year period. The data came from the Brazilian National Household Sample Survey (PNAD) of 1998, 2003 and 2008. The sample comprised 28,943 participants aged 60 years and older investigated in 1998, 35,042 in 2003 and 41,269 in 2008, totalling 105,254 older adults. The dependent variable was the physical mobility index (PMI) constructed based on the Item Response Theory (IRT) using five physical mobility indicators. The chronic conditions were self-reported and the confounders included: age, sex, schooling, ethnicity, family income, household composition, other co-morbidities and use of health services. The association between physical mobility (three different groups) and chronic conditions (hypertension and diabetes) was performed using multinomial logistic regression. Over the ten year period the prevalence of hypertension increased from 44 % (1998), 49 % (2003) to 53 % (2008) (p hypertension and diabetes over the ten year period, the decrease in strength of the association with physical mobility during the first period could be explained by improvements in health services and treatment of older adults. Special attention should be given to the treatment and management of diabetes in order to avoid declines in physical mobility levels.

  8. ANTECEDENTS AND CONSEQUENCES OF HOUSEHOLD FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT IN BRAZILIAN LOWER-MIDDLE-CLASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Miotto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Through two complementary and exploratory studies – one qualitative and one quantitative – this research aims to understand the ways in which lower-middle-class families in Brazil manage their household finances. The study proposes an integrated framework that brings together various previously disconnected theoretical fragments. Based on a survey with a sample of 165 lower-middle-class female consumers of a retail company in São Paulo, we explored and tested, via a quantitative study, how antecedents such as personal characteristics affect the financial management process, as well as its consequences, either negatively as defaults or positively as savings. The model calibration and analysis were derived from a series of regression analyses. The results revealed the mediator role that financial management plays in the relationship between personal characteristics and defaults and savings. Compared to previous studies with consumers of more affluent countries, we identified peculiar findings among Brazilian lower-middle-class consumers: inadequate attention to control, weak or no focus on short- or long-range planning, widespread absence of budget surplus, and influence of critical events on episodes of default.

  9. Combining household income and asset data to identify livelihood strategies and their dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walelign, Solomon Zena; Pouliot, Mariéve; Larsen, Helle Overgaard

    2017-01-01

    choice variables, characterise livelihood strategy clusters, and analyse movements between strategies, and (ii) apply the approach using an environmentally-augmented three-wave household (n = 427) level panel dataset from Nepal. Combining income and asset data provides a better understanding...... of livelihood strategies and household movements between strategies over time than using only income or asset data. Most households changed livelihood strategy at least once over the two three-year periods. A common pathway out of poverty included an intermediate step during which households accumulate assets...

  10. Off-Farm Work among Rural Households: A Case Study in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanWey, Leah; Vithayathil, Trina

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes off-farm work among subsistence-level farmers in the Santarem region of the Brazilian Amazon. We build on the literature on rural livelihoods in the Global South by exploring how the opportunity to work off the farm is embedded in social relationships. We additionally differentiate our analysis by type of off-farm work, and…

  11. IMPACT OF THE NEW BRAZILIAN FORESTRY CODE ON THE ADEQUACY OF SMALL FARM HOUSEHOLDS TO THE ENVIRONMENTAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Feistauer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509815735In order to evaluate the effects of Brazil’s new Forest Code on the legal status of farm households, 17 farms, located in Portal da Amazonia territory, northern Mato Grosso state, and managed in either conventional specialized farm (CPS or organic (OPS production systems were studied. The total area per farm, as well as the surfaces of legal reserve units and preservation areas were measured by using Geographic Information System (GIS, to allow a comparison of these data with legal requirements for the Amazon Region. Most of the small farm households did not comply with the required percentages of land for Legal Reserve (LR and Permanent Preservation Areas (PPA, in the latter case regarding riparian areas and areas for protection of water sources. Farms under OPS showed better results regarding preservation of native vegetation as well as higher percentages of forest remnants in their LR. Considering the amnesties and exemptions established by the New Forest Code, most farms have complied with the terms and requirements of current Brazilian environmental regulations.

  12. Household food insecurity is not associated with BMI for age or weight for height among Brazilian children aged 0-60 months.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Kac

    Full Text Available We examined the association between Household Food Insecurity (HFI, weight for height z-score (WHZ and Body Mass Index for age z-score (BMI-Z in a representative sample of children 0-60 months of age (n = 3,433 in five Brazilian geographical regions. Data were derived from the 2006-07 Brazilian Demographic and Health Survey. HFI was measured with the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale. Associations were estimated using multiple linear regression models (β coefficients and 95% CI taking into account the complex sampling design. Interaction terms between HFI and geographical region and HFI and child sex and child age were assessed. The weighted prevalence of any level of HFI was 48.6%. Severe food insecurity was more prevalent among children from the North region (16.8%, born from mothers with <4 years of schooling (15.9% and those from families with ≥3 children (18.8%. The interaction between HFI and geographical region was non-significant for BMI-Z (P = 0.119 and WHZ (P = 0.198. Unadjusted results indicated that HFI was negatively associated with BMI-Z (moderate to severe HFI: β = -0.19, 95% CI: -0.35 - -0.03, P = 0.047, and WHZ (moderate to severe HFI: β = -0.26, 95% CI: -0.42 - -0.09, P = 0.009. Estimates lost significance after adjustments for key confounders such as mothers' skin color, mothers' years of schooling, place of household, household income quartiles, mothers' smoking habit, mothers' marital status, number of children 0-60 months in the household, and birth order. HFI is unrelated to weight outcomes among Brazilian children 0-60 months.

  13. Transcultural adaptation to Brazilian Portuguese and reliability of the effort-reward imbalance in household and family work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcellos, Ilmeire Ramos Rosembach de; Griep, Rosane Härter; Portela, Luciana; Alves, Márcia Guimarães de Mello; Rotenberg, Lúcia

    2016-06-27

    To describe the steps in the transcultural adaptation of the scale in the Effort-reward imbalance model to household and family work to the Brazilian context. We performed the translation, back-translation, and initial psychometric evaluation of the questionnaire that comprised three dimensions: (i) effort (eight items, emphasizing quantitative workload), (ii) reward (11 items that seek to capture the intrinsic value of family and household work, societal esteem, recognition from the spouse/partner, and affection from the children), and (iii) overcommitment (four items related to intrinsic effort). The scale was included in a sectional study conducted with 1,045 nursing workers. A subsample of 222 subjects answered the questionnaire for a second time, seven to 15 days thereafter. The data were collected between October 2012 and May 2013. The internal consistency of the scale was evaluated using Cronbach's alpha and test-retest reliability analysis, square weighted kappa, prevalence and bias adjusted Kappa, and intraclass correlation coefficient. Prevalence and bias-adjusted Kappa (ka) of the scale dimensions ranged from 0.80-0.83 for overcommitment, 0.78-0.90 for effort, and 0.76-0.93 for reward. In most dimensions, the values of minimum and maximum scores, average, standard deviation, and Cronbach's alpha were similar in test and retest scores. Only on societal esteem subdimension (reward) was there little variation in standard deviation (test score of 2.24 and retest score of 3.36) and in Cronbach's alpha coefficient (test score of 0.38 and retest score of 0.59). The Brazilian version of the scale was found to have proper reliability indices regarding time stability, which suggests adapting it to be used in population with characteristics that are similar to the one in this study. Descrever as etapas da adaptação transcultural da escala do Effort-reward imbalance model to household and family work para o contexto brasileiro. Efetuou-se a tradução, retrotradu

  14. Associations between Caries among Children and Household Sugar Procurement, Exposure to Fluoridated Water and Socioeconomic Indicators in the Brazilian Capital Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Martins Gonçalves

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this ecological study was to investigate the association between caries experience in 5- and 12-year-old Brazilian children in 2010 and household sugar procurement in 2003 and the effects of exposure to water fluoridation and socioeconomic indicators. Sample units were all 27 Brazilian capital cities. Data were obtained from the National Surveys of Oral Health; the National Household Food Budget Survey; and the United Nations Program for Development. Data analysis included correlation coefficients, exploratory factor analysis, and linear regression. There were significant negative associations between caries experience and procurement of confectionery, fluoridated water, HDI, and per capita income. Procurement of confectionery and soft drinks was positively associated with HDI and per capita income. Exploratory factor analysis grouped the independent variables by reducing highly correlated variables into two uncorrelated component variables that explained 86.1% of total variance. The first component included income, HDI, water fluoridation, and procurement of confectionery, while the second included free sugar and procurement of soft drinks. Multiple regression analysis showed that caries is associated with the first component. Caries experience was associated with better socioeconomic indicators of a city and exposure to fluoridated water, which may affect the impact of sugars on the disease.

  15. 41 CFR 302-3.416 - Is there any limitation on the combined weight of household goods I may transport and store at...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... on the combined weight of household goods I may transport and store at Government expense? 302-3.416... household goods I may transport and store at Government expense? Yes, the maximum combined weight is 18,000 pounds net weight. If you transport and/or store household goods in excess of the maximum weight...

  16. Environmental oestrogens and breast cancer: evidence for combined involvement of dietary, household and cosmetic xenoestrogens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Darbre, Philippa D; Charles, Amelia K

    2010-01-01

    .... Exposure to environmental oestrogens occurs through diet, household products and cosmetics, but concentrations of single compounds in breast tissue are generally lower than needed for assayable oestrogenic responses...

  17. Household food insecurity, maternal nutritional status, and infant feeding practices among HIV-infected Ugandan women receiving combination antiretroviral therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    YOUNG, Sera L.; PLENTY, Albert H. J.; LUWEDDE, Flavia A.; NATAMBA, Barnabas K.; NATUREEBA, Paul; ACHAN, Jane; MWESIGWA, Julia; RUEL, Theodore D.; ADES, Veronica; OSTERBAUER, Beth; CLARK, Tamara D.; DORSEY, Grant; CHARLEBOIS, Edwin D.; KAMYA, Moses; HAVLIR, Diane V.; COHAN, Deborah L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Household food insecurity may be a barrier to both optimal maternal nutritional status and infant feeding practices, but few studies have tested this relationship quantitatively, and never among HIV-infected individuals. We therefore explored if greater household food insecurity was associated with poorer maternal nutritional status, shorter duration of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) and fewer animal-source complementary foods. Methods We assessed these outcomes among 180 HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding (BF) women receiving combination antiretroviral therapy in the PROMOTE trial (NCT00993031), a prospective, longitudinal cohort study in Tororo, Uganda. Results Household food insecurity was common; the prevalence of severe, moderate, and little to no household hunger was 7.3%, 40.5%, and 52.2%, respectively. Poor maternal nutritional status was common and women in households experiencing moderate to severe household hunger (MSHH) had statistically significantly lower BMIs at enrollment (21.3 vs 22.5, p<0.01) and prior to delivery (22.6 vs. 23.8, p<0.01). However, MSHH was not associated with maternal BMI or gestational weight gain in multivariate models. The prevalence (95% CI) of EBF at 6 months was 66.4% (59.0%-72.8%), and the proportion of women breastfeeding at 12 months was 80.0% (73.0%-85.3%).MSHH was not associated with EBF at 6 months or breastfeeding at 12 months. However, among those women still EBF at 4 months (81.0% of population), those experiencing MSHH were significantly more likely to cease EBF between 4 and 6 months (aHR: 2.52, 95% CI 1.03-6.19). Conclusions Interventions addressing household food insecurity, maternal malnutrition and suboptimal breastfeeding practices are urgently needed. PMID:24585398

  18. Proposta metodológica para o módulo de consumo alimentar pessoal na pesquisa brasileira de orçamentos familiares Methodological proposal for the individual food intake module of the Brazilian household budget survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Massae Yokoo

    2008-12-01

    Expenditure Study done from 1974 to 1975. Although useful, national food consumption studies are expensive and only a few countries can conduct them regularly. Nonetheless, household budget surveys are important sources of data on the availability of food at home determined by records of foods purchased. Recent changes in consumption habits, particularly eating out, limit the use of data from household budget surveys to estimate food intake. Thus, the Brazilian government suggested that the next household budget survey to be done in 2008-2009 include a module on individual food consumption. Information on individual food intake will be used to supplement the data regarding food purchases. The objective of this study is to report the development of the methodology to be used in the module of individual food consumption of the household budget survey of 2008-2009. Budget data will be combined with intake data to estimate the usual individual food consumption.

  19. Clustering and combining pattern of metabolic syndrome components in a rural Brazilian adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta, Adriano Marçal; Felisbino-Mendes, Mariana Santos; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE Metabolic syndrome is characterized by clustering of cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance and arterial hypertension. The aim of this study was to estimate the probability of clustering and the combination pattern of three or more metabolic syndrome components in a rural Brazilian adult population. DESIGN AND SETTING This was a cross-sectional study conducted in two rural communities located in the Jequitinhonha Valley, Minas Gerais, Brazil. METHODS The sample was composed of 534 adults (both sexes). Waist circumference, blood pressure and demographic, lifestyle and biochemical characteristics were assessed. The prevalences of metabolic syndrome and its components were estimated using the definitions of the National Cholesterol Education Program - Adult Treatment Panel III. A binomial distribution equation was used to evaluate the probability of clustering of metabolic syndrome components. The statistical significance level was set at 5% (P Metabolic syndrome was more frequent among women (23.3%) than among men (6.5%). Clustering of three or more metabolic syndrome components was greater than expected by chance. The commonest combinations of three metabolic syndrome components were: hypertriglyceridemia + low levels of HDL-c + arterial hypertension and abdominal obesity + low levels of HDL-c + arterial hypertension; and of four metabolic syndrome components: abdominal obesity + hypertriglyceridemia + low levels of HDL-c + arterial hypertension. CONCLUSION The population studied presented high prevalence of metabolic syndrome among women and clustering of its components greater than expected by chance, suggesting that the combination pattern was non-random.

  20. Assessing Forest Cover Dynamics and Forest Perception in the Atlantic Forest of Paraguay, Combining Remote Sensing and Household Level Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Da Ponte

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Upper Parana Atlantic Forest (BAAPA in Paraguay is one of the most threatened tropical forests in the world. The rapid growth of deforestation has resulted in the loss of 91% of its original cover. Numerous efforts have been made to halt deforestation activities, however farmers’ perception towards the forest and its benefits has not been considered either in studies conducted so far or by policy makers. This research provides the first multi-temporal analysis of the dynamics of the forest within the BAAPA region on the one hand, and assesses the way farmers perceive the forest and how this influences forest conservation at the farm level on the other. Remote sensing data acquired from Landsat images from 1999 to 2016 were used to measure the extent of the forest cover and deforestation rates over 17 years. Farmers’ influence on the dynamics of the forest was evaluated by combining earth observation data and household survey results conducted in the BAAPA region in 2016. Outcomes obtained in this study demonstrate a total loss in forest cover of 7500 km2. Deforestation rates in protected areas were determined by management regimes. The combination of household level and remote sensing data demonstrated that forest dynamics at the farm level is influenced by farm type, the level of dependency/use of forest benefits and the level of education of forest owners. An understanding of the social value awarded to the forest is a relevant contribution towards preserving natural resources.

  1. Combining carbon footprinting, monitoring, feedback, and rewards for a broad spectrum reduction of household induced greenhouse gas emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrels, Adriaan (Government Institute for Economic Research VATT (Finland)); Hongisto, Mikko; Kallio, Arto (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland)); Hyvoenen, Kaarina (National Consumer Research Centre KTK (Finland)); Katajajuuri, Juha-Matti (MTT Agrifood Research Finland (Finland)); Nissinen, Ari (Finnish Environment Institute SYKE (Finland))

    2009-07-01

    The study reported in this article (named CLIMATE BONUS) concerns the combined use of verified carbon footprints (possibly visualised through labels), personalised monitoring and feedback services to households regarding the greenhouse gas intensities of their purchases, and a reward system (bonuses) for consumers who manage to reduce the embodied emissions. The study assesses the accuracy and verification requirements and the harmonisation needs for the various information systems and their interfaces. This should culminate in a data strategy, in which a data acquisition, generation and co-ordination strategy and a data quality assurance strategy will be developed. Equally important, the study also assesses, via an own pilot, what the response of households (as consumers) can amount to and how the responsiveness to various incentives can be rated. The paper provides an outline of the intended system, including its rationale. Subsequently, the paper focuses on the consumer pilot and the feedback from the participants. It also provides a brief impression of the expected overall economic effectiveness of the system.

  2. Household food insecurity, maternal nutritional status, and infant feeding practices among HIV-infected Ugandan women receiving combination antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Sera L; Plenty, Albert H J; Luwedde, Flavia A; Natamba, Barnabas K; Natureeba, Paul; Achan, Jane; Mwesigwa, Julia; Ruel, Theodore D; Ades, Veronica; Osterbauer, Beth; Clark, Tamara D; Dorsey, Grant; Charlebois, Edwin D; Kamya, Moses; Havlir, Diane V; Cohan, Deborah L

    2014-11-01

    Household food insecurity (HHFI) may be a barrier to both optimal maternal nutritional status and infant feeding practices, but few studies have tested this relationship quantitatively, and never among HIV-infected individuals. We therefore described the prevalence of HHFI and explored if it was associated with poorer maternal nutritional status, shorter duration of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) and fewer animal-source complementary foods. We assessed these outcomes using bivariate and multivariate analyses among 178 HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding (BF) women receiving combination antiretroviral therapy in the PROMOTE trial (NCT00993031), a prospective, longitudinal cohort study in Tororo, Uganda. HHFI was common; the prevalence of severe, moderate, and little to no household hunger was 7.3, 39.9, and 52.8 %, respectively. Poor maternal nutritional status was common and women in households experiencing moderate to severe household hunger (MSHH) had statistically significantly lower body mass index (BMIs) at enrollment (21.3 vs. 22.5, p < 0.01) and prior to delivery (22.6 vs. 23.8, p < 0.01). BMI across time during pregnancy, but not gestational weight gain, was significantly lower for MSHH [adjusted beta (95 % CI) -0.79 (-1.56, -0.02), p = 0.04; -2.06 (-4.31, 0.19), p = 0.07], respectively. The prevalence (95 % CI) of EBF at 6 months was 67.2 % (59.7-73.5 %), and the proportion of women BF at 12 months was 80.4 % (73.3-85.7 %). MSHH was not associated with prevalence of EBF at 6 months or BF at 12 months. However, among those women still EBF at 4 months (81.4 % of population), those experiencing MSHH were significantly more likely to cease EBF between 4 and 6 months (aHR 2.38, 95 % CI 1.02-5.58). The prevalence of HHFI, maternal malnutrition, and suboptimal infant feeding practices are high and the causal relationships among these phenomena must be further explored.

  3. Value Relevance vis-à-vis Disclosure on Business Combinations and Goodwill Recognized by Publicly Traded Brazilian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Melo de Souza

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study is to examine the value relevance of the level of disclosure on business combinations and goodwill recognized by publicly traded Brazilian companies. The research sample is composed of publicly traded Brazilian companies that carried out any type of business combination, as the acquiring entity, between 2010 and 2013, yielding a total sample of 202 observations. To measure the disclosure level of each, a metric was created based on CPC-15 R1 (2011 to examine certain disclosure items in order to render a greater level of detail. Data collection was carried out using the footnotes to the annual consolidated standardized financial statements (DFPs available from the São Paulo Stock Exchange (BM&FBOVESPA website. The results revealed that disclosure levels for business combinations are positively and significantly associated with the stock price of the companies analyzed. As to the recognition of goodwill during business combinations, despite the fact that it represents a significant share of the value of the transactions, no statistical significance explaining stock price behavior was found. It also bears mentioning that the average level of disclosure identified in the explanatory notes in the sample was very low, indicating that companies need to improve when it comes to transparency of information.

  4. Combination of non-parametric methods for comparing the perception of critical success factors in the brazilian automotive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Martins Rocha

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method of non-parametric data analysis which has been used to evaluate differences on product managers’ perceptions about product development process critical success factors in the Brazilian automotive industry. Starting from a bibliographic research, eight hypotheses have been tested with managers from two automotive companies. The data collected from interviews and questionnaires have been analyzed by median test, and sign test, showing differences among perceptions. The combination of these techniques enabled more robust data analysis and presented a contribution of a method that can be replicated in other studies that have to deal with ordinal scale data comparison.

  5. PAAPPAS community trial protocol: a randomized study of obesity prevention for adolescents combining school with household intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele R. Sgambato

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of childhood obesity is increasing at a high rate in Brazil, making prevention a health priority. Schools are the central focus of interventions aiming the prevention and treatment of childhood obesity, however, randomized trials and cohort studies have not yet provided clear evidence of strategies to reduce prevalence of obesity. The aim of this study is to present a protocol to evaluate the efficacy of combining school and household level interventions to reduce excessive weight gain among students. Methods The intervention target fifth and sixth graders from 18 public schools (9 interventions and 9 controls in the municipality of Duque de Caxias, metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A sample size of 2500 students will be evaluated at school for their weight status and those from the intervention group who are overweight or obese will be followed monthly at home by community health agents. Demographic, socioeconomic, anthropometric, eating behavior and food consumption data will be collected at school using a standardized questionnaire programmed in personal digital assistant. At school, all students from the intervention group will be encouraged to change eating habits and food consumption and to increase physical activity and reducing sedentary behavior. Discussion This study will provide evidence whether integration of school with primary health care can prevent excessive weight gain among adolescents. Positive results will inform a sustainable strategy to be disseminated in the health care system in Brazil. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02711488 . Date of registration: March 11, 2016.

  6. Psychometric evaluation of the SF-36 (v.2) questionnaire in a probability sample of Brazilian households: results of the survey Pesquisa Dimensões Sociais das Desigualdades (PDSD), Brazil, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguardia, Josué; Campos, Monica R; Travassos, Claudia M; Najar, Alberto L; Anjos, Luiz A; Vasconcellos, Miguel M

    2011-08-03

    In Brazil, despite the growing use of SF-36 in different research environments, most of the psychometric evaluation of the translated questionnaire was from studies with samples of patients. The purpose of this paper is to examine if the Brazilian version of SF-36 satisfies scaling assumptions, reliability and validity required for valid interpretation of the SF-36 summated ratings scales in the general population. 12,423 individuals and their spouses living in 8,048 households were selected from a stratified sample of all permanent households along the country to be interviewed using the Brazilian SF-36 (version 2). Psychometric tests were performed to evaluate the scaling assumptions based on IQOLA methodology. Data quality was satisfactory with questionnaire completion rate of 100%. The ordering of the item means within scales clustered as hypothesized. All item-scale correlations exceeded the suggested criteria for reliability with success rate of 100% and low floor and ceiling effects. All scales reached the criteria for group comparison and factor analysis identified two principal components that jointly accounted for 67.5% of the total variance. Role emotional and vitality were strongly correlated with physical and mental components, respectively, while social functioning was moderately correlated with both components. Role physical and mental health scales were, respectively, the most valid measures of the physical and mental health component. In the comparisons between groups that differed by the presence or absence of depression, subjects who reported having the disease had lower mean scores in all scales and mental health scale discriminated best between the two groups. Among those healthy and with one, two or three and more chronic illness, the average scores were inverted related to the number of diseases. Body pain, general health and vitality were the most discriminating scales between healthy and diseased groups. Higher scores were associated with

  7. Design and rationale of a matched cohort study to assess the effectiveness of a combined household-level piped water and sanitation intervention in rural Odisha, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Heather; Routray, Parimita; Torondel, Belen; Sclar, Gloria; Delea, Maryann G; Sinharoy, Sheela S; Zambrano, Laura; Caruso, Bethany; Mishra, Samir R; Chang, Howard H; Clasen, Thomas

    2017-03-31

    Government efforts to address massive shortfalls in rural water and sanitation in India have centred on construction of community water sources and toilets for selected households. However, deficiencies with water quality and quantity at the household level and community coverage and actual use of toilets have led Gram Vikas, a local non-governmental organization in Odisha, India, to develop an approach that provides household-level piped water connections contingent on full community-level toilet coverage. This matched cohort study was designed to assess the effectiveness of a combined piped water and sanitation intervention. Households with children environmental enteric dysfunction. In addition, intervention effects on sanitation and water coverage, access and use, environmental fecal contamination, women's empowerment, as well as collective efficacy, and intervention cost and cost-effectiveness will be assessed. The study protocol has been reviewed and approved by the ethics boards of the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK and KIIT University, Bhubaneswar, India. Findings will be disseminated via peer-reviewed literature and presentation to stakeholders, government officials, implementers and researchers. NCT02441699. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Immunogenicity, reactogenicity and consistency of production of a Brazilian combined vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and Haemophilus influenzae type b

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo de Menezes Martins

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A randomized, double-blinded study evaluating the immunogenicity, safety and consistency of production of a combined diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine entirely produced in Brazil by Bio-Manguinhos and Instituto Butantan (DTP/Hib-BM was undertaken. The reference vaccine had the same DTP vaccine but the Hib component was produced using purified materials supplied by GlaxoSmithKline (DTP/Hib-GSK, which is registered and has supplied the Brazilian National Immunization Program for over more than five years. One thousand infants were recruited for the study and received vaccinations at two, four and six months of age. With respect to immunogenicity, the vaccination protocol was followed in 95.6% and 98.4% of infants in the DTP/Hib-BM and DTP/Hib-GSK groups, respectively. For the Hib component of the study, there was 100% seroprotection (>0.15 µg/mL with all three lots of DTP/Hib-BM and DTP/Hib-GSK. The geometric mean titer (GMT was 9.3 µg/mL, 10.3 µg/mL and 10.3 µg/mL for lots 1, 2 and 3 of DTP/Hib-BM, respectively, and the GMT was 11.3 g/mL for DTP/Hib-GSK. For diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis, seroprotection was 99.7%, 100% and 99.9%, respectively, for DTP/Hib-BM, three lots altogether and 99.2%, 100% and 100% for DTP/Hib-GSK. GMTs were similar across all lots and vaccines. Adverse events rates were comparable among the vaccine groups. The Brazilian DTP/Hib vaccine demonstrated an immunogenicity and reactogenicity profile similar to that of the reference vaccine.

  9. Degree of food processing of household acquisition patterns in a Brazilian urban area is related to food buying preferences and perceived food environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedovato, G M; Trude, A C B; Kharmats, A Y; Martins, P A

    2015-04-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the association between local food environment and consumers' acquisition of ultra-processed food. Households were randomly selected from 36 census tracts in Santos City, Brazil. Mothers, of varying economic status, who had children ages 10 or younger (n = 538) were interviewed concerning: their household food acquisition of 31 groups of food and beverages, perceptions of local food environment, food sources destinations, means of transportation used, and socioeconomic status. Food acquisition patterns were classified based on the degree of industrial food processing. Logistic regression models were fitted to assess the association between consumer behaviors and acquisition patterns. The large variety of fresh produce available in supermarkets was significantly related to lower odds of ultra-processed food purchases. After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, higher odds for minimally-processed food acquisition were associated with: frequent use of specialized markets to purchase fruits and vegetables (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.01-2.34), the habit of walking to buy food (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.08-2.30), and perceived availability of fresh produce in participants' neighborhood (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.08-2.30). Acquisition of ultra-processed food was positively associated with the use of taxis as principal means of transportation to food sources (OR 2.35, 95% CI 1.08-5.13), and negatively associated with perceived availability of a variety of fruits and vegetables in the neighborhood (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.37-0.88). The results suggest that interventions aiming to promote acquisition of less processed food in settings similar to Santos, may be most effective if they focus on increasing the number of specialized fresh food markets in local neighborhood areas, improve residents' awareness of these markets' availability, and provide appropriate transportation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Life expectancy among elderly Brazilians in 2003 according to different levels of functional disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargos, Mirela Castro Santos; Machado, Carla Jorge; Rodrigues, Roberto Nascimento

    2008-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate disability-free life expectancy for the Brazilian elderly in 2003, by gender and age, based on different concepts of functional disability. The Sullivan method is used to combine the period life tables from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE, 2003) and the prevalence of functional disability according to the 2003 National Sample Household Survey (PNAD 2003). The main results of the study indicate that at age 60, Brazilian men can expect to live 19 years, 39% with mild, 21% with moderate, and 14% with severe functional disability, respectively. At the same age, Brazilian women can expect to live 22 years: 56% with mild, 32% with moderate, and 18% with severe functional disability.

  11. Incontinência urinária entre mulheres climatéricas brasileiras: inquérito domiciliar Urinary incontinence among climateric Brazilian women: household survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Guarisi

    2001-10-01

    and its associated factors in perimenopause women using a population-based household survey. METHODS: A descriptive, exploratory cross-sectional population-based study with secondary analysis of a population-based household survey on perimenopause and menopause was conducted among women living in the city of Campinas, Brazil. Through a sampling process, 456 women between 45 and 60 years old were selected. Complaints of urinary incontinence and related risk factors, such as age, socioeconomic status, education level, race, parity, smoking habits, body mass index, previous gynecological surgeries, menopausal status, and hormonal replacement therapy were explored. Data were collected through home interviews using an adapted version of the structured pre-tested questionnaire elaborated by the International Health Foundation, International Menopause Society and the American Menopause Society. Statistical analysis were performed using prevalence rates (CI 95%. RESULTS: Thirty-five percent of the interviewees referred stress urinary incontinence. None of the sociodemographic factors studied was associated to the risk of urinary incontinence. In addition, parity did not significantly change the risk of urinary incontinence. Other factors, such as previous gynecological surgeries, body mass index, and smoking habits, were not associated with the prevalence of stress urinary incontinence. Also, menopausal status and hormonal replacement therapy did not change the risk of stress urinary incontinence. CONCLUSION: Though there was a high prevalence of stress urinary incontinence among perimenopause women, there was not found any associations with sociodemographic and reproductive factors.

  12. Household food diversity and nutritional status among adults in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sichieri Rosely

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of this study were to evaluate whether a diversity of healthy foods in a household would decrease the availability of unhealthy foods and to evaluate the association between a healthy dietary diversity score (DDS and nutritional status among adults. Methods Data from the 2002-2003 Brazilian Household Budget Survey were used. This nationwide survey used a two-stage sampling technique: households were selected after selection of primary sample units (PSUs. Analyses were based on 3,393 PSUs, evaluating 659,816 records of food items purchased by 35,237 households. The DDS was based on the healthy food groups according to Brazilian food guidelines. Per capita acquisition of sugar, sweets, sugar-sweetened beverages and crackers, cookies and cakes (unhealthy food groups in PSUs was also calculated. Individual weight and height were measured at household. Multivariate linear regression models estimated the association of underweight and overweight and obesity (excess weight with the PSUs' DDS. Results Greater acquisition of unhealthy food groups was associated with higher DDS. A high PSU's DDS was negatively associated with underweight (β = -0.38; p-value = 0.04 and positively associated with excess weight (β = 0.98; p-value = 0.05 after adjustment for availability of unhealthy food groups and socioeconomic variables. Conclusions Our data indicate that there was no replacement of unhealthy food groups by healthy food groups, therefore a healthy diet message for obesity prevention should be combined with a message focused on eating less.

  13. Safe drinking water and clean air: an experimental study evaluating the concept of combining household water treatment and indoor air improvement using the Water Disinfection Stove (WADIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, Andri; Navarro, Carlos Morante; Mäusezahl, Daniel

    2009-09-01

    Indoor air pollution and unsafe water remain two of the most important environmental risk factors for the global burden of infectious diseases. Improved stoves and household water treatment (HWT) methods represent two of the most effective interventions to fight respiratory and diarrhoeal illnesses at household level. Since new improved stoves are highly accepted and HWT methods have their drawbacks regarding sustained use, combining the two interventions in one technical solution could result in notable positive convenience and health benefits. A WAter DIsinfection Stove (WADIS) based on a Lorena-stove design with a simple flow-through boiling water-treatment system was developed and tested by a pilot experimental study in rural Bolivia. The results of a post-implementation evaluation of two WADIS and 27 Lorena-stoves indicate high social acceptance rather due to convenience gains of the stove than to perceived health improvements. The high efficacy of the WADIS-water treatment system, with a reduction of microbiological contamination load in the treated water from 87600 thermotolerant coliform colony forming units per 100mL (CFU/100mL) to zero is indicative. The WADIS concept unifies two interventions addressing two important global burdens of disease. WADIS' simple design, relying on locally available materials and low manufacturing costs (approx. 6 US) indicates potential for spontaneous diffusion and scaling up.

  14. Nitric Oxide and Brazilian Propolis Combined Accelerates Tissue Repair by Modulating Cell Migration, Cytokine Production and Collagen Deposition in Experimental Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Milena Menegazzo; Panis, Carolina; Cataneo, Allan Henrique Depieri; da Silva, Suelen Santos; Kawakami, Natalia Yoshie; Lopes, Luiz Gonzaga de França; Morey, Alexandre Tadachi; Yamauchi, Lucy Megumi; Andrade, Célia Guadalupe Tardelli de Jesus; Cecchini, Rubens; da Silva, Jean Jerley Nogueira; Sforcin, José Maurício; Conchon-Costa, Ivete; Pavanelli, Wander Rogério

    2015-01-01

    The fact that drugs currently used in the treatment of Leishmania are highly toxic and associated with acquired resistance has promoted the search for new therapies for treating American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL). In this study, BALB/c mice were injected in the hind paw with Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis and subsequently treated with a combination of nitric oxide (NO) donor (cis-[Ru(bpy) 2imN(NO)](PF6)3) (Ru-NO), given by intraperitoneal injection, and oral Brazilian propolis for 30 days. Ru-NO reached the center of the lesion and increased the NO level in the injured hind paw without lesion exacerbation. Histological and immunological parameters of chronic inflammation showed that this combined treatment increased the efficacy of macrophages, determined by the decrease in the number of parasitized cells, leading to reduced expression of proinflammatory and tissue damage markers. In addition, these drugs in combination fostered wound healing, enhanced the number of fibroblasts, pro-healing cytokines and induced collagen synthesis at the lesion site. Overall, our findings suggest that the combination of the NO donor Ru-NO and Brazilian propolis alleviates experimental ATL lesions, highlighting a new therapeutic option that can be considered for further in vivo investigations as a candidate for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:25973801

  15. Recent household transmission of tuberculosis in England, 2010-2012: retrospective national cohort study combining epidemiological and molecular strain typing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalor, Maeve K; Anderson, Laura F; Hamblion, Esther L; Burkitt, Andy; Davidson, Jennifer A; Maguire, Helen; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Thomas, H Lucy

    2017-06-13

    We estimate the proportion of tuberculosis (TB) in England due to recent household transmission, identify factors associated with being a household transmitter, and investigate the impact that identification of a case has on time to treatment of subsequent cases. TB cases notified between 2010 and 2012 in England in the same household as another case were identified; 24 locus MIRU-VNTR strain typing (ST) was used to identify household cases with likely recent transmission. Treatment delay in index and subsequent cases was compared. Risk factors for being a household transmitter were identified in univariable and multivariable analyses. Overall, 7.7% (1849/24,060) of TB cases lived in a household with another case. We estimate that 3.9% were due to recent household transmission. ST data was unavailable for 67% (1242) of household pairs. For those with ST data, 64% (386) had confirmed, 11% probable (66) and 25% (155) refuted household transmission. The median treatment delay was 65 days for index cases and 37 days for subsequent asymptomatic cases. Risk factors for being a household transmitter included being under 25 years old, UK-born with Black African, Indian or Pakistani ethnicity, or born in Somalia or Romania. This study has a number of implications for household TB contact tracing in low incidence countries, including the potential to reduce the diagnostic delay for subsequent household cases and the benefit of using ST to identify when to conduct source contact tracing outside the household. As 25% of TB cases in households had discordant strains, households with multiple TB cases do not necessarily represent household transmission. The additional fact that 25% of index cases within households only had extra-pulmonary TB demonstrates that, if household contact tracing is limited to pulmonary TB cases (as recently recommended in UK guidelines), additional cases of active TB in households will be missed. Our finding that no lineage of TB was associated with

  16. Combining multiple models to predict the geographical distribution of the Baru tree (Dipteryx alata Vogel) in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabout, J C; Soares, T N; Diniz-Filho, J A F; De Marco Júnior, P; Telles, M P C; Naves, R V; Chaves, L J

    2010-11-01

    The Brazilian Cerrado is a biome of great biodiversity, but detailed information about the diversity and distribution of species in this region is still insufficient for both testing ecological hypotheses and for conservation purposes. Among native plants in the Cerrado, Dipteryx alata Vogel (commonly known as the "Baru" tree), has a high potential for exploitation. The aims of this paper were to predict the potential spatial distribution of D. alata in the Brazilian Cerrado utilising five different niche modelling techniques. These techniques usually provide distinct results, so it may be difficult to choose amongst them. To adjust for this uncertainty, we employ an ensemble forecasting approach to predict the spatial distribution of the Baru tree. We accumulated a total of 448 occurrence points and modelled the subsequent predicted occurrences using seven climatic variables. Five different presence-only ecological niche modelling techniques (GARP, Maxent, BIOCLIM, Mahalanobis Distance and Euclidean Distance) were used and the performance of these models was compared using Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) and the Area Under the Curve (AUC). All models presented AUC values higher than 0.68, and GARP presented the highest AUC value, whereas Euclidean Distance presented the lowest. The ensemble forecasting approach suggested a high suitability for the occurrence of the Baru tree in the Central-Western region of the Brazilian Cerrado. Our study demonstrated that modelling species distribution using ensemble forecasting can be an important computational tool for better establishing sampling strategies and for improving our biodiversity knowledge to better identify priority areas for conservation. For the Baru tree, we recommend priority actions for conservation in the central region of the Cerrado Biome.

  17. Combining multiple models to predict the geographical distribution of the Baru tree (Dipteryx alata Vogel in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JC. Nabout

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Cerrado is a biome of great biodiversity, but detailed information about the diversity and distribution of species in this region is still insufficient for both testing ecological hypotheses and for conservation purposes. Among native plants in the Cerrado, Dipteryx alata Vogel (commonly known as the "Baru" tree, has a high potential for exploitation. The aims of this paper were to predict the potential spatial distribution of D. alata in the Brazilian Cerrado utilising five different niche modelling techniques. These techniques usually provide distinct results, so it may be difficult to choose amongst them. To adjust for this uncertainty, we employ an ensemble forecasting approach to predict the spatial distribution of the Baru tree. We accumulated a total of 448 occurrence points and modelled the subsequent predicted occurrences using seven climatic variables. Five different presence-only ecological niche modelling techniques (GARP, Maxent, BIOCLIM, Mahalanobis Distance and Euclidean Distance were used and the performance of these models was compared using Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC and the Area Under the Curve (AUC. All models presented AUC values higher than 0.68, and GARP presented the highest AUC value, whereas Euclidean Distance presented the lowest. The ensemble forecasting approach suggested a high suitability for the occurrence of the Baru tree in the Central-Western region of the Brazilian Cerrado. Our study demonstrated that modelling species distribution using ensemble forecasting can be an important computational tool for better establishing sampling strategies and for improving our biodiversity knowledge to better identify priority areas for conservation. For the Baru tree, we recommend priority actions for conservation in the central region of the Cerrado Biome.

  18. Rural Households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Based on a comprehensive survey and subsequent fieldwork, this chapter introduces the socio-economic characteristics and common livelihood strategies of rural households in Quang Nam, Central Vietnam. It demonstrates the basic premise of self-reliance in rural society and the decreasing economic...

  19. Combined effect of short stature and socioeconomic status on body mass index and weight gain during reproductive age in Brazilian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sichieri R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Short stature, a marker for undernutrition early in life, has been associated with obesity in Brazilian women, but not in men. We tested the hypothesis that weight gain during the reproductive years could explain this gender difference. A national two-stage household survey of mothers with one or more children under five years of age was conducted in Brazil in 1996. The subjects were women aged 20 to 45 years (N = 2297, with last delivery seven months or more prior to the interview. The regions of the country were divided into rural, North/Northeast (urban underdeveloped and South/Southeast/Midwest (urban developed. The dependent variables were current body mass index (BMI measured, BMI prior to childbearing (reported, and BMI change. Socioeconomic variables included mother's years of education and family purchasing power score. A secondary analysis was restricted to primiparous women. The prevalence of current overweight and overweight prior to childbearing (BMI > or = 25 kg/m² was higher among shorter women (<1.50 m compared to normal stature women only in the urban developed region (P < 0.05. After adjustment for socioeconomic variables, age, parity, BMI prior to childbearing, and age at first birth, current BMI was 2.39 units higher (P = 0.008 for short stature women living in the urban developed area compared with short stature women living in the urban underdeveloped area. For both multiparous and primiparous women, BMI gain compared to the value prior to childbearing was significantly higher among short stature women living in the urban developed region (P <= 0.04. These results provide clear evidence that short stature was associated with a higher BMI and with an increased risk of weight gain/retention with pregnancy in the developed areas of Brazil, but not in the underdeveloped ones.

  20. Household Savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Lusardi, Annamaria

    In this survey, we review the recent theoretical and empirical literature on household saving and consumption. The discussion is structured around a list of motives for saving and how well the standard theory captures these motives. We show that almost all of the motives for saving that have been...... of standard optimization techniques and focuses instead on direct consideration on saving. We provide a section on facts: who save and how much. We then discuss informally the recent decline in the U.S. saving rate and whether the theory is of much use in understanding this and other changes in aggregate...... be rationalized within a simple life cycle model. We also review a great number of studies of the consumption Euler equations. Based on our analysis of the studies cited we conclude that there is still mixed evidence that consumption is excessively sensitive to income. We also examine in depth the recent...

  1. Effects of glutamine alone or in combination with zinc and vitamin A on growth, intestinal barrier function, stress and satiety-related hormones in Brazilian shantytown children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Aldo A M; Anstead, Gregory M; Zhang, Qiong; Figueiredo, Ítalo L; Soares, Alberto M; Mota, Rosa M S; Lima, Noélia L; Guerrant, Richard L; Oriá, Reinaldo B

    2014-01-01

    To determine the impact of supplemental zinc, vitamin A, and glutamine alone or in combination on growth, intestinal barrier function, stress and satiety-related hormones among Brazilian shantytown children with low median height-for-age z-scores. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in children aged two months to nine years from the urban shanty compound community of Fortaleza, Brazil. Demographic and anthropometric information was assessed. The random treatment groups available for testing (a total of 120 children) were as follows: (1) glutamine alone, n = 38; (2) glutamine plus vitamin A plus zinc, n = 37; and a placebo (zinc plus vitamin A vehicle) plus glycine (isonitrogenous to glutamine) control treatment, n = 38. Leptin, adiponectin, insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), and plasma levels of cortisol were measured with immune-enzymatic assays; urinary lactulose/mannitol and serum amino acids were measured with high-performance liquid chromatography. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00133406. Glutamine treatment significantly improved weight-for-height z-scores compared to the placebo-glycine control treatment. Either glutamine alone or all nutrients combined prevented disruption of the intestinal barrier function, as measured by the percentage of lactulose urinary excretion and the lactulose:mannitol absorption ratio. Plasma leptin was negatively correlated with plasma glutamine (p = 0.002) and arginine (p = 0.001) levels at baseline. After glutamine treatment, leptin was correlated with weight-for-age (WAZ) and weight-for-height z-scores (WHZ) (p≤0.002) at a 4-month follow-up. In addition, glutamine and all combined nutrients (glutamine, vitamin A, and zinc) improved the intestinal barrier function in these children. Taken together, these findings reveal the benefits of glutamine alone or in combination with other gut-trophic nutrients in growing children via interactions with leptin.

  2. Effects of glutamine alone or in combination with zinc and vitamin A on growth, intestinal barrier function, stress and satiety-related hormones in Brazilian shantytown children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo A.M. Lima

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of supplemental zinc, vitamin A, and glutamine alone or in combination on growth, intestinal barrier function, stress and satiety-related hormones among Brazilian shantytown children with low median height-for-age z-scores. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in children aged two months to nine years from the urban shanty compound community of Fortaleza, Brazil. Demographic and anthropometric information was assessed. The random treatment groups available for testing (a total of 120 children were as follows: (1 glutamine alone, n = 38; (2 glutamine plus vitamin A plus zinc, n = 37; and a placebo (zinc plus vitamin A vehicle plus glycine (isonitrogenous to glutamine control treatment, n = 38. Leptin, adiponectin, insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1, and plasma levels of cortisol were measured with immune-enzymatic assays; urinary lactulose/mannitol and serum amino acids were measured with high-performance liquid chromatography. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00133406. RESULTS: Glutamine treatment significantly improved weight-for-height z-scores compared to the placebo-glycine control treatment. Either glutamine alone or all nutrients combined prevented disruption of the intestinal barrier function, as measured by the percentage of lactulose urinary excretion and the lactulose:mannitol absorption ratio. Plasma leptin was negatively correlated with plasma glutamine (p = 0.002 and arginine (p = 0.001 levels at baseline. After glutamine treatment, leptin was correlated with weight-for-age (WAZ and weight-for-height z-scores (WHZ (p≤0.002 at a 4-month follow-up. In addition, glutamine and all combined nutrients (glutamine, vitamin A, and zinc improved the intestinal barrier function in these children. CONCLUSION: Taken together, these findings reveal the benefits of glutamine alone or in combination with other gut-trophic nutrients in growing children via

  3. Disponibilidade familiar de alimentos na Zona da Mata e Semi-Árido do Nordeste do Brasil Household food availability in the Forest Zone (Zona da Mata and Semi-Arid Brazilian Northeast regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Maria Osório

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar a disponibilidade de alimentos em domicílios de Gameleira (PE e São João do Tigre (PB, municípios das referidas regiões, considerando a freqüência dos alimentos, o número de pessoas no domicílio e a escolaridade do chefe da família. MÉTODOS: A amostra foi constituída de 502 e 458 famílias, em Gameleira (PE e São João do Tigre (PB, respectivamente, de área urbana e rural de cada município. As informações, referentes aos sete dias anteriores à entrevista, foram fornecidas pelo responsável pela preparação dos alimentos. RESULTADOS: Verifica-se a disponibilidade de 33 alimentos em Gameleira (PE e 30 em São João do Tigre (PB, em mais de 20% das famílias; restringindo-se a 16 e 15 alimentos nos dois municípios respectivamente, quando considerada a disponibilidade em 50% das famílias. Os alimentos disponíveis na maioria dos domicílios possuíam alto valor energético e pertenciam aos grupos de cereais e leguminosas, em detrimento de hortaliças, frutas e produtos de origem animal. A disponibilidade alimentar sofreu pouca variação em decorrência do número de pessoas no domicílio e da escolaridade do chefe da família. CONCLUSÃO: O estímulo ao aumento qualitativo e quantitativo da disponibilidade familiar de alimentos deve ser o foco dos esforços governamentais em programas sociais de combate à fome.OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine household food availability in Gameleira (PE and São João do Tigre (PB, municipalities in the abovementioned regions, taking into account the frequency of food consumption, number of people per household, and education level of the head of the household. METHODS: The sample consisted of 502 and 458 families in Gameleira (PE and São João do Tigre (PB, respectively, living in both urban and rural areas. Information on food consumption during the seven days prior to the interview was provided by the person in

  4. Household Income Composition and Household Goods

    OpenAIRE

    Voynov, Ivan

    2005-01-01

    The paper focuses on the change in household income composition and the factors that determine it. The results bring additional knowledge about household poverty dynamics. Based on the collective approach to the family and the cooperative game theory it is constructed theoretical model of household income composition change. The change in income composition is a result from bargaining between household members in attempt to defend the most suitable for them income source. Decisive influence i...

  5. Household Saving in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Finlay; Fiona Price

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates household saving behaviour in Australia, as well as the drivers behind the recent rise in the aggregate household saving ratio. Our results explaining differences in saving behaviour across households are consistent with theory and previous findings. As might be expected, households' saving ratios tend to increase with income, but decrease with wealth and gearing. Financially constrained and migrant households tend to save more than other households, all else equal. Wh...

  6. [Live longer and better? Estimates of healthy life expectancy in the Brazilian population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargos, Mirela Castro Santos; Gonzaga, Marcos Roberto

    2015-07-01

    This study analyzed differences in healthy life expectancy in the elderly based on three health dimensions in Brazil from 1998 to 2008: disability-free life expectancy, healthy life expectancy based on self-rated health, and chronic disease-free life expectancy. The Sullivan method was used, combining life tables from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) and interval estimates of the prevalence of functional disability, self-rated health, and chronic diseases according to the Brazilian National Household Sample Survey (PNAD, 1998 and 2008). Besides the increase in life expectancy, the study showed significant and similar increases in disability-free life expectancy and healthy life expectancy based on self-rated health at almost all ages. Women had higher life expectancies than men, but expected to live longer with poor health, regardless of the indicator used to measure health. Although the studies measured health differently (making comparisons difficult), women showed a consistent disadvantage in healthy life expectancy.

  7. Increased level of protection of respiratory tract and kidney by combining different infectious bronchitis virus vaccines against challenge with nephropathogenic Brazilian genotype subcluster 4 strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wit, J J; Brandao, P; Torres, C A; Koopman, R; Villarreal, L Y

    2015-10-01

    Genotyping of seven infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strains isolated in Brazil showed that all belonged to the common Brazilian genotype and that these strains were closest to the subcluster of strain IBV/Brazil/2007/USP-19. Pathotyping of four selected Brazilian strains showed that they all caused a considerable level of ciliostasis in the trachea but at a somewhat lower level than did M41 and Brazilian strains 50/96, 57/96, 62/96 and 64/96 representing four different serotypes that had been reported earlier. In contrast to the M41 challenge strain, all Brazilian isolates replicated in kidney tissue in a high percentage of non-vaccinated challenged birds, clearly showing that they are nephropathogenic. As for the tracheal protection, the results using Massachusetts (Mass) vaccination against the recent strains seemed to show protection higher on average than for the strains reported earlier. A single or twofold vaccination with a Mass vaccine resulted in a mean tracheal protection level against the four challenge strains of 92% and 90%, respectively, whereas a single and twofold vaccination with a Mass vaccine halved the percentage of infected kidneys (14% and 13%, respectively, P protection of 99% and a reduction of the percentage of infected kidneys to a mean of 2%. This was a significantly (P protection than that achieved by a single or twofold Mass vaccination, showing the added value of the 793B vaccination following priming with a vaccine of the Mass type.

  8. Brazilian Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Lima Crisóstomo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work makes an analysis of the determinants of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR of Brazilian firms, as proxied by firm membership of the ISE Index of BM&FBOVESPA. Besides other proposed determinants of CSR present in the literature (firm size, profitability, growth opportunities, the work examines ownership concentration and the persistence on CSR status. Logit regression estimates have been run for a sample of 1649 firm-year observations in the period 2006-2011. The findings show that CSR of Brazilian firms is inversely correlated to its ownership concentration indicating that controlling voting shareholders may not see social concerns as a priority. Besides, firms tend to maintain their present CSR status. The results also indicate that leading CSR firms are larger, face more growth opportunities, and are persistent in their superior CSR situation.

  9. Brazilian energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Shaughnessy, H.

    1997-04-01

    Brazilian Energy provides all the information necessary for energy companies to invest and operate in Brazil, including: a review of Brazil`s natural resources; an assessment of privatisation strategies at the federal, state and regional level; an analysis of the electricity industry and the future for Electrobras; an analysis of the oil industry and, in particular, Petrobras; a discussion of the fuel alcohol industry; the discovery of local natural gas, its prospects and the involvement of the auto industry; an assessment of the problems facing the coal industry and its future; a discussion of the regulatory framework for the newly privatised companies; the importance of intra-regional energy links and the booming membership of Mercosur; the difficulties experienced by foreign investors doing business in Brazil; brief profiles of the key energy companies; profiles of key people influencing the privatisation process in Brazil. Brazilian energy is essential reading for those wishing to advise and assist Brazil in this period of change and development, as well as those who wish to invest or become key players in the Brazilian energy sector. (author)

  10. Prática de atividade física e sedentarismo em brasileiros: resultados da Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (PNAD 2008 Practice of physical activity and sedentarism among Brazilians: results of the National Household Sample Survey - 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Goularte Knuth

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Inquéritos populacionais estão no centro das atividades relevantes para a saúde pública. Atualmente tem-se interesse em compreender aspectos comportamentais influentes na mudança do quadro de saúde individual e coletiva, entre eles a atividade física. O objetivo do presente estudo é apresentar os resultados de prática de atividade física (AF da Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (PNAD em 2008, conforme distribuição regional e características sociodemográficas. O convênio firmado entre o IBGE e o Ministério da Saúde foi responsável pelo levantamento suplementar de saúde. O tamanho de amostra foi de 292.553 pessoas. A prevalência de AF nos níveis recomendados no lazer foi de 10,5%, o mesmo percentual de indivíduos relatando deslocamento ativo para o trabalho. Homens e indivíduos mais jovens foram mais ativos e houve relação direta entre escolaridade e AF no lazer e inversa entre escolaridade e atividade física no deslocamento. Um em cada cinco brasileiros não pratica qualquer AF, e um em cada três assistem, em média, 3h ou mais de televisão por dia. Estes dados visam apoiar as políticas públicas no desenho de estratégias que promovam ações sustentadas de promoção da saúde, especialmente de AF, visando o alcance de resultados que influenciem positivamente na qualidade de vida da população.Population surveys are a key component of the relevant activities for public health. There is growing interest in identifying behavioral aspects which influence individual and collective health, such as physical activity (PA. The aim of this study is to present PA data from the 2008 Brazilian National Household Survey (PNAD according to regional distribution and the socio-demographic characteristics. A partnership between the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics and the Ministry of Health was responsible for preparing the health supplement of the questionnaire. The sample size was 292,553 individuals

  11. Household vulnerability to climate change: examining perceptions of households of flood risks in Georgetown and Paramaribo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linnekamp, F.; Koedam, A.; Baud, I.S.A.

    2011-01-01

    The article examines household perceptions of flooding as part of climate change in two low elevation coastal zone cities in the Caribbean. The research examines differences in vulnerability of households as the combined results of socio-economic inequalities in entitlements and exposure to natural

  12. BRAZILIAN NEWS PORTALS CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloiza G. Herckovitz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A content analysis of four Brazilian news media portals found that economic news dominated the top headlines with little attention paid to education, the environment and welfare. Other trends included a focus on local events and national news sources, reliance on few sources, mostly official ones, and a low percentage of news that fitted the concept of newsworthiness (a combination of both social significance and deviance concepts. Other findings of a study of 432 top news stories published by UOL, Estadão, iG and Terra during a 15-day period between February and March 2008 indicate that the top portions of the portals’ front pages carry news that lacks story depth, editorial branding, and multimedia applications. The results suggest that online news portals are in their infancy although Brazil has the largest online population of Latin America. This study hopes to shed light on the gatekeeping process in Brazilian news portals. Brazilian media portals have yet to become a significant editorial force able to provide knowledge about social issues and public affairs in a socially responsible fashione.

  13. Household indebtedness in Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Abid, Lobna; Zouari Dorra; Zouari Ghorbel Sonia

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to analyze the development of household indebtedness in Tunisia and its microeconomic determinants. The probit method was used to identify the determinants of household indebtedness with reference to gender. The results show that the Tunisian household indebtedness is in continuous increase and each type of credit is associated with specific determinants. The findings show that only some variables are significant in explaining the differences between the number of credit.

  14. [Healthy life expectancy to Brazilian elders, 2003].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargos, Mirela Castro Santos; Rodrigues, Roberto do Nascimento; Machado, Carla Jorge

    2009-01-01

    The increase of the percentage of elderly population in Brazil and the increase in longevity incite a demand for information on the quantity of years spent in good health. The aim of the present study is to measure the life expectancy for the elderly of 60 years and above, by sex and age, in the year of 2003. The Sullivan method was used, which combined the life-table with the current experience of mortality and the self-perceived health. The mortality information was obtained from the life tables published by the IBGE (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics), 2003. The self-perceived health was used and it was dichotomized in good and bad. This information came from the National Research of Household Sample (PNAD), 2003. The results indicate that women live longer, but spend a higher number of years perceiving their health as bad, as compared to men. The results also highlights to the need of considering the differences between sexes in relation to the demand for health care. It is also important to consider the need to have policies designed to allow the increase in the number of years that the elderly can live in good health conditions.

  15. Effects of two oral contraceptives, containing 30 or 20 microg of ethinyl estradiol in combination with gestodene, on blood coagulation and fibrinolysis in Brazilian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, A C; Montes, M B; Franceschini, S A; Toloi, M R

    2001-01-01

    Blood coagulation and fibrinolytic variables were evaluated in 46 Brazilian women treated with either of two monophasic oral contraceptives (OC), containing 30 or 20 microg of ethinyl estradiol, and 75 microg of gestodene. The effects on procoagulants, anticoagulants, pro-fibrinolytics and antifibrinolytics and fibrin turnover were evaluated after treatment for six consecutive cycles, the impact of reduction of ethinyl estradiol dosage on these effects being assessed. The OC containing 30 microg of ethinyl estradiol significantly increased the activities of factors VIII and X, whereas the one containing 20 microg of ethinyl estradiol caused no changes in clotting factors. Neither treatment altered fibrinogen levels or factor VII, IX or XII activity. There were no changes in antithrombin levels, but treatment with 30 microg ethinyl estradiol increased protein C levels and treatment with 20 microg decreased total protein S levels. Concerning the fibrinolytic parameters, both OCs increased plasminogen activity, whereas no changes in PAI-1, t-PA, alpha-2-antiplasmin or fibrin degradation products were observed. The reduction in ethinyl estradiol dosage from 30 microg to 20 microg eliminated the effects on factors VIII and X. The results show that the OC studied did not cause sufficient changes to indicate that there may be a correlation between these laboratory alterations and clinical results. The lack of reports concerning the hemostatic effects of OCs on Brazilian women hinders comparison of the present data with those obtained for other ethnic groups, at different geographical locations, and emphasizes the importance of such a study for future epidemiological investigation of the prothrombotic effects of OCs in Brazilian women.

  16. Genetic diversity of the pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus) population in the Brazilian Pantanal assessed by combining fresh fecal DNA analysis and a set of heterologous microsatellite loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantellatto, Aline Meira Bonfim; Caparroz, Renato; Christofoletti, Maurício Durante; Piovezan, Ubiratan; Duarte, José Maurício Barbanti

    2017-10-02

    The pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus) is close to being classified as 'globally threatened', with the largest population occurring in the Brazilian Pantanal. Since capture is stressful to these animals, non-invasive sampling methods such as the use of feces can provide reliable sources of DNA. The aim of this study was to use fecal samples to evaluate the genetic variability of the Brazilian Pantanal population of pampas deer. Six heterologous microsatellite markers were used to screen 142 stool specimens. Seventy-four deer were identified, of which 50 adults were used to determine the genetic characteristics of the population. The Pantanal population showed high genetic diversity (mean number of alleles per locus = 11.5, expected heterozygosity = 0.75). This is the first investigation to characterize a South American deer species using fecal DNA and demonstrates the usefulness and efficiency of this approach, as well as the feasibility of obtaining information that could not have been easily obtained by traditional DNA sampling. Our findings suggest that management strategies for this species may be much more effective if applied now when the population still shows high genetic variability.

  17. Household food waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahlen, S.; Winkel, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Food waste is debated not only in the light of sustainable consumption in research and policy, but also in the broader public. This article focuses on food waste in household contexts, what is widely believed the end of the food chain. However, household food waste is far more complex and intricate

  18. Household financial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brounen, Dirk; Koedijk, Kees; Pownall, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Greater personal responsibility toward financial decision-making is being advocated on a global basis. Individuals and households are encouraged to take a more active approach to personal finance. In this paper, we examine behavioral factors, which lead households toward savings and financial

  19. Essays in household finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djordjevic, Ljubica

    2015-01-01

    Household finance is a young and vibrant research field that continuously attracts public attention. There may be very few matters that people care so much about as their personal finance. Recent rise of academic interest in household finance is to a great extent due to households’ more active role

  20. Insegurança alimentar em domicílios com adolescentes da Amazônia Legal Brasileira: prevalência e fatores associados Inseguridad alimentaria en domicilios con adolescentes de la Amazonia Legal Brasileña: prevalencia y factores asociados Food insecurity in households with adolescents in the Brazilian Amazon: prevalence and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Dias da Silva Guerra

    2013-02-01

    de Mato Grosso y raza/color (negro del adolescente. Los resultados apuntan la necesidad de acciones para la mejoría del acceso al saneamiento básico, la cualificación de recursos humanos con el objeto de generar empleo y renta y las acciones educativas que amplíen la comprensión sobre la inseguridad alimentaria y sus determinantes en los municipios.This cross-sectional population-based study in 2007 focused on prevalence of food insecurity and associated factors in households with adolescents in four towns in the Legal Amazonia located along highway BR-163, from Cuiabá, Mato Grosso State, to Santarém, Pará State, Brazil. The study applied the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale to a sample of 363 households. Anthropometric assessment was performed on 534 adolescents from 10 to 19 years of age. A Poisson model was used in the multiple regression analysis. The results showed 23.1% prevalence of moderate to severe food insecurity, suggesting association with the following: low income, poor sanitation, head of household born in Mato Grosso State, and the adolescent's race (black. The results emphasize the need for improved access to basic sanitation, training of human resources to generate employment/income, and educational activities to improve understanding of food insecurity and its determinants.

  1. Household Wealth in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yu; Jin, Yongai

    With new nationwide longitudinal survey data now available from the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS), we study the level, distribution, and composition of household wealth in contemporary China. We find that the wealth Gini coefficient of China was 0.73 in 2012. The richest 1 percent owned more than one-third of the total national household wealth, while the poorest 25 percent owned less than 2 percent. Housing assets, which accounted for over 70 percent, were the largest component of household wealth. Finally, the urban-rural divide and regional disparities played important roles in household wealth distribution, and institutional factors significantly affected household wealth holdings, wealth growth rate, and wealth mobility.

  2. [Abortion in Brazil: a household survey using the ballot box technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Debora; Medeiros, Marcelo

    2010-06-01

    This study presents the first results of the National Abortion Survey (PNA, Pesquisa Nacional de Aborto), a household random sample survey fielded in 2010 covering urban women in Brazil aged 18 to 39 years. The PNA combined two techniques, interviewer-administered questionnaires and self-administered ballot box questionnaires. The results of PNA show that at the end of their reproductive health one in five women has performed an abortion, with abortions being more frequent in the main reproductive ages, that is, from 18 to 29 years old. No relevant differentiation was observed in the practice of abortion among religious groups, but abortion was found to be more common among people with lower education. The use of medical drugs to induce abortion occurred in half of the abortions, and post-abortion hospitalization was observed among approximately half of the women who aborted. Such results lead to conclude that abortion is a priority in the Brazilian public health agenda.

  3. Household Hazardous Waste and Demolition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Household wastes that are toxic, corrosive, ignitable, or reactive are known as Household Hazardous Waste (HHW). Household Hazardous Waste may be found during residential demolitions, and thus require special handling for disposal.

  4. Household hazardous waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjelsted, Lotte; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2007-01-01

    .) comprised 15-25% and foreign items comprised 10-20%. Water-based paint was the dominant part of the paint waste. The chemical composition of the paint waste and the paint-like waste was characterized by an analysis of 27 substances in seven waste fractions. The content of critical substances was tow......'Paint waste', a part of the 'household hazardous waste', amounting to approximately 5 tonnes was collected from recycling stations in two Danish cities. Sorting and analyses of the waste showed paint waste comprised approximately 65% of the mass, paint-like waste (cleaners, fillers, etc...... and the paint waste was less contaminated with heavy metals than was the ordinary household waste. This may suggest that households no longer need to source-segregate their paint if the household waste is incinerated, since the presence of a small quantity of solvent-based paint will not be harmful when...

  5. Household Chemical Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and clearly labeled. Never store hazardous products in food containers. Never mix household hazardous chemicals or waste with ... a newspaper and placing them in a sealed plastic bag in your trash can. Dispose of hazardous ...

  6. Household Wealth in China

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Yu; Jin, Yongai

    2015-01-01

    With new nationwide longitudinal survey data now available from the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS), we study the level, distribution, and composition of household wealth in contemporary China. We find that the wealth Gini coefficient of China was 0.73 in 2012. The richest 1 percent owned more than one-third of the total national household wealth, while the poorest 25 percent owned less than 2 percent. Housing assets, which accounted for over 70 percent, were the largest component of househ...

  7. Household electricity demand profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Larsen, Olena Kalyanova

    2016-01-01

    Highlights •A 1-min resolution household electricity load model is presented. •Model adapts a bottom-up approach with single appliance as the main building block. •Load profiles are used to analyse the flexibility potential of household appliances. •Load profiles can be applied in other domains, e.......g. building energy simulations. •The demand level of houses with different number of occupants is well captured....

  8. Diagnosis of chronic lymphoproliferative disorders by flow cytometry using four-color combinations for immunophenotyping: A proposal of the brazilian group of flow cytometry (GBCFLUX).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, M M; Ferreira, S I A C P; Ikoma, M R V; Sandes, A F; Beltrame, M P; Bacal, N S; Silva, M C A; Malvezzi, M; Lorand-Metze, I G H; Orfao, A; Yamamoto, M

    2017-09-01

    Multiparametric flow cytometry (MFC) is a powerful tool for the diagnosis of hematological malignancies and has been useful for the classification of chronic lymphoproliferative disorders (CLPD) according to the WHO criteria. Following the purposes of the Brazilian Group of Flow Cytometry (GBCFLUX), the aim of this report was to standardize the minimum requirements to achieve an accurate diagnosis in CLPDs, considering the different economic possibilities of the laboratories in our country. Most laboratories in Brazil work with 4-fluorescence flow cytometers, which is why the GBCFLUX CLPD Committee has proposed 4-color monoclonal antibody (MoAb) panels. Panels for screening and diagnosis in B, T and NK lymphoproliferative disorders were developed based on the normal differentiation pathways of these cells and the most frequent phenotypic aberrations. Important markers for prognosis and for minimal residual disease (MRD) evaluation were also included. The MoAb panels presented here were designed based on the diagnostic expertise of the participating laboratories and an extensive literature review. The 4-color panels presented to aid in the diagnosis of lymphoproliferative neoplasms by GBCFLUX aim to provide clinical laboratories with a systematic, step-wise, cost-effective, and reproducible approach to obtain an accurate immunophenotypic diagnosis of the most frequent of these disorders. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  9. Determinants of fuels stacking behaviour among households in Bauchi Metropolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ado Ahmed

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption is an important determinant of the socio economic status of citizens across the globe especially the consumption of modern energy. According to the energy ladder hypothesis households move along the energy ladder as their income increases. At the lower rung of the ladder are the low income and usually uneducated households who mainly consume traditional fuels while the middle class and those at upper echelon of the society largely consume transitional and modern fuels. However the prevalence of energy stacking behaviour where households adopt more than one fuel type has been observed even among the middle and upper income families. The question is why is the observed energy consumption pattern in violation of the energy ladder hypothesis? The paper assesses the combined influence of four variables which include income level of households, education level/exposure of households, households’ size and modern fuels supply security on fuels stacking behaviour of households. Multivariate analysis was conducted to assess the combined influence of the IVs on the DV. The model has an R2 value of .252 meaning that the model explains about 25% variation in the DV. Individually the variables that make significant and unique contribution to the model are educational level of households, income level of households and family size of households. We therefore recommend improved macroeconomic management to improve households’ income, improved educational system and increased supply and diffusion of modern fuel as a way of reducing the prevalence of energy stacking behaviour of households.

  10. Access to medicines in Brazil based on monetary and non-monetary acquisition data obtained from the 2008/2009 Household Budget Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goes, Fernanda Caroline Silva; Homem-de-Mello, Mauricio; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra

    2016-12-22

    To investigate the access to medicines by Brazilian families by monetary and non-monetary acquisition data. This is a cross-sectional study based on data obtained from the 2008/2009 Brazilian Household Budget Survey. The units of assessment were households that participated in the survey and the data on the acquisition of medicines over the 30 days prior to the interviews. The medicines were classified according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification system. Acquisition of medicines was reported by 82.9% of Brazilian households, with 2.38 medicines/household, and 0.72 medicine/individual. In the South and Southeast regions, the average acquisition was slightly greater than the national average (2.53 and 2.49, respectively). In 22.3% of Brazilian households, it was reported that a medicine was not acquired due to lack of financial resources, mainly in the North and Northeastern regions, and in rural areas. Approximately 15.0% of medicines were obtained with no costs, 90.1% of them by the Brazilian Unified Health System. The medicines most acquired were those acting on the nervous system (28.8% of Brazilian households), on the cardiovascular system (15.7%), on the digestive tract and metabolism (14.3%), and on the respiratory system (12.1%). Overall, the quantity of medicines acquired was greater in higher socioeconomic classes of the population, with the exception of antiparasitic products, most likely because of the precarious sanitary conditions faced by less privileged social classes. The acquisition of medicines is a common practice in Brazil, being reported by over 80.0% of the Brazilian households in 2008/2009. Although the data obtained from the Brazilian Household Budget Survey have some limitations, the information obtained in this study can help health authorities to design national and regional policies to guarantee access to these products while promoting their rational use.

  11. Relating the environmental impact of consumption to household expenditures : An input-output analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, Annemarie C.; Nonhebel, Sanderine; Moll, Henri C.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we evaluate the relationships between household expenditures and the environmental impact categories climate change, acidification, eutrophication and smog formation, by combining household expenditures with environmentally extended input–output analysis. Expenditure elasticities are

  12. Essays in Household Finance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanspal, Tobin

    This Ph.D. thesis, entitled Essays in Household Finance, analyzes the determinants and implications of investment biases, personal experiences in financial markets, and financing disruptions on households, individual investors, and entrepreneurs and small business owners. The first essay...... on risk taking is the potential bias resulting from inertia and inattention, which has been shown to be endemic in household finance. If individuals are inert or inattentive, it is difficult to establish whether changes in risk taking are caused by personal experiences or whether the change in risk taking...... advantage of this identification strategy is that inheritances from estates that hold risky assets alter the active decision from one of choosing to take risk to one of choosing not to take risk. Our measure of experience derives from investments in banks that defaulted following the financial crisis. We...

  13. Resource allocation in food crop production and farming household ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to identify the optimal combination of enterprises in food crop production in order to improve the food security status of farming household in Kwara State. Data was collected from 74 farming households by means of a three - stage random sampling technique. Analytical tools used include food ...

  14. Multicenter study for efficacy and safety evaluation of a fixeddose combination gel with adapalen 0.1% and benzoyl peroxide 2.5% (Epiduo® for the treatment of acne vulgaris in Brazilian population*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittart, José Alexandre de Souza; da Costa, Adilson; Mulinari-Brenner, Fabiane; Follador, Ivonise; Azulay-Abulafia, Luna; de Castro, Lia Cândida Miranda

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The current options for the treatment of acne vulgaris present many mechanisms of action. For several times, dermatologists try topical agents combinations, looking for better results. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the efficacy, tolerability and safety of a topical, fixed-dose combination of adapalene 0.1% and benzoyl peroxide 2.5% gel for the treatment of acne vulgaris in the Brazilian population. METHODS This is a multicenter, open-label and interventionist study. Patients applied 1.0 g of the fixed-dose combination of adapalene 0.1% and benzoyl peroxide 2.5% gel on the face, once daily at bedtime, during 12 weeks. Lesions were counted in all of the appointments, and the degree of acne severity, overall improvement, tolerability and safety were evaluated in each visit. RESULTS From 79 recruited patients, 73 concluded the study. There was significant, fast and progressive reduction of non-inflammatory, inflammatory and total number of lesions. At the end of the study, 75.3% of patients had a reduction of >50% in non-inflammatory lesions, 69.9% in inflammatory lesions and 78.1% in total number of lesions. Of the 73 patients, 71.2% had good to excellent response and 87.6% had satisfactory to good response. In the first week of treatment, erythema, burning, scaling and dryness of the skin were frequent complaints, but, from second week on, these signals and symptoms have reduced. CONCLUSION The fixed-dose combination of adapalene 0.1% and benzoyl peroxide 2.5% gel is effective, safe, well tolerated and apparently improves patient compliance with the treatment. PMID:27168522

  15. Multicenter study for efficacy and safety evaluation of a fixeddose combination gel with adapalen 0.1% and benzoyl peroxide 2.5% (Epiduo® for the treatment of acne vulgaris in Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittart, José Alexandre de Souza; Costa, Adilson da; Mulinari-Brenner, Fabiane; Follador, Ivonise; Azulay-Abulafia, Luna; Castro, Lia Cândida Miranda de

    2015-12-01

    The current options for the treatment of acne vulgaris present many mechanisms of action. For several times, dermatologists try topical agents combinations, looking for better results. To evaluate the efficacy, tolerability and safety of a topical, fixed-dose combination of adapalene 0.1% and benzoyl peroxide 2.5% gel for the treatment of acne vulgaris in the Brazilian population. This is a multicenter, open-label and interventionist study. Patients applied 1.0 g of the fixed-dose combination of adapalene 0.1% and benzoyl peroxide 2.5% gel on the face, once daily at bedtime, during 12 weeks. Lesions were counted in all of the appointments, and the degree of acne severity, overall improvement, tolerability and safety were evaluated in each visit. From 79 recruited patients, 73 concluded the study. There was significant, fast and progressive reduction of non-inflammatory, inflammatory and total number of lesions. At the end of the study, 75.3% of patients had a reduction of >50% in non-inflammatory lesions, 69.9% in inflammatory lesions and 78.1% in total number of lesions. Of the 73 patients, 71.2% had good to excellent response and 87.6% had satisfactory to good response. In the first week of treatment, erythema, burning, scaling and dryness of the skin were frequent complaints, but, from second week on, these signals and symptoms have reduced. The fixed-dose combination of adapalene 0.1% and benzoyl peroxide 2.5% gel is effective, safe, well tolerated and apparently improves patient compliance with the treatment.

  16. Electricity saving in households-A social cognitive approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thogersen, John, E-mail: jbt@asb.d [Aarhus University, School of Business and Social Sciences, Department of Marketing, Haslegaardsvej 10, DK-8210 Aarhus (Denmark); Gronhoj, Alice, E-mail: alg@asb.d [Aarhus University, School of Business and Social Sciences, Department of Marketing, Haslegaardsvej 10, DK-8210 Aarhus (Denmark)

    2010-12-15

    We propose a conceptual framework for understanding the (lack of) energy saving efforts of private households based on Bandura's (1986) social cognitive theory. Results from applying this framework on a sample of Danish private electricity consumers are presented and it is concluded (a) that households' electricity consumption depends on both structural and motivational factors, (b) that their electricity saving effort depends on the strength of their internalized norms or self-expectations and on self-efficacy related factors, and (c) that there are predictable patterns of interaction among household members that influence their electricity consumption. The results suggest two approaches to promote electricity saving in households: (1) to change the socio-structural environment to be more facilitating for energy saving and empower householders to be more effective in their striving towards this goal through improved feedback about their household's electricity consumption and (2) social norms marketing, communicating social expectations and others' successful electricity saving achievements. - Research highlights: {yields}A combination of survey and meter reading data is used to analyze energy saving in households. {yields}Up to two adults from each household answered the questionnaire. {yields}Dyadic data analysis is used to investigate interactions between household members. {yields}Both structural and motivational factors account for households' electricity consumption. {yields}Electricity saving efforts depends on internalized norms, self-efficacy and social interaction.

  17. Promoting household energy conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steg, Linda

    2008-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that households must change their behaviour to reduce the problems caused by increasing levels of fossil energy use. Strategies for behaviour change will be more effective if they target the most important causes of the behaviour in question. Therefore, this paper first

  18. Households at Pella, Jordan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walmsley, Alan George

    2007-01-01

    about the layout of buildings and the contextual origin of the many domestic objects recovered permit a full reconstruction of life in the household, especially the use of space. Generally, the upstairs area served as the primary living quarters, whereas the ground floor was used to house valuable...

  19. The Brazilian Organic Food Sector: Prospects and Constraints of Facilitating the Inclusion of Smallholders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, Julien; Kledal, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    The Brazilian organic food sector has experienced important growth during the last two decades. Brazilian smallholders, however, are facing huge challenges to enter and benefit from this growth in a sustainable way. Combining the lens of New Institutional Economics and socio-anthropology, we analyze six experiences of Brazilian smallholders who…

  20. Evolução das desigualdades sociais em saúde entre idosos e adultos brasileiros: um estudo baseado na Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (PNAD 1998, 2003 Health inequality trends among Brazilian adults and old-aged: a study based on the National Household Sample Survey (PNAD 1998, 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Lima-Costa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar se as desigualdades sociais em saúde de adultos (20-64 anos e idosos (> 65 anos brasileiros se alteraram entre 1998 e 2003. O estudo foi realizado em uma amostra de 203.455 e 239.700 participantes da PNAD 1998 e 2003, respectivamente. As condições de saúde e função física, uso de serviços de saúde e filiação a plano de saúde daqueles pertencentes ao quintil inferior da distribuição da renda domiciliar per capita foram comparadas às daqueles com renda mais alta, utilizando-se métodos multivariados de análise. Os resultados mostraram que nos dois anos considerados, os indivíduos no estrato mais baixo de renda apresentavam piores condições de saúde, pior função física e menor uso de serviços de saúde, tanto na faixa etária de 20-64 quanto na de > 65 anos de idade. As forças das associações entre renda domiciliar per capita, condições de saúde e uso de serviços de saúde não se modificaram entre 1998 e 2003, indicando que não houve alterações nas desigualdades sociais em saúde no período estudado. A persistência dessas desigualdades aponta para a ineficiência de políticas, nos últimos cinco anos, que as reduzissem.The aim of this study was to verify whether health inequalities among Brazilian adults (20-64 years and old-aged (> 65 years have changed from 1998 to 2003. The study was conducted in samples of 203.455 and 239.700 participants of the National Household Sample Survey in 1998 and 2003 respectively. The health characteristics of those in the lower quintile of the per capita family income were compared to those with higher income by means of multivariate analysis methods. The characteristics considered in this study were health conditions and physical functioning, use of medical and dental services and health plan affiliation. The results from both years showed poorer health conditions, poorer physical functioning and less use of medical and dental services

  1. Household Adjustments to Hurricane Katrina

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meri Davlasheridze; Qin Fan

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines household adjustments to Hurricane Katrina by estimating the effects of Katrina-induced damages on changes in household demographics and income distributions in the Orleans Parish...

  2. Households, Migration, and Community Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Janet E.

    1990-01-01

    Studies why Vietnamese and Laotian refugee households take the forms they do in a small southwestern Kansas community. Argues that extended family and other nonnuclear family households facilitate refugee adaptation. Economic conditions, labor and housing markets, and refugee legal status all influence household composition, members' roles, and…

  3. The Changing Consequences of Unemployment for Household Finances

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    William T. Dickens; Robert K. Triest; Rachel B. Sederberg

    2017-01-01

    In this article we present new evidence that the capacity of households to cover earnings lost during spells of unemployment through a combination of drawing down of wealth and receipt of unemployment...

  4. Maltreatment of Youth Heads of Households in Rwanda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Rwanda, the combined effects of the 1994 genocide and the spread of AIDS have resulted in large numbers of orphans. ..... youth in the household, current school enrolment and ..... YHH who use marijuana were at even higher risk of.

  5. Household Characteristics That Influence Simple Household Demand on Electricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongam Sihol Nababan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to analyze the characteristics of households that affect the electric energy consumption of simple households. The second objective is to analyze the probability of each of the factors affecting the electricity energy consumption of small household. The research was conducted in Medan City in the period of March 2014 to November 2014 with samples of 143 small households, the customer of PT. PLN (Persero Medan, which use the power of electricity for TR-1 /450VA. Data were analyzed by using the logistic regression model. The estimation results indicated that (1 the higher the willingnes to pay (WTP of households, the higher the tendency to consume elec trical energy per month. (2 the closer the households residence to the city center, the higher the tendency to consume electrical energy than of the households residence in the suburbs, (3 increasingly unfavourable response to electrical quality, the higher the opportunity to consume a greater electric power monthly.

  6. Migrant remittances and household wellbeing in urban Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracking, Sarah; Sachikonye, Lloyd

    2010-01-01

    Evidence from household surveying in December 2005 in Harare and Bulawayo, Zimbabwe, indicates that a wide network of international migrant remitters are ameliorating the economic crisis in Zimbabwe by sending monetary and in-kind transfers to over 50 per cent of urban households. The research combines quantitative measurement of scale and scope, with demographic and qualitative narrative to build a holistic picture of the typography of receiving and non-receiving households. A complex set of interrelated variables helps to explain why some households do and others do not receive income and goods from people who are away, and the economic and social extent of their subsequent benefit from them. Moreover, the mixed methods approach is designed to capture inter-household and likely macroeconomic effects of how households receive their goods and money; and of how they subsequently exchange (if applicable), store and spend it. Evidence emerges of a largely informal, international social welfare system, but one which is not without adverse inter-household effects for some. These include suffering exclusion from markets suffering from inflationary pressures, not least as a result of other people’s remittances. This paper explores the role of remittances, within this internationalised informal welfare system which we can map from our household survey, in reframing vulnerability and marginalization differentially among and between our subject households.

  7. Efficient Intra-Household Allocations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin

    . The tests of the usual symmetry conditions are rejected for two person households but not for one person households. We also show that income pooling is rejected for two person households. We then test for our collective setting conditions on the couples data. None of the collective setting restrictions......The neo-classical theory of demand applies to individuals yet in empirical work it is usually taken as valid for households with many members. This paper explores what the theory of individuals implies for households with many members. This paper explores what the theory of individuals implies...

  8. A price mechanism for supply demand matching in local grid of households with micro-CHP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, G.K.H.; van Foreest, N.D.; Scherpen, J.M.A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a dynamic price mechanism to coordinate eletric power generation from micro Combined Heat and Power (micro-CHP) systems in a network of households. It is assumed that the households are prosumers, i.e. both producers and consumers of electricity. The control is done on household

  9. Good householder and corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Petar M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, in Serbia, it's fashionable to talk about the fight against corruption. 'The spook of fighting corruption circulates through Serbia'. Is there a chance the fight will win the way it's lead? We are convinced there isn't. Since corruption is a process caused by 'rotten' characters, the anti-corruption fight must also be a process of rehabilitation and creation of the right character - the good householder's character. In this process each aspect is important (legal, economic… but for permanent eradication of the evil or the sin of corruption the most important segment is educational because it creates the genuine moral and spiritual value in a hardworking and long-term manner. In 'the period rich in disasters' (Tacitus, in the hard circumstances lasting too long, which would not be endured by any other nation, many values​​, material and moral have inevitably failed. A Serb has endured but also has worn out and lost many virtues, particularly the spirit of a good householder. Mutual hatred seems to be stronger than love, distrust greater than confidence, doubt stronger than faith, and robbery and spoils stronger than charity and solidarity. We need to restore the balance and despite the hardships, and because of them, we must foster mutual love, harmony, unwavering patriotism and value of domesticity. In other words, we must ensure victory of virtue over vice that threatens us from everywhere, both from inside and outside. At the time of 'nuclear techniques and jungle ethics' (Justin Popović the dispersed home of the Serbs can be turned again into a proper home only if we 'have the spirit of domesticity reigning' (Nikolaj Velimirović. To be a successful householder is to be responsible in relation to the state, institution, household that he was entrusted with: add, not to waste, create not to destroy, enlarge rather than reduce, preserve not to destroy a household. 'Do not steal from a country, it was overpaid. Your brothers

  10. Brazilian antidoping public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Claudio Bispo de; Rodrigues, Deyvis Nascimento

    2014-07-01

    Doping, used to improve sports performance, is legally prohibited. This paper describes Brazilian regulations, resolutions, and Federal laws addressing the issue of doping and antidoping which were collected in 2012 from official websites. We conclude that Brazilian laws have constrained doping, and have been updated over the years to conform to worldwide legal guidelines. Study limitations are noted.

  11. Family Life Cycle and Deforestation in Amazonia: Combining Remotely Sensed Information with Primary Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, M.; Walker, R. T.; Shirota, R.; Perz, S.; Skole, D.

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the relationships between the socio-demographic characteristics of small settlers in the Brazilian Amazon and the life cycle hypothesis in the process of deforestation. The analysis was conducted combining remote sensing and geographic data with primary data of 153 small settlers along the TransAmazon Highway. Regression analyses and spatial autocorrelation tests were conducted. The results from the empirical model indicate that socio-demographic characteristics of households as well as institutional and market factors, affect the land use decision. Although remotely sensed information is not very popular among Brazilian social scientists, these results confirm that they can be very useful for this kind of study. Furthermore, the research presented by this paper strongly indicates that family and socio-demographic data, as well as market data, may result in misspecification problems. The same applies to models that do not incorporate spatial analysis.

  12. Concentration of Access to Information and Communication Technologies in the Municipalities of the Brazilian Legal Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brito, Silvana Rossy; da Silva, Aleksandra do Socorro; Cruz, Adejard Gaia; Monteiro, Maurílio de Abreu; Vijaykumar, Nandamudi Lankalapalli; da Silva, Marcelino Silva; Costa, João Crisóstomo Weyl Albuquerque; Francês, Carlos Renato Lisboa

    2016-01-01

    This study fills demand for data on access and use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in the Brazilian legal Amazon, a region of localities with identical economic, political, and social problems. We use the 2010 Brazilian Demographic Census to compile data on urban and rural households (i) with computers and Internet access, (ii) with mobile phones, and (iii) with fixed phones. To compare the concentration of access to ICT in the municipalities of the Brazilian Amazon with other regions of Brazil, we use a concentration index to quantify the concentration of households in the following classes: with computers and Internet access, with mobile phones, with fixed phones, and no access. These data are analyzed along with municipal indicators on income, education, electricity, and population size. The results show that for urban households, the average concentration in the municipalities of the Amazon for computers and Internet access and for fixed phones is lower than in other regions of the country; meanwhile, that for no access and mobile phones is higher than in any other region. For rural households, the average concentration in the municipalities of the Amazon for computers and Internet access, mobile phones, and fixed phones is lower than in any other region of the country; meanwhile, that for no access is higher than in any other region. In addition, the study shows that education and income are determinants of inequality in accessing ICT in Brazilian municipalities and that the existence of electricity in rural households is directly associated with the ownership of ICT resources.

  13. Tendências nas condições de saúde e uso de serviços de saúde entre idosos brasileiros: um estudo baseado na Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (1998, 2003 Trends in health conditions and use of health services by the Brazilian elderly: a study based on the National Household Sample Survey (1998, 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Lima-Costa

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo verificar as tendências das condições de saúde e do uso de serviços de saúde entre idosos brasileiros, utilizando dados da Pesquisa Nacional por Amostras de Domicílios (PNAD. Foram incluídos no estudo 28.943 e 35.042 participantes das PNAD 1998 e 2003 com idade > 60 anos, respectivamente. Os resultados mostraram que houve melhora nas condições de saúde dos idosos nesse período, considerando-se indicadores como percepção da saúde, ter estado recentemente acamado, capacidade para realizar atividades da vida diária e número de doenças crônicas. Os resultados também monstraram que houve aumento do número de consultas médicas e odontológicas entre 1998 e 2003. Tais tendências foram consistentemente observadas em ambos os sexos. Os autores chamam a atenção para a importância do suplemento de saúde da PNAD como fonte de informação para o monitoramento e/ou vigilância das condições de saúde da população idosa brasileira.This study examined trends in health conditions and use of health services by the Brazilian elderly, based on health data from the National Household Sample Surveys (PNAD conducted in 1998 and 2003. 28,943 and 35,042 individuals aged > 60 years were included in the study, respectively. The results showed an improvement in health conditions in the study population during this period, as measured by self-rated health, having remained bedridden in the previous two weeks, ability to perform selected activities of daily living, number of chronic conditions, and self-reported arthritis. There was also an increase in the number of doctor and dentist visits from 1998 to 2003. The trends were consistent for both men and women. The results emphasize the importance of the PNAD health supplement as a source of information for the surveillance or monitoring of health and health-related conditions in the Brazilian elderly population.

  14. Prevalência e fatores associados à realização da mamografia na faixa etária de 50-69 anos: um estudo baseado na Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (2003 Prevalence and factors associated with mammograms in the 50-69-year age group: a study based on the Brazilian National Household Sample Survey (PNAD-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Lima-Costa

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido utilizando dados da Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios de 2003 (PNAD 2003, com o objetivo de estimar a prevalência e os fatores associados à realização da mamografia entre mulheres brasileiras com 50-59 e 60-69 anos de idade. Participaram do estudo 16.570 e 10.722 mulheres nas respectivas faixas etárias. Quarenta e três por cento das participantes com 50-69 anos haviam realizado uma mamografia nos últimos dois anos. Essa prevalência foi mais baixa na faixa etária superior (37% em comparação à inferior (46%. Em ambas as faixas etárias, a realização da mamografia apresentou associações positivas e independentes com a localização urbana do domicílio, a macrorregião de residência, a escolaridade, a renda domiciliar, o exame de Papanicolau, o número de consultas médicas e a cobertura por plano de saúde. Esses resultados mostram que a cobertura da mamografia ainda é baixa entre mulheres brasileiras, sobretudo entre as mais velhas, e que existem profundas desigualdades associadas à sua realização. Recomenda-se a condução de investigações mais profundas que permitam um melhor entendimento dessas desigualdades, visando a sua superação.This study was developed to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with mammograms among Brazilian women, based on data from the National Household Sample Survey (PNAD in 2003. 16,570 and 10,722 women aged 50-59 and 60-69 years participated in the study. 43% of participants aged 50-69 years had received a mammogram in the previous two years. The rate was lower among older women (37% as compared to the younger group (46%. In both age groups, having received a mammogram in the previous two years was positively and independently associated with urban residence, region of residence, years of schooling, family income, Papanicolaou exam, number of physician visits, and health plan coverage. The results showed that the prevalence of

  15. Contextual factors associated with smoking among Brazilian adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Giatti, Luana; Casado, Leticia; de Moura, Lenildo; Crespo,Claudio; Malta,Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Background Very few studies have examined the role of school, household and family contexts in youth smoking in middle-income countries. Methods This work describes smoking exposure among 59 992 high school students who took part in the Brazilian Survey of School Health and investigates contextual factors associated with regular smoking, defined as smoking cigarettes at least once in the past 30 days. The explaining variables were grouped into: socio-demographic characteristics, school contex...

  16. The Household Registration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Although longitudinal experimental community health research is crucial to testing hypotheses about the demographic impact of health technologies, longitudinal demographic research field stations are rare, owing to the complexity and high cost of developing requisite computer software systems. This paper describes the Household Registration System (HRS, a software package that has been used for the rapid development of eleven surveillance systems in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. Features of the HRS automate software generation for a family of surveillance applications, obviating the need for new and complex computer software systems for each new longitudinal demographic study.

  17. The Household Planning Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Louise; Ramsøy, Thomas Z.; Nyström, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    on the same schedule as in the IGT. Eighteen university students performed the HPG, which was separated into three conditions containing 100 trials. During the game, participants were asked to; 1) pay a number of fixed monthly costs or save money for various household costs; 2) purchase a number of consumer...... goods like groceries or presents; and 3) prioritize between paying bills at the beginning of a month or go out and spend money on shopping. Eye tracking was used to assess visual attention while participants performed the task. The results showed that the two non-risky decks were selected 30% and 37...

  18. Bullying in Brazilian Schools and Restorative Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, Patricia Krieger; dos Santos, Andreia Mendes

    2012-01-01

    Bullying is a widespread phenomenon that affects many children and adolescents in Brazilian schools. A pilot research study was carried out in four schools (one private and three public) located in Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. A combination of self-administered questionnaires and focus groups with students as well as interviews with teachers were…

  19. Household Income Volatility in U.S. Farm Households

    OpenAIRE

    Key, Nigel; Prager, Daniel; Burns, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Farm households are subject to several sources of income instability, including yield and production fluctuations, disasters such as droughts or disease, input and output price changes, and varying levels of off-farm income. This paper assesses the income variability of households operating family farms in the continental United States. We find that income volatility varies between farm household subgroups, such as farm size, commodity specialization, and geographic location and that volatili...

  20. Correspondence between overweight and socioeconomic and demographic indicators in the adult Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Schuindt da Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To verify the correlation between overweight and socioeconomic and demographic indicators among Brazilian adults, using data from the Brazilian Household Budget Survey from 2008/2009.METHODS: We analyzed the joint relationships between overweight and socioeconomic and demographic indicators in the Brazilian adult population (99,532,672 individuals, through the multiple correspondence analysis technique.RESULTS: The featured profile of the Brazilian adult population with regard to overweight was correlated with ages from 30 years of the most developed and economically social geographic regions of Brazil; however between genders, the correlation was in the opposite direction in the variables income, education, and subjective issues about life conditions related to food and nutrition security.CONCLUSION: By the joint relationship between overweight and selected demographic and socioeconomic indicators, the urgency of the development of strategies and/or preventive public health programs of health problems with overweight in the Brazilian adult population is suggested.

  1. Prices, infrastructure, household characteristics and child height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D; Strauss, J

    1992-10-01

    A Brazilian household survey, ENDEF, in 1974-75 and the 1974 Informacoes Basicas Municipais (IBM) provided data for the analysis of the impact of community services and infrastructure and household characteristics on the logarithm of child height, standardized for age and gender. The sample was comprised of 36,974 children stratified by residential location, the child's age, and the educational level of the mother. Variance and covariance matrices were estimated with the jackknife developed by Efron (1982). Household characteristics included the logarithm of per capita expenditure as a measure of household resource availability, income, and parental education. Community characteristics were local market price indices for 6 food groups (dairy products, beans, cereals, meat, fish, and sugar), level of urbanization, buildings with sewage, water, and electricity connections per capita, per capita number of buildings, and population density. Health services were measured as per capita number of hospitals and clinics and doctors and nurses, and the number of beds are hospital. Educational services include a measure of student teacher ratios, elementary school class size, and per capita number of teachers living in the community. the results show that expenditure had a positive, significant effect on the height of children 2 years and older. Expenditure was a significant determinant for literate and illiterate mothers, and not well educated mothers. The impact of maternal education was largest on the length of babies and declined with the age of the child. Father's education had not impact of length of babies. The effect of parents' education was complementary. The effect of father's education was largest when mothers had some education. Better educated parents had healthier children. Maternal rather than paternal height had an impact of the length of a baby. In the community models, prices had a significant effect on child height, in both urban and rural areas, in all

  2. Maximising response rates in household telephone surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinclair Martha

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological and other studies that require participants to respond by completing a questionnaire face the growing threat of non-response. Response rates to household telephone surveys are diminishing because of changes in telecommunications, marketing and culture. Accordingly, updated information is required about the rate of telephone listing in directories and optimal strategies to maximise survey participation. Methods A total of 3426 households in Sydney, Australia were approached to participate in a computer assisted telephone interview (CATI regarding their domestic (recycled and/or drinking water usage. Only randomly selected households in the suburb and postcode of interest with a telephone number listed in the Electronic White Pages (EWP that matched Australian electoral records were approached. Results The CATI response rate for eligible households contacted by telephone was 39%. The rate of matching of electoral and EWP records, a measure of telephone directory coverage, was 55%. Conclusion The use of a combination of approaches, such as an advance letter, interviewer training, establishment of researcher credentials, increasing call attempts and targeted call times, remains a good strategy to maximise telephone response rates. However, by way of preparation for future technological changes, reduced telephone number listings and people's increasing resistance to unwanted phone calls, alternatives to telephone surveys, such as internet-based approaches, should be investigated.

  3. Maximising response rates in household telephone surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Joanne; Sinclair, Martha; Leder, Karin

    2008-11-03

    Epidemiological and other studies that require participants to respond by completing a questionnaire face the growing threat of non-response. Response rates to household telephone surveys are diminishing because of changes in telecommunications, marketing and culture. Accordingly, updated information is required about the rate of telephone listing in directories and optimal strategies to maximise survey participation. A total of 3426 households in Sydney, Australia were approached to participate in a computer assisted telephone interview (CATI) regarding their domestic (recycled and/or drinking) water usage. Only randomly selected households in the suburb and postcode of interest with a telephone number listed in the Electronic White Pages (EWP) that matched Australian electoral records were approached. The CATI response rate for eligible households contacted by telephone was 39%. The rate of matching of electoral and EWP records, a measure of telephone directory coverage, was 55%. The use of a combination of approaches, such as an advance letter, interviewer training, establishment of researcher credentials, increasing call attempts and targeted call times, remains a good strategy to maximise telephone response rates. However, by way of preparation for future technological changes, reduced telephone number listings and people's increasing resistance to unwanted phone calls, alternatives to telephone surveys, such as internet-based approaches, should be investigated.

  4. The multitasking of household production

    OpenAIRE

    Kalenkoski, Charlene Marie; Foster, Gigi

    2010-01-01

    The standard household production model does not incorporate multitasking, although time-diary data reveal that individuals regularly multi-task. We formulate a model where time spent in child care can be sole-tasked or multitasked with other household production activities. This model implies associations between household productivity factors and both child outcomes and parental time use. We then use data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children and the Australian Time Use Surveys...

  5. Regional and socioeconomic distribution of household food availability in Brazil, in 2008-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Mondini, Lenise; Sichieri, Rosely; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2012-02-01

    To describe the regional and socioeconomic distribution of household food availability in Brazil. Data from the 2008-2009 Household Budget Survey on food and beverage acquisition for household consumption, conducted by the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics), were analyzed. The amounts of foods, recorded during seven consecutive days in the 55,970 sample households, were converted into calories and nutrients. Food quality indicators were constructed and analyzed according to the regional and socioeconomic strata of the Brazilian population. The amount of energy from protein was adequate in all regional and socioeconomic strata. On the other hand, an excess of free sugars and fats was observed in all regions of the country, especially in the Southern and Southeastern regions. The proportion of saturated fats was high in urban areas and consistent with the greater contribution of animal-derived products. Limited availability of fruits and vegetables was found in all regions. An increase in the fat content and reduction in carbohydrate content of the diet were observed with the increase in income. The negative characteristics of the Brazilian diet observed at the end of the first decade of the 21st century indicate the need to prioritize public policies for the promotion of healthy eating.

  6. Climate change, household vulnerability and smart agriculture: The case of two South African provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mkhululi Ncube

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of climate-change disasters poses significant challenges for South Africa, especially for vulnerable rural households. In South Africa, the impact of climate change at the local level, especially in rural areas, is not well known. Rural households are generally poor and lack resources to adapt to and mitigate the impact of climate change, but the extent of their vulnerability is largely not understood. This study looked at the micro-level impact of climate change, evaluated household vulnerability and assessed alternative adaptation strategies in rural areas. The results indicate that climate change will hit crop yields hard and that households with less capital are most vulnerable. These households consist of the elderly and households headed by females. Households that receive remittances or extension services or participate in formal savings schemes in villages are less vulnerable. The results suggest that households need to move towards climate-smart agriculture, which combines adaptation, mitigation and productivity growth.

  7. Farm Households Food Production and Households' Food Security ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food is an important basic human need for survival, growth, and good health. Most rural households in Tanzania, Kahama district inclusive produce the food they consume. Despite this reality, a number of households in the district suffer from food insecurity. However, there are inequalities across the districtfs ecological ...

  8. Energy economics of cooking in households in Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokharel, S. [Nanyang Technological Univ., Singapore (Singapore). School of Mechanical and Production Engineering

    2004-03-01

    This paper focuses on the economic analysis of energy consumed for cooking in urban households in Nepal. In this paper, annual energy requirements, energy efficiency, various combinations of fuels, stoves and utensils used for cooking and their corresponding costs have been examined through lab experiments and surveys. The estimate of system efficiencies for household cooking is one of the major contributions of this paper. The paper also discusses costs of energy use and compares various energy alternatives for cooking. It is believed that the analysis presented here will be helpful to the policy planners to devise better energy options for households. (Author)

  9. Brazilian Consensus on Photoprotection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalka, Sérgio; Steiner, Denise; Ravelli, Flávia Naranjo; Steiner, Tatiana; Terena, Aripuanã Cobério; Marçon, Carolina Reato; Ayres, Eloisa Leis; Addor, Flávia Alvim Sant'anna; Miot, Helio Amante; Ponzio, Humberto; Duarte, Ida; Neffá, Jane; da Cunha, José Antônio Jabur; Boza, Juliana Catucci; Samorano, Luciana de Paula; Corrêa, Marcelo de Paula; Maia, Marcus; Nasser, Nilton; Leite, Olga Maria Rodrigues Ribeiro; Lopes, Otávio Sergio; Oliveira, Pedro Dantas; Meyer, Renata Leal Bregunci; Cestari, Tânia; dos Reis, Vitor Manoel Silva; Rego, Vitória Regina Pedreira de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    Brazil is a country of continental dimensions with a large heterogeneity of climates and massive mixing of the population. Almost the entire national territory is located between the Equator and the Tropic of Capricorn, and the Earth axial tilt to the south certainly makes Brazil one of the countries of the world with greater extent of land in proximity to the sun. The Brazilian coastline, where most of its population lives, is more than 8,500 km long. Due to geographic characteristics and cultural trends, Brazilians are among the peoples with the highest annual exposure to the sun. Epidemiological data show a continuing increase in the incidence of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancers. Photoprotection can be understood as a set of measures aimed at reducing sun exposure and at preventing the development of acute and chronic actinic damage. Due to the peculiarities of Brazilian territory and culture, it would not be advisable to replicate the concepts of photoprotection from other developed countries, places with completely different climates and populations. Thus the Brazilian Society of Dermatology has developed the Brazilian Consensus on Photoprotection, the first official document on photoprotection developed in Brazil for Brazilians, with recommendations on matters involving photoprotection. PMID:25761256

  10. Noncooperative Household Consumption with Caring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherchye, L.J.H.; Demuynck, T.; de Rock, B.

    2011-01-01

    We present a household consumption model that accounts for caring house- hold members, while allowing for noncooperative behavior in decisions on pub- lic goods. The intrahousehold consumption outcome critically depends on the degree of caring between the household members. By varying the degree of

  11. Feedback on household electricity consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj, Alice; Thøgersen, John

    2011-01-01

    consumption, we evaluate the effects of giving households detailed feedback about their electricity consumption on a small liquid crystal display (LCD) screen. Twenty Danish households participated in the study over a 5-month period. A new feedback system was developed in a user-involved innovation process...

  12. Household Finance: An Emerging Field

    OpenAIRE

    Guiso, Luigi; Sodini, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Household finance - the normative and positive study of how households use financial markets to achieve their objectives - has gained a lot of attention over the past decade and has become a field with its own identity, style and agenda. In this chapter we review its evolution and most recent developments.

  13. Head lice in Norwegian households: actions taken, costs and knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukke, Bjørn Arne; Birkemoe, Tone; Soleng, Arnulf; Lindstedt, Heidi Heggen; Ottesen, Preben

    2012-01-01

    Head lice infestations cause distress in many families. A well-founded strategy to reduce head lice prevalence must shorten the infectious period of individual hosts. To develop such a strategy, information about the actions taken (inspection, treatment and informing others about own infestations), level of knowledge and costs is needed. The present study is the first to consider all these elements combined. A questionnaire was answered by 6203 households from five geographically separated municipalities in Norway. 94% of the households treated members with pediculicides when head lice were discovered. Nearly half of the households checked biannually or not at all. Previous occurrence of head lice and multiple children in a household improved both checking frequency and method. More than 90% of the households informed close contacts about their own pediculosis. Direct costs of pediculosis were low (less than €6.25 yearly) for 70% of the households, but the ability to pay for pediculicides decreased with the number of head lice infestations experienced. One in three households kept children from school because of pediculosis. Other widespread misconceptions, such as that excessive cleaning is necessary to fight head lice, may also add unnecessary burden to households. School affiliation had a significant effect on checking frequency and method, knowledge and willingness to inform others about own pediculosis. Increased checking frequencies appear to be the most important element to reduce head lice prevalence in Norway and should be a primary focus of future strategies. National campaigns directed through schools to individual households, might be an important tool to achieve this goal. In addition to improving actions taken, such campaigns should also provide accurate information to reduce costs and enhance the level of knowledge about head lice in households.

  14. Head lice in Norwegian households: actions taken, costs and knowledge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørn Arne Rukke

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Head lice infestations cause distress in many families. A well-founded strategy to reduce head lice prevalence must shorten the infectious period of individual hosts. To develop such a strategy, information about the actions taken (inspection, treatment and informing others about own infestations, level of knowledge and costs is needed. The present study is the first to consider all these elements combined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A questionnaire was answered by 6203 households from five geographically separated municipalities in Norway. RESULTS: 94% of the households treated members with pediculicides when head lice were discovered. Nearly half of the households checked biannually or not at all. Previous occurrence of head lice and multiple children in a household improved both checking frequency and method. More than 90% of the households informed close contacts about their own pediculosis. Direct costs of pediculosis were low (less than €6.25 yearly for 70% of the households, but the ability to pay for pediculicides decreased with the number of head lice infestations experienced. One in three households kept children from school because of pediculosis. Other widespread misconceptions, such as that excessive cleaning is necessary to fight head lice, may also add unnecessary burden to households. School affiliation had a significant effect on checking frequency and method, knowledge and willingness to inform others about own pediculosis. CONCLUSIONS: Increased checking frequencies appear to be the most important element to reduce head lice prevalence in Norway and should be a primary focus of future strategies. National campaigns directed through schools to individual households, might be an important tool to achieve this goal. In addition to improving actions taken, such campaigns should also provide accurate information to reduce costs and enhance the level of knowledge about head lice in households.

  15. Changing Age and Household Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerg Jacobsen, Rasmus; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the effects on tax revenues and welfare expenditures in Denmark caused by changes in age and household structures over the years 1982-2007. During that period, there has been a minor fall in the old-age dependency ratio, and a major increase in the number of people living alone......, lone parents and cohabiting couples. Focusing on components of welfare services with noticeable differences in unit costs across age and household status, we find that changes in age structures have improved public finances by 1.6% of GDP whereas changing household structures have worsened public...... finances by almost 1% of GDP on the yearly budget. While the net fiscal effect of changing household structures is minor, the gross effects are substantial. In a future characterized by population ageing, public finances may be adversely affected by changes in both age and household structures, thus...

  16. Quality of food choices of Brazilian adolescents according to individual earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Marina Campos; Cunha, Diana Barbosa; Bezerra, Ilana Nogueira; de Castro, Maria Beatriz Trindade; Sichieri, Rosely

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the quality of food choices according to adolescent individual earnings in Brazil. Adolescents were classified according to their individual earnings as having or not having spending power for their own expenses. Food records from two non-consecutive days of the Brazilian National Dietary Survey (NDS 2008-2009) were used to estimate food intake. Quality of food choices was based on two approaches: (i) the NOVA classification, which classifies processed and ultra-processed foods and drinks as unhealthy food groups; and (ii) traditional classification, with beans, milk, fruits and vegetables as healthy food groups, and soft drinks, sweets, snacks and crackers classified as unhealthy. We compared mean food intake (g/kJ or ml/kJ) according to per capita household income (tertiles) and adolescent individual earnings, with adolescent earnings adjusted for household income, using multiple linear regression. Brazilian households (n 13 569). Adolescents aged 14-18 years (n 3673). Males without individual earnings had higher per capita household income than those with individual earnings. Household income was associated with all three food groups of the NOVA classification and seven of the eight groups of the traditional classification. However, only beans and snacks were consumed in significantly greater quantities by adolescents with individual earnings compared with those without earnings. Adolescent individual earnings were not the main driver of food choices; however, per capita household income was associated with food choices. The consumption of both healthy and unhealthy items increased with increasing household income.

  17. Application of an improved operational strategy for a high temperature-proton exchange membrane fuel cell-based micro-combined heat and power system for Danish single-family households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arsalis, Alexandros; Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2013-01-01

    A proposed residential energy system based on the PBI (Polybenzimidazole) fuel cell technology is analyzed in terms of operational performance. Conventional operational strategies, such as heat-led and electricity-led, are applied to the simulated system to investigate their performance...... profile is based on average data for a single-family household in Denmark and includes consumption data for electricity and heat demands. The study analyzes the potential of the proposed system on market penetration in the area of residential heat-and-power generation and whether this deployment can...... characteristics. Based on these findings, an improved operational strategy is formulated and applied in an attempt to minimize the shortcomings of conventional strategies. System parameters, such as electrical and thermal efficiencies, heat dumping, and import/export of electricity, are analyzed. The applied load...

  18. The mitogenome of Onchocerca volvulus from the Brazilian Amazonia focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crainey, James L; Silva, Túllio R R da; Encinas, Fernando; Marín, Michel A; Vicente, Ana Carolina P; Luz, Sérgio L B

    2016-01-01

    We report here the first complete mitochondria genome of Onchocerca volvulus from a focus outside of Africa. An O. volvulus mitogenome from the Brazilian Amazonia focus was obtained using a combination of high-throughput and Sanger sequencing technologies. Comparisons made between this mitochondrial genome and publicly available mitochondrial sequences identified 46 variant nucleotide positions and suggested that our Brazilian mitogenome is more closely related to Cameroon-origin mitochondria than West African-origin mitochondria. As well as providing insights into the origins of Latin American onchocerciasis, the Brazilian Amazonia focus mitogenome may also have value as an epidemiological resource.

  19. The mitogenome of Onchocerca volvulus from the Brazilian Amazonia focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James L Crainey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report here the first complete mitochondria genome of Onchocerca volvulus from a focus outside of Africa. An O. volvulus mitogenome from the Brazilian Amazonia focus was obtained using a combination of high-throughput and Sanger sequencing technologies. Comparisons made between this mitochondrial genome and publicly available mitochondrial sequences identified 46 variant nucleotide positions and suggested that our Brazilian mitogenome is more closely related to Cameroon-origin mitochondria than West African-origin mitochondria. As well as providing insights into the origins of Latin American onchocerciasis, the Brazilian Amazonia focus mitogenome may also have value as an epidemiological resource.

  20. Productivity of goats and their contribution to household food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated smallholder production systems in the rural areas of Tanzania and their contribution to household protein supply. Animals kept on the farms were either a combination of dairy and meat goats, dairy goats only, meat goats only or dairy and meat goats in combination with pigs. Vegetable and fruit for sale ...

  1. Combinação de fatores de risco relacionados à s��ndrome metabólica em militares da Marinha do Brasil Combination of risk factors for metabolic syndrome in the military personnel of the Brazilian Navy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Ferreira da Costa

    2011-12-01

    personnel of the Brazilian Navy and to identify variables associated with the presence of MS in that population. METHODS: Cross-sectional study involving 1,383 men (18-62 years assigned to military organizations in the city of Natal, state of Rio Grande do Norte. The criterion proposed by the International Diabetes Association was used for the diagnosis of MS. The ratio between observed and expected prevalence and the respective confidence intervals were used to identify the combinations of risk factors that exceeded that expected for the population. Logistic regression was used to identify variables associated with MS. RESULTS: The prevalence of MS was 17.6%. Approximately one third of the military personnel studied had two or more risk factors for MS. All specific combinations of risk factors for MS that exceeded the expected prevalence had abdominal obesity as one of its components. In the adjusted analyses, age, smoking and physical activity level remained associated with MS. CONCLUSION: Our findings reinforce the constant presence of abdominal obesity in the phenotype of MS. In addition, our data also support the idea that age, smoking and low level of physical activity are independent variables for the occurrence of MS.

  2. Analysis of Capability of Households to Finance Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarasenko Yuliya V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses possibilities of financing higher education by households, it proves, using example of households of Ukraine and Russia, wish and capability of households to finance higher education. Analysis of such a capability of households reveals both possibilities for development of the education system and possibilities of overcoming problems in the structure of own finances. In the result of the analysis, the article identifies problems that require solution for adjustment of stable financing. One of the main problems is imbalance of household expenditures. The structure of these expenditures, which is individual for each country, should be taken into account when identifying cost of education, since household finances become one of the priority sources of financing higher education. Due to this, the article identifies a formula of the cost of education, which should be taken into account when it is established and which includes household capabilities. The article identifies a model, with the help of which it is possible to assess the quality of financing higher education when combining various sources of financing.

  3. Pharmacopollution and Household Waste Medicine (HWM): how reverse logistics is environmentally important to Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, André Luiz; de Vasconcelos Barros, Raphael Tobias; Pereira, Sandra Rosa

    2017-11-01

    Pharmacopollution is a public health and environmental outcome of some active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) and endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDC) dispersed through water and/or soil. Its most important sources are the pharmaceutical industry, healthcare facilities (e.g., hospitals), livestock, aquaculture, and households (patients' excretion and littering). The last source is the focus of this article. Research questions are "What is the Household Waste Medicine (HWM) phenomenon?", "How HWM and pharmacopollution are related?", and "Why is a reverse logistic system necessary for HWM in Brazil?" This article followed the seven steps proposed by Rother (2007) for a systematic review based on the Cochrane Handbook and the National Health Service (NHS) Center for Reviews Dissemination (CDR) Report. The HWM phenomenon brings many environmental, public health, and, social challenges. The insufficient data is a real challenge to assessing potential human health risks and API concentrations. Therefore, the hazard of long-term exposure to low concentrations of pharmacopollutants and the combined effects of API mixtures is still uncertain. HWM are strongly related to pharmacopollution, as this review shows. The Brazilian HWM case is remarkable because it is the fourth pharmaceutical market (US$ 65,971 billion), with a wide number of private pharmacies and drugstores (3.3: 10,000 pharmacy/inhabitants), self-medication habits, and no national take-back program. The HWM generation is estimated in 56.6 g/per capita, or 10,800 t/year. The absence of a reverse logistics for HWM can lead to serious environmental and public health challenges. The sector agreement for HWM is currently under public consultation.

  4. Household vehicles energy consumption 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1994 reports on the results of the 1994 Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey (RTECS). The RTECS is a national sample survey that has been conducted every 3 years since 1985. For the 1994 survey, more than 3,000 households that own or use some 6,000 vehicles provided information to describe vehicle stock, vehicle-miles traveled, energy end-use consumption, and energy expenditures for personal vehicles. The survey results represent the characteristics of the 84.9 million households that used or had access to vehicles in 1994 nationwide. (An additional 12 million households neither owned or had access to vehicles during the survey year.) To be included in then RTECS survey, vehicles must be either owned or used by household members on a regular basis for personal transportation, or owned by a company rather than a household, but kept at home, regularly available for the use of household members. Most vehicles included in the RTECS are classified as {open_quotes}light-duty vehicles{close_quotes} (weighing less than 8,500 pounds). However, the RTECS also includes a very small number of {open_quotes}other{close_quotes} vehicles, such as motor homes and larger trucks that are available for personal use.

  5. Indigenous Brazilian Management Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zandra Balbinot

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present research seeks to understand to what extent companies in emerging countries, specifically, Brazilian, adopt dominant management practices, the so-called Euro-American practices, possess their one, or show a syncretism between the two. Methods: Mixed research. One phase was to collect data using a survey about cultural dimensions adopted from GLOBE (House 1998 management practices and also from Brazilian academy. Another was to collect data through interviews, which were analyzed in parallel. Results: Of the seven dominant cultural dimensions, indigenous practices influenced two. Another three were influenced by dominant management practices. Two of the local dimensions, even with internationalization, merged practices with Brazilian cultural traits. Even so, the practices derived from Jeitinho diminished relative to the international relations and experience of managers. Conclusions: The paper shows the existence of powerful Brazilian Indigenous Managerial Practices such as personalism and formalism. These practices have great influence on international business negotiations. On the other hand, it also shows that there are still dominant managerial practices specially in the case of more internationalized Brazilian managers

  6. Raising household saving: does financial education work?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gale, William G; Harris, Benjamin H; Levine, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    This article highlights the prevalence and economic outcomes of financial illiteracy among American households, and reviews previous research that examines how improving financial literacy affects household saving...

  7. Agreement of dietary fiber and calorie intake values according to the choice of nutrient composition and household measure tables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele DREHMER

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the variations in the daily intake of dietary fiber and calories according to the different nutrient composition and homemade measure tables. Methods: Five different methods based on different nutrient composition and household measure tables were used to calculate daily calorie and fiber intake, measured using a food frequency questionnaire, of 633 pregnant women receiving care in primary health care units in the Southern region of Brazil; they were selected to participate in a cohort study. The agreement between the five methods was evaluated using the Kappa and weighted Kappa coefficients. The Nutritional Support Table, a Brazilian traditional food composition table and the Brazilian household expenditure survey were used in Method 1. Brazilian Food Composition Table and the Table for the Assessment of Household Measures (Pinheiro were used in Methods 2 and 3. The average values of all subtypes of food listed in the Brazilian Food Composition Table for each corresponding item in the food frequency questionnaire were calculated in the method 3. The United States Department of Agriculture Food Composition Table and the table complied by Pinheiro were used in Method 4. The Brazilian Food Composition Table and the Brazilian household expenditure survey were used in Method 5. Results: The highest agreement of calorie intake values were found between Methods 2 and 3 (Kappa=0.94; 0.92-0.95, and the lowest agreement was found between Methods 4 and 5 (Kappa=0.46; 0.42-0.50. As for the fiber intake, the highest agreement was found between Methods 2 and 5 (Kappa=0.87; 0.82-0.90, and the lowest agreement was observed between Methods 1 and 4 (Kappa=0.36; 0.3-0.43. Conclusion: Considerable differences were found between the nutritional composition tables. Therefore, the choice of the table can influence the comparability between studies.

  8. Household vehicles energy consumption 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-09

    The purpose of this report is to provide information on the use of energy in residential vehicles in the 50 States and the District of Columbia. Included are data about: the number and type of vehicles in the residential sector, the characteristics of those vehicles, the total annual Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT), the per household and per vehicle VMT, the vehicle fuel consumption and expenditures, and vehicle fuel efficiencies. The data for this report are based on the household telephone interviews from the 1991 RTECS, conducted during 1991 and early 1992. The 1991 RTECS represents 94.6 million households, of which 84.6 million own or have access to 151.2 million household motor vehicles in the 50 States and the District of Columbia.

  9. Car use within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study the demand for car kilometres in two-car households, focusing on the substitution between cars in response to fuel price changes. We use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car households to estimate—for each car owned by the household—own and cross-price effects...... of increases in fuel costs per kilometre. The empirical results show that failure to capture substitution between cars within the household can result in substantial misspecification biases. Ignoring substitution, we estimate fuel price elasticities of –0.81 and -0.65 for the primary and secondary cars...... efficient car, finding partial support for the underlying hypothesis. More importantly, the results of this extended model emphasize the importance of behavioural differences related to the position of the most fuel efficient car in the household, suggesting that households’ fuel efficiency choices...

  10. Household behavior and individual autonomy

    OpenAIRE

    d'Aspremont-Lynden, Claude; Dos Santos Ferreira, Rodolphe

    2009-01-01

    The paper proposes a model of household behavior with both private and public consumption where the spouses independently maximize their utilities, but taking into account, together with their own individual budget constraints, the collective household budget constraint (with public goods evaluated at Lindahl prices). The Lagrange multipliers associated with these constraints are used to parameterize the set of equilibria, in addition to the usual parameterization by income shares. The pr...

  11. Household External Finance and Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Besley, Timothy J.; Meads, Neil; Surico, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses mortgage data to construct a measure of terms on which households access to external finance, and relates it to consumption at both the aggregate and cohort levels. The Household External Finance (HEF) index is based on the spread paid by risky borrowers in the mortgage market. There is evidence that the terms of access to external finance matter more for the consumption of young cohorts in U.K. data. Results are robust to a wide variety of specifications.

  12. Family income, food prices, and household purchases of fruits and vegetables in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claro, Rafael Moreira; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2010-12-01

    To analyze the influence of family income and food prices on the participation of fruits and vegetables in the food purchases of Brazilian households. Data analyzed refers to the Household Budget Survey conducted by the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística on a probabilistic sample of 48,470 Brazilian households between 2002 and 2003. Fruit and vegetable participation in total food purchases was expressed as a percentage of total calories purchased and as calories from fruit and vegetables adjusted for total calories purchased. A multiple regression analysis was employed to estimate elasticity coefficients, controlling for sociodemographic variables and price of other foods. Fruit and vegetable participation in total food purchases increased as the price of these foods decreased, or as income increased. A 1% decrease in the price of fruit and vegetables would increase their participation by 0.79%, whereas a 1% increase in family income would increase participation by 0.27%. The effect of income tended to be smaller among higher income strata. Reducing the price of fruit and vegetables, either by supporting their production or through fiscal measures, is a promising public policy instrument, capable of increasing the participation of these foods in the diet of the Brazilian population.

  13. Materiality and automation of household practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Toke Haunstrup; Friis, Freja

    2016-01-01

    from a Danish household trial that combined static time-ofuse pricing with electric vehicles. On the basis of the empirical findings from qualitative interviews, the paper discusses what role materiality plays in the interviewed households’ experiences with time shifting their electricity...... dryer) and EV-charging (use of timers). The empirical observations point to an interesting interplay between the practitioners’ bodily involvement in practices and the delegation of specific activities (tasks) to machines, which also relates to a more general discussion of (semi...

  14. Best Practices in Brazilian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catia dos Reis Machado

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Competitive intelligence (CI is a systematic and ethical collection, analysis, dissemination and management of information about the external environment that may affect the plans, decisions and operations of the organization. Knowledge management (KM can be seen as a tool to promote organizational knowledge through the use of activities designed to identify, create, store, share and use knowledge. Companies face a challenge in the era of knowledge, it is the extraction and management of knowledge produced by people in the organization. CI and KM combined generates organizational intelligence. The exploratory study, based on literature and multicase study, we sought to identify best practices in processes of CI and KM in Brazilian companies. We identified practices related to the CI design process, the stages of the CI, the use of networks, and knowledge management. We also identified, points of attention on the internal/external organizational environment.

  15. Prevalence of household food poverty in South Africa: results from a large, nationally representative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Karen E; Rose, Donald

    2002-06-01

    Household food insecurity is a major determinant of undernutrition, yet there is little information on its prevalence in the South African population. This paper assesses household food insecurity in South Africa using a quantitative and objective measure, known as food poverty, and provides prevalence estimates by geographic area and socio-economic condition. Secondary data analysis combining two sources: Statistics South Africa's household-based 1995 Income and Expenditure Survey; and the University of Port Elizabeth's Household Subsistence Level series, a nationally-conducted, market-based survey. South Africa. A nationally representative sample of the entire country - stratified by race, province, and urban and non-urban areas - consisting of 28 704 households. A household is defined to be in food poverty when monthly food spending is less than the cost of a nutritionally adequate very low-cost diet. The prevalence of food poverty in South Africa in 1995 was 43%. Food poverty rates were highest among households headed by Africans, followed by coloureds, Indians and whites. Higher food poverty rates were found with decreasing income, increasing household size, and among households in rural areas or those headed by females. The widespread nature of household food insecurity in South Africa is documented here. Prevalence rates by geographic and socio-economic breakdown provide the means for targeting of nutritional interventions and for monitoring progress in this field. The corroboration of these findings with both internal validation measures and external sources suggests that food poverty is a useful, objective measure of household food insecurity.

  16. Urbanization and Household Structure in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinner, William F.

    1977-01-01

    This study analyzes urban-rural variations in Philippine household size and components of household size, as well as the relative contribution of these components to household size. Household size is larger in urban than in rural areas and the difference largely reflects the presence of extended family members and non-relatives. (Author)

  17. [Household appliances and food insecurity: gender, referred skin color and socioeconomic differences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin-Leon, Leticia; Francisco, Priscila Maria Stolses Bergamo; Segall-Corrêa, Ana Maria; Panigassi, Giseli

    2011-09-01

    Data from the National Household Survey 2004 was analyzed to compare differences in prevalence among moderate or severe food insecurity. Also, it was compared food security or mild food insecurity households in relation to the assets and other socioeconomic and demographic conditions of the household. Private permanent households, with per capita monthly income of up to one minimum wage and with the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale answered by a household resident were studied (n=51,357). Association of variables with the dependent variable (food security) was verified using χ² test, with 5% significance level. Crude prevalence ratio, respective 95% confidence interval and adjusted analyses were carried out using Poisson multiple regression Stata 8.0. It considers the weights of the complex sampling design of the survey. The per capita monthly household income was the variable with strongest association to food security. Both in urban and rural areas, there were higher risk of moderate or severe food insecurity prevalence ratio when the head of the household was a female, black color, presence of six or more members in the household, metropolitan area and with absence of some specific assets (stove, water filter, refrigerator, freezer, washing machine and cellular phone). In a model that, among assets, included just the refrigerator, it was observed the highest prevalence ratio for household income of up to ¼ of a minimum wage and after this, the absence of refrigerator among households headed by white and black males and white or black female. Although female and black headed households have greater food restriction, internal differences among these groups were higher for households headed by white males and lower for those headed by black females. At national level and households with monthly income of up to one minimum age, poor socioeconomic conditions are associated to household food insecurity. This situation is worse among those headed by women and black

  18. A Brazilian theatre model meets Zulu performance conventions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The play re-imagined and utilised Zulu military conventions and combined them with the Brazilian Forum Theatre methods of Augusto Boal. This combination made it possible for the inmate audiences to articulate criticisms about the behaviour of prison staff and other inmates that would otherwise have been difficult in the ...

  19. Household composition and psychological health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Lene Eide; Willaing, Ingrid; Holt, Richard I G

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: 1) To explore the effect of household composition on the psychological health of adults with diabetes by comparing those living with other adult(s) including a partner with those living with neither partner nor other adult(s); 2) to examine potential mediation of social support in the assoc......AIMS: 1) To explore the effect of household composition on the psychological health of adults with diabetes by comparing those living with other adult(s) including a partner with those living with neither partner nor other adult(s); 2) to examine potential mediation of social support...... in the association between household composition and psychological health. METHODS: The study is part of the DAWN2 study conducted in 17 countries. The population comprised 8596 people with diabetes (PWD). Multiple regression models (linear and binary) were applied. RESULTS: People living with 'other adult...... to the other household composition groups. The association between household composition and psychological health was not mediated by diabetes-specific social support. CONCLUSIONS: The study indicates the psychological vulnerability of respondents living without a partner but with other adult(s). Appropriate...

  20. [Nutritional status of elderly Brazilians: a multilevel approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ingrid Freitas da Silva; Spyrides, Maria Helena Constantino; Andrade, Lára de Melo Barbosa

    2016-06-03

    The objectives of this study were to diagnose the nutritional status of the elderly Brazilian population and to identify associated factors. The study used data from the Brazilian Household Budget Survey (2008/2009) for 20,114 elderly, whose nutritional status was assessed by body mass index (BMI). Associated factors were tested with the Pearson chi-square test and multilevel linear models. The hierarchical analysis showed a significant effect of state of Brazil on BMI variance (p-value = 0.001). The individual level showed a negative association (p-value Underweight was more prevalent among elderly in rural areas (26.3%) and in the Northeast (23.7%) and Central regions (20.9%), and obesity was more prevalent in the South (45.1%) and Southeast (38.3%) and in cities (39%). The study suggests the importance of further in-depth research on nutritional status of elderly based on contextual variables.

  1. After-tax money income estimates of households: 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, C T

    1985-06-01

    This report provides an improved measure of year to year changes in household purchasing power and of differences in purchasing power between subgroups of the US population. 4 types of taxes are simulated and subsequently deducted from the total money income received by households in order to estimate after tax income: 1) federal individual income taxes; 2) state individual income taxes; 3) FICA and Federal retirement payroll taxes; and 4) property taxes on owner occupied housing. Results show that: 1) mean household income after taxes was $20,000 in 1983, up by 2.4% over the 1982 figure after accounting for the 3.2% rise in consumer prices; 2) this mean household income before taxes ($25,400) increased between 1982 and 1983 by 1.2%; 3) taxes absorbed about 21% of the total money income received by households, down slightly from 22% in 1982; 4) households paid an average of $5890 in taxes in 1983, about $170 lower than paid in 1982; 5) the mean after tax income of households increased in 1983 in the Northeast, South, and West regions, but in the Midwest region no significant increase was observed; 6) married couples with children recorded a real increase of 2.6% in mean after tax income, yet married couples without children had after tax incomes that were 3.3% higher in 1983; and 7) the mean income after taxes for households with a householder age 65 years and over showed no significant increase in 1983. The payment of the 4 types of taxes simulated in this study reduced the income available to households by about $463 billion in 1983. 92% of US households paid 1 or more of the taxes covered in this study in 1983. The combination of Internal Revenue Service (IRS) tax return statistics with the March Current Population Survey (CPS) income data may affect these estimates to a small degree because the IRS returns include these units which are not contained in the CPS universe: 1) prior year delinquent returns; 2) returns of Armed Forces members living overseas or on

  2. Determinants of Soviet Household Income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    by Kenneth Smith

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available World Values Survey data are used to examine household income in the Soviet Union. The data, gathered Summer/Fall 1990, provide a rare opportunity to empirically examine microeconomic factors influencing a Soviet household’s position in the regional/national income distribution. The survey contains data - collected regionally - from the three Baltic republics, Belarus, and the Moscow region. The data indicate certain patterns that existed and determined Soviet household income though there are often considerable regional variations. Further, there are marked differences between income distribution determinants in the Soviet Union and the U.S. and West Germany though similarities exist as well

  3. Concentration of Access to Information and Communication Technologies in the Municipalities of the Brazilian Legal Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Rossy de Brito

    Full Text Available This study fills demand for data on access and use of information and communication technologies (ICT in the Brazilian legal Amazon, a region of localities with identical economic, political, and social problems. We use the 2010 Brazilian Demographic Census to compile data on urban and rural households (i with computers and Internet access, (ii with mobile phones, and (iii with fixed phones. To compare the concentration of access to ICT in the municipalities of the Brazilian Amazon with other regions of Brazil, we use a concentration index to quantify the concentration of households in the following classes: with computers and Internet access, with mobile phones, with fixed phones, and no access. These data are analyzed along with municipal indicators on income, education, electricity, and population size. The results show that for urban households, the average concentration in the municipalities of the Amazon for computers and Internet access and for fixed phones is lower than in other regions of the country; meanwhile, that for no access and mobile phones is higher than in any other region. For rural households, the average concentration in the municipalities of the Amazon for computers and Internet access, mobile phones, and fixed phones is lower than in any other region of the country; meanwhile, that for no access is higher than in any other region. In addition, the study shows that education and income are determinants of inequality in accessing ICT in Brazilian municipalities and that the existence of electricity in rural households is directly associated with the ownership of ICT resources.

  4. Sustainable household egg production to enhance household food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simple method of keeping laying hens has been developed with the aim of improving family nutrition through the provision of high quality egg protein at low cost. A unit is kept at a family's home and provides on average six eggs per day for daily household consumption after a number of eggs have been sold to cover the ...

  5. The Brazilian School Principals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângelo Ricardo de Souza

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the policy nature of school principal, considering the thoughts of many authors about school administration and the debate about politics, power and burocracy. The study still presents a profile of Brazilian school principals with the data of Basic Education Evaluation System – SAEB, of 2003, specially comparing elements about gender, experience and formation of school principals, and aspects linked with methodology to provide/indicate the school principal and its possible democratic vocation.

  6. Brazilian Trichoptera Checklist II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Paprocki

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A second assessment of Brazilian Trichoptera species records is presented here. A total of 625 species were recorded for Brazil. This represents an increase of 65.34% new species recorded during the last decade. The Hydropsychidae (124 spp., followed by the Hydroptilidae (102 spp. and Polycentropodidae (97 spp., are the families with the greatest richness recorded for Brazil. The knowledge on Trichoptera biodiversity in Brazil is geographically unequal. The majority of the species is recorded for the southeastern region.

  7. Assessment of a combined dry anaerobic digestion and post-composting treatment facility for source-separated organic household waste, using material and substance flow analysis and life cycle inventory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Bang; Møller, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    coefficients for a combined dry anaerobic digestion and post-composting facility. All metals passed through the facility and ended up in compost or residues, but all concentrations of metals in the compost complied with legislation. About 23% of the carbon content of the organic waste was transferred...... and post-composting facility, including waste received, fuel consumption, energy use, gaseous emissions, products, energy production and chemical composition of the compost produced....

  8. Assessment of a combined dry anaerobic digestion and post-composting treatment facility for source-separated organic household waste, using material and substance flow analysis and life cycle inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Morten Bang; Møller, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2017-08-01

    The fate of total solids, volatile solids, total organic carbon, fossil carbon, biogenic carbon and 17 substances (As, Ca, CaCO 3 , Cd, Cl, Cr, Cu, H, Hg, K, Mg, N, Ni, O, P, Pb, S, Zn) in a combined dry anaerobic digestion and post-composting facility were assessed. Mass balances showed good results with low uncertainties for non-volatile substances, while balances for nitrogen, carbon, volatile solids and total organic carbon showed larger but reasonable uncertainties, due to volatilisation and emissions into the air. Material and substance flow analyses were performed in order to obtain transfer coefficients for a combined dry anaerobic digestion and post-composting facility. All metals passed through the facility and ended up in compost or residues, but all concentrations of metals in the compost complied with legislation. About 23% of the carbon content of the organic waste was transferred to the biogas, 24% to the compost, 13% to residues and 40% into the atmosphere. For nitrogen, 69% was transferred to the compost, 10% volatilised to the biofilter, 11% directly into the atmosphere and 10% to residues. Finally, a full life cycle inventory was conducted for the combined dry anaerobic digestion and post-composting facility, including waste received, fuel consumption, energy use, gaseous emissions, products, energy production and chemical composition of the compost produced. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Evaluating the Impact of Infrastructure Rehabilitation Projects on Household Welfare in Rural Georgia

    OpenAIRE

    Lokshin , Michael; Yemtsov, Ruslan

    2003-01-01

    The authors evaluate the effect of various community level infrastructure rehabilitation projects undertaken in rural Georgia on household well-being. Their analysis is based on combining household and community level survey data. The authors' empirical approach uses the panel structure of the data to control for time-invariant un-observables at the community level by applying propensity-s...

  10. The Determinants of Rural Household Food Security for Landless Households of the Punjab, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Bashir, Muhammad Khalid; Schilizzi, Steven; Pandit, Ram

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the situation of food security for the landless rural households of the Punjab province in Pakistan. Primary data from 576 landless households were collected from 12 districts of the province. About 27% of the sample households were measured to be food insecure. Household’s monthly income and household head’s education levels of middle and intermediate were positively impacting household food security. On the other hand, household heads’ age and family size were negatively...

  11. Measuring household consumption and waste in unmetered, intermittent piped water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpel, Emily; Woelfle-Erskine, Cleo; Ray, Isha; Nelson, Kara L.

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of household water consumption are extremely difficult in intermittent water supply (IWS) regimes in low- and middle-income countries, where water is delivered for short durations, taps are shared, metering is limited, and household storage infrastructure varies widely. Nonetheless, consumption estimates are necessary for utilities to improve water delivery. We estimated household water use in Hubli-Dharwad, India, with a mixed-methods approach combining (limited) metered data, storage container inventories, and structured observations. We developed a typology of household water access according to infrastructure conditions based on the presence of an overhead storage tank and a shared tap. For households with overhead tanks, container measurements and metered data produced statistically similar consumption volumes; for households without overhead tanks, stored volumes underestimated consumption because of significant water use directly from the tap during delivery periods. Households that shared taps consumed much less water than those that did not. We used our water use calculations to estimate waste at the household level and in the distribution system. Very few households used 135 L/person/d, the Government of India design standard for urban systems. Most wasted little water even when unmetered, however, unaccounted-for water in the neighborhood distribution systems was around 50%. Thus, conservation efforts should target loss reduction in the network rather than at households.

  12. Inflation differentials among Czech households

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janský, Petr; Hait, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 1 (2016), s. 71-84 ISSN 1210-0455 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TD020188 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : households * inflation * inflation differentials Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.710, year: 2016

  13. Financial planning for young households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Marie Boiden; Weissensteiner, Alex; Poulsen, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the financial planning problems of young households whose main decisions are how to finance the purchase of a house (liabilities) and how to allocate investments in pension savings schemes (assets). The problems are solved using a multi-stage stochastic programming model where...

  14. Household Arthropod Allergens in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong

    2009-01-01

    Arthropods are important in human health, which can transmit pathogens to humans, parasitize, or produce important allergens. Allergy prevalence becomes higher in Korea recently as well as other developed countries in contrast to a decrease of infectious diseases. Allergic diseases caused by household arthropods have increased dramatically during the last few decades since human beings spend more their time for indoor activities in modernized life style. Household arthropods are one of the most common causes of allergic diseases. Biological characterization of household arthropods and researches on their allergens will provide better understanding of the pathogenesis of allergic diseases and suggest new therapeutic ways. Therefore, studies on arthropods of allergenic importance can be considered one of the major research areas in medical arthropodology and parasitology. Here, the biology of several household arthropods, including house dust mites and cockroaches, the 2 most well known arthropods living indoor together with humans worldwide, and characteristics of their allergens, especially the research activities on these allergens performed in Korea, are summarized. PMID:19885330

  15. Household food insecurity and excess weight/obesity among Brazilian women and children: a life-course approach Inseguridad alimentaria y exceso de peso/obesidad entre mujeres y niños brasileños: un enfoque para el transcurso de la vida Insegurança alimentar e excesso de peso/obesidade entre mulheres e crianças brasileiras: uma abordagem para o curso da vida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Maia Schlüssel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Household food insecurity (HFI may increase obesity risk, but results are not consistent across the life course or between developed/underdeveloped settings. The objective of this paper is to review findings from previous analyses in Brazil among adult women, female adolescents, and children up to five. Data were derived from the 2006 Brazilian Demographic and Health Survey. Associations between HFI (measured with the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale and excess weight/obesity were investigated through Poisson regression models. While severe HFI was associated with obesity risk among adult women (PR: 1.49; 95%CI: 1.17-1.90, moderate HFI was associated with excess weight among female adolescents (PR: 1.96; 95%CI: 1.18-3.27. There was no association between HFI and obesity among children (either boys or girls. The nutrition transition in Brazil may be shaping the differential deleterious effect of HFI on body fat accumulation across the life course; the association is already evident among female adolescents and adult women but still not among children.La inseguridad alimentaria (IA puede aumentar el riesgo de obesidad, pero los resultados no son consistentes en todas las fases del transcurso de la vida y entre países desarrollados/subdesarrollados. El objetivo de este artículo es revisar los resultados de los análisis anteriores con los datos brasileños de: mujeres adultas, adolescentes del sexo femenino y niños de hasta cinco años. Se utilizaron datos del Estudio Nacional de Demografía y Salud 2006. Asociaciones entre la IA, medida por la Escala Brasileña de Inseguridad Alimentaria y exceso de peso/obesidad se investigaron mediante modelos de regresión de Poisson. Una IA grave está asociada con obesidad entre mujeres adultas [RP: 1,49; IC95%: 1,17-1,90] y una IA moderada con exceso de peso entre adolescentes del sexo femenino [RP: 1,96; IC95%: 1,18-3,27]. No hubo asociación entre la IA y la obesidad en niños de ambos sexos. Es posible

  16. Reproducible microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis of proteins using a household microwave oven and its combination with LC-ESI MS/MS for mapping protein sequences and modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nan; Li, Liang

    2010-09-01

    A new set-up for microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis (MAAH) with high efficiency and reproducibility to degrade proteins into peptides for mass spectrometry analysis is described. It is based on the use of an inexpensive domestic microwave oven and can be used for low volume protein solution digestion. This set-up has been combined with liquid chromatography electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-ESI QTOF MS) for mapping protein sequences and characterizing phosphoproteins. It is demonstrated that for bovine serum albumin (BSA), with a molecular mass of about 67,000 Da, 1292 peptides (669 unique sequences) can be detected from a 2 microg hydrolysate generated by trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) MAAH. These peptides cover the entire protein sequence, allowing the identification of an amino acid substitution in a natural variant of BSA. It is shown that for a simple phosphoprotein containing one phosphoform, beta-casein, direct analysis of the hydrolysate generates a comprehensive peptide map that can be used to identify all five known phosphorylation sites. For characterizing a complex phosphoprotein consisting of different phosphoforms with varying numbers of phosphate groups and/or phosphorylation sites, such as bovine alpha(S1)-casein, immobilized metal-ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) is used to enrich the phosphopeptides from the hydrolysate, followed by LC-ESI MS analysis. The MS/MS data generated from the initial hydrolysate and the phosphopeptide-enriched fraction, in combination with MS analysis of the intact protein sample, allow us to reveal the presence of three different phosphoforms of bovine alpha(S1)-casein and assign the phosphorylation sites to each phosphoform with high confidence. 2010 American Society for Mass Spectrometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Changing Consequences of Unemployment for Household Finances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William T. Dickens

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present new evidence that the capacity of households to cover earnings lost during spells of unemployment through a combination of drawing down of wealth and receipt of unemployment insurance and other transfer payments is very limited and has deteriorated since the 1980s. Since 2006, most households have not had nearly enough financial wealth to smooth their consumption over more than a very short spell of unemployment. Individuals experiencing involuntary job loss also tend to experience substantial earnings reductions upon reemployment, resulting in longer-term deterioration in household finances. Wealth inadequacy to cover lost earnings and the earnings reduction upon reemployment are both especially acute in long unemployment spells, such as those that were prevalent in the aftermath of the Great Recession.

  18. A Picture of Subsidized Households 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Picture of Subsidized Households describes the nearly 5 million households living in HUD-subsidized housing in the United States for the year 2009. Picture 2009...

  19. Household Credit and Saving: Does Policy Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Lawrence

    2002-01-01

    This paper surveys the existing literature on the determinants of household savings and credit in developing countries and examines the ways in which macro-level policies might impact on household financial behaviour.

  20. Maternal recognition of child mental health problems in two Brazilian cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel A. Bordin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify child behaviors and types of impairment that increase the likelihood of maternal recognition of emotional/behavioral problems (EBP in children and adolescents. Methods: Maternal-reported data were obtained from two subsamples of 11-to-16-year-olds derived from cross-sectional studies conducted in two Brazilian municipalities: Itaboraí, state of Rio de Janeiro (n=480, and Embu, state of São Paulo (n=217. The Itaboraí study involved a representative sample of 6-to-16-year-olds (n=1,248; response rate = 86.0% selected from the Family Health Program registry, which covered 85.5% of the municipal population. The Embu study was based on a probabilistic sample of clusters of eligible households (women aged 15-49 years, child < 18 years, with one mother-child pair selected randomly per household (n=813; response rate = 82.4%. The outcome variable was mother’s opinion of whether her child had EBP. Potential correlates included types of child behaviors (hyperactivity/conduct/emotional problems as isolated or combined conditions and impairment, assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ; child’s age and gender; maternal education and anxiety/depression (assessed using the Self-Reporting Questionnaire [SRQ]. Results: Multivariate regression models identified the following correlates of maternal perception of child EBP: comorbidity (co-occurring hyperactivity/conduct/emotional problems, emotional problems alone, and interference of problems with classroom learning and friendships. Conclusion: Comorbidity of different problem types, emotional problems alone, and interference with classroom learning and friendships increase the likelihood of maternal recognition of EBP in children.

  1. Maternal recognition of child mental health problems in two Brazilian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordin, Isabel A; Curto, Bartira M; Murray, Joseph

    2017-06-12

    To identify child behaviors and types of impairment that increase the likelihood of maternal recognition of emotional/behavioral problems (EBP) in children and adolescents. Maternal-reported data were obtained from two subsamples of 11-to-16-year-olds derived from cross-sectional studies conducted in two Brazilian municipalities: Itaboraí, state of Rio de Janeiro (n=480), and Embu, state of São Paulo (n=217). The Itaboraí study involved a representative sample of 6-to-16-year-olds (n=1,248; response rate = 86.0%) selected from the Family Health Program registry, which covered 85.5% of the municipal population. The Embu study was based on a probabilistic sample of clusters of eligible households (women aged 15-49 years, child < 18 years), with one mother-child pair selected randomly per household (n=813; response rate = 82.4%). The outcome variable was mother's opinion of whether her child had EBP. Potential correlates included types of child behaviors (hyperactivity/conduct/emotional problems as isolated or combined conditions) and impairment, assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ); child's age and gender; maternal education and anxiety/depression (assessed using the Self-Reporting Questionnaire [SRQ]). Multivariate regression models identified the following correlates of maternal perception of child EBP: comorbidity (co-occurring hyperactivity/conduct/emotional problems), emotional problems alone, and interference of problems with classroom learning and friendships. Comorbidity of different problem types, emotional problems alone, and interference with classroom learning and friendships increase the likelihood of maternal recognition of EBP in children.

  2. Further notes on Brazilian Conidae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, van J.-J.; Tursch, B.; Kempf, M.

    1971-01-01

    Since the publication of a survey of brazilian Conidae (Van Moll et al., 1967) new extensive dredgings effected by one of us (M.K.) along considerable portions of the Brazilian coast have brought a rich material allowing us to add to the previous work and to correct certain opinions therein

  3. Assessment of the impact of energy-efficient household appliances on the electricity consumption in the residential sector of Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morishita, Claudia; Ghisi, Enedir

    2010-09-15

    In many countries the residential sector accounts for about 20.0% of the electricity consumption, which increases the concern about energy savings. The main objective of this paper is to assess the impact of energy-efficient household appliances on the electricity consumption of the Brazilian residential sector by using electricity end-use data. The consumption of each appliance is obtained based on official data from existing studies, being estimated for a dwelling and for the whole residential sector. Results indicate that the potential for energy savings by replacing existing appliances with energy-efficient household appliances would be 29.5% in the residential sector of Brazil.

  4. Characterization of household food waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, C.; Scheutz, Charlotte

    to the household food waste were avoidable vegetable food waste and non-avoidable vegetable food waste. Statistical analysis found a positive linear relationship between household size and the amount of the household food waste.......This paper presents a methodology and the results of compositional analysis of food waste from Danish families living in single-family houses. Residual household waste was sampled and manually sorted from 211 single-family houses in the suburb of Copenhagen. The main fractions contributing...

  5. Household metabolism in European countries and cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, R.; Falkena, H.J.; Benders, R.M.J.; Moll, H.C.; Noorman, K.J.

    2003-01-01

    The concept of household metabolism was applied to enhance the understanding of the environmental impacts of household consumption in cities during the second phase of the ToolSust project. The household metabolism in four European cities was determined in terms of total energy requirements,

  6. Division of household tasks and financial management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonides, G.

    2011-01-01

    Both the standard economic model and bargaining theory make predictions about financial management and the division of household labor between household partners. Using a large Internet survey, we have tested several predictions about task divisions reported by Dutch household partners. The division

  7. Fairness judgments in household decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonides, G.; Kroft, M.

    2005-01-01

    The behavioral economic study of fairness was applied to household decision making. A sample of household partners judged the fairness of a number of hypothetical decisions of a household partner, varying in the context of the decision. Decisions made by the partner to make a large personal

  8. Spending time and money within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Gørtz, Mette

    We consider theoretically and empirically the allocation of time and money within the household. The novelty of our empirical work is that we have a survey which provides information on both time use and the allocation of some goods within the household, for the same households. We can consider...

  9. Does participatory forest management change household attitudes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The study assessed the impact of participatory forest management (PFM) on household attitudes towards conservation and management of Arabuko–Sokoke Forest. The results obtained show that the impact of the forest on households was positive and higher in households in PFM zones than in those in non-PFM zones.

  10. 7 CFR 273.1 - Household concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Household concept. 273.1 Section 273.1 Agriculture... FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM CERTIFICATION OF ELIGIBLE HOUSEHOLDS § 273.1 Household concept... under 22 years of age who is living with his or her natural or adoptive parent(s) or step-parent(s); and...

  11. Substitution between cars within the household

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Borger, B.; Mulalic, I.; Rouwendal, J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study the demand for car kilometres in two-car households, focusing on the substitution between cars of different fuel efficiency in response to fuel price changes. We use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car households to estimate - for each car owned by the household

  12. Household Consumption, Investment and Life Insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Kenneth; Steffensen, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops a continuous-time Markov model for utility optimization of households. The household optimizes expected future utility from consumption by controlling consumption, investments and purchase of lifeinsurance for each person in the household. The optimal controls are investigated...

  13. Household Clearances in Victorian Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Trotter

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The deathbed apart, there are few scenes more profoundly disturbing in nineteenth-century fiction than the household clearance, or the process of 'selling up': the identification of domestic material goods for sale at auction, either in situ, or elsewhere. Of course, we shouldn't be surprised at this, if the Victorians took the idea of home anything like as seriously as they made out. How could such a violation or wilful sacrifice of domesticity not be profoundly disturbing? This essay argues that scenes of household clearance in nineteenth-century fiction possess a density and an edge which exceed any shock they might have administered to the sensibilities of the house-proud. Such scenes expose to critical view an aspect of existence otherwise generally understood, then as now, not to require or to benefit from illumination. The aims of the essay are twofold: 1 to demonstrate the pervasiveness of scenes of household clearance in Victorian fiction, with reference to Dickens, Thackeray, Eliot, Hardy, and others; 2 to put forward an explanation for the imaginative charge they carry, which runs counter to a strong emphasis in the current understanding of nineteenth-century fiction's perspective on a newly abundant material culture.

  14. Territorial development and Community currencies : Symbolic meanings in Brazilian Community development banks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Fare (Marie); C. de Freitas (Carlos); C. Meyer (Camille)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBrazilian community development banks (CDBs) have established various coordinated financial mechanisms aiming to restructure poor and peripheral local economies. Their development strategy includes an instrument to facilitate access to microfinance and a community currency, combined with

  15. Brazilian Nanotechnology Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazzio, Adalberto

    2015-03-01

    In Brazil there is intense research activity in nanotechnology, most of these developed in universities and research institutes. The Brazilian Nanotechnology Initiative (BNI) aims to integrate government actions to promote the competitiveness of the Brazilian industry. This initiative is founded on support for research and development in the laboratories of the National Laboratories for Nanotechnology (SisNANO), starting from an improvement in infrastructure and opening of laboratories for users of academia and business, promoting interaction and transfer knowledge between academia and business. Country currently has 26 thematic networks of nanotechnology, 16 -Virtual-National Institutes of Technology, seven National- Laboratories and 18 Associate Laboratories, which comprise the SisNANO. Seeking to expand and share governance with other government actors, the Interministries Committee for Nanotechnology was set up, composed of 10 ministries, and has the task of coordinating the entire program of the Federal Government Nanotechnology.Cooperation activities are an important part of BNI. Currently Brazil has cooperation programs with U.S., China, Canada and European Union among others. Recently, Brazil decided to join the European NanoReg program where 60 research groups are joining efforts to provide protocols and standards that can help regulatory agencies and governments.

  16. Neighborhood social cohesion and smoking among legal and unauthorized Brazilian migrants in metropolitan Boston.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Louisa M; Marcelli, Enrico A

    2014-12-01

    Tobacco smoking is estimated to be the largest preventable cause of mortality in the USA, but little is known about the relationship between neighborhood social environment and current smoking behavior or how this may differ by population and geography. We investigate how neighborhood social cohesion and disorder are associated with smoking behavior among legal and unauthorized Brazilian migrant adults using data from the 2007 Harvard-UMASS Boston Metropolitan Immigrant Health and Legal Status Survey (BM-IHLSS), a probabilistic household survey of adult Brazilian migrants. We employ logistic regression to estimate associations between neighborhood social cohesion, neighborhood disorder, and current smoking. We find that neighborhood-level social cohesion is associated with lower likelihood of being a current smoker (O.R. = .836; p cohesion may be protective against smoking. Alternatively, neighborhood disorder does not appear to be related to current smoking among Brazilian migrants.

  17. Pharmacogenetics in the Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme eSuarez-Kurtz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the 5th largest country in the world and its present population, in excess of 190 million, is highly heterogeneous, as a result of centuries of admixture between Amerindians, Europeans and Sub-Saharan Africans. The estimated individual proportions of biogeographical ancestry vary widely and continuously among Brazilians, most individuals - irrespective of self-identification as White, Brown or Black, the major categories of the Brazilian Census race/color system - having significant degrees of European and African ancestry, while a sizeable number display also Amerindian ancestry. These features have important pharmacogenetic (PGx implications: first, extrapolation of PGx data from relatively well-defined ethnic groups is clearly not applicable to the majority of Brazilians; second, the frequency distribution of polymorphisms in pharmacogenes (e.g. CYP3A5, CYP2C9, GSTM1, ABCB1, GSTM3, VKORC, etc varies continuously among Brazilians and is not captured by race/color self-identification; third, the intrinsic heterogeneity of the Brazilian population must be acknowledged in the design and interpretation of PGx studies in order to avoid spurious conclusions based on improper matching of study cohorts. The peculiarities of PGx in Brazilians are illustrated with data for different therapeutic groups, such as anticoagulants, HIV-protease inhibitors and nonsteroidal antinflammatory drugs, and the challenges and advantages created by population admixture for the study and implementation of PGx are discussed. PGx data for Amerindian groups and Brazilian-born, first generation Japanese are presented to illustrate the rich diversity of the Brazilian population. Finally, I introduce the reader to the Brazilian Pharmacogenetic Network or Refargen (www.refargen.org.br, a nationwide consortium of research groups, with the mission to provide leadership in PGx research and education in Brazil, with a population health impact.

  18. The rise of Brazilian agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Vink, Nick; Sandrey, Ron

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore some of the possible lessons for South African agriculture from the Brazilian experience. To this end, the article discusses the performance of Brazilian agriculture in terms of land and labour use, production, and exports. This is followed by aspects...... of Brazilian agricultural policies, namely farmer support, the research and technology transfer system and land issues. The implications for South African agriculture can be summarized as the recognition that history, geography, the development path and agricultural policies all matter. The article...... then identifies five important lessons for agricultural development in South Africa....

  19. Contextual factors associated with smoking among Brazilian adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giatti, Luana; Casado, Leticia; de Moura, Lenildo; Crespo, Claudio; Malta, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Background Very few studies have examined the role of school, household and family contexts in youth smoking in middle-income countries. Methods This work describes smoking exposure among 59 992 high school students who took part in the Brazilian Survey of School Health and investigates contextual factors associated with regular smoking, defined as smoking cigarettes at least once in the past 30 days. The explaining variables were grouped into: socio-demographic characteristics, school context, household context and family rapport. Variables independently associated with smoking in each context were identified by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results 53% of the total sample were girls, 89% were aged 13–15 years. 24% had already experimented with cigarettes, 50% before the age of 12 years. The prevalence of regular smoking was 6.3% (95% CI 5.87 to 6.74), with no sex variation. Smoking was not associated with either the mother's education or the index of household assets. In the multivariable analysis, studying at a private school, the possibility of purchasing cigarettes at school and skipping of classes without parents' consent increased the chances of smoking. In the household context, living with both parents was negatively associated with smoking, while having smoking parents and exposure to other people's smoking was positively related to smoking. In the family context, parental unawareness of what the adolescent was doing increased smoking, but having meals with the mother one or more days per week and parents' negative reactions to adolescent smoking reduced the chances of smoking. Conclusion The results reinforce the role of school, household and family contexts in youth smoking behaviours and will help improve public health policies aimed at preventing smoking and health promotion in adolescents. PMID:21471139

  20. Brazilian Space Weather Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilha, Antonio; Takahashi, Hisao; de Paula, Eurico; Sawant, Hanumant; de Campos Velho, Haroldo; Vitorello, Icaro; Costa, Joaquim; Souza, Jonas; Cecatto, José; Mendes, Odim; Gonzalez Alarcon, Walter Demétrio

    A space weather program is being initiated at the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE) to study events from their initiation on the sun to their impacts on the earth, including their effects on space-based and ground-based technological systems. The program is built on existing capabilities at INPE, which include scientists with a long tradition and excellence in the observation, analysis and modeling of solar and solar-terrestrial phenomena and an array of geophysical instruments that spans all over the Brazilian territory from the north to south of the magnetic dip equator. Available sensors include solar radio frequency receivers and telescopes, optical instruments and solar imagers, GNSS receivers, ionosondes, radars, allsky imagers, magnetometers and cosmic ray detectors. In the equatorial region, ionosphere and thermosphere constitute a coupled system with electrodynamical and plasma physical processes being responsible for a variety of peculiar phenomena. The most important of them are the equatorial electrojet current system and its instabilities, the equatorial ionization anomaly, and the plasma instabilities/irregularities of the night-time ionosphere (associated with the plasma bubble events). In addition, space weather events modify the equatorial ionosphere in a complex and up to now unpredictable manner. Consequently, a main focus of the program will be on monitoring the low, middle and upper atmosphere phenomena and developing a predictive model of the equatorial ionosphere through data assimilation, that could help to mitigate against the deleterious effects on radio communications and navigation systems. The technological, economic and social importance of such activities was recognized by the Brazilian government and a proposal for funding was approved for the period 2008-2011. New ground instruments will be installed during this period allowing us to extend our current capability to provide space weather observations, accurate

  1. The effects of household wealth on HIV prevalence in Manicaland, Zimbabwe – a prospective household census and population-based open cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Schur

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intensified poverty arising from economic decline and crisis may have contributed to reductions in HIV prevalence in Zimbabwe. Objectives: To assess the impact of the economic decline on household wealth and prevalent HIV infection using data from a population-based open cohort. Methods: Household wealth was estimated using data from a prospective household census in Manicaland Province (1998 to 2011. Temporal trends in summed asset ownership indices for sellable, non-sellable and all assets combined were compared for households in four socio-economic strata (small towns, agricultural estates, roadside settlements and subsistence farming areas. Multivariate logistic random-effects models were used to measure differences in individual-level associations between prevalent HIV infection and place of residence, absolute wealth group and occupation. Results: Household mean asset scores remained similar at around 0.37 (on a scale of 0 to 1 up to 2007 but decreased to below 0.35 thereafter. Sellable assets fell substantially from 2004 while non-sellable assets continued increasing until 2008. Small-town households had the highest wealth scores but the gap to other locations decreased over time, especially for sellable assets. Concurrently, adult HIV prevalence fell from 22.3 to 14.3%. HIV prevalence was highest in better-off locations (small towns but differed little by household wealth or occupation. Initially, HIV prevalence was elevated in women from poorer households and lower in men in professional occupations. However, most recently (2009 to 2011, men and women in the poorest households had lower HIV prevalence and men in professional occupations had similar prevalence to unemployed men. Conclusions: The economic crisis drove more households into extreme poverty. However, HIV prevalence fell in all socio-economic locations and sub-groups, and there was limited evidence that increased poverty contributed to HIV prevalence decline.

  2. brazilian subsidiaries of multinationals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Mendes Borini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The theme of corporate social responsibility (CSR has not been widely examined in the context of multinationals. This dearth is even greater with respect to subsidiaries, particularly the subject of reverse transfer of practices, that is, the transfer of practices developed in subsidiaries back to the parent company. Because of this theoretical gap, the present article investigates the factors involved on reverse transfer of CSR practices. The research hypotheses test the importance of developing nonlocation-bound capabilities, of integration between subsidiaries and parent and of institutional distance. The data were obtained by a survey of the main foreign subsidiaries in Brazil. All told, we analyzed 150 Brazilian subsidiaries of multinationals, by applying multiple linear regression. The results indicate that the reverse transfer of CSR depends on the development of nonlocation-bound capabilities of the subsidiaries and integration between the parent company and its foreign subsidiaries.

  3. Brazilian Eratosthenes Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhi, R.; Vilaça, J.

    2014-10-01

    The objective of Brazilian Eratosthenes Project is the development and application of teaching training actions according the ``docent autonomy" concept to basic Astronomy Education. Argentina coordinates the project in South America, but Brazil works in this project since 2010 with the theme ``Projeto Eratóstenes Brasil" in the homepage: http://sites.google.com/site/projetoerato. Two schools measure a sticks shadow and communicate their results. After, they calculate an average radius of Earth. The stick (gnomon) should stay in vertical position in the leveled ground. Since 2010, the project received hundreds of Brazilian schools with different experiments that were constructed with autonomy, because our site doesn't show some itinerary pre-ready to elaborate the experiments. To collect data for our research, we will use interviews via Skype with the teachers. These data are useful to researches about Science Education area and the Teaching Formation. Teaching professional practice could change and we see modifications in the teachers work, what depends of their realities and context. This project intents to respect the docent autonomy. This autonomy to responsible modifications during continued formation is called ``activist formative model" according Langhi & Nardi (Educação em Astronomia: repensando a formação de professores. São Paulo: Escrituras Editora, 2012). This project discusses about researches in Astronomy Education - still extreme rare in Brazil, when we compare with other areas in Science Education. We believe that actions like this could motivate the students to learn more Astronomy. Furthermore, this national action can be a rich source of data to investigations about teaching formation and scientific divulgation.

  4. INNOVATION IN BRAZILIAN SMALL COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonny Kerley de Alencar Rodrigues

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the interfaces and boundaries of innovation orientation of Brazilian MSEs because despite the importance of innovation for Brazilian MSEs, a thorough analysis of such initiatives in Brazil still has not actually happened. The search was developed from a quantitative approach, of applied nature and descriptive. For that a structured questionnaire was used where were interviewed 700 MSEs using a probabilistic sampling. The study offers two important conclusions. The challenges for innovation can be perceived along three dimensions: design innovation, the implementation of innovation and functional area of innovation. And the data confirms that small Brazilian companies generally have difficulties to sell their innovations. The study offers two important conclusions. The challenges for innovation can be perceived along three dimensions: design innovation, the implementation of innovation and functional area of innovation. And the data confirms that small Brazilian companies generally have difficulties to sell their innovations.

  5. Does Consumer Confidence Forecast Household Saving and Borrowing Behavior? Evidence for Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kłopocka, Aneta Maria

    2017-01-01

    Consumer confidence plays an important role in households' decision-making processes. This study investigates the effects of consumer confidence on household saving and borrowing behavior that are unsatisfactorily considered in previous discussions. The questions of interest are first, whether indexes of consumer confidence have any predictive power on their own for future household saving and borrowing rates, and second, whether they contain information about future household saving and borrowing rates aside from the information contained in other available indicators. In addition to aggregate confidence indicators, their components are used to provide more precise information. Overall, the multiple linear regression analysis (OLS technique) of Polish time-series data gives positive answers to both questions. This finding supports the recommendation of combining the strengths of objective indicators (such as economic fundamentals) and subjective indicators (such as consumer confidence) to improve household financial behavior forecasts.

  6. Innovation in brazilian small companies

    OpenAIRE

    Tonny Kerley de Alencar Rodrigues; Átila de Melo Lira; Irenilza Alencar Naas

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to identify the interfaces and boundaries of innovation orientation of Brazilian MSEs because despite the importance of innovation for Brazilian MSEs, a thorough analysis of such initiatives in Brazil still has not actually happened. The search was developed from a quantitative approach, of applied nature and descriptive. For that a structured questionnaire was used where were interviewed 700 MSEs using a probabilistic sampling. The study offers two important conclusions. The ...

  7. The impact of household wealth on child survival in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lartey, Stella T; Khanam, Rasheda; Takahashi, Shingo

    2016-11-22

    Improving child health is one of the major policy agendas for most of the governments, especially in the developing countries. These governments have been implementing various strategies such as improving healthcare financing, improving access to health, increasing educational level, and income level of the household to improve child health. Despite all these efforts, under-five and infant mortality rates remain high in many developing nations. Some previous studies examined how economic development or household's economic condition contributes to child survival in developing countries. In Ghana, the question as to what extent does economic circumstances of households reduces infant and child mortality still remain largely unanswered. Thus, the purpose of this study is to investigate the extent to which wealth affects the survival of under-five children, using data from the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) of Ghana. In this study, we use four waves of data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) of Ghana from 1993 to 2008. The DHS is a detailed data set that provides comprehensive information on households and their demographic characteristics in Ghana. Data was obtained by distributing questionnaires to women (from 6000 households) of reproductive age between 15 and 49 years, which asked, among other things, their birth history information. The Weibull hazard model with gamma frailty was used to estimate wealth effect, as well as the trend of wealth effect on child's survival probability. We find that household wealth status has a significant effect on the child survival in Ghana. A child is more likely to survive when he/she is from a household with high wealth status. Among other factors, birth spacing and parental education were found to be highly significant to increase a child's survival probability. Our findings offer plausible mechanisms for the association of household wealth and child survival. We therefore suggest that the Government of Ghana

  8. National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines (PNAUM: household survey component methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotero Serrate Mengue

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe methodological aspects of the household survey National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines (PNAUM related to sampling design and implementation, the actual obtained sample, instruments and fieldwork. METHODS A cross-sectional, population-based study with probability sampling in three stages of the population living in households located in Brazilian urban areas. Fieldwork was carried out between September 2013 and February 2014. The data collection instrument included questions related to: information about households, residents and respondents; chronic diseases and medicines used; use of health services; acute diseases and events treated with drugs; use of contraceptives; use of pharmacy services; behaviors that may affect drug use; package inserts and packaging; lifestyle and health insurance. RESULTS In total, 41,433 interviews were carried out in 20,404 households and 576 urban clusters corresponding to 586 census tracts distributed in the five Brazilian regions, according to eight domains defined by age and gender. CONCLUSIONS The results of the survey may be used as a baseline for future studies aiming to assess the impact of government action on drug access and use. For local studies using a compatible method, PNAUM may serve as a reference point to evaluate variations in space and population. With a comprehensive evaluation of drug-related aspects, PNAUM is a major source of data for a variety of analyses to be carried out both at academic and government level.

  9. Fuel choices in urban Indian households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farsi, Mehdi; Filippini, Massimo [Centre for Energy Policy and Economics, Department of Management, Technology and Economics, ETH Zurich, Switzerland and Department of Economics, University of Lugano, (Switzerland); Pachauri, Shonali [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Schlossplatz 1, A-2361, Laxenburg, (Austria)

    2007-12-15

    This paper applies an ordered discrete choice framework to model fuel choices and patterns of cooking fuel use in urban Indian households. The choices considered are for three main cooking fuels: firewood, kerosene, and LPG (liquid petroleum gas). The models, estimated using a large microeconomic dataset, show a reasonably good performance in the prediction of households' primary and secondary fuel choices. This suggests that ordered models can be used to analyze multiple fuel use patterns in the Indian context. The results show that lack of sufficient income is one of the main factors that retard households from using cleaner fuels, which usually also require the purchase of relatively expensive equipment. The results also indicate that households are sensitive to LPG prices. In addition to income and price, several socio-demographic factors such as education and sex of the head of the household are also found to be important in determining household fuel choice. (Author).

  10. Identifying Core vs. Non-Core Activities of Household Members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Allahviranloo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding scheduling behavior of households has been the focus of research for nearly half a century. Presumably activity engagement is being impacted by the importance of the activity to household members as well as time and cost constraints. Depending on the level of time budget, household members would eliminates some activities from the agenda or replace them with higher priority ones. In this paper, in order to capture the importance of different activities, we propose a methodology to schedule household activities under different levels of uncertainty about the importance of the activity. In this approach we combine discrete choice models and concepts of Fuzzy logic to identify core versus non-core activities in the agenda. The possibility of inclusion of an activity is the agenda is computed by estimating the expected importance of the activity and mapping to a set of fuzzy graphs. Activity scheduling and selection is then modeled as the outcome of a mixed integer optimization problem, in which the objective function is maximizing the expected desirability gained from activities and total saved time, subject to network connectivity, time windows, time budget and cost budget constraints.

  11. Uso de drogas psicotrópicas no Brasil: pesquisa domiciliar envolvendo as 107 maiores cidades do país - 2001 Uso de drogas psicotrópicas en Brasil: investigación domiciliaria en las 107 mayores ciudades del país - 2001 Use of psychotropic drugs in Brazil: household survey in the 107 biggest Brazilian cities - 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos F. Galduróz

    2005-10-01

    of drugs, alcohol, tobacco and the use of non-medical psychotropics. This study enclosed the 107 biggest cities in Brazil; sample: ages between 12 and 65 years. Sampling in three periods: tax sectors; household and the respondent. Were interviewed 8,589 people. The lifetime use of the alcohol was 68.7%, closer to 70.8% in Chile. The lifetime use of the tobacco was of 41.1%, lower than U.S.A. (70.5%. The lifetime use of the marijuana was of 6.9% closer to Colombia (5.4% and lower than U.S.A. (34.2%. The lifetime use of the cocaine was 2.3%, lower than U.S.A. (11.2%. The lifetime use of solvent was of 5.8%, much lower than the United Kingdom (20.0%. The stimulants have had 1.5% of lifetime use and the anxiolytics with 3.3%. These findings will allow the implantation of adjusted public politics to our reality in the field of the psychotropics drugs.

  12. The relevance of timing of illness and death events in the household life cycle for coping outcomes in rural Uganda in the era of HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amurwon, Jovita; Hajdu, Flora; Seeley, Janet

    2015-10-27

    Predicting the household's ability to cope with adult illness and death can be complicated in low-income countries with high HIV prevalence and multiple other stressors and shocks. This study explored the link between stage of the household in the life cycle and the household's capacity to cope with illness and death of adults in rural Uganda. Interviews focusing on life histories were combined with observations during monthly visits to 22 households throughout 2009, and recorded livelihood activities and responses to illness and death events. For the analysis, households were categorised into three life cycle stages ('Young', 'Middle-aged' and 'Old') and the ability to cope and adapt to recorded events of prolonged illness or death was assessed. In 16 of the 26 recorded events, a coping or struggling outcome was found to be related to household life cycle stage. 'Young' households usually had many dependants too young to contribute significantly to livelihoods, so were vulnerable to illness or death of the household head specifically. 'Middle-aged' households had adult children who participated in activities that contributed to livelihoods at home or sent remittances. More household members meant livelihood diversification, so these households usually coped best. Worst off were 'Old' households, where members were unable to work hard and often supported young grandchildren, while their adult children had stopped sending remittances as they had established households of their own. While households may adopt diverse coping mechanisms, the stage in the household life cycle when stressful events occur is important for coping outcomes. Households of the elderly and households with many young dependents are clearly vulnerable. These results demonstrate that household life cycle analysis can be useful in assessing ability to respond to stressors and shocks, including AIDS-related illness and death.

  13. Recent Trends in Household Financial Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Ana C.; Teles, Nuno

    2016-01-01

    This paper identifies general patterns of household financial behaviour for three groups of countries: The Early Financialisers, the Economic and Monetary Union Core and the Latecomers. Even though they stand in different positions as regards the development of their respective financial systems and household engagement with finance, there is a shared trend of growth of household debt and financial wealth, denoting common institutional changes across Europe and thus the systematic character o...

  14. Smart Energy Management for Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja van Dam

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research presented in this thesis was to infer design-related insights and guidelines to improve the use and effectiveness of home energy management systems (HEMS. This was done through an empirical evaluation of the longitudinal effectiveness of these devices and an exploration of factors that influence their use and effectiveness. Three case studies executed with three different HEMS in households, a life cycle assessment (LCA on those three HEMS, as well as a reflection on the challenges of both researching and implementing HEMS in existing housing gave a comprehensive picture of the opportunities and barriers for HEMS. The research revealed five typical use patterns that emerged amongst households. It also revealed average energy savings of 7.8%, which however decreased in the follow-up that was conducted, and factors that may influence the use and effectiveness of HEMS. Nonetheless, the LCA calculations divulged that the HEMS can achieve net energy savings when taking their embedded energy into account. Problem statement The goal of reducing the energy consumption of existing housing formed the basis for this research. There are many facets to this energy consumption, including the characteristics of the house, its appliances, and the behaviours of its inhabitants. Because of this complexity, addressing only one of these facets is not effective in substantially reducing the overall energy consumption of households. This called for an interdisciplinary approach, merging the domains of design for sustainability, sustainable housing transformation and environmental psychology. In this thesis, HEMS were chosen as the intervention to address the various elements that contribute to household energy consumption, thereby functioning as a pivot. By giving feedback and/or helping manage consumption they can assist households in changing their behaviour and help save energy. However, in analysing literature on HEMS, four critique points

  15. Smart Energy Management for Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja van Dam

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research presented in this thesis was to infer design-related insights and guidelines to improve the use and effectiveness of home energy management systems (HEMS. This was done through an empirical evaluation of the longitudinal effectiveness of these devices and an exploration of factors that influence their use and effectiveness. Three case studies executed with three different HEMS in households, a life cycle assessment (LCA on those three HEMS, as well as a reflection on the challenges of both researching and implementing HEMS in existing housing gave a comprehensive picture of the opportunities and barriers for HEMS. The research revealed five typical use patterns that emerged amongst households. It also revealed average energy savings of 7.8%, which however decreased in the follow-up that was conducted, and factors that may influence the use and effectiveness of HEMS. Nonetheless, the LCA calculations divulged that the HEMS can achieve net energy savings when taking their embedded energy into account.Problem statementThe goal of reducing the energy consumption of existing housing formed the basis for this research. There are many facets to this energy consumption, including the characteristics of the house, its appliances, and the behaviours of its inhabitants. Because of this complexity, addressing only one of these facets is not effective in substantially reducing the overall energy consumption of households. This called for an interdisciplinary approach, merging the domains of design for sustainability, sustainable housing transformation and environmental psychology. In this thesis, HEMS were chosen as the intervention to address the various elements that contribute to household energy consumption, thereby functioning as a pivot. By giving feedback and/or helping manage consumption they can assist households in changing their behaviour and help save energy. However, in analysing literature on HEMS, four critique points

  16. A price mechanism for supply demand matching in local grid of households with micro-CHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scherpen J. M. A.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a dynamic price mechanism to coordinate eletric power generation from micro Combined Heat and Power (micro-CHP systems in a network of households. It is assumed that the households are prosumers, i.e. both producers and consumers of electricity. The control is done on household level in a completely distributed manner. Avoiding a centralized controller both eases computation complexity and preserves communication structure in the network. Local information is used to decide to turn on or off the micro-CHP, but through price signals between the prosumers the network as a whole operates in a cooperative way.

  17. A price mechanism for supply demand matching in local grid of households with micro-CHP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, G. K. H.; van Foreest, N. D.; Scherpen, J. M. A.

    2012-10-01

    This paper describes a dynamic price mechanism to coordinate eletric power generation from micro Combined Heat and Power (micro-CHP) systems in a network of households. It is assumed that the households are prosumers, i.e. both producers and consumers of electricity. The control is done on household level in a completely distributed manner. Avoiding a centralized controller both eases computation complexity and preserves communication structure in the network. Local information is used to decide to turn on or off the micro-CHP, but through price signals between the prosumers the network as a whole operates in a cooperative way.

  18. Changing practices of energy consumption: The influence of smart grid solutions in households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Toke Haunstrup; Friis, Freja; Skjølsvold, Tomas Moe

    2017-01-01

    to produce hydrogen for transport use), whereas others emphasise the role of individual consumers. The latter approach is dominant within the smart grid vision. In this paper, we explore implications of smart grid technologies in households for the everyday practices related to electricity consumption....... The analysis is based on qualitative interviews with Danish households with photovoltaics (PVs) installed in combination with electric vehicles, heat pumps or household batteries (for local storage of electricity). The main research questions are: How does the installation of local electricity production...

  19. National Alcohol Survey of households in Trinidad and Tobago (NASHTT: Alcohol use in households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.G. Maharaj

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the patterns of alcohol use among households in Trinidad and Tobago (T&T and to estimate the association between alcohol use and negative psychological, social, or physical events experienced by the household. Methods A convenience sample of 1837 households across T&T. We identified bivariate correlates of alcohol use, and heavy episodic drinking using chi-square and t-test analyses and used multivariable logistic regression to estimate adjusted associations between household alcohol use and experiences within the past 12 months adjusted for sociodemographic covariates. Results One thousand five hundred two households had complete data for all variables (82% response rate. Nearly two thirds (64% of households included alcohol users; 57% of household that consumed alcohol also reported heavy episodic drinking. Households that reported alcohol consumption were significantly more likely to report illnesses within the households, relationship problems, and behavioral and antisocial problems with children. Among households where a member was employed, those who consumed alcohol were nearly twice as likely (OR = 1.98; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.03, 3.82 to have a household member call in sick to work and 2.9 times as likely (OR = 2.9; CI 1.19, 7.04 to have a household member suffer work related problems compared with households who reported not consuming alcohol. Conclusions Approximately two thirds of households in T&T reported using alcohol. These households were more likely to report psychological, physical, and social problems. These findings would support efforts to enforce current policies, laws, and regulations as well as new strategies to reduce the impact of harmful alcohol consumption on households in T&T.

  20. ATTITUDES AND HOUSEHOLD CHARACTERISTICS INFLUENCING SOLID WASTE GENERATION: A HOUSEHOLD GARBAGE ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Epp, Donald J.; Mauger, Paul C.

    1989-01-01

    A survey of household decision-makers and an analysis of their garbage was used to suggest factors affecting the weight of household contributions to municipal solid waste. Iterative regression was used to build a model from the data that is hypothesized to explain garbage weight. Food expenditure, environmental attitude, consumption of soft drinks in plastic bottles, and cats in the household were significant for all households. Self-sufficiency and energy-conscious behavioral scales also af...

  1. Financial behaviour of dutch households: analysis of the dnb household survey 2003

    OpenAIRE

    P.J.A. van Els; W.A. van den End; M.C.J. van Rooij

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the financial behaviour of Dutch households on the basis of the DNB Household Survey. The results of this survey provide insight into the backgrounds and consequences of the persistent rise of household debt. The increase in mortgage debt is related to mortgage equity withdrawal. The financial vulnerability of households turns out to have increased, especially the sensitivity to interest rate movements. This contribution also looks into investors' response t...

  2. Molecular analysis of homocystinuria in Brazilian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Marianna P R; Galdieri, Luciano C; Pereira, Vanessa G; Vergani, Naja; da Rocha, José Cláudio C; Micheletti, Cecília; Martins, Ana Maria; Perez, Ana Beatriz A; Almeida, Vânia D

    2005-12-01

    Cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) deficiency is the most common cause of homocystinuria. However, no data are available concerning the molecular basis of this disease in Brazilian populations. We studied 14 Brazilian patients from 11 unrelated families using a combined screening approach, involving restriction analysis, single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) scanning, and sequencing. All patients presented homocysteine levels higher than 200 mumol/l before the beginning of treatment. The most common CBS gene mutations, p.G307S (c.919G > A) and p.I278T (c.833T > C), were evaluated and the allele c.919A was not found. One allele with the c.844 ins68 (4.5%) in the CBS gene was found. Three families (6 patients) presented the allele c.833 C (13.6%), without the insertion in the heterozygous state. SSCP scanning and sequencing showed 3 alleles p.T191M (13.64%) in 2 families. One allele with a novel mutation was found in exon 4 (c.168T > A) of the CBS gene (4.5%). We also analyzed c.677C > T and c.1298A > C polymorphisms in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and the 2756A > G polymorphism in the methionine synthase (MTR) gene. The frequencies of mutated alleles were: 50% c.677T and 18.2% c.1298C for MTHFR, and 27.3% c.2756G for MTR. In spite of the high level of racial mixing in the country, Brazilian homocystinuric patients did not present a high prevalence of the most common mutations described in the literature.

  3. Household governance and time allocation : Structures and processes of social control in Dutch households

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wotschack, Philip

    2005-01-01

    This article introduces the concept of ‘household governance’ and investigates empirical differences in governance practices among Dutch households. It stresses informal household rules and conflict-handling strategies of cohabiting couples as important means to govern daily time allocation. The

  4. Amazon, priority for Brazilian National Defense Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pereira, Sergio

    2000-01-01

    .... The Brazilian national defense policy, issued in 1996, the first in the history of the country, established directives to orient the Brazilian military strategic planning as well as diplomatic...

  5. Improving Demographic Components of Integrated Assessment Models: The Effect of Changes in Population Composition by Household Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian C. O' Neill

    2006-08-09

    This report describes results of the research project on "Improving Demographic Components of Integrated Assessment Models: The Effect of Changes in Population Composition by Household Characteristics". The overall objective of this project was to improve projections of energy demand and associated greenhouse gas emissions by taking into account demographic factors currently not incorporated in Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) of global climate change. We proposed to examine the potential magnitude of effects on energy demand of changes in the composition of populations by household characteristics for three countries: the U.S., China, and Indonesia. For each country, we planned to analyze household energy use survey data to estimate relationships between household characteristics and energy use; develop a new set of detailed household projections for each country; and combine these analyses to produce new projections of energy demand illustrating the potential importance of consideration of households.

  6. Collecting household water usage data: telephone questionnaire or diary?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinclair Martha I

    2009-11-01

    and the diary format allows for collective recording, rather than an individual's estimation, of household water usage. Accordingly, there is merit in further exploring the use of diaries for collection of water usage information either in combination with a mail out for recruitment, or potentially in the future with Internet-based recruitment (as household Internet uptake increases.

  7. Supplementary household water sources to augment potable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An end-use model is presented and used to assess the theoretical impact of household water sources on potable water demand in formal residential areas. Reliable potable municipal supply to urban consumers via the water distribution system is typically linked to relatively low uptake of household water sources. However ...

  8. Household organophosphorus pesticide use and Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Shilpa; Liew, Zeyan; Paul, Kimberly; Lee, Pei-Chen; Sinsheimer, Janet S; Bronstein, Jeff M; Ritz, Beate

    2013-10-01

    Household pesticide use is widespread in the USA. Since the 1970s, organophosphorus chemicals (OPs) have been common active ingredients in these products. Parkinson's disease (PD) has been linked to pesticide exposures but little is known about the contributions of chronic exposures to household pesticides. Here we investigate whether long-term use of household pesticides, especially those containing OPs, increases the odds of PD. In a population-based case-control study, we assessed frequency of household pesticide use for 357 cases and 807 controls, relying on the California Department of Pesticide Regulation product label database to identify ingredients in reported household pesticide products and the Pesticide Action Network pesticide database of chemical ingredients. Using logistic regression we estimated the effects of household pesticide use. Frequent use of any household pesticide increased the odds of PD by 47% [odds ratio (OR)=1.47, (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13, 1.92)]; frequent use of products containing OPs increased the odds of PD more strongly by 71% [OR=1.71, (95% CI: 1.21, 2.41)] and frequent organothiophosphate use almost doubled the odds of PD. Sensitivity analyses showed that estimated effects were independent of other pesticide exposures (ambient and occupational) and the largest odds ratios were estimated for frequent OP users who were carriers of the 192QQ paraoxonase genetic variant related to slower detoxification of OPs. We provide evidence that household use of OP pesticides is associated with an increased risk of developing PD.

  9. Micro Econometric Modelling of Household Energy Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth-Petersen, Søren

    2002-01-01

    Presents a micro econometric analysis of household electricity and natural gas demand for Danish households observed in 1996. Dependence between demand for gas and demand for electricity; Separability of demand for gas from demand for electricity; Relation between energy consumption and the age...

  10. Can survey participation alter household saving behaviour?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crossley, Thomas; de Bresser, Jochem; Delaney, L.; Winter, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    We document an effect of survey participation on household saving. Indentification comes from random assignment to modules within a population-representative internet panel. The saving measure is based on linked administrative wealth data. Households that responded to a detailed questionnaire on

  11. Gamification in a Prototype Household Energy Game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fijnheer, J.D.L.; van Oostendorp, H.; Veltkamp, R.C.

    2016-01-01

    Research where gamification is used to influence household energy consumption is an emerging field. This paper reviews design features of the prototype Powersaver Game. The aim of this game is to influence household energy consumption in the long-term. The evaluation of the design of the prototype,

  12. Steps to design a household energy game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fijnheer, J.D.L.; van Oostendorp, H.

    2016-01-01

    Research where gamification is used to influence household energy consumption is an emerging field. This paper reviews the design and effectiveness of ten games that aim to influence household energy consumption and presents a novel gamification approach in which real world activities are

  13. Gaming for energy conservation in households

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geelen, D.V.; Brezet, J.C.; Keyson, D.V.; Boess, S.U.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a study about a ‘serious game’, “Energy Battle”, as a means to influence energy-related behavior in households. The Energy Battle is designed to engage home occupants in a fun way in energy conservation via a competition with other households. The challenge enabled home occupants

  14. Spending Time and Money within the Household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Gørtz, Mette

    2012-01-01

    We consider, both theoretically and empirically, the allocation of time and money within the household. The research question is whether a married person who enjoys more leisure than their partner also receives more consumption (which seems to indicate the outcome of power within the household...

  15. Power in Households: Disentangling Bargaining Power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Mabsout (Ramzi); I.P. van Staveren (Irene)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction Within the household bargaining literature, bargaining power is generally understood in terms of economic resources, such as income or assets. Empirical analyses of women’s bargaining power in households in developed and developing countries find that, in general, higher

  16. Modelling household responses to energy effciency interventions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An application of building a system dynamics model of the way households might respond to interventions aimed at reducing energy consumption (specically the ... intervention conducted in a town in the South African Western Cape in which households were able to exchange regular light bulbs for more effcient compact

  17. Household food security and environmental management practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In adjusting to the different agro-ecological and socio-cultural background, some household food security and environmental management systems are likely to have emerged. This assumption found the basis for this study focusing on Household Food Security and Environmental Management Systems in Ogun State.

  18. Religion, economic attitudes, and household finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, L.D.R.; Spaenjers, C.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the differences in economic attitudes and financial decisions between religious and non-religious households. Using Dutch survey data, we find that religious households consider themselves more trusting, and have a stronger bequest motive and a longer planning horizon. Furthermore,

  19. Analysis of expired medications in Serbian households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas, Ana; Tomic, Zdenko; Bukumiric, Dragica; Corac, Aleksandar; Horvat, Olga; Sabo, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction An ongoing issue of expired medications accumulating in some households is a universal problem around the world. The aim of the study was to investigate the extent and structure of expired medications in Serbian households, and to determine which therapeutic groups generated the most waste. Methods This was an observational, cross-sectional study conducted in households in the city of Novi Sad, Serbia. The study had been performed over 8 month period (December 2011 - July 2012) and it consisted of personal insights into the medication inventory in households. Results Of 1008 families, 383 agreed to participate and complete the questionnaire (38.3% response rate). In almost a half of households (44.4%), expired medications were maintained. The amount of expired medications was 402 items, corresponding to 9.2% of total medications presented in surveyed households. The majority of expired medications (64.7%) was in solid dosage (tablets, capsules, granules, lozenges), following semisolid (ointments, creams, gel, suppositories) and liquid dosage forms (drops, syrups). Expired medications in the households belonged mostly to 3 categories: antimicrobials for systemic use (16.7%), dermatological preparation (15.9%) and medications for alimentary tract and metabolism (14.2%). Conclusions This study revealed that there were relatively large quantities of expired medications in Serbian households, with a high prevalence of antibiotics for systemic use, anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic products, and medications for alimentary tract and metabolism. PMID:27703539

  20. Cassava household expenditure and anthropometric indices of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Expenditure on cassava and other staple foods was determined for each household of the preschool children and classified into two groups and the average determined. Significance of difference between the mean Z – scores of the children for above and below average expenditure households was determined by Student ...

  1. Household energy and gender : the global context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clancy, Joy S.

    2003-01-01

    The substantive issue of development is addressing poverty. Therefore, this paper examines what are the linkages between gender, household energy and moving people out poverty. The first section looks at the gender-energy-poverty nexus in general and then how household energy can contribute to

  2. Social, economic, and resource predictors of variability in household air pollution from cookstove emissions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam N Yadama

    Full Text Available We examine if social and economic factors, fuelwood availability, market and media access are associated with owning a modified stove and variation in household emissions from biomass combustion, a significant environmental and health concern in rural India. We analyze cross-sectional household socio-economic data, and PM(2.5 and particulate surface area concentration in household emissions from cookstoves (n=100. This data set combines household social and economic variables with particle emissions indexes associated with the household stove. The data are from the Foundation for Ecological Society, India, from a field study of household emissions. In our analysis, we find that less access to ready and free fuelwood and higher wealth are associated with owning a replacement/modified stove. We also find that additional kitchen ventilation is associated with a 12% reduction in particulate emissions concentration (p<0.05, after we account for the type of stove used. We did not find a significant association between replacement/modified stove on household emissions when controlling for additional ventilation. Higher wealth and education are associated with having additional ventilation. Social caste, market and media access did not have any effect on the presence of replacement or modified stoves or additional ventilation. While the data available to us does not allow an examination of direct health outcomes from emissions variations, adverse environmental and health impacts of toxic household emissions are well established elsewhere in the literature. The value of this study is in its further examination of the role of social and economic factors and available fuelwood from commons in type of stove use, and additional ventilation, and their effect on household emissions. These associations are important since the two direct routes to improving household air quality among the poor are stove type and better ventilation.

  3. Which U.S. Households Use Education Loans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chungwen; Fisher, Patti J.

    2016-01-01

    This empirical study uses the 2013 Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF) to investigate the characteristics of households that hold at least one loan for educational expenses. The benefit of using household-level data is that a single household may have education loans for multiple people in the household, including the household head, spouse/partner,…

  4. Characterization of household waste in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eisted, Rasmus; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    . The collection bags were sorted manually into 10 material fractions. The household waste composition consisted primarily of biowaste (43%) and the combustible fraction (30%), including anything combustible that did not belong to other clean fractions as paper, cardboard and plastic. Paper (8%) (dominated......The composition of household waste in Greenland was investigated for the first time. About 2tonnes of household waste was sampled as every 7th bag collected during 1week along the scheduled collection routes in Sisimiut, the second largest town in Greenland with about 5400 inhabitants...... by magazine type paper) and glass (7%) were other important material fractions of the household waste. The remaining approximately 10% constituted of steel (1.5%), aluminum (0.5%), plastic (2.4%), wood (1.0%), non-combustible waste (1.8%) and household hazardous waste (1.2%). The high content of biowaste...

  5. Gout treatment: survey of Brazilian rheumatology residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Rodrigo Balbino Chaves; Vargas-Santos, Ana Beatriz; Pereira, Leticia Rocha; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; da Rocha Castelar-Pinheiro, Geraldo

    2017-05-01

    To assess the current practices in gout management among Brazilian rheumatology residents. We performed a cross-sectional online survey among all the rheumatology residents and those rheumatologists who had just completed their training (post-residency (PR)) regarding their approach to gout management. Results were compared with the 2012 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) gout guidelines and with the responses of a previous survey with a representative sample of practicing Brazilian rheumatologists (RHE). We received 224 responses (83%) from 271 subjects. Among all respondents, the first-choice treatment for gout flares was the combination of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug + colchicine for otherwise healthy patients. A target serum urate 75%. Less than 70% reported starting allopurinol at low doses (≤100 mg/day) for patients with normal renal function and gout guidelines, especially among PR. However, some important aspects of gout management need improvement. These results will guide the development of a physician education program to improve the management of gout patients in Brazil.

  6. Household furniture tip-over deaths of young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Barbara C; Harding, Brett E

    2011-07-01

    The potential for the injury or death of a child resulting from the tip-over of a piece of household furniture or a domestic appliance has not been previously well recognized. We reviewed nine accidental deaths of young children that resulted from avoidable residential hazards and/or lapses in supervision of the children by their caregivers. The offending household items included televisions, bedroom dressers, a kitchen stove, and a lounge chair. The causes of death were mechanical asphyxia, blunt trauma, and combined blunt head trauma and asphyxia. All of the deaths could have been prevented by appropriate anchoring of the piece of furniture and/or closer supervision of the child. A thorough multidisciplinary investigation is essential in establishing the cause and manner of death in such cases and in identifying risk factors that may aid in the prevention of future childhood deaths. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  7. Brazilian medical publications: citation patterns for Brazilian-edited and non-Brazilian literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Cunha-Melo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Today, the quality of a scientific article depends on the periodical in which it is published and on the number of times the article is cited in the literature. In Brazil, the criteria for the evaluation of this scientific production are improving. However, there is still some resistance, with authors arguing that Brazilian publications must be preferentially addressed to the national readers and, therefore, they should ideally be written in Portuguese. In order to determine the kind of scientific journals cited in the reference lists of articles published in medical periodicals edited in Brazil, in the present study we determine the rate of Portuguese/English citations. Three issues of 43 periodicals (19 indexed in SciELO, 10 in PubMed, 10 in LILACS, and 4 in the ISI-Thompson base of different medical specialties were analyzed, and the number of both Portuguese and English citations in the reference list of each article was recorded. The results showed that in Brazilian-edited journals the mean number of citations/article was 20.9 ± 6.9 and the percentage of citations of international non-Brazilian periodicals was 86.0 ± 11.2%. Of the latter, 94.4 ± 7.0 are indexed by ISI-Thompson. Therefore, we conclude that Brazilian medical scientists cite the international non-Brazilian periodicals more than the national journals, and most of the cited papers are indexed by ISI-Thompson.

  8. DETERMININGS OF FARM WORK ALLOCATION IN BRAZILIAN REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe de Morais Cangussu Pessoa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to analyze the determinings of farm work allocation in Brazilian regions, based on micro data of National Household Sample Survey 2009. For that, the empirical procedure consisted in the use of two models: Confirmatory Factor Analysis and the Logit Model. The model Confirmatory Factor Analysis showed good fit and defined two latent variables: qualification and income. As to the Logit Model, the results showed that the fact of a man living in rural areas increases the likelihood of being allocated in farm work, however if he is white this probability decrease. Besides, the variables qualification and income have a negative relation with farm work allocation, being the Midwest region that contributed most for people being allocated in farm work.

  9. Household food insecurity and hunger among households in Sidama district, southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regassa, Nigatu; Stoecker, Barbara J

    2012-07-01

    To examine household food insecurity and hunger in Sidama Zone, one of the most populous zones in southern Ethiopia. Cross-sectional survey administered individually by trained interviewers. Food insecurity was calculated with both the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) and the Household Hunger Scale (HHS), developed by the Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance Project. Rural households from ten kebeles (the smallest administrative district) selected from two agro-climatic zones in Sidama, southern Ethiopia, from December 2010 to January 2011. Men and women respondents from 1094 rural households were selected using multistage sampling techniques. Using the HFIAS, 17·7 % of households were food secure. The percentage of households that were mildly, moderately and severely food insecure was 6·8 %, 27·7 % and 47·8 %, respectively. Using the HHS, 29·0 % and 5·6 % of households fell into the moderate and severe household hunger categories. Using multivariate statistical techniques, five variables were significant predictors of both food insecurity and hunger. These variables were migration of a household member, agro-climatic zone, and younger age, less education and lower radio access for the woman. Being eligible for safety-net credit programmes also was a predictor of hunger, while limited animal ownership and household wealth as well as alcohol use by the household head added to the prediction of food insecurity. The study documented that food insecurity is a major concern of smallholder farming households in the study area. A substantial majority of the households were facing mild to severe food insecurity and hunger for an extended period of time.

  10. Prevalence of Giardia infection in households of Giardia cases and risk factors for household transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldram, Alison; Vivancos, Roberto; Hartley, Catherine; Lamden, Kenneth

    2017-07-11

    Giardia is a leading but neglected cause of infectious gastroenteritis worldwide and is treatable. There is a substantial burden of undetected Giardia in the UK and for every one case of Giardia reported to national surveillance there are 14 cases in the community. We aimed to ascertain the prevalence of, and risk factors associated with secondary household Giardia infections to assess the burden of infection and inform control measures. We identified all giardiasis cases notified in nine local authorities in Lancashire between June 2014 and June 2015, and invited their household contacts to submit faecal specimens for Giardia testing and complete a risk factor questionnaire. We estimated the proportion of households with additional Giardia infection. We compared household risk factors between households with and without additional Giardia using Fisher's exact test. We used multivariable logistic regression to identify independent risk factors for additional Giardia infections. We identified additional Giardia infections in 30% (27/91) of included households. A total of 41 infections were found from 212 household members, of which 37 were asymptomatic. The majority of infections were assemblage B (57%) but there were also a high number of mixed infections (20%). Risk factors significantly associated with additional household infections were; having children under 5 years in the household (odds ratio 42; 95% confidence intervals 10-178) and the presence of gastrointestinal illness in the household before the onset of the index case (odds ratio 9; 95% confidence intervals 1.5-48). Our finding of a high household prevalence of asymptomatic infection has raised the public health question of whether treatment of asymptomatic household contacts may be justified in preventing Giardia re-infection of the index case or in preventing secondary cases and household clusters. We recommend the communication of this risk in household contacts of Giardia and reinforcement of

  11. Extremophiles in Household Water Heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilpiszeski, R.; House, C. H.

    2016-12-01

    A significant fraction of Earth's microbial diversity comes from species living in extreme environments, but natural extreme environments can be difficult to access. Manmade systems like household water heaters serve as an effective proxy for thermophilic environments that are otherwise difficult to sample directly. As such, we are investigating the biogeography, taxonomic distribution, and evolution of thermophiles growing in domestic water heaters. Citizen scientists collected hot tap water culture- and filter- samples from 101 homes across the United States. We recovered a single species of thermophilic heterotroph from culture samples inoculated from water heaters across the United States, Thermus scotoductus. Whole-genome sequencing was conducted to better understand the distribution and evolution of this single species. We have also sequenced hyper-variable regions of the 16S rRNA gene from whole-community filter samples to identify the broad diversity and distribution of microbial cells captured from each water heater. These results shed light on the processes that shape thermophilic populations and genomes at a spatial resolution that is difficult to access in naturally occurring extreme ecosystems.

  12. US Household Food Shopping Patterns: Dynamic Shifts Since 2000 And Socioeconomic Predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Dalia; Robinson, Whitney R; Ng, Shu Wen; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Popkin, Barry M

    2015-11-01

    Under the assumption that differential food access might underlie nutritional disparities, programs and policies have focused on the need to build supermarkets in underserved areas, in an effort to improve dietary quality. However, there is limited evidence about which types of stores are used by households of different income levels and differing races/ethnicities. We used cross-sectional cluster analysis to derive shopping patterns from US households' volume food purchases by store from 2000 to 2012. Multinomial logistic regression identified household socioeconomic characteristics that were associated with shopping patterns in 2012. We found three food shopping patterns or clusters: households that primarily shopped at grocery stores, households that primarily shopped at mass merchandisers, and a combination cluster in which households split their purchases among multiple store types. In 2012 we found no income or race/ethnicity differences for the cluster of households that primarily shopped at grocery stores. However, low-income non-Hispanic blacks (versus non-Hispanic whites) had a significantly lower probability of belonging to the mass merchandise cluster. These varied shopping patterns must be considered in future policy initiatives. Furthermore, it is important to continue studying the complex rationales for people's food shopping patterns. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  13. Agrobiodiversity, Rural Transformations and Household Experiences of Globalised Change: A Case Study from Southern Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Turner

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines reconfigurations of household economies and agrobiodiversity through the experiences and responses of rural households to local manifestations of globalisation and environmental change in the Central Valley of Tarija, Bolivia, from the 1950s to the present. Research participant narratives from seven study communities document a widely experienced regional shift from rain-fed agriculture and pastured livestock production for household consumption to market-oriented production of regionally-specialised commodities. Particularly important to this reconfiguration are changing land access and use regimes, household responses to changing opportunities, discourses and social requirements related with ‘modernising lifestyles’, market integration and dependence, changing environmental and ecological conditions, and greater availability of consumer goods and technologies. We analyse how these processes have combined to reconfigure the range of livelihood possibilities available to rural households, or their ‘landscapes of possibility’, in ways that favour transition to specialised commodity production. Patterns of change in household agrobiodiversity use, however, are entwined with threads of persistence, underscoring the contingent nature of rural transitions and the role of local agency and creativity in responding to and sometimes shaping how globalisation unfolds. Examining rural transition through the experiences of households in particular contexts over time offers insights for development policy and practice to support producers’ ability to respond to globalisation and environmental change in ways they see as desirable and beneficial to their livelihoods and wellbeing.

  14. The economic impact of visceral leishmaniasis on rural households in one endemic district of Bihar, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarnoff, Rhonda; Desai, Jaikishan; Desjeux, Philippe; Mittal, Atul; Topno, Roshan; Siddiqui, Niyamat Ali; Pandey, Arvind; Sur, Dipika; Das, Pradeep

    2010-07-01

    To estimate the economic burden of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) on the rural population of one VL endemic district of Bihar, the state with 85% of India's cases. Using a survey of a stratified multistage sampling of 15 178 households with 214 individuals with VL in the previous 12 months, the study provides data on VL treatment expenditures, financing and days of work lost in the context of overall household expenditures, income sources and assets. Median household expenditures on VL treatment represent, on average, 11% of annual household expenditures and an estimated 7 months of an individual's income at the daily wage in rural Bihar. With 87% of households forced to take out loans to finance disease costs, VL can contribute to a spiral of increasing poverty. The current pattern of VL treatment, with multiple visits and treatments for a single episode of illness, significantly increases the economic burden on the household. India's National Elimination Program to make effective treatments accessible to the rural poor, if combined with expanded efforts to improve timely access to diagnosis by conducting rapid diagnostic tests closer to the community (and mobilizing the rural population to seek effective treatment earlier), can reduce VL's economic burden on India's rural households.

  15. Water electrolysis for hydrogen production in Brazilian perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saliba-Silva, Adonis Marcelo; Carvalho, Fatima M.S.; Bergamaschi, Vanderlei Sergio; Linardi, Marcelo [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (CCCH/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Center], Email: saliba@ipen.br

    2009-07-01

    Hydrogen is a promising energy carrier, which potentially could replace the fossil fuels used in the transportation and distributed energy sector of Brazilian economy. Fossil fuels are polluting by carbogenic emissions from their combustion, being so co-responsible for present global warming. However, no large scale, cost-effective, environmentally non-carbogenic hydrogen production process is currently available for commercialization. There are feasible possibilities to use electrolysis as one of the main sources of hydrogen, especially thinking on combination with renewable sources of energy, mainly eolic and solar. In this work some perspectives for Brazilian energy context is presented, where electrolysis combined with renewable power source and fuel cell power generation would be a good basis to improve the distributed energy supply for remote areas, where the electricity grid is not present or is deficient. (author)

  16. Household burden of chronic diseases in Ghana | Togoe | Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    communicable diseases on households in the midst of a paradigm change in Ghana's health policy that shifts healthcare costs to persons and households. Method: Using data on 4,121 households from the World Health Survey for Ghana 2003, ...

  17. Analysis of Capability of Households to Finance Higher Education

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tarasenko Yuliya V

    2013-01-01

    The article analyses possibilities of financing higher education by households, it proves, using example of households of Ukraine and Russia, wish and capability of households to finance higher education...

  18. ASSESSMENT OF HOUSEHOLD CARBON FOOTPRINT REDUCTION POTENTIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Klaas Jan; Homan, Greg; Brown, Rich; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2009-04-15

    The term ?household carbon footprint? refers to the total annual carbon emissions associated with household consumption of energy, goods, and services. In this project, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory developed a carbon footprint modeling framework that characterizes the key underlying technologies and processes that contribute to household carbon footprints in California and the United States. The approach breaks down the carbon footprint by 35 different household fuel end uses and 32 different supply chain fuel end uses. This level of end use detail allows energy and policy analysts to better understand the underlying technologies and processes contributing to the carbon footprint of California households. The modeling framework was applied to estimate the annual home energy and supply chain carbon footprints of a prototypical California household. A preliminary assessment of parameter uncertainty associated with key model input data was also conducted. To illustrate the policy-relevance of this modeling framework, a case study was conducted that analyzed the achievable carbon footprint reductions associated with the adoption of energy efficient household and supply chain technologies.

  19. Sources of household salt in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jooste, Pieter L

    2005-01-01

    Marketing of non-iodized salt through unconventional distribution channels is one of the factors weakening the national salt iodization program in South Africa. The aim of this study was therefore to quantify the various sources of household salt, and to relate this information to socio-economic status. Questionnaire information was collected by personal interview during home visits from a multistage, cluster, probability sample of 2164 adults representative of the adult population. Nationally 77.7% of households obtained their table salt from the typical food shops distributing iodized salt. However, in the nine different provinces between 8 and 37.3% of households used unconventional sources, distributing mainly non-iodized salt, to obtain their household salt. These alternative sources include distributors of agricultural salt, small general dealer shops called spaza shops, in peri-urban and rural townships, street vendors and salt saches placed in the packaging of maize meal bags. Country-wide around 30% of low socio-economic households obtained their salt from unconventional sources compared to less than 5% in high socio-economic households, emphasizing the vulnerability of low socio-economic groups to the use of non-iodized salt. Intervention strategies should mobilize all role players involved in unconventional marketing channels of household salt to provide only iodized salt to consumers, as required by law.

  20. Household food insecurity and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeer, Kammi K; Piperata, Barbara A

    2017-04-01

    Food insecurity, the lack of consistent access to sufficient quality and quantity of food, affects an estimated 800 million people around the world. Although household food insecurity is generally associated with poor child nutrition and health in the USA, we know less about household food insecurity and child health in developing countries. Particularly lacking is research assessing how associations between household food insecurity and children's health outcomes may differ by child age and among children beyond age 5 years in low-income settings. We use data from a population-based sample of households with children ages 3-11 years (N = 431) in León, Nicaragua to consider how household food insecurity is associated with three measures of child health: illness, anaemia and low height-for-age. Our results provide new evidence that even mild household food insecurity is detrimental to children's health; and that child age conditions the associations between household food insecurity and child health. We find that food insecurity is especially harmful to health during early childhood, but continues to have significant associations with health into middle childhood (up to ages 7-8 years). We discuss the potential implications of these results for future child health research and policies in low-income countries. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Household Transmission of Vibrio cholerae in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Jonathan D; Koepke, Amanda A; Kenah, Eben E; Halloran, M Elizabeth; Chowdhury, Fahima; Khan, Ashraful I; LaRocque, Regina C; Yang, Yang; Ryan, Edward T; Qadri, Firdausi; Calderwood, Stephen B; Harris, Jason B; Longini, Ira M

    2014-11-01

    Vibrio cholerae infections cluster in households. This study's objective was to quantify the relative contribution of direct, within-household exposure (for example, via contamination of household food, water, or surfaces) to endemic cholera transmission. Quantifying the relative contribution of direct exposure is important for planning effective prevention and control measures. Symptom histories and multiple blood and fecal specimens were prospectively collected from household members of hospital-ascertained cholera cases in Bangladesh from 2001-2006. We estimated the probabilities of cholera transmission through 1) direct exposure within the household and 2) contact with community-based sources of infection. The natural history of cholera infection and covariate effects on transmission were considered. Significant direct transmission (p-valuelevels of pre-existing immunity to cholera infection. Transmission via direct exposure occurring outside of the household was not considered. Direct exposure contributes substantially to endemic transmission of symptomatic cholera in an urban setting. We provide the first estimate of the transmissibility of endemic cholera within prospectively-followed members of households. The role of direct transmission must be considered when planning cholera control activities.

  2. Individual and Household Willingness to Pay for Public Goods

    OpenAIRE

    John Quiggin

    1998-01-01

    The issue of whether willingness to pay (WTP) for the benefits generated by a public good should be elicited on an individual or on a household basis is addressed. Differences between individual and household WTP may arise when members of the household are mutually altruistic. It is shown that, for general specifications of altruism, household WTP is less than the sum of household members' individual WTP. Implications for the choice between household and individual measures of WTP are conside...

  3. Comparison of frailty among Japanese, Brazilian Japanese descendants and Brazilian community-dwelling older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Priscila Yukari Sewo; Sampaio, Ricardo Aurélio Carvalho; Yamada, Minoru; Ogita, Mihoko; Arai, Hidenori

    2015-06-01

    To investigate frailty in Japanese, Brazilian Japanese descendants and Brazilian older women. The collected data included sociodemographic and health-related characteristics, and the frailty index Kihon Checklist. We analyzed the differences between the mean scores of Kihon Checklist domains (using ancova) and the percentage of frail women (using χ(2)-test). We carried out a binary logistic regression with Kihon Checklist domains. A total of 211 participants (Japanese n = 84, Brazilian Japanese descendants n = 55, Brazilian n = 72) participated in this research. The Brazilian participants had the highest total Kihon Checklist scores (more frail), whereas the Brazilian Japanese descendants had the lowest scores (P Brazilian group had more participants with oral dysfunction (P Brazilian women were likely to be more frail than the participants in other groups. More than the environment itself, the lifestyle and sociodemographic conditions could affect the frailty of older Brazilian women. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  4. Individual welfare analysis for collective households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cherchye, Laurens; Cosaert, Sam; de Rock, Bram

    We propose novel tools for the analysis of individual welfare on the basis of aggregate household demand behavior. The method assumes a collective model of household consumption with the public and private nature of goods specified by the empirical analyst. A main distinguishing feature of our...... method is that it builds on a revealed preference characterization of the collective model that is intrinsically nonparametric. We show how to identify individual money metric welfare indices from observed household demand, along with the intrahousehold sharing rule and the individuals’ willingness...

  5. Household food waste in Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey; Gaiani, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on food waste generated by households in four Nordic countries: Finland, Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. Based on existing literature we present (A) comparable data on amounts and monetary value of food waste; (B) explanations for food waste at household level; (C) a number...... of public and private initiatives at national levels aiming to reduce food waste; and (D) a discussion of ethical issues related to food waste with a focus on possible contributions from ecocentric ethics. We argue that reduction of food waste at household level, which has an impact on issues...

  6. Future Changes in Age and Household Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerg Jacobsen, Rasmus; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.

    2014-01-01

    Using stochastic forecasting techniques, this paper assesses the consequences for public finances of changes in age and household structures in Denmark over the period 2008–2037. Focusing on components of welfare provisions and tax payments with noticeable differences across age and household...... status, we show that, based on a point forecast, the fiscal impact of changes in household structures amounts to an annual negative effect of 0.5% of GDP, and the effect of changes in age structures is forecast to worsen the public budget by 3.7% of GDP per year. While being subject to a considerable...... of population ageing....

  7. Fixed-Dose Artesunate-Amodiaquine Combination vs Chloroquine for Treatment of Uncomplicated Blood Stage P. vivax Infection in the Brazilian Amazon: An Open-Label Randomized, Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Andre M; Alencar, Aline C; Melo, Gisely C; Magalhaes, Belisa L; Machado, Kim; Alencar Filho, Aristóteles C; Kuehn, Andrea; Marques, Marly M; Manso, Monica Costa; Felger, Ingrid; Vieira, José L F; Lameyre, Valerie; Daniel-Ribeiro, Claudio T; Lacerda, Marcus V G

    2017-01-15

    Despite increasing evidence of the development of Plasmodium vivax chloroquine (CQ) resistance, there have been no trials comparing its efficacy with that of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) in Latin America. This randomized controlled trial compared the antischizontocidal efficacy and safety of a 3-day supervised treatment of the fixed-dose combination artesunate-amodiaquine Winthrop(®) (ASAQ) versus CQ for treatment of uncomplicated P. vivax infection in Manaus, Brazil. Patients were followed for 42 days. Primary endpoints were adequate clinical and parasitological responses (ACPR) rates at day 28. Genotype-adjustment was performed. From 2012 to 2013, 380 patients were enrolled. In the per-protocol (PP) analysis, adjusted-ACPR was achieved in 100% (165/165) and 93.6% (161/172) of patients in the ASAQ and CQ arm (difference 6.4%, 95% CI 2.7%; 10.1%) at day 28 and in 97.4% (151/155) and 77.7% (129/166), respectively (difference 19.7%, 95% CI 12.9%; 26.5%), at day 42. Apart from ITT D28 assessment, superiority of ASAQ on ACPR was demonstrated. ASAQ presented faster clearance of parasitaemia and fever. Based on CQ blood level measurements, CQ resistance prevalence was estimated at 11.5% (95% CI: 7.5-17.3) up to day 42. At least one emergent adverse event (AE) was recorded for 79/190 (41x6%) in the ASAQ group and for 85/190 (44x7%) in the CQ group. Both treatments had similar safety profiles. ASAQ exhibited high efficacy against CQ resistant P. vivax and is an adequate alternative in the study area. Studies with an efficacious comparator, longer follow-up and genotype-adjustment can improve CQR characterization. NCT01378286. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  8. Estimate of consumption of phenolic compounds by Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa Gesser Corrêa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Estimate the intake of phenolic compounds by the Brazilian population. METHODS: To estimate the average per capita food consumption, micro data from the National Dietary Survey and from the Household Budget Survey from 2008 to 2009 was analyzed. The phenolic content in food was estimated from the base of Phenol-Explorer. It was chosen according to compatibility and variety of food items and usual method of preparation. RESULTS: The Brazilian population consumed, on average, 460.15 mg/day of total phenolic compounds, derived mainly from beverages (48.9%, especially coffee and legumes (19.5%. Since this analysis of classes of phenolics it was possible to observe an intake of 314 mg/day of phenolic acids, 138.92 mg/day of flavonoids and 7.16 mg/ day of other kinds of phenolics. Regarding the variables studied this present study shows that those men who live in the countryside and in the northeastern region of the country had a higher consumption of phenolic compounds. Besides, consumption was higher by adults and the elderly, the medium income classes, the population with incomplete and complete primary education and those with adequate nutrition and also overweight status. CONCLUSION: The intake of phenolic compounds can be considered low, especially where consumption of fruit and vegetables is insufficient. We can conclude that coffee and black beans were the best contributors to phenolic intake.

  9. INNOVATION IN BRAZILIAN SMALL COMPANIES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodrigues, Tonny Kerley de Alencar; Lira, Átila De Melo; Naas, Irenilza De Alencar

    2015-01-01

    .... And the data confirms that small Brazilian companies generally have difficulties to sell their innovations. Keywords: innovation, small enterprises, patents. 1. INTRODUCTION Companies worldwide are looking to technological innovation as feasible for your market expansion (BURNS; STALKER, 1961; NELSON, 1993) alternative. In Brazil, the change an...

  10. BRAZILIAN EXPORTS OF MANUFACTURED WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Azevedo Calderon

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the Brazilian exports of sawnwood of non-coniferous, veneer sheets and plywood, from 1961 to 2002. The data regarding the three studied products, sawnwood of non-coniferous, veneer sheets and plywood, were joined through the method of Fisher so that an econometric evaluation of the market of the three products could be carried out. Supply and demand models of the Brazilian exports were specified. The results were satisfactory and they match with the literature. The supply of exports presented a positive answer in relation to the exporter's remuneration, to the production, to the use of the installed capacity (cycles of domestic economical activity and to the tendency, and negative in relation to the internal demand. The demand for the Brazilian exports was influenced positively by the world income, participation index and tendency, and negatively for the relative price. The low elasticity-price of the found demand can have implications in the conservation of the Brazilian forest resources because the exporters can increase the prices, reduce the amounts and still increase the incomes.

  11. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhout van Solinge, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/156696207

    2015-01-01

    This essay takes a (green) criminological and multidisciplinary perspective on deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, by focusing on the crimes and damages that are associated with Amazonian deforestation. The analysis and results are partly based on longer ethnographic stays in North Brazil (Amazon

  12. How Do Families Smooth Household Heads` Earnings Volatility?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ki Seong Park; ; Dong Gyun Shin

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the extent to which household heads` earnings volatility is translated into household consumption volatility, and, in the process, identify measures of smoothing idiosyncratic earnings variation...

  13. The pluriactivity of rural households in the Brazilian Northeast and South: rural poverty and public policies

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento, Carlos Alves do

    2009-01-01

    O artigo desfaz a ideia de que as famílias rurais pluriativas encontram ambientes favoráveis ao seu crescimento em regiões com economias locais mais dinâmicas e modernas. A pesquisa está apoiada em informações processadas a partir dos microdados da Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios - PNAD (1992 a 1999 e 2001 a 2005). Defende-se que, no caso da Região Sul, o crescimento (ou o não crescimento) da pluriatividade - e sua influência sobre o conjunto da agricultura familiar - depende fund...

  14. Sizing wind/photovoltaic hybrids for households in inner Mongolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barley, C.D.; Lew, D.J.; Flowers, L.T. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Approximately 140,000 wind turbines currently provide electricity to about one-third of the non-grid-connected households in Inner Mongolia. However, these households often suffer from a lack of power during the low-wind summer months. This report describes an analysis of hybrid wind/photovoltaic (PV) systems for such households. The sizing of the major components is based on a subjective trade-off between the cost of the system and the percent unmet load, as determined by the Hybrid2 software in conjunction with a simplified time-series model. Actual resource data (wind speed and solar radiation) from the region are processed so as to best represent the scenarios of interest. Small wind turbines of both Chinese and U.S. manufacture are considered in the designs. The results indicate that combinations of wind and PV are more cost-effective than either one alone, and that the relative amount of PV in the design increases as the acceptable unmet load decreases and as the average wind speed decreases.

  15. HOUSEHOLD AS A SUBJECT OF FINANCIAL RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Hneusheva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Households are considered as a separate sphere of the financial system of Ukraine, which carry out active influence on the development of domestic economy. The basic functions of housekeeping in a market economy are shown.

  16. Bangladesh Integrated Household Survey (BIHS) 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — This dataset is the second round of Bangladesh Integrated Household Survey (BIHS). The BIHS is the only nationally representative survey in Bangladesh that collects...

  17. Ubiquitous monitoring of electrical household appliances

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lloret, Jaime; Macías, Elsa; Suárez, Alvaro; Lacuesta, Raquel

    2012-01-01

    ... to the Twitter Social network. Several sensors placed in the household appliances gather the sensed data and send them wired or wirelessly, depending on the case, using small and cheap devices to a gateway located in the home...

  18. Substitution between cars within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    2016-01-01

    .98 and 1.41 for the primary and secondary cars, respectively. Accounting for substitution effects, these figures reduce to, respectively, 0.32 and 0.45. Consistent with substitution behaviour, we find that the fuel price elasticity of fuel demand exceeds the elasticity of kilometre demands with respect......In this paper we study the demand for car kilometres in two-car households, focusing on the substitution between cars of different fuel efficiency in response to fuel price changes. We use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car households to estimate – for each car owned by the household...... – own and cross-price effects of increases in fuel costs per kilometre. The empirical results show that failure to capture substitution between cars within the household can result in substantial misspecification biases. Ignoring substitution, the basic model yielded fuel price elasticities of 0...

  19. Household energy consumption and expenditures 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-05

    This presents information about household end-use consumption of energy and expenditures for that energy. These data were collected in the 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey; more than 7,000 households were surveyed for information on their housing units, energy consumption and expenditures, stock of energy-consuming appliances, and energy-related behavior. The information represents all households nationwide (97 million). Key findings: National residential energy consumption was 10.0 quadrillion Btu in 1993, a 9% increase over 1990. Weather has a significant effect on energy consumption. Consumption of electricity for appliances is increasing. Houses that use electricity for space heating have lower overall energy expenditures than households that heat with other fuels. RECS collected data for the 4 most populous states: CA, FL, NY, TX.

  20. Targeted Beverage Taxes Influence Food and Beverage Purchases among Households with Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Christopher N; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M

    2015-08-01

    How beverage taxes might influence purchases of foods and beverages among households with preschool children is unclear. Thus, we examined the relation between beverage taxes and food and beverage purchases among US households with a child 2-5 y of age. We examined how a potential tax on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), or SSBs and >1% fat and/or high-sugar milk, would influence household food and beverage purchases among US households with a preschool child. We aimed to identify the lowest tax rate associated with meaningful changes in purchases. We used household food and beverage purchase data from households with a single child who participated in the 2009-2012 Nielsen Homescan Panel. A 2-part, multilevel panel model was used to examine the relation between beverage prices and food and beverage purchases. Logistic regression was used in the first part of the model to estimate the probability of a food/beverage being purchased, whereas the second part of the model used log-linear regression to estimate predicted changes in purchases among reporting households. Estimates from both parts were combined, and bootstrapping was performed to obtain corrected SEs. In separate models, prices of SSBs, or SSBs and >1% and/or high-sugar milk, were perturbed by +10%, +15%, and +20%. Predicted changes in food and beverage purchases were compared across models. Price increases of 10%, 15%, and 20% on SSBs were associated with fewer purchases of juice drinks, whereas price increases of 10%, 15%, and 20% simulated on both SSBs plus >1% fat and/or high-sugar milk (combined tax) were associated with fewer kilocalories purchased from >1% fat, low-sugar milk, and meat, poultry, fish, and mixed meat dishes. Our study provides further evidence that a tax on beverages high in sugar and/or fat may be associated with favorable changes in beverage purchases among US households with a preschool child. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. Targeted Beverage Taxes Influence Food and Beverage Purchases among Households with Preschool Children123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Christopher N; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M

    2015-01-01

    Background: How beverage taxes might influence purchases of foods and beverages among households with preschool children is unclear. Thus, we examined the relation between beverage taxes and food and beverage purchases among US households with a child 2–5 y of age. Objectives: We examined how a potential tax on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), or SSBs and >1% fat and/or high-sugar milk, would influence household food and beverage purchases among US households with a preschool child. We aimed to identify the lowest tax rate associated with meaningful changes in purchases. Methods: We used household food and beverage purchase data from households with a single child who participated in the 2009–2012 Nielsen Homescan Panel. A 2-part, multilevel panel model was used to examine the relation between beverage prices and food and beverage purchases. Logistic regression was used in the first part of the model to estimate the probability of a food/beverage being purchased, whereas the second part of the model used log-linear regression to estimate predicted changes in purchases among reporting households. Estimates from both parts were combined, and bootstrapping was performed to obtain corrected SEs. In separate models, prices of SSBs, or SSBs and >1% and/or high-sugar milk, were perturbed by +10%, +15%, and +20%. Predicted changes in food and beverage purchases were compared across models. Results: Price increases of 10%, 15%, and 20% on SSBs were associated with fewer purchases of juice drinks, whereas price increases of 10%, 15%, and 20% simulated on both SSBs plus >1% fat and/or high-sugar milk (combined tax) were associated with fewer kilocalories purchased from >1% fat, low-sugar milk, and meat, poultry, fish, and mixed meat dishes. Conclusions: Our study provides further evidence that a tax on beverages high in sugar and/or fat may be associated with favorable changes in beverage purchases among US households with a preschool child. PMID:26063069

  2. Policy Analytics, Household Informedness and the Collection of Household Hazardous Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim-Wavde Kustini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Proper collection of Household Hazardous Waste (HHW is an important action to support environmental sustainability. We investigate the role of household informedness, the degree to which households have the necessary information to make utility-maximizing decisions, as they relate to participation in HHW collection programs. We find two factors that influence household informedness: the provision of public education about HHW and environmental quality information. We conducted an empirical study on HHW collection in California to obtain statistical evidence on the effect of these factors on the amount of HHW collected. The findings of this policy analytics study improve our understanding of how household informedness influences household decision-making in participating in HHW collection programs. This study is useful in the guidance it offers to devise new information policies to maximize households’ participation in HHW collection program.

  3. Household savings behaviour in crisis times

    OpenAIRE

    Carin van der Cruijsen; Jakob de Haan; David-Jan Jansen; Robert Mosch

    2011-01-01

    We analyze whether households' savings behaviour was affected by adverse experiences during the crisis and knowledge about banking supervision. Using a survey among Dutch households, we find that both factors have affected the allocation of savings. Individuals whose bank went bankrupt or received government support during the crisis gather more information about banks and saving instruments and are more likely to have savings at several banks. Respondents with better knowledge about banking ...

  4. Title MPC heterogeneity and household balance sheets

    OpenAIRE

    Fagereng, Andreas; Holm, Martin B.; Natvik, Gisle J.

    2016-01-01

    Using Norwegian administrative data, we study how sizable lottery prizes affect household expenditure and savings. Expenditure responses (MPCs) spike in the year of winning, with a mean estimate of 0.35, and thereafter fall markedly. Controlling for all items on the household balance sheet and characteristics such as education and age, MPCs vary with the amount won and liquid assets only. Shock size matters: The MPC among the 25 percent winning least is twice as high as among the 25 perce...

  5. Longitudinal study on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in households.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M Laarhoven

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP is an emerging pathogen in dogs and has been found in Europe, Asia and North America. To date most studies are one-point prevalence studies and therefore little is known about the dynamics of MRSP in dogs and their surrounding. In this longitudinal study MRSP colonization in dogs and the transmission of MRSP to humans, contact animals and the environment was investigated. Sixteen dogs with a recent clinical MRSP infection were included. The index dogs, contact animals, owners and environments were sampled once a month for six months. Samples taken from the nose, perineum and infection site (if present of the index cases and contact animals, and the nares of the owners were cultured using pre-enrichment. Index cases were found positive for prolonged periods of time, in two cases during all six samplings. In five of the 12 households that were sampled during six months, the index case was intermittently found MRSP-positive. Contact animals and the environment were also found MRSP-positive, most often in combination with a MRSP-positive index dog. In four households positive environmental samples were found while no animals or humans were MRSP-positive, indicating survival of MRSP in the environment for prolonged periods of time. Genotyping revealed that generally similar or indistinguishable MRSP isolates were found in patients, contact animals and environmental samples within the same household. Within two households, however, genetically distinct MRSP isolates were found. These results show that veterinarians should stay alert with (former MRSP patients, even after repeated MRSP-negative cultures or after the disappearance of the clinical infection. There is a considerable risk of transmission of MRSP to animals in close contact with MRSP patients. Humans were rarely MRSP-positive and never tested MRSP-positive more than once suggesting occasional contamination or rapid elimination of

  6. Feasibility study of the immunogenicity and safety of a novel DTPw/Hib (PRP-T Brazilian combination compared to a licensed vaccine in healthy children at 2, 4, and 6 months of age Estudo de viabilidade de imunogenicidade e segurança de uma nova vacina brasileira combinada DTPw/Hib (PRP-T, comparada com uma vacina registrada, em crianças de 2, 4 e 6 meses de idade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SueAnn Costa Clemens

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Vaccination of infants with conjugated Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib vaccines has been proven to reduce Hib meningitis by 95% and pneumoniae by 20%. The routine use of Hib vaccine is facilitated by the introduction of combination vaccines into the EPI (Expanded Plan of Immunization. The objective of this study was to compare the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of an extemporaneously mixed DTPw/Hib (diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis combination, using the technology of two Brazilian manufacturers, against a licensed DTPw/Hib European combination in 108 infants vaccinated at 2, 4 and 6 months according to the local national schedule. The Brazilian combination was highly immunogenic with Hib seroprotection rates (anti-PRP > 0.15 mg /ml of 98% after 2 doses and 100% after 3. Also for tetanus and pertussis the new Brazilian combination was as immunogenic as the European counterpart, except the diphtheria seroprotection rates and titers were lower. There was also no clinically relevant difference in reactogenicity. If these feasibility results are confirmed, the Brazilian DTPw/Hib combination should help to boost the uptake of Hib vaccination in Brazil.A vacinação contra (Haemophilus influenzae tipo b (Hib, utilizando vacinas conjugadas, provou reduzir em 95% os casos de meningite e em 20% as pneumonias por Hib. O uso rotineiro da vacina Hib foi facilitado pela introdução das vacinas combinadas no Programa Ampliado de Imunização (PAI. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a imunogenicidade e reatogenicidade da mistura extemporânea da vacina combinada contra difteria-tétano-pertussis de células inteiras/Haemophilus influenzae (DTPw/Hib, de tecnologia e produção de 2 fabricantes brasileiros, à vacina européia registrada DTPw/Hib. Estudo realizado em 108 crianças em idade de 2, 4 e 6 meses, seguindo o esquema nacional de imunização. A vacina combinada brasileira foi altamente imunogênica, apresentando taxas de soroprote

  7. Dietary energy density was associated with diet quality in Brazilian adults and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Aline; Pereira, Jaqueline Lopes; Fisberg, Regina Mara; Marchioni, Dirce Maria Lobo

    2016-02-01

    Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies present association of low dietary energy density with higher intake of vitamins, minerals and dietary fiber, lower intake of fat, and better balance of macronutrients. The objective of this study was to verify the relationship between dietary energy density and diet quality measured by an index of diet quality. This study used data from 496 adults and 445 older adults of cross-sectional population-based survey from São Paulo conducted in 2008-2009, Brazil. Dietary intake data was assessed by two 24-h dietary recalls. Dietary energy density values were calculated based on foods only method. Dietary energy density and revised Brazilian Health Eating Index and its components, were estimated by usual intake using Multiple Source Method. The relationship between dietary energy density and the total revised Brazilian Health Eating Index and its components were assessed by Gaussian family log-link model for each age group. The analyses showed an inverse association between dietary energy density and total revised Brazilian Health Eating Index in adults (T2:β = 0.96, p older adults (T2:β = 0.96, p older adults groups. Dietary energy density was associated with diet quality in Brazilian adults and older adults regardless of sex, per capita household income, body mass index, physical activity level, current smoking habits status, alcohol beverage drinking status and usual energy intake (kilocalories) from beverages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Income differentiation of households in the CR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Stávková

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Czech Republic has recently experienced phases of economic growth and periods of economic crisis, this fact affects the standard of living and household behaviour and affects the formation of life-style. This paper deals with the income situation of households. The main source of data is EU SILC survey from the years 2005 to 2008.The result of the enquiry and processing of primary data is information about the average income per household member, the poverty level and the number of households at risk of poverty. For the formulation of income differentiation is used Gini coefficient. Attention is paid to factors that affect income inequality (the number of household members, social group, age. Information, about the income situation of households, is amended by following indicators of material deprivation. The paper also analyses the impact of social transfers on income inequality. The analysis and subsequent solving of the problem of income inequality may be contributed with further analysis of empirical data of this type.

  9. Prevalence of multimorbidity in the Brazilian adult population according to socioeconomic and demographic characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncalli, Ângelo Giuseppe; Cancela, Marianna de Camargo; de Souza, Dyego Leandro Bezerra

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge on the occurrence of multimorbidity is important from the viewpoint of public policies, as this condition increases the consumption of medicines as well as the utilization and expenses of health services, affecting life quality of the population. The objective of this study was to estimate prevalence of self-reported multimorbidity in Brazilian adults (≥18 years old) according to socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. A descriptive study is presented herein, based on data from the National Health Survey, which was a household-based survey carried out in Brazil in 2013. Data on 60,202 adult participants over the age of 18 were included. Prevalences and its respective confidence intervals (95%) were estimated according to sex, age, education level, marital status, self-reported skin color, area of residence, occupation and federative units (states). Poisson regression models univariate and multivariate were used to evaluate the association between socioeconomic and demographic variables with multimorbidity. To observe the combinations of chronic conditions the most common groups in pairs, trios, quartets and quintets of chronic diseases were observed. The prevalence of multimorbidity was 23.6% and was higher among women, in individuals over 60 years of age, people with low educational levels, people living with partner, in urban areas and among unemployed persons. The states of the South and Southeast regions presented higher prevalence. The most common groups of chronic diseases were metabolic and musculoskeletal diseases. The results demonstrated high prevalence of multimorbidity in Brazil. The study also revealed that a considerable share of the economically active population presented two or more chronic diseases. Data of this research indicated that socioeconomic and demographic aspects must be considered during the planning of health services and development of prevention and treatment strategies for chronic diseases, and consequently

  10. Prevalence of multimorbidity in the Brazilian adult population according to socioeconomic and demographic characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Januse Nogueira de Carvalho

    Full Text Available Knowledge on the occurrence of multimorbidity is important from the viewpoint of public policies, as this condition increases the consumption of medicines as well as the utilization and expenses of health services, affecting life quality of the population. The objective of this study was to estimate prevalence of self-reported multimorbidity in Brazilian adults (≥18 years old according to socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. A descriptive study is presented herein, based on data from the National Health Survey, which was a household-based survey carried out in Brazil in 2013. Data on 60,202 adult participants over the age of 18 were included. Prevalences and its respective confidence intervals (95% were estimated according to sex, age, education level, marital status, self-reported skin color, area of residence, occupation and federative units (states. Poisson regression models univariate and multivariate were used to evaluate the association between socioeconomic and demographic variables with multimorbidity. To observe the combinations of chronic conditions the most common groups in pairs, trios, quartets and quintets of chronic diseases were observed. The prevalence of multimorbidity was 23.6% and was higher among women, in individuals over 60 years of age, people with low educational levels, people living with partner, in urban areas and among unemployed persons. The states of the South and Southeast regions presented higher prevalence. The most common groups of chronic diseases were metabolic and musculoskeletal diseases. The results demonstrated high prevalence of multimorbidity in Brazil. The study also revealed that a considerable share of the economically active population presented two or more chronic diseases. Data of this research indicated that socioeconomic and demographic aspects must be considered during the planning of health services and development of prevention and treatment strategies for chronic diseases, and

  11. Head lice prevalence among households in Norway: importance of spatial variables and individual and household characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukke, Bjørn Arne; Birkemoe, Tone; Soleng, Arnulf; Lindstedt, Heidi Heggen; Ottesen, Preben

    2011-09-01

    Head lice prevalence varies greatly between and within countries, and more knowledge is needed to approach causes of this variation. In the present study, we investigated head lice prevalence among elementary school students and their households in relation to individual and household characteristics as well as spatial variables. The investigation included households from 5 geographically separated municipalities. Present infestations among household members as well as previous infestations in the household were reported in a questionnaire. In elementary school students prevalence was low (1·63%), but more than one-third of the households (36·43%) had previously experienced pediculosis. Prevalence was higher in elementary school students than in other household members, and highest in third-grade children. Prevalence was also influenced by the school attended, which suggested that interactions between children in the same school are important for head lice transmission. Previous occurrence of head lice in homes also increased the risk of present infestation. Prevalence of previous infestations was higher in households with more children and in more densely populated municipalities, indicating that the density of hosts or groups of hosts influences transmission rates. These results demonstrate that information of hosts' spatial distribution as well as household and individual characteristics is needed to better understand head lice population dynamics.

  12. [Poisoning with household cleaning products in a city in Northeast Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fook, Sayonara Maria Lia; Azevedo, Esthefanye Fernandes de; Costa, Monalisa Maciel; Feitosa, Itavielly Layany França; Bragagnoli, Gerson; Mariz, Saulo Rios

    2013-05-01

    This study analyzes toxic exposures to household cleaning products based on data from the Center for Notification and Treatment of Poisoning (CEATOX) in Campina Grande, Paraíba State, Brazil, from 2007 to 2010. The data were collected from the reporting forms from the Information System on Notifiable Diseases (SINAN), analyzed with SPSS (Version 17). Chemical identification was performed in urine samples using high-resolution chromatography techniques (GC-MS and HPLC-UV). Six hundred and sixty cases of poisoning were reported, with pesticides as the principal causal agents (42.2%). Poisoning with household cleaning products occurred mainly in children (30.1%) and/or females (55.21%) who were exposed to the product accidentally (55.4%) by the oral route (82%). These data indicate that poisoning with household cleaning products in Campina Grande should be treated with specific prevention and control measures, including evaluation of ease of access to pesticides, in order to reach the goals set by the Brazilian National Health Plan for 2012-2015.

  13. Assessing household health expenditure with Box-Cox censoring models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaze, Jean-Paul

    2005-09-01

    In order to assess the combined presence of zero expenditures and a heavily skewed distribution of positive expenditures, the Box-Cox transformation with location parameter is used to define a set of models generalising the standard Tobit, Heckman selection and double-hurdle models. Extended flexibility with respect to previous specifications is introduced, notably regarding negative transformation parameters, which may prove necessary for medical expenditures, and corner-solution outcomes. An illustration is provided by the analysis of household health expenditure in Switzerland. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Determinants and Dimensions of Household Food Insecurity in Dire ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on primary data collected from 200 household in 2005, this study scrutinizes determinants and the extent of food insecurity in Dire Dawa town. A binary logit model has identified household size, daily income and proportion of expenditure on food, education of household head, sex of household head, access to credit ...

  15. JASR Vol. 3, N0. 1, 2003 55 CASSAVA HOUSEHOLD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cassava, yam and millet food expenditure households in all the anthropometric indices except in maize expenditure households, but the deviations were. significantly less for total food expenditure households. High cassava food expenditure households had higher cash incomes through processed cassava products and.

  16. Assessment of expenditure on food among urban households and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed expenditure on food among urban households in Benue State of Nigeria. This was done with the view to assess household food expenditure and its implications for food security status of the households; identify and assess determinants that influence household food demand; and analyze the ...

  17. Child nutritional status and household patterns in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chronic malnutrition and underweight were significantly pronounced in children from households with de jure household heads (P<0.05). However, chronic malnutrition was markedly prevalent among children from maleheaded households. Thus, the presence of the de facto household head and the gender of the head of ...

  18. Impact of ill-health on household consumption in Sri Lanka: Evidence from household survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumara, Ajantha Sisira; Samaratunge, Ramanie

    2017-12-01

    With significant increases in chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in recent years, Sri Lanka has witnessed a growing trend of increased out-of-pocket payments for healthcare, imposing a severe burden on household budgets. This is exacerbated by limited government health funding and inadequate financial security from formal social security. We examine the association of NCD-prevalence and healthcare utilization with household consumption, using the most recent Sri Lanka Household Income and Expenditure Survey 2012/2013. The unit of analysis is the household. We use data for 20,535 households to apply two-part models. Findings suggest that financial constraints induced by NCD-prevalence and hospitalization compel households primarily to sacrifice food consumption. Analysis further shows that poorer households are more vulnerable to food insecurity arising from these. Households sacrifice the basic needs of housing and clothing, and the burden on poorer households is higher, whereas richer households have the option of sacrificing more from non-basic needs to cope with NCDs and hospitalization and thereby to secure basic needs to a certain extent. Moreover, the burden of out-of-pocket healthcare expenses is found to be positively associated with NCDs and hospitalization. In addition to the direct association, public hospitalization favorably moderates the associations between NCDs and the allocations for food and healthcare. Private hospitalization is adversely associated with a wider range of consumption, creating negative welfare consequences. These findings provide valuable information on what needs to be done to reform Sri Lanka's health sector. The study contributes to international discussions on frameworks and national-level policies for effectively allocating public and private funds to the health sector to mitigate hardships faced by the poorest households. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Passages on Brazilian scientific cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Jane; da Silva, Cicero Inacio; Suppia, Alfredo; Stalbaum, Brett

    2017-07-01

    The article examines the conditions of production and recognition of scientific cinema in Brazil by comparing three distinct moments and contexts: the first moment takes place in the nineteenth century, and it is related to the contribution of a Brazilian astronomer otherwise little known to Brazilian film scholars, the second addresses Benedito Junqueira Duarte's voluminous mid-twentieth-century filmography, and the third moment documents recent scientific film experiences within ultra high resolution movies transmitted over photonic networks. Future trajectories for aesthetic concerns and practical issues such as the archiving of ultra high definition cinema are usefully informed by these histories of scientific cinema, even as a current generation of multidisciplinary teams including scientists, filmmakers, computer scientists, and network engineers reinvent, rediscover, and necessarily expand the scientific cinema toward concerns of real time collaboration and teaching.

  20. Effectiveness of business strategies in Brazilian textile industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César de Sousa Batista

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This research analyses how the interaction between strategy capabilities, strategy types, strategy formulation quality and implementation capability affect organizational performance in Brazilian textiles companies. This article proposes and tests a conceptual framework, using a structural equation modeling of a set of 211 valid questionnaires on Brazilian textiles firms. The results support links between focus strategy and marketing capabilities, and between cost leadership strategy and management capabilities. However, the relationship between technologic capabilities and differentiation strategy was not statistically significant. The existence of an inter-relationship between generic strategies of focus, cost leadership and differentiation indicates the use of combined strategies. Concerning the firms' financial performance, the results show that management capability and market performance have a statistically significant relationship with financial performance.

  1. Brands Repositioning: Brazilian case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Serralvo, Francisco Antonio; Furrier, Márcio Tadeu

    2008-01-01

    Based on the assumption of the increasing relevance of both brand positioning and equity in the context of marketing management in competitive environments, the objective of this work was to deepen the existing knowledge on the brand repositioning process. Four theoretical models of reference obtained after literature review supported the empiric verification represented by content analysis of six reports (cases) of Brazilian brands repositioning experiences awarded with the “Top of Marketing...

  2. Brazilian Participation in World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-15

    internal rebellions and secessionist movements such as the Canudos rebellion in 1897 and 1898 in Bahia province. As a 2 result, the Brazilian Army...Brazilian Army would play an important role in ending this dictatorship. Brazil had accepted large numbers of Italian and German immigrants for more than...including the Brazilian Armed Forces. They had a significant influence on decision makers. In the 1930s, German immigrants numbered more than 900,000 and

  3. Households, energy use and scenarios of energy efficiency of everyday life activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anna-Lisa Linden (Dept. of Sociology, Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden)). e-mail: anna-lisa.linden@soc.lu.se

    2009-07-01

    Households will play an important role in saving electricity in the future. Behavioural aspects in using white goods and other electric appliances are important as are the reasons for buying new white goods and a number of other appliances for cooking and washing. In a Swedish study three important aspects of energy use in households, Washing/drying Laundry, Cooking and Eating, and Information and Entertainment were analysed. These areas include activities performed almost daily in households. In the study, the number, make and model of all electric appliances were recorded, as was the way they were used and by which family members. Some white goods for washing and cooking were very old, but were candidates for replacement only in young households. Electricity use, behaviour, buying and replacement and number of machines differed between young and old households, with number of persons in the household and between families living in apartments and those living in houses. Scenarios on the electricity savings potential of combining behaviour and replacement strategy for white goods were calculated for the three areas of electricity use, and discussed in relation to the need for policy instruments to bring about changes in behaviour or in replacement strategy for old appliances

  4. Brazilian Studies Then and Now

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Pereira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1912 the Brazilian diplomat and scholar Manuel de Oliveira Lima gave six lectures at Stanford University that encapsulated his views of what we now call Brazilian Studies. This article summarizes Oliveira Lima’s lectures. It then points out three aspects of Oliveira Lima’s worldview that are problematic from the perspective of the twenty-first century: his Eurocentrism; the unproblematic nature of the nation-state in his thinking; and his largely negative view of Brazil’s racial heritage. The third part of the essay analyzes three aspects of Oliveira Lima’s lectures that are still contemporary. These are the need to establish an adequate comparative context for the study of Brazil; the difficulty of justifying an academic discipline that revolves around the study of a single country; and the challenge of uniting disparate and specialized disciplines in order to appreciate Brazil’s complexity and trajectory in the modern world. In the conclusion, some guidelines for maintaining Brazilian Studies as a vibrant field are suggested.

  5. Gamma emitting radioactive materials in household dinnerware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Fawzia Ahmad

    A variety of commonly available household and tableware items and some specialty glass materials commonly found in everyday life were examined for their radioactivity content with two different detection and measurement methods. Dinnerware is produced mainly from clay and sand at high temperatures. Therefore, it should be expected to have some degree of radioactivity. It is also stored in confined places, which permits radon accumulation. The natural radioactivity due to the presence of 238U, 232Th and 40K in dinnerware used in houses was measured. Many dinnerware items from various origins that are sold on the open market were studied. Measurements of specific activities of 238U, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs radionuclide for the samples were carried out. The measurements were made by gamma-ray spectrometry having a high-purity germanium (HpGe) detector connected to a multichannel analyzer and a computer system. The average values of specific activities were (6.03 ± 0.54 to 223.67 ± 22.37 for 238U; 2.87 ± 0.14 to 513.85 ± 15.42 for 232Th; 28.67 ± 2.01 to 2726.70 ± 54.53 for 40K; and 0.592 ± 0.037 to 3.549 ± 0.248 for 137Cs) Bq kg-1, respectively. The glazed samples seemed to contribute most of the activity, although also unglazed samples showed some activity. The absorbed dose rates, radium equivalent and external hazard index were also calculated and tabulated. CR-39 solid-state nuclear track detectors were used to measure the radon track density, exhalation rate and effective radium content for the investigated samples. The exhalation rate was found to vary from 4.376 to 8.144 Bq m-2 d-1. It appears that foreign ceramic products, especially Chinese ones with high uranium content, eventually enter the country. The results from the two methods are compared and their combined uncertainties were estimated from the relation of relative combined variance. In Egypt, no special regulations exist concerning radioactivity in glazed earthenware. On the basis of the previous

  6. Household Transmission of Vibrio cholerae in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D Sugimoto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae infections cluster in households. This study's objective was to quantify the relative contribution of direct, within-household exposure (for example, via contamination of household food, water, or surfaces to endemic cholera transmission. Quantifying the relative contribution of direct exposure is important for planning effective prevention and control measures.Symptom histories and multiple blood and fecal specimens were prospectively collected from household members of hospital-ascertained cholera cases in Bangladesh from 2001-2006. We estimated the probabilities of cholera transmission through 1 direct exposure within the household and 2 contact with community-based sources of infection. The natural history of cholera infection and covariate effects on transmission were considered. Significant direct transmission (p-value<0.0001 occurred among 1414 members of 364 households. Fecal shedding of O1 El Tor Ogawa was associated with a 4.9% (95% confidence interval: 0.9%-22.8% risk of infection among household contacts through direct exposure during an 11-day infectious period (mean length. The estimated 11-day risk of O1 El Tor Ogawa infection through exposure to community-based sources was 2.5% (0.8%-8.0%. The corresponding estimated risks for O1 El Tor Inaba and O139 infection were 3.7% (0.7%-16.6% and 8.2% (2.1%-27.1% through direct exposure, and 3.4% (1.7%-6.7% and 2.0% (0.5%-7.3% through community-based exposure. Children under 5 years-old were at elevated risk of infection. Limitations of the study may have led to an underestimation of the true risk of cholera infection. For instance, available covariate data may have incompletely characterized levels of pre-existing immunity to cholera infection. Transmission via direct exposure occurring outside of the household was not considered.Direct exposure contributes substantially to endemic transmission of symptomatic cholera in an urban setting. We provide the first estimate of

  7. Very Low Food Security in US Households Is Predicted by Complex Patterns of Health, Economics, and Service Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seul Ki; Fram, Maryah S; Frongillo, Edward A

    2017-10-01

    Background: Very low food security (VLFS) happens at the intersection of nuanced and complex patterns of risk characteristics across multiple domains. Little is known about the idiosyncratic situations that lead households to experience VLFS. Objective: We used classification and regression tree (CART) analysis, which can handle complex combinations of predictors, to identify patterns of characteristics that distinguish VLFS households in the United States from other households. Methods: Data came from 3 surveys, the 2011-2014 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), the 2005-2012 NHANES, and the 2002-2012 Current Population Survey (CPS), with sample participants aged ≥18 y and households with income food security was measured with the use of the 10-item US Adult Food Security Scale. Variables from multiple domains, including sociodemographic characteristics, health, health care, and participation in social welfare and food assistance programs, were considered as predictors. The 3 data sources were analyzed separately with the use of CART analysis. Results: Household experiences of VLFS were associated with different predictors for different types of households and often occurred at the intersection of multiple characteristics spanning unmet medical needs, poor health, disability, limitation, depressive symptoms, low income, and food assistance program participation. These predictors built complex trees with various combinations in different types of households. Conclusions: This study showed that multiple characteristics across multiple domains distinguished VLFS households. Flexible and nonlinear methods focusing on a wide range of risk characteristics should be used to identify VLFS households and to inform policies and programs that can address VLFS households' various needs. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. Exploring the link between household debt and income inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fasianos, Apostolos; Raza, Hamid; Kinsella, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between household debt and income inequality in the USA, allowing for asymmetry, using data over the period 1913–2008. We find evidence of an asymmetric cointegration between household debt and inequality for different regimes. Our results indicate household debt...... only responds to positive changes in income inequality, while there is no evidence of falling inequality significantly affecting household debt. The presence of this asymmetry provides further empirical insights into the emerging literature on household debt and inequality....

  9. Unequal household carbon footprints in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedenhofer, Dominik; Guan, Dabo; Liu, Zhu; Meng, Jing; Zhang, Ning; Wei, Yi-Ming

    2017-01-01

    Households' carbon footprints are unequally distributed among the rich and poor due to differences in the scale and patterns of consumption. We present distributional focused carbon footprints for Chinese households and use a carbon-footprint-Gini coefficient to quantify inequalities. We find that in 2012 the urban very rich, comprising 5% of population, induced 19% of the total carbon footprint from household consumption in China, with 6.4 tCO2/cap. The average Chinese household footprint remains comparatively low (1.7 tCO2/cap), while those of the rural population and urban poor, comprising 58% of population, are 0.5-1.6 tCO2/cap. Between 2007 and 2012 the total footprint from households increased by 19%, with 75% of the increase due to growing consumption of the urban middle class and the rich. This suggests that a transformation of Chinese lifestyles away from the current trajectory of carbon-intensive consumption patterns requires policy interventions to improve living standards and encourage sustainable consumption.

  10. HOUSEHOLD EXPENDITURE IN RESPONSE TO NATURAL DISASTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eny Sulistyaningrum

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Natural disasters have increased in their frequency, and the intensity of their destruction over the last ten years in Indonesia. Households usually respond to these difficulties by cutting their consump-tion, especially for non-essential goods. Arguably natural disasters are exogenous events, so this paper uses the exogenous variation from natural disasters as a natural experiment design to estimate the effect of disasters on household expenditure. When a certain group is exposed to the causal variable of interest, such as a disaster, and other groups are not, the Difference In Difference model (DID can be used for estimation. Using a micro level survey data set from the Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS which covers approximately 83 percent of the Indonesian population within the survey area, this paper examines the effects of natural disasters on household expenditure. This paper also examines whether there are any different impacts from different types of disasters. The finding is there are no significant effects of disasters on total household expenditure for households living in disaster regions, whether they are affected directly or not by the disaster.

  11. Household sampling in slums in surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Maria Cecilia Goi Porto; Morais, Maria de Lima Salum E; Escuder, Maria Mercedes Loureiro; Goldbaum, Moisés; Barros, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo; Cesar, Chester Luiz Galvão; Carandina, Luana

    2011-12-01

    To identify the advantages and disadvantages of using segments compared to a complete address list, for the selection of households in a multistage cluster sampling in slums. A qualitative study was performed in four slums selected by the São Paulo Municipal Health Survey of 2008, and the two selection techniques were applied. Focal groups were performed with field researchers, including the persons making the list of addresses and the interviewers. The content of the conversations were analyzed, grouped in categories and organized in themes. Use of household segments was associated with several advantages and few disadvantages. The advantages included: speed and facility in developing the sampling frame and in locating and identifying households when performing interviews, increased safety for interviewers and the population, greater access to interviewees, greater stability and coverage of the frame, and fewer errors in the identification of selected households. The construction of a household registry by creation of segments is advantageous compared to the complete listing of addresses, when undertaken in slums. Due to its economy and ease, the technique is an option for simplifying the sampling process in areas characterized by high density and disorganized housing.

  12. Household burden of malaria in South Africa and Mozambique: is there a catastrophic impact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Riquelme, Marianela; McIntyre, Diane; Barnes, Karen

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate treatment-seeking behaviour, financial impact and time lost due to malaria events, in southern Mozambique and eastern South Africa. In-depth household surveys (828 in Mozambique and 827 in South Africa) were analysed. An asset index was calculated using principal component analysis to allow comparison across socio-economic groups. Direct costs of seeking care and the time lost due to malaria were determined. The extent of catastrophic payments was assessed using as thresholds the traditional 10% of household income and 40% of non-food income, as recently recommended by WHO. Poverty was highly prevalent: 70% of the South African and 95% of Mozambican households studied lived on less than $1 per capita per day. Around 97% of those with recent malaria sought healthcare, mainly in public facilities. Out-of-pocket household expenditure per malaria episode averaged $2.30 in South Africa and $6.50 in Mozambique. Analysis at the individual household level found that 32-34% of households in Mozambique, compared with 9-13% of households in South Africa, incurred catastrophic payments for malaria episodes. Results based on mean values underestimated the prevalence of catastrophic payments. Days off work/school were higher in Mozambique. The high rate of health seeking in public health facilities seems unusual in the African context, which bodes well for high coverage with artemisinin-based combinations, even if only deployed within the public sector. However, despite no or modest charges for public sector primary healthcare, households frequently incur catastrophic expenditure on a single malaria episode.

  13. Transferring 2001 National Household Travel Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Patricia S [ORNL; Reuscher, Tim [ORNL; Schmoyer, Richard L [ORNL; Chin, Shih-Miao [ORNL

    2007-05-01

    Policy makers rely on transportation statistics, including data on personal travel behavior, to formulate strategic transportation policies, and to improve the safety and efficiency of the U.S. transportation system. Data on personal travel trends are needed to examine the reliability, efficiency, capacity, and flexibility of the Nation's transportation system to meet current demands and to accommodate future demand. These data are also needed to assess the feasibility and efficiency of alternative congestion-mitigating technologies (e.g., high-speed rail, magnetically levitated trains, and intelligent vehicle and highway systems); to evaluate the merits of alternative transportation investment programs; and to assess the energy-use and air-quality impacts of various policies. To address these data needs, the U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT) initiated an effort in 1969 to collect detailed data on personal travel. The 1969 survey was the first Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey (NPTS). The survey was conducted again in 1977, 1983, 1990, 1995, and 2001. Data on daily travel were collected in 1969, 1977, 1983, 1990 and 1995. In 2001, the survey was renamed the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) and it collected both daily and long-distance trips. The 2001 survey was sponsored by three USDOT agencies: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), and National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). The primary objective of the survey was to collect trip-based data on the nature and characteristics of personal travel so that the relationships between the characteristics of personal travel and the demographics of the traveler can be established. Commercial and institutional travel were not part of the survey. Due to the survey's design, data in the NHTS survey series were not recommended for estimating travel statistics for categories smaller than the combination of Census division (e.g., New

  14. Use and Preference of Advice on Small Children's Food: Differences Between Parents From Ethnic Minority, Ethnic Majority, and Mixed Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Annemette; Krasnik, Allan; Vassard, Ditte; Holm, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    The authors analyzed the influence of acculturation on parental attitudes to, and use of, different sources of health advice about young children's food in Denmark. Using combined ethnic position of the children's parents as a proxy for household acculturation, the authors conducted a postal survey of 2,511 households with young children (6 months to 3.5 years) occupying ethnic minority, ethnic majority, or ethnic mixed position. The analysis showed that the use of advice differed in the 3 groups. Households with ethnic minority status were more likely to use the child's grandparents, general practitioners, and hospital staff as information sources, while households with ethnic majority status were more likely to use mothers' peer groups and written material. In all types of household municipal public health nurses were relied on as a source of advice on young children's food, but households with ethnic minority status were more likely to find the advice obtained in this way incompatible with their family eating habits. Although existing dietary health communication strategies delivered by public health nurses appear to work well in all household types, parents from minority households seem to experience dilemmas. These may be related to their cultural and generational status at the time of receiving the advice. Adjustments to current communication strategies on young children's food are suggested.

  15. Household's use of information and communication technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole; Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten; Røpke, Inge

    2009-01-01

    of theories of domestication of technologies, it is argued that aspects such as consumers' creativity in technology use and their non-adaption are relevant aspects to include in policy and regulation discussions on how to limit the escalating electricity consumption from household ICT use.......Increasing consumption of electricity due to a growing number of information and communication technology (ICT) appliances in households is a major challenge to reducing energy consumption. Several studies have predicted escalating ICT-related energy consumption, but relatively little has been said...... and done about possible initiatives to curb this increase. This paper presents results of a research project focusing on how dynamics of consumption influence household energy consumption on ICT. Results of the project include scenarios on how electricity consumption on ICT is expected to grow, suggesting...

  16. Household batteries: Evaluation of collection methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeberger, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    While it is difficult to prove that a specific material is causing contamination in a landfill, tests have been conducted at waste-to-energy facilities that indicate that household batteries contribute significant amounts of heavy metals to both air emissions and ash residue. Hennepin County, MN, used a dual approach for developing and implementing a special household battery collection. Alternative collection methods were examined; test collections were conducted. The second phase examined operating and disposal policy issues. This report describes the results of the grant project, moving from a broad examination of the construction and content of batteries, to a description of the pilot collection programs, and ending with a discussion of variables affecting the cost and operation of a comprehensive battery collection program. Three out-of-state companies (PA, NY) were found that accept spent batteries; difficulties in reclaiming household batteries are discussed.

  17. Household batteries: Evaluation of collection methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeberger, D.A.

    1992-12-31

    While it is difficult to prove that a specific material is causing contamination in a landfill, tests have been conducted at waste-to-energy facilities that indicate that household batteries contribute significant amounts of heavy metals to both air emissions and ash residue. Hennepin County, MN, used a dual approach for developing and implementing a special household battery collection. Alternative collection methods were examined; test collections were conducted. The second phase examined operating and disposal policy issues. This report describes the results of the grant project, moving from a broad examination of the construction and content of batteries, to a description of the pilot collection programs, and ending with a discussion of variables affecting the cost and operation of a comprehensive battery collection program. Three out-of-state companies (PA, NY) were found that accept spent batteries; difficulties in reclaiming household batteries are discussed.

  18. Electricity savings in households with everyday IT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kibsgaard, Kaj; Larsen, Anders; leth, Søren

    This paper analyzes the effect of supplying online feedback by SMS-text messages and email about electricity consumption on the level of total household electricity consumption. An experiment was conducted where 1,452 households were randomly allocated to three experimental groups and two control...... groups. Feedback was supplied throughout 2007 to members of the experiment groups who accepted the invitation, and data on consumption of electricity for 2006 and 2007 collected for all participants and control group members. 30% of the households invited to receive feedback accepted the invitation....... The estimated effects of the feedback on consumption of electricity are estimated to be in the range of 2-3%. The feedback technology is cheap to implement and therefore likely to be cost-effective...

  19. Stock Market Expectations of Dutch Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Michael; van Rooij, Maarten; Winter, Joachim

    2011-04-01

    Despite its importance for the analysis of life-cycle behavior and, in particular, retirement planning, stock ownership by private households is poorly understood. Among other approaches to investigate this puzzle, recent research has started to elicit private households' expectations of stock market returns. This paper reports findings from a study that collected data over a two-year period both on households' stock market expectations (subjective probabilities of gains or losses) and on whether they own stocks. We document substantial heterogeneity in financial market expectations. Expectations are correlated with stock ownership. Over the two years of our data, stock market prices increased, and expectations of future stock market price changes also increased, lending support to the view that expectations are influenced by recent stock gains or losses.

  20. Substitution between Cars within the Household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    In this paper we study the demand for car kilometres in two-car households, focusing on the substitution between cars in response to fuel price changes. We use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car households to estimate—for each car owned by the household—own and cross-price effects...... of increases in fuel costs per kilometre. The empirical results show that failure to capture substitution between cars within the household can result in substantial misspecification biases. Ignoring substitution, we estimate fuel price elasticities of –0.81 and -0.65 for the primary and secondary cars......, respectively. When we do take into account the substitution effect, these figures reduce to, respectively, -0.32 and -0.45. We further estimate an alternative version of the model to test the hypothesis that substitution in response to higher fuel prices will be predominantly from the least to the most fuel...

  1. Integration of Smart Grid Technologies in Households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Freja; Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    This article considers the interplay between new smart grid technologies and households everyday practices. The research focuses on how Electric Vehicles (EVs) and Dynamic Pricing influence on Danish households’ everyday life and how these technologies constitutes and change routines and practices...... of consumption in the everyday life of households. The basic assumption is that new technologies influence social practices in households’ everyday life. The empirical material, mainly consisting of qualitative interviews with Danish households who have test-driven EVs and participated in Project Dynamic Pricing...... to a more complex and multiple consideration of the interplay between households’ social practices and new smart grid technologies - and thereby helps to fill out the lack of research on the integration of peak-shaving technologies in the end-user design....

  2. Human Capital Diversification within the Household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lilleør, Helene Bie

    Lack of primary schooling among rural children in developing countries is often attributed to credit constraints and household demand for child labour, implying that direct and indirect costs of schooling are high. Surprisingly few studies have considered the importance of parents' expected returns...... of investing in their childrens human capital, despite the fact that most parents rely on their children for old-age support and subsistence. In this paper, I propose an alternative model for human capital investment based on the household, rather than the individual child, incorporating the fact that parents...... bear the costs of educating all their children and face uncertainty about the level and share of future returns. This uncertainty can make it optimal for parents to ensure a certain degree of human capital diversification within the household. The model implications allow me to test whether...

  3. Household size in Ethiopia: variations and some recent correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, M; Hailemariam, A

    1986-10-01

    This analysis of household size in Ethiopia during 1965-84 indicates that conditions did not have the same effect on rural and urban areas at the regional level. Household size fluctuated during the study period. Analysis of variance of household size in 1964 and 1984 among urban and rural areas indicates that overall variation in household size was explained by type of residence, the Awraja, and the region. There were significant differences between rural and urban areas, between the 75 Awrajas, and between the 12 regions. Over the study period, rural areas had decreases in household size, whereas in urban areas and the regions of Gojam, Gonder, and Keffa, which were least affected by famines, household size increased. It is suggested that rural-to-urban migration during periods of famine accounted for the increased household size and temporal changes. Mortality increase and migration due to famine in rural areas reduced household size. During 1970-80, in rural areas, the relative number of small households decreased from 37.3% to 31.5%. The proportion of large households increased from 15.5% to 20.5%. A comparison of household size in Addis Ababa and rural areas around 1980 indicates that the proportion of large households in the city vs. rural areas was similar. The largest differences were in the proportion of small and medium households. The city had more small households, and rural areas had more medium households. Only in 1965 were the differences in average household size between rural and urban areas statistically significant. It appears that household size over time varied with the size of urban centers. Larger urban centers had a greater proportion of large family sizes. Urban household size was larger in all regions in 1984 compared to 1965. Gains were largest in Shoa and Gojam regions and smallest in Arssi and Illubabor. In 1984 average household size was 5.2 in Addis Ababa and 4.3 for the nation.

  4. Food Insecurity and the Negative Impact on Brazilian Children's Health-Why Does Food Security Matter for Our Future Prosperity? Brazilian National Survey (PNDS 2006/07).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poblacion, Ana Paula; Cook, John T; Marín-León, Leticia; Segall-Corrêa, Ana Maria; Silveira, Jonas A C; Konstantyner, Tulio; Taddei, José Augusto A C

    2016-12-01

    Food insecurity (FI) refers to limited or uncertain access to food resulting from financial constraints. Numerous studies have shown association between FI and adverse health outcomes among adults and children around the world, but in Brazil, such information is scarce, especially if referring to nationally representative information. To test for an independent association between FI and health outcomes. Most recent Brazilian Demographic and Health Survey using nationally representative complex probability sampling. Participants were 3923 children Food Insecurity Scale were dichotomized as food secure (food security/mild FI) or food insecure (moderate FI/severe FI). Poisson regression was used to test for associations between FI and various health indicators. Models adjusted for socioeconomic and demographic variables showed that children hospitalized for pneumonia or diarrhea were 30% more prevalent in FI households (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR]: 1.3; 1.1-1.6). Underweight children were 40% more prevalent in FI households (aPR: 1.4; 1.1-1.7). Children who didn't eat meat and fruits and vegetables every day were 20% and 70% more prevalent in FI households (aPR: 1.2; 1.1-1.4 and aPR: 1.7; 1.3-2.3), respectively. Children who grow up in food-insecure households have been shown to have worse health conditions than those in food-secure households. Consequently, their human capital accumulation and work-life productivity are likely to be reduced in the future, leading them into adulthood less capable of generating sufficient income, resulting in a cycle of intergenerational poverty and FI. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Household and Small Business Across the Disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta Stame

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Households, which are seen as income pooling units (Wallerstein, Martin, Dickinson 1982, play a crucial role in the world-system analysis. Individuals enjoy income that accrues to their households, a unit embedded in a network of different social relationships among people, kin or not kin, living under the same roof or sharing some important living function. Thus, social relations are seen as ways of obtaining different types of income (wages, rent, pro?t, social exchange, gifts and ways of ensuring different welfare services.

  6. Measuring sustainability in households: Interpretations and strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole

    The paper discusses the connection between “green behaviour” and the metering data of household consumption (electricity, heating, water), based on experiences on this from recent Danish studies. It is discussed, how everyday understandings of “green behaviour” are related to the overall household...... consumption. It indicates that the residents “green behaviour” often are overshadowed by consumption practices in other areas, and that such practices often are rooted in quite different rationales than environmental awareness. These findings are discussed in the light of Pierre Bourdieu’s “economy...... as “environmental awareness”, more reflexive strategies should be considered....

  7. Targeting antibiotics to households for trachoma control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isobel M Blake

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Mass drug administration (MDA is part of the current trachoma control strategy, but it can be costly and results in many uninfected individuals receiving treatment. Here we explore whether alternative, targeted approaches are effective antibiotic-sparing strategies.We analysed data on the prevalence of ocular infection with Chlamydia trachomatis and of active trachoma disease among 4,436 individuals from two communities in The Gambia (West Africa and two communities in Tanzania (East Africa. An age- and household-structured mathematical model of transmission was fitted to these data using maximum likelihood. The presence of active inflammatory disease as a marker of infection in a household was, in general, significantly more sensitive (between 79% [95%CI: 60%-92%] and 86% [71%-95%] across the four communities than as a marker of infection in an individual (24% [16%-33%]-66% [56%-76%]. Model simulations, under the best fit models for each community, showed that targeting treatment to households has the potential to be as effective as and significantly more cost-effective than mass treatment when antibiotics are not donated. The cost (2007US$ per incident infection averted ranged from 1.5 to 3.1 for MDA, from 1.0 to 1.7 for household-targeted treatment assuming equivalent coverage, and from 0.4 to 1.7 if household visits increased treatment coverage to 100% in selected households. Assuming antibiotics were donated, MDA was predicted to be more cost-effective unless opportunity costs incurred by individuals collecting antibiotics were included or household visits improved treatment uptake. Limiting MDA to children was not as effective in reducing infection as the other aforementioned distribution strategies.Our model suggests that targeting antibiotics to households with active trachoma has the potential to be a cost-effective trachoma control measure, but further work is required to assess if costs can be reduced and to what extent the approach

  8. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Brazilian version of the Nonarthritic Hip Score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Nunes Carreras Del Castillo

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE The Nonarthritic Hip Score (NAHS is a clinical evaluation questionnaire that was developed in the English language to evaluate hip function in young and physically active patients. The aims of this study were to translate this questionnaire into the Brazilian Portuguese language, to adapt it to Brazilian culture and to validate it. DESIGN AND SETTING Cohort study conducted between 2008 and 2010, at Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ. METHODS Questions about physical activities and household chores were modified to better fit Brazilian culture. Reproducibility, internal consistency and validity (correlations with the Algofunctional Lequesne Index and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index [WOMAC] were tested. The NAHS-Brazil, Lequesne and WOMAC questionnaires were applied to 64 young and physically active patients (mean age, 40.9 years; 31 women. RESULTS The intraclass correlation coefficient (which measures reproducibility was 0.837 (P < 0.001. Bland-Altman plots revealed a mean error in the difference between the two measurements of 0.42. The internal consistency was confirmed through a Cronbach alpha of 0.944. The validity between NAHS-Brazil and Lequesne and between NAHS-Brazil and WOMAC showed high correlations, r = 0.7340 and r = 0.9073, respectively. NAHS-Brazil showed good validity with no floor or ceiling effects. CONCLUSION The NAHS was translated into the Brazilian Portuguese language and was cross-culturally adapted to Brazilian culture. It was shown to be a useful tool in clinical practice for assessing the quality of life of young and physically active patients with hip pain.

  9. Household interventions for prevention of domestic lead exposure in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeoh, B; Woolfenden, S; Wheeler, D; Alperstein, G; Lanphear, B

    2008-04-16

    Lead poisoning is associated with physical, cognitive and neurobehavioral impairment in children and many household interventions to prevent lead exposure have been trialled. To determine the effectiveness of household interventions in preventing or reducing lead exposure in children as measured by reductions in blood lead levels and/or improvements in cognitive development. Trials were identified through electronic searches of CENTRAL 2006 (Issue 1), MEDLINE 1966 to March 2006, and thirteen other electronic databases and contacting experts to find unpublished studies. Randomised and quasi randomised trials of household educational or environmental interventions to prevent lead exposure in children where at least one standardised outcome measure was reported. Two reviewers independently reviewed all eligible studies for inclusion, assessed study quality and extracted data. Triallists were contacted to obtain missing information. Twelve studies (2239 children) were included. All studies reported blood lead level outcomes and none reported on cognitive or neurobehavioural outcomes. Studies were subgrouped according to their intervention type. Meta-analysis of both continuous and dichotomous data was performed for subgroups where appropriate. Educational interventions were not effective in reducing blood lead levels (continuous: WMD 0.13, 95% CI -0.30, 0.56, I2 = 41.6; dichotomous >/= 10 microg/dL (>/= 0.48 micromol/l): RR 1.02 (95% CI 0.79, 1.30, I2 = 0); dichotomous >/= 15 microg/dL (>/=0.72 micromol/l): RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.33, 1.09, I2 = 0). Meta-analysis of the dichotomous data for the dust control subgroup found no evidence of effectiveness. The studies using soil abatement (removal and replacement) and combination intervention groups were not able to be meta-analysed due to substantial differences between studies. Currently there is no evidence of effectiveness for household interventions for education or dust control measures in reducing blood lead levels in

  10. 36th Brazilian Workshop on Nuclear Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Brandão de Oliveira, José Roberto; Barbosa Shorto, Julian Marco; Higa, Renato

    2014-01-01

    The Brazilian Workshop on Nuclear Physics (RTFNB, acronym in Portuguese) is organized annually by the Brazilian Physics Society since 1978, in order to: promote Nuclear Physics research in the country; stimulate and reinforce collaborations among nuclear physicists from around the country; disseminate advances in nuclear physics research and its applications; disseminate, disclose and evaluate the scientific production in this field.

  11. The new Brazilian national forest inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joberto V. de Freitas; Yeda M. M. de Oliveira; Doadi A. Brena; Guilherme L.A. Gomide; Jose Arimatea Silva; < i> et al< /i>

    2009-01-01

    The new Brazilian national forest inventory (NFI) is being planned to be carried out through five components: (1) general coordination, led by the Brazilian Forest Service; (2) vegetation mapping, which will serve as the basis for sample plot location; (3) field data collection; (4) landscape data collection of 10 x 10-km sample plots, based on high-resolution...

  12. Brazilian Studies and Brazilianists: Conceptual remarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Mariano de Carvalho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the concept of Brazilian Studies. It does not intend to outline a defence for a new discipline, or to propose paradigms for that elusive field called ‘area studies’. It will, bring some reflections on epistemological and methodological issues realted to what it is been called Brazilian Studies.

  13. Types and myths in Brazilian thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Ianni

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available "Ideal types" elaborated by different authors and that have become emblematic, notorious or even definitive, sometimes representing myths are quite frequent in Brazilian thought. That is the case of the bandeirantes (colonial crusaders, the gaúcho, Jeca Tatu, Macunaíma, cordial man and others. It is worth contemplating this aspect of Brazilian culture and thought.

  14. Sociocultural Influences on Brazilian Children's Drawings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokrocki, Mary

    2000-01-01

    Reports on insights about sociocultural influences on Brazilian children's drawings, using visual anthropology to examine children's drawings that depicted what they like to do. Discusses visual anthropology, provides information on Brazilian educational influences, and presents the context and findings of the study. (CMK)

  15. Smartphone Household Wireless Electroencephalogram Hat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Szu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rudimentary brain machine interface has existed for the gaming industry. Here, we propose a wireless, real-time, and smartphone-based electroencephalogram (EEG system for homecare applications. The system uses high-density dry electrodes and compressive sensing strategies to overcome conflicting requirements between spatial electrode density, temporal resolution, and spatiotemporal throughput rate. Spatial sparseness is addressed by close proximity between active electrodes and desired source locations and using an adaptive selection of N active among 10N passive electrodes to form m-organized random linear combinations of readouts, m≪N≪10N. Temporal sparseness is addressed via parallel frame differences in hardware. During the design phase, we took tethered laboratory EEG dataset and applied fuzzy logic to compute (a spatiotemporal average of larger magnitude EEG data centers in 0.3 second intervals and (b inside brainwave sources by Independent Component Analysis blind deconvolution without knowing the impulse response function. Our main contributions are the fidelity of quality wireless EEG data compared to original tethered data and the speed of compressive image recovery. We have compared our recovery of ill-posed inverse data against results using Block Sparse Code. Future work includes development of strategies to filter unwanted artifact from high-density EEGs (i.e., facial muscle-related events and wireless environmental electromagnetic interferences.

  16. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF HOUSEHOLD COMMUNITY IN KWAR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    hole water samples. `coliform bacteria but coliform bacteria but coliform bacteria but after treatment by boiling an after treatment by boiling an was reduced to was reduced to zero with .... Sanitation and Hygiene) ... STUDY OF HOUSEHOLD WATER TREATMENT IN A RURAL COMMUNITY IN KWARA STATE NIGERIA.

  17. Revealed preference analysis of noncooperative household consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherchye, L.J.H.; Demuynck, T.; de Rock, B.

    2011-01-01

    We develop a revealed preference approach to analyse non-unitary household consumption behaviour that is not cooperative (or Pareto efficient). We derive global necessary and sufficient conditions for data consistency with the model. We show that the conditions can be verified by means of relatively

  18. Revealed preference tests for collective household behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherchye, L.J.H.; de Rock, B.; Vermeulen, F.M.P.; Verriest, E.; Molina, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter contains a state of the art of revealed preference tests for consistency of observed household behavior with Pareto efficiency. These tests are entirely nonparametric, since they do not require any assumptions regarding the parametric form of individual preferences or the intrahousehold

  19. Households' Willingness to Pay For Restoring Environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Probit and Tobit models were applied to determine the mean and factors affecting willingness to pay for forest restoration, respectively. A sample of 393 households was ... also significant variables needs to consider. Keywords: Willingness to Pay, Contingent Valuation Method, Forest Restoration, Probit Model, Tobit Model ...

  20. Independence, Individualism & Connection among Share Householders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natalier, Kristin

    2007-01-01

    How do young people who are financially dependent on their parents but living in share households conceive of the concept of independence? The meanings of independence are discussed in relation to a qualitative study of young people who described themselves as independent although they accepted money on a regular basis from their parents. Their…

  1. The importance of measuring household sector innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, J.P.J.

    Empirical evidence shows that consumers can innovate as well as producers They spend considerable time and money and collaboratively develop substantial projects, which enhance social welfare. Household sector innovation is also important in developing countries. We summarize recent insights on how

  2. Supplementary household water sources to augment potable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper addresses on-site supplementary household water sources with a focus on groundwater abstraction, rainwater harvesting and greywater reuse as ... Queensland Australia. Y varies from. 54–260 L·hh−1·d−1, ...... will most likely increase, because climate change, population growth, rising standards of living and ...

  3. Comparative Analysis of Households' Socioeconomic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative Analysis of Households' Socioeconomic and Demographic Characteristics and Food Security Status in Urban and Rural Areas of Kwara and Kogi States ... Journal Home > Vol 12, No 3 (2012) > ... Food security is a critical issue in Nigeria today as the country struggles with high rates of food prices and poverty.

  4. Inattention and Inertia in Household Finance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Campbell, John Y.; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper

    This paper studies inattention to mortgage refinancing incentives among Danish households. Danish data are particularly suitable for this purpose because there are minimal barriers to refinancing, yet many borrowers fail to refinance optimally, and the characteristics of these borrowers can be ac...

  5. Household Water Treatments in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smieja, Joanne A.

    2011-01-01

    Household water treatments (HWT) can help provide clean water to millions of people worldwide who do not have access to safe water. This article describes four common HWT used in developing countries and the pertinent chemistry involved. The intent of this article is to inform both high school and college chemical educators and chemistry students…

  6. Cassava household expenditure and anthropometric indices of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In an attempt to verify the myth associated with cassava, that high consumption causes malnutrition, anthropometric measurements of 445 preschool children aged 0 - 5 years in 90 randomly selected farm households of cassava growing areas of Imo State were undertaken. Growth deviations (Z – scores) were calculated ...

  7. Steps to Design a Household Energy Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Dirk Fijnheer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Research where gamification is used to influence household energy consumption is an emerging field. This paper reviews the design and effectiveness of ten games that aim to influence household energy consumption and presents a novel gamification approach in which real world activities are implemented in a game design. From the review suggestions for the design of a new game have been identified, such as including real life missions in order to optimize the transfer between the game world and the real world, feedback from monitoring the electricity meter, the presence of a strong storyline, personalized game characters, social interaction, etc. Based on this comparative analysis, the new game 'Powersaver Game' focused on reducing energy consumption has been designed and its prototype is described. In the next stage of iterative design, end-users evaluated the match between in-game scenes and household energy saving activities. This considerate user-centered design process should allow us to build a serious game that is potentially effective in reducing household energy consumption. 

  8. Rural Household Demographics, Livelihoods and the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sherbinin, Alex; Vanwey, Leah; McSweeney, Kendra; Aggarwal, Rimjhim; Barbieri, Alisson; Henry, Sabina; Hunter, Lori M; Twine, Wayne

    2008-02-01

    This paper reviews and synthesizes findings from scholarly work on linkages among rural household demographics, livelihoods and the environment. Using the livelihood approach as an organizing framework, we examine evidence on the multiple pathways linking environmental variables and the following demographic variables: fertility, migration, morbidity and mortality, and lifecycles. Although the review draws on studies from the entire developing world, we find the majority of micro-level studies have been conducted in either marginal (mountainous or arid) or frontier environments, especially Amazonia. Though the linkages are mediated by many complex and often context-specific factors, there is strong evidence that dependence on natural resources intensifies when households lose human and social capital through adult morbidity and mortality, and qualified evidence for the influence of environmental factors on household decision-making regarding fertility and migration. Two decades of research on lifecycles and land-cover change at the farm level have yielded a number of insights about how households make use of different land-use and natural resource management strategies at different stages. A thread running throughout the review is the importance of managing risk through livelihood diversification, ensuring future income security, and culture-specific norms regarding appropriate and desirable activities and demographic responses. Recommendations for future research are provided.

  9. Distributed Coordination of Household Electricity Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juelsgaard, Morten; Teixeira, Andre; Johansson, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    This work presents a distributed framework for coordination of flexible electricity consumption for a number of households in the distribution grid. We conduct coordination with the purpose of minimizing a trade-off between individual concerns about discomfort and electricity cost, on the one hand...

  10. Sustainable reverse logistics for household plastic waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bing, X.

    2014-01-01

    Summary of the thesis titled “Sustainable Reverse Logistics for Household Plastic Waste” PhD Candidate: Xiaoyun Bing Recycled plastic can be used in the manufacturing of plastic products to reduce the use of virgin plastics material. The cost of recycled plastics is usually lower than

  11. Essays in environmental policy and household economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Motavasseli, Ali

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation addresses several issues regarding the consequences of environmental policy and its optimal level, as well as household's decisions on energy consumption and labor supply. In chapter two, a theoretical analysis investigates whether fossil fuel taxation or a consumption cap is

  12. Domestic abuse in the household of God

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    Domestic abuse in the household of God. 824. HTS 63(2) 2007. The church Constitution was later also amended to include more elders, to ensure that all ministries are overseen by the elders to ensure male authority. It was clear that the church was going towards a Presbyterian system. My wife received numerous calls ...

  13. Household defluoridation unit design and development | Woldeyes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this paper is to present the result of a research aimed at designing and developing a household defluoridiation unit that is simple, inexpensive and that uses locally manufactured Aluminium Sulfate that will reduce the fluoride concentration to the recommended range. The defluoridation unit developed by ...

  14. Household Biogas Digesters—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad J. Taherzadeh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This review is a summary of different aspects of the design and operation of small-scale, household, biogas digesters. It covers different digester designs and materials used for construction, important operating parameters such as pH, temperature, substrate, and loading rate, applications of the biogas, the government policies concerning the use of household digesters, and the social and environmental effects of the digesters. Biogas is a value-added product of anaerobic digestion of organic compounds. Biogas production depends on different factors including: pH, temperature, substrate, loading rate, hydraulic retention time (HRT, C/N ratio, and mixing. Household digesters are cheap, easy to handle, and reduce the amount of organic household waste. The size of these digesters varies between 1 and 150 m3. The common designs include fixed dome, floating drum, and plug flow type. Biogas and fertilizer obtained at the end of anaerobic digestion could be used for cooking, lighting, and electricity.

  15. Rural Household Demographics, Livelihoods and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sherbinin, Alex; VanWey, Leah; McSweeney, Kendra; Aggarwal, Rimjhim; Barbieri, Alisson; Henry, Sabina; Hunter, Lori M.; Twine, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews and synthesizes findings from scholarly work on linkages among rural household demographics, livelihoods and the environment. Using the livelihood approach as an organizing framework, we examine evidence on the multiple pathways linking environmental variables and the following demographic variables: fertility, migration, morbidity and mortality, and lifecycles. Although the review draws on studies from the entire developing world, we find the majority of micro-level studies have been conducted in either marginal (mountainous or arid) or frontier environments, especially Amazonia. Though the linkages are mediated by many complex and often context-specific factors, there is strong evidence that dependence on natural resources intensifies when households lose human and social capital through adult morbidity and mortality, and qualified evidence for the influence of environmental factors on household decision-making regarding fertility and migration. Two decades of research on lifecycles and land-cover change at the farm level have yielded a number of insights about how households make use of different land-use and natural resource management strategies at different stages. A thread running throughout the review is the importance of managing risk through livelihood diversification, ensuring future income security, and culture-specific norms regarding appropriate and desirable activities and demographic responses. Recommendations for future research are provided. PMID:19190718

  16. Multivariate Analysis of Household Decision Making, Contraceptive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the effect of household decision making on the use of contraceptives and fertility behaviour of ever-married men in Nigeria. Men's Recode Dataset of 2013 Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) dataset was used. A sample size of 8,981 ever married men aged 15-49 were analyzed using ...

  17. Gender Relations and Farm Household Pluriactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasson, Ruth; Winter, Michael

    1992-01-01

    Analyzed information on the activities of 272 principal male farmers and 245 wives from a random sample of 300 households in the Devon area of England. Found women were generally less involved than their husbands in farm tasks, farm management, and daily management. When both spouses had work other than farming, however, women were consulted much…

  18. User Behavior Assessment of Household Electric Usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Budi Mulyono

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Energy resilience is one of the famous issues among researchers and practitioners in energy sector. With enabling new technologies in power engineering for smart grid such as distributed generation, distributed storage, and intelligent information and management, each household community can establish a resilience energy production, distribution, and consumption. A household in smart grid system behaves as a customer and producer at the same time. This condition enabled them to reduce the power shortage in the peak hours, reduce CO2 pollution using renewable electricity, and minimizing electricity usage by changing life style. In developing countries, the amount of electricity supply is less than its demand. Most of the demand comes from the household that has peak load on nighttime. Keywords: User behavior, Game theory, Smart grid, Heating and cooling appliances, Energy resilientdoi:10.12695/ajtm.2013.6.2.1 How to cite this article:Mulyono, N. B. (2013. User Behavior Assessment of Household Electric Usage. The Asian Journal of Technology Management 6 (2: 65-71. Print ISSN: 1978-6956; Online ISSN: 2089-791X. doi:10.12695/ajtm.2013.6.2.1  

  19. Prospects and Constraints of Household Irrigation Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Constraints and prospects of hand dug wells related to household irrigation were assessed in Hayelom watershed (~1045 ha), by evaluating groundwater suitability for irrigation, soil quality and impact of intervention. 181 hand dug wells have come into existence in the watershed due to intervention and benefiting about ...

  20. HOUSEHOLD PURIFICATION OF FLUORIDE CONTAMINATED MAGADI (TRONA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Joan Maj; Dahi, Elian

    1997-01-01

    Purification of fluoride contaminated magadi is studied using bone char sorption and calcium precipitation. The bone char treatment is found to be workable both in columns and in batches where the magadi is dissolved in water prior to treatment. The concentrations in the solutions were 89 g magadi...... treatment method. A procedure for purification of fluoride contaminated magadi at household level is described....

  1. Household Food Security Study Summaries. 2001 Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seavey, Dorie; Sullivan, Ashley F.

    This report provides the most recent data on the food security of United States households. Based on studies using the Food Security Core Module (FSCM), a tool facilitating direct documentation of the extent of food insecurity and hunger caused by income limitations, this report summarizes 35 studies representing 20 states and Canada. The report…

  2. Rising food prices and household food security

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For many South Africans a healthy, balanced diet is elusive. Food security in both urban and rural South Africa is heavily dependent on cash incomes for household purchase of food for consumption,1 which, in a context of high unemployment, is largely reliant on social grants.2 This safety net does not reach all those ...

  3. FIRM HOUSEHOLD INTERRELATIONSHIPS ON DUTCH DAIRY FARMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ELHORST, JP

    1994-01-01

    In this article an agricultural household model is developed in which production and consumption decisions are non-separable. On the basis of this model the importance of coupling production and consumption decisions is investigated for the Dutch dairy sector both before and after the introduction

  4. Effective household disinfection methods of kitchen sponges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several household disinfecting treatments to kill bacteria, yeasts and molds on kitchen sponges were evaluated. Sponges were soaked in 10 percent bleach for 3 min, lemon juice (pH 2.9) or deionized water for 1 min; placed in a microwave oven for 1 min; or placed in a dishwasher operating with a dryi...

  5. Household portfolios and implicit risk aversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bucciol, A.; Miniaci, R.

    2008-01-01

    We derive from a sample of US households the distribution of the risk aversion implicit in their portfolio choice. Our estimate minimizes the distance between the certainty equivalent return generated with observed portfolios and portfolios that are optimal in a mean-variance framework. Taking into

  6. The Brazilian Synchrotron Light Source

    CERN Document Server

    Tavares, P F

    2005-01-01

    The Brazilian Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory has been operating the only light source in the southern hemisphere since July 1997. Over this 7 year period, approximately 22000 hours of beam time were delivered to users from all over Brazil as well as from 10 other countries. In this article, we report on the present configuration of the 1.37 GeV electron storage ring and associated instrumentation, describe recent improvements to the light source and analyze future prespectives including the installation of insertion devices and additional beamlines.

  7. Elementary education in brazilian legislation

    OpenAIRE

    Veronese, Josiane Rose Petry; Vieira, Cleverton Elias

    2003-01-01

    The education was a present subject, directly or indirectly, in every Brazilian Constitutions. In the Federal Constitution of 1988, two aspects about education can be detached: the participation of the civil society in the elaboration of devices that regulate the national education and the treatment given to basic education, raised to the category of subjective public right. Child and Adolescent Statute practically repeats the devices of the&n...

  8. Leprosy reactions: the effect of gender and household contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Mastrangelo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Various host-related factors have been reported as relevant risk factors for leprosy reactions. To support a new hypothesis that an antigenic load in local tissues that is sufficient to trigger the immune response may come from an external supply of Mycobacterium leprae organisms, the prevalence of reactional leprosy was assessed against the number of household contacts. The number of contacts was ascertained at diagnosis in leprosy patients coming from an endemic area of Brazil. The prevalence of reactions (patients with reactions/total patients was fitted by binomial regression and the risk difference (RD was estimated with a semi-robust estimation of variance as a measure of effect. Five regression models were fitted. Model 1 included only the main exposure variable "number of household contacts"; model 2 included all four explanatory variables ("contacts", "fertile age", "number of skin lesions" and "bacillary index" that were found to be associated with the outcome upon univariate analysis; models 3-5 contained various combinations of three predictors. Male and female patients were analyzed separately. In females, household contacts were a significant predictor for leprosy reactions in model 1 [crude RD = 0.06; 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.01; 0.12] and model 5 (RD = 0.05; CI = 0.02; 0.09, which included contacts, bacillary index and skin lesions as predictors. Other models were unsatisfactory because the joint presence of fertile age and bacillary index was a likely source of multicollinearity. No significant results were obtained for males. The likely interpretation of our findings might suggest that in female patients, leprosy reactions may be triggered by an external spreading of M. leprae by healthy carrier family members. The small number of observations is an obvious limitation of our study which requires larger confirmatory studies.

  9. Preventing evictions as a potential public health intervention: characteristics and social medical risk factors of households at risk in Amsterdam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Laere, Igor; De Wit, Matty; Klazinga, Niek

    2009-09-01

    The public health problems precipitating eviction are understudied and no systemic data have been collected. We aim to identify the magnitude of eviction and the characteristics and social medical risk factors of households at risk in Amsterdam. This will help inform policies designed to prevent eviction. In 2003, case workers of housing associations dealing with rent arrears, and case workers of nuisance control care networks, were interviewed and completed questionnaires about households at risk of eviction. Questionnaires included the processes that resulted in eviction and the characteristics and social medical problems of the households involved. Evicted households were compared with non-evicted households. In Amsterdam, over recent years 1,400 eviction, or four per 1,000 dwellings, took place annually. Of 275 households with rent arrears, 132 were evicted. Of 190 nuisance households, 136 were evicted. In both groups, the largest household group were single male tenants between 25 and 44 years. For those reporting rent arrears, social problems were reported in 71%, medical problems in 23%; independent risk factors for eviction were being of Dutch origin (OR 2.38 (1.30-4.36)) and having a drug-addiction problem (OR 3.58 (0.96-13.39)). For the nuisance households, social problems were reported in 46% and medical problems in 82%, while financial difficulties were a risk factor for eviction (OR: 8.04 (1.05-61.7)). In Amsterdam, households at risk of eviction consisted mainly of single (Dutch) men, aged between 25 and 44 years, often with a combination of social and medical problems. Financial difficulties and drug addiction were independent risk factors for eviction. Because of the social medical problems that were prevalent, for prevention practice eviction should be considered both a socioeconomic and a public health problem. Preventing eviction deserves full attention as a potential effective public health intervention.

  10. Stranding Events of Kogia Whales along the Brazilian Coast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jailson F Moura

    Full Text Available The genus Kogia, which comprises only two extant species, Kogia sima and Kogia breviceps, represents one of the least known groups of cetaceans in the global ocean. In some coastal regions, however, stranding events of these species have been relatively common over the last decades. Stranding provides the opportunity to investigate the biology of these cetaceans and to explore the epidemiological aspects associated with the mortality of the organisms found on the beach. A number of disturbances (including pelagic fisheries, chemical pollution, boat strikes, and noise pollution have been confirmed to pose a particular threat to the Kogia species. However, no study has yet investigated potential relationships between environmental conditions and stranding events. Here we analyse how a collection of environmental, physical, and biological variables, such as wind, sea surface temperature (SST, water depth, and chlorophyll-a, correlate to Kogia stranding events along the Brazilian coast. The results of our statistical analyses suggest that K. sima is more likely found in warm tropical waters, which provide an explanation for the high frequency of stranding in northeastern Brazilian coast. In contrast, K. breviceps appears to have a preference for temperate and productive waters. Wind speed results to be also an important factor for predicting Kogia strandings in Brazilian coast. Additionally, literature information in combination with our own data and analyses of stomach contents confirms that oceanic cephalopods constitute the primary nutritional source of both Kogia species. By using the available information as a qualitative proxy for habitat preference and feeding ecology, our study provides a novel and comprehensive assessment of Kogia stranding data in relation to environmental conditions along the Brazilian coast.

  11. Study on Information Security and e-Trust in Spanish households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguado, José

    The study on Information Security and e-Trust in Spanish households has been conducted by INTECO (The National Institute of Communication Technologies) through the Information Security Observatory. It is a study on the incidence and trust of users in the Internet by means of measuring the frequency of the episodes of individual risk in a wide sample of users that are monitored online on a monthly basis, combining quantitative data of incidences (monthly scans of home computers) and qualitative perception data (quarterly surveys). The study is supplied with data from more than 3,000 households with Internet connection, spread across the whole country.

  12. Household-level dynamics of food waste production and related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours in Guelph, Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parizeau, Kate, E-mail: kate.parizeau@uoguelph.ca [Department of Geography, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON (Canada); Massow, Mike von [School of Hospitality, Food, and Tourism Management, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON (Canada); Martin, Ralph [Plant Agriculture Department, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON (Canada)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • We combined household waste stream weights with survey data. • We examine relationships between waste and food-related practices and beliefs. • Families and large households produced more total waste, but less waste per capita. • Food awareness and waste awareness were related to reduced food waste. • Convenience lifestyles were differentially associated with food waste. - Abstract: It has been estimated that Canadians waste $27 billion of food annually, and that half of that waste occurs at the household level (Gooch et al., 2010). There are social, environmental, and economic implications for this scale of food waste, and source separation of organic waste is an increasingly common municipal intervention. There is relatively little research that assesses the dynamics of household food waste (particularly in Canada). The purpose of this study is to combine observations of organic, recyclable, and garbage waste production rates to survey results of food waste-related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours at the household level in the mid-sized municipality of Guelph, Ontario. Waste weights and surveys were obtained from 68 households in the summer of 2013. The results of this study indicate multiple relationships between food waste production and household shopping practices, food preparation behaviours, household waste management practices, and food-related attitudes, beliefs, and lifestyles. Notably, we observed that food awareness, waste awareness, family lifestyles, and convenience lifestyles were related to food waste production. We conclude that it is important to understand the diversity of factors that can influence food wasting behaviours at the household level in order to design waste management systems and policies to reduce food waste.

  13. Cultural repertoires and food-related household technology within colonia households under conditions of material hardship

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dean, Wesley R; Sharkey, Joseph R; Johnson, Cassandra M; St John, Julie

    2012-01-01

    .... This article focuses on cultural repertoires that enable food choice and the everyday uses of technology in food-related practice by Mexican-immigrant women in colonia households under conditions of material hardship...

  14. Estimating household food waste in Denmark:case study of single family households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, C.; Scheutz, Charlotte

    211 single-family houses in Denmark. The residual waste from each household was collected and sorted separately to obtain a representative variation of the quantity and composition of food waste among households. The main fractions contributing to the household food waste were avoidable vegetable food......Food waste prevention remains the first priority in the European Waste Framework Directive, which aimed to halve the amount of food wasted within the EU Member States by 2025. Thus, reliable data on food waste composition and quantity are crucial for assessing the current food waste situation...... and determine potential improvements. In Denmark, although many sorting campaigns involving household waste has been conducted, little attention has been placed on food waste. Comparison of recent studies made for examples in Austria, and the UK suggests that quantity and material composition of food waste vary...

  15. Comparison of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones among Japanese, Japanese Brazilians, and non-Japanese Brazilians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciel Maria

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differences in sex hormone levels among populations might contribute to the variation in breast cancer incidence across countries. Previous studies have shown higher breast cancer incidence and mortality among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese. To clarify the difference in hormone levels among populations, we compared postmenopausal endogenous sex hormone levels among Japanese living in Japan, Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo, and non-Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a control group of case-control studies in Nagano, Japan, and São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were postmenopausal women older than 55 years of age who provided blood samples. We measured estradiol, estrone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS, testosterone and free testosterone by radioimmunoassay; bioavailable estradiol by the ammonium sulfate precipitation method; and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG by immunoradiometric assay. A total of 363 women were included for the present analyses, comprising 185 Japanese, 44 Japanese Brazilians and 134 non-Japanese Brazilians. Results Japanese Brazilians had significantly higher levels of estradiol, bioavailable estradiol, estrone, testosterone and free testosterone levels, and lower SHBG levels, than Japanese. Japanese Brazilians also had significantly higher levels of bioavailable estradiol, estrone and DHEAS and lower levels of SHBG and androstenedione than non-Japanese Brazilians. Levels of estradiol, testosterone and free testosterone, however, did not differ between Japanese Brazilians and non-Japanese Brazilians. These differences were observed even after adjustment for known breast cancer risk factors. We also found an increase in estrogen and androgen levels with increasing body mass index, but no association for most of the other known risk factors. Conclusions We found higher levels of

  16. Adult oral health inequalities described using area-based and household-based socioeconomic status measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Lisa M; Thomson, W Murray

    2006-01-01

    To describe adult oral health inequalities using an area-based and household-based measure of socioeconomic status (SES). Self-report questionnaires (seeking information on sociodemographic, oral health and oral self-care) were sent to a random sample of adults from the Dunedin South Electorate, New Zealand. Household- and area-based SES measures were collected. The main outcome measures were edentulism prevalence, average-poor self-rated oral health and not having visited a dentist for 2+ years. Data were weighted to produce population-based estimates. The response rate was 78.2%; the sample mean age was 47 years (sd, 17; range 18-92 years) and females comprised 54.0%. Edentulism was most prevalent among those from low-SES households who were resident in high-deprivation areas (P<0.0001). Poor self-rated oral health (P<0.0001) and 2+ years since the last dental visit (P<0.0001) were also most prevalent among these same individuals. In contrast, respondents from high-SES households located in the least deprived areas had the lowest prevalence of edentulism, poor self-reported oral health or 2+ years since their last dental visit. Those from the other household/area SES combinations occupied intermediate positions. There may be added value to dental public health in using a dual socio-economic measurement approach to population research, with greater oral health gains perhaps being possible by concentrating resources and clinical effort on people living in low-SES households in highly-deprived areas, rather than those living in low-SES households in areas that are not deprived.

  17. The phylogeography of African Brazilians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Vanessa F; Carvalho, Cláudia M B; Bortolini, Maria Cátira; Bydlowski, Sérgio P; Pena, Sérgio D J

    2008-01-01

    Approximately four million Africans were taken as slaves to Brazil, where they interbred extensively with Amerindians and Europeans. We have previously shown that while most White Brazilians carry Y chromosomes of European origin, they display high proportions of African and Amerindian mtDNA lineages, because of sex-biased genetic admixture. We studied the Y chromosome and mtDNA haplogroup structure of 120 Black males from Sao Paulo, Brazil. Only 48% of the Y chromosomes, but 85% of the mtDNA haplogroups were characteristic of sub-Saharan Africa, confirming our previous observation of sexually biased mating. We mined literature data for mtDNA and Y chromosome haplogroup frequencies for African native populations from regions involved in Atlantic Slave Trade. Principal Components Analysis and Bayesian analysis of population structure revealed no genetic differentiation of Y chromosome marker frequencies between the African regions. However, mtDNA examination unraveled considerable genetic structure, with three clusters at Central-West Africa, West Africa and Southeast Africa. A hypothesis is proposed to explain this structure. Using these mtDNA data we could obtain for the first time an estimate of the relative ancestral contribution of Central-West (0.445), West (0.431) and Southeast Africa (0.123) to African Brazilians from Sao Paulo. These estimates are consistent with historical information. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Household Factors Associated with Self-Harm in Johannesburg, South African Urban-Poor Households.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Naicker

    Full Text Available Low and middle income countries bear the majority burden of self-harm, yet there is a paucity of evidence detailing risk-factors for self-harm in these populations. This study aims to identify environmental, socio-economic and demographic household-level risk factors for self-harm in five impoverished urban communities in Johannesburg, South Africa.Annual serial cross-sectional surveys were undertaken in five impoverished urban communities in Johannesburg for the Health, Environment and Development (HEAD study. Logistic regression analysis using the HEAD study data (2006-2011 was conducted to identify household-level risk factors associated with self-harm (defined as a self-reported case of a fatal or non-fatal suicide attempt within the household during the preceding year. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis was employed to identify factors associated with self-harm.A total of 2 795 household interviews were conducted from 2006 to 2011. There was no significant trend in self-harm over time. Results from the final model showed that self-harm was significantly associated with households exposed to a violent crime during the past year (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR 5.72; 95% CI 1.64-19.97; that have a member suffering from a chronic medical condition (AOR 8.95; 95% 2.39-33.56 and households exposed to indoor smoking (AOR 4.39; CI 95% 1.14-16.47.This study provides evidence on household risk factors of self-harm in settings of urban poverty and has highlighted the potential for a more cost-effective approach to identifying those at risk of self-harm based on household level factors.

  19. Functional discourse grammar and theory of grammaticalization: reviewing the uses of [diski] in Brazilian Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Casseb-Galvão

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the uses of [diski] in the Brazilian Portuguese language, with a descriptive proposal that combines Functional Discursive Grammar and Grammaticalization Theory-based approaches. The aim of the paper is to widely analyze these uses and to show satisfactory descriptive counterpoints in relation to the evidential paradigm consisting of different patterns of functionality of [diski].

  20. Household water use and conservation models using Monte Carlo techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Cahill

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The increased availability of end use measurement studies allows for mechanistic and detailed approaches to estimating household water demand and conservation potential. This study simulates water use in a single-family residential neighborhood using end-water-use parameter probability distributions generated from Monte Carlo sampling. This model represents existing water use conditions in 2010 and is calibrated to 2006–2011 metered data. A two-stage mixed integer optimization model is then developed to estimate the least-cost combination of long- and short-term conservation actions for each household. This least-cost conservation model provides an estimate of the upper bound of reasonable conservation potential for varying pricing and rebate conditions. The models were adapted from previous work in Jordan and are applied to a neighborhood in San Ramon, California in the eastern San Francisco Bay Area. The existing conditions model produces seasonal use results very close to the metered data. The least-cost conservation model suggests clothes washer rebates are among most cost-effective rebate programs for indoor uses. Retrofit of faucets and toilets is also cost-effective and holds the highest potential for water savings from indoor uses. This mechanistic modeling approach can improve understanding of water demand and estimate cost-effectiveness of water conservation programs.

  1. Life expectancy among elderly Brazilians in 2003 according to different levels of functional disability Expectativa de vida para idosos brasileiros em 2003, segundo diferentes níveis de incapacidade funcional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Castro Santos Camargos

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to estimate disability-free life expectancy for the Brazilian elderly in 2003, by gender and age, based on different concepts of functional disability. The Sullivan method is used to combine the period life tables from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE, 2003 and the prevalence of functional disability according to the 2003 National Sample Household Survey (PNAD 2003. The main results of the study indicate that at age 60, Brazilian men can expect to live 19 years, 39% with mild, 21% with moderate, and 14% with severe functional disability, respectively. At the same age, Brazilian women can expect to live 22 years: 56% with mild, 32% with moderate, and 18% with severe functional disability.Informações sobre o número de anos a serem vividos com incapacidade funcional possibilitam direcionar políticas públicas que visem a diminuir o número de anos nestas condições. Desagregadas segundo diferentes níveis de incapacidade, podem ensejar o desenho e implementação de ações mais específicas e eficazes. O objetivo deste estudo foi medir a expectativa de vida livre de e com incapacidade funcional para os idosos brasileiros em 2003, por sexo e idade, utilizando diferentes níveis de incapacidade funcional. Empregou-se o método de Sullivan, combinando a tábua de vida e as prevalências de incapacidade funcional. Foram utilizadas as tábuas de vida publicadas pelo Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística e as prevalências de incapacidade da Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios. Os principais resultados indicam que, aos 60 anos, a expectativa de vida dos homens era de 19 anos, 39% com incapacidade funcional leve, 21% com incapacidade moderada e 14% com incapacidade funcional grave. Nessa mesma idade, a expectativa de vida das mulheres era de 22 anos (56%, 32% e 18% com incapacidades funcionais leve, moderada e grave, respectivamente.

  2. Quantifying within-household transmission of ESBL-producing bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverkate, Manon R; Platteel, Tamara N; Fluit, A C; Cohen Stuart, James W; Leverstein-van Hall, Maurine A; Thijsen, Steven F T; Scharringa, J.; Kloosterman, Fieke R C; Bonten, Marc J M; Bootsma, Martin C J

    OBJECTIVES: Patients can acquire extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae during hospitalisation and colonised patients may transmit these bacteria after discharge, most likely to household contacts. In this study, ESBL transmission was quantified in households. METHODS:

  3. Food waste from Danish households: Generation and composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, Claus; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    ± 10 kg per year was food waste. Unavoidable food waste amounted to 80 ± 6 kg per household per year, and avoidable food waste was 103 ± 9 kg per household per year. Food waste mass was influenced significantly by the number of occupants per household (household size) and the housing type. The results......Sustainable solutions for reducing food waste require a good understanding of food waste generation and composition, including avoidable and unavoidable food waste. We analysed 12 tonnes of residual household waste collected from 1474 households, without source segregation of organic waste. Food...... also indicated that avoidable food waste occurred in 97% of the households, suggesting that most Danish households could avoid or at least reduce how much they generate. Moreover, avoidable and unavoidable food waste was more likely to be found in houses containing more than one person than...

  4. Wildlife Conservation in Zambia: Impacts on Rural Household Welfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Richardson, Robert B; Fernandez, Ana; Tschirley, David; Tembo, Gelson

    2012-01-01

    ...), which are buffer zones around national parks. Analysis of data from a nationwide survey of rural households shows that GMAs are positively associated with household income and crop damage from wildlife conflicts...

  5. Smart Home: Controlling and Monitoring Households Appliances Using Gsm Network

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Budi Rahmadya; Fahrul Ghazi; Derisma

    2016-01-01

    This study discussed about using the smart home automation systems for household appliances such as lights and fans, by utilizing the GSM network as a communication medium to control and monitor the household appliances...

  6. Potential of household environmental resources and practices in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potential of household environmental resources and practices in eliminating ... malaria test results were extracted from Malaria Indicators Survey datasets for Tanzania, ... Keywords: malaria risk, residual transmission, household environmental ...

  7. Natural Disasters, Household Welfare, and Resilience: Evidence from Rural Vietnam

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arouri, Mohamed; Nguyen, Cuong; Youssef, Adel Ben

    2015-01-01

    The study uses commune fixed-effects regressions to estimate the effect of natural disasters on welfare and poverty of rural households in Vietnam, and subsequently examines household and community...

  8. Household factors influencing participation in bird feeding activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Zoe G.; Fuller, Richard A.; Dallimer, Martin

    2012-01-01

    whether and how the socioeconomic background of a household influences participation in food provision for wild birds, the most popular and widespread form of human-wildlife interaction. A majority of households feed birds (64% across rural and urban areas in England, and 53% within five British study...... cities). House type, household size and the age of the head of the household were all important predictors of bird feeding, whereas gross annual household income, the occupation of the head of the household, and whether the house is owned or rented were not. In both surveys, the prevalence of bird...... a week. The proportion of households regularly feeding birds was positively related to the age of the head of the household, but declined with gross annual income. As concerns grow about the lack of engagement between people and the natural environment, such findings are important if conservation...

  9. TRANSFER EFFICIENCIES OF PESTICIDES FROM HOUSEHOLD FLOORING SURFACES TO FOODS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The transfer of pesticides from household surfaces to foods was measured to determine if excess dietary exposure potentially occurs when children's foods contact contaminated surfaces prior to being. Three common household surfaces (ceramic tile, hardwood flooring, and carpet) w...

  10. Household Debt and Credit: Economic Issues and Data Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hochguertel, S.; Bertola, G.

    2007-01-01

    We survey contributions to the analysis of household liabilities, highlighting relevant theoretical aspects and outlining how data sources may support empirical testing and measurement efforts. Specifically, we classify aspects of household debt, discussing the theoretical and policy relevance of

  11. Determinants of Use of Household-level Water Chlorination Products in Rural Kenya, 2003–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy E. DuBois

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Household-level water treatment products provide safe drinking water to at-risk populations, but relatively few people use them regularly; little is known about factors that influence uptake of this proven health intervention. We assessed uptake of these water treatments in Nyanza Province, Kenya, November 2003–February 2005. We interviewed users and non-user controls of a new household water treatment product regarding drinking water and socioeconomic factors. We calculated regional use-prevalence of these products based on 10 randomly selected villages in the Asembo region of Nyanza Province, Kenya. Thirty-eight percent of respondents reported ever using household-level treatment products. Initial use of a household-level product was associated with having turbid water as a source (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 16.6, p = 0.007, but consistent usage was more common for a less costly and more accessible product that did not address turbidity. A combination of social marketing, retail marketing, and donor subsidies may be necessary to extend the health benefits of household-level water treatment to populations most at risk.

  12. Dietary exposure of Brazilian consumers to dithiocarbamate pesticides--a probabilistic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, E D; Tressou, J; Boon, P E

    2006-09-01

    A probabilistic estimation of the exposure of the Brazilian population to the dithiocarbamate pesticides was performed using the Monte Carlo Risk Assessment program (MCRA 3.5). Residue data, as CS2, for 3821 samples were obtained from the Brazilian national monitoring program on pesticide residues and from the monitoring program conducted in the Distrito Federal on rice, beans and nine fruits and vegetables. Food consumption data were obtained from a Brazilian household budget survey conducted between 2002 and 2003. Processing factors for washing, peeling or cooking were applied to the residues found in the crops. Daily intakes at the highest percentiles for the general population reached a maximum of 2.0 microg CS2/kg body weight per day (upper band of the 95% confidence interval at P99.99). Tomato, rice, apple and lettuce were the commodities which contributed most to the intake. Based on the registered uses and the toxicological profile of dithiocarbamates, the risk from exposure was evaluated assuming that all residues came from the use of ethylene-bis-dithiocarbamate (EBDC) or that a fraction of it came from the use of propineb. For this last scenario, a cumulative risk assessment was conducted. In the first scenario, the highest intake reached up to 11.9% EBDC ADI for the general population and up to 31.1% ADI for children. When 30% of the residues were considered as coming from propineb use, the values were 15.2% and 39.7% ADI, respectively.

  13. Evaluation of the Brazilian population's intake of antioxidant nutrients and their relation with the nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tureck, Camila; Locateli, Gelvani; Corrêa, Vanesa Gesser; Koehnlein, Eloá Angélica

    2017-01-01

    The study of dietary antioxidants has gained prominence owing to the elucidation of the deleterious effects of oxidative stress to the human body. Objective: To evaluate the Brazilian population's intake of antioxidant nutrients and their association with the nutritional status. A cross-sectional study was carried out including secondary data on food consumption of 33,459 individuals from both sexes, aged 10 years or older, from all Brazilian regions based on microdata of the "2008-2009 Household Budget Survey, Brazilian Dairy Survey." The content of vitamins E, A, and C; zinc; manganese; copper; and selenium from 188 food items, divided into 12 groups, according to the habitual consumption form was analyzed. The means of antioxidant nutrient intake according to the nutritional status were compared using Bonferroni's t-test. Higher percentages of insufficient intake of vitamins than antioxidant minerals were seen. A significant difference in the intake of vitamin E as to the nutritional status was noticed, wherein the intake in overweight individuals was lower than in those with proper weight. Participants with low weight presented lower intake of almost all antioxidant minerals, except for copper, in which the intake of participants with low weight was equal to those with normal weight. High percentages of insufficient intake of antioxidant nutrients were observed in the studied population, especially vitamins. It was also found that the intake of antioxidant nutrients varied based on nutritional status, gender, and life stage.

  14. Socioeconomic inequalities and vaccination coverage: results of an immunisation coverage survey in 27 Brazilian capitals, 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, Rita Barradas; Ribeiro, Manoel Carlos Sampaio de Almeida; de Moraes, José Cássio; Flannery, Brendan

    2012-10-01

    Since 1988, Brazil's Unified Health System has sought to provide universal and equal access to immunisations. Inequalities in immunisation may be examined by contrasting vaccination coverage among children in the highest versus the lowest socioeconomic strata. The authors examined coverage with routine infant immunisations from a survey of Brazilian children according to socioeconomic stratum of residence census tract. The authors conducted a household cluster survey in census tracts systematically selected from five socioeconomic strata, according to average household income and head of household education, in 26 Brazilian capitals and the federal district. The authors calculated coverage with recommended vaccinations among children until 18 months of age, according to socioeconomic quintile of residence census tract, and examined factors associated with incomplete vaccination. Among 17,295 children with immunisation cards, 14,538 (82.6%) had received all recommended vaccinations by 18 months of age. Among children residing in census tracts in the highest socioeconomic stratum, 77.2% were completely immunised by 18 months of age versus 81.2%-86.2% of children residing in the four census tract quintiles with lower socioeconomic indicators (pimmunisation coverage among poorer children. Strategies are needed to reach children in wealthier areas.

  15. Household-level dynamics of food waste production and related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours in Guelph, Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parizeau, Kate; von Massow, Mike; Martin, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    It has been estimated that Canadians waste $27 billion of food annually, and that half of that waste occurs at the household level (Gooch et al., 2010). There are social, environmental, and economic implications for this scale of food waste, and source separation of organic waste is an increasingly common municipal intervention. There is relatively little research that assesses the dynamics of household food waste (particularly in Canada). The purpose of this study is to combine observations of organic, recyclable, and garbage waste production rates to survey results of food waste-related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours at the household level in the mid-sized municipality of Guelph, Ontario. Waste weights and surveys were obtained from 68 households in the summer of 2013. The results of this study indicate multiple relationships between food waste production and household shopping practices, food preparation behaviours, household waste management practices, and food-related attitudes, beliefs, and lifestyles. Notably, we observed that food awareness, waste awareness, family lifestyles, and convenience lifestyles were related to food waste production. We conclude that it is important to understand the diversity of factors that can influence food wasting behaviours at the household level in order to design waste management systems and policies to reduce food waste. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Break-up of New Orleans Households after Hurricane Katrina

    OpenAIRE

    Rendall, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Theory and evidence on disaster-induced population displacement have focused on individual and population-subgroup characteristics. Less is known about impacts on households. I estimate excess incidence of household break-up due to Hurricane Katrina by comparing a probability sample of pre-Katrina New Orleans resident adult household heads and non–household heads (N = 242), traced just over a year later, with a matched sample from a nationally representative survey over an equivalent period. ...

  17. AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF HOUSEHOLD ENERGY CHOICE IN GHANA

    OpenAIRE

    Mensah, Justice T.; Adu, George

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates household cooking energy choices and their determinants in Ghana using a nationwide household survey data. The underlying empirical model was estimated using the ordered probit model. The results show that biomass is by far the most predominant source of energy for Ghanaian households. Biomass energy is the main source of cooking fuel in Ghana used by 89.2% of households compared with 10.8% which use modern energy sources such as LPG, electricity and kerosene for cooki...

  18. Microeconomic theory of the household and nutrition programs

    OpenAIRE

    Chernichovsky, Dov*Zangwill, Linda

    1988-01-01

    Lack of food is no longer the major cause of malnutrition. Many households and individuals remain malnourished when income and supplies of food are adequate. Nutrition policy and programs must be based on a sound knowledge of household behaviour patterns. The microeconomic theory of the household focuses on the household's decisionmaking about scarce food resources based upon such considerations as: (i) the size of the family; (ii) the purchasing power of the family; (iii) the availability of...

  19. Gender, Agricultural Production, and the Theory of the Household.

    OpenAIRE

    Udry, Christopher

    1996-01-01

    Virtually all models of the household assume that the allocation of resources is Pareto efficient. Within many African households, agricultural production occurs on many plots controlled by different members of the household. Pareto efficiency implies that factors should be allocated efficiently across these plots. The author finds, in contrast, that plots controlled by women are farmed much less intensively than similar plots within the household controlled by men. The estimates imply that a...

  20. Brazilian scientific production on herbal medicines used in dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    R.D. Castro; J.A. Oliveira; Vasconcelos,L.C.; Maciel,P.P.; Brasil,V.L.M.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to critically analyze the scientific production published in specialized Brazilian journals concerning the use of medicinal plants in dentistry. A literature review was carried out using an indirect documentation technique by means of a bibliographical study. Four examiners performed independent searches in Brazilian journals of medicinal plants indexed in the database SciELO (Brazilian Journal of Pharmacognosy; Brazilian Journal of Medicinal Plants; Brazilian ...

  1. Association of genetic variants with self-assessed color categories in Brazilians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Fernandes Durso

    Full Text Available The Brazilian population was formed by extensive admixture of three different ancestral roots: Amerindians, Europeans and Africans. Our previous work has shown that at an individual level, ancestry, as estimated using molecular markers, was a poor predictor of color in Brazilians. We now investigate if SNPs known to be associated with human skin pigmentation can be used to predict color in Brazilians. For that, we studied the association of fifteen SNPs, previously known to be linked with skin color, in 243 unrelated Brazilian individuals self-identified as White, Browns or Blacks from Rio de Janeiro and 212 unrelated Brazilian individuals self-identified as White or Blacks from São Paulo. The significance of association of SNP genotypes with self-assessed color was evaluated using partial regression analysis. After controlling for ancestry estimates as covariates, only four SNPs remained significantly associated with skin pigmentation: rs1426654 and rs2555364 within SLC24A5, rs16891982 at SLC45A2 and rs1042602 at TYR. These loci are known to be involved in melanin synthesis or transport of melanosomes. We found that neither genotypes of these SNPs, nor their combination with biogeographical ancestry in principal component analysis, could predict self-assessed color in Brazilians at an individual level. However, significant correlations did emerge at group level, demonstrating that even though elements other than skin, eye and hair pigmentation do influence self-assessed color in Brazilians, the sociological act of self-classification is still substantially dependent of genotype at these four SNPs.

  2. The Impact of International Remittance on Poverty, Household ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Similarly the study found that all remittance receiving households spend part of their remittance income mainly on food and non durable goods. Yet, a good number of households are also used part of it for investment such as health, education and housing. Nevertheless; relatively insignificant number of households save ...

  3. 78 FR 75484 - Federal Management Regulation (FMR); Shipping Household Goods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-12

    ...] RIN 3090-AJ38 Federal Management Regulation (FMR); Shipping Household Goods AGENCY: Office of... and paying for the movement of Household Goods (HHG), Professional Books, Paper and Equipment, and..., DC 20405, 202-501-4755. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: A. Background A commuted rate in household goods...

  4. 78 FR 18421 - Information Collection Activities; Household Movers' Disclosure Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    .... Respondents: Household goods movers that desire to offer a rate limiting their liability on interstate moves... number of motor carriers and freight forwarders involved in authorized for-hire household goods carriage... (annually including all respondents): We estimate that 15 of the approximately 4,500 household-goods movers...

  5. Towards sustainable household energy use in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, J; Moll, H.C.

    2001-01-01

    Households consume direct energy, using natural gas, heating oil, gasoline and electricity, and consume indirect energy, the energy related to the production of goods and the delivery of services for the households. Past trends and present-day household energy use (direct and indirect) are analysed

  6. Household Expenditures on Private Tutoring: Emerging Evidence from Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenayathulla, Husaina Banu

    2013-01-01

    Private tutoring has been a burgeoning phenomenon in Malaysia for decades. This study examines the determinants of private tutoring expenditures in Malaysia using the 2004/2005 Household Expenditures Survey and applies hurdle regression models to the data. The results indicate that total household expenditures, household head's level of education,…

  7. Internalising a Crisis? Household Level Response to Water Scarcity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Household Level Response to Water Scarcity in the City of Harare, Zimbabwe. ... The paper argues that internalisation of the crisis by households cannot be said to represent a sustainable and long-term solution to the water crisis, and that the perseverance on the part of the households to engage with the water situation.

  8. 50 CFR 36.36 - Sled dogs and household pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sled dogs and household pets. 36.36... Sled dogs and household pets. The general trespass provisions of 50 CFR 26.21 shall not apply to household pets and sled, work, or pack dogs under the direct control of their owners or handlers, but such...

  9. Determinants of food security among cocoa producing households ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was set out to analyse the determinants of food security among the cocoa producing households in Abia state, Nigeria. The specific objectives are to: determine the food security status of the households and estimate the determinants of food security among the cocoa producing households in the study area.

  10. Breakup of New Orleans Households after Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendall, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Theory and evidence on disaster-induced population displacement have focused on individual and population-subgroup characteristics. Less is known about impacts on households. I estimate excess incidence of household breakup resulting from Hurricane Katrina by comparing a probability sample of pre-Katrina New Orleans resident adult household heads…

  11. The effect of house prices on household savings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calcagno, R.; Fornero, E.; Rossi, M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of a change in real estate wealth on the consumption behaviour of Italian households, using the Bank of Italy's Survey of Household Income and Wealth dataset. We relate annual household consumption to capital gains in housing, controlling for characteristics such as

  12. Harnessing the potentials of youth for rural household food security ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The food security question calls for participatory approach by the major stakeholders in the rural household in agriculture Youth are veritable assets in the household because of their dynamism, adventure, ambition and innovativeness. These potentials could be harnessed for rural household food security. This paper ...

  13. Households' willingness to pay for improved solid waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main factors determining households' willingness to pay for improved solid waste management (collection and disposal) are the posted price of the service, age, educational level, household size and household's monthly expenditure. The willingness to pay elasticity coefficients are generally inelastic and low.

  14. Food consumption pattern in urban households: The case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results show inverse relationship between per caput food consumption expenditure and family size. Consumption expenditure per household however increases with the level of education, household size and income level. Regression analysis results confirm household disposable income to be major determinant of ...

  15. Demand for non-alcoholic beverages among urban households in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the roles of income, prices and household demography in household demand for non-alcoholic beverages (NABs) in two cities – Abeokuta and Ibadan in Southwest Nigeria. The study was based on primary data obtained from a cross-section of 407 households (211 from Abeokuta and 198 from ...

  16. Service-oriented architecture for household energy management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sinderen, Marten J.; Warnier, Martijn; Cordeiro, J.; Mitrakos, D.; Shishkov, Boris

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in pervasive computing foster automated systems to support household energy management. Smart devices can be used to monitor both the consumption of household appliances and the presence and activity of people in the household. Based on monitoring results, intelligent feedback to

  17. Factors Influencing Household Solid Waste Management in Urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results from the survey showed that 26.2% of households practiced correct methods of household solid waste management. The percentage of households where separation of solid waste was practiced was 24.6%; the 75.4% incorrect practice was associated with carelessness, socialization style and long distances to the ...

  18. Determinants of Household Socio-economic Status in an Urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study sought to determine the contribution of asset ownership to household socio-economic or wealth status. The study adopted a quantitative research approach to investigate the socioeconomic status of households. A sample of 443 households was selected using a simple random sampling technique, and ...

  19. The Impact of Microfinance on Household Welfare in Botswana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the impact of microfinance on household welfare in Botswana using a nationally representative sample of 503 households and an econometric model adapted from Coleman (1999). The results suggested that microfinance had no significant effect on household welfare, which is consistent with Okurut ...

  20. Microfinance Programs in Uganda: An Analysis of Household ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper identifies a model of low-income household participation in microfinance credit programs and the effects on investment behavior from repeated access to these institutions using evidence from household survey data. The primary focus is on changes in household investment behavior, not the assessment of ...

  1. Understanding the role of forests in rural household economies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data analysis was mainly based on a binary probit regression model checked for multicollinearity, heteroscedasticity and specification bias. Forest products accounted for 31% of annual household income. Household location, number of cattle owned, and household size had a positive and significant effect on dependence ...

  2. Household Structure and Short-Run Economic Change in Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Paul; Stecklov, Guy; Todd, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    During the economic crises Nicaragua suffered between 2000 and 2002, a conditional cash transfer program targeting poor households began operating. Using panel data on 1,397 households from the program's experimentally designed evaluation, we examined the impact of the program on household structure. Our findings suggest that the program enabled…

  3. Retirement adequacy goals for South African households | Butler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Household wealth–earnings ratio goals were estimated to be between 10,5 and 18,2 times annual salary depending on retirement age, household composition, income, location, age, education, household income distribution, home ownership and salary support. Considering current retirement savings rates, retirement ...

  4. The effects of household food practices and diseases prevalence on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Household food practices were tested at 95% confidence interval and this affected the nutrition status of children (P = 0.02). In households with mean dietary diversity above four food groups, only 2.17 % of children were underweight as compared to 18.18% those from households with mean dietary diversity below three.

  5. Marital Happiness and Household Equity in Later Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Russell A.

    1993-01-01

    Used data from National Survey of Families and Households to investigate associations among gender, employment, and marital happiness for 1,353 couples aged 50+. Employment was not directly related to marital happiness. Wives reported greater participation in household tasks and greater inequity in division of household labor. Perceived fairness…

  6. 16 CFR 303.12 - Trimmings of household textile articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Trimmings of household textile articles. 303... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.12 Trimmings of household textile articles. (a) Trimmings incorporated in articles of wearing apparel and other household...

  7. households' ability and willingness to pay for the provision of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-10-02

    Oct 2, 2017 ... recommends that government and other developmental partners in the sanitation fraternity should consider partnering with ... of cost sharing by households, and for this we need to analyse the demand side for the provision of sanitary .... the negative effect of household size on WTP. Larger households are ...

  8. Household energy consumption in the United States, 1987 to 2009: Socioeconomic status, demographic composition, and energy services profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Robert J.

    finds strong evidence for taking a more lifecycle-based approach to understanding how energy is consumed based on the combined importance of householder age, household size, and socioeconomic status. Additionally, these factors produce very different energy services profiles that I argue are indicative of the lifestyle in which a household engages. Finally, the dissertation argues that these connections are essential to understanding energy consumption and provide a fertile ground for future research.

  9. The sequential propensity household projection model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Wilson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The standard method of projecting living arrangements and households in Australia and New Zealand is the 'propensity model', a type of extended headship rate model. Unfortunately it possesses a number of serious shortcomings, including internal inconsistencies, difficulties in setting living arrangement assumptions, and very limited scenario creation capabilities. Data allowing the application of more sophisticated dynamic household projection models are unavailable in Australia. OBJECTIVE The aim was create a projection model to overcome these shortcomings whilst minimising input data requirements and costs, and retaining the projection outputs users are familiar with. METHODS The sequential propensity household projection model is proposed. Living arrangement projections take place in a sequence of calculations, with progressively more detailed living arrangement categories calculated in each step. In doing so the model largely overcomes the three serious deficiencies of the standard propensity model noted above. RESULTS The model is illustrated by three scenarios produced for one case study State, Queensland. They are: a baseline scenario in which all propensities are held constant to demonstrate the effects of population growth and ageing, a housing crisis scenario where housing affordability declines, and a prosperity scenario where families and individuals enjoy greater real incomes. A sensitivity analysis in which assumptions are varied one by one is also presented. CONCLUSIONS The sequential propensity model offers a more effective method of producing household and living arrangement projections than the standard propensity model, and is a practical alternative to dynamic projection models for countries and regions where the data and resources to apply such models are unavailable.

  10. Synthesis of Ethyl Salicylate Using Household Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Sally; Hur, Chinhyu; Lee, Alan; Smith, Kurt

    1996-02-01

    Ethyl salicylate is synthesized, isolated, and characterized in a three-step process using simple equipment and household chemicals. First, acetylsalicylic acid is extracted from aspirin tablets with isopropyl alcohol, then hydrolyzed to salicylic acid with muriatic acid, and finally, the salicylic acid is esterified using ethanol and a boric acid catalyst. The experiment can be directed towards high school or university level students who have sufficient background in organic chemistry to recognize the structures and reactions that are involved.

  11. Household fuels, direct combustion, public perception, fuel

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-07-10

    Jul 10, 2005 ... w ere smo k e, fl y - ash and high b urning rate . A ma j or c ause o f the p ro b lems w as the ... Key words: Household fuels, direct combustion, public perception, fuel-switching, food-switching, health impacts. 1 IN TR ..... levels from wood combustion typically exceed the recommended limit by 13 - 50 times ...

  12. Expected Taxes and Household Consumption Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Kueng, Lorenz

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation I ask two basic questions: First, how predictable are personal income tax changes in the U.S. and second, does household consumption respond to news about future tax changes, or does it mostly respond at the time when the tax rates actually change? These are interesting questions because they have broad implications for macroeconomics and public economics. The rational-expectations life-cycle theory of consumption is the workhorse in modern macroeconomics. While there ar...

  13. Psychological determinants of household saving behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Nyhus, Ellen Katrine

    2002-01-01

    This dissertation reports the results of a study that examined the impact of psychological variables on household saving and borrowing behaviour. Understanding saving behaviour is important for policy makers and financial institutions, but a comprehensive explanatory model that can explain individual differences in saving does not yet exist. The aim of this research has been to contribute towards the construction of such a model. The study was designed to answer four research q...

  14. Occurrence of Legionella in UK household showers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Samuel; Stevenson, David; Bennett, Allan; Walker, Jimmy

    2017-04-01

    Household water systems have been proposed as a source of sporadic, community acquired Legionnaires' disease. Showers represent a frequently used aerosol generating device in the domestic setting yet little is known about the occurrence of Legionella spp. in these systems. This study has investigated the prevalence of Legionella spp. by culture and qPCR in UK household showers. Ninety nine showers from 82 separate properties in the South of England were sampled. Clinically relevant Legionella spp. were isolated by culture in 8% of shower water samples representing 6% of households. Legionella pneumophila sg1 ST59 was isolated from two showers in one property and air sampling demonstrated its presence in the aerosol state. A further 31% of showers were positive by Legionella spp. qPCR. By multi-variable binomial regression modelling Legionella spp. qPCR positivity was associated with the age of the property (p=0.02), the age of the shower (p=0.01) and the frequency of use (p=0.09). The concentration of Legionella spp. detected by qPCR was shown to decrease with increased frequency of use (p=0.04) and more frequent showerhead cleaning (p=0.05). There was no association between Legionella spp. qPCR positivity and the cold water supply or the showerhead material (p=0.65 and p=0.71, respectively). Household showers may be important reservoirs of clinically significant Legionella and should be considered in source investigations. Simple public health advice may help to mitigate the risk of Legionella exposure in the domestic shower environment. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS OF HOUSEHOLD INSECTICIDE IN COMMUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aram Sih Joharina

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The most popular and effective vector control is the use of insecticides. Surveywas done in the houses and some supermarket to know many kind of insecticides usedby people. The formulation, active ingredients, and concentration were recorded andanalyzed. Based on the results of the survey, household insecticides formulated invarious formulations such as liquid, mosquito coils, aerosol, mat and liquid vaporizer,chalk and paper burn. In addition to formulation, active ingredients and concentrationalso vary. Almost all household insecticide products on the market using the syntheticpyrethroid. Selection of household insecticides should be adapted to the type of insectpests because each type of active ingredients and formulations have advantages anddisadvantages. Efficacy of various active ingredients in various formulations has beenstudied and the results vary widely. Insecticide efficacy is influenced by the type ofactive ingredient, dosage, concentration, formulation, and the susceptibility of insectspecies, temperature, sunlight, wind, and application method.Key word: household insecticide, insecticides formulation, active ingredientsABSTRAKPengendalian serangga vektor penyakit yang paling efektif dan populer adalahpenggunaan insektisida. Survei dilakukan di masyarakat dan supermarket untuk mengetahuijcnis-jenis insektisida yang digunakan oleh masyarakat. Berdasarkan hasil survei, insektisidarumah tangga terkemas dalam berbagai formulasi antara lain liquid, mosquito coil, aerosol, mat& liquid vaporizer, kapur serangga dan kertas bakar. Disamping formulasi, bahan aktif dankonsentrasi yang digunakan juga bermacam-macam. Hampir semua produk insektisida rumahtangga di pasaran menggunakan bahan aktif golongan piretroid sintetik. Pemilihan insektisidarumah tangga hendaknya disesuaikan dengan jenis serangga sasaran karena tiap jenis bahan aktifdan formulasi memiliki kelcbihan dan kekurangan. Efikasi berbagai bahan aktif dalam berbagaiformulasi telah

  16. Looking at women's poverty in poor households

    OpenAIRE

    Baysu, Gülseli

    2002-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. This thesis analyzes the internal dynamics of women’s poverty, and how women experience and cope with poverty in poor households. It mainly deals with two points, one regarding the conceptualization of women’s poverty as content and context, and the other regarding the method of investigation. As for the former, women’s poverty is defined as unequal access to resources (social as well as material), responsibilities (particularly the one...

  17. Did household consumption become more volatile?

    OpenAIRE

    Gorbachev, O.

    2011-01-01

    I show that after accounting for predictable variation arising from movements in real interest rates, preferences and income shocks, liquidity constraints and measurement errors, volatility of household consumption in the US increased by 25 percent between 1970 and 2004. The increase was lower than that of volatility of family income. Nonwhite and those with less than 13 years of education, for whom there was no differential increase in income volatility, experienced a significantly larger in...

  18. Informal and paid care for Brazilian older adults (National Health Survey, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Lima-Costa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence and sociodemographic factors associated with informal and paid care for Brazilian older adults with functional limitations. METHODS Of the 23,815 participants of the National Health Survey aged 60 or older, 5,978 reported needing help to perform activities of daily living and were included in this analysis. The dependent variable was the source of care, categorized as exclusively informal (unpaid, exclusively formal (paid, mixed or none. The socio-demographic variables were age (60-64, 65-74, ≥ 75 years old, gender and number of residents in the household (1, 2, ≥ 3. The multivariate analysis was based on binomial and multinomial logistic regressions. RESULTS Informal care predominated (81.8%, followed by paid (5.8% or mixed (6.8% and no care (5.7%. The receipt of care from any source increased gradually with the number of residents in a same household, regardless of age and gender (OR = 4.85 and 9.74 for 2 and ≥ 3, respectively. Age was positively associated with receiving any care while the male gender showed a negative association. The number of residents in the household showed the strongest association with informal care (OR = 10.94 for ≥ 3 residents, compared with paid (OR = 5.48 and mixed (OR = 4.16 care. CONCLUSIONS Informal care is the main source of help for community-dwelling older adults with functional limitations. In a context of rapid population aging and decline in family size, the results reinforce the need for policies to support long-term care for older Brazilians.

  19. Researches of odour emitted by household waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglė Marčiulaitienė

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with odour emitted by household waste, the chemical composition of household waste. The experiment was made with food waste (1000 g placed in 5 litter containers. Food waste was containing products of animal origin (meat, fish, dairy products and plant origin (vegetables, fruit waste. Time of the experiment was 14 days 19±3 °C at environment temperature. Odour concentration is determined by dynamic olfactometry method. Studies have shown that the strongest odour of all household waste used in this experiment was emitted by meat and fish waste (76 444 OUE/m3. Meat and fish waste emits the strongest odour as waste contains proteins, their decomposition releases into the environment a strong unpleasant odour, hydrogen sulphide and ammonia. Protein degradation releases into the environment are, characterized by a strong unpleasant smell of hydrogen sulphide and ammonia gas. During the anaerobic decomposition of organic matter a variety of other fragrant compounds: alcohols (e.g., ethanol and methanol, vinegar, formic acid, etc. is found.

  20. Ubiquitous Monitoring of Electrical Household Appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloret, Jaime; Macías, Elsa; Suárez, Alvaro; Lacuesta, Raquel

    2012-01-01

    The number of appliances at home is increasing continuously, mainly because they make our lives easier. Currently, technology is integrated in all objects of our daily life. TCP/IP let us monitor our home in real time and check ubiquitously if something is happening at home. Bearing in mind this idea, we have developed a low-cost system, which can be used in any type of electrical household appliance that takes information from the appliance and posts the information to the Twitter Social network. Several sensors placed in the household appliances gather the sensed data and send them wired or wirelessly, depending on the case, using small and cheap devices to a gateway located in the home. This gateway takes decisions, based on the received data, and sends notifications to Twitter. We have developed a software application that takes the values and decides when to issue an alarm to the registered users (Twitter friends of our smart home). The performance of our system has been measured taking into account the home network (using IEEE 802.3u and IEEE 802.11g) and the data publishing in Twitter. As a result, we have generated an original product and service for any electrical household appliance, regardless of the model and manufacturer, that helps home users improve their quality of life. The paper also shows that there is no system with the same innovative features like the ones presented in this paper. PMID:23202205

  1. Anticipatory child fostering and household economic security in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Bachan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: While there is a rich literature on the practice of child fostering in sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about how fostering impacts receiving households, as few studies consider household conditions both before and after fostering. Despite the fact that circumstancessurrounding fostering vary, the literature's key distinction of fostering is often drawn along the simple line of whether or not a household is fostering a child. This paper argues that anticipation of fostering responsibilities, in particular, is a useful dimension to distinguish fostering experiences for receiving households. Objective: This paper examines the relationship between receiving a foster child and subsequent changes in household wealth. Particular emphasis is placed on how these changes are conditioned by differing levels of anticipation of the fostering event. Methods: This study uses data from Tsogolo la Thanzi (TLT, a longitudinal survey in Balaka, Malawi. Using data from 1754 TLT respondents, fixed effects pooled time-series models are estimated to assess whether and how receiving a foster child changes household wealth. Results: This paper demonstrates the heterogeneity of fostering experiences for receiving households.The results show that households that anticipate fostering responsibilities experience a greater increase in household wealth than both households that do not foster and those that are surprised by fostering. Conclusions: Households that anticipate fostering responsibilities exhibit the greatest increase in householdwealth. While fostering households that do not anticipate fostering responsibilities may not experience these gains, there is no evidence to indicate that such households are negatively impacted relative to households that do not foster. This finding suggests that additional childcare responsibilities may not be as detrimental to African households as some researchers have feared.

  2. Neymar, defender of brazilian tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Islandia Cardoso da Silva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyze how university students of Teresina-PI appropriate of the message of a report of the television show Esporte Espetacular. There was use of the technique of focus groups and analytical-descriptive method for collecting and analyzing data. The sample consisted of 24 university students, aged between 18 and 24 years. The report features Neymar as responsible to follow the "tradition" of Brazilians and to be crowned as the best player in the world. The subjects of research said that the speech conveyed by the report can reproduce and create a reality sometimes dreamlike, because objective to confer to Neymar great importance with regard to national identity.

  3. A public good version of the collective household model: An empirical approach with an application to British household data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Klaveren, C.; van Praag, B.; Maassen van den Brink, H.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we consider an empirical collective household model of time allocation for two-earner households. The novelty of this paper is that we estimate a version of the collective household model, where the internally produced goods and externally purchased goods are assumed to be public. The

  4. Household Food Security in the United States, 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Nord, Mark; Andrews, Margaret S.; Carlson, Steven

    2007-01-01

    Eighty-nine percent of American households were food secure throughout the entire year in 2006, meaning that they had access at all times to enough food for an active, healthy life for all household members. The remaining households (10.9 percent) were food insecure at least some time during the year. About one-third of food insecure households (4.0 percent of all U.S. households) had very low food security—meaning that the food intake of one or more adults was reduced and their eating patter...

  5. Household Food Security in the United States, 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Nord, Mark; Andrews, Margaret S.; Carlson, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Eighty-nine percent of American households were food secure throughout the entire year in 2007, meaning that all household members had access at all times to enough food for an active, healthy life. The remaining households (11.1 percent) were food insecure at least some time during the year. About one-third of food-insecure households (4.1 percent of all U.S. households) had very low food security—meaning that the food intake of one or more adults was reduced and their eating patterns were d...

  6. Sustaining Small Scale Farming: Evidence of Poverty and income Disparity among Rural Farming Households in South-South Region of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday B. Akpan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of poverty is evidenced among rural farm households in developing societies. As a result of persistence poverty among rural farm households, there is a sudden upsurge in agricultural livelihood diversification and rural-urban migration resulting in high rate of urban unemployment. To help generate suitable policy variables to help tackle this rampaging issue in the South- south region of Nigeria, this study specifically analyses poverty and income inequality as well as identified determinants of poverty among rural farm households in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 390 rural farm household heads spread across the rural areas of the State. Combination of sampling methods was employed to sample cross-sectional data from respondents. The study used descriptive tools and regression analysis (Tobit regressions to analyse information collected. The socio-economic analysis reveals that most farming household heads were male; an average of 12.3 years of formal was discovered; social capital formation was poor, while average age stood at 42.5 years. About 33.08 % of male headed households and 22.05 % of female-headed households live below poverty line in the study area. Income inequality index revealed 0.4210 for male headed households and 0.4531 for the female counterpart. The Tobit model estimates revealed that, household head farming experience, years in the social organisation, a level of formal education, farm and non-farm income were negative drivers of rural poverty in the region. Household’s age, household size, structure of land ownership and gender were positive drivers of poverty among rural farming households. It is recommended that sound family welfare packages should be implemented in the rural communities. Also, the social capital formation should be promoted among rural farming households, while adult education policies should be re-visited. The government of the region should also improve educational

  7. Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis: report of two Brazilian brothers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, M.C.; Zetola, V.F.; Teive, H.; Scola, R.H.; Trentin, A.P.; Zavala, J.A.; Pereira, E.R.; Raskin, S.; Werneck, L.C.; Sistermans, E.A.

    2004-01-01

    Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis is a treatable rare autossomal recessive disease characterized by lipid storage secondary to a sterol 27-hydroxylase deficiency in the formation of cholic and chenodeoxycholic acids. We describe two Brazilian brothers with cognitive impairement and chronic diarrhea.

  8. Determinants of Household Food Security in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Ayu Mutiah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Food security at household level is a very important precondition to foster the national and regional food security. Many people migrate to urban areas in the hope of improving their welfare. Generally people think that in the city there are more opportunities, but the opposite is true. The problem is more complex in the city especially for people who do not have adequate skills and education. This study aims to address whether  age of household head, household size, education level of household head, income, and distribution of subsidized rice policy affect the food security of urban poor households in Purbalingga district. A hundred respondents were selected from four top villages in urban areas of Purbalingga with the highest level of poverty. Using binary logistic regression, this study finds significant positive effect of education of household head and household income and significant negative effect of household size and raskin on household food security, while age of household head has no significant effect on household food security. The results imply the need for increased awareness of family planning, education, improved skills, and increased control of the implementation of subsidized rice for the poor.

  9. Seasonal variation of household food waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, Claus; Scheutz, Charlotte

    This paper analysed the influence of seasonal variation in the generation of the Danish household food waste. Residual household waste was sampled and manually sorted into six food waste fractions. Vegetable food wastes were the main fraction contributing to the household food waste. Statistical ...... analysis showed a significant relationship between avoidable food waste and household size. However, there were no significant seasonal differences in the amount of avoidable food waste.......This paper analysed the influence of seasonal variation in the generation of the Danish household food waste. Residual household waste was sampled and manually sorted into six food waste fractions. Vegetable food wastes were the main fraction contributing to the household food waste. Statistical...

  10. Spatial-occupational mobility between three generations in rural households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pethe, V P

    1962-09-01

    Analysis of data gathered in 1947-50 by the Gokhale Institute for a sample of 3114 heads of households from 70 villages in the districts of Poona, Sholapur, Ahmednagar, Satara, and Bijapur. Head of household and his usual place of residence were the central points of reference. The data indicated that about 80% of the households were geographically immobile -- 3 generations, the current head of household, his father, and grandfather belonged to the same village. In the remaining households, the economic factor was the most important factor leading to migration. Occupational mobility between the generations was quite low, with no occupational change between the generations in 84% of households. Agriculture showed the least mobility. By and large, migrational and occupational mobility were closely linked. Among migrant fathers, 30% were also occupationally mobile, while only 5% of the nonmigration group was occupationally mobile. Among current heads of households, the corresponding figures were 35 and 13%.

  11. [Root caries prevalence and severity in Brazilian adults and older people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Regina Auxiliadora de Amorim; Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira; Sousa, Maria da Luz Rosário; Peres, Marco Aurélio; Frazão, Paulo

    2013-12-01

    To estimate the prevalence of root caries in Brazilian adults and elderly. We assessed data from the Brazilian Oral Health Survey (SBBrasil 2010). Dental examinations were performed on 9,564 adults and 7,509 elderly individuals in households in the 26 state capitals, the Federal District and 150 provincial towns. Diagnostic criteria and data assessment tools were those standardized by the World Health Organization. The outcome was measured by using root caries index and the index of decayed and filled dental roots. The prevalence of root caries was 16.7% in adults and 13.6% in the elderly. The index of decayed and filled dental roots was 0.42 and 0.32 for adults and the elderly respectively, with most of the index represented by untreated caries. The prevalence of root caries differed significantly among states capitals and provincial towns, with higher values being reported in the state capitals in the North and Northeastern Brazilian regions. In adults, the root caries index ranged from 1.4% in Aracaju to 15.1% in Salvador (both in the Northeast). Among the elderly, this index ranged from 3.5% in Porto Velho to 29.9% in Palmas (both North). Root caries was more prevalent in men than in women in both age groups. There is a wide variation in root caries indices in adults and in the elderly, and between and within Brazilian regions. Most root caries is untreated. We recommend the incorporation of this disease into the oral health surveillance system.

  12. Poverty Dynamics, Ecological Endowments, and Land Use among Smallholders in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Gilvan R.; VanWey, Leah K.; Hull, James R.; Antigo, Mariangela; Barbieri, Alisson F.

    2013-01-01

    Rural settlement in previously sparsely occupied areas of the Brazilian Amazon has been associated with high levels of forest loss and unclear long-term social outcomes. We focus here on the micro-level processes in one settlement area to answer the question of how settler and farm endowments affect household poverty. We analyze the extent to which poverty is sensitive to changes in natural capital, land use strategies, and biophysical characteristics of properties (particularly soil quality). Cumulative time spent in poverty is simulated using Markovian processes, which show that accessibility to markets and land use system are especially important for decreasing poverty among households in our sample. Wealthier households are selected into commercial production of perennials before our initial observation, and are therefore in poverty a lower proportion of the time. Land in pasture, in contrast, has an independent effect on reducing the proportion of time spent in poverty. Taken together, these results show that investments in roads and the institutional structures needed to make commercial agriculture or ranching viable in existing and new settlement areas can improve human well-being in frontiers. PMID:24267754

  13. Poverty dynamics, ecological endowments, and land use among smallholders in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Gilvan R; VanWey, Leah K; Hull, James R; Antigo, Mariangela; Barbieri, Alisson F

    2014-01-01

    Rural settlement in previously sparsely occupied areas of the Brazilian Amazon has been associated with high levels of forest loss and unclear long-term social outcomes. We focus here on the micro-level processes in one settlement area to answer the question of how settler and farm endowments affect household poverty. We analyze the extent to which poverty is sensitive to changes in natural capital, land use strategies, and biophysical characteristics of properties (particularly soil quality). Cumulative time spent in poverty is simulated using Markovian processes, which show that accessibility to markets and land use system are especially important for decreasing poverty among households in our sample. Wealtheir households are selected into commercial production of perennials before our initial observation, and are therefore in poverty a lower proportion of the time. Land in pasture, in contrast, has an independent effect on reducing the proportion of time spent in poverty. Taken together, these results show that investments in roads and the institutional structures needed to make commercial agriculture or ranching viable in existing and new settlement areas can improve human well-being in frontiers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Futebol mulato: racial constructs in Brazilian football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Fernandes Maranhao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to review Gilberto Freyre’s ideas about futebol mulato and the way these ideas have spread the notion of the Brazilian mulatto as a symbol of a ‘racial democracy’, unique in Brazil, around the world. The notion first appeared in 1938 in an article by Freyre for the Diários Associados, an important Brazilian newspaper. Football (soccer was employed by Freyre as the special arena where the multiracial Brazilian nation could shine and show the world a different way of being, opposed to the white and ‘rational’ way of European football. In Freyre’s work, the so-called ‘football-art’ was compared to poetry, while the European style was equated with prose. This essay argues that Freyre’s ideas were useful in constructing the Brazilian identity, a nation of harmony in all its aspects, including the area of race, and how the idea of the mulatto has been used to minimise social disparities within Brazilian society. Freyre’s ideas remain contemporary; many Brazilian intellectuals still refer to these concepts. As well, the press in this huge country, and especially in World Cup years, uses the concepts of mulatto and football-art to characterize Brazil and differentiate it from other countries.

  15. Phylodynamics of the Brazilian feline immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-Ortiz, Lucía; Junqueira, Dennis Maletich; Comerlato, Juliana; Costa, Cristina Santos; Zani, André; Duda, Naila Blatt; Tochetto, Caroline; Dos Santos, Raissa Nunes; da Costa, Fernanda Vieira Amorim; Roehe, Paulo Michel; Franco, Ana Cláudia

    2017-11-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), like other retroviruses, displays large genomic divergence when different isolates are compared. In this study, 31 FIV positive samples of domestic cats from Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil were used aiming at a detailed genomic characterization and a better understanding of the molecular epidemiology of the virus in Brazil. The proviral env genes were partially amplified, sequenced and compared with another 237 sequences from different continents. We identified several Brazilian highly supported clades (A, B1, B2, C and D) that suggest independent events of introduction of FIV in Brazil. Forty six reference-sequences from the GenBank were used with our 31 sequences to infer the virus subtypes. Our sequences belong to the subtype B and three of them result from a recombination with the previously described subtype F. The other 28 Brazilian samples belonging to subtype B and another 46 Brazilian sequences from the GenBank were used to estimate the time to the most recent common ancestor of each Brazilian clade, using a Bayesian approach and a relaxed molecular clock model. The analyses of Brazilian sequences suggest several different entries of the virus in the Brazilian cat population between 1981 and 1991. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. 3rd BRAZILIAN CONSENSUS ON Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gonzaga Coelho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Significant progress has been obtained since the Second Brazilian Consensus Conference on Helicobacter pylori Infection held in 2004, in São Paulo, SP, Brazil, and justify a third meeting to establish updated guidelines on the current management of H. pylori infection. The Third Brazilian Consensus Conference on H pylori Infection was organized by the Brazilian Nucleus for the Study of Helicobacter, a Department of the Brazilian Federation of Gastroenterology and took place on April 12-15, 2011, in Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil. Thirty-one delegates coming from the five Brazilian regions and one international guest, including gastroenterologists, pathologists, epidemiologists, and pediatricians undertook the meeting. The participants were allocated in one of the five main topics of the meeting: H pylori, functional dyspepsia and diagnosis; H pylori and gastric cancer; H pylori and other associated disorders; H pylori treatment and retreatment; and, epidemiology of H pylori infection in Brazil. The results of each subgroup were submitted to a final consensus voting to all participants. Relevant data were presented, and the quality of evidence, strength of recommendation, and level of consensus were graded. Seventy per cent and more votes were considered as acceptance for the final statement. This article presents the main recommendations and conclusions to guide Brazilian doctors involved in the management of H pylori infection.

  17. The economic burden of cancers on Indian households.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Mahal

    Full Text Available We assessed the burden of cancer on households' out-of-pocket health spending, non-medical consumption, workforce participation, and debt and asset sales using data from a nationally representative health and morbidity survey in India for 2004 of nearly 74 thousand households. Propensity scores were used to match households containing a member diagnosed with cancer (i.e. cancer-affected households to households with similar socioeconomic and demographic characteristics (controls. Our estimates are based on data from 1,645 households chosen through matching. Cancer-affected households experienced higher levels of outpatient visits and hospital admissions and increased out-of-pocket health expenditures per member, relative to controls. Cancer-affected households spent between Indian Rupees (INR 66 and INR 85 more per member on healthcare over a 15-day reference period, than controls and additional expenditures (per member incurred on inpatient care by cancer-affected households annually is equivalent to 36% to 44% of annual household expenditures of matched controls. Members without cancer in cancer-affected households used less health-care and spent less on healthcare. Overall, adult workforce participation rates were lower by between 2.4 and 3.2 percentage points compared to controls; whereas workforce participation rates among adult members without cancer were higher than in control households. Cancer-affected households also had significantly higher rates of borrowing and asset sales for financing outpatient care that were 3.3% to 4.0% higher compared to control households; and even higher for inpatient care.

  18. Incidência de episódios hipotônicos-hiporresponsivos associados à vacina combinada DTP/Hib usada no Programa Nacional de Imunizações Incidence of hypotonic-hyporesponsive episodes associated to the combined DTP/Hib vaccine used in Brazilian National Immunizations Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo M. Martins

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a segurança da vacina combinada de difteria-tétano-coqueluche de células inteiras e Haemophilus influenzae tipo b usada no Programa Nacional de Imunizações, e em especial a incidência de episódios hipotônicos-hiporresponsivos. MÉTODO: Acompanhamento de uma coorte de 21.064 lactentes (20.925 ou 99,7% aderiram ao protocolo de estudo, nas 48 horas após a aplicação da vacina de difteria, tétano, coqueluche de células inteiras e Haemophilus influenzae tipo b em centros de saúde na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, para determinar e investigar eventos adversos graves, espontâneos e solicitados. Cada criança foi monitorada durante somente uma dose. RESULTADOS: A incidência de episódios hipotônicos-hiporresponsivos foi de 1:1.744 doses (casos confirmados e de 1:1.495 doses (casos confirmados mais casos suspeitos. A taxa de incidência de convulsões foi de 1:5.231 doses. Não foram detectados casos de apnéia. Esses resultados são comparáveis àqueles relatados na literatura para a vacina contra difteria-tétano-coqueluche de células inteiras. CONCLUSÃO: A vacina contra difteria, tétano, coqueluche de células inteiras e Haemophilus influenzae tipo b em estudo pode ser usada com segurança no Programa Nacional de Imunizações, de acordo com as precauções e contra-indicações correntes.OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the safety of a combined diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis-Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine used on the Brazilian National Immunizations Program, chiefly the incidence of hypotonic-hyporesponsive episodes. METHOD: Follow-up of a cohort of 21,064 infants (20,925 or 99.7% adhered to the study protocol, within 48 hours of vaccination with diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis-Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine in health care units in the City of Rio de Janeiro, to ascertain and investigate spontaneous and solicited severe adverse events. Each child was followed-up for one dose only. RESULTS: The rate

  19. The legal structure of households in Serbia and Bulgaria in the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svirčević Miroslav M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This scholarly work treats only the legal structure of households in Serbia and Bulgaria in the 19th century. The author's intention is to describe and present similarities and differences between the most important household's structural elements (Household Council, Household Head, Household Woman and Household Members, their relationships and status in the Ottoman legal-political order.

  20. THE COURSE OF TRANSLATION AND INTERPRETATION PUBLICATIONS OF BRAZILIAN SIGN LANGUAGE IN SOME BRAZILIAN TRANSLATION JOURNALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Aguiar dos Santos

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay describes and analyses the course of publications about Translation and Interpretation of Brazilian sign language in some Brazilian Translation journals. Results show a sum of 36 works published, distributed over Translation journals of different regions of Brazil. The established subjects and the ones that emerged from 1990 to 2014 were also examined in these publications.

  1. Thermochemical valorization and characterization of household biowaste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakalis, S; Sotiropoulos, A; Moustakas, K; Malamis, D; Vekkos, K; Baratieri, M

    2017-12-01

    Valorization of municipal solid waste (MSW), by means of energy and material recovery, is considered to be a crucial step for sustainable waste management. A significant fraction of MSW is comprised from food waste, the treatment of which is still a challenge. Therefore, the conventional disposal of food waste in landfills is being gradually replaced by recycling aerobic treatment, anaerobic digestion and waste-to-energy. In principle, thermal processes like combustion and gasification are preferred for the recovery of energy due to the higher electrical efficiency and the significantly less time required for the process to be completed when compared to biological process, i.e. composting, anaerobic digestion and transesterification. Nonetheless, the high water content and the molecular structure of biowaste are constraining factors in regard to the application of thermal conversion pathways. Investigating alternative solutions for the pre-treatment and more energy efficient handling of this waste fraction may provide pathways for the optimization of the whole process. In this study, by means of utilizing drying/milling as an intermediate step, thermal treatment of household biowaste has become possible. Household biowaste has been thermally processed in a bench scale reactor by means of torrefaction, carbonization and high temperature pyrolysis. According to the operational conditions, fluctuating fractions of biochar, bio-oil (tar) and syngas were recovered. The thermochemical properties of the feedstock and products were analyzed by means of Simultaneous Thermal Analysis (STA), Ultimate and Proximate analysis and Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR). The analysis of the products shows that torrefaction of dried household biowaste produces an energy dense fuel and high temperature pyrolysis produces a graphite-like material with relatively high yield. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Inequalities in healthy life expectancy by Brazilian geographic regions: findings from the National Health Survey, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann; Souza Júnior, Paulo Roberto Borges de; Marques, Aline Pinto; Almeida, Wanessa da Silva de; Montilla, Dalia Elena Romero

    2016-11-17

    The demographic shift and epidemiologic transition in Brazil have drawn attention to ways of measuring population health that complement studies of mortality. In this paper, we investigate regional differences in healthy life expectancy based on information from the National Health Survey (PNS), 2013. In the survey, a three-stage cluster sampling (census tracts, households and individuals) with stratification of the primary sampling units and random selection in all stages was used to select 60,202 Brazilian adults (18 years and over). Healthy life expectancies (HLE) were estimated by Sullivan's method according to sex, age and geographic region, using poor self-rated health for defining unhealthy status. Logistic regression models were used to investigate socioeconomic and regional inequalities in poor self-rated health, after controlling by sex and age. Wide disparities by geographic region were found with the worst indicators in the North and Northeast regions, whether considering educational attainment, material deprivation, or health care utilization. Life expectancy at birth for women and men living in the richest regions was 5 years longer than for those living in the less wealthy regions. Modeling the variation across regions for poor self-rated health, statistically significant effects (p < 0.001) were found for the North and Northeast when compared to the Southeast, even after controlling for age, sex, diagnosis of at least one non-communicable chronic disease, and schooling or socioeconomic class. Marked regional inequalities in HLE were found, with the loss of healthy life much higher among residents of the poorest regions, especially among the elderly. By combining data on self-rated health status and mortality in a single indicator, Healthy Life Expectancy, this study demonstrated the excess burden of poor health experienced by populations in the less wealthy regions of Brazil. To mitigate the effects of social exclusion, the development of strategies

  3. Household water saving: Evidence from Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisa, Rosa; Larramona, Gemma

    2012-12-01

    This article focuses on household water use in Spain by analyzing the influence of a detailed set of factors. We find that, although the presence of both water-saving equipment and water-conservation habits leads to water savings, the factors that influence each are not the same. In particular, our results show that those individuals most committed to the adoption of water-saving equipment and, at the same time, less committed to water-conservation habits tend to have higher incomes.

  4. Investigating design issues in household environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baillie, Lynne; Benyon, David; Macauley, Catriona

    2003-01-01

    This paper argues that the current involvement of end users in the design of technological artefacts is too superficial. It is common to involve people in requirements generation, but rarely in product inception or design. A study is reported involving five households in central Scotland, who were...... each visited on three occasions, using a new investigative framework. Illustrative examples are provided of the strengths and weaknesses of the methods used. Despite the latter, it is demonstrated that the general public can both generate and critique design ideas and that valuable contributions...

  5. HoME: a Household Multimodal Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Brodeur, Simon; Perez, Ethan; Anand, Ankesh; Golemo, Florian; Celotti, Luca; Strub, Florian; Rouat, Jean; Larochelle, Hugo; Courville, Aaron

    2017-01-01

    We introduce HoME: a Household Multimodal Environment for artificial agents to learn from vision, audio, semantics, physics, and interaction with objects and other agents, all within a realistic context. HoME integrates over 45,000 diverse 3D house layouts based on the SUNCG dataset, a scale which may facilitate learning, generalization, and transfer. HoME is an open-source, OpenAI Gym-compatible platform extensible to tasks in reinforcement learning, language grounding, sound-based navigatio...

  6. Household Financial Distress and Initial Endowments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olafsson, Arna

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies in utero exposure to the 2008 financial crisis. Exploiting the sudden and unexpected collapse of the Icelandic economy, I find that first-trimester exposure to the crisis led to a sizable and significant reduction in birth weight, increased the probability of a low birth weight...... – because children with worse health at birth can expect substantially lower lifetime earnings – and suggest that economic hardships may in general exacerbate income inequalities in the long run as low-income households are typically more exposed to financial distress....

  7. Copy Number Profiling of Brazilian Astrocytomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Tadeu Bidinotto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Copy number alterations (CNA are one of the driving mechanisms of glioma tumorigenesis, and are currently used as important biomarkers in the routine setting. Therefore, we performed CNA profiling of 65 astrocytomas of distinct malignant grades (WHO grade I–IV of Brazilian origin, using array-CGH and microsatellite instability analysis (MSI, and investigated their correlation with TERT and IDH1 mutational status and clinico-pathological features. Furthermore, in silico analysis using the Oncomine database was performed to validate our findings and extend the findings to gene expression level. We found that the number of genomic alterations increases in accordance with glioma grade. In glioblastomas (GBM, the most common alterations were gene amplifications (PDGFRA, KIT, KDR, EGFR, and MET and deletions (CDKN2A and PTEN. Log-rank analysis correlated EGFR amplification and/or chr7 gain with better survival of the patients. MSI was observed in 11% of GBMs. A total of 69% of GBMs presented TERT mutation, whereas IDH1 mutation was most frequent in diffuse (85.7% and anaplastic (100% astrocytomas. The combination of 1p19q deletion and TERT and IDH1 mutational status separated tumor groups that showed distinct age of diagnosis and outcome. In silico validation pointed to less explored genes that may be worthy of future investigation, such as CDK2, DMRTA1, and MTAP. Herein, using an extensive integrated analysis, we indicated potentially important genes, not extensively studied in gliomas, that could be further explored to assess their biological and clinical impact in astrocytomas.

  8. Priority Areas for Establishing National Forests in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalberto Veríssimo

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Brazil will benefit if it gains control of its vast Amazonian timber resources. Without immediate planning, the fate of much of the Amazon will be decided by predatory and largely unregulated timber interests. Logging in the Amazon is a transient process of natural resource mining. Older logging frontiers are being exhausted of timber resources and will face severe wood shortages within 5 yr. The Brazilian government can avoid the continued repetition of this process in frontier areas by establishing a network of National Forests (Florestas Nacionais or Flonas to stabilize the timber industry and simultaneously protect large tracts of forest. Flonas currently comprise less than 2% of the Brazilian Amazon (83,000 km2. If all these forests were used for sustainable logging, they would provide less than 10% of the demand for Amazonian timber. To sustainably supply the present and near-future demand for timber, approximately 700,000 km2 of the Amazon forest needs to be brought into well-managed production. Brazil's National Forest Program, launched in 2000, is designed to create at least 400,000 km2 of new Flonas. Objective decision-making tools are needed to site these new national forests. We present here a method for optimally locating the needed Flonas that incorporates information on existing protected areas, current vegetation cover, areas of human occupation, and timber stocks. The method combines these data in a spatial database that makes it possible to model the economic potential of the region's various forests as a function of their accessibility and timber values while constraining model solutions for existing areas of protection or human occupation. Our results indicate that 1.15 x 106 km2 of forests (23% of the Brazilian Amazon could be established as Flonas in a manner that will promote sustainable forest management; these Flonas would also serve as buffer zones for fully protected areas such as parks and reserves.

  9. Responses to climate and economic risks and opportunities across national and ecological boundaries: changing household strategies on the Mongolian plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Daniel G.; Agrawal, Arun; Sass, Daniel A.; Wang, Jun; Hua, Jin; Xie, Yichun

    2013-12-01

    Climate changes on the Mongolian Plateau are creating new challenges for the households and communities of the region. Much of the existing research on household choices in response to climate variability and change focuses on environmental risks and stresses. In contrast, our analysis highlights the importance of taking into account environmental and economic opportunities in explaining household adaptation choices. We surveyed over 750 households arrayed along an ecological gradient and matched across the national border in Mongolia and the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China, asking what changes in livelihoods strategies households made over the last ten years, and analyzed these choices in two broad categories of options: diversification and livestock management. We combined these data with remotely sensed information about vegetation growth and self-reported exposure to price fluctuations. Our statistical results showed that households experiencing lower ecological and economic variability, higher average levels of vegetation growth, and with greater levels of material wealth, were often those that undertook more actions to improve their conditions in the face of variability. The findings have implications both for how interventions aimed at supporting ongoing choices might be targeted and for theory construction related to social adaptation.

  10. Responses to climate and economic risks and opportunities across national and ecological boundaries: changing household strategies on the Mongolian plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Daniel G.; Agrawal, Arun; Sass, Daniel A.; Wang, Jun; Hua, Jin; Xie, Yichun

    2013-01-01

    Climate changes on the Mongolian Plateau are creating new challenges for the households and communities of the region. Much of the existing research on household choices in response to climate variability and change focuses on environmental risks and stresses. In contrast, our analysis highlights the importance of taking into account environmental and economic opportunities in explaining household adaptation choices. We surveyed over 750 households arrayed along an ecological gradient and matched across the national border in Mongolia and the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China, asking what changes in livelihoods strategies households made over the last ten years, and analyzed these choices in two broad categories of options: diversification and livestock management. We combined these data with remotely sensed information about vegetation growth and self-reported exposure to price fluctuations. Our statistical results showed that households experiencing lower ecological and economic variability, higher average levels of vegetation growth, and with greater levels of material wealth, were often those that undertook more actions to improve their conditions in the face of variability. The findings have implications both for how interventions aimed at supporting ongoing choices might be targeted and for theory construction related to social adaptation. PMID:24910710

  11. Household demand elasticities for meat products in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno A. Lanfranco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzed the demand for meats at household level over the past decade in Uruguay, a country that exhibits a very high per capita consumption of these products. In particular, the consumption of beef is one of the highest in the world and only comparable to Argentina. The analysis involved a two-step estimation of an incomplete system of censored demand equations using household data from the last available national income and expenditure survey (2005/06. Thirteen meat products were included in the analysis: six broad beef products (deboned hindquarter cuts, bone-in hindquarter cuts, ground beef, rib plate, bone-in forequarter cuts, and other beef cuts, four products from other meats (sheep, pork, poultry, and fish, and three generic mixed-meat products. A complete set of short-term income, own-price and cross-price elasticities were computed and reported along with their 90% confidence intervals (CI. The results were consistent with both economic theory and empirical evidence as well as with the expected behavior, considering the relevance of these products, particularly beef, in the diet of Uruguayan consumers. All meat items were necessary goods and evidenced income-inelastic responses, which was expected given their high consumption level. All meats behaved as normal goods although exhibiting different reactions to changes in price. In general, beef cuts were more price elastic than other more broadly defined products. The more specific and disaggregated the meat product the higher its corresponding direct price elasticity. The complement/substitute relationships found in this study were highly depended on the specific product combinations.

  12. Household demand elasticities for meat products in Uruguay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanfranco, B. A.; Rava, C.

    2014-06-01

    This article analyzed the demand for meats at household level over the past decade in Uruguay, a country that exhibits a very high per capita consumption of these products. In particular, the consumption of beef is one of the highest in the world and only comparable to Argentina. The analysis involved a two-step estimation of an incomplete system of censored demand equations using household data from the last available national income and expenditure survey (2005/06). Thirteen meat products were included in the analysis: six broad beef products (de boned hindquarter cuts, bone-in hindquarter cuts, ground beef, rib plate, bone-in forequarter cuts, and other beef cuts), four products from other meats (sheep, pork, poultry, and fish), and three generic mixed-meat products. A complete set of short-term income, own-price and cross-price elasticities were computed and reported along with their 90% confidence intervals (CI). The results were consistent with both economic theory and empirical evidence as well as with the expected behavior, considering the relevance of these products, particularly beef, in the diet of Uruguayan consumers. All meat items were necessary goods and evidenced income-inelastic responses, which was expected given their high consumption level. All meats behaved as normal goods although exhibiting different reactions to changes in price. In general, beef cuts were more price elastic than other more broadly defined products. The more specific and dis aggregated the meat product the higher its corresponding direct price elasticity. The complement/substitute relationships found in this study were highly depended on the specific product combinations. (Author)

  13. Getting outside help : How trust problems explain household differences in household outsourcing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijter, E.H.M. de; Lippe, T. van der

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the influence of trust problems on the use of domestic outsourcing by couples from a gender perspective. The authors argue that trust problems matter in outsourcing decisions, because an outsider enters the privacy of the household and takes over tasks of special value.

  14. The ex post impact on household energy of an energy tax on household demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, P.H.G.; Ferrer-i-Carbonell, A.; Muskens, J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents an econometric study dealing with household demand for energy in the Netherlands. The main objective of the paper is to present an estimation of the actual impact of an already implemented energy tax introduced in the Netherlands in 1996. The approach differs from the existing

  15. Household Behavior with Respect to Meat Consumption: Differences between Households with and without Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merlino Valentina Maria

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Meat consumers around the world are increasingly paying attention to product quality and safety, and are starting to reduce their meat consumption, especially with regard to red meat. This trend is prevalent in households with children who prefer health-certified meat products. Our study compares meat consumption habits in households with and without children or adolescences (0–18 years. A structured questionnaire was distributed to 401 retail purchasers at 12 different points of sales of meat in the Piedmont region in northwest Italy. Socio-demographic variables and quantitative-qualitative meat consumption habits of retail purchasers were investigated. One part of the questionnaire analyzed the relative importance of 12 meat choice purchasing attributes by employing the Best-Worst scaling methodology, a type of choice experiment. Our research found that households without children (subset B have higher weekly meat consumption habits than those with children (subset A. Alternatively, the households with children (subset A have a diet characterized by a greater variety of protein sources, such as legumes and fish. Both of the considered subsets preferred trusted butchers for meat buying, with supermarkets as a second choice. However, only consumers of subset A bought meat from farm butchers. Our team performed a consumer analysis to identify meat consumption patterns in the two considered subsets. Simultaneously, a Best-Worst analysis evidenced several choice attributes with different relevance for the two investigated samples segmentation in three clusters of purchase.

  16. Household Behavior with Respect to Meat Consumption: Differences between Households with and without Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria, Merlino Valentina; Danielle, Borra; Tibor, Verduna; Stefano, Massaglia

    2017-10-31

    Meat consumers around the world are increasingly paying attention to product quality and safety, and are starting to reduce their meat consumption, especially with regard to red meat. This trend is prevalent in households with children who prefer health-certified meat products. Our study compares meat consumption habits in households with and without children or adolescences (0-18 years). A structured questionnaire was distributed to 401 retail purchasers at 12 different points of sales of meat in the Piedmont region in northwest Italy. Socio-demographic variables and quantitative-qualitative meat consumption habits of retail purchasers were investigated. One part of the questionnaire analyzed the relative importance of 12 meat choice purchasing attributes by employing the Best-Worst scaling methodology, a type of choice experiment. Our research found that households without children (subset B) have higher weekly meat consumption habits than those with children (subset A). Alternatively, the households with children (subset A) have a diet characterized by a greater variety of protein sources, such as legumes and fish. Both of the considered subsets preferred trusted butchers for meat buying, with supermarkets as a second choice. However, only consumers of subset A bought meat from farm butchers. Our team performed a consumer analysis to identify meat consumption patterns in the two considered subsets. Simultaneously, a Best-Worst analysis evidenced several choice attributes with different relevance for the two investigated samples segmentation in three clusters of purchase.

  17. Retirement Behaviour of Dutch Elderly Households: Diversity in Retirement Patterns across Different Household Types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastrogiacomo, Mauro; Alessie, R.J.M.; Lindeboom, Maarten

    2002-01-01

    This paper aims to assess the relative importance of differences in behaviouralresponses to financial incentives in explaining the observed variation in retirement behaviour across different types of households. We specify and estimate models for singles and married couples and estimate these on

  18. Permeability measuremens of brazilian Eucalyptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Rogério da Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The permeability of Brazilian Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora wood was measured in a custom build gas analysis chamber in order to determine which species could be successfully treated with preservatives. Liquid permeability was tested using an emulsion of Neen oil and a control of distillated water. Air was used to test the gas phase permeability. For both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora, the longitudinal permeability of gas was shown to be about twice as great as the liquid phase permeability. No radial permeability was observed for either wood. The permeability of air and water through the sapwood of Eucalyptus grandis was greater than that through the sapwood of Eucalyptus citriodora. The permeability of neen oil preservative through the sapwood of Eucalyptus grandis was also greater than through the sapwood of E. Citradora, but the difference was not statistically significant. Scanning Electron Microscopy images showed that the distribution and obstruction in the vessels could be correlated with observed permeability properties. Irrespective of the causes of differences in permeability between the species, the fluid phase flux through the sapwood of both species was significant, indicating that both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora could be successfully treated with wood preservative.

  19. Group dialogue empowers Brazilian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiani, R; Becker, J

    1995-11-01

    In response to an alarming rise in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among Brazilian women during the early 1990s, the Sociedade Civil Bem-Estar Familiar no Brazil (BEMFAM) developed a project that integrates HIV prevention with clinical services, community-based prevention activities, and sexually transmitted disease diagnosis and treatment. Preliminary interviews with clinic clients revealed that women's fears they would be considered unfaithful were impeding their ability to suggest condom use to their sexual partners. Condom use within a relationship was considered appropriate only for pregnancy prevention. To facilitate dialogue about sexual health, BEMFAM developed a women's group intervention project. All women who attend a BEMFAM clinic are invited to participate in a one-hour group discussion before receiving medical services. Novela-style booklets with stories and characters women can relate to their own lives are used to stimulate discussion. Participants learn to use condoms correctly by putting them on a penis model and anticipate situations in which they would be able to negotiate condom use. The group setting enables women to gain confidence and practice assertiveness in a non-threatening, supportive environment. Their identification with other women's stories empowers women to take control of their health and sexual lives. Between October 1994 and July 1995, 3464 women participated in group discussions organized by BEMFAM and 40,688 condoms were distributed; 18% of these women returned to the clinic for additional condoms.

  20. Brazilian Cerrado Soil Actinobacteria Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Suela Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 2152 Actinobacteria strains were isolated from native Cerrado (Brazilian Savannah soils located in Passos, Luminárias, and Arcos municipalities (Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The soils were characterised for chemical and microbiological analysis. The microbial analysis led to the identification of nine genera (Streptomyces, Arthrobacter, Rhodococcus, Amycolatopsis, Microbacterium, Frankia, Leifsonia, Nakamurella, and Kitasatospora and 92 distinct species in both seasons studied (rainy and dry. The rainy season produced a high microbial population of all the aforementioned genera. The pH values of the soil samples from the Passos, Luminárias, and Arcos regions varied from 4.1 to 5.5. There were no significant differences in the concentrations of phosphorus, magnesium, and organic matter in the soils among the studied areas. Samples from the Arcos area contained large amounts of aluminium in the rainy season and both hydrogen and aluminium in the rainy and dry seasons. The Actinobacteria population seemed to be unaffected by the high levels of aluminium in the soil. Studies are being conducted to produce bioactive compounds from Actinobacteria fermentations on different substrates. The present data suggest that the number and diversity of Actinobacteria spp. in tropical soils represent a vast unexplored resource for the biotechnology of bioactives production.

  1. Aflatoxins in Brazilian Peanut Confection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-07

    The study's objectives were to evaluate a method for the determination of aflatoxins (AFs) in the Brazilian peanut confection "Paçoca" and to apply the method in investigating AF concentrations in Paçoca marketed in São Paulo State throughout 2013. Results of another survey conducted between 1994 and 2002 with another method were also reported. The current method consists of immunoaffinity column cleanup, LC with postcolumn derivatization for AF fluorescence enhancement, and fluorescence determination for the toxins. The mean recovery and mean RSD r values were 88.6 and 7.9%, respectively. The LODs for aflatoxin B 1 , aflatoxin B 2 , aflatoxin G 1 , and aflatoxin G 2 were 0.04, 0.01, 0.02, and 0.01 ng/g; and the LOQs were 0.15, 0.04, 0.07, and 0.04 ng/g, respectively. Results of the two survey studies indicate that the contamination of AFs in Paçoca remains a public health problem. In the 2013 survey, 71 of 100 samples (71%) had AFs contamination ranging from 0.3 to 41.8 ng/g, with 12 samples (12%) containing >20 ng/g of the toxins, whereas in the 1994-2002 survey, 73 of 150 samples (51%) had AFs contamination ranging from 9 to 1439 ng/g with 65 samples (45%) containing levels >20 ng/g.

  2. Case Study: Brazilian Virtual Herbarium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Neylon

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Virtual Herbarium (BVH is a project of the Brazillian Centro de Referência em Informação Ambiental (CRIA that has been running since 2009. The Virtual Herbarium provides an infrastructure that gathers digital records of plant specimens from primary source, mainly in Brazil, and makes them available through a central web portal. The source herbaria have complete control over what data is made through the portal and the data collected by BVH is made fully available. BVH in common with many data infrastructures, faces challenges in retaining funding. Most funding sources are project based and as has been noted elsewhere this creates problems for the sustaining of infrastructures. BVH therefore has an interest in demonstrating the use of the data resources it hosts. Through the OCSDNet project it has strengthened its capacity in this area to develop tools showing its wide usage. Overall the BVH hosts over eight million records (as of October 2017 and received 70 billion data requests in October 2017. Its users are mainly in Brazil but there is also substantial global usage. The primary uses are for research and education. There are a broad range of educational users, including universities but also schools. Through providing a central aggregation and access point BHV provides a data infrastructure that is greater – and more useful – than the sum of its parts.

  3. Educating Brazilian workers about AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    This article contains a the script for a slide-tape presentation entitled Working Against AIDS, a presentation developed by the Brazil Family Planning Association (BEMFAM) which is designed to debunk common misconceptions about the disease. This audio-visual, which targets Brazilian workers, can be used during talks, seminars, and meetings. A discussion of the issues involved usually follows the presentation of Working Against AIDS. The presentation contains 30 illustrated slides (these are included in the article). The presentation begins by explaining that much of the information concerning AIDS is prejudicial and misleading. The next few slides point out some of the common misconceptions about AIDS, such as claims denying the existence of the disease, or suggestions that only homosexuals and prostitutes are at risk. The presentation then goes on to explain the ways in which the virus can and cannot be transmitted. Then it discusses how the virus destroys the body's natural defenses and explains the ensuing symptoms. Slides 14 and 15 point out that no cure yet exists for AIDS, making prevention essential. Slides 16-23 explain what actions are considered to be high risk and which ones do not entail risk. Noting that AIDS can be prevented, slide 24 says that the disease should not present an obstacle to spontaneous manifestations of human relations. The next slide explains that condoms should always be used when having sex with someone who could be infected with AIDS. Finally slides 26-30 demonstrate the proper way to use and dispose of a condom.

  4. Brazilian Cerrado soil Actinobacteria ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suela Silva, Monique; Naves Sales, Alenir; Teixeira Magalhães-Guedes, Karina; Ribeiro Dias, Disney; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2013-01-01

    A total of 2152 Actinobacteria strains were isolated from native Cerrado (Brazilian Savannah) soils located in Passos, Luminárias, and Arcos municipalities (Minas Gerais State, Brazil). The soils were characterised for chemical and microbiological analysis. The microbial analysis led to the identification of nine genera (Streptomyces, Arthrobacter, Rhodococcus, Amycolatopsis, Microbacterium, Frankia, Leifsonia, Nakamurella, and Kitasatospora) and 92 distinct species in both seasons studied (rainy and dry). The rainy season produced a high microbial population of all the aforementioned genera. The pH values of the soil samples from the Passos, Luminárias, and Arcos regions varied from 4.1 to 5.5. There were no significant differences in the concentrations of phosphorus, magnesium, and organic matter in the soils among the studied areas. Samples from the Arcos area contained large amounts of aluminium in the rainy season and both hydrogen and aluminium in the rainy and dry seasons. The Actinobacteria population seemed to be unaffected by the high levels of aluminium in the soil. Studies are being conducted to produce bioactive compounds from Actinobacteria fermentations on different substrates. The present data suggest that the number and diversity of Actinobacteria spp. in tropical soils represent a vast unexplored resource for the biotechnology of bioactives production.

  5. Bacterial exchange in household washing machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris eCallewaert

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Household washing machines launder soiled clothes and textiles, but do not sterilize them. We investigated the microbial exchange occurring in five household washing machines. Samples from a new cotton T-shirt were laundered together with a normal laundry load. Analyses were performed on the influent water and the ingoing cotton samples, as well as the greywater and the washed cotton samples. The number of living bacteria was generally not lower in the washing machine effluent water as compared to the influent water. The laundering process caused a microbial exchange of influent water bacteria, skin- and clothes-related bacteria and biofilm-related bacteria in the washing machine. A variety of biofilm-producing bacteria were enriched in the effluent after laundering, although their presence in the cotton sample was low. Nearly all bacterial genera detected on the initial cotton sample were still present in the washed cotton samples. A selection for typical skin- and clothes-related microbial species occurred in the cotton samples after laundering. Accordingly, malodour-causing microbial species might be further distributed to other clothes. The bacteria on the ingoing textiles contributed for a large part to the microbiome found in the textiles after laundering.

  6. Bacterial Exchange in Household Washing Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callewaert, Chris; Van Nevel, Sam; Kerckhof, Frederiek-Maarten; Granitsiotis, Michael S; Boon, Nico

    2015-01-01

    Household washing machines (WMs) launder soiled clothes and textiles, but do not sterilize them. We investigated the microbial exchange occurring in five household WMs. Samples from a new cotton T-shirt were laundered together with a normal laundry load. Analyses were performed on the influent water and the ingoing cotton samples, as well as the greywater and the washed cotton samples. The number of living bacteria was generally not lower in the WM effluent water as compared to the influent water. The laundering process caused a microbial exchange of influent water bacteria, skin-, and clothes-related bacteria and biofilm-related bacteria in the WM. A variety of biofilm-producing bacteria were enriched in the effluent after laundering, although their presence in the cotton sample was low. Nearly all bacterial genera detected on the initial cotton sample were still present in the washed cotton samples. A selection for typical skin- and clothes-related microbial species occurred in the cotton samples after laundering. Accordingly, malodour-causing microbial species might be further distributed to other clothes. The bacteria on the ingoing textiles contributed for a large part to the microbiome found in the textiles after laundering.

  7. Measuring consumption in households. Interpretations and strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole [Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg University, Hoersholm (Denmark)

    2008-12-01

    The paper discusses the connection between environmental awareness and metering data on household consumption (electricity, heating, water), and it is based on recent Danish studies. It is discussed, how families' understanding of environmental awareness and environmental practices relates to their overall household consumption. The paper indicates that residents' environmental practices in everyday life are often overshadowed by consumption practices in other areas, and that such practices are often rooted in quite different rationales than environmental awareness. These findings are seen as an example of what Pierre Bourdieu calls the 'economy of symbolic goods', offering an explanation for why some symbolic actions apparently play a larger role than other, more environmentally serious consumption practices. From this, it is argued that the social structures underlying consumption and green behaviour should be recognised in the formulation of environmental policies, and that instead of using sustainable practices such as 'environmental awareness' as a sales argument, more reflexive strategies that take consumers' preferences into account should be considered. (author)

  8. Food variety consumption and household food insecurity coping strategies after the 2010 landslide disaster - the case of Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukundo, Peter M; Oshaug, Arne; Andreassen, Bård A; Kikafunda, Joyce; Rukooko, Byaruhanga; Iversen, Per O

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the nutritional situation of the victims of the 2010 landslide disaster in Uganda, food varieties consumed and coping strategies were assessed. Cross-sectional. Food variety scores (FVS) were obtained as the total of food items eaten over the last week while an index was based on severity weighting of household food insecurity coping strategies. We included 545 affected and 533 control households. Victims in the affected Bududa district in Eastern Uganda and those victims resettled in the Kiryandongo district, Western Uganda. Adjusted for covariates, in Bududa significantly higher mean FVS were observed among: affected than controls; farmers than others; and relief food recipients. Control households scored higher means (se) on severity of coping: 28·6 (1·3) v. 19·2 (1·2; P<0·01). In Kiryandongo, significantly higher FVS were observed among: control households; household heads educated above primary school; those with assets that complement food source; and recipients of relief food. Severity of coping was significantly higher among affected households and non-recipients of relief food. Affected households had a higher likelihood to skip a day without eating a household meal in Bududa (OR=2·31; 95 % CI 1·62, 3·29; P<0·01) and Kiryandongo (OR=1·77; 95 % CI 1·23, 2·57; P<0·01). Whereas FVS and severity of coping showed opposite trends in the two districts, resettlement into Kiryandongo led to severe coping experiences. Administrative measures that provide a combination of relief food, social protection and resettlement integration may offset undesirable coping strategies affecting diet.

  9. Understanding Household Connectivity and Resilience in Marginal Rural Communities through Social Network Analysis in the Village of Habu, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Cassidy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Adaptability is emerging as a key issue not only in the climate change debate but in the general area of sustainable development. In this context, we examine the link between household resilience and connectivity in a rural community in Botswana. We see resilience and vulnerability as the positive and negative dimensions of adaptability. Poor, marginal rural communities confronted with the vagaries of climate change, will need to become more resilient if they are to survive and thrive. We define resilience as the capacity of a social-ecological system to cope with shocks such as droughts or economic crises without changing its fundamental identity. We make use of three different indices of household resilience: livelihood diversity, wealth, and a comprehensive resilience index based on a combination of human, financial, physical, social, and natural capital. Then, we measure the social connectivity of households through a whole network approach in social network analysis, using two measures of network centrality (degree centrality and betweenness. We hypothesize that households with greater social connectivity have greater resilience, and analyze a community in rural Botswana to uncover how different households make use of social networks to deal with shocks such as human illness and death, crop damage, and livestock disease. We surveyed the entire community of Habu using a structured questionnaire that focused on livelihood strategies and social networks. We found that gender, age of household head, and household size were positively correlated with social connectivity. Our analysis indicates that those households that are more socially networked are likely to have a wider range of livelihood strategies, greater levels of other forms of social capital, and greater overall capital. Therefore, they are more resilient.

  10. Dominance of foreign citations in Brazilian orthopedics journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Renan Kleber Costa; Yamaki, Vitor Nagai; Rosa, Rita de Cássia Rodrigues; de Barros, Rui Sergio Monteiro; Botelho, Nara Macedo

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate whether there is any preference for citing journals from other countries to the detriment of Brazilian journals, in three Brazilian orthopedics journals. All the references of articles published in 2011 by the journals Acta Ortopédica Brasileira, Coluna/Columna and Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia were evaluated to as certain how many of these came from Brazilian journals and how many from foreign journals. 3813 references distributed among 187 articles were analyzed. Out of this total, 306 (8.02%) were from Brazilian journals. There was no difference between the three journals analyzed. There were 76 articles (40.64%) without any citations of articles in Brazilian journals and only two articles (1%) cited more Brazilian articles than articles published elsewhere. There is a need for Brazilian researchers to cite articles from Brazilian journals more often.

  11. HOUSEHOLD ENERGY USE AND DETERMINANTS: EVIDENCE FROM NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidelis O. Ogwumike

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined household energy use and its determinants in Nigeria based on the 2004 Nigeria Living Standard Survey data obtained from the National Bureau of Statistics. The study utilised descriptive statistics and multinomial logit models. Most households in Nigeria use firewood as cooking fuel and kerosene for lighting. This shows that most Nigerian households do not have adequate access to environmentally-friendly modern energy sources. Energy use in Nigeria supports fuel stacking rather than energy ladder hypothesis. Among the factors that significantly influence household energy use for cooking are educational levels of father and mother, per capita expenditure and household size. Adequate measures should be taken to ensure that most households in Nigeria have access to modern environmentally-friendly sources of energy. This will pave the way for sustainable development in the country. The results of this study should serve as an invaluable guide to the Nigerian government and policymakers.

  12. Standard of Electrical Washing Machine for Household and Similar Purposes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Jianguo

    2011-01-01

    Background With further improvement of people's living,the household washing machine industry has entered a new stage of development.However,some indicators of GB/T 4288-2003 have become no longer suitable for the development of household washing machine products at present.Particularly,with an increasing number of basic functions and auxiliary functions,many aspects are not covered by the existing standard.In order to further improve the overall quality of China's household washing machines and enhance their competitiveness in the international market,guide manufacturers to produce household washing machines in line with the demands of consumers and instruct consumers to properly purchase and use household washing machines,it is imperative to revise the GB/T 4288-2003 Household Electric Washing Machine.

  13. Household Disorder, Network Ties, and Social Support in Later Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwell, Erin York

    2016-08-01

    Family relationships, social interactions, and exchanges of support often revolve around the household context, but scholars rarely consider the social relevance of this physical space. In this article the author considers social causes and consequences of household disorder in the dwellings of older adults. Drawing from research on neighborhood disorder and social connectedness in later life, she describes how network characteristics may contribute to household disorder and how household disorder may weaken relationships and reduce access to support. This is explored empirically by estimating cross-lagged panel models with data from 2 waves of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. The results reveal that household disorder reflects a lack of social support, and it leads to more kin-centered networks and more strain within family relationships. The author concludes by urging greater attention to how the household context shapes-and is shaped by-the social interactions and processes that occur within it.

  14. Environmental income improves household-level poverty assessments and dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walelign, Solomon Zena; Charlery, Lindy Callen; Smith-Hall, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Household-level poverty assessments and analyses of poverty dynamics in developing countries typically do not include environmental income. Using household (n = 427 in 2006, 2009 and 2012) total income panel data sets, with and without environmental income, from Nepal, we analysed the importance...... of environmental income in household-level poverty assessments (Foster-Greer-Thorbecke indices) and dynamics (movements in the Poverty Transition Matrix). Random effects logit and ordered logit models were applied to estimate variables covarying with poverty categories and compared for annual household incomes...... with and without environmental income. Using the without environmental income data set significantly changed the number of households classified as poor, as well as rates of movements in and out of poverty. Excluding household-level environmental income also distorted estimation of covariates of poverty incidence...

  15. Brazilian Review of Finance 2013 Editorial Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pereira Câmara Leal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available RBFin is the main Brazilian publication outlet of academic papers about finance. The contents of the Review are open and online with a printed version distributed to members of the Brazilian Finance Society. Using the Open Journals System to manage the editorial process, publication of RBFin adheres to a strict publication schedule. The Review is indexed by EconLit, RedALyC, Google Scholar, Gale, Proquest and Ebsco and is listed in the JEL, DOAJ, Latindex, OpenJGate, and Cabell's directories. RBFin is rated B1 in the business area of the Brazilian classification system and B2 in Economics. The editorial board undergoes partial turnover every year and comprises 19 individuals from four countries, the Brazilian members being affiliated with universities in five different Brazilian states. The acceptance rate was 27% for papers submitted in 2012, the most recent year in which all submissions have already received a final decision. The average number of days between receipt and acceptance for articles submitted in 2013 was 203. The worst case was 361 days. The average number of days between receipt and publication was 294. The worst case was 575 days. Fifty-three individuals served as reviewers in 2013.

  16. Global power and Brazilian nuclear decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metri, Paulo, E-mail: pmetri@terra.com.br [Clube de Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Brazilian society declares no intention to development a nuclear artifact. This is on its Constitution. The submarine of nuclear propulsion may be used as a weapon of defense and, therefore, has a peaceful objective. Nationalism must be applied only to benefit the society. Nationalist attention has always been devoted, at various occasions, to the Brazilian nuclear sector. However, since Brazilian society has many needs and the Brazilian government always had numerous energy options, this sector has not been developed as it could be. Other successful applications of nuclear technology, besides electric generation, are not considered here. At present, the country is experiencing a moment of harassment of liberal forces. It is difficult to know if the population understands what is going on, due to the traditional media control. This media belongs to the capital. The rise and the fall of the nationalist strand in a country follow a global tendency and also depend of actions of the international capital. In nationalist periods, more decisions with positive social impact are taken. Therefore, sovereignty is necessary to increase the benefits to society. Unfortunately, the Brazilians deceived by the companies of mass communication and corrupt political leaderships allow the country to be dominated. Even the armed forces had their projects paralyzed. The nuclear sector, as all other, suffers with the low budget and the future is difficult to predict. (author)

  17. Citizenship and decoloniality in Brazilian education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Conceição Antunes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Reflecting on the importance of multiculturalism in teaching process and observing the otherness are primarily a challenge. This enables us to rethink what we have within ourselves, also to reconstitute memories involving discriminatory and unethical attitudes, which takes place in social fellowship. Based on the studies of Walsh (2007, 2009, Gomes (2007 and Tavares (2011, this work relies on decoloniality studies, mainly on the relevance of the history of Africa and Africanness in Brazilian education. Our corpus of analysis is found in the "Diretrizes Curriculares Nacionais para a Educação Básica" (DCN, 2013, the Brazilian Legislative Syllabus for Basic Education. Our focus is on the chapters concerning the Native-Brazilian and Quilomboa Education and ethnic-racial relations. Our most important aims are: to show the intercultural theoretical framework in which they are based on; to understand the immediate link established between the Native-Brazilian education and intercultural perspective; to clarify how the African diaspora was carried out in this particular case. Based on some Excel resources we were able to: 1 stablish the predominance of functional framework of interculturalism throughout these chapters, along with some critical features of interculturalism, as the issue of curricular decoloniality; 2 observe the established relationship between bilingualism and multiculturalism in the guidelines of Native-Brazilian education; and 3 identify a search for an effective inclusion of Africanness in curricula supported by the historical recognition and visibility of their sociocultural contribution.

  18. Factors associated with dental caries in Brazilian children: a multilevel approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, M T; Sardenberg, F; Abreu, M H; Vale, M P; Paiva, S M; Pordeus, I A

    2014-08-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess caries experience among Brazilian children aged eight to 10 years and determine social factors of this disease, through a multilevel approach. This is a cross-sectional study in which a representative sample of 1204 eight-to-ten-year-old children were randomly selected from 19 public and private schools in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. After formal authorization from the parents, the children were clinically examined at school by two calibrated examiners (Kappa=0.78). Individual socioeconomic status was determined using household income, number of residents in the home and parents'/caregivers' schooling. The social vulnerability index and type of school were used as contextual variables. The outcome variables were severity score of dental caries in permanent teeth (DMFT index), dental caries experience in permanent teeth (DMFT = 0 or ≠ 0), severity score of dental caries in primary teeth (dmft index) and dental caries experience in primary teeth (dmft = 0 or ≠ 0). The minority of children (37.2%) had dental caries experience. Chi-squared and Mann-Whitney tests showed that age, parents'/caregivers' schooling, household income and type of school were associated with dental caries experience in permanent and primary teeth (P caries in permanent and primary teeth (P caries experience and with severity score of dental caries in primary teeth (P caries experience and with severity score of dental caries in these teeth (P caries in permanent teeth too (P caries in permanent teeth. Dental caries experience and severity score of dental caries in primary teeth was influenced by age, household income, and the type of school The dental caries experience in permanent teeth was influenced by age, parents'/caregivers' schooling, household income, and type of school, whereas the severity score of dental caries in permanent teeth was influenced by age and type of school. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley

  19. Increased contribution of ultra-processed food products in the Brazilian diet (1987-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Ana Paula Bortoletto; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Moubarac, Jean Claude; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2013-08-01

    To establish temporal trends in household food and drink consumption in Brazil, taking into account the extent and purpose of its industrial processing. Data was obtained from Household Budget Surveys conducted in Brazil in 1987-1988, 1995-1996, 2002-2003 and 2008-2009. In all surveys, probabilistic samples of households in the metropolitan areas were studied and, for the last two surveys, the scope was national. The units of analysis were food purchases records of clusters of households. The purchased food items were divided according to the extent and purpose of their industrial processing into: 'in natura' or minimally processed foods, processed culinary ingredients and ready-to-consume, processed and ultra-processed food and drink products. The quantity of each item was converted into energy. For each survey, the daily availability of calories per capita and the caloric share of the food groups were estimated. For the national surveys, estimates were calculated by income quintiles. Temporal trends were assessed using linear regression models and difference of means tests. The caloric share of ready-to-consume products significantly increased between 2002-2003 and 2008-2009 (from 23.0% to 27.8% of total calories), mainly because of the increase in the consumption of ultra-processed products (20.8% to 25.4%). In the same period, there was a significant reduction in the caloric share of foods and culinary ingredients. The increase in the ultra-processed products caloric share occurred across all income quintiles. There was an uniform increase in the caloric share of ready-to-consume products in the metropolitan areas, mostly in place of ultra-processed products, accompanied by a decrease in the share of 'in natura' or minimally processed foods and culinary ingredients. The share of ultra-processed products significantly increased in the Brazilian diet, as seen in the metropolitan areas since the 1980s, and confirmed at a national level in the 2000s.

  20. Toward Measuring Household Vulnerability to Income Poverty in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Albert, Jose Ramon G.; Elloso, Lilia V.

    2007-01-01

    Concomitant to the analysis of poverty is the measurement of vulnerability. Estimates of household vulnerability to income poverty are developed using a modified probit model that considers volatilities in income as being explained by some household characteristics. Resulting vulnerability estimates are found to be higher than poverty rates, suggesting that policy interventions will have to be developed to minimize the risk households face in becoming income poor, or at least help them in mit...

  1. Savings behaviour when households have an access to occupational pensions

    OpenAIRE

    Kalvarskaia, Maria

    2003-01-01

    The problem discussed in the paper is savings behaviour of households. Savings are introduced as a function of several variables, which are supposed to influence the process of decision-making. The main factors in the model are income of household, age of husband as a characteristic of household s age structure and occupational pensions eligible to the spouses. Since this paper is a part of the pension project special emphasis is placed on the interconnection between savings and two types of ...

  2. Standby-consumption in households; Standby-Verbrauch im Haushalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zehnder, U.

    2006-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made in five types of housing on the standby-consumption of various household appliances. 461 measurements were made in 37 households, whereby three modes - ready-for-use, standby and sleep - were examined. 71 different appliances were looked at in six consumer groups. These included entertainment, hygiene/health, kitchen/household, communication, office and garage. Data is presented in tabular form and commented on.

  3. WOMEN'S BARGAINING POWER IN HOUSEHOLD ECONOMIC DECISIONS: EVIDENCE FROM GHANA

    OpenAIRE

    Doss, Cheryl R.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, the percentage of assets held by women within the household is used as a measure of women's bargaining power. The assets used in this paper include land, savings, and business assets. Using detailed household survey data from Ghana, I demonstrate that the share of assets owned by women has a significant impact on household expenditure decisions. This provides additional support for the notion that women's bargaining power can be measured, at least in some dimensions, and that w...

  4. Concept of Household Waste in Environmental Pollution Prevention Efforts

    OpenAIRE

    Sunarsih, Elvi

    2014-01-01

    Background : Waste is materials that are not used anymore which is the rest of human activities result including household, industrial, and mining. At a certain concentration, the presence of the waste can have a negative impact on the environment and on human health, so we need a proper handling for the waste. Household waste is waste from the kitchen, bathroom, laundry, house hold waste and industrial former human waste. Household waste that is over and it is not overcome is very potential ...

  5. Electric household appliances lighting. Synthesis; Electromenager eclairage. Note de synthese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This study has been realized on 10000 families in order to know the French behavior concerning the electric household appliances and the lighting of their accommodation. The document presents statistically the answers to the questions on the electric household in the accommodation, the choice criteria, the use conditions, the washing temperatures, the nature of the electric household appliances, the microwave ovens, the influence of the energy-label on the appliances and the lighting. (A.L.B.)

  6. The Evolution of Household Leverage during the Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Whitaker, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has shown that geographic areas that experienced greater household deleveraging during the recession also experienced relatively severe economic contractions and slower recoveries. This analysis explores geographic variations in household debt over the past recession and recovery. It fi nds that regions that had very high household leverage at the start of the recession have shifted back toward national norms, while the variation of leverage within metro areas has maintained s...

  7. Demand for Electric Vehicles in Hybrid Households: An Exploratory Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kurani, Kenneth S.; Turrentine, Tom; Sperling, Daniel

    1994-01-01

    Previous studies of the potential market for battery electric vehicles (BEVs) have reached contradictory conclusions. What they share are untested or implausible assumptions about consumer response to new transportation technology. We frame the BEV purchase decision in terms of a household's entire stock of vehicles, car purchase behavior and travel behavior. Within this framework, households which own both electric vehicles and gasoline vehicles are called "hybrid households". Because nearly...

  8. Determinants of US Household Debt: New Evidence from the SCF

    OpenAIRE

    Wildauer, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the factors driving US household borrowing up to 2007. Two popular explanations are tested: First, the expenditure cascades hypothesis based on the assumption of debt-financed expenditures driven by an increasingly polarised distribution of income (‘keeping up with the Joneses’) and second, the hypothesis of Minskyian households which identifies climbing real estate prices as the decisive factor in household debt accumulation (re-mortgaging in order to cash in on capit...

  9. Applicability of Willems model for dental age estimations in Brazilian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Ademir; Thevissen, Patrick; Fieuws, Steffen; Souza, Paulo Henrique Couto; Willems, Guy

    2013-09-10

    Several studies described tooth development as a reliable pathway for age estimations. Depending on the considered life span, the dental age indicators vary. In children, combinations of developing teeth provide the best information about age. In sub adults third molar mineralization is almost exclusively considered. The aim of this study was, firstly, to verify the Willems model in a Brazilian sample. Secondly, to observe differences between the Willems model and a new developed Brazilian model. Thirdly, the information of permanent teeth (PM) and third molar (TM), development was combined for age estimation in children. A sample of 1357 panoramic radiographs of Brazilian males (M) and females (F), with age between 5 and 23 years was collected. The technique of Gleiser and Hunt modified by Kohler (1955) [34] was applied for third molar staging in the entire sample. The Demirjian staging technique was used on the mandibular left permanent teeth (except third molars) of all individuals from 5 to 15 years. Kappa and weighted Kappa statistics were performed to verify inter- and intra-observer reliabilities. Based on the obtained Demirjian scores the Willems model was verified. Next the data were split to develop a new Brazilian model based on the Willems method and to verify the established model. The accuracy in age prediction between the Willems model and the new Brazilian model was compared. Additionally, regression models including PM, TM and PM plus TM information were compared. The Kappa and weighted Kappa statistics revealed high agreement between observers (0.88 Kappa; 0.93 weighted Kappa). The differences between predicted and chronological age for the verified Willems model were expressed in mean errors of -0.17 and -0.38 year for F and M respectively. The differences in mean error between the new developed Brazilian model and the Willems model were 0.02 (F) and 0.20 (M) year. The regression models combining PT and TM information provided only in the age

  10. Efficient Intra-household Allocations and Distribution Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Bourguignon, François; Chiappori, Pierre-André

    and general test of the Pareto efficiency hypothesis, which is consistent with all possible assumptions on the private or public nature of goods, all possible consumption externalities between household members, and all types of interdependent individual preferences and domestic production technology......; moreover, the test is proved to be necessary and sufficient. We then provide a complete analysis of the identification problem; we show under which assumptions it is possible to identify, from the observation of the household consumption of private goods, the allocation of these goods within the household...... as well as the Engel curves of individual household members...

  11. FEMA Registration Intake and Individuals Household Program - API

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The dataset is composed of Registration Intake and Individuals and Households Program (IHP) Information from the Individual Assistance (IA) reporting authority where...

  12. Income situation of households as a social status indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Stávková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The net financial income of households plays a crucial role in assessing their living standard. It determines of which social class they are members and, thus, their social status as well. In order to monitor their income situation, this paper uses survey data of the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU SILC. An abundance of identification data, such as economic activity, industrial classification or sector of economic activity, level of education, age, number of household members, place of residence, household type and others, makes it possible to identify factors that demonstrably influence the household income level. On this basis, it is possible not only to determine the commonly available social class definitions using income intervals, but also to identify specific causes affecting household income and, thus, link a particular household to a given social class. The goal of this article is to establish which factors influence the income level of households. The authors of this paper focused on four factors: social group membership, occupation classified according to the national economy sectors, the highest level of education attained by the household leader and their age. To analyse the influence of selected factors including their interaction and impact on the income situation of households, the authors applied the method of analysing variance between groups (ANOVA using STATA statistical software. The Scheffe’s method of contrasts was used to determine specific differences between factor levels.

  13. Application of New Materials in the Household Appliances Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Ren, Y.

    The widespread use of new materials in household appliances industry, not only help those products to get rid of the appearance shackles caused by original materials, but also gave the designers the freedom to open up the world of product design. This paper aims to analyze the impact of new materials for home appliances design through relevant research, to explore the application of new material in household appliances functional design, shape design, color design and emotional design, etc., so as to reveal the impact and promoting effects of new material in household appliances world, as well as the prospects of new material in future household appliances design.

  14. Maternal resources and household food security: evidence from Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeer, Kammi K; Piperata, Barbara A; Herrera Rodríguez, Andrés; Salazar Torres, Virgilio Mariano; Centeno Cárdenas, Francisco José

    2015-11-01

    Women (especially mothers) are theorized as critical to reducing household food insecurity through their work and caregiver roles. The present study tests these assumptions, assessing how maternal economic and social resources are associated with food insecurity in households with young children. Data from a population-based sample of households was collected in León, Nicaragua (n 443). Data include a newly validated measure of household food insecurity (ELCSA), maternal resource measures, and household economic status and demographics. Regression analysis tests the statistical associations (Pyoung children were food secure, with 50% mildly food insecure and 25% moderately/severely food insecure. When mothers contributed substantially to household income, the odds of moderate/severe household food insecurity were 34% lower than when their spouse/partner was the main provider. The odds of food insecurity were 60% lower when mothers managed household money, 48% lower when mothers had a secondary (v. primary) education, 65% higher among single mothers and 16% lower with each indicator of social support. Results were similar for adult- and child-specific food insecurity. This research provides new evidence that maternal economic and social resources are important for reducing household food insecurity and adult- and child-specific food insecurity. Women's social status, social support and access to economic resources need to be enhanced as a part of policies aimed to reduce food insecurity in high-poverty settings.

  15. 7 CFR 253.6 - Eligibility of households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Program income eligibility limits and standard deductions. (2) Definition of income. Household income... Supplemental Security Income (SSI) or Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), General Assistance (GA...

  16. The global household: toward a feminist postcapitalist international political economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safri, Maliha; Graham, Julie

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this article is to introduce a new category into international political economy-the global household-and to begin to widen the focus of international political economy to include nonmarket transactions and noncapitalist production. As an economic institution composed of transnational extended families and codwellers (including international migrants and family members left behind in countries of origin), the global household is engaged in coordinating international migration, sending and receiving billions of dollars in remittances, and organizing and conducting market- and non-market-oriented production on an international scale. We first trace the discursive antecedents of the global household concept to theories of the household as a site of noncapitalist production and to feminist ethnographies of transnational families. In order to demonstrate the potential significance and effect of this newly recognized institution, we estimate the aggregate population of global households, the size and distribution of remittances, and the magnitude and sectoral scope of global household production. We then examine the implications of the global household concept for three areas of inquiry: globalization, economic development, and the household politics of economic transformation. Finally, we briefly explore the possibilities for research and activism opened up by a feminist, postcapitalist international political economy centered on the global household.

  17. Barriers to household investment in residential energy conservation: preliminary assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, W.L.

    1982-12-01

    A general assessment of the range of barriers which impede household investments in weatherization and other energy efficiency improvements for their homes is provided. The relationship of similar factors to households' interest in receiving a free energy audits examined. Rates of return that underly household investments in major conservation improvements are assessed. A special analysis of household knowledge of economically attractive investments is provided that compares high payback improvements specified by the energy audit with the list of needed or desirable conservation improvements identified by respondents. (LEW)

  18. Household Food Security in the United States, 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Nord, Mark; Andrews, Margaret S.; Carlson, Steven

    2006-01-01

    Eighty-nine percent of American households were food secure throughout the entire year in 2005, meaning that they had access, at all times, to enough food for an active, healthy life for all household members. The remaining households were food insecure at least some time during that year. The prevalence of food insecurity declined from 11.9 percent of households in 2004 to 11.0 percent in 2005, while the prevalence of very low food security remained unchanged at 3.9 percent. This report, bas...

  19. Household Food Security in the United States, 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Nord, Mark; Andrews, Margaret S.; Carlson, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Eighty-five percent of American households were food secure throughout the entire year in 2008, meaning that they had access at all times to enough food for an active, healthy life for all household members. The remaining households (14.6 percent) were food insecure at least some time during the year, including 5.7 percent with very low food security—meaning that the food intake of one or more household members was reduced and their eating patterns were disrupted at times during the year beca...

  20. HOUSEHOLD FOOD SECURITY IN THE UNITED STATES, 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Nord, Mark; Andrews, Margaret S.; Carlson, Steven

    2004-01-01

    Eighty-nine percent of American households were food secure throughout the entire year in 2003, meaning that they had access, at all times, to enough food for an active, healthy life for all household members. The remaining households were food insecure at least some time during that year. The prevalence of food insecurity, 11.2 percent of households, was not statistically different from the 11.1 percent observed in 2002. The prevalence of food insecurity with hunger was unchanged at 3.5 perc...