WorldWideScience

Sample records for combine independent tests

  1. Increased statistical power with combined independent randomization tests used with multiple-baseline design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrrell, Pascal N; Corey, Paul N; Feldman, Brian M; Silverman, Earl D

    2013-06-01

    Physicians often assess the effectiveness of treatments on a small number of patients. Multiple-baseline designs (MBDs), based on the Wampold-Worsham (WW) method of randomization and applied to four subjects, have relatively low power. Our objective was to propose another approach with greater power that does not suffer from the time requirements of the WW method applied to a greater number of subjects. The power of a design that involves the combination of two four-subject MBDs was estimated using computer simulation and compared with the four- and eight-subject designs. The effect of a delayed linear response to treatment on the power of the test was also investigated. Power was found to be adequate (>80%) for a standardized mean difference (SMD) greater than 0.8. The effect size associated with 80% power from combined tests was smaller than that of the single four-subject MBD (SMD=1.3) and comparable with the eight-subject MBD (SMD=0.6). A delayed linear response to the treatment resulted in important reductions in power (20-35%). By combining two four-subject MBD tests, an investigator can detect better effect sizes (SMD=0.8) and be able to complete a comparatively timelier and feasible study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Combining partially independent belief functions

    OpenAIRE

    Chebbah, Mouna; Martin, Arnaud; Ben Yaghlane, Boutheina

    2015-01-01

    International audience; The theory of belief functions manages uncertainty and also proposes a set of combination rules to aggregate opinions of several sources. Some combination rules mix evidential information where sources are independent; other rules are suited to combine evidential information held by dependent sources. In this paper we have two main contributions: First we suggest a method to quantify sources' degree of independence that may guide the choice of the more appropriate set ...

  3. Testing bivariate independence and normality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kallenberg, W.C.M.; Ledwina, Teresa; Rafajlowicz, Ewaryst

    1997-01-01

    In many statistical studies the relationship between two random variables X and Y is investigated and in particular the question whether X and Y are independent and normally distributed is of interest. Smooth tests may be used for testing this. They consist of several components, the first measuring

  4. Testing the independence of two diagnostic tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Y; Wu, D; Zelen, M

    2001-12-01

    Consider two diagnostic procedures having binary outcomes. If one of the tests results in a positive finding, a more definitive diagnostic procedure will be administered to establish the presence or absence of a disease. The use of both tests will improve the overall screening sensitivity when the two tests are independent, compared with employing two tests that are positively correlated. We estimate the correlation coefficient of the two tests and derive statistical methods for testing the independence of the two diagnostic procedures conditional on disease status. The statistical tests are used to investigate the independence of mammography and clinical breast exams aimed at establishing the benefit of early detection of breast cancer. The data used in the analysis are obtained from periodic screening examinations of three randomized clinical trials of breast cancer screening. Analysis of each of these trials confirms the independence of the clinical breast and mammography examinations. Based on these three large clinical trials, we conclude that a clinical breast exam considerably increases the overall sensitivity relative to screening with mammography alone and should be routinely included in early breast cancer detection programs.

  5. Combining multiple hypothesis testing and affinity propagation clustering leads to accurate, robust and sample size independent classification on gene expression data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakellariou Argiris

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A feature selection method in microarray gene expression data should be independent of platform, disease and dataset size. Our hypothesis is that among the statistically significant ranked genes in a gene list, there should be clusters of genes that share similar biological functions related to the investigated disease. Thus, instead of keeping N top ranked genes, it would be more appropriate to define and keep a number of gene cluster exemplars. Results We propose a hybrid FS method (mAP-KL, which combines multiple hypothesis testing and affinity propagation (AP-clustering algorithm along with the Krzanowski & Lai cluster quality index, to select a small yet informative subset of genes. We applied mAP-KL on real microarray data, as well as on simulated data, and compared its performance against 13 other feature selection approaches. Across a variety of diseases and number of samples, mAP-KL presents competitive classification results, particularly in neuromuscular diseases, where its overall AUC score was 0.91. Furthermore, mAP-KL generates concise yet biologically relevant and informative N-gene expression signatures, which can serve as a valuable tool for diagnostic and prognostic purposes, as well as a source of potential disease biomarkers in a broad range of diseases. Conclusions mAP-KL is a data-driven and classifier-independent hybrid feature selection method, which applies to any disease classification problem based on microarray data, regardless of the available samples. Combining multiple hypothesis testing and AP leads to subsets of genes, which classify unknown samples from both, small and large patient cohorts with high accuracy.

  6. Anxiety Sensitivity and Pre-Cessation Smoking Processes: Testing the Independent and Combined Mediating Effects of Negative Affect–Reduction Expectancies and Motives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Samantha G.; Leventhal, Adam M.; Schmidt, Norman B.; Zvolensky, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Anxiety sensitivity appears to be relevant in understanding the nature of emotional symptoms and disorders associated with smoking. Negative-reinforcement smoking expectancies and motives are implicated as core regulatory processes that may explain, in part, the anxiety sensitivity–smoking interrelations; however, these pathways have received little empirical attention. Method: Participants (N = 471) were adult treatment-seeking daily smokers assessed for a smoking-cessation trial who provided baseline data; 157 participants provided within-treatment (pre-cessation) data. Anxiety sensitivity was examined as a cross-sectional predictor of several baseline smoking processes (nicotine dependence, perceived barriers to cessation, severity of prior withdrawal-related quit problems) and pre-cessation processes including nicotine withdrawal and smoking urges (assessed during 3 weeks before the quit day). Baseline negative-reinforcement smoking expectancies and motives were tested as simultaneous mediators via parallel multiple mediator models. Results: Higher levels of anxiety sensitivity were related to higher levels of nicotine dependence, greater perceived barriers to smoking cessation, more severe withdrawal-related problems during prior quit attempts, and greater average withdrawal before the quit day; effects were indirectly explained by the combination of both mediators. Higher levels of anxiety sensitivity were not directly related to pre-cessation smoking urges but were indirectly related through the independent and combined effects of the mediators. Conclusions: These empirical findings bolster theoretical models of anxiety sensitivity and smoking and identify targets for nicotine dependence etiology research and cessation interventions. PMID:25785807

  7. Testing Local Independence between Two Point Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allard, Denis; Brix, Anders; Chadæuf, Joël

    2001-01-01

    Independence test, Inhomogeneous point processes, Local test, Monte Carlo, Nonstationary, Rotations, Spatial pattern, Tiger bush......Independence test, Inhomogeneous point processes, Local test, Monte Carlo, Nonstationary, Rotations, Spatial pattern, Tiger bush...

  8. Kernel-based tests for joint independence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfister, Niklas; Bühlmann, Peter; Schölkopf, Bernhard

    2018-01-01

    the $d$-dimensional joint distribution and the product of the marginals into a reproducing kernel Hilbert space and define the $d$-variable Hilbert-Schmidt independence criterion (dHSIC) as the squared distance between the embeddings. In the population case, the value of dHSIC is zero if and only......We investigate the problem of testing whether $d$ random variables, which may or may not be continuous, are jointly (or mutually) independent. Our method builds on ideas of the two variable Hilbert-Schmidt independence criterion (HSIC) but allows for an arbitrary number of variables. We embed...

  9. Exact Test of Independence Using Mutual Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn D. Pethel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Using a recently discovered method for producing random symbol sequences with prescribed transition counts, we present an exact null hypothesis significance test (NHST for mutual information between two random variables, the null hypothesis being that the mutual information is zero (i.e., independence. The exact tests reported in the literature assume that data samples for each variable are sequentially independent and identically distributed (iid. In general, time series data have dependencies (Markov structure that violate this condition. The algorithm given in this paper is the first exact significance test of mutual information that takes into account the Markov structure. When the Markov order is not known or indefinite, an exact test is used to determine an effective Markov order.

  10. Model-independent tests of cosmic gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Eric V

    2011-12-28

    Gravitation governs the expansion and fate of the universe, and the growth of large-scale structure within it, but has not been tested in detail on these cosmic scales. The observed acceleration of the expansion may provide signs of gravitational laws beyond general relativity (GR). Since the form of any such extension is not clear, from either theory or data, we adopt a model-independent approach to parametrizing deviations to the Einstein framework. We explore the phase space dynamics of two key post-GR functions and derive a classification scheme, and an absolute criterion on accuracy necessary for distinguishing classes of gravity models. Future surveys will be able to constrain the post-GR functions' amplitudes and forms to the required precision, and hence reveal new aspects of gravitation.

  11. Testing for Independence between Evolutionary Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behdenna, Abdelkader; Pothier, Joël; Abby, Sophie S; Lambert, Amaury; Achaz, Guillaume

    2016-09-01

    Evolutionary events co-occurring along phylogenetic trees usually point to complex adaptive phenomena, sometimes implicating epistasis. While a number of methods have been developed to account for co-occurrence of events on the same internal or external branch of an evolutionary tree, there is a need to account for the larger diversity of possible relative positions of events in a tree. Here we propose a method to quantify to what extent two or more evolutionary events are associated on a phylogenetic tree. The method is applicable to any discrete character, like substitutions within a coding sequence or gains/losses of a biological function. Our method uses a general approach to statistically test for significant associations between events along the tree, which encompasses both events inseparable on the same branch, and events genealogically ordered on different branches. It assumes that the phylogeny and themapping of branches is known without errors. We address this problem from the statistical viewpoint by a linear algebra representation of the localization of the evolutionary events on the tree.We compute the full probability distribution of the number of paired events occurring in the same branch or in different branches of the tree, under a null model of independence where each type of event occurs at a constant rate uniformly inthephylogenetic tree. The strengths andweaknesses of themethodare assessed via simulations;we then apply the method to explore the loss of cell motility in intracellular pathogens. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Blind Source Separation Combining Independent Component Analysis and Beamforming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Saruwatari

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new method of blind source separation (BSS on a microphone array combining subband independent component analysis (ICA and beamforming. The proposed array system consists of the following three sections: (1 subband ICA-based BSS section with estimation of the direction of arrival (DOA of the sound source, (2 null beamforming section based on the estimated DOA, and (3 integration of (1 and (2 based on the algorithm diversity. Using this technique, we can resolve the low-convergence problem through optimization in ICA. To evaluate its effectiveness, signal-separation and speech-recognition experiments are performed under various reverberant conditions. The results of the signal-separation experiments reveal that the noise reduction rate (NRR of about 18 dB is obtained under the nonreverberant condition, and NRRs of 8 dB and 6 dB are obtained in the case that the reverberation times are 150 milliseconds and 300 milliseconds. These performances are superior to those of both simple ICA-based BSS and simple beamforming method. Also, from the speech-recognition experiments, it is evident that the performance of the proposed method in terms of the word recognition rates is superior to those of the conventional ICA-based BSS method under all reverberant conditions.

  13. Testing independence of fragment lengths within VNTR loci

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geisser, S. (Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)); Johnson, W. (Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States))

    1993-11-01

    Methods that were devised to test independence of the bivariate fragment lengths obtained from VNTR loci are applied to several population databases. It is shown that for many of the probes independence (Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium) cannot be sustained. 3 refs., 3 tabs.

  14. Journal Afrika Statistika ISSN 0852-0305 Testing independence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denotes the Euclidean norm of Rp induced by the usual inner product of Rp. We are interested in testing for the hypothesis. H0 : X ⊥⊥ Y, where ⊥⊥ denotes stochastic independence, against the alternative hypothesis H1 stating that X and Y are not independent. If H0 is true, then X ⊥⊥ Yj for any j ∈ {1, ··· ,q}. We.

  15. Sign language recognition by combining statistical DTW and independent classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenauer, Jeroen F; Hendriks, Emile A; Reinders, Marcel J T

    2008-11-01

    To recognize speech, handwriting or sign language, many hybrid approaches have been proposed that combine Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) or Hidden Markov Models (HMM) with discriminative classifiers. However, all methods rely directly on the likelihood models of DTW/HMM. We hypothesize that time warping and classification should be separated because of conflicting likelihood modelling demands. To overcome these restrictions, we propose to use Statistical DTW (SDTW) only for time warping, while classifying the warped features with a different method. Two novel statistical classifiers are proposed (CDFD and Q-DFFM), both using a selection of discriminative features (DF), and are shown to outperform HMM and SDTW. However, we have found that combining likelihoods of multiple models in a second classification stage degrades performance of the proposed classifiers, while improving performance with HMM and SDTW. A proof-of-concept experiment, combining DFFM mappings of multiple SDTW models with SDTW likelihoods, shows that also for model-combining, hybrid classification can provide significant improvement over SDTW. Although recognition is mainly based on 3D hand motion features, these results can be expected to generalize to recognition with more detailed measurements such as hand/body pose and facial expression.

  16. Sign Language Recognition by Combining Statistical DTW and Independent Classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lichtenauer, J.F.; Hendriks, E.A; Reinders, M.J.T.

    2008-01-01

    To recognize speech, handwriting, or sign language, many hybrid approaches have been proposed that combine Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) or Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) with discriminative classifiers. However, all methods rely directly on the likelihood models of DTW/HMM. We hypothesize that time

  17. A combined cycle engine test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engers, R.; Cresci, D.; Tsai, C. [General Applied Science Laboratories Inc., Ronkonkoma, NY (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Rocket-Based Combined-Cycle (RBCC) engines intended for missiles and/or space launch applications incorporate features of rocket propulsion systems operating in concert with airbreathing engine cycles. Performance evaluation of these types of engines, which are intended to operate from static sea level take-off to supersonic cruise or accerlerate to orbit, requires ground test capabilities which integrate rocket component testing with airbreathing engine testing. A combined cycle engine test facility has been constructed in the General Applied Science Laboratories, Inc. (GASL) Aeropropulsion Test Laboratory to meet this requirement. The facility was designed to support the development of an innovative combined cycle engine concept which features a rocket based ramjet combustor. The test requirements included the ability to conduct tests in which the propulsive force was generated by rocket only, the ramjet only and simultaneous rocket and ramjet power (combined cycle) to evaluate combustor operation over the entire engine cycle. The test facility provides simulation over the flight Mach number range of 0 to 8 and at various trajectories. The capabilities of the combined cycle engine test facility are presented.

  18. Wind turbine blade testing under combined loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roczek-Sieradzan, Agnieszka; Nielsen, Magda; Branner, Kim

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents full-scale blade tests under a combined flap- and edgewise loading. The main aim of this paper is to present the results from testing a wind turbine blade under such conditions and to study the structural behavior of the blade subjected to combined loading. A loading method using...... anchor plates was applied, allowing transverse shear distortion. The global and local deformation of the blade as well as the reproducibility of the test was studied and the results from the investigations are presented....

  19. Combined and independent cytotoxicity of sodium hypochlorite, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and chlorhexidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vouzara, T; Koulaouzidou, E; Ziouti, F; Economides, N

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the capacity of commonly used root canal irrigants to induce cytotoxic effects, when applied singly or in combination. The hypothesis tested was that the irrigants were less cytotoxic when applied in combination than independently. MRC5 cells were grown as monolayer cultures at 37 °C in an atmosphere containing 5% CO2 in air and 100% relative humidity. Cells were exposed to sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), chlorhexidine (CHX) and their combinations (NaOCl/EDTA, NaOCl/CHX, EDTA/CHX) in serial dilutions. Growth medium was Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with 10% foetal bovine serum and antibiotics and was used as control. The effect on cell survival was estimated after 6 and 24 h of exposure by means of the sulforhodamine B assay, in reference to controls. Dose-response curves were plotted, and 50% inhibitory doses (IC50 ) were subjected to statistical analysis (anova and post hoc comparison test; P < 0.05). Analysis of cell survival and interaction of the irrigants was performed using CalcuSyn dose effect analyzer software to calculate a combination index (CI). The tested irrigants were cytotoxic in dose- and time-dependent manner. CHX was the most cytotoxic irrigant tested, followed by NaOCl, whilst EDTA was the least cytotoxic irrigant tested. The difference between CHX and NaOCl was significant (P < 0.05) as well as between NaOCl and EDTA (P < 0.05). Based on CalcuSyn modelling, a mainly antagonistic effect was recorded with NaOCl/CHX and NaOCl/EDTA combinations. The combination EDTA/CHX had an additive to antagonistic effect. CHX was significantly more cytotoxic than NaOCl and EDTA. NaOCl was significantly more cytotoxic than EDTA. The combined action of irrigants did not produce a significant increase in their cytotoxicity. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Results from ATLAS Calorimeter Combined Test Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Tarrade, F

    2007-01-01

    Beam tests of combinations of ATLAS calorimeters have been performed both for the barrel and end cap parts. During a combined test beam in summer 2004 a slice of the ATLAS barrel detector - including all detector sub systems from the inner tracker, the calorimetry to the muon system - was exposed to particle beams (electrons, pions, photons, muons) with different energies (1GeV to 350GeV). The aim was to study the combined performance of the different detector sub systems in ATLAS-like conditions. We will present the electronics calibration scheme of the electromagnetic calorimeter and its implementation. The following studies on the combined testbeam data have been performed and will be presented: performance of the electromagnetic calorimetry down to very low energies (> GeV), photon reconstruction including converted photons and position measurements using the very precise ATLAS tracker and the electromagnetic calorimeter. These measurements have been compared to Monte Carlo simulations showing the good de...

  1. Flow testing rear face hardware combinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haun, F.E. Jr.

    1962-06-01

    The purpose of these tests is to provide necessary laboratory data in support of an R,PEO program in determining the energy loss associated with various hardware size combinations on the rear face of the B-D-F reactors. The original method used to check for critical flow was determined to be faulty. A revised method demonstrated critical flow did occur in the 5/8-inch inconel connector and combination 1 fittings. The remaining fitting combinations with the 5/8-inch inconel and 3/4-inch aluminum connector were not rechecked because of the reaming of the I.D. to permit the continuation of the original tests. During test number 6, audible cavitation was heard with the highest severity at a point midway between pressure points 3 and 4 on the connector. This condition appeared again in tests 6A, 7, and 7A, with incipient cavitation at approximately 40 gpm in each test, regardless of the rear header pressure and/or temperature.

  2. Independent test assessment using the extreme value distribution theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Marcio; Blondell, Lucy; Peralta, Juan M; Kent, Jack W; Jun, Goo; Teslovich, Tanya M; Fuchsberger, Christian; Wood, Andrew R; Manning, Alisa K; Frayling, Timothy M; Cingolani, Pablo E; Sladek, Robert; Dyer, Thomas D; Abecasis, Goncalo; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Blangero, John

    2016-01-01

    The new generation of whole genome sequencing platforms offers great possibilities and challenges for dissecting the genetic basis of complex traits. With a very high number of sequence variants, a naïve multiple hypothesis threshold correction hinders the identification of reliable associations by the overreduction of statistical power. In this report, we examine 2 alternative approaches to improve the statistical power of a whole genome association study to detect reliable genetic associations. The approaches were tested using the Genetic Analysis Workshop 19 (GAW19) whole genome sequencing data. The first tested method estimates the real number of effective independent tests actually being performed in whole genome association project by the use of an extreme value distribution and a set of phenotype simulations. Given the familiar nature of the GAW19 data and the finite number of pedigree founders in the sample, the number of correlations between genotypes is greater than in a set of unrelated samples. Using our procedure, we estimate that the effective number represents only 15 % of the total number of independent tests performed. However, even using this corrected significance threshold, no genome-wide significant association could be detected for systolic and diastolic blood pressure traits. The second approach implements a biological relevance-driven hypothesis tested by exploiting prior computational predictions on the effect of nonsynonymous genetic variants detected in a whole genome sequencing association study. This guided testing approach was able to identify 2 promising single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 1 for each trait, targeting biologically relevant genes that could help shed light on the genesis of the human hypertension. The first gene, PFH14, associated with systolic blood pressure, interacts directly with genes involved in calcium-channel formation and the second gene, MAP4, encodes a microtubule-associated protein and had already been

  3. The 2004 ATLAS Combined Test Beam

    CERN Multimedia

    The ATLAS CTB Team, .

    2004-01-01

    In the year 2004, ATLAS has been involved in a huge combined test beam (CTB) effort in H8. A complete slice of the barrel detector and of the Muon End-cap has been tested, with the following clear goals: pre-commission the final elements and study the detector performance in a realistic combined data taking. Thanks to this experience, a lot of expertise in the operations has been acquired and much data (~ 4.6 TB of data, ~ 90 million events on castor) has been collected and is already under analysis. The CTB has been characterized by different phases with an incremental presence of sub-detectors modules and associated DAQ infrastructure, as well as incremental improvement of analysis tools for prompt data certification. The physics goals of the CTB have been defined in consultation with the physics coordinator, all the sub-detector representatives and the combined performance group representative. With all these indications, a detailed run plan day-by-day schedule was defined before the CTB start and was foll...

  4. Pixel-Tilecal-MDT Combined Test Beam

    CERN Document Server

    B. Di Girolamo

    A test with many expectations When an additional week of running (from September 11th to 18th) was allocated for the test-beam, it was decided to give priority to a combined run with the participation of the Pixel, Tilecal and MDT sub-detectors. The integration of these three sub-detectors was possible as they all use the baseline (DAQ-1/EF based) DAQ for test beams (as reported in a previous e-news). The tests and the addition of a common trigger and busy were organized in a short timescale by experts from the three sub-detectors and DAQ/EF. The expectations were many; both looking for problems and finding solutions. The setup The setup, shown in the figure, consisted of the Pixel telescope normally used during the sub-detector tests, two Tilecal barrel modules, two Tilecal extended barrel modules, and six MDT barrel chambers. This fully occupied a length of some 30 meters in the H8 line of the SPS North Area. Each sub-detector used their own specialized front-end electronics. The data collected by modu...

  5. Stimulus information contaminates summation tests of independent neural representations of features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimozaki, Steven S.; Eckstein, Miguel P.; Abbey, Craig K.

    2002-01-01

    Many models of visual processing assume that visual information is analyzed into separable and independent neural codes, or features. A common psychophysical test of independent features is known as a summation study, which measures performance in a detection, discrimination, or visual search task as the number of proposed features increases. Improvement in human performance with increasing number of available features is typically attributed to the summation, or combination, of information across independent neural coding of the features. In many instances, however, increasing the number of available features also increases the stimulus information in the task, as assessed by an optimal observer that does not include the independent neural codes. In a visual search task with spatial frequency and orientation as the component features, a particular set of stimuli were chosen so that all searches had equivalent stimulus information, regardless of the number of features. In this case, human performance did not improve with increasing number of features, implying that the improvement observed with additional features may be due to stimulus information and not the combination across independent features.

  6. Relation of field independence and test-item format to student performance on written piagetian tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ló; Pez-Rupérez, F.; Palacios, C.; Sanchez, J.

    In this study we have investigated the relationship between the field-dependence-independence (FDI) dimension as measured by the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT) and subject performance on the Longeot test, a pencil-and-paper Piagetian test, through the open or closed format of its items. The sample consisted of 141 high school students. Correlation and variance analysis show that the FDI dimension and GEFT correlate significantly on only those items on the Longeot test that require formal reasoning. The effect of open- or closed-item format is found exclusively for formal items; only the open format discriminates significantly (at the 0.01 level) between the field-dependent and -independent subjects performing on this type of item. Some implications of these results for science education are discussed.

  7. Independent and combined effect of diet and exercise in adults with prediabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sénéchal M

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Martin Sénéchal,1,2 Jana Slaght,3 Neha Bharti,3 Danielle R Bouchard3,4 1Manitoba Institute of Child Health, Winnipeg, MN, Canada; 2Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Medicine, 3Faculty of Kinesiology and Recreation Management, 4Health, Leisure, and Human Performance Research Institute, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MN, Canada Abstract: Prediabetes is defined as impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance. Impaired fasting glucose is usually defined as fasting blood glucose between 5.6 mmol/L and 6.9 mmol/L (100.8–124.2 mg/dL, and impaired glucose tolerance is the 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test of 7.8–11.0 mmol/L (140.4–198.0 mg/dL. Most individuals with prediabetes are overweight or obese and are at greater risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D. The first line of treatment for individuals with prediabetes is lifestyle modification, including diet and exercise. The aim of this review, through the revision of primarily randomized control trials, is to discuss the independent and combined effect of diet and exercise on the incidence of T2D, glycemic control, and weight loss in adults with prediabetes. Based on the available literature, lifestyle modification combining both diet and exercise is effective at reducing the incidence of T2D and improving glycemic control, even without a significant reduction in body weight. Thus, it is unclear whether weight loss, through lifestyle modification, is a cornerstone for improving glycemic control in individuals with prediabetes. The independent effect of diet or exercise alone on the improvement in glycemic control and/or reduction in body weight in individuals with prediabetes still requires more studies to draw a clear conclusion, considering the quality and quantity of available studies. As of now, the best diet and/or exercise program to improve glycemic control and body weight in adults with prediabetes is unknown. Keywords: diabetes, glycemic control, weight

  8. Exploring combinations of auditory and visual stimuli for gaze-independent brain-computer interfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingwei An

    Full Text Available For Brain-Computer Interface (BCI systems that are designed for users with severe impairments of the oculomotor system, an appropriate mode of presenting stimuli to the user is crucial. To investigate whether multi-sensory integration can be exploited in the gaze-independent event-related potentials (ERP speller and to enhance BCI performance, we designed a visual-auditory speller. We investigate the possibility to enhance stimulus presentation by combining visual and auditory stimuli within gaze-independent spellers. In this study with N = 15 healthy users, two different ways of combining the two sensory modalities are proposed: simultaneous redundant streams (Combined-Speller and interleaved independent streams (Parallel-Speller. Unimodal stimuli were applied as control conditions. The workload, ERP components, classification accuracy and resulting spelling speed were analyzed for each condition. The Combined-speller showed a lower workload than uni-modal paradigms, without the sacrifice of spelling performance. Besides, shorter latencies, lower amplitudes, as well as a shift of the temporal and spatial distribution of discriminative information were observed for Combined-speller. These results are important and are inspirations for future studies to search the reason for these differences. For the more innovative and demanding Parallel-Speller, where the auditory and visual domains are independent from each other, a proof of concept was obtained: fifteen users could spell online with a mean accuracy of 87.7% (chance level <3% showing a competitive average speed of 1.65 symbols per minute. The fact that it requires only one selection period per symbol makes it a good candidate for a fast communication channel. It brings a new insight into the true multisensory stimuli paradigms. Novel approaches for combining two sensory modalities were designed here, which are valuable for the development of ERP-based BCI paradigms.

  9. An Investigation of Integrative and Independent Listening Test Tasks in a Computerised Academic English Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Zheng, Ying

    2017-01-01

    This research provided a comprehensive evaluation and validation of the listening section of a newly introduced computerised test, Pearson Test of English Academic (PTE Academic). PTE Academic contains 11 item types assessing academic listening skills either alone or in combination with other skills. First, task analysis helped identify skills…

  10. Independent test of a model to predict severe acute esophagitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen X. Huang, PhD

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: The previously published model was validated on an independent data set and determined to be nearly as predictive as the best possible two-parameter logistic model even though it overpredicted risk systematically. A novel, machine learning-based model using a bootstrapping approach showed reasonable predictive power.

  11. Combining independent, weighted P-values: achieving computational stability by a systematic expansion with controllable accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Gelio; Yu, Yi-Kuo

    2011-01-01

    Given the expanding availability of scientific data and tools to analyze them, combining different assessments of the same piece of information has become increasingly important for social, biological, and even physical sciences. This task demands, to begin with, a method-independent standard, such as the P-value, that can be used to assess the reliability of a piece of information. Good's formula and Fisher's method combine independent P-values with respectively unequal and equal weights. Both approaches may be regarded as limiting instances of a general case of combining P-values from m groups; P-values within each group are weighted equally, while weight varies by group. When some of the weights become nearly degenerate, as cautioned by Good, numeric instability occurs in computation of the combined P-values. We deal explicitly with this difficulty by deriving a controlled expansion, in powers of differences in inverse weights, that provides both accurate statistics and stable numerics. We illustrate the utility of this systematic approach with a few examples. In addition, we also provide here an alternative derivation for the probability distribution function of the general case and show how the analytic formula obtained reduces to both Good's and Fisher's methods as special cases. A C++ program, which computes the combined P-values with equal numerical stability regardless of whether weights are (nearly) degenerate or not, is available for download at our group website http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/CBBresearch/Yu/downloads/CoinedPValues.html.

  12. Combining independent, weighted P-values: achieving computational stability by a systematic expansion with controllable accuracy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelio Alves

    Full Text Available Given the expanding availability of scientific data and tools to analyze them, combining different assessments of the same piece of information has become increasingly important for social, biological, and even physical sciences. This task demands, to begin with, a method-independent standard, such as the P-value, that can be used to assess the reliability of a piece of information. Good's formula and Fisher's method combine independent P-values with respectively unequal and equal weights. Both approaches may be regarded as limiting instances of a general case of combining P-values from m groups; P-values within each group are weighted equally, while weight varies by group. When some of the weights become nearly degenerate, as cautioned by Good, numeric instability occurs in computation of the combined P-values. We deal explicitly with this difficulty by deriving a controlled expansion, in powers of differences in inverse weights, that provides both accurate statistics and stable numerics. We illustrate the utility of this systematic approach with a few examples. In addition, we also provide here an alternative derivation for the probability distribution function of the general case and show how the analytic formula obtained reduces to both Good's and Fisher's methods as special cases. A C++ program, which computes the combined P-values with equal numerical stability regardless of whether weights are (nearly degenerate or not, is available for download at our group website http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/CBBresearch/Yu/downloads/CoinedPValues.html.

  13. Standard setting for progress tests: combining external and internal standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Chris; Freeman, Adrian C; Coombes, Lee R

    2009-06-01

    There has been little work on standard setting for progress tests and it is common practice to use normative standards. This study aimed to develop a new approach to standard setting for progress tests administered at the point when students approach graduation. In this study we obtained performance data from newly qualified doctors and used this information to set the standard for the last progress test in the final year of undergraduate medical education. This external reference was validated against projections of student performance data based upon normative grading, and other published results. A simple linear growth model was used to set pass scores for progress tests earlier in the final year and this was also validated by published data. There was good agreement between standards set using the data from newly qualified doctors, the standard expected from extrapolation of the student progression data, and published performance data from another medical school. We have demonstrated that a combination of data from independent sources can be used to triangulate standard-setting decisions for progress tests. Performance data from successive cohorts of medical students could provide a fruitful source of information for standard setting for progress tests.

  14. Drug Combinations: Tests and Analysis with Isoboles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallarida, Ronald J

    2016-03-18

    Described in this unit are experimental and computational methods to detect and classify drug interactions. In most cases, this relates to two drugs or compounds with overtly similar effects, e.g., two analgesics or two anti-hypertensives. From the dose-response data of the individual drugs, it is possible to generate a curve, the isobole, which defines all dose combinations that are expected to yield a specified effect. The theory underlying the isobole involves the calculation of doses of drug A that are effectively equivalent to doses of drug B with that equivalence determining whether the isobole is linear or nonlinear. In either case, the isobole allows for a comparison with actual combination effects making it possible to determine whether the interaction is synergistic, additive, or sub-additive. Actual as well as illustrative data are employed to demonstrate experimental design and data analysis. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  15. Topical Knowledge in L2 Speaking Assessment: Comparing Independent and Integrated Speaking Test Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Heng-Tsung Danny; Hung, Shao-Ting Alan; Plakans, Lia

    2018-01-01

    Integrated speaking test tasks (integrated tasks) provide reading and/or listening input to serve as the basis for test-takers to formulate their oral responses. This study examined the influence of topical knowledge on integrated speaking test performance and compared independent speaking test performance and integrated speaking test performance…

  16. Independent and combined information transfer from axicon and helical phase distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihailescu, Mona; Preda, Liliana; Kusko, Cristian

    2014-07-20

    Helical phase distributions used for optical information transfer increase its capacity by offering a characteristic spatial intensity arrangement for the diffracted beam. Here we propose the superposition between helical phase distribution with an axicon type. They form a composed object placed in the object arm to generate holographic masks. The diffracted patterns from these masks exhibit asymmetric shapes and peaks along the optical axis, with two kinds of spots, which contain independent or combined information from both phase distribution constructive parameters. To read these parameters based only on the diffraction patterns analysis, we generate the match reading masks (RMs) to be inserted in the optical path. In this proof-of-concept experiment, we demonstrate that one can sort constructive parameter values of each phase distribution, from both kinds of spots, using specific RMs.

  17. Visualization of Global Sensitivity Analysis Results Based on a Combination of Linearly Dependent and Independent Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Misty D.; Gundy-Burlet, Karen

    2010-01-01

    A useful technique for the validation and verification of complex flight systems is Monte Carlo Filtering -- a global sensitivity analysis that tries to find the inputs and ranges that are most likely to lead to a subset of the outputs. A thorough exploration of the parameter space for complex integrated systems may require thousands of experiments and hundreds of controlled and measured variables. Tools for analyzing this space often have limitations caused by the numerical problems associated with high dimensionality and caused by the assumption of independence of all of the dimensions. To combat both of these limitations, we propose a technique that uses a combination of the original variables with the derived variables obtained during a principal component analysis.

  18. Blind Separation of Acoustic Signals Combining SIMO-Model-Based Independent Component Analysis and Binary Masking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiekata Takashi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A new two-stage blind source separation (BSS method for convolutive mixtures of speech is proposed, in which a single-input multiple-output (SIMO-model-based independent component analysis (ICA and a new SIMO-model-based binary masking are combined. SIMO-model-based ICA enables us to separate the mixed signals, not into monaural source signals but into SIMO-model-based signals from independent sources in their original form at the microphones. Thus, the separated signals of SIMO-model-based ICA can maintain the spatial qualities of each sound source. Owing to this attractive property, our novel SIMO-model-based binary masking can be applied to efficiently remove the residual interference components after SIMO-model-based ICA. The experimental results reveal that the separation performance can be considerably improved by the proposed method compared with that achieved by conventional BSS methods. In addition, the real-time implementation of the proposed BSS is illustrated.

  19. Independent and combined effect of bilirubin and smoking on the progression of chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang J

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Jiancheng Wang,1,* Binyan Wang,1,2,* Min Liang,1 Guobao Wang,1 Jianping Li,3 Yan Zhang,3 Yong Huo,3 Yimin Cui,4 Xiping Xu,1,5 Xianhui Qin1 1National Clinical Research Center for Kidney Disease, State Key Laboratory for Organ Failure Research, Renal Division, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 2Institute for Biomedicine, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 3Department of Cardiology, 4Department of Pharmacy, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, 5Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Food Nutrition and Human Health, Key Laboratory of Functional Dairy, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: Whether serum bilirubin and cigarette smoking affect the risk of renal function decline remains inconclusive. We aimed to test the independent and combined effects of bilirubin and cigarette smoking on the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD in hypertensive adults. Methods: The study population consisted of 12,633 patients in the renal sub-study of the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial. The primary outcome was progression of CKD, defined as a decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR of ≥30% and to a level of <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 if baseline eGFR was ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2, or a decrease in eGFR of ≥50% if baseline eGFR was <60 mL/min/1.73 m2, or end-stage renal disease. The secondary outcomes included 1 rapid decline in renal function and 2 annual rate of eGFR decline. Results: The median follow-up duration was 4.4 years. Cigarette smoking had no significant effect on the progression of CKD (odds ratio [OR]: 1.11, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 0.78–1.57. However, a significantly lower risk of the primary event (OR: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.55–0.95 was found in participants in tertile 3 compared to those in tertiles 1–2 for total bilirubin (TBiL levels. More importantly, there was an interaction

  20. Exploring combinations of different color and facial expression stimuli for gaze-independent BCIs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long eChen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground: Some studies have proven that a conventional visual brain computer interface (BCI based on overt attention cannot be used effectively when eye movement control is not possible. To solve this problem, a novel visual-based BCI system based on covert attention and feature attention had been proposed and was called the gaze-independent BCI. Color and shape difference between stimuli and backgrounds have generally been used in examples of gaze-independent BCIs. Recently, a new paradigm based on facial expression change had been presented, and obtained high performance. However, some facial expressions were so similar that users couldn’t tell them apart. Especially they were presented at the same position in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP paradigm. Consequently, the performance of BCIs is reduced.New Method: In this paper, we combined facial expressions and colors to optimize the stimuli presentation in the gaze-independent BCI. This optimized paradigm was called the colored dummy face pattern. It is suggested that different colors and facial expressions could help subjects to locate the target and evoke larger event-related potentials (ERPs. In order to evaluate the performance of this new paradigm, two other paradigms were presented, called the grey dummy face pattern and the colored ball pattern. Comparison with Existing Method(s: The key point that determined the value of the colored dummy faces stimuli in BCI systems were whether dummy face stimuli could obtain higher performance than grey faces or colored balls stimuli. Ten healthy subjects (7 male, aged 21-26 years, mean 24.5±1.25 participated in our experiment. Online and offline results of four different paradigms were obtained and comparatively analyzed.Results: The results showed that the colored dummy face pattern could evoke higher P300 and N400 ERP amplitudes, compared with the grey dummy face pattern and the colored ball pattern. Online results showed

  1. Independent and combined effects of cognitive and physical activity on incident MCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Tiffany F; Becker, James T; Lee, Ching-Wen; Chang, Chung-Chou H; Ganguli, Mary

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the independent and combined influences of late-life cognitive activity (CA) and physical activity (PA) on the risk of incident mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We used interval censored survival modeling to examine the risk of incident MCI (Clinical Dementia Rating [CDR] = 0.5) as a function of CA (high vs. low) and at least moderate intensity PA (any vs. none) among 864 cognitively normal (CDR = 0) older adults. During three annual follow-up waves, 72 participants developed MCI. Compared with low CA with no PA, significant reductions in risk for MCI were observed for high CA with any PA (hazards ratio (HR) = 0.20, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.07-0.52) and low CA with any PA (HR = 0.52, 95% CI 0.29-0.93), but not for high CA without PA (HR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.45-1.95). These findings suggest that a combination of CA and PA may be most efficacious at reducing the risk for cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2015 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Motion artifact removal from photoplethysmographic signals by combining temporally constrained independent component analysis and adaptive filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Fulai; Zhang, Zhengbo; Gou, Xiaoming; Liu, Hongyun; Wang, Weidong

    2014-04-24

    The calculation of arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) relies heavily on the amplitude information of the high-quality photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals, which could be contaminated by motion artifacts (MA) during monitoring. A new method combining temporally constrained independent component analysis (cICA) and adaptive filters is presented here to extract the clean PPG signals from the MA corrupted PPG signals with the amplitude information reserved. The underlying PPG signal could be extracted from the MA contaminated PPG signals automatically by using cICA algorithm. Then the amplitude information of the PPG signals could be recovered by using adaptive filters. Compared with conventional ICA algorithms, the proposed approach is permutation and scale ambiguity-free. Numerical examples with both synthetic datasets and real-world MA corrupted PPG signals demonstrate that the proposed method could remove the MA from MA contaminated PPG signals more effectively than the two existing FFT-LMS and moving average filter (MAF) methods. This paper presents a new method which combines the cICA algorithm and adaptive filter to extract the underlying PPG signals from the MA contaminated PPG signals with the amplitude information reserved. The new method could be used in the situations where one wants to extract the interested source automatically from the mixed observed signals with the amplitude information reserved. The results of study demonstrated the efficacy of this proposed method.

  3. Tests of serial independence for continuous multivariate time series based on a Möbius decomposition of the independence empirical copula process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kojadinovic, Ivan; Yan, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Genest and Rémillard have recently studied tests of randomness based on a decomposition of the serial independence empirical copula process into a finite number of asymptotically independent sub-processes...

  4. Test Beam Coordination: 2003 ATLAS Combined Test Beam

    CERN Multimedia

    Di Girolamo, B.

    The 2003 Test Beam Period The 2003 Test Beam period has been very fruitful for ATLAS. In spite of several days lost because of the accelerator problems, ATLAS has been able to achieve many results: FCAL has completed the calibration program in H6 Tilecal has completed the calibration program in H8 Pixel has performed extensive studies with normal and high intensity beams (up to 1.4*108 hadrons/spill) SCT has completed a variety of studies with quite a high number of modules operated concurrently TRT has performed several studies at high, low and very low energy (first use of the new H8 beam in the range 1 to 9 GeV) Muons (MDT,RPC and TGC) have been operating a large setup for about 5 months. The almost final MDT ROD (MROD) has been integrated in the readout and the final trigger electronics for TGC and RPC has been tested and certified with normal beam and during dedicated 40 MHz beam periods. The TDAQ has exploited a new generation prototype successfully and the new Event Filter infrastructure f...

  5. Reliability of two social cognition tests: The combined stories test and the social knowledge test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibaudeau, Élisabeth; Cellard, Caroline; Legendre, Maxime; Villeneuve, Karèle; Achim, Amélie M

    2018-01-12

    Deficits in social cognition are common in psychiatric disorders. Validated social cognition measures with good psychometric properties are necessary to assess and target social cognitive deficits. Two recent social cognition tests, the Combined Stories Test (COST) and the Social Knowledge Test (SKT), respectively assess theory of mind and social knowledge. Previous studies have shown good psychometric properties for these tests, but the test-retest reliability has never been documented. The aim of this study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability and the inter-rater reliability of the COST and the SKT. The COST and the SKT were administered twice to a group of forty-two healthy adults, with a delay of approximately four weeks between the assessments. Excellent test-retest reliability was observed for the COST, and a good test-retest reliability was observed for the SKT. There was no evidence of practice effect. Furthermore, an excellent inter-rater reliability was observed for both tests. This study shows a good reliability of the COST and the SKT that adds to the good validity previously reported for these two tests. These good psychometrics properties thus support that the COST and the SKT are adequate measures for the assessment of social cognition. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Performance of soccer players on tests of field dependence/independence and soccer-specific decision-making tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMorris, T

    1997-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of the performance of male amateur soccer players on tests of field dependence/independence and soccer-specific decision-making tests. The relationships between the participants' (N = 14) accuracy, and speed of decision, on simple and complex soccer decision-making tests; scores on Parts B or C of the Group Embedded Figures Test under normal conditions: scores on Parts B or C of the Group Embedded Figures Test when timed; and time taken to complete the timed condition of the Group Embedded Figures Test were examined. There were no significant correlations between performance on the soccer specific tests and the tests of field dependence/independence.

  7. Micro-Combined Heat and Power Device Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NIST has developed a test facility for micro-combined heat and power (micro-CHP) devices to measure their performance over a range of different operating strategies...

  8. Comparing the Effects of Test Anxiety on Independent and Integrated Speaking Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Heng-Tsung Danny; Hung, Shao-Ting Alan

    2013-01-01

    Integrated speaking test tasks (integrated tasks) offer textual and/or aural input for test takers on which to base their subsequent oral responses. This path-analytic study modeled the relationship between test anxiety and the performance of such tasks and explored whether test anxiety would differentially affect the performance of independent…

  9. A comparative and combined study of EMIS and GPR detectors by the use of independent component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstjerne, Axel; Karlsen, Brian; Larsen, Jan; Sorensen, Helge B. D.; Jakobsen, Kaj B.

    2005-06-01

    Independent Component Analysis (ICA) is applied to classify unexploded ordnance (UXO) on laboratory UXO test-field data, acquired by stand-off detection. The data are acquired by an Electromagnetic Induction Spectroscopy (EMIS) metal detector and a ground penetrating radar (GPR) detector. The metal detector is a GEM-3, which is a monostatic sensor measuring the response of the environment on a multi-frequency constant wave excitation field (300 Hz 25 kHz), and the GPR detector is a stepped-frequency GPR with a monostatic bow-tie antenna (500 MHz 2.5 GHz). For both sensors the in-phase and the quadrature responses are measured at each frequency. The test field is a box of soil where a wide range of UXOs are placed at selected positions. The position and movement of both of the detectors are controlled by a 2D-scanner. Thus the data are acquired at well-defined measurement points. The data are processed by the use of statistical signal processing based on ICA. An unsupervised method based on ICA to detect, discriminate, and classify the UXOs from clutter is suggested. The approach is studied on GPR and EMIS data, both separately and combined. The potential is an improved ability: to detect the UXOs, to evaluate the related characteristics, and to reduce the number of false alarms from harmless objects and clutter.

  10. Independent and Combined Effects of Weight Status and Maturation on Aerobic Fitness in Adolescent School Aged Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Mariana B; Valente-Dos-Santos, João; Duarte, João P; Sousa-E-Silva, Paulo; Coelho-E-Silva, Manuel J; Werneck, André O; Ohara, David; Cyrino, Edilson S; Ronque, Enio R V

    2017-11-22

    This study aimed to examine the independent and combined effects of pubertal and weight status on concurrent measurements of peak oxygen (VO2peak) in school aged adolescent males. The final sample included 49 boys (12.3 ± 0.8 years). VO2peak was derived from an incremental progressive maximal protocol using a motorized treadmill. In addition, maximal oxygen uptake was estimated from a 20-m shuttle run test. Static allometric models were obtained as an alternative to performance output per unit of size descriptors. Weight status had a significant effect on VO2peak using simple ratio standards per unit of body mass with adolescents classified as overweight and obese (OWOB) attaining lower values of VO2peak. A similar trend was noted for the allometric models adopting body mass (BM; mL.kgBM.min), stature (L.m.min) and fat-free mass (FFM; mL.kgFFM.min). Findings also suggest the influence and interaction of pubertal and weight status on absolute values of VO2peak. Considering the data obtained, linear equations to estimate VO2peak from the 20-m shuttle run test should not be applied to boys that are OWOB as it will produce inaccurate assessments of cardiorespiratory fitness and penalize those who are heavier. Equations for VO2peak prediction need to be specific for pubertal status and preferably consider FFM as a body size descriptor.

  11. Credibility of the combined test in prenatal diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lončar Dragan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital anomalies are the cause of perinatal death in 20-25% of the cases, while 3% of children are born with malformation of varying size. The objective of this study was to examine the predictive value and define the credibility ratio of the combined test results. Of 317 examined pregnant women, we had sixteen (5.05% with the result of pathological karyotype after amniocentesis including: nine (2.84% with fetal numerical aberrations and seven (2.21% with fetal structural aberrations. While determining the ultrasonographic parameters of the combined test we used the standards of the Fetal Medicine Foundation. We carried out the quantitative settings of free β-HCG and PAPP-A from vein blood of patients by applying commercial tests of firm DPC-USA. Tests were based on the analytical immunochemiluminescence assay and were realized by using the automated analyzer IMMULITE 2000. Manufacturer of the analyzer is also the firm DPC-USA. Sensitivity of the test is 94%, and specificity is 99%. Positive likelihood ratio [likelihood ratio test (LR+] is 94.00, a negative likelihood ratio is [likelihood ratio test (LR-] 12:06. Pretest probability that pregnant women carries fetus with chromosomal abnormality is 1:250 or 0004. Posttest odds after the combined test to discover this abnormality is 0.3760, and probability of the same case is 0.2732 if it happens that the test result is positive. The result of our study confirms the justification of combined test usage in routine clinical practice, since the posttest odds rate in the case of a positive screening increases several times over (almost 90 times, the probability of detecting a chromosomal abnormality was about 70 times. Combined screening test if used methodologically correct, has a high predictive value in detecting fetal congenital anomalies.

  12. 78 FR 41999 - Combined Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ... air traffic controllers, Drug abuse, Drug testing, Operators, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements...;having general applicability and legal effect, most of which are keyed #0;to and codified in the Code of... Administration 14 CFR Part 120 RIN 2120-AK01 Combined Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs AGENCY: Federal Aviation...

  13. 1?10 kW Stationary Combined Heat and Power Systems Status and Technical Potential: Independent Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maru, H. C.; Singhal, S. C.; Stone, C.; Wheeler, D.

    2010-11-01

    This independent review examines the status and technical potential of 1-10 kW stationary combined heat and power fuel cell systems and analyzes the achievability of the DOE cost, efficiency, and durability targets for 2012, 2015, and 2020.

  14. Association of Resistance Exercise, Independent of and Combined With Aerobic Exercise, With the Incidence of Metabolic Syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, E.A.; Lee, D.C.; Sui, X.; Artero, E.G.; Ruiz, J.R.; Eijsvogels, T.M.H.; Lavie, C.J.; Blair, S.N.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the association of resistance exercise, independent of and combined with aerobic exercise, with the risk of development of metabolic syndrome (MetS). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study cohort included adults (mean +/- SD age, 46+/-9.5 years) who received comprehensive medical

  15. Liver function tests and risk prediction of incident type 2 diabetes : evaluation in two independent cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbasi, Ali; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Corpeleijn, Eva; van der A, Daphne L.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Gans, Rijk O. B.; Peelen, Linda M.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Navis, Gerjan; Spijkerman, Annemieke M. W.; Beulens, Joline W. J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Liver function tests might predict the risk of type 2 diabetes. An independent study evaluating utility of these markers compared with an existing prediction model is yet lacking. Methods and Findings: We performed a case-cohort study, including random subcohort (6.5%) from 38,379

  16. Comprehensive analysis of secondary dental root canal infections: a combination of culture and culture-independent approaches reveals new insights.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Carola Anderson

    Full Text Available Persistence of microorganisms or reinfections are the main reasons for failure of root canal therapy. Very few studies to date have included culture-independent methods to assess the microbiota, including non-cultivable microorganisms. The aim of this study was to combine culture methods with culture-independent cloning methods to analyze the microbial flora of root-filled teeth with periradicular lesions. Twenty-one samples from previously root-filled teeth were collected from patients with periradicular lesions. Microorganisms were cultivated, isolated and biochemically identified. In addition, ribosomal DNA of bacteria, fungi and archaea derived from the same samples was amplified and the PCR products were used to construct clone libraries. DNA of selected clones was sequenced and microbial species were identified, comparing the sequences with public databases. Microorganisms were found in 12 samples with culture-dependent and -independent methods combined. The number of bacterial species ranged from 1 to 12 in one sample. The majority of the 26 taxa belonged to the phylum Firmicutes (14 taxa, followed by Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. One sample was positive for fungi, and archaea could not be detected. The results obtained with both methods differed. The cloning technique detected several as-yet-uncultivated taxa. Using a combination of both methods 13 taxa were detected that had not been found in root-filled teeth so far. Enterococcus faecalis was only detected in two samples using culture methods. Combining the culture-dependent and -independent approaches revealed new candidate endodontic pathogens and a high diversity of the microbial flora in root-filled teeth with periradicular lesions. Both methods yielded differing results, emphasizing the benefit of combined methods for the detection of the actual microbial diversity in apical periodontitis.

  17. Comprehensive analysis of secondary dental root canal infections: a combination of culture and culture-independent approaches reveals new insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Annette Carola; Hellwig, Elmar; Vespermann, Robin; Wittmer, Annette; Schmid, Michael; Karygianni, Lamprini; Al-Ahmad, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Persistence of microorganisms or reinfections are the main reasons for failure of root canal therapy. Very few studies to date have included culture-independent methods to assess the microbiota, including non-cultivable microorganisms. The aim of this study was to combine culture methods with culture-independent cloning methods to analyze the microbial flora of root-filled teeth with periradicular lesions. Twenty-one samples from previously root-filled teeth were collected from patients with periradicular lesions. Microorganisms were cultivated, isolated and biochemically identified. In addition, ribosomal DNA of bacteria, fungi and archaea derived from the same samples was amplified and the PCR products were used to construct clone libraries. DNA of selected clones was sequenced and microbial species were identified, comparing the sequences with public databases. Microorganisms were found in 12 samples with culture-dependent and -independent methods combined. The number of bacterial species ranged from 1 to 12 in one sample. The majority of the 26 taxa belonged to the phylum Firmicutes (14 taxa), followed by Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. One sample was positive for fungi, and archaea could not be detected. The results obtained with both methods differed. The cloning technique detected several as-yet-uncultivated taxa. Using a combination of both methods 13 taxa were detected that had not been found in root-filled teeth so far. Enterococcus faecalis was only detected in two samples using culture methods. Combining the culture-dependent and -independent approaches revealed new candidate endodontic pathogens and a high diversity of the microbial flora in root-filled teeth with periradicular lesions. Both methods yielded differing results, emphasizing the benefit of combined methods for the detection of the actual microbial diversity in apical periodontitis.

  18. Combination of a preference pattern with the triangle taste test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, W A; Schucany, W R

    1977-03-01

    When dealing with the problem of obtaining information concerning consumer preferences for two competing brands of a product, one would like to assume that the consumers sampled can actually distinguish between the two brands. Often this is not the case and we have combined the standard triangle test of sensory perception with a preference test in order to obtain information concerning the consumers' ability to distinguish between the two brands. Assuming an underlying multinomial distribution, the maximum likelihood estimators (MLE) of the conditional probability that a person prefers brand A given that he can discriminate between the two products is then obtained. The estimator obtained is a ratio of linear combinations of observed multinomial proportions. The variability of this estimator is assessed by means of the jackknife statistic, the asymptotic variance of the MLE, and Monte Carlo studies. Application of the results obtained to taste test involving two brands of potato chips is discussed.

  19. Combined Prediction Model of Death Toll for Road Traffic Accidents Based on Independent and Dependent Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhong-xiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to build a combined model which can meet the variation rule of death toll data for road traffic accidents and can reflect the influence of multiple factors on traffic accidents and improve prediction accuracy for accidents, the Verhulst model was built based on the number of death tolls for road traffic accidents in China from 2002 to 2011; and car ownership, population, GDP, highway freight volume, highway passenger transportation volume, and highway mileage were chosen as the factors to build the death toll multivariate linear regression model. Then the two models were combined to be a combined prediction model which has weight coefficient. Shapley value method was applied to calculate the weight coefficient by assessing contributions. Finally, the combined model was used to recalculate the number of death tolls from 2002 to 2011, and the combined model was compared with the Verhulst and multivariate linear regression models. The results showed that the new model could not only characterize the death toll data characteristics but also quantify the degree of influence to the death toll by each influencing factor and had high accuracy as well as strong practicability.

  20. Combined Prediction Model of Death Toll for Road Traffic Accidents Based on Independent and Dependent Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong-xiang, Feng; Shi-sheng, Lu; Wei-hua, Zhang; Nan-nan, Zhang

    2014-01-01

    In order to build a combined model which can meet the variation rule of death toll data for road traffic accidents and can reflect the influence of multiple factors on traffic accidents and improve prediction accuracy for accidents, the Verhulst model was built based on the number of death tolls for road traffic accidents in China from 2002 to 2011; and car ownership, population, GDP, highway freight volume, highway passenger transportation volume, and highway mileage were chosen as the factors to build the death toll multivariate linear regression model. Then the two models were combined to be a combined prediction model which has weight coefficient. Shapley value method was applied to calculate the weight coefficient by assessing contributions. Finally, the combined model was used to recalculate the number of death tolls from 2002 to 2011, and the combined model was compared with the Verhulst and multivariate linear regression models. The results showed that the new model could not only characterize the death toll data characteristics but also quantify the degree of influence to the death toll by each influencing factor and had high accuracy as well as strong practicability. PMID:25610454

  1. Nonparametric predictive inference for combining diagnostic tests with parametric copula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Noryanti; Coolen, F. P. A.; Coolen-Maturi, T.

    2017-09-01

    Measuring the accuracy of diagnostic tests is crucial in many application areas including medicine and health care. The Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve is a popular statistical tool for describing the performance of diagnostic tests. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) is often used as a measure of the overall performance of the diagnostic test. In this paper, we interest in developing strategies for combining test results in order to increase the diagnostic accuracy. We introduce nonparametric predictive inference (NPI) for combining two diagnostic test results with considering dependence structure using parametric copula. NPI is a frequentist statistical framework for inference on a future observation based on past data observations. NPI uses lower and upper probabilities to quantify uncertainty and is based on only a few modelling assumptions. While copula is a well-known statistical concept for modelling dependence of random variables. A copula is a joint distribution function whose marginals are all uniformly distributed and it can be used to model the dependence separately from the marginal distributions. In this research, we estimate the copula density using a parametric method which is maximum likelihood estimator (MLE). We investigate the performance of this proposed method via data sets from the literature and discuss results to show how our method performs for different family of copulas. Finally, we briefly outline related challenges and opportunities for future research.

  2. Goodness-of-Fit Tests For Elliptical and Independent Copulas through Projection Pursuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Touboul

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Two goodness-of-fit tests for copulas are being investigated. The first one deals with the case of elliptical copulas and the second one deals with independent copulas. These tests result from the expansion of the projection pursuit methodology that we will introduce in the present article. This method enables us to determine on which axis system these copulas lie as well as the exact value of these very copulas in the basis formed by the axes previously determined irrespective of their value in their canonical basis. Simulations are also presented as well as an application to real datasets.

  3. Method for independent strain and temperature measurement in polymeric tensile test specimen using embedded FBG sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Gilmar Ferreira; McGugan, Malcolm; Mikkelsen, Lars Pilgaard

    2016-01-01

    A novel method to obtain independent strain and temperature measurements using embedded Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) in polymeric tensile test specimens is presented in this paper. The FBG strain and temperature cross-sensitivity was decoupled using two single mode FBG sensors, which were embedded...... of temperature, from 40 C to -10 C. The consistency of the expected theoretical results with the calibration procedure and the experimental validation shows that this proposed method is applicable to measure accurate strain and temperature in polymers during static or fatigue tensile testing. Two different...

  4. An empirical test of combined theory of juvenile delinquency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshkani Z

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile delinquency is a social problem disturbing families, social institutions and government agencies. Delinquent juveniles lose valuable opportunities concerning their education and occupation. This paper, has undertaken a field research on the causes of delinquency among juveniles arrested in the greater Tehran. The theoretical framework was established by combining the social control theory of Hirschi and the differential association theory of Sutherland and Cressy. The resultant theory made it possible to take account of both internal and external forces leading to delinquency. From 140 boys and 15 girls of under 18 arrested in 1992 in the greater Tehran, ninety boys and all girls were randomly chosen for interview. Four variables showing delinqueint acts and 81 independent variables concerning their personal characteristics, living environment and migrations, family support, beliefs and practices, association with criminals and pass-time activities and hobbies were measured. A factor analysis were applied to reduce the size of data matrix. Thus, one factor was found as a response variable representing the intensity of youth's delinquency. The independent variables were reduced to 28 factors. A multiple regression analysis showed that only 3 factors were enough to explain the intensity of delinquency. Those factors are the "attachment", "beliefs and attitudes" and "association with criminals"

  5. Current clinical trials testing combinations of immunotherapy and radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crittenden, Marka; Kohrt, Holbrook; Levy, Ronald; Jones, Jennifer; Camphausen, Kevin; Dicker, Adam; Demaria, Sandra; Formenti, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Preclinical evidence of successful combinations of ionizing radiation with immunotherapy has inspired testing the translation of these results to the clinic. Interestingly, the preclinical work has consistently predicted the responses encountered in clinical trials. The first example came from a proof-of-principle trial started in 2001 that tested the concept that growth factors acting on antigen-presenting cells improve presentation of tumor antigens released by radiation and induce an abscopal effect. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor was administered during radiotherapy to a metastatic site in patients with metastatic solid tumors to translate evidence obtained in a murine model of syngeneic mammary carcinoma treated with cytokine FLT-3L and radiation. Subsequent clinical availability of vaccines and immune checkpoint inhibitors has triggered a wave of enthusiasm for testing them in combination with radiotherapy. Examples of ongoing clinical trials are described in this report. Importantly, most of these trials include careful immune monitoring of the patients enrolled and will generate important data about the proimmunogenic effects of radiation in combination with a variety of immune modulators, in different disease settings. Results of these studies are building a platform of evidence for radiotherapy as an adjuvant to immunotherapy and encourage the growth of this novel field of radiation oncology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Independent Review of AFC 2A, 2B, and 2E ATR Irradiation Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Cappiello; R. Hobbins; K. Penny; L. Walters

    2014-01-01

    As part of the Department of Energy Advanced Fuel Cycle program, a series of fuels development irradiation tests have been performed in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory. These tests are providing excellent data for advanced fuels development. The program is focused on the transmutation of higher actinides which best can be accomplished in a sodium-cooled fast reactor. Because a fast test reactor is no longer available in the US, a special test vehicle is used to achieve near-prototypic fast reactor conditions (neutron spectra and temperature) for use in ATR (a water-cooled thermal reactor). As part of the testing program, there were many successful tests of advanced fuels including metals and ceramics. Recently however, there have been three experimental campaigns using metal fuels that experienced failure during irradiation. At the request of the program, an independent review committee was convened to review the post-test analyses performed by the fuels development team, to assess the conclusions of the team for the cause of the failures, to assess the adequacy and completeness of the analyses, to identify issues that were missed, and to make recommendations for improvements in the design and operation of future tests. Although there is some difference of opinion, the review committee largely agreed with the conclusions of the fuel development team regarding the cause of the failures. For the most part, the analyses that support the conclusions are sufficient.

  7. Effect of Culture-Independent Diagnostic Tests on Future Emerging Infections Program Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Gayle; Besser, John; Iwamoto, Martha; Lessa, Fernanda C; Cronquist, Alicia; Skoff, Tami H; Chaves, Sandra; Boxrud, Dave; Pinner, Robert W; Harrison, Lee H

    2015-09-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Emerging Infections Program (EIP) network conducts population-based surveillance for pathogens of public health importance. Central to obtaining estimates of disease burden and tracking microbiological characteristics of these infections is accurate laboratory detection of pathogens. The use of culture-independent diagnostic tests (CIDTs) in clinical settings presents both opportunities and challenges to EIP surveillance. Because CIDTs offer better sensitivity than culture and are relatively easy to perform, their use could potentially improve estimates of disease burden. However, changes in clinical testing practices, use of tests with different sensitivities and specificities, and changes to case definitions make it challenging to monitor trends. Isolates are still needed for performing strain typing, antimicrobial resistance testing, and identifying other molecular characteristics of organisms. In this article, we outline current and future EIP activities to address issues associated with adoption of CIDTs, which may apply to other public health surveillance.

  8. Stabilization of car-caravan combination using independent steer and drive/or brake forces distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ossama Mokhiamar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Once a combined vehicle becomes unstable, it is very difficult for a driver to stabilize it especially under severe driving conditions, such as turning with braking. This is mainly due to the effect of the towed vehicle on the towing vehicle through the hitch jackknifing. This effect makes the handling characteristics of a car-caravan combination different from those of a single vehicle. Therefore, this paper proposes a control design concept for an optimum distribution of longitudinal and lateral forces of the four tires of a towing vehicle. The mean objectives of the control system were to stabilize the motion of an articulated vehicle utilizing the tires entire ability in both longitudinal and lateral directions as well as to make the handling characteristics of an articulated vehicle similar to those of a single one. The sliding control law based on vehicle planar equations of motion is used to derive the control laws. The proposed control system is evaluated under severe driving conditions and compared with the results of integrated control systems. The robustness of the articulated vehicle motion with the proposed control against the coefficient of friction variation is discussed.

  9. Independent slab-phase modulation combined with parallel imaging in bilateral breast MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Misung; Beatty, Philip J; Daniel, Bruce L; Hargreaves, Brian A

    2009-11-01

    Independent slab-phase modulation allows three-dimensional imaging of multiple volumes without encoding the space between volumes, thus reducing scan time. Parallel imaging further accelerates data acquisition by exploiting coil sensitivity differences between volumes. This work compared bilateral breast image quality from self-calibrated parallel imaging reconstruction methods such as modified sensitivity encoding, generalized autocalibrating partially parallel acquisitions and autocalibrated reconstruction for Cartesian sampling (ARC) for data with and without slab-phase modulation. A study showed an improvement of image quality by incorporating slab-phase modulation. Geometry factors measured from phantom images were more homogenous and lower on average when slab-phase modulation was used for both mSENSE and GRAPPA reconstructions. The resulting improved signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was validated for in vivo images as well using ARC instead of GRAPPA, illustrating average SNR efficiency increases in mSENSE by 5% and ARC by 8% based on region of interest analysis. Furthermore, aliasing artifacts from mSENSE reconstruction were reduced when slab-phase modulation was used. Overall, slab-phase modulation with parallel imaging improved image quality and efficiency for 3D bilateral breast imaging. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Combined clinical and genetic testing algorithm for cervical cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Yu-Ligh; Zhang, Tao-Lan; Yan, Tian; Yeh, Ching-Tung; Kang, Ya-Nan; Cao, Lanqin; Wu, Nayiyuan; Chang, Chi-Feng; Wang, Huei-Jen; Yen, Carolyn; Chu, Tang-Yuan; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Yu; Zhou, Honghao

    2016-01-01

    Opportunistic screening in hospitals is widely used to effectively reduce the incidence rate of cervical cancer in China and other developing countries. This study aimed to identify clinical risk factor algorithms that combine gynecologic examination and molecular testing (paired box gene 1 (PAX1) or zinc finger protein 582 (ZNF582) methylation or HPV16/18) results to improve diagnostic accuracy. The delta Cp of methylated PAX1 and ZNF582 was obtained via quantitative methylation-specific PCR in a training set (57 CIN2- and 43 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia ≥grade 3 (CIN3+) women), and the individual and combination gene sensitivities and specificities were determined. The detection accuracy of three algorithms combining gynecologic findings and genetic test results was then compared in a randomized case-control study comprising 449 women referred for colposcopic examination by gynecologists in the outpatient department of Xiangya Hospital between November 2011 and March 2013. Significant association was observed between CIN3+ and methylated PAX1 or ZNF582 in combination with HPV16/18 (OR:15.52, 95 % CI:7.73-31.18). The sensitivities and specificities of methylated PAX1 or ZNF582 combined with HPV16/18 for CIN3+ women were 89.2 and 76.0 %, or 85.4 and 80.1 %, respectively. Of the three algorithms applied to cohort data and validated in the study, two indicated 100 % sensitivity in detecting cervical cancer and a low rate of referrals for colposcopy. These algorithms might contribute to precise and objective cervical cancer diagnostics in the outpatient departments of hospitals in countries with high mortality and low screening rates or areas with uneven resource distribution.

  11. Combined performance studies for electrons at the 2004 ATLAS combined test-beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abat, E.; Abdallah, J. M.; Addy, T. N.; Adragna, P.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahmad, A.; Akesson, T. P. A.; Aleksa, M.; Alexa, C.; Anderson, K.; Andreazza, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Antonaki, A.; Arabidze, G.; Arik, E.; Atkinson, T.; Baines, J.; Baker, O. K.; Banfi, D.; Baron, S.; Barr, A. J.; Beccherle, R.; Beck, H. P.; Belhorma, B.; Bell, P. J.; Benchekroun, D.; Benjamin, D. P.; Benslama, K.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Bernabeu, J.; Bertelsen, H.; Binet, S.; Biscarat, C.; Boldea, V.; Bondarenko, V. G.; Boonekamp, M.; Bosman, M.; Bourdarios, C.; Broklova, Z.; Burckhart Chromek, D.; Bychkov, V.; Callahan, J.; Calvet, D.; Canneri, M.; Capeáns Garrido, M.; Caprini, M.; Cardiel Sas, L.; Carli, T.; Carminati, L.; Carvalho, J.; Cascella, M.; Castillo, M. V.; Catinaccio, A.; Cauz, D.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Cetin, S. A.; Chen, H.; Cherkaoui, R.; Chevalier, L.; Chevallier, F.; Chouridou, S.; Ciobotaru, M.; Citterio, M.; Clark, A.; Cleland, B.; Cobal, M.; Cogneras, E.; Conde Muino, P.; Consonni, M.; Constantinescu, S.; Cornelissen, T.; Correard, S.; Corso Radu, A.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Cuneo, S.; Cwetanski, P.; Da Silva, D.; Dam, M.; Dameri, M.; Danielsson, H. O.; Dannheim, D.; Darbo, G.; Davidek, T.; De, K.; Defay, P. O.; Dekhissi, B.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Delmastro, M.; Derue, F.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Girolamo, B.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djobava, T.; Dobos, D.; Dobson, M.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Dotti, A.; Drake, G.; Drasal, Z.; Dressnandt, N.; Driouchi, C.; Drohan, J.; Ebenstein, W. L.; Eerola, P.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Egorov, K.; Eifert, T. F.; Einsweiler, K.; El Kacimi, M.; Elsing, M.; Emelyanov, D.; Escobar, C.; Etienvre, A. I.; Fabich, A.; Facius, K.; Fakhr-Edine, A. I.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farthouat, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Fayard, L.; Febbraro, R.; Fedin, O. L.; Fenyuk, A.; Fergusson, D.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrari, R.; Ferreira, B. C.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrere, D.; Filippini, G.; Flick, T.; Fournier, D.; Francavilla, P.; Francis, D.; Froeschl, R.; Froidevaux, D.; Fullana, E.; Gadomski, S.; Gagliardi, G.; Gagnon, P.; Gallas, M.; Gallop, B. J.; Gameiro, S.; Gan, K. K.; Garcia, R.; Garcia, C.; Gavrilenko, I. L.; Gemme, C.; Gerlach, P.; Ghodbane, N.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Giangiobbe, V.; Giokaris, N.; Glonti, G.; Goettfert, T.; Golling, T.; Gollub, N.; Gomes, A.; Gomez, M. D.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Goodrick, M. J.; Gorfine, G.; Gorini, B.; Goujdami, D.; Grahn, K.-J.; Grenier, P.; Grigalashvili, N.; Grishkevich, Y.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Gruwe, M.; Guicheney, C.; Gupta, A.; Haeberli, C.; Haertel, R.; Hajduk, Z.; Hakobyan, H.; Hance, M.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, P. H.; Hara, K.; Harvey, A., Jr.; Hawkings, R. J.; Heinemann, F. E. W.; Henriques Correia, A.; Henss, T.; Hervas, L.; Higon, E.; Hill, J. C.; Hoffman, J.; Hostachy, J. Y.; Hruska, I.; Hubaut, F.; Huegging, F.; Hulsbergen, W.; Hurwitz, M.; Iconomidou-Fayard, L.; Jansen, E.; Jen-La Plante, I.; Johansson, P. D. C.; Jon-And, K.; Joos, M.; Jorgensen, S.; Joseph, J.; Kaczmarska, A.; Kado, M.; Karyukhin, A.; Kataoka, M.; Kayumov, F.; Kazarov, A.; Keener, P. T.; Kekelidze, G. D.; Kerschen, N.; Kersten, S.; Khomich, A.; Khoriauli, G.; Khramov, E.; Khristachev, A.; Khubua, J.; Kittelmann, T. H.; Klingenberg, R.; Klinkby, E. B.; Kodys, P.; Koffas, T.; Kolos, S.; Konovalov, S. P.; Konstantinidis, N.; Kopikov, S.; Korolkov, I.; Kostyukhin, V.; Kovalenko, S.; Kowalski, T. Z.; Krüger, K.; Kramarenko, V.; Kudin, L. G.; Kulchitsky, Y.; Lacasta, C.; Lafaye, R.; Laforge, B.; Lampl, W.; Lanni, F.; Laplace, S.; Lari, T.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Lechowski, M.; Ledroit-Guillon, F.; Lehmann, G.; Leitner, R.; Lelas, D.; Lester, C. G.; Liang, Z.; Lichard, P.; Liebig, W.; Lipniacka, A.; Lokajicek, M.; Louchard, L.; Lourerio, K. F.; Lucotte, A.; Luehring, F.; Lund-Jensen, B.; Lundberg, B.; Ma, H.; Mackeprang, R.; Maio, A.; Maleev, V. P.; Malek, F.; Mandelli, L.; Maneira, J.; Mangin-Brinet, M.; Manousakis, A.; Mapelli, L.; Marques, C.; Garcia, S. Marti i.; Martin, F.; Mathes, M.; Mazzanti, M.; McFarlane, K. W.; McPherson, R.; Mchedlidze, G.; Mehlhase, S.; Meirosu, C.; Meng, Z.; Meroni, C.; Mialkovski, V.; Mikulec, B.; Milstead, D.; Minashvili, I.; Mindur, B.; Mitsou, V. A.; Moed, S.; Monnier, E.; Moorhead, G.; Morettini, P.; Morozov, S. V.; Mosidze, M.; Mouraviev, S. V.; Moyse, E. W. J.; Munar, A.; Myagkov, A.; Nadtochi, A. V.; Nakamura, K.; Nechaeva, P.; Negri, A.; Nemecek, S.; Nessi, M.; Nesterov, S. Y.; Newcomer, F. M.; Nikitine, I.; Nikolaev, K.; Nikolic-Audit, I.; Ogren, H.; Oh, S. H.; Oleshko, S. B.; Olszowska, J.; Onofre, A.; Padilla Aranda, C.; Paganis, S.; Pallin, D.; Pantea, D.; Paolone, V.; Parodi, F.; Parsons, J.; Parzhitskiy, S.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passmored, S. M.; Pater, J.; Patrichev, S.; Peez, M.; Perez Reale, V.; Perini, L.; Peshekhonov, V. D.; Petersen, J.; Petersen, T. C.; Petti, R.; Phillips, P. W.; Pina, J.; Pinto, B.; Podlyski, F.; Poggioli, L.; Poppleton, A.; Poveda, J.; Pralavorio, P.; Pribyl, L.; Price, M. J.; Prieur, D.; Puigdengoles, C.; Puzo, P.; RØhne, O.; Ragusa, F.; Rajagopalan, S.; Reeves, K.; Reisinger, I.; Rembser, C.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Reznicek, P.; Ridel, M.; Risso, P.; Riu, I.; Robinson, D.; Roda, C.; Roe, S.; Rohne, O.; Romaniouk, A.; Rousseau, D.; Rozanov, A.; Ruiz, A.; Rusakovich, N.; Rust, D.; Ryabov, Y. F.; Ryjov, V.; Salto, O.; Salvachua, B.; Salzburger, A.; Sandaker, H.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santi, L.; Santoni, C.; Saraiva, J. G.; Sarri, F.; Sauvage, G.; Says, L. P.; Schaefer, M.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Schiavi, C.; Schieck, J.; Schlager, G.; Schlereth, J.; Schmitt, C.; Schultes, J.; Schwemling, P.; Schwindling, J.; Seixas, J. M.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Serin, L.; Sfyrla, A.; Shalanda, N.; Shaw, C.; Shin, T.; Shmeleva, A.; Silva, J.; Simion, S.; Simonyan, M.; Sloper, J. E.; Smirnov, S. Yu; Smirnova, L.; Solans, C.; Solodkov, A.; Solovianov, O.; Soloviev, I.; Sosnovtsev, V. V.; Spanò, F.; Speckmayer, P.; Stancu, S.; Stanek, R.; Starchenko, E.; Straessner, A.; Suchkov, S. I.; Suk, M.; Szczygiel, R.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, F.; Tas, P.; Tayalati, Y.; Tegenfeldt, F.; Teuscher, R.; Thioye, M.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Timmermans, C. J. W. P.; Tisserant, S.; Toczek, B.; Tremblet, L.; Troncon, C.; Tsiareshka, P.; Tyndel, M.; Karagoez Unel, M.; Unal, G.; Unel, G.; Usai, G.; Van Berg, R.; Valero, A.; Valkar, S.; Valls, J. A.; Vandelli, W.; Vannucci, F.; Vartapetian, A.; Vassilakopoulos, V. I.; Vasilyeva, L.; Vazeille, F.; Vernocchi, F.; Vetter-Cole, Y.; Vichou, I.; Vinogradov, V.; Virzi, J.; Vivarelli, I.; de Vivie, J. B.; Volpi, M.; Anh, T. Vu; Wang, C.; Warren, M.; Weber, J.; Weber, M.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weingarten, J.; Wells, P. S.; Werner, P.; Wheeler, S.; Wiessmann, M.; Wilkens, H.; Williams, H. H.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Yasu, Y.; Zaitsev, A.; Zenin, A.; Zenis, T.; Zenonos, Z.; Zhang, H.; Zhelezko, A.; Zhou, N.

    2010-11-01

    In 2004 at the ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS) combined test beam, one slice of the ATLAS barrel detector (including an Inner Detector set-up and the Liquid Argon calorimeter) was exposed to particles from the H8 SPS beam line at CERN. It was the first occasion to test the combined electron performance of ATLAS. This paper presents results obtained for the momentum measurement p with the Inner Detector and for the performance of the electron measurement with the LAr calorimeter (energy E linearity and resolution) in the presence of a magnetic field in the Inner Detector for momenta ranging from 20 GeV/c to 100 GeV/c. Furthermore the particle identification capabilities of the Transition Radiation Tracker, Bremsstrahlungs-recovery algorithms relying on the LAr calorimeter and results obtained for the E/p ratio and a way how to extract scale parameters will be discussed.

  12. Optimal resources allocation for independent and joint test of it service releases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimin, V. V.; Kiseleva, T. V.; Maslova, E. V.

    2017-09-01

    The problem of resources allocation for testing IT service releases, which are built into the operational environment for reducing information risks, is considered. Testing can be either independent or system (joint). The problem was formulated, for which the method of network (dichotomous) programming was used allowing the solution of the optimization problem to be considerably simplified. The scheme for changing the current baseline of IT environment when embedding releases into it is introduced, which is necessary to prevent the destruction of the operating environment. The scheme of the network representation of cost functions and incidents probability function, which are structurally similar, is shown. Specific examples of this problem solution for four releases are given, in which the specific values of incidents probability, costs and quality of testing were assigned.

  13. Trigger and DAQ in the Combined Test Beam

    CERN Multimedia

    Dobson, M; Padilla, C

    2004-01-01

    Introduction During the Combined Test Beam the latest prototype of the ATLAS Trigger and DAQ system is being used to support the data taking of all the detectors. Further development of the TDAQ subsystems benefits from the direct experience given by the integration in the beam test. Support of detectors for the Combined Test Beam All ATLAS detectors need their own detector-specific DAQ development. The readout electronics is controlled by a Readout Driver (ROD), custom-built for each detector. The ROD receives data for events that are accepted by the first level trigger. The detector-specific part of the DAQ system needs to control the ROD and to respond to commands of the central DAQ (e.g. to "Start" a run). The ROD module then sends event data to a Readout System (ROS), a PC with special receiver modules/buffers. At this point the data enters the realm of the ATLAS DAQ and High Level Trigger system, constructed from Linux PCs connected with gigabit Ethernet networks. Most ATLAS detectors, representing s...

  14. Retrofitting Combined Space and Water Heating Systems: Laboratory Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenbauer, B.; Bohac, D.; Huelman, P.; Olson, R.; Hewitt, M.

    2012-10-01

    Better insulated and tighter homes can often use a single heating plant for both space and domestic water heating. These systems, called dual integrated appliances (DIA) or combination systems, can operate at high efficiency and eliminate combustion safety issues associated by using a condensing, sealed combustion heating plant. Funds were received to install 400 DIAs in Minnesota low-income homes. The NorthernSTAR DIA laboratory was created to identify proper system components, designs, operating parameters, and installation procedures to assure high efficiency of field installed systems. Tests verified that heating loads up to 57,000 Btu/hr can be achieved with acceptable return water temperatures and supply air temperatures.

  15. Are Independent Probes Truly Independent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Gino; Pecher, Diane; Schmidt, Henk G.; Zeelenberg, Rene

    2009-01-01

    The independent cue technique has been developed to test traditional interference theories against inhibition theories of forgetting. In the present study, the authors tested the critical criterion for the independence of independent cues: Studied cues not presented during test (and unrelated to test cues) should not contribute to the retrieval…

  16. Revisiting the Roles of Culture and Culture-Independent Detection Tests for Campylobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couturier, Marc Roger

    2016-05-01

    Culture-independent detection tests (CIDTs) for Campylobacter have become an area of intense controversy and confusion among laboratorians in the field of clinical microbiology. To date, the true analytical and clinical performance of stool antigen CIDTs versus truly optimized culture conditions is unknown. In this issue of the Journal of Clinical Microbiology, Fitzgerald and colleagues (C. Fitzgerald et al., J Clin Microbiol 54:1209-1215, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.01925-15) report comprehensive performance data for four Campylobacter stool antigen CIDTs versus culture and molecular diagnostics. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Cell-free DNA testing after combined test: factors affecting the uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiz, Nerea; Alzola, Irune; Murua, Emerson J; Rodríguez Santos, Javier

    2016-11-01

    First, to assess what was the uptake of cell free DNA (cfDNA) testing after a combined test and the maternal and fetal factors that influenced this decision, and second, to assess the uptake and factors that influence the choice of invasive testing. This observational retrospective study included 1083 singleton pregnancies who had a combined test for screening for Down syndrome between 11 (+) (0) and 13 (+) (6) weeks. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine which factors affected the uptake of cfDNA test and invasive testing among risk for trisomies 21, 18, and 13, maternal characteristics and fetal nuchal translucency (NT) thickness. Two-hundred fifty-seven (23.7%) women had a cfDNA test, 89 (8.2%) had an invasive test, and 737 (68.1%) had no further test. The uptake of cfDNA increased with the risk for trisomies (p < 0.001), maternal age (p = 0.013), and was higher in nulliparous women (p = 0.004). The uptake of invasive test increased with the risk for trisomies (p < 0.001) and NT thickness (p < 0.001). This study shows that the uptake of cfDNA testing increases with the risk for trisomies, maternal age, and is higher in nulliparous, whereas the uptake of invasive testing increases with the risk for trisomies and NT thickness.

  18. Effect of non-normality on test statistics for one-way independent groups designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cribbie, Robert A; Fiksenbaum, Lisa; Keselman, H J; Wilcox, Rand R

    2012-02-01

    The data obtained from one-way independent groups designs is typically non-normal in form and rarely equally variable across treatment populations (i.e., population variances are heterogeneous). Consequently, the classical test statistic that is used to assess statistical significance (i.e., the analysis of variance F test) typically provides invalid results (e.g., too many Type I errors, reduced power). For this reason, there has been considerable interest in finding a test statistic that is appropriate under conditions of non-normality and variance heterogeneity. Previously recommended procedures for analysing such data include the James test, the Welch test applied either to the usual least squares estimators of central tendency and variability, or the Welch test with robust estimators (i.e., trimmed means and Winsorized variances). A new statistic proposed by Krishnamoorthy, Lu, and Mathew, intended to deal with heterogeneous variances, though not non-normality, uses a parametric bootstrap procedure. In their investigation of the parametric bootstrap test, the authors examined its operating characteristics under limited conditions and did not compare it to the Welch test based on robust estimators. Thus, we investigated how the parametric bootstrap procedure and a modified parametric bootstrap procedure based on trimmed means perform relative to previously recommended procedures when data are non-normal and heterogeneous. The results indicated that the tests based on trimmed means offer the best Type I error control and power when variances are unequal and at least some of the distribution shapes are non-normal. © 2011 The British Psychological Society.

  19. Boron containing combination tool coatings-characterization and application tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keunecke, M. [Fraunhofer Institute for Surface Engineering and Thin Films (IST), Braunschweig (Germany)]. E-mail: keunecke@ist.fraunhofer.de; Bewilogua, K. [Fraunhofer Institute for Surface Engineering and Thin Films (IST), Braunschweig (Germany); Wiemann, E. [Institute for Machine Tools and Factory Management, Technical University Berlin (Germany); Weigel, K. [Fraunhofer Institute for Surface Engineering and Thin Films (IST), Braunschweig (Germany); Wittorf, R. [Fraunhofer Institute for Surface Engineering and Thin Films (IST), Braunschweig (Germany); Thomsen, H. [Fraunhofer Institute for Surface Engineering and Thin Films (IST), Braunschweig (Germany)

    2006-01-03

    The requirements for durable tool coatings continuously increase. In many cases, tool coatings combining different phases or several layers could provide an improvement in tool life. The broad range of mechanical properties of materials in the B-C-N and Ti-B-N ternary systems, from very soft to superhard, presents many possibilities to generate various combination coatings. Such coatings were prepared using reactive sputter techniques with different target materials. An outstanding example is a superhard 3 {mu}m thick coating system with a 0.5 to 0.8 {mu}m thick cBN top layer deposited on cutting inserts. Soft coatings like hexagonal boron nitride were found to be essential for machining operations under dry conditions. The coatings were characterized with respect to hardness, abrasive wear rate and friction coefficients. The correlation between properties and composition was revealed. Application test results of B-C-N and Ti-B-N coating systems on tools obtained under near production conditions will be reported. Specifically, turning tests performed with cemented carbide cutting inserts coated with a superhard coating system with a cBN top layer will be discussed.

  20. Method for independent strain and temperature measurement in polymeric tensile test specimen using embedded FBG sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Gilmar Ferreira; McGugan, Malcolm; Mikkelsen, Lars Pilgaard

    2016-01-01

    A novel method to obtain independent strain and temperature measurements using embedded Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) in polymeric tensile test specimens is presented in this paper. The FBG strain and temperature cross-sensitivity was decoupled using two single mode FBG sensors, which were embedded...... in the specimen material with a certain angle between them. It is demonstrated that, during temperature variation, both FBG sensors show the same signal response. However, for any applied load the signal response is different, which is caused by the different levels of strain acting in each sensor. Equations...... calibration procedure (temperature and strain) was performed to this material-sensor pair, where a calibration error temperature test case, where multiple two loading/strain stages of ε = 0.30% and ε = 0.50% were applied during a continuous variation...

  1. Independent and combined influence of neonatal and current body composition on academic performance in youth: The UP & DOWN Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban-Cornejo, I; Tejero-González, C M; Castro-Piñero, J; Conde-Caveda, J; Cabanas-Sanchez, V; Sallis, J F; Veiga, Óscar L

    2015-06-01

    Unhealthy body composition is a cause for concern across the lifespan. The objective of this study was to examine the independent and combined associations between neonatal and current body composition with academic performance among youth. This cross-sectional study was conducted with a total of 1557 youth (745 girls) aged 10.4 ± 3.4 years. Birth weight and length at birth were self-reported. Current body composition was assessed by body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and percentage of body fat (BF%). Academic performance was assessed through schools records. Birth weight was related to all academic variables in boys, independent of potential confounders, including BMI; whereas WC, BMI and BF% were related to all academic performance indicators in both boys and girls, independent of potential confounders, including birth weight (all P academic performance were observed in both boys and girls for grade point average (GPA) indicator. Boys in the group with none adverse effect had significantly higher scores in GPA (score +0.535; 95% confidence interval, 0.082-0.989) than boys in the group of both adverse effects (P academic performance in youth. © 2014 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2014 World Obesity.

  2. Alaska Power Administration combined financial statements, schedules, and supplemental reports, September 30, 1997 and 1996 with independent auditors` report thereon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    The Alaska Power Administration (APA) will continue to encourage economic and industrial development in Alaska through implementing the sale of APA assets in a manner consistent with the authorizing legislation while balancing all the stakeholders` interests. Alaska Power Administration will provide their employees opportunities for successful career transitions and conduct an efficient transfer of assets and closeout of APA, while continuing to provide customers reliable, low-cost hydroelectric energy during the transition. The attached report presents the results of the independent certified public accounts` audit of the Alaska Power Administration`s (APA) combined power system statements of assets; Federal investment and liabilities; and the related combined statements of revenues, expenses and accumulated net revenues, and cash flows. The auditors` reports on APA`s internal control structure and compliance with laws and regulations disclosed no reportable conditions or instances of noncompliance. Based on the unqualified opinion of the independent public accounting firm of KPMG Peak Marwick LLP and review of their audit work, the authors believe the financial statements fairly present the financial condition and results of the operations of APA for the period under audit.

  3. Rationale for combined exercise and cognition-focused interventions to improve functional independence in people with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, Jeanette M; Clare, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Evidence suggests that exercise and some cognition-focused intervention approaches can be used to elicit functional improvements in older people and, to some degree, those diagnosed with dementia. Independently, the two intervention types have been found to improve functional performance in people with dementia. The mechanisms underpinning these improvements come from comparable and diverse pathways. This suggests that it may be beneficial for the two intervention types to be coupled as part of regular care in individuals with a range of cognitive impairments. The aims of this review are threefold. The first aim is to present evidence to support the use for combining exercise and cognition-focused interventions. This will be achieved by reviewing the mechanisms of both approaches in improving functional performance in older people and in people with dementia and summarising recent progress. The increased risk of depression, falls and cardiovascular disease risk in people with dementia will also be highlighted. The second aim is to discuss the parameters of the two approaches that should be considered when combining them in terms of possible efficient models, especially in relation to exercise protocols as this is where the current literature shows the most promising outcomes. Maximisation of the efficacy of preventative and treatment interventions which focus on both cognitive functioning and physical health should lead to improving and extending functional independence. Key aspects of any combined intervention would involve the inclusion of both cardiovascular and other types of exercises, including falls reduction, and exercises addressing memory and executive function via goal setting in the real-life context. The third aim is to explore some of the issues that may arise when attempting to incorporate interventions into the regular treatment of people with dementia. Consideration must also be given to caregivers and the education of health professionals as well

  4. Test Program of the "Combined Data and Power Management Infrastructure"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eickhoff, Jens; Fritz, Michael; Witt, Rouven; Bucher, Nico; Roser, Hans-Peter

    2013-08-01

    As already published in previous DASIA papers, the University of Stuttgart, Germany, is developing an advanced 3-axis stabilized small satellite applying industry standards for command/control techniques and Onboard Software design. This satellite furthermore features an innovative hybrid architecture of Onboard Computer and Power Control and Distribution Unit. One of the main challenges was the development of an ultra-compact and performing Onboard Computer (OBC), which was intended to support an RTEMS operating system, a PUS standard based Onboard Software (OBSW) and CCSDS standard based ground/space communication. The developed architecture (see [1, 2, 3]) is called a “Combined Onboard Data and Power Management Infrastructure” - CDPI. It features: The OBC processor boards based on a LEON3FT architecture - from Aeroflex Inc., USA The I/O Boards for all OBC digital interfaces to S/C equipment (digital RIU) - from 4Links Ltd. UK CCSDS TC/TM decoder/encoder boards - with same HW design as I/O boards - just with limited number of interfaces. HW from 4Links Ltd, UK, driver SW and IP-Core from Aeroflex Gaisler, SE Analog RIU functions via enhanced PCDU from Vectronic Aerospace, D OBC reconfiguration unit functions via Common Controller - here in PCDU [4] The CDPI overall assembly is meanwhile complete and a exhaustive description can be found in [5]. The EM test campaign including the HW/SW compatibility testing is finalized. This comprises all OBC EM units, OBC EM assembly and the EM PCDU. The unit test program for the FM Processor-Boards and Power-Boards of the OBC are completed and the unit tests of FM I/O-Boards and CCSDS-Boards have been completed by 4Links at the assembly house. The subsystem tests of the assembled OBC also are completed and the overall System tests of the CDPI with system reconfiguration in diverse possible FDIR cases also reach the last steps. Still ongoing is the subsequent integration of the CDPI with the satellite's avionics components

  5. [Combining high-risk human papillomavirus DNA test and cytological test to detect early cervical dysplasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, De-ying; Cen, Jian-min; Wang, Ding; Zeng, Ren-hai; Lin, Ai-hua; Shu, Yan-hong; Hong, Dan-hua; Huang, Zhi-hong

    2006-01-01

    To assess the value of combining high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA test and cytological test in detection of early cervical dysplasia. During January 2003 to June 2004, a total of 5210 women were screened by combining high-risk HPV DNA test (hybrid capture II, HC-II) and cytological test (liquid-based ThinPrep cytology test), and the abnormal cytological or HPV DNA findings were further biopsied under the colposcope. The age of the patients was between 17 to 80, the average was 34 +/- 9. Final pathological diagnosis was HPV infection in 890 cases, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) I in 83 cases, CIN II in 73 cases, CIN III in 80 cases, invasive cervical cancer in 54 cases, endometrial cancer in 5 cases, vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia in 1 case and cervical tuberculosis in 1 case. Based on the criteria of histology and pathology, the sensitivity, specificity, positive-predictive value and negative-predictive value of high-risk HPV DNA test for detecting all cases of CIN II, III were 92.22%, 74.71%, 5.19% and 99.84% respectively. In detecting all cases of CIN II, III by cytological test, for atypical squamous cell of undetermined signification (ASCUS), the sensitivity, specificity, positive-predictive value and negative-predictive value were 90.00%, 80.34%, 11.94% and 99.63% respectively; for low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), the sensitivity, specificity, positive-predictive value and negative-predictive value were 70.13%, 91.58%, 11.11% and 99.51% respectively; for high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL), the sensitivity, specificity, positive-predictive value and negative-predictive value were 48.05%, 98.46%, 31.90% and 99.21% respectively. By the combination of high-risk HPV DNA test and cytological test, the sensitivity, specificity, positive-predictive value and negative-predictive value for detecting all cases of CIN II, III were 98.70%, 73.08%, 5.21% and 100.00% respectively. The infection rate of HPV in cervical

  6. A Hybrid Sales Forecasting Scheme by Combining Independent Component Analysis with K-Means Clustering and Support Vector Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Sales forecasting plays an important role in operating a business since it can be used to determine the required inventory level to meet consumer demand and avoid the problem of under/overstocking. Improving the accuracy of sales forecasting has become an important issue of operating a business. This study proposes a hybrid sales forecasting scheme by combining independent component analysis (ICA) with K-means clustering and support vector regression (SVR). The proposed scheme first uses the ICA to extract hidden information from the observed sales data. The extracted features are then applied to K-means algorithm for clustering the sales data into several disjoined clusters. Finally, the SVR forecasting models are applied to each group to generate final forecasting results. Experimental results from information technology (IT) product agent sales data reveal that the proposed sales forecasting scheme outperforms the three comparison models and hence provides an efficient alternative for sales forecasting. PMID:25045738

  7. Independent and combined influence of physical activity and perceived stress on the metabolic syndrome in male law enforcement officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hye Lim; Eisenmann, Joey C; Franke, Warren D

    2009-01-01

    : To examine the independent and combined interrelationships among physical activity, perceived stress, and the metabolic syndrome in law enforcement officers (LEOs). : Perceived stress, self-reported physical activity, and metabolic syndrome risk factors were assessed in 386 white male LEOs. : Among the LEOs, 23.1% had the metabolic syndrome. The metabolic syndrome was not significantly associated with perceived stress (r = 0.047) whereas physical activity was (r = -0.225, P metabolic syndrome in the low and moderate physical activity groups compared to the high physical activity group were 3.13 (95% CI = 1.56 to 6.26) and 2.30 (95% CI = 1.29 to 4.09), respectively. : Regardless of stress level, physical inactivity is an important risk factor in the metabolic syndrome among this unique occupational group.

  8. Performance of Optimum and Suboptimum Combining Diversity Reception for Binary DPSK over Independent, Nonidentical Rayleigh Fading Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Fu, Hua

    2010-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the error performance analysis of binary differential phase shift keying with differential detection over the nonselective, Rayleigh fading channel with combining diversity reception. Space antenna diversity reception is assumed. The diversity branches are independent, but have nonidentically distributed statistics. The fading process in each branch is assumed to have an arbitrary Doppler spectrum with arbitrary Doppler bandwidth. Both optimum diversity reception and suboptimum diversity reception are considered. Results available previously apply only to the case of first and second-order diversity. Our results are more general in that the order of diversity is arbitrary. Moreover, the bit error probability (BEP) result is obtained in an exact, closed-form expression which shows the behavior of the BEP as an explict function of the one-bit-interval fading correlation coefficient at the matched filter output, the mean signal-to-noise ratio per bit per branch and the order of diver...

  9. A Hybrid Sales Forecasting Scheme by Combining Independent Component Analysis with K-Means Clustering and Support Vector Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Jie Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sales forecasting plays an important role in operating a business since it can be used to determine the required inventory level to meet consumer demand and avoid the problem of under/overstocking. Improving the accuracy of sales forecasting has become an important issue of operating a business. This study proposes a hybrid sales forecasting scheme by combining independent component analysis (ICA with K-means clustering and support vector regression (SVR. The proposed scheme first uses the ICA to extract hidden information from the observed sales data. The extracted features are then applied to K-means algorithm for clustering the sales data into several disjoined clusters. Finally, the SVR forecasting models are applied to each group to generate final forecasting results. Experimental results from information technology (IT product agent sales data reveal that the proposed sales forecasting scheme outperforms the three comparison models and hence provides an efficient alternative for sales forecasting.

  10. Combination of culture-dependent and culture-independent molecular methods for the determination of lactic microbiota in sucuk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesmen, Z; Yetiman, A E; Gulluce, A; Kacmaz, N; Sagdic, O; Cetin, B; Adiguzel, A; Sahin, F; Yetim, H

    2012-02-15

    In this study, the culture-dependent and culture-independent molecular methods were used for the identification of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in sucuk a Turkish fermented dry sausage. On the one hand, the PCR-DGGE method targetting the V1 and V3 regions of 16S DNA was applied to DNA that was directly extracted from sucuk samples. On the other hand, rep-PCR fingerprinting was performed for the primary differentiation and grouping of the isolates, and the results were confirmed by sequencing of the 16S rDNA and 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region. As a result of the PCR-DGGE analysis of all the samples, total 8 different lactic acid bacteria were identified, and Lactobacillus sakei, Lactobacillus curvatus and Weissella viridescens were the dominant microbiota among these bacteria. The culture-dependent approach indicated that the majority of the strains belonged to the Lactobacillus genera including Lb. sakei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lb. curvatus, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus farciminis and Lactobacillus alimentarius. However, Leuconostoc and Weisella were also detected as minor genera. Again, Lactococcus piscium, Weissella halotolerans, Staphylococcus succinus and the comigrated Staphylococcus piscifermentans/Staphylococcus condimenti/Staphylococcus carnosus group were detected only with the culture-independent method while Lb. plantarum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Leuconostoc citreum were identified only by using the culture-dependent method. In the results, it was concluded that the combination of culture-dependent and culture-independent methods was necessary for reliable and detailed investigation of LAB communities in fermented food products. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Combined Culture-Based and Culture-Independent Approaches Provide Insights into Diversity of Jakobids, an Extremely Plesiomorphic Eukaryotic Lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pánek, Tomáš; Táborský, Petr; Pachiadaki, Maria G; Hroudová, Miluše; Vlček, Čestmír; Edgcomb, Virginia P; Čepička, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    We used culture-based and culture-independent approaches to discover diversity and ecology of anaerobic jakobids (Excavata: Jakobida), an overlooked, deep-branching lineage of free-living nanoflagellates related to Euglenozoa. Jakobids are among a few lineages of nanoflagellates frequently detected in anoxic habitats by PCR-based studies, however only two strains of a single jakobid species have been isolated from those habitats. We recovered 712 environmental sequences and cultured 21 new isolates of anaerobic jakobids that collectively represent at least ten different species in total, from which four are uncultured. Two cultured species have never been detected by environmental, PCR-based methods. Surprisingly, culture-based and culture-independent approaches were able to reveal a relatively high proportion of overall species diversity of anaerobic jakobids-60 or 80%, respectively. Our phylogenetic analyses based on SSU rDNA and six protein-coding genes showed that anaerobic jakobids constitute a clade of morphologically similar, but genetically and ecologically diverse protists-Stygiellidae fam. nov. Our investigation combines culture-based and environmental molecular-based approaches to capture a wider extent of species diversity and shows Stygiellidae as a group that ordinarily inhabits anoxic, sulfide- and ammonium-rich marine habitats worldwide.

  12. Combined use of straddle packer testing and FLUTe profiling for hydraulic testing in fractured rock boreholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Patryk; Cherry, John A.; Parker, Beth L.

    2015-05-01

    A combination of high resolution hydraulic tests using straddle packers and transmissivity (T) profiling using the FLUTe flexible liner method (liner profiling) in densely fractured rock boreholes is shown to be efficient for the determination of the vertical distribution of T along the entire hole. The liner T profiling method takes a few hours or less to scan the entire borehole length resulting in a T profile. Under favorable conditions this method has good reliability for identifying the highest T zones identified by distinct decreases in liner velocity when these zones are covered by the descending liner. In contrast, for one short test interval (e.g., 1-2 m) the multiple-test, straddle-packer method takes a few hours to measure T with good precision and accuracy using a combination of steady-state and transient tests (e.g., constant head step tests, slug tests, and constant rate pumping tests). Because of the time consuming aspect of this multiple-test method, it is most efficient in each borehole to conduct straddle packer testing only in priority zones selected after assessment of other borehole data collected prior to packer testing. The T profile from the liner method is instrumental in selecting high permeable zones for application of the multiple-test method using straddle packers, which in turn, refines the T estimation from the liner profile. Results from three boreholes in densely fractured sandstone demonstrate this approach showing the synergistic use of the methods with emphasis on information important for determining hydraulic apertures.

  13. Gravitational independence of single-breath washout tests in recumbent dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioka, Shinichi; Kubo, Susumu; Guy, Harold J. B.; Prisk, G. K.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of gravitational orientation in the mechanism of lung filling and emptying in dogs was examined by conducting simultaneously Ar-bolus and N2 single-breath washout tests (SBWTs) in 10 anesthetized dogs (prone and supine), with three of the dogs subjected to body rotation. Transpulmonary pressure was measured simultaneously, allowing identification of the lung volume above residual volume at which there was an inflection point in the pressure-volume curve. Combined resident gas and bolus SBWTs in recumbent dogs were found to be different from such tests in humans; in dogs, the regional distribution of ventilation was not primarily determined by gravity. The measurements did not make it possible to discern exact mechanisms of filling and emptying, but both processes appear to be related to lung, thorax, and mediastinum interactions and/or differences in regional mechanical properties of the lungs.

  14. Graded Cycling Test Combined With the Talk Test Is Responsive in Cardiac Rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Grøn; Vinther, Anders

    2016-01-01

    combined with the Graded Cycling Test (GCT-TT) in cardiac patients. The purpose was to investigate responsiveness of GCT-TT in cardiac rehabilitation patients. METHODS: Patients (n = 93) referred to 8 weeks of cardiac rehabilitation were included. Pre- and posttests were performed using GCT-TT. Mean test......PURPOSE: To evaluate clinical assessment outcome of cardiac rehabilitation, a simple and reliable submaximal exercise test, not based on heart rate, is warranted. The Talk Test (TT) has been found to correlate well with the ventilatory threshold, and excellent reliability was observed for TT...... changes in watts (W) were compared with the standard error of measurement (SEM95) for groups and the smallest real difference (SRD) for individuals. Minimal clinically important difference was assessed by comparing patient perceived changes in physical fitness with the test changes. RESULTS...

  15. Combined Experiment Phase 1. [Horizontal axis wind turbines: wind tunnel testing versus field testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butterfield, C.P.; Musial, W.P.; Simms, D.A.

    1992-10-01

    How does wind tunnel airfoil data differ from the airfoil performance on an operating horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) The National Renewable Energy laboratory has been conducting a comprehensive test program focused on answering this question and understanding the basic fluid mechanics of rotating HAWT stall aerodynamics. The basic approach was to instrument a wind rotor, using an airfoil that was well documented by wind tunnel tests, and measure operating pressure distributions on the rotating blade. Based an the integrated values of the pressure data, airfoil performance coefficients were obtained, and comparisons were made between the rotating data and the wind tunnel data. Care was taken to the aerodynamic and geometric differences between the rotating and the wind tunnel models. This is the first of two reports describing the Combined Experiment Program and its results. This Phase I report covers background information such as test setup and instrumentation. It also includes wind tunnel test results and roughness testing.

  16. Power of tests for a dichotomous independent variable measured with error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffrey, Daniel F; Elliott, Marc N

    2008-06-01

    To examine the implications for statistical power of using predicted probabilities for a dichotomous independent variable, rather than the actual variable. An application uses 271,479 observations from the 2000 to 2002 CAHPS Medicare Fee-for-Service surveys. STUDY DESIGN AND DATA: A methodological study with simulation results and a substantive application to previously collected data. Researchers often must employ key dichotomous predictors that are unobserved but for which predictions exist. We consider three approaches to such data: the classification estimator (1); the direct substitution estimator (2); the partial information maximum likelihood estimator (3, PIMLE). The efficiency of (1) (its power relative to testing with the true variable) roughly scales with the square of one less the classification error. The efficiency of (2) roughly scales with the R(2) for predicting the unobserved dichotomous variable, and is usually more powerful than (1). Approach (3) is most powerful, but for testing differences in means of 0.2-0.5 standard deviations, (2) is typically more than 95 percent as efficient as (3). The information loss from not observing actual values of dichotomous predictors can be quite large. Direct substitution is easy to implement and interpret and nearly as efficient as the PIMLE.

  17. Culture-independent diagnostic testing: have we opened Pandora's box for good?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janda, J Michael; Abbott, Sharon A

    2014-11-01

    The ability to accurately and quickly identify microbial agents associated with infectious diseases has been a longstanding and continuous goal of diagnostic microbiology laboratories. Over the course of several decades, technology and testing methodologies in this field have gradually evolved from traditional- or classic-based culture and identification approaches to antigen capture systems and more molecular-oriented applications. Recently, these molecular-based applications have signaled a new era in clinical diagnostic microbiology with the commercial introduction of culture-independent diagnostic testing (CIDT) systems. The first major commercial venture into the CIDT arena involves the detection of acute bacterial gastroenteritis. Several commercial products are now on the market globally with at least 4 Food and Drug Administration approved since January of 2013. These new systems offer the direct detection of a variety of enteropathogens quickly without the need for traditional culture. In Greek mythology, Pandora opened a "jar" or "box" out of curiosity thereby releasing all of humanity's evils most notably diseases and plagues according to Hesiod's Theogony. While not ill-intentioned the only thing left in the box was Hope. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. An Integrated Approach to Universal Prevention: Independent and Combined Effects of PBIS and SEL on Youths’ Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Clayton R.; Frye, Megan; Slemrod, Tal; Lyon, Aaron R.; Renshaw, Tyler L.; Zhang, Yanchen

    2015-01-01

    Mental health among children and adolescents is a growing national concern and schools have taken center stage in efforts to prevent problems and promote wellness. Although research and policymakers support the integration of mental health services into the schools, there is limited agreement on the ways to package or combine existing supports to achieve prevention-oriented goals. Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) and Social Emotional Learning (SEL) are two of the most widely-adopted, evidence-based approaches that have been advocated to address student mental health. These universal prevention approaches, however, stem from different theoretical camps and are often advocated and implemented apart from one another. The purpose of this study was to examine the independent and combined effects of PBIS and SEL on student mental health outcomes. A quasi-randomized control design at the classroom-level was used to make comparisons across four conditions: business-as-usual (BAU), PBIS alone, SEL alone, and COMBO condition with regard to their acceptability to teachers, integrity of program delivery, and student outcomes. As predicted, the COMBO condition produced significantly greater improvements in overall mental health and reductions in externalizing behaviors when compared to all other conditions. The results also indicated that the PBIS and SEL only conditions were both able to produce significant improvements in overall mental health functioning as compared to the BAU control. The implications of an integrated approach for school-based universal prevention and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:25602629

  19. An integrated approach to universal prevention: Independent and combined effects of PBIS and SEL on youths' mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Clayton R; Frye, Megan; Slemrod, Tal; Lyon, Aaron R; Renshaw, Tyler L; Zhang, Yanchen

    2015-06-01

    Mental health among children and adolescents is a growing national concern and schools have taken center stage in efforts to prevent problems and promote wellness. Although research and policymakers support the integration of mental health services into the schools, there is limited agreement on the ways to package or combine existing supports to achieve prevention-oriented goals. Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) and Social Emotional Learning (SEL) are 2 of the most widely adopted, evidence-based approaches that have been advocated to address student mental health. These universal prevention approaches, however, stem from different theoretical camps and are often advocated and implemented apart from one another. The purpose of this study was to examine the independent and combined effects of PBIS and SEL on student mental health outcomes. A quasi-randomized control design at the classroom level was used to make comparisons across 4 conditions: business-as-usual (BAU), PBIS alone, SEL alone, and COMBO condition with regard to their acceptability to teachers, integrity of program delivery, and student outcomes. As predicted, the COMBO condition produced significantly greater improvements in overall mental health and reductions in externalizing behaviors when compared to all other conditions. The results also indicated that the PBIS- and SEL-only conditions were both able to produce significant improvements in overall mental health functioning as compared with the BAU control. The implications of an integrated approach for school-based universal prevention and directions for future research are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Independent Evaluation of the Driver Acceptance of the Cooperative Intersection Collision Avoidance System for Violations (CICAS-V) Pilot Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    This report documents the results of the independent evaluations assessment of the driver acceptance of the Cooperative Intersection Collision Avoidance System limited to Stop Sign and Traffic Signal Violations (CICAS-V) system as tested during a ...

  1. Testing of hypothesis of two-dimensional random variables independence on the basis of algorithm of pattern recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapko, A. V.; Lapko, V. A.; Yuronen, E. A.

    2016-11-01

    The new technique of testing of hypothesis of random variables independence is offered. Its basis is made by nonparametric algorithm of pattern recognition. The considered technique doesn't demand sampling of area of values of random variables.

  2. Aggressiveness as a latent personality trait of domestic dogs: Testing local independence and measurement invariance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goold, Conor; Newberry, Ruth C

    2017-01-01

    Studies of animal personality attempt to uncover underlying or "latent" personality traits that explain broad patterns of behaviour, often by applying latent variable statistical models (e.g., factor analysis) to multivariate data sets. Two integral, but infrequently confirmed, assumptions of latent variable models in animal personality are: i) behavioural variables are independent (i.e., uncorrelated) conditional on the latent personality traits they reflect (local independence), and ii) personality traits are associated with behavioural variables in the same way across individuals or groups of individuals (measurement invariance). We tested these assumptions using observations of aggression in four age classes (4-10 months, 10 months-3 years, 3-6 years, over 6 years) of male and female shelter dogs (N = 4,743) in 11 different contexts. A structural equation model supported the hypothesis of two positively correlated personality traits underlying aggression across contexts: aggressiveness towards people and aggressiveness towards dogs (comparative fit index: 0.96; Tucker-Lewis index: 0.95; root mean square error of approximation: 0.03). Aggression across contexts was moderately repeatable (towards people: intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.479; towards dogs: ICC = 0.303). However, certain contexts related to aggressiveness towards people (but not dogs) shared significant residual relationships unaccounted for by latent levels of aggressiveness. Furthermore, aggressiveness towards people and dogs in different contexts interacted with sex and age. Thus, sex and age differences in displays of aggression were not simple functions of underlying aggressiveness. Our results illustrate that the robustness of traits in latent variable models must be critically assessed before making conclusions about the effects of, or factors influencing, animal personality. Our findings are of concern because inaccurate "aggressive personality" trait attributions can be costly

  3. Aggressiveness as a latent personality trait of domestic dogs: Testing local independence and measurement invariance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conor Goold

    Full Text Available Studies of animal personality attempt to uncover underlying or "latent" personality traits that explain broad patterns of behaviour, often by applying latent variable statistical models (e.g., factor analysis to multivariate data sets. Two integral, but infrequently confirmed, assumptions of latent variable models in animal personality are: i behavioural variables are independent (i.e., uncorrelated conditional on the latent personality traits they reflect (local independence, and ii personality traits are associated with behavioural variables in the same way across individuals or groups of individuals (measurement invariance. We tested these assumptions using observations of aggression in four age classes (4-10 months, 10 months-3 years, 3-6 years, over 6 years of male and female shelter dogs (N = 4,743 in 11 different contexts. A structural equation model supported the hypothesis of two positively correlated personality traits underlying aggression across contexts: aggressiveness towards people and aggressiveness towards dogs (comparative fit index: 0.96; Tucker-Lewis index: 0.95; root mean square error of approximation: 0.03. Aggression across contexts was moderately repeatable (towards people: intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC = 0.479; towards dogs: ICC = 0.303. However, certain contexts related to aggressiveness towards people (but not dogs shared significant residual relationships unaccounted for by latent levels of aggressiveness. Furthermore, aggressiveness towards people and dogs in different contexts interacted with sex and age. Thus, sex and age differences in displays of aggression were not simple functions of underlying aggressiveness. Our results illustrate that the robustness of traits in latent variable models must be critically assessed before making conclusions about the effects of, or factors influencing, animal personality. Our findings are of concern because inaccurate "aggressive personality" trait attributions can be

  4. Aggressiveness as a latent personality trait of domestic dogs: Testing local independence and measurement invariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Studies of animal personality attempt to uncover underlying or “latent” personality traits that explain broad patterns of behaviour, often by applying latent variable statistical models (e.g., factor analysis) to multivariate data sets. Two integral, but infrequently confirmed, assumptions of latent variable models in animal personality are: i) behavioural variables are independent (i.e., uncorrelated) conditional on the latent personality traits they reflect (local independence), and ii) personality traits are associated with behavioural variables in the same way across individuals or groups of individuals (measurement invariance). We tested these assumptions using observations of aggression in four age classes (4–10 months, 10 months–3 years, 3–6 years, over 6 years) of male and female shelter dogs (N = 4,743) in 11 different contexts. A structural equation model supported the hypothesis of two positively correlated personality traits underlying aggression across contexts: aggressiveness towards people and aggressiveness towards dogs (comparative fit index: 0.96; Tucker-Lewis index: 0.95; root mean square error of approximation: 0.03). Aggression across contexts was moderately repeatable (towards people: intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.479; towards dogs: ICC = 0.303). However, certain contexts related to aggressiveness towards people (but not dogs) shared significant residual relationships unaccounted for by latent levels of aggressiveness. Furthermore, aggressiveness towards people and dogs in different contexts interacted with sex and age. Thus, sex and age differences in displays of aggression were not simple functions of underlying aggressiveness. Our results illustrate that the robustness of traits in latent variable models must be critically assessed before making conclusions about the effects of, or factors influencing, animal personality. Our findings are of concern because inaccurate “aggressive personality” trait attributions

  5. Testing hypotheses about the sister group of the passeriformes using an independent 30-locus data set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Braun, Edward L; Kimball, Rebecca T

    2012-02-01

    Although many phylogenetic studies have focused on developing hypotheses about relationships, advances in data collection and computation have increased the feasibility of collecting large independent data sets to rigorously test controversial hypotheses or carefully assess artifacts that may be misleading. One such relationship in need of independent evaluation is the position of Passeriformes (perching birds) in avian phylogeny. This order comprises more than half of all extant birds, and it includes one of the most important avian model systems (the zebra finch). Recent large-scale studies using morphology, mitochondrial, and nuclear sequence data have generated very different hypotheses about the sister group of Passeriformes, and all conflict with an older hypothesis generated using DNA-DNA hybridization. We used novel data from 30 nuclear loci, primarily introns, for 28 taxa to evaluate five major a priori hypotheses regarding the phylogenetic position of Passeriformes. Although previous studies have suggested that nuclear introns are ideal for the resolution of ancient avian relationships, introns have also been criticized because of the potential for alignment ambiguities and the loss of signal due to saturation. To examine these issues, we generated multiple alignments using several alignment programs, varying alignment parameters, and using guide trees that reflected the different a priori hypotheses. Although different alignments and analyses yielded slightly different results, our analyses excluded all but one of the five a priori hypotheses. In many cases, the passerines were sister to the Psittaciformes (parrots), and taxa were members of a larger clade that includes Falconidae (falcons) and Cariamidae (seriemas). However, the position of Coliiformes (mousebirds) was highly unstable in our analyses of 30 loci, and this represented the primary source of incongruence among analyses. Mousebirds were united with passerines or parrots in some analyses

  6. Techniques to improve testing scalability on concurrent programs: combining static analysis and testing for Deadlock detection

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel Márquez, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Static deadlock analyzers might be able to verify the absence of deadlock, but when they detect a potential deadlock cycle, they provide little (or even none) information on their output. Due to the complex ow of concurrent programs, the user might not be able to find the source of the anomalous behaviour from the abstract information computed by static analysis.This paper proposes the combined use of static analysis and testing for effective deadlock detection in asynchronous programs. Our m...

  7. Test of the ATLAS pion calibration scheme in the ATLAS combined test beam

    CERN Document Server

    Spanò, F

    2009-01-01

    Pion energy reconstruction is studied using the data collected during the 2004 ATLAS combined test beam. The strategy to extract corrections for the non-compensating nature of the ATLAS calorimeters for dead material losses and for leakage effects is discussed and assessed. The default ATLAS strategy based on a weighting technique of the energy deposits in calorimeter cells is presented and compared to a novel technique exploiting correlations among energy deposited in calorimeter layers.

  8. A comparative and combined study of EMIS and GPR detectors by the use of Independent Component Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgenstjerne, Axel; Karlsen, Brian; Larsen, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Independent Component Analysis (ICA) is applied to classify unexploded ordnance (UXO) on laboratory UXO test-field data, acquired by stand-off detection. The data are acquired by an Electromagnetic Induction Spectroscopy (EMIS) metal detector and a ground penetrating radar (GPR) detector. The metal...... detector is a GEM-3, which is a monostatic sensor measuring the response of the environment on a multi-frequency constant wave excitation field (300 Hz to 25 kHz), and the GPR detector is a stepped-frequency GPR with a monostatic bow-tie antenna (500MHz to 2.5GHz). For both sensors the in...... are processed by the use of statistical signal processing based on ICA. An unsupervised method based on ICA to detect, discriminate, and classify the UXOs from clutter is suggested. The approach is studied on GPR and EMIS data, separately and compared. The potential is an improved ability: to detect the UXOs...

  9. Independent and combined influence of homeownership, occupation, education, income, and community poverty on physical health in persons with arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Leigh F; Martin, Kathryn Remmes; Shreffler, Jack; Kumar, Deepak; Schoster, Britta; Kaufman, Jay S; Schwartz, Todd A

    2011-05-01

    To examine the independent and combined influence of individual- and community-level socioeconomic status (SES) measures on physical health status outcomes in people with self-reported arthritis. From 2004-2005, 968 participants completed a telephone survey assessing health status, chronic conditions, community characteristics, and sociodemographic variables. Individual-level SES measures used included homeownership, occupation (professional or not), educational attainment (less than high school, high school degree, and more than high school), and income ($45,000). Community poverty (2000 US Census block group percentage of individuals living below the poverty line [low, medium, and high]) was used as a community-level SES measure. Outcomes were physical functioning (Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 12 version 2 physical component summary [PCS]), functional disability (Health Assessment Questionnaire [HAQ]), and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) Healthy Days physical and limited activity days, and were analyzed via multivariable regressions. When entered separately, all individual-level SES variables were significantly (P poverty. The magnitude of effect for education is reduced and marginally significant for the PCS and number of physically unhealthy days. No effects were seen for occupation, homeownership, and community poverty. Findings confirm that after adjusting for important covariates, lower individual- and community-level SES measures are associated with poorer physical health outcomes, while household income is the strongest predictor (as measured by both significance and effect) of poorer health status in final models. Studies not having participant-reported income available should make use of other SES measures, as they do independently predict physical health. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  10. Safeguard: Progress and Test Results for a Reliable Independent On-Board Safety Net for UAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Steven D.; Dill, Evan T.; Hayhurst, Kelly J.; Gilabert, Russell V.

    2017-01-01

    As demands increase to use unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) for a broad spectrum of commercial applications, regulatory authorities are examining how to safely integrate them without compromising safety or disrupting traditional airspace operations. For small UAS, several operational rules have been established; e.g., do not operate beyond visual line-of-sight, do not fly within five miles of a commercial airport, do not fly above 400 feet above ground level. Enforcing these rules is challenging for UAS, as evidenced by the number of incident reports received by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). This paper reviews the development of an onboard system - Safeguard - designed to monitor and enforce conformance to a set of operational rules defined prior to flight (e.g., geospatial stay-out or stay-in regions, speed limits, and altitude constraints). Unlike typical geofencing or geo-limitation functions, Safeguard operates independently of the off-the-shelf UAS autopilot and is designed in a way that can be realized by a small set of verifiable functions to simplify compliance with existing standards for safety-critical systems (e.g. for spacecraft and manned commercial transportation aircraft systems). A framework is described that decouples the system from any other devices on the UAS as well as introduces complementary positioning source(s) for applications that require integrity and availability beyond what can be provided by the Global Positioning System (GPS). This paper summarizes the progress and test results for Safeguard research and development since presentation of the design concept at the 35th Digital Avionics Systems Conference (DASC '16). Significant accomplishments include completion of software verification and validation in accordance with NASA standards for spacecraft systems (to Class B), development of improved hardware prototypes, development of a simulation platform that allows for hardware-in-the-loop testing and fast-time Monte Carlo

  11. An empirical test of the independence between declarative and procedural working memory in Oberauer's (2009) theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrouillet, Pierre; Corbin, Lucie; Dagry, Isabelle; Camos, Valérie

    2015-08-01

    It has recently been suggested that working memory could be conceived as two symmetrical subsystems with analogous structure and processing principles: a declarative working memory storing objects of thought available for cognitive operations, and a procedural working memory holding representations of what to do with these objects (Oberauer, Psychology of learning and motivation 51: 45-100, 2009). Within this theoretical framework, the two subsystems are thought to be independent and fueled by their own capacity. The present study tested this hypothesis through two experiments using a complex span task in which participants were asked to maintain consonants for further recall while performing response selection tasks. In line with Oberauer's conception, the load of the procedural working memory was varied by manipulating the number of stimulus-response mappings of the response selection task. Increasing the number of these mappings had a strong detrimental effect on recall performance. Besides contradicting Oberauer's proposal, this finding supports models that assume a resource-sharing between processing and storage in working memory.

  12. Does the Newton's gravitational constant vary sinusoidally with time? An independent test with planetary orbital motions

    CERN Document Server

    Iorio, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    A sinusoidally time-varying pattern for the values of the Newton's constant of gravitation $G$ measured in Earth-based laboratories over the latest decades has been recently reported in the literature. Its amplitude and period amount to $A_G=1.619\\times 10^{-14} \\textrm{kg}^{-1} \\textrm{m}^3 \\textrm{s}^{-2}, P_G=5.899 \\textrm{yr}$, respectively. Given the fundamental role played by $G$ in the currently accepted theory of gravitation and the attempts to merge it with quantum mechanics, it is important to put to the test the hypothesis that the aforementioned harmonic variation may pertain $G$ itself in a direct and independent way. The bounds on $\\dot G/G$ existing in the literature may not be extended straightforwardly to the present case since they were inferred by considering just secular variations. Thus, we numerically integrated the ad-hoc modified equations of motion of the major bodies of the Solar System by finding that the orbits of the planets would be altered by an unacceptably larger amount in vie...

  13. Impact of Culture-Independent Diagnostic Testing on Recovery of Enteric Bacterial Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imdad, Aamer; Retzer, Fiona; Thomas, Linda S; McMillian, Marcy; Garman, Katie; Rebeiro, Peter F; Deppen, Stephen A; Dunn, John R; Woron, Amy M

    2017-12-26

    Culture-independent diagnostic tests (CIDT) are increasingly used to identify enteric pathogens. However, foodborne illness surveillance systems have relied upon culture confirmation to estimate disease burden and identify outbreaks through molecular subtyping. This study examined the impacts of CIDT and estimated costs for culture verification of Shigella, Salmonella, Shiga-Toxin producing E. coli (STEC), and Campylobacter at the Tennessee Department of Health Public Health Laboratory (PHL). This observational study included laboratory and epidemiological surveillance data collected between years 2013-2016 from patients with the reported enteric illness. We calculated pathogen recovery at PHL based on initial diagnostic test type reported at the clinical laboratory. Adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated with Modified Poisson Regression. Estimates of cost were calculated for pathogen recovery from CIDT positive specimens compared to recovery from culture-derived isolates. During the study period, PHL received 5553 specimens from clinical laboratories from patients with the enteric illness. Pathogen recovery was 57% (984/1713) from referred CIDT positive stool specimens and 95% (3662/3840) from culture-derived isolates (PR=0.61, 95% CI: 0.56-0.66). Pathogen recovery from CIDT-positive specimens varied based on pathogen type: Salmonella (72%), Shigella (64%), STEC (57%) and Campylobacter (26%). Compared to stool culture-derived isolates, the cost to recover pathogens from 100 CIDT positive specimens was higher for Shigella ($6,192), Salmonella ($18,373) and STEC ($27,783). Pathogen recovery was low from CIDT positive specimens for enteric bacteria. This has important implications for the current enteric disease surveillance system, outbreak detection and costs for public health programs.

  14. Independent and combined effects of maternal smoking and solid fuel on infant and child mortality in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyemi, Joshua O; Adedini, Sunday A; Wandera, Stephen O; Odimegwu, Clifford O

    2016-12-01

    To estimate the independent and combined risks of infant and child mortality associated with maternal smoking and use of solid fuel in sub-Saharan Africa. Pooled weighted data on 143 602 under-five children in the most recent demographic and health surveys for 15 sub-Saharan African countries were analysed. The synthetic cohort life table technique and Cox proportional hazard models were employed to investigate the effect of maternal smoking and solid cooking fuel on infant (age 0-11 months) and child (age 12-59 months) mortality. Socio-economic and other confounding variables were included as controls. The distribution of the main explanatory variable in households was as follows: smoking + solid fuel - 4.6%; smoking + non-solid fuel - 0.22%; no smoking + solid fuel - 86.9%; and no smoking + non-solid fuel - 8.2%. The highest infant mortality rate was recorded among children exposed to maternal smoking + solid fuel (72 per 1000 live births); the child mortality rate was estimated to be 54 per 1000 for this group. In full multivariate models, the risk of infant death was 71% higher among those exposed to maternal smoking + solid fuel (HR = 1.71, CI: 1.29-2.28). For ages 12 to 59 months, the risk of death was 99% higher (HR = 1.99, CI: 1.28-3.08). Combined exposures to cigarette smoke and solid fuel increase the risks of infant and child mortality. Mothers of under-five children need to be educated about the danger of smoking while innovative approaches are needed to reduce the mortality risks associated with solid cooking fuel. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Independent and combined effects of eating rate and energy density on energy intake, appetite, and gut hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, J Philip; Young, Andrew J; Rood, Jennifer C; Montain, Scott J

    2013-03-01

    Energy density (ED) and eating rate (ER) influence energy intake; their combined effects on intake and on postprandial pancreatic and gut hormone responses are undetermined. To determine the combined effects of ED and ER manipulation on voluntary food intake, subjective appetite, and postprandial pancreatic and gut hormone responses. Twenty nonobese volunteers each consumed high (1.6 kcal g(-1) ; HED) and low (1.2 kcal g(-1) ; LED) ED breakfasts slowly (20 g min(-1) ; SR) and quickly (80 g min(-1) ; FR) ad libitum to satiation. Appetite, and pancreatic and gut hormone concentrations were measured periodically over 3 h. Ad libitum energy intake during the subsequent lunch was then measured. Main effects of ED and ER on energy intake and a main effect of ER, but not ED, on mass of food consumed were observed, FR and HED being associated with increased intake (P energy intake was highest during FR-HED (P ≤ 0.01). Area under the curve (AUC) of appetite ratings was not different between meals. Main effects of ED and ER on insulin, peptide-YY, and glucagon-like peptide-1 AUC (P energy intake over both meals was highest during the FR-HED trial with the greatest difference between FR-HED and SR-LED trials (P ≤ 0.01). Consuming an energy dense meal quickly compounds independent effects of ER and ED on energy intake. Energy compensation at the following meal may not occur despite altered gut hormone responses. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  16. Combination of AQP1 and β-catenin expression is an independent prognosis factor in astrocytoma patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huikun; Qin, Fengxia; Yang, Limin; He, Jia; Liu, Xiaoli; Shao, Ying; Guo, Zhifang; Zhang, Ming; Li, Wenliang; Fu, Li; Gu, Feng; Ma, Yongjie

    2017-01-01

    Previous research usually focused on single protein or gene in tumor development, actually highly heterogeneous nature and different signaling pathways largely contribute to tumor progression and tumor patients’ outcomes. Therefore, using combinatorial biomarkers to evaluate the prognostic features and guide management is gradually accepted and urgently needed. β-catenin is a well-known crucial factor in astrocytoma progression and it is involved in aquaporin1 (AQP1) mediated cell migration. In this study, we revealed the function of AQP1 in astrocytoma progression and provided the first clinical evidence that AQP1 expression was positively correlated with β-catenin. Furthermore, we proved the functional role of AQP1/β-catenin pathway in astrocytoma progression. More importantly, we discovered that combination of AQP1 and β-catenin expression was an independent prognosis factor for astrocytoma patients and it was a better survival predictor than either AQP1 or β-catenin alone. In conclusion, our study provided a novel more precise prognostication for predicting astrocytoma prognosis based on combinatorial analysis of AQP1 and β-catenin expression. PMID:29245912

  17. Western Area Power Administration combined power system financial statements, September 30, 1996 and 1995 (with independent auditors` report thereon)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This report presents the results of the independent certified public accountants` audit of the Department of Energy`s Western Area Power Administration`s (Western) combined financial statements as of September 30, 1996. The auditors have expressed an unqualified opinion on the 1996 statements. The auditors` report on Western`s internal control structure disclosed two new reportable conditions and discussed the status of an unresolved condition from prior years. The new conditions involved the write-off of aging accounts receivable and the understatement of interest expense for inactive construction work orders. These reportable conditions are not considered to be material weaknesses. Western concurred with the audit recommendations and is responsible for necessary corrective actions. The auditors also considered the overview and performance measure data for completeness and material consistency with the basic financial statements as noted in the internal control report. The report also disclosed an additional reportable condition directed to the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) which is not considered to be a material weakness. Reclamation concurred with the audit recommendation and is responsible for necessary corrective action. The auditors` report on Western`s compliance with laws and regulations disclosed two new instances of noncompliance involving interest charges on all construction costs funded with Federal appropriations and other capitalized costs. The report also discussed the status of one instance of noncompliance from prior years. Western provided concurrence and corrective action plans for all of these instances of noncompliance.

  18. Development and testing of new candidate psoriatic arthritis screening questionnaires combining optimal questions from existing tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Laura C; Walsh, Jessica; Haroon, Muhammad; FitzGerald, Oliver; Aslam, Tariq; Al Balushi, Farida; Burden, A D; Burden-Teh, Esther; Caperon, Anna R; Cerio, Rino; Chattopadhyay, Chandrabhusan; Chinoy, Hector; Goodfield, Mark J D; Kay, Lesley; Kelly, Stephen; Kirkham, Bruce W; Lovell, Christopher R; Marzo-Ortega, Helena; McHugh, Neil; Murphy, Ruth; Reynolds, Nick J; Smith, Catherine H; Stewart, Elizabeth J C; Warren, Richard B; Waxman, Robin; Wilson, Hilary E; Helliwell, Philip S

    2014-09-01

    Several questionnaires have been developed to screen for psoriatic arthritis (PsA), but head-to-head studies have found limitations. This study aimed to develop new questionnaires encompassing the most discriminative questions from existing instruments. Data from the CONTEST study, a head-to-head comparison of 3 existing questionnaires, were used to identify items with a Youden index score of ≥0.1. These were combined using 4 approaches: CONTEST (simple additions of questions), CONTESTw (weighting using logistic regression), CONTESTjt (addition of a joint manikin), and CONTESTtree (additional questions identified by classification and regression tree [CART] analysis). These candidate questionnaires were tested in independent data sets. Twelve individual questions with a Youden index score of ≥0.1 were identified, but 4 of these were excluded due to duplication and redundancy. Weighting for 2 of these questions was included in CONTESTw. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed that involvement in 6 joint areas on the manikin was predictive of PsA for inclusion in CONTESTjt. CART analysis identified a further 5 questions for inclusion in CONTESTtree. CONTESTtree was not significant on ROC curve analysis and discarded. The other 3 questionnaires were significant in all data sets, although CONTESTw was slightly inferior to the others in the validation data sets. Potential cut points for referral were also discussed. Of 4 candidate questionnaires combining existing discriminatory items to identify PsA in people with psoriasis, 3 were found to be significant on ROC curve analysis. Testing in independent data sets identified 2 questionnaires (CONTEST and CONTESTjt) that should be pursued for further prospective testing. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  19. Combination antimicrobial susceptibility testing for acute exacerbations in chronic infection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Valerie; Ratjen, Felix

    2017-06-19

    Antibiotic therapy for acute pulmonary exacerbations in people with cystic fibrosis is usually chosen based on the results of antimicrobial susceptibility testing of individual drugs. Combination antimicrobial susceptibility testing assesses the efficacy of drug combinations including two or three antibiotics in vitro and can often demonstrate antimicrobial efficacy against bacterial isolates even when individual antibiotics have little or no effect. Therefore, choosing antibiotics based on combination antimicrobial susceptibility testing could potentially improve response to treatment in people with cystic fibrosis with acute exacerbations. This is an updated version of a previously published review. To compare antibiotic therapy based on conventional antimicrobial susceptibility testing to antibiotic therapy based on combination antimicrobial susceptibility testing in the treatment of acute pulmonary exacerbations in people with cystic fibrosis and chronic infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register which comprises of references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. Date of latest search: 19 December 2016.We also searched ongoing trials registries. Date of latest search: 08 March 2017. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled studies of antibiotic therapy based on conventional antimicrobial susceptibility testing compared to antibiotic therapy based on combination antimicrobial susceptibility testing in the treatment of acute pulmonary exacerbations in cystic fibrosis due to chronic infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Both authors independently selected studies, assessed their quality and extracted data from eligible studies. Additionally, the authors contacted the study investigators to obtain further information. The search identified one multicentre study

  20. Association of Resistance Exercise, Independent of and Combined With Aerobic Exercise, With the Incidence of Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Esmée A; Lee, Duck-Chul; Sui, Xuemei; Artero, Enrique G; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Eijsvogels, Thijs M H; Lavie, Carl J; Blair, Steven N

    2017-08-01

    To determine the association of resistance exercise, independent of and combined with aerobic exercise, with the risk of development of metabolic syndrome (MetS). The study cohort included adults (mean ± SD age, 46±9.5 years) who received comprehensive medical examinations at the Cooper Clinic in Dallas, Texas, between January 1, 1987, and December, 31, 2006. Exercise was assessed by self-reported frequency and minutes per week of resistance and aerobic exercise and meeting the US Physical Activity Guidelines (resistance exercise ≥2 d/wk; aerobic exercise ≥500 metabolic equivalent min/wk) at baseline. The incidence of MetS was based on the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. We used Cox regression to generate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs. Among 7418 participants, 1147 (15%) had development of MetS during a median follow-up of 4 years (maximum, 19 years; minimum, 0.1 year). Meeting the resistance exercise guidelines was associated with a 17% lower risk of MetS (HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.73-0.96; P=.009) after adjusting for potential confounders and aerobic exercise. Further, less than 1 hour of weekly resistance exercise was associated with 29% lower risk of development of MetS (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.56-0.89; P=.003) compared with no resistance exercise. However, larger amounts of resistance exercise did not provide further benefits. Individuals meeting both recommended resistance and aerobic exercise guidelines had a 25% lower risk of development of MetS (HR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.63-0.89; Pexercise, even less than 1 hour per week, was associated with a lower risk of development of MetS, independent of aerobic exercise. Health professionals should recommend that patients perform resistance exercise along with aerobic exercise to reduce MetS. Copyright © 2017 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Alignment of the Pixel and SCT Modules for the 2004 ATLAS Combined Test Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ATLAS Collaboration; Ahmad, A.; Andreazza, A.; Atkinson, T.; Baines, J.; Barr, A.J.; Beccherle, R.; Bell, P.J.; Bernabeu, J.; Broklova, Z.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P.A.; Cauz, D.; Chevalier, L.; Chouridou, S.; Citterio, M.; Clark, A.; Cobal, M.; Cornelissen, T.; Correard, S.; Costa, M.J.; Costanzo, D.; Cuneo, S.; Dameri, M.; Darbo, G.; de Vivie, J.B.; Di Girolamo, B.; Dobos, D.; Drasal, Z.; Drohan, J.; Einsweiler, K.; Elsing, M.; Emelyanov, D.; Escobar, C.; Facius, K.; Ferrari, P.; Fergusson, D.; Ferrere, D.; Flick,, T.; Froidevaux, D.; Gagliardi, G.; Gallas, M.; Gallop, B.J.; Gan, K.K.; Garcia, C.; Gavrilenko, I.L.; Gemme, C.; Gerlach, P.; Golling, T.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Goodrick, M.J.; Gorfine, G.; Gottfert, T.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Hansen, P.H.; Hara, K.; Hartel, R.; Harvey, A.; Hawkings, R.J.; Heinemann, F.E.W.; Henss, T.; Hill, J.C.; Huegging, F.; Jansen, E.; Joseph, J.; Unel, M. Karagoz; Kataoka, M.; Kersten, S.; Khomich, A.; Klingenberg, R.; Kodys, P.; Koffas, T.; Konstantinidis, N.; Kostyukhin, V.; Lacasta, C.; Lari, T.; Latorre, S.; Lester, C.G.; Liebig, W.; Lipniacka, A.; Lourerio, K.F.; Mangin-Brinet, M.; Marti i Garcia, S.; Mathes, M.; Meroni, C.; Mikulec, B.; Mindur, B.; Moed, S.; Moorhead, G.; Morettini, P.; Moyse, E.W.J.; Nakamura, K.; Nechaeva, P.; Nikolaev, K.; Parodi, F.; Parzhitskiy, S.; Pater, J.; Petti, R.; Phillips, P.W.; Pinto, B.; Poppleton, A.; Reeves, K.; Reisinger, I.; Reznicek, P.; Risso, P.; Robinson, D.; Roe, S.; Rozanov, A.; Salzburger, A.; Sandaker, H.; Santi, L.; Schiavi, C.; Schieck, J.; Schultes, J.; Sfyrla, A.; Shaw, C.; Tegenfeldt, F.; Timmermans, C.J.W.P.; Toczek, B.; Troncon, C.; Tyndel, M.; Vernocchi, F.; Virzi, J.; Anh, T. Vu; Warren, M.; Weber, J.; Weber, M.; Weidberg, A.R.; Weingarten, J.; Wellsf, P.S.; Zhelezkow, A.

    2008-06-02

    A small set of final prototypes of the ATLAS Inner Detector silicon tracking system(Pixel Detector and SemiConductor Tracker), were used to take data during the 2004 Combined Test Beam. Data were collected from runs with beams of different flavour (electrons, pions, muons and photons) with a momentum range of 2 to 180 GeV/c. Four independent methods were used to align the silicon modules. The corrections obtained were validated using the known momenta of the beam particles and were shown to yield consistent results among the different alignment approaches. From the residual distributions, it is concluded that the precision attained in the alignmentof the silicon modules is of the order of 5 mm in their most precise coordinate.

  2. Alignment of the Pixel and SCT Modules for the 2004 ATLAS Combined Test Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, A.; Andreazza, A.; Atkinson, T.; Baines, J.; Barr, A. J.; Beccherle, R.; Bell, P. J.; Bernabeu, J.; Broklova, Z.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Cauz, D.; Chevalier, L.; Chouridou, S.; Citterio, M.; Clark, A.; Cobal, M.; Cornelissen, T.; Correard, S.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Cuneo, S.; Dameri, M.; Darbo, G.; de Vivie, J. B.; Di Girolamo, B.; Dobos, D.; Drasal, Z.; Drohan, J.; Einsweiler, K.; Elsing, M.; Emelyanov, D.; Escobar, C.; Facius, K.; Ferrari, P.; Fergusson, D.; Ferrere, D.; Flick, T.; Froidevaux, D.; Gagliardi, G.; Gallas, M.; Gallop, B. J.; Gan, K. K.; Garcia, C.; Gavrilenko, I. L.; Gemme, C.; Gerlach, P.; Golling, T.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Goodrick, M. J.; Gorfine, G.; Göttfert, T.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Hansen, P. H.; Hara, K.; Härtel, R.; Harvey, A.; Hawkings, R. J.; Heinemann, F. E. W.; Henss, T.; Hill, J. C.; Huegging, F.; Jansen, E.; Joseph, J.; Karagöz Ünel, M.; Kataoka, M.; Kersten, S.; Khomich, A.; Klingenberg, R.; Kodys, P.; Koffas, T.; Konstantinidis, N.; Kostyukhin, V.; Lacasta, C.; Lari, T.; Latorre, S.; Lester, C. G.; Liebig, W.; Lipniacka, A.; Lourerio, K. F.; Mangin-Brinet, M.; Garcia, S. Marti i.; Mathes, M.; Meroni, C.; Mikulec, B.; Mindur, B.; Moed, S.; Moorhead, G.; Morettini, P.; Moyse, E. W. J.; Nakamura, K.; Nechaeva, P.; Nikolaev, K.; Parodi, F.; Parzhitskiy, S.; Pater, J.; Petti, R.; Phillips, P. W.; Pinto, B.; Poppleton, A.; Reeves, K.; Reisinger, I.; Reznicek, P.; Risso, P.; Robinson, D.; Roe, S.; Rozanov, A.; Salzburger, A.; Sandaker, H.; Santi, L.; Schiavi, C.; Schieck, J.; Schultes, J.; Sfyrla, A.; Shaw, C.; Tegenfeldt, F.; Timmermans, C. J. W. P.; Toczek, B.; Troncon, C.; Tyndel, M.; Vernocchi, F.; Virzi, J.; Anh, T. Vu; Warren, M.; Weber, J.; Weber, M.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weingarten, J.; Wells, P. S.; Zhelezko, A.

    2008-09-01

    A small set of final prototypes of the ATLAS Inner Detector silicon tracking system (Pixel Detector and SemiConductor Tracker), were used to take data during the 2004 Combined Test Beam. Data were collected from runs with beams of different flavour (electrons, pions, muons and photons) with a momentum range of 2 to 180 GeV/c. Four independent methods were used to align the silicon modules. The corrections obtained were validated using the known momenta of the beam particles and were shown to yield consistent results among the different alignment approaches. From the residual distributions, it is concluded that the precision attained in the alignment of the silicon modules is of the order of 5 μm in their most precise coordinate.

  3. Assessment of an innovative seat belt with independent control of the shoulder and lap portions using THOR tests, the THUMS model, and PMHS tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipkorn, Bengt; López-Valdés, Francisco J; Juste-Lorente, Oscar; Insausti, Ricardo; Lundgren, Christer; Sunnevång, Cecilia

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the potential chest injury benefits and influence on occupant kinematics of a belt system with independent control of the shoulder and lap portions. This article investigates the kinematics and dynamics of human surrogates in 35 km/h impacts with 2 different restraints: a pretensioning (PT), force-limiting (FL) seat belt, a reference belt system, and a concept design with a split buckle consisting (SB) of 2 separate shoulder and lap belt bands. The study combines mathematical simulations with the THOR dummy and THUMS human body model, and mechanical tests with the THOR dummy and 2 postmortem human surrogate (PMHS) tests of similar age (39 and 42 years) and anthropometry (62 kg, 181 cm vs. 60 kg, 171.5 cm). The test setup consisted of a rigid metallic frame representing a standard seating position of a right front passenger. The THOR dummy model predictions were compared to the mechanical THOR dummy test results. The THUMS-predicted number of fractured ribs were compared to the number of fractured ribs in the PMHS. THOR sled tests showed that the SB seat belt system decreased chest deflection significantly without increasing the forward displacement of the head. The THOR model and the THOR physical dummy predicted a 13- and 7-mm reduction in peak chest deflection, respectively. Peak diagonal belt force in the mechanical test with the reference belt was 5,582 N and the predicted force was 4,770 N. The THOR model also predicted lower belt forces with the SB system than observed in the tests (5,606 vs. 6,085 N). THUMS predicted somewhat increased head displacement for the SB system compared to the reference system. Peak diagonal force with the reference belt was 4,000 N and for the SB system it was 5,200 N. The PMHS test with the SB belt resulted in improved kinematics and a smaller number of rib fractures (2 vs. 5 fractures) compared to the reference belt. Concepts for a belt system that can reduce the load on

  4. Combination of NMR relaxometry and mechanical testing during vulcanisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahle, Stefan; Hehn, Manfred; Raich, Hans-Peter; Nussbaum, Walter; Bluemler, Peter; Wilhelm, Manfred

    2008-07-01

    A new design for an in-situ combination of NMR and rheological measurements is presented. The NMR is based on a BRUKER MINISPEC spectrometer. The magnet is self-made via a construction of 64 permanent magnets in a so called MANDHALA arrangement. The magnetic field strength reaches about 0.23 T, corresponding to a {sup 1}H resonance frequency of about 9.5 MHz. For the in-situ rheological measurements a Scarabaeus SISV50 instrument with modified sample cells is utilized. This unique combination and first measurements are presented.

  5. Combined shear/compression structural testing of asymmetric sandwich structures

    OpenAIRE

    Castanié, Bruno; Barrau, Jean-Jacques; Jaouen, Jean-Pierre; Rivallant, Samuel

    2004-01-01

    Asymmetric sandwich technology can be applied in the design of lightweight, non-pressurized aeronautical structures such as those of helicopters. A test rig of asymmetric sandwich structures subjected to compression/shear loads was designed, validated, and set up. It conforms to the standard certification procedure for composite aeronautical structures set out in the “test pyramid”, a multiscale approach. The static tests until failure showed asymmetric sandwich structures to be extremely res...

  6. Tests of Local Hadron Calibration approaches in ATLAS Combined Beam Tests

    CERN Document Server

    Pospelov, G; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The three Atlas calorimeter systems in the region of the forward crack at |eta| = 3.2 in the nominal Atlas setup and a typical section of the two barrel calorimeters at |eta| = 0.45 of Atlas have been exposed to combined beam tests with single electrons and pions. Detailed shower shape studies of electrons and pions with comparisons to various Geant4 based simulations utilizing different physics lists are presented for the endcap testbeam. The local hadronic calibration approach as used in the full Atlas setup has been applied to the endcap test beam data. An extension of it using layer correlations has been tested on the barrel test beam data. Both methods utilize modular correction steps based on shower shape variables to correct for invisible energy inside the reconstructed clusters in the calorimeters (compensation) and for lost energy deposits outside of the reconstructed clusters (dead material and out-of-cluster deposits). Results for both methods and comparisons to MC simulations are presented.

  7. Chronic disease risk management: Combining genetic testing with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Overwhelming evidence indicates that diet is a key environmental factor affecting the incidence of many chronic diseases treated by medical practitioners on a daily basis. Information available in public gene databases, combined with advanced molecular technologies and nutrition research, provides the opportunity for the ...

  8. Tests of Local Hadron Calibration Approaches in ATLAS Combined Beam Tests

    CERN Document Server

    Grahn, KJ; The ATLAS collaboration; Pospelov, G

    2010-01-01

    Three ATLAS calorimeters in the region of the forward crack at $|eta| = 3.2$ in the nominal ATLAS setup and a typical section of the two barrel calorimeters at $|eta| = 0.45$ of ATLAS have been exposed to combined beam tests with single electrons and pions. Detailed shower shape studies of electrons and pions with comparisons to various Geant4 based simulations utilizing different physics lists are presented for the endcap testbeam. The local hadronic calibration approach as used in the full Atlas setup has been applied to the endcap testbeam data. An extension of it using layer correlations has been tested with the barrel test beam data. Both methods utilize modular correction steps based on shower shape variables to correct for invisible energy inside the reconstructed clusters in the calorimeters (compensation) and for lost energy deposits outside of the reconstructed clusters (dead material and out-of-cluster deposits). Results for both methods and comparisons to Monte-Carlo simulations are presented.

  9. Testing Separability and Independence of Perceptual Dimensions with General Recognition Theory: A Tutorial and New R Package (grtools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian A. Soto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Determining whether perceptual properties are processed independently is an important goal in perceptual science, and tools to test independence should be widely available to experimental researchers. The best analytical tools to test for perceptual independence are provided by General Recognition Theory (GRT, a multidimensional extension of signal detection theory. Unfortunately, there is currently a lack of software implementing GRT analyses that is ready-to-use by experimental psychologists and neuroscientists with little training in computational modeling. This paper presents grtools, an R package developed with the explicit aim of providing experimentalists with the ability to perform full GRT analyses using only a couple of command lines. We describe the software and provide a practical tutorial on how to perform each of the analyses available in grtools. We also provide advice to researchers on best practices for experimental design and interpretation of results when applying GRT and grtools

  10. Testing the concordance model in cosmology with model-independent methods: some issues

    CERN Document Server

    Saez-Gomez, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Since the number of dark energy models have rapidly increased over the last years, some model-independent methods have been developed in order to analyse the cosmological evolution in a phenomenological way. In this manuscript, we analyse some of these approaches and their shortcomings to provide reliable information.

  11. Robust Tests for Additive Gene-Environment Interaction in Case-Control Studies Using Gene-Environment Independence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Gang; Lee, Seunggeun; Lee, Alice W

    2018-01-01

    There have been recent proposals advocating the use of additive gene-environment interaction instead of the widely used multiplicative scale, as a more relevant public health measure. Using gene-environment independence enhances the power for testing multiplicative interaction in case-control stu...

  12. Nema tests in gamma-cameras. Independent implementation of manufacturer; Pruebas Nema en gammacamaras. Implementacion independiente del fabricante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos Pacho, J. A.; Montes Fuentes, C.; Verde Velasco, J. M.; Perez Alvarez, M. E.; Delgado Aparicio, J. M.; Cons Perez, N.; Gomez Gonzalez, N.; Garcia Repiso, S.; Saez Beltran, M.; Gomez Llorente, P. L.

    2013-07-01

    The analysis of test results of quality control in gamma cameras, as extrinsic planar uniformity and the spatial resolution is often limited by intrinsic equipment tools and procedures. With the objective of an independent assessment of such evidence and better management and monitoring of the data obtained are made two separate programs in Matlab. (Author)

  13. 77 FR 39194 - Combined Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ... must obtain an Antidrug and Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program Operations Specification, Letter of...) A part 119 certificate holder Obtain an Antidrug and Alcohol with authority to operate under Misuse... holder Obtain an Antidrug and Alcohol who has your own drug testing Misuse Prevention Program program...

  14. Substrate-Independent Robust and Heparin-Mimetic Hydrogel Thin Film Coating via Combined LbL Self-Assembly and Mussel-Inspired Post-Cross-linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lang; Cheng, Chong; He, Chao; Nie, Chuanxiong; Deng, Jie; Sun, Shudong; Zhao, Changsheng

    2015-12-02

    In this work, we designed a robust and heparin-mimetic hydrogel thin film coating via combined layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly and mussel-inspired post-cross-linking. Dopamine-grafted heparin-like/-mimetic polymers (DA-g-HepLP) with abundant carboxylic and sulfonic groups were synthesized by the conjugation of adhesive molecule, DA, which exhibited substrate-independent adhesive affinity to various solid surfaces because of the formation of irreversible covalent bonds. The hydrogel thin film coated substrates were prepared by a three-step reaction: First, the substrates were coated with DA-g-HepLP to generate negatively charged surfaces. Then, multilayers were obtained via LbL coating of chitosan and the DA-g-HepLP. Finally, the noncovalent multilayers were oxidatively cross-linked by NaIO4. Surface ATR-FTIR and XPS spectra confirmed the successful fabrication of the hydrogel thin film coatings onto membrane substrates; SEM images revealed that the substrate-independent coatings owned 3D porous morphology. The soaking tests in highly alkaline, acid, and concentrated salt solutions indicated that the cross-linked hydrogel thin film coatings owned high chemical resistance. In comparison, the soaking tests in physiological solution indicated that the cross-linked hydrogel coatings owned excellent long-term stability. The live/dead cell staining and morphology observations of the adhered cells revealed that the heparin-mimetic hydrogel thin film coated substrates had low cell toxicity and high promotion ability for cell proliferation. Furthermore, systematic in vitro investigations of protein adsorption, platelet adhesion, blood clotting, and blood-related complement activation confirmed that the hydrogel film coated substrates showed excellent hemocompatibility. Both the results of inhibition zone and bactericidal activity indicated that the gentamycin sulfate loaded hydrogel thin films had significant inhibition capability toward both Escherichia coli and

  15. Multi-modal myocontrol: Testing combined force- and electromyography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Markus; Eiband, Thomas; Castellini, Claudio

    2017-07-01

    Myocontrol, that is control of prostheses using bodily signals, has proved in the decades to be a surprisingly hard problem for the scientific community of assistive and rehabilitation robotics. In particular, traditional surface electromyography (sEMG) seems to be no longer enough to guarantee dexterity (i.e., control over several degrees of freedom) and, most importantly, reliability. Multi-modal myocontrol is concerned with the idea of using novel signal gathering techniques as a replacement of, or alongside, sEMG, to provide high-density and diverse signals to improve dexterity and make the control more reliable. In this paper we present an offline and online assessment of multi-modal sEMG and force myography (FMG) targeted at hand and wrist myocontrol. A total number of twenty sEMG and FMG sensors were used simultaneously, in several combined configurations, to predict opening/closing of the hand and activation of two degrees of freedom of the wrist of ten intact subjects. The analysis was targeted at determining the optimal sensor combination and control parameters; the experimental results indicate that sEMG sensors alone perform worst, yielding a nRMSE of 9.1%, while mixing FMG and sEMG or using FMG only reduces the nRMSE to 5.2-6.6%. To validate these results, we engaged the subject with median performance in an online goal-reaching task. Analysis of this further experiment reveals that the online behaviour is similar to the offline one.

  16. An Independent Filter for Gene Set Testing Based on Spectral Enrichment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frost, H Robert; Li, Zhigang; Asselbergs, Folkert W|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/270752137; Moore, Jason H

    2015-01-01

    Gene set testing has become an indispensable tool for the analysis of high-dimensional genomic data. An important motivation for testing gene sets, rather than individual genomic variables, is to improve statistical power by reducing the number of tested hypotheses. Given the dramatic growth in

  17. An Efficient Method for Automatic Generation of Linearly Independent Paths in White-box Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyang Wang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Testing is the one of most significant quality assurance measures for software. It has been shown that the software testing is one of the most critical and important phases in the life cycle of software engineering. In general, software testing takes around 40-60% of the effort, time and cost. Structure-oriented test methods define test cases on the basis of the internal program structures and are widely used. Path-based test is one of the important Structure-oriented test methods during software development. However, there is still lack of automatic and highly efficient tool for generating basic paths in white-box testing. In view of this, an automatic and efficient method for generating basic paths is proposed in this paper. This method firstly transforms the source-code program into corresponding control flow graph (CFG. By modifying the original CFG to a strongly connected graph, a new algorithm (ABPC is designed to automatically construct all basic paths. The ABPC algorithm has computational complexity linear to the number of total edges and nodes in the CFG. Through performance evaluation of many examples, it is shown that the proposed method is correct and scalable to very large test cases. The proposed method can be applied to basis path testing easily.

  18. Reliability and Validity of the Floor Transfer Test as a Measure of Readiness for Independent Living Among Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardali, Gunay; Brody, Lori T; States, Rebecca A; Godwin, Ellen M

    2017-10-20

    The ability to get up from the floor after a fall is a basic skill required for functional independence. Consequently, the inability to safely get down and up from the floor or to perform a floor transfer (FT) may indicate decreased mobility and/or increased frailty. A reliable and valid test of FT ability is a critical part of the clinical decision-making process. The FT test is a simple, performance-based test that can be administered quickly and easily to determine a patient's ability to safely and successfully get down and up from the floor using any movement strategy and without time restriction. The primary purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine the intrarater reliability and validity of the FT test as a practical alternative to several widely used yet time-consuming measures of physical disability, frailty, and functional mobility. A total of 61 community-dwelling older adults (65-96 years of age) participated in the study divided into 2 separate subsamples: 15 of them in the intrarater reliability part, while the other 46 in the concurrent validity one. In both subsamples, the participants were stratified on the basis of the self-reported levels of FT ability as independent, assisted, and dependent. Intrarater reliability was assessed in 2 separate occasions and scores were analyzed by intraclass correlation coefficient and κ statistics. Concurrent validity of the FT test was assessed against the self-reported FT ability questionnaire, Physical Functioning Scale, Phenotype of Physical Frailty, and the Short Physical Performance Battery. Known-groups validity was tested by determining whether the FT test distinguished between (1) community-dwelling older adults with physical disabilities versus those who without physical disabilities; and (2) community-dwelling older adults who were functionally dependent versus those who were independent. Participants were also categorized on the basis of FT test outcome as independent, assisted, or

  19. Test of multiplicity independence of single pi 'mean scaled' distributions in low-energy pp annihilations

    CERN Document Server

    Angelini, C; Bigi, A; Casali, R; Defoix, C; Espigat, P; Flaminio, V; Laloum, M; Pazzi, R; Petitjean, P; Petri, C

    1977-01-01

    Dao et al. (1974) proposed the hypotheses that the distributions, properly normalized of 'mean scaled' variables in multiparticle production at high energies are independent of multiplicity, initial state and incident energy. The multiplicity dependence of fhe mean- scaled variables x/(x) are studied for various semi-inclusive (or exclusive) reactions in the pp annihilation around 1 GeV/c incident momentum (x=p/sub t/, mod p/sub L/ mod ) using the 81 cm CERN hydrogen bubble chamber data. It is found that the distributions are poorly described by universal functions. (6 refs).

  20. Cognitive deficits in chronic pain patients, in a brief screening test, are independent of comorbidities and medication use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Karen Dos Santos; Oliver, Gabriela Zucatto; Thomaz, Débora Carinhato; Teixeira, Caroliny Trevisan; Foss, Maria Paula

    2016-05-01

    Objective To describe and analyze cognitive aspects in patients with chronic pain and a control group without pain. Method A case-control study was conducted on 45 patients with chronic pain and on 45 control subjects. Data including pain diagnosis, comorbidities and medication used, were evaluated. Cognitive tests, such as the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Verbal Fluency Test, Clock Drawing Test and Stroop Test, were applied. Results Patients with chronic pain showed a poorer performance, as shown by the scores of the MoCA test (p Chronic pain variable (p = 0.015, linear regression model) was an independent factor for results obtained with the MoCA. Conclusion Patients with chronic pain showed a poorer performance in a brief screening test for cognitive impairment not related to confounding variables, as comorbidities and pain-medication use.

  1. Independent and Combined Association of Muscle Strength and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Youth With Insulin Resistance and β-Cell Function in Young Adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Anders; Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Ekelund, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVETo examine the independent and combined association of isometric muscle strength of the abdomen and back and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in youth with indices of glucose metabolism in young adulthood among boys and girls from the European Youth Heart Study.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSWe...... ergometer test. Insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]) and β-cell function (homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function [HOMA-B]) were estimated from fasting serum insulin and glucose that were obtained in youth and at follow-up in young adulthood.......RESULTSFor each 1-SD difference in isometric muscle strength (0.16 N/kg) in youth, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, and HOMA-B in young adulthood changed with -11.3% (95% CI, -17.0 to -5.2), -12.2% (-18.2 to -5.7), and -8.9% (-14.4 to -3.0), respectively, in young adulthood after adjustment for CRF and personal...

  2. Independent and combined association of muscle strength and cardiorespiratory fitness in youth with insulin resistance and β-cell function in young adulthood: the European Youth Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grøntved, Anders; Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Ekelund, Ulf; Froberg, Karsten; Brage, Søren; Andersen, Lars B

    2013-09-01

    To examine the independent and combined association of isometric muscle strength of the abdomen and back and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in youth with indices of glucose metabolism in young adulthood among boys and girls from the European Youth Heart Study. We used data from a population-based prospective cohort study among youth followed up for up to 12 years (n = 317). In youth, maximal voluntary contractions during isometric back extension and abdominal flexion were determined using a strain-gauge dynamometer and CRF was obtained from a maximal cycle ergometer test. Insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]) and β-cell function (homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function [HOMA-B]) were estimated from fasting serum insulin and glucose that were obtained in youth and at follow-up in young adulthood. For each 1-SD difference in isometric muscle strength (0.16 N/kg) in youth, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, and HOMA-B in young adulthood changed by -11.3% (95% CI -17.0 to -5.2), -12.2% (-18.2 to -5.7), and -8.9% (-14.4 to -3.0), respectively, in young adulthood after adjustment for CRF and personal lifestyle and demographic factors. Results for CRF were very similar in magnitude, and the magnitude of associations for both exposures was unchanged with additional adjustment for general or abdominal adiposity in youth. Combined associations of muscle strength and CRF with fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, and HOMA-B were additive, and adolescents in the highest sex-specific tertile for both isometric muscle strength and CRF had the lowest levels of these glucose metabolism outcomes. Increasing muscle strength and CRF should be targets in youth primordial prevention strategies of insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction.

  3. Independent and Combined Association of Muscle Strength and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Youth With Insulin Resistance and β-Cell Function in Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grøntved, Anders; Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Ekelund, Ulf; Froberg, Karsten; Brage, Søren; Andersen, Lars B.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the independent and combined association of isometric muscle strength of the abdomen and back and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in youth with indices of glucose metabolism in young adulthood among boys and girls from the European Youth Heart Study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We used data from a population-based prospective cohort study among youth followed up for up to 12 years (n = 317). In youth, maximal voluntary contractions during isometric back extension and abdominal flexion were determined using a strain-gauge dynamometer and CRF was obtained from a maximal cycle ergometer test. Insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]) and β-cell function (homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function [HOMA-B]) were estimated from fasting serum insulin and glucose that were obtained in youth and at follow-up in young adulthood. RESULTS For each 1-SD difference in isometric muscle strength (0.16 N/kg) in youth, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, and HOMA-B in young adulthood changed by −11.3% (95% CI −17.0 to −5.2), −12.2% (−18.2 to −5.7), and −8.9% (−14.4 to −3.0), respectively, in young adulthood after adjustment for CRF and personal lifestyle and demographic factors. Results for CRF were very similar in magnitude, and the magnitude of associations for both exposures was unchanged with additional adjustment for general or abdominal adiposity in youth. Combined associations of muscle strength and CRF with fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, and HOMA-B were additive, and adolescents in the highest sex-specific tertile for both isometric muscle strength and CRF had the lowest levels of these glucose metabolism outcomes. CONCLUSIONS Increasing muscle strength and CRF should be targets in youth primordial prevention strategies of insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction. PMID:23579180

  4. Robust Tests for Additive Gene-Environment Interaction in Case-Control Studies Using Gene-Environment Independence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Lee, Seunggeun; Lee, Alice W; Wu, Anna H; Bandera, Elisa V; Jensen, Allan; Rossing, Mary Anne; Moysich, Kirsten B; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Doherty, Jennifer A; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Kiemeney, Lambertus; Gayther, Simon A; Modugno, Francesmary; Massuger, Leon; Goode, Ellen L; Fridley, Brooke L; Terry, Kathryn L; Cramer, Daniel W; Ramus, Susan J; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Kjaer, Susanne K; Webb, Penelope M; Ness, Roberta B; Menon, Usha; Berchuck, Andrew; Pharoah, Paul D; Risch, Harvey; Pearce, Celeste Leigh

    2018-02-01

    There have been recent proposals advocating the use of additive gene-environment interaction instead of the widely used multiplicative scale, as a more relevant public health measure. Using gene-environment independence enhances statistical power for testing multiplicative interaction in case-control studies. However, under departure from this assumption, substantial bias in the estimates and inflated type I error in the corresponding tests can occur. In this paper, we extend the empirical Bayes (EB) approach previously developed for multiplicative interaction, which trades off between bias and efficiency in a data-adaptive way, to the additive scale. An EB estimator of the relative excess risk due to interaction is derived, and the corresponding Wald test is proposed with a general regression setting under a retrospective likelihood framework. We study the impact of gene-environment association on the resultant test with case-control data. Our simulation studies suggest that the EB approach uses the gene-environment independence assumption in a data-adaptive way and provides a gain in power compared with the standard logistic regression analysis and better control of type I error when compared with the analysis assuming gene-environment independence. We illustrate the methods with data from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Development and preliminary reliability testing of an assessment of patient independence in performing a treatment program: standardized scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris-Hayes, Marcie; Holtzman, Gregory W; Earley, Jeanne A; Van Dillen, Linda R

    2010-03-01

    Physical therapists often assess patient independence through observation; however, it is not known if therapists make these judgments reliably. We have developed a standardized method to assess a patient's ability to perform his or her treatment program independently. To develop a standardized assessment of patient independence in performance of a treatment program and examine the intra- and inter-rater reliability decisions made by two physical therapists. Test-retest. An assessment of patient independence in performance was developed. Standardized patient scenarios were used to assess the intra- and inter-tester reliability of two physical therapists. Percentage of agreement (%) and kappa's coefficient (k and k(w)) indexed rater reliability. Intra-rater reliability of therapist 1 was as follows: knowledge: % = 95, k = 0.90; performance: % = 95, k(w) = 0.82. Intra-rater reliability of therapist 2 was as follows: knowledge: % = 85, k = 0.68; performance: % = 94, k(w) = 0.80. Inter-rater reliability for knowledge was % = 91 and k = 0.79 and for performance was % = 91 and k(w) = 0.72. Trained therapists displayed substantial to excellent intra-rater reliability and substantial inter-rater reliability in assessing a patient's independence in a treatment program. :

  6. Perspective on the combined use of an independent transgenic sexing and a multifactorial reproductive sterility system to avoid resistance development against transgenic Sterile Insect Technique approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckermann, Kolja N; Dippel, Stefan; KaramiNejadRanjbar, Mohammad; Ahmed, Hassan M; Curril, Ingrid M; Wimmer, Ernst A

    2014-01-01

    The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is an accepted species-specific genetic control approach that acts as an insect birth control measure, which can be improved by biotechnological engineering to facilitate its use and widen its applicability. First transgenic insects carrying a single killing system have already been released in small scale trials. However, to evade resistance development to such transgenic approaches, completely independent ways of transgenic killing should be established and combined. Most established transgenic sexing and reproductive sterility systems are based on the binary tTA expression system that can be suppressed by adding tetracycline to the food. However, to create 'redundant killing' an additional independent conditional expression system is required. Here we present a perspective on the use of a second food-controllable binary expression system - the inducible Q system - that could be used in combination with site-specific recombinases to generate independent transgenic killing systems. We propose the combination of an already established transgenic embryonic sexing system to meet the SIT requirement of male-only releases based on the repressible tTA system together with a redundant male-specific reproductive sterility system, which is activated by Q-system controlled site-specific recombination and is based on a spermatogenesis-specifically expressed endonuclease acting on several species-specific target sites leading to chromosome shredding. A combination of a completely independent transgenic sexing and a redundant reproductive male sterility system, which do not share any active components and mediate the induced lethality by completely independent processes, would meet the 'redundant killing' criteria for suppression of resistance development and could therefore be employed in large scale long-term suppression programs using biotechnologically enhanced SIT.

  7. International Test Comparisons: Reviewing Translation Error in Different Source Language-Target Language Combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xueyu; Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Qian, Ming

    2018-01-01

    This article addresses test translation review in international test comparisons. We investigated the applicability of the theory of test translation error--a theory of the multidimensionality and inevitability of test translation error--across source language-target language combinations in the translation of PISA (Programme of International…

  8. Factors with independent influence on the 'timed up and go' test in patients with hip fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Morten Tange; Foss, Nicolai Bang; Kehlet, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Data on performance times for the 'timed up and go' (TUG) test with analyses of factors, that eventually could affect the result in patients with hip fracture, have not been published to date. The aims of the present study, therefore, were to assess normative reference...

  9. Robust Means Modeling: An Alternative for Hypothesis Testing of Independent Means under Variance Heterogeneity and Nonnormality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Weihua; Hancock, Gregory R.

    2012-01-01

    This study proposes robust means modeling (RMM) approaches for hypothesis testing of mean differences for between-subjects designs in order to control the biasing effects of nonnormality and variance inequality. Drawing from structural equation modeling (SEM), the RMM approaches make no assumption of variance homogeneity and employ robust…

  10. Sustainable fisheries in shallow lakes: an independent empirical test of the Chinese mitten crab yield model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haijun; Liang, Xiaomin; Wang, Hongzhu

    2017-07-01

    Next to excessive nutrient loading, intensive aquaculture is one of the major anthropogenic impacts threatening lake ecosystems. In China, particularly in the shallow lakes of mid-lower Changjiang (Yangtze) River, continuous overstocking of the Chinese mitten crab ( Eriocheir sinensis) could deteriorate water quality and exhaust natural resources. A series of crab yield models and a general optimum-stocking rate model have been established, which seek to benefit both crab culture and the environment. In this research, independent investigations were carried out to evaluate the crab yield models and modify the optimum-stocking model. Low percentage errors (average 47%, median 36%) between observed and calculated crab yields were obtained. Specific values were defined for adult crab body mass (135 g/ind.) and recapture rate (18% and 30% in lakes with submerged macrophyte biomass above and below 1 000 g/m2) to modify the optimum-stocking model. Analysis based on the modified optimum-stocking model indicated that the actual stocking rates in most lakes were much higher than the calculated optimum-stocking rates. This implies that, for most lakes, the current stocking rates should be greatly reduced to maintain healthy lake ecosystems.

  11. Multiple testing procedures for identifying desirable dose combinations in bifactorial designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buchheister, Bettina

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Hung, Chi, and Lipicky proposed the AVE and MAX tests to analyse in a bifactorial design whether combinations of two drugs at several doses fulfil the desirable property of superiority to both their single drug components. These are global tests and do not identify the special combinations which are more effective than their respective single components. Here multiple testing procedures based on linear contrast tests and on the closed testing principle will be presented. They will be compared with simultaneous Min tests of Laska and Meisner. The performance of these approaches is investigated by simulation studies.

  12. Testing the assumption in ergonomics software that overall shoulder strength can be accurately calculated by treating orthopedic axes as independent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodder, Joanne N; La Delfa, Nicholas J; Potvin, Jim R

    2016-08-01

    To predict shoulder strength, most current ergonomics software assume independence of the strengths about each of the orthopedic axes. Using this independent axis approach (IAA), the shoulder can be predicted to have strengths as high as the resultant of the maximum moment about any two or three axes. We propose that shoulder strength is not independent between axes, and propose an approach that calculates the weighted average (WAA) between the strengths of the axes involved in the demand. Fifteen female participants performed maximum isometric shoulder exertions with their right arm placed in a rigid adjustable brace affixed to a tri-axial load cell. Maximum exertions were performed in 24 directions, including four primary directions, horizontal flexion-extension, abduction-adduction, and at 15° increments in between those axes. Moments were computed and comparisons made between the experimentally collected strengths and those predicted by the IAA and WAA methods. The IAA over-predicted strength in 14 of 20 non-primary exertions directions, while the WAA underpredicted strength in only 2 of these directions. Therefore, it is not valid to assume that shoulder axes are independent when predicting shoulder strengths between two orthopedic axes, and the WAA is an improvement over current methods for the posture tested. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Independent collimators are sufficient to conform and combine adjacent fields?; Os colimadores independentes sao suficientes para conformar e combinar campos adjacentes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade Neto, Enock de A. [Hospital Sirio Libanes, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Sociedade Beneficente de Senhoras. Servico de Radioterapia; Santos Neto, Geraldo [Grupo COI, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Radioterapia; Sant' Anna, Marcelo C., E-mail: enock92@gmail.com [RADCLIN Centro de Oncologia, Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Radioterapia

    2014-12-15

    Consider a radiotherapy treatment in which the tumor is located in the region of head and neck. In general, isocentric technique combined with three tangents half-beam fields are used. How these fields must be collimated? We show that the combination of independent collimators and multi-leaf results in a uniform dose in the region which these fields touch each other. Moreover, we recommend a setup that minimizes the heterogeneity for LINAC's that doesn't possess a multi-leaf collimator. (author)

  14. Auditor Independence: Beyond the Dilemma of Combining Auditing and Advisory Activities for the Development of Quality Assurance Systems in Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxime, Francoise; Maze, Armelle

    2006-01-01

    This article aims to study the design and the organization of auditing systems to develop environmental or quality assurance schemes at the farm level and the role that extension services could play in these processes. It starts by discussing the issue of combining auditing and advisory activities and developing auditing competences. Empirical…

  15. An Alternative To Test Independence Between Expectations And Disconfirmation Versus The Positive Version Of The Assimilation Theory. An Application To The Case Of Cultural/Heritage Tourism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    José-María Montero; Gema Fernández-Avilés

    2010-01-01

    .... This is why they are revisited by presenting an alternative for testing independence between expectations and disconfirmation versus what we call the positive version of the assimilation theory...

  16. Steam Methane Reformation Testing for Air-Independent Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwara, Kamwana N.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, NASA has been looking into utilizing landers that can be propelled by LOX-CH (sub 4), to be used for long duration missions. Using landers that utilize such propellants, also provides the opportunity to use solid oxide fuel cells as a power option, especially since they are able to process methane into a reactant through fuel reformation. One type of reformation, called steam methane reformation, is a process to reform methane into a hydrogen-rich product by reacting methane and steam (fuel cell exhaust) over a catalyst. A steam methane reformation system could potentially use the fuel cell's own exhaust to create a reactant stream that is hydrogen-rich, and requires less internal reforming of the incoming methane. Also, steam reformation may hold some advantages over other types of reforming, such as partial oxidation (PROX) reformation. Steam reformation does not require oxygen, while up to 25 percent can be lost in PROX reformation due to unusable CO (sub 2) reformation. NASA's Johnson Space Center has conducted various phases of steam methane reformation testing, as a viable solution for in-space reformation. This has included using two different types of catalysts, developing a custom reformer, and optimizing the test system to find the optimal performance parameters and operating conditions.

  17. Bigger testes increase paternity in a simultaneous hermaphrodite, independently of the sperm competition level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellnow, N; Marie-Orleach, L; Zadesenets, K S; Schärer, L

    2018-02-01

    Hermaphroditic animals face the fundamental evolutionary optimization problem of allocating their resources to their male vs. female reproductive function (e.g. testes and sperm vs. ovaries and eggs), and this optimal sex allocation can be affected by both pre- and post-copulatory sexual selection. For example, local sperm competition (LSC) - the competition between related sperm for the fertilization of a partner's ova - occurs in small mating groups and can favour a female-biased sex allocation, because, under LSC, investment into sperm production is predicted to show diminishing fitness returns. Here, we test whether higher testis investment increases an individual's paternity success under sperm competition, and whether the strength of this effect diminishes when LSC is stronger, as predicted by sex allocation theory. We created two subsets of individuals of the simultaneously hermaphroditic flatworm Macrostomum lignano - by sampling worms from either the highest or lowest quartile of the testis investment distribution - and estimated their paternity success in group sizes of either three (strong LSC) or eight individuals (weak LSC). Specifically, using transgenic focal individuals expressing a dominant green-fluorescent protein marker, we showed that worms with high testis investment sired 22% more offspring relative to those with low investment, corroborating previous findings in M. lignano and other species. However, the strength of this effect was not significantly modulated by the experienced group size, contrasting theoretical expectations of more strongly diminishing fitness returns under strong LSC. We discuss the possible implications for the evolutionary maintenance of hermaphroditism in M. lignano. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  18. Combining cognitive screening tests for the evaluation of mild cognitive impairment in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo B. Ladeira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy of the Mini-Mental State Examination combined with the Verbal Fluency Test and Clock Drawing Test for the identification of patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease (AD. METHOD: These tests were used to evaluate cognitive function in 247 older adults. Subjects were divided into three groups according to their cognitive state: mild cognitive impairment (n=83, AD (n=81, cognitively unimpaired controls (n=83, based on clinical and neuropsychological data. The diagnostic accuracy of each test for discriminating between these diagnostic groups (mild cognitive impairment or AD vs. controls was examined with the aid of Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curves. Additionally, we evaluated the benefit of the combination of tests on diagnostic accuracy. RESULTS: Although they were accurate enough for the identification of Alzheimer's disease, neither test alone proved adequate for the correct separation of patients with mild cognitive impairment from healthy subjects. Combining these tests did not improve diagnostic accuracy, as compared to the Mini-Mental State Examination alone, in the identification of patients with mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer's disease. CONCLUSIONS: The present data do not warrant the combined use of the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Verbal Fluency Test and the Clock Drawing Test as a sufficient diagnostic schedule in screening for mild cognitive impairment. The present data do not support the notion that the combination of test scores is better that the use of Mini-Mental State Examination scores alone in the screening for Alzheimer's disease.

  19. T3, a Combinator-based Random Testing Tool for Java: Benchmarking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prasetya, I.S.W.B.

    2014-01-01

    T3 is the next generation of the light weight automated testing tool T2 for Java. In the heart T3 is still a random testing tool; but it now comes with some new features: pair-wise testing, concurrent generators, and a combinator-based approach ala QuickCheck. This paper presents the result of

  20. Combined Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Rapid Testing and Molecular Epidemiology in Conventional Broiler Flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schallegger, G; Muri-Klinger, S; Brugger, K; Lindhardt, C; John, L; Glatzl, M; Wagner, M; Stessl, B

    2016-12-01

    Campylobacter spp. are important causes of bacterial zoonosis, most often transmitted by contaminated poultry meat. From an epidemiological and risk assessment perspective, further knowledge should be obtained on Campylobacter prevalence and genotype distribution in primary production. Consequently, 15 Austrian broiler flocks were surveyed in summer for their thermophilic Campylobacter spp. contamination status. Chicken droppings, dust and drinking water samples were collected from each flock at three separate sampling periods. Isolates were confirmed by PCR and subtyped. We also compared three alternative methods (culture-based enrichment in Bolton broth, culture-independent real-time PCR and a lateral-flow test) for their applicability in chicken droppings. Twelve flocks were found to be positive for thermophilic Campylobacter spp. during the entire sampling period. Seven flocks (46.6%) were contaminated with both, C. jejuni and C. coli, five flocks harboured solely one species. We observed to a majority flock-specific C. jejuni and C. coli genotypes, which dominated the respective flock. Flocks within a distance jejuni genotypes indicating a cross-contamination event via the environment or personnel vectors. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of C. jejuni revealed that the majority of isolates were assigned to globally distributed clonal complexes or had a strong link to the human interface (CC ST-446 and ST4373). The combination of techniques poses an advantage over risk assessment studies based on cultures alone, as, in the case of Campylobacter, occurrence of a high variety of genotypes might be present among a broiler flock. We suggest applying the lateral-flow test under field conditions to identify 'high-shedding' broiler flocks at the farm level. Consequently, poultry farmers and veterinarians could improve hygiene measurements and direct sanitation activities, especially during the thinning period. Ultimately, real-time PCR could be applied to quantify

  1. How do physicians become medical experts? A test of three competing theories: distinct domains, independent influence and encapsulation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violato, Claudio; Gao, Hong; O'Brien, Mary Claire; Grier, David; Shen, E

    2017-07-12

    The distinction between basic sciences and clinical knowledge which has led to a theoretical debate on how medical expertise is developed has implications for medical school and lifelong medical education. This longitudinal, population based observational study was conducted to test the fit of three theories-knowledge encapsulation, independent influence, distinct domains-of the development of medical expertise employing structural equation modelling. Data were collected from 548 physicians (292 men-53.3%; 256 women-46.7%; mean age = 24.2 years on admission) who had graduated from medical school 2009-2014. They included (1) Admissions data of undergraduate grade point average and Medical College Admission Test sub-test scores, (2) Course performance data from years 1, 2, and 3 of medical school, and (3) Performance on the NBME exams (i.e., Step 1, Step 2 CK, and Step 3). Statistical fit indices (Goodness of Fit Index-GFI; standardized root mean squared residual-SRMR; root mean squared error of approximation-RSMEA) and comparative fit [Formula: see text] of three theories of cognitive development of medical expertise were used to assess model fit. There is support for the knowledge encapsulation three factor model of clinical competency (GFI = 0.973, SRMR = 0.043, RSMEA = 0.063) which had superior fit indices to both the independent influence and distinct domains theories ([Formula: see text] vs [Formula: see text] [[Formula: see text

  2. Dual Data-Independent Acquisition Approach Combining Global HCP Profiling and Absolute Quantification of Key Impurities during Bioprocess Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husson, Gauthier; Delangle, Aurélie; O'Hara, John; Cianferani, Sarah; Gervais, Annick; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Bracewell, Dan; Carapito, Christine

    2018-01-16

    Host cell proteins (HCP) are a major class of impurities derived from recombinant protein production processes. While HCP are usually monitored by ELISA, mass spectrometry (MS)-based approaches are emerging as promising orthogonal methods. Here, we developed an original method relying on data-independent acquisition (DIA) coupling global HCP amount estimation (Top 3) and absolute quantification with isotope dilution (ID). The method named Top 3-ID-DIA was benchmarked against ELISA and a gold-standard selected reaction monitoring assay (ID-SRM). Various samples generated at different steps and conditions of the purification process, including different culture durations, harvest procedures, and purification protocols were used to compare the methods. Overall, HCP were quantified over 5 orders of magnitude and down to the sub-ppm level. The Top 3-ID-DIA strategy proved to be equivalent to the gold-standard ID-SRM in terms of sensitivity (1-10 ppm), accuracy, and precision. Moreover, 81% of the Top 3 estimations were accurate within a factor of 2 when compared to ID-SRM. Thus, our approach aggregates global HCP profiling for comprehensive process understanding with absolute quantification of key HCP within a single analysis and provides an improved support for bioprocess development and product purity assessment.

  3. A Pragmatic Test for Detecting Association between a Dichotomous Trait and the Genotypes of Affected Families, Controls and Independent Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The efficient analysis of hybrid designs [e.g., affected families, controls, and (optionally independent cases] is attractive because it should have increased power to detect associations between genetic variants and disease. However, the computational complexity of such an analysis is not trivial, especially when the data contain pedigrees of arbitrary size and structure. To address this concern, we developed a pragmatic test of association that summarizes all of the available evidence in certain hybrid designs, irrespective of pedigree size or structure. Under the null hypothesis of no association, our proposed test statistic (POPFAM+ is the quadratic form of two correlated tests: a population-based test (e.g., wQLS, and a family-based test (e.g., PDT. We use the parametric bootstrap in conjunction with an estimate of the correlation to compute p-values, and we illustrate the potential for increased power when (1 the heritability of the trait is high; and, (2 the marker-specific association is driven by the over-representation of risk alleles in cases, and by the preferential transmission of risk alleles from heterozygous parents to their affected offspring. Based on simulation, we show that type I error is controlled, and that POPFAM+ is more powerful than wQLS or PDT alone. In a real data application, we used POPFAM+ to analyze 43 genes of a hybrid epilepsy study containing 85 affected families, 80 independent cases, 234 controls, and 118 reference samples from the International HapMap Project. The results of our analysis identified a promising epilepsy candidate gene for follow-up sequencing: malic enzyme 2 (ME2; min p < 0.0084.

  4. Testing for cross-subsidisation in the combined heat and power generation sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amundsen, Eirik S; Andersen, Per; Jensen, Frank

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we examine cross-subsidisation among combined heat and power producers in Denmark.Information on stand-alone costs for heat generation allows us to empirically compare the Faulhaber tests,tests with an upper bound on stand-alone costs (the Palmer tests) and the fully distributed cost...... test (FDC). All tests indicate a substantial amount of cross-subsidisation from heat generation to power generation. It is shown that the FDC test is closer to that of the Faulhaber tests in its results than the Palmer tests. Thus as the Faulhaber tests are considered in the literature...... to be the theoretically correct tests, the FDC test is shown to be the best approximation for tests of cross-subsidisation for this specific sector....

  5. Well test analysis results interpretation: Combined type curve and pressure derivative approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbri, P.; Matteotti, G. (Padua Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Geologia, Paleontologia e Geofisica Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Idraulica)

    In reviewing theoretical concepts forming the basis for the interpretation of well test analyses, this paper focusses on the 'theoretical model' for the determination of the parameters and variables. It then applies this theory to the combined type curve and pressure derivative interpretation approaches. Finally, the paper illustrates an approach combining the combined type curve and pressure derivative methods for homogeneous and isotropic conditions in a thermal aquifer and in the presence of the skin effect and wellbore storage.

  6. Plasma PAI-1 levels are independently related to fatty liver and hypertriglyceridemia in familial combined hyperlipidemia, involvement of apolipoprotein E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwers, Martijn C G J; Govers-Riemslag, Jose; Schalkwijk, Casper G; van Greevenbroek, Marleen M J; van der Kallen, Carla J H; Bekers, Otto; van Dieijen-Visser, Marja P; Ten Oever, Jaap; Bilderbeek-Beckers, Monique A L; de Bruin, Tjerk W A; Ten Cate, Hugo; Stehouwer, Coen D A

    2008-01-01

    Familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL) is a genetic form of dyslipidemia, which is characterized by an increased cardiovascular risk. The current study was conducted to investigate the relation of endothelial, inflammatory and fibrinolysis markers with the presence of hypertriglyceridemia and fatty liver in FCHL, in order to advance insight in their contribution to the cardiovascular risk profile. Key plasma markers of low-grade inflammation, endothelial dysfunction and fibrinolysis were measured in 38 hypertriglyceridemic FCHL patients and 38 age and sex-matched spouses. The presence of fatty liver was determined with ultrasound. hsCRP, vWF, PAI-1, tPA and tPA/PAI-1 complex levels were significantly higher in hypertriglyceridemic FCHL patients compared to spouses (phypertriglyceridemia per se.

  7. Combining shared control with variability over surface features: Effects on transfer test performance and task involvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corbalan, Gemma; Kester, Liesbeth; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2009-01-01

    Corbalan, G., Kester, L., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2009). Combining shared control with variability over surface features: Effects on transfer test performance and task involvement. Computers in Human Behavior, 25, 290-298.

  8. Panel Unit Root Tests by Combining Dependent Values: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuguang Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We conduct a systematic comparison of the performance of four commonly used value combination methods applied to panel unit root tests: the original Fisher test, the modified inverse normal method, Simes test, and the modified truncated product method (TPM. Our simulation results show that under cross-section dependence the original Fisher test is severely oversized, but the other three tests exhibit good size properties. Simes test is powerful when the total evidence against the joint null hypothesis is concentrated in one or very few of the tests being combined, but the modified inverse normal method and the modified TPM have good performance when evidence against the joint null is spread among more than a small fraction of the panel units. These differences are further illustrated through one empirical example on testing purchasing power parity using a panel of OECD quarterly real exchange rates.

  9. Towards a Method for Combined Model-based Testing and Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Brian

    Efficient and effective verification and validation of complex embedded systems is challenging, and requires the use of various tools and techniques, such as model-based testing and analysis. The aim of this paper is to devise an overall \\method{} for how analysis and testing may be used in combi...... interesting combinations and workflows, but also that formulation of more specific combination patterns will be useful to encourage future tool collaborations....

  10. Evaluation of genotoxicity of coal fly ash in Allium cepa root cells by combining comet assay with the Allium test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Rajarshi; Mukherjee, Ashit Kumar; Mukherjee, Anita

    2009-06-01

    Fly ash is a by-product of coal-fired electricity generation plants. Its utilization and disposal is of utmost importance. Using onion (Allium cepa) root tip system, the present study was carried out to evaluate the potential toxic and genotoxic effects of fly ash, collected from a thermal power plant in West Bengal, India. Prior to testing, the collected fly ash sample was mixed with sand in different proportions. Allium bulbs were allowed to germinate directly in fly ash and after five days the germinating roots were processed for the Allium test. Additionally, the Allium test was adapted for detecting DNA damage through comet assay. The results from the Allium test indicate that fly ash at 100% concentration inhibits root growth and mitotic indices; induces binucleated cells as a function of the proportion, but is not toxic at very low concentration. In the comet assay, a statistical increase for DNA strand breaks was found only at higher concentrations. The sample was analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometer for Zn, Pb, Cu, Ni, Cd and As, whose presence could partly be responsible for the toxicity of fly ash. The study concludes that the classical Allium test can give a more comprehensive data when done in combination with the comet assay, which is faster, simpler and independent of mitosis. Also when fly ash is used for other purposes in combination with soils, it should be judiciously used at very low concentrations in order to protect the ecosystem health from any potential adverse effects.

  11. A review of the public health management of shigellosis in Australia in the era of culture-independent diagnostic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Alex Y C; Easton, Marion; Encena, Jess; Rotty, Jessica; Valcanis, Mary; Howden, Benjamin P; Slota-Kan, Simon; Gregory, Joy

    2016-12-01

    To review the national case definition for shigellosis following the introduction of culture independent diagnostic testing by clinical laboratories and provide evidence to reform jurisdictional public health practices for the management shigellosis., . A review of all Australian jurisdictional public health guidelines for shigellosis was conducted. Victorian 2014 shigellosis data were analysed: demographics and risk factors for cases identified by conventional culture or culture-independent diagnostic methods were described. There was considerable variation in reporting of cases to the National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System (NNDSS) by the eight Australian jurisdictions, with an array of classifications based on diagnostic testing methodologies. Analysis of Victorian 2014 shigellosis data found that culture positive cases were more likely to have reported men who have sex with men (MSM) as a risk factor than PCR positive only cases (pcultures after appropriate treatment. The national surveillance case definition for shigellosis should be reviewed to facilitate standardised reporting across Australia. All jurisdictions must consider the public health significance of PCR positive only results in their surveillance risk assessments to inform management of shigellosis cases. © 2016 Public Health Association of Australia.

  12. Testing for Sufficient-Cause Gene-Environment Interactions Under the Assumptions of Independence and Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wen-Chung

    2015-07-01

    To detect gene-environment interactions, a logistic regression model is typically fitted to a set of case-control data, and the focus is on testing of the cross-product terms (gene × environment) in the model. A significant result is indicative of a gene-environment interaction under a multiplicative model for disease odds. Based on the sufficient-cause model for rates, in this paper we put forward a general approach to testing for sufficient-cause gene-environment interactions in case-control studies. The proposed tests can be tailored to detect a particular type of sufficient-cause gene-environment interaction with greater sensitivity. These tests include testing for autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, and gene-dosage interactions. The tests can also detect trend interactions (e.g., a larger gene-environment interaction with a higher level of environmental exposure) and threshold interactions (e.g., gene-environment interaction occurs only when environmental exposure reaches a certain threshold level). Two assumptions are necessary for the validity of the tests: 1) the rare-disease assumption and 2) the no-redundancy assumption. Another 2 assumptions are optional but, if imposed correctly, can boost the statistical powers of the tests: 3) the gene-environment independence assumption and 4) the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium assumption. SAS code (SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, North Carolina) for implementing the methods is provided. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. The t test and beyond: Recommendations for testing the central tendencies of two independent samples in research on speech, language and hearing pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietveld, Toni; van Hout, Roeland

    2015-01-01

    In this Tutorial we compare current practice of the analysis of data obtained in designs involving two independent samples with new developments in statistics and evidence on the behavior of conventional statistics. We included t tests, non-parametric alternatives, such as the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test, and recently developed approaches, known as bootstrapping and randomization tests. The relative use of the different statistics is illustrated on the basis of counts carried out in three journals on disordered communication in the time interval 2005-2013: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, Journal of Communication Disorders and Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research. A number of recommendations are given to guide the researcher in the presentation and analysis of her/his data. The main messages are (a) that researchers should present more relevant features of their data (means, medians, SD, skewness, tailedness, outliers etc.), (b) not routinely use conventional non-parametric tests like Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test in case one or more of the assumptions of t tests are not met, and (c) should consider using less conventional, but robust statistics which have been developed and tested in the last decades. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Independent and Combined Effects of Exercise and Vitamin D on Muscle Morphology, Function and Falls in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin M. Daly

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Regular exercise, particularly progressive resistance training (PRT, is recognized as one of the most effective strategies to prevent age-related muscle loss (sarcopenia, but its effects on muscle function are mixed. However, emerging data indicates that high velocity PRT (fast concentric muscle contractions is more effective for improving functional outcomes than traditional PRT. In terms of falls prevention, high-challenging balance training programs appear to be most effective. There is also compelling evidence that supplemental vitamin D is an effective therapeutic option for falls prevention. The findings from a recent meta-analysis revealed that supplemental vitamin D at a dose of at least 700–1,000 IU/d or an achieved serum 25(OHD level of at least 60 nmol/L was associated with reduced falls risk among older individuals. Based on these findings, it is possible that the combination of exercise and vitamin D could have a synergistic effect on muscle morphology and function, particularly since both interventions have been shown to have beneficial effects on type II “fast twitch” muscle fibers and systemic inflammation, which have both been linked to losses in muscle mass and function. Unfortunately however, the findings from the limited number of factorial 2 × 2 design RCTs indicate that additional vitamin D does not enhance the effects of exercise on measures of muscle morphology, function or falls risk. However, none of these trials were adequately powered to detect a “synergistic” effect between the two treatment strategies, but it is likely that if an exercise-by-vitamin D interaction does exist, it may be limited to situations when vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency is corrected. Further targeted research in “high risk” groups is still needed to address this question, and evaluate whether there is a threshold level of serum 25(OHD to maximize the effects of exercise on muscle and falls risk.

  15. JAK2 inhibitor combined with DC-activated AFP-specific T-cells enhances antitumor function in a Fas/FasL signal-independent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Wang, Yue-Ru; Ding, Guang-Hui; Yang, Ting-Song; Yao, Le; Hua, Jie; He, Zhi-Gang; Qian, Ming-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Combination therapy for cancer is more effective than using only standard chemo- or radiotherapy. Our previous results showed that dendritic cell-activated α-fetoprotein (AFP)-specific T-cells inhibit tumor in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we focused on antitumor function of CD8(+) T-cells combined with or without JAK2 inhibitor. Proliferation and cell cycle were analyzed by CCK-8 and flow cytometry. Western blot was used to analyze the expression level of related protein and signaling pathway. We demonstrated reduced viability and induction of apoptosis of tumor cells with combination treatment. Intriguingly, cell cycle was blocked at the G1 phase by using AFP-specific CD8(+) T-cells combined with JAK2 inhibitor (AG490). Furthermore, an enhanced expression of BAX but no influence on Fas/FasL was detected from the tumor cells. These results indicate a Fas/FasL-independent pathway for cellular apoptosis in cancer therapies with the treatment of AFP-specific CD8(+) T-cells combined with JAK2 inhibitor.

  16. Independent and Combined Effects of Socioeconomic Status (SES) and Bilingualism on Children's Vocabulary and Verbal Short-Term Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meir, Natalia; Armon-Lotem, Sharon

    2017-01-01

    The current study explores the influence of socioeconomic status (SES) and bilingualism on the linguistic skills and verbal short-term memory of preschool children. In previous studies comparing children of low and mid-high SES, the terms "a child with low-SES" and "a child speaking a minority language" are often interchangeable, not enabling differentiated evaluation of these two variables. The present study controls for this confluence by testing children born and residing in the same country and attending the same kindergartens, with all bilingual children speaking the same heritage language (HL-Russian). A total of 120 children (88 bilingual children: 44 with low SES; and 32 monolingual children: 16 with low SES) with typical language development, aged 5; 7-6; 7, were tested in the societal language (SL-Hebrew) on expressive vocabulary and three repetition tasks [forward digit span (FWD), nonword repetition (NWR), and sentence repetition (SRep)], which tap into verbal short-term memory. The results indicated that SES and bilingualism impact different child abilities. Bilingualism is associated with decreased vocabulary size and lower performance on verbal short-term memory tasks with higher linguistic load in the SL-Hebrew. The negative effect of bilingualism on verbal short-term memory disappears once vocabulary is accounted for. SES influences not only linguistic performance, but also verbal short-term memory with lowest linguistic load. The negative effect of SES cannot be solely attributed to lower vocabulary scores, suggesting that an unprivileged background has a negative impact on children's cognitive development beyond a linguistic disadvantage. The results have important clinical implications and call for more research exploring the varied impact of language and life experience on children's linguistic and cognitive skills.

  17. Combined ultraviolet and water exposure as a preconditioning method in laboratory fungal durability testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach; Craig M. Clemons; Nicole M. Stark

    2003-01-01

    During outdoor exposure, woodfiber-plastic composites (WPC) are subject to biological, moisture, and ultraviolet (UV) degradation. The purpose of laboratory evaluations is to simulate outdoor conditions and accelerate the testing for quicker results. Traditionally, biological, moisture, and W laboratory tests are done separately, and only combined in outdoor field...

  18. Individual-level exposure to disaster, neighborhood environmental characteristics, and their independent and combined associations with depressive symptoms in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaston, Symielle A; Volaufova, Julia; Peters, Edward S; Ferguson, Tekeda F; Robinson, William T; Nugent, Nicole; Trapido, Edward J; Rung, Ariane L

    2017-09-01

    The severity of the stress response to experiencing disaster depends on individual exposure and background stress prior to the event. To date, there is limited research on the interaction between neighborhood environmental stress and experiencing an oil spill, and their effects on depression. The objective of the current study was to assess if the association between exposure to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill (DHOS) and depressive symptoms varied by neighborhood characteristics. US Census data (2010) and longitudinal data collected in two waves (2012-2014 and 2014-2016) from female residents [N = 889 (Wave I), 737 (Wave II)] of an area highly affected by the DHOS were analyzed. Multilevel and individual-level negative binomial regressions were performed to estimate associations with depressive symptoms in both waves. An interaction term was included to estimate effect modification of the association between DHOS exposure and depressive symptoms by neighborhood characteristics. Generalized estimating equations were applied to the negative binomial regression testing longitudinal associations. Census tract-level neighborhood characteristics were not associated with depressive symptoms. Exposure to the DHOS and neighborhood physical disorder were associated with depressive symptoms cross-sectionally. There was no evidence of effect modification; however, physical/environmental exposure to the DHOS was associated with increased depressive symptoms only among women living in areas with physical disorder. Exposure to the DHOS remained associated with depressive symptoms over time. Findings support the enduring consequences of disaster exposure on depressive symptoms in women and identify potential targets for post-disaster intervention based on residential characteristics.

  19. The clock drawing test is an independent predictor of incident use of 24-hour care in a retirement community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavery, Laurie L; Starenchak, Scott M; Flynn, William B; Stoeff, Margaret A; Schaffner, Ruth; Newman, Anne B

    2005-07-01

    It is unclear how early cognitive impairment affects future care needs. Furthermore, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), a commonly used screening tool in the clinical setting, tends to have a ceiling effect for early cognitive decline. One of the earliest changes in cognitive function is executive impairment. We examined the relationship between executive function, measured with a clock drawing protocol (CLOX1) designed to capture executive impairment, and incident need for increased level of care and total mortality. Residents (n = 230) in independent living at a continuing care retirement community were followed for incident need for 24-hour care (mean 2.5 years). Baseline assessment included health status and physical and cognitive function. Time to event analysis was performed to determine the association of the CLOX1 score with the outcomes. Forty percent of residents had a CLOX1 score or =12. Similarly, the event rate was 34 per 100 p-y versus 17 per 100 p-y for MMSE or =26, respectively. A CLOX1 score 24-hour care (hazard ratio 2.2; 95% confidence interval: 1.5-3.4) and death (hazard ratio 2.3; 95% confidence interval: 1.1-4.8) even after controlling for age, sex, comorbidity, and MMSE scores. The MMSE score was not an independent predictor of incident use of 24-hour care or mortality. The clock drawing test, scored for executive impairment, but not the MMSE, predicted incident use of 24-hour care and mortality in this cohort of independent older adults.

  20. Combining Multiple Hypothesis Testing with Machine Learning Increases the Statistical Power of Genome-wide Association Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieth, Bettina; Kloft, Marius; Rodríguez, Juan Antonio; Sonnenburg, Sören; Vobruba, Robin; Morcillo-Suárez, Carlos; Farré, Xavier; Marigorta, Urko M.; Fehr, Ernst; Dickhaus, Thorsten; Blanchard, Gilles; Schunk, Daniel; Navarro, Arcadi; Müller, Klaus-Robert

    2016-01-01

    The standard approach to the analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) is based on testing each position in the genome individually for statistical significance of its association with the phenotype under investigation. To improve the analysis of GWAS, we propose a combination of machine learning and statistical testing that takes correlation structures within the set of SNPs under investigation in a mathematically well-controlled manner into account. The novel two-step algorithm, COMBI, first trains a support vector machine to determine a subset of candidate SNPs and then performs hypothesis tests for these SNPs together with an adequate threshold correction. Applying COMBI to data from a WTCCC study (2007) and measuring performance as replication by independent GWAS published within the 2008–2015 period, we show that our method outperforms ordinary raw p-value thresholding as well as other state-of-the-art methods. COMBI presents higher power and precision than the examined alternatives while yielding fewer false (i.e. non-replicated) and more true (i.e. replicated) discoveries when its results are validated on later GWAS studies. More than 80% of the discoveries made by COMBI upon WTCCC data have been validated by independent studies. Implementations of the COMBI method are available as a part of the GWASpi toolbox 2.0. PMID:27892471

  1. Combining Multiple Hypothesis Testing with Machine Learning Increases the Statistical Power of Genome-wide Association Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieth, Bettina; Kloft, Marius; Rodríguez, Juan Antonio; Sonnenburg, Sören; Vobruba, Robin; Morcillo-Suárez, Carlos; Farré, Xavier; Marigorta, Urko M.; Fehr, Ernst; Dickhaus, Thorsten; Blanchard, Gilles; Schunk, Daniel; Navarro, Arcadi; Müller, Klaus-Robert

    2016-11-01

    The standard approach to the analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) is based on testing each position in the genome individually for statistical significance of its association with the phenotype under investigation. To improve the analysis of GWAS, we propose a combination of machine learning and statistical testing that takes correlation structures within the set of SNPs under investigation in a mathematically well-controlled manner into account. The novel two-step algorithm, COMBI, first trains a support vector machine to determine a subset of candidate SNPs and then performs hypothesis tests for these SNPs together with an adequate threshold correction. Applying COMBI to data from a WTCCC study (2007) and measuring performance as replication by independent GWAS published within the 2008-2015 period, we show that our method outperforms ordinary raw p-value thresholding as well as other state-of-the-art methods. COMBI presents higher power and precision than the examined alternatives while yielding fewer false (i.e. non-replicated) and more true (i.e. replicated) discoveries when its results are validated on later GWAS studies. More than 80% of the discoveries made by COMBI upon WTCCC data have been validated by independent studies. Implementations of the COMBI method are available as a part of the GWASpi toolbox 2.0.

  2. Combination of proteasome and class I HDAC inhibitors induces apoptosis of NPC cells through an HDAC6-independent ER stress-induced mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Kwai Fung; Chiang, Alan K S

    2014-12-15

    The current paradigm stipulates that inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) 6 is essential for the combinatorial effect of proteasome and HDAC inhibitors for the treatment of cancers. Our study aims to investigate the effect of combining different class I HDAC inhibitors (without HDAC6 action) with a proteasome inhibitor on apoptosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). We found that combination of a proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib, and several class I HDAC inhibitors, including MS-275, apicidin and romidepsin, potently induced killing of NPC cells both in vitro and in vivo. Among the drug pairs, combination of bortezomib and romidepsin (bort/romidepsin) was the most potent and could induce apoptosis at low nanomolar concentrations. The apoptosis of NPC cells was reactive oxygen species (ROS)- and caspase-dependent but was independent of HDAC6 inhibition. Of note, bort/romidepsin might directly suppress the formation of aggresome through the downregulation of c-myc. In addition, two markers of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced apoptosis, ATF-4 and CHOP/GADD153, were upregulated, whereas a specific inhibitor of caspase-4 (an initiator of ER stress-induced apoptosis) could suppress the apoptosis. When ROS level in the NPC cells was reduced to the untreated level, ER stress-induced caspase activation was abrogated. Collectively, our data demonstrate a model of synergism between proteasome and class I HDAC inhibitors in the induction of ROS-dependent ER stress-induced apoptosis of NPC cells, independent of HDAC6 inhibition, and provide the rationale to combine the more specific and potent class I HDAC inhibitors with proteasome inhibitors for the treatment of cancers. © 2014 UICC.

  3. Combining the Mannitol Test and FeNO in the Assessment of Poorly Controlled Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porsbjerg, Celeste; Sverrild, Asger; Backer, Vibeke

    2015-01-01

    International guidelines recommend up-titration of anti-inflammatory treatment in asthmatic patients with poor symptom control, but patients without eosinophilic airway inflammation are less likely to benefit from this. The mannitol bronchoprovocation test and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) are increasingly used in the diagnostic assessment of asthma, but the utility of combining these tests has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to determine the value of combining FeNO and the mannitol test to assess patients with asthma referred for specialist assessment because of poor symptom control. All patients referred consecutively over a 12-month period for the assessment of asthma at the Respiratory Outpatient Clinic at Bispebjerg Hospital in Copenhagen were examined with bronchial provocation to mannitol, FeNO, and induced sputum. Among asthmatic patients with partly controlled or uncontrolled symptoms according to Global Initiative for Asthma criteria, only 23% had sputum eosinophilia (eosinophils >2.99%). A positive mannitol test did not increase the likelihood of airway eosinophilia significantly (positive test: 32% vs negative test: 18%, P = .12). However, a positive mannitol test combined with a FeNO > 25 ppb indicated a high likelihood of airway eosinophilia (73%), compared with FeNO > 25 ppb and a negative mannitol test (29%) (P mannitol test was not associated with airway eosinophilia (sputum eosinophils > 2.99%: positive mannitol test: 0%, negative test: 11%, ns). Combining the mannitol test and FeNO may aid in the differentiation between eosinophilic and noneosinophilic asthma in patients referred for specialist management because of poorly controlled asthma symptoms. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Independent and combined association of overall physical fitness and subjective well-being with fibromyalgia severity : the al-Ándalus project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Estévez-López, Fernando; Gray, Cindy M; Segura-Jiménez, Víctor; Soriano-Maldonado, Alberto; Álvarez-Gallardo, Inmaculada C; Arrayás-Grajera, Manuel J; Carbonell-Baeza, Ana; Aparicio, Virginia A; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel; Pulido-Martos, Manuel

    PURPOSE: The present study aimed: (1) to test the associations of overall physical fitness and subjective well-being with fibromyalgia severity and (2) to determine whether the combination of overall physical fitness and subjective well-being is associated with fibromyalgia severity among adult

  5. Open Architecture Data System for NASA Langley Combined Loads Test System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, Michael C.; Ambur, Damodar R.

    1998-01-01

    The Combined Loads Test System (COLTS) is a new structures test complex that is being developed at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) to test large curved panels and cylindrical shell structures. These structural components are representative of aircraft fuselage sections of subsonic and supersonic transport aircraft and cryogenic tank structures of reusable launch vehicles. Test structures are subjected to combined loading conditions that simulate realistic flight load conditions. The facility consists of two pressure-box test machines and one combined loads test machine. Each test machine possesses a unique set of requirements or research data acquisition and real-time data display. Given the complex nature of the mechanical and thermal loads to be applied to the various research test articles, each data system has been designed with connectivity attributes that support both data acquisition and data management functions. This paper addresses the research driven data acquisition requirements for each test machine and demonstrates how an open architecture data system design not only meets those needs but provides robust data sharing between data systems including the various control systems which apply spectra of mechanical and thermal loading profiles.

  6. Combination treatment with Fructus Ligustri Lucidi and Puerariae radix offsets their independent actions on bone and mineral metabolism in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiao-Li; Cao, Si-Si; Gao, Quan-Gui; Feng, Hao-Tian; Wong, Man-Sau; Denney, Liya

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Fructus Ligustri Lucidi (FLL) and Puerariae radix (PR) combination treatment in bone and mineral metabolism in ovariectomized (OVX) rats in our search for an alternative regimen for the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Six-month-old OVX rats were used as postmenopausal osteoporotic models, and PR water extract (PR) and FLL water extract (WE) were added to commercial diets individually or in combination and administered to OVX rats for 12 weeks. Bone properties, calcium and phosphorus absorption, and bone biochemical markers were measured to investigate the potential interactions between the actions of PR and the actions of WE on bone and mineral metabolism in OVX rats. Long-term treatment with PR did not significantly improve bone properties but greatly ameliorated the secondary hyperparathyroidism induced by ovariectomy in the animals. WE significantly enhanced the intestinal calcium absorption rate and decreased the enlarged trabecular bone surface at the site of metaphysic tibia in OVX rats. However, the positive effects of WE or PR alone on bone and mineral metabolism were diminished when OVX rats were cotreated with WE and PR. The combination of these two herbs offsets their independent actions on bone and mineral metabolism in vivo. The results of the present study could provide insights to medical professionals to further their understanding of the potential negative impact of herb-herb interactions when a combination of herbal mixtures is used for the management of osteoporosis.

  7. DC Brushless Motor Control Design and Preliminary Testing for Independent 4-Wheel Drive Rev-11 Robotic Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roni Permana Saputra

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the design of control system for brushless DC motor using microcontroller ATMega 16 that will be applied to an independent 4-wheel drive Mobile Robot LIPI version 2 (REV-11. The control system consists of two parts which are brushless DC motor control module and supervisory control module that coordinates the desired command to the motor control module. To control the REV-11 platform, supervisory control transmit the reference data of speed and direction of motor to control the speed and direction of each actuator on the platform REV-11. From the test results it is concluded that the designed control system work properly to coordinate and control the speed and direction of motion of the actuator motor REV-11 platform. 

  8. Migrating songbirds tested in computer-controlled Emlen funnels use stellar cuesfor a time-independent compass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, Henrik Østergaard; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2001-01-01

    detailed temporal analyses. First, we showed that the birds use a star compass. Then, we tested the birds under a stationary planetarium sky, which simulated the star pattern of the local sky at 02:35 h for 11 consecutive hours of the night, and compared the birds' directional choices as a function of time...... with the predictions from five alternative stellar orientation hypotheses. The results supported the hypothesis suggesting that birds use a time-independent star compass based on learned geometrical star configurations to pinpoint the rotational point of the starry sky (north). In contrast, neither hypotheses...... suggesting that birds use the stars for establishing their global position and then perform true star navigation nor those suggesting the use of a time-compensated star compass were supported....

  9. Testing the Independence of Multiple Personality Factors in Relation to Health Among Community-Dwelling Older Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smagula, Stephen F; Faulkner, Kimberly; Scheier, Michael F; Tindle, Hilary A; Cauley, Jane A

    2016-06-01

    We assessed associations between specific personality factors and health, and tested whether specific personality factors were related to health outcomes independent of each other. We performed cross-sectional analyses of personality and health among a sample of community-dwelling older men (n = 613, M age = 81.4, SD = 5.04 years) living in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Personality factors (dispositional optimism, conscientiousness, and goal adjustment) were crudely related to both physical and mental health, but adjusting for other personality factors completely attenuated several of these associations. Conscientiousness remained uniquely related to every physical and mental health outcome. Optimism remained uniquely related to all health outcomes, except physical activity (which was more highly related to conscientiousness and goal adjustment). Associations between goal adjustment and probable depression appeared to be explained by conscientiousness and optimism. Correlations among multiple aspects of personality may mask unique associations of specific personality aspects with successful aging. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Test of the Flavour Independence of $\\alpha_{s}$ using Next-to-Leading Order Calculations for Heavy Quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G.; Alexander, G.; Allison, John; Altekamp, N.; Anderson, K.J.; Anderson, S.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Ashby, S.F.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Ball, A.H.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, Roger J.; Batley, J.R.; Baumann, S.; Bechtluft, J.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Bentvelsen, S.; Bethke, S.; Betts, S.; Biebel, O.; Biguzzi, A.; Bloodworth, I.J.; Bock, P.; Bohme, J.; Bonacorsi, D.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Bright-Thomas, P.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, Robert M.; Burckhart, H.J.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, David G.; Chrisman, D.; Ciocca, C.; Clarke, P.E.L.; Clay, E.; Cohen, I.; Conboy, J.E.; Cooke, O.C.; Couchman, J.; Couyoumtzelis, C.; Coxe, R.L.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallavalle, G.Marco; Davis, R.; De Jong, S.; de Roeck, A.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Dixit, M.S.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Estabrooks, P.G.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fanti, M.; Faust, A.A.; Fiedler, F.; Fierro, M.; Fleck, I.; Frey, A.; Furtjes, A.; Futyan, D.I.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, J.W.; Gascon-Shotkin, S.M.; Gaycken, G.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Gibson, V.; Gibson, W.R.; Gingrich, D.M.; Glenzinski, D.; Goldberg, J.; Gorn, W.; Grandi, C.; Graham, K.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Hajdu, C.; Hanson, G.G.; Hansroul, M.; Hapke, M.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Hargrove, C.K.; Harin-Dirac, M.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Herndon, M.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hildreth, M.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hobson, P.R.; Hocker, James Andrew; Hoffman, Kara Dion; Homer, R.J.; Honma, A.K.; Horvath, D.; Hossain, K.R.; Howard, R.; Huntemeyer, P.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Imrie, D.C.; Ishii, K.; Jacob, F.R.; Jawahery, A.; Jeremie, H.; Jimack, M.; Jones, C.R.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanaya, N.; Kanzaki, J.; Karlen, D.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kayal, P.I.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kim, D.H.; Klier, A.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Kokott, T.P.; Kolrep, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kowalewski, Robert V.; Kress, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kuhl, T.; Kyberd, P.; Lafferty, G.D.; Landsman, H.; Lanske, D.; Lauber, J.; Lawson, I.; Layter, J.G.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; Liebisch, R.; List, B.; Littlewood, C.; Lloyd, A.W.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Long, G.D.; Losty, M.J.; Lu, J.; Ludwig, J.; Lui, D.; Macchiolo, A.; Macpherson, A.; Mader, W.; Mannelli, M.; Marcellini, S.; Martin, A.J.; Martin, J.P.; Martinez, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McDonald, W.John; McKenna, J.; Mckigney, E.A.; McMahon, T.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Mendez-Lorenzo, P.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Mohr, W.; Montanari, A.; Mori, T.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Neal, H.A.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oakham, F.G.; Odorici, F.; Ogren, H.O.; Okpara, A.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Patrick, G.N.; Patt, J.; Perez-Ochoa, R.; Petzold, S.; Pfeifenschneider, P.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poffenberger, P.; Poli, B.; Polok, J.; Przybycien, M.; Quadt, A.; Rembser, C.; Rick, H.; Robertson, S.; Robins, S.A.; Rodning, N.; Roney, J.M.; Rosati, S.; Roscoe, K.; Rossi, A.M.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Rust, D.R.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sahr, O.; Sang, W.M.; Sarkisian, E.K.G.; Sbarra, C.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schmitt, S.; Schoning, A.; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W.G.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.H.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G.P.; Sittler, A.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Snow, G.A.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Spagnolo, S.; Sproston, M.; Stahl, A.; Stephens, K.; Steuerer, J.; Stoll, K.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Surrow, B.; Talbot, S.D.; Taras, P.; Tarem, S.; Teuscher, R.; Thiergen, M.; Thomas, J.; Thomson, M.A.; Torrence, E.; Towers, S.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Van Kooten, Rick J.; Vannerem, P.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Wackerle, F.; Wagner, A.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wermes, N.; Wetterling, D.; White, J.S.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Zacek, V.; Zer-Zion, D.

    1999-01-01

    We present a test of the flavour independence of the strong coupling constant for charm and bottom quarks with respect to light (uds) quarks, based on a hadronic event sample obtained with the OPAL detector at LEP. Five observables related to global event shapes were used to measure alpha_s in three flavour tagged samples (uds, c and b). The event shape distributions were fitted by Order(alpha_s**2) calculations of jet production taking into account mass effects for the c and b quarks. We find: = 0.997 +- 0.038(stat.) +- 0.030(syst.) +- 0.012(theory) and = 0.993 +- 0.008(stat.) +- 0.006(syst.) +- 0.011(theory) for the ratios alpha_s(charm)/alpha_s(uds) and alpha_s(b)/alpha_s(uds) respectively.

  11. Field dependence-independence from a working memory perspective: a dual-task investigation of the Hidden Figures test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, A; Witzki, A H; Emerson, M J

    2001-01-01

    Field dependence-independence (FDI) is a construct intensively investigated within cognitive style research, but its cognitive underpinnings are not clearly specified. We propose that performance on FDI tasks primarily reflects the operations of the visuospatial and executive components of working memory. We tested this hypothesis in a dual-task experiment with a commonly used measure of FDI, the Hidden Figures Test. The results showed that performance on this test was impaired by concurrent performance of secondary tasks that primarily tap the visuospatial component (spatial tapping) and the executive component (2-back and random number generation), but was almost unaffected by other secondary tasks (simple tapping and articulatory suppression). Moreover, an analysis of secondary task performance ruled out the possibility of strategic trade-offs and revealed an intriguing dissociation for two different sets of "randomness" indices for the random number generation task. These results support the hypothesised mapping between FDI and working memory components and suggest that the dual-task paradigm can provide a useful way to bring underspecified constructs like FDI into closer alignment with theoretical ideas developed within cognitive psychology.

  12. Bacterial enteric infections detected by culture-independent diagnostic tests--FoodNet, United States, 2012-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Martha; Huang, Jennifer Y; Cronquist, Alicia B; Medus, Carlota; Hurd, Sharon; Zansky, Shelley; Dunn, John; Woron, Amy M; Oosmanally, Nadine; Griffin, Patricia M; Besser, John; Henao, Olga L

    2015-03-13

    The increased availability and rapid adoption of culture-independent diagnostic tests (CIDTs) is moving clinical detection of bacterial enteric infections away from culture-based methods. These new tests do not yield isolates that are currently needed for further tests to distinguish among strains or subtypes of Salmonella, Campylobacter, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, and other organisms. Public health surveillance relies on this detailed characterization of isolates to monitor trends and rapidly detect outbreaks; consequently, the increased use of CIDTs makes prevention and control of these infections more difficult. During 2012-2013, the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet*) identified a total of 38,666 culture-confirmed cases and positive CIDT reports of Campylobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, Shiga toxin-producing E. coli, Vibrio, and Yersinia. Among the 5,614 positive CIDT reports, 2,595 (46%) were not confirmed by culture. In addition, a 2014 survey of clinical laboratories serving the FoodNet surveillance area indicated that use of CIDTs by the laboratories varied by pathogen; only CIDT methods were used most often for detection of Campylobacter (10%) and STEC (19%). Maintaining surveillance of bacterial enteric infections in this period of transition will require enhanced surveillance methods and strategies for obtaining bacterial isolates.

  13. Combining Blink, Pupil, and Response Time Measures in a Concealed Knowledge Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis eSeymour

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The response time (RT based Concealed Knowledge Test (CKT has been shown to accurately detect participants’ knowledge of mock-crime related information. Tests based on ocular measures such as pupil size and blink rate have sometimes resulted in poor classification, or lacked detailed classification analyses. The present study examines the fitness of multiple pupil and blink related responses in the CKT paradigm. To maximize classification efficiency, participants’ concealed knowledge was assessed using both individual test measures and combinations of test measures. Results show that individual pupil-size, pupil-slope, and pre-response blink-rate measures produce efficient classifications. Combining pupil and blink measures yielded more accuracy classifications than individual ocular measures. Although RT-based tests proved efficient, combining RT with ocular measures had little incremental benefit. It is argued that covertly assessing ocular measures during RT-based tests may guard against effective countermeasure use in applied settings. A compound classification procedure was used to categorize individual participants and yielded high hit rates and low false-alarm rates without the need for adjustments between test paradigms or subject populations. We conclude that with appropriate test paradigms and classification analyses, ocular measures may prove as effective as other indices, though additional research is needed.

  14. Screening for chromosomal abnormalities using combined test in the first trimester of pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Soo Yeon; Jang, In Ae; Lee, Min Ah; Kim, Young Ju; Chun, Sun Hee; Park, Mi Hye

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study was designed to review the screening performance of combined test at the Ewha Womans University Mokdong hospital. Methods All women admitted for routine antenatal care between January 1st 2008 and December 31st 2012 with a known pregnancy outcome were included in this study, totaling 1,156 women with singleton pregnancies presenting at 10 to 13 weeks of gestation. Women were offered screening using a combination of maternal serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A, fre...

  15. The diagnostic sensitivity of dengue rapid test assays is significantly enhanced by using a combined antigen and antibody testing approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott R Fry

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Serological tests for IgM and IgG are routinely used in clinical laboratories for the rapid diagnosis of dengue and can differentiate between primary and secondary infections. Dengue virus non-structural protein 1 (NS1 has been identified as an early marker for acute dengue, and is typically present between days 1-9 post-onset of illness but following seroconversion it can be difficult to detect in serum. AIMS: To evaluate the performance of a newly developed Panbio® Dengue Early Rapid test for NS1 and determine if it can improve diagnostic sensitivity when used in combination with a commercial IgM/IgG rapid test. METHODOLOGY: The clinical performance of the Dengue Early Rapid was evaluated in a retrospective study in Vietnam with 198 acute laboratory-confirmed positive and 100 negative samples. The performance of the Dengue Early Rapid in combination with the IgM/IgG Rapid test was also evaluated in Malaysia with 263 laboratory-confirmed positive and 30 negative samples. KEY RESULTS: In Vietnam the sensitivity and specificity of the test was 69.2% (95% CI: 62.8% to 75.6% and 96% (95% CI: 92.2% to 99.8 respectively. In Malaysia the performance was similar with 68.9% sensitivity (95% CI: 61.8% to 76.1% and 96.7% specificity (95% CI: 82.8% to 99.9% compared to RT-PCR. Importantly, when the Dengue Early Rapid test was used in combination with the IgM/IgG test the sensitivity increased to 93.0%. When the two tests were compared at each day post-onset of illness there was clear differentiation between the antigen and antibody markers. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights that using dengue NS1 antigen detection in combination with anti-glycoprotein E IgM and IgG serology can significantly increase the sensitivity of acute dengue diagnosis and extends the possible window of detection to include very early acute samples and enhances the clinical utility of rapid immunochromatographic testing for dengue.

  16. Combining Cavity for RF Power Sources Higher Power Testing and Further Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Wooldridge, Emma; Rogers, James H P

    2005-01-01

    A combining cavity for RF power sources has been investigated previously reported in EPAC'04 using computer simulations in CSTs' Microwave Studio© and by building a low power model out of aluminium. The model has now been tested at higher power in a number different configurations and compared with earlier results. This paper discusses the results of the higher power test and options for a combiner that can be used at the high power required for particle accelerators. It discusses further design and future modelling.

  17. Detrital zircons from the Nanaimo basin, Vancouver Island, British Columbia: An independent test of Late Cretaceous to Cenozoic northward translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, W. A.; Guest, B.; Coutts, D.; Bain, H.; Hubbard, S.

    2017-05-01

    The development of the Cordilleran orogen of western North American is disputed despite a century of study. Paleomagnetic observations require large-scale dextral displacements of crustal fragments along the western margin of North America, from low latitudes to moderate latitudes during the Cretaceous-Paleogene. A lack of corroborating geological evidence for large-scale (>1500 km) displacements has prevented the widespread integration of paleomagnetic data into most contemporary tectonic models for the margin. Here we use detrital zircons from the Nanaimo basin, southwestern British Columbia, Canada as an independent test of its Late Cretaceous paleogeographic position. We compare 4310 detrital zircon U/Pb dates from 16 samples to potential source areas in western North America to test hypothesized northern and southern Late Cretaceous paleogeographic positions. Our detrital zircon data suggest that sediment in the Nanaimo basin derives from either a geographically restricted portion of the Belt-Purcell basin or the Mojave-Sonoran region of southwestern North America. A paleogeographic position for the basin adjacent to the Mojave-Sonoran region is preferred as it is consistent with the paleomagnetic results, but further geological, isotopic, or geophysical data are required to rule out a Belt-Purcell source.

  18. Point-of-care testing on admission to the intensive care unit: lactate and glucose independently predict mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jan; Blobner, Manfred; Busch, Raymonde; Moser, Norman; Kochs, Eberhard; Luppa, Peter B

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the study was to retrospectively investigate whether parameters of routine point-of-care testing (POCT) predict hospital mortality in critically ill surgical patients on admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). Arterial blood analyses of 1551 patients on admission to the adult surgical ICU of the Technical University Munich were reviewed. POCT was performed on a blood gas analyser. The association between acid-base status and mortality was evaluated. Metabolic acidosis was defined by base excess (BE) 50% of BE, anion gap (AG)-acidosis by AG >16 mmol/L, hyperchloraemic acidosis by chloride >115 mmol/L. Metabolic alkalosis was defined by BE ≥3 mmol/L. Logistic regression analysis identified variables independently associated with mortality. Overall mortality was 8.8%. Mortality was greater in male patients (p=0.012). Mean age was greater in non-survivors (pmortality 7.3%), thereof 26 patients with pCO(2)>55 mm Hg (mortality 23.1%). Three hundred and seventy-seven patients presented with acidosis (mortality 11.4%), thereof 163 patients with lactic acidosis (mortality 19%). Mortality for alkalosis (174 patients) was 12.1%. Mean blood glucose level for non-survivors was higher compared to survivors (pmortality. Lactate and glucose on ICU admission independently predict mortality. BE and AG failed as prognostic markers. Lactic acidosis showed a high mortality rate implying that lactate levels should be obtained on ICU admission. Prevalence of hyperchloraemic acidosis was low. Metabolic alkalosis was associated with an increased mortality. Further studies on this disturbance and its attendant high mortality are warranted.

  19. Testing combined pharmacotherapies and behavioral interventions in alcohol dependence: rationale and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Increasing knowledge about effective therapies for alcohol dependence calls for new research designs to examine treatment interactions between pharmacotherapies and behavioral interventions. In 1997, the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism recruited 11 sites and a coordinating center for a large-scale (1,375 subjects), randomized placebo controlled trial to test 16 weeks of active treatment using naltrexone and acamprosate alone and in combination. Most participants receive 9 brief sessions delivered by medically trained providers to promote sobriety and enhance medication adherence (Medical Management, MM). Half the participants are also randomized to individualized psychotherapy (up to 20 sessions of Combined Behavioral Intervention, CBI), integrating elements of the successful behavioral interventions from Project MATCH. COMBINE seeks to evaluate the efficacy of the two most promising medications (naltrexone and acamprosate) both singly and together, when combined with different intensities of behavioral therapies. COMBINE incorporates a number of innovative design aspects, including a no-pill psychotherapy-alone condition, behavioral interventions that are both manual-guided and individualized, and pharmacotherapy dosing that is greater than in some previous trials. Two COMBINE pilot studies demonstrate the safety and acceptability of the combination pharmacotherapy dosing, and the feasibility of implementing the manualized behavioral interventions. This paper introduces COMBINE's goals, methods and analytic strategies, and their potential to improve multimodal treatment selection.

  20. Electrostatic Discharge Test of Multi-Junction Solar Array Coupons After Combined Space Environmental Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kenneth H.; Schneider, Todd; Vaughn, Jason; Hoang, Bao; Funderburk, Victor V.; Wong, Frankie; Gardiner, George

    2010-01-01

    A set of multi-junction GaAs/Ge solar array test coupons were subjected to a sequence of 5-year increments of combined environmental exposure tests. The test coupons capture an integrated design intended for use in a geosynchronous (GEO) space environment. A key component of this test campaign is conducting electrostatic discharge (ESD) tests in the inverted gradient mode. The protocol of the ESD tests is based on the ISO/CD 11221, the ISO standard for ESD testing on solar array panels. This standard is currently in its final review with expected approval in 2010. The test schematic in the ISO reference has been modified with Space System/Loral designed circuitry to better simulate the on-orbit operational conditions of its solar array design. Part of the modified circuitry is to simulate a solar array panel coverglass flashover discharge. All solar array coupons used in the test campaign consist of 4 cells. The ESD tests are performed at the beginning of life (BOL) and at each 5-year environment exposure point. The environmental exposure sequence consists of UV radiation, electron/proton particle radiation, thermal cycling, and ion thruster plume. This paper discusses the coverglass flashover simulation, ESD test setup, and the importance of the electrical test design in simulating the on-orbit operational conditions. Results from 5th-year testing are compared to the baseline ESD characteristics determined at the BOL condition.

  1. Diagnosis reliability of combined flexible sigmoidoscopy and fecal-immunochemical test in colorectal neoplasia screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iovanescu D

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Dana Iovanescu,1 Mirela Frandes,2 Diana Lungeanu,2 Amelia Burlea,3 Bogdan P Miutescu,4 Eftimie Miutescu1 1Department of Gastroenterology, Faculty of Medicine, Pharmacy and Dental Medicine, “Vasile Goldis” West University of Arad, 2Department of Functional Sciences, “Victor Babes” University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Timisoara, 3Department of Pathology, County Hospital of Arad, 4Department of Gastroenterology, “Victor Babes” University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Timisoara, Romania Background: Employing colonoscopy, the gold standard in colorectal cancer (CRC diagnosis testing, for CRC screening presents a significant risk of complications. Alternative methods with a lower invasive-level and fewer risks are proposed in combination, though each with lower diagnosis performance when applied separately. The main objective of this cross-sectional pilot study was to evaluate the feasibility of a CRC screening program using combined flexible sigmoidoscopy and fecal-immunochemical test (FIT.Methods: The patient population consisted of 2,201 consecutive-case symptomatic patients attending the gastroenterology outpatient clinic with mild complaints between 2012 and 2014. They were referred for FIT. A sample of 252 individuals underwent a subsequent colonoscopy, blind to FIT results, and theoretical sigmoidoscopy was simulated. On a subsample of 57 patients, real sigmoidoscopy was additionally performed. Prior probabilities in terms of patients’ compliance and CRC prevalence were estimated, together with predictive ability of FIT and sigmoidoscopy in screening population. We assessed the merit of a screening strategy employing two-stage serial multiple testing: a first stage by combining two parallel tests, that is, flexible sigmoidoscopy and FIT and b colonoscopy as the second diagnosis test. The scheme was validated using the actual predictive values derived from the study population.Results: Colonoscopy found 75 (29.76% individuals with

  2. Non-tenera Contamination and the Economic Impact of SHELL Genetic Testing in the Malaysian Independent Oil Palm Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Leslie C-L; Low, Eng-Ti L; Abdullah, Meilina O; Nookiah, Rajanaidu; Ting, Ngoot C; Nagappan, Jayanthi; Manaf, Mohamad A A; Chan, Kuang-Lim; Halim, Mohd A; Azizi, Norazah; Omar, Wahid; Murad, Abdul J; Lakey, Nathan; Ordway, Jared M; Favello, Anthony; Budiman, Muhammad A; Van Brunt, Andrew; Beil, Melissa; Leininger, Michael T; Jiang, Nan; Smith, Steven W; Brown, Clyde R; Kuek, Alex C S; Bahrain, Shabani; Hoynes-O'Connor, Allison; Nguyen, Amelia Y; Chaudhari, Hemangi G; Shah, Shivam A; Choo, Yuen-May; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi; Singh, Rajinder

    2016-01-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is the most productive oil bearing crop worldwide. It has three fruit forms, namely dura (thick-shelled), pisifera (shell-less) and tenera (thin-shelled), which are controlled by the SHELL gene. The fruit forms exhibit monogenic co-dominant inheritance, where tenera is a hybrid obtained by crossing maternal dura and paternal pisifera palms. Commercial palm oil production is based on planting thin-shelled tenera palms, which typically yield 30% more oil than dura palms, while pisifera palms are female-sterile and have little to no palm oil yield. It is clear that tenera hybrids produce more oil than either parent due to single gene heterosis. The unintentional planting of dura or pisifera palms reduces overall yield and impacts land utilization that would otherwise be devoted to more productive tenera palms. Here, we identify three additional novel mutant alleles of the SHELL gene, which encode a type II MADS-box transcription factor, and determine oil yield via control of shell fruit form phenotype in a manner similar to two previously identified mutant SHELL alleles. Assays encompassing all five mutations account for all dura and pisifera palms analyzed. By assaying for these variants in 10,224 mature palms or seedlings, we report the first large scale accurate genotype-based determination of the fruit forms in independent oil palm planting sites and in the nurseries that supply them throughout Malaysia. The measured non-tenera contamination rate (10.9% overall on a weighted average basis) underscores the importance of SHELL genetic testing of seedlings prior to planting in production fields. By eliminating non-tenera contamination, comprehensive SHELL genetic testing can improve sustainability by increasing yield on existing planted lands. In addition, economic modeling demonstrates that SHELL gene testing will confer substantial annual economic gains to the oil palm industry, to Malaysian gross national income and to Malaysian

  3. The Health Professions Admission Test (HPAT) score and leaving certificate results can independently predict academic performance in medical school: do we need both tests?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Halpenny, D

    2010-11-01

    A recent study raised concerns regarding the ability of the health professions admission test (HPAT) Ireland to improve the selection process in Irish medical schools. We aimed to establish whether performance in a mock HPAT correlated with academic success in medicine. A modified HPAT examination and a questionnaire were administered to a group of doctors and medical students. There was a significant correlation between HPAT score and college results (r2: 0.314, P = 0.018, Spearman Rank) and between leaving cert score and college results (r2: 0.306, P = 0.049, Spearman Rank). There was no correlation between leaving cert points score and HPAT score. There was no difference in HPAT score across a number of other variables including gender, age and medical speciality. Our results suggest that both the HPAT Ireland and the leaving certificate examination could act as independent predictors of academic achievement in medicine.

  4. Fluorescence in situ hybridization in combination with the comet assay and micronucleus test in genetic toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Comet assay and micronucleus (MN) test are widely applied in genotoxicity testing and biomonitoring. While comet assay permits to measure direct DNA-strand breaking capacity of a tested agent MN test allows estimating the induced amount of chromosome and/or genome mutations. The potential of these two methods can be enhanced by the combination with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques. FISH plus comet assay allows the recognition of targets of DNA damage and repairing directly. FISH combined with MN test is able to characterize the occurrence of different chromosomes in MN and to identify potential chromosomal targets of mutagenic substances. Thus, combination of FISH with the comet assay or MN test proved to be promising techniques for evaluation of the distribution of DNA and chromosome damage in the entire genome of individual cells. FISH technique also permits to study comet and MN formation, necessary for correct application of these methods. This paper reviews the relevant literature on advantages and limitations of Comet-FISH and MN-FISH assays application in genetic toxicology. PMID:20840797

  5. Fluorescence in situ hybridization in combination with the comet assay and micronucleus test in genetic toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hovhannisyan Galina G

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Comet assay and micronucleus (MN test are widely applied in genotoxicity testing and biomonitoring. While comet assay permits to measure direct DNA-strand breaking capacity of a tested agent MN test allows estimating the induced amount of chromosome and/or genome mutations. The potential of these two methods can be enhanced by the combination with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH techniques. FISH plus comet assay allows the recognition of targets of DNA damage and repairing directly. FISH combined with MN test is able to characterize the occurrence of different chromosomes in MN and to identify potential chromosomal targets of mutagenic substances. Thus, combination of FISH with the comet assay or MN test proved to be promising techniques for evaluation of the distribution of DNA and chromosome damage in the entire genome of individual cells. FISH technique also permits to study comet and MN formation, necessary for correct application of these methods. This paper reviews the relevant literature on advantages and limitations of Comet-FISH and MN-FISH assays application in genetic toxicology.

  6. Risk of fetal loss associated with invasive testing following combined first-trimester screening for Down syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, C. B.; Gerds, T. A.; Rode, L

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess prospectively the risk of fetal loss associated with chorionic villus sampling (CVS) and amniocentesis (AC) following combined first-trimester screening (cFTS) for Down syndrome. METHODS: This was a nationwide population-based study (Danish Fetal Medicine Database, 2008......-2010) including 147 987 women with singleton pregnancy who underwent cFTS. Propensity score stratification was used to assess the risk of fetal loss with and without invasive testing. Analyses were performed between 3 and 21 days after cFTS for CVS and between 28 and 42 days after cFTS for AC. Results...... are reported as average risk differences with 95% CIs. RESULTS: The risks of miscarriage and stillbirth were not higher in women exposed to CVS or AC compared with unexposed women, independent of the analysis time-point. The average effect of CVS on risk of miscarriage was -0.08% (95% CI, -0.64; 0.47) at 3...

  7. Full Scale Test SSP 34m blade, Combined load. Data report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Hørlyk; Nielsen, Magda; Jensen, Find Mølholt

    This report is part of the research project entitled “Eksperimentel vingeforskning: Strukturelle mekanismer i nutidens og fremtidens store vinger under kombineret last” where a 34m wind turbine blade from SSP-Technology A/S was tested in combined flap and edgewise load. The applied load is 55% of...

  8. Combining predictions from linear models when training and test inputs differ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. van Ommen (Thijs); N.L. Zhang (Nevin); J. Tian (Jin)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractMethods for combining predictions from different models in a supervised learning setting must somehow estimate/predict the quality of a model's predictions at unknown future inputs. Many of these methods (often implicitly) make the assumption that the test inputs are identical to the

  9. Evaluation of stresses in a combined plane strain-simple shear test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boogaard, Antonius H.; van Riel, M.; Huetink, Han

    2005-01-01

    A biaxial testing device for sheet metal has been developed that can impose a combination of plane strain and simple shear deformation. The specimen has a large width to height ratio and a small height to thickness ratio. The forces in tensile and shear direction are easily measured and the tensile

  10. Combined Caffeine and Ephedrine Ingestion Improves Run Times of Canadian Forces Warrior Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-04-01

    or a placebo (P), 9 healthy male recreational runners completed six balanced and double-blind trials of. the Canadian Forces Warrior Test (WD, a...skeletal muscle (4,10,12,14,15). The ingestion of the drugs in combination (C +E) has been the focus of obesity studies because of the result- ant

  11. Analysis of local chronic inflammatory cell infiltrate combined with systemic inflammation improves prognostication in stage II colon cancer independent of standard clinicopathologic criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Natalie; Wong, Hui-Li; Templeton, Arnoud; Tripathy, Sagarika; Whiti Rogers, Te; Croxford, Matthew; Jones, Ian; Sinnathamby, Mathuranthakan; Desai, Jayesh; Tie, Jeanne; Bae, Susie; Christie, Michael; Gibbs, Peter; Tran, Ben

    2016-02-01

    In Stage II colon cancer, multiple independent studies have shown that a dense intratumoural immune infiltrate (local inflammation) is associated with improved outcomes, while systemic inflammation, measured by various markers, has been associated with poorer outcomes. However, previous studies have not considered the interaction between local and systemic inflammation, nor have they assessed the type of inflammatory response compared with standard clinicopathologic criteria. In order to evaluate the potential clinical utility of inflammatory markers in Stage II colon cancer, we examined local and systemic inflammation in a consecutive series of patients with resected Stage II colon cancer between 2000 and 2010 who were identified from a prospective clinical database. Increased intratumoural chronic inflammatory cell (CIC) density, as assessed by pathologist review of hematoxylin and eosin stained slides, was used to represent local inflammation. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) >5, as calculated from pre-operative full blood counts, was used to represent systemic inflammation. In 396 eligible patients identified, there was a non-significant inverse relationship between local and systemic inflammation. Increased CIC density was significantly associated with improved overall (HR 0.45, p = 0.001) and recurrence-free survival (HR 0.37, p = 0.003). High NLR was significantly associated with poorer overall survival (HR 2.56, p < 0.001). The combination of these markers further stratified prognosis independent of standard high-risk criteria, with a dominant systemic inflammatory response (low CIC/high NLR) associated with the worst outcome (5-year overall survival 55.8%). With further validation this simple, inexpensive combined inflammatory biomarker might assist in patient selection for adjuvant chemotherapy in Stage II colon cancer. © 2015 UICC.

  12. Anthropometric and Athletic Performance Combine Test Results Among Positions within Grade Levels of High School-Aged American Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leutzinger, Todd J; Gillen, Zachary M; Miramonti, Amelia M; McKay, Brianna D; Mendez, Alegra I; Cramer, Joel T

    2018-01-30

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate differences among player positions at three grade levels in elite, collegiate-prospective American football players. Participants' data (n = 7,160) were analyzed for this study [mean height (Ht) ± standard deviation (SD) = 178 ± 7 cm, weight (Wt) = 86 ± 19 kg]. Data were obtained from 12 different high school American football recruiting combines hosted by Zybek Sports (Boulder, Colorado). Eight two-way (9x3) mixed factorial ANOVAs [position (defensive back (DB), defensive end (DE), defensive lineman (DL), linebacker (LB), offensive lineman (OL), quarterback (QB), running back (RB), tight end (TE), and wide receiver (WR) x grade (freshmen, sophomores, and juniors)] were used to test for differences among the mean test scores for each combine measure [Ht, Wt, 40-yard (40yd) dash, pro-agility drill (PA), L-cone drill (LC), vertical jump (VJ), and broad jump (BJ)]. There were position-related differences (p ≤ 0.05) for Ht, 40yd dash, and BJ, within each grade level and for Wt, PA, LC, and VJ independent of grade level. Generally, the results showed that OL were the tallest, weighed the most, and exhibited the lowest performance scores among positions. RBs were the shortest, while DBs and WRs weighed the least, and exhibited the highest performance scores among positions. These results demonstrate the value of classifying high school-aged American football players according to their specific position rather than categorical groupings such as 'line' vs. 'skill' vs. 'big skill' when evaluating anthropometric and athletic performance combine test results.

  13. Relevant climate response tests for stratospheric aerosol injection: A combined ethical and scientific analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenferna, Georges Alexandre; Russotto, Rick D.; Tan, Amanda; Gardiner, Stephen M.; Ackerman, Thomas P.

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we focus on stratospheric sulfate injection as a geoengineering scheme, and provide a combined scientific and ethical analysis of climate response tests, which are a subset of outdoor tests that would seek to impose detectable and attributable changes to climate variables on global or regional scales. We assess the current state of scientific understanding on the plausibility and scalability of climate response tests. Then, we delineate a minimal baseline against which to consider whether certain climate response tests would be relevant for a deployment scenario. Our analysis shows that some climate response tests, such as those attempting to detect changes in regional climate impacts, may not be deployable in time periods relevant to realistic geoengineering scenarios. This might pose significant challenges for justifying stratospheric sulfate aerosol injection deployment overall. We then survey some of the major ethical challenges that proposed climate response tests face. We consider what levels of confidence would be required to ethically justify approving a proposed test; whether the consequences of tests are subject to similar questions of justice, compensation, and informed consent as full-scale deployment; and whether questions of intent and hubris are morally relevant for climate response tests. We suggest further research into laboratory-based work and modeling may help to narrow the scientific uncertainties related to climate response tests, and help inform future ethical debate. However, even if such work is pursued, the ethical issues raised by proposed climate response tests are significant and manifold.

  14. Combination of culture-independent and culture-dependent molecular methods for the determination of bacterial community of iru, a fermented Parkia biglobosa seeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gbenga Adedeji Adewumi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, bacterial composition of iru produced by natural, uncontrolled fermentation of Parkia biglobosa seeds was assessed using culture-independent method in combination with culture-based genotypic typing techniques. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE revealed similarity in DNA fragments with the two DNA extraction methods used and confirmed bacterial diversity in the sixteen iru samples from different production regions. DNA sequencing of the highly variable V3 region of the 16S rRNA genes obtained from PCR-DGGE identified species related to Bacillus subtilis as consistent bacterial species in the fermented samples, while other major bands were identified as close relatives of Staphylococcus vitulinus, Morganella morganii, B. thuringiensis, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Tetragenococcus halophilus, Ureibacillus thermosphaericus, Brevibacillus parabrevis, Salinicoccus jeotgali, Brevibacterium sp. and Uncultured bacteria clones. Bacillus species were cultured as potential starter cultures and clonal relationship of different isolates determined using amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA combined with 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS PCR amplification, restriction analysis (ITS-PCR-RFLP and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR. This further discriminated Bacillus subtilis and its variants from food-borne pathogens such as Bacillus cereus and suggested the need for development of controlled fermentation processes and good manufacturing practices (GMP for iru production to achieve product consistency, safety quality and improved shelf life.

  15. Fixed-dose combination of alogliptin/pioglitazone improves glycemic control in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus independent of body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Chie; Suzuki, Kunihiro; Kuroda, Hisamoto; Sagara, Masaaki; Shimizu, Masanori; Kasai, Kikuo; Aso, Yoshimasa

    2017-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of switching from combination therapy with either alogliptin (Alo) or pioglitazone (Pio) to fixed-dose combination therapy (FDCT) with alogliptin and pioglitazone (Alo-Pio FDCT). The usefulness and efficacy of Alo-Pio FDCT were investigated. A total of 50 outpatients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treated with Alo and 47 outpatients with T2DM treated with Pio were switched to Alo-Pio FDCT, and its efficacy and usefulness were evaluated. Significant improvements were observed in hemoglobinA1c (HbA1c), alanine transaminase (ALT), and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) levels after switching to Alo-Pio FDCT for 16 weeks in both groups. Only the group switching from Alo to Alo-Pio FDCT showed significant improvements in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) levels and triglyceride levels. In a multivariate logistic regression model of the variation in the change of HbA1c at 16 weeks, ALT and GGT were independent predictors of the change of HbA1c at 16 weeks. In addition, the switch to Alo-Pio FDCT improved glycemic control to a certain degree regardless of BMI. Switching from either Alo or Pio to Alo-PIO FDCT may, unlike monotherapy with a DPP-4 inhibitor, be effective for patients with T2DM regardless of whether they are obese or lean.

  16. In vitro potency and combination testing of antimicrobial agents against Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharat, Amrita; Martin, Irene; Zhanel, George G; Mulvey, Michael R

    2016-03-01

    Antimicrobial resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a major concern to public health due to decreased susceptibility to frontline antimicrobials. To find agents that are active against N. gonorrhoeae, we tested antimicrobials alone or in combination by Etest gradient strips. The potencies (as assessed by minimum inhibitory concentrations) of twenty-five antimicrobials were evaluated against nine reference strains of N. gonorrhoeae (WHO F, G, K, L, M, N, O, P and ATCC 49226). Potency was greatest for netilmicin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, ceftriaxone, ertapenem and piperacillin-tazobactam. Combinations of azithromycin, moxifloxacin, or gentamicin with ceftriaxone, doripenem, or aztreonam were tested against reference isolates and the fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) was calculated. All nine combinations resulted in indifference (>0.5 FICI ≤ 4). Combinations with FICI gonorrhoeae. These data on antimicrobials with higher potency and combinations that did not show antagonism can help to guide larger scale susceptibility studies for antimicrobial resistant N. gonorrhoeae. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Design and testing of an independently controlled urea SCR retrofit system for the reduction of NOx emissions from marine diesels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Derek R; Bedick, Clinton R; Clark, Nigel N; McKain, David L

    2009-05-15

    Diesel engine emissions for on-road, stationary and marine applications are regulated in the United States via standards set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). A major component of diesel exhaust that is difficult to reduce is nitrogen oxides (NOx). Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) has been in use for many years for stationary applications, including external combustion boilers, and is promising for NOx abatement as a retrofit for mobile applications where diesel compression ignition engines are used. The research presented in this paper is the first phase of a program focused on the reduction of NOx by use of a stand-alone urea injection system, applicable to marine diesel engines typical of work boats (e.g., tugs). Most current urea SCR systems communicate with engine controls to predict NOx emissions based on signals such as torque and engine speed, however many marine engines in use still employ mechanical injection technology and lack electronic communication abilities. The system developed and discussed in this paper controls NOx emissions independentof engine operating parameters and measures NOx and exhaust flow using the following exhaust sensor inputs: absolute pressure, differential pressure, temperature, and NOx concentration. These sensor inputs were integrated into an independent controller and open loop architecture to estimate the necessary amount of urea needed, and the controller uses pulse width modulation (PWM) to power an automotive fuel injector for airless urea delivery. The system was tested in a transient test cell on a 350 hp engine certified at 4 g/bhp-hr of NOx, with a goal of reducing the engine out NOx levels by 50%. NOx reduction capabilities of 41-67% were shown on the non road transient cycle (NRTC) and ICOMIA E5 steady state cycles with system optimization during testing to minimize the dilute ammonia slip to cycle averages of 5-7 ppm. The goal of 50% reduction of NOx can be achieved dependent upon cycle. Further

  18. Combination of Universal Mechanical Testing Machine with Atomic Force Microscope for Materials Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jian; He, Dannong

    2015-08-01

    Surface deformation and fracture processes of materials under external force are important for understanding and developing materials. Here, a combined horizontal universal mechanical testing machine (HUMTM)-atomic force microscope (AFM) system is developed by modifying UMTM to combine with AFM and designing a height-adjustable stabilizing apparatus. Then the combined HUMTM-AFM system is evaluated. Finally, as initial demonstrations, it is applied to analyze the relationship among macroscopic mechanical properties, surface nanomorphological changes under external force, and fracture processes of two kinds of representative large scale thin film materials: polymer material with high strain rate (Parafilm) and metal material with low strain rate (aluminum foil). All the results demonstrate the combined HUMTM-AFM system overcomes several disadvantages of current AFM-combined tensile/compression devices including small load force, incapability for large scale specimens, disability for materials with high strain rate, and etc. Therefore, the combined HUMTM-AFM system is a promising tool for materials research in the future.

  19. The effect of inherited thrombophilia on second trimester combined aneuploidy screening test markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cıkman, Muzaffer Seyhan; Seckin, Kerem Doga; Karslı, Mehmet Fatih; Baser, Eralp; Cıkman, Duygu Ilke; Cicek, Mahmut Nedim

    2015-04-01

    To determine whether inherited thrombophilia affects components of second trimester combined aneuploidy screening test. A case-control study was performed between 1 December 2010 and 1 February 2012, at a tertiary referral hospital. Singleton pregnancies with inherited thrombophilia that underwent second trimester (16-19(+6) week) combined aneuploidy screening test were included in the study. Maternal serum alfa fetoprotein, unconjugated estriol, human chorionic gonadotropin levels and multiple of median (MoM) levels were compared between the study group and controls. Within the study period, 18,943 women with singleton pregnancies had a combined second trimester aneuploidy screening test at our institution. Among these, 26 women met the criteria of thrombophilia. A control group that comprised 275 women with similar gestational age was generated, using a 1:1 ratio. Unconjugated estriol MoM levels were significantly lower in women with inherited thrombophilia (p = 0.02). But there was no statistically significant difference for unconjugated estriol levels, human chorionic gonadotropin, alfa fetoprotein and their MoM levels. Our study suggest that in patients with hereditary thrombophilia a new correction factor should be used, when calculating unconjugated estriol MoM value, which is one of the markers of second trimester aneuploidy screening test.

  20. Asthma control in patients on fixed dose combination evaluated with mannitol challenge test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romberg, Kerstin A M; Berggren, Anna-Carin; Bjermer, Leif

    2014-02-01

    Asthma is often difficult to control and it is likely that not all patients are optimally treated. This study aimed to explore asthma control in adults receiving fixed dose combination (FDC) therapy. Control of asthma was assessed using the mannitol challenge test as a monitoring tool to see if this would give additional information compared to the asthma control test (ACT). The study was an open-label, prospective study on 98 adults prescribed with FDC therapies for at least three months. 74 patients considered that their asthma was well controlled. However, 60 patients had a positive mannitol challenge test (PD15 test were included, this increased to 64 patients (65%). Exploratory analysis determined that the spirometry parameters; FEV1/FVC and FEV1% of predicted, were statistically significant predictors of a positive mannitol challenge test. Co-morbid conditions such as concomitant upper airway involvement or eczema did not predict mannitol reactivity. Although most patients rated their asthma as well controlled, many provided a positive mannitol challenge test, suggesting the presence of underlying inflammation, despite treatment with fixed dose combination therapy. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. First beam test of a combined ramp and squeeze at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Wenninger, Jorg; Coello De Portugal - Martinez Vazquez, Jaime Maria; Gorzawski, Arkadiusz; Redaelli, Stefano; Schaumann, Michaela; Solfaroli Camillocci, Matteo; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2015-01-01

    With increasing maturity of LHC operation it is possible to envisage more complex beam manipulations. At the same time operational efficiency receives increasing attention. So far ramping the beams to their target energy and squeezing the beams to smaller or higher beta are decoupled at the LHC. (De-)squeezing is always performed at the target energy, currently 6.5 TeV. Studies to combine the ramp and squeeze processes have been made for the LHC since 2011, but so far no experimental test with beam had ever performed. This note describes the first machine experiment with beam aiming at validating the combination of ramp and squeeze, the so-called combined ramp and squeeze (CRS).

  2. Improving Detection of Prediabetes in Children and Adults: Using Combinations of Blood Glucose Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ike Solomon Okosun

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine combinations of blood glucose tests: oral glucose tolerance (OGT, fasting plasma glucose (FBG and hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C that are associated with highest diagnostic rates of prediabetes in non-diabetic American children and adults.Methods: The 2007-2008 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys data were used for this study. Overall and specific prevalence of prediabetes (defined using OGT+FPG, OGT+HbA1C, HbA1C+FPG and OGT+FPG+HbA1C tests were determined across age, race/ethnicity, sex and BMI categories.Results: FPG+HbA1C test was associated with significantly higher diagnostic rates of prediabetes across age, race/ethnicity and BMI. Estimates of overall prevalence of prediabetes using OGT+FPG, OGT+HbA1C, HbA1C+FPG and OGT+FPG+HbA1C tests were 20.3%, 24.2%, 33% and 34.3%, respectively. Compared to OGT+FPG, the use of HbA1C+FPG test in screening was associated with 44.8%, 135%, 38.6% and 35.9% increased prevalence of prediabetes in non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, Mexican-American and other racial/ethnic men, respectively. The corresponding values in women were 67.8%, 140%, 37.2% and 42.6%, respectively. Combined use of all blood glucose tests did not improve the overall and gender-specific prediabetes prevalence beyond what was observed using HbA1C+FPG test.Conclusions: HbA1C criteria were associated with higher diagnosis rates of prediabetes than FPG and OGT tests in non-diabetic American children and adults. Using a combination of HbA1C and FPG test in screening for prediabetes reduces intrinsic systematic bias in using just HbA1C testing and offers the benefits of each test. A well-defined HbA1C that takes into consideration race/ethnicity, gender, age and body mass index may improve detection of prediabetes in population and clinical settings.

  3. Determination of endpoint of procedure for radix rehmanniae steamed based on ultraviolet spectrophotometry combination with continuous wavelet transform and kernel independent component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoqing; Hou, Zhenyu; Tang, Yanxia; Zhao, Jianbo; Sun, Yu'an; Dong, Chunhong; Fu, Dexue

    2010-10-29

    A method for determination of the endpoint of the procedure for radix rehmanniae steamed was proposed based on UV spectrophotometry combination with continuous wavelet transform and kernel independent component analysis (UV-CWT-KICA). In the proposed method, the raw UV spectra of the rehmanniae samples during steamed procedure were measured. The raw UV spectral data were firstly pretreated by CWT for elimination of the noise signal and enrichment of the spectral resolution, then the independent components (ICs) were estimated from the mixed CWT coefficient matrix. The results show that the ICs are chemical significance with their relative concentrations gradually decreasing or increasing during the first steamed period, and the endpoint of the steamed procedure can be determined by inspection of the relative concentration profiles, at which the ICs should be approached maximum or minimum. Furthermore, the estimated ICs of rehmanniae samples from different areas or with different grades are similar, and the relative concentration of the similar ICs in different groups are increasing or decreasing before the first 14 h, and nearly steady or some decreasing after 16 h. Based on the variations of the relative concentration profiles of the ICs, the endpoint of the steamed procedure can be determined as 15 h, while that determined by sensory analysis is 14-20 h. The proposed UV-CWT-KICA method can avoid the higher deviations of the endpoints that were determined by sensory analysis. It provides an alternative approach for determination of the endpoint of the procedure for processing traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Validity of combining history elements and physical examination tests to diagnose patellofemoral pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Décary, Simon; Frémont, Pierre; Pelletier, Bruno; Fallaha, Michel; Sylvain, Belzile; Martel-Pelletier, Johanne; Jean-Pierre, Pelletier; Feldman, Debbie; Marie-Pierre, Sylvestre; Vendittoli, Pascal-André; Desmeules, François

    2017-11-08

    to assess the validity of diagnostic clusters combining history elements and physical examination tests to diagnose or exclude patellofemoral pain (PFP). prospective diagnostic study. orthopaedic outpatients clinics (n=2), family medicine clinics (n=2) and community-dwelling. consecutive patients (n=279) consulting one of the participating orthopaedic surgeons (n=3) or sport medicine physicians (n=2) for any knee complaint. not applicable. history elements and physical examination tests were obtained by a trained physiotherapist blinded to the reference standard: a composite diagnosis including both physical tests and imaging results interpretation performed by an expert physician. Penalized logistic regression (LASSO) was used to identify history elements and physical examination tests associated with the diagnosis of PFP and recursive partitioning was used to develop diagnostic clusters. Diagnostic accuracy measures including sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), predictive values and positive and negative likelihood ratios (LR+/-) with associated 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. two hundred seventy-nine participants were evaluated and 75 had a diagnosis of PFP (26.9%). Different combinations of history elements and physical examination tests including the age of participants, knee pain location, difficulty descending stairs, patellar facets palpation, and passive knee extension range of motion were associated with a diagnosis of PFP and used in clusters to accurately discriminate between PFP and non-PFP individuals. Two diagnostic clusters to confirm the presence of PFP yielded a LR+ of 8.7 (95% CI: 5.2-14.6) and three clusters to exclude PFP yielded a LR-: of 0.12 (95% CI: 0.06-0.27). Diagnostic clusters combining common history elements and physical examination tests that can accurately diagnose or exclude PFP compared to various knee disorders were developed. External validation is required before clinical use. Copyright © 2017. Published by

  5. A Correlative Defect Analyzer Combining Glide Test with Atomic Force Microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jizhong He

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a novel instrument combining a glide tester with an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM for hard disk drive (HDD media defect test and analysis. The sample stays on the same test spindle during both glide test and AFM imaging without losing the relevant coordinates. This enables an in situ evaluation with the high-resolution AFM of the defects detected by the glide test. The ability for the immediate follow-on AFM analysis solves the problem of relocating the defects quickly and accurately in the current workflow. The tool is furnished with other functions such as scribing, optical imaging, and head burnishing. Typical data generated from the tool are shown at the end of the paper. It is further demonstrated that novel experiments can be carried out on the platform by taking advantage of the correlative capabilities of the tool.

  6. Assessment of Advanced Life Support competence when combining different test methods--reliability and validity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringsted, C; Lippert, F; Hesselfeldt, R

    2007-01-01

    Robust assessment of Advanced Life Support (ALS) competence is paramount to the credibility of ALS-provider certification and for estimating the learning outcome and retention of ALS competence following the courses. The European Resuscitation Council (ERC) provides two sets of MCQs and four...... Cardiac Arrest Simulation Test (CASTest) scenarios for the assessments according to guidelines 2005. AIMS: To analyse the reliability and validity of the individual sub-tests provided by ERC and to find a combination of MCQ and CASTest that provides a reliable and valid single effect measure of ALS...

  7. Bench-scale testing of the multi-gravity separator in combination with Microcel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-29

    The primary objective of the proposed work is to design, install and operate an advanced fine coal processing circuit combining Microcel and MGS technologies. Both of these processes have specific advantages as stand-alone units. For example, the Microcel column is effective in removing ash-bearing mineral matter, while the MGS is capable of efficiently removing coal-pyrite composites. Therefore, by combining both of these unit operations into a single processing circuit, synergistic advantages can be gained. As a result, this circuit arrangement has the potential of improving coal quality beyond that which could be achieved using either one of the technologies individually. In addition to the primary objective, secondary objectives of the proposed test program will include: (1) Circuit Optimization: The performance of each unit operation, individually and combined, will be optimized by conducting parametric studies as a function of key operating variables. The goal of this work will be to maximize the rejections of pyritic sulfur and ash while maintaining a high energy recovery; and (2) Process Variability: The steady-state performance of the optimized processing circuit will be studied (i) by conducting several long-duration test runs over a period of several days and (ii) by testing coal samples from other sources specified by the participating coal companies.

  8. The impact of inherited thrombophilia on first trimester combined aneuploidy screening test parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsli, Mehmet Fatih; Baser, Eralp; Seckin, Kerem Doga; Yeral, Mahmut İlkin; Togrul, Cihan; Ugur, Mustafa

    2014-03-01

    To determine whether inherited thrombophilia affects components of first trimester combined aneuploidy screening test. A case-control study was performed between January 1st and December 31st 2011, at a tertiary referral hospital. Singleton pregnancies with inherited thrombophilia that underwent first trimester (11-13(+6) week) combined aneuploidy screening test were included in the study. Pregnancy associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (fbHCG) and fetal nuchal translucency (NT) were compared between the study group and controls. Within the study period, 15,881 women with singleton pregnancies had a combined first trimester aneuploidy screening test at our institution. Among these, 207 women met the inclusion criteria. A control group that comprised 625 women with similar gestational age was generated, using a 1:3 ratio. PAPP-A levels were significantly higher, whereas fbHCG levels and fetal NT measurements were lower in women with inherited thrombophilia (p < 0.001). Our study suggested that PAPP-A, free b-HCG and NT MoM levels display alterations in women with inherited thrombophilia. Future trials are needed to assess the need for readjustment of risk in these patients.

  9. Combined DaT imaging and olfactory testing for differentiating parkinsonian disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borghammer, Per; Knudsen, K; Østergaard, K

    2014-01-01

    disorders (aPD). However, most iPD/DLB patients are hyposmic, whereas the majority of aPD patients were reported to have intact olfaction. For this reason, we conducted a longitudinal follow-up study to investigate the power of combined DaT imaging and olfactory testing to predict the final diagnosis...... of the patients. Materials and methodsA total of 129 patients received [123I]FP-CIT SPECT and olfactory testing at baseline assessment. Clinical follow-up 3012months later was the diagnostic standard of truth. A normative dataset of 24 healthy controls was used for comparison. ResultsBaseline DaT imaging...... predicted a dopamine-deficient diagnosis with 98% sensitivity and 98% specificity. The combined DaT/olfactory testing correctly classified 91% of patients as iPD/DLB (PPV 91%). The PPV rose to 97% or greater in anosmic patients. In contrast, only 45% of aPD patients were categorised correctly by combined DaT/olfactory...

  10. Accuracy of immunodiagnostic tests for active tuberculosis using single and combined results: a multicenter TBNET-Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Goletti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The clinical application of IFN-gamma release assays (IGRAs has recently improved the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection. In a multicenter study of the Tuberculosis Network European Trialsgroup (TBNET we aimed to ascertain in routine clinical practice the accuracy of a novel assay using selected peptides encoded in the mycobacterial genomic region of difference (RD 1 for the diagnosis of active tuberculosis in comparison with tuberculin skin test (TST, QuantiFERON-TB GOLD In-Tube (Cellestis Ltd., Carnegie, Australia and T-SPOT.TB (Oxfordimmunotec, Abingdon, UK. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 425 individuals from 6 different European centres were prospectively enrolled. We found that sensitivity of the novel test, TST, QuantiFERON-TB GOLD In-Tube and T-SPOT.TB was respectively 73.1%, 85.3%, 78.1%, and 85.2%; specificity was respectively 70.6%, 48.0%, 61.9% and 44.3%; positive likelihood ratios were respectively 2.48, 1.64, 2.05, and 1.53; negative likelihood ratios were respectively 0.38, 0.31, 0.35, 0.33. Sensitivity of TST combined with the novel test, QuantiFERON-TB GOLD In-Tube and T-SPOT.TB increased up to 92.4%, 97.7% and 97.1%, respectively. The likelihood ratios of combined negative results of TST with, respectively, the novel test, QuantiFERON-TB GOLD In-Tube and T-SPOT.TB were 0.19, 0.07 and 0.10. CONCLUSIONS: The assay based on RD1 selected peptides has similar accuracy for active tuberculosis compared with TST and commercial IGRAs. Then, independently of the spectrum of antigens used in the assays to elicit mycobacterial specific immune responses, the novel test, IGRAs, and the TST do not allow an accurate identification of active tuberculosis in clinical practice. However, the combined use of the novel assay or commercial IGRAs with TST may allow exclusion of tuberculosis.

  11. Combined therapy with m-TOR-dependent and -independent autophagy inducers causes neurotoxicity in a mouse model of Machado-Joseph disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte-Silva, S; Silva-Fernandes, A; Neves-Carvalho, A; Soares-Cunha, C; Teixeira-Castro, A; Maciel, P

    2016-01-28

    A major pathological hallmark in several neurodegenerative disorders, like polyglutamine disorders (polyQ), including Machado-Joseph disease (MJD), is the formation of protein aggregates. MJD is caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the ATXN3 gene, resulting in an abnormal protein, which is prone to misfolding and forms cytoplasmic and nuclear aggregates within neurons, ultimately inducing neurodegeneration. Treatment of proteinopathies with drugs that up-regulate autophagy has shown promising results in models of polyQ diseases. Temsirolimus (CCI-779) inhibits the mammalian target of rapamycin (m-TOR), while lithium chloride (LiCl) acts by inhibiting inositol monophosphatase, both being able to induce autophagy. We have previously shown that chronic treatment with LiCl (10.4 mg/kg) had limited effects in a transgenic MJD mouse model. Also, others have shown that CCI-779 had mild positive effects in a different mouse model of the disease. It has been suggested that the combination of mTOR-dependent and -independent autophagy inducers could be a more effective therapeutic approach. To further explore this avenue toward therapy, we treated CMVMJD135 transgenic mice with a conjugation of CCI-779 and LiCl, both at concentrations known to induce autophagy and not to be toxic. Surprisingly, this combined treatment proved to be deleterious to both wild-type (wt) and transgenic animals, failing to rescue their neurological symptoms and actually exerting neurotoxic effects. These results highlight the possible dangers of manipulating autophagy in the nervous system and suggest that a better understanding of the potential disruption in the autophagy pathway in MJD is required before successful long-term autophagy modulating therapies can be developed. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The effectiveness of combined gripping method in tensile testing of UHMWPE single yarn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H. X.; Hazell, P. J.; Shankar, K.; Morozov, E. V.; Escobedo, J. P.

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents the experimental study on the effectiveness of combined gripping method employed in the tensile testing of UHMWPE (Dyneema® SK75) single yarn. Seven different solutions including epoxy, acrylic, and ethyl cyanoacrylate adhesives were tested under quasi-static loadings in order to determine the most effective adhesive for bonding UHMWPE single yarn to aluminium sheets. The ethyl cyanoacrylate adhesive combined with polyolefin surface primer was found to be the best choice which could prevent yarn slippage and ensure the failure of yarn occurs in the gauge section. The single yarns were then tested at three strain rates of 3.3×10-5, 3.3×10-3, and 0.33 s-1. The tensile strength, maximum strain, and Young's modulus were determined from the measured stress-strain curves and compared with the values from literature; the results showed these tensile properties of single yarn depend on strain rate over the range tested.

  13. A combination test for detection of gene-environment interaction in cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombes, Brandon; Basu, Saonli; McGue, Matt

    2017-07-01

    Identifying gene-environment (G-E) interactions can contribute to a better understanding of disease etiology, which may help researchers develop disease prevention strategies and interventions. One big criticism of studying G-E interaction is the lack of power due to sample size. Studies often restrict the interaction search to the top few hundred hits from a genome-wide association study or focus on potential candidate genes. In this paper, we test interactions between a candidate gene and an environmental factor to improve power by analyzing multiple variants within a gene. We extend recently developed score statistic based genetic association testing approaches to the G-E interaction testing problem. We also propose tests for interaction using gene-based summary measures that pool variants together. Although it has recently been shown that these summary measures can be biased and may lead to inflated type I error, we show that under several realistic scenarios, we can still provide valid tests of interaction. These tests use significantly less degrees of freedom and thus can have much higher power to detect interaction. Additionally, we demonstrate that the iSeq-aSum-min test, which combines a gene-based summary measure test, iSeq-aSum-G, and an interaction-based summary measure test, iSeq-aSum-I, provides a powerful alternative to test G-E interaction. We demonstrate the performance of these approaches using simulation studies and illustrate their performance to study interaction between the SNPs in several candidate genes and family climate environment on alcohol consumption using the Minnesota Center for Twin and Family Research dataset. © 2017 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  14. The combined dexamethasone/CRH Test (DEX/CRH test and prediction of acute treatment response in major depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelius Schüle

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In this study the predictive value of the combined dexamethasone/CRH test (DEX/CRH test for acute antidepressant response was investigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In 114 depressed inpatients suffering from unipolar or bipolar depression (sample 1 the DEX/CRH test was performed at admission and shortly before discharge. During their stay in the hospital patients received different antidepressant treatment regimens. At admission, the rate of nonsuppression (basal cortisol levels >75.3 nmol/l was 24.6% and was not related to the later therapeutic response. Moreover, 45 out of 114 (39.5% patients showed an enhancement of HPA axis function at discharge in spite of clinical improvement. In a second sample, 40 depressed patients were treated either with reboxetine or mirtazapine for 5 weeks. The DEX/CRH test was performed before, after 1 week, and after 5 weeks of pharmacotherapy. Attenuation of HPA axis activity after 1 week was associated with a more pronounced alleviation of depressive symptoms after 5-week mirtazapine treatment, whereas downregulation of HPA system activity after 5 weeks was related to clinical response to reboxetine. However, early improvement of HPA axis dysregulation was not necessarily followed by a beneficial treatment outcome. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, performance of a single DEX/CRH test does not predict the therapeutic response. The best predictor for response seems to be an early attenuation of HPA axis activity within 1 or 2 weeks. However, early improvement of HPA system dysfunction is not a sufficient condition for a favourable response. Since a substantial part of depressive patients display a persistence of HPA axis hyperactivity at discharge, downregulation of HPA system function is not a necessary condition for acute clinical improvement either. Our data underline the importance of HPA axis dysregulation for treatment outcome in major depression, although restoration of HPA

  15. Combining test statistics and models in bootstrapped model rejection: it is a balancing act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Rikard; Strålfors, Peter; Cedersund, Gunnar

    2014-04-17

    Model rejections lie at the heart of systems biology, since they provide conclusive statements: that the corresponding mechanistic assumptions do not serve as valid explanations for the experimental data. Rejections are usually done using e.g. the chi-square test (χ2) or the Durbin-Watson test (DW). Analytical formulas for the corresponding distributions rely on assumptions that typically are not fulfilled. This problem is partly alleviated by the usage of bootstrapping, a computationally heavy approach to calculate an empirical distribution. Bootstrapping also allows for a natural extension to estimation of joint distributions, but this feature has so far been little exploited. We herein show that simplistic combinations of bootstrapped tests, like the max or min of the individual p-values, give inconsistent, i.e. overly conservative or liberal, results. A new two-dimensional (2D) approach based on parametric bootstrapping, on the other hand, is found both consistent and with a higher power than the individual tests, when tested on static and dynamic examples where the truth is known. In the same examples, the most superior test is a 2D χ2vsχ2, where the second χ2-value comes from an additional help model, and its ability to describe bootstraps from the tested model. This superiority is lost if the help model is too simple, or too flexible. If a useful help model is found, the most powerful approach is the bootstrapped log-likelihood ratio (LHR). We show that this is because the LHR is one-dimensional, because the second dimension comes at a cost, and because LHR has retained most of the crucial information in the 2D distribution. These approaches statistically resolve a previously published rejection example for the first time. We have shown how to, and how not to, combine tests in a bootstrap setting, when the combination is advantageous, and when it is advantageous to include a second model. These results also provide a deeper insight into the original

  16. Accelerated testing of solid oxide fuel cell stacks for micro combined heat and power application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Anke; Høgh, Jens Valdemar Thorvald; Barfod, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    State-of-the-art (SoA) solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks are tested using profiles relevant for use in micro combined heat and power (CHP) units. Such applications are characterised by dynamic load profiles. In order to shorten the needed testing time and to investigate potential acceleration...... of degradation, the profiles are executed faster than required for real applications. Operation with fast load cycling, both using hydrogen and methane/steam as fuels, does not accelerate degradation compared to constant operation, which demonstrates the maturity of SoA stacks and enables transferring knowledge...... from testing at constant conditions to dynamic operation. 7.5 times more cycles than required for 80,000 h lifetime as micro CHP are achieved on one-cell-stack level. The results also suggest that degradation mechanisms that proceed on a longer time-scale, such as creep, might have a more dominating...

  17. Synergistic analgesia of duloxetine and celecoxib in the mouse formalin test: a combination analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Hai Sun

    Full Text Available Duloxetine, a serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, and celecoxib, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, are commonly used analgesics for persistent pain, however with moderate gastrointestinal side effects or analgesia tolerance. One promising analgesic strategy is to give a combined prescription, allowing the maximal or equal efficacy with fewer side effects. In the current study, the efficacy and side effects of combined administration of duloxetine and celecoxib were tested in the mouse formalin pain model. The subcutaneous (s.c. injection of formalin into the left hindpaw induced significant somatic and emotional pain evaluated by the biphasic spontaneous flinching of the injected hindpaw and interphase ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs during the 1 h after formalin injection, respectively. Pretreatment with intraperitoneal (i.p. injection of duloxetine or celecoxib at 1 h before formalin injection induced the dose-dependent inhibition on the second but not first phase pain responses. Combined administration of duloxetine and celecoxib showed significant analgesia for the second phase pain responses. Combination analgesia on the first phase was observed only with higher dose combination. A statistical difference between the theoretical and experimental ED50 for the second phase pain responses was observed, which indicated synergistic interaction of the two drugs. Concerning the emotional pain responses revealed with USVs, we assumed that the antinociceptive effects were almost completely derived from duloxetine, since celecoxib was ineffective when administered alone or reduced the dosage of duloxetine when given in combination. Based on the above findings, acute concomitant administration of duloxetine and celecoxib showed synergism on the somatic pain behavior but not emotional pain behaviors.

  18. A Modified Generalized Fisher Method for Combining Probabilities from Dependent Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongying (Daisy eDai

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Rapid developments in molecular technology have yielded a large amount of high throughput genetic data to understand the mechanism for complex traits. The increase of genetic variants requires hundreds and thousands of statistical tests to be performed simultaneously in analysis, which poses a challenge to control the overall Type I error rate. Combining p-values from multiple hypothesis testing has shown promise for aggregating effects in high-dimensional genetic data analysis. Several p-value combining methods have been developed and applied to genetic data; see [Dai, et al. 2012b] for a comprehensive review. However, there is a lack of investigations conducted for dependent genetic data, especially for weighted p-value combining methods. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are often correlated due to linkage disequilibrium. Other genetic data, including variants from next generation sequencing, gene expression levels measured by microarray, protein and DNA methylation data, etc. also contain complex correlation structures. Ignoring correlation structures among genetic variants may lead to severe inflation of Type I error rates for omnibus testing of p-values. In this work, we propose modifications to the Lancaster procedure by taking the correlation structure among p-values into account. The weight function in the Lancaster procedure allows meaningful biological information to be incorporated into the statistical analysis, which can increase the power of the statistical testing and/or remove the bias in the process. Extensive empirical assessments demonstrate that the modified Lancaster procedure largely reduces the Type I error rates due to correlation among p-values, and retains considerable power to detect signals among p-values. We applied our method to reassess published renal transplant data, and identified a novel association between B cell pathways and allograft tolerance.

  19. A study on quantifying COPD severity by combining pulmonary function tests and CT image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimura, Yukitaka; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Honma, Hirotoshi; Takabatake, Hirotsugu; Mori, Masaki; Natori, Hiroshi; Mori, Kensaku

    2011-03-01

    This paper describes a novel method that can evaluate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) severity by combining measurements of pulmonary function tests and measurements obtained from CT image analysis. There is no cure for COPD. However, with regular medical care and consistent patient compliance with treatments and lifestyle changes, the symptoms of COPD can be minimized and progression of the disease can be slowed. Therefore, many diagnosis methods based on CT image analysis have been proposed for quantifying COPD. Most of diagnosis methods for COPD extract the lesions as low-attenuation areas (LAA) by thresholding and evaluate the COPD severity by calculating the LAA in the lung (LAA%). However, COPD is usually the result of a combination of two conditions, emphysema and chronic obstructive bronchitis. Therefore, the previous methods based on only LAA% do not work well. The proposed method utilizes both of information including the measurements of pulmonary function tests and the results of the chest CT image analysis to evaluate the COPD severity. In this paper, we utilize a multi-class AdaBoost to combine both of information and classify the COPD severity into five stages automatically. The experimental results revealed that the accuracy rate of the proposed method was 88.9% (resubstitution scheme) and 64.4% (leave-one-out scheme).

  20. Heavy and Overweight Vehicle Brake Testing: Five-Axle Combination Tractor-Flatbed Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lascurain, Mary Beth [ORNL; Capps, Gary J [ORNL; Franzese, Oscar [ORNL

    2013-10-01

    The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, in coordination with the Federal Highway Administration, sponsored the Heavy and Overweight Vehicle Brake Testing (HOVBT) program in order to provide information about the effect of gross vehicle weight (GVW) on braking performance. Because the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations limit the number of braking system defects that may exist for a vehicle to be allowed to operate on the roadways, the examination of the effect of brake defects on brake performance for increased loads is also relevant. The HOVBT program seeks to provide relevant information to policy makers responsible for establishing load limits, beginning with providing test data for a combination tractor/trailer. This testing was conducted on a five-axle combination vehicle with tractor brakes meeting the Reduced Stopping Distance requirement rulemaking. This report provides a summary of the testing activities, the results of various analyses of the data, and recommendations for future research. Following a complete brake rebuild, instrumentation, and brake burnish, stopping tests were performed from 20 and 40 mph with various brake application pressures (15 psi, 25 psi, 35 psi, 45 psi, 55 psi, and full system pressure). These tests were conducted for various brake conditions at the following GVWs: 60,000, 80,000, 91,000, 97,000, 106,000, and 116,000 lb. The 80,000-lb GVWs included both balanced and unbalanced loads. The condition of the braking system was also varied. To introduce these defects, brakes (none, forward drive axle, or rear trailer axle) were made inoperative. In addition to the stopping tests, performance-based brake tests were conducted for the various loading and brake conditions. Analysis of the stopping test data showed the stopping distance to increase with load (as expected) and also showed that more braking force was generated by the drive axle brakes than the trailer axle brakes. The constant-pressure stopping test data

  1. Combination Therapy of Sophoraflavanone B against MRSA: In Vitro Synergy Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Hyun Mun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sophoraflavanone B (SPF-B, a known prenylated flavonoid, was isolated from the roots of Desmodium caudatum. The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial synergism of SPF-B combined with antibiotics against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. MRSA, a multidrug-resistant pathogen, causes both hospital- and community-acquired infections worldwide. The antimicrobial activity of SPF-B was assessed by the broth microdilution method, checkerboard dilution test, and time-kill curve assay. The MIC of SPF-B for 7 strains of S. aureus ranges from 15.6 to 31.25 μg/mL determined. In the checkerboard method, the combinations of SPF-B with antibiotics had a synergistic effect; SPF-B markedly reduced the MICs of the β-lactam antibiotics: ampicillin (AMP and oxacillin (OXI; aminoglycosides gentamicin (GET; quinolones ciprofloxacin (CIP and norfloxacin (NOR against MRSA. The time-kill curves assay showed that a combined SPF-B and selected antibiotics treatment reduced the bacterial counts below the lowest detectable limit after 24 h. These data suggest that the antibacterial activity of SPF-B against MRSA can be effectively increased through its combination with three groups of antibiotics (β-lactams, aminoglycosides, and quinolones. Our research can be a valuable and significant source for the development of a new antibacterial drug with low MRSA resistance.

  2. Clinical significance of combined testing of YKL-40 with CEA in Chinese colorectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hui-Ming; Lu, Yi-Zhuo; Liang, Xian-Ming; Lin, Yong-Zhi; Li, Yi; Zhang, Zhong-Ying; Tzeng, Chi-Meng

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the practical value of individual and combined testing of plasma levels of YKL-40, CEA, and CA199 for auxiliary diagnosis and detection of recurrence of colorectal cancer. ELISA and ECLIA were used to evaluate levels of YKL-40, CEA, and CA199 in 120 colorectal cancer patients (56 initial-diagnosis, 42 post-operative, and 22 recurrent cases). Forty-three patients with benign colorectal disease and 36 healthy patients were enrolled as controls. The relationship between YKL-40 and clinical indicators of tumor pathology was analyzed. The positive rate and diagnostic efficacy of single and combined YKL-40, CEA, and CA199 testing were assessed in patients with colorectal cancer. Plasma YKL-40 in the cancer group was significantly higher than in the benign control and healthy control group, and the mean values were 145.4 ng/mL, 107.7 ng/mL, and 51.3 ng/mL (p testing was combined with CEA or CA199, the positive rate increased to 82.1% and 80.3%, respectively. Through ROC curve analysis of the post-operative recurrent group against the non-recurrent group, the areas under the curve for YKL-40, CEA, and CA199 were found to be 0.907, 0.714, and 0.759, respectively. Based on the Dukes classification, the mean YKL-40 value for stages A/B, C, and D were 120.1 ng/mL, 131.7 ng/mL, and 226.8 ng/mL (p = 0.008), respectively. The plasma YKL-40 level gradually increased as the disease progressed. Lower degrees of tumor differentiation were correlated with higher YKL-40 levels. The mean YKL-40 values of high, medium, and low tumor differentiation groups were 96.8 ng/mL, 127.5 ng/mL, and 225.7 ng/mL (p = 0.004), respectively. The benefits of using YKL-40 testing are higher than CEA and CA199 for the monitoring of colorectal cancer recurrence. Combined testing of both YKL-40 and CEA was found to be optimal for auxiliary diagnosis of colorectal cancer. Plasma YKL-40 was found to be suitable for auxiliary diagnosis of colorectal cancer.

  3. Evaluation of coating adhesion using a radial speckle interferometer combined with a micro-indentation test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tendela, Lucas P.; Kaufmann, Guillermo H.

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents a technique to investigate coating adhesion which combines a radial in-plane speckle interferometer and a micro-indentation test. The proposed technique is based on the measurement of the radial in-plane displacement field produced by a micro-indentation introduced on the coated surface of the specimen. Using steel specimens coated with a thin coating of epoxy paint and subjected to different adhesive conditions, it is demonstrated that digital speckle pattern interferometry can be successfully used to measure the small local deformations generated by a micro-indentation. An empirical model, which allows to quantify the adhesion of a given coated-substrate system by the proposed combined technique, is finally presented.

  4. FEM simulation of friction testing method based on combined forward rod-backward can extrusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakamura, T; Bay, Niels; Zhang, Z. L

    1997-01-01

    A new friction testing method by combined forward rod-backward can extrusion is proposed in order to evaluate frictional characteristics of lubricants in forging processes. By this method the friction coefficient mu and the friction factor m can be estimated along the container wall and the conical...... die surface in the forward rod extrusion using theoretical calibration diagrams representing the relationship between the punch travel, the forward rod extrusion length and mu or m without requirements of measuring the forming forces and the paw stress of the workpiece. The theoretical calibration...... curves are obtained by rigid-plastic FEM simulations in a combined forward rod-backward can extrusion process for a reduction in area R-b = 25, 50 and 70 percent in the backward can extrusion. It is confirmed that the friction factor m(p) on the punch nose in the backward cart extrusion has almost...

  5. Field operation test of Wakamatsu PFBC combined cycle power plant; Wakamatsu PFBC jissho shiken no genkyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, T. [Center for Coal Utilization, Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Takanishi, K. [Electric Power Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-09-01

    At the Wakamatsu Coal Utilization Research Center, the verification test was conducted of atmospheric pressure fluidized bed boilers and ultra-high temperature turbines. The Wakamatsu PFBC (pressurized fluidized bed combustion) is a combined cycle power generation system combining steam turbine power generation in which the turbine is driven by steam generated from the fluidized bed boiler installed inside the pressure vessel and gas turbine power generation in which high temperature/pressure exhaust gas is used from the boiler, having a total output of 71 MW. The operation started in fiscal 1995, stopped due to damage of the tube of CTF (ceramic tube filter), and is now continuing after the repair. As a result of the test conducted in fiscal 1995, it was confirmed in the two-stage cyclone test that the diameter of ash particle and cyclone efficiency change by kind of coal and amount of limestone and that by coal kind gas turbine blades show different states of abrasion, indicating greater abrasion when there is much SiO2 in ash. As a result of the continued high load operation of CTF, ash blockade inside the tube occurred and tube damage was generated by thermal shock, etc. 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Bench-scale testing of the multi-gravity separator in combination with Microcel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-30

    Work this quarter focused on the development of the engineering design specifications for the ET Test Circuit. Process flowsheets and detailed equipment specifications were finalized. Based on this information, bid packages were assembled and purchase orders were issued for all of the necessary process equipment. The design and procurement information is summarized in the ET Circuit Design Report submitted to the DOE's COR this quarter. Final drafts of the ET Circuit - System Safety Analysis, Nuclear Density Gauge - System Safety Analysis and Operating Manual/SOP were also completed and submitted to the COR this quarter. Preliminary characterization studies were also initiated this quarter. Tests were conducted to determine the grinding conditions required to achieve the desired particle size distributions for the characterization work. Flotation release analysis tests were conducted on both the Pittsburgh [number sign]8 and Illinois [number sign]6 seam coals as a function of grind size. The primary objective of the proposed work is to design, install, and operate an advanced fine coal processing circuit combining the Microcel and Multi-Gravity-Separator (MGS) technologies. Both of these processes have specific advantages as stand-alone units. For example, the Microcel column effectively removes ash-bearing mineral matter, while the MGS efficiently removes coal-pyrite composites. By combining both unit operations into a single processing circuit, synergistic advantages can be gained. As a result, this circuit arrangement has the potential to improve coal quality beyond that achieved using the individual technologies.

  7. Development of dissolution test method for a telmisartan/amlodipine besylate combination using synchronous derivative spectrofluorimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panikumar Durga Anumolu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The dissolution process is considered an important in vitro tool to evaluate product quality and drug release behavior. Single dissolution methods for the analysis of combined dosage forms are preferred to simplify quality control testing. The objective of the present work was to develop and validate a single dissolution test for a telmisartan (TEL and amlodipine besylate (AML combined tablet dosage form. The sink conditions, stability and specificity of both drugs in different dissolution media were tested to choose a discriminatory dissolution method, which uses an USP type-II apparatus with a paddle rotating at 75 rpm, with 900 mL of simulated gastric fluid (SGF without enzymes as the dissolution medium. This dissolution methodology provided good dissolution profiles for both TEL and AML and was able to discriminate changes in the composition and manufacturing process. To quantify both drugs simultaneously, a synchronous first derivative spectrofluorimetric method was developed and validated. Drug release was analyzed by a fluorimetric method at 458 nm and 675 nm for AML and TEL, respectively. The dissolution method was validated as per ICH guidance.

  8. Influence of Antibiotics on the Detection of Bacteria by Culture-Based and Culture-Independent Diagnostic Tests in Patients Hospitalized With Community-Acquired Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Aaron M; Bramley, Anna M; Jain, Seema; Arnold, Sandra R; Ampofo, Krow; Self, Wesley H; Williams, Derek J; Anderson, Evan J; Grijalva, Carlos G; McCullers, Jonathan A; Pavia, Andrew T; Wunderink, Richard G; Edwards, Kathryn M; Winchell, Jonas M; Hicks, Lauri A

    2017-01-01

    Specimens collected after antibiotic exposure may reduce culture-based bacterial detections. The impact on culture-independent diagnostic tests is unclear. We assessed the effect of antibiotic exposure on both of these test results among patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Culture-based bacterial testing included blood cultures and high-quality sputum or endotracheal tube (ET) aspirates; culture-independent testing included urinary antigen testing (adults) for Streptococcus pneumoniae and Legionella pneumophila and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal (NP/OP) swabs for Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae. The proportion of bacterial detections was compared between specimens collected before and after either any antibiotic exposure (prehospital and/or inpatient) or only prehospital antibiotics and increasing time after initiation of inpatient antibiotics. Of 4678 CAP patients, 4383 (94%) received antibiotics: 3712 (85%) only inpatient, 642 (15%) both inpatient and prehospital, and 29 (cultures (5.2% vs 2.6%; P cultures (50.0% vs 26.8%; P culture-based tests collected after antibiotics and in culture-independent tests that had longer intervals between antibiotic exposure and specimen collection. Bacterial yield could improve if specimens were collected promptly, preferably before antibiotics, providing data for improved antibiotic selection.

  9. Combined Raman/LIBS spectrometer elegant breadboard: built and tested - and flight model spectrometer unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlers, B.; Hutchinson, I.; Ingley, R.

    2017-11-01

    A spectrometer for combined Raman and Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is amongst the different instruments that have been pre-selected for the Pasteur payload of the ExoMars rover. It is regarded as a fundamental, next-generation instrument for organic, mineralogical and elemental characterisation of Martian soil, rock samples and organic molecules. Raman spectroscopy and LIBS will be integrated into a single instrument sharing many hardware commonalities [1]. The combined Raman / LIBS instrument has been recommended as the highest priority mineralogy instrument to be included in the rover's analytical laboratory for the following tasks: Analyse surface and sub-surface soil and rocks on Mars, identify organics in the search for life and determine soil origin & toxicity. The synergy of the system is evident: the Raman spectrometer is dedicated to molecular analysis of organics and minerals; the LIBS provides information on the sample's elemental composition. An international team, under ESA contract and with the leadership of TNO Science and Industry, has built and tested an Elegant Bread Board (EBB) of the combined Raman / LIBS instrument. The EBB comprises a specifically designed, extremely compact, spectrometer with high resolution over a large wavelength range, suitable for both Raman spectroscopy and LIBS measurements. The EBB also includes lasers, illumination and imaging optics as well as fibre optics for light transfer. A summary of the functional and environmental requirements together with a description of the optical design and its expected performance are described in [2]. The EBB was developed and constructed to verify the instruments' end-to-end functional performance with natural samples. The combined Raman / LIBS EBB realisation and test results of natural samples will be presented. For the Flight Model (FM) instrument, currently in the design phase, the Netherlands will be responsible for the design, development and verification of the

  10. Combining data in non-destructive testing; Fusion de donnees en CND pour le projet pace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavayssiere, B.

    1994-03-01

    Non-destructive testing of some components requires quite often the use of several methods such as X-ray, ultrasonics, Eddy Currents. But the efficiency of a NDT method is highly dependent on the fact that the detectability of flaws in a specimen relies on the choice of the best method. Moreover a lot of inspection issues could benefit from the use of more than one test method, as each NDT method has its own physical properties and technological limits. Some questions still remain: how to combine data, at what level and for what functionality. Simple monomethod processes are well-known now. They include techniques like reconstruction which belongs to the so-called ill-posed problems in the field of mathematics. For NDT data processing, it has the ability to estimate real data from distorted ones coming from a probe. But, up to now there has been very few approaches for computer aided combination of results from different advanced techniques. This report presents the various mathematical fields involved towards that goal (statistical decision theory which allows the use of multiple hypothesis, non-linear decision theory for its capability to classify and to discriminate, graph theory to find the optimal path in an hypothesis graph and also fuzzy logic, multiple resolution analysis, artificial intelligence,...) and which combinations of methods are useful. Some images will illustrate this topic in which EDF is involved, and will explain what are the major goals of this work. Combining is not only an improvement of 3D visualisation which would allow to display simultaneously CAD or NDT data for example, but it consists in exploiting multisensor data collected via a variety of sophisticated techniques and presenting this information to the operator without overloading the operator/system capacities in order to reduce the uncertainty and to resolve the ambiguity inherent to mono method inspection. (author). 7 figs., 35 refs.

  11. Multiple linear combination (MLC) regression tests for common variants adapted to linkage disequilibrium structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Yun Joo; Sun, Lei; Poirier, Julia G; Paterson, Andrew D; Bull, Shelley B

    2017-02-01

    By jointly analyzing multiple variants within a gene, instead of one at a time, gene-based multiple regression can improve power, robustness, and interpretation in genetic association analysis. We investigate multiple linear combination (MLC) test statistics for analysis of common variants under realistic trait models with linkage disequilibrium (LD) based on HapMap Asian haplotypes. MLC is a directional test that exploits LD structure in a gene to construct clusters of closely correlated variants recoded such that the majority of pairwise correlations are positive. It combines variant effects within the same cluster linearly, and aggregates cluster-specific effects in a quadratic sum of squares and cross-products, producing a test statistic with reduced degrees of freedom (df) equal to the number of clusters. By simulation studies of 1000 genes from across the genome, we demonstrate that MLC is a well-powered and robust choice among existing methods across a broad range of gene structures. Compared to minimum P-value, variance-component, and principal-component methods, the mean power of MLC is never much lower than that of other methods, and can be higher, particularly with multiple causal variants. Moreover, the variation in gene-specific MLC test size and power across 1000 genes is less than that of other methods, suggesting it is a complementary approach for discovery in genome-wide analysis. The cluster construction of the MLC test statistics helps reveal within-gene LD structure, allowing interpretation of clustered variants as haplotypic effects, while multiple regression helps to distinguish direct and indirect associations. © 2016 The Authors Genetic Epidemiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Independent and Combined Effects of Lactitol, Polydextrose, and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron on Postprandial Metabolism and Body Weight in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olli, Kaisa; Saarinen, Markku T; Forssten, Sofia D; Madetoja, Mari; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Tiihonen, Kirsti

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is related to the consumption of energy-dense foods in addition to changes in the microbiome where a higher abundance of gut Bacteroidetes can be found in lean subjects or after weight loss. Lactitol, a sweet-tasting sugar alcohol, is a common sugar-replacement in foods. Polydextrose (PDX), a highly branched glucose polymer, is known to reduce energy intake. Here, we test if the combined effects of lactitol or PDX in combination with Bacteroides species will have a beneficial metabolic response in rats fed a high-fat (HF) diet. A total of 175 male Wistar rats were fed either a LF or HF diet. Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (10(10) bacteria/animal/day) was orally administered with or without lactitol (1.6-2 g/animal/day) or PDX (2 g/animal/day) for 8 days. Postprandial blood samples, cecal digesta, and feces were collected on the last day. Measurements included: body weight, feed consumption, cecal short-chain fatty acids, fecal dry matter and heat value, blood glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and satiety hormone concentrations. Lactitol and PDX decreased the mean body weight when administered with B. thetaiotaomicron or when lactitol was administered alone. Levels of postprandial plasma triglycerides declined with lactitol and PDX when administered with B. thetaiotaomicron. For intestinal hormone release, lactitol - alone or with B. thetaiotaomicron - increased the release of gastrointestinal peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY) as well as the area under the curve (AUC) measured for PYY (0-8 h). In addition, levels of insulin AUC (0-8 h) decreased in the lactitol and PDX-supplemented groups. Lactitol and PDX may both provide additional means to regulate postprandial metabolism and weight management, whereas the addition of B. thetaiotaomicron in the tested doses had only minor effects on the measured parameters.

  13. Combined aberrant expression of microRNA-214 and UBC9 is an independent unfavorable prognostic factor for patients with gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuai; Jiao, Baohua; Geng, Shaomei; Ma, Shucheng; Liang, Zhaohui; Lu, Shengkui

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNA-214 (miR-214) plays an important role in tumor cell proliferation, migration and invasion, as well as tumor angiogenesis. Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme 9 (UBC9) is implicated in regulating several critical cancer-related pathways. Recent study has demonstrated that miR-214 reduction may facilitate UBC9 expression and may be involved in the regulation of glioma cell proliferation. The aim of this study was to clarify the clinical significance of miR-214 and UBC9 in human glioma, which has not been fully elucidated. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis was used to characterize the expression patterns of miR-214 and UBC9 mRNA in 108 glioma and 20 normal brain tissues. The associations of miR-214 and UBC9 mRNA expressions with clinicopathological factors and prognosis of glioma patients were also statistically analyzed. Compared with normal brain tissues, the expression levels of miR-214 and UBC9 mRNA in glioma tissues were significantly downregulated and upregulated, respectively (both P UBC9 mRNA expression in glioma tissues (r = -0.61, P = 0.01). Additionally, the combined miR-214 downregulation and UBC9 upregulation (miR-214-low/UBC9-high) was significantly associated with advanced pathological grade (P = 0.008). Moreover, Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox regression analyses showed that the glioma patients with miR-214-low/UBC9-high expression had poorest overall survival (P UBC9-high was an independent prognostic indicator of glioma (P = 0.01). Furthermore, subgroup analyses showed that miR-214-low/UBC9-high expression was significantly associated with poor overall survival in glioma patients with high pathological grades (for grade III-IV: P UBC9 may contribute to the development and the clinical outcome of glioma, and are valuable prognostic factors for glioma patients. A combined detection of miR-214/UBC9 expression may benefit us in predicting the prognosis of patients with advanced gliomas.

  14. Independent and combined effects of calcium-vitamin D3 and exercise on bone structure and strength in older men: an 18-month factorial design randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukuljan, Sonja; Nowson, Caryl A; Sanders, Kerrie M; Nicholson, Geoff C; Seibel, Markus J; Salmon, Jo; Daly, Robin M

    2011-04-01

    Exercise and calcium-vitamin D are independently recognized as important strategies to prevent osteoporosis, but their combined effects on bone strength and its determinants remain uncertain. To assess whether calcium-vitamin D(3) fortified milk could enhance the effects of exercise on bone strength, structure, and mineral density in middle-aged and older men. An 18-month factorial design randomized controlled trial in which 180 men aged 50-79 years were randomized to the following: exercise + fortified milk; exercise; fortified milk; or controls. Exercise consisted of progressive resistance training with weight-bearing impact activities performed 3 d/week. Men assigned to fortified milk consumed 400 ml/d of 1% fat milk containing 1000 mg/d calcium and 800 IU/d vitamin D(3). Changes in bone mineral density (BMD), bone structure, and strength at the lumbar spine (LS), proximal femur, mid-femur, and mid-tibia measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and/or quantitative computed tomography. There were no exercise-by-fortified milk interactions at any skeletal site. Main effect analysis showed that exercise led to a 2.1% (95% confidence interval, 0.5-3.6) net gain in femoral neck section modulus, which was associated with an approximately 1.9% gain in areal BMD and cross-sectional area. Exercise also improved LS trabecular BMD [net gain 2.2% (95% confidence interval, 0.2-4.1)], but had no effect on mid-femur or mid-tibia BMD, structure, or strength. There were no main effects of the fortified milk at any skeletal site. A community-based multi-component exercise program successfully improved LS and femoral neck BMD and strength in healthy older men, but providing additional calcium-vitamin D(3) to these replete men did not enhance the osteogenic response.

  15. Effects of UV on power degradation of photovoltaic modules in combined acceleration tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Trang; Heta, Yushi; Doi, Takuya; Masuda, Atsushi

    2016-05-01

    UV exposure and other factors such as high/low temperature, humidity and mechanical stress have been reported to degrade photovoltaic (PV) module materials. By focusing on the combined effects of UV stress and moisture on PV modules, two new acceleration tests of light irradiation and damp heat (DH) were designed and conducted. The effects of UV exposure were validated through a change in irradiation time (UV dosage) and a change of the light irradiation side (glass side vs backsheet side) in the UV-preconditioned DH and cyclic sequential tests, respectively. The chemical corrosion of finger electrodes in the presence of acetic acid generated from ethylene vinyl acetate used as an encapsulant was considered to be the main origin of degradation. The module performance characterized by electroluminescence images was confirmed to correlate with the measured acetic acid concentration and Ag finger electrode resistance.

  16. Full scale test SSP 34m blade, combined load. Data report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Per H.; Nielsen, Magda; Jensen, Find M. (and others)

    2010-11-15

    This report is part of the research project where a 34m wind turbine blade from SSP-Technology A/S was tested in combined flap and edgewise load. The applied load is 55% of an imaginary extreme event based on the certification load of the blade. This report describes the reason for choosing the loads and the load direction and the method of applying the loads to the blade. A novel load introduction allows the blade to deform in a more realistic manner, allowing the observation of e.g. transverse shear distortion. The global and local deformation of the blade as well as the blades' respond to repeated tests has been studied and the result from these investigations are presented, including the measurements performed. (Author)

  17. Testing Single and Combinations of Amendments for Stabilization of Metals in Contrasting Extremely Contaminated Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siebielec G.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Metals can be stabilized by soil amendments that increase metals adsorption or alter their chemical forms. Such treatments may limit the risk related to the contamination through reduction of metal transfer to the food chain (reduction of metal uptake by plants and its availability to soil organisms and metals migration within the environment. There is a need for experiments comparing various soil amendments available at reasonable amounts under similar environmental conditions. The other question is whether all components of soil environment or soil functions are similarly protected after remediation treatment. We conducted a series of pot studies to test some traditional and novel amendments and their combinations. The treatments were tested for several highly Zn/Cd/Pb contaminated soils. Among traditional amendments composts were the most effective – they ensured plant growth, increased soil microbial activity, reduced Cd in earthworms, reduced Pb bioaccessibility and increased share of unavailable forms of Cd and Pb.

  18. A layer correlation technique for pion energy calibration at the 2004 ATLAS Combined Beam Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abat, E.; Abdallah, J. M.; Addy, T. N.; Adragna, P.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahmad, A.; Akesson, T. P. A.; Aleksa, M.; Alexa, C.; Anderson, K.; Andreazza, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Antonaki, A.; Arabidze, G.; Arik, E.; Atkinson, T.; Baines, J.; Baker, O. K.; Banfi, D.; Baron, S.; Barr, A. J.; Beccherle, R.; Beck, H. P.; Belhorma, B.; Bell, P. J.; Benchekroun, D.; Benjamin, D. P.; Benslama, K.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Bernabeu, J.; Bertelsen, H.; Binet, S.; Biscarat, C.; Boldea, V.; Bondarenko, V. G.; Boonekamp, M.; Bosman, M.; Bourdarios, C.; Broklova, Z.; Burckhart Chromek, D.; Bychkov, V.; Callahan, J.; Calvet, D.; Canneri, M.; Capeáns Garrido, M.; Caprini, M.; Cardiel Sas, L.; Carli, T.; Carminati, L.; Carvalho, J.; Cascella, M.; Castillo, M. V.; Catinaccio, A.; Cauz, D.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Cetin, S. A.; Chen, H.; Cherkaoui, R.; Chevalier, L.; Chevallier, F.; Chouridou, S.; Ciobotaru, M.; Citterio, M.; Clark, A.; Cleland, B.; Cobal, M.; Cogneras, E.; Conde Muino, P.; Consonni, M.; Constantinescu, S.; Cornelissen, T.; Correard, S.; Corso Radu, A.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Cuneo, S.; Cwetanski, P.; Da Silva, D.; Dam, M.; Dameri, M.; Danielsson, H. O.; Dannheim, D.; Darbo, G.; Davidek, T.; De, K.; Defay, P. O.; Dekhissi, B.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Delmastro, M.; Derue, F.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Girolamo, B.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djobava, T.; Dobos, D.; Dobson, M.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Dotti, A.; Drake, G.; Drasal, Z.; Dressnandt, N.; Driouchi, C.; Drohan, J.; Ebenstein, W. L.; Eerola, P.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Egorov, K.; Eifert, T. F.; Einsweiler, K.; El Kacimi, M.; Elsing, M.; Emelyanov, D.; Escobar, C.; Etienvre, A. I.; Fabich, A.; Facius, K.; Fakhr-Edine, A. I.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farthouat, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Fayard, L.; Febbraro, R.; Fedin, O. L.; Fenyuk, A.; Fergusson, D.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrari, R.; Ferreira, B. C.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrere, D.; Filippini, G.; Flick, T.; Fournier, D.; Francavilla, P.; Francis, D.; Froeschl, R.; Froidevaux, D.; Fullana, E.; Gadomski, S.; Gagliardi, G.; Gagnon, P.; Gallas, M.; Gallop, B. J.; Gameiro, S.; Gan, K. K.; Garcia, R.; Garcia, C.; Gavrilenko, I. L.; Gemme, C.; Gerlach, P.; Ghodbane, N.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Giangiobbe, V.; Giokaris, N.; Glonti, G.; Goettfert, T.; Golling, T.; Gollub, N.; Gomes, A.; Gomez, M. D.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Goodrick, M. J.; Gorfine, G.; Gorini, B.; Goujdami, D.; Grahn, K.-J.; Grenier, P.; Grigalashvili, N.; Grishkevich, Y.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Gruwe, M.; Guicheney, C.; Gupta, A.; Haeberli, C.; Haertel, R.; Hajduk, Z.; Hakobyan, H.; Hance, M.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, P. H.; Hara, K.; Harvey, A., Jr.; Hawkings, R. J.; Heinemann, F. E. W.; Henriques Correia, A.; Henss, T.; Hervas, L.; Higon, E.; Hill, J. C.; Hoffman, J.; Hostachy, J. Y.; Hruska, I.; Hubaut, F.; Huegging, F.; Hulsbergen, W.; Hurwitz, M.; Iconomidou-Fayard, L.; Jansen, E.; Jen-La Plante, I.; Johansson, P. D. C.; Jon-And, K.; Joos, M.; Jorgensen, S.; Joseph, J.; Kaczmarska, A.; Kado, M.; Karyukhin, A.; Kataoka, M.; Kayumov, F.; Kazarov, A.; Keener, P. T.; Kekelidze, G. D.; Kerschen, N.; Kersten, S.; Khomich, A.; Khoriauli, G.; Khramov, E.; Khristachev, A.; Khubua, J.; Kittelmann, T. H.; Klingenberg, R.; Klinkby, E. B.; Kodys, P.; Koffas, T.; Kolos, S.; Konovalov, S. P.; Konstantinidis, N.; Kopikov, S.; Korolkov, I.; Kostyukhin, V.; Kovalenko, S.; Kowalski, T. Z.; Krüger, K.; Kramarenko, V.; Kudin, L. G.; Kulchitsky, Y.; Lacasta, C.; Lafaye, R.; Laforge, B.; Lampl, W.; Lanni, F.; Laplace, S.; Lari, T.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Lechowski, M.; Ledroit-Guillon, F.; Lehmann, G.; Leitner, R.; Lelas, D.; Lester, C. G.; Liang, Z.; Lichard, P.; Liebig, W.; Lipniacka, A.; Lokajicek, M.; Louchard, L.; Lourerio, K. F.; Lucotte, A.; Luehring, F.; Lund-Jensen, B.; Lundberg, B.; Ma, H.; Mackeprang, R.; Maio, A.; Maleev, V. P.; Malek, F.; Mandelli, L.; Maneira, J.; Mangin-Brinet, M.; Manousakis, A.; Mapelli, L.; Marques, C.; Garcia, S. Marti i.; Martin, F.; Mathes, M.; Mazzanti, M.; McFarlane, K. W.; McPherson, R.; Mchedlidze, G.; Mehlhase, S.; Meirosu, C.; Meng, Z.; Meroni, C.; Mialkovski, V.; Mikulec, B.; Milstead, D.; Minashvili, I.; Mindur, B.; Mitsou, V. A.; Moed, S.; Monnier, E.; Moorhead, G.; Morettini, P.; Morozov, S. V.; Mosidze, M.; Mouraviev, S. V.; Moyse, E. W. J.; Munar, A.; Myagkov, A.; Nadtochi, A. V.; Nakamura, K.; Nechaeva, P.; Negri, A.; Nemecek, S.; Nessi, M.; Nesterov, S. Y.; Newcomer, F. M.; Nikitine, I.; Nikolaev, K.; Nikolic-Audit, I.; Ogren, H.; Oh, S. H.; Oleshko, S. B.; Olszowska, J.; Onofre, A.; Padilla Aranda, C.; Paganis, S.; Pallin, D.; Pantea, D.; Paolone, V.; Parodi, F.; Parsons, J.; Parzhitskiy, S.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passmored, S. M.; Pater, J.; Patrichev, S.; Peez, M.; Perez Reale, V.; Perini, L.; Peshekhonov, V. D.; Petersen, J.; Petersen, T. C.; Petti, R.; Phillips, P. W.; Pina, J.; Pinto, B.; Podlyski, F.; Poggioli, L.; Poppleton, A.; Poveda, J.; Pralavorio, P.; Pribyl, L.; Price, M. J.; Prieur, D.; Puigdengoles, C.; Puzo, P.; RØhne, O.; Ragusa, F.; Rajagopalan, S.; Reeves, K.; Reisinger, I.; Rembser, C.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Reznicek, P.; Ridel, M.; Risso, P.; Riu, I.; Robinson, D.; Roda, C.; Roe, S.; Rohne, O.; Romaniouk, A.; Rousseau, D.; Rozanov, A.; Ruiz, A.; Rusakovich, N.; Rust, D.; Ryabov, Y. F.; Ryjov, V.; Salto, O.; Salvachua, B.; Salzburger, A.; Sandaker, H.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santi, L.; Santoni, C.; Saraiva, J. G.; Sarri, F.; Sauvage, G.; Says, L. P.; Schaefer, M.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Schiavi, C.; Schieck, J.; Schlager, G.; Schlereth, J.; Schmitt, C.; Schultes, J.; Schwemling, P.; Schwindling, J.; Seixas, J. M.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Serin, L.; Sfyrla, A.; Shalanda, N.; Shaw, C.; Shin, T.; Shmeleva, A.; Silva, J.; Simion, S.; Simonyan, M.; Sloper, J. E.; Smirnov, S. Yu; Smirnova, L.; Solans, C.; Solodkov, A.; Solovianov, O.; Soloviev, I.; Sosnovtsev, V. V.; Spanò, F.; Speckmayer, P.; Stancu, S.; Stanek, R.; Starchenko, E.; Straessner, A.; Suchkov, S. I.; Suk, M.; Szczygiel, R.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, F.; Tas, P.; Tayalati, Y.; Tegenfeldt, F.; Teuscher, R.; Thioye, M.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Timmermans, C. J. W. P.; Tisserant, S.; Toczek, B.; Tremblet, L.; Troncon, C.; Tsiareshka, P.; Tyndel, M.; Karagoez Unel, M.; Unal, G.; Unel, G.; Usai, G.; Van Berg, R.; Valero, A.; Valkar, S.; Valls, J. A.; Vandelli, W.; Vannucci, F.; Vartapetian, A.; Vassilakopoulos, V. I.; Vasilyeva, L.; Vazeille, F.; Vernocchi, F.; Vetter-Cole, Y.; Vichou, I.; Vinogradov, V.; Virzi, J.; Vivarelli, I.; de Vivie, J. B.; Volpi, M.; Anh, T. Vu; Wang, C.; Warren, M.; Weber, J.; Weber, M.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weingarten, J.; Wells, P. S.; Werner, P.; Wheeler, S.; Wiessmann, M.; Wilkens, H.; Williams, H. H.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Yasu, Y.; Zaitsev, A.; Zenin, A.; Zenis, T.; Zenonos, Z.; Zhang, H.; Zhelezko, A.; Zhou, N.

    2011-06-01

    A new method for calibrating the hadron response of a segmented calorimeter is developed and successfully applied to beam test data. It is based on a principal component analysis of energy deposits in the calorimeter layers, exploiting longitudinal shower development information to improve the measured energy resolution. Corrections for invisible hadronic energy and energy lost in dead material in front of and between the calorimeters of the ATLAS experiment were calculated with simulated Geant4 Monte Carlo events and used to reconstruct the energy of pions impinging on the calorimeters during the 2004 Barrel Combined Beam Test at the CERN H8 area. For pion beams with energies between 20GeV and 180GeV, the particle energy is reconstructed within 3% and the energy resolution is improved by between 11% and 25% compared to the resolution at the electromagnetic scale.

  19. Cognitive deficits in chronic pain patients, in a brief screening test, are independent of comorbidities and medication use

    OpenAIRE

    Karen dos Santos Ferreira; Gabriela Zucatto Oliver; Débora Carinhato Thomaz; Caroliny Trevisan Teixeira; Maria Paula Foss

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To describe and analyze cognitive aspects in patients with chronic pain and a control group without pain. Method A case-control study was conducted on 45 patients with chronic pain and on 45 control subjects. Data including pain diagnosis, comorbidities and medication used, were evaluated. Cognitive tests, such as the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Verbal Fluency Test, Clock Drawing Test and Stroop Test, were applied. Results Patients with chronic pain showed a...

  20. Combined and independent action of proteins SP-B and SP-C in the surface behavior and mechanical stability of pulmonary surfactant films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schürch, David; Ospina, Olga L; Cruz, Antonio; Pérez-Gil, Jesús

    2010-11-17

    The hydrophobic proteins SP-B and SP-C are essential for pulmonary surfactant function, even though they are a relatively minor component (surfactant dry mass). Despite countless studies, their specific differential action and their possible concerted role to optimize the surface properties of surfactant films have not been completely elucidated. Under conditions kept as physiologically relevant as possible, we tested the surface activity and mechanical stability of several surfactant films of varying protein composition in vitro using a captive bubble surfactometer and a novel (to our knowledge) stability test. We found that in the naturally derived surfactant lipid mixtures, surfactant protein SP-B promoted film formation and reextension to lower surface tensions than SP-C, and in particular played a vital role in sustaining film stability at the most compressed states, whereas SP-C produced no stabilization. Preparations containing both proteins together revealed a slight combined effect in enhancing film formation. These results provide a qualitative and quantitative framework for the development of future synthetic therapeutic surfactants, and illustrate the crucial need to include SP-B or an efficient SP-B analog for optimal function. Copyright © 2010 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A New Approach to Determine Time and Temperature Combination for Electrical Conductivity Test in Sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Demir Kaya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine a suitable time and temperature combination for the electrical conductivity test to be used in sorghum seeds. Fifty seeds known initial seed moisture content and weight of fresh and dead seeds (105°C for 6h of seven sorghum cultivars were used as material. The electrical conductivities of soaking water were measured using an EC meter in 20, 25 and 30°C for 4, 8, 12 and 24 h using 50 mL deionized water. The experimental design was three factor factorial (7 × 3 × 4 arranged in a completely randomized design; with four replications and 50 seeds per replicate. The results showed that increased time and temperature caused a remarkable increase in EC values of all of the cultivars. Temperature significantly affected the electrical conductivity values and the best results were obtained at 25°C. The cultivars with the lower germination percentage gave the higher electrical conductivity value. Dead seeds always gave higher electrical conductivity at 25°C for all periods. It was concluded that the temperature of 25°C and 24 h was the optimum combination for the electrical conductivity test in sorghum.

  2. Energy Independence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelson, Philip H.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses President Nixon's proposed national endeavor for energy self-sufficiency in the United States by 1980, to be known as Project Independence. Examines some of the factors that will be involved in attempting to attain energy independence. (JR)

  3. Combining image-derived and venous input functions enables quantification of serotonin-1A receptors with [carbonyl-11C]WAY-100635 independent of arterial sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Andreas; Nics, Lukas; Baldinger, Pia; Ungersböck, Johanna; Dolliner, Peter; Frey, Richard; Birkfellner, Wolfgang; Mitterhauser, Markus; Wadsak, Wolfgang; Karanikas, Georgios; Kasper, Siegfried; Lanzenberger, Rupert

    2012-08-01

    image- derived input functions (IDIFs) represent a promising technique for a simpler and less invasive quantification of PET studies as compared to arterial cannulation. However, a number of limitations complicate the routine use of IDIFs in clinical research protocols and the full substitution of manual arterial samples by venous ones has hardly been evaluated. This study aims for a direct validation of IDIFs and venous data for the quantification of serotonin-1A receptor binding (5-HT(1A)) with [carbonyl-(11)C]WAY-100635 before and after hormone treatment. Fifteen PET measurements with arterial and venous blood sampling were obtained from 10 healthy women, 8 scans before and 7 after eight weeks of hormone replacement therapy. Image-derived input functions were derived automatically from cerebral blood vessels, corrected for partial volume effects and combined with venous manual samples from 10 min onward (IDIF+VIF). Corrections for plasma/whole-blood ratio and metabolites were done separately with arterial and venous samples. 5-HT(1A) receptor quantification was achieved with arterial input functions (AIF) and IDIF+VIF using a two-tissue compartment model. Comparison between arterial and venous manual blood samples yielded excellent reproducibility. Variability (VAR) was less than 10% for whole-blood activity (p>0.4) and below 2% for plasma to whole-blood ratios (p>0.4). Variability was slightly higher for parent fractions (VARmax=24% at 5 min, p0.1) but still within previously reported values. IDIFs after partial volume correction had peak values comparable to AIFs (mean difference Δ=-7.6 ± 16.9 kBq/ml, p>0.1), whereas AIFs exhibited a delay (Δ=4 ± 6.4s, pderived and venous input functions provides a reliable quantification of 5-HT(1A) receptors. This holds true for 5-HT(1A) binding estimates before and after treatment for both regions of interest-based and voxel-wise modeling. Taken together, the approach provides less invasive receptor quantification by

  4. Tests of Branch Splitting and Branch-Splitting Independence in Allais Paradoxes with Positive and Mixed Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, Michael H.

    2007-01-01

    Four experiments with 1391 participants compared descriptive models of risky decision making. The first replicated and extended evidence refuting cumulative prospect theory (CPT) as an explanation of Allais paradoxes. The second and third experiments used a new design to unconfound tests of upper and lower coalescing, which allows tests of…

  5. Transforming oral anticoagulation by combining international normalized ratio (INR) self testing and online automated management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussey, Henry I

    2011-04-01

    Because of the number and complexity of issues addressed, this manuscript is divided into two major sections. The first section focuses on how new technology can transform vitamin K antagonist therapy. Specifically, evidence suggest that combining INR self testing with online automated management (STOAM) can greatly reduce the time, expense, and hassle of managing VKA therapy; improve the quality of INR control to a degree that, in large studies, has been associated with a 50% or more reduction in major events (such as stroke, myocardial infarction, major hemorrhage, and death); reduce health care costs by an estimated $4 million per 1,000 patients per year; and improve quality of life and patient satisfaction. Such improved VKA therapy should be safer, more effective, and more cost-effective than the new oral anticoagulants. The improved efficiency and outcomes also should prompt reconsideration of indications in which VKA therapy may not be the current standard of care. Although new reimbursement models are clearly needed for STOAM, the current Medicare reimbursement model for patient self testing can be utilized to make VKA management financially viable and sustainable. The second section of this article focuses on additional considerations that may be important in optimizing VKA therapy and/or selecting an online management system. A brief review is provided to examine why a recent meta analysis and a large randomized trial of self testing did not find the same degree of improvement as reported in the four STOAM trials described in the first section of this article.

  6. Prognostic capacity of a clinically indicated exercise test for cardiovascular mortality is enhanced by combined analysis of exercise capacity, heart rate recovery and T-wave alternans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkkinen, Mikko; Nieminen, Tuomo; Verrier, Richard L; Leino, Johanna; Lehtimäki, Terho; Viik, Jari; Lehtinen, Rami; Nikus, Kjell; Kööbi, Tiit; Turjanmaa, Väinö; Kähönen, Mika

    2015-09-01

    Exercise capacity, heart rate recovery and T-wave alternans are independent predictors of cardiovascular mortality. We tested whether these parameters contain supplementary prognostic information. A total of 3609 consecutive patients (2157 men) referred for a routine, clinically indicated bicycle exercise test were enrolled in the Finnish Cardiovascular Study (FINCAVAS). Exercise capacity was measured in metabolic equivalents, heart rate recovery as the decrease in heart rate from maximum to one minute post-exercise, and T-wave alternans by time-domain Modified Moving Average method. During 57-month median follow-up (interquartile range 35-78 months), 96 patients died of cardiovascular causes (primary endpoint) and 233 from any cause. All three parameters were independent predictors of cardiovascular mortality when analysed as continuous variables. Adding metabolic equivalents (p cardiovascular mortality. The combination of low exercise capacity (cardiovascular mortality of 16.5 (95% confidence interval 4.0-67.7, p cardiovascular mortality with previously defined cutpoints (exercise test is enhanced by combined analysis of exercise capacity, heart rate recovery and T-wave alternans. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  7. Independent suspension

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chaikin, Don

    1992-01-01

    ... independent suspension. INDEPENDENCE! An independent system is simply one in which each of the vehicle's wheels is free to react totally separate from any of the other wheels. If the right rear wheel hits a bump, the left rear wheel is undisturbed. Since the whole car does not bounce and shake every time one of the wheels hits a potho...

  8. A Layer Correlation Technique for Pion Energy Calibration at the 2004 ATLAS Combined Beam Test

    CERN Document Server

    Grahn, Karl-Johan

    2009-01-01

    A new method for calibrating the hadron response of a segmented calorimeter is developed. It is based on a principal component analysis of the calorimeter layer energy deposits, exploiting longitudinal shower development information to improve the measured energy resolution. Corrections for invisible hadronic energy and energy lost in dead material in front of and between the ATLAS calorimeters were calculated with simulated Geant4 Monte Carlo events and used to reconstruct the energy of pions impinging on the calorimeters during the 2004 Barrel Combined Beam Test at the CERN H8 area. For pion beams with energies between 20 and 180 GeV, the particle energy is reconstructed within 3% and the energy resolution is improved by about 20% compared to the electromagnetic scale.

  9. A Layer Correlation Technique for ATLAS Calorimetry Calibration at the 2004 ATLAS Combined Beam Test

    CERN Document Server

    Carli, T; Spanò, F; Speckmayer, P

    2008-01-01

    A method for calibrating the response of a segmented calorimeter to hadrons is developed. The ansatz is that information on longitudinal shower fluctuations gained from a principal component analysis of the layer energy depositions can improve energy resolution by correcting for hadronic invisible energy and dead material losses: projections along the eigenvectors of the correlation matrix are used as input for the calibration. The technique is used to reconstruct the energy of pions impinging on the ATLAS calorimeters during the 2004 Barrel Combined Beam Test at the CERN H8 area. Simulated Monte Carlo events are used to derive corrections for invisible energy lost in nuclear reactions and in dead material in front and in between the calorimeters. For pion beams with energies between 20 and 180 GeV, the particle energy is reconstructed within 3% and the resolution is improved by about 20%.

  10. Dynamic Testing of the NASA Hypersonic Project Combined Cycle Engine Testbed for Mode Transition Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    NASA is interested in developing technology that leads to more routine, safe, and affordable access to space. Access to space using airbreathing propulsion systems has potential to meet these objectives based on Airbreathing Access to Space (AAS) system studies. To this end, the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program (FAP) Hypersonic Project is conducting fundamental research on a Turbine Based Combined Cycle (TBCC) propulsion system. The TBCC being studied considers a dual flow-path inlet system. One flow-path includes variable geometry to regulate airflow to a turbine engine cycle. The turbine cycle provides propulsion from take-off to supersonic flight. The second flow-path supports a dual-mode scramjet (DMSJ) cycle which would be initiated at supersonic speed to further accelerate the vehicle to hypersonic speed. For a TBCC propulsion system to accelerate a vehicle from supersonic to hypersonic speed, a critical enabling technology is the ability to safely and effectively transition from the turbine to the DMSJ-referred to as mode transition. To experimentally test methods of mode transition, a Combined Cycle Engine (CCE) Large-scale Inlet testbed was designed with two flow paths-a low speed flow-path sized for a turbine cycle and a high speed flow-path designed for a DMSJ. This testbed system is identified as the CCE Large-Scale Inlet for Mode Transition studies (CCE-LIMX). The test plan for the CCE-LIMX in the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) 10- by 10-ft Supersonic Wind Tunnel (10x10 SWT) is segmented into multiple phases. The first phase is a matrix of inlet characterization (IC) tests to evaluate the inlet performance and establish the mode transition schedule. The second phase is a matrix of dynamic system identification (SysID) experiments designed to support closed-loop control development at mode transition schedule operating points for the CCE-LIMX. The third phase includes a direct demonstration of controlled mode transition using a closed loop control

  11. The nasal provocation test combined with spirometry establishes paradoxical vocal fold motion in allergic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Celso Eduardo; Argentão, Daiana Guedes Pinto; Lima, Regiane Patussi dos Santos; da Silva, Mariana Dias; dos Santos, Raquel Acácia Pereira Gonçalves

    2013-01-01

    Vocal cord dysfunction (also called paradoxical vocal cord motion) or paradoxical vocal fold motion (PVFM) is an event elicited by specific and nonspecific triggers in which its diagnosis is limited by the restricted number of available functional tests. This study was designed to appreciate the contribution of the spirometric changes elicited by the allergen-specific nasal provocation test (NPT) performed with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus for the diagnosis of PVFM in subjects with known sensitization to this allergen. In total, 63 subjects with allergic rhinitis who had previously been shown to be sensitized to D. pteronyssinus and who had experienced one or more episodes of inspiratory shortness of breath underwent two spirometric tests, one before (pre-NPT) and another 15 minutes after the allergen-specific NPT (post-NPT). The forced inspiratory vital capacity (FIVC), forced inspiratory volume in 2 seconds (FIV2), and the ratio between the FIV in 1 second and FIVC (FIV1/FIVC) were measured by spirometry. The morphology of the post-NPT inspiratory loop was compared with the pre-NPT inspiratory loop. We found that 18 subjects (28.5%) showed alterations suggestive of PVFM on post-NPT spirometry (e.g., truncation and/or flattening of the inspiratory loop). The mean differences between the pre-NPT and post-NPT values for the whole group were significant using a two-tailed paired t-test for the FIVC (4.1; 95% confidence interval [CI95%], 1.4-6.8), FIV1/FIVC ratio (2.7; CI95%, 0.05-5.3), and FIV2 (7.2; CI95%, 3.4-11). Allergen-specific NPT combined with spirometry is useful to show allergen-specific laryngeal hyperresponsiveness in allergic subjects with PVFM. Brazilian clinical trial registry platform (Plataforma Brasil, CAAE 07971212.0.0000.5480).

  12. Using Combined Diagnostic Test Results to Hindcast Trends of Infection from Cross-Sectional Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustaf Rydevik

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Infectious disease surveillance is key to limiting the consequences from infectious pathogens and maintaining animal and public health. Following the detection of a disease outbreak, a response in proportion to the severity of the outbreak is required. It is thus critical to obtain accurate information concerning the origin of the outbreak and its forward trajectory. However, there is often a lack of situational awareness that may lead to over- or under-reaction. There is a widening range of tests available for detecting pathogens, with typically different temporal characteristics, e.g. in terms of when peak test response occurs relative to time of exposure. We have developed a statistical framework that combines response level data from multiple diagnostic tests and is able to 'hindcast' (infer the historical trend of an infectious disease epidemic. Assuming diagnostic test data from a cross-sectional sample of individuals infected with a pathogen during an outbreak, we use a Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC approach to estimate time of exposure, and the overall epidemic trend in the population prior to the time of sampling. We evaluate the performance of this statistical framework on simulated data from epidemic trend curves and show that we can recover the parameter values of those trends. We also apply the framework to epidemic trend curves taken from two historical outbreaks: a bluetongue outbreak in cattle, and a whooping cough outbreak in humans. Together, these results show that hindcasting can estimate the time since infection for individuals and provide accurate estimates of epidemic trends, and can be used to distinguish whether an outbreak is increasing or past its peak. We conclude that if temporal characteristics of diagnostics are known, it is possible to recover epidemic trends of both human and animal pathogens from cross-sectional data collected at a single point in time.

  13. Testing the economic independence hypothesis: the effect of an exogenous increase in child support on subsequent marriage and cohabitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancian, Maria; Meyer, Daniel R

    2014-06-01

    We examine the effects of an increase in income on the cohabitation and marriage of single mothers. Using data from an experiment that resulted in randomly assigned differences in child support receipt for welfare-receiving single mothers, we find that exogenous income increases (as a result of receiving all child support that was paid) are associated with significantly lower cohabitation rates between mothers and men who are not the fathers of their child(ren). Overall, these results support the hypothesis that additional income increases disadvantaged women's economic independence by reducing the need to be in the least stable type of partnerships. Our results also show the potential importance of distinguishing between biological and social fathers.

  14. Performance of younger and older adults on tests of word knowledge and word retrieval: independence or interdependence of skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavé, Gitit; Yafé, Ronit

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between vocabulary knowledge and word retrieval in younger and older adults. Three tests of word retrieval and 2 tests of word knowledge were administered to 140 Hebrew-speaking adults, half of whom were younger (M(age) = 24.20 years) and half of whom were older (M(age) = 74.83 years). Younger adults outperformed older adults on tests of retrieval, whereas older adults outperformed younger adults on tests of vocabulary, and no association was found between the 2 skills across the entire sample. Once age and education were taken into account, both skills contributed to the prediction of each other and were similarly related within each group. Older adults performed equally well when required to produce and recognize word meanings, whereas younger adults were better at recognition than at production. Older age is associated with better knowledge and with retrieval difficulties, yet individual differences in vocabulary within each age group affect level of retrieval, and variability in search skills affects performance on vocabulary tests. Although the assessment of vocabulary is not free of retrieval demands, older adults as a group are more successful than are younger adults at producing word definitions, most likely because their knowledge is more complete.

  15. TESTBEAM COORDINATION: 2nd ATLAS H8 Combined Test Beam Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Di Girolamo, B

    The second ATLAS H8 Combined Test Beam Workshop took place at CERN on 24th and 25th November. After a first workshop in July to warm up the atmosphere, a lot of work has been done in the meantime and there was a clear need to get together again before the end of 2003. The morning of the first day has been devoted to an assessment of the status of the various elements needed for next year’s test beam in H8. Each sub-detector has been presenting the status of preparation, as well as the work in progress and still to be done. The picture has been completed with the first plans for the DAQ from the point of view of the sub-detectors requirements, and a status of the LVL1 elements. Finally, the status and the timescale for availability of the LVL2 and EF infrastructure have been presented. The final draft layout of the sub-detectors has been discussed (figures 1 and 2). A more detailed description of the layout is in preparation to include more information on dead material and on the ancillary detectors (scint...

  16. MMW/IR beam combiner with graphene IR window for MMW/IR compact range compound test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Li, Yanhong; Pang, Xudong; Zhu, Weihua; Wang, Liquan; Liu, Zhigang; Wang, Tailei; Zhu, Shouzheng

    2017-06-01

    A millimeter wave (MMW)/infrared (IR) beam combiner with a graphene IR window for the MMW/IR compact range (CR) compound test is creatively proposed with comprehensive analysis and simulation. Graphene is used as the IR window material to transfer the IR feed signal behind a perforated MMW CR reflector for it has the unique property of high IR transmissivity and high MMW conductivity. This research shows that graphene IR windows have better IR transmissivity than conducting inductive mesh IR windows when the beam combiner meets the MMW CR test demanding. Graphene IR windows also show a better MMW test bandwidth than dielectric IR windows. Meanwhile, the graphene IR window MMW/IR beam combiner has a circular aperture test zone with which it is sufficient to test a cylindrical unit under test according to the requirement.

  17. Independent validation of the MMPI-2-RF Somatic/Cognitive and Validity scales in TBI Litigants tested for effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngjohn, James R; Wershba, Rebecca; Stevenson, Matthew; Sturgeon, John; Thomas, Michael L

    2011-04-01

    The MMPI-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008) is replacing the MMPI-2 as the most widely used personality test in neuropsychological assessment, but additional validation studies are needed. Our study examines MMPI-2-RF Validity scales and the newly created Somatic/Cognitive scales in a recently reported sample of 82 traumatic brain injury (TBI) litigants who either passed or failed effort tests (Thomas & Youngjohn, 2009). The restructured Validity scales FBS-r (restructured symptom validity), F-r (restructured infrequent responses), and the newly created Fs (infrequent somatic responses) were not significant predictors of TBI severity. FBS-r was significantly related to passing or failing effort tests, and Fs and F-r showed non-significant trends in the same direction. Elevations on the Somatic/Cognitive scales profile (MLS-malaise, GIC-gastrointestinal complaints, HPC-head pain complaints, NUC-neurological complaints, and COG-cognitive complaints) were significant predictors of effort test failure. Additionally, HPC had the anticipated paradoxical inverse relationship with head injury severity. The Somatic/Cognitive scales as a group were better predictors of effort test failure than the RF Validity scales, which was an unexpected finding. MLS arose as the single best predictor of effort test failure of all RF Validity and Somatic/Cognitive scales. Item overlap analysis revealed that all MLS items are included in the original MMPI-2 Hy scale, making MLS essentially a subscale of Hy. This study validates the MMPI-2-RF as an effective tool for use in neuropsychological assessment of TBI litigants.

  18. Appropriate targeting of artemisinin-based combination therapy by community health workers using malaria rapid diagnostic tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ndyomugyenyi, Richard; Magnussen, Pascal; Lal, Sham

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the impact of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs), used by community health workers (CHWs), on the proportion of children artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), vs. presumptive treatment. METHODS: Cluster...

  19. Effectiveness of managing suspected pulmonary embolism using an algorithm combining clinical probability, D-dimer testing, and computed tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Belle, Arne; Büller, Harry R.; Huisman, Menno V.; Huisman, Peter M.; Kaasjager, Karin; Kamphuisen, Pieter W.; Kramer, Mark H. H.; Kruip, Marieke J. H. A.; Kwakkel-van Erp, Johanna M.; Leebeek, Frank W. G.; Nijkeuter, Mathilde; Prins, Martin H.; Sohne, Maaike; Tick, Lidwine W.

    2006-01-01

    CONTEXT: Previous studies have evaluated the safety of relatively complex combinations of clinical decision rules and diagnostic tests in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism. OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical effectiveness of a simplified algorithm using a dichotomized clinical decision rule,

  20. Screening of cytoprotectors against methotrexate-induced cytogenotoxicity from bioactive phytochemicals, by umu test combined with micronucleus Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Shaobin; Wu, Ying; Yang, Jianbo

    2015-01-01

    To develop new cytoprotectors to reduce the risk of second cancers caused by methotrexate-induced cytogenotoxicity, cytoprotective effects of ten kinds of phytochemicals and their combinations were evaluated by umu test combined with micronucleus assay. It is demonstrated that allicin, proanthocyanidins, polyphenols, eleutherosides and isoflavones owned higher antimutagenic activities than other phytochemicals. At the highest dose tested, the MTX genetoxicity was inhibited by 34.03%~67.12%. O...

  1. Screening for chromosomal abnormalities by first trimester combined screening and noninvasive prenatal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, K O; Hoopmann, M; Hammer, R; Stressig, R; Kozlowski, P

    2015-02-01

    To examine combined first trimester screening (FTS), noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) and a two-step policy that combines FTS and NIPT in screening for aneuploidy. Retrospective study involving 21,052 pregnancies where FTS was performed at the Praxis Praenatal.de in Duesseldorf, Germany. In each case, the sum risk of trisomy 21, 18 and 13 was computed. We assumed that NIPT detects 99 %, 98 %, 90 % and 99 % of cases with trisomy 21, 18, 13 and sex chromosomal abnormalities and that the false-positive rate is 0.5 %. The following screening policies were examined: NIPT or FTS with sum risk cut-offs of 1 in 50 and 1 in 250 in all patients or a two-step-policy with FTS in all patients followed by NIPT in the intermediate sum risk group. For the intermediate risk group, sum risk cut-offs of 1 in 50 and 1 in 1000 and 1 in 150 and 1 in 500 were used. There were 127, 34, 13 and 15 pregnancies with trisomy 21, 18, 13 and sex chromosomal abnormalities. 23 fetuses had other chromosomal abnormalities with an increased risk for adverse outcome that are not detectable by NIPT. 20,840 pregnancies were classified as normal as ante- and postnatal examinations did not show any signs of clinically significant chromosomal abnormalities. FTS with a sum risk cut-off of 1 in 50 and 1 in 250 detects 81 % and 91 % for all aneuploidies. NIPT detects 88 % of the respective pregnancies. The 2-step approach with sum risk cut-offs of 1 in 50 and 1 in 1000 detects 94 % of all aneuploidies. With sum risk cut-offs of 1 in 150 and 1 in 500, the detection rate is 93 %. A 2-step policy with FTS for all patients and NIPT in the intermediate risk group results in the highest detection rate of all aneuploidies. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. An Architecture Independent Approach to Emulating Computation Intensive Workload for Early Integration Testing of Enterprise DRE Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, James H.

    Enterprise distributed real-time and embedded (DRE) systems are increasingly using high-performance computing architectures, such as dual-core architectures, multi-core architectures, and parallel computing architectures, to achieve optimal performance. Performing system integration tests on such architectures in realistic operating environments during early phases of the software lifecycle, i.e., before complete system integration time, is becoming more critical. This helps distributed system developers and testers evaluate and locate potential performance bottlenecks before they become too costly to locate and rectify. Traditional approaches either (1) rely heavility on simulation techiques or (2) are too low-level and fall outside the domain knowledge distributed system developers and testers. Consequently, it is hard for distributed system developers and testers to produce realistic operating conditions for early integration testing of such systems.

  3. Identifying cardiac syncope based on clinical history: a literature-based model tested in four independent datasets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janneke Berecki-Gisolf

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We aimed to develop and test a literature-based model for symptoms that associate with cardiac causes of syncope. METHODS AND RESULTS: Seven studies (the derivation sample reporting ≥2 predictors of cardiac syncope were identified (4 Italian, 1 Swiss, 1 Canadian, and 1 from the United States. From these, 10 criteria were identified as diagnostic predictors. The conditional probability of each predictor was calculated by summation of the reported frequencies. A model of conditional probabilities and a priori probabilities of cardiac syncope was constructed. The model was tested in four datasets of patients with syncope (the test sample from Calgary (n=670; 21% had cardiac syncope, Amsterdam (n=503; 9%, Milan (n=689; 5% and Rochester (3877; 11%. In the derivation sample ten variables were significantly associated with cardiac syncope: age, gender, structural heart disease, low number of spells, brief or absent prodrome, supine syncope, effort syncope, and absence of nausea, diaphoresis and blurred vision. Fitting the test datasets to the full model gave C-statistics of 0.87 (Calgary, 0.84 (Amsterdam, 0.72 (Milan and 0.71 (Rochester. Model sensitivity and specificity were 92% and 68% for Calgary, 86% and 67% for Amsterdam, 76% and 59% for Milan, and 73% and 52% for Rochester. A model with 5 variables (age, gender, structural heart disease, low number of spells, and lack of prodromal symptoms was as accurate as the total set. CONCLUSION: A simple literature-based Bayesian model of historical criteria can distinguish patients with cardiac syncope from other patients with syncope with moderate accuracy.

  4. Present to future: what the reasons for declining first-trimester combined testing tell us about accepting or declining cell-free DNA testing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crombag, N.M.; Schendel, R.V. van; Schielen, P.C.; Bensing, J.M.; Henneman, L.

    2016-01-01

    What's Already Known About This Topic? •Women include their attitudes towards Down syndrome and termination of pregnancy, as well as adverse test characteristics, in their considerations about participation in first-trimester combined testing (FCT). •Concerns have been raised about the

  5. Retrospective TREC testing of newborns with Severe Combined Immunodeficiency and other primary immunodeficiency diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Jilkina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In Manitoba, Canada, the overall incidence of Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID is three-fold higher than the national average, with SCID overrepresented in two population groups: Mennonites and First Nations of Northern Cree ancestries. T-cell receptor excision circle (TREC assay is being used increasingly for neonatal screening for SCID in North America. However, the majority of SCID patients in Manitoba are T-cell-positive. Therefore it is likely that the TREC assay will not identify these infants. The goal of this study was to blindly and retrospectively perform TREC analysis in confirmed SCID patients using archived Guthrie cards. Thirteen SCID patients were tested: 5 T-negative SCID (3 with adenosine deaminase deficiency, 1 with CD3δ deficiency, and 1 unclassified and 8 T-positive SCID (5 with zeta chain-associated protein kinase (ZAP70 deficiency and 3 with inhibitor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells, kinase beta (IKKβ deficiency. As a non-SCID patient group, 5 Primary Immunodeficiency Disease (PID patients were studied: 1 T-negative PID (cartilage-hair hypoplasia and 4 T-positive PID (2 common immune deficiency (CID, 1 Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome, and 1 X-linked lymphoproliferative disease. Both patient groups required hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In addition, randomly-selected de-identified controls (n = 982 were tested. Results: all T-negative SCID and PID had zero TRECs. Low-TRECs were identified in 2 ZAP70 siblings, 1 CID patient as well as 5 preterm, 1 twin, and 4 de-identified controls. Conclusions: TREC method will identify T-negative SCID and T-negative PID. To identify other SCID babies, newborn screening in Manitoba must include supplemental targeted screening for ethnic-specific mutations.

  6. Retrospective TREC testing of newborns with Severe Combined Immunodeficiency and other primary immunodeficiency diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilkina, O; Thompson, J R; Kwan, L; Van Caeseele, P; Rockman-Greenberg, C; Schroeder, M L

    2014-01-01

    In Manitoba, Canada, the overall incidence of Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) is three-fold higher than the national average, with SCID overrepresented in two population groups: Mennonites and First Nations of Northern Cree ancestries. T-cell receptor excision circle (TREC) assay is being used increasingly for neonatal screening for SCID in North America. However, the majority of SCID patients in Manitoba are T-cell-positive. Therefore it is likely that the TREC assay will not identify these infants. The goal of this study was to blindly and retrospectively perform TREC analysis in confirmed SCID patients using archived Guthrie cards. Thirteen SCID patients were tested: 5 T-negative SCID (3 with adenosine deaminase deficiency, 1 with CD3δ deficiency, and 1 unclassified) and 8 T-positive SCID (5 with zeta chain-associated protein kinase (ZAP70) deficiency and 3 with inhibitor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells, kinase beta (IKKβ) deficiency). As a non-SCID patient group, 5 Primary Immunodeficiency Disease (PID) patients were studied: 1 T-negative PID (cartilage-hair hypoplasia) and 4 T-positive PID (2 common immune deficiency (CID), 1 Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, and 1 X-linked lymphoproliferative disease). Both patient groups required hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In addition, randomly-selected de-identified controls (n = 982) were tested. Results: all T-negative SCID and PID had zero TRECs. Low-TRECs were identified in 2 ZAP70 siblings, 1 CID patient as well as 5 preterm, 1 twin, and 4 de-identified controls. Conclusions: TREC method will identify T-negative SCID and T-negative PID. To identify other SCID babies, newborn screening in Manitoba must include supplemental targeted screening for ethnic-specific mutations.

  7. Sub-scale Waterflow Cavitation and Dynamic Transfer Function Testing of an Oxidizer Turbo-Pump Combined Inducer and Impeller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karon, D. M.; Patel, S. K.; Zoladz, T. F.

    2016-01-01

    In 2009 and 2010, Concepts NREC prepared for and performed a series of tests on a 52% scale of a version of the Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne J-2X Oxidizer Turbopump under a Phase III SBIR with NASA MSFC. The test article was a combined inducer and impeller, tested as a unit. This paper presents an overview of the test rig and facility, instrumentation, signal conditioning, data acquisition systems, testing approach, measurement developments, and lessons learned. Results from these tests were presented in the form of two papers at the previous JANNAF joint propulsion conference, in December of 2011.

  8. Combined use of clinical pre-test probability and D-dimer test in the diagnosis of preoperative deep venous thrombosis in colorectal cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Mogens; Frøkjaer, Jens Brøndum; Hagedorn Nielsen, Tina Sandie

    2008-01-01

    clinical pre-test probability (PTP) can be safely used to rule out the tentative diagnosis of DVT in cancer patients. However, the accuracy in colorectal cancer patients is uncertain. This study assessed the diagnostic accuracy of a quantitative D-dimer assay in combination with the PTP score in ruling out....... The negative predictive value, positive predictive value, sensitivity and specificity were 99% (95% confidence interval (CI), 95-100%), 17% (95% CI, 9-26), 93% (95% CI, 68-100%) and 61% (95% CI, 53-68%), respectively. In conclusion, the combined use of pre-test probability and D-dimer test may be useful......The preoperative prevalence of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in patients with colorectal cancer may be as high as 8%. In order to minimize the risk of pulmonary embolism, it is important to rule out preoperative DVT. A large study has confirmed that a negative D-dimer test in combination with a low...

  9. Combining periodic hydraulic tests and surface tilt measurements to explore in situ fracture hydromechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuite, Jonathan; Longuevergne, Laurent; Bour, Olivier; Guihéneuf, Nicolas; Becker, Matthew W.; Cole, Matthew; Burbey, Thomas J.; Lavenant, Nicolas; Boudin, Frédéric

    2017-08-01

    Fractured bedrock reservoirs are of socio-economical importance, as they may be used for storage or retrieval of fluids and energy. In particular, the hydromechanical behavior of fractures needs to be understood as it has implications on flow and governs stability issues (e.g., microseismicity). Laboratory, numerical, or field experiments have brought considerable insights to this topic. Nevertheless, in situ hydromechanical experiments are relatively uncommon, mainly because of technical and instrumental limitations. Here we present the early stage development and validation of a novel approach aiming at capturing the integrated hydromechanical behavior of natural fractures. It combines the use of surface tiltmeters to monitor the deformation associated with the periodic pressurization of fractures at depth in crystalline rocks. Periodic injection and withdrawal advantageously avoids mobilizing or extracting significant amounts of fluid, and it hinders any risk of reservoir failure. The oscillatory perturbation is intended to (1) facilitate the recognition of its signature in tilt measurements and (2) vary the hydraulic penetration depth in order to sample different volumes of the fractured bedrock around the inlet and thereby assess scale effects typical of fractured systems. By stacking tilt signals, we managed to recover small tilt amplitudes associated with pressure-derived fracture deformation. Therewith, we distinguish differences in mechanical properties between the three tested fractures, but we show that tilt amplitudes are weakly dependent on pressure penetration depth. Using an elastic model, we obtain fracture stiffness estimates that are consistent with published data. Our results should encourage further improvement of the method.

  10. Response Time Evaluation for the Plant Protection System Using a Combined Technique of Analysis and Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Jae; Han, Seung; Yun, Jae Hee; Baek, Seung Min [KECO EnC, Inc., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    This paper proposes the response time evaluation methodology for the plant protection system (PPS) trip channel for the advance power reactor 1400 (APR1400) nuclear power plant. To demonstrate that the PPS tip channel is functioning within its allowable response time limit, the proposed methodology uses the combined technique of both the response time analysis and test. The main purpose of determining the trip setpoint for safety systems is to meet the requirement of an analytical limit assumed in performing safety analyses. In addition, the response time assumed during safety analyses shall also be satisfied by the safety-related instrumentation. The response time is another critical factor required to ensure that the safety-related instrumentation channels accept the crucial assumptions of safety analyses. The response time evaluation methodology proposed herein is applied to the low steam generator level (LSGL) reactor trip parameter for the APR1400. The response time analysis for the LSGL trip parameter demonstrated that the analyzed response time would not exceed the allocated response time. The results of the response time also showed that all of the measured response times would be less than the analyzed response time.

  11. Pion Energy Reconstruction by the Local Hadronic Calibration Method with ATLAS Combined Test Beam 2004 data

    CERN Document Server

    Kulchitsky, Y; Khubua, J; Russakovich, N; Shigaev, V; Vinogradov, V

    2008-01-01

    The pion energy reconstruction by the local hadronic calibration method on the basis of the 2004 combined test beam data in the energy range 10 -- 350 GeV and $\\eta = 0.25$ is performed. In this method energies deposited in each cell are weighted. The weights are determined by the Monte Carlo simulation using Calibration Hits software. We have modified this method by applying cuts in weights. The obtained fractional energy resolution with the conventional method of determination of the energy deposit in the dead material between LAr and Tile calorimeters is $\\sigma/E = (67\\pm2)\\%/\\sqrt{E} \\oplus (3.9\\pm0.2)\\% \\oplus (95\\pm22)\\%/E$. This is about 1.5 times better than the results for the hadronic calibration method obtained by the Oxford-Stockholm group and slightly better than the H1 method results for CTB04 obtained by Pisa group. The energy linearity is within $\\pm$1\\%. We have determined the general normalization constant of 0.91 for which the mean value linearity for the weight cut of 1.05 is about 1. At ...

  12. A new location-scale test based on a combination of the ideas of Levene and Lepage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhäuser, Markus; Leuchs, Ann-Kristin; Ball, Dorothee

    2011-05-01

    Lepage's test combines the Wilcoxon rank-sum and the Ansari-Bradley statistics. We propose to replace the latter statistic by a Wilcoxon rank-sum calculated after Levene's transformation. We use the medians for this transformation, i.e. absolute deviations from sample medians are calculated. The new location-scale test can be carried out as a permutation test based on permutations of the original observations, the Levene transformation has to be applied for each permutation in an intermediate step to calculate the test statistic. Simulations indicate that the new test can be more powerful than an O'Brien-type test and Lepage's test, the latter is the standard nonparametric location-scale test. The new test is illustrated using real data about colony sizes of yellow-eyed penguins and an SAS program to perform the test is freely available. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Benefits of combination of insulin degludec and liraglutide are independent of baseline glycated haemoglobin level and duration of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodbard, Helena W; Buse, John B; Woo, Vincent C

    2016-01-01

    of disease progression stage including baseline glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), disease duration and previous insulin dose. RESULTS: Across four categories of baseline HbA1c (≤7.5-9.0%), HbA1c reductions were significantly greater with IDegLira (1.1-2.5%) compared with IDeg or liraglutide alone in DUAL I...... liraglutide, irrespective of baseline HbA1c. In DUAL II, insulin dose and hypoglycaemia rate were similar with IDegLira and IDeg (maximum dose limited to 50 U) independent of baseline HbA1c. The reduction in HbA1c with IDegLira was independent of disease duration and previous insulin dose but varied depending...

  14. TEST-RETEST RELIABILITY OF INDEPENDENT PHONOLOGICAL MEASURES OF 2-YEAR-OLD SPEECH: A PILOT STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Marie WITTLER

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Within the field of speech-language pathology, many assume commonly used informal speech sound measures are reliable. However, lack of scientific evidence to support this assumption is problematic. Speech-language pathologists often use informal speech sound analyses for establishing baseline behaviors from which therapeutic progress can be measured. Few researchers have examined the test-retest reliability of informal phonological measures when evaluating the speech productions of young children. Clinically, data regarding these measures are critical for facilitating evidence-based decision making for speech-language assessment and treatment. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to identify the evidence-base regarding temporal reliability of two such informal speech sound measures, phonetic inventory and word shape analysis, with two-year-old children. Methods: The researchers examined analyses conducted from conversational speech samples taken exactly one week apart for three children 29- to 33-months of age. The videotaped 20-minute play-based conversational samples were completed while the children interacted with their mothers. The samples were then transcribed using the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA and analyzed using the two informal measures noted above. Results: Based on visual inspection of the data, the test-retest reliability of initial consonant and consonant cluster productions was unstable between the two conversational samples. However, phonetic inventories for final consonants and word shape analyses were relatively stable over time. Conclusion: Although more data is needed, the results of this study indicate that academic faculty, clinical educators, and practicing speech-language pathologists should be cautious when interpreting informal speech sound analyses based on play-based communication samples of young children.

  15. Analysis of membrane proteome by data-dependent LC-MS/MS combined with data-independent LC-MSE technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Kwon

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Proteomics work resembles the search for a needle in a haystack. The identification of protein biomarker requires the removal of the false protein data from the whole protein mixture. For high quality proteomic data, even a strict filtration step using the false discovery rate (FDR is insufficient for obtaining perfect protein information from the biological samples. In this study, the cyanobacterial whole membrane fraction was applied to the data-dependent analysis (DDA mode of LC-MS/MS, which was used along with the data-independent LC-MSE technique in order to evaluate the membrane proteomic data. Furthermore, the identified MSE-information (MSE-i data based on the peptide mass and the retention time were validated by the other database search, i.e., the probability-based MASCOT and de novo search engine PEAKS. In this present study, 208 cyanobacterial proteins with FDR of 5% were identified using the data-independent nano-UPLC/MSE acquisition with the Protein Lynx Global Server (PLGS, and 56 of these proteins were the predicted membrane proteins. When a total of 208 MSE-i proteomic data were applied to the DDA mode of LC-MS/MS, the number of identified membrane proteins was 26 and 33 from MASCOT and PEAKS with a FDR of 5%, respectively. The number of totally overlapped membrane proteins was 25. Therefore, the data-independent LC-MSE identified more proteins with a high confidence.

  16. Diagnostic performance of a combination of Mini-Mental State Examination and Clock Drawing Test in detecting Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kato Y

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Yuka Kato,1 Jin Narumoto,1 Teruyuki Matsuoka,1 Aiko Okamura,1 Hiroyuki Koumi,2 Yusuke Kishikawa,3 Shigenori Terashima,4 Kenji Fukui1 1Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan; 2Department of Clinical Psychology, Faculty of Social Welfare, Hanazono University, Kyoto, Japan; 3Misatopia Ogura Hospital, Nagano, Japan; 4Graduate School of Psychology, Kansai University, Osaka, Japan Objective: Because of the growing need for quick cognitive screening tests to distinguish Alzheimer’s disease (AD from mild cognitive impairment (MCI, we compare the diagnostic performance of a combination of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE and a Clock Drawing Test (CDT to the Japanese version of the Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-J cog in differentiating between patients with AD, patients with MCI, and healthy controls (HC. Methods: Data from 146 subjects with AD and 60 subjects with MCI, as well as 49 HC, was retrospectively analyzed. We used logistic regression analysis with diagnosis as dependent variables and scores of the MMSE, the CDT-command, and the CDT-copy as independent variables, and receiver operating characteristic analysis to distinguish patients with AD from patients with MCI or HC. Results: When patients with AD were compared to HC, the independent predictors of AD were scores on the MMSE and the CDT-command. This combination was more sensitive than the MMSE alone and has nearly the same sensitivity and specificity as the ADAS-J cog. When patients with AD were compared to patients with MCI, the independent predictors were the MMSE and the CDT-copy. This combination was more sensitive and specific than the MMSE alone and was almost as sensitive and specific as the ADAS-J cog. Conclusion: The combination of the MMSE and the CDT could be a powerful screening tool for differentiating between patients with AD, patients with MCI, and HC. Its

  17. Distinction between fear and surprise: an interpretation-independent test of the perceptual-attentional limitation hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberland, Justin; Roy-Charland, Annie; Perron, Melanie; Dickinson, Joël

    2017-12-01

    The perceptual-attentional limitation hypothesis posits that the confusion between emotional facial expressions of fear and surprise may be due to their visual similarity, with shared muscle movements. In Experiment 1 full face images of fear and surprise varying as a function of distinctiveness (mouth index, brow index, or both indices) were displayed in a gender oddball task. Experiment 2, in a similar task, directed attention toward the eye or mouth region with a blurring technique. The current two studies used response time and event-related potentials (ERP) to test the perceptual-attentional limitation hypothesis. While ERP results for Experiment 1 suggested that individuals may not have perceived a difference between the emotional expressions in any of the conditions, response time results suggested that individuals processed a difference between fear and surprise when a distinctive cue was in the mouth. With directed attention in Experiment 2, ERP results indicated that individuals were capable of detecting a difference in all the conditions. In effect, the current two experiments suggest that participants display difficulty in distinguishing the prototypes of fear and surprise with the eye region, which may be due to a lack of attention to that region, providing support for the attentional limitation hypothesis.

  18. Fixed-dose combination of alogliptin/pioglitazone improves glycemic control in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus independent of body mass index

    OpenAIRE

    Aso, Yoshimasa; Kasai, Kikuo; Shimizu, Masanori; Sagara, Masaaki; Kuroda, Hisamoto; Suzuki, Kunihiro; Aoki, Chie

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study investigated the effects of switching from combination therapy with either alogliptin (Alo) or pioglitazone (Pio) to fixed-dose combination therapy (FDCT) with alogliptin and pioglitazone (Alo-Pio FDCT). The usefulness and efficacy of Alo-Pio FDCT were investigated. A total of 50 outpatients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treated with Alo and 47 outpatients with T2DM treated with Pio were switched to Alo-Pio FDCT, and its efficacy and usefulness were evaluated. Signi...

  19. Development of a wheelchair mobility skills test for children and adolescents: combining evidence with clinical expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sol, Marleen Elisabeth; Verschuren, Olaf; de Groot, Laura; de Groot, Janke Frederike

    2017-02-13

    Wheelchair mobility skills (WMS) training is regarded by children using a manual wheelchair and their parents as an important factor to improve participation and daily physical activity. Currently, there is no outcome measure available for the evaluation of WMS in children. Several wheelchair mobility outcome measures have been developed for adults, but none of these have been validated in children. Therefore the objective of this study is to develop a WMS outcome measure for children using the current knowledge from literature in combination with the clinical expertise of health care professionals, children and their parents. Mixed methods approach. Phase 1: Item identification of WMS items through a systematic review using the 'COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement Instruments' (COSMIN) recommendations. Phase 2: Item selection and validation of relevant WMS items for children, using a focus group and interviews with children using a manual wheelchair, their parents and health care professionals. Phase 3: Feasibility of the newly developed Utrecht Pediatric Wheelchair Mobility Skills Test (UP-WMST) through pilot testing. Phase 1: Data analysis and synthesis of nine WMS related outcome measures showed there is no widely used outcome measure with levels of evidence across all measurement properties. However, four outcome measures showed some levels of evidence on reliability and validity for adults. Twenty-two WMS items with the best clinimetric properties were selected for further analysis in phase 2. Phase 2: Fifteen items were deemed as relevant for children, one item needed adaptation and six items were considered not relevant for assessing WMS in children. Phase 3: Two health care professionals administered the UP-WMST in eight children. The instructions of the UP-WMST were clear, but the scoring method of the height difference items needed adaptation. The outdoor items for rolling over soft surface and the side slope item were

  20. Combined nanoprobes for scanning probe microscopy: laser technology for processing and testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiko, V. P.; Golubok, A. O.; Zuong, Z.; Varkentina, N. V.; Yakovlev, E. B.

    2008-02-01

    Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is a high spatial resolution method of surface topography visualization and measurement of its local properties. The detecting of interaction arising between the sharp solid-state probe and the sample surface is the foundation of SPM. In dependence from nature of this interaction the scanning tunnel microscopy (STM), scanning force microscopy (SFM), scanning near field optical microscopy (SNOM), etc. are distinguished. The spatial resolution of all types of probe microscopy determins both sharpness of increasing of interaction between a probe and a sample at their approach, and shape and size of a top of a solid-state probe. So, the progress in SPM information capabilities is highly depends from probe properties and first of all from properly fabricated aperture size. Fabrication procedures are rather complicated because of nanometric scale size of aperture and hard requirements to reproducibility and need to be improved. The way how to do it is involving of feed-back in a processing procedure-results in two types of feedback for the process of drawing-out has been suggested, tested and installed into the technological set-up. Different probes have been fabricated by laser-assisted drawing-out during this work: SNOM types from optical fibers, micropipettes from quartz glass capillaries, micropipettes with microwires inside and with metallic covers outside. Some examples of application of above mentioned combined probes for cell membrane technology are described. Most important from them are topographical studying of cells and bacteria in living condition (in liquid) and studying of the mechanical properties of cell (rigidity of cell membrane) using the nanopipette as a tip of a force sensor. Also measurement of ion current that runs through cell membrane during its metabolic process using the nanopipette as well as in the well-known patch-clamp method have been done.

  1. Office of Inspector General report on audit of Southwestern Federal Power System combined financial statements and supplemental schedules (with independent auditors` reports thereon) for the years ended September 30, 1997 and 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-06

    Southwestern Federal Power System (SWFPS) encompasses the operation of 24 hydroelectric power plants by the US Army Corps of Engineers and the marketing of power and energy from those plants by the Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern) of the US Department of Energy. This report presents the results of the independent certified public accountants` audit of the SWFPS`s combined power system statements of assets, Federal investments and liabilities, and the related combined statements of revenues, expenses and accumulated net revenues, and cash flows.

  2. Gene-based multiple regression association testing for combined examination of common and low frequency variants in quantitative trait analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Yun Joo; Sun, Lei; Bull, Shelley B

    2013-01-01

    Multi-marker methods for genetic association analysis can be performed for common and low frequency SNPs to improve power. Regression models are an intuitive way to formulate multi-marker tests. In previous studies we evaluated regression-based multi-marker tests for common SNPs, and through identification of bins consisting of correlated SNPs, developed a multi-bin linear combination (MLC) test that is a compromise between a 1 df linear combination test and a multi-df global test. Bins of SNPs in high linkage disequilibrium (LD) are identified, and a linear combination of individual SNP statistics is constructed within each bin. Then association with the phenotype is represented by an overall statistic with df as many or few as the number of bins. In this report we evaluate multi-marker tests for SNPs that occur at low frequencies. There are many linear and quadratic multi-marker tests that are suitable for common or low frequency variant analysis. We compared the performance of the MLC tests with various linear and quadratic statistics in joint or marginal regressions. For these comparisons, we performed a simulation study of genotypes and quantitative traits for 85 genes with many low frequency SNPs based on HapMap Phase III. We compared the tests using (1) set of all SNPs in a gene, (2) set of common SNPs in a gene (MAF ≥ 5%), (3) set of low frequency SNPs (1% ≤ MAF analysis using all SNPs including common and low frequency SNPs is a good and robust choice whereas using common SNPs alone or low frequency SNP alone can lose power. MLC tests performed well in combined analysis except where two low frequency causal SNPs with opposing effects are positively correlated. Overall, across different sets of analysis, the joint regression Wald test showed consistently good performance whereas other statistics including the ones based on marginal regression had lower power for some situations.

  3. The combination of ezetimibe and ursodiol promotes fecal sterol excretion and reveals a G5G8-independent pathway for cholesterol elimination[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuhuan; Liu, Xiaoxi; Pijut, Sonja S.; Li, Jianing; Horn, Jamie; Bradford, Emily M.; Leggas, Markos; Barrett, Terrence A.; Graf, Gregory A.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies suggest an interdependent relationship between liver and intestine for cholesterol elimination from the body. We hypothesized that a combination of ursodiol (Urso) and ezetimibe (EZ) could increase biliary secretion and reduce cholesterol reabsorption, respectively, to promote cholesterol excretion. Treatment with Urso increased hepatic ABCG5 ABCG8 (G5G8) protein and both biliary and fecal sterols in a dose-dependent manner. To determine whether the drug combination (Urso-EZ) further increased cholesterol excretion, mice were treated with Urso alone or in combination with two doses of EZ. EZ produced an additive and dose-dependent increase in fecal neutral sterol (FNS) elimination in the presence of Urso. Finally, we sequentially treated wide-type and G5G8-deficient mice with Urso and Urso-EZ to determine the extent to which these effects were G5G8 dependent. Although biliary and FNS were invariably lower in G5G8 KO mice, the relative increase in FNS following treatment with Urso alone or the Urso-EZ combination was not affected by genotype. In conclusion, Urso increases G5G8, biliary cholesterol secretion, and FNS and acts additively with EZ to promote fecal sterol excretion. However, the stimulatory effect of these agents was not G5G8 dependent. PMID:25635125

  4. Mobile Landing Platform with Core Capability Set (MLP w/CCS): Combined Initial Operational Test and Evaluation and Live Fire Test and Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    SUBTITLE Mobile Landing Platform with Core Capability Set (MLP w/CCS) Combined Initial Operational Test and Evaluation ( IOT &E) and Live Fire Test and...Evaluation (LFT&E)Report 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK...based on data from a series of integrated test events, a dedicated end-to-end Initial Operational Test and Evaluation ( IOT &E), and two Marine Corps

  5. Rapid antimicrobial susceptibility test for identification of new therapeutics and drug combinations against multidrug-resistant bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Wei; Weingarten, Rebecca A; Xu, Miao; Southall, Noel; Dai, Sheng; Shinn, Paul; Sanderson, Philip E; Williamson, Peter R; Frank, Karen M; Zheng, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Current antimicrobial susceptibility testing has limited screening capability for identifying empirical antibiotic combinations to treat severe bacterial infections with multidrug-resistant (MDR) organisms. We developed a new antimicrobial susceptibility assay using automated ultra-high-throughput screen technology in combination with a simple bacterial growth assay. A rapid screening of 5170 approved drugs and other compounds identified 25 compounds with activities against MDR Klebsiella pne...

  6. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and age of onset in schizophrenia: A combined analysis of independent samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saetre, Peter; Vares, Maria; Werge, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is involved in the one-carbon cycle, which is of importance for nucleotide synthesis and methylation of DNA, membranes, proteins and lipids. The MTHFR gene includes two common polymorphisms (rs1801133 or C677T; rs1801131 or A1298C) which both alter enzyme...... activity. The T-allele of the C677T polymorphism has recently been associated with earlier age at onset of schizophrenia. In the present study we examined the association between the MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and age at onset of schizophrenia in twelve samples consisting of 3,213 unrelated...... schizophrenia patients, including the original Scandinavian sample. There was no consistent relationship between MTHFR C677T, A1298C or combined 677T/1298C carriers and age of onset in schizophrenia when the results of each study were combined using meta-analysis. The present results suggest...

  7. A simple test for synergy for a small number of combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novick, Steven J

    2013-12-20

    A method for detecting deviations from the Loewe additive drug combination reference model for in vitro drug combination experimentation is described. It is often difficult to fit a response surface model to drug combination data, especially in situations where the experimental design contains a sparse set of combinations. The literature does contain good response surface modeling approaches, but they tend to be complex and can be difficult to execute. It is especially difficult to check model quality when fitting to more than two combined agents. A simple method based on sound statistical principles is proposed that examines the mean response deviation of each combination from the predicted response under Loewe additivity. The method can readily handle any number of combined agents, does not require sophisticated modeling, and can even be programmed into Microsoft Excel without the use of macros. Several potential extensions to the method are discussed in detail. Computer-generated simulations demonstrate the statistical capabilities of the approach, and a real-data example is given to illustrate the method. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Evaluating the robustness of models developed from field spectral data in predicting African grass foliar nitrogen concentration using WorldView-2 image as an independent test dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutanga, Onisimo; Adam, Elhadi; Adjorlolo, Clement; Abdel-Rahman, Elfatih M.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the extent to which the resampled field spectra compare with the actual image spectra of the new generation multispectral WorldView-2 (WV-2) satellite. This was achieved by developing models from resampled field spectra data and testing them on an actual WV-2 image of the study area. We evaluated the performance of reflectance ratios (RI), normalized difference indices (NDI) and random forest (RF) regression model in predicting foliar nitrogen concentration in a grassland environment. The field measured spectra were used to calibrate the RF model using a randomly selected training (n = 70%) nitrogen data set. The model developed from the field spectra resampled to WV-2 wavebands was validated on an independent field spectral test dataset as well as on the actual WV-2 image of the same area (n = 30%, bootstrapped a 100 times). The results show that the model developed using RI could predict nitrogen with a mean R2 of 0.74 and 0.65 on an independent field spectral test data set and on the actual WV-2 image, respectively. The root mean square error of prediction (RMSE %) was 0.17 and 0.22 for the field test data set and the WV-2 image, respectively. Results provide an insight on the magnitude of errors that are expected when up-scaling field spectral models to airborne or satellite image data. The prediction also indicates the unceasing relevance of field spectroscopy studies to better understand the spectral models critical for vegetation quality assessment.

  9. Myoinositol combined with alpha-lipoic acid may improve the clinical and endocrine features of polycystic ovary syndrome through an insulin-independent action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cicco, Simona; Immediata, Valentina; Romualdi, Daniela; Policola, Caterina; Tropea, Anna; Di Florio, Christian; Tagliaferri, Valeria; Scarinci, Elisa; Della Casa, Silvia; Lanzone, Antonio; Apa, Rosanna

    2017-09-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of a combined treatment with alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) and myoinositol (MYO) on clinical, endocrine and metabolic features of women affected by polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In this pilot cohort study, forty women with PCOS were enrolled and clinical, hormonal and metabolic parameters were evaluated before and after a six-months combined treatment with ALA and MYO daily. Studied patients experienced a significant increase in the number of cycles in six months (p < 0.01). The free androgen index (FAI), the mean androstenedione and DHEAS levels significantly decreased after treatment (p < 0.05). Mean SHBG levels significantly raised (p < 0.01). A significant improvement in mean Ferriman-Gallwey (F-G) score (p < 0.01) and a significant reduction of BMI (p < 0.01) were also observed. A significant reduction of AMH levels, ovarian volume and total antral follicular count were observed in our studied women (p< 0.05). No significant changes occurred in gluco-insulinaemic and lipid parameters after treatment. The combined treatment of ALA and MYO is able to restore the menstrual pattern and to improve the hormonal milieu of PCOS women, even in the absence of apparent changes in insulin metabolism.

  10. Pharmacokinetics and tolerability of MB12066, a beta-lapachone derivative targeting NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1: two independent, double-blind, placebo-controlled, combined single and multiple ascending dose first-in-human clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seokuee; Lee, SeungHwan; Cho, Joo-Youn; Yoon, Seo Hyun; Jang, In-Jin; Yu, Kyung-Sang

    2017-01-01

    MB12066 is a molecule derived from β-lapachone that shown effects on obesity in previous studies. The present studies were conducted to evaluate the tolerability and pharmacokinetics (PK) of MB12066 after the oral administration of single and multiple doses to healthy volunteers. The study comprised 2 independent, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, combined single and multiple ascending dose first-in-human clinical trials to evaluate the safety, tolerability and PK of MB12066 in healthy Korean volunteers. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive a single 10, 30, 100, 150, 200, 300 or 400 mg of MB12066 and multiple 100 or 200 mg of MB12066. The subjects' vital signs, 12-lead electrocardiograms, clinical laboratory tests, adverse event statuses, and physical examinations were assessed during the study. Blood and urine samples were collected to determine the concentration of MB12066 from predose to 72 hours after the single administration and from predose to 96 hours postdose of day 7 after the multiple administration. NADH:quinone oxidoreductase 1 genotyping was performed to analyze the association between genetic polymorphisms and PK. MB12066 was well tolerated after oral administration of single and multiple doses. The systemic exposure to MB12066 after a single administration tended to increase in a dose-dependent manner in the dose range of 30-200 mg. The overall fraction of MB12066 excreted unchanged in urine was <1% of the administered dose. A significant relationship was observed between NADH:quinone oxidoreductase 1 polymorphisms and exposure to MB12066 after multiple administrations, but the result was not conclusive because of the small number of subjects. A single dose of MB12066 within the dose range of 10-400 mg and multiple doses of 100 and 200 mg of MB12066 were safe and tolerated in healthy subjects. Additionally, MB12066 was mainly eliminated through metabolism in humans.

  11. Independent Directors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringe, Wolf-Georg

    2013-01-01

    that they did not prevent firms' excessive risk taking; further, these directors sometimes showed serious deficits in understanding the business they were supposed to control, and remained passive in addressing structural problems. A closer look reveals that under the surface of seemingly unanimous consensus......This paper re-evaluates the corporate governance concept of ‘board independence’ against the disappointing experiences during the 2007-08 financial crisis. Independent or outside directors had long been seen as an essential tool to improve the monitoring role of the board. Yet the crisis revealed...... about board independence in Western jurisdictions, a surprising disharmony prevails about the justification, extent and purpose of independence requirements. These considerations lead me to question the benefits of the current system. Instead, this paper proposes a new, ‘functional’ concept of board...

  12. Animal models testing monotherapy versus combination antifungal therapy: lessons learned and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemons, Karl V; Stevens, David A

    2006-08-01

    The continued rise in serious fungal infections and rises in therapy failure dictate that more efficacious therapies be developed. Combination therapy using available drugs is an attractive choice, yet primarily only anecdotal clinical data are available. We review here data from animal models as an indicator of future potential. The primary data are from murine studies and we will briefly review chemotherapeutic combination studies, some showing benefit over monotherapy and some showing no benefit over monotherapy. In addition, we will address the potential of immunotherapy in combination with conventional therapy. The data derived from animal model studies of antifungal drug efficacy have proven to be predictive of clinical utility. Studies on combination therapy will prove useful to the clinician in evaluating courses of treatment, especially where clinical-trial data are not available or probable in the future.

  13. COMPARISON BETWEEN AND WITHIN FAMILY SELECTIONS WITH THE COMBINED SELECTION IN PROGENY TESTS OF Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildeu Soares Martins

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This study used six experiments involving half-sub families of Eucalyptus grandis, which were carried out byCelulose Nipo Brasileira S. A. (CENIBRA at six locations. Data on circumference at breast height and plant height weremeasured. Selection methods among and within families were compared with combined selection. The combined selection wassuperior to selection among and within families due to higher estimates of genetic gains, and also for selecting a larger numberof families for recombination.

  14. Combining test statistics and models in bootstrapped model rejection: it is a balancing act

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johansson, Rikard; Strålfors, Peter; Cedersund, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    .... Rejections are usually done using e.g. the chi-square test (χ2) or the Durbin-Watson test (DW). Analytical formulas for the corresponding distributions rely on assumptions that typically are not fulfilled...

  15. Independent Gene Discovery and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palsule, Vrushalee; Coric, Dijana; Delancy, Russell; Dunham, Heather; Melancon, Caleb; Thompson, Dennis; Toms, Jamie; White, Ashley; Shultz, Jeffry

    2010-01-01

    A clear understanding of basic gene structure is critical when teaching molecular genetics, the central dogma and the biological sciences. We sought to create a gene-based teaching project to improve students' understanding of gene structure and to integrate this into a research project that can be implemented by instructors at the secondary level…

  16. Desiccant-Based Combined Systems: Integrated Active Desiccant Rooftop Hybrid System Development and Testing Final Report- Phase 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, J

    2005-05-06

    This report summarizes the results of a research and development (R&D) program to design and optimize an active desiccant-vapor compression hybrid rooftop system. The primary objective was to combine the strengths of both technologies to produce a compact, high-performing, energy-efficient system that could accommodate any percentage of outdoor air and deliver essentially any required combination of temperature and humidity, or sensible heat ratio (SHR). In doing so, such a product would address the significant challenges imposed on the performance capabilities of conventional packaged rooftop equipment by standards 62 and 90.1 of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. The body of work completed as part of this program built upon previous R&D efforts supported by the U.S. Department of Energy and summarized by the Phase 3b report ''Active Desiccant Dehumidification Module Integration with Rooftop Packaged HVAC Units'' (Fischer and Sand 2002), in addition to Fischer, Hallstrom, and Sand 2000; Fischer 2000; and Fischer and Sand 2004. All initial design objectives established for this development program were successfully achieved. The performance flexibility desired was accomplished by a down-sized active desiccant wheel that processes only a portion of the supply airflow, which is pre-conditioned by a novel vapor compression cycle. Variable-speed compressors are used to deliver the capacity control required by a system handling a high percentage of outdoor air. An integrated direct digital control system allows for control capabilities not generally offered by conventional packaged rooftop systems. A 3000-cfm prototype system was constructed and tested in the SEMCO engineering test laboratory in Columbia, MO, and was found to operate in an energy-efficient fashion relative to more conventional systems. Most important, the system offered the capability to independently control the supply air temperature and

  17. Facilitating the Interpretation of English Language Proficiency Scores: Combining Scale Anchoring and Test Score Mapping Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Donald; Schedl, Mary; Papageorgiou, Spiros

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop, for the benefit of both test takers and test score users, enhanced "TOEFL ITP"® test score reports that go beyond the simple numerical scores that are currently reported. To do so, we applied traditional scale anchoring (proficiency scaling) to item difficulty data in order to develop performance…

  18. Lower mortality and earlier start of combination antiretroviral therapy in patients tested repeatedly for HIV than in those with a positive first test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gras, Luuk; van Sighem, Ard; Bezemer, Daniela; Smit, Colette; Wit, Ferdinand; de Wolf, Frank; Schölvinck, Elisabeth H.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Early diagnosis of HIV-1 infection will probably beneficially impact onward transmission and life expectancy. We compared mortality rates and CD4 cell counts at start of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in patients with different frequencies of diagnostic testing for HIV.

  19. Lower mortality and earlier start of combination antiretroviral therapy in patients tested repeatedly for HIV than in those with a positive first test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gras, Luuk; van Sighem, Ard; Bezemer, Daniela; Smit, Colette; Wit, Ferdinand; de Wolf, Frank; Prins, J. M.; Kuijpers, T. W.; Scherpbier, H. J.; Boer, K.; van der Meer, J. T. M.; Godfried, M. H.; Reiss, P.; van der Poll, T.; Nellen, F. J. B.; Lange, J. M. A.; Geerlings, S. E.; van Vugt, M.; Vrouenraets, S. M. E.; Pajkrt, D.; Bos, J. C.; van der Valk, M.; Schreij, G.; Lowe, S.; Oude Lashof, A.; Pronk, M. J. H.; Bravenboer, B.; van der Ende, M. E.; de Vries-Sluijs, T. E. M. S.; Schurink, C. A. M.; van der Feltz, M.; Nouwen, J. L.; Gelinck, L. B. S.; Verbon, A.; Rijnders, B. J. A.; Slobbe, L.; Hartwig, N. G.; Driessen, G. J. A.; Branger, J.; Kauffmann, R. H.; Schippers, E. F.; Groeneveld, P. H. P.; Alleman, M. A.; Bouwhuis, J. W.; ten Kate, R. W.; Soetekouw, R.; Kroon, F. P.; van den Broek, P. J.; van Dissel, J. T.; Arend, S. M.; van Nieuwkoop, C.; de Boer, M. G. J.; Jolink, H.; den Hollander, J. G.; Pogany, K.; van Twillert, G.; Kortmann, W.; Vriesendorp, R.; Leyten, E. M. S.; ten Napel, C. H. H.; Kootstra, G. J.; Brinkman, K.; Blok, W. L.; Frissen, P. H. J.; Schouten, W. E. M.; van den Berk, G. E. L.; Juttmann, J. R.; van Kasteren, M. E. E.; Brouwer, A. E.; Veenstra, J.; Lettinga, K. D.; Mulder, J. W.; van Gorp, E. C. M.; Smit, P. M.; van Eeden, A.; Verhagen, D. W. M.; Sprenger, H. G.; Doedens, R.; Scholvinck, E. H.; van Assen, S.; Bierman, W. F. W.; Koopmans, P. P.; de Groot, R.; Keuter, M.; van der Ven, A. J. A. M.; ter Hofstede, H. J. M.; van der Flier, M.; Brouwer, A. M.; Dofferhoff, A. S. M.; Hoepelman, A. I. M.; Mudrikova, T.; Schneider, M. M. E.; Jaspers, C. A. J. J.; Ellerbroek, P. M.; Maarschalk-Ellerbroek, L. J.; Oosterheert, J. J.; Arends, J. E.; Wassenberg, M. W. M.; van der Hilst, J. C. H.; Barth, R. E.; Danner, S. A.; van Agtmael, M. A.; de Vocht, J.; Perenboom, R. M.; Claessen, F. A. P.; bij de Vaate, E. A.; Geelen, S. P. M.; Wolfs, T. F. W.; Richter, C.; van der Berg, J. P.; Gisolf, E. H.; van den Berge, M.; Stegeman, A.; van Vonderen, M. G. A.; van Houte, D. P. F.; Polée, M. B.; Winkel, C.; Muskiet, F.; Voigt, R.

    2011-01-01

    Early diagnosis of HIV-1 infection will probably beneficially impact onward transmission and life expectancy. We compared mortality rates and CD4 cell counts at start of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in patients with different frequencies of diagnostic testing for HIV. Patients infected

  20. Combining the P300-complex trial-based concealed information test and the reaction time-based autobiographical implicit association test in concealed memory detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoqing; Rosenfeld, J Peter

    2012-08-01

    Despite the P300-concealed information test's validity in detecting concealed memory when it is conducted immediately after the mock crime, whether the P300-CIT's detection efficiency is moderated by time delay remains unknown. Here, we conducted a mock crime study in which guilty participants were tested immediately after the mock crime or 1 month later. An innocent group was also tested. Assuming that the autobiographical Implicit Association Test (aIAT) and the P300-CIT rely on nonoverlapping mechanisms for memory detection, participants were tested using both the P300-CIT and the reaction time (RT)-based aIAT. Results suggested that the sensitivity of both tests remains even after the 1-month delay. The indicators from the RT-aIAT and P300-CIT were uncorrelated, thus combining P300-CIT and aIAT data further increased the efficiency of memory detection. Copyright © 2012 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  1. Independent preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, Karl

    1991-01-01

    A simple mathematical result characterizing a subset of a product set is proved and used to obtain additive representations of preferences. The additivity consequences of independence assumptions are obtained for preferences which are not total or transitive. This means that most of the economic...

  2. The graded cycling test combined with the talk test is reliable for patients with ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Grøn; Buus, Lise; Hage, Tine

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess relative reliability and measurement error of the Graded Cycling Test (GCT) with the Talk Test (TT) for patients with cardiac disease. METHODS: Patients (N = 64; women, n = 30) with ischemic heart disease performed the GCT with the TT twice in 1 day. Every minute the patient...... recited a text passage of 30 words. The question "Are you still able to speak comfortably?" was then answered: "Yes" (TT+), "Not sure" (TT±), or "No" (TT-). Two physiotherapists (PTs) rated when the speaking ability was affected by ventilation. Relative reliability: intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC......)2.1 and absolute reliability: standard error of measurement with 95% CI (SEM95) and smallest real difference (SRD) were calculated. RESULTS: Intraclass correlation coefficient values of 0.90, 0.91, and 0.90 were observed for TT+, TT±, and TT-, respectively. Physiotherapist ICCs ranged between 0...

  3. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and age of onset in schizophrenia: a combined analysis of independent samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saetre, Peter; Vares, Maria; Werge, Thomas; Andreassen, Ole A; Arinami, Tadao; Ishiguro, Hiroki; Nanko, Shinichiro; Tan, Ene Choo; Han, Doug Hyun; Roffman, Joshua L; Muntjewerff, Jan-Willem; Jagodzinski, Pawel P; Kempisty, Bartosz; Hauser, Joanna; Vilella, Elisabet; Betcheva, Elitza; Nakamura, Yusuke; Regland, Björn; Agartz, Ingrid; Hall, Håkan; Terenius, Lars; Jönsson, Erik G

    2011-03-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is involved in the one-carbon cycle, which is of importance for nucleotide synthesis and methylation of DNA, membranes, proteins and lipids. The MTHFR gene includes two common polymorphisms (rs1801133 or C677T; rs1801131 or A1298C) which both alter enzyme activity. The T-allele of the C677T polymorphism has recently been associated with earlier age at onset of schizophrenia. In the present study we examined the association between the MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and age at onset of schizophrenia in twelve samples consisting of 3,213 unrelated schizophrenia patients, including the original Scandinavian sample. There was no consistent relationship between MTHFR C677T, A1298C or combined 677T/1298C carriers and age of onset in schizophrenia when the results of each study were combined using meta-analysis. The present results suggest that the investigated MTHFR polymorphisms do not influence age of onset in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Sensitivity and specificity of point-of-care rapid combination syphilis-HIV-HCV tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen L Hess

    Full Text Available New rapid point-of-care (POC tests are being developed that would offer the opportunity to increase screening and treatment of several infections, including syphilis. This study evaluated three of these new rapid POC tests at a site in Southern California.Participants were recruited from a testing center in Long Beach, California. A whole blood specimen was used to evaluate the performance of the Dual Path Platform (DPP Syphilis Screen & Confirm, DPP HIV-Syphilis, and DPP HIV-HCV-Syphilis rapid tests. The gold-standard comparisons were Treponema pallidum passive particle agglutination (TPPA, rapid plasma reagin (RPR, HCV enzyme immunoassay (EIA, and HIV-1/2 EIA.A total of 948 whole blood specimens were analyzed in this study. The sensitivity of the HIV tests ranged from 95.7-100% and the specificity was 99.7-100%. The sensitivity and specificity of the HCV test were 91.8% and 99.3%, respectively. The treponemal-test sensitivity when compared to TPPA ranged from 44.0-52.7% and specificity was 98.7-99.6%. The non-treponemal test sensitivity and specificity when compared to RPR was 47.8% and 98.9%, respectively. The sensitivity of the Screen & Confirm test improved to 90.0% when cases who were both treponemal and nontreponemal positive were compared to TPPA+/RPR ≥ 1 ∶ 8.The HIV and HCV on the multi-infection tests showed good performance, but the treponemal and nontreponemal tests had low sensitivity. These results could be due to a low prevalence of active syphilis in the sample population because the sensitivity improved when the gold standard was limited to those more likely to be active cases. Further evaluation of the new syphilis POC tests is required before implementation into testing programs.

  5. Sensitivity and specificity of point-of-care rapid combination syphilis-HIV-HCV tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Kristen L; Fisher, Dennis G; Reynolds, Grace L

    2014-01-01

    New rapid point-of-care (POC) tests are being developed that would offer the opportunity to increase screening and treatment of several infections, including syphilis. This study evaluated three of these new rapid POC tests at a site in Southern California. Participants were recruited from a testing center in Long Beach, California. A whole blood specimen was used to evaluate the performance of the Dual Path Platform (DPP) Syphilis Screen & Confirm, DPP HIV-Syphilis, and DPP HIV-HCV-Syphilis rapid tests. The gold-standard comparisons were Treponema pallidum passive particle agglutination (TPPA), rapid plasma reagin (RPR), HCV enzyme immunoassay (EIA), and HIV-1/2 EIA. A total of 948 whole blood specimens were analyzed in this study. The sensitivity of the HIV tests ranged from 95.7-100% and the specificity was 99.7-100%. The sensitivity and specificity of the HCV test were 91.8% and 99.3%, respectively. The treponemal-test sensitivity when compared to TPPA ranged from 44.0-52.7% and specificity was 98.7-99.6%. The non-treponemal test sensitivity and specificity when compared to RPR was 47.8% and 98.9%, respectively. The sensitivity of the Screen & Confirm test improved to 90.0% when cases who were both treponemal and nontreponemal positive were compared to TPPA+/RPR ≥ 1 ∶ 8. The HIV and HCV on the multi-infection tests showed good performance, but the treponemal and nontreponemal tests had low sensitivity. These results could be due to a low prevalence of active syphilis in the sample population because the sensitivity improved when the gold standard was limited to those more likely to be active cases. Further evaluation of the new syphilis POC tests is required before implementation into testing programs.

  6. High Expression of Cry1Ac Protein in Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum by Combining Independent Transgenic Events that Target the Protein to Cytoplasm and Plastids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarjeet Kumar Singh

    Full Text Available Transgenic cotton was developed using two constructs containing a truncated and codon-modified cry1Ac gene (1,848 bp, which was originally characterized from Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki strain HD73 that encodes a toxin highly effective against many lepidopteran pests. In Construct I, the cry1Ac gene was cloned under FMVde, a strong constitutively expressing promoter, to express the encoded protein in the cytoplasm. In Construct II, the encoded protein was directed to the plastids using a transit peptide taken from the cotton rbcSIb gene. Genetic transformation experiments with Construct I resulted in a single copy insertion event in which the Cry1Ac protein expression level was 2-2.5 times greater than in the Bacillus thuringiensis cotton event Mon 531, which is currently used in varieties and hybrids grown extensively in India and elsewhere. Another high expression event was selected from transgenics developed with Construct II. The Cry protein expression resulting from this event was observed only in the green plant parts. No transgenic protein expression was observed in the non-green parts, including roots, seeds and non-green floral tissues. Thus, leucoplasts may lack the mechanism to allow entry of a protein tagged with the transit peptide from a protein that is only synthesized in tissues containing mature plastids. Combining the two events through sexual crossing led to near additive levels of the toxin at 4-5 times the level currently used in the field. The two high expression events and their combination will allow for effective resistance management against lepidopteran insect pests, particularly Helicoverpa armigera, using a high dosage strategy.

  7. Prospective trial comparing full-field digital mammography (FFDM) versus combined FFDM and tomosynthesis in a population-based screening programme using independent double reading with arbitration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skaane, Per [Oslo University Hospital, University of Oslo, Department of Radiology, Oslo (Norway); Oslo University Hospital Ullevaal, Department of Radiology, Breast Imaging Center, Oslo (Norway); Bandos, Andriy I. [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Biostatistics, Pittsburgh (United States); Gullien, Randi; Eben, Ellen B.; Haakenaasen, Unni; Izadi, Mina; Jebsen, Ingvild N.; Jahr, Gunnar; Krager, Mona [Department of Radiology, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Ekseth, Ulrika [Curato Roentgen Institute, Oslo (Norway); Hofvind, Solveig [The Cancer Registry, Institute of Population-based Cancer Research, Oslo (Norway)

    2013-08-15

    To compare double readings when interpreting full field digital mammography (2D) and tomosynthesis (3D) during mammographic screening. A prospective, Ethical Committee approved screening study is underway. During the first year 12,621 consenting women underwent both 2D and 3D imaging. Each examination was independently interpreted by four radiologists under four reading modes: Arm A - 2D; Arm B - 2D + CAD; Arm C - 2D + 3D; Arm D - synthesised 2D + 3D. Examinations with a positive score by at least one reader were discussed at an arbitration meeting before a final management decision. Paired double reading of 2D (Arm A + B) and 2D + 3D (Arm C + D) were analysed. Performance measures were compared using generalised linear mixed models, accounting for inter-reader performance heterogeneity (P < 0.05). Pre-arbitration false-positive scores were 10.3 % (1,286/12,501) and 8.5 % (1,057/12,501) for 2D and 2D + 3D, respectively (P < 0.001). Recall rates were 2.9 % (365/12,621) and 3.7 % (463/12,621), respectively (P = 0.005). Cancer detection was 7.1 (90/12,621) and 9.4 (119/12,621) per 1,000 examinations, respectively (30 % increase, P < 0.001); positive predictive values (detected cancer patients per 100 recalls) were 24.7 % and 25.5 %, respectively (P = 0.97). Using 2D + 3D, double-reading radiologists detected 27 additional invasive cancers (P < 0.001). Double reading of 2D + 3D significantly improves the cancer detection rate in mammography screening. (orig.)

  8. Determination of adhesion between thermoplastic and liquid silicone rubbers in hard-soft-combinations via mechanical peeling test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühr, C.; Spörrer, A.; Altstädt, V.

    2014-05-01

    The production of hard-soft-combinations via multi injection molding gained more and more importance in the last years. This is attributed to different factors. One principle reason is that the use of two-component injection molding technique has many advantages such as cancelling subsequent and complex steps and shortening the process chain. Furthermore this technique allows the combination of the properties of the single components like the high stiffness of the hard component and the elastic properties of the soft component. Because of the incompatibility of some polymers the adhesion on the interface has to be determined. Thereby adhesion is not only influenced by the applied polymers, but also by the injection molding parameters and the characteristics of the mold. Besides already known combinations of thermoplastics with thermoplastic elastomers (TPE), there consists the possibility to apply liquid silicone rubber (LSR) as soft component. A thermoplastic/LSR combination gains in importance due to the specific advantages of LSR to TPE. The faintly adhesion between LSR and thermoplastics is currently one of the key challenges when dealing with those combinations. So it is coercively necessary to improve adhesion between the two components by adding an adhesion promoter. To determine the promoters influence, it is necessary to develop a suitable testing method to investigate e.g. the peel resistance. The current German standard "VDI Richtlinie 2019', which is actually only employed for thermoplastic/TPE combinations, can serve as a model to determine the adhesion of thermoplastic/LSR combinations.

  9. Keep the Independent Student Independent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Roger

    1973-01-01

    Libraries are getting involved with open university programs. Some of them are so structured however, that they contradict the concept of independent learning. Problems to be considered include: 1) should librarians adopt the role of teachers? 2) should participants be recruited? 3) what are funding priorities? (DH)

  10. Classroom Nutrition Education Combined with Fruit and Vegetable Taste Testing Improves Children's Dietary Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Abby; Larson, Mary; Tucker, Jared; Strang, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Background: We tested the effectiveness of the Go Wild With Fruits and Veggies! (GWWFV) Extension curriculum on increasing fruit and vegetable (FV) intake of third graders. Methods: An intervention study was used testing self-reported FV intake pre/post GWWFV. Recruited schools were randomized to control (12 schools, N = 369, third grade children)…

  11. Combined therapy with lanthanum carbonate and calcium carbonate for hyperphosphatemia decreases serum FGF-23 level independently of calcium and PTH (COLC Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigematsu, Takashi; Negi, Shigeo

    2012-03-01

    Increased blood levels of fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) are associated with increased mortality. We evaluated the effect of combined therapy with lanthanum carbonate (LaC), a new phosphate binder and calcium carbonate (CaC) on serum levels of phosphate and FGF-23. This was a single-arm, open-label, multicenter study. Hemodialysis patients with a serum phosphate level >6.0 mg/dL despite CaC therapy were also given LaC for 16 weeks at a dose up to 2250 mg/day. CaC was given at a fixed dose throughout the 16-week period. Of 42 patients enrolled, 36 completed the 16-week study. The serum phosphate level showed a significant decrease from 6.9 ± 1.4 mg/dL at week 0 to 5.5 + 1.2 mg/dL at week 16 (-20.0%, P calcium and the serum parathyroid hormone level showed no significant changes. A significant positive correlation (r = 0.442, P = 0.007) was demonstrated between the percent reduction of serum FGF-23 and that of serum phosphate. Both serum phosphate and FGF-23 levels were significantly decreased by treatment with LaC plus CaC.

  12. The independent and combined effects of intensive weight loss and exercise training on bone mineral density in overweight and obese older adults with osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavers, D P; Beavers, K M; Loeser, R F; Walton, N R; Lyles, M F; Nicklas, B J; Shapses, S A; Newman, J J; Messier, S P

    2014-06-01

    To determine the effects of dietary-induced weight loss (D) and weight loss plus exercise (D + E) compared to exercise alone (E) on bone mineral density (BMD) in older adults with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Data come from 284 older (66.0 ± 6.2 years), overweight/obese (body mass index (BMI) 33.4 ± 3.7 kg/m2), adults with knee OA enrolled in the Intensive Diet and Exercise for Arthritis (IDEA) study. Participants were randomized to 18 months of walking and strength training (E; n = 95), dietary-induced weight loss targeting 10% of baseline weight (D; n = 88) or a combination of the two (D + E; n = 101). Body weight and composition (DXA), regional BMD, were obtained at baseline and 18 months. E, D, and D + E groups lost 1.3 ± 4.5 kg, 9.1 ± 8.6 kg and 10.4 ± 8.0 kg, respectively (P losses compared to E (both P weight (r = 0.21 and 0.54 respectively, both P ≤ 0.01). Weight loss via an intensive dietary intervention, with or without exercise, results in bone loss at the hip and femoral neck in overweight and obese, older adults with OA. Although the exercise intervention did not attenuate weight loss-associated reductions in BMD, classification of osteoporosis and osteopenia remained unchanged. NCT00381290. Copyright © 2014 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Deciding How to Stay Independent at Home in Later Years: Development and Acceptability Testing of an Informative Web-Based Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvelink, Mirjam Marjolein; Jones, C Allyson; Archambault, Patrick M; Roy, Noémie; Blair, Louisa; Légaré, France

    2017-12-14

    Seniors with loss of autonomy may face decisions about whether they should stay at home or move elsewhere. Most seniors would prefer to stay home and be independent for as long as possible, but most are unaware of options that would make this possible. The study aimed to develop and test the acceptability of an interactive website for seniors, their caregivers, and health professionals with short interlinked videos presenting information about options for staying independent at home. The approach for design and data collection varied, involving a multipronged, user-centered design of the development process, qualitative interviews, and end-user feedback to determine content (ie, needs assessment) in phase I; module development (in English and French) in phase II; and survey to test usability and acceptability with end users in phase III. Phase I participants were a convenience sample of end users, that is, seniors, caregivers, and professionals with expertise in modifiable factors (eg, day centers, home redesign, equipment, community activities, and finances), enabling seniors to stay independent at home for longer in Quebec and Alberta, Canada. Phase II participants were bilingual actors; phase III participants included phase I participants and new participants recruited through snowballing. Qualitative interviews were thematically analyzed in phase II to determine relevant topics for the video-scripts, which were user-checked by interview participants. In phase III, the results of a usability questionnaire were analyzed using descriptive statistics. In phase I, interviews with 29 stakeholders, including 4 seniors, 3 caregivers, and 22 professionals, showed a need for a one-stop information resource about options for staying independent at home. They raised issues relating to 6 categories: cognitive autonomy, psychological or mental well-being, functional autonomy, social autonomy, financial autonomy, and people involved. A script was developed and evaluated by

  14. Combination testing (Stage 2) of the Anti-IGF-1 receptor antibody IMC-A12 with rapamycin by the pediatric preclinical testing program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, E Anders; Gorlick, Richard; Maris, John M; Keir, Stephen T; Morton, Christopher L; Wu, Jianrong; Wozniak, Amy W; Smith, Malcolm A; Houghton, Peter J

    2012-05-01

    IMC-A12, a fully human antibody that blocks ligand binding to the Type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor, and rapamycin, a selective inhibitor of mTORC1 signaling, have both demonstrated significant antitumor activity against PPTP solid tumor models. Here we have evaluated antitumor activity of each agent individually and in combination against nine tumor models. IMC-A12 was administered twice weekly and rapamycin was administered daily for 5 days per week for a planned 4 weeks. The impact of combining IMC-A12 with rapamycin was evaluated using two measures: (1) the "therapeutic enhancement" measure, and (2) a linear regression model for time-to-event to formally evaluate for sub- and supra-additivity for the combination compared to the agents used alone. Two osteosarcomas, and one Ewing sarcoma of the nine xenografts tested showed therapeutic enhancement. The combination effect was most dramatic for EW-5 for which PD2 responses of short duration were observed for both single agents and a prolonged PR response was observed for the combination. Both OS-2 and OS-9 showed significantly longer times to progression with the combination compared to either of the single agents, although objective response criteria were not met. The combination of IMC-A12 with rapamycin was well tolerated, and induced tumor responses that were superior to either single agent alone in several models. These studies confirm reports using other antibodies that inhibit IGF-1 receptor-mediated signaling that indicate enhanced therapeutic effect for this combination, and extend the range of histotypes to encompass additional tumors expressing IGF-1R where this approach may be effective. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Independent and Combined Effects of Socioeconomic Status (SES and Bilingualism on Children’s Vocabulary and Verbal Short-Term Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Meir

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The current study explores the influence of socioeconomic status (SES and bilingualism on the linguistic skills and verbal short-term memory of preschool children. In previous studies comparing children of low and mid-high SES, the terms “a child with low-SES” and “a child speaking a minority language” are often interchangeable, not enabling differentiated evaluation of these two variables. The present study controls for this confluence by testing children born and residing in the same country and attending the same kindergartens, with all bilingual children speaking the same heritage language (HL-Russian. A total of 120 children (88 bilingual children: 44 with low SES; and 32 monolingual children: 16 with low SES with typical language development, aged 5; 7–6; 7, were tested in the societal language (SL-Hebrew on expressive vocabulary and three repetition tasks [forward digit span (FWD, nonword repetition (NWR, and sentence repetition (SRep], which tap into verbal short-term memory. The results indicated that SES and bilingualism impact different child abilities. Bilingualism is associated with decreased vocabulary size and lower performance on verbal short-term memory tasks with higher linguistic load in the SL-Hebrew. The negative effect of bilingualism on verbal short-term memory disappears once vocabulary is accounted for. SES influences not only linguistic performance, but also verbal short-term memory with lowest linguistic load. The negative effect of SES cannot be solely attributed to lower vocabulary scores, suggesting that an unprivileged background has a negative impact on children’s cognitive development beyond a linguistic disadvantage. The results have important clinical implications and call for more research exploring the varied impact of language and life experience on children’s linguistic and cognitive skills.

  16. Independent and Combined Effects of Socioeconomic Status (SES) and Bilingualism on Children’s Vocabulary and Verbal Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meir, Natalia; Armon-Lotem, Sharon

    2017-01-01

    The current study explores the influence of socioeconomic status (SES) and bilingualism on the linguistic skills and verbal short-term memory of preschool children. In previous studies comparing children of low and mid-high SES, the terms “a child with low-SES” and “a child speaking a minority language” are often interchangeable, not enabling differentiated evaluation of these two variables. The present study controls for this confluence by testing children born and residing in the same country and attending the same kindergartens, with all bilingual children speaking the same heritage language (HL-Russian). A total of 120 children (88 bilingual children: 44 with low SES; and 32 monolingual children: 16 with low SES) with typical language development, aged 5; 7–6; 7, were tested in the societal language (SL-Hebrew) on expressive vocabulary and three repetition tasks [forward digit span (FWD), nonword repetition (NWR), and sentence repetition (SRep)], which tap into verbal short-term memory. The results indicated that SES and bilingualism impact different child abilities. Bilingualism is associated with decreased vocabulary size and lower performance on verbal short-term memory tasks with higher linguistic load in the SL-Hebrew. The negative effect of bilingualism on verbal short-term memory disappears once vocabulary is accounted for. SES influences not only linguistic performance, but also verbal short-term memory with lowest linguistic load. The negative effect of SES cannot be solely attributed to lower vocabulary scores, suggesting that an unprivileged background has a negative impact on children’s cognitive development beyond a linguistic disadvantage. The results have important clinical implications and call for more research exploring the varied impact of language and life experience on children’s linguistic and cognitive skills. PMID:28890706

  17. Combining the Mannitol Test and FeNO in the Assessment of Poorly Controlled Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porsbjerg, Celeste; Sverrild, Asger; Backer, Vibeke

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: International guidelines recommend up-titration of anti-inflammatory treatment in asthmatic patients with poor symptom control, but patients without eosinophilic airway inflammation are less likely to benefit from this. The mannitol bronchoprovocation test and fractional exhaled nitri...

  18. GENERIC VERIFICATION PROTOCOL: DISTRIBUTED GENERATION AND COMBINED HEAT AND POWER FIELD TESTING PROTOCOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report is a generic verification protocol by which EPA’s Environmental Technology Verification program tests newly developed equipment for distributed generation of electric power, usually micro-turbine generators and internal combustion engine generators. The protocol will ...

  19. Combined LDI/SAT test to evaluate intestinal lactose digestion and mucosa permeability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetse, H. A.; Klaassen, D.; van der Molen, A. R. H.; Elzinga, H.; Bijsterveld, K.; Boverhof, R.; Stellaard, F.

    2006-01-01

    Background Intestinal mucosal damage causes impaired digestive capacity and increased mucosal permeability. Quantification of damage can be used to improve treatment options. Currently, the Lactose Digestion Index (LDI) and the Sugar Absorption Test (SAT) are used for evaluation. The investigation

  20. Classroom Nutrition Education Combined With Fruit and Vegetable Taste Testing Improves Children's Dietary Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Abby; Larson, Mary; Tucker, Jared; Strang, Michelle

    2017-02-01

    We tested the effectiveness of the Go Wild With Fruits and Veggies! (GWWFV) Extension curriculum on increasing fruit and vegetable (FV) intake of third graders. An intervention study was used testing self-reported FV intake pre/post GWWFV. Recruited schools were randomized to control (12 schools, N = 369, third grade children) or intervention (14 schools, N = 378, third grade children). Measures included items from a validated FV food frequency survey. Access to the federal Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Snack Program (FFVSP), and taste testing within GWWFV were also measured. Between-group differences in FV intake were evaluated using 1-way ANOVA for unadjusted models and 1-way ANCOVA for baseline adjusted models. The Tukey-Kramer test was employed for post hoc comparisons. Students with access to the FFVSP consumed more fruits (p interactive learning experiences create desired outcomes. © 2017, American School Health Association.

  1. Degradation of Solar Array Components in a Combined UV/VUV High Temperature Test Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nömayr Christel

    2017-01-01

    A design verification test under UV/VUV conditions of sun exposed materials and technologies on component level is presented which forms part of the overall verification and qualification of the solar array design of the MTM and MPO. The test concentrates on the self-contamination aspects and the resulting performance losses of the solar array under high intensity and elevated temperature environment representative for the photovoltaic assembly (PVA.

  2. A Combined Hazard Index Fire Test Methodology for Aircraft Cabin Materials. Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    10 4 OHIO STATE UNIVERSIY HFAT REL PA R TE IRIM rIR. ............... 14 5 SAi WLE HOLDERS AND INJECTION ICHANISM (WIH MLT UNIT) ............. 15 7 CHAS...fiberglass backface. The third panel was a 1958 design, using wood veneer facing and self-extinguishing paper honeycomb core. The fourth panel was identical...in construction to panel 1, except for the use of epoxy resin instead of modified phenolic. METHODOEY CHI TEST Testing a material to determine a CHI

  3. Miniaturized Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test by Combining Concentration Gradient Generation and Rapid Cell Culturing

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Samuel C.; Stefano Cestellos-Blanco; Keisuke Inoue; Zare, Richard N.

    2015-01-01

    Effective treatment of bacterial infection relies on timely diagnosis and proper prescription of antibiotic drugs. The antimicrobial susceptibility test (AST) is one of the most crucial experimental procedures, providing the baseline information for choosing effective antibiotic agents and their dosages. Conventional methods, however, require long incubation times or significant instrumentation costs to obtain test results. We propose a lab-on-a-chip approach to perform AST in a simple, econo...

  4. Executive functions of children with developmental dyspraxia: assessment combining neuropsychological and ecological tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint-Thorin, M; Marchal, F; Benkhaled, O; Pradat-Diehl, P; Boyer, F-C; Chevignard, M

    2013-05-01

    To assess executive function in children with developmental dyspraxia. children aged 8 years to 12 years 5 months at the time of the study, diagnosed with developmental dyspraxia between January, 2008 and August, 2009 by a multidisciplinary team in one single center. (1) Paper-and-pencil neuropsychological and ecological tests to assess flexibility, planning, inhibition and prospective memory; (2) two questionnaires answered by parents; (3) the 'Children's Cooking Task' (CCT), an ecological task performed in a real environment (Chevignard et al., 2009 [15]). In this last test, children were compared to matched controls. Non-parametric statistical tests were used. Thirteen patients participated in the study (11 boys-2 girls; mean age 10.3 years [SD=1.3]). Neuropsychological tests highlighted planning and inhibition disorders, but no impaired flexibility. For more than half of the children, the questionnaires indicated impaired executive functions in daily life tasks. Finally, patients showed a significantly increased rate of errors during the CCT, compared with the control group (Pchildren diagnosed with developmental dyspraxia also exhibit executive function disorders. Ecological tests seem more sensitive for identifying executive function disorders than conventional tests. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Rapid antimicrobial susceptibility test for identification of new therapeutics and drug combinations against multidrug-resistant bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Weingarten, Rebecca A; Xu, Miao; Southall, Noel; Dai, Sheng; Shinn, Paul; Sanderson, Philip E; Williamson, Peter R; Frank, Karen M; Zheng, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Current antimicrobial susceptibility testing has limited screening capability for identifying empirical antibiotic combinations to treat severe bacterial infections with multidrug-resistant (MDR) organisms. We developed a new antimicrobial susceptibility assay using automated ultra-high-throughput screen technology in combination with a simple bacterial growth assay. A rapid screening of 5170 approved drugs and other compounds identified 25 compounds with activities against MDR Klebsiella pneumoniae. To further improve the efficacy and reduce the effective drug concentrations, we applied a targeted drug combination approach that integrates drugs' clinical antimicrobial susceptibility breakpoints, achievable plasma concentrations, clinical toxicities and mechanisms of action to identify optimal drug combinations. Three sets of three-drug combinations were identified with broad-spectrum activities against 10 MDR clinical isolates including K. pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter cloacae and Escherichia coli. Colistin–auranofin–ceftazidime and colistin–auranofin–rifabutin suppressed >80% growth of all 10 MDR strains; while rifabutin–colistin–imipenem inhibited >75% of these strains except two Acinetobacter baumannii isolates. The results demonstrate this new assay has potential as a real-time method to identify new drugs and effective drug combinations to combat severe clinical infections with MDR organisms. PMID:27826141

  6. The combined exercise stress echocardiography and cardiopulmonary exercise test for identification of masked heart failure with preserved ejection fraction in patients with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedeljkovic, Ivana; Banovic, Marko; Stepanovic, Jelena; Giga, Vojislav; Djordjevic-Dikic, Ana; Trifunovic, Danijela; Nedeljkovic, Milan; Petrovic, Milan; Dobric, Milan; Dikic, Nenad; Zlatar, Milan; Beleslin, Branko

    2016-01-01

    Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is commonly associated with hypertension (HTN). However, resting echocardiography (ECHO) can underestimate the severity of disease. Exercise stress echocardiography (ESE) and the cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) appeared to be useful tests in dynamic assessment of HFpEF. The value of combined exercise stress echocardiography cardiopulmonary testing (ESE-CPX) in the identification of masked HFpEF is still undetermined. The purpose of this study was to analyse the value of the combined ESE-CPX in the identification of masked HFpEF in patients with HTN, dyspnoea and normal resting left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function. We studied 87 patients with HTN, exertional dyspnoea and normal resting LV function. They all underwent ESE-CPX testing (supine bicycle, ramp protocol, 15 W/min). ECHO measurements were performed at rest, and at peak load. Achievement of peak E/e' ratio>15 was a marker for masked HFpEF. Increase of E/e'>15 occurred in 8/87 patients (9.2%) during ESE-CPX. Those patients had the lower peak VO2 (p = 0.012), the lower VO2 at anaerobic threshold (p = 0.025), the lower workload (p = 0.026), the lower peak partial pressure end tidal carbon dioxide (PetCO2) (p < 0.0001), and the higher VE/VCO2 slope (p < 0.0001) which was an independent multivariate predictor of HFpEF (p = 0.021), with the cut-off value of 32.95 according to the receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curve (sensitivity (Sn) 100%, specificity (Sp) 90%). The combined ESE-CPX test is feasible and reliable test that can unmask HFpEF and may become an important aid in the early diagnosis of HFpEF, excluding the other causes of exertional dyspnoea. © The European Society of Cardiology 2015.

  7. [Incorporation of an organic MAGIC (Model of Acidification of Groundwater in Catchments) and testing of the revised model using independent data sources]. [MAGIC Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, T.J.

    1992-09-01

    A project was initiated in March, 1992 to (1) incorporate a rigorous organic acid representation, based on empirical data and geochemical considerations, into the MAGIC model of acidification response, and (2) test the revised model using three sets of independent data. After six months of performance, the project is on schedule and the majority of the tasks outlined for Year 1 have been successfully completed. Major accomplishments to data include development of the organic acid modeling approach, using data from the Adirondack Lakes Survey Corporation (ALSC), and coupling the organic acid model with MAGIC for chemical hindcast comparisons. The incorporation of an organic acid representation into MAGIC can account for much of the discrepancy earlier observed between MAGIC hindcasts and paleolimnological reconstructions of preindustrial pH and alkalinity for 33 statistically-selected Adirondack lakes. Additional work is on-going for model calibration and testing with data from two whole-catchment artificial acidification projects. Results obtained thus far are being prepared as manuscripts for submission to the peer-reviewed scientific literature.

  8. An empirical test of the 'shark nursery area concept' in Texas bays using a long-term fisheries-independent data set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froeschke, John T.; Stunz, Gregory W.; Sterba-Boatwright, Blair; Wildhaber, Mark L.

    2010-01-01

    Using a long-term fisheries-independent data set, we tested the 'shark nursery area concept' proposed by Heupel et al. (2007) with the suggested working assumptions that a shark nursery habitat would: (1) have an abundance of immature sharks greater than the mean abundance across all habitats where they occur; (2) be used by sharks repeatedly through time (years); and (3) see immature sharks remaining within the habitat for extended periods of time. We tested this concept using young-of-the-year (age 0) and juvenile (age 1+ yr) bull sharks Carcharhinus leucas from gill-net surveys conducted in Texas bays from 1976 to 2006 to estimate the potential nursery function of 9 coastal bays. Of the 9 bay systems considered as potential nursery habitat, only Matagorda Bay satisfied all 3 criteria for young-of-the-year bull sharks. Both Matagorda and San Antonio Bays met the criteria for juvenile bull sharks. Through these analyses we examined the utility of this approach for characterizing nursery areas and we also describe some practical considerations, such as the influence of the temporal or spatial scales considered when applying the nursery role concept to shark populations.

  9. Test en faisceau d'une tranche d'ATLAS "Run Combiné"

    OpenAIRE

    Aharrouche, M.

    2004-01-01

    Une tranche complète du détecteur ATLAS, combinant les détecteurs de traces, les calorimètres électromagnétique et hadronique, et le spectromètre B muons, a été soumise à des faisceaux d'électrons, de pions, de muons, photons et de protons. Sont présentés dans ce manuscript les premiers résultats d'analyse des données provenant du calorimètre électromagnétique.

  10. HEAVY-DUTY TRUCK TEST CYCLES: COMBINING DRIVEABILITY WITH REALISTIC ENGINE EXERCISE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heavy-duty engine certification testing uses a cycle that is scaled to the capabilities of each engine. As such, every engine should be equally challenged by the cycle's power demands. It would seem that a chassis cycle, similarly scaled to the capabilities of each vehicle, could...

  11. Miniaturized Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test by Combining Concentration Gradient Generation and Rapid Cell Culturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel C. Kim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Effective treatment of bacterial infection relies on timely diagnosis and proper prescription of antibiotic drugs. The antimicrobial susceptibility test (AST is one of the most crucial experimental procedures, providing the baseline information for choosing effective antibiotic agents and their dosages. Conventional methods, however, require long incubation times or significant instrumentation costs to obtain test results. We propose a lab-on-a-chip approach to perform AST in a simple, economic, and rapid manner. Our assay platform miniaturizes the standard broth microdilution method on a microfluidic device (20 × 20 mm that generates an antibiotic concentration gradient and delivers antibiotic-containing culture media to eight 30-nL chambers for cell culture. When tested with 20 μL samples of a model bacterial strain (E. coli ATCC 25922 treated with ampicillin or streptomycin, our method allows for the determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations consistent with the microdilution test in three hours, which is almost a factor of ten more rapid than the standard method.

  12. Dynamic material characterization by combining ballistic testing and an engineering model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carton, E.P.; Roebroeks, G.H.J.J.; Wal, R. van der

    2013-01-01

    At TNO several energy-based engineering models have been created for various failure mechanism occurring in ballistic testing of materials, like ductile hole growth, denting, plugging, etc. Such models are also under development for ceramic and fiberbased materials (fabrics). As the models are

  13. Combined High Temperature Aerothermal-Structural Physical Property Testing of Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    Canberra, Australia’. An update to this paper was accepted for the AIAA 2008 hypersonics conference in Dayton, OH. (Due to the denial of our requested...Relief Volvo 7000 pal nVlvo 100 psi Test Load Application Cylinder CouponElecric Drive Motor, Conlrollar & Ball Screw a t Load Transfer Cylinder St Pin

  14. FEM simulation of a friction testing method based on combined forward conical can-backward straight can extrusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakamura, T; Bay, Niels

    1998-01-01

    A new friction testing method based on combined forward conical can-backward straight can extrusion is proposed in order to evaluate friction characteristics in severe metal forming operations. By this method the friction coefficient along the conical punch surface is determined knowing...... the friction coefficient along the die wall. The latter is determined by a combined forward and backward can extrusion of straight cans. Calibration curves determining the relationship between punch travel, can heights, and friction coefficient for the two rests are calculated based on a rigid-plastic FEM...... analysis. Experimental friction tests are carried out in a mechanical press with aluminium alloy A6061 as the workpiece material and different kinds of lubricants. They confirm that the theoretical analysis results irt reasonable values for the friction coefficient....

  15. Medical Devices; Immunology and Microbiology Devices; Classification of the Newborn Screening Test for Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Disorder. Final order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-30

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is classifying the newborn screening test for severe combined immunodeficiency disorder (SCID) into class II (special controls). The special controls that apply to the device type are identified in this order and will be part of the codified language for the newborn screening test for SCID's classification. We are taking this action because we have determined that classifying the device into class II (special controls) will provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device. We believe this action will also enhance patients' access to beneficial innovative devices, in part by reducing regulatory burdens.

  16. Memory performance on the Auditory Inference Span Test is independent of background noise type for young adults with normal hearing at high speech intelligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönnberg, Niklas; Rudner, Mary; Lunner, Thomas; Stenfelt, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Listening in noise is often perceived to be effortful. This is partly because cognitive resources are engaged in separating the target signal from background noise, leaving fewer resources for storage and processing of the content of the message in working memory. The Auditory Inference Span Test (AIST) is designed to assess listening effort by measuring the ability to maintain and process heard information. The aim of this study was to use AIST to investigate the effect of background noise types and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) on listening effort, as a function of working memory capacity (WMC) and updating ability (UA). The AIST was administered in three types of background noise: steady-state speech-shaped noise, amplitude modulated speech-shaped noise, and unintelligible speech. Three SNRs targeting 90% speech intelligibility or better were used in each of the three noise types, giving nine different conditions. The reading span test assessed WMC, while UA was assessed with the letter memory test. Twenty young adults with normal hearing participated in the study. Results showed that AIST performance was not influenced by noise type at the same intelligibility level, but became worse with worse SNR when background noise was speech-like. Performance on AIST also decreased with increasing memory load level. Correlations between AIST performance and the cognitive measurements suggested that WMC is of more importance for listening when SNRs are worse, while UA is of more importance for listening in easier SNRs. The results indicated that in young adults with normal hearing, the effort involved in listening in noise at high intelligibility levels is independent of the noise type. However, when noise is speech-like and intelligibility decreases, listening effort increases, probably due to extra demands on cognitive resources added by the informational masking created by the speech fragments and vocal sounds in the background noise.

  17. Risk of Fetal Loss Associated With Invasive Testing Following Combined First-Trimester Screening for Down Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, C. B.; Gerds, T. A.; Rode, L.

    2016-01-01

    The risk of miscarriage after chorionic villus sampling (CVS) and amniocentesis (AC) was investigated in randomized clinical trials in the 1980s and 1990s. Studies have compared CVS with AC and found comparable risk of miscarriage after the 2 procedures. Since then, prenatal screening has changed...... from being based on maternal age to combined first-trimester screening (cFTS) for trisomy 21. The aim of the study was to assess prospectively the risk of fetal loss associated with CVS and AC after cFTS for Down syndrome. A nationwide population-based study (Danish Fetal Medicine Database, 2008......FTS for AC. Results of the study indicated that the risks of miscarriage and stillbirth were not higher in women exposed to CVS or AC compared with unexposed women, independent of the analysis time point. Average effect of CVS on risk of miscarriage was -0.08% (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.64 to 0...

  18. Can spectroscopy in combination with chemometrics replace minks in digestibility tests?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, P.L.; Christensen, B.M.; Munck, L.

    2000-01-01

    . The spectroscopic methods used were the two complementary techniques of fluorescence emission and near-infrared reflectance. The investigation included 54 samples of high-quality fish meal ranging from 89.6 to 93.9 on the mink digestibility index. The investigation also included determination of seven quality...... parameters in the fish meal to substantiate the spectroscopic models on the mink digestibility. These quality parameters include the content of protein, oil, water, water-soluble protein, ash and the biogenic substance cadaverine as well as the titration value. The study demonstrates that the mink......One of the most relevant but expensive methods of assessing the quality of fish meal is the physiological digestibility test with minks. The purpose of this study was to determine whether spectroscopic and chemical analyses evaluated with chemometrics can replace minks in digestibility tests...

  19. Prostatectomy-based validation of combined urine and plasma test for predicting high grade prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albitar, Maher; Ma, Wanlong; Lund, Lars

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Distinguishing between low- and high-grade prostate cancers (PCa) is important, but biopsy may underestimate the actual grade of cancer. We have previously shown that urine/plasma-based prostate-specific biomarkers can predict high grade PCa. Our objective was to determine the accuracy...... of a test using cell-free RNA levels of biomarkers in predicting prostatectomy results. METHODS: This multicenter community-based prospective study was conducted using urine/blood samples collected from 306 patients. All recruited patients were treatment-naïve, without metastases, and had been biopsied......, designated a Gleason Score (GS) based on biopsy, and assigned to prostatectomy prior to participation in the study. The primary outcome measure was the urine/plasma test accuracy in predicting high grade PCa on prostatectomy compared with biopsy findings. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated using...

  20. Testing of Eight Medicinal Plant Extracts in Combination with Kresoxim-Methyl for Integrated Control of Botrytis cinerea in Apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burtram C. Fielding

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Botrytis cinerea is a fungus that causes gray mold on many fruit crops. Despite the availability of a large number of botryticides, the chemical control of gray mold has been hindered by the emergence of resistant strains. In this paper, tests were done to determine the botryticidal efficacy of selected plant extracts alone or combined with kresoxim-methyl. In total, eight South African medicinal plants viz Artemisia afra, Elyptropappus rhinocerotis, Galenia africana, Hypoxis hemerocallidea, Siphonochilus aetheopicus, Sutherlandia frutescens, Tulbaghia violacea and Tulbaghia alliacea were screened. Allium sativum, a plant species known to have antifungal activity, was included in the in vivo studies. For the in vitro studies, synergistic interactions between the plant extracts and the kresoxim-methyl fungicide were tested with radial growth assays. Data indicated synergistic inhibitory effects between the fungicide and the plant extracts. Next, different doses of plant extracts combined with kresoxim-methyl were used for decay inhibition studies on Granny Smith apples. Synergistic and additive effects were observed for many of the combinations. Even though this study was done using only one strain of B. cinerea, results showed that the tested indigenous South African plant species possess natural compounds that potentiate the activity of kresoxim-methyl.

  1. Modeling the ultrasonic testing echoes by a combination of particle swarm optimization and Levenberg-Marquardt algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Ali; Honarvar, Farhang; Abrishami Moghaddam, Hamid

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents an accurate and easy-to-implement algorithm for estimating the parameters of the asymmetric Gaussian chirplet model (AGCM) used for modeling echoes measured in ultrasonic nondestructive testing (NDT) of materials. The proposed algorithm is a combination of particle swarm optimization (PSO) and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithms. PSO does not need an accurate initial guess and quickly converges to a reasonable output while LM needs a good initial guess in order to provide an accurate output. In the combined algorithm, PSO is run first to provide a rough estimate of the output and this result is consequently inputted to the LM algorithm for more accurate estimation of parameters. To apply the algorithm to signals with multiple echoes, the space alternating generalized expectation maximization (SAGE) is used. The proposed combined algorithm is robust and accurate. To examine the performance of the proposed algorithm, it is applied to a number of simulated echoes having various signal to noise ratios. The combined algorithm is also applied to a number of experimental ultrasonic signals. The results corroborate the accuracy and reliability of the proposed combined algorithm.

  2. Effects of a medetomidine-ketamine combination on Schirmer tear test I results of clinically normal cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pietro, Simona; Macrì, Francesco; Bonarrigo, Tiziana; Giudice, Elisabetta; Palumbo Piccionello, Angela; Pugliese, Antonio

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the effects of a medetomidine-ketamine combination on tear production of clinically normal cats by use of the Schirmer tear test (STT) 1 before and during anesthesia and after reversal of medetomidine with atipamezole. 40 client-owned crossbred domestic shorthair cats (23 males and 17 females; age range, 6 to 24 months). A complete physical examination, CBC, and ophthalmic examination were performed on each cat. Cats with no abnormalities on physical and ophthalmic examinations were included in the study. Cats were allocated into 2 groups: a control group (n = 10 cats) anesthetized by administration of a combination of medetomidine hydrochloride (80 μg/kg) and ketamine hydrochloride (5 mg/kg), and an experimental group (30) anesthetized with the medetomidine-ketamine combination and reversal by administration of atipamezole. Tear production of both eyes of each cat was measured by use of the STT I before anesthesia, 15 minutes after the beginning of anesthesia, and 15 minutes after administration of atipamezole. Anesthesia with a medetomidine-ketamine combination of cats with no ophthalmic disease caused a significant decrease in tear production. The STT I values returned nearly to preanesthetic values within 15 minutes after reversal with atipamezole, whereas the STT I values for the control group were still low at that point. Results indicated that a tear substitute should be administered to eyes of cats anesthetized with a medetomidine-ketamine combination from the time of anesthetic administration until at least 15 minutes after administration of atipamezole.

  3. Combination of carbon isotope ratio with hydrogen isotope ratio determinations in sports drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Thomas; Emery, Caroline; Thomas, Andreas; Saugy, Martial; Thevis, Mario

    2013-06-01

    Carbon isotope ratio (CIR) analysis has been routinely and successfully applied to doping control analysis for many years to uncover the misuse of endogenous steroids such as testosterone. Over the years, several challenges and limitations of this approach became apparent, e.g., the influence of inadequate chromatographic separation on CIR values or the emergence of steroid preparations comprising identical CIRs as endogenous steroids. While the latter has been addressed recently by the implementation of hydrogen isotope ratios (HIR), an improved sample preparation for CIR avoiding co-eluting compounds is presented herein together with newly established reference values of those endogenous steroids being relevant for doping controls. From the fraction of glucuronidated steroids 5β-pregnane-3α,20α-diol, 5α-androst-16-en-3α-ol, 3α-Hydroxy-5β-androstane-11,17-dione, 3α-hydroxy-5α-androstan-17-one (ANDRO), 3α-hydroxy-5β-androstan-17-one (ETIO), 3β-hydroxy-androst-5-en-17-one (DHEA), 5α- and 5β-androstane-3α,17β-diol (5aDIOL and 5bDIOL), 17β-hydroxy-androst-4-en-3-one and 17α-hydroxy-androst-4-en-3-one were included. In addition, sulfate conjugates of ANDRO, ETIO, DHEA, 3β-hydroxy-5α-androstan-17-one plus 17α- and androst-5-ene-3β,17β-diol were considered and analyzed after acidic solvolysis. The results obtained for the reference population encompassing n = 67 males and females confirmed earlier findings regarding factors influencing endogenous CIR. Variations in sample preparation influenced CIR measurements especially for 5aDIOL and 5bDIOL, the most valuable steroidal analytes for the detection of testosterone misuse. Earlier investigations on the HIR of the same reference population enabled the evaluation of combined measurements of CIR and HIR and its usefulness regarding both steroid metabolism studies and doping control analysis. The combination of both stable isotopes would allow for lower reference limits providing the same statistical

  4. Substantial advantage of a combined Bayesian and genotyping approach in testosterone doping tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Jenny Jakobsson; Lundmark, Jonas; Garle, Mats; Ekström, Lena; Sottas, Pierre-Edouard; Rane, Anders

    2009-03-01

    Testosterone abuse is conventionally assessed by the urinary testosterone/epitestosterone (T/E) ratio, levels above 4.0 being considered suspicious. A deletion polymorphism in the gene coding for UGT2B17 is strongly associated with reduced testosterone glucuronide (TG) levels in urine. Many of the individuals devoid of the gene would not reach a T/E ratio of 4.0 after testosterone intake. Future test programs will most likely shift from population based- to individual-based T/E cut-off ratios using Bayesian inference. A longitudinal analysis is dependent on an individual's true negative baseline T/E ratio. The aim was to investigate whether it is possible to increase the sensitivity and specificity of the T/E test by addition of UGT2B17 genotype information in a Bayesian framework. A single intramuscular dose of 500mg testosterone enanthate was given to 55 healthy male volunteers with either two, one or no allele (ins/ins, ins/del or del/del) of the UGT2B17 gene. Urinary excretion of TG and the T/E ratio was measured during 15 days. The Bayesian analysis was conducted to calculate the individual T/E cut-off ratio. When adding the genotype information, the program returned lower individual cut-off ratios in all del/del subjects increasing the sensitivity of the test considerably. It will be difficult, if not impossible, to discriminate between a true negative baseline T/E value and a false negative one without knowledge of the UGT2B17 genotype. UGT2B17 genotype information is crucial, both to decide which initial cut-off ratio to use for an individual, and for increasing the sensitivity of the Bayesian analysis.

  5. Additional Value of CH₄ Measurement in a Combined (13)C/H₂ Lactose Malabsorption Breath Test: A Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houben, Els; De Preter, Vicky; Billen, Jaak; Van Ranst, Marc; Verbeke, Kristin

    2015-09-07

    The lactose hydrogen breath test is a commonly used, non-invasive method for the detection of lactose malabsorption and is based on an abnormal increase in breath hydrogen (H₂) excretion after an oral dose of lactose. We use a combined (13)C/H₂ lactose breath test that measures breath (13)CO₂ as a measure of lactose digestion in addition to H₂ and that has a better sensitivity and specificity than the standard test. The present retrospective study evaluated the results of 1051 (13)C/H₂ lactose breath tests to assess the impact on the diagnostic accuracy of measuring breath CH₄ in addition to H₂ and (13)CO₂. Based on the (13)C/H₂ breath test, 314 patients were diagnosed with lactase deficiency, 138 with lactose malabsorption or small bowel bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), and 599 with normal lactose digestion. Additional measurement of CH₄ further improved the accuracy of the test as 16% subjects with normal lactose digestion and no H₂-excretion were found to excrete CH₄. These subjects should have been classified as subjects with lactose malabsorption or SIBO. In conclusion, measuring CH₄-concentrations has an added value to the (13)C/H₂ breath test to identify methanogenic subjects with lactose malabsorption or SIBO.

  6. Identification and monitoring of host cell proteins by mass spectrometry combined with high performance immunochemistry testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Bomans

    Full Text Available Biotherapeutics are often produced in non-human host cells like Escherichia coli, yeast, and various mammalian cell lines. A major focus of any therapeutic protein purification process is to reduce host cell proteins to an acceptable low level. In this study, various E. coli host cell proteins were identified at different purifications steps by HPLC fractionation, SDS-PAGE analysis, and tryptic peptide mapping combined with online liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS. However, no host cell proteins could be verified by direct LC-MS analysis of final drug substance material. In contrast, the application of affinity enrichment chromatography prior to comprehensive LC-MS was adequate to identify several low abundant host cell proteins at the final drug substance level. Bacterial alkaline phosphatase (BAP was identified as being the most abundant host cell protein at several purification steps. Thus, we firstly established two different assays for enzymatic and immunological BAP monitoring using the cobas® technology. By using this strategy we were able to demonstrate an almost complete removal of BAP enzymatic activity by the established therapeutic protein purification process. In summary, the impact of fermentation, purification, and formulation conditions on host cell protein removal and biological activity can be conducted by monitoring process-specific host cell proteins in a GMP-compatible and high-throughput (> 1000 samples/day manner.

  7. Comparative Evaluation of Different Test Combinations for Diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium Subspecies paratuberculosis Infecting Dairy Herds in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Rajni; Patil, Prasanna Kumar; Singh, Shoor Vir; Sharma, Shukriti; Gandham, Ravi Kumar; Singh, Ajay Vir; Filia, Gurusimiran; Singh, Pravin Kumar; Jayaraman, Sujata; Gupta, Saurabh; Chaubey, Kundan Kumar; Tiwari, Ruchi; Saminathan, Mani; Dhama, Kuldeep; Sohal, Jagdip Singh

    2015-01-01

    A total of 355 cows were sampled (serum, n = 315; faeces, n = 355; milk, n = 209) from dairy farms located in the Punjab state of India. Faeces and serum/milk samples were screened by acid fast staining and "indigenous ELISA," respectively. IS900 PCR was used to screen faeces and milk samples. Bio-load of MAP in dairy cows was 36.9, 15.6, 16.3, and 14.4%, using microscopy, serum ELISA, milk ELISA and milk PCR, respectively. Estimated kappa values between different test combinations: serum and milk ELISA, faecal microscopy and faecal PCR, milk ELISA and milk PCR, faecal PCR and serum ELISA were 0.325, 0.241, 0.682, and 0.677, respectively. Estimation of the relative sensitivity and specificity of different tests in the present study indicated that "serum ELISA" and "milk ELISA" were good screening tests, add "milk PCR" was "confirmatory test" for MAP infection. Combination of milk ELISA with milk PCR may be adopted as a model strategy for screening and diagnosis of JD in lactating/dairy cattle herds in Indian conditions.

  8. Testing of the NASA Hypersonics Project Combined Cycle Engine Large Scale Inlet Mode Transition Experiment (CCE LlMX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, J. D.; Stueber, T. J.; Thomas, S. R.; Suder, K. L.; Weir, L. J.; Sanders, B. W.

    2012-01-01

    Status on an effort to develop Turbine Based Combined Cycle (TBCC) propulsion is described. This propulsion technology can enable reliable and reusable space launch systems. TBCC propulsion offers improved performance and safety over rocket propulsion. The potential to realize aircraft-like operations and reduced maintenance are additional benefits. Among most the critical TBCC enabling technologies are: 1) mode transition from turbine to scramjet propulsion, 2) high Mach turbine engines and 3) TBCC integration. To address these TBCC challenges, the effort is centered on a propulsion mode transition experiment and includes analytical research. The test program, the Combined-Cycle Engine Large Scale Inlet Mode Transition Experiment (CCE LIMX), was conceived to integrate TBCC propulsion with proposed hypersonic vehicles. The goals address: (1) dual inlet operability and performance, (2) mode-transition sequences enabling a switch between turbine and scramjet flow paths, and (3) turbine engine transients during transition. Four test phases are planned from which a database can be used to both validate design and analysis codes and characterize operability and integration issues for TBCC propulsion. In this paper we discuss the research objectives, features of the CCE hardware and test plans, and status of the parametric inlet characterization testing which began in 2011. This effort is sponsored by the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Hypersonics project

  9. An accurate definition of the status of inactive hepatitis B virus carrier by a combination of biomarkers (FibroTest-ActiTest and viral load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen Ngo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The combination of transaminases (ALT, biopsy, HBeAg and viral load have classically defined the inactive status of carriers of chronic hepatitis B. The use of FibroTest (FT and ActiTest (AT, biomarkers of fibrosis and necroinflammatory activity, has been previously validated as alternatives to biopsy. We compared the 4-year prognostic value of combining FT-AT and viral load for a better definition of the inactive carrier status. METHODS AND FINDINGS: 1,300 consecutive CHB patients who had been prospectively followed since 2001 were pre-included. The main endpoint was the absence of liver-related complications, transplantation or death. We used the manufacturers' definitions of normal FT (< = 0.27, normal AT (< = 0.29 and 3 standard classes for viral load. The adjustment factors were age, sex, HBeAg, ethnic origin, alcohol consumption, HIV-Delta-HCV co-infections and treatment. RESULTS: 1,074 patients with baseline FT-AT and viral load were included: 41 years old, 47% African, 27% Asian, 26% Caucasian. At 4 years follow-up, 50 complications occurred (survival without complications 93.4%, 36 deaths occurred (survival 95.0%, including 27 related to HBV (survival 96.1%. The prognostic value of FT was higher than those of viral load or ALT when compared using area under the ROC curves [0.89 (95%CI 0.84-0.93 vs 0.64 (0.55-0.71 vs 0.53 (0.46-0.60 all P<0.001], survival curves and multivariate Cox model [regression coefficient 5.2 (3.5-6.9; P<0.001 vs 0.53 (0.15-0.92; P = 0.007 vs -0.001 (-0.003-0.000;P = 0.052] respectively. A new definition of inactive carriers was proposed with an algorithm combining "zero" scores for FT-AT (F0 and A0 and viral load classes. This new algorithm provides a 100% negative predictive value for the prediction of liver related complications or death. Among the 275 patients with the classic definition of inactive carrier, 62 (23% had fibrosis presumed with FT, and 3 died or had complications at 4 year

  10. Pilot tests of microbe-soil combined treatment of waste drilling sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lirong Chen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbe-soil combined treatment is a newly developed technology in view of the defects of the curing process and waste drilling mud slag properties. In particular, 0.3%–0.5% bioremediation reagents were fully mixed with the waste drilling sludge according to its wet and dry degree, and 1.5 folds to twice weight of more finely ground soil was added in the mix, which was covered by soil of 5–15 cm thick and thereby grasses or greeneries were planted on the soil. The process was successfully applied to some fields of Well Danqian 001-8, Well Lianhua 000-X8, etc. After three months of such treatment, the main indexes of the drilling solid waste such as the degradation of COD and the oil-degrading ratio reached more than 90%, the index of leaching solution met the requirement of the first grade in the national “Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard”; heavy metal ion concentration in soil did not change significantly with the indicators meeting the requirement of the third grade in the national “Soil Environmental Quality Standard” (Dry Land; and no harmful effects of heavy metals have ever been found on the planted grasses and greeneries. In conclusion, with this microbe-soil technology, the soil property will recover its background values without any other chemical additives, realizing the ecological restoration and reuse of land covered by wellsite wastes, so it is in line with the energy-saving and environmentally-friendly treatment way.

  11. Enhancing Diagnostic Accuracy of aMCI in the Elderly: Combination of Olfactory Test, Pupillary Response Test, BDNF Plasma Level, and APOE Genotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuda Turana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI often progresses to Alzheimer’s disease. There are clinical markers and biomarkers to identify the degenerative process in the brain. Objectives. To obtain the diagnostic values of olfactory test, pupillary response to tropicamide 0.01%, BDNF plasma level, and APOE ε4 in diagnosing aMCI. Methods. Cross-sectional, comparative analysis. Results. There were 109 subjects enrolled (aMCI: 51, normal cognition: 58 with age 64 ± 5.54 years. For diagnosing aMCI, cut-off point for the olfactory score was 22% for pupil dilatation response. Low BDNF plasma level was related significantly with olfactory deficits and aMCI (P<0.05. Four of five subjects with homozygote e4 presented with multiple-domain aMCI. This group displayed the lowest means of olfactory score and the highest means of pupillary hypersensitivity response (P<0.0001. Combination of olfactory deficit and pupillary hypersensitivity response in detection of aMCI was beneficial with Sp 91% and PPV 87%. In conjunction with clinical markers, BDNF plasma level and presence of APOE e4+ improved Sp and PPV. Conclusions. Combination of olfactory test and pupillary response test was useful as diagnostic tool in aMCI. In conjunction with clinical markers, low level of BDNF plasma and presence of APOE e4 improved the diagnostic value.

  12. Combining situated Cognitive Engineering with a novel testing method in a case study comparing two infusion pump interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnittker, R; Schmettow, M; Verhoeven, F; Schraagen, J M C

    2016-07-01

    We validated the usability of a new infusion pump interface designed with a situated Cognitive Engineering approach by comparing it to a reference interface using a novel testing method employing repeated measurements and process measures, in addition to traditional outcome measures. The sample consisted of 25 nurses who performed eight critical tasks three times. Performance measures consisted of number and type of errors, deviations from a pre-established normative path solution, task completion times, number of keystrokes, mental effort and preferences in use. Results showed that interaction with the new interface resulted in 18% fewer errors, 90% fewer normative path deviations, 42% lower task completion times, 40% fewer keystrokes, 39% lower mental effort and 76% more subjective preferences in use. These outcomes suggest that within the scope of this case study, combining the situated Cognitive Engineering approach with a novel testing method addresses various shortcomings of earlier testing methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Testing the consistency of wildlife data types before combining them: the case of camera traps and telemetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Viorel D; Valpine, Perry; Sweitzer, Rick A

    2014-04-01

    Wildlife data gathered by different monitoring techniques are often combined to estimate animal density. However, methods to check whether different types of data provide consistent information (i.e., can information from one data type be used to predict responses in the other?) before combining them are lacking. We used generalized linear models and generalized linear mixed-effects models to relate camera trap probabilities for marked animals to independent space use from telemetry relocations using 2 years of data for fishers (Pekania pennanti) as a case study. We evaluated (1) camera trap efficacy by estimating how camera detection probabilities are related to nearby telemetry relocations and (2) whether home range utilization density estimated from telemetry data adequately predicts camera detection probabilities, which would indicate consistency of the two data types. The number of telemetry relocations within 250 and 500 m from camera traps predicted detection probability well. For the same number of relocations, females were more likely to be detected during the first year. During the second year, all fishers were more likely to be detected during the fall/winter season. Models predicting camera detection probability and photo counts solely from telemetry utilization density had the best or nearly best Akaike Information Criterion (AIC), suggesting that telemetry and camera traps provide consistent information on space use. Given the same utilization density, males were more likely to be photo-captured due to larger home ranges and higher movement rates. Although methods that combine data types (spatially explicit capture-recapture) make simple assumptions about home range shapes, it is reasonable to conclude that in our case, camera trap data do reflect space use in a manner consistent with telemetry data. However, differences between the 2 years of data suggest that camera efficacy is not fully consistent across ecological conditions and make the case

  14. A combined CFD-experimental method for abrasive erosion testing of concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messa Gianandrea Vittorio

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Serious damage may occur to concrete hydraulic structures, such as water galleries, spillways, and stilling basins, due to the abrasive erosion caused by the presence of solid particles in the flow. This underlines the importance of being capable in providing characterization of the concrete from the point of view of its vulnerability to abrasive erosion, in order to improve the design of the structure and the material selection. Nevertheless, the existing apparatus for concrete abrasive erosion testing are either far from allowing realistic simulation of the actual environment in which this phenomenon occurs, or show a large degree of complexity and cost. An alternative method has been developed with the aid of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD. CFD was first employed to verify the effectiveness of a new laboratory equipment. Afterwards, a parameter has been introduced which, by successful comparison against preliminary experiments, proved suitable to quantify the effect of the fluid dynamic conditions on the concrete abrasive erosion, thereby opening the way to CFD-based customization of the apparatus. In the future, the synergy of numerical and physical modelling will allow developing predictive models for concrete erosion, making it possible to reliably simulate real structures.

  15. Operational Testing of a Combined Hardware-Software Strategy for Triage of Radiologically-Contaminated Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Edward J

    2015-08-01

    After a radiological dispersal device (RDD) event, it is possible for radionuclides to enter the human body through inhalation, ingestion, and skin and wound absorption. The dominant pathway will be through inhalation. From a health physics perspective, it is important to know the magnitude of the intake to perform dosimetric assessments. From a medical perspective, removal of radionuclides leading to dose (hence risk) aversion is of high importance. The efficacy of medical decorporation strategies is extremely dependent upon the time of treatment delivery after intake. The "golden hour," or more realistically 3-4 h, is imperative when attempting to increase removal of radionuclides from extracellular fluids prior to cellular incorporation. To assist medical first response personnel in making timely decisions regarding appropriate treatment delivery modes, a software tool has been developed which compiles existing radionuclide decorporation therapy data and allows a user to perform simple triage leading to potential appropriate decorporation treatment strategies. Three triage algorithms were included: (1) multi-parameter model (MPM), (2) clinical decision guidance (CDG) model, and (3) annual limit on intake (ALI) model. A radiation triage mask (RTM) has simultaneously been developed to provide a simple and rapid hardware solution for first responders to triage internally exposed personnel in the field. The hardware/software strategy was field tested with a military medical unit and was found by end-users to be relatively simple to learn and use.

  16. Cardiorespiratory fitness attenuates risk for major adverse cardiac events in hyperlipidemic men and women independent of statin therapy: The Henry Ford ExercIse Testing Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Rupert K; Al-Mallah, Mouaz H; Qadi, Mohamud A; Shaya, Gabriel E; Blumenthal, Roger S; Nasir, Khurram; Brawner, Clinton A; Keteyian, Steven J; Blaha, Michael J

    2015-08-01

    We sought to evaluate the effect of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in predicting mortality, myocardial infarction (MI), and revascularization in patients with hyperlipidemia after stratification by gender and statin therapy. This retrospective cohort study included 33,204 patients with hyperlipidemia (57 ± 12 years old, 56% men, 25% black) who underwent physician-referred treadmill stress testing at the Henry Ford Health System from 1991 to 2009. Patients were stratified by gender, baseline statin therapy, and estimated metabolic equivalents from stress testing. We computed hazard ratios using Cox regression models after adjusting for demographics, cardiac risk factors, comorbidities, pertinent medications, interaction terms, and indication for stress testing. There were 4,851 deaths, 1,962 MIs, and 2,686 revascularizations over a median follow-up of 10.3 years. In men and women not on statin therapy and men and women on statin therapy, each 1-metabolic equivalent increment in CRF was associated with hazard ratios of 0.86 (95% CI 0.85-0.88), 0.83 (95% CI 0.81-0.85), 0.85 (95% CI 0.83-0.87), and 0.84 (95% CI 0.81-0.87) for mortality; 0.93 (95% CI 0.90-0.96), 0.87 (95% CI 0.83-0.91), 0.89 (95% CI 0.86-0.92), and 0.90 (95% CI 0.86-0.95) for MI; and 0.91 (95% CI 0.88-0.93), 0.87 (95% CI 0.83-0.91), 0.89 (95% CI 0.87-0.92), and 0.90 (95% CI 0.86-0.94) for revascularization, respectively. No significant interactions were observed between CRF and statin therapy (P > .23). Higher CRF attenuated risk for mortality, MI, and revascularization independent of gender and statin therapy in patients with hyperlipidemia. These results reinforce the prognostic value of CRF and support greater promotion of CRF in this patient population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Diagnosis of vasculogenic impotence: Combination of penile xenon-133 washout and papaverine tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, S.N.; Liu, R.S.; Yu, P.C.; Chang, L.S.; Yeh, S.H.; Kuo, J.S.

    1989-07-01

    The present study evaluates both penile xenon-133 washout (XWT) and papaverine tests (PT) in the diagnosis of vasculogenic impotence. XWT was accomplished by subcutaneous injection of xenon-133 (1-2 mCi in 0.1 mL saline solution) into the dorsal coronal prepuce. Abnormal XWT was suggested in patients whose clearance time (T1/2) was longer than 7.5 minutes and whose penile blood flow rate (Q) was less than 6 mL/100 g tissue/min. PT was done by intracavernous injection of papaverine (60 mg in 20 mL normal saline). Abnormal PT was indicated in patients whose onset of full erection was more than ten minutes after papaverine injection and whose duration of erection was less than one hour. Ten young and 11 older normal volunteers were examined with XWT only; all showed normal results. A total of 60 impotent patients were examined with both XWT and PT and were classified into four groups: in 2 patients (3.3%) both XWT and PT were normal (group I); in 8 (13.3%) XWT was abnormal and PT normal (group II); in 14 (23.3%) XWT was normal and PT abnormal (group III); and in 36 (60%) both XWT and PT were abnormal (group IV). On further examination with bilateral hypogastric arteriography in 10 XWT-abnormal patients and on surgical correction of abnormal curvature in 5 XWT-abnormal patients, all (100%) were proved to have penile arterial insufficiency. Erection cavernosography performed in 15 PT-abnormal patients confirmed penile venous insufficiency in 80 percent. We conclude both XWT and PT are simple and effective for evaluation of the penile arterial blood flow and venous competence, respectively.

  18. Wheal and flare reactions in skin prick tests of patients treated with montelukast alone or in combination with antihistamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciebiada, Malgorzata Gorska; Barylski, Marcin; Ciebiada, Maciej

    2014-03-01

    Because antileukotrienes may inhibit inflammation, it is plausible that montelukast administered for a long time could suppress skin wheal and flare reaction, and thus, it should be discarded prior to the tests. This study assessed the effect of long-lasting treatment with montelukast alone or in combination with antihistamines on wheal and flare in skin pricks tests (SPT) in patients sensitized to perennial allergens. We conducted a 32-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over and randomized trial that implicated two arms: arm A, 20 patients received levocetirizine, montelukast with or without levocetirizine or placebo; arm B, 20 patients received desloratadine, montelukast with or without desloratadine or placebo. All treatment periods lasted 6 weeks and were separated by 2-week washouts. At baseline and on the last day of each treatment period, SPT were performed in all participants. Both levocetirizine and desloratadine in monotherapy, or in combination with montelukast, were effective in reducing wheal and flare in SPT. Monotherapy with montelukast did not change the size of the wheal for either histamine or for house dust mites, in either arm of the study, but significantly reduced the size of flare for histamine in arm A. Addition of montelukast to antihistamine did not exceed efficacy of monotherapy with antihistamine in both arms of the study. Since the size of wheal determines the results of SPT, montelukast, even taken for a long time, does not have to be discarded prior to the tests.

  19. New Exercise-Dipyridamole Combined Test for Nuclear Cardiology in Insufficient Effort: Appropriate Diagnostic Sensitivity Keeping Exercise Prognosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortinas, Inés Vidal, E-mail: invi@montevideo.com.uy; Beretta, Mario; Alonso, Omar; Mut, Fernando [Departamento de Medicina Nuclear do Hospital ‘Asociación Española’, Br. Artigas 1515, Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2015-08-15

    Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) in patients not reaching 85% of the maximum predicted heart rate (MPHR) has reduced sensitivity. In an attempt to maintain diagnostic sensitivity without losing functional exercise data, a new exercise and dipyridamole combined protocol (EDCP) was developed. Our aim was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of this protocol and to compare its diagnostic sensitivity against standard exercise and dipyridamole protocols. In patients not reaching a sufficient exercise (SE) test and with no contraindications, 0.56 mg/kg of dipyridamole were IV administered over 1 minute simultaneously with exercise, followed by 99mTc-MIBI injection. Of 155 patients, 41 had MPS with EDCP, 47 had a SE test (≥ 85% MPHR) and 67 underwent the dipyridamole alone test (DIP). They all underwent coronary angiography within 3 months. The three stress methods for diagnosis of coronary lesions had their sensitivity compared. For stenosis ≥ 70%, EDCP yielded 97% sensitivity, SE 90% and DIP 95% (p = 0.43). For lesions ≥ 50%, the sensitivities were 94%, 88% and 95%, respectively (p = 0.35). Side effects of EDCP were present in only 12% of the patients, significantly less than with DIP (p < 0.001). The proposed combined protocol is a valid and safe method that yields adequate diagnostic sensitivity, keeping exercise prognostic information in patients unable to reach target heart rate, with fewer side effects than the DIP.

  20. Sequential combined test, second trimester maternal serum markers, and circulating fetal cells to select women for invasive prenatal diagnosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Guanciali Franchi

    Full Text Available From January 1st 2013 to August 31st 2016, 24408 pregnant women received the first trimester Combined test and contingently offered second trimester maternal serum screening to identify those women who would most benefit from invasive prenatal diagnosis (IPD. The screening was based on first trimester cut-offs of ≥1:30 (IPD indicated, 1:31 to 1:899 (second trimester screening indicated and ≤1:900 (no further action, and a second trimester cut-off of ≥1:250. From January 2014, analysis of fetal cells from peripheral maternal blood was also offered to women with positive screening results. For fetal Down syndrome, the overall detection rate was 96.8% for a false-positive rate of 2.8% resulting in an odds of being affected given a positive result (OAPR of 1:11, equivalent to a positive predictive value (PPV of 8.1%. Additional chromosome abnormalities were also identified resulting in an OAPR for any chromosome abnormality of 1:6.6 (PPV 11.9%. For a sub-set of cases with positive contingent test results, FISH analysis of circulating fetal cells in maternal circulation identified 7 abnormal and 39 as normal cases with 100% specificity and 100% sensitivity. We conclude that contingent screening using conventional Combined and second trimester screening tests is effective but can potentially be considerably enhanced through the addition of fetal cell analysis.

  1. Comparative Evaluation of Different Test Combinations for Diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium Subspecies paratuberculosis Infecting Dairy Herds in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajni Garg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 355 cows were sampled (serum, n=315; faeces, n=355; milk, n=209 from dairy farms located in the Punjab state of India. Faeces and serum/milk samples were screened by acid fast staining and “indigenous ELISA,” respectively. IS900 PCR was used to screen faeces and milk samples. Bio-load of MAP in dairy cows was 36.9, 15.6, 16.3, and 14.4%, using microscopy, serum ELISA, milk ELISA and milk PCR, respectively. Estimated kappa values between different test combinations: serum and milk ELISA, faecal microscopy and faecal PCR, milk ELISA and milk PCR, faecal PCR and serum ELISA were 0.325, 0.241, 0.682, and 0.677, respectively. Estimation of the relative sensitivity and specificity of different tests in the present study indicated that “serum ELISA” and “milk ELISA” were good screening tests, add “milk PCR” was “confirmatory test” for MAP infection. Combination of milk ELISA with milk PCR may be adopted as a model strategy for screening and diagnosis of JD in lactating/dairy cattle herds in Indian conditions.

  2. First trimester combined test for Down syndrome screening in unselected pregnancies - a report of a 13-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Fa-Kung; Chen, Li-Ching; Cheong, Mei-Leng; Chou, Ching-Yu; Tsai, Ming-Song

    2013-12-01

    To analyze the performance of the first trimester Down syndrome screening in a single medical center in Northern Taiwan. From April 1999 to June 2012, a total of 25,104 pregnant women at gestational age of 10 weeks to 13 weeks 6 days received first trimester "combined test" for Down syndrome screening. The test combines the ultrasound scan of nuchal translucency thickness and maternal biochemical serum levels of pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) and free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG). A positive screen was defined as an estimated Down syndrome risk ≥ 1/270, and either chorionic villous sampling or amniocentesis was performed for fetal chromosomal analyses. Seventy-eight of the 25,104 pregnancies were proven to have fetal chromosome anomalies. The detection rates for trisomy 21, trisomy 18, Turner syndrome, and other chromosome anomalies were 87.5% (21/24), 69.2% (9/13), 81.8% (9/11), and 60% (18/30), respectively, with a false positive rate (FPR) of 5.4% (1353/25,026). Further evaluation of the detection rates for trisomy 21, by gestational age at 11, 12, and 13 weeks, were 92.3%, 87.5%, and 66.7%, respectively. The first trimester combined test is an effective screening tool for Down syndrome detection with an acceptable low false positive rate. The best timing of screening will be between 11 and 12 weeks' gestation. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. A Novel Strategy to Predict Carcinogenicity of Antiparasitics Based on a Combination of DNA Lesions and Bacterial Mutagenicity Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianying Liu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Genotoxicity and carcinogenicity testing of pharmaceuticals prior to commercialization is requested by regulatory agencies. The bacterial mutagenicity test was considered having the highest accuracy of carcinogenic prediction. However, some evidences suggest that it always results in false-positive responses when the bacterial mutagenicity test is used to predict carcinogenicity. Along with major changes made to the International Committee on Harmonization guidance on genotoxicity testing [S2 (R1], the old data (especially the cytotgenetic data may not meet current guidelines. This review provides a compendium of retrievable results of genotoxicity and animal carcinogenicity of 136 antiparasitics. Neither genotoxicity nor carcinogenicity data is available for 84 (61.8%, while 52 (38.2% have been evaluated in at least one genotoxicity or carcinogenicity study, and only 20 (14.7% in both genotoxicity and carcinogenicity studies. Among 33 antiparasitics with at least one old result in in vitro genotoxicity, 15 (45.5% are in agreement with the current ICH S2 (R1 guidance for data acceptance. Compared with other genotoxicity assays, the DNA lesions can significantly increase the accuracy of prediction of carcinogenicity. Together, a combination of DNA lesion and bacterial tests is a more accurate way to predict carcinogenicity.

  4. Reuse fo a Cold War Surveillance Drone to Flight Test a NASA Rocket Based Combined Cycle Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, T. M.; Smith, Norm

    1999-01-01

    Plans for and early feasibility investigations into the modification of a Lockheed D21B drone to flight test the DRACO Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) engine are discussed. Modifications include the addition of oxidizer tanks, modern avionics systems, actuators, and a vehicle recovery system. Current study results indicate that the D21B is a suitable candidate for this application and will allow demonstrations of all DRACO engine operating modes at Mach numbers between 0.8 and 4.0. Higher Mach numbers may be achieved with more extensive modification. Possible project risks include low speed stability and control, and recovery techniques.

  5. Clinical Microbiology Laboratories' Adoption of Culture-Independent Diagnostic Tests Is a Threat to Foodborne-Disease Surveillance in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Shari; Kubota, Kristy A; Maguire, Hugh; Gladbach, Stephen; Woron, Amy; Atkinson-Dunn, Robyn; Couturier, Marc Roger; Miller, Melissa B

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTIONIn November 2015, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) sent a letter to state and territorial epidemiologists, state and territorial public health laboratory directors, and state and territorial health officials. In this letter, culture-independent diagnostic tests (CIDTs) for detection of enteric pathogens were characterized as "a serious and current threat to public health surveillance, particularly for Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and Salmonella" The document says CDC and its public health partners are approaching this issue, in part, by "reviewing regulatory authority in public health agencies to require culture isolates or specimen submission if CIDTs are used." Large-scale foodborne outbreaks are a continuing threat to public health, and tracking these outbreaks is an important tool in shortening them and developing strategies to prevent them. It is clear that the use of CIDTs for enteric pathogen detection, including both antigen detection and multiplex nucleic acid amplification techniques, is becoming more widespread. Furthermore, some clinical microbiology laboratories will resist the mandate to require submission of culture isolates, since it will likely not improve patient outcomes but may add significant costs. Specimen submission would be less expensive and time-consuming for clinical laboratories; however, this approach would be burdensome for public health laboratories, since those laboratories would need to perform culture isolation prior to typing. Shari Shea and Kristy Kubota from the Association of Public Health Laboratories, along with state public health laboratory officials from Colorado, Missouri, Tennessee, and Utah, will explain the public health laboratories' perspective on why having access to isolates of enteric pathogens is essential for public health surveillance, detection, and tracking of outbreaks and offer potential workable solutions which will allow them to do this. Marc Couturier of

  6. Testing a Model of the Relationship of Demographic, Affective, and Fitness Variables to Academic Achievement among Non-Science Majors at an Independent University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Andrew Martin

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of specific attributes of college students to their academic achievement at an independent university in central Florida. Academic achievement was measured as the numeric score on the final exam in a survey-of-science course (EDS 1032) required for non-science majors. Attribute sets included personological, affective, and fitness variables. A hypothesized diagram of the direct and indirect effects among these attributes relative to academic achievement was developed and tested using data collected Spring 2014 from 168 students in four sections of EDS 1032 at Florida Institute of Technology. Multiple regression results revealed that 19% of the variance in a students' academic achievement was due to the influence of these three sets of research factors; this was found to be statistically significant. The results of mediation analyses also indicated that three variables had significant direct effects on academic achievement, namely gender, number of academic credits, and sports motivation. In addition, gender had a significant indirect effect on academic achievement via stress, and the number of academic credits had a significant indirect effect on academic achievement via sports motivation. These findings indicated that female students scored roughly six points higher than male students on this final exam. Also, gender's influence on academic achievement was partially attributable to the student's level of stress (e.g., male students with high levels of stress had lower grades on this final exam than female students with the same level of stress). In addition, it was found that students taking more academic credits were likely to score higher on this final exam than those students taking fewer credits. Further, as students' level of sports amotivation increased, the strength of the relationship between the number of student academic credits and academic achievement decreased. These results support Self

  7. Results from a new combined test of an electromagnetic liquid argon calorimeter with a hadronic scintillating-tile calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Akhmadaliev, S Z; Amaral, P; Ambrosini, G; Amorim, A; Anderson, K; Andrieux, M L; Aubert, Bernard; Augé, E; Badaud, F; Baisin, L; Barreiro, F; Battistoni, G; Bazan, A; Bazizi, K; Bee, C P; Belorgey, J; Belymam, A; Benchekroun, D; Berglund, S R; Berset, J C; Blanchot, G; Bogush, A A; Bohm, C; Boldea, V; Bonivento, W; Borgeaud, P; Borisov, O N; Bosman, M; Bouhemaid, N; Breton, D; Brette, P; Bromberg, C; Budagov, Yu A; Burdin, S V; Calôba, L P; Camarena, F; Camin, D V; Canton, B; Caprini, M; Carvalho, J; Casado, M P; Cases, R; Castillo, M V; Cavalli, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cavasinni, V; Chadelas, R; Chalifour, M; Chekhtman, A; Chevalley, J L; Chirikov-Zorin, I E; Chlachidze, G; Chollet, J C; Citterio, M; Cleland, W E; Clément, C; Cobal, M; Cogswell, F; Colas, Jacques; Collot, J; Cologna, S; Constantinescu, S; Costa, G; Costanzo, D; Coulon, J P; Crouau, M; Dargent, P; Daudon, F; David, M; Davidek, T; Dawson, J; De, K; Delagnes, E; de La Taille, C; Del Peso, J; Del Prete, T; de Saintignon, P; Di Girolamo, B; Dinkespiler, B; Dita, S; Djama, F; Dodd, J; Dolejsi, J; Dolezal, Z; Downing, R; Dugne, J J; Duval, P Y; Dzahini, D; Efthymiopoulos, I; Errede, D; Errede, S; Etienne, F; Evans, H; Eynard, G; Farida, F; Fassnacht, P; Fedyakin, N N; Fernández de Troconiz, J; Ferrari, A; Ferrer, A; Flaminio, Vincenzo; Fournier, D; Fumagalli, G; Gallas, E J; García, G; Gaspar, M; Gianotti, F; Gildemeister, O; Glagolev, V; Glebov, V Yu; Gómez, A; González, V; González de la Hoz, S; Gordeev, A; Gordon, H A; Grabskii, V; Graugès-Pous, E; Grenier, P; Hakopian, H H; Haney, M; Hébrard, C; Henriques, A; Henry-Coüannier, F; Hervás, L; Higón, E; Holmgren, S O; Hostachy, J Y; Hoummada, A; Huet, M; Huston, J; Imbault, D; Ivanyushenkov, Yu M; Jacquier, Y; Jézéquel, S; Johansson, E K; Jon-And, K; Jones, R; Juste, A; Kakurin, S; Karst, P; Karyukhin, A N; Khokhlov, Yu A; Khubua, J I; Klioukhine, V I; Kolachev, G M; Kolomoets, V; Kopikov, S V; Kostrikov, M E; Kovtun, V E; Kozlov, V; Krivkova, P; Kukhtin, V V; Kulagin, M; Kulchitskii, Yu A; Kuzmin, M V; Labarga, L; Laborie, G; Lacour, D; Lami, S; Lapin, V; Le Dortz, O; Lefebvre, M; Le Flour, T; Leitner, R; Leltchouk, M; Le Van-Suu, A; Li, J; Liapis, C; Linossier, O; Lissauer, D; Lobkowicz, F; Lokajícek, M; Lomakin, Yu F; Lomakina, O V; López-Amengual, J M; Lottin, J P; Lund-Jensen, B; Lundqvist, J M; Maio, A; Makowiecki, D S; Malyukov, S N; Mandelli, L; Mansoulié, B; Mapelli, Livio P; Marin, C P; Marrocchesi, P S; Marroquin, F; Martin, L; Martin, O; Martin, P; Maslennikov, A M; Massol, N; Mazzanti, M; Mazzoni, E; Merritt, F S; Michel, B; Miller, R; Minashvili, I A; Miralles, L; Mirea, A; Mnatzakanian, E A; Monnier, E; Montarou, G; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Mosidze, M D; Moynot, M; Muanza, G S; Nagy, E; Nayman, P; Némécek, S; Nessi, Marzio; Nicod, D; Nicoleau, S; Niculescu, M; Noppe, J M; Onofre, A; Pallin, D; Pantea, D; Paoletti, R; Park, I C; Parrour, G; Parsons, J; Pascual, J I; Pereira, A; Perini, L; Perlas, J A; Perrodo, P; Petroff, P; Pilcher, J E; Pinhão, J; Plothow-Besch, Hartmute; Poggioli, Luc; Poirot, S; Price, L; Protopopov, Yu; Proudfoot, J; Pukhov, O; Puzo, P; Radeka, V; Rahm, David Charles; Reinmuth, G; Renardy, J F; Renzoni, G; Rescia, S; Resconi, S; Richards, R; Richer, J P; Riu, I; Roda, C; Roldán, J; Romance, J B; Romanov, V; Romero, P; Rusakovitch, N A; Sala, P R; Sanchis, E; Sanders, H; Santoni, C; Santos, J; Sauvage, D; Sauvage, G; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Sawyer, L; Says, L P; Schaffer, A C; Schwemling, P; Schwindling, J; Seguin-Moreau, N; Seidl, W; Seixas, J M; Selldén, B; Seman, M; Semenov, A A; Senchyshyn, V G; Serin, L; Shaldaev, E; Shchelchkov, A S; Shochet, M J; Sidorov, V; Silva, J; Simaitis, V J; Simion, S; Sissakian, A N; Soloviev, I V; Snopkov, R; Söderqvist, J; Solodkov, A A; Sonderegger, P; Soustruznik, K; Spanó, F; Spiwoks, R; Stanek, R; Starchenko, E A; Stavina, P; Stephens, R; Studenov, S; Suk, M; Surkov, A; Sykora, I; Taguet, J P; Takai, H; Tang, F; Tardell, S; Tas, P; Teiger, J; Teubert, F; Thaler, J J; Thion, J; Tikhonov, Yu A; Tisserand, V; Tisserant, S; Tokar, S; Topilin, N D; Trka, Z; Turcotte, M; Valkár, S; Varanda, M J; Vartapetian, A H; Vazeille, F; Vichou, I; Vincent, P; Vinogradov, V; Vorozhtsov, S B; Vuillemin, V; Walter, C; White, A; Wielers, M; Wingerter-Seez, I; Wolters, H; Yamdagni, N; Yarygin, G; Yosef, C; Zaitsev, A; Zitoun, R; Zolnierowski, Y

    2000-01-01

    A new combined test of an electromagnetic liquid argon accordion calorimeter and a hadronic scintillating-tile calorimeter was carried out at the CERN SPS. These devices are prototypes of the barrel calorimeter of the future ATLAS experiment at the LHC. The energy resolution of pions in the energy range from 10 to 300 GeV at an incident angle theta of about 12 degrees is well described by the expression sigma /E=((41.9+or-1.6)%/ square root E+(1.8+or-0.1)%)(+) (1.8+or-0.1)/E, where E is in GeV. The response to electrons and muons was evaluated. Shower profiles, shower leakage and the angular resolution of hadronic showers were also studied. Results are compared with those from the previous beam test. (22 refs).

  8. Photon reconstruction in the ATLAS Inner Detector and Liquid Argon Barrel Calorimeter at the 2004 Combined Test Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Abat, E; Addy, T N; Adragna, P; Aharrouche, M; Ahmad, A; Akesson, T.P A; Aleksa, M; Alexa, C; Anderson, K; Andreazza, A; Anghinolfi, F; Antonaki, A; Arabidze, G; Arik, E; Atkinson, T; Baines, J; Baker, O K; Banfi, D; Baron, S; Barr, A J; Beccherle, R; Beck, H P; Belhorma, B; Bell, P J; Benchekroun, D; Benjamin, D P; Benslama, K; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E; Bernabeu, J; Bertelsen, H; Binet, S; Biscarat, C; Boldea, V; Bondarenko, V G; Boonekamp, M; Bosman, M; Bourdarios, C; Broklova, Z; Burckhart-Chromek, D; Bychkov, V; Callahan, J; Calvet, D; Canneri, M; Capeans Garrido, M; Caprini, M; Cardiel Sas, L; Carli, T; Carminati, L; Carvalho, J; Cascella, M; Castillo, M V; Catinaccio, A; Cauz, D; Cavalli, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cavasinni, V; Cetin, S A; Chen, H; Cherkaoui, R; Chevalier, L; Chevallier, F; Chouridou, S; Ciobotaru, M; Citterio, M; Clark, A; Cleland, B; Cobal, M; Cogneras, E; Conde Muino, P; Consonni, M; Constantinescu, S; Cornelissen, T; Correard, S; Corso-Radu, A; Costa, G; Costa, M J; Costanzo, D; Cuneo, S; Cwetanski, P; Da Silva, D; Dam, M; Dameri, M; Danielsson, H O; Dannheim, D; Darbo, G; Davidek, T; De, K; Defay, P O; Dekhissi, B; Del Peso, J; Del Prete, T; Delmastro, M; Derue, F; Di Ciaccio, L; Di Girolamo, B; Dita, S; Dittus, F; Djama, F; Djobava, T; Dobos, D; Dobson, M; Dolgoshein, B A; Dotti, A; Drake, G; Drasal, Z; Dressnandt, N; Driouchi, C; Drohan, J; Ebenstein, W L; Eerola, P; Efthymiopoulos, I; Egorov, K; Eifert, T F; Einsweiler, K; El Kacimi, M; Elsing, M; Emelyanov, D; Escobar, C; Etienvre, A I; Fabich, A; Facius, K; Idrissi Fakhr-Eddine, A; Fanti, M; Farbin, A; Farthouat, P; Fassouliotis, D; Fayard, L; Febbraro, R; Fedin, O L; Fenyuk, A; Fergusson, D; Ferrari, P; Ferrari, R; Ferreira, B C; Ferrer, A; Ferrere, D; Filippini, G; Flick, T; Fournier, D; Francavilla, P; Francis, D; Froeschl, R; Froidevaux, D; Fullana, E; Gadomski, S; Gagliardi, G; Gagnon, P; Gallas, M; Gallop, B J; Gameiro, S; Gan, K K; Garcia, R; Garcia, C; Gavrilenko, I L; Gemme, C; Gerlach, P; Ghodbane, N; Giakoumopoulou, V; Giangiobbe, V; Giokaris, N; Glonti, G; Gottfert, T.; Golling, T; Gollub, N; Gomes, A; Gomez, M D; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S; Goodrick, M J; Gorfine, G; Gorini, B; Goujdami, D; Grahn, K J; Grenier, P; Grigalashvili, N; Grishkevich, Y; Grosse-Knetter, J; Gruwe, M; Guicheney, C; Gupta, A; Haeberli, C; Hartel, R.; Hajduk, Z; Hakobyan, H; Hance, M; Hansen, J D; Hansen, P H; Hara, K; Harvey, A., Jr; Hawkings, R J; Heinemann, F.E W; Henriques Correia, A; Henss, T; Hervas, L; Higon, E; Hill, J C; Hoffman, J; Hostachy, J Y; Hruska, I; Hubaut, F; Huegging, F; Hulsbergen, W; Hurwitz, M; Iconomidou-Fayard, L; Jansen, E; Jen-La Plante, I; Johansson, P.D C; Jon-And, K; Joos, M; Jorgensen, S; Joseph, J; Kaczmarska, A; Kado, M; Karyukhin, A; Kataoka, M; Kayumov, F; Kazarov, A; Keener, P T; Kekelidze, G D; Kerschen, N; Kersten, S; Khomich, A; Khoriauli, G; Khramov, E; Khristachev, A; Khubua, J; Kittelmann, T H; Klingenberg, R; Klinkby, E B; Kodys, P; Koffas, T; Kolos, S; Konovalov, S P; Konstantinidis, N; Kopikov, S; Korolkov, I; Kostyukhin, V; Kovalenko, S; Kowalski, T Z; Kruger, K.; Kramarenko, V; Kudin, L G; Kulchitsky, Y; Lacasta, C; Lafaye, R; Laforge, B; Lampl, W; Lanni, F; Laplace, S; Lari, T; Le Bihan, A C; Lechowski, M; Ledroit-Guillon, F; Lehmann, G; Leitner, R; Lelas, D; Lester, C G; Liang, Z; Lichard, P; Liebig, W; Lipniacka, A; Lokajicek, M; Louchard, L; Loureiro, K F; Lucotte, A; Luehring, F; Lund-Jensen, B; Lundberg, B; Ma, H; Mackeprang, R; Maio, A; Maleev, V P; Malek, F; Mandelli, L; Maneira, J; Mangin-Brinet, M; Manousakis, A; Mapelli, L; Marques, C; Marti i Garcia, S; Martin, F; Mathes, M; Mazzanti, M; McFarlane, K W; McPherson, R; Mchedlidze, G; Mehlhase, S; Meirosu, C; Meng, Z; Meroni, C; Mialkovski, V; Mikulec, B; Milstead, D; Minashvili, I; Mindur, B; Mitsou, V A; Moed, S; Monnier, E; Moorhead, G; Morettini, P; Morozov, S V; Mosidze, M; Mouraviev, S V; Moyse, E.W J; Munar, A; Myagkov, A; Nadtochi, A V; Nakamura, K; Nechaeva, P; Negri, A; Nemecek, S; Nessi, M; Nesterov, S Y; Newcomer, F M; Nikitine, I; Nikolaev, K; Nikolic-Audit, I; Ogren, H; Oh, S H; Oleshko, S B; Olszowska, J; Onofre, A; Padilla Aranda, C; Paganis, S; Pallin, D; Pantea, D; Paolone, V; Parodi, F; Parsons, J; Parzhitski, S; Pasqualucci, E; Passmore, S M; Pater, J; Patrichev, S; Peez, M; Perez Reale, V; Perini, L; Peshekhonov, V D; Petersen, J; Petersen, T C; Petti, R; Phillips, P W; Pilcher, J; Pina, J; Pinto, B; Podlyski, F; Poggioli, L; Poppleton, A; Poveda, J; Pralavorio, P; Pribyl, L; Price, M J; Prieur, D; Puigdengoles, C; Puzo, P; Ragusa, F; Rajagopalan, S; Reeves, K; Reisinger, I; Rembser, C; Bruckman de Renstrom, P.A.; Reznicek, P; Ridel, M; Risso, P; Riu, I; Robinson, D; Roda, C; Roe, S; Rohne, O.; Romaniouk, A; Rousseau, D; Rozanov, A; Ruiz, A; Rusakovich, N; Rust, D; Ryabov, Y F; Ryjov, V; Salto, O; Salvachua, B; Salzburger, A; Sandaker, H; Santamarina Rios, C.Santamarina; Santi, L; Santoni, C; Saraiva, J G; Sarri, F; Sauvage, G; Says, L P; Schaefer, M; Schegelsky, V A; Schiavi, C; Schieck, J; Schlager, G; Schlereth, J; Schmitt, C; Schultes, J; Schwemling, P; Schwindling, J; Seixas, J M; Seliverstov, D M; Serin, L; Sfyrla, A; Shalanda, N; Shaw, C; Shin, T; Shmeleva, A; Silva, J; Simion, S; Simonyan, M; Sloper, J E; Smirnov, S.Yu; Smirnova, L; Solans, C; Solodkov, A; Solovianov, O; Soloviev, I; Sosnovtsev, V V; Spano, F; Speckmayer, P; Stancu, S; Stanek, R; Starchenko, E; Straessner, A; Suchkov, S I; Suk, M; Szczygiel, R; Tarrade, F; Tartarelli, F; Tas, P; Tayalati, Y; Tegenfeldt, F; Teuscher, R; Thioye, M; Tikhomirov, V O; Timmermans, C.J.W P; Tisserant, S; Toczek, B; Tremblet, L; Troncon, C; Tsiareshka, P; Tyndel, M; Karagoz Unel, M.; Unal, G; Unel, G; Usai, G; Van Berg, R; Valero, A; Valkar, S; Valls, J A; Vandelli, W; Vannucci, F; Vartapetian, A; Vassilakopoulos, V I; Vasilyeva, L; Vazeille, F; Vernocchi, F; Vetter-Cole, Y; Vichou, I; Vinogradov, V; Virzi, J; Vivarelli, I; de Vivie, J B; Volpi, M; Vu Anh, T; Wang, C; Warren, M; Weber, J; Weber, M; Weidberg, A R; Weingarten, J; Wells, P S; Werner, P; Wheeler, S; Wiesmann, M; Wilkens, H; Williams, H H; Wingerter-Seez, I; Yasu, Y; Zaitsev, A; Zenin, A; Zenis, T; Zenonos, Z; Zhang, H; Zhelezko, A; Zhou, N

    2011-01-01

    The reconstruction of photons in the ATLAS detector is studied with data taken during the 2004 Combined Test Beam, where a full slice of the ATLAS detector was exposed to beams of particles of known energy at the CERN SPS. The results presented show significant differences in the longitudinal development of the electromagnetic shower between converted and unconverted photons as well as in the total measured energy. The potential to use the reconstructed converted photons as a means to precisely map the material of the tracker in front of the electromagnetic calorimeter is also considered. All results obtained are compared with a detailed Monte-Carlo simulation of the test-beam setup which is based on the same simulation and reconstruction tools as those used for the ATLAS detector itself.

  9. Photon reconstruction in the ATLAS Inner Detector and Liquid Argon Barrel Calorimeter at the 2004 Combined Test Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abat, E.; Abdallah, J. M.; Addy, T. N.; Adragna, P.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahmad, A.; Akesson, T. P. A.; Aleksa, M.; Alexa, C.; Anderson, K.; Andreazza, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Antonaki, A.; Arabidze, G.; Arik, E.; Atkinson, T.; Baines, J.; Baker, O. K.; Banfi, D.; Baron, S.; Barr, A. J.; Beccherle, R.; Beck, H. P.; Belhorma, B.; Bell, P. J.; Benchekroun, D.; Benjamin, D. P.; Benslama, K.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Bernabeu, J.; Bertelsen, H.; Binet, S.; Biscarat, C.; Boldea, V.; Bondarenko, V. G.; Boonekamp, M.; Bosman, M.; Bourdarios, C.; Broklova, Z.; Burckhart Chromek, D.; Bychkov, V.; Callahan, J.; Calvet, D.; Canneri, M.; Capeáns Garrido, M.; Caprini, M.; Cardiel Sas, L.; Carli, T.; Carminati, L.; Carvalho, J.; Cascella, M.; Castillo, M. V.; Catinaccio, A.; Cauz, D.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Cetin, S. A.; Chen, H.; Cherkaoui, R.; Chevalier, L.; Chevallier, F.; Chouridou, S.; Ciobotaru, M.; Citterio, M.; Clark, A.; Cleland, B.; Cobal, M.; Cogneras, E.; Conde Muino, P.; Consonni, M.; Constantinescu, S.; Cornelissen, T.; Correard, S.; Corso Radu, A.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Cuneo, S.; Cwetanski, P.; Da Silva, D.; Dam, M.; Dameri, M.; Danielsson, H. O.; Dannheim, D.; Darbo, G.; Davidek, T.; De, K.; Defay, P. O.; Dekhissi, B.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Delmastro, M.; Derue, F.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Girolamo, B.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djobava, T.; Dobos, D.; Dobson, M.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Dotti, A.; Drake, G.; Drasal, Z.; Dressnandt, N.; Driouchi, C.; Drohan, J.; Ebenstein, W. L.; Eerola, P.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Egorov, K.; Eifert, T. F.; Einsweiler, K.; El Kacimi, M.; Elsing, M.; Emelyanov, D.; Escobar, C.; Etienvre, A. I.; Fabich, A.; Facius, K.; Fakhr-Edine, A. I.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farthouat, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Fayard, L.; Febbraro, R.; Fedin, O. L.; Fenyuk, A.; Fergusson, D.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrari, R.; Ferreira, B. C.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrere, D.; Filippini, G.; Flick, T.; Fournier, D.; Francavilla, P.; Francis, D.; Froeschl, R.; Froidevaux, D.; Fullana, E.; Gadomski, S.; Gagliardi, G.; Gagnon, P.; Gallas, M.; Gallop, B. J.; Gameiro, S.; Gan, K. K.; Garcia, R.; Garcia, C.; Gavrilenko, I. L.; Gemme, C.; Gerlach, P.; Ghodbane, N.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Giangiobbe, V.; Giokaris, N.; Glonti, G.; Goettfert, T.; Golling, T.; Gollub, N.; Gomes, A.; Gomez, M. D.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Goodrick, M. J.; Gorfine, G.; Gorini, B.; Goujdami, D.; Grahn, K.-J.; Grenier, P.; Grigalashvili, N.; Grishkevich, Y.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Gruwe, M.; Guicheney, C.; Gupta, A.; Haeberli, C.; Haertel, R.; Hajduk, Z.; Hakobyan, H.; Hance, M.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, P. H.; Hara, K.; Harvey, A., Jr.; Hawkings, R. J.; Heinemann, F. E. W.; Henriques Correia, A.; Henss, T.; Hervas, L.; Higon, E.; Hill, J. C.; Hoffman, J.; Hostachy, J. Y.; Hruska, I.; Hubaut, F.; Huegging, F.; Hulsbergen, W.; Hurwitz, M.; Iconomidou-Fayard, L.; Jansen, E.; Jen-La Plante, I.; Johansson, P. D. C.; Jon-And, K.; Joos, M.; Jorgensen, S.; Joseph, J.; Kaczmarska, A.; Kado, M.; Karyukhin, A.; Kataoka, M.; Kayumov, F.; Kazarov, A.; Keener, P. T.; Kekelidze, G. D.; Kerschen, N.; Kersten, S.; Khomich, A.; Khoriauli, G.; Khramov, E.; Khristachev, A.; Khubua, J.; Kittelmann, T. H.; Klingenberg, R.; Klinkby, E. B.; Kodys, P.; Koffas, T.; Kolos, S.; Konovalov, S. P.; Konstantinidis, N.; Kopikov, S.; Korolkov, I.; Kostyukhin, V.; Kovalenko, S.; Kowalski, T. Z.; Krüger, K.; Kramarenko, V.; Kudin, L. G.; Kulchitsky, Y.; Lacasta, C.; Lafaye, R.; Laforge, B.; Lampl, W.; Lanni, F.; Laplace, S.; Lari, T.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Lechowski, M.; Ledroit-Guillon, F.; Lehmann, G.; Leitner, R.; Lelas, D.; Lester, C. G.; Liang, Z.; Lichard, P.; Liebig, W.; Lipniacka, A.; Lokajicek, M.; Louchard, L.; Loureiro, K. F.; Lucotte, A.; Luehring, F.; Lund-Jensen, B.; Lundberg, B.; Ma, H.; Mackeprang, R.; Maio, A.; Maleev, V. P.; Malek, F.; Mandelli, L.; Maneira, J.; Mangin-Brinet, M.; Manousakis, A.; Mapelli, L.; Marques, C.; Garcia, S. Marti i.; Martin, F.; Mathes, M.; Mazzanti, M.; McFarlane, K. W.; McPherson, R.; Mchedlidze, G.; Mehlhase, S.; Meirosu, C.; Meng, Z.; Meroni, C.; Mialkovski, V.; Mikulec, B.; Milstead, D.; Minashvili, I.; Mindur, B.; Mitsou, V. A.; Moed, S.; Monnier, E.; Moorhead, G.; Morettini, P.; Morozov, S. V.; Mosidze, M.; Mouraviev, S. V.; Moyse, E. W. J.; Munar, A.; Myagkov, A.; Nadtochi, A. V.; Nakamura, K.; Nechaeva, P.; Negri, A.; Nemecek, S.; Nessi, M.; Nesterov, S. Y.; Newcomer, F. M.; Nikitine, I.; Nikolaev, K.; Nikolic-Audit, I.; Ogren, H.; Oh, S. H.; Oleshko, S. B.; Olszowska, J.; Onofre, A.; Padilla Aranda, C.; Paganis, S.; Pallin, D.; Pantea, D.; Paolone, V.; Parodi, F.; Parsons, J.; Parzhitskiy, S.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passmored, S. M.; Pater, J.; Patrichev, S.; Peez, M.; Perez Reale, V.; Perini, L.; Peshekhonov, V. D.; Petersen, J.; Petersen, T. C.; Petti, R.; Phillips, P. W.; Pilcher, J.; Pina, J.; Pinto, B.; Podlyski, F.; Poggioli, L.; Poppleton, A.; Poveda, J.; Pralavorio, P.; Pribyl, L.; Price, M. J.; Prieur, D.; Puigdengoles, C.; Puzo, P.; Ragusa, F.; Rajagopalan, S.; Reeves, K.; Reisinger, I.; Rembser, C.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Reznicek, P.; Ridel, M.; Risso, P.; Riu, I.; Robinson, D.; Roda, C.; Roe, S.; Røhne, O.; Romaniouk, A.; Rousseau, D.; Rozanov, A.; Ruiz, A.; Rusakovich, N.; Rust, D.; Ryabov, Y. F.; Ryjov, V.; Salto, O.; Salvachua, B.; Salzburger, A.; Sandaker, H.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santi, L.; Santoni, C.; Saraiva, J. G.; Sarri, F.; Sauvage, G.; Says, L. P.; Schaefer, M.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Schiavi, C.; Schieck, J.; Schlager, G.; Schlereth, J.; Schmitt, C.; Schultes, J.; Schwemling, P.; Schwindling, J.; Seixas, J. M.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Serin, L.; Sfyrla, A.; Shalanda, N.; Shaw, C.; Shin, T.; Shmeleva, A.; Silva, J.; Simion, S.; Simonyan, M.; Sloper, J. E.; Smirnov, S. Yu; Smirnova, L.; Solans, C.; Solodkov, A.; Solovianov, O.; Soloviev, I.; Sosnovtsev, V. V.; Spanò, F.; Speckmayer, P.; Stancu, S.; Stanek, R.; Starchenko, E.; Straessner, A.; Suchkov, S. I.; Suk, M.; Szczygiel, R.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, F.; Tas, P.; Tayalati, Y.; Tegenfeldt, F.; Teuscher, R.; Thioye, M.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Timmermans, C. J. W. P.; Tisserant, S.; Toczek, B.; Tremblet, L.; Troncon, C.; Tsiareshka, P.; Tyndel, M.; Karagoez Unel, M.; Unal, G.; Unel, G.; Usai, G.; Van Berg, R.; Valero, A.; Valkar, S.; Valls, J. A.; Vandelli, W.; Vannucci, F.; Vartapetian, A.; Vassilakopoulos, V. I.; Vasilyeva, L.; Vazeille, F.; Vernocchi, F.; Vetter-Cole, Y.; Vichou, I.; Vinogradov, V.; Virzi, J.; Vivarelli, I.; de Vivie, J. B.; Volpi, M.; Anh, T. Vu; Wang, C.; Warren, M.; Weber, J.; Weber, M.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weingarten, J.; Wells, P. S.; Werner, P.; Wheeler, S.; Wiessmann, M.; Wilkens, H.; Williams, H. H.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Yasu, Y.; Zaitsev, A.; Zenin, A.; Zenis, T.; Zenonos, Z.; Zhang, H.; Zhelezko, A.; Zhou, N.

    2011-04-01

    The reconstruction of photons in the ATLAS detector is studied with data taken during the 2004 Combined Test Beam, where a full slice of the ATLAS detector was exposed to beams of particles of known energy at the CERN SPS. The results presented show significant differences in the longitudinal development of the electromagnetic shower between converted and unconverted photons as well as in the total measured energy. The potential to use the reconstructed converted photons as a means to precisely map the material of the tracker in front of the electromagnetic calorimeter is also considered. All results obtained are compared with a detailed Monte-Carlo simulation of the test-beam setup which is based on the same simulation and reconstruction tools as those used for the ATLAS detector itself.

  10. Combining the serum pepsinogen level and Helicobacter pylori antibody test for predicting the histology of gastric neoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hong Seok; Lee, Sun-Young; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Sung, In-Kyung; Park, Hyung Seok; Shim, Chan Sup; Jin, Choon Jo

    2014-06-01

    To determine whether the combination test of serum pepsinogen (PG) levels and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) antibody was effective for predicting the incidence and histology of gastric neoplasms. This study included asymptomatic Korean adults who underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy with blood tests for PG levels and H. pylori immunoglobulin G antibody test on the same day. Participants with extragastric malignancy, history of H. pylori eradication or gastric neoplasms, or recent antacid medication were excluded. Gastric atrophy was defined as a serum PG I/II ratio ≤3.0 and PG I ≤70 ng/mL. The participants were classified into four groups according to the presence (+) or absence (-) of gastric atrophy and H. pylori infection. Of the 3328 included participants, 17 were incidentally diagnosed as having either gastric adenoma or carcinoma. The incidence of gastric neoplasm was highest in the gastric atrophy (+)/H. pylori (-) group (4.17%; OR 25.8, P = 0.009), but the neoplasm exhibited the least advanced histology. The gastric atrophy (-)/H. pylori (-) group exhibited the lowest incidence of gastric neoplasm (0.17%) but the most advanced histology. A combination of serum PG levels and H. pylori antibody test is useful for detecting gastric neoplasms based on the slow gastric carcinogenesis pathway progressing from gastric adenoma to Lauren's intestinal-type gastric cancer, but not for those with advanced histology such as Lauren's diffuse-type gastric cancer. © 2014 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Assessment of functional tests on determining resistance of respiratory tract in patients with bronchial asthma, COPD and their combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazarenko K.V.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties of the respiratory tract (including airway resistance is an important indicator of pulmonary function, and definition of resistance is used to diagnose and monitor obstructive lung diseases. This study was performed in order to evaluate and compare functional results of tests to determine the resistance of the airways in patients with asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and their combination. The study involved 191 patients: with asthma (n=34, with COPD (n=17 and their combination (n=140. Patients underwent bodyplethysmography and impulse oscillometry. A statistically significant correlation of medium strength between parameters of the total resistance, determined with the help of bodyplethysmography and impulse oscillometry, r=0.57, p<0.001. According to ROC-analysis, the best point of distribution of normal and pathological parameters of impulse oscillometry (R5Hz as a diagnosis of increased respiratory resistance is 130% and higher from the proper values. The area under the ROC curve is 0.807. When interpreting the results of impulse oscillometry in patients with asthma, COPD and their combination, R5Hz level equal to or exceeding 130% of the proper values is proposed to be regarded as a sign of an increased respiratory resistance with sensitivity of technique – 64.0%, specificity – 87.5% and prognostic value of the positive result - 98.2%.

  12. Testing gravity on large scales by combining weak lensing with galaxy clustering using CFHTLenS and BOSS CMASS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Shadab; Miyatake, Hironao; More, Surhud; Ho, Shirley; Mandelbaum, Rachel

    2017-03-01

    We measure a combination of gravitational lensing, galaxy clustering and redshift-space distortions (RSDs) called EG. The quantity EG probes both parts of metric potential and is insensitive to galaxy bias and σ8. These properties make it an attractive statistic to test lambda cold dark matter, general relativity and its alternate theories. We have combined CMASS Data Release 11 with CFHTLenS and recent measurements of β from RSD analysis, and find EG(z = 0.57) = 0.42 ± 0.056, a 13 per cent measurement in agreement with the prediction of general relativity EG(z = 0.57) = 0.396 ± 0.011 using the Planck 2015 cosmological parameters. We have corrected our measurement for various observational and theoretical systematics. Our measurement is consistent with the first measurement of EG using cosmic microwave background lensing in place of galaxy lensing at small scales, but shows 2.8σ tension when compared with their final results including large scales. This analysis with future surveys will provide improved statistical error and better control over systematics to test general relativity and its alternate theories.

  13. Targeted Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Lung Transplantation in Cystic Fibrosis Patients Colonised with Pseudomonas aeruginosa Using Multiple Combination Bactericidal Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmy Haja Mydin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Early infection is a recognised complication after lung transplantation in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF. Our centre uses multiple combination bactericidal testing (MCBT when determining appropriate peritransplant prophylactic regimens. To evaluate our strategy, we compared the incidence of posttransplant infection in patients whose peritransplant antimicrobial regimens were determined using MCBT versus standard sensitivity testing. Patients with CF who were infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and underwent lung transplantations between 2000 and 2010 were included. Data was collected from clinical records and our microbiology database. Microorganisms cultured were mapped against antibiotic resistance, method of sensitivity testing, and antibiotics administered peritransplant. 129 patients were identified (mean age 28, male : female, 63 : 66. Fifty patients (38.8% had antibiotics determined by MCBT. Two patients in the MCBT group developed septicaemia, 13 in the conventional group (P≤0.05, 2-tailed Fisher's test. Sepsis was attributable to P. aeruginosa in one patient from the MCBT group and seven patients in the conventional group (P=0.15. P. aeruginosa was recovered from the posttransplant pleural fluid of one patient who received MCBT-guided prophylaxis, six patients in the conventional group (P=0.25. Patients given antibiotics based on MCBT had significantly lower rates of septicaemia and lower rates of empyema.

  14. Intestinal biopsy is not always required to diagnose celiac disease: a retrospective analysis of combined antibody tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bürgin-Wolff Annemarie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to compare celiac disease (CD– specific antibody tests to determine if they could replace jejunal biopsy in patients with a high pretest probability of CD. Methods This retrospective study included sera from 149 CD patients and 119 controls, all with intestinal biopsy. All samples were analyzed for IgA and IgG antibodies against native gliadin (ngli and deamidated gliadin peptides (dpgli, as well as for IgA antibodies against tissue transglutaminase and endomysium. Results Tests for dpgli were superior to ngli for IgG antibody determination: 68% vs. 92% specificity and 79% vs. 85% sensitivity for ngli and dpgli, respectively. Positive (76% vs. 93% and negative (72% vs. 83% predictive values were also higher for dpgli than for ngli. Regarding IgA gliadin antibody determination, sensitivity improved from 61% to 78% with dpgli, while specificity and positive predictive value remained at 97% (P Conclusion Antibody tests for dpgli yielded superior results compared with ngli. A combination of three or four antibody tests including IgA anti-tissue transglutaminase and/or IgA anti- endomysium permitted diagnosis or exclusion of CD without intestinal biopsy in a high proportion of patients (78%. Jejunal biopsy would be necessary in patients with discordant antibody results (22%. With this two-step procedure, only patients with no CD-specific antibodies would be missed.

  15. Parametric Data from a Wind Tunnel Test on a Rocket-Based Combined-Cycle Engine Inlet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Rene; Trefny, Charles J.; Thomas, Scott R.; Bulman, Mel J.

    2001-01-01

    A 40-percent scale model of the inlet to a rocket-based combined-cycle (RBCC) engine was tested in the NASA Glenn Research Center 1- by 1-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel (SWT). The full-scale RBCC engine is scheduled for test in the Hypersonic Tunnel Facility (HTF) at NASA Glenn's Plum Brook Station at Mach 5 and 6. This engine will incorporate the configuration of this inlet model which achieved the best performance during the present experiment. The inlet test was conducted at Mach numbers of 4.0, 5.0, 5.5, and 6.0. The fixed-geometry inlet consists of an 8 deg.. forebody compression plate, boundary layer diverter, and two compressive struts located within 2 parallel sidewalls. These struts extend through the inlet, dividing the flowpath into three channels. Test parameters investigated included strut geometry, boundary layer ingestion, and Reynolds number (Re). Inlet axial pressure distributions and cross-sectional Pitot-pressure surveys at the base of the struts were measured at varying back-pressures. Inlet performance and starting data are presented. The inlet chosen for the RBCC engine self-started at all Mach numbers from 4 to 6. Pitot-pressure contours showed large flow nonuniformity on the body-side of the inlet. The inlet provided adequate pressure recovery and flow quality for the RBCC cycle even with the flow separation.

  16. Combination Testing Using a Single MSH5 Variant alongside HLA Haplotypes Improves the Sensitivity of Predicting Coeliac Disease Risk in the Polish Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Paziewska

    Full Text Available Assessment of non-HLA variants alongside standard HLA testing was previously shown to improve the identification of potential coeliac disease (CD patients. We intended to identify new genetic variants associated with CD in the Polish population that would improve CD risk prediction when used alongside HLA haplotype analysis. DNA samples of 336 CD and 264 unrelated healthy controls were used to create DNA pools for a genome wide association study (GWAS. GWAS findings were validated with individual HLA tag single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP typing of 473 patients and 714 healthy controls. Association analysis using four HLA-tagging SNPs showed that, as was found in other populations, positive predicting genotypes (HLA-DQ2.5/DQ2.5, HLA-DQ2.5/DQ2.2, and HLA-DQ2.5/DQ8 were found at higher frequencies in CD patients than in healthy control individuals in the Polish population. Both CD-associated SNPs discovered by GWAS were found in the CD susceptibility region, confirming the previously-determined association of the major histocompatibility (MHC region with CD pathogenesis. The two most significant SNPs from the GWAS were rs9272346 (HLA-dependent; localized within 1 Kb of DQA1 and rs3130484 (HLA-independent; mapped to MSH5. Specificity of CD prediction using the four HLA-tagging SNPs achieved 92.9%, but sensitivity was only 45.5%. However, when a testing combination of the HLA-tagging SNPs and the MSH5 SNP was used, specificity decreased to 80%, and sensitivity increased to 74%. This study confirmed that improvement of CD risk prediction sensitivity could be achieved by including non-HLA SNPs alongside HLA SNPs in genetic testing.

  17. Poder discriminativo do teste de combinação de probabilidades na análise de grupo de experimentos Discriminative power of the combining probabilities test in analysis series of experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Conagin

    1993-01-01

    ruins (R, quando utilizado um mínimo de oito repetições e considerado o contraste referente à maior diferença entre médias, obteve-se, com o uso do teste de combinação de probabilidades, poder discriminativo superior a 90% para o teste t e maior que 80% para o de Bonferroni; nos agrupamentos de 4 e 5 anos dos tipos BMMR e BMMMR, considerando, também, a maior diferença entre médias, o poder discriminativo do teste t foi superior a 80% com oito repetições, sendo necessárias doze repetições no de Bonferroni para obter o mesmo resultado.The classical analysis of series of experiments presents some levels of complications due, among several reasons, to the possibility of existence of heterogeneity of variances from place to place, lack of homogeneity of errors from one season to another or different number of treatments or replications in each place. Fisher developed a method, to analysis series of experiments, that combine the probability of the means tests results or tests of contrasts, independently of the test used, the number of replications, the structure of the experiments or the presence of interactions. In order to evaluate the influence of the experimental precision, the magnitude of the general mean of the experiment and the magnitude of the contrasts between the control and another treatment mean on the test proposed by Fisher, using the 't' test of Student and that of Bonferroni, it was simulated 2,160 experiments in completely randomized block design with six treatments and three different number of replications, four, eight and twelve. The combined analysis was made considering three strata defined by the precision and level of yield production: good (B, median (M and low (R. The experiments were grouped within each strata, for example, three years (BBB, (MMM or (RRR and another group considering different strata (BMR. The results showed that the magnitude of the coefficient of variation and the magnitude of the contrasts were very important on

  18. Novel gold nanoparticle trimer reporter probe combined with dry-reagent cotton thread immunoassay device for rapid human ferritin test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xun; Du, Ting-E; Meng, Lili; Song, Tingting

    2015-08-19

    We reported here for the first time on the use of cotton thread combined with novel gold nanoparticle trimer reporter probe for low-cost, sensitive and rapid detection of a lung cancer related biomarker, human ferritin. A model system comprising ferritin as an analyte and a pair of monoclonal antibodies was used to demonstrate the proof-of-concept on the dry-reagent natural cotton thread immunoassay device. Results indicated that the using of novel gold nanoparticle trimer reporter probe greatly improved the sensitivity comparing with traditional gold nanoparticle reporter probe on the cotton thread immunoassay device. The assay avoids multiple incubation and washing steps performed in most conventional protein analyses. Although qualitative tests are realized by observing the color change of the test zone, quantitative data are obtained by recording the optical responses of the test zone with a commercial scanner and corresponding analysis software. Under optimal conditions, the cotton thread immunoassay device was capable of measuring 10 ng/mL human ferritin under room temperature which is sensitive enough for clinical diagnosis. Moreover, the sample solution employed in the assays is just 8 μL, which is much less than traditional lateral flow strip based biosensors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Why do fearful facial expressions elicit behavioral approach? Evidence from a combined approach-avoidance implicit association test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Jennifer L; Marsh, Abigail A

    2015-04-01

    Despite communicating a "negative" emotion, fearful facial expressions predominantly elicit behavioral approach from perceivers. It has been hypothesized that this seemingly paradoxical effect may occur due to fearful expressions' resemblance to vulnerable, infantile faces. However, this hypothesis has not yet been tested. We used a combined approach-avoidance/implicit association test (IAT) to test this hypothesis. Participants completed an approach-avoidance lever task during which they responded to fearful and angry facial expressions as well as neutral infant and adult faces presented in an IAT format. Results demonstrated an implicit association between fearful facial expressions and infant faces and showed that both fearful expressions and infant faces primarily elicit behavioral approach. The dominance of approach responses to both fearful expressions and infant faces decreased as a function of psychopathic personality traits. Results suggest that the prosocial responses to fearful expressions observed in most individuals may stem from their associations with infantile faces. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Testing single-grain quartz OSL methods using sediment samples with independent age control from the Bordes-Fitte rockshelter (Roches d'Abilly site, Central France)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov; Murray, Andrew Sean; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter

    2016-01-01

    We present quartz single-grain dose distributions for four well-bleached and unmixed sediment samples with independent age control (22–48 ka), from the archaeologically important Bordes-Fitte rockshelter at Roches d'Abilly, France. This site has previously been dated using 14C AMS dating and stan......We present quartz single-grain dose distributions for four well-bleached and unmixed sediment samples with independent age control (22–48 ka), from the archaeologically important Bordes-Fitte rockshelter at Roches d'Abilly, France. This site has previously been dated using 14C AMS dating...

  1. Combination of antibody that inhibits ligand-independent HER3 dimerization and a p110α inhibitor potently blocks PI3K signaling and growth of HER2+ breast cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Joan T.; Sutton, Cammie R.; Kurupi, Richard; Bialucha, Carl Uli; Ettenberg, Seth A.; Collins, Scott D.; Sheng, Qing; Wallweber, Jerry; DeFazio-Eli, Lisa; Arteaga, Carlos L.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the effects of LJM716, a HER3 (ERBB3) neutralizing antibody that inhibits ligand-induced and ligand-independent HER3 dimerization, as a single agent and in combination with BYL719, an ATP competitive, p110α-specific inhibitor against HER2-overexpressing breast and gastric cancers. Treatment with LJM716 reduced HER2-HER3 and HER3-p85 dimers, P-HER3 and P-AKT both in vitro and in vivo. Treatment with LJM716 alone markedly reduced growth of BT474 xenografts. The combination of LJM716/lapatinib/trastuzumab significantly improved survival of mice with BT474 xenografts compared to lapatinib/trastuzumab (p=0.0012). LJM716 and BYL719 synergistically inhibited growth in a panel of HER2+ and PIK3CA mutant cell lines. The combination also inhibited P-AKT in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells and growth of HER2+ NCI-N87 gastric cancer xenografts more potently than LJM716 or BYL719 alone. Trastuzumab-resistant, HER2+/PIK3CA mutant MDA453 xenografts regressed completely after three weeks of therapy with LJM716 and BYL719 whereas either single agent inhibited growth only partially. Finally, mice with BT474 xenografts treated with trastuzumab/LJM716, trastuzumab/BYL719, LJM716/BYL719 or trastuzumab/LJM716/BYL719 exhibited similar rates of tumor regression after three weeks of treatment. Thirty weeks after treatment discontinuation, 14% of mice treated with trastuzumab/LJM716/BYL719 whereas >80% in all other treatment groups were sacrificed due to a recurrent large tumor burden (p=0.0066). These data suggest that dual blockade of the HER2 signaling network with a HER3 antibody that inhibits HER2-HER3 dimers in combination with a p110α-specific inhibitor in the absence of a direct HER2 antagonist is an effective treatment approach against HER2-overexpressing cancers. PMID:23918797

  2. A Combined Raindrop Aggregate Destruction Test-Settling Tube (RADT-ST Approach to Identify the Settling Velocity of Sediment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangang Xiao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of sediment settling velocity based on mineral grain size distribution in erosion models ignores the effects of aggregation on settling velocity. The alternative approach, wet-sieved aggregate size distribution, on the other hand, cannot represent all destructive processes that eroded soils may experience under impacting raindrops. Therefore, without considering raindrop impact, both methods may lead to biased predictions of the redistribution of sediment and associated substances across landscapes. Rainfall simulation is an effective way to simulate natural raindrop impact under controlled laboratory conditions. However, very few methods have been developed to integrate rainfall simulation with the settling velocity of eroded sediment. This study aims to develop a new proxy, based on rainfall simulation, in order to identify the actual settling velocity distribution of aggregated sediment. A combined Raindrop Aggregate Destruction Test-Settling Tube (RADT-ST approach was developed to (1 simulate aggregate destruction under a series of simulated rainfalls; and (2 measure the actual settling velocity distribution of destroyed aggregates. Mean Weight Settling Velocity (MWSV of aggregates was used to investigate settling behaviors of different soils as rainfall kinetic energy increased. The results show the settling velocity of silt-rich raindrop impacted aggregates is likely to be underestimated by at least six times if based on mineral grain size distribution. The RADT-ST designed in this study effectively captures the effects of aggregation on settling behavior. The settling velocity distribution should be regarded as an evolving, rather than steady state parameter during erosion events. The combined RADT-ST approach is able to generate the quasi-natural sediment under controlled simulated rainfall conditions and is adequately sensitive to measure actual settling velocities of differently aggregated soils. This combined approach provides

  3. Results from a combined test of an electromagnetic liquid argon calorimeter with a hadronic scintillating-tile calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Alifanov, A; Amaral, P; Ambrosini, G; Amorim, A; Anderson, K J; Astvatsaturov, A R; Aubert, Bernard; Augé, E; Autiero, D; Azuelos, Georges; Badaud, F; Baisin, L; Battistoni, G; Bazan, A; Bee, C P; Bellettini, Giorgio; Berglund, S R; Berset, J C; Blaj, C; Blanchot, G; Blucher, E; Bogush, A A; Bohm, C; Boldea, V; Borisov, O N; Bosman, M; Bouhemaid, N; Brette, P; Bromberg, C; Brossard, M; Budagov, Yu A; Buono, S; Calôba, L P; Camin, D V; Canton, B; Casado, M P; Cavalli, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cavasinni, V; Chadelas, R; Chase, Robert L; Chekhtman, A; Chevaleyre, J C; Chevalley, J L; Chirikov-Zorin, I E; Chlachidze, G; Chollet, J C; Cobal, M; Cogswell, F; Colas, Jacques; Collot, J; Cologna, S; Constantinescu, S; Costa, G; Costanzo, D; Cozzi, L; Crouau, M; Dargent, P; Daudon, F; David, M; Davidek, T; Dawson, J; De, K; de La Taille, C; Del Prete, T; Depommier, P; de Saintignon, P; De Santo, A; Dinkespiler, B; Di Girolamo, B; Dita, S; Dolejsi, J; Dolezal, Z; Downing, R; Dugne, J J; Duval, P Y; Dzahini, D; Efthymiopoulos, I; Errede, D; Errede, S; Etienne, F; Evans, H; Fassnacht, P; Fedyakin, N N; Ferrari, A; Ferreira, P; Ferrer, A; Flaminio, Vincenzo; Fouchez, D; Fournier, D; Fumagalli, G; Gallas, E J; Gaspar, M; Gianotti, F; Gildemeister, O; Gingrich, D M; Glagolev, V V; Golubev, V B; Gómez, A; González, J; Gordon, H A; Grabskii, V; Hakopian, H H; Haney, M; Hellman, S; Henriques, A; Holmgren, S O; Honoré, P F; Hostachy, J Y; Huston, J; Ivanyushenkov, Yu M; Jézéquel, S; Johansson, E K; Jon-And, K; Jones, R; Juste, A; Kakurin, S; Karapetian, G V; Karyukhin, A N; Khokhlov, Yu A; Klioukhine, V I; Kolomoets, V; Kopikov, S V; Kostrikov, M E; Kovtun, V E; Kukhtin, V V; Kulagin, M; Kulchitskii, Yu A; Laborie, G; Lami, S; Lapin, V; Lebedev, A; Lefebvre, M; Le Flour, T; Leitner, R; León-Florián, E; Leroy, C; Le Van-Suu, A; Li, J; Liba, I; Linossier, O; Lokajícek, M; Lomakin, Yu F; Lomakina, O V; Lund-Jensen, B; Mahout, G; Maio, A; Malyukov, S N; Mandelli, L; Mansoulié, B; Mapelli, Livio P; Marin, C P; Marroquin, F; Martin, L; Mazzanti, M; Mazzoni, E; Merritt, F S; Michel, B; Miller, R; Minashvili, I A; Miotto, A; Miralles, L; Mnatzakanian, E A; Monnier, E; Montarou, G; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Muanza, G S; Nagy, E; Némécek, S; Nessi, Marzio; Nicoleau, S; Noppe, J M; Olivetto, C; Orteu, S; Padilla, C; Pallin, D; Pantea, D; Parrour, G; Pereira, A; Perini, L; Perlas, J A; Pétroff, P; Pilcher, J E; Pinfold, James L; Poggioli, Luc; Poirot, S; Polesello, G; Price, L; Protopopov, Yu; Proudfoot, J; Pukhov, O; Radeka, V; Rahm, David Charles; Reinmuth, G; Renardy, J F; Renzoni, G; Resconi, S; Richards, R; Riu, I; Romanov, V; Ronceux, B; Rumyantsev, V; Rusakovitch, N A; Sala, P R; Sanders, H; Sauvage, G; Savard, P; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Sawyer, L; Says, L P; Schaffer, A C; Scheel, C V; Schwemling, P; Schindling, J; Seguin-Moreau, N; Seixas, J M; Selldén, B; Seman, M; Semenov, A A; Senchyshyn, V G; Serin, L; Shchelchkov, A S; Shevtsov, V P; Shochet, M J; Sidorov, V; Simaitis, V J; Simion, S; Sissakian, A N; Solodkov, A A; Sonderegger, P; Soustruznik, K; Stanek, R; Starchenko, E A; Stephani, D; Stephens, R; Studenov, S; Suk, M; Surkov, A; Tang, F; Tardell, S; Tas, P; Teiger, J; Teubert, F; Thaler, J J; Tisserant, S; Tokár, S; Topilin, N D; Trka, Z; Turcot, A S; Turcotte, M; Valkár, S; Vartapetian, A H; Vazeille, F; Vichou, I; Vinogradov, V; Vorozhtsov, S B; Vuillemin, V; Wagner, D; White, Alan R; Wingerter-Seez, I; Yamdagni, N; Yarygin, G; Yosef, C; Zaitsev, A; Zdrazil, M; Zitoun, R; Zolnierowski, Y

    1996-01-01

    The first combined test of an electromagnetic liquid argon accordion calorimeter and a hadronic scintillating-tile calorimeter was carried out at the CERN SPS. These devices are prototypes of the barrel calorimeter of the future ATLAS experiment at the LHC. The energy resolution of pions in the energy range from 20 to 300~GeV at an incident angle $\\theta$ of about 11$^\\circ$ is well-described by the expression $\\sigma/E = ((46.5 \\pm 6.0)\\%/\\sqrt{E} +(1.2 \\pm 0.3)\\%) \\oplus (3.2 \\pm 0.4)~\\mbox{GeV}/E$. Shower profiles, shower leakage, and the angular resolution of hadronic showers were also studied.

  4. A Layer Correlation Technique for Pion Energy Calibration at the 2004 ATLAS Combined Beam Test (Conference record)

    CERN Document Server

    Grahn, K-J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    A new method for calibrating the hadron response of a segmented calorimeter is developed. It is based on a principal component analysis of the calorimeter layer energy deposits, exploiting longitudinal shower development information to improve the measured energy resolution. Corrections for invisible hadronic energy and energy lost in dead material in front of and between the ATLAS calorimeters were calculated with simulated Geant4 Monte Carlo events and used to reconstruct the energy of pions impinging on the calorimeters during the 2004 Barrel Combined Beam Test at the CERN H8 area. For pion beams with energies between 20 and 180 GeV, the particle energy is reconstructed within 3% and the energy resolution is improved by about 20% compared to the electromagnetic scale.

  5. Testing of different soil combinations as substrates in slalom slopes and golf courses in the cold climate environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihlaja, Jouni

    2010-05-01

    Testing of different soil combinations as substrates in slalom slopes and golf courses in the cold climate environment Jouni Pihlaja, Geological Survey of Finland, Northern Finland Office, P.O. Box 77, FIN-96101 Rovaniemi, Finland. jouni.pihlaja@gtk.fi, www.gtk.fi The Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) is, with some partners, carrying out a cooperative project, POMARA, in the Levi tourist center in northern Finland. The purpose of this applied geology project is to determine which soil combinations work best over the long term as substrates on slalom slopes and golf course areas. Since the tourist center is located in a cold climate area, it gives extra challenges to those landscaping activities. The average temperature in January is about -15°C and in July +14°C. In the Levi area, the slalom slopes have normally been covered by local carex peat during the shaping phase of slopes. The problem has been that on the top part of the fell, the peat has "disappeared" after some years and stones have come up under the peat layer, since these areas are naturally covered by block fields. The main assumption at the beginning of the project was that frost weathering is causing the problems. In this project, test areas have been prepared on the slopes. The most important task is to compare test areas covered by carex peat to areas covered by a combination of sandy till and carex peat. The reason why sandy till was chosen to be the additional material was that it is supposed to stand up better against frost weathering than peat itself. Also, when considering future landscaping, the sandy till is the most economically viable mineral material to be used because of its nearby location . In the golf course areas, a combination of fine sand and sphagnum peat has been used in landscaping. The peat was brought from the Simo area, 300 km south of Levi. In this project, the goal is to determine if the local carex peat is working properly in the green areas of the golf club. The

  6. Magnet design for the splitter/combiner regions of CBETA, the Cornell-Brookhaven Energy-Recovery-Linac Test Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crittendon, J. A. [Cornell Lab. for Accelerator-Based Sciences and Education, Ithaca, NY (United States); Burke, D. C. [Cornell Lab. for Accelerator-Based Sciences and Education, Ithaca, NY (United States); Fuentes, Y. L.P. [Cornell Lab. for Accelerator-Based Sciences and Education, Ithaca, NY (United States); Mayes, C. E. [Cornell Lab. for Accelerator-Based Sciences and Education, Ithaca, NY (United States); Smolenski, K. W. [Cornell Lab. for Accelerator-Based Sciences and Education, Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2017-01-06

    The Cornell-Brookhaven Energy-Recovery-Linac Test Accelerator (CBETA) will provide a 150-MeV electron beam using four acceleration and four deceleration passes through the Cornell Main Linac Cryomodule housing six 1.3-GHz superconducting RF cavities. The return path of this 76-m-circumference accelerator will be provided by 106 fixed-field alternating-gradient (FFAG) cells which carry the four beams of 42, 78, 114 and 150 MeV. Here we describe magnet designs for the splitter and combiner regions which serve to match the on-axis linac beam to the off-axis beams in the FFAG cells, providing the path-length adjustment necessary to energy recovery for each of the four beams. The path lengths of the four beamlines in each of the splitter and combiner regions are designed to be adapted to 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-pass staged operations. Design specifi- cations and modeling for the 24 dipole and 32 quadrupole electromagnets in each region are presented. The CBETA project will serve as the first demonstration of multi-pass energy recovery using superconducting RF cavities with FFAG cell optics for the return loop.

  7. Experimental model of biofilm implant-related osteomyelitis to test combination biomaterials using biofilms as initial inocula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Dustin L; Haymond, Bryan S; Woodbury, Kassie L; Beck, J Peter; Moore, David E; Epperson, R Tyler; Bloebaum, Roy D

    2012-07-01

    Currently, the majority of animal models that are used to study biofilm-related infections use planktonic bacterial cells as initial inocula to produce positive signals of infection in biomaterials studies. However, the use of planktonic cells has potentially led to inconsistent results in infection outcomes. In this study, well-established biofilms of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus were grown and used as initial inocula in an animal model of a Type IIIB open fracture. The goal of the work was to establish, for the first time, a repeatable model of biofilm implant-related osteomyelitis, wherein biofilms were used as initial inocula to test combination biomaterials. Results showed that 100% of animals that were treated with biofilms developed osteomyelitis, whereas 0% of animals not treated with biofilm developed infection. The development of this experimental model may lead to an important shift in biofilm and biomaterials research by showing that when biofilms are used as initial inocula, they may provide additional insights into how biofilm-related infections in the clinic develop and how they can be treated with combination biomaterials to eradicate and/or prevent biofilm formation. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Genetic Performance and General Combining Ability of Oil Palm Deli dura x AVROS pisifera Tested on Inland Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, A.; Rafii, M. Y.; Saleh, G.; Kushairi, A.; Latif, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    The performance of 11 oil palm AVROS (Algemene Vereniging van Rubberplanters ter Oostkust van Sumatra) pisiferas was evaluated based on their 40 dura x pisifera (DxP) progenies tested on inland soils, predominantly of Serdang Series. Fresh fruit bunch (FFB) yield of each pisiferas ranged from 121.93 to 143.9 kg palm−1 yr−1 with trial mean of 131.62 kg palm−1 yr−1. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed low genetic variability among pisifera parents for most of the characters indicating uniformity of the pisifera population. This was anticipated as the AVROS pisiferas were derived from small population and were inbred materials. However, some of the pisiferas have shown good general combining ability (GCA) for certain important economic traits. Three pisiferas (P1 (0.174/247), P3 (0.174/498), P11 (0.182/308)) were identified of having good GCA for FFB yield while pisiferas P1 (0.174/247), P10 (0.182/348), and P11 (0.182/308) were good combiners for oil-to-bunch ratio (O/B). The narrow genetic base of these materials was the main obstacle in breeding and population improvement. However, efforts have been made to introgress this material with the vast oil palm germplasm collections of MPOB for rectifying the problem. PMID:22701095

  9. Combined effects of temperature and pyriproxyfen stress in a full life-cycle test with Chironomus riparius (Insecta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassou, Koffi Tcha; Schulz, Ralf

    2012-10-01

    Traditional risk assessment guidelines employ acute or chronic toxicity tests for a maximum of one generation of organisms. These tests are usually performed in the laboratory at a constant standard temperature, although in the field organisms may experience different temperatures, which may be a source of additional stress. Climate change-related temperature shifts may have serious impacts on ectotherm populations that are key components of the aquatic food chains, particularly in combination with the exposure of pollutants affecting their development. Here, a chronic full life-cycle test with Chironomus riparius from the first-instar larvae in the parental (P) generation until emergence in the subsequent F1 generation was conducted at different temperatures (16 and 24°C), testing the effect of the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen at 1, 3, 10, 30, and 100 µg/L. The emergence ratios were significantly affected by the interaction of temperature, chemical treatment, and generation, showing that, at lower temperatures, the negative effects of pyriproxyfen exposure were significantly greater in the F1 generation than in the P generation. The development rate showed that the effects of the interactions were significant in the F1 generation, underscoring the importance of extended exposure as a useful amendment to the risk assessment of those agrochemicals potentially influencing developmental and reproductive parameters in intact organisms. Moreover, results demonstrated that any difference from the standard temperature of 20°C might result in additional stress, leading to disruption of biological functions in C. riparius, highlighting the interaction among different global climate change-related variables. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  10. Testing single-grain quartz OSL methods using sediment samples with independent age control from the Bordes-Fitte rockshelter (Roches d'Abilly site, Central France)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov; Murray, Andrew Sean; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter

    2016-01-01

    We present quartz single-grain dose distributions for four well-bleached and unmixed sediment samples with independent age control (22–48 ka), from the archaeologically important Bordes-Fitte rockshelter at Roches d'Abilly, France. This site has previously been dated using 14C AMS dating and stan...

  11. Deciding How to Stay Independent at Home in Later Years: Development and Acceptability Testing of an Informative Web-Based Module

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garvelink, M.M.; Jones, C.A.; Archambault, P.M.; Roy, N. van; Blair, L.; Legare, F.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Seniors with loss of autonomy may face decisions about whether they should stay at home or move elsewhere. Most seniors would prefer to stay home and be independent for as long as possible, but most are unaware of options that would make this possible. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to

  12. Prediction of Groundwater Flow and Transport Processes in an Urban Area: A Combined Approach of Field Testing and Numerical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Andrea; Moeck, Christian; Radny, Dirk; Borer, Paul; Affolter, Annette; Epting, Jannis; Huggenberger, Peter; Auckenthaler, Adrian; Schirmer, Mario

    2015-04-01

    Drinking water supply in urban areas is challenging due to different kinds of water use and potential groundwater contamination. We investigate an area where drinking water production is close to different contaminated sites. The study site is characterized by a high complexity of the tectonic and geological setting with a gravel and a karstic aquifer. The two aquifers are partly connected, partly disconnected by an aquitard. To avoid drinking water contamination, artificial groundwater recharge with surface water into the gravel aquifer is used to create a hydraulic barrier between the contaminated sites and the water abstraction wells. Trace compounds, that were found in former times in the surface water but not nowadays, are still detected in the extracted drinking water. Different studies have been performed such as numerical modeling, intensive groundwater monitoring and investigation of drilling cores to get a differentiated overview of the distribution of the contaminants. Back-diffusion from the matrix due to changing hydraulic boundary was stated to be the reason for the actual distribution of the contaminants. In a first approach due to the lack of experimental data or evidence from field measurements, the permeabilities of the karstic aquifer were assumed as homogeneous. In our study, we seek to identify the flow and transport processes within the system including the fracture network in a combined approach of field work and 3D modeling with FEFLOW. During a field campaign we acquired water samples for the analysis of stable water isotopes as well as organic and inorganic compounds. Furthermore, tritium and helium samples were taken to estimate water ages and to determine the flow through the fracture networks. A combination of existing and recently obtained data was used to build and validate a 3D flow and transport model. The simulation of different scenarios such as the water flow for varying injection and extraction rates as well as particle

  13. A comparison of the embryonic stem cell test and whole embryo culture assay combined with the BeWo placental passage model for predicting the embryotoxicity of azoles.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimopoulou, Myrto; Verhoef, Aart; Gomes, Caroline A; van Dongen, Catharina W; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Piersma, Aldert H; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard

    2018-01-01

    In the present study, we show the value of combining toxico-dynamic and -kinetic in vitro approaches for embryotoxicity testing of azoles. Both the whole embryo culture (WEC) and the embryonic stem cells test (EST) predicted the in vivo potency ranking of twelve tested azoles with moderate accuracy.

  14. Acute HIV Discovered During Routine HIV Screening With HIV Antigen-Antibody Combination Tests in 9 US Emergency Departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Douglas A E; Giordano, Thomas P; Pasalar, Siavash; Jacobson, Kathleen R; Glick, Nancy R; Sha, Beverly E; Mammen, Priya E; Hunt, Bijou R; Todorovic, Tamara; Moreno-Walton, Lisa; Adomolga, Vincent; Feaster, Daniel J; Branson, Bernard M

    2018-01-05

    Newer combination HIV antigen-antibody tests allow detection of HIV sooner after infection than previous antibody-only immunoassays because, in addition to HIV-1 and -2 antibodies, they detect the HIV-1 p24 antigen, which appears before antibodies develop. We determine the yield of screening with HIV antigen-antibody tests and clinical presentations for new diagnoses of acute and established HIV infection across US emergency departments (EDs). This was a retrospective study of 9 EDs in 6 cities with HIV screening programs that integrated laboratory-based antigen-antibody tests between November 1, 2012, and December 31, 2015. Unique patients with newly diagnosed HIV infection were identified and classified as having either acute HIV infection or established HIV infection. Acute HIV infection was defined as a repeatedly reactive antigen-antibody test result, a negative HIV-1/HIV-2 antibody differentiation assay, or Western blot result, but detectable HIV ribonucleic acid (RNA); established HIV infection was defined as a repeatedly reactive antigen-antibody test result and a positive HIV-1/HIV-2 antibody differentiation assay or Western blot result. The primary outcomes were the number of new HIV diagnoses and proportion of patients with laboratory-defined acute HIV infection. Secondary outcomes compared reason for visit and the clinical presentation of acute HIV infection. In total, 214,524 patients were screened for HIV and 839 (0.4%) received a new diagnosis, of which 122 (14.5%) were acute HIV infection and 717 (85.5%) were established HIV infection. Compared with patients with established HIV infection, those with acute HIV infection were younger, had higher RNA and CD4 counts, and were more likely to have viral syndrome (41.8% versus 6.5%) or fever (14.3% versus 3.4%) as their reason for visit. Most patients with acute HIV infection displayed symptoms attributable to acute infection (median symptom count 5 [interquartile range 3 to 6]), with fever often

  15. Confirmation and efficacy tests against codling moth and oriental fruit moth in apples using combination heat and controlled atmosphere treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neven, Lisa G; Rehfield-Ray, Linda

    2006-10-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), are serious pests of apples (Malus spp.) grown in the United States and other countries. In countries where these species are not found, there are strict quarantine restrictions in place to prevent their accidental introduction. The treatment used in this study consisted of hot, forced, moist air with a linear heating rate of 12 degrees C/h to a final chamber temperature of 46 degrees C under a 1% oxygen and 15% carbon dioxide environment. We found that the fourth instar of both species was the most tolerant to the treatment, with equal tolerance between the species. Efficacy tests against the fourth instar of both oriental fruit moth and codling moth by using a commercial controlled atmosphere temperature treatment system chamber resulted in > 5,000 individuals of each species being controlled using the combination treatment. Confirmation tests against codling moth resulted in mortality of > 30,000 fourth instars. These treatments may be used to meet quarantine restrictions for organic apples where fumigation with methyl bromide is not desirable.

  16. Cushing’s Disease: The Relevance of a Combined Dexamethasone Desmopressin Test as a Component of Postoperative Hormonal Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Witek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The risk of Cushing’s disease (CD recurring may persist for years, even after initially successful surgery. Objective. To prospectively assess the relevance of a combined dexamethasone desmopressin test (CDDT as a component of postoperative hormonal evaluation, including the dynamics of ACTH and cortisol concentrations. Material and Methods. We included 28 patients after TSS for CD. Eighteen months after surgery the standard hormonal evaluation was performed, followed by a CDDT. Results. Fifteen patients (53.6% were in remission whereas in 13 subjects (46.4% hypercortisolemia was confirmed. Positive results of CDDT were observed in 12 noncured patients (92.3% and in one subject in remission (6.7%. Negative results were obtained in 12 patients with remission (80% and in one noncured patient (7.7%. With 2 patients in CD remission (13.3% the test results were inconclusive. We confirmed a high compatibility between CDDT and standard hormonal assessment results (κ=0.846; P<0.001. Significant differences in ACTH and cortisol levels at each CDDT time point between the two studied subgroups were shown. Conclusions. A negative CDDT result can be regarded as one of the factors indicative of CD remission during follow-up. Additionally, CDDT can help distinguish persistent hypercortisolemia from naturally recurring adrenal function after TSS.

  17. A novel testing platform for assessing knee joint mechanics: a parallel robotic system combined with an instrumented spatial linkage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atarod, Mohammad; Rosvold, Joshua M; Frank, Cyril B; Shrive, Nigel G

    2014-05-01

    Assessing joint function following trauma and its inter-relation with degenerative changes requires an understanding of the normal state of structural loading in the joint. Very few studies have attempted to reproduce joint specific in vivo motions in vitro to quantify the actual loads carried by different tissues within the knee joint. The most significant challenge in this area is the very high sensitivity of the loads in joint structures to motion reproduction accuracy. A novel testing platform for assessing knee joint mechanics is described, comprised of a highly accurate (0.3 ± 0.1 mm, 0.3 ± 0.1°) six-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF) instrumented spatial linkage (ISL) for in vivo joint kinematic assessments and a unique 6-DOF parallel robotic manipulator. A position feedback system (ISL and position controller) is used for accurate reproduction of in vivo joint motions and estimation of "in situ" joint/tissue loads. The parallel robotic manipulator provides excellent stiffness and repeatability in reproducing physiological motions in 6-DOF, compared to the commonly used serial robots. The position feedback system provides real-time feedback data to the robot to reproduce in vivo motions and significantly enhances motion reproduction accuracy by adjusting for robot end-effector movements. Using this combined robot-ISL system, in vivo motions can be reproduced in vitro with very high accuracy (0.1 mm, 0.1°). Our results indicate that this level of accuracy is essential for meaningful estimation of tissue loads during gait. Using this novel testing platform, we have determined the normal load-carrying characteristics of different tissues within the ovine knee joint. The application of this testing system will continue to increase our understanding of normal and pathological joint states.

  18. Design, Fabrication and Prototype testing of a Chip Integrated Micro PEM Fuel Cell Accumulator combined On-Board Range Extender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, A.; Mueller, C.; Reinecke, H.

    2014-11-01

    In this work we present the design, fabrication and prototype testing of Chip Integrated Micro PEM Fuel Cell Accumulator (CIμ-PFCA) combined On-Board Range Extender (O-BRE). CIμ-PFCA is silicon based micro-PEM fuel cell system with an integrated hydrogen storage feature (palladium metal hydride), the run time of CIμ-PFCA is dependent on the stored hydrogen, and in order to extend its run time an O-BRE is realized (catalytic hydrolysis of chemical hydride, NaBH4. Combining the CIμ-PFCA and O-BRE on a system level have few important design requirements to be considered; hydrogen regulation, gas -liquid separator between the CIμ-PFCA and the O-RE. The usage of traditional techniques to regulate hydrogen (tubes), gas-liquid phase membranes (porous membrane separators) are less desirable in the micro domain, due to its space constraint. Our approach is to use a passive hydrogen regulation and gas-liquid phase separation concept; to use palladium membrane. Palladium regulates hydrogen by concentration diffusion, and its property to selectively adsorb only hydrogen is used as a passive gas-liquid phase separator. Proof of concept is shown by realizing a prototype system. The system is an assembly of CIμ-PFCA, palladium membrane and the O-BRE. The CIμ-PFCA consist of 2 individually processed silicon chips, copper supported palladium membrane realized by electroplating followed by high temperature annealing process under inter atmosphere and the O-BRE is realized out of a polymer substrate by micromilling process with platinum coated structures, which functions as a catalyst for the hydrolysis of NaBH4. The functionality of the assembled prototype system is demonstrated by the measuring a unit cell (area 1 mm2) when driven by the catalytic hydrolysis of chemical hydride (NaBH4 and the prototype system shows run time more than 15 hours.

  19. A predictive model combining fecal calgranulin B and fecal occult blood tests can improve the diagnosis of colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Chang Kim

    Full Text Available AIM: Current fecal screening tools for colorectal cancer (CRC, such as fecal occult blood tests (FOBT, are limited by their low sensitivity. Calgranulin B (CALB was previously reported as a candidate fecal marker for CRC. This study investigated whether a combination of the FOBT and fecal CALB has increased sensitivity and specificity for a diagnosis of CRC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with CRC (n = 175, and healthy individuals (controls; n = 151 were enrolled into the development (81 cases and 51 controls and validation (94 cases and 100 controls sets. Stool samples were collected before bowel preparation. CALB levels were determined by western blotting. FOBT and fecal CALB results were used to develop a predictive model based on logistic regression analysis. The benefit of adding CALB to a model with only FOBT was evaluated as an increased area under the receiver operating curve (AUC, partial AUC, and reclassification improvement (RI in cases and controls, and net reclassification improvement (NRI. RESULTS: Mean CALB level was significantly higher in CRC patients than in controls (P<0.001. CALB was not associated with tumor stage or cancer site, but positivity on the FOBT was significantly higher in advanced than in earlier tumor stages. At a specificity of 90%, the cross-validated AUC and sensitivity were 89.81% and 82.72%, respectively, in the development set, and 92.74% and 79.79%, respectively, in the validation set. The incremental benefit of adding CALB to the model, as shown by the increase in AUC, had a p-value of 0.0499. RI in cases and controls and NRI all revealed that adding CALB significantly improved the prediction model. CONCLUSION: A predictive model using a combination of FOBT and CALB may have greater sensitivity and specificity and AUC for predicting CRC than models using a single marker.

  20. Combining motion analysis and microfluidics--a novel approach for detecting whole-animal responses to test substances.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabitha S Rudin-Bitterli

    Full Text Available Small, early life stages, such as zebrafish embryos are increasingly used to assess the biological effects of chemical compounds in vivo. However, behavioural screens of such organisms are challenging in terms of both data collection (culture techniques, drug delivery and imaging and data evaluation (very large data sets, restricting the use of high throughput systems compared to in vitro assays. Here, we combine the use of a microfluidic flow-through culture system, or BioWell plate, with a novel motion analysis technique, (sparse optic flow - SOF followed by spectral analysis (discrete Fourier transformation - DFT, as a first step towards automating data extraction and analysis for such screenings. Replicate zebrafish embryos housed in a BioWell plate within a custom-built imaging system were subject to a chemical exposure (1.5% ethanol. Embryo movement was videoed before (30 min, during (60 min and after (60 min exposure and SOF was then used to extract data on movement (angles of rotation and angular changes to the centre of mass of embryos. DFT was subsequently used to quantify the movement patterns exhibited during these periods and Multidimensional Scaling and ANOSIM were used to test for differences. Motion analysis revealed that zebrafish had significantly altered movements during both the second half of the alcohol exposure period and also the second half of the recovery period compared to their pre-treatment movements. Manual quantification of tail flicking revealed the same differences between exposure-periods as detected using the automated approach. However, the automated approach also incorporates other movements visible in the organism such as blood flow and heart beat, and has greater power to discern environmentally-driven changes in the behaviour and physiology of organisms. We suggest that combining these technologies could provide a highly efficient, high throughput assay, for assessing whole embryo responses to various

  1. The diagnostic utility of combination of HMGA2 and IMP3 qRT-PCR testing in thyroid neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Long; Lloyd, Ricardo V; Henry, Michael R; Erickson, Lori A; Sebo, Thomas J; Rumilla, Kandelaria M; Zhang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of malignant thyroid tumors in some cytologic and histologic specimens remains challenging. High-mobility group A2 (HMGA2) expression and insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding protein-3 (IMP3) expression were evaluated by relative quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the combination of HMGA2 and IMP3 qRT-PCR was diagnostically useful in differentiating benign from malignant thyroid neoplasms. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) specimens from 120 patients including 56 benign lesions and 64 carcinomas were used. The available 80 corresponding formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) thyroid tissues from 66 patients were also included in this study. HMGA2 and IMP3 expression levels were detected by qRT-PCR and reported as relative fold change after normalizing with a calibrator. The diagnostic utilities of HMGA2 and IMP3 qRT-PCR tests were evaluated individually and in combination. In FNA specimens, HMGA2 and IMP3 expression was consistently higher in thyroid malignancies compared with benign lesions in all subgroups except in Hürthle cell tumors. After exclusion of Hürthle cell tumors, the sensitivity was 90.2% for HMGA2, 88.2% for IMP3, and 98% for HMGA2+IMP3; the specificity was 97.1% for HMGA2, 79.4% for IMP3, and 79.4% for HMGA+IMP3. qRT-PCR data showed similar results in FFPE tissues: the sensitivity was 84.2% for HMGA2, 85.7% for IMP3, and 94.7% for HMGA2+IMP3; the specificity was 96.9% for HMGA2, 91.2% for IMP3, and 90.6% for HMGA2+IMP3. qRT-PCR data were concordant between FNA and FFPE samples for HMGA2 (97.4%) and IMP3 (96.9%). The results indicate that HMGA2 qRT-PCR with high specificity may be a useful ancillary technique to assist in the classification of difficult thyroid specimens, excluding Hürthle cell tumors. The HMGA2 and IMP3 qRT-PCR combination model with increased sensitivity and negative predictive value (96.4%) may be useful in screening thyroid

  2. Short time evaluation of metallic materials' fatigue potential combining destructive and non-destructive testing methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starke, Peter; Wu, Haoran; Boller, Christian [Univ. des Saarlandes, Saarbruecken (Germany). Campus Dudweiler

    2015-07-01

    Fatigue of engineering structures is an issue from an engineering design point. The lifetime of materials being subject to repeated mechanical loads is limited. Different examples of failures and fateful air accidents have caused significant cost and claims to the operators as well as manufacturers in excess of fatalities. Criticality of failure increases with increasing age and the uncertainty of operational loads applied. In such a case a reassessment of a structural materials' condition is in big need should damage tolerance criteria still be met, being the essential ground rule for aeronautical structural design. It is therefore the challenging aim to use a metallic material's microstructure characterizing non-destructive testing (NDT) parameter or a combination of those as a parameter to be scanned over a defined surface of the component considered to more realistically characterize the damage condition and to use this information twofold: (a) to more precisely assess the structural component's residual life and (b) to feed the information recorded back into a specific database belonging to an approach named PHYBAL. The physically based fatigue life evaluation method (PHYBAL) is a short-time procedure for the evaluation of fatigue data based on a small number of fatigue tests performed on un-notched specimens only. This method significantly reduces the effort for experimentation in terms of time and cost by around 90 % and inhibits remarkable scientific as well as economic advantages. The paper highlights the high capability of PHYBAL as well as the suitability for assessing the residual life of aeronautical components also with respect to the application of this approach in the light of structural health monitoring issues.

  3. Prediction of ease of laryngoscopy and intubation-role of upper lip bite test, modified mallampati classification, and thyromental distance in various combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjana S Wajekar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of difficult intubation in patients undergoing general anaesthesia is estimated to be approximately 1-18% whereas that of failure to intubate is 0.05-0.35%.1,2,3 Various methods have been used for prediction of difficult laryngoscopy. Although, upper lip bite has been shown to be a promising test in its introductory article, repeated validation in various populations is required for any test to be accepted as a routine test. We have compared upper lip bite test (ULBT, modified Mallampati test (MMC and thyromental distance (TMD individually and in various combinations to verify which of these predictor tests are significantly associated with difficult glottic exposure. Methods: After obtaining institutional ethics committee approval, 402 ASA I and II adult patients undergoing elective surgical procedures requiring endotracheal intubation were included. All the three test were performed in all the patients preoperatively and their glottic exposure was recorded by Cormack-Lehane classification during intubation. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were used for comparison. Results: In our study, the incidence of difficult laryngoscopy was 11.4% and failure to intubate 0.49%. None of the three are a suitable predictive test when used alone. Combination of tests added incremental diagnostic value. Conclusion: We conclude that all three screening tests for difficult intubation have only poor to moderate discriminative power when used alone. Combinations of individual tests add some incremental diagnostic value.

  4. Combined rapid (TUBEX test for typhoid-paratyphoid A fever based on strong anti-O12 response: design and critical assessment of sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiying Yan

    Full Text Available Rapid diagnostics can be accurate but, often, those based on antibody detection for infectious diseases are unwittingly underrated for various reasons. Herein, we described the development of a combined rapid test for two clinically-indistinguishable bacterial diseases, typhoid and paratyphoid A fever, the latter fast emerging as a global threat. By using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs to bacterial antigens of known chemical structures as probes, we were able to dissect the antibody response in patients at the level of monosaccharides. Thus, a mAb specific for a common lipopolysaccharide antigen (O12 found in both the causative organisms was employed to semi-quantify the amounts of anti-O12 antibodies present in both types of patients in an epitope-inhibition particle-based (TUBEX immunoassay. This colorimetric assay detected not only anti-O12 antibodies that were abundantly produced, but also, by steric hindrance, antibodies to an adjoining epitope (O9 or O2 in the typhoid or paratyphoid bacillus, respectively. Sensitivity and, particularly, reaction intensities, were significantly better than those obtained using an anti-O9 or anti-O2 mAb-probe in the examination of paired sera from 22 culture-confirmed typhoid patients (sensitivity, 81.8% vs 75.0% or single sera from 36 culture-confirmed paratyphoid patients (52.8% vs 28.6, respectively. Importantly, sensitivity was better (97.1% for typhoid, 75.0% for paratyphoid if allowance was made for the absence of relevant antibodies in certain specimens as determined by an independent, objective assay (ELISA--such specimens might have been storage-denatured (especially the older paratyphoid samples or procured from non-responders. Benchmarking against ELISA, which revealed high concordance between the two tests, was useful and more appropriate than comparing with culture methods as traditionally done, since antibody tests and culture target slightly different stages of these diseases. Paired sera

  5. An Independent, Prospective, Head to Head Study of the Reliability and Validity of Neurocognitive Test Batteries for the Assessment of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    traumatic brain injury; concussion ; neurocognitive assessment 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a...Sports Concussion Arm, preseason baseline testing was conducted prior to the fall and winter sports seasons for soccer (men/women), field hockey ... hockey , field hockey , rugby, wrestling), football will provide the large quantity of both baseline testing participants and concussed athletes. 6

  6. Predicting adherence to combination antiretroviral therapy for HIV in Tanzania: A test of an extended theory of planned behaviour model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banas, Kasia; Lyimo, Ramsey A; Hospers, Harm J; van der Ven, Andre; de Bruin, Marijn

    2017-10-01

    Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) for HIV is widely available in sub-Saharan Africa. Adherence is crucial to successful treatment. This study aimed to apply an extended theory of planned behaviour (TPB) model to predict objectively measured adherence to cART in Tanzania. Prospective observational study (n = 158) where patients completed questionnaires on demographics (Month 0), socio-cognitive variables including intentions (Month 1), and action planning and self-regulatory processes hypothesised to mediate the intention-behaviour relationship (Month 3), to predict adherence (Month 5). Taking adherence was measured objectively using the Medication Events Monitoring System (MEMS) caps. Model tests were conducted using regression and bootstrap mediation analyses. Perceived behavioural control (PBC) was positively (β = .767, p behavioural measure, identified PBC as the main driver of adherence intentions. The effect of intentions on adherence was only indirect through self-regulatory processes, which were the main predictor of objectively assessed adherence.

  7. Operating safety of a hot-shot wind tunnel with combined test gas heating in stabilization mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumskii, V. V.; Yaroslavtsev, M. I.

    2017-07-01

    In the present paper, we analyze emergency situations typical of short-duration wind tunnels with electric-arc or combined test-gas heating in the presence of stabilization and diaphragm-rupturing systems, which occur in the case of no discharge initiation in the settling chamber, with the capacitor battery having remained charged during the start of wind-tunnel systems. For avoiding such emergency situations, some additional changes based on using feedback elements are introduced into the wind-tunnel design: the piston of the fast-response valve is made hollow for increasing the volume of the shutoff cavity and for making the release of pressure from this cavity unnecessary; the high-pressure channel, which connects the piston and the piston rod with the settling-chamber cavity, is filled with a liquid and is closed from the side of the settling chamber with a piston; the device for controlled diaphragm breakdown is provided with an external electric circuit intended to control the diaphragm-rupturing process. Those modifications allow subsequent functioning of the wind-tunnel systems only in the presence of heat-supply-induced pressure growth in the settling chamber of the wind tunnel.

  8. Greater years of maternal schooling and higher scores on academic achievement tests are independently associated with improved management of child diarrhea by rural Guatemalan mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Aimee L; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Stein, Aryeh D; Sellen, Daniel W; Merchant, Moeza; Martorell, Reynaldo

    2010-09-01

    Appropriate home management can alleviate many of the consequences of diarrhea including malnutrition, impaired development, growth faltering, and mortality. Maternal cognitive ability, years of schooling, and acquired academic skills are hypothesized to improve child health by improving maternal child care practices, such as illness management. Using information collected longitudinally in 1996-1999 from 466 rural Guatemalan women with children schooling, academic skills, and scores on the Raven's Progressive Matrices and an illness management index (IMI). Women scoring in the lowest and middle tertiles of academic skills scored lower on the IMI compared to women in the highest tertile (-0.24 [95% CI: -0.54, 0.07]; -0.30 [95% CI: -0.54, -0.06], respectively) independent of sociodemographic factors, schooling, and Raven's scores. Among mothers with less than 1 year of schooling, scoring in the lowest tertile on the Raven's Progressive Matrices compared to the highest was significantly associated with scoring one point lower on the IMI (-1.18 [95% CI: -2.20, -0.17]). Greater academic skills were independently associated with maternal care during episodes of infant diarrhea. Schooling of young girls and/or community based programs that provide women with academic skills such as literacy, numeracy and knowledge could potentially improve mothers' care giving practices.

  9. The diagnostic value of the combination of patient characteristics, history, and clinical shoulder tests for the diagnosis of rotator cuff tear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kampen, D.A.; van den Berg, T.; van der Woude, H.J.; Castelein, R.M.; Scholtes, V.A.B.; Terwee, C.B.; Willems, W.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: It is unknown which combination of patient information and clinical tests might be optimal for the diagnosis of rotator cuff tears. This study aimed to determine the diagnostic value of nine individual clinical tests for evaluating rotator cuff tear and to develop a prediction model for

  10. Tests of Nacelle-Propeller Combinations in Various Positions with Reference to Wings V : Clark Y Biplane Cellule - NACA Cowled Nacelle - Tractor Propeller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, E Floyd

    1935-01-01

    This report is the fifth of a series giving the results obtained from wind tunnel tests on the interference drag and propulsive efficiency of nacelle-propeller-wing combinations. This report gives results of tests of an NACA cowled air-cooled engine nacelle with tractor propeller located in 12 positions with reference to a Clark Y biplane cellule.

  11. Rapid detection of Salmonella in foods using a combination of SPRINT TM,MSRV TM and Salmonella Latex TestTM

    OpenAIRE

    Jane Maria Lafayette Neves Gelinski; Gunnar Martin; Maria Teresa Destro; Mariza Landgraf; Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo Franco

    2002-01-01

    A new procedure for rapid detection of Salmonella in foods, based on the combination of SPRINT TM, MSRV TM and Salmonella Latex TestTM, was evaluated. SPRINT TM is a system to reduce the preenrichment and selective enrichment steps to 24 hours. MSRV TM is a semi-solid selective media for detection of motile Salmonella. Salmonella Latex TestTM is a rapid latex agglutination test for Salmonella. Using the three systems in combination, the total time for detection of Salmonella in a food sample ...

  12. [Comparison of efficacy between the serum cortisol and 24 hour urine free cortisol in combined dexamethasone suppression test in the diagnosis of Cushing syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, L; Chen, J H; Zhu, H J; Song, A L; Li, M; Chen, S; Pan, H; Gong, F Y; Wang, R Z; Xing, B; Yao, Y; Feng, M; Lu, Z L

    2016-07-19

    To compare the sensitivity and specificity between the 24 hour urine free cortisol (24 h UFC) and serum cortisol in dexamethasone suppression test (DST) in the diagnosis of Cushing syndrome (CS). Combined low dose DST (LDDST) and high dose DST (HDDST) were carried out in 67 cases of CS with surgically confirmed cases in recent 3 years(from January 2011 to November 2015). The serum cortisol and 24 h UFC were collected simultaneously for each subject and the sensitivity and specificity of serum cortisol and 24 h UFC were compared. There were Cushing disease (CD) group (n=53), ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) syndrome group (n=7) and ACTH-independent Cushing syndrome group (n=7) according to the etiology of hypercorticordism.There were no significant differences among 3 groups in gender and age.The sensitivity of serum cortisol of different cut off points(50, 110, 140 nmol/L and 50% of control)after LDDST was 97.01%, 86.57%, 83.58% and 70.15% respectively.Meanwhile, the sensitivity of cutoff point of 24 h UFC Cushing syndrome.There was no significant differences in two groups between serum cortisol Cushing disease was 60.38% and 90.57%, and the specificity was 91.43% and 96.00% respectively.There were significant differences between serum cortisol and 24 h UFC in both of sensitivity and specificity (both P<0.05). In addition, if the suppression rate of 24 h UFC in HDDST was adjusted to 60.85% according to receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, it could have the best levels of sensitivity (92.6%) with the specificity of 85.7%. If the suppression rate of serum cortisol was adjusted to 61.53% in HDDST according to ROC curve, it could have the best sensitivity (64.8%) with the specificity of 78.6% accordingly. In combined LDDST, the serum cortisol <50 nmol/L had a higher sensitivity than the 24 h UFC<32 nmol when they were used as the criteria in determining the diagnosis of CS.In HDDST, the sensitivity and specificity of suppression rate of 24 h UFC

  13. Deriving utility scores for co-morbid conditions: a test of the multiplicative model for combining individual condition scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Petit Christel

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The co-morbidity of health conditions is becoming a significant health issue, particularly as populations age, and presents important methodological challenges for population health research. For example, the calculation of summary measures of population health (SMPH can be compromised if co-morbidity is not taken into account. One popular co-morbidity adjustment used in SMPH computations relies on a straightforward multiplicative combination of the severity weights for the individual conditions involved. While the convenience and simplicity of the multiplicative model are attractive, its appropriateness has yet to be formally tested. The primary objective of the current study was therefore to examine the empirical evidence in support of this approach. Methods The present study drew on information on the prevalence of chronic conditions and a utility-based measure of health-related quality of life (HRQoL, namely the Health Utilities Index Mark 3 (HUI3, available from Cycle 1.1 of the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS; 2000–01. Average HUI3 scores were computed for both single and co-morbid conditions, and were also purified by statistically removing the loss of functional health due to health problems other than the chronic conditions reported. The co-morbidity rule was specified as a multiplicative combination of the purified average observed HUI3 utility scores for the individual conditions involved, with the addition of a synergy coefficient s for capturing any interaction between the conditions not explained by the product of their utilities. The fit of the model to the purified average observed utilities for the co-morbid conditions was optimized using ordinary least squares regression to estimate s. Replicability of the results was assessed by applying the method to triple co-morbidities from the CCHS cycle 1.1 database, as well as to double and triple co-morbidities from cycle 2.1 of the CCHS (2003–04. Results

  14. An online study combining the constructs from the theory of planned behaviour and protection motivation theory in predicting intention to test for chlamydia in two testing contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Rachael; Pattison, Helen M; Francis, Jill J

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia is a common sexually transmitted infection that has potentially serious consequences unless detected and treated early. The health service in the UK offers clinic-based testing for chlamydia but uptake is low. Identifying the predictors of testing behaviours may inform interventions to increase uptake. Self-tests for chlamydia may facilitate testing and treatment in people who avoid clinic-based testing. Self-testing and being tested by a health care professional (HCP) involve two contrasting contexts that may influence testing behaviour. However, little is known about how predictors of behaviour differ as a function of context. In this study, theoretical models of behaviour were used to assess factors that may predict intention to test in two different contexts: self-testing and being tested by a HCP. Individuals searching for or reading about chlamydia testing online were recruited using Google Adwords. Participants completed an online questionnaire that addressed previous testing behaviour and measured constructs of the Theory of Planned Behaviour and Protection Motivation Theory, which propose a total of eight possible predictors of intention. The questionnaire was completed by 310 participants. Sufficient data for multiple regression were provided by 102 and 118 respondents for self-testing and testing by a HCP respectively. Intention to self-test was predicted by vulnerability and self-efficacy, with a trend-level effect for response efficacy. Intention to be tested by a HCP was predicted by vulnerability, attitude and subjective norm. Thus, intentions to carry out two testing behaviours with very similar goals can have different predictors depending on test context. We conclude that interventions to increase self-testing should be based on evidence specifically related to test context.

  15. Emissivity independent optical pyrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Dennis Duncan; Kisner, Roger A.

    2017-04-04

    Disclosed herein are representative embodiments of methods, apparatus, and systems for determining the temperature of an object using an optical pyrometer. Certain embodiments of the disclosed technology allow for making optical temperature measurements that are independent of the surface emissivity of the object being sensed. In one of the exemplary embodiments disclosed herein, a plurality of spectral radiance measurements at a plurality of wavelengths is received from a surface of an object being measured. The plurality of the spectral radiance measurements is fit to a scaled version of a black body curve, the fitting comprising determining a temperature of the scaled version of the black body curve. The temperature is then output. The present disclosure is not to be construed as limiting and is instead directed toward all novel and nonobvious features and aspects of the various disclosed embodiments, alone or in various combinations and subcombinations with one another.

  16. Exploring the Relationships between Independent Listening and Listening-Reading-Writing Tasks in Chinese Language Testing: Toward a Better Understanding of the Construct Underlying Integrated Writing Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xinhua; Li, Xueyan; Yu, Guoxing; Cheong, Choo Mui; Liao, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Integrated assessment tasks have been increasingly used in language tests, but the underlying constructs of integrated tasks remain elusive. This study aimed to improve understanding of the construct of integrated writing tasks in Chinese Language examinations in Hong Kong by looking at the language competences measured in the…

  17. Nutrigenomics 2.0: The Need for Ongoing and Independent Evaluation and Synthesis of Commercial Nutrigenomics Tests' Scientific Knowledge Base for Responsible Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlidis, Cristiana; Nebel, Jean-Christophe; Katsila, Theodora

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Nutrigenomics is an important strand of precision medicine that examines the bidirectional interactions of the genome and nutritional exposures, and attendant health and disease outcomes. This perspectives article presents the new concept of “Nutrigenomics 2.0,” so as to cultivate and catalyze the next generation research and funding priorities for responsible and sustainable knowledge-based innovations. We further contextualize our recent study of the 38 genes included in commercially available nutrigenomics tests, and offer additional context in relation to the 2014 American Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics position. Finally, we make a call in the best interest of the nutrigenomics science community, governments, global society, and commercial nutrigenomics test providers that new evidence evaluation and synthesis platforms are created concerning nutrigenomics tests before they become commercially available. The proposed assessment and synthesis of nutrigenomics data should be carried out on an ongoing dynamic basis with periodic intervals and/or when there is a specific demand for evidence synthesis, and importantly, in ways that are transparent where conflict of interests are disclosed fully by the involved parties, be they scientists, industry, governments, citizens, social scientists, or ethicists. We submit that this will cultivate responsible innovation, and business models that are sustainable, robust, and stand the test of time and context. PMID:26689492

  18. Nutrigenomics 2.0: The Need for Ongoing and Independent Evaluation and Synthesis of Commercial Nutrigenomics Tests' Scientific Knowledge Base for Responsible Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlidis, Cristiana; Nebel, Jean-Christophe; Katsila, Theodora; Patrinos, George P

    2016-02-01

    Nutrigenomics is an important strand of precision medicine that examines the bidirectional interactions of the genome and nutritional exposures, and attendant health and disease outcomes. This perspectives article presents the new concept of "Nutrigenomics 2.0," so as to cultivate and catalyze the next generation research and funding priorities for responsible and sustainable knowledge-based innovations. We further contextualize our recent study of the 38 genes included in commercially available nutrigenomics tests, and offer additional context in relation to the 2014 American Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics position. Finally, we make a call in the best interest of the nutrigenomics science community, governments, global society, and commercial nutrigenomics test providers that new evidence evaluation and synthesis platforms are created concerning nutrigenomics tests before they become commercially available. The proposed assessment and synthesis of nutrigenomics data should be carried out on an ongoing dynamic basis with periodic intervals and/or when there is a specific demand for evidence synthesis, and importantly, in ways that are transparent where conflict of interests are disclosed fully by the involved parties, be they scientists, industry, governments, citizens, social scientists, or ethicists. We submit that this will cultivate responsible innovation, and business models that are sustainable, robust, and stand the test of time and context.

  19. Recurrent Word Combinations in EAP Test-Taker Writing: Differences between High- and Low-Proficiency Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Randy; Wood, David

    2016-01-01

    The correct use of frequently occurring word combinations represents an important part of language proficiency in spoken and written discourse. This study investigates the use of English-language recurrent word combinations in low-level and high-level L2 English academic essays sourced from the Canadian Academic English Language (CAEL) assessment.…

  20. Independent and combined influence of the FTO rs9939609 and MC4Rrs17782313 polymorphisms on hypocaloric diet induced changes in body mass and composition and energy metabolism in non-morbid obese premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labayen, Idoia; Margareto, Javier; Maldonado-Martin, Sara; Gorostegi, Ilargi; Illera, Maitane; Medrano, María; Barrenechea, Lurdes; Larrarte, Eider

    2015-05-01

    To examine the independent and combined influence of the FTOrs9939609 and the MC4Rrs17782313 polymorphisms on changes in fat mass (FM), resting energy expenditure (REE), leptin, and thyrotropin (TSH) levels, after a 12-week energy-restricted diet intervention in non-morbid premenopausal obese women. Fat mass (dual X-ray absorptiometry), REE (indirect calorimetry) and plasma leptin and thyrotropin levels were measured (before and after the intervention) in 77 obese (BMI: 33.9 ± 2.8 kg/m(2)) women (age: 36.8 ± 7.0y). There were no significant differences across FTOrs9939609 genotype groups (TT vs. A allele carriers, Ps>0.1) on changes in body mass (-8.6 ± 3.2% vs. -8.7 ± 3.3 %), FM (12.8 ± 4.7% vs. -12.9 ± 6.3%), REE (-11.3 ± 4.7 vs. -9.4 ± 8.1%), leptin (-34.1 ± 25.1% vs. -43.5 ± 24.1%) or TSH (5.2 ± 34.5% vs. -1.7 ± 27.1%) levels. Moreover, it was not observed any significant difference on changes in body mass (-8.6 ± 3.6% vs. -8.9 ± 2.6%), FM (-12.7 ± 6.1% vs. -13.4 ± 5.3%), REE (-9.8 ± 7.4% -9.4 ± 9.4%), leptin (-39.0 ± 26.9% vs. -44.8 ± 18.4%) or TSH (-1.0 ± 30.0% vs. 1.5 ± 26.5%) levels between non-C allele carriers and C allele carriers of the MC4Rrs17782313 (Ps>0.3). Finally, there were no significant difference on changes in body mass and composition, REE, leptin or TSH levels among non-risk allele carriers, carriers of the C allele risk of the MC4Rrs17782313, carriers of the A allele of the FTOrs9939609 and carriers of both risk alleles after the 12-week energy-restricted diet intervention (Ps>0.1). Carrying the A risk allele of the FTOrs9939609 and/or the C risk allele of the MC4Rrs17782313 did not influence body mass and FM loss, or REE decrease in obese women after a 12-week energy-restricted diet intervention. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  1. Susceptibility testing of terbinafine alone and in combination with amphotericin B, itraconazole, or voriconazole against conidia and hyphae of dematiaceous molds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancalana, Fernanda Simas Corrêa; Lyra, Luzia; Moretti, Maria Luiza; Schreiber, Angélica Zaninelli

    2011-12-01

    Studies have demonstrated excellent in vivo efficacy of terbinafine combined with other antifungal agents against dematiaceous molds; however, there is a lack of in vitro studies. Most studies evaluated conidia inocula, but susceptibility testing of hyphae could mimic the fungal status in infected tissues and might reflect the therapeutic potential of the agent. We investigated the in vitro susceptibility of terbinafine alone and in combination with amphotericin B, itraconazole, or voriconazole against conidia by microdilution and dynamic measurement of hyphae growth of dematiaceous molds. The MIC values for hyphae were, until 3 dilutions, below the MIC obtained for conidia. The results indicated 100% synergistic interactions between terbinafine and azoles or amphotericin B in all tests, but lower MICs for hyphae. In conclusion, our findings allow us to say that the hyphal form of tested dematiaceous molds showed high susceptibility to all antifungal agents evaluated, alone and in combination with terbinafine. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Validity of equations for estimating V[combining dot above]O2peak from the 20-m shuttle run test in adolescents aged 11-13 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Mariana B; Cyrino, Edilson S; Arruda, Miguel; Dourado, Antonio C; Coelho-E-Silva, Manuel J; Ohara, David; Romanzini, Marcelo; Ronque, Enio R V

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the validity of 4 regression equations to estimate the peak oxygen consumption (V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak) from the 20-m shuttle run test in adolescents aged 11-13 years. One hundred and fifteen adolescents, 61 boys (mean ± SD: age = 12.3 ± 0.9 years) and 54 girls (age = 12.1 ± 0.7 years) performed the 20-m shuttle run test and an incremental progressive maximal test for direct V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak analysis. Four linear regression equations were used to estimate the V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak: Barnett et al. (equation 1), Léger et al. (equation 2), Mahar et al. (equation 3), and Matsuzaka et al. (equation 4). For boys, only the V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak estimated by EQ3 did not differ from the value directly measured (p > 0.05). The EQ1, EQ2, and EQ4 underestimated the V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak, whereas the EQ3 overestimated, particularly in girls (p run test in adolescents aged 11-13 years.

  3. Testing of a 1kW De Nora solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell in combination with a lead acid battery. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kluiters, E.E.; Veen, W.R. ter; Schmal, D.

    1998-09-01

    The development of fuel cells for traction accelerated the last years because of severe emission demands for road vehicles. Because of these rapid developments a commercial application in 5 to 10 years is feasible which means that the fuel cell can be used for the generation of electric energy on board naval ships currently being developed. In the application of fuel cells and the integration in a ship`s system, the combination with a battery is important. To get insight into the possible problems involved, TNO has carried out orientating tests with a fuel cell/battery combination. The report describes the results. The tests carried out are related to charging of the battery with the fuel cell (at various initial states of charge of the battery) and taking a continuously increasing power out of the fuel cell/battery combination. No tests with a DC/DC converter have been carried out so far, because battery and fuel cell voltage were adapted to each other and because of the orientating character of the study. The tests show that this is possible without any problems. However, in practice, DC/DC converters will generally be required for various reasons. Therefore further development and testing of this combination, including DC/DC converters, control equipment etc. is advised.

  4. MTS colorimetric assay in combination with a live-dead assay for testing encapsulated L929 fibroblasts in alginate poly-L-lysine microcapsules in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunger, CM; Jahnke, A; Stange, J; de Vos, P; Hopt, UT

    Biomaterials such as applied in microcapsules may have harmful effects on encapsulated cells. Up to now, there are no adequate assays available for testing the function and viability of cells in capsules. Therefore, we investigated whether the combination of MTS proliferation assay and live-dead

  5. Performance of first-trimester combined test for Down syndrome in different maternal age groups: reason for adjustments in screening policy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engels, Melanie A. J.; Heijboer, A. C.; Blankenstein, Marinus A.; van Vugt, John M. G.

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the performance of the first-trimester combined test (FCT) in different maternal age groups and to discuss whether adjustments in screening policies should be made. In this retrospective study data (n = 26 274) from a fetal medicine center on FCT (maternal age, fetal NT, free β-human

  6. Power and Sample Size Calculations for Testing Linear Combinations of Group Means under Variance Heterogeneity with Applications to Meta and Moderation Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Gwowen; Jan, Show-Li

    2015-01-01

    The general formulation of a linear combination of population means permits a wide range of research questions to be tested within the context of ANOVA. However, it has been stressed in many research areas that the homogeneous variances assumption is frequently violated. To accommodate the heterogeneity of variance structure, the…

  7. Instrumental intelligent test of food sensory quality as mimic of human panel test combining multiple cross-perception sensors and data fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Qin; Zhao, Jiewen; Chen, Quansheng

    2014-09-02

    Instrumental test of food quality using perception sensors instead of human panel test is attracting massive attention recently. A novel cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion imitating multiple mammal perception was proposed for the instrumental test in this work. First, three mimic sensors of electronic eye, electronic nose and electronic tongue were used in sequence for data acquisition of rice wine samples. Then all data from the three different sensors were preprocessed and merged. Next, three cross-perception variables i.e., color, aroma and taste, were constructed using principal components analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regression (MLR) which were used as the input of models. MLR, back-propagation artificial neural network (BPANN) and support vector machine (SVM) were comparatively used for modeling, and the instrumental test was achieved for the comprehensive quality of samples. Results showed the proposed cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion presented obvious superiority to the traditional data fusion methodologies, also achieved a high correlation coefficient (>90%) with the human panel test results. This work demonstrated that the instrumental test based on the cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion can actually mimic the human test behavior, therefore is of great significance to ensure the quality of products and decrease the loss of the manufacturers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Treatment Planning Constraints to Avoid Xerostomia in Head-and-Neck Radiotherapy: An Independent Test of QUANTEC Criteria Using a Prospectively Collected Dataset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moiseenko, Vitali, E-mail: vmoiseenko@bccancer.bc.ca [Department of Medical Physics, Vancouver Cancer Centre, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Wu, Jonn [Department of Radiation Oncology, Vancouver Cancer Centre, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Hovan, Allan [Department of Oral Oncology, Vancouver Cancer Centre, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Saleh, Ziad; Apte, Aditya; Deasy, Joseph O. [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Harrow, Stephen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Vancouver Cancer Centre, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Rabuka, Carman; Muggli, Adam [Department of Oral Oncology, Vancouver Cancer Centre, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Thompson, Anna [Department of Radiation Oncology, Vancouver Cancer Centre, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: The severe reduction of salivary function (xerostomia) is a common complication after radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer. Consequently, guidelines to ensure adequate function based on parotid gland tolerance dose-volume parameters have been suggested by the QUANTEC group and by Ortholan et al. We perform a validation test of these guidelines against a prospectively collected dataset and compared with a previously published dataset. Methods and Materials: Whole-mouth stimulated salivary flow data from 66 head-and-neck cancer patients treated with radiotherapy at the British Columbia Cancer Agency (BCCA) were measured, and treatment planning data were abstracted. Flow measurements were collected from 50 patients at 3 months, and 60 patients at 12-month follow-up. Previously published data from a second institution, Washington University in St. Louis (WUSTL), were used for comparison. A logistic model was used to describe the incidence of Grade 4 xerostomia as a function of the mean dose of the spared parotid gland. The rate of correctly predicting the lack of xerostomia (negative predictive value [NPV]) was computed for both the QUANTEC constraints and Ortholan et al. recommendation to constrain the total volume of both glands receiving more than 40 Gy to less than 33%. Results: Both datasets showed a rate of xerostomia of less than 20% when the mean dose to the least-irradiated parotid gland is kept to less than 20 Gy. Logistic model parameters for the incidence of xerostomia at 12 months after therapy, based on the least-irradiated gland, were D{sub 50} = 32.4 Gy and and {gamma} = 0.97. NPVs for QUANTEC guideline were 94% (BCCA data), and 90% (WUSTL data). For Ortholan et al. guideline NPVs were 85% (BCCA) and 86% (WUSTL). Conclusion: These data confirm that the QUANTEC guideline effectively avoids xerostomia, and this is somewhat more effective than constraints on the volume receiving more than 40 Gy.

  9. Validity evaluation of in-house preparation kit, vaginal pH paper test combined amine tube test, for the simple diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Loyprasert-Thananimit, Suchera; Kuasuwan, Phanida; Nittayaboon, Kesara; Chotigeat, Wilaiwan; Chandeying, Nutthaporn; Chandeying, Verapol

    2012-01-01

    ...) for both elevated vaginal pH > 4.5 and positive amine test, as well as evaluate for validity of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value against Chandeying criteria for confirmed BV...

  10. Incorporating HIV/hepatitis B virus/hepatitis C virus combined testing into routine blood tests in nine UK Emergency Departments: the "Going Viral" campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orkin, C; Flanagan, S; Wallis, E; Ireland, G; Dhairyawan, R; Fox, J; Nandwani, R; O'Connell, R; Lascar, M; Bulman, J; Reeves, I; Palfreeman, A; Foster, G R; Ahmad, K; Anderson, J; Tong, C Y W; Lattimore, S

    2016-03-01

    Routine HIV screening is recommended in those UK hospitals and primary care settings where the HIV prevalence is > 0.2%. For hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), however, testing is targeted at at-risk groups. We investigated the prevalence of these blood-borne viruses (BBVs) during a routine testing pilot in UK Emergency Departments (EDs). During the "Going Viral" campaign (13-19 October 2014), nine UK EDs in areas of high HIV prevalence offered routine tests for HIV, HBV and HCV to adults having blood taken as part of routine care. Patients who tested positive were linked to care. A total of 7807 patients had blood taken during their ED visit; of these, 2118 (27%) were tested for BBVs (range 9-65%). Seventy-one BBV tests were positive (3.4%) with 32 (45.1%) new diagnoses. There were 39 HCV infections (15 newly diagnosed), 17 HIV infections (six newly diagnosed), and 15 HBV infections (11 newly diagnosed). Those aged 25-54 years had the highest prevalence: 2.46% for HCV, 1.36% for HIV and 1.09% for HBV. Assuming the cost per diagnosis is £7, the cost per new case detected would be £988 for HCV, £1351 for HBV and £2478 for HIV. In the first study in the UK to report prospectively on BBV prevalence in the ED, we identified a high number of new viral hepatitis diagnoses, especially hepatitis C, in addition to the HIV diagnoses. Testing for HIV alone would have missed 54 viral hepatitis diagnoses (26 new), supporting further evaluation of routine BBV testing in UK EDs. © 2016 British HIV Association.

  11. It takes a combination of biosecurity, testing, and vaccination to keep bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) under control

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the third installment of a 3 part series on bovine viral diarrhea (BVD), written for a lay publication whose core audience in dairy producers. Control of BVD in any dairy operation must rely on the implementation of an organized strategy combining biosecurity, surveillance and increased herd...

  12. Wind tunnel tests with combined pitch and free-floating flap control: data-driven iterative feedforward controller tuning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Navalkar, S.T.; Bernhammer, L.O.; Sodja, J.; van Solingen, E.; van Kuik, G.A.M.; van Wingerden, J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Wind turbine load alleviation has traditionally been addressed in the literature using either full-span pitch control, which has limited bandwidth, or trailing-edge flap control, which typically shows low control authority due to actuation constraints. This paper combines both methods and

  13. Test of critical steps towards a combined cell and gene therapy approach for the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kajhøj, Tine Qvistgaard; Duch, Mogens R.; Pedersen, Finn Skou

    2015-01-01

    Background: Therapies for muscular dystrophies remain a major challenge in spite of advanced strategies using either cell or gene therapy. We here propose a combined approach of cell and gene therapy. As gene delivery vehicles with specific homing potential we have chosen mesoangioblasts which...

  14. Automatic Vacuum Flushing Technology for Combined Sewer Solids: Laboratory Testing and Proposed Improvements (WERF Report INFR7SG09)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research study included an extensive literature review on existing sewer sediment flushing technologies. An innovative vacuum flush system previously developed by the U.S. EPA was tested under laboratory conditions. The tests revealed a strong correlation between the strengt...

  15. Logical independence and quantum randomness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paterek, T; Kofler, J; Aspelmeyer, M; Zeilinger, A; Brukner, C [Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Boltzmanngasse 3, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Prevedel, R; Klimek, P [Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Boltzmanngasse 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: tomasz.paterek@univie.ac.at

    2010-01-15

    We propose a link between logical independence and quantum physics. We demonstrate that quantum systems in the eigenstates of Pauli group operators are capable of encoding mathematical axioms and show that Pauli group quantum measurements are capable of revealing whether or not a given proposition is logically dependent on the axiomatic system. Whenever a mathematical proposition is logically independent of the axioms encoded in the measured state, the measurement associated with the proposition gives random outcomes. This allows for an experimental test of logical independence. Conversely, it also allows for an explanation of the probabilities of random outcomes observed in Pauli group measurements from logical independence without invoking quantum theory. The axiomatic systems we study can be completed and are therefore not subject to Goedel's incompleteness theorem.

  16. Are Independent Fiscal Institutions Really Independent?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slawomir Franek

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade the number of independent fiscal institutions (known also as fiscal councils has tripled. They play an important oversight role over fiscal policy-making in democratic societies, especially as they seek to restore public finance stability in the wake of the recent financial crisis. Although common functions of such institutions include a role in analysis of fiscal policy, forecasting, monitoring compliance with fiscal rules or costing of spending proposals, their roles, resources and structures vary considerably across countries. The aim of the article is to determine the degree of independence of such institutions based on the analysis of the independence index of independent fiscal institutions. The analysis of this index values may be useful to determine the relations between the degree of independence of fiscal councils and fiscal performance of particular countries. The data used to calculate the index values will be derived from European Commission and IMF, which collect sets of information about characteristics of activity of fiscal councils.

  17. Accuracy Combination Test of Classical and Modern Technical Analysis: a Case Study in Stock of PT Wijaya Karya Tbk

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid, Agustini

    2016-01-01

    The research aimed to measure the accuracy and combination of Classic and Modern Technical Analysis. PT Wijaya Karya Tbk (WIKA)’s stock in two periods is the sample of research. Technical analysis was used to predict stock prices by observing changes in historical share price. Practically, technical analysis is divided into Classic Technical and Modern. Research was conducted by library study and using a computer software. Microsft Excel was used for the simulation and Chart Nexus for analyzi...

  18. Optimal selection for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation testing using a combination of 'easy to apply' probability models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bodmer, D; Ligtenberg, M.J.L; Hout, A.H. van der; Gloudemans, S; Ansink, K; Oosterwijk-Wakka, J.C; Hoogerbrugge-van der Linden, N

    2006-01-01

    To establish an efficient, reliable and easy to apply risk assessment tool to select families with breast and/or ovarian cancer patients for BRCA mutation testing, using available probability models...

  19. Optimal selection for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation testing using a combination of ' easy to apply ' probability models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bodmer, D; Ligtenberg, M. J. L; van der Hout, A. H; Gloudemans, S; Ansink, K; Oosterwijk, J. C; Hoogerbrugge, N

    2006-01-01

    To establish an efficient, reliable and easy to apply risk assessment tool to select families with breast and/or ovarian cancer patients for BRCA mutation testing, using available probability models...

  20. Performance of cognitive tests, individually and combined, for the detection of cognitive disorders amongst community-dwelling elderly people with memory complaints: the EVATEM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannier-Nitenberg, C; Dauphinot, V; Bongue, B; Sass, C; Bathsavanis, A; Rouch, I; Deville, N; Beauchet, O; Krolak-Salmon, P; Fantino, B

    2016-03-01

    Dementia is a leading cause of dependence amongst the aged population. Early identification of cognitive impairment could help to delay advanced stages of dependence. This study aimed at assessing the performance of three neuropsychological tests to detect cognitive disorders in elderly subjects with memory complaints. The EVATEM study is a prospective multicentre cohort with a 1-year follow-up. Subjects with memory complaints were selected during preventive health examinations, and three neuropsychological tests (five-word, cognitive disorders examination, verbal fluency) were administered. Two groups were identified in memory clinics: (i) cognitively healthy individuals (CHI) and (ii) mild cognitive impairment or demented individuals (MCI-DI). Cross-sectional analyses were performed on data at inclusion. The relationship between the diagnosis of MCI-DI/CHI and the neuropsychological tests was assessed using logistic regressions. The performance of the neuropsychological tests, individually and combined, to detect cognitive disorders was calculated. Of 585 subjects, 31.11% had cognitive disorders (MCI, 176 subjects; DI, six subjects). Amongst the three tests studied, the odds ratio for MCI-DI was higher for the five-word test tests were combined: specificity 90.5% and sensitivity 42.4% compared to respectively 89.2% and 28.3% for the five-word test. Despite the poor sensitivity of the five-word test, it seems to be the most adapted for the diagnosis of MCI-DI in older adults with a memory complaint, in prevention centres, taking into account its high specificity and its rapid administration compared to the other tests. © 2015 EAN.

  1. Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers.......Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers....

  2. Combination of poroelasticity theory and constant strain rate test in modelling land subsidence due to groundwater extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Tien Hung; Rühaak, Wolfram; Sass, Ingo

    2017-04-01

    Extensive groundwater extraction leads to a drawdown of the ground water table. Consequently, soil effective stress increases and can cause land subsidence. Analysis of land subsidence generally requires a numerical model based on poroelasticity theory, which was first proposed by Biot (1941). In the review of regional land subsidence accompanying groundwater extraction, Galloway and Burbey (2011) stated that more research and application is needed in coupling of stress-dependent land subsidence process. In geotechnical field, the constant rate of strain tests (CRS) was first introduced in 1969 (Smith and Wahls 1969) and was standardized in 1982 through the designation D4186-82 by American Society for Testing and Materials. From the reading values of CRS tests, the stress-dependent parameters of poroelasticity model can be calculated. So far, there is no research to link poroelasticity theory with CRS tests in modelling land subsidence due to groundwater extraction. One dimensional CRS tests using conventional compression cell and three dimension CRS tests using Rowe cell were performed. The tests were also modelled by using finite element method with mixed elements. Back analysis technique is used to find the suitable values of hydraulic conductivity and bulk modulus that depend on the stress or void ratio. Finally, the obtained results are used in land subsidence models. Biot, M. A. (1941). "General theory of three-dimensional consolidation." Journal of applied physics 12(2): 155-164. Galloway, D. L. and T. J. Burbey (2011). "Review: Regional land subsidence accompanying groundwater extraction." Hydrogeology Journal 19(8): 1459-1486. Smith, R. E. and H. E. Wahls (1969). "Consolidation under constant rates of strain." Journal of Soil Mechanics & Foundations Div.

  3. A Novel “Single-Path” vs. “Few-Path” Test Based on Higher Order Statistics to Possibly Start-Up Coherent Combining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Benedetto

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on an innovative hypothesis test for discrimination of wireless mobile channels based on higher order statistics to possibly start-up coherent combining. We have devised a new testing procedure, namely the Rakeness test, that statistically measures how much the series under investigation (amplitude samples of matched filter receiver's output fits Rice vs. non-Rice models. This is equivalent to discriminate between the cases of a channel with one single dominant path (strong propagation, or with few dominant paths (weak propagation. Then, mathematical expressions for the bias and variance of the new testing variable are derived, by a 3-D reduced Taylor's expansion up to the second order. The achieved results, obtained throughout theory and simulations, evidence the robustness of this innovative test. Our test can hence be used as a preliminary signal processing method to decide if simpler choices (i.e. matched filters or cumbersome coherent combining strategies (i.e. Rake receivers can be effectively implemented at the receiver's side.

  4. Central Bank independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile DEDU

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the key aspects regarding central bank’s independence. Most economists consider that the factor which positively influences the efficiency of monetary policy measures is the high independence of the central bank. We determined that the National Bank of Romania (NBR has a high degree of independence. NBR has both goal and instrument independence. We also consider that the hike of NBR’s independence played an important role in the significant disinflation process, as headline inflation dropped inside the targeted band of 3% ± 1 percentage point recently.

  5. Organizing Independent Student Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhadyra T. Zhumasheva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses issues in organizing independent student work. The author defines the term “independence”, discusses the concepts of independent learner work and independent learner work under the guidance of an instructor, proposes a classification of assignments to be done independently, and provides methodological recommendations as to the organization of independent student work. The article discusses the need for turning the student from a passive consumer of knowledge into an active creator of it, capable of formulating a problem, analyzing the ways of solving it, coming up with an optimum outcome, and proving its correctness. The preparation of highly qualified human resources is the primary condition for boosting Kazakhstan’s competitiveness. Independent student work is a means of fostering the professional competence of future specialists. The primary form of self-education is independent work.

  6. Synergistic effects and related bioactive mechanisms of Potentilla fruticosa Linn. leaves combined with green tea polyphenols studied with microbial test system (MTS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ze-Hua; Luo, Zi-Wen; Li, Deng-Wu; Wang, Dong-Mei; Ji, Xia

    2017-06-12

    Previous research found Potentilla fruticosa leaf extracts (PFE) combined with green tea polyphenols (GTP) showed obvious synergistic effects based on chemical mechanisms. This study further confirmed the synergy of PFE + GTP viewed from bioactivities using the microbial test system (MTS). The MTS antioxidant activity results showed the combination of PFE + GTP exhibited synergistic effect and the ratio 3:1 showed the strongest synergy, whi