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Sample records for colony forming ability

  1. The effect of LED-light action on microbial colony forming ability of several species of staphylococcus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuchina, Elena S.; Permyakova, Natalia F.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2007-05-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) now is widespread for treatment of the various skin infections caused by Propionibacterium acnes or Staphylococcii spp. We used PDT for influence on opportunistic microflora of human skin presented by Staphylococcus hominis, S. warnery, S. epidermidis S. aureus 209 P, S. aureus 69. Species S. epidermidis, S. aureus 209 P, S. hominis to some extent reduced colonies forming ability under action of dual wavelength LED-light (442 nm and 597 nm). For species S. warnery, S. aureus 69 the increase in CFU number under action of light relative to control was characteristic. Our experiments have shown, that phototherapy can be used for treatment of diseases associated with S. aureus 209 P. The doze 8 J/cm2 caused reduction in CFU of this species on 40% relative to control.

  2. Was Fundamental Education Another Form Of Colonialism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watras, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    A description of the work of Pedro Tamesis Orata provides an opportunity to investigate the conflicts that can occur when educators seek to reduce poverty while trying to respect indigenous cultures. A native of the Philippines, Orata completed his doctoral studies at the Ohio State University in 1927. During US President Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal, he accepted the position of school principal for the US Bureau of Indian Affairs. After World War II, he directed the spread of fundamental education through the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). In his final years, he returned to the Philippines where he began a movement to spread what were called self-help high schools. In these activities, Orata taught people to follow John Dewey's five steps of thinking while working to improve their standards of living. In the 1970s, educators, such as Paulo Freire, complained that problem-solving methods, similar to those Orata favored, reinforced the oppressive aspects of formerly colonial societies. While Freire may have been overly critical, conflicts among cultural orientations appear to be unavoidable. The hope behind this investigation is that the difficulties can be reduced when people understand the different forces that persist.

  3. A simple and fast method for determining colony forming units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieuwerts, S.; Bok, de F.A.M.; Mols, E.; Vos, de W.M.; Hylckama Vlieg, van J.E.T.

    2008-01-01

    Aims: To develop a flexible and fast colony forming unit quantification method that can be operated in a standard microbiology laboratory. Methods and Results: A miniaturized plating method is reported where droplets of bacterial cultures are spotted on agar plates. Subsequently, minicolony spots

  4. Forms of Memory in Post-colonial Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyn McCredden

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available there are many forms of memory in post-colonial Australia, and many kinds of haunting. This paper investigates the poetry of contemporary Indigenous poets Sam Wagan Watson and Tony Birch, and reads the script of the Federal Government’s February 2008 Apology to the Stolen Generations, asking how and why the nation should be haunted – historically and imaginatively - into the future.

  5. Glass forming ability of calcium aluminosilicate melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesgaard, Mette; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2011-01-01

    The glass forming ability (GFA) of two series of calcium aluminosilicate melts is studied by measuring their viscous behavior and crystallization tendency. The first series consists of five compositions on the joining line between the eutectic point of anorthite-wollastonite-tridymite and that of......The glass forming ability (GFA) of two series of calcium aluminosilicate melts is studied by measuring their viscous behavior and crystallization tendency. The first series consists of five compositions on the joining line between the eutectic point of anorthite......-wollastonite-tridymite and that of anorthite-wollastonite-gehlenite. The series includes the eutectic compositions as end members. The second series consists of five compositions on a line parallel to the joining line on the alumina rich side. In the present work, GFA is described in terms of glass stability, i.e., the ability of a glass...... to resist crystallization during reheating. In addition, the fragility index (m) is derived by fitting the viscosity data with the Avramov-Milchev equation. The results show that m is inversely proportional to the glass stability for the two series of melts, implying that m is an indirect measure of GFA...

  6. Effects of clothianidin on Bombus impatiens (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colony health and foraging ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Michelle T; Winston, Mark L; Morandin, Lora A

    2004-04-01

    We conducted laboratory experiments to investigate the lethal and sublethal effects of clothianidin on bumble bee, Bombus impatiens Cresson, colony health and foraging ability. Bumble bee colonies were exposed to 6 ppb clothianidin, representing the highest residue levels found in field studies on pollen, and a higher dose of 36 ppb clothianidin in pollen. Clothianidin did not effect pollen consumption, newly emerged worker weights, amount of brood or the number of workers, males, and queens at either dose. The foraging ability of worker bees tested on an artificial array of complex flowers also did not differ among treatments. These results suggest that clothianidin residues found in seed-treated canola and possibly other crops will not adversely affect the health of bumble bee colonies or the foraging ability of workers.

  7. Number of colony-forming unit-Hill colonies among children and teenagers with obesity, dyslipidemia and breastfeeding history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Martinez, E; Rodriguez-Valentin, R; Albavera-Hernandez, C; Carreon-Rodriguez, A; Lazcano-Ponce, E

    2016-06-01

    The number of colony-forming unit (CFU)-Hill colonies has been proposed as a biomarker of vascular function and cardiovascular risk in adults but information about its role in children is scarce. This study evaluates the associations between obesity, cardiovascular risk factors and breastfeeding history with the numbers of CFU-Hill colonies in a sample of young people. We selected 49 children and teenagers between ages 10 and 17 (65.3% boys) from Mexican Health Care system. Physical activity and Anthropometric measures data were registered. CFU-Hill colonies were cultured from mononuclear cells obtained from venous blood. We detected inverse associations between the formation of CFU-Hill colonies and body mass index (BMI; β = -1.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], -1.92, -1.13), triglycerides (β = -0.26; 95%CI = -0.34, -0.18), total cholesterol (β = -0.13; 95%CI = -0.17, -0.08), Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) (β = -0.20; 95%CI = -0.31, -0.09) and glucose (β = -0.37; 95%CI = -0.55, -0.18) using multivariate models. Breastfeeding duration showed a 1.46-colony increase for each month of breastfeeding (95%CI = 0.73, 2.18). CFU-Hill colony-forming capacity in children and teenagers was inversely associated with obesity, dyslipidemia and high blood levels of glucose. In contrast a longer breastfeeding duration was directly associated with an increased number of CFU-Hill colonies. However these results must be confirmed with further studies. Our findings support the importance of promoting breastfeeding and monitoring nutritional and metabolic status at an early age to prevent chronic disease development. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. DECREASED LEVEL OF CORD BLOOD CIRCULATING ENDOTHELIAL COLONY-FORMING CELLS IN PREECLAMPSIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Hernandez, Rocio; Miranda, Maria L.; Stiefel, Pablo; Lin, Ruei-Zeng; Praena-Fernández, Juan M.; Dominguez-Simeon, Maria J.; Villar, Jose; Moreno-Luna, Rafael; Melero-Martin, Juan M.

    2014-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-related disorder associated with increased cardiovascular risk for the offspring. Endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) are a subset of circulating endothelial progenitor cells that participate in the formation of vasculature during development. However, the effect of preeclampsia on fetal levels of ECFCs is largely unknown. In this study, we sought to determine whether cord blood ECFC abundance and function are altered in preeclampsia. We conducted a prospective cohort study that included women with normal (n=35) and preeclamptic (n=15) pregnancies. We measured ECFC levels in the umbilical cord blood of neonates and characterized ECFC phenotype, cloning-forming ability, proliferation and migration towards VEGF-A and FGF-2, in vitro formation of capillary-like structures, and in vivo vasculogenic ability in immunodeficient mice. We found that the level of cord blood ECFCs was statistically lower in preeclampsia than in control pregnancies (P = .04), a reduction that was independent of other obstetric factors. In addition, cord blood ECFCs from preeclamptic pregnancies required more time to emerge in culture than control ECFCs. However, once derived in culture, ECFC function was deemed normal and highly similar between preeclampsia and control, including the ability to form vascular networks in vivo. This study demonstrates that preeclampsia affects ECFC abundance in neonates. A reduced level of ECFCs during preeclamptic pregnancies may contribute to an increased risk of developing future cardiovascular events. PMID:24752434

  9. Increased numbers of spleen colony forming units in B cell deficient CBA/N mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiktor-Jedrzejczak, W.; Krupienicz, A.; Scher, I.

    1986-01-01

    The formation of exogenous and endogenous spleen colonies was studied in immune-defective mice expressing the CBA/N X-linked xid gene. Bone marrow and spleen cells of immune deficient mice formed increased numbers of eight-day exogenous spleen colonies when transferred to either normal or B cell deficient lethally irradiated recipients. Moreover, defective mice showed increased formation of five-day endogenous spleen colonies (derived from transient endogenous colony forming units; T-CFU) and of ten-day endogenous spleen colonies (derived from CFU-S). Among the possible mechanisms responsible for the observed effects, the most probable appears the one in which decreased numbers of B cell precursors stimulate stem cell pools through a feedback mechanism. (orig.) [de

  10. Competitive interactions between corals and turf algae depend on coral colony form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swierts, Thomas; Vermeij, Mark Ja

    2016-01-01

    Turf algae are becoming more abundant on coral reefs worldwide, but their effects on other benthic organisms remain poorly described. To describe the general characteristics of competitive interactions between corals and turf algae, we determined the occurrence and outcomes of coral-turf algal interactions among different coral growth forms (branching, upright, massive, encrusting, plating, and solitary) on a shallow reef in Vietnam. In total, the amount of turf algal interaction, i.e., the proportion of the coral boundary directly bordering turf algae, was quantified for 1,276 coral colonies belonging to 27 genera and the putative outcome of each interaction was noted. The amount of turf algal interaction and the outcome of these interactions differed predictably among the six growth forms. Encrusting corals interacted most often with turf algae, but also competed most successfully against turf algae. The opposite was observed for branching corals, which rarely interacted with turf algae and rarely won these competitive interactions. Including all other growth forms, a positive relationship was found between the amount of competitive interactions with neighboring turf algae and the percentage of such interaction won by the coral. This growth form dependent ability to outcompete turf algae was not only observed among coral species, but also among different growth forms in morphologically plastic coral genera (Acropora, Favia, Favites, Montastrea, Montipora, Porites) illustrating the general nature of this relationship.

  11. A thermodynamic approach towards glass-forming ability of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 38; Issue 7. A thermodynamic approach towards glass-forming ability of amorphous metallic alloys ... The driving force of crystallization () provides very important information about the glass-forming ability (GFA) of metallic glasses (MGs). Lesser the driving force of ...

  12. Heterogeneity within the spleen colony-forming cell population in rat bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, A.C.; van Bekkum, D.W.; Hagenbeek, A.

    1986-01-01

    The pluripotent hemopoietic stem cell (HSC) of the rat can be enumerated in a spleen colony assay (SCA) in rats as well as mice. After injection of rat bone marrow into lethally irradiated mice, macroscopically visible spleen colonies (CFU-S) are found from day 6 through 14, but the number varies on consecutive days. In normal bone marrow a constant ratio of day-8 to day-12 colony numbers is observed. However, this ratio is changed after in vivo treatment of rats with cyclophosphamide, as well as after in vitro treatment of rat bone marrow with cyclophosphamide derivatives. This indicates that the CFU-S that form colonies on day 8 react differently to this treatment than the CFU-S that form colonies on day 12, and suggests heterogeneity among the CFU-S population. Posttreatment regrowth of day-8 and day-12 CFU-S is characterized by differences in population-doubling times (Td = 0.85 days vs 1.65 days). Another argument in support of the postulate of heterogeneity within the rat CFU-S population is derived from the fact that (in contrast to normal rat spleen) the spleen of leukemic rats contains high numbers of CFU-S that show a ratio of day-8 to day-12 CFU-S of 4.5, which is different than that observed for a CFU-S population in normal bone marrow (a ratio of 2.4). It is concluded that, in rat hemopoiesis, two populations of spleen colony-forming cells can be distinguished using the rat-to-mouse SCA. This indicates that mouse and rat hemopoiesis are comparable in this respect and that heterogeneity in the stem cell compartment is a general phenomenon

  13. Effect of Fluoride Mouthrinse and Toothpaste on Number of Streptococcal Colony Forming Units of Dental Plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SE Jabbarifar

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Frequent topical fluoride therapy through toothpaste, mouthrinse, professional gels and solutions causes decrease in incidence, pause and repair of dental caries in the enamel. These mechanisms are done through penetration of fluoride ions (F- and their replacement with hydroxyl ions (OH- of hydroxyappatite of enamel, interfere with microbial metabolism of dental plaque and bacteriostatic effect on some cariogenic bacterial strains such as streptococci. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of fluoride mouthrinse and toothpaste on the number of streptococcal colony forming units of dental plaque. Methods: 62 children with 6-7 years old were put in two groups. Samples of dental plaque from each group were collected both before and after use of the fluoride mouthrinse and or toothpaste. The samples were cultured on blood agar to find the number of streptococcal colony forming units (CFU. The mean colony forming unit was compared inter and intra groups before and after application of Fluoride products. Results: The streptococcal CFU of dental plaque before and after use of the mouthrinse and toothpaste respectively was (1240±1367, 1253±1341.5 and (551±716, 898±1151. Statistically, the streptococcal CFU in each group before and after use of the toothpaste and mouthrinse was significantly different. Conclusion: The findings of this study indicated that the fluoride toothpaste and mouthrinse reduce number of streptococcal colony forming units of dental plaque. Also this reduction was not depended on level of (F- Ions, sort of vehicle of fluoride and frequent application of the fluoride mouthrinse and toothpaste. Keywords: fluoride mouthrinse, fluoride toothpaste, colony forming unit (CFU, streptococcus

  14. Glass-Forming Ability of Soda Lime Borate Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Qiuju; Mauro, J.C.; Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the composition dependence of glass-forming ability (GFA) of a series of iron-containing soda lime borate liquids by substituting Na2O for B2O3. We have characterized GFA by measuring the glass stability against crystallization using a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC...

  15. A thermodynamic approach towards glass-forming ability of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G is known as the driving force of crystallization. The driving force of crystallization ( G) provides very important information about the glass-forming ability (GFA) of metallic glasses (MGs). Lesser the driving force of crystallization more is the GFA. The G varies linearly with the critical size (dc). According to Battezzati and.

  16. Influence of preparation pathway on the glass forming ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Lasse Ingerslev; Lindenberg, Eleanor; Rades, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The glass forming ability (GFA), i.e. the ease of amorphization of drugs, is mostly investigated using the critical cooling rate upon melt quenching to generate an amorphous product via the thermodynamic pathway. However, amorphous materials can also be prepared via the kinetic pathway by milling...

  17. Heterogeneity of the radiosensitivity and origins of tissue macrophage colony-forming cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oghiso, Yoichi; Yamada, Yutaka (National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan))

    1992-12-01

    Previous studies suggest that the radiosensitivity and origin of tissue macrophage precursors differ from those of hemopoietic macrophage colony-forming units (CFU-Ms) committed to macrophage-lineage cells. We assessed the origins of tissue macrophage colony-forming cells (M-CFCs) in mice by comparing their kinetics and radiosensitivities in the normal steady state and under the conditions of bone marrow depletion by [sup 89]Sr-administration and/or splenectomy. The results indicate that the radiosensitive peritoneal M-CFCs elicited by thioglycollate are derived from bone marrow macrophage precursors; where as alveolar M-CFCs, which are radioresistant, are self-sustained locally and independent of hemopoietic macrophage precursors. In contrast, highly radiosensitive liver M-CFCs are probably derived from CFU-Ms that appear to be propagated in the spleen in association with hemopoietic responses. (author).

  18. Maternal Body-Mass Index and Cord Blood Circulating Endothelial Colony-Forming Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ruei-Zeng; Miranda, Maria L.; Vallejo-Vaz, Antonio J.; Stiefel, Pablo; Praena-Fernández, Juan M.; Bernal-Bermejo, Jose; Jimenez-Jimenez, Luis M.; Villar, Jose; Melero-Martin, Juan M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) are a subset of circulating endothelial progenitor cells that are particularly abundant in umbilical cord blood. We sought to determine whether ECFC abundance in cord blood is associated with maternal body-mass index (BMI) in non-pathological pregnancies. Study design We measured the level of ECFCs in the cord blood of neonates (n=27) born from non-obese healthy mothers with non-pathological pregnancies and examined whether ECFC abundance correlated with maternal BMI. We also examined the effect of maternal BMI on ECFC phenotype and function using angiogenic and vasculogenic assays. Results We observed variation in ECFC abundance among subjects and found a positive correlation between pre-pregnancy maternal BMI and ECFC content (r=0.51, P=0.007), which was independent of other obstetric factors. Despite this variation, ECFC phenotype and functionality were deemed normal and highly similar between subjects with maternal BMI <25 kg/m2 and BMI between 25–30 kg/m2, including the ability to form vascular networks in vivo. Conclusions This study underlines the need to consider maternal BMI as a potential confounding factor for cord blood levels of ECFCs in future comparative studies between healthy and pathological pregnancies. Endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) are a subset of progenitor cells that circulate in peripheral blood and can give rise to endothelial cells (1,2), contributing to the formation of new vasculature and the maintenance of vascular integrity (3–5). The mechanisms that regulate the abundance of these cells in vivo remain poorly understood. ECFCs are rare in adult peripheral blood (1,2,10). In contrast, there is an elevated number of these cells in fetal blood during the third trimester of pregnancy (11–13). Emerging evidence indicates that deleterious conditions during fetal life can impair ECFC content and function. For instance, offspring of diabetic mothers have been shown to have

  19. [Effect of serum from patients with Graves' disease on colony forming unit-granulocyte monocyte].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mei; Qiu, Mingcai; Li, Xin; Zhou, Zheng; Han, Junling; Zhao, Yingxin

    2002-05-10

    To investigate the effects of serum component from patients with Graves's disease (GD) on the growth of colony forming unit-granulocyte monocyte (GM-CFU). Monocytes were obtained from 11 normal persons and 11 GD patients with leukopenia and culture together with sera from 11 GD patients with leukopenia, 11 GD patients without leukopenia, and 11 normal controls for 10 days. Inverted microscopy was used to count the number of colony. Thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin (TSI) and serum from GD patients with leukopenia significantly inhibited the formation of GM-CFU (P GFU-GM (P > 0.05). TSI and serum from GD patients with leukopenia remarkably inhibit GM-CFU growth. Autoimmune abnormality may play an important role in the pathogenesis of leukopenia in patients with GD.

  20. The effect of queen pheromone status on Varroa mite removal from honey bee colonies with different grooming ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahreini, Rassol; Currie, Robert W

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) with different grooming ability and queen pheromone status on mortality rates of Varroa mites (Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman), mite damage, and mortality rates of honey bees. Twenty-four small queenless colonies containing either stock selected for high rates of mite removal (n = 12) or unselected stock (n = 12) were maintained under constant darkness at 5 °C. Colonies were randomly assigned to be treated with one of three queen pheromone status treatments: (1) caged, mated queen, (2) a synthetic queen mandibular pheromone lure (QMP), or (3) queenless with no queen substitute. The results showed overall mite mortality rate was greater in stock selected for grooming than in unselected stock. There was a short term transitory increase in bee mortality rates in selected stock when compared to unselected stock. The presence of queen pheromone from either caged, mated queens or QMP enhanced mite removal from clusters of bees relative to queenless colonies over short periods of time and increased the variation in mite mortality over time relative to colonies without queen pheromone, but did not affect the proportion of damaged mites. The effects of source of bees on mite damage varied with time but damage to mites was not reliably related to mite mortality. In conclusion, this study showed differential mite removal of different stocks was possible under low temperature. Queen status should be considered when designing experiments using bioassays for grooming response.

  1. Airborne fungal colony-forming units in outdoor and indoor environments in Yokohama, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, T

    1997-01-01

    The fungal concentration and flora in indoor and outdoor air in Yokohama, Japan were analyzed with a Reuter centrifugal air sampler and dichloran 18% glycerol agar (DG18), and compared with the levels assessed with potato dextrose agar (PDA). The number of fungal colony-forming units (CFU) in outdoor air was sebi, the A. glaucus group, and Penicillium spp. The fungal concentration in indoor air peaked in October. The concentrations of fungi in indoor air (n = 288) were significantly correlated with the indoor temperature, indoor relative humidity and the outdoor climatic factors mentioned above, except for the average velocity of wind of the day.

  2. U-based metallic glasses with superior glass forming ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hongyang; Ke, Haibo; Huang, Huogen; Zhang, Pengguo; Pu, Zhen; Zhang, Pei; Liu, Tianwei

    2018-02-01

    By using Al as the third and B as the fourth but minor alloying elements for the U66.7Co33.3 basic metallic glass, a series of U-Co-Al(-B) alloys were designed. The quaternary U-Co-Al-B alloys exhibit significantly improved glass-forming ability (GFA) than previously reported U-based metallic glasses. Low fragility (∼24) is found for these new U-based metallic glasses. The improvement in GFA would result from denser atomic packing in the undercooled liquids due to the presence of small B atoms. Some U-Co-Al(-B) glasses showed corrosion resistance comparable to that of U64Co34Al2 glass, known for premium anti-corrosive performance among the unveiled U-based glasses.

  3. A comparison between coral colonies of the genus Madracis and simulated forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filatov, M.V.; Kaandorp, J.A.; Postma, M.; van Liere, R.; Kruszyński, K.J.; Vermeij, M.J.A.; Streekstra, G.J.; Bak, R.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    In addition to experimental studies, computational models provide valuable information about colony development in scleractinian corals. Using our simulation model, we show how environmental factors such as nutrient distribution and light availability affect growth patterns of coral colonies. To

  4. On the star-forming ability of Molecular Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anathpindika, S.; Burkert, A.; Kuiper, R.

    2018-02-01

    The star-forming ability of a molecular cloud depends on the fraction of gas it can cycle into the dense-phase. Consequently, one of the crucial questions in reconciling star formation in clouds is to understand the factors that control this process. While it is widely accepted that the variation in ambient conditions can alter significantly the ability of a cloud to spawn stars, the observed variation in the star-formation rate in nearby clouds that experience similar ambient conditions, presents an interesting question. In this work, we attempted to reconcile this variation within the paradigm of colliding flows. To this end we develop self-gravitating, hydrodynamic realizations of identical flows, but allowed to collide off-centre. Typical observational diagnostics such as the gas-velocity dispersion, the fraction of dense-gas, the column density distribution (N-PDF), the distribution of gas mass as a function of K-band extinction and the strength of compressional/solenoidal modes in the post-collision cloud were deduced for different choices of the impact parameter of collision. We find that a strongly sheared cloud is terribly inefficient in cycling gas into the dense phase and that such a cloud can possibly reconcile the sluggish nature of star formation reported for some clouds. Within the paradigm of cloud formation via colliding flows this is possible in case of flows colliding with a relatively large impact parameter. We conclude that compressional modes - though probably essential - are insufficient to ensure a relatively higher star-formation efficiency in a cloud.

  5. EFFICIENCY OF FORMING NUCLEUS COLONIES IN ORDER TO DECREASE POPULATION OF Varroa destructor (ANDRESON AND TRUEMAN, 2000 IN BEEHIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatko Puškadija

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Forming of nucleus colonies is efficient method in growth control of Varroa destructor population. Its goal is to decrease parasite’s pressure on bee colony. The advantage of this bio-technical measurement lays in its implement during vegetation season which delays use of the chemical resources for Varroa destructor control population in beehives for the post major honey harvest period. Nucleus colonies were formed from approx. half of sealed brood (35.5 ± 5.8 dm² and average of 5915 ± 912 bees. Results showed that there were 37.2 ± 5.6% mites removed from parental colonies. Minimum was 30.8%, and maximum was 45.5%. Due to such relatively small efficiency, this method cannot be recommended as unique, but it can be effective if it is applied in the post spring's honey harvest period as a part of growth reduction strategy of Varroa destructor population in beehive.

  6. Report of cases of and taxonomic considerations for large-colony-forming Lancefield group C streptococcal bacteremia.

    OpenAIRE

    Carmeli, Y; Ruoff, K L

    1995-01-01

    Traditionally, group C streptococci include four species: Streptococcus equisimilis, S. zooepidemicus, S. equi, and S. dysgalactiae, the first three of which are group C beta-hemolytic streptococci (GCBHS). However, many of the beta-hemolytic streptococci carrying Lancefield group C antigen isolated from clinical specimens are S. milleri. These organisms can be differentiated by colony size. We retrospectively collected data concerning large-colony-forming GCBHS bacteremia that occurred durin...

  7. A new improved artificial bee colony algorithm for ship hull form optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fuxin; Wang, Lijue; Yang, Chi

    2016-04-01

    The artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm is a relatively new swarm intelligence-based optimization algorithm. Its simplicity of implementation, relatively few parameter settings and promising optimization capability make it widely used in different fields. However, it has problems of slow convergence due to its solution search equation. Here, a new solution search equation based on a combination of the elite solution pool and the block perturbation scheme is proposed to improve the performance of the algorithm. In addition, two different solution search equations are used by employed bees and onlooker bees to balance the exploration and exploitation of the algorithm. The developed algorithm is validated by a set of well-known numerical benchmark functions. It is then applied to optimize two ship hull forms with minimum resistance. The tested results show that the proposed new improved ABC algorithm can outperform the ABC algorithm in most of the tested problems.

  8. Diffusive boundary layers, photosynthesis, and respiration of the colony-forming plankton algae, Phaeocystis sp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, H.; Stolte, W.; Epping, EHG

    1999-01-01

    heterotrophic communities at light intensities up to 10 mu mol photons m(-2) s(-1). A week later, colonies were net heterotrophic at light intensities up to 80 mu mol photons m(-2) s(-1). The effective diffusion coefficient for oxygen in the gelatinous colonies was not significantly different from that in sea......Diffusive boundary layers, photosynthesis, and respiration in Phaeocystis colonies were studied by the use of microelectrodes for oxygen and pH during a bloom in the Barents Sea, 1993, and in the Marsdiep, Dutch North Sea, 1994. The oxygen microenvironment of a Phaeocystis colony with a mean...... diameter of 1.4 mm was mapped from 346 O-2 measurements and showed gradients of oxygen concentration in the water phase up to 1 mm distance from the colony surface. The effective diffusive boundary layer was 0.4-0.9 mm thick. Oxygen concentrations inside colonies reached 180% of the bulk water, and p...

  9. Identification of undesirable white-colony-forming yeasts appeared on the surface of Japanese kimchi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Ayaka; Muraoka, Naomi; Nakamura, Mariko; Yanagisawa, Yasuhira; Amachi, Seigo

    2018-02-01

    To identify yeasts involved in white-colony formation on Japanese commercial kimchi products, three types of kimchi were prepared and fermented at four different temperatures. At 4 °C, yeast colonies did not appear until 35 days, while more rapid white-colony formation occurred at higher temperatures (10, 15, and 25 °C). Combination of PCR-DGGE and direct isolation of yeasts from white colonies revealed that Kazachstania exigua and K. pseudohumilis were responsible for the white-colony formation. Inoculation of the isolated Kazachstania strains into fresh kimchi successfully reproduced white-colony formation at 15 °C but not at 4 °C. Growth experiments in liquid medium revealed that Kazachstania spp. grew fast at 15 °C even in the presence of acidulants, which are commonly added to Japanese kimchi products for prevention of yeast growth. These results suggest that white-colony formation on Japanese kimchi is caused by the genus Kazachstania, and that one of important factors determining white-colony formation is its fermentation temperature.

  10. Effect of basic fibroblast growth factor on pluripotent marker expression and colony forming unit capacity of stem cells isolated from human exfoliated deciduous teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukarawan, Waleerat; Nowwarote, Nunthawan; Kerdpon, Piyarat; Pavasant, Prasit; Osathanon, Thanaphum

    2014-07-01

    Human dental pulp of exfoliated deciduous teeth contains the population of cells that exhibited mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) characters. Though, a cell amplification process is indeed required to secure an adequate cell number for such a potential employment. Several publications suggested the alteration of MSCs upon in vitro culture, for example, the decrease in proliferation and the loss of stem cell characters. Here, we investigated an influence of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) on stem cells isolated from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) with respect to cell proliferation, colony forming unit efficiency and stem cell marker expression in both short- and long-term cultures. For short-term bFGF treatment, SHEDs were treated with bFGF for 48 h. While, in long-term bFGF supplementation, SHEDs were maintained in culture and continuous passage upon confluence in medium supplemented with bFGF. Cells at passage (P) 5 and 10 were employed for characterization. Our results showed that short-term bFGF treatment enhanced OCT4, REX1, and NANOG mRNA expression as well as colony forming unit ability. The FGFR inhibitor pretreatment was able to attenuate the influence of bFGF on pluripotent stem cell marker expression, confirming bFGF function. In addition, cells cultured in high passage number had decreased in cell proliferation, colony forming unit capacity, and pluripotent stem cell maker mRNA expression. However, bFGF supplementation in culture medium enhanced both pluripotent stem cell marker expression and colony forming unit capacity in later passage, though the effect was not robust. Together, these results indicate that high passage number may attenuate pluripotent properties of SHEDs and bFGF supplementation could be the beneficial approach to maintain SHEDs' stemness properties.

  11. Tritiated thymidine and deoxycytidine suicide of mouse hemopoietic colony forming cells (CFC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uyeki, E.M.; Wierzba, K.; Bisel, T.U.

    1981-01-01

    Significant enhancement of tritiated dCyd suicide occurred when unlabelled dThd was added to cultures of mouse monocytic colony-forming cells. Incorporation experiments supported the suicide experiments in that incorporation of tritiated dCyd into DNA was significantly increased. One hundred micromolar dCyd significantly reduced the radiotoxicity of 0.3 μCi of tritiated dThd; incorporation experiments indicated a dose-related reduction in the incorporation of tritiated dThd into DNA with the addition of 1-100 μM unlabelled dCyd. The addition of 1 μM aminopterin reversed the effect of 100 μM deoxycytidine; viz., incorporation of dThd into DNA was 90% of controls. Aminopterin had a similar effect on deoxyuridine reversal of tritiated dThd incorporation into DNA. Aminopterin had no effect on the reduction of tritiated dThd incorporation into DNA due to the addition of 100 μM unlabelled thymidine. Unlabelled ribonucleosides, Urd and Cyd, did not significantly affect the suicide pattern of tritiated dThd or dCyd when they were added to CFC cultures. Unlabelled deoxyribonucleosides, dThd or dCyd, did not significantly affect the suicide pattern of either tritiated Cyd or Urd when they were added to cultures containing tritiated ribonucleosides. Unlabelled Urd or Cyd was effective in reversing the suicide due to tritiated Urd or Cyd. (author)

  12. Circulating colony-forming units of granulocytes and monocytes/macrophages in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Karpovitch, X; Cardiel, M; Cardenas, R; Piedras, J; Alarcón-Segovia, D

    1989-07-01

    In systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, in vitro bone marrow (BM) colony-forming units of granulocytes and monocytes/macrophages (CFU-GM) are decreased, suggesting that granulomonopoietic failure may play an important role in the mechanism of peripheral blood (PB) depletion of neutrophils and monocytes. No information concerning CFU-GM in PB of patients with SLE is available. The present study was undertaken in order to determine whether SLE itself and the inactive or active stage of disease would modify the number of GFU-GM in PB samples from 20 treatment-free SLE women, 12 inactive and eight active. CFU-GM growth was significantly decreased in both inactive (P = 0.018) and active (P = 0.008) SLE patients as compared with controls (n = 8). The difference in CFU-GM growth between SLE groups was not significant. These results indicate that the number of circulating CFU-GM is significantly reduced in patients with SLE regardless of disease activity or remission.

  13. Baseline correlation and comparative kinetics of cerebrospinal fluid colony-forming unit counts and antigen titers in cryptococcal meningitis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, A.E.; Teparrukkul, P.; Pinpraphaporn, S.; Larsen, R.A.; Chierakul, W.; Peacock, S.; Day, N.; White, N.J.; Harrison, T.S.

    2005-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cryptococcal colony-forming unit counts and CSF cryptococcal antigen titers serve as alternative measures of organism load in cryptococcal meningitis. For these measures, we correlated baseline values and rates of decline during the first 2 weeks of therapy in 68 human

  14. Therapeutic Potential of Human-Derived Endothelial Colony-Forming Cells in Animal Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasev, Dimitar; Koolwijk, Pieter; van Hinsbergh, Victor W M

    2016-10-01

    Tissue regeneration requires proper vascularization. In vivo studies identified that the endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs), a subtype of endothelial progenitor cells that can be isolated from umbilical cord or peripheral blood, represent a promising cell source for therapeutic neovascularization. ECFCs not only are able to initiate and facilitate neovascularization in diseased tissue but also can, by acting in a paracrine manner, contribute to the creation of favorable conditions for efficient and appropriate differentiation of tissue-resident stem or progenitor cells. This review outlines the progress in the field of in vivo regenerative and tissue engineering studies and surveys why, when, and how ECFCs can be used for tissue regeneration. Reviewed literature that regard human-derived ECFCs in xenogeneic animal models implicates that ECFCs should be considered as an endothelial cell source of preference for induction of neovascularization. Their neovascularization and regenerative potential is augmented in combination with other types of stem or progenitor cells. Biocompatible scaffolds prevascularized with ECFCs interconnect faster and better with the host vasculature. The physical incorporation of ECFCs in newly formed blood vessels grants prolonged release of trophic factors of interest, which also makes ECFCs an interesting cell source candidate for gene therapy and delivery of bioactive compounds in targeted area. ECFCs possess all biological features to be considered as a cell source of preference for tissue engineering and repair of blood supply. Investigation of regenerative potential of ECFCs in autologous settings in large animal models before clinical application is the next step to clearly outline the most efficient strategy for using ECFCs as treatment.

  15. The genetics of colony form and function in Caribbean Acropora corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemond, Elizabeth M; Kaluziak, Stefan T; Vollmer, Steven V

    2014-12-17

    Colonial reef-building corals have evolved a broad spectrum of colony morphologies based on coordinated asexual reproduction of polyps on a secreted calcium carbonate skeleton. Though cnidarians have been shown to possess and use similar developmental genes to bilaterians during larval development and polyp formation, little is known about genetic regulation of colony morphology in hard corals. We used RNA-seq to evaluate transcriptomic differences between functionally distinct regions of the coral (apical branch tips and branch bases) in two species of Caribbean Acropora, the staghorn coral, A. cervicornis, and the elkhorn coral, A. palmata. Transcriptome-wide gene profiles differed significantly between different parts of the coral colony as well as between species. Genes showing differential expression between branch tips and bases were involved in developmental signaling pathways, such as Wnt, Notch, and BMP, as well as pH regulation, ion transport, extracellular matrix production and other processes. Differences both within colonies and between species identify a relatively small number of genes that may contribute to the distinct "staghorn" versus "elkhorn" morphologies of these two sister species. The large number of differentially expressed genes supports a strong division of labor between coral branch tips and branch bases. Genes involved in growth of mature Acropora colonies include the classical signaling pathways associated with development of cnidarian larvae and polyps as well as morphological determination in higher metazoans.

  16. Career adapt-abilities scale - Netherlands form: psychometric properties and relationships to ability, personality, and regulatory focus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vianen, A.E.M.; Klehe, U.-C.; Koen, J.; Dries, N.

    2012-01-01

    The Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS) — Netherlands Form consists of four scales, each with six items, which measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. Internal consistency estimates

  17. Smooth muscle progenitor cells from peripheral blood promote the neovascularization of endothelial colony-forming cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Hyung Joon; Seo, Ha-Rim [Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hyo Eun [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Seung-Cheol; Park, Jae Hyung; Yu, Cheol Woong; Hong, Soon Jun [Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Seok [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Do-Sun, E-mail: dslmd@kumc.or.kr [Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-11

    Highlights: • Two distinct vascular progenitor cells are induced from adult peripheral blood. • ECFCs induce vascular structures in vitro and in vivo. • SMPCs augment the in vitro and in vivo angiogenic potential of ECFCs. • Both cell types have synergistic therapeutic potential in ischemic hindlimb model. - Abstract: Proangiogenic cell therapy using autologous progenitors is a promising strategy for treating ischemic disease. Considering that neovascularization is a harmonized cellular process that involves both endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells, peripheral blood-originating endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) and smooth muscle progenitor cells (SMPCs), which are similar to mature endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells, could be attractive cellular candidates to achieve therapeutic neovascularization. We successfully induced populations of two different vascular progenitor cells (ECFCs and SMPCs) from adult peripheral blood. Both progenitor cell types expressed endothelial-specific or smooth muscle-specific genes and markers, respectively. In a protein array focused on angiogenic cytokines, SMPCs demonstrated significantly higher expression of bFGF, EGF, TIMP2, ENA78, and TIMP1 compared to ECFCs. Conditioned medium from SMPCs and co-culture with SMPCs revealed that SMPCs promoted cell proliferation, migration, and the in vitro angiogenesis of ECFCs. Finally, co-transplantation of ECFCs and SMPCs induced robust in vivo neovascularization, as well as improved blood perfusion and tissue repair, in a mouse ischemic hindlimb model. Taken together, we have provided the first evidence of a cell therapy strategy for therapeutic neovascularization using two different types of autologous progenitors (ECFCs and SMPCs) derived from adult peripheral blood.

  18. Report of cases of and taxonomic considerations for large-colony-forming Lancefield group C streptococcal bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmeli, Y; Ruoff, K L

    1995-08-01

    Traditionally, group C streptococci include four species: Streptococcus equisimilis, S. zooepidemicus, S. equi, and S. dysgalactiae, the first three of which are group C beta-hemolytic streptococci (GCBHS). However, many of the beta-hemolytic streptococci carrying Lancefield group C antigen isolated from clinical specimens are S. milleri. These organisms can be differentiated by colony size. We retrospectively collected data concerning large-colony-forming GCBHS bacteremia that occurred during a period of 8 years at the Massachusetts General Hospital. A total of 222 cases of beta-hemolytic streptococcal bacteremia were identified; data on the Lancefield grouping were available in 192 cases: 45 cases (23.6%) were group A, 96 cases (50%) were group B, 7 cases (3.6%) were group C (large colony forming), and 44 cases (22.9%) were group G. The medical records for cases of large-colony-forming GCBHS bacteremia were reviewed. In one case, the isolate was thought to be a contaminant; the other six cases are reported (five males and one female; mean age, 55 years). All patients had severe underlying conditions, and none had a history of exposure to animals. The clinical syndromes included two cases of cellulitis and one case each of endocarditis, myocardial infarction complicated by infection, pneumonia, and myofasciitis. The diagnoses for two patients with endovascular infections were delayed. Three of the six patients had fatal outcomes, and other two, after prolonged hospitalization, were transferred to a long-term rehabilitation center. We concluded that the severe outcomes reflect delay in diagnosis and treatment as well as the severity of the underlying diseases. The taxonomy of GCBHS is discussed. More reports differentiating large- and small-colony-forming GCBHS are needed.

  19. Effect of adrenalectomy on recipients of allogeneic lymphocytes on inactivation of endogenous colony-forming cells in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenkov, V.F.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the killer functions of lymph node cells directed against endogenous colony-forming cells in adrenalectomized recipients in a genetic system with one-way incompatibility: parental line - F 1 hybrid. Mice were irradiated with Co 60 gamma rays on the EGO-2 apparatus with dose rate from 200 to 250 R/min. The results were subjected to statistical analysis by Student's test. It can be tentatively suggested that the killer action of T lymphocytes on endogenous colonies was intensified in adrenal-ectomized recipients with endogenous hypocorticism, as a result of cooperation with the cortisol-sensitive subpopulation of T helper cells, of a change in the properties of the antigen-recognizing receptors, or an increase in the sensitivity of target cells to the killer action of T lymphocytes

  20. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--Netherlands Form: Psychometric Properties and Relationships to Ability, Personality, and Regulatory Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vianen, Annelies E. M.; Klehe, Ute-Christine; Koen, Jessie; Dries, Nicky

    2012-01-01

    The Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS)--Netherlands Form consists of four scales, each with six items, which measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. Internal consistency estimates for the subscale and total scores ranged from…

  1. Settler colonial power and the American Indian sovereignty movement: forms of domination, strategies of transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinman, Erich

    2012-01-01

    The article extends the multi-institutional model of power and change through an analysis of the American Indian Sovereignty Movement. Drawing upon cultural models of the state, and articulating institutionalist conceptions of political opportunities and resources, the analysis demonstrates that this framework can be applied to challenges addressing the state as well as nonstate fields. The rational-legal diminishment of tribal rights, bureaucratic paternalism, commonsense views of tribes as racial/ethnic minorities, and the binary construction of American and Indian as oppositional identities diminished the appeal of "contentious" political action. Instead, to establish tribes' status as sovereign nations, tribal leaders aggressively enacted infrastructural power, transposed favorable legal rulings across social fields to legitimize sovereignty discourses, and promoted a pragmatic coexistence with state and local governments. Identifying the United States as a settler colonial society, the study suggests that a decolonizing framework is more apt than racial/ethnicity approaches in conceptualizing the struggle of American Indians.

  2. 1. modification of the proliferative capacity of transplanted bone marrow colony forming units by changes in the host environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beran, M.; Tribukait, B.

    1974-01-01

    Regulation of the proliferation of transplanted colony forming units (CFUs) was investigated in lethally irradiated mice, pretreated by methods known to accelerate hemopoietic recovery after sublethal irradiation. Prospective recipients were exposed to either hypoxia, vinblastine or priming irradiation and at different intervals thereafter lethally irradiated and transplanted with bone marrow. Repopulation of CFUs was determined by counting the number of splenic colonies in primary recipients or by retransplantation. Regeneration of grafted CFUs was greatly accelerated and their self-renewal capacity increased in mice grafted within 2 days after hypoxia. Also the number of splenic colonies formed by grafted syngeneic CFUs as well as by C57B1 parent CFUs growing in BC3F1 hosts was significantly increased. The effect was not dependent on the seeding efficiency of CFUs and apparently resulted from hypoxia induced changes in the hosts' physiological environment. Proliferative capacity of grafted CFUs increased remarkably in hosts receiving vinblastine 2 or 4 days prior to irradiation. Priming irradiation given 6 days before main irradiation accelerated, given 2 days before impaired regeneration of CFUs. The increased rate of regeneration was not related to the cellularity of hemopoietic organs at the time of transplantation. The growth of CFUs in diffusion chambers implanted into posthypoxic mice was only slightly improved which does indicate that the accelerated regeneration of CFUs in posthypoxic mice is mainly due to the changes in the hemopoietic microenvironment. A short conditioning of transplanted CFUs by host factor(s) was sufficient to improve regeneration. The results might suggest that the speed of hemopoietic regeneration depends on the number of CFUs being induced to proliferate shortly after irradiation, rather than on the absolute numbers of CFUs available to the organism. (author)

  3. Natural aversive learning in Tetramorium ants reveals ability to form a generalizable memory of predators' pit traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Karen L; McNew, Kelsey; Sosa, Talisa; Harrsch, Felicia A; Nowbahari, Elise

    2017-06-01

    Many species of ants fall prey to pit-digging larval antlions (Myrmeleon spp.), extremely sedentary predators that wait, nearly motionless at the bottom of their pit traps, for prey to stumble inside. Previous research, both in the field and laboratory, has demonstrated a remarkable ability of these ants to rescue trapped nestmates, thus sabotaging antlions' attempts to capture them. Here we show that pavement ants, Tetramorium sp. E, an invasive species and a major threat to biodiversity, possess yet another, more effective, antipredator strategy, namely the ability to learn to avoid antlion traps following a single successful escape from a pit. More importantly, we show that this learned antipredator behavior, an example of natural aversive learning in insects, is more complicated than a single cue-to-consequence form of associative learning. That is, pavement ants were able to generalize, after one experience, from the learned characteristics of the pit and its specific location, to other pits and other contexts that differed in many features. Such generalization, often described as a lack of precise stimulus control, nonetheless would be especially adaptive in nature, enabling ants to negotiate antlions' pit fields, which contain a hundred or more pits within a few centimetres of one another. Indeed, the ability to generalize in exactly this way almost certainly is responsible for the sudden, and heretofore inexplicable, behavioural modifications of ants in response to an invasion of antlions in the vicinity of an ant colony. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A comparison of bacterial colony-forming units in water bottles and hydration bags among outdoor enthusiasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, Andrew Han; Alcock, Joe; Watts, David

    2009-01-01

    Transporting clean drinking water in an easily accessible container is a priority for many outdoor enthusiasts. Two basic hydration systems are commonly used to provide water: the water bottle and the hydration bladder. The authors tested the hypothesis that there were different levels of microbiologic contamination between these 2 systems. Sixty-seven water samples were collected using sterile techniques from outdoor enthusiasts at several outdoor recreational locations. These users were then asked to complete a brief survey that reported demographic information and details of water container use. Water samples were then plated on sheep blood agar, and the colony-forming units were counted after 24 hours of growth. The 2 groups were compared using Student's t test. The 2 groups using water bottles or hydration bladders did not show significant differences in container age, duration of outdoor activity, or duration since last cleaning. The groups differed slightly in their composition of hikers/walkers/runners vs cyclists. The water bottle group had a mean colony-forming unit count per 100 mL of 37 (95% CI 26-48), and the hydration bladder had a mean of 27 (95% CI 17-35). There was no statistically significant difference between hydration bladders and water bottles in microbial contamination or colonization. Judging from the available data, outdoor enthusiasts should select their water container based on criteria other than the relative exposure to microbes. Additional study is required to replicate this finding in other locations and with improved sample methodology.

  5. Colonial Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAtackney, Laura; Palmer, Russell

    2016-01-01

    Archaeologically based explorations of colonialism or institutions are common case-studies in global historical archaeology, but the “colonial institution”—the role of institutions as operatives of colonialism—has often been neglected. In this thematic edition we argue that in order to fully...... understand the interconnected, global world one must explicitly dissect the colonial institution as an entwined, dual manifestation that is central to understanding both power and power relations in the modern world. Following Ann Laura Stoler, we have selected case studies from the Australia, Europe, UK...... and the USA which reveal that the study of colonial institutions should not be limited to the functional life of these institutions—or solely those that take the form of monumental architecture—but should include the long shadow of “imperial debris” (Stoler 2008) and immaterial institutions....

  6. Superior glass-forming ability through microalloying in cerium-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, B.; Wang, R. J.; Zhao, D. Q.; Pan, M. X.; Wang, W. H.

    2006-01-01

    We find that minute trace addition (as low as 0.2 at. %) can dramatically enhance glass-forming ability in a simple cerium-based alloy, accompanied by a fragile-to-strong transition and markedly structural and properties changes. The phenomena, which cannot be explained well by often-cited theories and empirical rules for metallic glass formation, are attributed to an increase of the short-range ordering in the alloys. The results provide evidences for the close relation among the liquid fragility, glass-forming ability, and structure in glass-forming alloys and may assist in understanding the long-standing issue on glass formation

  7. Capacity of bone marrow colony forming unit-fibroblasts in vitro from mice with combined radiation-burn injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xinghua; Luo Chengji; Guo Chaohua; Wang Ping

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the capacity of bone marrow colony forming unit-fibroblasts (CFU-F) from mice with combined radiation-burn injury. Methods: Mice were treated with 5.0 Gy γ-ray radiation alone, 15% total body surface area (TBSA) III degree burn alone or combined radiation-burn. The numbers of CFU-Fs were assayed by Dexter's method. Results: The numbers of CFU-Fs from mice with radiation and combined radiation-burn injury were significantly decreased, compared with those of controls and mice with burn injury alone (P<0.05-0.01). conclusion: The results reveal that the repairing process of bone marrow stromal cells from mice with radiation injury and combined radiation-burn injury is slow, and the combined radiation-burn injury inflicted on the stromal cells possesses the characteristic of radiation injury

  8. Production of humoral factors that stimulate spleen colony-forming units in mice irradiated with moderate doses of X rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grande, T.; Gonzalez, J.; Tejero, C.; Maganto, G.; Bueren, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    The production of humoral factors that stimulate spleen colony-forming units (CFU-S) has been studied in irradiated mice using an in vivo diffusion chamber assay. The experiments show that a significant release of factors that stimulate CFU-S takes place in the first few days after irradiation with moderate doses of 1.5 or 5 Gy. In contrast, the release of significant amounts of these humoral factors was not seen in animals irradiated with either low (0.75 Gy) or high (10 Gy) doses of X rays. The correlation observed between the production of factors that stimulate the CFU-S and the hemopoietic regeneration kinetics of the irradiated mice suggests that these factors represent part of the physiological regulators controlling the proliferation of CFU-S

  9. Resource function of conceptual and metacognitive abilities in adolescents with different forms of dysontogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kholodnaya, M.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the level of conceptual and metacognitive abilities and their interaction in adolescents with different forms of dysontogenesis. The total sample (N= 173 included four groups of young adolescents (11-12 years old: with normal development, with infantile cerebral palsy (CP, with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, and with delayed intellectual development (DID. We measured the adolescents’ performance on tests of conceptual abilities (the use of categories at different grades of generalization, the discovery of abstract meaning and implicit connections between concepts and metacognitive abilities (attention selectivity, as measured by Mtinsterberg’s test and the understanding of hidden pictures, and attention organization, as measured by indices of cognitive styles. The results showed, first, that in comparison with normal adolescents, the adolescents with CP and ADHD had a deficit of metacognitive abilities, but they did not differ in rates of conceptual abilities. As for adolescents with DID, even though they had lower rates of conceptual abilities and attention selectivity, they did not differ from the “norm” group on some indices of attention organization. Second, a tendency for the disintegration of conceptual and metacognitive abilities (as measured by correlation and factor analysis was most clearly seen in the adolescents with ADHD and DID. The adolescents with CP and ADHD had conceptual (categorial and generative abilities as a mental resource, and the adolescents with DID had metacognitive abilities as a mental resource. The resource function of conceptual and metacognitive abilities was determined not only by their level but also by the extent of their interaction (integration.

  10. Field Dependence/Independence in College Nonmusic Majors and Their Ability to Discern Form in Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Mark C.; McCoy, Clair W.

    1990-01-01

    Measures the effects of cognitive-style field dependence/field independence on students' ability to discern form in music. Applies tests to 119 nonmusic majors enrolled in an introductory music course. Finds field-independent subjects scored significantly higher than field-dependent subjects. Identifies variables affecting learning for both…

  11. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale-Belgium Form: psychometric characteristics and construct validity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dries, N.; van Esbroeck, R.; van Vianen, A.E.M.; de Cooman, R.; Pepermans, R.

    2012-01-01

    The Dutch version of the Career Adapt-Abilities Scale-Belgium Form (CAAS-Belgium) consists of four scales, each with six items, which measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. A pilot

  12. Effect of retinoic acid on cell-cell adhesiveness in cloned BHK21/C13 cells which form piling-up colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamei, H

    1983-10-01

    The effect was studied of retinoic acid (RA) on cell-cell adhesiveness in Ag8-1 cells, which are piling-up colony-forming cells cloned from a Syrian hamster kidney fibroblastic cell line BHK21/C13. From the piled-up part of the colonies grown with RA (10 microM), many cells were dissociated by mere shaking or pipetting. The dissociated cells soon adhered to and spread on plastic surfaces in the presence of RA. The number of cells per colony increased almost at the same rate in the presence or absence of RA. The effect of RA on the appearance of cells dissociable from colonies was noticeable above 0.1 microM, prominent from 1 to 10 microM, greater when added in the earlier stages of colony formation and negligible when added just before the dissociation assay. Single cells from the monolayer culture grown with RA (10 microM) had less tendency to aggregate than did those from the control culture. Cells from the colonies grown with RA adhered to and spread on a plastic dish for bacterial use, but control cells seldom adhered. These results indicate that RA decreases the cell-cell adhesiveness or suppresses the development of it but increases cell-substratum adhesiveness.

  13. Characterization of the ability to form biofilms by plant-associated Pseudomonas species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Akihiro; Saneoka, Hirofumi

    2015-04-01

    Successful colonization is the initial step for plant-bacteria interactions; therefore, the development of strategies to improve adherence to plant surfaces is critically important for environmental bacteria. Biofilm formation is thought to be one such strategy for bacteria to establish stable colonization on inert and living surfaces. Although biofilms play potential roles in enabling persistent bacterial colonization, little attention has been paid to biofilms formed by plant-associated bacteria. In this study, we characterized the biofilm-forming ability of 6 species of bacteria from the family Pseudomonadaceae: Pseudomonas protegens, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Pseudomonas mendocina, and Pseudomonas syringae. These strains exhibit different degrees of biofilm formation depending on incubation time and nutrient availability. Distinct preferences for growth media were observed, as biofilms were formed by P. protegens with rich nutrients and by P. fluorescens and P. putida with poor nutrients. Likewise, P. stutzeri did not form biofilms with rich nutrients but did form biofilms under nutrient-poor conditions. These observations indicate that particular components in media may influence biofilm formation. P. putida, one of the strains with high biofilm-forming ability, showed the highest ability for initial attachment, which may be mediated by the hydrophobicity of its cell surface. P. mendocina also has high ability for initial attachment, and this strain produces cell surface-attached extracellular polysaccharides that promote cell aggregation. Thus, each strain possesses different properties that facilitate biofilm formation. Shedding light on bacterial strategies for colonization via biofilm formation would enable a better understanding of plant-bacteria interactions.

  14. Isolation of endothelial colony-forming cells from blood samples collected from the jugular and cephalic veins of healthy adult horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Ashley N; Seeto, Wen J; Winter, Randolph L; Zhong, Qiao; Lipke, Elizabeth A; Wooldridge, Anne A

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate optimal isolation of endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) from peripheral blood of horses. SAMPLE Jugular and cephalic venous blood samples from 17 adult horses. PROCEDURES Each blood sample was divided; isolation was performed with whole blood adherence (WBA) and density gradient centrifugation (DGC). Isolated cells were characterized by uptake of 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate-labeled acetylated low-density lipoprotein (DiI-Ac-LDL), vascular tubule formation, and expression of endothelial (CD34, CD105, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2, and von Willebrand factor) and hematopoietic (CD14) cell markers by use of indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and flow cytometry. RESULTS Colonies with cobblestone morphology were isolated from 15 of 17 horses. Blood collected from the cephalic vein yielded colonies significantly more often (14/17 horses) than did blood collected from the jugular vein (8/17 horses). Of 14 cephalic blood samples with colonies, 13 were obtained with DGC and 8 with WBA. Of 8 jugular blood samples with colonies, 8 were obtained with DGC and 4 with WBA. Colony frequency (colonies per milliliter of blood) was significantly higher for cephalic blood samples and samples isolated with DGC. Cells formed vascular tubules, had uptake of DiI-Ac-LDL, and expressed endothelial markers by use of IFA and flow cytometry, which confirmed their identity as ECFCs. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Maximum yield of ECFCs was obtained for blood samples collected from both the jugular and cephalic veins and use of DGC to isolate cells. Consistent yield of ECFCs from peripheral blood of horses will enable studies to evaluate diagnostic and therapeutic uses.

  15. Diffusive boundary layers of the colony-forming plankton alga Phaeocystis sp - implications for nutrient uptake and cellular growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, H.; Stolte, W.; Jørgensen, BB

    1999-01-01

    with concentrations of 2 and 0.2 mu M, respectively, was sufficient to support nutrient demands for 1 cell doubling in colonies in 6-10 h, respectively, at a shear rate of 0.1 s(-1). The same nutrient concentration levels could theoretically support nutrient demands of single cells for one cell doubling within 2-3 h....... It was concluded that the lower grazing pressure in the size class of colonies relative to that of single free-living cells may be more important for colony formation than nutrient concentrations....

  16. The Transcription Factor Nrf2 Protects Angiogenic Capacity of Endothelial Colony-Forming Cells in High-Oxygen Radical Stress Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gremmels, Hendrik; De Jong, Olivier G.; Hazenbrink, Diënty H.; Fledderus, Joost O.; Verhaar, Marianne C.

    2017-01-01

    Background. Endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs) have shown a promise in tissue engineering of vascular constructs, where they act as endothelial progenitor cells. After implantation, ECFCs are likely to be subjected to elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS). The transcription factor Nrf2

  17. Optimization of the culturing conditions of human umbilical cord blood-derived endothelial colony-forming cells under xeno-free conditions applying a transcriptomic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeisberger, Steffen M.; Zoller, Stefan; Riegel, Mariluce; Chen, Shuhua; Krenning, Guido; Harmsen, Martin C.; Sachinidis, Agapios; Zisch, Andreas H.

    Establishment of fetal bovine serum (FBS)-free cell culture conditions is essential for transplantation therapies. Blood-derived endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) are potential candidates for regenerative medicine applications. ECFCs were isolated from term umbilical cord blood units and

  18. Biofilm-forming ability profiling of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis mastitis isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, M; Bexiga, R; Nunes, S F

    2006-01-01

    Biofilm-forming ability has been increasingly recognized as an important virulence factor in Staphylococci, facilitating their persistence in the host, evading its defences and allowing bacterial survival at high antimicrobial concentrations. Staphylococcus aureus remains a major pathogen...... of chronic mastitis, but in the last years Staphylococcus epidermidis has emerged as a relevant mastitis pathogen. The present work aimed at the evaluation of the biofilm-forming ability of Staphylococci field isolates from bovine subclinical mastitis and at the development of a fluorescent in situ...... hybridisation (FISH) protocol that would allow the direct observation of biofilm formation in milk samples. The analysis of phenotypic expression in Congo Red Agar (CRA) and by FISH, showed that 37.5% of the S. aureus isolates produced biofilm, while by optical density measurement only 18.75% isolates revealed...

  19. The differentiated approach in forming swimming abilities and skills of students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolskiy A.U.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available It is considered the directions of organization and methods of conducting of lessons with students. In experiment took part students of the 17-20 years old. The criteria of forming of typological educational groups are presented on the initial stage of teaching swimming of students. The degree of connection of the hereditarily conditioned swimming coordinating inclination is certain with the indexes of formed swimming abilities and skills of students. It is well-proven that a process of capture motive habits is under unreserved influence of conservative heredity of individual.

  20. Estimation of the enterprise marketing activity by criterion on future abilities creation to form demand

    OpenAIRE

    L.V. Potrashkova

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to develop theoretic grounds to calculate enterprise marketing activity factors, which characterize its long term consequences with production demand formation in future. The results of the analysis. One suggests to estimate enterprise marketing activity by criterion on future enterprise abilities creation to form production demand. That’s why enterprise marketing activity factors have to include enterprise marketing potential factors. Thes...

  1. Zr-Cu-Ni-Al bulk metallic glasses with superhigh glass-forming ability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Y.J.; Qu, D.D.; Huang, Y.J.; Liss, K.-D.; Wei, X.S.; Xing, D.W.; Shen, J.

    2009-01-01

    Zr-Cu-Ni-Al quaternary amorphous alloy compositions with varying glass-forming ability are developed by an efficient method of proportional mixing of binary eutectics. The critical diameter of the glassy sample is improved from 6 mm for Zr 53 Cu 18.7 Ni 12 Al 16.3 to 14 mm for Zr 50.7 Cu 28 Ni 9 Al 12.3 by straightforwardly adjusting the eutectic unit's coefficients. The drastic improvement in GFA is attributed to balancing the chemical affinities of the Zr, Cu, Ni and Al components in the melt prior to solidification which makes the precipitation of competing crystalline phases more difficult. As the glass-forming ability increases, the concentration of Cu in the alloys exhibits a same trend. Based on synchrotron radiation high-energy X-ray diffraction analysis and Miracle's structural model, it is envisioned that the substitution of additional Cu atoms for Zr atoms in the investigated alloys stabilizes the efficient cluster packing structure of the amorphous alloys, leading to the pronounced increase in their glass-forming ability

  2. Increase in colony-forming efficiency in soft agar of thymus cells from radiation-induced thymomas of NIH Swiss mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Nobuko; Takamori, Yasuhiko; Hori, Yasuharu

    1982-01-01

    Colony-forming efficiency in soft agar of radiation-induced thymoma in NIH Swiss mice was determined in the presence of cultured medium of reticulo-epitherial cells from normal thymus of NIH Swiss mouse as conditioned medium. A similar experiment was done with thymomas spontaneousely developed in AKR mice. Most of colonies developed in soft agar were not composed of thymic lymphoma cells, but of macrophage-like cells. The ratio of the number of colonies to that of the seeded cells significantly increased in thymomas comparing with that in normal thymus. This result corresponded with the increased number of macrophages in thymoma, as determined by counting phagocytic cells of adherent cells. (author)

  3. Targeting the colony stimulating factor 1 receptor alleviates two forms of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Dennis; Patzkó, Ágnes; Schreiber, David; van Hauwermeiren, Anemoon; Baier, Michaela; Groh, Janos; West, Brian L; Martini, Rudolf

    2015-11-01

    See Scherer (doi:10.1093/awv279) for a scientific commentary on this article.Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1 neuropathies are inherited disorders of the peripheral nervous system caused by mutations in Schwann cell-related genes. Typically, no causative cure is presently available. Previous preclinical data of our group highlight the low grade, secondary inflammation common to distinct Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1 neuropathies as a disease amplifier. In the current study, we have tested one of several available clinical agents targeting macrophages through its inhibition of the colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R). We here show that in two distinct mouse models of Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1 neuropathies, the systemic short- and long-term inhibition of CSF1R by oral administration leads to a robust decline in nerve macrophage numbers by ∼70% and substantial reduction of the typical histopathological and functional alterations. Interestingly, in a model for the dominant X-linked form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1 neuropathy, the second most common form of the inherited neuropathies, macrophage ablation favours maintenance of axonal integrity and axonal resprouting, leading to preserved muscle innervation, increased muscle action potential amplitudes and muscle strengths in the range of wild-type mice. In another model mimicking a mild, demyelination-related Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1 neuropathy caused by reduced P0 (MPZ) gene dosage, macrophage blockade causes an improved preservation of myelin, increased muscle action potential amplitudes, improved nerve conduction velocities and ameliorated muscle strength. These observations suggest that disease-amplifying macrophages can produce multiple adverse effects in the affected nerves which likely funnel down to common clinical features. Surprisingly, treatment of mouse models mimicking Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A neuropathy also caused macrophage blockade, but did not result in neuropathic or clinical improvements

  4. Effects of partitioned enthalpy of mixing on glass-forming ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wen-Xiong; Zhao, Shi-Jin

    2015-04-14

    We explore the inherent reason at atomic level for the glass-forming ability of alloys by molecular simulation, in which the effect of partitioned enthalpy of mixing is studied. Based on Morse potential, we divide the enthalpy of mixing into three parts: the chemical part (ΔEnn), strain part (ΔEstrain), and non-bond part (ΔEnnn). We find that a large negative ΔEnn value represents strong AB chemical bonding in AB alloy and is the driving force to form a local ordered structure, meanwhile the transformed local ordered structure needs to satisfy the condition (ΔEnn/2 + ΔEstrain) enthalpy of mixing is helpful to design a new metallic glass with a good glass forming ability. Moreover, two types of metallic glasses (i.e., "strain dominant" and "chemical dominant") are classified according to the relative importance between chemical effect and strain effect, which enriches our knowledge of the forming mechanism of metallic glass. Finally, a soft sphere model is established, different from the common hard sphere model.

  5. Topological instability and glass forming ability of Al-Ni-Sm alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliaga, L.C.R.; Danez, G.P.; Kiminami, C.S.; Bolfarini, C.; Botta, W.J.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Thermal crystallization of Al-Sm-Ni metallic glasses. → Topological instability with no association with the crystallization behavior. → Type and proportion of Sm-Al and Ni-Al clusters define the crystallization behavior. - Abstract: The thermal crystallization of Al-based metallic glasses can be described in association with the topological instability λ criterion. In the present work, we report on the crystallization behavior and glass forming ability of Al-rich, Al-Ni-Sm alloys, designed with compositions corresponding to the same topological instability condition of λ ∼ 0.1. Amorphous melt-spun alloys were prepared with the following compositions, varying the ratio of Ni and Sm elements: Al 87.5 Ni 4 Sm 8.5 , Al 83.5 Ni 10 Sm 6.5 , Al 80.5 Ni 14.5 Sm 5 and Al 76.5 Ni 20.5 Sm 3 . The glass forming ability of each alloy composition was evaluated based on the thermal parameters obtained from DSC runs and on X-ray diffraction patterns. Better glass forming ability was observed in compositions whose Sm content was increased and Ni content reduced. Thermal crystallization of the alloys with low Sm content showed only one crystallization peak and no glass transition event. In alloys with higher rare-earth content, a glass transition event was clearly detected before the crystallization event. The results are interpreted considering the different types and proportions of Sm-Al and Ni-Al clusters that can be formed in the alloys along the λ ∼ 0.1 line. They also emphasize the relevance of these different types of clusters in the amorphous phase in defining the stability of the glass and the types of thermal crystallization.

  6. Ability of stem and progenitor cells in the dental pulp to form hard tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiro Hosoya, DDS, PhD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Dental pulp has an important ability to form mineralized hard tissue in response to a variety of external stimuli. The formation of mineralized tissue within the pulp cavity has been widely examined in both clinical and animal studies. Despite these studies focusing on the phenomena of reparative dentin and dentin bridge formation, the mechanisms of their induction remain unknown. Recently, several morphological studies revealed that the source of cells for hard tissue formation is the dental pulp itself, even after pulp injury. This finding indicates that the dental pulp tissue contains undifferentiated cells participating in dentin and pulp regeneration. Additionally, stem and progenitor cells isolated from the dental pulp were found to differentiate into odontoblasts as well as osteoblasts. This review presents current evidences for the multipotent ability of dental pulp cells and their usefulness in tissue engineering applications as a cell resource.

  7. Automated counting of mammalian cell colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, P R; Vojnovic, B; Kelly, J; Mayes, C R; Boulton, P; Woodcock, M; Joiner, M C

    2001-01-01

    Investigating the effect of low-dose radiation exposure on cells using assays of colony-forming ability requires large cell samples to maintain statistical accuracy. Manually counting the resulting colonies is a laborious task in which consistent objectivity is hard to achieve. This is true especially with some mammalian cell lines which form poorly defined or 'fuzzy' colonies, typified by glioma or fibroblast cell lines. A computer-vision-based automated colony counter is presented in this paper. It utilizes novel imaging and image-processing methods involving a modified form of the Hough transform. The automated counter is able to identify less-discrete cell colonies typical of these cell lines. The results of automated colony counting are compared with those from four manual (human) colony counts for the cell lines HT29, A172, U118 and IN1265. The results from the automated counts fall well within the distribution of the manual counts for all four cell lines with respect to surviving fraction (SF) versus dose curves, SF values at 2 Gy (SF2) and total area under the SF curve (Dbar). From the variation in the counts, it is shown that the automated counts are generally more consistent than the manual counts.

  8. Long-term musical training may improve different forms of visual attention ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ana Carolina; Loureiro, Maurício Alves; Caramelli, Paulo

    2013-08-01

    Many studies have suggested that structural and functional cerebral neuroplastic processes result from long-term musical training, which in turn may produce cognitive differences between musicians and non-musicians. We aimed to investigate whether intensive, long-term musical practice is associated with improvements in three different forms of visual attention ability: selective, divided and sustained attention. Musicians from symphony orchestras (n=38) and non-musicians (n=38), who were comparable in age, gender and education, were submitted to three neuropsychological tests, measuring reaction time and accuracy. Musicians showed better performance relative to non-musicians on four variables of the three visual attention tests, and such an advantage could not solely be explained by better sensorimotor integration. Moreover, in the group of musicians, significant correlations were observed between the age at the commencement of musical studies and reaction time in all visual attention tests. The results suggest that musicians present augmented ability in different forms of visual attention, thus illustrating the possible cognitive benefits of long-term musical training. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Single species biofilm-forming ability of root canal isolates on gutta-percha points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Naoki; Noiri, Yuichiro; Ehara, Atsushi; Kawahara, Takashi; Noguchi, Nobuo; Ebisu, Shigeyuki

    2004-12-01

    The participation of bacterial biofilms in the over-filled gutta-percha points associated with refractory periapical periodontitis has recently been reported. This study investigated the initial biofilm-forming ability of root canal isolates (Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus sanguis, Strep. intermedius, Strep. pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Propionibacterium acnes, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia) on gutta-percha points in vitro. Each bacterial strain was suspended in 100% cell culture medium or in culture medium containing 4.5, 45 or 90% (vol/vol) serum. The bacterial suspensions were then co-incubated anaerobically with gutta-percha points for 7 d. The gutta-percha points were processed for scanning electron microscopic observation and examined for biofilm presence and thickness. E. faecalis, Strep. sanguis, Strep. intermedius, Strep. pyogenes and Staph. aureus biofilms were generated on the surfaces of the specimens incubated in culture medium supplemented with 45 or 90% (vol/vol) serum. The E. faecalis and Strep. sanguis biofilms were significantly thicker than those of Strep. intermedius, Strep. pyogenes and Staph. aureus. No biofilms were detected on the specimens incubated with F. nucleatum, Prop. acnes, Porph. gingivalis and Prev. intermedia. These findings suggest that Gram-positive facultative anaerobes have the ability to colonize and form extracellular matrices on gutta-percha points, while serum plays a crucial role in biofilm formation. Copyright Eur J Oral Sci, 2004.

  10. Validity and Reliability of Thai Version of the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) Subjective Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunakul, Marut; Arunakul, Preeyaphan; Suesiritumrong, Chakhrist; Angthong, Chayanin; Chernchujit, Bancha

    2015-06-01

    Self-administered questionnaires have become an important aspect for clinical outcome assessment of foot and ankle-related problems. The Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) subjective form is a region-specific questionnaire that is widely used and has sufficient validity and reliability from previous studies. Translate the original English version of FAAM into a Thai version and evaluate the validity and reliability of Thai FAAM in patients with foot and ankle-related problems. The FAAM subjective form was translated into Thai using forward-backward translation protocol. Afterward, reliability and validity were tested. Following responses from 60 consecutive patients on two questionnaires, the Thai FAAM subjective form and the short form (SF)-36, were used. The validity was tested by correlating the scores from both questionnaires. The reliability was adopted by measuring the test-retest reliability and internal consistency. Thai FAAM score including activity of daily life (ADL) and Sport subscale demonstrated the sufficient correlations with physical functioning (PF) and physical composite score (PCS) domains of the SF-36 (statistically significant with p foot and ankle-related problems.

  11. Evaluation of the ability of Acinetobacter baumannii to form biofilms on six different biomedical relevant surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, C; Wu, J; Rickard, A H; Xi, C

    2016-10-01

    The human opportunistic pathogen, Acinetobacter baumannii, has the propensity to form biofilms and frequently cause medical device-related infections in hospitals. However, the physio-chemical properties of medical surfaces, in addition to bacterial surface properties, will affect colonization and biofilm development. The objective of this study was to compare the ability of A. baumannii to form biofilms on six different materials common to the hospital environment: glass, porcelain, stainless steel, rubber, polycarbonate plastic and polypropylene plastic. Biofilms were developed on material coupons in a CDC biofilm reactor. Biofilms were visualized and quantified using fluorescent staining and imaged using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and by direct viable cell counts. Image analysis of CLSM stacks indicated that the mean biomass values for biofilms grown on glass, rubber, porcelain, polypropylene, stainless steel and polycarbonate were 0·04, 0·26, 0·62, 1·00, 2·08 and 2·70 μm(3) /μm(2) respectively. Polycarbonate developed statistically more biofilm mass than glass, rubber, porcelain and polypropylene. Viable cell counts data were in agreement with the CLSM-derived data. In conclusion, polycarbonate was the most accommodating surface for A. baumannii ATCC 17978 to form biofilms while glass was least favourable. Alternatives to polycarbonate for use in medical and dental devices may need to be considered. In the hospital environment, Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the most persistent and difficult to control opportunistic pathogens. The persistence of A. baumannii is due, in part, to its ability to colonize surfaces and form biofilms. This study demonstrates that A. baumannii can form biofilms on a variety of different surfaces and develops substantial biofilms on polycarbonate - a thermoplastic material that is often used in the construction of medical devices. The findings highlight the need to further study the in

  12. Compressibility and tablet forming ability of bimodal granule mixtures: Experiments and DEM simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordström, Josefina; Alderborn, Göran; Frenning, Göran

    2018-04-05

    Compressibility and tablet forming ability (compactibility) of bimodal mixtures of differently sized granules formed from microcrystalline cellulose were studied experimentally and numerically with the discrete element method (DEM). Compression data was analysed using the Kawakita equation. A multi-body contact law that accounts for contact dependence resulting from plastic incompressibility/geometric hardening was used in the DEM simulations. The experimental Kawakita a and 1/b parameters both depended non-monotonically on composition (weight fraction of large particles). For the a parameter, this dependence was explained by variations in the porosity of the initial granule beds; for the 1/b parameter, other factors were found to be of importance as well. The numerical results generally compared favourably with the experiments, demonstrating the usefulness of the DEM at high relative densities, provided that a suitable multi-particle contact model is used. For all mixtures, the tensile strength of the formed tablets increased with increasing applied pressure. The tensile strength generally decreased with increasing fraction of large particle, and this decrease was more rapid for large differences in particle size. A possible interpretation of these findings was proposed, in terms of differences in lateral support of small particles in the vicinity of large particles. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The effect of assessment form to the ability of student to answer the problem correctly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arifian Dimas

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Assessment is an important part of education. For educators, are collecting information about students learning and information about the learning process. For students, the assessment is the process of informing them about the progress of learning. Effective assessment process is responsive to the strengths, needs and clearly articulated student learning objectives. This research was aimed to know the effect of assessment form towards students ability in answering the problem correctly on kinematics and dynamics of motion. The method used in this research is descriptive qualitative. The data collecting method are assessment test and interview. Assessment test instrument are written test and animation form test. The question we use was taken "Force Concept Inventory" on kinematics and dynamics concepts. The sample are 36 student of 6th terms student of Physics Undergraduate Departement in Sebelas Maret University. The result shows that for kinematics concept, more students answer correctly for test presented in animation form but for dynamics concept conventional test is better.

  14. Fragility of superheated melts and glass-forming ability in Pr-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Q.G.; Zhou, J.K.; Zheng, H.X.; Li, J.G.

    2006-01-01

    The kinetic viscosity (η) of superheated melts, thermal properties (T x , T m , T L ) and X-ray diffraction analysis on the Pr-based bulk metallic glasses (BMG) are reported and discussed. A new refined concept, the superheated fragility defined as M' = E S δ x /k B , has been developed based on common solidification theory and the Arrhenius equation. The interrelationship between this kind of fragility and the glass-forming ability (GFA) is elaborated on and evaluated in Pr-based BMG and Al-based amorphous ribbon alloys. Using viscosity data of superheated melts, it is shown, theoretically and experimentally, that the fragility parameter M' may be used as a GFA indicator for metallic alloys

  15. Durum Wheat (Triticum Durum Desf. Lines Show Different Abilities to Form Masked Mycotoxins under Greenhouse Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Cirlini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON is the most prevalent trichothecene in Europe and its occurrence is associated with infections of Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum, causal agents of Fusarium head blight (FHB on wheat. Resistance to FHB is a complex character and high variability occurs in the relationship between DON content and FHB incidence. DON conjugation to glucose (DON-3-glucoside, D3G is the primary plant mechanism for resistance towards DON accumulation. Although this mechanism has been already described in bread wheat and barley, no data are reported so far about durum wheat, a key cereal in the pasta production chain. To address this issue, the ability of durum wheat to detoxify and convert deoxynivalenol into D3G was studied under greenhouse controlled conditions. Four durum wheat varieties (Svevo, Claudio, Kofa and Neodur were assessed for DON-D3G conversion; Sumai 3, a bread wheat variety carrying a major QTL for FHB resistance (QFhs.ndsu-3B, was used as a positive control. Data reported hereby clearly demonstrate the ability of durum wheat to convert deoxynivalenol into its conjugated form, D3G.

  16. Glass-forming ability of compounds in marketed amorphous drug products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyttenbach, Nicole; Kuentz, Martin

    2017-03-01

    This note is about the glass-forming ability (GFA) of drugs marketed as amorphous solid dispersions or as pure amorphous compounds. A thermoanalytical method was complemented with an in silico study, which made use of molecular properties that were identified earlier as being relevant for GFA. Thus, molar volume together with effective numbers of torsional bonds and hydrogen bonding were used to map drugs that are as amorphous products on the market either as solid dispersion of without co-processed carrier as amorphous drug in a solid dosage form. Differential scanning calorimetry experiments showed that most compounds were stable glass formers (GFs) (class III) followed by so-called unstable GFs (class II) and finally, only vemurafenib was found in class I with increased crystallization propensity. The in silico results, however showed that all drugs were either clearly in the chemical space expected for GFs or they were borderline to the region that holds for high crystallization tendency. Interestingly, the pure amorphous compounds scattered in a very confined region of the molecular predictors. These findings can guide amorphous product development of future drug candidates. Based on the compound location in the given chemical space, amorphous formulation opportunities can be balanced against the risks of physical instability upon storage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Radiosensitivity of kidney colony-forming cells: a short-term assay in situ in the mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewen, C.; Hendry, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    A short-term colony assay for renal tubule epithelium has been developed. Uranyl nitrate (UN) is a heavy metal nephrotoxin that induces acute tubule necrosis followed by a large compensatory increase in the rate of cell proliferation in the nephron. UN was used to precipitate latent damage following renal irradiation. Using a subcapsular colony count at 14 days after unilateral irradiation, a single-dose cell survival curve was obtained with a D0 of 4.2 +/- 0.3 Gy. High-dose irradiation of an exteriorized kidney resulted in a survival curve which was biphasic, with a plateau in survival between 18 and 40 Gy. Subtraction of this plateau level from all the survival data gave D0 values of 2.5 +/- 0.2 Gy (data analyzed between 7.5 and 16 Gy) or 2.0 +/- 0.2 Gy (over range 12-16 Gy). The D0 value obtained at 20 months after bilateral (or unilateral) kidney irradiation, without the use of UN, was 2.9 +/- 1.1 Gy (over range 10-14 Gy)

  18. [Diagnostic ability of power measurement of different grip forms for distal median nerve lesion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachter, N; Mentzel, M; Krischak, G; Häderer, C; Gülke, J

    2018-03-01

    Peripheral lesions of the median nerve cause characteristic changes of the grip function of the hand. For evaluating grip force changes, measurement by dynamometers (JAMAR dynamometer and pinch dynamometer) is of high relevance. In this study the ability of grip force measurements of different grip forms was evaluated to discriminate between a simulated median nerve lesion and healthy subjects. In 21 healthy subjects, the grip force of power grip was measured by the JAMAR dynamometer at the second stage including measurement of force at the fingertips and the thenar by a sensor glove. With a pinch dynamometer the power of palmar abduction, precision grip, pincer grip and pinch grip was determined. Measurements were performed with and without median nerve block at the wrist. In power grip of the JAMAR dynamometer at the second stage a significant reduction of the grip force of 13.4% was found (p power distribution between the fingers D2-D5 did not change with median nerve block. The most relevant reduction of grip force in median nerve block compared with the healthy control was measured in palmar abduction (72.1%, p block there was a limited relevance of the measurement of the power grip and force distribution at the fingers by the JAMAR dynamometer. However, the best distinction was observed by dynamometric measurement of other grips than power grip, such as palmar abduction, precision grip, pincer grip and pinch grip. The results could be relevant for the clinical diagnostics and rehabilitation of median nerve lesion, complementing the widespread measurement of the power grip by other grip forms.

  19. Machine Learning Approach for Prediction and Understanding of Glass-Forming Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Y T; Bai, H Y; Li, M Z; Wang, W H

    2017-07-20

    The prediction of the glass-forming ability (GFA) by varying the composition of alloys is a challenging problem in glass physics, as well as a problem for industry, with enormous financial ramifications. Although different empirical guides for the prediction of GFA were established over decades, a comprehensive model or approach that is able to deal with as many variables as possible simultaneously for efficiently predicting good glass formers is still highly desirable. Here, by applying the support vector classification method, we develop models for predicting the GFA of binary metallic alloys from random compositions. The effect of different input descriptors on GFA were evaluated, and the best prediction model was selected, which shows that the information related to liquidus temperatures plays a key role in the GFA of alloys. On the basis of this model, good glass formers can be predicted with high efficiency. The prediction efficiency can be further enhanced by improving larger database and refined input descriptor selection. Our findings suggest that machine learning is very powerful and efficient and has great potential for discovering new metallic glasses with good GFA.

  20. Investigation of biofilm forming ability in Staphylococci causing bovine mastitis using phenotypic and genotypic assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Samah F; Asfour, Hanaa A E

    2013-01-01

    A total of 40 S. aureus and 68 coagulase negative Staphylococcus (CNS) isolates from bovine subclinical mastitis were investigated for their ability to form biofilm as one of the most important virulence factors.Using Congo Red Agar (CRA) method, 32.5%, 35%, and 32.5% of S. aureus strains were strong, intermediate, and negative biofilm producers, while in CNS the percentages were 29.5%, 42.6%, and 27.9%, respectively. By microtiter plate (MTP) method, 52.5%, 27.5%, and 20% of S. aureus isolates were strong, moderate, and weak biofilm producers, while in CNS the percentages were 44%, 30.9%, and 19.2%, respectively. Indian ink staining was used to detect the EPS layer of biofilm producers. All isolates were screened for presence of biofilm related genes, eno, icaA, icaD, and bap. In S. aureus isolates, the positive rates of eno, icaA, icaD, and bap genes were 75%, 15%, 62.5%, and 2.5% while in CNS were 92.6%, 5.9%, 47.1%, and 4.4%, respectively. The eno gene had the highest rate while the bap gene had the lowest rate. Presence of icaA and icaD genes was not always correlated with biofilm production. This study demonstrated high prevalence of Staphylococcus biofilm producers among bovine mastitis in Egypt. Therefore, attention must be paid toward implementation of new ways for effective treatment of such infections.

  1. Post-Colonial Theory and Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Jim B.; Harding, Kelly J.

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores connections between post-colonial theory and action research. Post-colonial theory is committed to addressing the plague of colonialism. Action research, at its core, promises to problematize uncontested "colonial" hegemonies of any form. Both post-colonial theory and action research engage dialogic, critically reflective and…

  2. Staphylococcus aureus Clinical Isolates: Antibiotic Susceptibility, Molecular Characteristics, and Ability to Form Biofilm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Indrawattana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodic monitoring of Staphylococcus aureus characteristics in a locality is imperative as their drug-resistant variants cause treatment problem. In this study, antibiograms, prevalence of toxin genes (sea-see, seg-ser, seu, tsst-1, eta, etb, and etd, PFGE types, accessory gene regulator (agr groups, and ability to form biofilm of 92 S. aureus Thailand clinical isolates were investigated. They were classified into 10 drug groups: groups 1–7 (56 isolates were methicillin resistant (MRSA and 8–10 (36 isolates were methicillin sensitive (MSSA. One isolate did not have any toxin gene, 4 isolates carried one toxin gene (seq, and 87 isolates had two or more toxin genes. No isolate had see, etb, or tsst-1; six isolates had eta or etd. Combined seg-sei-sem-sen-seo of the highly prevalent egc locus was 26.1%. The seb, sec, sel, seu, and eta associated significantly with MSSA; sek was more in MRSA. The sek-seq association was 52.17% while combined sed-sej was not found. Twenty-three PFGE types were revealed, no association of toxin genes with PFGE types. All four agr groups were present; agr group 1 was predominant (58.70% but agr group 2 strains carried more toxin genes and were more frequent toxin producers. Biofilm formation was found in 72.83% of the isolates but there was no association with antibiograms. This study provides insight information on molecular and phenotypic markers of Thailand S. aureus clinical isolates which should be useful for future active surveillance that aimed to control a spread of existing antimicrobial resistant bacteria and early recognition of a newly emerged variant.

  3. Investigation of Biofilm Forming Ability in Staphylococci Causing Bovine Mastitis Using Phenotypic and Genotypic Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Samah F.; Asfour, Hanaa A. E.

    2013-01-01

    A total of 40 S. aureus and 68 coagulase negative Staphylococcus (CNS) isolates from bovine subclinical mastitis were investigated for their ability to form biofilm as one of the most important virulence factors.Using Congo Red Agar (CRA) method, 32.5%, 35%, and 32.5% of S. aureus strains were strong, intermediate, and negative biofilm producers, while in CNS the percentages were 29.5%, 42.6%, and 27.9%, respectively. By microtiter plate (MTP) method, 52.5%, 27.5%, and 20% of S. aureus isolates were strong, moderate, and weak biofilm producers, while in CNS the percentages were 44%, 30.9%, and 19.2%, respectively. Indian ink staining was used to detect the EPS layer of biofilm producers. All isolates were screened for presence of biofilm related genes, eno, icaA, icaD, and bap. In S. aureus isolates, the positive rates of eno, icaA, icaD, and bap genes were 75%, 15%, 62.5%, and 2.5% while in CNS were 92.6%, 5.9%, 47.1%, and 4.4%, respectively. The eno gene had the highest rate while the bap gene had the lowest rate. Presence of icaA and icaD genes was not always correlated with biofilm production. This study demonstrated high prevalence of Staphylococcus biofilm producers among bovine mastitis in Egypt. Therefore, attention must be paid toward implementation of new ways for effective treatment of such infections. PMID:24298212

  4. Hippocampal pathway plasticity is associated with the ability to form novel memories in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria eAntonenko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available White matter deterioration in the aging human brain contributes to cognitive decline. The fornix as main efferent hippocampal pathway is one of the tracts most strongly associated with age-related memory impairment. Its deterioration may predict conversion to Alzheimer’s dementia and its precursors. However, the associations between the ability to form novel memories, fornix microstructure and plasticity in response to training have never been tested. In the present study, 25 healthy older adults (15 women; mean age (SD: 69 (6 years underwent an object-location training on three consecutive days. Behavioral outcome measures comprised recall performance on the training days, and on 1-day and 1-month follow up assessments. MRI at 3 Tesla was assessed before and after training. Fornix microstructure was determined by fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity values from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI. In addition, hippocampal volumes were extracted from high-resolution images; individual hippocampal masks were further aligned to DTI images to determine hippocampal microstructure. Using linear mixed model analysis, we found that the change in fornix FA from pre- to post-training assessment was significantly associated with training success. Neither baseline fornix microstructure nor hippocampal microstructure or volume changes were significantly associated with performance. Further, models including control task performance (auditory verbal learning and control white matter tract microstructure (uncinate fasciculus and parahippocampal cingulum did not yield significant associations. Our results confirm that hippocampal pathways respond to short-term cognitive training, and extend previous findings by demonstrating that the magnitude of training-induced structural changes is associated with behavioral success in older adults. This suggests that the amount of fornix plasticity may not only be behaviorally relevant, but also a potential sensitive

  5. Validation of an Adapted French Form of the Career Adapt-Abilities Scale in Four Francophone Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Claire S.; Broonen, Jean-Paul; Stauffer, Sarah D.; Hamtiaux, Armanda; Pouyaud, Jacques; Zecca, Gregory; Houssemand, Claude; Rossier, Jerome

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the validation of a French version of the Career Adapt-Abilities Scale in four Francophone countries. The aim was to re-analyze the item selection and then compare this newly developed French-language form with the international form 2.0. Exploratory factor analysis was used as a tool for item selection, and confirmatory factor…

  6. Dysregulation of endothelial colony-forming cell function by a negative feedback loop of circulating miR-146a and -146b in cardiovascular disease patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Yu Chang

    Full Text Available Functional impairment of endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs, a specific cell lineage of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs is highly associated with the severity of coronary artery disease (CAD, the most common type of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Emerging evidence show that circulating microRNAs (miRNAs in CAD patients' body fluid hold a great potential as biomarkers. However, our knowledge of the role of circulating miRNA in regulating the function of ECFCs and the progression of CAD is still in its infancy. We showed that when ECFCs from healthy volunteers were incubated with conditioned medium or purified exosomes of cultured CAD ECFCs, the secretory factors from CAD ECFCs dysregulated migration and tube formation ability of healthy ECFCs. It is known that exosomes influence the physiology of recipient cells by introducing RNAs including miRNAs. By using small RNA sequencing (smRNA-seq, we deciphered the circulating miRNome in the plasma of healthy individual and CAD patients, and found that the plasma miRNA spectrum from CAD patients was significantly different from that of healthy control. Interestingly, smRNA-seq of both healthy and CAD ECFCs showed that twelve miRNAs that had a higher expression in the plasma of CAD patients also showed higher expression in CAD ECFCs when compared with healthy control. This result suggests that these miRNAs may be involved in the regulation of ECFC functions. For identification of potential mRNA targets of the differentially expressed miRNA in CAD patients, cDNA microarray analysis was performed to identify the angiogenesis-related genes that were down-regulated in CAD ECFCs and Pearson's correlation were used to identify miRNAs that were negatively correlated with the identified angiogenesis-related genes. RT-qPCR analysis of the five miRNAs that negatively correlated with the down-regulated angiogenesis-related genes in plasma and ECFC of CAD patients showed miR-146a-5p and miR-146b-5p up

  7. Forced expression of FLO11 confers pellicle-forming ability and furfural tolerance on Saccharomyces cerevisiae in ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Youji; Hasebe, Toru; Ishiai, Miyuki; Yamamura, Hideki; Iimura, Yuzuru; Hayakawa, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    We constructed a plasmid that expresses FLO11 encoding a cell surface glycoprotein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae under the control of a constitutive promoter. This plasmid conferred pellicle-forming ability on the non-pellicle-forming industrial strain of S. cerevisiae at the air-liquid interface of the glucose-containing liquid medium. The induced pellicle-forming cells exhibited tolerance to furfural, which is a key toxin in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, in ethanol production.

  8. The ability to form a biofilm by odontogenic infectious agents obtained from patients with odontogenic pyoinflammatory processes of various prevalence

    OpenAIRE

    Kabanova, Arina; Pohodenko-chudakova, Irina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the biofilm formation by bacteria agents causing odontogenic infections. 117 patients with pyoinflammatory diseases of the maxillofacial region were examined. During the study it was revealed that the odontogenic infection pathogens were able to form the microbial biofilm in a varying degree, P. аeruginosa had the strongest biofilm formation ability and S. epidermidis had the least biofilm formation ability.

  9. Developmental Abilities to Form Chunks in Immediate Memory and its Non-Relationship to Span Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien eMathy

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Both adults and children --by the time they are two to three years old-- have a general ability to recode information to increase memory efficiency. This paper aims to evaluate the ability of untrained children aged six to ten years old to deploy such a recoding process in immediate memory. A large sample of 374 children were given a task of immediate serial report based on SIMON, a classic memory game made of four colored buttons (red, green, yellow, blue requiring players to reproduce a sequence of colors within which repetitions eventually occur. It was hypothesized that a primitive ability across all ages (since theoretically already available in toddlers to detect redundancies allows the span to increase whenever information can be recoded on the fly. The chunkable condition prompted the formation of chunks based on the perceived structure of color repetition within to-be-recalled sequences of colors. Our result shows a similar linear improvement of memory span with age for both chunkable and non-chunkable conditions. The amount of information retained in immediate memory systematically increased for the groupable sequences across all age groups, independently of the average age-group span that was measured on sequences that contained fewer repetitions. This result shows that chunking gives young children an equal benefit as older children. We discuss the role of recoding in the expansion of capacity in immediate memory and the potential role of data compression in the formation of chunks in long-term memory.

  10. Developmental Abilities to Form Chunks in Immediate Memory and Its Non-Relationship to Span Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathy, Fabien; Fartoukh, Michael; Gauvrit, Nicolas; Guida, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Both adults and children -by the time they are 2-3 years old- have a general ability to recode information to increase memory efficiency. This paper aims to evaluate the ability of untrained children aged 6-10 years old to deploy such a recoding process in immediate memory. A large sample of 374 children were given a task of immediate serial report based on SIMON®, a classic memory game made of four colored buttons (red, green, yellow, blue) requiring players to reproduce a sequence of colors within which repetitions eventually occur. It was hypothesized that a primitive ability across all ages (since theoretically already available in toddlers) to detect redundancies allows the span to increase whenever information can be recoded on the fly. The chunkable condition prompted the formation of chunks based on the perceived structure of color repetition within to-be-recalled sequences of colors. Our result shows a similar linear improvement of memory span with age for both chunkable and non-chunkable conditions. The amount of information retained in immediate memory systematically increased for the groupable sequences across all age groups, independently of the average age-group span that was measured on sequences that contained fewer repetitions. This result shows that chunking gives young children an equal benefit as older children. We discuss the role of recoding in the expansion of capacity in immediate memory and the potential role of data compression in the formation of chunks in long-term memory.

  11. The influence of visual experience on the ability to form spatial mental models based on route and survey descriptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, Matthijs Leendert; Zuidhoek, Sander; Postma, Albert

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is twofold: the first objective is to evaluate the importance of visual experience for the ability to form a spatial representation (spatial mental model) of fairly elaborate spatial descriptions. Secondly, we examine whether blind people exhibit the same preferences

  12. Development of hafnium metal and titanium-hafnium alloys having apatite-forming ability by chemical surface modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Toshiki; Sueoka, Masaya; Shirosaki, Yuki; Shinozaki, Nobuya; Shiraishi, Takanobu

    2017-12-23

    Hafnium (Hf) has attracted considerable attention as a component of biomedical titanium (Ti) alloys with low Young's moduli and/or shape-memory functionalities, because its cytotoxicity is as low as that of Ti. The drawback of metals is that their bone-bonding ability is generally low. It is known that apatite formation in the body is a prerequisite for bone-bonding. Although several chemical treatments have been proposed for preparing Ti for bone-bonding, there have been no similar investigations for Hf. In the present study, NaOH- and heat-treatments were applied to pure Hf and Ti-Hf alloys and their bone-bonding ability was assessed in vitro with the use of simulated body fluid (SBF). After NaOH- and heat-treatments, anatase formed on alloys with low Hf content (20-40% (atom%) Hf); mixtures of sodium titanate and hafnium titanate formed on alloys with similar Ti and Hf content (60% Hf); and hafnium oxide formed on alloys with high Hf content (80% Hf and pure Hf). Precipitates of apatite were observed on all the metals in SBF, except for the alloy with 60% Hf. We speculated that the hafnium titanate formed on this alloy had a low apatite-forming ability owing to its high negative surface charge, which inhibited P adsorption. The apatite-forming abilities of the Ti-Hf alloys strongly depended on their Hf content. The present results indicate that Hf-based materials have good potential for bone-bonding. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The effect of chemical treatment on apatite-forming ability of the macroporous zirconia films formed by micro-arc oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Yuanyuan; Han Yong; Lu Chunguo

    2008-01-01

    Macroporous and nano-crystalline zirconia film was prepared by micro-arc oxidation (MAO) of zirconium, and the effect of chemical treatment in H 2 SO 4 or NaOH aqueous solutions on the microstructure and apatite-forming ability of the film was investigated. Compared with the MAO film, the chemically treated films do not exhibit apparent changes in phase component, morphology and grain size, however, have more abundant basic Zr-OH groups. The films treated with H 2 SO 4 and NaOH solutions can induce apatite formation on their surfaces in simulated body fluids (SBF) within 1 day, whereas no apatite was detected on the untreated ZrO 2 surface by 30 days. It is believed that the enhanced apatite-forming ability of the chemically treated ZrO 2 films is related to the abundant basic Zr-OH groups on their surface

  14. Plasticity of Ability to Form Cross-Modal Representations in Infant Japanese Macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Ikuma; Kuwahata, Hiroko; Fujita, Kazuo; Tomonaga, Masaki; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2009-01-01

    In a previous study, Adachi, Kuwahata, Fujita, Tomonaga & Matsuzawa demonstrated that infant Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) form cross-modal representations of conspecifics but not of humans. However, because the subjects in the experiment were raised in a large social group and had considerably less exposure to humans than to…

  15. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--Portugal Form: Psychometric Properties and Relationships to Employment Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, M. Eduarda; Soares, M. C.; Fraga, S.; Rafael, M.; Lima, M. R.; Paredes, I.; Agostinho, R.; Djalo, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Career-Adaptabilities Scale (CAAS)--Portugal Form consists of four scales, each with seven items, which measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. Internal consistency estimates for the subscale and total scores ranged from good to…

  16. Correlations between biochemical characteristics and foam-forming and -stabilizing ability of whey and casein hydrolysates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, van der C.; Bont, D.B.A.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2002-01-01

    Whey protein and casein were hydrolyzed with 11 commercially available enzymes. Foam properties of 44 samples were measured and were related to biochemical properties of the hydrolysates using statistical data analysis. All casein hydrolysates formed high initial foam levels, whereas whey

  17. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale-France Form: Psychometric Properties and Relationships to Anxiety and Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouyaud, Jacques; Vignoli, Emmanuelle; Dosnon, Odile; Lallemand, Noelle

    2012-01-01

    The CAAS-France Form consists of four scales, each with six items, which measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. Internal consistency estimates for the subscale and total scores ranged from moderate to good. The factor structure was…

  18. Bone marrow and tumor cell colony-forming units and human tumor xenograft efficacy of noncamptothecin and camptothecin topoisomerase I inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtzberg, Leslie S; Battle, Traci; Rouleau, Cecile; Bagley, Rebecca G; Agata, Naoki; Yao, Min; Schmid, Steven; Roth, Stephanie; Crawford, Jennifer; Krumbholz, Roy; Ewesuedo, Reginald; Yu, Xian-Jie; Wang, Fei; Lavoie, Edmond J; Teicher, Beverly A

    2008-10-01

    Topoisomerase I (TopoI), an established anticancer target, is an enzyme producing a single-strand DNA break during transcription. Several noncamptothecin TopoI inhibitors have been identified. One of these, ARC-111, was compared with two clinically used camptothecins, topotecan and irinotecan/SN-38. In mouse and human bone marrow colony formation [colony-forming units granulocyte-macrophage (CFU-GM)] assays, the IC(90) values were 519 and 331 nmol/L for topotecan and SN-38 mouse CFU-GM and were 19 and 26 nmol/L for human CFU-GM, giving mouse to human differentials of 28- and 13-fold. ARC-111 produced IC(90) values of 28 nmol/L in mouse and 6.2 nmol/L in human CFU-GM, thus only a 4.5-fold differential between species. Human bone marrow CFU-GM was more sensitive to topotecan than were several human cancer cell lines, but ARC-111 cytotoxicity was similar for human bone marrow CFU-GM and the seven human tumor cell lines tested. In HCT-116 xenografts, tumor growth delays (TGD) were 17 days for irinotecan and 20 days for ARC-111. In HT-29 xenografts, the TGD was 9 days for both irinotecan and ARC-111. Both ARC-111 and docetaxel had a TGD of 21 days in NCI-H460 xenografts, and both ARC-111 and gemcitabine had a TGD of 7 days in MiaPaCa2 xenograft. Current TopoI inhibitors have broad antitumor activity in human tumor xenografts that is not achieved in the clinic. This may be due to greater sensitivity of human bone marrow than mouse to the cytotoxicity of these agents. It may be possible to achieve similar levels of ARC-111 in patients as in mice allowing improved antitumor activity.

  19. Dynamic stabilities of icosahedral-like clusters and their ability to form quasicrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaogang Liang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic stabilities of the icosahedral-like clusters containing up to 2200 atoms are investigated for 15 metal elements. The clusters originate from five different initial structures (icosahedron, truncated decahedron, octahedron, closed-shell fragment of an HCP structure, and non-closed-shell fragment of an HCP structure. The obtained order of the dynamic stabilities of the icosahedral-like clusters can be assigned to three groups, from stronger to weaker, according to the size ranges involved: (Zr, Al, Ti > (Cu, Fe, Co, Ni, Mg, Ag > (Pb, Au, Pd, Pt, Rh, Ir, which correspond to the predicted formation ability of the quasicrystals. Thedifferences of the sequences can be explained by analyzing the parameters of the Gupta-type many-body inter-atomic potentials.

  20. Dynamic stabilities of icosahedral-like clusters and their ability to form quasicrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Xiaogang; Hamid, Ilyar; Duan, Haiming, E-mail: dhm@xju.edu.cn [College of Physics Science and Technology. Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046 (China)

    2016-06-15

    The dynamic stabilities of the icosahedral-like clusters containing up to 2200 atoms are investigated for 15 metal elements. The clusters originate from five different initial structures (icosahedron, truncated decahedron, octahedron, closed-shell fragment of an HCP structure, and non-closed-shell fragment of an HCP structure). The obtained order of the dynamic stabilities of the icosahedral-like clusters can be assigned to three groups, from stronger to weaker, according to the size ranges involved: (Zr, Al, Ti) > (Cu, Fe, Co, Ni, Mg, Ag) > (Pb, Au, Pd, Pt, Rh, Ir), which correspond to the predicted formation ability of the quasicrystals. The differences of the sequences can be explained by analyzing the parameters of the Gupta-type many-body inter-atomic potentials.

  1. Effect of ion species on apatite-forming ability of silicone elastomer substrates irradiated by cluster ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawashita, Masakazu [Graduate School of Biomedical Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-11-1306-1 Aramaki-Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)], E-mail: m-kawa@ecei.tohoku.ac.jp; Araki, Rei; Takaoka, Gikan H. [Photonics and Electronics Science and Engineering Center, Kyoto University (Japan)

    2009-04-15

    Indwelling catheters made of silicone elastomers sometimes cause serious infections owing to their poor biocompatibility. It is believed that these infections can be prevented by coating the silicone surface with apatite, which has excellent biocompatibility. If the surface of the silicone elastomer is in advance modified to have an apatite-forming ability, apatite can be coated on the modified silicone surface by soaking it in an aqueous solution such as a simulated body fluid (SBF) supersaturated with respect to apatite. In this study, silicone substrates were irradiated by four types of ion beams (Ar cluster, Ar cluster and monomer (Ar CM), O{sub 2} cluster, and O{sub 2} cluster and monomer (O{sub 2} CM) ion beams) at an acceleration voltage of 7 kV and a dose of 1 x 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}, and subsequently soaked in CaCl{sub 2} solution. The apatite-forming abilities of the substrates were examined using a metastable calcium phosphate solution whose ion concentration was 1.5 times that of SBF (1.5 SBF). Silicon oxide (SiO{sub x}) clusters were formed on the silicone surface and the hydrophilicity of the substrates was improved by the irradiation, irrespective of the ion species used. The irradiation with O{sub 2} CM ion beams resulted in the highest apatite-forming ability among the analyzed ion beams.

  2. Unusual glass-forming ability induced by changes in the local atomic structure in Ti-based bulk metallic glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y C; Chang, H J; Kim, D H; Kim, W T; Cha, P R

    2007-01-01

    The effect of partial replacement of Cu by Be in Ti 50 Cu 32 Ni 15 Sn 3 alloy on the thermal properties, structure, and forming ability of an amorphous phase were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), x-ray diffraction (XRD), extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Ti 50 Cu 25 Ni 15 Sn 3 Be 7 alloy shows enhanced glass-forming ability, enabling one to fabricate a fully amorphous bulk metallic glass sample 2 mm in diameter by injection casting. With the replacement, the supercooled liquid region ΔT x (= T x -T g , where T x is the crystallization temperature and T g is the glass transition temperature) decreased from 73 to 45 K and the reduced glass transition temperature T rg (= T g /T 1 , where T 1 is the liquidus temperature) increased from 0.53 to 0.57. The amorphous Ti 50 Cu 25 Ni 15 Sn 3 Be 7 phase showed a formation of short-range-ordered clusters 1-2 nm in size, which is attributed to the strong interaction between Ti and Be. The results show that ΔT x can be used as a thermal parameter reflecting the glass-forming ability of the alloy only when the phase formed during crystallization is the same as the phase competing with the glass transition during solidification

  3. Clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii from a Portuguese hospital: PFGE characterization, antibiotic susceptibility and biofilm-forming ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Andreia; Ferreira, Susana; Almeida, Sofia; Domingues, Fernanda C

    2016-04-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is an emerging pathogen associated with nosocomial infections that in addition has shown an increasing resistance to antibiotics. In this work the genetic diversity of A. baumannii isolates from a Portuguese hospital, their antibiotic resistance profiles and ability to form biofilms was studied. Seventy-nine clinical A. baumannii isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with 9 different PFGE profiles being obtained. Concerning the antimicrobial susceptibility, all A. baumannii isolates were resistant to 12 of the 17 tested antibiotics and classified as multidrug-resistant (MDR). In addition, 74.7% of the isolates showed biofilm formation ability, however no statistical significance with antibiotic resistance was observed. In contrast, urine samples isolates were more likely to form biofilms than strains isolated from other sources. Our findings highlight the high number of MDR A. baumannii isolates and the importance of the formation of biofilms as a potential virulence factor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Structural Origin of the Enhanced Glass-Forming Ability Induced by Microalloying Y in the ZrCuAl Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu-Qing Guo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the structural origin of the enhanced glass-forming ability induced by microalloying Y in a ZrCuAl multicomponent system is studied by performing synchrotron radiation experiments combined with simulations. It is revealed that the addition of Y leads to the optimization of local structures, including: (1 more Zr-centered and Y-centered icosahedral-like clusters occur in the microstructure; (2 the atomic packing efficiency inside clusters and the regularity of clusters are both enhanced. These structural optimizations help to stabilize the amorphous structure in the ZrCuAlY system, and lead to a high glass-forming ability (GFA. The present work provides an understanding of GFAs in multicomponent alloys and will shed light on the development of more metallic glasses with high GFAs.

  5. Investigation of the antibiotic resistance and biofilm-forming ability of Staphylococcus aureus from subclinical bovine mastitis cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslantaş, Özkan; Demir, Cemil

    2016-11-01

    A total of 112 Staphylococcus aureus isolates obtained from subclinical bovine mastitis cases were examined for antibiotic susceptibility and biofilm-forming ability as well as genes responsible for antibiotic resistance, biofilm-forming ability, and adhesin. Antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates were determined by disk diffusion method. Biofilm forming ability of the isolates were investigated by Congo red agar method, standard tube method, and microplate method. The genes responsible for antibiotic resistance, biofilm-forming ability, and adhesion were examined by PCR. Five isolates (4.5%) were identified as methicillin-resistant Staph. aureus by antibiotic susceptibility testing and confirmed by mecA detection. The resistance rates to penicillin, ampicillin, tetracycline, erythromycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, enrofloxacin, and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid were 45.5, 39.3, 33, 26.8, 5.4, 0.9, and 0.9%, respectively. All isolates were susceptible against vancomycin and gentamicin. The blaZ (100%), tetK (67.6%), and ermA (70%) genes were the most common antibiotic-resistance genes. Using Congo red agar, microplate, and standard tube methods, 70.5, 67, and 62.5% of the isolates were found to be biofilm producers, respectively. The percentage rate of icaA, icaD, and bap genes in Staph. aureus isolates were 86.6, 86.6, and 13.4%, respectively. The adhesion molecules fnbA, can, and clfA were detected in 87 (77.7%), 98 (87.5%), and 75 (70%) isolates, respectively. The results indicated that Staph. aureus from sublinical bovine mastitis cases were mainly resistant to β-lactams and, to a lesser extent, to tetracycline and erythromycin. Also, biofilm- and adhesion-related genes, which are increasingly accepted as an important virulence factor in the pathogenesis of Staph. aureus infections, were detected at a high rate. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. FLO11 gene length and transcriptional level affect biofilm-forming ability of wild flor strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zara, Giacomo; Zara, Severino; Pinna, Claudia; Marceddu, Salvatore; Budroni, Marilena

    2009-12-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, FLO11 encodes an adhesin that is associated with different phenotypes, such as adherence to solid surfaces, hydrophobicity, mat and air-liquid biofilm formation. In the present study, we analysed FLO11 allelic polymorphisms and FLO11-associated phenotypes of 20 flor strains. We identified 13 alleles of different lengths, varying from 3.0 to 6.1 kb, thus demonstrating that FLO11 is highly polymorphic. Two alleles of 3.1 and 5.0 kb were cloned into strain BY4742 to compare the FLO11-associated phenotypes in the same genetic background. We show that there is a significant correlation between biofilm-forming ability and FLO11 length both in different and in the same genetic backgrounds. Moreover, we propose a multiple regression model that allows prediction of air-liquid biofilm-forming ability on the basis of transcription levels and lengths of FLO11 alleles in a population of S. cerevisiae flor strains. Considering that transcriptional differences are only partially explained by the differences in the promoter sequences, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that FLO11 transcription levels are strongly influenced by genetic background and affect biofilm-forming ability.

  7. Contamination sources, biofilm-forming ability and biocide resistance of Staphylococcus aureus in tilapia-processing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Sánchez, Daniel; Galvão, Juliana A; Oetterer, Marília

    2017-01-01

    The major contamination sources, biofilm-forming ability and biocide resistance of Staphylococcus aureus in tilapia-processing plants were evaluated. Twenty-five processing control points were analysed twice in two factories, including whole tilapias, frozen fillets, water and food-contact surfaces. No final product was contaminated with S. aureus. However, high concentrations of S. aureus carrying enterotoxin ( se) genes were found in several processing points of both factories due to the application of inadequate hygienic and handling procedures, which generate a high risk of cross-contamination of the tilapia fillets with staphylococcal enterotoxins. Nine S. aureus strains were characterized by RAPD-PCR using primers AP-7, ERIC-2 and S. A wide diversity of se gene profiles was detected, most strains being multi- se-carriers. All S. aureus strains showed high biofilm-forming ability on stainless steel and polystyrene. Biofilm-forming ability was correlated with the presence of fliC H7 and the type of origin surface (metallic or plastic). A marked resistance of S. aureus to peracetic acid and sodium hypochlorite was also observed, required doses being higher than those recommended by manufacturers to be eradicated. Case-by-case approaches are thus recommended to determine the sources and degree of contamination present in each factory, which would allow applying precise responses that avoid, or at least reduce, the presence of bacterial pathogens and the emergence of antimicrobial resistance.

  8. About forming of personality physical culture of students in the process of physical education (in aspect of presence of abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.I. Belykh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that practice of teaching of discipline «Physical education» does not provide forming of volume of abilities, sufficient for the origin of athletic activity. Prevail ability to pick up a place, sporting form, inventory depending on the type of physical exercises and ability on the observance of rules of the personal hygiene. In the questionnaire questioning 650 students (324 youths and 326 girls of the first and fourth courses took part. All of students visited employments on physical education at school and institute of higher. It is marked that the important task of amateurish athletic education is forming for the students of the personal experience of independent athletic, health and рекреационных employments. It is underlined that sense of amateurish athletic education of students consists in achievement by a man unity of mental and activity processes. Such processes are needed for an estimation and understanding of the state of the health, programming and residence of healthy way of life.

  9. Saponins from Quillaja saponaria Molina: isolation, characterization and ability to form immuno stimulatory complexes (ISCOMs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Hoang L; Ross, Benjamin P; McGeary, Ross P; Shaw, P Nicholas; Hewavitharana, Amitha K; Davies, Nigel M

    2006-10-01

    ISCOMs have received much attention as vaccine adjuvants due to their immunostimulatory effects. They are colloidal particles typically comprised of phospholipids, cholesterol and Quil A, a crude mixture of saponins extracted from the bark of Quillaja saponaria Molina. We have previously shown that ISCOMs can be prepared by ether injection wherein an ether solution of phospholipids and cholesterol in a mass ratio of 5:2 is injected into a solution of Quil A at a mass ratio of 7 lipids: 3 Quil A. The aim of this study was firstly to isolate and characterise discrete fractions of Quil A and secondly to investigate which of these fractions were able to form ISCOMs by the method of ether injection. Six fractions of Quil A were isolated by semi-preparative reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and characterised by analytical HPLC, liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and the qualitative Liebermann-Burchard and Molisch tests for triterpenoids and carbohydrates respectively. ISCOMs were subsequently prepared from the isolated fractions by the method of ether injection and the resulting preparations characterized by photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) and negative stain transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The molecular weights of the major compounds in the fractions ranged from approximately 1200 to approximately 2300 Da; all fractions tested positive for triterpenoids and saccharides and four of the fractions were identified as QS-7, QS-17, QS-18 and QS-21 by analysis (LC-MS and analytical HPLC). Injection of ether solutions of lipids into aqueous solutions of QS-17, QS-18 or QS-21 all resulted in homogeneous ISCOM dispersions. The combination of lipids and QS-7 by ether injection produced lamellae and liposomes as the prominent structures and a minor amount of ISCOMs. The remaining two hydrophilic, low molecular weight fractions of Quil A did not produce ISCOMs, instead liposomes and helical structures predominated in the

  10. Apatite forming ability and cytocompatibility of pure and Zn-doped bioactive glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oudadesse, H; Dietrich, E; Gal, Y L; Pellen, P; Bureau, B; Mostafa, A A; Cathelineau, G, E-mail: hassane.oudadesse@univ-rennes1.fr [SCR, UMR-CNRS 6226, Campus de Beaulieu, Universite de Rennes 1, 263 Avenue du General Leclerc, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France)

    2011-06-15

    The use of bone grafts permits the filling of a bone defect without risk of virus transmission. In this work, pure bioactive glass (46S6) and zinc-doped bioactive glass (46S6Zn10) with 0.1 wt% zinc are used to elaborate highly bioactive materials by melting and rapid quenching. Cylinders of both types of glasses were soaked in a simulated body fluid (SBF) solution with the aim of determining the effect of zinc addition as a trace element on the chemical reactivity and bioactivity of glass. Several physico-chemical characterization methods such as x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance methods, with particular focus on the latter, were chosen to investigate the fine structural behaviour of pure and Zn-doped bioactive glasses as a function of the soaking time of immersion in SBF. Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) was used to measure the concentrations of Ca and P ions in the SBF solution after different durations of immersion. The effect of the investigated samples on the proliferation rate of human osteoblast cells was assessed by the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, and tested on two different sizes of pure and zinc-doped glasses in powder form, with particle sizes that ranged between 40 to 63 {mu}m and 500 to 600 {mu}m. The obtained results showed the delay release of ions by Zn-doped glass (46S6Zn10) and the slower CaP deposition. Cytotoxicity and cell viability were affected by the particle size of the glass. The release rate of ions was found to influence the cell viability.

  11. [The effects of an aroma candy on oral Candida albicans colony-forming units (CFU) and oral hygiene states in healthy elderly carrying Candida albicans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Motofumi; Hayama, Kazumi; Takahashi, Miki; Ezawa, Kunio; Yamazaki, Masatoshi; Matsukawa, Taiji; Kishi, Akinobu; Satou, Nobuya; Abe, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    In a preceding paper, we showed that aroma candy containing oligonol, capric acid, and cinnamon (cassia) powder had potent inhibitory activity against mycelial growth of Candida albicans in vitro and protective activity against murine oral candidiasis. In order to assess the effects of this candy (the test candy) on oral C. albicans colony-forming units (CFU) and oral hygiene states, a placebo-controlled double-blind crossover comparative study was performed. Twenty subjects were divided into two groups. One group ingested the test candy in the first 7 days followed by 2 weeks washing-off period, then ingested the placebo candy (control candy) for 7 days. The other group was vice versa. C. albicans CFU in all oral rinse samples from the subjects before and after 7 days ingestion of candy was measured. The degree of oral malodor in all subjects was monitored using a portable measuring instrument. The results showed no statistically significant difference between test-candy group and placebo group for C. albicans CFU. However, C. albicans CFU in test-candy group with>4,000 CFUs was significantly decreased after 7 days ingestion of test-candy (poral malodor in the test-candy group was significantly decreased after 7 days ingestion of test-candy (poral hygiene states indicated that in the test-candy group, oral malodor, glutinous feeling, and refreshing feeling significantly improved in comparison with control-candy group (poral health care of elderly carrying C. albicans.

  12. Comparative study of 5-fluorouracil and its derivative, N1-(2'-tetrahydrofuryl)-5-fluorouracil on endogenous colony forming units in spleens of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Yori

    1976-01-01

    The effect of intraperitoneal injection of N 1 -(2'-tetrahydrofuryl)-5-fluorouracil (FT-207) which is metabolized to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in vivo, on endogeneous colony forming units in the spleen (endogeneous CFU-s) was observed and compared with that of 5-FU. The 8 x 10 -4 m eqv of FT-207 injected in mice 20 minutes before x-rays irradiation of 450 rads suppressed the endogeneous CFU-s count to about 60% and about 5.5 x 10 -5 m eqv of 5-FU had the same effect. The suppression of FT-207 continued over 120 minutes and increased gradually. The effect of 5-FU was strong shortly after the injection but faded out for 120 minutes. FT-207 had almost no effect on the recovery constant (Blair) of endogeneous CFU-s for 3 days, whereas 5-FU reduced seriously, especially for the first 2 days. The differences in the effects of both compounds could not be explained on the base of the only differences in the metabolism of both compounds. (auth.)

  13. The Transcription Factor Nrf2 Protects Angiogenic Capacity of Endothelial Colony-Forming Cells in High-Oxygen Radical Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Gremmels

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs have shown a promise in tissue engineering of vascular constructs, where they act as endothelial progenitor cells. After implantation, ECFCs are likely to be subjected to elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS. The transcription factor Nrf2 regulates the expression of antioxidant enzymes in response to ROS. Methods. Stable knockdown of Nrf2 and Keap1 was achieved by transduction with lentiviral shRNAs; activation of Nrf2 was induced by incubation with sulforaphane (SFN. Expression of Nrf2 target genes was assessed by qPCR, oxidative stress was assessed using CM-DCFDA, and angiogenesis was quantified by scratch-wound and tubule-formation assays. Results. Nrf2 knockdown led to a reduction of antioxidant gene expression and increased ROS. Angiogenesis was disturbed after Nrf2 knockdown even in the absence of ROS. Conversely, angiogenesis was preserved in high ROS conditions after knockdown of Keap1. Preincubation of ECFCs with SFN reduced intracellular ROS in the presence of H2O2 and preserved scratch-wound closure and tubule-formation. Conclusion. The results of this study indicate that Nrf2 plays an important role in the angiogenic capacity of ECFCs, particularly under conditions of increased oxidative stress. Pretreatment of ECFCs with SFN prior to implantation may be a protective strategy for tissue-engineered constructs or cell therapies.

  14. Pock forming ability of fowl pox virus isolated from layer chicken and its adaptation in chicken embryo fibroblast cell culture

    OpenAIRE

    Gilhare, Varsha Rani; Hirpurkar, S. D.; Kumar, Ashish; Naik, Surendra Kumar; Sahu, Tarini

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The objective of the present study was to examine pock forming ability of field strain and vaccine strain of fowl pox virus (FPV) in chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of embryonated chicken eggs and its adaptation in chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cell culture. Materials and Methods: Dry scabs were collected from 25 affected birds in glycerin-saline and preserved at 4°C until processed. Virus was isolated in 10-day-old embryonated chicken eggs by dropped CAM method. The identity of the ...

  15. High-throughput imaging of bacterial colonies grown on filter plates with application to serum bactericidal assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Wang, Su; Sendi, Lisa; Caulfield, Michael J

    2004-09-01

    The ability to accurately enumerate viable bacteria has applications in antibiotic screening assays, toxicology testing, and serological assays for functional antibodies. An impediment to high-throughput bacterial assays is the requirement to grow bacteria as individual colonies on semisolid media containing agar. We have now developed a method for growth, staining, and counting of bacterial colonies in 96-well filter plates. A unique feature of the method is that colony size is inversely proportional to the number of colonies in each well, presumably due to nutrient depletion. As a result, as many as 300 colony-forming units (cfu) can be detected as discrete colonies within a single assay well. The resulting colonies can be counted automatically using an imaging system originally developed for ELISPOT assays. The method has been applied to the measurement of serum bactericidal activity (SBA) in human sera.

  16. Optical methods for the evaluation of film-forming ability of UPEC on the surface of medical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bayati, Basim M.; Nechaeva, Olga V.; Ulyanov, Vladimir Yu.; Glinskaya, Elena V.; Zayarsky, Dmitry A.; Tikhomirova, Elena I.; Vakaraeva, Malika M.; Bespalova, Natalia V.; Egorova, Anna V.

    2017-03-01

    The current study was designed to investigate the dynamics of microbial biofilm-formation in standard and clinical strains of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), using spectrophotometric and electron microscopic methods. For achieving this goal, three E. coli strains were used (one standard and two clinical). These isolates differ in the existence of fimH virulence gene. The process involved the using of electron microscopy and immunological microtitration plates under in vitro conditions for 96 hours. We found that standard and clinical strains of E. coli were capable of forming a microbial biofilm in vitro, with a higher intensity related to the clinical strain E. coli 245. The using of scanning electron microscopy confirmed the obtained results. The combined use of different optical methods gives a complete characterization of film-forming ability of pathogenic microorganisms.

  17. Influence of Y, Gd and Sm on the glass forming ability and thermal crystallization of aluminum based alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliaga, L.C.R.; Bolfarini, C.; Kiminami, C.S.; Botta Filho, W.J.; Danez, G.P.

    2010-01-01

    Al-based amorphous alloys represent an important family of metals and a great scientific activity has been devoted to determine the main features of both glass forming ability (GFA) and crystallization behavior in order to have a comprehensive framework aimed at potential technological applications. Nowadays, it is well known that the best Al-based amorphous alloys are formed in ternary systems such as Al- RE-TM, where RE is a rare earth and TM a transition metal. This paper presents results of research in Al 85 Ni 10 RE 5 alloys (RE = Y, Gd and Sm). Amorphous ribbons were processed by melt-spinning under the same conditions and subsequently characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results show appreciable micro structural differences as function of the rare earth, thus crystal is obtained for Y, nano-glassy for Gd and, fully amorphous structure for Sm. (author)

  18. Colony Dimorphism in Bradyrhizobium Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester-Bradley, Rosemary; Thornton, Philip; Jones, Peter

    1988-01-01

    Ten isolates of Bradyrhizobium spp. which form two colony types were studied; the isolates originated from a range of legume species. The two colony types differed in the amount of gum formed or size or both, depending on the strain. Whole 7-day-old colonies of each type were subcultured to determine the proportion of cells which had changed to the other type. An iterative computerized procedure was used to determine the rate of switching per generation between the two types and to predict proportions reached at equilibrium for each strain. The predicted proportions of the wetter (more gummy) or larger colony type at equilibrium differed significantly between strains, ranging from 0.9999 (strain CIAT 2383) to 0.0216 (strain CIAT 2469), because some strains switched faster from dry to wet (or small to large) and others switched faster from wet to dry (or large to small). Predicted equilibrium was reached after about 140 generations in strain USDA 76. In all but one strain (CIAT 3030) the growth rate of the wetter colony type was greater than or similar to that of the drier type. The mean difference in generation time between the two colony types was 0.37 h. Doubling times calculated for either colony type after 7 days of growth on the agar surface ranged from 6.0 to 7.3 h. The formation of two persistent colony types by one strain (clonal or colony dimorphism) may be a common phenomenon among Bradyrhizobium strains. Images PMID:16347599

  19. Physical stability of drugs after storage above and below the glass transition temperature: Relationship to glass-forming ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhalaweh, Amjad; Alzghoul, Ahmad; Mahlin, Denny; Bergström, Christel A S

    2015-11-10

    Amorphous materials are inherently unstable and tend to crystallize upon storage. In this study, we investigated the extent to which the physical stability and inherent crystallization tendency of drugs are related to their glass-forming ability (GFA), the glass transition temperature (Tg) and thermodynamic factors. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to produce the amorphous state of 52 drugs [18 compounds crystallized upon heating (Class II) and 34 remained in the amorphous state (Class III)] and to perform in situ storage for the amorphous material for 12h at temperatures 20°C above or below the Tg. A computational model based on the support vector machine (SVM) algorithm was developed to predict the structure-property relationships. All drugs maintained their Class when stored at 20°C below the Tg. Fourteen of the Class II compounds crystallized when stored above the Tg whereas all except one of the Class III compounds remained amorphous. These results were only related to the glass-forming ability and no relationship to e.g. thermodynamic factors was found. The experimental data were used for computational modeling and a classification model was developed that correctly predicted the physical stability above the Tg. The use of a large dataset revealed that molecular features related to aromaticity and π-π interactions reduce the inherent physical stability of amorphous drugs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Prevalence and biofilm-forming ability of Listeria monocytogenes in New Zealand mussel (Perna canaliculus) processing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Cristina D; Fletcher, Graham C

    2011-10-01

    Greenshell™ mussels are New Zealand's largest seafood export species. Some export markets require compliance with 'zero' tolerance legislation for Listeria monocytogenes in 25 g of product. Even though individually quick frozen (IQF) mussel products are labeled 'to be cooked', and are not classified as ready-to-eat, some markets still require them to comply with the strict policy. Three mussel processing plants were assessed for the pattern of L. monocytogenes contamination on raw material, environment, food contact surfaces, and in the final product. Cultures (n = 101) obtained from an industrial Listeria monitoring program from August 2007 to June 2009 were characterized by serotyping and pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Using the crystal violet method, isolates were assessed for their ability to form biofilms. This work confirmed the presence of L. monocytogenes in raw and processed product, and the importance of cross-contamination from external and internal environments. Processing plants had L. monocytogenes pulsotypes that were detected more than once over 6 months. No correlation was found between biofilm-forming ability and persistent isolates. Two pulsotypes (including a persistent one), were previously isolated in human cases of listeriosis in New Zealand, but none of the pulsotypes matched those involved in international outbreaks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of characteristics and fibril-forming ability of skin collagen from barramundi (Lates calcarifer) and tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wei; Guanghua, Xia; Li, Yongcheng; Shen, Xuan Ri; Li, Chuan

    2018-02-01

    The present study isolated and characterized the barramundi (Lates calcarifer) skin collagen (BC) and tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) skin collagen (TC). The yields of BC and TC by enzymatic extraction were 47.3±3.7% and 52.6±6.1% respectively, dry weight. The SDS-PAGE profile indicated both collagens were mainly type I with two different α chains. FTIR spectra and X-ray diffraction confirmed that the triple helical structure of both collagens was not affected by pepsin digestion. The denaturation (T d ) and melting temperature (T m ) were 36.8 and 109.6°C for BC, 37.6 and 113.7°C for TC, measured by rheometer and DSC. This high thermal stability could be attributed to the high imino acid content (205.9 and 210.9 residues/1000 residues) of BC and TC. Fibril-forming studies indicated BC exhibited higher ability than (ptilapia skin collagen with high thermal stability and good fibril-forming ability may be suitable for use as an alternative to mammalian-derived collagen in biomaterials, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Atomistic approach to predict the glass-forming ability in Zr–Cu–Al ternary metallic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, C.Y. [Center for Advanced Structural Materials, Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, College of Science and Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Liu, X.J. [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Zheng, G.P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Niu, X.R. [Center for Advanced Structural Materials, Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, College of Science and Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Liu, C.T., E-mail: chainliu@cityu.edu.hk [Center for Advanced Structural Materials, Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, College of Science and Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2015-04-05

    Highlights: • An atomistic approach has been developed to predict the glass forming ability (GFA) in Zr–Cu–Al ternary alloy system. • Both of the thermodynamic and structure-dependent kinetic effects to glass formation have been taken into account. • The first-principles calculation and molecular dynamics simulation have been performed. • The approach predicts the best glass former in the model Zr–Cu–Al alloy system. • The predicted GFA is consistent with various experimental results. - Abstract: Prediction of composition-dependent glass-forming ability (GFA) remains to be a key scientific challenge in the metallic-glass community, especially in multi-component alloy systems. In the present study, we apply an atomistic approach to predict the trend of GFA effectively in the Zr–Cu–Al ternary alloy system from alloy compositions alone. This approach is derived from the first-principles calculations based on the density-functional theory and molecular dynamic (MD) simulations. By considering of both the thermodynamic and atomic-structure induced kinetic effects, the predicted GFA trend from this approach shows an excellent agreement with experimental data available in this alloy system, manifesting its capability of seeking metallic glasses with superior GFA in ternary alloy systems.

  3. High frequency of endothelial colony forming cells marks a non-active myeloproliferative neoplasm with high risk of splanchnic vein thrombosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Rosti

    Full Text Available Increased mobilization of circulating endothelial progenitor cells may represent a new biological hallmark of myeloproliferative neoplasms. We measured circulating endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs in 106 patients with primary myelofibrosis, fibrotic stage, 49 with prefibrotic myelofibrosis, 59 with essential thrombocythemia or polycythemia vera, and 43 normal controls. Levels of ECFC frequency for patient's characteristics were estimated by using logistic regression in univariate and multivariate setting. The sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios, and positive predictive value of increased ECFC frequency were calculated for the significantly associated characteristics. Increased frequency of ECFCs resulted independently associated with history of splanchnic vein thrombosis (adjusted odds ratio = 6.61, 95% CI = 2.54-17.16, and a summary measure of non-active disease, i.e. hemoglobin of 13.8 g/dL or lower, white blood cells count of 7.8×10(9/L or lower, and platelet count of 400×10(9/L or lower (adjusted odds ratio = 4.43, 95% CI = 1.45-13.49 Thirteen patients with splanchnic vein thrombosis non associated with myeloproliferative neoplasms were recruited as controls. We excluded a causal role of splanchnic vein thrombosis in ECFCs increase, since no control had elevated ECFCs. We concluded that increased frequency of ECFCs represents the biological hallmark of a non-active myeloproliferative neoplasm with high risk of splanchnic vein thrombosis. The recognition of this disease category copes with the phenotypic mimicry of myeloproliferative neoplasms. Due to inherent performance limitations of ECFCs assay, there is an urgent need to arrive to an acceptable standardization of ECFC assessment.

  4. TRPC3-mediated Ca2+ signals as a promising strategy to boost therapeutic angiogenesis in failing hearts: The role of autologous endothelial colony forming cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moccia, Francesco; Lucariello, Angela; Guerra, Germano

    2018-05-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are a sub-population of bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells that are released in circulation to restore damaged endothelium during its physiological turnover or rescue blood perfusion after an ischemic insult. Additionally, they may be mobilized from perivascular niches located within larger arteries' wall in response to hypoxic conditions. For this reason, EPCs have been regarded as an effective tool to promote revascularization and functional recovery of ischemic hearts, but clinical application failed to exploit the full potential of patients-derived cells. Indeed, the frequency and biological activity of EPCs are compromised in aging individuals or in subjects suffering from severe cardiovascular risk factors. Rejuvenating the reparative phenotype of autologous EPCs through a gene transfer approach has, therefore, been put forward as an alternative approach to enhance their therapeutic potential in cardiovascular patients. An increase in intracellular Ca 2+ concentration constitutes a pivotal signal for the activation of the so-called endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs), the only known truly endothelial EPC subset. Studies from our group showed that the Ca 2+ toolkit differs between peripheral blood- and umbilical cord blood (UCB)-derived ECFCs. In the present article, we first discuss how VEGF uses repetitive Ca 2+ spikes to regulate angiogenesis in ECFCs and outline how VEGF-induced intracellular Ca 2+ oscillations differ between the two ECFC subtypes. We then hypothesize about the possibility to rejuvenate the biological activity of autologous ECFCs by transfecting the cell with the Ca 2+ -permeable channel Transient Receptor Potential Canonical 3, which selectively drives the Ca 2+ response to VEGF in UCB-derived ECFCs. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Presence of environmental coagulase-positive staphylococci, their clonal relationship, resistance factors and ability to form biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez-Guadarrama, Norma; Olivares-Cervantes, Alma L; Salinas, Eva; Martínez, Leticia; Escorcia, Magdalena; Oropeza, Ricardo; Rosas, Irma

    Coagulase-positive staphylococci (CoPS) are opportunistic pathogens carrying various mechanisms of resistance that have a large number of virulence factors, and whose ability to induce illness is associated with the host. This study aimed to investigate the presence of environmental coagulase-positive staphylococci, their susceptibility profile, clonal relationship and ability to form biofilm. The 16S rRNA genes from CoPS isolates were analyzed, and their antibiotic susceptibility was evaluated using the agar dilution method in accordance with Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. The clonal profile was obtained by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and biofilm formation was measured by a crystal violet retention assay. A total of 72 Staphylococcus spp. strains were isolated from air, metal surfaces, and nostrils from humans, dogs, cats, and birds. Three species were identified: Staphylococcus aureus (17%), Staphylococcus intermedius (63%), and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (21%). Ninety three percent (93%) of the strains were resistant to at least one of 13 tested antibiotics. S. pseudintermedius strains were the only resistant ones to methicillin while most of these isolates were multidrug-resistant, had significantly higher ability to form biofilm and PFGE grouped into seven different patterns, without showing clonal dispersion among animals and environmental isolates. This study suggests that dogs, cat, and air are environmental sources potentially carrying multidrug-resistant S. pseudintermedius, which survives in different environments through biofilm formation and multidrug resistance, characteristics that can be transmitted horizontally to other bacteria and exacerbate the problem of antibiotic resistance in humans. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Copper oxide content dependence of crystallization behavior, glass forming ability, glass stability and fragility of lithium borate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, A.A.; Kashif, I.

    2010-01-01

    Differential thermal analysis (DTA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) have been employed to investigate the copper oxide content dependence of the glass transition temperatures data, activation energy for the glass transition E t , glass stability GS, fragility index Fi, the glass-forming ability (GFA) and crystallization behavior of {(100-x) mol% Li 2 B 4 O 7 -x mol% CuO} glass samples, where x=0-40 mol% CuO. From the dependence of the glass transition temperature T g on the heating rate β, the fragility, F i , and the activation energy, E t , have been calculated. It is seen that F i and E t are attained their minimum values at 0 x -T g , SCL region and the GS. The GFA has been investigated on the basis of Hruby parameter K H , which is a strong indicator of GFA, and the relaxation time. Results of GFA are in good agreement with the fragility index, F i , calculations indicating that {90Li 2 B 4 O 7 .10CuO} is the best glass former. The stronger glass forming ability has decreasing the fragility index. XRD result indicates that no fully amorphous samples but a mixture of crystalline and amorphous phases are formed in the samples containing x>25 mol% CuO and below it composed of glassy phase. Increasing the CuO content above 25 mol% helps the crystallization process, and thus promotes a distinct SCL region. XRD suggests the presence of micro-crystallites of remaining residual amorphous matrix by increasing the CuO content.

  7. Co dependence of Curie temperature in amorphous Fe-Co-Zr-B-Nb alloys with high glass-forming ability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, B; Zhang, Y; Si, L; Tan, H; Li, Y

    2004-01-01

    Effects of Co substitution for Fe on the Curie temperature (T c ), glass-forming ability (GFA) and thermal stability of amorphous Fe 61-x Co x Zr 5 B 30 Nb 4 (FCZBN) alloys were studied for Co content ranging from 0 to 15 at. %. The T c shows a sinusoid-like behaviour with increasing Co content, revealing two maxima at 3 and 12.5 at. % Co and a minimum at 7.5 at. % Co. Co content dependences of glass transition (T g ), crystallization (T x ) and reduced glass transition temperatures (T rg ) of the amorphous alloys are almost completely opposite to that of the T c . The T c decreases with increasing T g and T rg , but increases with increasing Co content. The Co content dependence of the T c is suggested to relate to both Co content and high GFA of the amorphous alloys

  8. Effect of histatin-5 and lysozyme on the ability of Streptococcus mutans to form biofilms in in vitro conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyściak, Wirginia; Jurczak, Anna; Piątkowski, Jakub; Kościelniak, Dorota; Gregorczyk-Maga, Iwona; Kołodziej, Iwona; Papież, Monika A; Olczak-Kowalczyk, Dorota

    2015-09-20

    The mechanisms of adhesion to solid surfaces enable S. mutans to colonize oral cavities and form biofilms, which play an important role in caries development. Additional properties enabling the survival of S. mutans in the oral cavity include its ability to survive in acidic environments and specific interactions with other microorganisms inhabiting this ecosystem. The aim of this study was to determine the antibacterial activity of saliva histatin-5 (peptide) and lysozyme (protein) against S. mutans and L. rhamnosus, as representatives of physiological flora. The study involved strains of physiological (L. rhamnosus) and cariogenic (S. mutans) flora isolated from one patient with diagnosed early caries of the deciduous teeth. It was proved that the presence of probiotic L. rhamnosus bacteria in the environment had a negative impact on the ability of S. mutans to produce biofilm. Moreover, the antibacterial activity of histatin-5 was confirmed, and it inhibited S. mutans growth at concentrations of 27.2 μg/ml and 54.4 μg/ml, both individually and in a mixture with lysozyme (in a total concentration of 54.4 μg/ml). The data obtained constitute a promising result due to their potential future application in the prevention and early diagnosis of caries.

  9. Effect of histatin-5 and lysozyme on the ability of Streptococcus mutans to form biofilms in in vitro conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirginia Krzyściak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of adhesion to solid surfaces enable S. mutans to colonize oral cavities and form biofilms, which play an important role in caries development. Additional properties enabling the survival of S. mutans in the oral cavity include its ability to survive in acidic environments and specific interactions with other microorganisms inhabiting this ecosystem.The aim of this study was to determine the antibacterial activity of saliva histatin-5 (peptide and lysozyme (protein against S. mutans and L. rhamnosus, as representatives of physiological flora.The study involved strains of physiological (L. rhamnosus and cariogenic (S. mutans flora isolated from one patient with diagnosed early caries of the deciduous teeth.It was proved that the presence of probiotic L. rhamnosus bacteria in the environment had a negative impact on the ability of S. mutans to produce biofilm. Moreover, the antibacterial activity of histatin-5 was confirmed, and it inhibited S. mutans growth at concentrations of 27.2 μg/ml and 54.4 μg/ml, both individually and in a mixture with lysozyme (in a total concentration of 54.4 μg/ml.The data obtained constitute a promising result due to their potential future application in the prevention and early diagnosis of caries.

  10. Contamination sources, serogroups, biofilm-forming ability and biocide resistance ofListeria monocytogenespersistent in tilapia-processing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Sánchez, Daniel; Galvão, Juliana Antunes; Oetterer, Marília

    2017-11-01

    The major contamination sources, serogroups, biofilm-forming ability and biocide resistance of Listeria monocytogenes persistent in tilapia-processing facilities were assessed. Twenty-five processing-control points were examined twice in two factories, including whole tilapias, frozen fillets, water and food-contact surfaces. L. monocytogenes were detected in 4 and 20% of points of Factory A and B respectively, but at low concentrations. Contamination was due to inadequate handling of tilapias in the slaughter room of Factory A and to the application of ineffective sanitizing procedures in Factory B. Seven strains were characterized by RAPD-PCR using primers HLWL85, OPM-01 and DAF4. Genotypic similarity allowed tracing the contamination source of tilapia fillets in Factory B and detecting a prevalent strain in Brazilian tilapia-processing facilities. The serogroup II (including the serotype 1/2c) was the most frequently found, followed by serogroup I (1/2a) and III (1/2b), whereas the serotype 4b was not detected. All strains showed high biofilm-forming ability on stainless steel and polystyrene, but biofilm formation was positively correlated with the type of origin surface. Biofilms were highly resistant to peracetic acid and sodium hypochlorite, being required doses higher than those recommended by manufacturers to be eradicated. Peracetic acid was more effective than sodium hypochlorite, but the use of disinfectants with similar mechanisms of action increases the risk of cross-resistance. Case-by-case approaches are thus recommended to determine the sources and degree of contamination present in each factory, which would allow applying precise responses to control the persistence of bacterial pathogens such as L. monocytogenes .

  11. Effects of UV-irradiation on in vitro apatite-forming ability of TiO{sub 2} layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uetsuki, Keita, E-mail: dns20353@s.okayama-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, Tsushima, Kita-ku, Okayama-shi 700-8530 (Japan); Nakashima Medical Co., Ltd., Joto-Kitagata, Higashi-ku, Okayama-shi 709-0625 (Japan); Kaneda, Haruki [Faculty of Engineering, Okayama University, Tsushima, Kita-ku, Okayama-shi 700-8530 (Japan); Shirosaki, Yuki [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, Tsushima, Kita-ku, Okayama-shi 700-8530 (Japan); Hayakawa, Satoshi [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, Tsushima, Kita-ku, Okayama-shi 700-8530 (Japan); Research Center for Biomedical Engineering, Okayama University, Tsushima, Kita-ku, Okayama-shi 700-8530 (Japan); Osaka, Akiyoshi, E-mail: a-osaka@cc.okayama-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, Tsushima, Kita-ku, Okayama-shi 700-8530 (Japan); Research Center for Biomedical Engineering, Okayama University, Tsushima, Kita-ku, Okayama-shi 700-8530 (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    Titanium and its alloys are employed as artificial joints, bone plates, wires, screws and bone prostheses in orthopedic and dental fields, because of their high corrosion resistance, good mechanical properties, and biocompatibility. Since they cannot directly bond to living bone-tissue through stable chemical interactions, a few surface modification techniques have been proposed for giving materials apatite-forming ability that secures bone-tissue bonding, such as chemical treatment with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} or NaOH, electrochemical oxidation, electrophoretic apatite particle deposition, and UV-irradiation of surface titanium oxide layer. This study examined how the combination of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} chemical treatment and UV-irradiation affected in vitro apatite-formation on TiO{sub 2} (anatase phase) layers as UV was irradiated under a few different conditions. TiO{sub 2} layer was prepared by the chemical treatment with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} solution and subsequent heat-treatment (CHT). CHT samples were irradiated with UV-light for 1 h in air or in ultra-pure water. They were then soaked in Kokubo's simulated body fluid (SBF; pH 7.4) at 36.5 deg. C for 1 day. Their surface structure and morphology were examined by using a thin film X-ray diffractometer (TF-XRD), and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The UV-irradiation of CHT in air reduced the number of active sites for apatite nucleation. On the contrary, however, the UV-irradiation in water increased them. These opposite results indicate that environmental factors of the UV-irradiation are important for controlling the in vitro apatite-forming ability of anatase layer.

  12. Do different standard plate counting (IDF/ISSO or AOAC) methods interfere in the conversion of individual bacteria counts to colony forming units in raw milk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassoli, L D; Lima, W J F; Esguerra, J C; Da Silva, J; Machado, P F; Mourão, G B

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to establish the correlation between individual bacterial count (IBC) obtained by flow cytometry and the number of colony forming units (CFU) determined by standard plate count (SPC) in raw milk using two different reference methodologies: the methodology of the International Dairy Federation (IDF) - International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 4833, incubation for 72 h at 30°C and the methodology of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC), incubation for 48 h at 35°C. For this, 100 bovine milk samples (80 ml) from different farms were collected in a sterile bottle and maintained refrigerated at 4°C and were delivered to the laboratory. In the laboratory, the samples were divided into two vials of 40 ml each. Then, half of the vials were forwarded for the SPC analysis, and the other half were analysed using the equipment BactoScan FC. The analyses by flow cytometry and SPC were performed at the same time (maximum deviation of +/- 1 h). To transform the data from IBC ml(-1) to CFU ml(-1) (IDF or AOAC methodology), a standard linear regression equation was used, as recommended by IDF/ISO-196. The difference between the reference methodologies affects the equation that transforms IBC into CFU and therefore the accuracy of the results. The results estimated by the equation using the ISO 4833 methodology were on average 0·18 log units higher than the results estimated using the equation using the AOAC methodology. After the comparison of the methodologies, it was concluded that there is an impact of the reference methodologies on the conversion of the results from IBC to CFU. Depending on the methodology adopted by each laboratory or country, there may not be equivalence in the results. Hence, the laboratories specialized in milk quality analysis that have changed their methodology for analysis, passing from the MAPA (AOAC) methodology to the IDF standard, need to develop new conversion equations to make their

  13. Atomic Scale Investigation of Structural Properties and Glass Forming Ability of Ti100-x Al x Metallic Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahiri, M.; Hasnaoui, A.; Sbiaai, K.

    2018-03-01

    In this work, we employed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to study Ti-Al metallic glasses (MGs) using the embedded atom method (EAM) potential to model the atomic interaction with different compositions. The results showed evidence of the metallic glass formation induced by the split occurring in the second peak of the radial distribution function (RDF) curves implying both Ti and Al atoms. The common neighbor analysis (CNA) method confirmed the presence of the icosahedral clusters with a maximum amount observed for an alloy with 75 pct of Al. Analysis of coordination numbers (CNs) indicated that the total CNs are nearly unchanged in these systems. Finally, Voronoi tessellation analyses (VTA) showed a higher value of the number of icosahedral units at Ti25Al75 composition. This specific composition represents a nearby peritectic point localized at a low melting point in the Ti-Al binary phase diagram. The glass forming ability (GFA) becomes important when the fraction of Al increases by forming and connecting "icosahedral-like" clusters (12-coordinated and 13-coordinated ) and by playing a main role in the structure stability of the Ti-Al MGs.

  14. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--Italian Form: Psychometric Properties and Relationships to Breadth of Interests, Quality of Life, and Perceived Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soresi, Salvatore; Nota, Laura; Ferrari, Lea

    2012-01-01

    The Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS)-Italian Form consists of four 6-item scales, which measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. The 24-item CAAS-Italian Form is identical to the International Form 2.0. The factor structure was…

  15. Effects of irradiation on PHA-induced T-lymphocyte colonies: differential effects according to the timing of irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, G.M.; Lowenthal, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    A T-lymphocyte colony assay was used to investigate the effect of irradiation on lymphocyte mitosis. Irradiation doses in the range of 0.5 to 4 Gy had the effect of decreasing the lymphocytes' capacity to divide as shown by their reduced T-colony-forming ability. This radiosensitivity, however, was found to vary according to the timing of irradiation in relation to the stage of colony growth. Through survival curve analysis it was shown that the colony-forming cells could withstand higher irradiation doses without losing their replicative ability when they were irradiated prior to or during early stages of PHA stimulation. These results provide evidence that the early events associated with PHA stimulation might lead to an improved ability of T-lymphocytes to withstand higher doses or irradiation before mitotic death is registered

  16. Quantitative response of bone marrow colony-forming units (CFU-C and PFU-C) in weaning beagles exposed to acute whole-body γ irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, F.D.; Stitzel, K.A.; Klein, A.K.; Shifrine, M.; Graham, R.; Jones, M.; Bradley, E.; Rosenblatt, L.S.

    1978-01-01

    Using a methylcellulose-supported bone marrow culture system, the dose-response relationships of suspended granulocyte-monocyte colonies (CFU-C) and adherent fibroblastic colonies (PFU-C) were investigated in 2- to 3-month-old beagles exposed to acute whole-body γ irradiation. Groups of weanling beagles were exposed at a rate of 140 R/hr delivered from a 60 Co γ source achieving total exposures ranging from 0 to 586 R. Twenty-four hours following irradiation, bone marrow was collected, plated into methylcellulose, and after 1 week of incubation both colony types were quantitated. In addition, bone marrow cellularity determinations were made for a variety of bones using an 59 Fe-labeling technique. The results show a D 37 for the linear part of the slope of 70 R for CFU-C. Although within the limits of the experiment a D 37 could not be established for the fibroblastic populations, the results indicate a substantial degree of radioresistance for these elements supporting our previous studies on PFU-C, performed on mice, which suggested a D 37 of approximately 400 R for the progenitors of these fibroblastic elements

  17. Two Strains of Lymnaea stagnalis and the Progeny from Their Mating Display Differential Memory-Forming Ability on Associative Learning Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Sunada

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis learns and forms long-term memory (LTM following both operant conditioning of aerial respiratory behavior and classical conditioning of taste aversive behavior. In the present study, we examined whether there are interstrain differences in the ability to form LTM following these two types of conditioning. A strain of Lymnaea (TC1 collected in Alberta, Canada exhibits superior memory-forming ability following aerial respiratory operant conditioning compared to a laboratory-reared strain of Lymnaea from Netherlands known as the Dutch strain. We asked whether the offspring of the Canadian TC1 and Dutch snails (i.e., filial 1 (F1 cross snails would have the superior memory ability and found, rather, that their memory ability was average like the Dutch snails. That is, the Canadian TC1 snails have superior ability for LTM formation following aerial respiratory operant conditioning, but the Dutch and the generated F1 cross have average ability for memory forming. We next examined the Canadian TC1, Dutch and F1 cross snails for their ability to learn and form memory following conditioned taste aversion (CTA. All three populations showed similar associative CTA responses. However, both LTM formation and the ratio of good-to-poor performers in the memory retention test were much better in the Dutch snails than the Canadian TC1 and F1 cross snails. The memory abilities of the Canadian TC1 and F1 cross snails were average. Our present findings, therefore, suggest that snails of different strains have different memory abilities, and the F1 cross snails do not inherit the memory ability from the smart strain. To our knowledge, there have been a limited number of studies examining differences in memory ability among invertebrate strains, with the exception of studies using mutant flies.

  18. Pock forming ability of fowl pox virus isolated from layer chicken and its adaptation in chicken embryo fibroblast cell culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha Rani Gilhare

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of the present study was to examine pock forming ability of field strain and vaccine strain of fowl pox virus (FPV in chorioallantoic membrane (CAM of embryonated chicken eggs and its adaptation in chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF cell culture. Materials and Methods: Dry scabs were collected from 25 affected birds in glycerin-saline and preserved at 4°C until processed. Virus was isolated in 10-day-old embryonated chicken eggs by dropped CAM method. The identity of the virus is confirmed by clinical findings of affected birds, pock morphology and histopathology of infected CAM. In addition one field isolate and vaccine strain of FPV was adapted to CEF cell culture. CEF cell culture was prepared from 9-day-old embryonated chicken eggs. Result: Clinical symptoms observed in affected birds include pox lesion on comb, wattle, eyelids and legs, no internal lesions were observed. All field isolates produced similar findings in CAM. Pocks produced by field isolates ranged from 3 mm to 5 mm at the third passage while initial passages edematous thickening and necrosis of CAM was observed. Pocks formed by lyophilized strain were ranges from 0.5 mm to 2.5 mm in diameter scattered all over the membrane at the first passage. Intra-cytoplasmic inclusion bodies are found on histopathology of CAM. At third passage level, the CEF inoculated with FPV showed characteristic cytopathic effect (CPE included aggregation of cells, syncytia and plaque formation. Conclusion: FPV field isolates and vaccine strain produced distinct pock lesions on CAMs. Infected CAM showed intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies. The CEF inoculated with FPV field isolate as well as a vaccine strain showed characteristic CPE at third passage level.

  19. Biofilm forming ability of Sphingomonas paucimobilis isolated from community drinking water systems on plumbing materials used in water distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Parul; Ghosh, Moushumi

    2017-10-01

    Sphingomonas paucimobilis, an oligotroph, is well recognized for its potential for biofilm formation. The present study explored the biofilm forming ability of a strain isolated from municipal drinking water on plumbing materials. The intensity of biofilm formation of this strain on different plumbing materials was examined by using 1 × 1 cm 2 pieces of six different pipe materials, i.e. polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polypropylene (PP), polyethylene (PE), aluminium (Al), copper (Cu) and rubber (R) and observing by staining with the chemical chromophore, Calcofluor. To understand whether biofilm formation occurs under flow through conditions, a laboratory-scale simulated distribution system, comprised of the above materials was fabricated. Biofilm samples were collected from the designed system at different biofilm ages (10, 40 and 90 hours old) and enumerated. The results indicated that the biofilm formation occurred on all plumbing materials with Cu and R as exceptions. The intensity of biofilm formation was found to be maximum on PVC followed by PP and PE. We also demonstrated the chemical chromophore (Calcofluor) successfully for rapid and easy visual detection of biofilms, validated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis of the plumbing materials. Chlorination has little effect in preventing biofilm development.

  20. Water-limiting conditions alter the structure and biofilm-forming ability of bacterial multispecies communities in the alfalfa rhizosphere.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Bogino

    Full Text Available Biofilms are microbial communities that adhere to biotic or abiotic surfaces and are enclosed in a protective matrix of extracellular compounds. An important advantage of the biofilm lifestyle for soil bacteria (rhizobacteria is protection against water deprivation (desiccation or osmotic effect. The rhizosphere is a crucial microhabitat for ecological, interactive, and agricultural production processes. The composition and functions of bacterial biofilms in soil microniches are poorly understood. We studied multibacterial communities established as biofilm-like structures in the rhizosphere of Medicago sativa (alfalfa exposed to 3 experimental conditions of water limitation. The whole biofilm-forming ability (WBFA for rhizospheric communities exposed to desiccation was higher than that of communities exposed to saline or nonstressful conditions. A culture-dependent ribotyping analysis indicated that communities exposed to desiccation or saline conditions were more diverse than those under the nonstressful condition. 16S rRNA gene sequencing of selected strains showed that the rhizospheric communities consisted primarily of members of the Actinobacteria and α- and γ-Proteobacteria, regardless of the water-limiting condition. Our findings contribute to improved understanding of the effects of environmental stress factors on plant-bacteria interaction processes and have potential application to agricultural management practices.

  1. Speech and language abilities of children with the familial form of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakonjac Marijana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2DS, which encompasses Shprintzen syndrome, DiGeorge and velocardiofacial syndrome, is the most common microdeletion syndrome in humans with an estimated incidence of approximately 1/4000 per live births. After Down syndrome, it is the second most common genetic syndrome associated with congenital heart malformations. The mode of inheritance of the 22q11.2DS is autosomal dominant. In approximately 72 - 94% of the cases the deletion has occurred de novo, while in 6 to 28% of patients deletion was inherited from a parent. As a part of a multidisciplinary study we examined the speech and language abilities of members of two families with inherited form of 22q11.2DS. The presence of 22q11.2 microdeletion was revealed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH and/or multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA. In one family we detected 1.5 Mb 22q11.2 microdeletion, while in the other family we found 3Mb microdeletion. Patients from both families showed delays in cognitive, socio-emotional, speech and language development. Furthermore, we found considerable variability in the phenotypic characteristics of 22q11.2DS and the degree of speech-language pathology not only between different families with 22q11.2 deletion, but also among members of the same family. In addition, we detected no correlation between the phenotype and the size of 22q11.2 microdeletion.

  2. Effect of Alkali-Acid-Heat Chemical Surface Treatment on Electron Beam Melted Porous Titanium and Its Apatite Forming Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan Bsat

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Advanced additive manufacturing techniques such as electron beam melting (EBM, can produce highly porous structures that resemble the mechanical properties and structure of native bone. However, for orthopaedic applications, such as joint prostheses or bone substitution, the surface must also be bio-functionalized to promote bone growth. In the current work, EBM porous Ti6Al4V alloy was exposed to an alkali acid heat (AlAcH treatment to bio-functionalize the surface of the porous structure. Various molar concentrations (3, 5, 10M and immersion times (6, 24 h of the alkali treatment were used to determine optimal parameters. The apatite forming ability of the samples was evaluated using simulated body fluid (SBF immersion testing. The micro-topography and surface chemistry of AlAcH treated samples were evaluated before and after SBF testing using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The AlAcH treatment successfully modified the topographical and chemical characteristics of EBM porous titanium surface creating nano-topographical features ranging from 200–300 nm in size with a titania layer ideal for apatite formation. After 1 and 3 week immersion in SBF, there was no Ca or P present on the surface of as manufactured porous titanium while both elements were present on all AlAcH treated samples except those exposed to 3M, 6 h alkali treatment. An increase in molar concentration and/or immersion time of alkali treatment resulted in an increase in the number of nano-topographical features per unit area as well as the amount of titania on the surface.

  3. Effect of Educational Agent and Its Form Characteristics on Problem Solving Ability Perception of Students in Online Task Based Learning Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyuz, Halil Ibrahim; Keser, Hafize

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of an educational agent, used in online task based learning media, and its form characteristics on problem solving ability perceptions of students. 2x2 factorial design is used in this study. The first study factor is the role of the educational agent and the second factor is form characteristics…

  4. Manuka-type honeys can eradicate biofilms produced by Staphylococcus aureus strains with different biofilm-forming abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Lu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic wounds are a major global health problem. Their management is difficult and costly, and the development of antibiotic resistance by both planktonic and biofilm-associated bacteria necessitates the use of alternative wound treatments. Honey is now being revisited as an alternative treatment due to its broad-spectrum antibacterial activity and the inability of bacteria to develop resistance to it. Many previous antibacterial studies have used honeys that are not well characterized, even in terms of quantifying the levels of the major antibacterial components present, making it difficult to build an evidence base for the efficacy of honey as an antibiofilm agent in chronic wound treatment. Here we show that a range of well-characterized New Zealand manuka-type honeys, in which two principle antibacterial components, methylglyoxal and hydrogen peroxide, were quantified, can eradicate biofilms of a range of Staphylococcus aureus strains that differ widely in their biofilm-forming abilities. Using crystal violet and viability assays, along with confocal laser scanning imaging, we demonstrate that in all S. aureus strains, including methicillin-resistant strains, the manuka-type honeys showed significantly higher anti-biofilm activity than clover honey and an isotonic sugar solution. We observed higher anti-biofilm activity as the proportion of manuka-derived honey, and thus methylglyoxal, in a honey blend increased. However, methylglyoxal on its own, or with sugar, was not able to effectively eradicate S. aureus biofilms. We also demonstrate that honey was able to penetrate through the biofilm matrix and kill the embedded cells in some cases. As has been reported for antibiotics, sub-inhibitory concentrations of honey improved biofilm formation by some S. aureus strains, however, biofilm cell suspensions recovered after honey treatment did not develop resistance towards manuka-type honeys. New Zealand manuka-type honeys, at the concentrations

  5. Effects of Cu substitution for Fe on the glass-forming ability and soft magnetic properties for Fe-based bulk metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dou, Lintao; Liu, Haishun; Hou, Long; Xue, Lin; Yang, Weiming; Zhao, Yucheng; Chang, Chuntao

    2014-01-01

    The effects of Cu substitution for Fe on the glass-forming ability (GFA) and soft magnetic properties for Fe 72−x Cu x B 20 Si 4 Nb 4 (x=0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0) bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) are investigated. It is found that the investigated BMGs exhibit large GFA as well as excellent soft magnetic properties, and proper substitution of Fe by Cu improves the saturation magnetization, coercive force, and effective permeability without obvious deterioration of the GFA. - Highlights: • Fully glassy rods of Fe 72−x Cu x B 20 Si 4 Nb 4 BMGs were produced above 1 mm in diameter. • Investigated BMGs exhibit large glass-forming ability and excellent soft magnetic properties. • Proper Cu substitution improves magnetic properties without obvious deterioration of glass-forming ability

  6. Forty years of the Hrubý glass-forming coefficient via DTA when comparing other criteria in relation to the glass stability and vitrification ability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kozmidis-Petrovic, A.; Šesták, Jaroslav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 110, č. 2 (2012), 997-1004 ISSN 1388-6150 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : glass transition * Hrubý criterion * glass -forming ability * DTA/DSC Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.982, year: 2012

  7. Study on glass-forming ability and hydrogen storage properties of amorphous Mg60Ni30La10−xCox (x = 0, 4) alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv, Peng; Wang, Zhong-min; Zhang, Huai-gang; Balogun, Muhammad-Sadeeq; Ji, Zi-jun; Deng, Jian-qiu; Zhou, Huai-ying

    2013-01-01

    Mg 60 Ni 30 La 10−x Co x (x = 0, 4) amorphous alloys were prepared by rapid solidification, using a melt-spinning technique. X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry analysis were employed to measure their microstructure, thermal stability and glass-forming ability, and hydrogen storage properties were studied by means of PCTPro2000. Based on differential scanning calorimetry results, their glass-forming ability and thermal stability were investigated by Kissinger method, Lasocka curves and atomic cluster model, respectively. The results indicate that glass-forming ability, thermal properties and hydrogen storage properties in the Mg-rich corner of Mg–Ni–La–Co system alloys were enhanced by Co substitution for La. It can be found that the smaller activation energy (ΔΕ) and frequency factor (υ 0 ), the bigger value of B (glass transition point in Lasocka curves), and higher glass-forming ability of Mg–Ni–La–Co alloys would be followed. In addition, atomic structure parameter (λ), deduced from atomic cluster model is valuable in the design of Mg–Ni–La–Co system alloys with good glass-forming ability. With an increase of Co content from 0 to 4, the hydrogen desorption capacity within 4000 s rises from 2.25 to 2.85 wt.% at 573 K. - Highlights: • Amorphous Mg 60 Ni 30 La 10−x Co x (x = 0 and 4) alloys were produced by melt spinning. • The GFA and hydrogen storage properties were enhanced by Co substitution for La. • With an increase of Co content, the hydrogen desorption capacity rises at 573 K

  8. Training Lymnaea in the presence of a predator scent results in a long-lasting ability to form enhanced long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest, Jeremy; Sunada, Hiroshi; Dodd, Shawn; Lukowiak, Ken

    2016-06-01

    Lymnaea exposed to crayfish effluent (CE) gain an enhanced ability to form long-term memory (LTM). We test the hypothesis that a single CE exposure and operant conditioning training leads to long lasting changes in the capability of snails to form LTM when tested in pond water four weeks later. We trained both juvenile and adult snails with a single 0.5 h training session in CE and show that LTM was present 24 h later. Snails trained in a similar manner in just pond water show no LTM. We then asked if such training in CE conferred enhanced memory forming capabilities on these snails four weeks later. That is, would LTM be formed in these snails four weeks later following a single 0.5 h training session in pond water? We found that both adult and juvenile snails previously trained in CE one month previously had enhanced LTM formation abilities. The injection of a DNA methylation blocker, 5-AZA, prior to training in adult snails blocked enhanced LTM formation four weeks later. Finally, this enhanced LTM forming ability was not passed on to the next generation of snails.

  9. Telephone Operators' Resistance to British Colonial Administration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper aims to write the history of yet another form of resistance to colonial rule in British Africa with a focus on telephone operators in the erstwhile Cameroons Province. The pith and kernel of the paper therefore is to show how telephone operators resisted the colonial administration. This typology of resistance is yet to ...

  10. Selection of the Composition with High Glass Forming Ability in Zr-Cu-Ni-Al Bulk Metallic Glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajuan Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three new Zr-Cu-Ni-Al bulk metallic glasses were developed through appropriate mixing of three binary eutectics Zr38.2Cu61.8, Zr51Al49, and Zr64Ni36. By suppressing solidification of competing crystalline phases, a new glass forming alloy Zr51Cu24.22Ni14.06Al10.72 with the critical diameter of up to 10 mm is obtained.

  11. Food and Coloniality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Albán Achinte

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The author tackles the alimentary dimension of life, as something that goes beyond the simple act of ingesting food to acquire nutrients, to concentrate on the cultural implications of eating. To eat is more than to feed oneself, for eating is never by itself a wholly innocent act; that is, eating is never completely stripped from the social relationships of those gathered around a table.From this perspective, the article examines coloniality in all its forms (of power, of knowledge and of being, and shows their function as mechanisms of both alimentary enunciation and classification, that are responsible of the gastronomic supplantation of produce and food from the New World with the goods and customs that were so dear to European settlers (not forgetting that the influx of products and seasonings went also in the other direction. The colonizing project included thus, besides its religious, political and administrative pretenses, a gastronomical element, to be found in the eagerness of the colonizers to reproduce the alimentary imprint of their homeland in the new found territories, at least as far as the circumstances and the climate allowed it. Among all the facets the production of knowledge can acquire, gastronomy has been poorly studied —not to say completely silenced— in its role as a token of cultural divides, in which a coloniality of flavors and palates has been carried out.

  12. Genetic control of the radiosensitivity of lymphoid cells for antibody-forming ability in CXS series of recombinant inbred mouse strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumoto, M.; Mori, N.; Nishikawa, R.; Imai, S.; Hilgers, J.; Takamori, Y.; Yagasaki, O.

    1992-01-01

    Incidence of radiation-induced lymphomas differs remarkably among various mouse strains. BALB/cHeA (C) mice are highly susceptible to radiation induction of lymphomas, while STS/A (S) mice are resistant. Thus, the induction of the disease is controlled by some genetic factors. To examine an involvement of radiosensitivity of lymphoid cells in lymphomagenesis, we have compared genetic control of the radiosensitivity for antibody-forming ability with that of lymphoma development in BALB/cHeA, STS/A, (CXS)F 1 hybrids and CXS series of recombinant inbred strains. Decrease of number of splenic plaque-forming cell (PFC) in Jerne's method by 3 Gy of X-irradiation for BALB/cHeA mice was larger than that for STS/A mice by more than one order of magnitude. (CXS)F 1 hybrid mice showed small number of decrease of PFC similar to STS/A mice suggesting that phenotype of radioresistance was dominant over sensitivity. The best concordance between genetic markers and radiosensitivities of antibody-forming ability in recombinant inbred strains was observed in a region containing Igh locus on chromosome 12. The results show that one locus controlling the radioresistance of lymphoid cells for antibody-forming ability might exist in the region containing Igh locus, and that this region clearly differ from a region with Ifa locus on chromosome 4 which regulate the susceptibility to radiation-induced lymphomagenesis. (author)

  13. Readiness of senior higher school students for self-determination in ecology field as an ability to form subjective attitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titov Evgeny V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current state of environment demands from senior pupils to occupy a correct position in problem ecological situations. An effective means of forming senior pupils’ own position is activity in a field of ecology. Through a variety of activities in the field of ecology (learning, playing, research, environmental protection, and others. senior pupils are involved in situations requiring self-determination. Self-determined senior pupils overcome a conflict, a contradiction between an individual’’s position and a social role caused by a situation arising in activity.

  14. Characterization and biofilm forming ability of diarrhoeagenic enteroaggregative Escherichia coli isolates recovered from human infants and young animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijay, Deepthi; Dhaka, Pankaj; Vergis, Jess; Negi, Mamta; Mohan, Vysakh; Kumar, Manesh; Doijad, Swapnil; Poharkar, Krupali; Kumar, Ashok; Malik, Satyaveer Singh; Barbuddhe, Sukhadeo Baliram; Rawool, Deepak B

    2015-02-01

    Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) is an important pathotype that causes infection in humans and animals. EAEC isolates (n=86) recovered from diarrhoeal cases in human infants (37) and young animals (49) were characterized as 'typical' and/or 'atypical' EAEC strains employing PCR for virulence associated genes (cvd432, aaiA, astA, pilS, irp2, ecp, pic, aggR, aafA, aggA, and agg3A). Besides, biofilm formation ability of human and animal EAEC isolates was assessed using microtiter plate assay. In addition, the transcriptional profile of biofilm associated genes (fis and ecp) was also evaluated and correlated with biofilm formation assay for few selected EAEC isolates of human and animal origins. Overall, a diverse virulence gene profile was observed for the EAEC isolates of human and animal origins as none of the EAEC isolates revealed the presence of all the genes that were targeted. Nine 'typical' EAEC isolates were identified (6 from humans and 3 from animals) while, the majority of the isolates were 'atypical' EAEC strains. Isolation and identification of three 'typical' EAEC isolates from animals (canines) appears to be the first report globally. Further, based on the observations of the biofilm formation assay, the study suggested that human EAEC isolates in particular were comparatively more biofilm producers than that of the animal EAEC isolates. The fis gene was highly expressed in majority of 'typical' EAEC isolates and the ecp gene in 'atypical' EAEC isolates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The fundamental structural factor in determining the glass-forming ability and mechanical behavior in the Cu-Zr metallic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sha, Z.D., E-mail: shaz@ihpc.a-star.edu.sg [Institute of High Performance Computing, 1 Fusionopolis Way, Singapore 138632 (Singapore); Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Feng, Y.P. [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Li, Y. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

    2011-05-16

    Research highlights: {yields} A weak but significant hump in trend of the coordinate number and density was observed, respectively. {yields} Our findings indicate our simulation is more accurate to describe the atomic structure of Cu-Zr MGs. The composition-structure-properties correlation was established. {yields} And the effective structural unit for this correlation is the Cu-centered full icosahedra. - Abstract: Using the large-scale atomic/molecular massively parallel simulator, the quantitative composition-structure-properties (including glass-forming ability (GFA) and mechanical behavior) correlations in the Cu-Zr metallic glasses were established. The atomic-level origin of these correlations was tracked down. It was found that the Cu-centered full icosahedron is the microscopic factor that fundamentally influences both GFA and mechanical behavior. Our findings have implications for understanding the nature, forming ability and properties of metallic glasses, and for searching novel metallic glasses with unique functional properties.

  16. The fundamental structural factor in determining the glass-forming ability and mechanical behavior in the Cu-Zr metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sha, Z.D.; Feng, Y.P.; Li, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → A weak but significant hump in trend of the coordinate number and density was observed, respectively. → Our findings indicate our simulation is more accurate to describe the atomic structure of Cu-Zr MGs. The composition-structure-properties correlation was established. → And the effective structural unit for this correlation is the Cu-centered full icosahedra. - Abstract: Using the large-scale atomic/molecular massively parallel simulator, the quantitative composition-structure-properties (including glass-forming ability (GFA) and mechanical behavior) correlations in the Cu-Zr metallic glasses were established. The atomic-level origin of these correlations was tracked down. It was found that the Cu-centered full icosahedron is the microscopic factor that fundamentally influences both GFA and mechanical behavior. Our findings have implications for understanding the nature, forming ability and properties of metallic glasses, and for searching novel metallic glasses with unique functional properties.

  17. Effect of metallographic structure and machining process on the apatite-forming ability of sodium hydroxide- and heat-treated titanium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Toshiki; Sasaki, Takashi; Shirosaki, Yuki; Yokoyama, Ken'ichi; Kawashita, Masakazu

    2018-01-01

    Although titanium (Ti) is clinically used for hard tissue reconstruction, it has low bone-bonding ability, i.e. bioactivity. Materials able to deposit apatite on their surfaces within the body is considered to exhibit bioactivity. Effects of the metallographic structure and machining process of Ti on its apatite-forming ability remains unclear. In this study, Ti substrates subjected to various preheating and machining processes were then subjected to NaOH and heat treatments. The apatite-forming abilities of resulting Ti were examined in simulated body fluid (SBF). Preheating of the Ti decreased its reactivity with NaOH solution. When quenched or annealed Ti was subjected to NaOH and heat treatments, the induction period for apatite formation in SBF slightly increased. This was attributed to a decrease in sodium titanate and increase in rutile on the Ti surface after the treatments. Substrates subjected to wire-electrical-discharge machining did not form apatite. This was attributed to the inhibition of PO43- adsorption on their surfaces following Ca2+ adsorption, which is an essential process for apatite nucleation. Contamination of Ti surface by components of the brass wire used in the machining contributed to the inhibition. The bioactivity of surface-modified Ti was therefore significantly affected by its thermal treatment and machining process.

  18. Effect of ice storage on the functional properties of proteins from a few species of fresh water fish (Indian major carps) with special emphasis on gel forming ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Naresh Kumar; Elavarasan, K; Reddy, A Manjunatha; Shamasundar, B A

    2014-04-01

    In the present study the effect of ice storage on physico-chemical and functional properties of proteins from Indian major carps with special emphasis on gel forming ability have been assessed for a period of 22 days. The solubility profile of proteins in high ionic strength buffer and calcium adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) enzyme activity reduced significantly (p ice storage. The major protein fraction showed association-dissociation-denaturation phenomenon during ice storage as revealed by gel filtration profile and viscosity measurements. The gel forming ability of three fish species both in fresh and during different periods of ice storage was assessed by measuring the gel strength of heat induced gel. Among the three species the gel strength of the gel obtained from Catla catla and Cirrhinus mrigala was higher (586 and 561 g.cm) than the gel obtained from Labeo rohita (395 g.cm) in fresh condition. The gel forming ability of three species was significantly affected (p ice storage. The TVB-N values of fish meat as a function of ice storage was within the prescribed limit up to 17 days of the ice storage.

  19. Effect of solute atoms on glass-forming ability for Fe–Y–B alloy: An ab initio molecular dynamics study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, J.J.; Wang, W.Y.; Liu, X.J.; Wang, C.P.; Hui, X.D.; Liu, Z.K.

    2014-01-01

    The glass-forming abilities of Fe 78 B 22 , Fe 70 Y 6 B 24 , Fe 72 Y 6 B 22 and Fe 72.5 Y 3.5 B 24 alloys were characterized comprehensively using ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. The calculated results were correlated with the properties and atomic structures. It was found that the Fe 72 Y 6 B 22 alloy consists of both the most stable and the least deformed body centered cubic atomic packing structures in the supercooled liquid and glassy states. It was observed that the local compositions in the Fe 72 Y 6 B 22 alloy significantly deviate from the compositions of stable crystalline phases, indicating that the Fe 72 Y 6 B 22 alloy has the best glass-forming ability among the alloys studied. However, Fe 72 Y 6 B 22 alloy has two flaws in terms of glass-forming ability, i.e. relatively large atomic diffusivity and insufficiently close atomic packing. The best performance in these two aspects is observed in the Fe 72.5 Y 3.5 B 24 alloy. Thus, the theoretical study predicts that the best glass former for the Fe–Y–B system is within the compositional range of 22–24 at.% B and 3.5–6 at.% Y

  20. Menaquinone and iron are essential for complex colony development in Bacillus subtilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gidi Pelchovich

    Full Text Available Cells of undomesticated species of Bacillus subtilis frequently form complex colonies during spreading on agar surfaces. Given that menaquinone is involved in another form of coordinated behavior, namely, sporulation, we looked for a possible role for menaquinone in complex colony development (CCD in the B. subtilis strain NCIB 3610. Here we show that inhibition of menaquinone biosynthesis in B. subtilis indeed abolished its ability to develop complex colonies. Additionally some mutations of B. subtilis which confer defective CCD could be suppressed by menaquinone derivatives. Several such mutants mapped to the dhb operon encoding the genes responsible for the biosynthesis of the iron siderophore, bacillibactin. Our results demonstrate that both menaquinone and iron are essential for CCD in B. subtilis.

  1. The Relationship between Intrinsic Couplings of the Visual Word Form Area with Spoken Language Network and Reading Ability in Children and Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Reading plays a key role in education and communication in modern society. Learning to read establishes the connections between the visual word form area (VWFA and language areas responsible for speech processing. Using resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC and Granger Causality Analysis (GCA methods, the current developmental study aimed to identify the difference in the relationship between the connections of VWFA-language areas and reading performance in both adults and children. The results showed that: (1 the spontaneous connectivity between VWFA and the spoken language areas, i.e., the left inferior frontal gyrus/supramarginal gyrus (LIFG/LSMG, was stronger in adults compared with children; (2 the spontaneous functional patterns of connectivity between VWFA and language network were negatively correlated with reading ability in adults but not in children; (3 the causal influence from LIFG to VWFA was negatively correlated with reading ability only in adults but not in children; (4 the RSFCs between left posterior middle frontal gyrus (LpMFG and VWFA/LIFG were positively correlated with reading ability in both adults and children; and (5 the causal influence from LIFG to LSMG was positively correlated with reading ability in both groups. These findings provide insights into the relationship between VWFA and the language network for reading, and the role of the unique features of Chinese in the neural circuits of reading.

  2. An American termite in Paris: temporal colony dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudouin, Guillaume; Dedeine, Franck; Bech, Nicolas; Bankhead-Dronnet, Stéphanie; Dupont, Simon; Bagnères, Anne-Geneviève

    2017-12-01

    Termites of the genus Reticulitermes are widespread invaders, particularly in urban habitats. Their cryptic and subterranean lifestyle makes them difficult to detect, and we know little about their colony dynamics over time. In this study we examined the persistence of Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) colonies in the city of Paris over a period of 15 years. The aim was (1) to define the boundaries of colonies sampled within the same four areas over two sampling periods, (2) to determine whether the colonies identified during the first sampling period persisted to the second sampling period, and (3) to compare the results obtained when colonies were delineated using a standard population genetic approach versus a Bayesian clustering method that combined both spatial and genetic information. Herein, colony delineations were inferred from genetic differences at nine microsatellite loci and one mitochondrial locus. Four of the 18 identified colonies did not show significant differences in their genotype distributions between the two sampling periods. While allelic richness was low, making it hard to reliably distinguish colony family type, most colonies appeared to retain the same breeding structure over time. These large and expansive colonies showed an important ability to fuse (39% were mixed-family colonies), contained hundreds of reproductives and displayed evidence of isolation-by-distance, suggesting budding dispersal. These traits, which favor colony persistence over time, present a challenge for pest control efforts, which apply treatment locally. The other colonies showed significant differences, but we cannot exclude the possibility that their genotype distributions simply changed over time.

  3. Development and psychometric characteristics of the SCI-QOL Ability to Participate and Satisfaction with Social Roles and Activities item banks and short forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Allen W; Kisala, Pamela A; Hahn, Elizabeth A; Tulsky, David S

    2015-05-01

    To develop a spinal cord injury (SCI)-focused version of PROMIS and Neuro-QOL social domain item banks; evaluate the psychometric properties of items developed for adults with SCI; and report information to facilitate clinical and research use. We used a mixed-methods design to develop and evaluate Ability to Participate in Social Roles and Activities and Satisfaction with Social Roles and Activities items. Focus groups helped define the constructs; cognitive interviews helped revise items; and confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory methods helped calibrate item banks and evaluate differential item functioning related to demographic and injury characteristics. Five SCI Model System sites and one Veterans Administration medical center. The calibration sample consisted of 641 individuals; a reliability sample consisted of 245 individuals residing in the community. A subset of 27 Ability to Participate and 35 Satisfaction items demonstrated good measurement properties and negligible differential item functioning related to demographic and injury characteristics. The SCI-specific measures correlate strongly with the PROMIS and Neuro-QOL versions. Ten item short forms correlate >0.96 with the full banks. Variable-length CATs with a minimum of 4 items, variable-length CATs with a minimum of 8 items, fixed-length CATs of 10 items, and the 10-item short forms demonstrate construct coverage and measurement error that is comparable to the full item bank. The Ability to Participate and Satisfaction with Social Roles and Activities CATs and short forms demonstrate excellent psychometric properties and are suitable for clinical and research applications.

  4. Development and psychometric characteristics of the SCI-QOL Ability to Participate and Satisfaction with Social Roles and Activities item banks and short forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Allen W.; Kisala, Pamela A.; Hahn, Elizabeth A.; Tulsky, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop a spinal cord injury (SCI)-focused version of PROMIS and Neuro-QOL social domain item banks; evaluate the psychometric properties of items developed for adults with SCI; and report information to facilitate clinical and research use. Design We used a mixed-methods design to develop and evaluate Ability to Participate in Social Roles and Activities and Satisfaction with Social Roles and Activities items. Focus groups helped define the constructs; cognitive interviews helped revise items; and confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory methods helped calibrate item banks and evaluate differential item functioning related to demographic and injury characteristics. Setting Five SCI Model System sites and one Veterans Administration medical center. Participants The calibration sample consisted of 641 individuals; a reliability sample consisted of 245 individuals residing in the community. Results A subset of 27 Ability to Participate and 35 Satisfaction items demonstrated good measurement properties and negligible differential item functioning related to demographic and injury characteristics. The SCI-specific measures correlate strongly with the PROMIS and Neuro-QOL versions. Ten item short forms correlate >0.96 with the full banks. Variable-length CATs with a minimum of 4 items, variable-length CATs with a minimum of 8 items, fixed-length CATs of 10 items, and the 10-item short forms demonstrate construct coverage and measurement error that is comparable to the full item bank. Conclusion The Ability to Participate and Satisfaction with Social Roles and Activities CATs and short forms demonstrate excellent psychometric properties and are suitable for clinical and research applications. PMID:26010974

  5. Improvement of corrosion resistance in NaOH solution and glass forming ability of as-cast Mg-based bulk metallic glasses by microalloying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Hao

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The influences of the addition of Ag on the glass forming ability (GFA and corrosion behavior were investigated in the Mg-Ni-based alloy system by X-ray diffraction (XRD and electrochemical polarization in 0.1 mol/L NaOH solution. Results shows that the GFA of the Mg-Ni-based BMGs can be improved dramatically by the addition of an appropriate amount of Ag; and the addition element Ag can improve the corrosion resistance of Mg-Ni-based bulk metallic glass. The large difference in atomic size and large negative mixing enthalpy in alloy system can contribute to the high GFA. The addition element Ag improves the forming speed and the stability of the passive film, which is helpful to decrease the passivation current density and to improve the corrosion resistance of Mg-Ni-based bulk metallic glass.

  6. Transfer of Mammary Gland-forming Ability Between Mammary Basal Epithelial Cells and Mammary Luminal Cells via Extracellular Vesicles/Exosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Meng-Chieh; Chen, Shih-Yin; He, Pei-Lin; Luo, Wen-Ting; Li, Hua-Jung

    2017-06-03

    Cells can communicate via exosomes, ~100-nm extracellular vesicles (EVs) that contain proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. Non-adherent/mesenchymal mammary epithelial cell (NAMEC)-derived extracellular vesicles can be isolated from NAMEC medium via differential ultracentrifugation. Based on their density, EVs can be purified via ultracentrifugation at 110,000 x g. The EV preparation from ultracentrifugation can be further separated using a continuous density gradient to prevent contamination with soluble proteins. The purified EVs can then be further evaluated using nanoparticle-tracking analysis, which measures the size and number of vesicles in the preparation. The extracellular vesicles with a size ranging from 50 to 150 nm are exosomes. The NAMEC-derived EVs/exosomes can be ingested by mammary epithelial cells, which can be measured by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Some mammary stem cell properties (e.g., mammary gland-forming ability) can be transferred from the stem-like NAMECs to mammary epithelial cells via the NAMEC-derived EVs/exosomes. Isolated primary EpCAM hi /CD49f lo luminal mammary epithelial cells cannot form mammary glands after being transplanted into mouse fat pads, while EpCAM lo /CD49f hi basal mammary epithelial cells form mammary glands after transplantation. Uptake of NAMEC-derived EVs/exosomes by EpCAM hi /CD49f lo luminal mammary epithelial cells allows them to generate mammary glands after being transplanted into fat pads. The EVs/exosomes derived from stem-like mammary epithelial cells transfer mammary gland-forming ability to EpCAM hi /CD49f lo luminal mammary epithelial cells.

  7. Beyond CD34+ cell dose: impact of method of peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cell mobilization (granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor [G-CSF], G-CSF plus plerixafor, or cyclophosphamide G-CSF/granulocyte-macrophage [GM]-CSF) on number of colony-forming unit-GM, engraftment, and Day +100 hematopoietic graft function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Erin T; Towery, Jeanne A; Miller, Ashley N; Kramer, Cindy; Hogan, Kathy R; Squires, Jerry E; Stuart, Robert K; Costa, Luciano J

    2011-09-01

    The dose of CD34+ cells/kg in the mobilized peripheral blood product is the main determinant of neutrophil and platelet (PLT) engraftment after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT). Whether the method of mobilization, namely, granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) alone (G), G-CSF plus plerixafor (G+P), or cyclophosphamide + G/granulocyte-macrophage (GM)-CSF (Cy+G/GM), independently affects number of colony-forming unit (CFU)-GM, engraftment, and hematopoietic graft function is unknown. We used a database of AHSCT patients with multiple myeloma or lymphoma to identify three groups with different mobilization strategies receiving transplantation with similar CD34+ cell doses. Groups were compared in terms of CFU-GM, ratio of CFU-GM/CD34+, engraftment of neutrophils and PLTs, and hematopoietic graft function on Day +100. Ninety-six patients were included in the analysis, 26 G, 32 G+P, and 38 Cy+G/GM, with median cell doses of 4.21 × 10(6) , 4.11 × 10(6) , and 4.67 × 10(6) CD34+/kg, respectively (p = 0.433). There was no significant difference in number of CFU-GM between the three groups; however, the ratio of CFU-GM/CD34+ was significantly lower for G+P (p = 0.008). Median time for neutrophil engraftment was 13 days in G+P and 12 days in G and Cy+G/GM (p = 0.028), while PLT engraftment happened at a median of 14.5 days in G+P versus 12 days in G and 11 days in Cy+G/GM (p = 0.012). There was no difference in hematopoietic graft function at Day +100. Plerixafor-based mobilization is associated with slightly reduced number of CFU-GM and minimal delay in engraftment that is independent of CD34+ cell dose. Hematopoietic graft function on Day 100 is not affected by mobilization strategy. © 2011 American Association of Blood Banks.

  8. In Vitro Screening of the Apatite-Forming Ability, Biointeractivity and Physical Properties of a Tricalcium Silicate Material for Endodontics and Restorative Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Giovanna Gandolfi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Calcium silicate-based materials are hydraulic self-setting materials with physico-chemical properties suitable for endodontic surgery and good biological/clinical outcomes. The study aim was to evaluate the bio-properties (biointeractivity and apatite-forming ability and selected physical properties (porosity, water sorption, solubility, and setting time of Biodentine, a tricalcium silicate material for endodontics and restorative dentistry, compared to that of ProRoot MTA (Mineral Trioxide Aggregate as gold standard material. Methods: Biodentine and ProRoot MTA pastes were prepared and analyzed for calcium release and alkalinizing activity (3 h–28 days, setting time, water sorption, porosity, solubility, surface microstructure and composition, and apatite-forming ability in simulated body fluid. Results: Biodentine showed higher calcium release, alkalinizing activity, and solubility but higher open and apparent porosity, water sorption, and a markedly shorter setting time. Calcium phosphate (CaP deposits were noted on material surfaces after short ageing times. A CaP coating composed of spherulites was detected after 28 days. The thickness, continuity, and Ca/P ratio of the coating differed markedly between the materials. Biodentine showed a coating composed by denser but smaller spherulites, while ProRoot MTA showed large but less dense aggregates of spherulitic deposits. Conclusions: Biodentine showed a pronounced ability to release calcium and extended alkalinizing activity interlinked with its noticeable porosity, water sorption, and solubility: open porosities provide a broad wet biointeractive surface for the release of the calcium and hydroxyl ions involved in the formation of a CaP mineral. Biodentine is a biointeractive tricalcium silicate material with interesting chemical-physical properties and represents a fast-setting alternative to the conventional calcium silicate MTA-like cements.

  9. Evaluation of the biofilm forming ability and its associated genes in Staphylococcus species isolates from bovine mastitis in Argentinean dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felipe, Verónica; Morgante, Carolina A; Somale, Paola S; Varroni, Florencia; Zingaretti, María L; Bachetti, Romina A; Correa, Silvia G; Porporatto, Carina

    2017-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are important causes of intramammary infection in dairy cattle, and their ability to produce biofilm is considered an important virulence property in the pathogenesis of mastitis. However, the published date on mechanisms and factors involved in infection persistence in the mammary gland remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the main Staphylococcus species involved in bovine intramammary infections possess specific characteristics that promote colonization of the udder. We evaluated the biofilm-forming ability and distribution of adhesion- and biofilm-associated genes of Staphylococcus spp. isolated from bovine mastitis infected animals in Argentinean dairy farms. For this purpose, the phenotypic biofilm formation ability of 209 Staphylococcus spp. from bovine mastitis was investigated. All isolates produced biofilm in vitro, being 35,0% and 45,0% of the 127 S. aureus or 51,0% and 29,0% of the 82 CNS strong and moderate biofilm producers respectively. All S. aureus samples were PCR-positive for icaA, icaD, clfA, clfB and fnbpA genes, 76.3% were positive for fnbpB gene and 11.0% were positive for bap gene. In CNS isolates, the positive rates for icaA and icaD were 73.2%, while for clfA, clfB, fnbpA fnbpB and bap genes the percentage were lower. The results demonstrate that in Staphylococcus spp. biofilm formation, the polysaccharide and the adhesion- and biofilm-associated genes are of overall importance on bovine mastitis in Argentina. Therefore, future works should focus on these pathogenic specific factors for the development of more effective therapies of control, being essential to consider the ability of isolates to produce biofilm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Yeast Ivy1p Is a Putative I-BAR-domain Protein with pH-sensitive Filament Forming Ability in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Yuzuru; Kida, Kazuki; Hanawa-Suetsugu, Kyoko; Suetsugu, Shiro

    2016-01-01

    Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs161/167 (BAR) domains mold lipid bilayer membranes into tubules, by forming a spiral polymer on the membrane. Most BAR domains are thought to be involved in forming membrane invaginations through their concave membrane binding surfaces, whereas some members have convex membrane binding surfaces, and thereby mold membranes into protrusions. The BAR domains with a convex surface form a subtype called the inverse BAR (I-BAR) domain or IRSp53-MIM-homology domain (IMD). Although the mammalian I-BAR domains have been studied, those from other organisms remain elusive. Here, we found putative I-BAR domains in Fungi and animal-like unicellular organisms. The fungal protein containing the putative I-BAR-domain is known as Ivy1p in yeast, and is reportedly localized in the vacuole. The phylogenetic analysis of the I-BAR domains revealed that the fungal I-BAR-domain containing proteins comprise a distinct group from those containing IRSp53 or MIM. Importantly, Ivy1p formed a polymer with a diameter of approximately 20 nm in vitro, without a lipid membrane. The filaments were formed at neutral pH, but disassembled when pH was reverted to basic. Moreover, Ivy1p and the I-BAR domain expressed in mammalian HeLa cells was localized at a vacuole-like structure as filaments as revealed by super-resolved microscopy. These data indicate the pH-sensitive polymer forming ability and the functional conservation of Ivy1p in eukaryotic cells.

  11. Effect of P addition on glass forming ability and soft magnetic properties of melt-spun FeSiBCuC alloy ribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, J.; Yang, Y.Z., E-mail: yangyzgdut@163.com; Li, W.; Chen, X.C.; Xie, Z.W.

    2016-11-01

    The dependency of phosphorous content on the glass forming ability, thermal stability and soft magnetic properties of Fe{sub 83.4}Si{sub 2}B{sub 14−x}P{sub x}Cu{sub 0.5}C{sub 0.1} (x=0,1,2,3,4) alloys was investigated. The experimental results showed that the substitution of B by P increased the glass forming ability in this alloy system. The Fe{sub 83.4}Si{sub 2}B{sub 10}P{sub 4}Cu{sub 0.5}C{sub 0.1} alloy shows a fully amorphous character. Thermal stability of melt-spun ribbons increases and temperature interval between the first and second crystallization peaks enlarges with the increase of P content. And the saturation magnetic flux density (Bs) shows a slight increase with the increase of P content. The Fe{sub 83.4}Si{sub 2}B{sub 11}P{sub 3}Cu{sub 0.5}C{sub 0.1} nanocrystalline alloy exhibits a high Bs about 200.6 emu/g. The Bs of fully amorphous alloy Fe{sub 83.4}Si{sub 2}B{sub 10}P{sub 4}Cu{sub 0.5}C{sub 0.1} drops dramatically to 172.1 emu/g, which is lower than that of other nanocrystallines. Low material cost and excellent soft magnetic properties make the FeSiBPCuC alloys promise soft magnetic materials for industrial applications. - Highlights: • Partial substituting B by P helps to improve the glass forming ability of the alloy. • The addition of P content reduces the thermal stability and improves heat treatment temperature region for these alloys. • The Fe{sub 83.4}Si{sub 2}B{sub 11}P{sub 3}Cu{sub 0.5}C{sub 0.1} nanocrystalline alloy exhibits a high saturation magnetic density of 200.6 emu/g.

  12. Changes in glass formation and glass forming ability of Nd2Fe14B by the addition of TiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branagan, D.J.; Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames, IA; McCallum, R.W.; Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames, IA

    1996-01-01

    The glass forming ability (GFA) of a stoichiometric Nd 2 Fe 14 B alloy modified with TiC additions was studied. Structural, magnetic, and thermal measurements of as-quenched melt-spun ribbons indicate increasing enhancement of GFA with increasing amounts of TiC addition. The limit of the glass formation range and the amount of glass formed at a particular cooling rate also increased with TiC addition. Enhanced GFA was concurrent with changes in the intrinsic properties of the glass. The crystallization temperature, as well as the transformation rate of crystallization, was raised by TiC addition. The intrinsic magnetic properties of the glass were changed with reductions in saturation magnetization and Curie temperature T c with increasing amounts of TiC addition. The intrinsic glass changes were related to changes in the local short range order of the glass and are consistent with a reduction in free volume and an increased packing efficiency. These changes in local structure of the glass increase the glass stability, which means that less undercooling is needed to prevent crystallization. Thus, at a particular cooling rate, a higher percentage of glass will be formed and the GFA is increased. (orig.)

  13. Effect of Yttrium Addition on Glass-Forming Ability and Magnetic Properties of Fe–Co–B–Si–Nb Bulk Metallic Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teruo Bitoh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The glass-forming ability (GFA and the magnetic properties of the [(Fe0.5Co0.50.75B0.20Si0.05]96Nb4−xYx bulk metallic glasses (BMGs have been studied. The partial replacement of Nb by Y improves the thermal stability of the glass against crystallization. The saturation mass magnetization (σs exhibits a maximum around 2 at. % Y, and the value of σs of the alloy with 2 at. % Y is 6.5% larger than that of the Y-free alloy. The coercivity shows a tendency to decrease with increasing Y content. These results indicate that the partial replacement of Nb by Y in the Fe–Co–B–Si–Nb BMGs is useful to simultaneous achievement of high GFA, high σs, and good soft magnetic properties.

  14. Research of level of formed knowledge, abilities and skills on basket-ball for the students of faculty of physical education.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalenko J.A.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of a zero control of students of faculty of physical education are presented. The estimation of theoretical knowledge's is conducted, abilities and skills on basket-ball for the students of a 1 course of directions of preparation «Physical education», «Health of man» and «Sport». It is set that the level of their formed at most students of different directions of preparation is insufficient. It is certain that by reason of such position, foremost, there is insufficient preparation and playing practice of students during teaching at general school. A diary is developed on basket-ball for student general schools.

  15. Effect of Si on the glass-forming ability, thermal stability and magnetic properties of Fe-Co-Zr-Mo-W-B alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W.-M. [Institute for Metallic Materials, IFW Dresden, P.O. 270016, Dresden D-01171 (Germany); Key Lab of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Gebert, A. [Institute for Metallic Materials, IFW Dresden, P.O. 270016, Dresden D-01171 (Germany)], E-mail: a.gebert@ifw-dresden.de; Roth, S.; Kuehn, U.; Schultz, L. [Institute for Metallic Materials, IFW Dresden, P.O. 270016, Dresden D-01171 (Germany)

    2008-07-14

    This paper presents investigations on the effect of Si on the glass-forming ability, thermal stability and magnetic properties of the Fe-Co-Zr-Mo-W-B samples (group I: Fe{sub 60}Co{sub 8}Zr{sub 10}Mo{sub 5}W{sub 2}B{sub 15-x}Si{sub x}, 1 {<=} x {<=} 4; group II: Fe{sub 60}Co{sub 8}Zr{sub 10-x}Mo{sub 5}W{sub 2}B{sub 15}Si{sub x}, 0 {<=} x {<=} 4; group III: Fe{sub 60}Co{sub 8}Zr{sub 8}Mo{sub 5}W{sub 2}B{sub 17-x}Si{sub x}, 0 {<=} x {<=} 2) prepared by melt spinning, injection casting, and centrifugal casting methods. It is found that the glass-forming ability (GFA) of the alloys in group I is more deteriorated than that in group II, and that the alloys in group III can be cast into the rods of 1-3 mm diameter without crystalline reflections in their XRD patterns. For the amorphous ribbons and rods, a non-monotonic change of the nearest neighbour distance r{sub 1} with increasing Si content c{sub Si} was detected, which is parallel to that of the glass transition and crystallization temperatures T{sub g} and T{sub x}, but opposite to that of the magnetization at room temperature M{sub RT} and the Curie temperature T{sub c}. This correlation can be interpreted by a structure model presuming that iron atoms appear simultaneously in two types of local structures in the amorphous samples.

  16. Specters of Colonialism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhr, Sara Louise; Azad, Salam

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates how an organization in Sweden, a country normally not considered among the former colonial powers, is still haunted by the specters of a western colonial history. Based on in-depth interviews as well as participant observation in the headquarters of a Swedish multinational...... organization, we show how an overarching colonial discourse – although not acknowledged – shapes the experience that foreign employees have of work. This leaves foreign workers in an integration dilemma, as they are expected to suppress home-country values and identities in order to become accepted, while...... at the same time they always are bound to fail to become ‘Swedish’ because of the same foreign origins. Although Swedish culture – partly by distancing itself from having a colonial past – has successfully built up an image of openness, we argue that without acknowledging and confronting the role...

  17. Evaluation of the ability of commercial wine yeasts to form biofilms (mats) and adhere to plastic: implications for the microbiota of the winery environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tek, Ee Lin; Sundstrom, Joanna F; Gardner, Jennifer M; Oliver, Stephen G; Jiranek, Vladimir

    2018-02-01

    Commercially available active dried wine yeasts are regularly used by winemakers worldwide to achieve reliable fermentations and obtain quality wine. This practice has led to increased evidence of traces of commercial wine yeast in the vineyard, winery and uninoculated musts. The mechanism(s) that enables commercial wine yeast to persist in the winery environment and the influence to native microbial communities on this persistence is poorly understood. This study has investigated the ability of commercial wine yeasts to form biofilms and adhere to plastic. The results indicate that the biofilms formed by commercial yeasts consist of cells with a combination of different lifestyles (replicative and non-replicative) and growth modes including invasive growth, bud elongation, sporulation and a mat sectoring-like phenotype. Invasive growth was greatly enhanced on grape pulp regardless of strain, while adhesion on plastic varied between strains. The findings suggest a possible mechanism that allows commercial yeast to colonise and survive in the winery environment, which may have implications for the indigenous microbiota profile as well as the population profile in uninoculated fermentations if their dissemination is not controlled. © FEMS 2018. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Molecular Insight into Human Lysozyme and Its Ability to Form Amyloid Fibrils in High Concentrations of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate: A View from Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Jafari

    Full Text Available Changes in the tertiary structure of proteins and the resultant fibrillary aggregation could result in fatal heredity diseases, such as lysozyme systemic amyloidosis. Human lysozyme is a globular protein with antimicrobial properties with tendencies to fibrillate and hence is known as a fibril-forming protein. Therefore, its behavior under different ambient conditions is of great importance. In this study, we conducted two 500000 ps molecular dynamics (MD simulations of human lysozyme in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS at two ambient temperatures. To achieve comparative results, we also performed two 500000 ps human lysozyme MD simulations in pure water as controls. The aim of this study was to provide further molecular insight into all interactions in the lysozyme-SDS complexes and to provide a perspective on the ability of human lysozyme to form amyloid fibrils in the presence of SDS surfactant molecules. SDS, which is an anionic detergent, contains a hydrophobic tail with 12 carbon atoms and a negatively charged head group. The SDS surfactant is known to be a stabilizer for helical structures above the critical micelle concentration (CMC [1]. During the 500000 ps MD simulations, the helical structures were maintained by the SDS surfactant above its CMC at 300 K, while at 370 K, human lysozyme lost most of its helices and gained β-sheets. Therefore, we suggest that future studies investigate the β-amyloid formation of human lysozyme at SDS concentrations above the CMC and at high temperatures.

  19. Molecular Insight into Human Lysozyme and Its Ability to Form Amyloid Fibrils in High Concentrations of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate: A View from Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Majid; Mehrnejad, Faramarz

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the tertiary structure of proteins and the resultant fibrillary aggregation could result in fatal heredity diseases, such as lysozyme systemic amyloidosis. Human lysozyme is a globular protein with antimicrobial properties with tendencies to fibrillate and hence is known as a fibril-forming protein. Therefore, its behavior under different ambient conditions is of great importance. In this study, we conducted two 500000 ps molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of human lysozyme in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) at two ambient temperatures. To achieve comparative results, we also performed two 500000 ps human lysozyme MD simulations in pure water as controls. The aim of this study was to provide further molecular insight into all interactions in the lysozyme-SDS complexes and to provide a perspective on the ability of human lysozyme to form amyloid fibrils in the presence of SDS surfactant molecules. SDS, which is an anionic detergent, contains a hydrophobic tail with 12 carbon atoms and a negatively charged head group. The SDS surfactant is known to be a stabilizer for helical structures above the critical micelle concentration (CMC) [1]. During the 500000 ps MD simulations, the helical structures were maintained by the SDS surfactant above its CMC at 300 K, while at 370 K, human lysozyme lost most of its helices and gained β-sheets. Therefore, we suggest that future studies investigate the β-amyloid formation of human lysozyme at SDS concentrations above the CMC and at high temperatures.

  20. Behavioral Modulation of Infestation by Varroa destructor in Bee Colonies. Implications for Colony Stability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce de Figueiró Santos

    Full Text Available Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD has become a global problem for beekeepers and for the crops that depend on bee pollination. While many factors are known to increase the risk of colony collapse, the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor is considered to be the most serious one. Although this mite is unlikely to cause the collapse of hives itself, it is the vector for many viral diseases which are among the likely causes for Colony Collapse Disorder. The effects of V. destructor infestation differ from one part of the world to another, with greater morbidity and higher colony losses in European honey bees (EHB in Europe, Asia and North America. Although this mite has been present in Brazil for many years, there have been no reports of colony losses amongst Africanized Honey Bees (AHB. Studies carried out in Mexico have highlighted different behavioral responses by the AHB to the presence of the mite, notably as far as grooming and hygienic behavior are concerned. Could these explain why the AHB are less susceptible to Colony Collapse Disorder? In order to answer this question, we have developed a mathematical model of the infestation dynamics to analyze the role of resistance behavior by bees in the overall health of the colony, and as a consequence, its ability to face epidemiological challenges.

  1. Behavioral Modulation of Infestation by Varroa destructor in Bee Colonies. Implications for Colony Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Figueiró Santos, Joyce; Coelho, Flávio Codeço; Bliman, Pierre-Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) has become a global problem for beekeepers and for the crops that depend on bee pollination. While many factors are known to increase the risk of colony collapse, the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor is considered to be the most serious one. Although this mite is unlikely to cause the collapse of hives itself, it is the vector for many viral diseases which are among the likely causes for Colony Collapse Disorder. The effects of V. destructor infestation differ from one part of the world to another, with greater morbidity and higher colony losses in European honey bees (EHB) in Europe, Asia and North America. Although this mite has been present in Brazil for many years, there have been no reports of colony losses amongst Africanized Honey Bees (AHB). Studies carried out in Mexico have highlighted different behavioral responses by the AHB to the presence of the mite, notably as far as grooming and hygienic behavior are concerned. Could these explain why the AHB are less susceptible to Colony Collapse Disorder? In order to answer this question, we have developed a mathematical model of the infestation dynamics to analyze the role of resistance behavior by bees in the overall health of the colony, and as a consequence, its ability to face epidemiological challenges.

  2. Post-Colonial Theory and Action Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Parsons

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores connections between post-colonial theory and action research. Post-colonial theory is committed to addressing the plague of colonialism. Action research, at its core, promises to problematize uncontested ‘colonial’ hegemonies of any form. Both post-colonial theory and action research engage dialogic, critically reflective and collaborative values to offer a fuller range of human wisdom. The authors contend that post-colonialism theory calls for justice and seeks to speak to social and psychological suffering, exploitation, violence and enslavement done to the powerless victims of colonization around the world by challenging the superiority of dominant perspectives and seeking to re-position and empower the marginalized and subordinated. In similar ways, action research works to eradicate oppression, powerlessness and worthlessness by affirming solidarity with the oppressed, helping humans move from passive to active and by fundamentally reshaping power. Because both post-colonial theory and action research position the insider or oppressed in an ethic of efficacy, it values community, relationships, communication and equality, and is committed to reciprocity, reflexivity and reflection. Thus, both hold the potential to help reconstruct conditions for a more democratic and just society

  3. Post-Colonial Theory and Action Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim B. Parsons

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores connections between post-colonial theory and action research. Post-colonial theory is committed to addressing the plague of colonialism. Action research, at its core, promises to problematize uncontested ‘colonial’ hegemonies of any form. Both post-colonial theory and action research engage dialogic, critically reflective and collaborative values to offer a fuller range of human wisdom. The authors contend that post-colonialism theory calls for justice and seeks to speak to social and psychological suffering, exploitation, violence and enslavement done to the powerless victims of colonization around the world by challenging the superiority of dominant perspectives and seeking to re-position and empower the marginalized and subordinated. In similar ways, action research works to eradicate oppression, powerlessness and worthlessness by affirming solidarity with the oppressed, helping humans move from passive to active and by fundamentally reshaping power. Because both post-colonial theory and action research position the insider or oppressed in an ethic of efficacy, it values community, relationships, communication and equality, and is committed to reciprocity, reflexivity and reflection. Thus, both hold the potential to help reconstruct conditions for a more democratic and just society.

  4. Persistent and transient Listeria monocytogenes strains from retail deli environments vary in their ability to adhere and form biofilms and rarely have inlA premature stop codons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingjin; Ray, Andrea J; Hammons, Susan R; Oliver, Haley F

    2015-02-01

    Based on recent risk assessments, up to 83% of listeriosis cases from deli meat in the United States are predicted to be from ready-to-eat deli meats contaminated during processing at retail grocery stores. Listeria monocytogenes is known to use sanitizer tolerance and biofilm formation to survive, but interplay of these mechanisms along with virulence potential and persistence mechanisms specific to deli environments had yet to be elucidated. In this study, 442 isolates from food and nonfood contact surfaces in 30 retail delis over 9 months were tested for inlA premature stop codons (PMSCs); inlA encodes InlA, which is necessary to cause listeriosis. A total of 96 isolates, composed of 23 persistent and 73 transient strains, were tested for adhesion and biofilm-forming ability and sanitizer tolerance. Only 10/442 isolates had inlA PMSCs (pdelis with other persistent strains. Most (7/10) PMSC-containing isolates were collected from food contact surfaces (pdelis (p<0.05). Persistent strains had enhanced adhesion on day 1 of a 5-day adhesion-biofilm formation assay. However, there was no significant difference in sanitizer tolerance between persistent and transient strains. Results suggest that foods contaminated with persistent L. monocytogenes strains from the retail environment are (1) likely to have wild-type virulence potential and (2) may persist due to increased adhesion and biofilm formation capacity rather than sanitizer tolerance, thus posing a significant public health risk.

  5. Thermal stability and glass-forming ability of amorphous Nd-Al-TM (TM=Fe, Co, Ni or Cu) alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, A.; Zhang Tao

    1997-01-01

    Bulk amorphous alloys were prepared for Nd 70 Al 10 TM 20 and Nd 60 Al 10 TM 30 (TM=Fe or Co) alloys by copper mold casting. The maximum sample thickness for glass formation reaches 15 mm for the Nd-Al-Fe alloys and 5 mm for the Nd-Al-Co alloys. A significant difference in the phase transition upon heating is recognized between the Fe- and Co-containing alloys. No glass transition before crystallization is observed for the Nd-Al-Fe alloys, but the Nd-Al-Co alloys exhibit the glass transition. The ΔT x (=T x -T g ) and T g /T m are 40-55 K and 0.65-0.67, respectively, for the latter alloys. The absence of supercooled liquid for the former alloys is different from those for all bulk amorphous alloys reported up to date. The T x /T m and ΔT m (=T m -T x ) are 0.85-0.89 and 88-137 K, respectively, for the Nd-Al-Fe alloys and, hence, the large glass-forming ability is presumably due to the high T x /T m and small ΔT m values. (orig.)

  6. Theoretical Considerations of the Prigogine-Defay Ration with Regard to the Glass-Forming Ability of Drugs from Undercooled Melts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyttenbach, Nicole; Kirchmeyer, Wiebke; Alsenz, Jochem; Kuentz, Martin [UASANS

    2016-01-26

    Drug behavior in undercooled melts is highly important for pharmaceutics with regard to amorphous solid dispersions, and therefore, categories were recently introduced that differentiate glass formers (GFs) from other drugs that are nonglass formers (nGFs). The present study is based on the assumption that molecular properties relevant for the so-called Prigogine–Defay (PD) ratio would be indicative of a drug’s glass-forming ability. The PD ratio depends in theory on the entropy of fusion and molar volume. Experimental data were gathered from a broad set of pharmaceutical compounds (n = 54) using differential scanning calorimetry. The obtained entropy of fusion and molar volume were indeed found to significantly discriminate GFs from nGFs. In a next step, the entropy of fusion was predicted by different in silico methods. A first group contribution method provided rather unreliable estimates for the entropy of fusion, while an alternative in silico approach seemed more promising for drug categorization. Thus, a significant discrimination model employed molar volume, a so-called effective hydrogen bond number, and effective number of torsional bonds (or torsional units) to categorize GFs and nGFs (p ≤ 0.0000). The results led to new insights into drug vitrification and to practical rules of thumb. The latter may serve as guidance in pharmaceutical profiling and early formulation development with respect to amorphous drug formulations.

  7. Theoretical Considerations of the Prigogine-Defay Ratio with Regard to the Glass-Forming Ability of Drugs from Undercooled Melts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyttenbach, Nicole; Kirchmeyer, Wiebke; Alsenz, Jochem; Kuentz, Martin

    2016-01-04

    Drug behavior in undercooled melts is highly important for pharmaceutics with regard to amorphous solid dispersions, and therefore, categories were recently introduced that differentiate glass formers (GFs) from other drugs that are nonglass formers (nGFs). The present study is based on the assumption that molecular properties relevant for the so-called Prigogine-Defay (PD) ratio would be indicative of a drug's glass-forming ability. The PD ratio depends in theory on the entropy of fusion and molar volume. Experimental data were gathered from a broad set of pharmaceutical compounds (n = 54) using differential scanning calorimetry. The obtained entropy of fusion and molar volume were indeed found to significantly discriminate GFs from nGFs. In a next step, the entropy of fusion was predicted by different in silico methods. A first group contribution method provided rather unreliable estimates for the entropy of fusion, while an alternative in silico approach seemed more promising for drug categorization. Thus, a significant discrimination model employed molar volume, a so-called effective hydrogen bond number, and effective number of torsional bonds (or torsional units) to categorize GFs and nGFs (p ≤ 0.0000). The results led to new insights into drug vitrification and to practical rules of thumb. The latter may serve as guidance in pharmaceutical profiling and early formulation development with respect to amorphous drug formulations.

  8. Effect of Mo-Fe substitution on glass forming ability, thermal stability, and hardness of Fe-C-B-Mo-Cr-W bulk amorphous alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalifa, Hesham E.; Cheney, Justin L. [University of California, San Diego Materials Science and Engineering Program, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0411 (United States); Vecchio, Kenneth S. [University of California, San Diego Department of NanoEngineering, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0411 (United States)], E-mail: kvecchio@ucsd.edu

    2008-08-25

    Amorphous Fe{sub 67-x}C{sub 10}B{sub 9}Mo{sub 7+x}Cr{sub 4}W{sub 3} (x = 1-7 at.%) plates with 640 {mu}m thickness were prepared by copper mold casting. The thermal properties and microstructural development during heat treatments were investigated by a combination of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), differential thermal analysis, and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). The glass forming ability (GFA) and activation energy for crystallization have a distinct dependence on Mo content. Fe{sub 62}C{sub 10}B{sub 9}Mo{sub 12}Cr{sub 4}W{sub 3} is the best glass former in this study, demonstrating a supercooled liquid region, {delta}T{sub x} = 51 K, and an activation energy for crystallization, Q = 453 kJ/mol. The GFA of alloys in this system was governed by elastic strain optimization resulting directly from the variation in Mo content. Heat treatments were performed to demonstrate resistance to crystallization under typical processing conditions. Alloys in this system exhibited a three-phase evolution during crystallization. A second set of heat treatments was performed to identify each phase. Hardness data was collected at each of the heat treatment conditions, and a bulk metallic glasses (BMG)-derived composite containing a Mo-rich phase exhibited Vickers Hardness in excess of 2000. The fully amorphous alloys had an average hardness approaching 1500.

  9. Effects of Nb addition on icosahedral quasicrystalline phase formation and glass-forming ability of Zr--Ni--Cu--Al metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Cang; Li, Chunfei; Inoue, Akihisa; Haas, Volker

    2001-01-01

    This work shows that the crystallization process of Zr--Ni--Cu--Al metallic glass is greatly influenced by adding Nb as an alloying element. Based on the results of the differential scanning calorimetry experiments for metallic glasses Zr 69-x Nb x Ni 10 Cu 12 Al 9 (x=0--15at.%), the crystallization process takes place through two individual stages. For Zr 69 Ni 10 Cu 12 Al 9 (x=0), metastable hexagonal ω-Zr and a small fraction of tetragonal Zr 2 Cu are precipitated upon completion of the first exothermic reaction. Contrary to this alloy, the precipitation of a nanoquasicrystalline phase is detected when 5--10 at.% Nb is added. Furthermore, the crystallization temperature T x , supercooled liquid region ΔT x and reduced temperature T g /T L (T g is the glass transition temperature, T L the liquidus temperature) increase with increasing Nb content. These results indicate that adding Nb content to Zr--Ni--Cu--Al metallic glasses not only induces quasicrystalline phase formation, but also enhances glass-forming ability. Copyright 2001 American Institute of Physics

  10. Glass forming ability of the Al-Ce-Ni system; Avaliacao da capacidade de formacao vitrea do sistema Al-Ce-Ni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triveno Rios, C. [Engenharia Mecanica, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Rondonopolis, MT (Brazil)], e-mail: triveno@ufmt.br; Surinach, S.; Baro, M.D. [Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais - Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Bolfarini, C.; Botta, W.J.; Kiminami, C.S. [Departamento de Fisica da Universidade Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    In the present work, the glass forming ability (GFA) and its compositional dependence on Al-Ni-Ce system alloys were investigated in function of several thermal parameters. Rapidly quenched Al{sub 85}Ni{sub 15}-{sub X}Ce{sub X} (X=4,5,6,7,10), Al{sub 90}Ni{sub 5}Ce{sub 5}, Al{sub 89}Ni{sub 2}.{sub 4}Ce{sub 8}.{sub 6}, Al{sub 80}Ni{sub 15.6}Ce{sub 4}.{sub 4} and Al{sub 78}Ni{sub 18.5}Ce{sub 3.5} amorphous ribbons were produced by melt-spinning and the structural transformation during heating was studied using a combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results showed that the GFA and the thermal stability in the Al-rich corner of Al- Ni-Ce system alloys were enhanced by increasing the solute content and specifically the Ce content (author)

  11. Colony formation in the cyanobacterium Microcystis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Man; Li, Ming; Reynolds, Colin S

    2018-02-22

    Morphological evolution from a unicellular to multicellular state provides greater opportunities for organisms to attain larger and more complex living forms. As the most common freshwater cyanobacterial genus, Microcystis is a unicellular microorganism, with high phenotypic plasticity, which forms colonies and blooms in lakes and reservoirs worldwide. We conducted a systematic review of field studies from the 1990s to 2017 where Microcystis was dominant. Microcystis was detected as the dominant genus in waterbodies from temperate to subtropical and tropical zones. Unicellular Microcystis spp. can be induced to form colonies by adjusting biotic and abiotic factors in laboratory. Colony formation by cell division has been induced by zooplankton filtrate, high Pb 2+ concentration, the presence of another cyanobacterium (Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii), heterotrophic bacteria, and by low temperature and light intensity. Colony formation by cell adhesion can be induced by zooplankton grazing, high Ca 2+ concentration, and microcystins. We hypothesise that single cells of all Microcystis morphospecies initially form colonies with a similar morphology to those found in the early spring. These colonies gradually change their morphology to that of M. ichthyoblabe, M. wesenbergii and M. aeruginosa with changing environmental conditions. Colony formation provides Microcystis with many ecological advantages, including adaption to varying light, sustained growth under poor nutrient supply, protection from chemical stressors and protection from grazing. These benefits represent passive tactics responding to environmental stress. Microcystis colonies form at the cost of decreased specific growth rates compared with a unicellular habit. Large colony size allows Microcystis to attain rapid floating velocities (maximum recorded for a single colony, ∼ 10.08 m h -1 ) that enable them to develop and maintain a large biomass near the surface of eutrophic lakes, where they may shade

  12. Oral Candida albicans isolates from HIV-positive individuals have similar in vitro biofilm-forming ability and pathogenicity as invasive Candida isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasteiro Vanessa MC

    2011-11-01

    , suggesting that Candida isolates have similar biofilm-forming ability and virulence regardless of the infection site from which it was isolated.

  13. Preparation and properties of calcium-silicate filled resins for dental restoration. Part I: chemical-physical characterization and apatite-forming ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Profeta, Andrea Corrado

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to measure dimensional changes due to hygroscopic expansion and the bioactivity of two experimental methacrylate-based dental adhesives either incorporating Bioglass 45S5 (3-E&RA/BG) or MTA (3-E&RA/WMTA). 3-E&RA/BG, 3-E&RA/WMTA and a control filler-free resin blend (3-E&RA) were formulated from commercially available monomers. Water sorption (WS) and solubility (SL) behaviour were evaluated by weighing material disks at noted intervals; the relationship between degree of hydration and the glass transition temperature (Tg) was investigated by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In vitro apatite-forming ability as a function of soaking time in phosphate-containing solutions was also determined. Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to evaluate differences between groups for maximum WS, SL, net water uptake and the percentage change in Tg values. Post-ANOVA pair-wise comparisons were conducted using Mann-Whitney-U tests. 3-E&RA/BG and 3-E&RA/WMTA exhibited values of maximum WS and net water uptake that were significantly higher when compared to 3-E&RA. However, no statistically significant differences were observed in terms of SL between all the adhesives. The addition of the Bioglass 45S5 and MTA to the 3-E&RA showed no reduction of the Tg after 60 days of storage in deionized water. ATR Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) of the filled resin disks soaked in DPBS for 60 days showed the presence of carbonate ions in different chemical phases. Dentine bonding agents comprising calcium-silicates are not inert materials in a simulated oral environment and apatite formation may occur in the intra-oral conditions. A bioactive dental material which forms apatite on the surface would have several benefits including closure of gaps forming at the resin-dentine interface and potentially better bond strength over time (less degradation of bond).

  14. Teaching Form as Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2012-01-01

    understanding of form per se, or, to use an expression from this text, of form as form. This challenge can be reduced to one question: how can design teaching support students in achieving not only the ability to recognize and describe different form-related concepts in existing design (i.e. analytical...... and concepts from real designs by studying form in abstract contexts. The challenge for the first approach is how to support students in decoupling form from the work as a whole. The challenge for the second approach is how to translate general form into real design. Hence, choosing between the two approaches...

  15. Transcriptional Profiling of a Yeast Colony Provides New Insight into the Heterogeneity of Multicellular Fungal Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traven, Ana; Jänicke, Amrei; Harrison, Paul; Swaminathan, Angavai; Seemann, Torsten; Beilharz, Traude H.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding multicellular fungal structures is important for designing better strategies against human fungal pathogens. For example, the ability to form multicellular biofilms is a key virulence property of the yeast Candida albicans. C. albicans biofilms form on indwelling medical devices and are drug resistant, causing serious infections in hospital settings. Multicellular fungal communities are heterogeneous, consisting of cells experiencing different environments. Heterogeneity is likely important for the phenotypic characteristics of communities, yet it is poorly understood. Here we used colonies of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model fungal multicellular structure. We fractionated the outside colony layers from the cells in the center by FACS, using a Cit1-GFP marker expressed exclusively on the outside. Transcriptomics analysis of the two subpopulations revealed that the outside colony layers are actively growing by fermentative metabolism, while the cells residing on the inside are in a resting state and experience changes to mitochondrial activity. Our data shows several parallels with C. albicans biofilms providing insight into the contributions of heterogeneity to biofilm phenotypes. Hallmarks of C. albicans biofilms – the expression of ribosome and translation functions and activation of glycolysis and ergosterol biosynthesis occur on the outside of colonies, while expression of genes associates with sulfur assimilation is observed in the colony center. Cell wall restructuring occurs in biofilms, and cell wall functions are enriched in both fractions: the outside cells display enrichment of cell wall biosynthesis enzymes and cell wall proteins, while the inside cells express cell wall degrading enzymes. Our study also suggests that noncoding transcription and posttranscriptional mRNA regulation play important roles during growth of yeast in colonies, setting the scene for investigating these pathways in the development of multicellular

  16. Transcriptional profiling of a yeast colony provides new insight into the heterogeneity of multicellular fungal communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Traven

    Full Text Available Understanding multicellular fungal structures is important for designing better strategies against human fungal pathogens. For example, the ability to form multicellular biofilms is a key virulence property of the yeast Candida albicans. C. albicans biofilms form on indwelling medical devices and are drug resistant, causing serious infections in hospital settings. Multicellular fungal communities are heterogeneous, consisting of cells experiencing different environments. Heterogeneity is likely important for the phenotypic characteristics of communities, yet it is poorly understood. Here we used colonies of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model fungal multicellular structure. We fractionated the outside colony layers from the cells in the center by FACS, using a Cit1-GFP marker expressed exclusively on the outside. Transcriptomics analysis of the two subpopulations revealed that the outside colony layers are actively growing by fermentative metabolism, while the cells residing on the inside are in a resting state and experience changes to mitochondrial activity. Our data shows several parallels with C. albicans biofilms providing insight into the contributions of heterogeneity to biofilm phenotypes. Hallmarks of C. albicans biofilms - the expression of ribosome and translation functions and activation of glycolysis and ergosterol biosynthesis occur on the outside of colonies, while expression of genes associates with sulfur assimilation is observed in the colony center. Cell wall restructuring occurs in biofilms, and cell wall functions are enriched in both fractions: the outside cells display enrichment of cell wall biosynthesis enzymes and cell wall proteins, while the inside cells express cell wall degrading enzymes. Our study also suggests that noncoding transcription and posttranscriptional mRNA regulation play important roles during growth of yeast in colonies, setting the scene for investigating these pathways in the development

  17. The Alpha-Tocopherol Form of Vitamin E Boosts Elastase Activity of Human PMNs and Their Ability to Kill Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa N. Bou Ghanem

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the availability of vaccines, Streptococcus pneumoniae remains a leading cause of life-threatening infections, such as pneumonia, bacteremia and meningitis. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs are a key determinant of disease course, because optimal host defense requires an initial robust pulmonary PMN response to control bacterial numbers followed by modulation of this response later in infection. The elderly, who manifest a general decline in immune function and higher basal levels of inflammation, are at increased risk of developing pneumococcal pneumonia. Using an aged mouse infection model, we previously showed that oral supplementation with the alpha-tocopherol form of vitamin E (α-Toc decreases pulmonary inflammation, in part by modulating neutrophil migration across lung epithelium into alveolar spaces, and reverses the age-associated decline in resistance to pneumococcal pneumonia. The objective of this study was to test the effect of α-Toc on the ability of neutrophils isolated from young (22–35 years or elderly (65–69 years individuals to migrate across epithelial cell monolayers in response to S. pneumoniae and to kill complement-opsonized pneumococci. We found that basal levels of pneumococcal-induced transepithelial migration by PMNs from young or elderly donors were indistinguishable, suggesting that the age-associated exacerbation of pulmonary inflammation is not due to intrinsic properties of PMNs of elderly individuals but rather may reflect the inflammatory milieu of the aged lung. Consistent with its anti-inflammatory activity, α-Toc treatment diminished PMN migration regardless of donor age. Unexpectedly, unlike previous studies showing poor killing of antibody-opsonized bacteria, we found that PMNs of elderly donors were more efficient at killing complement-opsonized bacteria ex vivo than their younger counterparts. We also found that the heightened antimicrobial activity in PMNs from older donors correlated

  18. GENERAL AND SPECIFIC COMBINING ABILITY OF INITIAL PARENTAL FORMS IN TOMATO FOR COMPLEX OF ECONOMICALLY VALUABLE TRAITS TO DEVELOP HYBRIDS F1 OF CHERRY AND COCKTAIL TYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Rechets

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of estimation of general and specific combining ability of male and female parental tomato forms were given for complex of traits. The estimation was carried out according to incomplete diallel crosses 15x15. Such varities   as   ‘Trapeza’,  Rosovaya  kapelka’,  ‘Seniorita’, ‘Ocharovanie’,  ‘Tigris’   ‘Vishnya  Zheltaya’  (Gavrish, ‘Denezhnoye Derevo’ (national breeding, and  lines: ‘46/06’,  ‘49/09’,  ‘295/09’,  ‘336/11’,  ‘354/11’,  ‘357/11’, ‘388/09’ (nor, ‘498’ (selection of TARI were used as intial breeding accessions, differing in bush type (determinate and indeterminate, duration of vegetative phase (ultraearly,  early, medium early, middle-ripening, fruit  shape (rounded, oval, fruit color (red, pink, black, orange, tiger and with the gene nor, fruit weight (10 g. and more, brush structure (dense, friable. As a results, ‘Trapeza’, ‘Vishnya Zheltaya’, ‘Ocharovaniye’, ‘Seniorita’, and lines: ‘295/10’, ‘49/09’,  ‘498’,  ‘357/11’,  ‘354/11’,  ‘388/09’  (nor were selected and recommended to be used in breeding program for development of heterotic hybrids with high fruit setting and generative bush type. The promising hybrids F1 with high constants of specific combining ability for a complex of economically valuable traits have been observed. Because of different lines and accessions were used in crossings, these hybrids varied in internode length of cluster type, classical or shorten; rounded or oval fruit shape; fruit  color, red (F1   combinations ‘354/11’ х ‘Seniorita’, ‘Trapeza’ х  ‘L.49/09’,  L.  ‘49/09’  х  L.354/11, pink (F1 combination ‘Rosovaya Kapelka’ х ‘L.354/11’, yellow (F1 combination ‘Ocharovaniye’ х  ‘Vishiya Zheltaya’, deep brown (F1 combination  ‘L.357/11’ х ‘L.354/11’.

  19. Bionomics and formation of "Bonsai" colonies with long term rearing of Coptotermes formosanus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This laboratory study reports the ability of Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, colonies to survive for at least 9-yr while restricted to a sweater box. Colonies survived by limiting queen size and worker numbers, allowing these bonsai colonies to thrive. Queen physogastr...

  20. Synthetic quorum sensing in model microcapsule colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shum, Henry; Balazs, Anna C.

    2017-08-01

    Biological quorum sensing refers to the ability of cells to gauge their population density and collectively initiate a new behavior once a critical density is reached. Designing synthetic materials systems that exhibit quorum sensing-like behavior could enable the fabrication of devices with both self-recognition and self-regulating functionality. Herein, we develop models for a colony of synthetic microcapsules that communicate by producing and releasing signaling molecules. Production of the chemicals is regulated by a biomimetic negative feedback loop, the “repressilator” network. Through theory and simulation, we show that the chemical behavior of such capsules is sensitive to both the density and number of capsules in the colony. For example, decreasing the spacing between a fixed number of capsules can trigger a transition in chemical activity from the steady, repressed state to large-amplitude oscillations in chemical production. Alternatively, for a fixed density, an increase in the number of capsules in the colony can also promote a transition into the oscillatory state. This configuration-dependent behavior of the capsule colony exemplifies quorum-sensing behavior. Using our theoretical model, we predict the transitions from the steady state to oscillatory behavior as a function of the colony size and capsule density.

  1. Colony Collapse Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    In CCD, the majority of worker bees in a colony disappear and leave behind a queen, plenty of food and a few nurse bees to care for remaining immature bees and the queen. EPA and USDA are working to understand this problem.

  2. Colonial American Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeomans, Donald K.

    2007-12-01

    While a foundation of German scientific methods enabled the rapid growth of North American Astronomy in the nineteenth century, during the seventeenth and most of the eighteenth centuries, the colonial men of science looked only to the English mother country for scientific patronage and guidance. An essay on fundamental astronomy appeared in one of the annual colonial almanacs as early as 1656, telescopic observations were made about 1660 and the first original colonial astronomical work was published by Thomas Danforth on the comet of 1664. By 1671 the Copernican ideas were so espoused at Harvard College that a physics class refused to read a Ptolemaic textbook when it was assigned to them by a senior instructor. At least in the Cambridge-Boston area, contemporary colonialist had access to the most recent scientific publications from the mother country. Observations of the great comet of 1680 by the Almanac maker, John Foster, reached Isaac Newton and were used and gratefully acknowledged in his Principia. During the seventeenth century the colonial interest in astronomy was more intense than it was for other sciences but colonists still occupied a position in the scientific backwater when compared with contemporary European scientists. Nevertheless, the science of astronomy was successfully transplanted from England to North America in the seventeenth century.

  3. Inhibition of colony-spreading activity of Staphylococcus aureus by secretion of δ-hemolysin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omae, Yosuke; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa; Kaito, Chikara

    2012-05-04

    Staphylococcus aureus spreads on the surface of soft agar, a phenomenon we termed "colony spreading." Here, we found that S. aureus culture supernatant inhibited colony spreading. We purified δ-hemolysin (Hld, δ-toxin), a major protein secreted from S. aureus, as a compound that inhibits colony spreading. The culture supernatants of hld-disrupted mutants had 30-fold lower colony-spreading inhibitory activity than those of the parent strain. Furthermore, hld-disrupted mutants had higher colony-spreading ability than the parent strain. These results suggest that S. aureus negatively regulates colony spreading by secreting δ-hemolysin.

  4. Inhibition of Colony-spreading Activity of Staphylococcus aureus by Secretion of δ-Hemolysin*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omae, Yosuke; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa; Kaito, Chikara

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus spreads on the surface of soft agar, a phenomenon we termed “colony spreading.” Here, we found that S. aureus culture supernatant inhibited colony spreading. We purified δ-hemolysin (Hld, δ-toxin), a major protein secreted from S. aureus, as a compound that inhibits colony spreading. The culture supernatants of hld-disrupted mutants had 30-fold lower colony-spreading inhibitory activity than those of the parent strain. Furthermore, hld-disrupted mutants had higher colony-spreading ability than the parent strain. These results suggest that S. aureus negatively regulates colony spreading by secreting δ-hemolysin. PMID:22411996

  5. Knock down of HIF-1α in glioma cells reduces migration in vitro and invasion in vivo and impairs their ability to form tumor spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esencay Mine

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glioblastoma (GBM is the most common and malignant primary intracranial human neoplasm. GBMs are characterized by the presence of extensive areas of necrosis and hypoxia. Hypoxia and its master regulator, hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1 play a key role in glioma invasion. Results To further elucidate the functional role of HIF-1α in glioma cell migration in vitro and in invasion in vivo, we used a shRNA approach to knock down HIF-1α expression complemented with genome-wide expression profiling, performed in both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Our data show that knock down of HIF-1α in glioma cells significantly impairs their migration in vitro as well as their ability to invade into the brain parenchyma in vivo. Next, we assessed the role that HIF-1α plays in maintaining the characteristics of cancer stem cells (CSCs. By using the tumor sphere forming assay, we demonstrate that HIF-1α plays a role in the survival and self-renewal potential of CSCs. Finally, expression profiling experiments in glioma cells provided detailed insight into a broad range of specific biological pathways and processes downstream of HIF-1α. We discuss the role of these processes in the migratory and invasive properties, as well as the stem cell biology of glioblastomas Conclusions Our data show that knock down of HIF-1α in human and murine glioma cells impairs their migration in vitro and their invasion in vivo. In addition, our data suggest that HIF-1α plays a role in the survival and self-renewal potential of CSCs and identify genes that might further elucidate the role of HIF-1α in tumor migration, invasion and stem cell biology.

  6. Hierarchy length in orphaned colonies of the ant Temnothorax nylanderi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, J.

    2008-08-01

    Workers of the ant Temnothorax nylanderi form dominance orders in orphaned colonies in which only one or a few top-ranking workers begin to produce males from unfertilized eggs. Between one and 11 individuals initiated 80% of all aggression in 14 queenless colonies. As predicted from inclusive fitness models (Molet M, van Baalen M, Monnin T, Insectes Soc 52:247 256, 2005), hierarchy length was found to first increase with colony size and then to level off at larger worker numbers. The frequency and skew of aggression decreased with increasing size, indicating that rank orders are less pronounced in larger colonies.

  7. Effect of fluid motion on colony formation in Microcystis aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microcystis aeruginosa, generally occurring in large colonies under natural conditions, mainly exists as single cells in laboratory cultures. The mechanisms involved in colony formation in Microcystis aeruginosa and their roles in algal blooms remain unknown. In this study, based on previous research findings that fluid motion may stimulate the colony formation in green algae, culture experiments were conducted under axenic conditions in a circular water chamber where the flow rate, temperature, light, and nutrients were controlled. The number of cells of Microcystis aeruginosa, the number of cells per colony, and the colonial characteristics in various growth phases were observed and measured. The results indicated that the colony formation in Microcystis aeruginosa, which was not observed under stagnant conditions, was evident when there was fluid motion, with the number of cells per largest colony reaching 120 and the proportion of the number of cells in colonial form to the total number of cells and the mean number of cells per colony reaching their peak values at a flow rate of 35 cm/s. Based on the analysis of colony formation process, fluid motion stimulates the colony formation in Microcystis aeruginosa in the lag growth phase, while flushes and disaggregates the colonies in the exponential growth phase. The stimulation effect in the lag growth phase may be attributable to the involvement of fluid motion in a series of physiological processes, including the uptake of trace elements and the synthesis and secretion of polysaccharides. In addition, the experimental groups exhibiting typical colonial characteristics in the lag growth phase were found to have higher cell biomass in the later phase.

  8. Kant's Second Thoughts on Colonialism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleingeld, Pauline; Flikschuh, Katrin; Ypi, Lea

    2014-01-01

    Kant is widely regarded as a fierce critic of colonialism. In Toward Perpetual Peace and the Metaphysics of Morals, for example, he forcefully condemns European conduct in the colonies as a flagrant violation of the principles of right. His earlier views on colonialism have not yet received much

  9. Recycling Colonial Cultural Heritage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Troels Degn

    2017-01-01

    Danish art collective Superflex’ project Porcelain Pirates for the Zeeuws Museum in Middelburg, the Netherlands, is a fascinating and complex example of how a museum collection of artefacts from a colonial past may gain critical new meaning by means of cultural production and curatorial strategy....... By means of a museum installation (Porcelain Pirates, Zeeuws Museum, 2009) and a popular TV-series (Porcelain, Propellerhead, 2010) produced in Vietnam by a Vietnamese production company, Superflex seeks to explore and question a complex piece of colonial history with an important Asian-European as well...... economic stimulus in the entire region and also provided diplomatic gifts that were used to cement the Dutch war of independence against Spain.” Authentic artefacts from San Jago were used as props in the TV-series produced in Vietnam and were subsequently included as artefacts in the installation...

  10. Recycling Colonial Cultural Heritage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Troels Degn

    2017-01-01

    Danish art collective Superflex’ project Porcelain Pirates for the Zeeuws Museum in Middelburg, the Netherlands, is a fascinating and complex example of how a museum collection of artefacts from a colonial past may gain critical new meaning by means of cultural production and curatorial strategy....... By means of a museum installation (Porcelain Pirates, Zeeuws Museum, 2009) and a popular TV-series (Porcelain, Propellerhead, 2010) produced in Vietnam by a Vietnamese production company, Superflex seeks to explore and question a complex piece of colonial history with an important Asian-European as well...... of the first consignment of South East Asian porcelain destined for the European market. San Jago’s cargo of porcelain was realized economically by a big auction in the Netherlands. According to the Museum and it’s installation, the “importance of this auction was unprecedented and it provided enormous...

  11. Ireland – a test case of Post-colonialism / Post colonialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Murray

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Contextualisation This review attempts to set the stage for post-colonial theorising, in the light of alternative representations of ‘whiteness’, on issues of gender, race and language within the discourse of equality. In this paper Ireland and the Irish provide a backdrop against which the nature and impact of colonialism on the colonised and the coloniser are explored. Many challenging questions emerge about the ideological basis of post colonial theory, not least when traditional paradigms of racism, as conveyed by the black / white dichotomy, are examined: Ireland presents a context, it is argued, where subjugation is of white on white. Linked to this is the language of the coloniser, a powerful hegemonic force which, in some situations, has been nurtured by the colonised and later developed into a text which is unique, producing a new literature which, it is asserted, truly invokes the ‘post colonial’. Abstract: Post-colonialism – essentially a critique of colonialism, is characterised by a process of disengagement from the colonial epoch and has taken many forms. In this article a set of phenomena are examined that have become inscribed in the cultures of the colonised with a view to identifying alternative cultural origins and dispositions recovered in this post-colonial era. Ireland and the Irish provide the background context of this exploration into perspectives generated by the peripheral or post-colonial nations. Globalisation, too, has had a role to play in the increasing de-territorialisation of communities as a result of cross-frontier mobility, increased intra-community mobility and new communication technologies. A critical reflection on the process of disengagement leads the author to conclude that we must come to recognise new cultural forms which are accepting of a heterogeneous and inclusive society: one which is not characterised by difference.

  12. Hegel and Colonialism

    OpenAIRE

    Stone, Alison Laura

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the implications of Hegel’s Philosophy of World History with respect to colonialism. For Hegel, freedom can be recognized and practised only in classical, Christian and modern Europe; therefore, the world’s other peoples can acquire freedom only if Europeans impose their civilization upon them. Although this imposition denies freedom to colonized peoples, this denial is legitimate for Hegel because it is the sole condition on which these peoples can gain freedom in the l...

  13. Calcification and Diagenesis of Bacterial Colonies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninon Robin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Evidencing ancient interspecific associations in the fossil record may be challenging, particularly when bacterial organisms have most likely been degraded during diagenesis. Yet, documenting ancient interspecific associations may provide valuable insights into paleoenvironmental conditions and paleocommunities. Here, we report the multiscale characterization of contemporary and fossilized calcifying bacterial colonies found on contemporary shrimps from Mexico (La Paz Bay and on 160-Ma old fossilized decapods (shrimps from the Lagerstätte of La Voulte-sur-Rhône (France, respectively. We document the fine scale morphology, the inorganic composition and the organic signatures of both the contemporary and fossilized structures formed by these bacterial colonies using a combination of electron microscopies and synchrotron-based scanning transmission X-ray microscopy. In addition to discussing the mechanisms of carbonate precipitation by such bacterial colonies, the present study illustrates the degradation of bacterial remains occurring during diagenesis.

  14. Artificial bee colony algorithm with dynamic multi-population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Ji, Zhicheng; Wang, Yan

    2017-07-01

    To improve the convergence rate and make a balance between the global search and local turning abilities, this paper proposes a decentralized form of artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm with dynamic multi-populations by means of fuzzy C-means (FCM) clustering. Each subpopulation periodically enlarges with the same size during the search process, and the overlapping individuals among different subareas work for delivering information acting as exploring the search space with diffusion of solutions. Moreover, a Gaussian-based search equation with redefined local attractor is proposed to further accelerate the diffusion of the best solution and guide the search towards potential areas. Experimental results on a set of benchmarks demonstrate the competitive performance of our proposed approach.

  15. Changes in numbers and types of mast cell colony-forming cells in the peritoneal cavity of mice after injection of distilled water: evidence that mast cells suppress differentiation of bone marrow-derived precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanakura, Y.; Kuriu, A.; Waki, N.; Nakano, T.; Asai, H.; Yonezawa, T.; Kitamura, Y.

    1988-01-01

    Two different types of cells in the peritoneal cavity of mice produce mast cell colonies in methylcellulose. Large mast cell colonies are produced by bone marrow-derived precursors resembling lymphoid cells by light microscopy (L-CFU-Mast), whereas medium and small mast cell colonies are produced by morphologically identifiable mast cells (M-CFU-Mast and S-CFU-Mast, respectively). In the present study we eradicated peritoneal mast cells by intraperitoneal (IP) injection of distilled water. The regeneration process was investigated to clarify the relationship between L-CFU-Mast, M-CFU-Mast, and S-CFU-Mast. After injection of distilled water, M-CFU-Mast and S-CFU-Mast disappeared, but L-CFU-Mast increased, and then M-CFU-Mast and S-CFU-Mast appeared, suggesting the presence of a hierarchic relationship. When purified peritoneal mast cells were injected two days after the water injection, the L-CFU-Mast did not increase. In the peritoneal cavity of WBB6F1-+/+ mice that had been lethally irradiated and rescued by bone marrow cells of C57BL/6-bgJ/bgJ (beige, Chediak-Higashi syndrome) mice, L-CFU-Mast were of bgJ/bgJ type, but M-CFU-Mast and S-CFU-Mast were of +/+ type. The injection of distilled water to the radiation chimeras resulted in the development of bgJ/bgJ-type M-CFU-Mast and then S-CFU-Mast. The presence of mast cells appeared to suppress the recruitment of L-CFU-Mast from the bloodstream and to inhibit the differentiation of L-CFU-Mast to M-CFU-Mast

  16. Changes in numbers and types of mast cell colony-forming cells in the peritoneal cavity of mice after injection of distilled water: evidence that mast cells suppress differentiation of bone marrow-derived precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanakura, Y.; Kuriu, A.; Waki, N.; Nakano, T.; Asai, H.; Yonezawa, T.; Kitamura, Y.

    1988-03-01

    Two different types of cells in the peritoneal cavity of mice produce mast cell colonies in methylcellulose. Large mast cell colonies are produced by bone marrow-derived precursors resembling lymphoid cells by light microscopy (L-CFU-Mast), whereas medium and small mast cell colonies are produced by morphologically identifiable mast cells (M-CFU-Mast and S-CFU-Mast, respectively). In the present study we eradicated peritoneal mast cells by intraperitoneal (IP) injection of distilled water. The regeneration process was investigated to clarify the relationship between L-CFU-Mast, M-CFU-Mast, and S-CFU-Mast. After injection of distilled water, M-CFU-Mast and S-CFU-Mast disappeared, but L-CFU-Mast increased, and then M-CFU-Mast and S-CFU-Mast appeared, suggesting the presence of a hierarchic relationship. When purified peritoneal mast cells were injected two days after the water injection, the L-CFU-Mast did not increase. In the peritoneal cavity of WBB6F1-+/+ mice that had been lethally irradiated and rescued by bone marrow cells of C57BL/6-bgJ/bgJ (beige, Chediak-Higashi syndrome) mice, L-CFU-Mast were of bgJ/bgJ type, but M-CFU-Mast and S-CFU-Mast were of +/+ type. The injection of distilled water to the radiation chimeras resulted in the development of bgJ/bgJ-type M-CFU-Mast and then S-CFU-Mast. The presence of mast cells appeared to suppress the recruitment of L-CFU-Mast from the bloodstream and to inhibit the differentiation of L-CFU-Mast to M-CFU-Mast.

  17. An improved method for staining cell colonies in clonogenic assays

    OpenAIRE

    Guda, Kishore; Natale, Leanna; Markowitz, Sanford D.

    2007-01-01

    Clonogenic assay is a widely used experimental approach to test for the effects of drugs/genes on the growth and proliferative characteristics of cells in vitro. Accurate quantitation of treatment effects in clonogeneic assays depends on the ability to visualize and count cell colonies precisely. We report a novel method (referred as ETeB) for staining cell colonies grown on plastic and specially coated substrates like collagen. Using colon cancer cell lines grown on plastic and collagen, we ...

  18. 75 FR 28685 - Colonial Bankshares, MHC, Vineland, NJ; Approval of Conversion Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Colonial Bankshares, MHC, Vineland, NJ; Approval of Conversion Application... Colonial Bankshares, MHC, and Colonial Bank, Vineland, New Jersey, to convert to the stock form of...

  19. Analysis of Colonial Currency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurkowski, Michael; Cangany, Catherine; Jordan, Louis; Manukyan, Khachatur; Schultz, Zachary; Wiescher, Michael

    2017-09-01

    This project entailed studying the cellulose in paper, the ink, colorants, and other materials used to produce American colonial currency. The technique primarily used in this project was X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (XRF). XRF mapping was used to provide both elemental analysis of large-scale objects as well as microscopic examination of individual pigment particles in ink, in addition to the inorganic additives used to prepare paper. The combination of elemental mapping with Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Raman Spectroscopies permits an efficient analysis of the currency. These spectroscopic methods help identify the molecular composition of the pigments. This combination of atomic and molecular analytical techniques provided an in-depth characterization of the paper currency on the macro, micro, and molecular levels. We have identified several of pigments that were used in the preparation of inks and colorants. Also, different inorganic crystals, such as alumina-silicates, have been detected in different papers. The FTIR spectroscopy allowed us to determine the type of cellulose fiber used in the production of paper currency. Our future research will be directed toward revealing important historical relationships between currencies printed throughout the colonies. ISLA Da Vinci Grant.

  20. INFLUENCE OF SURFACE MACHINING OF SAWING DISK BLANKS ON ABRASIVE ABILITY AND WEAR RESISTANCE OF FORMED DIAMOND-CONTAINING СОATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Kiselev

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes methods for preliminary machining of sawing disk lateral surfaces before their charging that  provide formation of micro-relief grains on them which are favorable for introduction. The experimental data reflect influence of accepted methods for machining initial disk blanks on abrasive ability and wear resistance of diamond-containing coatings which are obtained on them with the help of charging.

  1. Lock-picks: fungal infection facilitates the intrusion of strangers into ant colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csata, Enikő; Timuş, Natalia; Witek, Magdalena; Casacci, Luca Pietro; Lucas, Christophe; Bagnères, Anne-Geneviève; Sztencel-Jabłonka, Anna; Barbero, Francesca; Bonelli, Simona; Rákosy, László; Markó, Bálint

    2017-01-01

    Studies investigating host-parasite systems rarely deal with multispecies interactions, and mostly explore impacts on hosts as individuals. Much less is known about the effects at colony level, when parasitism involves host organisms that form societies. We surveyed the effect of an ectoparasitic fungus, Rickia wasmannii, on kin-discrimination abilities of its host ant, Myrmica scabrinodis, identifying potential consequences at social level and subsequent changes in colony infiltration success of other organisms. Analyses of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs), known to be involved in insects’ discrimination processes, revealed variations in chemical profiles correlated with the infection status of the ants, that could not be explained by genetic variation tested by microsatellites. In behavioural assays, fungus-infected workers were less aggressive towards both non-nestmates and unrelated queens, enhancing the probability of polygyny. Likewise, parasitic larvae of Maculinea butterflies had a higher chance of adoption by infected colonies. Our study indicates that pathogens can modify host recognition abilities, making the society more prone to accept both conspecific and allospecific organisms. PMID:28402336

  2. The Influence of Science Process Skills, Logical Thinking Abilities, Attitudes towards Science, and Locus of Control on Science Achievement among Form 4 Students in the Interior Division of Sabah, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fah, Lay Yoon

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the direct and indirect effects of science process skills, logical thinking abilities, attitudes towards science, and locus of control on science achievement among Form 4 students in the Interior Division of Sabah, Malaysia. Research findings showed that there were low to moderate, positive but significant…

  3. 'Demonstrating the machine guns' : rebellion, violence and state formation in early colonial Darfur.

    OpenAIRE

    Vaughan, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Recent literature on British colonial rule in Africa has increasingly emphasised the ways in which relatively cautious colonial states were formed in processes of engagement and accommodation with local societies. This article uses the example of a major rebellion against colonial authority in southern Darfur in 1921 to demonstrate the ways in which these processes of local engagement might themselves feed into rebellion against state authority, rather than secure colonial rule. The rebellion...

  4. Leisure, economy and colonial urbanism: Darjeeling, 1835–1930

    Science.gov (United States)

    BHATTACHARYA, NANDINI

    2013-01-01

    This article posits that the hill station of Darjeeling was a unique form of colonial urbanism. It shifts historiographical interest from major urban centres in colonial India (such as Bombay or Calcutta) and instead attempts a greater understanding of smaller urban centres. In the process, it also interrogates the category of hill stations, which have been understood as exotic and scenic sites rather than as towns that were integral to the colonial economy. In arguing that hill stations, particularly Darjeeling, were not merely the scenic and healthy ‘other’ of the clamorous, dirty and diseased plains of India, it refutes suggestions that the ‘despoiling’ or overcrowding of Darjeeling was incremental to the purposes of its establishment. Instead, it suggests that Darjeeling was part of the colonial mainstream; its urbanization and inclusion into the greater colonial economy was effected from the time of its establishment. Therefore, a constant tension between its exotic and its functional elements persisted throughout. PMID:24273391

  5. Leisure, economy and colonial urbanism: Darjeeling, 1835-1930.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Nandini

    2013-08-01

    This article posits that the hill station of Darjeeling was a unique form of colonial urbanism. It shifts historiographical interest from major urban centres in colonial India (such as Bombay or Calcutta) and instead attempts a greater understanding of smaller urban centres. In the process, it also interrogates the category of hill stations, which have been understood as exotic and scenic sites rather than as towns that were integral to the colonial economy. In arguing that hill stations, particularly Darjeeling, were not merely the scenic and healthy 'other' of the clamorous, dirty and diseased plains of India, it refutes suggestions that the 'despoiling' or overcrowding of Darjeeling was incremental to the purposes of its establishment. Instead, it suggests that Darjeeling was part of the colonial mainstream; its urbanization and inclusion into the greater colonial economy was effected from the time of its establishment. Therefore, a constant tension between its exotic and its functional elements persisted throughout.

  6. Honey Bee Colonies Remote Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Gil-Lebrero

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bees are very important for terrestrial ecosystems and, above all, for the subsistence of many crops, due to their ability to pollinate flowers. Currently, the honey bee populations are decreasing due to colony collapse disorder (CCD. The reasons for CCD are not fully known, and as a result, it is essential to obtain all possible information on the environmental conditions surrounding the beehives. On the other hand, it is important to carry out such information gathering as non-intrusively as possible to avoid modifying the bees’ work conditions and to obtain more reliable data. We designed a wireless-sensor networks meet these requirements. We designed a remote monitoring system (called WBee based on a hierarchical three-level model formed by the wireless node, a local data server, and a cloud data server. WBee is a low-cost, fully scalable, easily deployable system with regard to the number and types of sensors and the number of hives and their geographical distribution. WBee saves the data in each of the levels if there are failures in communication. In addition, the nodes include a backup battery, which allows for further data acquisition and storage in the event of a power outage. Unlike other systems that monitor a single point of a hive, the system we present monitors and stores the temperature and relative humidity of the beehive in three different spots. Additionally, the hive is continuously weighed on a weighing scale. Real-time weight measurement is an innovation in wireless beehive—monitoring systems. We designed an adaptation board to facilitate the connection of the sensors to the node. Through the Internet, researchers and beekeepers can access the cloud data server to find out the condition of their hives in real time.

  7. Honey Bee Colonies Remote Monitoring System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Lebrero, Sergio; Quiles-Latorre, Francisco Javier; Ortiz-López, Manuel; Sánchez-Ruiz, Víctor; Gámiz-López, Victoria; Luna-Rodríguez, Juan Jesús

    2016-12-29

    Bees are very important for terrestrial ecosystems and, above all, for the subsistence of many crops, due to their ability to pollinate flowers. Currently, the honey bee populations are decreasing due to colony collapse disorder (CCD). The reasons for CCD are not fully known, and as a result, it is essential to obtain all possible information on the environmental conditions surrounding the beehives. On the other hand, it is important to carry out such information gathering as non-intrusively as possible to avoid modifying the bees' work conditions and to obtain more reliable data. We designed a wireless-sensor networks meet these requirements. We designed a remote monitoring system (called WBee) based on a hierarchical three-level model formed by the wireless node, a local data server, and a cloud data server. WBee is a low-cost, fully scalable, easily deployable system with regard to the number and types of sensors and the number of hives and their geographical distribution. WBee saves the data in each of the levels if there are failures in communication. In addition, the nodes include a backup battery, which allows for further data acquisition and storage in the event of a power outage. Unlike other systems that monitor a single point of a hive, the system we present monitors and stores the temperature and relative humidity of the beehive in three different spots. Additionally, the hive is continuously weighed on a weighing scale. Real-time weight measurement is an innovation in wireless beehive-monitoring systems. We designed an adaptation board to facilitate the connection of the sensors to the node. Through the Internet, researchers and beekeepers can access the cloud data server to find out the condition of their hives in real time.

  8. Die Aeusserungs form als wesentliche Grundlage fuer die Bestimmung des Uebungsgeschehens zur Entwicklung der Gespraechsfaehigkeit (The Utterance Form as Essential Basis for Establishing Drill Prodecures for the Development of Conversational Ability)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloeckner, Heinrich

    1974-01-01

    Continuing a theme introduced in the 6/73 issue, utterance types productive of active response (agreement, confirmation, emphasis, supplement, information, appraisal, position-taking, offering of proof) and designed to lead to ability to make free conversation are suggested. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  9. The chemical digestion of Ti6Al7Nb scaffolds produced by Selective Laser Melting reduces significantly ability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to form biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junka, Adam F; Szymczyk, Patrycja; Secewicz, Anna; Pawlak, Andrzej; Smutnicka, Danuta; Ziółkowski, Grzegorz; Bartoszewicz, Marzenna; Chlebus, Edward

    2016-01-01

    In our previous work we reported the impact of hydrofluoric and nitric acid used for chemical polishing of Ti-6Al-7Nb scaffolds on decrease of the number of Staphylococcus aureus biofilm forming cells. Herein, we tested impact of the aforementioned substances on biofilm of Gram-negative microorganism, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, dangerous pathogen responsible for plethora of implant-related infections. The Ti-6Al-7Nb scaffolds were manufactured using Selective Laser Melting method. Scaffolds were subjected to chemical polishing using a mixture of nitric acid and fluoride or left intact (control group). Pseudomonal biofilm was allowed to form on scaffolds for 24 hours and was removed by mechanical vortex shaking. The number of pseudomonal cells was estimated by means of quantitative culture and Scanning Electron Microscopy. The presence of nitric acid and fluoride on scaffold surfaces was assessed by means of IR and rentgen spetorscopy. Quantitative data were analysed using the Mann-Whitney test (P ≤ 0.05). Our results indicate that application of chemical polishing correlates with significant drop of biofilm-forming pseudomonal cells on the manufactured Ti-6Al-7Nb scaffolds ( p = 0.0133, Mann-Whitney test) compared to the number of biofilm-forming cells on non-polished scaffolds. As X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed the presence of fluoride and nitrogen on the surface of scaffold, we speculate that drop of biofilm forming cells may be caused by biofilm-supressing activity of these two elements.

  10. Colonial Bilingual Heritage and Post-Colonial Myths in Cameroon's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines Cameroon's bilingual heritage and describes post-colonial attitudes and tendencies towards language and language use in the country's educational system. The intent is to show that Cameroon's bilingual heritage - a colonial legacy - has led to an unnecessary and chaotic national competition among ...

  11. Impairment by covalent modification of the ability of Phaseolus vulgaris phytohemagglutinin to stimulate cultured human lymphocytes: a comparison of different forms of covalent modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, G; Clairoux-Moreau, S; Chevrier, P

    1980-02-01

    Phytohemagglutinin (PHA) isolated from Phaseolus vulgaris has been modified by treatment with various chemical reagents and the modified proteins have been tested for their ability to stimulate peripheral lymphocytes from two healthy human donors, in vitro. Reaction of PHA with citraconic anhydride, S-methyl isothiourea, or 2-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzyl bromide produced derivatives which retained the ability to stimulate lymphocytes, at low concentrations. Acylation of the lectin with acetic anhydride or masking of the carboxyl side chains by reaction with glycinamide-carbodiimide impaired stimulation. When PHA was treated with N-bromosuccinimide or with tetranitromethane, the derivatives were ineffective as lymphocyte stimulants. Chemical modifications affected, in some cases, the quaternary structure of the lectin. Glycinamide-, homoarginine-, and nitro-PHA were tetramers whereas acetyl-, citraconyl-, and N-bromosuccinimide-treated lectin were dimers. Antinative lectin antiserum cross-reacted with all the modified proteins, except in the case of the N-bromosuccinimide derivative. The results show that, in the human lymphocyte transformation assay, the mitogenic property of PHA may depend on intact aspartic, glutamic, and tyrosine residues whereas lysine residues do not appear to be essential.

  12. The Effectiveness of Collaborative Tasks on the Acquisition of the Spanish Subjunctive and Development of Mood Selection Abilities: Exploring Form-Focused Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, Muriel

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates whether the implementation of a dictogloss task within a proactive Focus on Form approach (e.g., Long 1991; Long and Robinson 1998) has significant effects on the acquisition of Spanish present subjunctive. A total of sixty-six learners in a fifth-semester Spanish course participated in the study and were assigned to…

  13. An improved method for staining cell colonies in clonogenic assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guda, Kishore; Natale, Leanna; Markowitz, Sanford D

    2007-06-01

    Clonogenic assay is a widely used experimental approach to test for the effects of drugs/genes on the growth and proliferative characteristics of cells in vitro. Accurate quantitation of treatment effects in clonogeneic assays depends on the ability to visualize and count cell colonies precisely. We report a novel method (referred as ETeB) for staining cell colonies grown on plastic and specially coated substrates like collagen. Using colon cancer cell lines grown on plastic and collagen, we compared the colony staining efficiencies of the widely used methylene blue, and Ethidium bromide (ETeB) stains. Results show that the ETeB protocol works well on plastic and is extremely effective for staining colonies on collagen when compared to methylene blue. The key features and advantages of ETeB technique are; (a) reduction in background for colonies grown on collagen and possibly other substrates, (b) the whole procedure takes less than a minute, (c) no post-stain washing step is required which eliminates colony losses for cell lines that are loosely adherent, (d) colony visualization and counting can be done immediately following the staining procedure using a standard UV illuminator and software, and (e) the method works across a wide variety of cell lines. The simplicity and robustness of this procedure should warrant its usage in both small and large-scale clonogenic experiments.

  14. Delayed retention of new word-forms is better in children than adults regardless of language ability: a factorial two-way study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothy V M Bishop

    Full Text Available Nonword repetition, the ability to retain and repeat unfamiliar sequences of phonemes is usually impaired in children with specific language impairment (SLI, but it is unclear whether this explains slow language learning. Traditional nonword repetition tests involve a single presentation of nonwords for immediate repetition. Here we considered whether rate of learning of novel phonological sequences was impaired when the same items were presented repeatedly.Three complex nonwords were each presented for repetition five times in two sessions (A and B separated by one hour. We studied both adults and children from (i families with a child with SLI and (ii families whose children did not have SLI. This gave a 2×2 design with familial SLI as one factor, and age (up to or above 18 years as the other. Overall, participants from families with SLI were poorer at nonword repetition than their peers from typical-language families, and there was a trend for children with SLI to show less within-session learning than typically developing children. However, between-session retention, measured as the difference between the last trial from session 1 and the first trial of session 2, showed a significant age effect, η²  =  .139, p  =  .004, regardless of family SLI status. Adult participants showed a decrease in score from the last trial of session A to the first trial of session B, whereas children maintained their level of performance, regardless of whether or not they had SLI.Poor nonword repetition in SLI appears to reflect inadequate encoding of phonological information, rather than problems retaining encoded information. Furthermore, the nonword learning task is consistent with the notion of a sensitive period in language learning: Children show better retention over a delay for new phonological sequences than adults, regardless of overall level of language ability.

  15. Maintenance and methods of forming theoretical knowledge and methodical and practical abilities in area of physical culture for students, future specialists on social work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyfa A.V.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The value of theoretical knowledge, methodical, practical studies, skills in forming physical activity of students is rotined. The level of mastering of components of physical activity is closely associate with the basic blocks of professional preparation of students and their future professional activity. Theoretical knowledge on discipline the «Physical culture» assist the certain affecting depth and breadth of mastering of knowledge of professional preparation.

  16. Ant Larval Demand Reduces Aphid Colony Growth Rates in an Ant-Aphid Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M. Cook

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ants often form mutualistic interactions with aphids, soliciting honeydew in return for protective services. Under certain circumstances, however, ants will prey upon aphids. In addition, in the presence of ants aphids may increase the quantity or quality of honeydew produced, which is costly. Through these mechanisms, ant attendance can reduce aphid colony growth rates. However, it is unknown whether demand from within the ant colony can affect the ant-aphid interaction. In a factorial experiment, we tested whether the presence of larvae in Lasius niger ant colonies affected the growth rate of Aphis fabae colonies. Other explanatory variables tested were the origin of ant colonies (two separate colonies were used and previous diet (sugar only or sugar and protein. We found that the presence of larvae in the ant colony significantly reduced the growth rate of aphid colonies. Previous diet and colony origin did not affect aphid colony growth rates. Our results suggest that ant colonies balance the flow of two separate resources from aphid colonies- renewable sugars or a protein-rich meal, depending on demand from ant larvae within the nest. Aphid payoffs from the ant-aphid interaction may change on a seasonal basis, as the demand from larvae within the ant colony waxes and wanes.

  17. Ability of bacterial biphenyl dioxygenases from Burkholderia sp. LB400 and Comamonas testosteroni B-356 to catalyse oxygenation of ortho-hydroxychlorobiphenyls formed from PCBs by plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francova, K.; Mackova, M.; Macek, T.; Sylvestre, M.

    2004-01-01

    Bacterial dioxygenases are useful in breakdown of PCB products associated with plants. - Capacity of enzymes of the biphenyl/chlorobiphenyl pathway, especially biphenyl dioxygenase (BPDO) of two polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) degrading bacteria, Burkholderia sp. LB400 and Comamonas testosteroni B-356, to metabolize ortho-substituted hydroxybiphenyls was tested.,These compounds found among plant products of PCB metabolism, are carrying chlorine atoms on the hydroxyl-substituted ring. The abilities of His-tagged purified LB400 and B-356 BPDOs to catalyze the oxygenation of 2-hydroxy-3-chlorobiphenyl, 2-hydroxy-5-chlorobiphenyl and 2-hydroxy-3,5-dichlorobiphenyl were compared. Both enzyme preparations catalyzed the hydroxylation of the three chloro-hydroxybiphenyls on the non-substituted ring. Neither LB400 BPDO nor B-356 BPDO oxygenated the substituted ring of the ortho-hydroxylated biphenyl. The fact that metabolites generated by both enzymes were identical for all three hydroxychlorobiphenyls tested; exclude any other mode of attack of these compounds by LB400 BPDOs than the ortho-meta oxygenation

  18. The ability of S.aureus to form biofilm on the Ti-6Al-7Nb scaffolds produced by Selective Laser Melting and subjected to the different types of surface modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymczyk, Patrycja; Junka, Adam; Ziółkowski, Grzegorz; Smutnicka, Danuta; Bartoszewicz, Marzenna; Chlebus, Edward

    2013-01-01

    The Gram-positive coccus, Staphylococcus aureus, is the leading etiologic agent of limb and life-threatening biofilm-related infections in the patients following the orthopaedic implantations. The aim of the present paper is to estimate the ability of S. aureus to form biofilm on titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-7Nb) scaffolds produced by Selective Laser Melting (SLM) and subjected to the different types of surface modifications, including ultrasonic cleaning and chemical polishing. The results obtained indicate significantly the decreased ability of S.aureus to form biofilm on the surface of scaffolds subjected to the chemical polishing in comparison to the scaffolds cleaned ultrasonically. The data provided can be useful for future applications of the SLM technology in production of Ti-6Al-7Nb medical implants.

  19. Inhibition of Blumeria graminis germination and germling development within colonies of oat mildew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carver, T.L.W.; Roberts, P.C.; Thomas, B.J.

    2001-01-01

    Germination by Blumeria graminis. DC Speer ff. spp. avenae, hordei and tritici, was greatly suppressed when conidia fell within colonies of ff. spp. avenae or hordei established on susceptible oat or barley, respectively. On healthy oat or barley, and when distant from powdery mildew, colonies. all...... ff. spp. formed normal appressoria. This was also true When conidia germinated within established barley mildew colonies. Within barley mildew colonies, appressoria of f. sp. hordei penetrated epidermal cells formed haustoria more frequently than appressoria distant from colonies. Similarly, ff. spp....... avenae and tritici, normally unable to infect barley. frequently penetrated epidermal cells subtending established barley mildew colonies. Thus, colony, establishment induced barley epidermal cell accessibility, even to non-pathogenic ff. spp, In contrast. when all three ff. spp. germinated within...

  20. JAX Colony Management System (JCMS): an extensible colony and phenotype data management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Chuck J; McFarland, Mike; Ames, Abigail; Sundberg, Beth; Springer, Dave; Blauth, Peter; Bult, Carol J

    2010-04-01

    The Jackson Laboratory Colony Management System (JCMS) is a software application for managing data and information related to research mouse colonies, associated biospecimens, and experimental protocols. JCMS runs directly on computers that run one of the PC Windows operating systems, but can be accessed via web browser interfaces from any computer running a Windows, Macintosh, or Linux operating system. JCMS can be configured for a single user or multiple users in small- to medium-size work groups. The target audience for JCMS includes laboratory technicians, animal colony managers, and principal investigators. The application provides operational support for colony management and experimental workflows, sample and data tracking through transaction-based data entry forms, and date-driven work reports. Flexible query forms allow researchers to retrieve database records based on user-defined criteria. Recent advances in handheld computers with integrated barcode readers, middleware technologies, web browsers, and wireless networks add to the utility of JCMS by allowing real-time access to the database from any networked computer.

  1. Stories, skulls, and colonial collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    The essay explores the hypothesis of colonial collecting processes involving the active addition of the colonial context and historical past to museum objects through the production of short stories. It examines the emergent historicity of collections through a focus on the "histories" that museum workers and colonial agents have been attaching to scientific collections of human skulls. Drawing on the notions of collection trajectory and historiographical work, it offers an alternative perspective from which to approach the creation of singular histories and individual archives for objects in collections.

  2. Genetic diversity affects colony survivorship in commercial honey bee colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarpy, David R.; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Pettis, Jeffrey S.

    2013-08-01

    Honey bee ( Apis mellifera) queens mate with unusually high numbers of males (average of approximately 12 drones), although there is much variation among queens. One main consequence of such extreme polyandry is an increased diversity of worker genotypes within a colony, which has been shown empirically to confer significant adaptive advantages that result in higher colony productivity and survival. Moreover, honey bees are the primary insect pollinators used in modern commercial production agriculture, and their populations have been in decline worldwide. Here, we compare the mating frequencies of queens, and therefore, intracolony genetic diversity, in three commercial beekeeping operations to determine how they correlate with various measures of colony health and productivity, particularly the likelihood of queen supersedure and colony survival in functional, intensively managed beehives. We found the average effective paternity frequency ( m e ) of this population of honey bee queens to be 13.6 ± 6.76, which was not significantly different between colonies that superseded their queen and those that did not. However, colonies that were less genetically diverse (headed by queens with m e ≤ 7.0) were 2.86 times more likely to die by the end of the study when compared to colonies that were more genetically diverse (headed by queens with m e > 7.0). The stark contrast in colony survival based on increased genetic diversity suggests that there are important tangible benefits of increased queen mating number in managed honey bees, although the exact mechanism(s) that govern these benefits have not been fully elucidated.

  3. Globalization in the post - colonial world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korobeynikova Larisa A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a new interpretation of globalization within the boundaries of the author’s concept of soft globalization, which exploits a normatively attractive alternative to the concept of the Empire. It is argued here that the conditions of development of contemporary post - colonial world communities do not require any unification in the form of the Empire, but instead the creation of a non repressive mechanism of social regulation - the implementation of a form of soft globalization, a globalization with a mental form are expedient here. Historically, globalization occurred in a strict material(i.e. economical and military form that prompted the conditions for the evolution of civilization as the Empire: a case in which the development of the world occurs under the power of a single dominating state. Imperialistic politics leads to colonial politics formation. The history of the phenomena of civilization shows many instances of Empire globalization. Globalization in the Empire form was already observed at the time of the Roman Empire. At this time processes of development inside the Empire were manifestations of globalization in its highest cultural shape. But ancient Rome was also a social and political experiment that acquired the attributes of a purely material globalization in the end, and historically brought about the irreversible crash of the Roman Empire itself. Contemporary fluctuations referring to the process of globalization can be registered in the US’s attempts of material domination inside this or that existing case of civilization, which causes colonialism appearance. The main idea stressed in the paper is that only a mental globalization could succeed in the end.

  4. The Future Lunar Flora Colony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, E. G.; Guven, U. G.

    2017-10-01

    A constructional design for the primary establishment for a lunar colony using the micrometeorite rich soil is proposed. It highlights the potential of lunar regolith combined with Earth technology for water and oxygen for human outposts on the Moon.

  5. Recent Honey Bee Colony Declines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Renee

    2007-01-01

    ...). Current reports indicate that beekeepers in 35 states have been affected. Recent surveys indicate that about one-half of surveyed beekeepers have experienced "abnormal" or "severe" colony losses...

  6. Women's Education in Colonial America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Huey B.

    1975-01-01

    Exploring the contribution of the home, apprenticeship, and evening schools, the analysis suggests that while sex bias apparently favored males in quality and quantity of educational opportunity, women's education in Colonial America was richer than popularly conceived. (Author/MW)

  7. Evidence for protection of nitrogenase from O(2) by colony structure in the aerobic diazotroph Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Z; Zelmer, C D; Canny, M J; McCully, M E; Luit, B; Pan, B; Faustino, R S; Pierce, G N; Vessey, J K

    2002-08-01

    Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is an endophytic diazotroph of sugarcane which exhibits nitrogenase activity when growing in colonies on solid media. Nitrogenase activity of G. diazotrophicus colonies can adapt to changes in atmospheric partial pressure of oxygen (pO(2)). This paper investigates whether colony structure and the position of G. diazotrophicus cells in the colonies are components of the bacterium's ability to maintain nitrogenase activity at a variety of atmospheric pO(2) values. Colonies of G. diazotrophicus were grown on solid medium at atmospheric pO(2) of 2 and 20 kPa. Imaging of live, intact colonies by confocal laser scanning microscopy and of fixed, sectioned colonies by light microscopy revealed that at 2 kPa O(2) the uppermost bacteria in the colony were very near the upper surface of the colony, while the uppermost bacteria of colonies cultured at 20 kPa O(2) were positioned deeper in the mucilaginous matrix of the colony. Disruption of colony structure by physical manipulation or due to 'slumping' associated with colony development resulted in significant declines in nitrogenase activity. These results support the hypothesis that G. diazotrophicus utilizes the path-length of colony mucilage between the atmosphere and the bacteria to achieve a flux of O(2) that maintains aerobic respiration while not inhibiting nitrogenase activity.

  8. Neo-Colonialism and the Question of National Autonomy | Ebaye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The focus of this paper is to critically analyze the place of national autonomy in a neocolonised state. National autonomy– the ability of a nation–state to make and enforce decisions which shape its political and economic future, has greatly been subjugated by neocolonialism- the efforts of the former colonial and new ...

  9. Colony collapse disorder in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dainat, Benjamin; Vanengelsdorp, Dennis; Neumann, Peter

    2012-02-01

    Colony collapse disorder (CCD) is a condition of honey bees, which has contributed in part to the recent major losses of honey bee colonies in the USA. Here we report the first CCD case from outside of the USA. We suggest that more standardization is needed for the case definition to diagnose CCD and to compare data on a global scale. © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Colonial and Communist Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Walter Benjamin wrote about pedagogy from the start of his writing life to its close. He was also an activist in the youth movement in Germany. This essay explores the importance of childhood, play, toys and education to his wider body of work--including his interests in photography, literary form, language acquisition and use, modern art. The…

  11. Bionomics and Formation of “Bonsai” Colonies With Long-Term Rearing of Coptotermes formosanus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osbrink, W L A; Cornelius, M L; Showler, A T

    2016-04-01

    This laboratory study reports the ability of Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, colonies to survive for at least 9 yr while restricted to a sweater box. Colonies survived by limiting queen size and worker numbers, allowing these bonsai colonies to thrive. Queen physogastry appeared to plateau with 9-yr-old queens not larger than 6-yr-old queens, but nearly triple the size of 2-yr-old queens. Nine-year-old colony worker numbers were not greater than 6-yr-old colonies, but worker numbers were greater than in 2-yr-old colonies. Such colony survival under conditions of restricted resources provides a mechanism for re-infestation of areas following extensive area-wide control efforts. “Bonsai” colonies are relevant to the ability of marginalized colonies to avoid detection and then expand and invade into areas once the large, mature colonies are eliminated, and their potential to produce alates to start new C. formosanus colonies in areas which have been subjected to colony elimination programs impacts termite management strategies.

  12. Colonialism in Africa: A Critical Look!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Susan

    Using text, activities, cartoons, and prose, the publication encourages junior and senior secondary students to examine the history of colonialism in Africa and the importance of colonialism in Africa today. Chapter 1 provides an overview of 500 years of colonialism. Chapter 2 describes pre-colonial Africa from the year 1000 to 1442. The focus of…

  13. The cues of colony size: how honey bees sense that their colony is large enough to begin to invest in reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael L; Koenig, Phoebe A; Peters, Jacob M

    2017-05-01

    As organisms develop, they first invest resources in survival and growth, but after reaching a certain condition they start to also invest in reproduction. Likewise, superorganisms, such as honey bee colonies, first invest in survival and growth, and later commit resources to reproduction once the number of workers in the colony surpasses a reproductive threshold. The first form of reproductive investment for a honey bee colony is the building of beeswax comb made of special large cells used for rearing males (drones). How do the workers sense that their colony is large enough to start building this 'drone comb'? To address this question, we experimentally increased three possible cues of colony size - worker density, volatile pheromone concentration and nest temperature - and looked for effects on the bees' comb construction. Only the colonies that experienced increased worker density were stimulated to build a higher proportion of drone comb. We then monitored and quantified potential cues in small and large colonies, to determine which cues change with colony size. We found that workers in large colonies, relative to small ones, have increased contact rates, spend more time active and experience less variable worker density. Whereas unicellular and multicellular organisms use mainly chemical cues to sense their sizes, our results suggest that at least one superorganism, a honey bee colony, uses physical cues to sense its size and thus its developmental state. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. Mamary neoplasia in a closed beagle colony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.N.; Shabestari, L.; Williams, J.; Mays, C.W.; Angus, W.; McFarland, S.

    1975-01-01

    The incidence rate of mammary neoplasia in a large colony of beagles and its relationship to internal skeletal and/or liver radiation, age, relatively late ovariectomy (4 years and older), endometritis, parity status, and adrenal weight was examined. Of these various factors, age was the only condition that was clearly correlated with changes in the mammary tumor incidence. The rate became significant at approximately eight years of age and increased progressively throughout the successively older age classes. Within the female dogs, the incidence of mammary cancer was higher that that of any other form of spontaneous malignancy

  15. Castrating parasites and colonial hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartikainen, H; Okamura, B

    2012-04-01

    Trajectories of life-history traits such as growth and reproduction generally level off with age and increasing size. However, colonial animals may exhibit indefinite, exponential growth via modular iteration thus providing a long-lived host source for parasite exploitation. In addition, modular iteration entails a lack of germ line sequestration. Castration of such hosts by parasites may therefore be impermanent or precluded, unlike the general case for unitary animal hosts. Despite these intriguing correlates of coloniality, patterns of colonial host exploitation have not been well studied. We examined these patterns by characterizing the responses of a myxozoan endoparasite, Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae, and its colonial bryozoan host, Fredericella sultana, to 3 different resource levels. We show that (1) the development of infectious stages nearly always castrates colonies regardless of host condition, (2) castration reduces partial mortality and (3) development of transmission stages is resource-mediated. Unlike familiar castrator-host systems, this system appears to be characterized by periodic rather than permanent castration. Periodic castration may be permitted by 2 key life history traits: developmental cycling of the parasite between quiescent (covert infections) and virulent infectious stages (overt infections) and the absence of germ line sequestration which allows host reproduction in between bouts of castration.

  16. Zimbabwe Colonial and Post-Colonial Language Policy and Planning Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makoni, Sinfree B.; Dube, Busi; Mashiri, Pedzisai

    2006-01-01

    This monograph focuses on the development of colonial and post-colonial language policies and practices in Zimbabwe, attributing changes to evolving philosophies and politics in colonial and post-colonial Zimbabwe. In colonial Zimbabwe, we argue that the language policies had as one of their key objectives the development of a bilingual white…

  17. Structural organisation and dynamics in king penguin colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerum, Richard; Richter, Sebastian; Fabry, Ben; Le Bohec, Céline; Bonadonna, Francesco; Nesterova, Anna; Zitterbart, Daniel P.

    2018-04-01

    During breeding, king penguins do not build nests, however they show strong territorial behaviour and keep a pecking distance to neighbouring penguins. Penguin positions in breeding colonies are highly stable over weeks and appear regularly spaced, but thus far no quantitative analysis of the structural order inside a colony has been performed. In this study, we use the radial distribution function to analyse the spatial coordinates of penguin positions. Coordinates are obtained from aerial images of two colonies that were observed for several years. Our data demonstrate that the structural order in king penguin colonies resembles a 2D liquid of particles with a Lennard-Jones-type interaction potential. We verify this using a molecular dynamics simulation with thermally driven particles, whereby temperature corresponds to penguin movements, the energy well depth ɛ of the attractive potential corresponds to the strength of the colony-forming behaviour, and the repulsive zone corresponds to the pecking radius. We can recapitulate the liquid disorder of the colony, as measured by the radial distribution function, when the particles have a temperature of several (1.4–10) \

  18. Colonial Bilingual Heritage and Post-Colonial Myths in Cameroon's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, the study traces and shows that an uncritical support of the existing school bilingualism, a aspect of the general political objective of national unity and integration, hinges on a fictitious collective post-colonial dream about using the bilingual heritage of French and English, and the cultures that lie behind them, ...

  19. Colonialism: nexus for myriad religious contentions in post-colonial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The contact between African Traditional Religion (ATR) and Christianity is inextricably linked to European economic activities that culminated into colonialism. The contact was in fact, between two opposing cultures –African and European. Christianity since its introduction is perceived as an embodiment of Western culture, ...

  20. Naming practices in colonial and post-colonial Malawi | Moyo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These were ideological conceptions inherent in each society, reflected as a powerful force in naming practices, either of individuals or places. However, naming practices have been in contact with colonialism in Malawi and the rest of Southern Africa, with the result that this has affected the socio-cultural ideologies which ...

  1. Transformaciones y formas de legitimación en la autoridad de los caciques coloniales de Jujuy: Siglo XVII Transformations and forms of legitimacy within colonial caciques authority: Province of Jujuy, 17th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Sica

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo intenta analizar las transformaciones de la autoridad en los jefes étnicos en la jurisdicción de la ciudad de San Salvador de Jujuy (Gobernación del Tucumán durante el siglo XVII. Parte de estas transformaciones estaban condicionadas por la concesión de encomiendas y la creación de los pueblos de indios y nuevas instituciones, como los cabildos indígenas. Estas circunstancias limitaron el poder de las antiguas autoridades, sin embargo a lo largo del siglo XVII surgieron nuevos cargos como el de cacique gobernador y nuevas formas de legitimación que intentaban contrarrestar estos cambios.This paper attempts to analyze some changes within the ethnic leaders' authority in the jurisdiction of San Salvador de Jujuy city ( Gobernación del Tucumán during the seventeenth century. Some of these changes were influenced by the granting of encomiendas and the creation of Indians towns and new institutions such as Indian cabildos. These circumstances limited the power of ancient authorities, however during the seventeenth century new offices, such as the cacique de Gobernador, and new forms of legitimacy emerged in order to counterbalance the above-mentioned changes.

  2. CULTURAL NATIONALISM IN A COLONIAL CONTEXT: LAOS IN FRENCH INDOCHINA, 1893-1940

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivarsson, Søren

    2008-01-01

    In general, studies dealing with the link between French colonialism and nationalism in Laos have focused on the anti-colonial or revolutionary aspects of Lao nationalism. This is true for texts written by Western scholars as well as officially sanctioned books on Lao history published in Laos. T....... This chapter approaches Lao nationalism from a cultural perspective, through a discussion of how a specific idea about Laos and its culture was formed under French colonial rule in the period 1893-1940....

  3. Spatiotemporal Self-Organization of Fluctuating Bacterial Colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafke, Tobias; Cates, Michael E.; Vanden-Eijnden, Eric

    2017-11-01

    We model an enclosed system of bacteria, whose motility-induced phase separation is coupled to slow population dynamics. Without noise, the system shows both static phase separation and a limit cycle, in which a rising global population causes a dense bacterial colony to form, which then declines by local cell death, before dispersing to reinitiate the cycle. Adding fluctuations, we find that static colonies are now metastable, moving between spatial locations via rare and strongly nonequilibrium pathways, whereas the limit cycle becomes almost periodic such that after each redispersion event the next colony forms in a random location. These results, which hint at some aspects of the biofilm-planktonic life cycle, can be explained by combining tools from large deviation theory with a bifurcation analysis in which the global population density plays the role of control parameter.

  4. Laser Optical Sensor, a Label-Free On-Plate Salmonella enterica Colony Detection Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Atul K.; Bettasso, Amanda M.; Bae, Euiwon; Rajwa, Bartek; Dundar, Murat M.; Forster, Mark D.; Liu, Lixia; Barrett, Brent; Lovchik, Judith; Robinson, J. Paul; Hirleman, E. Daniel; Bhunia, Arun K.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT We investigated the application capabilities of a laser optical sensor, BARDOT (bacterial rapid detection using optical scatter technology) to generate differentiating scatter patterns for the 20 most frequently reported serovars of Salmonella enterica. Initially, the study tested the classification ability of BARDOT by using six Salmonella serovars grown on brain heart infusion, brilliant green, xylose lysine deoxycholate, and xylose lysine tergitol 4 (XLT4) agar plates. Highly accurate discrimination (95.9%) was obtained by using scatter signatures collected from colonies grown on XLT4. Further verification used a total of 36 serovars (the top 20 plus 16) comprising 123 strains with classification precision levels of 88 to 100%. The similarities between the optical phenotypes of strains analyzed by BARDOT were in general agreement with the genotypes analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). BARDOT was evaluated for the real-time detection and identification of Salmonella colonies grown from inoculated (1.2 × 102 CFU/30 g) peanut butter, chicken breast, and spinach or from naturally contaminated meat. After a sequential enrichment in buffered peptone water and modified Rappaport Vassiliadis broth for 4 h each, followed by growth on XLT4 (~16 h), BARDOT detected S. Typhimurium with 84% accuracy in 24 h, returning results comparable to those of the USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service method, which requires ~72 h. BARDOT also detected Salmonella (90 to 100% accuracy) in the presence of background microbiota from naturally contaminated meat, verified by 16S rRNA sequencing and PFGE. Prolonged residence (28 days) of Salmonella in peanut butter did not affect the bacterial ability to form colonies with consistent optical phenotypes. This study shows BARDOT’s potential for nondestructive and high-throughput detection of Salmonella in food samples. PMID:24496794

  5. Dutch Colonial Nostalgia Across Decolonisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijl, P.

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that nostalgia for colonialism in the Netherlands, the so called tempo doeloe culture, is not a specifically postcolonial phenomenon caused by the collapse of the Dutch empire in Asia. In fact, nostalgia for the Dutch East Indies can be traced back to the nineteenth century, when

  6. Colonial adventures in tropical agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buelens, Frans; Frankema, Ewout

    2016-01-01

    How profitable were foreign investments in plantation agriculture in the Netherlands Indies during the late colonial era? We use a new dataset of monthly quoted stock prices and dividends of international companies at the Brussels stock exchange to estimate the returns to investment in tropical

  7. Affective Politics and Colonial Heritage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Britta Timm; Andersen, Casper

    2017-01-01

    cases. We look at how the spatial connectivity established by the heritage-centered strategy of the RMF in Oxford and Cape Town replicates and challenges the connectivity and power-geometries that was created by Rhodes and his followers during the colonial era. Only in SA did the repertoire fledge out...

  8. Ant Colony Optimization for Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Ast, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    The very basis of this thesis is the collective behavior of ants in colonies. Ants are an excellent example of how rather simple behavior on a local level can lead to complex behavior on a global level that is beneficial for the individuals. The key in the self-organization of ants is communication

  9. Comparison of the colony formation and crystal violet cell proliferation assays to determine cellular radiosensitivity in a repair-deficient MCF10A cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandersickel, Veerle [Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Ghent University, Campus Heymans, De Pintelaan 185 (6B3), 9000 Gent (Belgium); Slabbert, Jacobus [NRF iThemba LABS (Laboratory for Accelerated Based Sciences), PO box 722, 7129 Somerset West (South Africa); Thierens, Hubert [Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Ghent University, Campus Heymans, De Pintelaan 185 (6B3), 9000 Gent (Belgium); Vral, Anne, E-mail: anne.Vral@UGent.b [Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Ghent University, Campus Heymans, De Pintelaan 185 (6B3), 9000 Gent (Belgium)

    2011-01-15

    Colony formation as measured by the in vitro clonogenic assay is a very important endpoint to determine cellular radiosensitivity and tumor response to radiotherapy. In the framework of assessing in vitro cellular radiosensitivity, proliferation assays could represent an attractive alternative to the clonogenic assay for cell lines that do not form proper colonies. In the present study, we compared cellular radiosensitivity measurements obtained by the crystal violet (CV) cell proliferation assay and the standard colony formation assay in repair-deficient and-proficient human MCF10A cell lines. Compared to the clonogenic assay, the CV cell proliferation assay yielded higher surviving fractions for the same radiation dose. This is reflected in larger mean inactivation dose values - a parameter that reflects the area under the survival curve. However, as the dose modifying factors obtained by both assays are comparable, the CV cell proliferation assay can be used to compare the in vitro cellular radiosensitivity of cell lines that lack the ability to form well-defined colonies.

  10. Art Education in Colonial India: Implementation and Imposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantawala, Ami

    2012-01-01

    Historical inquiry in art education forms the basis of any research undertaken in the field. It is on this path that we discover ignored moments and personalities and clarify challenging ideas, thus approaching history from multiple perspectives. This historical study attempts to reframe the past of colonial Indian art education within the broader…

  11. Changes in learning and foraging behaviour within developing bumble bee (Bombus terrestris colonies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa J Evans

    Full Text Available Organisation in eusocial insect colonies emerges from the decisions and actions of its individual members. In turn, these decisions and actions are influenced by the individual's behaviour (or temperament. Although there is variation in the behaviour of individuals within a colony, we know surprisingly little about how (or indeed if the types of behaviour present in a colony change over time. Here, for the first time, we assessed potential changes in the behavioural type of foragers during colony development. Using an ecologically relevant foraging task, we measured the decision speed and learning ability of bumble bees (Bombus terrestris at different stages of colony development. We determined whether individuals that forage early in the colony life cycle (the queen and early emerging workers behaved differently from workers that emerge and forage at the end of colony development. Whilst we found no overall change in the foraging behaviour of workers with colony development, there were strong differences in foraging behaviour between queens and their workers. Queens appeared to forage more cautiously than their workers and were also quicker to learn. These behaviours could allow queens to maximise their nectar collecting efficiency whilst avoiding predation. Because the foundress queen is crucial to the survival and success of a bumble bee colony, more efficient foraging behaviour in queens may have strong adaptive value.

  12. Impact of Varroa destructor on honeybee (Apis mellifera scutellata) colony development in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Ursula; Pirk, Christian W W; Crewe, Robin M; Human, Hannelie; Dietemann, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    The devastating effects of Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman on European honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera L.) have been well documented. Not only do these mites cause physical damage to parasitised individuals when they feed on them, they also transmit viruses and other pathogens, weaken colonies and can ultimately cause their death. Nevertheless, not all honeybee colonies are doomed once Varroa mites become established. Some populations, such as the savannah honeybee, A. m. scutellata, have become tolerant after the introduction of the parasite and are able to withstand the presence of these mites without the need for acaricides. In this study, we measured daily Varroa mite fall, Varroa infestation rates of adult honeybees and worker brood, and total Varroa population size in acaricide treated and untreated honeybee colonies. In addition, honeybee colony development was compared between these groups in order to measure the cost incurred by Varroa mites to their hosts. Daily Varroa mite fall decreased over the experimental period with different dynamics in treated and untreated colonies. Varroa infestation rates in treated adult honeybees and brood were lower than in untreated colonies, but not significantly so. Thus, indicating a minimal benefit of treatment thereby suggesting that A. m. scutellata have the ability to maintain mite populations at low levels. We obtained baseline data on Varroa population dynamics in a tolerant honeybee over the winter period. Varroa mites appeared to have a low impact on this honeybee population, given that colony development was similar in the treated and untreated colonies.

  13. Microbiome of Trichodesmium Colonies from the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary R. Gradoville

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Filamentous diazotrophic Cyanobacteria of the genus Trichodesmium, often found in colonial form, provide an important source of new nitrogen to tropical and subtropical marine ecosystems. Colonies are composed of several clades of Trichodesmium in association with a diverse community of bacterial and eukaryotic epibionts. We used high-throughput 16S rRNA and nifH gene sequencing, carbon (C and dinitrogen (N2 fixation assays, and metagenomics to describe the diversity and functional potential of the microbiome associated with Trichodesmium colonies collected from the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG. The 16S rRNA and nifH gene sequences from hand-picked colonies were predominantly (>99% from Trichodesmium Clade I (i.e., T. thiebautii, which is phylogenetically and ecologically distinct from the Clade III IMS101 isolate used in most laboratory studies. The bacterial epibiont communities were dominated by Bacteroidetes, Alphaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria, including several taxa with a known preference for surface attachment, and were relatively depleted in the unicellular Cyanobacteria and small photoheterotrophic bacteria that dominate NPSG surface waters. Sequencing the nifH gene (encoding a subcomponent of the nitrogenase enzyme identified non-Trichodesmium diazotrophs that clustered predominantly among the Cluster III nifH sequence-types that includes putative anaerobic diazotrophs. Trichodesmium colonies may represent an important habitat for these Cluster III diazotrophs, which were relatively rare in the surrounding seawater. Sequence analyses of nifH gene transcripts revealed several cyanobacterial groups, including heterocystous Richelia, associated with the colonies. Both the 16S rRNA and nifH datasets indicated strong differences between Trichodesmium epibionts and picoplankton in the surrounding seawater, and also between the epibionts inhabiting Trichodesmium puff and tuft colony morphologies. Metagenomic and 16S r

  14. Asia and Africa in the Colonial Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viacheslav Iakovlevich Belokrenitskii

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The section examines the colonial history of Asia and Africa, as well as key periods and directions of colonization. The authors analyze the features of the colonial political systems, processes of power distribution, the relationships between colonies and metropolis. Particular attention is paid to the strengthening of Asia and Africa in the final period of colonialism, as well as the impact of the Second World War and a new system of international relations on the process of decolonization.

  15. Honeybee Colony Disorder in Crop Areas: The Role of Pesticides and Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Delso, Noa; San Martin, Gilles; Bruneau, Etienne; Minsart, Laure-Anne; Mouret, Coralie; Hautier, Louis

    2014-01-01

    As in many other locations in the world, honeybee colony losses and disorders have increased in Belgium. Some of the symptoms observed rest unspecific and their causes remain unknown. The present study aims to determine the role of both pesticide exposure and virus load on the appraisal of unexplained honeybee colony disorders in field conditions. From July 2011 to May 2012, 330 colonies were monitored. Honeybees, wax, beebread and honey samples were collected. Morbidity and mortality information provided by beekeepers, colony clinical visits and availability of analytical matrix were used to form 2 groups: healthy colonies and colonies with disorders (n = 29, n = 25, respectively). Disorders included: (1) dead colonies or colonies in which part of the colony appeared dead, or had disappeared; (2) weak colonies; (3) queen loss; (4) problems linked to brood and not related to any known disease. Five common viruses and 99 pesticides (41 fungicides, 39 insecticides and synergist, 14 herbicides, 5 acaricides and metabolites) were quantified in the samples.The main symptoms observed in the group with disorders are linked to brood and queens. The viruses most frequently found are Black Queen Cell Virus, Sac Brood Virus, Deformed Wing Virus. No significant difference in virus load was observed between the two groups. Three acaricides, 5 insecticides and 13 fungicides were detected in the analysed samples. A significant correlation was found between the presence of fungicide residues and honeybee colony disorders. A significant positive link could also be established between the observation of disorder and the abundance of crop surface around the beehive. According to our results, the role of fungicides as a potential stressor for honeybee colonies should be further studied, either by their direct and/or indirect impacts on bees and bee colonies. PMID:25048715

  16. Tracing colonial and postcolonial recordkeeping in Zimbabwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article traces archival development in Zimbabwe from the colonial to the postcolonial periods. Like in many African colonies, the foundations for formal recordkeeping in Zimbabwe were laid during colonial administration and this article argues that there is a direct relationship between what is happening today and the ...

  17. Colonial Discourse Surrounding the Incarceration of "European"

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJM Venter

    2017-12-08

    Dec 8, 2017 ... intimately connected to a system of labour coercion and exploitation within the colony.14 This point is useful in helping to understand the roots of the racial prejudices which were so much part of the ideological make-up of the white settlers in the colony. The colonial state was too weak to destroy the.

  18. Adaptive multimodal continuous ant colony optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Qiang; Chen, Wei-Neng; Yu, Zhengtao; Gu, Tianlong; Li, Yun; Zhang, Huaxiang; Zhang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Seeking multiple optima simultaneously, which multimodal optimization aims at, has attracted increasing attention but remains challenging. Taking advantage of ant colony optimization algorithms in preserving high diversity, this paper intends to extend ant colony optimization algorithms to deal with multimodal optimization. First, combined with current niching methods, an adaptive multimodal continuous ant colony optimization algorithm is introduced. In this algorithm, an adaptive parameter a...

  19. German Colonialism and the Cameroonian Chieftaincy Institution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on the status of African traditional rulers during colonial rule have repeatedly emphasized the denigration of the position, power and influence of traditional chiefs during the colonial period. But for a more balanced appraisal of the impact of colonialism, African traditional rulers needed not only to be presented as ...

  20. Seabird Colonies in Western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boertmann, D.; Mosbech, A.; Falk, K.

    surveys of seabird colonies are needed, due to a lack of information or because the present information probably is outdated. The most immediate threats to the colonial seabirds in western Greenland during the breeding time is hunting and egging. Oil pollution is a minor threat to-day, but will increase...... if offshore areas with oil potential are explored and developed. Tab. 6 gives an overview of each species sensitivity to oil spills and the capacity to recover, as well as a comparison of the western Greenland population numbers to the North Atlantic population numbers. The most significant western Greenland...... conservation concern are the populations of great cormorant, Iceland gull, great black-backed gull and little auk. Following species of European conservation concern (Tucker & Heath 1994) breed in western Greenland: lesser black-backed gull, great black-backed gull, razorbill, black guillemot and atlantic...

  1. Indigenous Customs and Colonial Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manaf Kottakkunnummal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at the contesting articulations of gender, family, and religion in colonial South India. The article discusses the encounter between matrilineal customs and the Anglo-Muhammadan law in the site of Mappila Muslim matrilineal practices in colonial Malabar, of the Madras Presidency during c. 1910-1928. Young male members of the joint family used the language that matriliny is un-Islamic, and passed laws in the Legislative Assembly to demand that joint family property requires to be inherited in the patrilineal line. Three legislations were passed during the period of 1910-1940 to bring Muslim families in accordance with the ideal notions of familial organization existed in that period. The ideal notions were set up by the precepts of the Anglo-Muhammadan law, the orientalist knowledge of Islam, ideologies of colonial modernity, and dreams of caste and religious reform movements among the people of Malabar, and other neighboring states, Cochin and Travancore. In response to that, there was a re-articulation of customs and familial practices by using legal provisions available in the Islamic law, and an effort for justifying the practices to avoid the ruin of matriliny. Subsequently, the matrilineal Mappilas of Malabar retained matrilineal customs rather intact, though the gender relations and religious practices were re-articulated in the idioms of patriarchy and textuality.

  2. Honeybee immunity and colony losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nazzi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The decline of honeybee colonies and their eventual collapse is a widespread phenomenon in the Northern hemisphere of the globe, which severely limits the beekeeping industry. This dramatic event is associated with an enhanced impact of parasites and pathogens on honeybees, which is indicative of reduced immunocompetence. The parasitic mite Varroa destructor and the vectored viral pathogens appear to play a key-role in the induction of this complex syndrome. In particular, the Deformed Wing Virus (DWV is widespread and is now considered, along with Varroa, one of the major causes of bee colony losses. Several lines of evidence indicate that this mite/DWV association severely affects the immune system of honeybees and makes them more sensitive to the action of other stress factors. The molecular mechanisms underpinning these complex interactions are currently being investigated and the emerging information has allowed the development of a new functional model, describing how different stress factors may synergistically concur in the induction of bee immune alteration and health decline. This provides a new logical framework in which to interpret the proposed multifactorial origin of bee colony losses and sets the stage for a more comprehensive and integrated analysis of the effect that multiple stress agents may have on honeybees.

  3. Creating Central Sulawesi. Mission Intervention, Colonialism and ‘Multiculturality’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Coté

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Creating Central Sulawesi: Mission Intervention, Colonialism and ‘Multiculturality’Central Sulawesi provides an example of how, under colonialism, non-state bodies contributed to the creation of new political identities in the Indonesian archipelago, and how the modern Indonesian state came to be based on these. Arguably, at the beginning of the twentieth century, the region was poised to be incorporated into the structure of one or other of the existing powerful Central and Southern Sulawesi political entities. As such, as just another ‘region’ in the sprawling archipelagic colony subjected to standard colonial policy, it should have been readily incorporated into the Indonesian state, albeit through the ‘Sulawesi Permesta’. Instead, in seeking to establish what one writer has described as a ‘volkskerk’ [people’s church], the ‘Poso mission’ established with colonial support by the Nederlandsche Zendinggenootschap [Netherlands Missionary Society] in 1892, was instrumental in defining new religious, cultural and linguistic boundaries. These acted to effectively isolate the Pamona people from adjacent Christian communities established by other missionary endeavours; from their Islamic neighbours and, arguably, from the ‘nation’. As elsewhere in the archipelago, the subsequent process of this region’s reintegration has formed part of the difficult postcolonial legacy inherited by the Indonesian nation.

  4. Thermally adapted design strategy of colonial houses in Surabaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antaryama, I. G. N.; Ekasiwi, S. N. N.; Mappajaya, A.; Ulum, M. S.

    2018-03-01

    Colonial buildings, including houses, have been considered as a representation of climate-responsive architecture. The design was thought to be a hybrid model of Dutch and tropical architecture. It was created by way of reinventing tropical and Dutch architecture design principles, and expressed in a new form, i.e. neither resembling Dutch nor tropical building. Aside from this new image, colonial house does show good climatic responses. Previous researches on colonial house generally focus on qualitative assessment of climate performance of the building. Yet this kind of study tends to concentrate on building elements, e.g. wall, window, etc. The present study is designed to give more complete picture of architecture design strategy of the house by exploring and analysing thermal performance of colonial buildings and their related architecture design strategies. Field measurements are conducted during the dry season in several colonial building in Surabaya. Air temperature and humidity are both taken, representing internal and external thermal conditions of the building. These data are then evaluated to determine thermal performance of the house. Finally, various design strategies are examined in order to reveal their significant contributions to its thermal performance. Results of the study in Surabaya confirm findings of the previous researches that are conducted in other locations, which stated that thermal performance of the house is generally good. Passive design strategies such as mass effect and ventilation play an important role in determining performance of the building.

  5. Validation of a culturally modified short form of the McCarthy Scales of Children’s Abilities in 6 to 8 year old Zimbabwean school children: a cross section study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandawasvika Gwendoline Q

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The burden of cognitive impairment among school children from developing communities is under reported due to lack of culturally appropriate screening tools. The objective of this study was to validate a culturally modified short form of the McCarthy Scales of Children Abilities (MSCA in school children aged 6–8 years from varied backgrounds. Methods One hundred and one children aged 6–8 years attending mainstream classes were enrolled cross-sectionally from three schools: one rural and two urban. Two assessments were conducted on each child and the Short form MSCA was compared to an independent assessment by the educational psychologist. Results When comparing the results of the MSCA to local standard at -2SD, -1.5 SD and -1SD the sensitivity rates ranged from 17 to 50% with lower sensitivity at -2SD cut-off point. Specificity rates had less variation ranging from 95% to 100%. The number of children identified with cognitive impairment using -2SD, -1.5SD and -1SD below the mean for MSCA as a cut-off point were 3(3%, 7(7% and 13(13% respectively while the psychologist identified 18 (18%. The overall mean score on MSCA was 103 (SD 15. The rural children tended to score significantly lower marks compared to their peers from urban areas, mean (SD 98(15 and 107(15 respectively, p=0.006. There was no difference in the mean (SD scores between boys and girls, 103(17 and 103(15 respectively, p=0.995. Conclusion The culturally modified short form MSCA showed high specificity but low sensitivity. Prevalence of cognitive impairment among 6 to 8 year children was 3%. This figure is high when compared to developed communities.

  6. Social transfer of pathogenic fungus promotes active immunisation in ant colonies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Konrad

    Full Text Available Due to the omnipresent risk of epidemics, insect societies have evolved sophisticated disease defences at the individual and colony level. An intriguing yet little understood phenomenon is that social contact to pathogen-exposed individuals reduces susceptibility of previously naive nestmates to this pathogen. We tested whether such social immunisation in Lasius ants against the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae is based on active upregulation of the immune system of nestmates following contact to an infectious individual or passive protection via transfer of immune effectors among group members--that is, active versus passive immunisation. We found no evidence for involvement of passive immunisation via transfer of antimicrobials among colony members. Instead, intensive allogrooming behaviour between naive and pathogen-exposed ants before fungal conidia firmly attached to their cuticle suggested passage of the pathogen from the exposed individuals to their nestmates. By tracing fluorescence-labelled conidia we indeed detected frequent pathogen transfer to the nestmates, where they caused low-level infections as revealed by growth of small numbers of fungal colony forming units from their dissected body content. These infections rarely led to death, but instead promoted an enhanced ability to inhibit fungal growth and an active upregulation of immune genes involved in antifungal defences (defensin and prophenoloxidase, PPO. Contrarily, there was no upregulation of the gene cathepsin L, which is associated with antibacterial and antiviral defences, and we found no increased antibacterial activity of nestmates of fungus-exposed ants. This indicates that social immunisation after fungal exposure is specific, similar to recent findings for individual-level immune priming in invertebrates. Epidemiological modeling further suggests that active social immunisation is adaptive, as it leads to faster elimination of the disease and lower

  7. An observation study on the effects of queen age on some characteristics of honey bee colonies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Çakmak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of the queen’s age on performance of the honeybee (A. mellifera anatoliaca colonies at nomad beekeeping conditions. Performances of the colonies, which had 0, 1, 2 and 3 year-old queens, were compared. The number of combs, brood areas, wintering ability survival rate and honey yield were determined as performance criteria. The average number of combs with bees throughout the experiment in Group I, Group II, Group III and Group IV was 10.92±0.78, 14.68±0.55, 10.10±0.60, 7.88±0.45 number combs/colony; the average of brood areas was 3078±372.5 cm2, 3668±460.3 cm2, 2215±294.0 cm2, 1665.38±241.8 cm2; the average of wintering ability was 84.3±2.9%, 88.0±3.7%, 46.6±19.0%, 26.8±16.5%; the survival rate was 100%, 100%, 60%, 40%; and the average of honey yields was 31.4±1.89 kg, 41.5±1.05 kg, 20.4±2.62 kg and 12.0±1.41 kg per colony, respectively. A significant and negative correlation between queen age and brood production (r=-80.2, colony strength (r=-62.5, wintering ability (r=-66 and honey yield (r=-75.6 were calculated (P<0.01. The colonies headed by young queens had more brood areas, longer worker colony population, better wintering ability and greater honey yield in comparison to colonies headed by old queens.

  8. The logic of hypersocial colonies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jes Søe

    2012-01-01

    It is no wonder that we are transfixed with fascination when we stand in the midst of an ocean of flowing ants within a single extensive society of one of the invasive species. Normal terms do not fit anymore: this is not just a colony, but a “supercolony.” The iconic supercolonial species...... is the Argentine ant, infamous as a pest and now very well studied, all the way from having its genome sequenced to its global distribution mapped. As the Argentine ant can be the key to understanding other supercolonial and/or invasive ants, it is very timely that Moffett's review (2012) focuses on how we...

  9. New amorphous alloy with high glass forming ability on the Cu-Zr-Al-Gd system; Desenvolvimento de nova liga com estrutura amorfa no sistema Cu-Zr-Al-Gd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzer, E.M.; Aliaga, L.C.R.; Bolfarini, C.; Botta Filho, W.J.; Kiminami, C.S., E-mail: eric_mazzer@hotmail.co [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (DEMa/UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    The prediction of the Glass Forming Ability (GFA) in metallic alloys is usually performed by empirical or semi-empirical criteria in binary or ternary systems. For multi-component systems with more than three elements, the criteria or models become extremely complex making it impractical. In this paper we present the results on the GFA prediction of the Cu-Zr-Al-Gd alloys, where compositions had been selected for the synergy of the topological instability and electronegativity criteria which was increased by the average radio criterion for the quaternary system. Alloys were prepared and processed by arc-meting and die casting techniques. Characterization was made by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques. It was concluded that Cu{sub 39,2}Zr{sub 49}Al{sub 9}, {sub 80}Gd{sub 2} alloy presents high thermal stability expressed by great supercooled liquid region upper to 76 deg C. (author)

  10. Frantz Fanon y la Enajenación del Negro y del Blanco en el Sistema Colonial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Catarina Zema de Resende

    2016-11-01

    effects showing how alienation mechanisms determine the relationship between black and white and reproduce hierarchies governing these relationships. Adressing the thought of Fanon and recognizing the relevance and contemporaneity of his contributions is essential to reallocate the fight against all forms of domination in the continuing fight against colonialism in a time in which racial identity and racism have than proved their ability to persist in time and space. Keywords: Frantz Fanon; Alienation; Racism; Colonial System. Frantz Fanon  e a Alienação do Negro e do Branco no Sistema Colonial Resumo A partir da leitura de Pele negra, máscaras brancas, proponho neste artigo refletir sobre as ideias de Frantz Fanon acerca da alienação do negro e do branco no sistema colonial. O objetivo é recuperar alguns de seus aportes mais importantes para a compreensão do racismo colonial a partir de sua teoria da alienação. Fanon apresenta a alienação como uma etapa prévia à escravidão e ao colonialismo, necessária para a manutenção da exploração econômica e analisa as condutas identitárias de “vergonha de si” como resultado da dominação colonial. Ele descreve com precisão o impacto do racismo e do colonialismo e seus efeitos destrutivos mostrando como os mecanismos de alienação determinam as relações entre negros e brancos e reproduzem as hierarquias que regem essas relações. Retomar o pensamento de Fanon e reconhecer a relevância e atualidade de suas contribuições é fundamental para podermos realocar a luta contra todas as formas de dominação na continuidade da luta contra o colonialismo em uma época em que a identidade racial e o racismo mais que provaram sua capacidade de persistir no tempo e no espaço. Palavras-chave: Frantz Fanon; Alienação; Racismo; Sistema Colonial.

  11. Alternative Modernities for Colonial Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sunyoung Park. The Proletarian Wave: Literature and Leftist Culture in Colonial Korea, 1910–1945. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2015. 348 pp. $50 (cloth. Vladimir Tikhonov. Modern Korea and Its Others: Perceptions of the Neighbouring Countries and Korean Modernity. London: Routledge, 2016. 218 pp. $160 (cloth. It has become a global scholarly undertaking: how to rethink modernity so as to decouple it from Westernization (Chakrabarty 2000. Strategies have included foregrounding the plurality of history to disrupt linear progress; positing non-Western centers of modernity in, say, Moscow or Shanghai; and tracing anticolonial circuits connecting Asia to Africa to Latin America. The two recent books under review here add colonial-era Korea to such far-reaching discussions by situating the country across national boundaries. Interestingly, one connecting thread here is the alternative world system provided by the interwar, Soviet-oriented Left. The result is an unsettling of binaries that subsequently became entrenched during the Cold War: for example, north-south, socialist-nationalist, and, for literature, realist-modernist. But more broadly, pervading both books is the sense that history could have turned out differently—that revisiting northeast Asia’s porous borders in the early twentieth century reveals the Korean peninsula’s lost, internationalist potential...

  12. A Simple and Efficient Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfeng Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial bee colony (ABC is a new population-based stochastic algorithm which has shown good search abilities on many optimization problems. However, the original ABC shows slow convergence speed during the search process. In order to enhance the performance of ABC, this paper proposes a new artificial bee colony (NABC algorithm, which modifies the search pattern of both employed and onlooker bees. A solution pool is constructed by storing some best solutions of the current swarm. New candidate solutions are generated by searching the neighborhood of solutions randomly chosen from the solution pool. Experiments are conducted on a set of twelve benchmark functions. Simulation results show that our approach is significantly better or at least comparable to the original ABC and seven other stochastic algorithms.

  13. Bacterial colony counting by Convolutional Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Alessandro; Lombardi, Stefano; Signoroni, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Counting bacterial colonies on microbiological culture plates is a time-consuming, error-prone, nevertheless fundamental task in microbiology. Computer vision based approaches can increase the efficiency and the reliability of the process, but accurate counting is challenging, due to the high degree of variability of agglomerated colonies. In this paper, we propose a solution which adopts Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) for counting the number of colonies contained in confluent agglomerates, that scored an overall accuracy of the 92.8% on a large challenging dataset. The proposed CNN-based technique for estimating the cardinality of colony aggregates outperforms traditional image processing approaches, becoming a promising approach to many related applications.

  14. Staphylococcus aureus small colony variants in diabetic foot infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrella Cervantes-García

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus is one of the major pathogens causing chronic infections. The ability of S. aureus to acquire resistance to a diverse range of antimicrobial compounds results in limited treatment options, particularly in methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA. A mechanism by which S. aureus develops reduced susceptibility to antimicrobials is through the formation of small colony variants (SCVs. Infections by SCVs of S. aureus are an upcoming problem due to difficulties in laboratory diagnosis and resistance to antimicrobial therapy. Methods: A prospective study was performed on 120 patients diagnosed with both type 2 diabetes mellitus and infected diabetic foot ulcers. The study was carried out from July 2012 to December 2013 in Hospital General de Mexico. The samples were cultured in blood agar, mannitol salt agar, and MacConkey agar media, and incubated at 37°C in aerobic conditions. Results: We describe the first known cases of diabetic foot infections caused by MRSA-SCVs in patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus and infected diabetic foot ulcers. In all of our cases, the patients had not received any form of gentamicin therapy. Conclusions: The antibiotic therapy commonly used in diabetic patients with infected diabetic foot ulcers fails in the case of MRSA-SCVs because the intracellular location protects S. aureus-SCVs from the host's defenses and also helps them resist antibiotics. The cases studied in this article add to the spectrum of persistent and relapsing infections attributed to MRSA-SCVs and emphasizes that these variants may also play a relevant role in diabetic foot infections.

  15. Drastic influence of minor Fe or Co additions on the glass forming ability, martensitic transformations and mechanical properties of shape memory Zr-Cu-Al bulk metallic glass composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Sergio; Pérez, Pablo; Rossinyol, Emma; Suriñach, Santiago; Dolors Baró, Maria; Pellicer, Eva; Sort, Jordi

    2014-06-01

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of Zr 48 Cu 48 -  x Al 4 M x (M ≡ Fe or Co, x  = 0, 0.5, 1 at.%) metallic glass (MG) composites are highly dependent on the amount of Fe or Co added as microalloying elements in the parent Zr 48 Cu 48 Al 4 material. Addition of Fe and Co promotes the transformation from austenite to martensite during the course of nanoindentation or compression experiments, resulting in an enhancement of plasticity. However, the presence of Fe or Co also reduces the glass forming ability, ultimately causing a worsening of the mechanical properties. Owing to the interplay between these two effects, the compressive plasticity for alloys with x  = 0.5 (5.5% in Zr 48 Cu 47.5 Al 4 Co 0.5 and 6.2% in Zr 48 Cu 47.5 Al 4 Fe 0.5 ) is considerably larger than for Zr 48 Cu 48 Al 4 or the alloys with x  = 1. Slight variations in the Young's modulus (around 5-10%) and significant changes in the yield stress (up to 25%) are also observed depending on the composition. The different microstructural factors that have an influence on the mechanical behavior of these composites are investigated in detail: (i) co-existence of amorphous and crystalline phases in the as-cast state, (ii) nature of the crystalline phases (austenite versus martensite content), and (iii) propensity for the austenite to undergo a mechanically-driven martensitic transformation during plastic deformation. Evidence for intragranular nanotwins likely generated in the course of the austenite-martensite transformation is provided by transmission electron microscopy. Our results reveal that fine-tuning of the composition of the Zr-Cu-Al-(Fe,Co) system is crucial in order to optimize the mechanical performance of these bulk MG composites, to make them suitable materials for structural applications.

  16. Reflected scatterometry for noninvasive interrogation of bacterial colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Huisung; Doh, Iyll-Joon; Sturgis, Jennifer; Bhunia, Arun K.; Robinson, J. Paul; Bae, Euiwon

    2016-10-01

    A phenotyping of bacterial colonies on agar plates using forward-scattering diffraction-pattern analysis provided promising classification of several different bacteria such as Salmonella, Vibrio, Listeria, and E. coli. Since the technique is based on forward-scattering phenomena, light transmittance of both the colony and the medium is critical to ensure quality data. However, numerous microorganisms and their growth media allow only limited light penetration and render the forward-scattering measurement a challenging task. For example, yeast, Lactobacillus, mold, and several soil bacteria form colorful and dense colonies that obstruct most of the incoming light passing through them. Moreover, blood agar, which is widely utilized in the clinical field, completely blocks the incident coherent light source used in forward scatterometry. We present a newly designed reflection scatterometer and validation of the resolving power of the instrument. The reflectance-type instrument can acquire backward elastic scatter patterns for both highly opaque media and colonies and has been tested with three different bacterial genera grown on blood agar plates. Cross-validation results show a classification rate above 90% for four genera.

  17. Understanding Long-Run African Growth : Colonial Institutions or Colonial Education?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolt, J.; Bezemer, D.J.

    2009-01-01

    Long-term growth in developing countries has been explained in four frameworks: 'extractive colonial institutions' (Acemoglu et al., 2001), 'colonial legal origin' (La Porta et al., 2004), 'geography' (Gallup et al., 1998) and 'colonial human capital' (Glaeser et al., 2004). In this paper we test

  18. Radial and spiral stream formation in Proteus mirabilis colonies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Xue

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The enteric bacterium Proteus mirabilis, which is a pathogen that forms biofilms in vivo, can swarm over hard surfaces and form a variety of spatial patterns in colonies. Colony formation involves two distinct cell types: swarmer cells that dominate near the surface and the leading edge, and swimmer cells that prefer a less viscous medium, but the mechanisms underlying pattern formation are not understood. New experimental investigations reported here show that swimmer cells in the center of the colony stream inward toward the inoculation site and in the process form many complex patterns, including radial and spiral streams, in addition to previously-reported concentric rings. These new observations suggest that swimmers are motile and that indirect interactions between them are essential in the pattern formation. To explain these observations we develop a hybrid model comprising cell-based and continuum components that incorporates a chemotactic response of swimmers to a chemical they produce. The model predicts that formation of radial streams can be explained as the modulation of the local attractant concentration by the cells, and that the chirality of the spiral streams results from a swimming bias of the cells near the surface of the substrate. The spatial patterns generated from the model are in qualitative agreement with the experimental observations.

  19. Surveys of murre colony attendance in the northern Gulf of Alaska following the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erikson, D.E.

    1995-01-01

    Field surveys were conducted in July and August 1991 on 32 of the 36 murre (Uria spp.) colonies in the northern Gulf of Alaska to assess colony attendance (number of birds present at a colony) two years after the exxon Valdez oil spill. The surveys focused on murre colonies because murres represented 74% of the recovered seabird carcasses and because it had claimed that there was large-scale mortality of murres, leading to 60% to 70% decreases at some large colonies and population recovery periods of 20 to 70 years. Murres were present at all 32 colonies, and colony attendance estimates were generally similar to those from historical (prespill) surveys, particularly for those colonies in the direct path of the spill, i.e., the Barren Islands and Chiswell islands. Colony attendance levels in 1991 do not support the contention that murre colony attendance in the study area was drastically lower than historical levels. When colonies were grouped according to risk of oil exposure, the mean changes in attendance between 1991 and historical murre surveys did not differ significantly among the groups. Factors that could account for the observed similarity of 1991 and historical murre counts despite the high estimated mortality are (1) overestimation of mortality or (2) replacement of lost breeders through either recruitment of formerly nonbreeding individuals into the breeding population at spill-affected colonies or immigration of murres form nonaffected colonies. The findings of this study suggest that impacts of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on murre colony attendance in the northern Gulf of alaska were relatively short-term. 118 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs

  20. Resilience of honeybee colonies via common stomach: A model of self-regulation of foraging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Schmickl

    Full Text Available We propose a new regulation mechanism based on the idea of the "common stomach" to explain several aspects of the resilience and homeostatic regulation of honeybee colonies. This mechanism exploits shared pools of substances (pollen, nectar, workers, brood that modulate recruitment, abandonment and allocation patterns at the colony-level and enable bees to perform several survival strategies to cope with difficult circumstances: Lack of proteins leads to reduced feeding of young brood, to early capping of old brood and to regaining of already spent proteins through brood cannibalism. We modeled this system by linear interaction terms and mass-action law. To test the predictive power of the model of this regulatory mechanism we compared our model predictions to experimental data of several studies. These comparisons show that the proposed regulation mechanism can explain a variety of colony level behaviors. Detailed analysis of the model revealed that these mechanisms could explain the resilience, stability and self-regulation observed in honeybee colonies. We found that manipulation of material flow and applying sudden perturbations to colony stocks are quickly compensated by a resulting counter-acting shift in task selection. Selective analysis of feedback loops allowed us to discriminate the importance of different feedback loops in self-regulation of honeybee colonies. We stress that a network of simple proximate mechanisms can explain significant colony-level abilities that can also be seen as ultimate reasoning of the evolutionary trajectory of honeybees.

  1. Colony Collapse Disorder: A descriptive studey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the last two winters, there have been large-scale, unexplained losses of managed honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies in the United States. In the absence of a known cause, this syndrome was named Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) because the main trait was a rapid loss of adult worker bees. We ...

  2. 178 MULTIPLE COLONIALISM IN WESTERN SAHARA Macharia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa, Vol.2. No.2 2010. MULTIPLE COLONIALISM IN ... Their hybrid language, Hassaniya, incorporates Arabic, African, Berber, and Spanish cultural concepts is part ... snatched the islands of Cuba and the Philippines from Spain. 12. Spanish Colonialism in Western ...

  3. Post-colonial identity in Greenland?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Ulrik Pram

    2009-01-01

    In the gradual unravelling of Greenland’s colonial relationship to Denmark, an essentialist conceptualization of Greenlandic identity has played a significant role. However, both our scholarly understanding of post-colonial Greenlandic identity and the process towards independence for Greenland...

  4. Post-Colonialism Perspectives on Educational Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chuan-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Educational competition has always been the puzzle issue of educational researches. In this article, I analyze several aspects of educational competition within the perspective of post-colonialism discourse. In the political aspect, Taiwanese education is linked with political power, to present the post-colonial spirit by continuing dynastic…

  5. Disrupting Colonial Narratives in the Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masta, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Within the field of critical education studies, scholars argue that social studies curriculum should address colonialism. This article presents a single case study of an eighth grade social studies teacher, and how vestiges of colonialism were evident in his classroom. While class lessons and discussions offered opportunities to engage and…

  6. Genetic Analysis of Termite Colonies in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.A. Arango; D.A. Marschalek; F. Green III; K.F. Raffa; M.E. Berres

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to document current areas of subterranean termite activity in Wisconsin and to evaluate genetic characteristics of these northern, peripheral colonies. Here, amplified fragment-length polymorphism was used to characterize levels of inbreeding, expected heterozygosity, and percent polymorphism within colonies as well as genetic structure...

  7. From conquest to independence: the nigerian colonial experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunde Oduwobi

    2011-06-01

    Niger. Such, however, was the character of the British penetration that when in 1900 political control was formally established over the Nigerian area it took the tripartite form of three autonomous administrations. These three became subsequently amalgamated in 1914 to form the Nigerian state; yet the tripartite administrative traditions were not obliterated and they remained as latent forces modifying the country’s historical development. Thus, at the twilight of the colonial period, Nigerian nationalism, developing as it was to terminate British colonialism, became negatively adulterated by ethnic nationalism resting on the strong pillars of the tripartite traditions fostered by British colonial rule. The Nigerian state therefore emerged from colonialism with the problem of forging political unity.Keywords:.Nigeria, colonialism, independence

  8. Hegemony and Accommodation in the History Curriculum in Colonial Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafela, Lily

    2014-01-01

    A reanalysis of colonial education is necessary in order to highlight its multifaceted and hybrid nature in specific colonial contexts. Although in general, colonial education served the socio-political needs of the colonial machinery, the colonial government's hegemonic authority over the school curriculum did not operate as a totalising project.…

  9. Single-step colony assay for screening antibody libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Mieko; Hanyu, Yoshiro

    2017-08-10

    We describe a method, single-step colony assay, for simple and rapid screening of single-chain Fv fragment (scFv) libraries. Colonies of Escherichia coli expressing the scFv library are formed on a hydrophilic filter that is positioned in contact with a membrane coated with an antigen. scFv expression is triggered upon treatment of colonies with an induction reagent, following which scFvs are secreted from the cells and diffused to the antigen-coated membrane. scFvs that exhibit binding affinity for the antigen are captured by the membrane-immobilized antigen. Lastly, detection of scFv binding of the antigen on the membrane allows identification of the clones on the filter that express antigen-specific scFvs. We tested this methodology by using an anti-rabbit IgG scFv, scFv(A10B), and a rat immune scFv library. Experiments conducted using scFv(A10B) revealed that this method improves scFv expression during the colony assay. By using our method to screen an immune library of 3×10 3 scFv clones, we established several clones exhibiting affinity for the antigen. Moreover, we tested 7 other antigens, including peptides, and successfully identified positive clones. We believe that this simple procedure and controlled scFv expression of the single-step colony assay could make the antibody screening both rapid and reliable and lead to successful isolation of positive clones from antibody libraries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Drastic influence of minor Fe or Co additions on the glass forming ability, martensitic transformations and mechanical properties of shape memory Zr–Cu–Al bulk metallic glass composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Sergio; Pérez, Pablo; Rossinyol, Emma; Suriñach, Santiago; Dolors Baró, Maria; Pellicer, Eva; Sort, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of Zr48Cu48 − xAl4Mx (M ≡ Fe or Co, x = 0, 0.5, 1 at.%) metallic glass (MG) composites are highly dependent on the amount of Fe or Co added as microalloying elements in the parent Zr48Cu48Al4 material. Addition of Fe and Co promotes the transformation from austenite to martensite during the course of nanoindentation or compression experiments, resulting in an enhancement of plasticity. However, the presence of Fe or Co also reduces the glass forming ability, ultimately causing a worsening of the mechanical properties. Owing to the interplay between these two effects, the compressive plasticity for alloys with x = 0.5 (5.5% in Zr48Cu47.5Al4Co0.5 and 6.2% in Zr48Cu47.5Al4Fe0.5) is considerably larger than for Zr48Cu48Al4 or the alloys with x = 1. Slight variations in the Young’s modulus (around 5–10%) and significant changes in the yield stress (up to 25%) are also observed depending on the composition. The different microstructural factors that have an influence on the mechanical behavior of these composites are investigated in detail: (i) co-existence of amorphous and crystalline phases in the as-cast state, (ii) nature of the crystalline phases (austenite versus martensite content), and (iii) propensity for the austenite to undergo a mechanically-driven martensitic transformation during plastic deformation. Evidence for intragranular nanotwins likely generated in the course of the austenite–martensite transformation is provided by transmission electron microscopy. Our results reveal that fine-tuning of the composition of the Zr–Cu–Al–(Fe,Co) system is crucial in order to optimize the mechanical performance of these bulk MG composites, to make them suitable materials for structural applications. PMID:27877691

  11. Growth of bacteria in 3-d colonies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxian Shao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of growth of bacterial populations has been extensively studied for planktonic cells in well-agitated liquid culture, in which all cells have equal access to nutrients. In the real world, bacteria are more likely to live in physically structured habitats as colonies, within which individual cells vary in their access to nutrients. The dynamics of bacterial growth in such conditions is poorly understood, and, unlike that for liquid culture, there is not a standard broadly used mathematical model for bacterial populations growing in colonies in three dimensions (3-d. By extending the classic Monod model of resource-limited population growth to allow for spatial heterogeneity in the bacterial access to nutrients, we develop a 3-d model of colonies, in which bacteria consume diffusing nutrients in their vicinity. By following the changes in density of E. coli in liquid and embedded in glucose-limited soft agar, we evaluate the fit of this model to experimental data. The model accounts for the experimentally observed presence of a sub-exponential, diffusion-limited growth regime in colonies, which is absent in liquid cultures. The model predicts and our experiments confirm that, as a consequence of inter-colony competition for the diffusing nutrients and of cell death, there is a non-monotonic relationship between total number of colonies within the habitat and the total number of individual cells in all of these colonies. This combined theoretical-experimental study reveals that, within 3-d colonies, E. coli cells are loosely packed, and colonies produce about 2.5 times as many cells as the liquid culture from the same amount of nutrients. We verify that this is because cells in liquid culture are larger than in colonies. Our model provides a baseline description of bacterial growth in 3-d, deviations from which can be used to identify phenotypic heterogeneities and inter-cellular interactions that further contribute to the structure of

  12. Detection and quantification of intracellular bacterial colonies by automated, high-throughput microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstsen, Christina L; Login, Frédéric H; Jensen, Helene H.

    2017-01-01

    cell disruption or transcellular passage, to cause sepsis. Intracellular colonies are known to be clonal, originating from single invading UPEC. In our experimental setup, we found UPEC CFT073 intracellular bacterial colonies to be heterogeneous in size and present in nearly one third of the HKC-8...... day. As a model we quantified intracellular bacterial colonies formed by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) during infection of human kidney cells (HKC-8). Urinary tract infections caused by UPEC are among the most common bacterial infectious diseases in humans. UPEC can colonize tissues...

  13. Discriminatory abilities of facultative slave-making ants and their slaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Włodarczyk, T

    2016-01-01

    Intra-colony odor variability can disturb ants' ability to discriminate against intruders. The evolutionary relevance of this phenomenon can be revealed by studies on colonies of slave-making ants in which the parasite, and not the host, is subject to selection pressures associated with living in a mixed colony. We examined how the European facultative slave-making species Formica sanguinea and its F. fusca slaves perform in discriminating ants from alien colonies. Results of behavioral assays showed that slave-maker ants respond with hostility to conspecific individuals from alien colonies but are relatively tolerant to alien slaves. Furthermore, the behavior of slaves indicated a limited ability to discriminate ants from alien parasitic colonies. The subdivision of colony fragments into mixed and species-separated groups demonstrated that contact with the parasite is necessary for F. fusca slaves to be re-accepted by former nestmates after a period of separation from the stock colony. The results presented in this paper are consistent with the following hypotheses: (1) F. sanguinea ants, as opposed to their slaves, are adapted to discriminate alien individuals in the conditions of odor variability found in a mixed-species colony, (2) the recognition of slaves by F. sanguinea ants involves a dedicated adaptive mechanism that prevents aggression toward them, (3) the odor of slaves is strongly influenced by the parasite with beneficial effect on the colony integrity.

  14. Public health developments in colonial Malaya: colonialism and the politics of prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manderson, L

    1999-01-01

    In both African and Asian colonies until the late 19th century, colonial medicine operated pragmatically to meet the medical needs first of colonial officers and troops, immigrant settlers, and laborers responsible for economic development, then of indigenous populations when their ill health threatened the well-being of the expatriate population. Since the turn of the century, however, the consequences of colonial expansion and development for indigenous people's health had become increasingly apparent, and disease control and public health programs were expanded in this light. These programs increased government surveillance of populations at both community and household levels. As a consequence, colonial states extended institutional oversight and induced dependency through public health measures. Drawing on my own work on colonial Malaya, I illustrate developments in public health and their links to the moral logic of colonialism and its complementarity to the political economy.

  15. Keratin subsidies promote feather decomposition via an increase in keratin-consuming arthropods and microorganisms in bird breeding colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Shinji; Masuya, Hayato

    2015-06-01

    Resource subsidies are well known to increase population densities of consumers. The decomposition process of these subsidised resources can be influenced by increasing consumer abundance. However, few studies have assessed whether resource subsidies can promote resource decomposition via a population increase in consumers. Here, we examined the effects of keratin subsidies on feather decomposition in egret and heron breeding colonies. Egrets and herons (Ardeidae) frequently breed in inland forests and provide large amounts of keratin materials to the forest floor in the form of feathers of chicks (that die). We compared the decrease in the weights of egret and heron feathers (experimentally placed on the forest floor) over a 12-month period among egret/heron breeding colonies (five sites) and areas outside of colonies (five sites) in central Japan. Of the feathers placed experimentally on forest floors, 92-97 % and 99-100 % in colonies and 47-50 % and 71-90 % in non-colony areas were decomposed after 4 and 12 months, respectively. Then, decomposition rates of feathers were faster in colonies than in areas outside of colonies, suggesting that keratin subsidies can promote feather decomposition in colonies. Field observations and laboratory experiments indicated that keratin-feeding arthropods and keratinophilic fungi played important roles in feather decomposition. Therefore, scavenging arthropods and keratinophilic fungi, which dramatically increased in egret and heron breeding colonies, could accelerate the decomposition of feathers supplied to the forest floor of colonies.

  16. Ant Colony Algorithm and Simulation for Robust Airport Gate Assignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Airport gate assignment is core task for airport ground operations. Due to the fact that the departure and arrival time of flights may be influenced by many random factors, the airport gate assignment scheme may encounter gate conflict and many other problems. This paper aims at finding a robust solution for airport gate assignment problem. A mixed integer model is proposed to formulate the problem, and colony algorithm is designed to solve this model. Simulation result shows that, in consideration of robustness, the ability of antidisturbance for airport gate assignment scheme has much improved.

  17. Measuring activity in ant colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, C.; Fernández, J.; Pérez-Penichet, C.; Altshuler, E.

    2006-12-01

    Ants, as paradigm of social insects, have become a recurrent example of efficient problem solvers via self-organization. In spite of the simple behavior of each individual, the colony as a whole displays "swarm intelligence:" the organization of ant trails for foraging is a typical output of it. But conventional techniques of observation can hardly record the amount of data needed to get a detailed understanding of self-organization of ant swarms in the wild. Here we are presenting a measurement system intended to monitor ant activity in the field comprising massive data acquisition and high sensitivity. A central role is played by an infrared sensor devised specifically to monitor relevant parameters to the activity of ants through the exits of the nest, although other sensors detecting temperature and luminosity are added to the system. We study the characteristics of the activity sensor and its performance in the field. Finally, we present massive data measured at one exit of a nest of Atta insularis, an ant endemic to Cuba, to illustrate the potential of our system.

  18. Colony Foundation in an Oceanic Seabird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munilla, Ignacio; Genovart, Meritxell; Paiva, Vitor H.; Velando, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Seabirds are colonial vertebrates that despite their great potential for long-range dispersal and colonization are reluctant to establish in novel locations, often recruiting close to their natal colony. The foundation of colonies is therefore a rare event in most seabird species and little is known about the colonization process in this group. The Cory’s shearwater (Calonectris diomedea) is a pelagic seabird that has recently established three new colonies in Galicia (NE Atlantic) thus expanding its distribution range 500 km northwards. This study aimed to describe the establishment and early progress of the new Galician populations and to determine the genetic and morphometric characteristics of the individuals participating in these foundation events. Using 10 microsatellite loci, we tested the predictions supported by different seabird colonization models. Possibly three groups of non-breeders, adding up to around 200 birds, started visiting the Galician colonies in the mid 2000’s and some of them eventually laid eggs and reproduced, thus establishing new breeding colonies. The Galician populations showed a high genetic diversity and a frequency of private alleles similar to or even higher than some of the large historical populations. Most individuals were assigned to several Atlantic populations and a few (if any) to Mediterranean colonies. Our study suggests that a large and admixed population is settling in Galicia, in agreement with predictions from island metapopulation models of colonization. Multiple source colonies imply that some birds colonizing Galicia were dispersing from very distant colonies (> 1500 km). Long-distance colonizations undertaken by relatively large and admixed groups of colonizers can help to explain the low levels of genetic structure over vast areas that are characteristic of most oceanic seabird species. PMID:26909694

  19. Mixed colony formation in vitro by the heterogeneous compartment of multipotential progenitors in human bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holyoake, T L; Freshney, M G; Konwalinka, G; Haun, M; Petzer, A; Fitzsimons, E; Lucie, N P; Wright, E G; Pragnell, I B

    1993-02-01

    The physiology of the human haemopoietic primitive progenitor populations can be studied in normal and disease states by clonal in vitro cultures in which the primitive progenitor cells proliferate and differentiate to form mixed colonies. For many applications it is essential that such assays detect a high proportion of primitive progenitor cells. We describe an in vitro assay which detects a high incidence of human CD34+ multipotential progenitor cells. Bone marrow mononuclear cells (MNC) or selected CD34+ cells were plated at low cell concentrations in semisolid agar cultures with synergizing growth factor combinations. The optimum growth factor combination of conditioned medium from Mia PaCa-2 cells (Mia-CM), recombinant granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and recombinant stem cell factor (SCF) supported the formation of macroscopic (> or = mm) colonies (97% of which were multilineage), at an average incidence of 250/10(5) MNC. The colony-forming cells (human colony-forming unit, type A) detected, showed a low cycling status (7.3%) and the macroscopic colonies had a high replating efficiency (46%), reflecting their probable primitive nature. This assay should prove invaluable, for studies on the regulation of proliferation of the multipotential compartment and in studies involving the assessment of these cells in transplantation and neoplastic disease.

  20. Indonesian Chinese in the Netherlands and the legacies of violence in colonial and post-colonial Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander van der Meer

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available After Indonesian independence in 1945, thousands of Indonesian Chinese repatriated to the Netherlands, the former colonizer. As opposed to other repatriates from Indonesia, who organized themselves into pressure groups and fought for a place in the national memory culture, the Indonesian Chinese in the Netherlands only formed strict socio-cultural associations and have generally stayed clear of identity politics. Usually, this divergence is attributed to the smooth integration and socio-economic success of the latter group, as well as to Chinese values, such as conflict avoidance.This article adds to this explanation by positing that this phenomenon has also been induced by the legacy of anti-Chinese violence in colonial and post-colonial Indonesia: respectively, Dutch discomfort to acknowledge the violent and discriminatory elements of its own colonial history, as well as a fear of offending the Indonesian government. Consequently, many Indonesian Chinese in the Netherlands have engaged in some form of public self-silencing.

  1. 21 CFR 866.2170 - Automated colony counter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2170 Automated colony counter. (a) Identification. An automated colony counter is a mechanical device intended for medical...

  2. Human T cell colony formation in microculture: analysis of growth requirements and functional activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, E W; Lee, J W; Dosch, H M; Price, G B

    1981-03-01

    A microculture method in methylcellulose has been developed for the study of human T cell colony formation. The technique is simple, reliable, does not require preincubation with lectin and requires small numbers of cells. Colony formation was dependent on the presence of phytohemagglutin-conditioned medium, a T colony precursor cell (TCPC), and a "helper" or accessory T cell. Plating efficiency was increased 10-fold in the presence of irradiated feeder cells. Progenitors of the T colony cells were identified in peripheral blood, tonsil, and spleen but not in thymus or thoracic duct. They were isolated in the E-rosetting, theophylline-resistant, Fc-IgG-negative cell populations. In peripheral blood the frequency of TCPC and accessory cells, the T colony forming unit, was estimated to be 8 X 10(-3). Colony cells proliferated in response to lectins and allogeneic cells. Forty to 80% of the cells were Ia-positive and stimulated both autologous and allogeneic mixed lymphocyte responses. They were incapable of mediating antibody-dependent cytotoxicity. In contrast, they were effective in assays of spontaneous cytotoxicity but only against certain target cells. This method for the analysis of T colony formation should prove valuable in the functional analysis of T cell subsets in immunodeficiency states or the transplant recipient.

  3. Application of the antibiotic batumin for accurate and rapid identification of staphylococcal small colony variants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Churkina Larisa N

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen causing significant morbidity and mortality. The S. aureus colonies in osteomyelitis, in patients with cystic fibrosis and patients with endoprosthesis rejection frequently have an atypical morphology, i.e. staphylococcal small-colony variants, which form a naturally occurring subpopulation of clinically important staphylococci. Identification of these small colony variants is difficult, because of the loss of typical phenotypic characteristics of these variants. We wanted to improve and simplify the diagnosis of staphylococcal infection using a diagnostic preparation, consisting of 5 μg batumin paper disks. Batumin possesses a unique selective activity against all studied Staphylococcus spp., whereas all other species tested thus far are batumin resistant. We assessed the efficacy of the batumin diagnostic preparation to identify staphylococcal small colony variants, isolated from osteomyelitis patients. Findings With the batumin diagnostic preparation, all 30 tested staphylococcal small-colony variants had a growth inhibition zone around the disk of minimum 25 mm, accordant with the inhibition zones of the parent strains, isolated from the same patients. Conclusions The batumin diagnostic preparation correctly identified the small-colony variants of S. aureus, S. haemolyticus and S. epidermidis as belonging to the genus Staphylococcus, which differ profoundly from parental strains and are difficult to identify with standard methods. Identification of staphylococcal small-colony variants with the batumin diagnostic preparation is technically simple and can facilitate practical laboratory work.

  4. Spatial variation in age structure among colonies of a marine snake: the influence of ectothermy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Xavier; Brischoux, François; Pinaud, David; Michel, Catherine Louise; Clobert, Jean; Shine, Richard; Fauvel, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    Several tetrapod lineages that have evolved to exploit marine environments (e.g. seals, seabirds, sea kraits) continue to rely upon land for reproduction and, thus, form dense colonies on suitable islands. In birds and mammals (endotherms), the offspring cannot survive without their parents. Terrestrial colonies contain all age classes. In reptiles (ectotherms), this constraint is relaxed, because offspring are independent from birth. Hence, each age class has the potential to select sites with characteristics that favour them. Our studies of sea snakes (sea kraits) in the lagoon of New Caledonia reveal marked spatial heterogeneity in age structure among colonies. Sea krait colonies exhibit the endothermic 'seal-seabird' pattern (mixed-age classes within populations) only where the lagoon is narrow. Where the lagoon is wide, most snake colonies are comprised primarily of a single age cohort. Nurseries are located near the coast, adult colonies offshore and mixed colonies in-between. We suggest that ectothermy allows individuals to utilize habitats that are best suited to their own ecological requirements, a flexibility not available to endothermic marine taxa with obligate parental care. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2015 British Ecological Society.

  5. The Impacts of English Colonial Terrorism and Genocide on Indigenous/Black Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asafa Jalata

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article critically explores the essence of colonial terrorism and its consequences on the indigenous people of Australia during their colonization and incorporation into the European-dominated racialized capitalist world system in the late 18th century. It uses multidimensional, comparative methods, and critical approaches to explain the dynamic interplay among social structures, human agency, and terror to explain the connection between terrorism and the emergence of the capitalist world system or globalization. Raising complex moral, intellectual, philosophical, ethical, and political questions, this article explores the essence, roles, and impacts of colonial terrorism on the indigenous Australians. First, the article provides background historical and cultural information. Second, it conceptualizes and theorizes colonial terrorism as an integral part of the capitalist world system. Specifically, it links capitalist incorporation and colonialism and various forms of violence to terrorism. Third, the article examines the structural aspects of colonial terrorism by connecting it to some specific colonial policies and practices. Finally, it identifies and explains different kinds of ideological justifications that the English colonial settlers and their descendants used in committing crimes against humanity.

  6. Endogenous Sheet-Averaged Tension Within a Large Epithelial Cell Colony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbali, Sandeep P; Mei, Lanju; Qian, Shizhi; Maruthamuthu, Venkat

    2017-10-01

    Epithelial cells form quasi-two-dimensional sheets that function as contractile media to effect tissue shape changes during development and homeostasis. Endogenously generated intrasheet tension is a driver of such changes, but has predominantly been measured in the presence of directional migration. The nature of epithelial cell-generated forces transmitted over supracellular distances, in the absence of directional migration, is thus largely unclear. In this report, we consider large epithelial cell colonies which are archetypical multicell collectives with extensive cell-cell contacts but with a symmetric (circular) boundary. Using the traction force imbalance method (TFIM) (traction force microscopy combined with physical force balance), we first show that one can determine the colony-level endogenous sheet forces exerted at the midline by one half of the colony on the other half with no prior assumptions on the uniformity of the mechanical properties of the cell sheet. Importantly, we find that this colony-level sheet force exhibits large variations with orientation-the difference between the maximum and minimum sheet force is comparable to the average sheet force itself. Furthermore, the sheet force at the colony midline is largely tensile but the shear component exhibits significantly more variation with orientation. We thus show that even an unperturbed epithelial colony with a symmetric boundary shows significant directional variation in the endogenous sheet tension and shear forces that subsist at the colony level.

  7. Tropilaelaps mercedesae and Varroa destructor: prevalence and reproduction in concurrently infested Apis mellifera colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prevalence of Tropilaelaps mercedesae and Varroa destructor in concurrently infested A. mellifera colonies in Thailand was monitored. We also assessed the reproductive ability of T. mercedesae and V. destructor in naturally infested brood and in brood cells deliberately infested with both mite g...

  8. Rapid and automated enumeration of viable bacteria in compost using a micro-colony auto counting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaodan; Yamaguchi, Nobuyasu; Someya, Takashi; Nasu, Masao

    2007-10-01

    The micro-colony method was used to enumerate viable bacteria in composts. Cells were vacuum-filtered onto polycarbonate filters and incubated for 18 h on LB medium at 37 degrees C. Bacteria on the filters were stained with SYBR Green II, and enumerated using a newly developed micro-colony auto counting system which can automatically count micro-colonies on half the area of the filter within 90 s. A large number of bacteria in samples retained physiological activity and formed micro-colonies within 18 h, whereas most could not form large colonies on conventional media within 1 week. The results showed that this convenient technique can enumerate viable bacteria in compost rapidly for its efficient quality control.

  9. Pathogen webs in collapsing honey bee colonies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Scott Cornman

    Full Text Available Recent losses in honey bee colonies are unusual in their severity, geographical distribution, and, in some cases, failure to present recognized characteristics of known disease. Domesticated honey bees face numerous pests and pathogens, tempting hypotheses that colony collapses arise from exposure to new or resurgent pathogens. Here we explore the incidence and abundance of currently known honey bee pathogens in colonies suffering from Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD, otherwise weak colonies, and strong colonies from across the United States. Although pathogen identities differed between the eastern and western United States, there was a greater incidence and abundance of pathogens in CCD colonies. Pathogen loads were highly covariant in CCD but not control hives, suggesting that CCD colonies rapidly become susceptible to a diverse set of pathogens, or that co-infections can act synergistically to produce the rapid depletion of workers that characterizes the disorder. We also tested workers from a CCD-free apiary to confirm that significant positive correlations among pathogen loads can develop at the level of individual bees and not merely as a secondary effect of CCD. This observation and other recent data highlight pathogen interactions as important components of bee disease. Finally, we used deep RNA sequencing to further characterize microbial diversity in CCD and non-CCD hives. We identified novel strains of the recently described Lake Sinai viruses (LSV and found evidence of a shift in gut bacterial composition that may be a biomarker of CCD. The results are discussed with respect to host-parasite interactions and other environmental stressors of honey bees.

  10. Pathogen webs in collapsing honey bee colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornman, R Scott; Tarpy, David R; Chen, Yanping; Jeffreys, Lacey; Lopez, Dawn; Pettis, Jeffery S; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Evans, Jay D

    2012-01-01

    Recent losses in honey bee colonies are unusual in their severity, geographical distribution, and, in some cases, failure to present recognized characteristics of known disease. Domesticated honey bees face numerous pests and pathogens, tempting hypotheses that colony collapses arise from exposure to new or resurgent pathogens. Here we explore the incidence and abundance of currently known honey bee pathogens in colonies suffering from Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), otherwise weak colonies, and strong colonies from across the United States. Although pathogen identities differed between the eastern and western United States, there was a greater incidence and abundance of pathogens in CCD colonies. Pathogen loads were highly covariant in CCD but not control hives, suggesting that CCD colonies rapidly become susceptible to a diverse set of pathogens, or that co-infections can act synergistically to produce the rapid depletion of workers that characterizes the disorder. We also tested workers from a CCD-free apiary to confirm that significant positive correlations among pathogen loads can develop at the level of individual bees and not merely as a secondary effect of CCD. This observation and other recent data highlight pathogen interactions as important components of bee disease. Finally, we used deep RNA sequencing to further characterize microbial diversity in CCD and non-CCD hives. We identified novel strains of the recently described Lake Sinai viruses (LSV) and found evidence of a shift in gut bacterial composition that may be a biomarker of CCD. The results are discussed with respect to host-parasite interactions and other environmental stressors of honey bees.

  11. Legal origin, colonial origin and deforestation

    OpenAIRE

    Sébastien MARCHAND

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates whether inherited legacies such as legal origin allow of explaining deforestation in 110 developed and developing countries. The hypothesis is that differences in deforestation between countries can be attributed to their legal systems. Also, since nearly all common law countries are former English colonies, and nearly all civil law countries were colonized by France, Spain or Portugal, legal origin and colonial history are strongly correlated, so that one can not attr...

  12. Ability Dispersion and Team Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoogendoorn, Sander; Parker, Simon C.; Van Praag, Mirjam

    increases and then decreases with ability dispersion. We seek to understand this finding by developing a model in which team members of different ability levels form sub- teams with other team members with similar ability levels to specialize in different productive tasks. Diversity spreads production over......What is the effect of dispersed levels of cognitive ability of members of a (business) team on their team's performance? This paper reports the results of a field experiment in which 573 students in 49 (student) teams start up and manage real companies under identical circumstances for one year. We...... ensured exogenous variation in otherwise random team composition by assigning students to teams based on their measured cognitive abilities. Each team performs a variety of tasks, often involving complex decision making. The key result of the experiment is that the performance of business teams first...

  13. ``Campo del Cielo'' Meteorites: Astronomical Heritage and Cultural Colonialism

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Alejandro Martín; Altman, Agustina

    2012-09-01

    In the province of Chaco, Argentina, there is a very unique dispersion of metallic meteorites called ``Campo del Cielo''. One of the meteoric fragments of this dispersion, the meteorite called ``El Chaco'', consisting of 37 tons, is the second heaviest in the world. These meteorites are of great importance to the worldview of the Moqoit, aboriginal people that inhabit this region. For the local Creole population the meteorites are also relevant, that's why they have being cited in numerous documents and reports since the colonial period. During the first months of 2012, two Argentine artists and the Artistic Director of the German contemporary art exhibition called dOCUMENTA (13) tried to move ``El Chaco'' meteorite to Germany in order to exhibit it as an artistic object. Due to the fact that moving the meteorite could have a negative impact according to the Moqoit cosmology and that they were not able to participate in the decision they begun a manifestation against the movement of El Chaco. The opposition made by aboriginal communities and experts in cultural astronomy was able to stop the transfer. The whole process and its impact on the local community have promoted a deep discussion about art, science and cultural colonialism. In this paper we aim to address this debate and its consequences. This will allow us to think about contemporary forms of colonialism that are hidden in many scientific and artistic projects. Furthermore, we aim to debate about the most effective ways of protecting astronomical heritage in the Third World.

  14. The cabABC Operon Essential for Biofilm and Rugose Colony Development in Vibrio vulnificus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Hwan Park

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A transcriptome analysis identified Vibrio vulnificus cabABC genes which were preferentially expressed in biofilms. The cabABC genes were transcribed as a single operon. The cabA gene was induced by elevated 3',5'-cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP and encoded a calcium-binding protein CabA. Comparison of the biofilms produced by the cabA mutant and its parent strain JN111 in microtiter plates using crystal-violet staining demonstrated that CabA contributed to biofilm formation in a calcium-dependent manner under elevated c-di-GMP conditions. Genetic and biochemical analyses revealed that CabA was secreted to the cell exterior through functional CabB and CabC, distributed throughout the biofilm matrix, and produced as the biofilm matured. These results, together with the observation that CabA also contributes to the development of rugose colony morphology, indicated that CabA is a matrix-associated protein required for maturation, rather than adhesion involved in the initial attachment, of biofilms. Microscopic comparison of the structure of biofilms produced by JN111 and the cabA mutant demonstrated that CabA is an extracellular matrix component essential for the development of the mature biofilm structures in flow cells and on oyster shells. Exogenously providing purified CabA restored the biofilm- and rugose colony-forming abilities of the cabA mutant when calcium was available. Circular dichroism and size exclusion analyses revealed that calcium binding induces CabA conformational changes which may lead to multimerization. Extracellular complementation experiments revealed that CabA can assemble a functional matrix only when exopolysaccharides coexist. Consequently, the combined results suggested that CabA is a structural protein of the extracellular matrix and multimerizes to a conformation functional in building robust biofilms, which may render V. vulnificus to survive in hostile environments and reach a concentrated infective dose.

  15. Heroines of lonely outposts or tools of the empire? British nurses in Britain's model colony: Ceylon, 1878-1948.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Margaret

    2004-09-01

    In 1878 two 'Nightingale' nurses arrived in the British colony of Ceylon to initiate a training programme for indigenous women in the skills and values of what was then termed 'scientific nursing'. These two women were the first of a succession of British women who went to the colony to nurse in its hospitals and to train Ceylonese women for the profession. Using the official records of the colonial government held in the National Archives, Kew and the records of the Overseas Nursing Association in the Rhodes House Collection, Oxford, this paper explores both the professional and social experiences of these women. This paper also analyses the role that these representatives of the colonial state played in the development of an indigenous nursing profession and concludes that their presence in the colony ultimately left an ambiguous legacy. In their role as trainers of indigenous women, they furthered the development and spread of a Western nursing profession in the colony's hospitals. At the same time, however, their continuing dominance of training and the positions of responsibility was an inhibiting factor in the ability of indigenous nurses to organise and professionalise. Whereas the doctors, trained in the colony's Medical College, achieved registration as early as 1905, the nurses had to wait until 1949, a year after independence, before their qualification was recognised and protected. Nursing remained throughout the colonial period therefore, even more so than at the metropolitan centre, the 'Cinderella' of the medical professions.

  16. A Reading of Kwame Nkrumah's Towards Colonial Freedom Atta

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Nkrumah's Towards colonial freedom is a statement on the nature of colonialism and imperialism; and a strategy for combating them. The work, cast through a nationalist framework, carries a fixation on the superstructure of colonial society to the exclusion of its economic base. Thus conceived, the anti- colonial ...

  17. Blochmannia endosymbionts improve colony growth and immune defence in the ant Camponotus fellah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Depoix Delphine

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microorganisms are a large and diverse form of life. Many of them live in association with large multicellular organisms, developing symbiotic relations with the host and some have even evolved to form obligate endosymbiosis 1. All Carpenter ants (genus Camponotus studied hitherto harbour primary endosymbiotic bacteria of the Blochmannia genus. The role of these bacteria in ant nutrition has been demonstrated 2 but the omnivorous diet of these ants lead us to hypothesize that the bacteria might provide additional advantages to their host. In this study, we establish links between Blochmannia, growth of starting new colonies and the host immune response. Results We manipulated the number of bacterial endosymbionts in incipient laboratory-reared colonies of Camponotus fellah by administrating doses of an antibiotic (Rifampin mixed in honey-solution. Efficiency of the treatment was estimated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH, using Blochmannia specific primers (qPCR and two fluorescent probes (one for all Eubacterial and other specific for Blochmannia. Very few or no bacteria could be detected in treated ants. Incipient Rifampin treated colonies had significantly lower numbers of brood and adult workers than control colonies. The immune response of ants from control and treated colonies was estimated by inserting nylon filaments in the gaster and removing it after 24 h. In the control colonies, the encapsulation response was positively correlated to the bacterial amount, while no correlation was observed in treated colonies. Indeed, antibiotic treatment increased the encapsulation response of the workers, probably due to stress conditions. Conclusion The increased growth rate observed in non-treated colonies confirms the importance of Blochmannia in this phase of colony development. This would provide an important selective advantage during colony founding, where the colonies

  18. Colonial Legal Reasoning in the Post-Colonial African State: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Colonial Legal Reasoning in the Post-Colonial African State: A Critique and a Defense of the Argument from African Metaphysical Epistemology. ... Africa, as it has the advantageous result of helping in the search for truth concerning such offences, thereby promoting the delivery of effective legal justice, and thus contributing ...

  19. Colonialism, customary law and the post-colonial state in Africa: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Colonialism became a fact of life in many African countries. An effect of colonialism especially in the former British colonized countries was the transplantation of the British legal system, which led to recognition of both systems and the gradual relegation of the indigenous system otherwise called customary law. The use and ...

  20. Review Essay A history of colonialism through post-colonial lenses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review Essay A history of colonialism through post-colonial lenses: reading Mahmood Mamdani's citizen and subject. Sanya Osha. Abstract. No Abstract. The Nigerian Journal of Economic History Vol. 2, 1999: 155-161. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  1. Colony collapse disorder: a descriptive study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Vanengelsdorp

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over the last two winters, there have been large-scale, unexplained losses of managed honey bee (Apis mellifera L. colonies in the United States. In the absence of a known cause, this syndrome was named Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD because the main trait was a rapid loss of adult worker bees. We initiated a descriptive epizootiological study in order to better characterize CCD and compare risk factor exposure between populations afflicted by and not afflicted by CCD. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Of 61 quantified variables (including adult bee physiology, pathogen loads, and pesticide levels, no single measure emerged as a most-likely cause of CCD. Bees in CCD colonies had higher pathogen loads and were co-infected with a greater number of pathogens than control populations, suggesting either an increased exposure to pathogens or a reduced resistance of bees toward pathogens. Levels of the synthetic acaricide coumaphos (used by beekeepers to control the parasitic mite Varroa destructor were higher in control colonies than CCD-affected colonies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first comprehensive survey of CCD-affected bee populations that suggests CCD involves an interaction between pathogens and other stress factors. We present evidence that this condition is contagious or the result of exposure to a common risk factor. Potentially important areas for future hypothesis-driven research, including the possible legacy effect of mite parasitism and the role of honey bee resistance to pesticides, are highlighted.

  2. Colony collapse disorder: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanengelsdorp, Dennis; Evans, Jay D; Saegerman, Claude; Mullin, Chris; Haubruge, Eric; Nguyen, Bach Kim; Frazier, Maryann; Frazier, Jim; Cox-Foster, Diana; Chen, Yanping; Underwood, Robyn; Tarpy, David R; Pettis, Jeffery S

    2009-08-03

    Over the last two winters, there have been large-scale, unexplained losses of managed honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies in the United States. In the absence of a known cause, this syndrome was named Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) because the main trait was a rapid loss of adult worker bees. We initiated a descriptive epizootiological study in order to better characterize CCD and compare risk factor exposure between populations afflicted by and not afflicted by CCD. Of 61 quantified variables (including adult bee physiology, pathogen loads, and pesticide levels), no single measure emerged as a most-likely cause of CCD. Bees in CCD colonies had higher pathogen loads and were co-infected with a greater number of pathogens than control populations, suggesting either an increased exposure to pathogens or a reduced resistance of bees toward pathogens. Levels of the synthetic acaricide coumaphos (used by beekeepers to control the parasitic mite Varroa destructor) were higher in control colonies than CCD-affected colonies. This is the first comprehensive survey of CCD-affected bee populations that suggests CCD involves an interaction between pathogens and other stress factors. We present evidence that this condition is contagious or the result of exposure to a common risk factor. Potentially important areas for future hypothesis-driven research, including the possible legacy effect of mite parasitism and the role of honey bee resistance to pesticides, are highlighted.

  3. Thymidine kinase deficient human cells have increased UV sensitivity in their capacity to support herpes simplex virus but normal UV sensitivity for colony formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainbow, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    A thymidine kinase deficient (tk - ) and two thymidine kinase proficient (tk + ) human cell lines were compared for UV sensitivity using colony-forming ability as well as their capacity to support the plaque formation of herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1).The tk - line (143 cells) was a derivative of one of the tk + lines (R970-5), whereas the other tk + line (AC4 cells) was a derivative of the 143 cells obtained by transfection with purified sheared HSV-2 DNA encoding the viral tk gene. 143, R970-5 and AC4 cells showed a similar UV sensitivity for colony-forming ability. In contrast, the capacity to support HSV-1 plaque formation immediately (within 1 h) afte UV-irradiation was reduced to a greater extent in the 143 cells compared to the R970-5 and AC4 cells. Capacity curves for plaque formation of the HSV-1: KOS wild-type (tk + ) strain were similar to those for the HSV-1: PTK3B mutant (tk - ) strain were similar to those for the HSV-1: PTK3B mutant (tk - ) strain in the 3 cell strains, indicating that the viral tk gene does not influence the ability of HSV-1 to form plaques in UV-irradiated compared to unirradiated human cells. Cellular capacity for HSV-1 plaque formation was found to recover in both tk - and tk + cells for cultures infected 24 h after UV-irradiation. These results suggest that repair of UV-damaged DNA takes place to a similar extent in both tk - and tk + human cells, but the kinetics of repair are initially slower in tk - compared to tk + human cells. (author). 33 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 tab

  4. FTIR studies on the effect of network connectivity in the cement forming ability of sol-gel glasses in the SiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-CaO-CaF{sub 2} system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zolotar, M.S.; Zavaglia, C.A.C. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia

    2001-07-01

    The first studies on the cement forming ability of the glasses employed in the formulation of useful glass-ionomer cements attributed a crucial role to the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiO{sub 2} ratio, which was required to be higher than 1/2 by mass for cement formation. More recently, the use of the concepts such as network connectivity or crosslink density to formulate glass compositions with a good cement-forming ability has been proposed in the literature. In the present work, the effect of network connectivity on the cement-formation ability of high purity, homogeneous sol-gel glasses of different compositions in the SiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-CaO-CaF{sub 2} system was qualitetively evaluated by FTIR spectroscopy. The cement-forming ability of the calcined sol-gel glasses was assessed at different powder/liquid ratios by determining their setting behaviour according to the procedure described in the ISO 9917 - Dental water-based cements. The network connectivities of the calcined sol-gel glasses were qualitatively evaluated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The analysis of the FTIR spectra provided useful qualitative information on the network connectivity of the sol-gel glasses, which proved to be more efficient than the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiO{sub 2} ratio as a way of evaluating and predicting the reactivity, and hence, the cement forming ability of these glasses. (orig.)

  5. Branching and self-organization in marine modular colonial organisms: a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Juan Armando; Lasker, Howard R; Nepomuceno, Erivelton G; Sánchez, J Dario; Woldenberg, Michael J

    2004-03-01

    Despite the universality of branching patterns in marine modular colonial organisms, there is neither a clear explanation about the growth of their branching forms nor an understanding of how these organisms conserve their shape during development. This study develops a model of branching and colony growth using parameters and variables related to actual modular structures (e.g., branches) in Caribbean gorgonian corals (Cnidaria). Gorgonians exhibiting treelike networks branch subapically, creating hierarchical mother-daughter relationships among branches. We modeled both the intrinsic subapical branching along with an ecological-physiological limit to growth or maximum number of mother branches (k). Shape is preserved by maintaining a constant ratio (c) between the total number of branches and the mother branches. The size frequency distribution of mother branches follows a scaling power law suggesting self-organized criticality. Differences in branching among species with the same k values are determined by r (branching rate) and c. Species with rr/2 or c>r>0). Ecological/physiological constraints limit growth without altering colony form or the interaction between r and c. The model described the branching dynamics giving the form to colonies and how colony growth declines over time without altering the branching pattern. This model provides a theoretical basis to study branching as a simple function of the number of branches independently of ordering- and bifurcation-based schemes.

  6. Is colonialism history? The declining impact of colonial legacies on African institutional and economic development : The declining impact of colonial legacies on African institutional and economic development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maseland, Robbert

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigates the claim that colonial history has left an enduring imprint on Africa's institutional and economic development. The literature following Acemoglu, Johnson and Robinson (2001) and Sokoloff and Engerman (2000) maintains that different types of colonialism affected the

  7. Colonizing nature: scientific knowledge, colonial power and the incorporation of India into the modern world-system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baber, Z

    2001-03-01

    In this paper, the role of scientific knowledge, institutions and colonialism in mutually co-producing each other is analysed. Under the overarching rubric of colonial structures and imperatives, amateur scientists sought to deploy scientific expertise to expand the empire while at the same time seeking to take advantage of the opportunities to develop their careers as 'scientists'. The role of a complex interplay of structure and agency in the development of modern science, not just in India but in Britain too is analysed. The role of science and technology in the incorporation of South Asian into the modern world system, as well as the consequences of the emergent structures in understanding the trajectory of modern science in post-colonial India is examined. Overall, colonial rule did not simply diffuse modern science from the core to the periphery. Rather the colonial encounter led to the development of new forms of scientific knowledge and institutions both in the periphery and the core.

  8. Late winter feeding stimulates rapid spring development of carniolan honey bee colonies (Apis mellifera carnica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatko Puškadija

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Unfavourable weather conditions after the queen starts with intensive oviposition during early spring may cause an imbalance in the division of tasks among worker bees in the bee colony. This can lead to slow spring development and poor exploitation of the main spring nectar flows. In order to accelerate the spring development, it is necessary, as a technological measure, to feed supplemental candy to bee colonies. In this research, the necessity of supplemental feeding, as well as the composition of candy (pollen and protein substitute were analysed. Three groups of ten bee colonies each were formed - the control, unfed group, pollen candy fed and protein substitute candy fed. In the period from 22/02/2016 and 04/04/2016 three control measurements were performed during which the number of bees, the number of brood cells and weight of the bee colonies were determined. The research has shown that supplemental feeding of the bee colony in late winter in order to encourage the rapid spring development is justified. Namely, at the final measurements in April, the results showed differences between groups. The treated colonies had higher net hive weight, a greater number of bees and statistically significantly more brood cells. The results of this study confirm that the technological measure of supplemental feeding in late winter should be performed on all commercial apiaries for the production of honey, pollen, royal jelly, queen bees and bee venom.

  9. Quantification of morphology of bacterial colonies using laser scatter measurements and solid element optical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavesley, Silas; Bayraktar, Bülent; Venkatapathi, Murugesan; Hirleman, E. Dan; Bhunia, Arun K.; Robinson, J. Paul; Hassler, Richard; Smith, Linda; Rajwa, Bartek

    2007-02-01

    Traditional biological and chemical methods for pathogen identification require complicated sample preparation for reliable results. Optical scattering technology has been used for identification of bacterial cells in suspension, but with only limited success. Our published reports have demonstrated that scattered light based identification of Listeria colonies growing on solid surfaces is feasible with proper pattern recognition tools. Recently we have extended this technique to classification of other bacterial genera including, Salmonella, Bacillus, and Vibrio. Our approach may be highly applicable to early detection and classification of pathogens in food-processing industry and in healthcare. The unique scattering patterns formed by colonies of different species are created through differences in colony microstructure (on the order of wavelength used), bulk optical properties, and the macroscopic morphology. While it is difficult to model the effect on scatter-signal patterns owing to the microstructural changes, the influence of bulk optical properties and overall shape of colonies can be modeled using geometrical optics. Our latest research shows that it is possible to model the scatter pattern of bacterial colonies using solid-element optical modeling software (TracePro), and theoretically assess changes in macro structure and bulk refractive indices. This study allows predicting the theoretical limits of resolution and sensitivity of our detection and classification methods. Moreover, quantification of changes in macro morphology and bulk refractive index provides an opportunity to study the response of colonies to various reagents and antibiotics.

  10. Arte da Performance e Guerra Colonial Portuguesa

    OpenAIRE

    Madeira, Cláudia

    2016-01-01

    UID/FIL/00183/2013 Este artigo propõe-se refletir sobre as relações entre a arte da performance portuguesa e a guerra colonial portuguesa. A simultaneidade no tempo histórico, entre os anos de 1960-1970, levaria a crer que, tal como aconteceu com as temáticas da Ditadura/Revolução, a guerra colonial pudesse ter sido abordada pela performance desenvolvida em Portugal. Contudo, paradoxalmente, se até recentemente não havia registos de nenhuma obra de arte da performance portuguesa desse perí...

  11. Print, Newspapers and Audiences in Colonial Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Bodil Folke

    2011-01-01

    The article addresses African and Indian newspaper networks in Kenya in the late 1940s in an Indian Ocean perspective. Newspapers were important parts of a printing culture that was sustained by Indian and African nationalist politics and economic enterprise. In this period new intermediary groups...... in newspapers. They depended on voluntary and political associations and anti-colonial struggles in Kenya and on links to nationalists in India and the passive resistance movement in South Africa. They sidestepped the European-dominated print culture and created an anti-colonial counter-voice. Editors insisted...

  12. Early colonial health developments in Mauritius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parahoo, K A

    1986-01-01

    The historical development of Mauritius and in particular the early developments in health care are crucial to an understanding of the contemporary health system. The introduction of major epidemic diseases through the movements of French soldiers to and from India and the immigration of indentured laborers from India account for the high mortality and morbidity rates in the 18th and 19th centuries and later. The colonial economy created and fortified the dependence on a single cash crop and on imported food. It also contributed toward the impoverization of large sections of the Mauritian population. The colonial era is also responsible for initiating a three tier system of health care.

  13. Impacts of Colonialism: A Research Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Ziltener

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of colonialism in Africa and Asia have never been compared in a systematic manner for a large sample of countries. This research survey presents the results of a new and thorough assessment of the highly diverse phenomenon - including length ofdomination , violence, partition, proselytization, instrumentalization of ethno-linguistic and religious cleavages, trade, direct investment, settlements, plantations, and migration -organized through a dimensional analysis (political, social, and economic impacts. It is shown that while in some areas, colonial domination has triggered profound changes in economy and social structure, others have remained almost untouched.

  14. Abyssal fiction: common shares, colonial cleavages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Montaury

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to develop a reflection on the interaction between the legacies of colonialism and traditional symbolic and cultural practices in African Portuguese-speaking spaces. From a preliminary analysis of fictional texts of wide circulation in Brazil, aims to examine the cleavages, or “abyssal lines” that constitute experiences printed in the daily life of the former Portuguese colony of Cape Verde, Mozambique and Angola.---DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21881/abriluff.2016n17a378

  15. Political caricatures in colonial Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awad, Sarah H.

    2018-01-01

    in two Egyptian newspapers: Al-Kashkūl and Al-Siyāsa al-Usbu‘iyya. This marks a unique time in Egyptian national discourse, as it was then on the road towards securing complete political independence from British occupation. The visual analysis of the 322 caricatures aims to interpret the meanings......Images represent in one form or another the perceived reality of a time. The image projects this perception into the world where receiving audiences are invited to reflect upon it and react to it. This paper looks at images of political caricatures published between the years of 1926 and 1931...... embodied in those images in relation to the newly defined nation. The lens of social and cultural psychology is used to understand the politics of those images in visually constructing national identity, positioning different social actors in the social and political context, and feeding into an enduring...

  16. First isolation of oleate-dependent Enterococcus faecalis small-colony variants from the umbilical exudate of a paediatric patient with omphalitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kubota, Noriko; Kuzumoto, Kei; Hidaka, Eiko; Yoshizawa, Katsumi; Yumoto, Kayoko; Oana, Kozue; Ogiso, Yoshifumi; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Kawakami, Yoshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    An oleate-dependent Enterococcus faecalis isolate representing small-colony variants (SCVs) was isolated from the umbilical exudate of a 31-month-old Japanese male patient in Nagano Children's Hospital, Azumino, Japan. The patient had been suffering from recurrent omphalitis since early infancy. The initial E. faecalis SCV isolate formed small colonies on sheep blood agar plates and tiny colonies on chocolate and modified Drigalski agar, although no visible growth was observed in HK-semi soli...

  17. Colonies of Gyrosigma eximium: a new phenomenon in Arctic tidal flats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Wiktor

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available For the first time at Svalbard, a colonial form of the tube-dwelling diatom Gyrosigma eximium was found in summer 2010 in the tidal flats on Spitsbergen at 78°N. The colonies take the form of conical, green structures that are 1–2 cm high and are associated with other diatom taxa and cyanobacteria (Oscillatoriaceae. The diatom colonies were associated with rich meiofauna and apparently act as cohesive factors for the fine sediment. In the Arctic tidal flats, this represents the first observation of long-term sediment stabilization and biological enrichment. Since this first observation, this species has apparently colonized broader areas in Advenentelva's tidal flat.

  18. Specialization and group size: brain and behavioural correlates of colony size in ants lacking morphological castes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador-Vargas, Sabrina; Gronenberg, Wulfila; Wcislo, William T; Mueller, Ulrich

    2015-02-22

    Group size in both multicellular organisms and animal societies can correlate with the degree of division of labour. For ants, the task specialization hypothesis (TSH) proposes that increased behavioural specialization enabled by larger group size corresponds to anatomical specialization of worker brains. Alternatively, the social brain hypothesis proposes that increased levels of social stimuli in larger colonies lead to enlarged brain regions in all workers, regardless of their task specialization. We tested these hypotheses in acacia ants (Pseudomyrmex spinicola), which exhibit behavioural but not morphological task specialization. In wild colonies, we marked, followed and tested ant workers involved in foraging tasks on the leaves (leaf-ants) and in defensive tasks on the host tree trunk (trunk-ants). Task specialization increased with colony size, especially in defensive tasks. The relationship between colony size and brain region volume was task-dependent, supporting the TSH. Specifically, as colony size increased, the relative size of regions within the mushroom bodies of the brain decreased in trunk-ants but increased in leaf-ants; those regions play important roles in learning and memory. Our findings suggest that workers specialized in defence may have reduced learning abilities relative to leaf-ants; these inferences remain to be tested. In societies with monomorphic workers, brain polymorphism enhanced by group size could be a mechanism by which division of labour is achieved. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Variability of isolated colonies in bean nodulating Rhizobium strains before and after exposure to high temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raposeiras Rui

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Irregular response to bean plants to Rhizobium inoculation has been attributed to among other factors, low competitive ability, low N2 fixation efficiency and genetic instability of the symbiont. This genetic instability caused by high rates of genomic rearrangements and/or plasmid deletions can be accentuated by high temperatures. This fact may limit the utilization of these strains as inoculants, especially in tropical soils. In this study, the variability of isolated colonies derived from effective R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli (SLP1.3 and BR 10.026 and R tropici (SLA2.2 and BR322 strains was evaluated before and after exposure to high temperatures (four consecutive thermal shocks at 45masculineC. This evaluation involved plant dry matter analysis of inoculated plants and genotypic (plasmid profile and genomic patterns via RAPD analysis of the Rhizobium strains. The results evidenced that high temperature improve the natural performance variability especially between isolated colonies from R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli strains. The plasmid profile of isolated colonies from R. tropici strains were identical regardless of temperature treatment whereas isolated colonies from R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli alterations were detected especially after the thermal treatment. The genomic patterns generated by AP-PCR showed more alterations and genetic variation in isolated colonies from R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli strains indicating that R. tropici strains are more stable and lower affected by high temperature.

  20. Latin America: Essays Interpretating Colonial Legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pia López

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A large part of the Latin–American literature of the 19th and 20th century tried to deal with the national question intertwining different dimensions: the weight of colonial legacy, the cultural peculiarity of the nation and the inner relations between social classes and ethnic groups. Thinking the nation implied, in any case, to think the difference and the conflict with others, as well as the inner conflict and the logic of local colonialism. Analyzing some of these essays that played a central role in such process of recasting the origin of the nation, the author moves around three main axes: the formulation of dualist writings (colonial/national; white /indigenous; civilization/wilderness, the issue of language (the language inherited from the colonial experience versus the multilingual nature of indigenous Latin American societies, and the hypothesis about the birth of the nation – appointed to different groups – and its normal functioning as legitimization of the order sprung from independences.

  1. English Literatures in Post-Colonial Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dass, Rozita

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of a vibrant literary, culture and arts scene promotes Singapore's claims as a hub for arts and culture in the Asian region, and as a global arts city by the 21st century. The richness and variety of Singapore literature from the early post-colonial years are evident in the evolution of a Singapore literary culture. The diaspora of…

  2. Teaching the History of Colonial Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Leon G.

    1981-01-01

    Presents a bibliographic review essay on the topic of colonial Peru organized according to the following topics: Pre-Columbian Peru, 5500 B.C.- 1532; the conquest of Peru, 1532-1572; Peru under the Hapsburgs, 1516-1700; Bourbon Peru, 1700-1808; and the coming of independence, 1808-1821. The essay is based on a bibliography composed largely of…

  3. In the Post-Colonial Waiting Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca; Gad, Ulrik Pram

    2017-01-01

    This chapter investigates this puzzle of choosing non-sovereignty in a postcolonial setting. Historically, the question of freedom from imperial hegemony has been linked to how Western colonialism involved keeping the colonized in ‘the waiting room of history’ by insisting that they were not yet...

  4. Project Final Report: HPC-Colony II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Terry R [ORNL; Kale, Laxmikant V [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Moreira, Jose [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center

    2013-11-01

    This report recounts the HPC Colony II Project which was a computer science effort funded by DOE's Advanced Scientific Computing Research office. The project included researchers from ORNL, IBM, and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The topic of the effort was adaptive system software for extreme scale parallel machines. A description of findings is included.

  5. Policing native pleasures: a colonial history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbar, Naheem

    2012-12-01

    The moral modality of colonial power is still with us when it comes to the recreation of sexual norms of traditional or feudal society. We can examine the emergent properties of colonial knowledge anew by exploring how the colonial regime's strategic attention of regulating brothels in India differed from the analytic of power Foucault described for sexuality in European society. It turns out that amongst other things, public anxieties about the failure of adaptation by South Asians are incapable of leaving sexuality aside as a key interpretive device for their culture. The British preoccupation with reproducing the dynamics of the bourgeois matrimonial market on foreign soil in the mid-nineteenth century similarly necessitated a sociological pretext for racial purity. However, the kind of knowledge a typical traveller and employee of the East India Company brought to the Victorian public from his own researches in the brothels and streets of colonial India, which revealed how popular prostitution was as a vice amongst the officer class, was also more than a welcome imaginary relief from Christian morality; it was an alternative vision of modernity. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2012.

  6. (Neo)colonial discourse and global capitalism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For Sale - Peace of mind: (Neo)colonial discourse and the commodification of Third World Poverty in Word Vision's `telethons'". David Jefferess. Rethinking Sol Plaatje's Attitudes to Class, Empire and gender. Peter Limb. UNDER FIRE: Short autobiographical articles on repression and resistance: Introduction.

  7. Buckling instability in ordered bacterial colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Denis; Mather, William; Mondragón-Palomino, Octavio; Orozco-Fuentes, Sirio; Danino, Tal; Hasty, Jeff; Tsimring, Lev S.

    2011-04-01

    Bacterial colonies often exhibit complex spatio-temporal organization. This collective behavior is affected by a multitude of factors ranging from the properties of individual cells (shape, motility, membrane structure) to chemotaxis and other means of cell-cell communication. One of the important but often overlooked mechanisms of spatio-temporal organization is direct mechanical contact among cells in dense colonies such as biofilms. While in natural habitats all these different mechanisms and factors act in concert, one can use laboratory cell cultures to study certain mechanisms in isolation. Recent work demonstrated that growth and ensuing expansion flow of rod-like bacteria Escherichia coli in confined environments leads to orientation of cells along the flow direction and thus to ordering of cells. However, the cell orientational ordering remained imperfect. In this paper we study one mechanism responsible for the persistence of disorder in growing cell populations. We demonstrate experimentally that a growing colony of nematically ordered cells is prone to the buckling instability. Our theoretical analysis and discrete-element simulations suggest that the nature of this instability is related to the anisotropy of the stress tensor in the ordered cell colony.

  8. Buckling instability in ordered bacterial colonies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, Denis; Mather, William; Mondragón-Palomino, Octavio; Danino, Tal; Hasty, Jeff; Orozco-Fuentes, Sirio; Tsimring, Lev S

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial colonies often exhibit complex spatio-temporal organization. This collective behavior is affected by a multitude of factors ranging from the properties of individual cells (shape, motility, membrane structure) to chemotaxis and other means of cell–cell communication. One of the important but often overlooked mechanisms of spatio-temporal organization is direct mechanical contact among cells in dense colonies such as biofilms. While in natural habitats all these different mechanisms and factors act in concert, one can use laboratory cell cultures to study certain mechanisms in isolation. Recent work demonstrated that growth and ensuing expansion flow of rod-like bacteria Escherichia coli in confined environments leads to orientation of cells along the flow direction and thus to ordering of cells. However, the cell orientational ordering remained imperfect. In this paper we study one mechanism responsible for the persistence of disorder in growing cell populations. We demonstrate experimentally that a growing colony of nematically ordered cells is prone to the buckling instability. Our theoretical analysis and discrete-element simulations suggest that the nature of this instability is related to the anisotropy of the stress tensor in the ordered cell colony

  9. Turncoat Colonial Administration: The Gambian Experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The deprivations and adversities tolerated by the indigenous people were inextricably linked with the experiences of their kith and kin in Senegal whose shared colonial boundaries separated the French from the British, but not the indigenes. The conditions Gambians were subjected to from 1914 to 1945 were at variance ...

  10. African colonial boundaries and nation-building

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HDS 10

    We must take notice that the different types of frontier as described above were not static. Before the imposition of the covalent boundaries arising from the colonial experience, .... Niger covers a vast area with a landlock stretching from its southern border with Nigeria through the Sahara Desert, and the Chadian border cuts ...

  11. Colonialism and genetics of comparative development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riahi, Ideen

    2017-11-01

    This study argues that European colonial policies and former colonies' genetic variation (genetic distance to Europeans and genetic diversity) were interlinked. Over a prolonged period of time, populations that were genetically far from Europeans and had extreme levels of genetic diversity (e.g. in Sub-Saharan Africa and the Americas) adapted to environments that were significantly different from the climatic conditions of continental Europe. This resulted in a divergence in populations' resistance to infectious diseases and positive relationships between European settler mortality at the time of colonization, genetic distance to the technological frontier, and genetic diversity. I evaluate the consequences of the aforementioned relationships first, for the role of genetic distance and diversity in development (e.g. Spolaore and Wacziarg, 2009; Ashraf and Galor, 2013), and second, for studies that use European settler mortality as an instrument for institutions (e.g. Acemoglu et al., 2001). The results highlight a potential bias in the estimates of the effect of genetic distance and diversity on contemporary development in a sample of former colonies and suggest that the effect of these measures on current economic and institutional outcomes is indirect and works through Europeans' colonial policies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Evolution of life cycle, colony morphology, and host specificity in the family Hydractiniidae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglietta, Maria Pia; Cunningham, Clifford W

    2012-12-01

    Biased transitions are common throughout the tree of life. The class hydrozoa is no exception, having lost the feeding medusa stage at least 70 times. The family hydractiniidae includes one lineage with pelagic medusae (Podocoryna) and several without (e.g., Hydractinia). The benthic colony stage also varies widely in host specificity and in colony form. The five-gene phylogeny presented here requires multiple transitions between character states for medusae, host specificity, and colony phenotype. Significant phylogenetic correlations exist between medusoid form, colony morphology, and host specificity. Species with nonfeeding medusae are usually specialized on a single host type, and reticulate colonies are correlated with nonmotile hosts. The history of feeding medusae is less certain. Podocoryna is nested within five lineages lacking medusae. This requires either repeated losses of medusae, or the remarkable re-evolution of a feeding medusa after at least 150 million years. Traditional ancestral reconstruction favors medusa regain, but a likelihood framework testing biased transitions cannot distinguish between multiple losses versus regain. A hypothesis of multiple losses of feeding medusae requires transient selection pressure favoring such a loss. Populations of species with feeding medusae are always locally rare and lack of feeding medusae does not result in restricted species distribution around the world. © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  13. TEST OF ACADEMIC ENGLISH PROFICIENCY (TAEP: AN EFFORT AGAINST THE NEO-COLONIALISM IN EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masduki Masduki

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Neo-colonialism in the modern era no longer emerges physically. Rather, it appears as a mechanism control (Olssen and O‘Neill, 2004 or an influential force. Such control comes in the form of certain products which are aimed for various political or economic purposes. In the realm of language education in Indonesia, especially in the context of English Language and Teaching, certain products such as language testing system have attained a position of dominance. Thus, the tests have been employed by many institutions or organizations in Indonesia to measure nonnatives ability in English by using a standard determined by native speaker of English. In fact, our tracer study discovered that a large number of Indonesian workers communicate in English with non-native speakers of English. Therefore, an appropriate instrument to measure the English proficiency of non-native speakers is badly needed. The present research is aimed at addressing the immediate need. The research discusses the design, development, and the current use of Test of A`cademic English Proficiency (TAEP which is initiated by Language Center of Universitas Muhammadiyah Malang. Since it was legally certified and acknowledged in 2016, TAEP has been used by various institutions and organizations for national and international purposes. Further development and collaboration will conclude this article.

  14. An ant colony based resilience approach to cascading failures in cluster supply network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingcong; Xiao, Renbin

    2016-11-01

    Cluster supply chain network is a typical complex network and easily suffers cascading failures under disruption events, which is caused by the under-load of enterprises. Improving network resilience can increase the ability of recovery from cascading failures. Social resilience is found in ant colony and comes from ant's spatial fidelity zones (SFZ). Starting from the under-load failures, this paper proposes a resilience method to cascading failures in cluster supply chain network by leveraging on social resilience of ant colony. First, the mapping between ant colony SFZ and cluster supply chain network SFZ is presented. Second, a new cascading model for cluster supply chain network is constructed based on under-load failures. Then, the SFZ-based resilience method and index to cascading failures are developed according to ant colony's social resilience. Finally, a numerical simulation and a case study are used to verify the validity of the cascading model and the resilience method. Experimental results show that, the cluster supply chain network becomes resilient to cascading failures under the SFZ-based resilience method, and the cluster supply chain network resilience can be enhanced by improving the ability of enterprises to recover and adjust.

  15. Colony Fusion in a Parthenogenetic Ant, Pristomyrmex punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satow, Show; Satoh, Toshiyuki; Hirota, Tadao

    2013-01-01

    In the ant Pristomyrmex punctatus Smith (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), all young workers lay a small number of eggs parthenogenetically. Some colonies consist of monoclonal individuals that provide high inclusive fitness, according to the kin selection theory. However, in some populations, a majority of the colonies contain multiple lineages. Intracolonial genetic variation of parthenogenetic ants cannot be explained by the multiple mating of single founderesses or by the foundation of a colony by multiple foundresses, which are the usual causes of genetically diverse colonies in social insects. Here, we hypothesized that the fusion of established colonies might facilitate the formation of multiclonal colonies. Colony fusion decreases indirect benefits because of the reduction in intracolonial relatedness. However, when suitable nesting places for overwintering are scarce, colony fusion provides a strategy for the survival of colonies. Here, ants derived from different colonies were allowed to encounter one another in a container with just one nesting place. Initially, high aggression was observed; however, after several days, no aggression was observed and the ants shared the nest. When the fused colonies were allowed to transfer to two alternative nests, ants from different colonies occupied the same nest. This study highlights the importance of limiting the number of nesting places in order to understand the genetic diversity of parthenogenetic ant colonies. PMID:23895053

  16. Isolation of hemopoietic stem cell subsets from murine bone marrow: II. Evidence for an early precursor of day-12 CFU-S and cells associated with radioprotective ability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploemacher, R.E.; Brons, N.H.

    1988-01-01

    Counterflow centrifugal elutriation (CCE) in combination with plastic adherence and fluorescence-activated cell sorting were used consecutively to enrich functionally different subpopulations of pluripotent hemopoietic stem cells (HSC) from mouse bone marrow. The nonadherent CCE fractions were labeled with wheat germ agglutinin (WGA)-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and sorted according to differences in fluorescence within various windows on the basis of forward (FLS) and perpendicular (PLS) light scatter. The sorted cells were then assayed for their (1) in vivo colony-forming ability (day-7 and day-12 spleen colony-forming units [CFU-S]), (2) radioprotective ability (RPA; 30-day survival), and (3) their ability to repopulate the bone marrow or spleen over a 13-day period with day-12 CFU-S, granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming units (CFU-GM), nucleated cells, or cells associated with RPA. The highest incidence of day-12 CFU-S and cells with RPA was obtained by sorting the most WGA-positive cells with relatively high PLS (enrichment, 50- to 200-fold), lowering the effective dose (ED 50/30) to an average of 80 cells. The separative procedure enabled hemopoietic stem cells that repopulate both bone marrow and spleen with secondary RPA cells, CFU-S-12, and CFU-GM to be enriched and separated from part of the RPA cells, CFU-S-12, and cells that reconstitute the cellularity of bone marrow and spleen. These data suggest that cells generating both day-12 CFU-S and RPA cells differ from day-12 CFU-S and RPA cells themselves on the basis of PLS characteristics and affinity for WGA. Such early stem cells have also been detected in sorted fractions meeting the FLS/PLS characteristics of lymphocytes

  17. Radiosensitivity of mice and its modifiers based on the endogeneous spleen colony formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Jindo; Wagatuma, Kaoru

    1987-02-01

    In irradiated mouse hematopoietic tissue, there is a group of cells which can proliferate and form macroscopic colonies. In the spleen, the colonies formed in this manner are discrete and easy to count. In order to look into a difference of radiosensitivity between male and female and the mechanisms of the modification, such as protective agent and hormones on radiosensitivity, the spleen colony forming (SCF) is used as an indicator of reactions in the x-rays irradiated mice. A linear decrease was found in SCF depended on x-rays dose. From the colony forming after irradiation the male was more radiosensitive than female. AET protected from the injury depended on the radiation dose in male mice, but in female mice, protection effects were not observed. Gonatropin showed protective effects for radiation injury on high dose irradiation both in male and female mice. Adrenaline showed similar effects as Gonatropin. Insuline showed a negative effects of protection on 400 R irradiation, while on 600 R irradiation, protective effects were observed.

  18. "Shooting Back" in the Occupied Territories: An Anti-Colonial Participatory Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Chandni

    2015-01-01

    In this article I argue that Palestinians, in particular Palestinian youth engage in forms of cultural resistance such as filming, video production and dissemination in their everyday lives as a way to re-configure place, space, law, knowledge and violence, through a critical race, feminist, anti-colonial theoretical analysis. Recently, interest…

  19. Co-occurrence of mated workers and a mated queen in a colony of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    arnoldi (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Martin Villet *. Department of Zoology, University of the Witwatersrand, P.O.. Wits, 2050 Republic of South Africa. Received 23 March 1992; accepted 8 June 1992. A colony of Platythyrea arnold; was found to contain a functional queen and laying workers, both virgin and mated. This form ...

  20. Eboh and Traditional Medicine in Pre-Colonial Apana Social Systems

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper extols the significance of traditional medicine in the social systems of pre-colonial Apana. Traditional medicine and its practitioners maintained their popularity in the socio-cultural development of Apana. The Apana word, eboh, which exists in the plural form, refers to the practitioners of traditional medicine.

  1. Colony formation in agar: in vitro assay for haemopoietic stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicke, K.A.; Platenburg, M.G.C.; Bekkum, D.W. van

    1971-01-01

    Using a method in which embryo fibroblasts were used as feeder layers, the colony forming capacity in agar of a variety of mouse haemopoietic suspensions was compared with their CFUs content. A striking parallelism between the results of the two assays was found. In addition, under certain

  2. Observations on the contributions of environmental restraints and innate stem cell ability to hematopoietic regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duke-Cohan, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    A competitive repopulation assay utilizing chromosome markers was used to assay the reconstituting potential of hematopoietic populations. The test populations consisted of tibial murine marrow locally irradiated with doses ranging from 1.5 Gy to 8.5 Gy and of marrow generated from either murine splenic or marrow stem cells. The purpose of this assay was to assess the innate proliferative potential and microenvironmental influences on the ability to repopulate. Regardless of origin, spleen repopulating ability consistently agreed with spleen colony-forming unit (CFU-s) content. Doses of radiation from 5 Gy to 8.5 Gy diminished, by a factor of 2, the ability to repopulate marrow despite maintenance of CFU-s levels. Marrow generated from splenic stem cells had one-fifth the repopulating ability of marrow derived from marrow stem cells, even though CFU-s levels were equivalent. The results imply that the splenic environment can only maintain stem cells at the level of the CFU-s, even if the stem cells were originally of higher quality, and that their original potential cannot be regained in a marrow environment. Nevertheless, the marrow can maintain more primitive stem cells, but this reserve is drained to support CFU-s levels

  3. Influence of task switching costs on colony homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanson, Raphaël; Lachaud, Jean-Paul

    2015-06-01

    In social insects, division of labour allows colonies to optimise the allocation of workers across all available tasks to satisfy colony requirements. The maintenance of stable conditions within colonies (homeostasis) requires that some individuals move inside the nest to monitor colony needs and execute unattended tasks. We developed a simple theoretical model to explore how worker mobility inside the nest and task switching costs influence the maintenance of stable levels of task-associated stimuli. Our results indicate that worker mobility in large colonies generates important task switching costs and is detrimental to colony homeostasis. Our study suggests that the balance between benefits and costs associated with the mobility of workers patrolling inside the nest depends on colony size. We propose that several species of ants with diverse life-history traits should be appropriate to test the prediction that the proportion of mobile workers should vary during colony ontogeny.

  4. 21 CFR 866.2180 - Manual colony counter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2180 Manual colony counter. (a) Identification. A manual colony counter is a device intended for medical purposes that consists...

  5. War, dominion and sovereignty: South Atlantic colonial experiences and empire in the 1570s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Faustinoni Bonciani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available By analysing documents and historiography, the article identifies the constitution of a unified field of colonization experiences in the South Atlantic during the 1570s. Royal authority over colonial spaces was characterized, on the one hand, by the institution of politicaladministrative apparatus, and on the other, by intervention in the manorial relations to which native Africans and Americans were subjected. The latter created a point of compromise and dissension that marked the instability between colonial powers and European authorities, using a system of composite exploitation, characterized by complementarity between different statutes and forms of domination.

  6. The honeybee queen influences the regulation of colony drone production

    OpenAIRE

    Katie E. Wharton; Fred C. Dyer; Zachary Y. Huang; Thomas Getty

    2007-01-01

    Social insect colonies invest in reproduction and growth, but how colonies achieve an adaptive allocation to these life-history characters remains an open question in social insect biology. Attempts to understand how a colony's investment in reproduction is shaped by the queen and the workers have proved complicated because of the potential for queen--worker conflict over the colony's investment in males versus females. Honeybees, in which this conflict is expected to be minimal or absent, pr...

  7. Interactive/automated method to count bacterial colonies

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, Fernando C.; Ribeiro, J.E.; Martins, Ramiro

    2016-01-01

    The number of colonies in a culture is counted to calculate the concentration of bacteria in the original broth; however, manual counting can be tedious, time-consuming and imprecise. Automation of colony counting has been of increasing interest for many decades, and these methods have been shown to be more consistent than manual counting. Significant limitations of many algorithms used in automated systems are their inability to recognize overlapping colonies as distinct and to count colonie...

  8. Particle Swarm and Bacterial Foraging Inspired Hybrid Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for Numerical Function Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Mao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial bee colony (ABC algorithm has good performance in discovering the optimal solutions to difficult optimization problems, but it has weak local search ability and easily plunges into local optimum. In this paper, we introduce the chemotactic behavior of Bacterial Foraging Optimization into employed bees and adopt the principle of moving the particles toward the best solutions in the particle swarm optimization to improve the global search ability of onlooker bees and gain a hybrid artificial bee colony (HABC algorithm. To obtain a global optimal solution efficiently, we make HABC algorithm converge rapidly in the early stages of the search process, and the search range contracts dynamically during the late stages. Our experimental results on 16 benchmark functions of CEC 2014 show that HABC achieves significant improvement at accuracy and convergence rate, compared with the standard ABC, best-so-far ABC, directed ABC, Gaussian ABC, improved ABC, and memetic ABC algorithms.

  9. Colonial connections and consulting engineers 1850-1914

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Casper

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyses colonial connections and networks of British consulting engineers. It unravels how consulting engineers operated within different imperial contexts, including settler colonies, Egypt and Crown colonies in West Africa in particular. The paper also examines the close and at times...

  10. Deformed wing virus implicated in overwintering honeybee colony losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highfield, Andrea C; El Nagar, Aliya; Mackinder, Luke C M; Noël, Laure M-L J; Hall, Matthew J; Martin, Stephen J; Schroeder, Declan C

    2009-11-01

    The worldwide decline in honeybee colonies during the past 50 years has often been linked to the spread of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor and its interaction with certain honeybee viruses. Recently in the United States, dramatic honeybee losses (colony collapse disorder) have been reported; however, there remains no clear explanation for these colony losses, with parasitic mites, viruses, bacteria, and fungal diseases all being proposed as possible candidates. Common characteristics that most failing colonies share is a lack of overt disease symptoms and the disappearance of workers from what appears to be normally functioning colonies. In this study, we used quantitative PCR to monitor the presence of three honeybee viruses, deformed wing virus (DWV), acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), and black queen cell virus (BQCV), during a 1-year period in 15 asymptomatic, varroa mite-positive honeybee colonies in Southern England, and 3 asymptomatic colonies confirmed to be varroa mite free. All colonies with varroa mites underwent control treatments to ensure that mite populations remained low throughout the study. Despite this, multiple virus infections were detected, yet a significant correlation was observed only between DWV viral load and overwintering colony losses. The long-held view has been that DWV is relatively harmless to the overall health status of honeybee colonies unless it is in association with severe varroa mite infestations. Our findings suggest that DWV can potentially act independently of varroa mites to bring about colony losses. Therefore, DWV may be a major factor in overwintering colony losses.

  11. Juvenile colonies of the genus Pyrostremma Garstang, 1929 (Tunicata, Thaliacea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soest, van R.W.M.

    1974-01-01

    Four remarkable dome-shaped, apparently juvenile colonies, belonging to the genus Pyrostremma Garstang, 1929, are described from the Bermuda area. Comparison with juvenile colonies of P.agassizi (Ritter & Byxbee, 1905), and with larger colonies, fragments and loose zooids of P.agassizi and

  12. Colonial and Post-Independence Agricultural Policies in Eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper assesses the various colonial and post-colonial agricultural policies in Eastern Nigeria up to 1980, with a view to showing their impact on rural development. For clarity, the paper has been divided into two: Colonial Agricultural Policies 1946 – 1960; and, Post-Independence Agricultural Policies 1960 – 1980, with ...

  13. Colonial Conflicts in Contemporary Northern Ghana: A Historical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Northern Ghana has witnessed phenomenal increases in armed conflicts over the past three decades. Many of these conflicts are 'colonial conflicts' rooted in colonial policies, but some others have no reference to colonialism as they are occasioned by endogenous factors. The Kusasi-Mamprusi and Nawuri-Gonja conflicts ...

  14. The impact of colonial legacies and globalization processes on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, I postulate that forced migration in modern Africa is largely explained by factors deeply rooted in colonial legacies and the globalization process. For example, among the colonial historical factors someone may identify land alienation that still fuels conflicts in Zimbabwe, the colonial military doctrine based on ...

  15. The Genesis of Public Relations in British Colonial Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Rosaleen

    2001-01-01

    Demonstrates how the British Colonial Office employed public relations strategies as they administered the British colony of Northern Rhodesia before, during, and after World War II. Demonstrates how civil servants in London and colonial officials implemented public relations policies, strategies, and tactics on an ad hoc basis, covering political…

  16. Standard methods for estimating strength parameters of Apis mellifera colonies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delaplane, K.S.; Steen, van der J.J.M.; Guzman-Novoa, E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper covers measures of field colony strength, by which we mean population measures of adult bees and brood. There are generally two contexts in which an investigator wishes to measure colony strength: 1. at the beginning of a study as part of manipulations to produce uniform colonies and

  17. Deconstructive Pedagogy and Ideological Demystification in Post-Colonial Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoor, Asma; Malik, Samina

    2016-01-01

    With post-colonial Pakistan inheriting the British colonial ideological and governmental apparatus, the English literature curriculum implemented at the university level in Pakistan carried the interpellatory baggage of its colonial past. Our interdisciplinary exploration focuses on using deconstructive pedagogy to demystify and subvert the…

  18. A Post-Colonial Reading of Affirmative Action in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puamau, Priscilla Qolisaya

    2001-01-01

    Presents a post-colonial reading of affirmative action (AA) policies in Fiji, arguing that AA was a deliberate response by various predominantly indigenous Fijian post-colonial governments to counter the effects of a discriminatory colonial history that produced significant educational and employment inequality. Analyzes the mixed outcomes of AA…

  19. Military labour mobilisation in colonial Lesotho during World War II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 1940, Great Britain's wartime exploitation of the human and material resources of its colonial empire was extended to colonial Lesotho (then known as Basutoland). The aim of this article, therefore, is to trace the four-year military labour mobilisation process in that colony, with special attention to the timing, number and ...

  20. Colonial land policies in Lagos | Davies | Lagos Historical Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Land policies in colonial Lagos were variegated. They alternated between freehold at inception of colonialism in 1861, and customary tenure at the beginning of the twentieth century and later coalesced into a combination of both. The variegated nature of the colonial government's land policies created a lot of confusion in ...

  1. African Economic Development and Colonial Legacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth Austin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews how colonial rule and African actions during the colonial period affected the resources and institutional settings for subsequent economic development south of the Sahara. The issue is seen from the perspective of the dynamics of development in what was in 1900 an overwhelmingly land-abundant region characterised by shortages of labour and capital, by perhaps surprisingly extensive indigenous market activities and by varying but often low levels of political centralisation. The differential impact of French and British rule is explored, but it is argued that a bigger determinant of the differential evolution of poverty, welfare and structural change was the contrast between “settler” and “peasant” economies.

  2. Medicine, Empires, and Ethics in Colonial Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley, Helen

    2016-07-01

    This essay examines the history of European empire building and health work in sub-Saharan Africa, focusing on four patterns that shed light on the ethics of outside interventions: (1) the epidemiological and bodily harms caused by conquest and economic development; (2) the uneven and inadequate health infrastructures established during the colonial era, including certain iatrogenic consequences; (3) the ethical ambiguities and transgressions of colonial research and treatment campaigns; and (4) the concerted and inadvertent efforts to undermine African healing practices, which were not always commensurable with introduced medical techniques. This kind of historical analysis helps us home in on different kinds of ethical problems that have grown out of past asymmetries of power-between people, professions, states, and institutions-that shape the nature of international health systems to this day. © 2016 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved. ISSN 2376-6980.

  3. Designing communicating colonies of biomimetic microcapsules

    OpenAIRE

    Kolmakov, German V.; Yashin, Victor V.; Levitan, Steven P.; Balazs, Anna C.

    2010-01-01

    Using computational modeling, we design colonies of biomimetic microcapsules that exploit chemical mechanisms to communicate and alter their local environment. As a result, these synthetic objects can self-organize into various autonomously moving structures and exhibit ant-like tracking behavior. In the simulations, signaling microcapsules release agonist particles, whereas target microcapsules release antagonist particles and the permeabilities of both capsule types depend on the local part...

  4. A música na Bahia colonial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Régis Duprat

    1965-03-01

    Full Text Available No conjunto das atividades musicológicas brasileiras, as pesquisas de arquivo têm sido raras. Menor ainda o esfôrço para a recuperação de inúmeros documentos, que atestam a importância da cultura musical da época colonial e cuja riqueza inegável vem sendo comprovada nos últimos anos.

  5. Ant colony optimization and constraint programming

    CERN Document Server

    Solnon, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Ant colony optimization is a metaheuristic which has been successfully applied to a wide range of combinatorial optimization problems. The author describes this metaheuristic and studies its efficiency for solving some hard combinatorial problems, with a specific focus on constraint programming. The text is organized into three parts. The first part introduces constraint programming, which provides high level features to declaratively model problems by means of constraints. It describes the main existing approaches for solving constraint satisfaction problems, including complete tree search

  6. Ammonia Signaling in Yeast Colony Formation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palková, Z.; Váchová, Libuše

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 225, - (2003), s. 229-272 ISSN 0074-7696 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/02/0650 Grant - others:GA of Charles University(CZ) 141/2001/B-BIO/PrF and EMBO YIP for ZP Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM 113100003 Keywords : yeast colonies * ammonia * ammonium Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.286, year: 2003

  7. Representing Distant Victims: The Emergence of an Ethical Movement in Dutch Colonial Politics, 1840-1880

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maartje Janse

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to add to our understanding of the relations between the Netherlands and its colonies in the little researched period of 1840-1880 when this relation became politicised. This was a direct result of a new notion of citizenship that developed after the 1848 constitution was implemented: many believed that citizens had now become accountable for government policies, that is, as far as they were acquainted with the effects these had abroad. Colonial issues were among the first for which citizens developed new protest forms and demanded that public opinion should be taken more seriously by the government. This means that not only what happened in the colonies influenced the shape and structure of Dutch politics in an important formative stage, but also that sentiments usually connected to the introduction of the Ethical Policy can be traced back much earlier than isoften assumed.

  8. Results of the radiological survey at 3 Crammond Street, Colonie, New York (AL135)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marley, J.L.

    1987-12-01

    A number of properties in the Albany/Colonie area have been identified as being potentially contaminated with uranium originating from the former National Lead Company's uranium forming plant in Colonie, New York. The property at 3 Crammond Street in Colonie, New York was subject of a radiological investigation initiated November 14, 1985. The property was a vacant, asphalt-paved lot. A diagram of the property showing the approximate boundaries and the 5-m grid network established for measurements is shown. The rectangular lot included in the radiological survey was /approximately/18.5 m wide by 33.7 m deep. A front view of the property is shown. 13 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs

  9. Results of the radiological survey at 7 Maplewood Avenue, Colonie, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marley, J.L.

    1987-12-01

    A number of properties in the Albany/Colonie area have been identified as being potentially contaminated with uranium originating from the former National Lead Company's uranium forming plant in Colonie, New York. The property at 7 Maplewood Avenue in Colonie, New York, was the subject of a radiological investigation initiated May 8, 1986. The residential property consisted of a house and a garage located on a rectangular lot. An asphalt-paved driveway connected the garage with the street. A diagram of the property showing the approximate boundaries and the 4-m grid network established for measurements outside the house is shown. The lot included in the radiological survey was /approximately/12 m wide by 35.5 m deep. Front and rear views of the property are shown. 13 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  10. Racism and medical science in South Africa's Cape Colony in the mid- to late nineteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, H

    2000-01-01

    Racism has been a particular focus of the history of Western medicine in colonial South Africa. Much of the research to date has paradoxically interpreted Western medicine as both a handmaiden of colonialism and as a racist gatekeeper to the benefits of Western medical science. This essay suggests that while these conclusions have some validity, the framework in which they have been devised is problematic. Not only is that framework contradictory in nature, it underplays differences within Western medicine, privileges the history of explicit and intentional racial discrimination in medicine, and encourages a separate analysis of racism in law, in the medical profession, and in medical theory and practice. Using the example of the Cape Colony in South Africa, this paper shows how legislation, class, institutional setting, and popular stereotypes could influence the form, timing, and degree of racism in the medical professional, and in medical theory and practice. It also argues for an analytical distinction between 'racist medicine' and 'medical racism.'

  11. Chinua Achebe and the Post-colonial Esthetic: Writing, Identity, and National Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Gikandi

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Chinua Achebe is recognized as one of Africa's most important and influential writers, and his novels have focused on the ways in which the European tradition of the novel and African modes of expression relate to each other in both complementary and contesting ways. Achebe's novels are informed by an important theory of writing which tries to mediate the politics of the novel as a form of commentary on the emergence and transformation of nationalism which constitutes the African writer's epistemological context. Achebe's esthetic has been overdetermined by the changing discourse on representation and national identity in colonial and post-colonial Africa. His anxious quest for a post-colonial esthetic is predicated on the belief that narrative can enable the writer to express an alternative order of things opposed to realities imprisoned by imperialism and Western domination.

  12. Influence of feeding bee colonies on colony strenght and honey authenticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja KANDOLF BOROVŠAK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available For the natural development of bee colonies, there is the need for appropriate nutrition. Lack of natural honey flow must be supplemented by feeding bee colonies with sugar syrups or candy paste. This supplementary feeding encourages brood breeding and forage activity, whereby stronger colonies collect more honey. Sugar syrups can cause honey adulteration, which is more frequent with the reversing of the brood combs with the bee food, with the combs moved from the brood chamber to the upper chamber. Authentication of honey from the standpoint of the presence of sugar syrup is very complex, because there is no single method by which honey adulteration can be reliably confirmed. Feeding the colonies in spring should result in stronger colonies and hence the collection of more honey in the brood chambers. The objective of the present study was to determine whether this has effects also on honey authenticity, and to discover a simple method for detection of honey adulteration. The colonies were fed with candy paste that had added yeast and blue dye, to provide markers for detection of honey adulteration. The strength of the colonies and quantity of honey in the brood chambers were monitored. The results of the analysis of stable isotope and activity of foreign enzymes were compared with the results of yeast quantity and colour of the honey (absorbance, L*, a*, b* parameters. Detection of yeast in the honey samples and presence of colour as a consequence of added dye appear to be appropriate methods to follow honey adulteration, and further studies are ongoing.

  13. Review Essay: Governmentality in Late Colonial Korea?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Em

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Takashi Fujitani, Race for Empire: Koreans as Japanese and Japanese as Americans during World War II. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2011. 520 pp. $65 (cloth.Jun Uchida, Brokers of Empire: Japanese Settler Colonialism in Korea, 1876-1945. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2011. 500 pp. $50 (cloth.In South Korea, more so than in most other postcolonial countries, the issue of sovereignty and the colonial past remains a central feature of politics. Most recently, during a televised presidential debate on December 4, 2012, Lee Jung-hee of the Unified Progressive Party said something that likely had never been said on South Korean television: “Takaki Masao signed an oath of loyalty [to the Emperor of Japan], in his own blood, to become an officer in the Japanese [Imperial] Army. You know who he is. His Korean name is Park Chung Hee.” Lee Jung-hee then made the connection between that colonial past and the willingness to sell out the nation’s sovereignty in the present. The conservative candidate Park Geun-hye, the daughter of the late President Park Chung Hee who ruled South Korea from 1961 through 1979, and members of Park’s Saenuri Party, remain true to their “roots”: these “descendants of pro-Japanese collaborators and dictators” (again sold out South Korea’s sovereignty (on November 22, 2011 when they rammed the US-ROK Free Trade Agreement through the National Assembly.

  14. (Author)ity abroad: the life writing of colonial nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Jessica; Rafferty, Anne Marie; Snaith, Anna

    2011-09-01

    This paper asserts the significance of nurses' writing within the developing field of life writing studies. It closely examines selected letters written by nurses in the Colonial Nursing Association (CNA) and models pertinent methods of literary analysis, in order to illuminate nurses' experiences and their skills of self-authorship. The figure of the CNA nurse is an especially rich subject for study: while these women travelled across political and geographical boundaries, they also demonstrated especially flexible and multifaceted 'travelling' identities. This essay's subject holds relevance for scholars of healthcare and the humanities, nursing educators, literary critics and medical historians. This is a discussion article that first establishes the value of narrative analysis in a health care context, specifically in the context of nursing scholarship and practice, and then introduces the relevant history of the CNA. Subsequently, the article analyzes primary texts, in the form of nurses' letters, demonstrating how CNA nurses participated in and changed ideologies of gender, nation, and empire. A range of historical and contemporary sources is used to support the goals of this paper, including primary texts such as letters and speeches and secondary material such as literary criticism and colonial histories. The essay is based on research into the first twenty years of the CNA, from approximately 1896 to 1914, with a particular focus on nurses posted to Africa and the Caribbean. The article uses methods of literary and cultural analysis in order to prove that the study of nurses' writing has contemporary cross-disciplinary significance. Women employed by the CNA drew upon traditional forms of colonial rhetoric in depicting their experiences, but also adapted these forms in order to reflect their own personal and professional experiences as nurses abroad. Many CNA nurses embraced adventure, independence and professional and physical challenges. For these traits

  15. [Analysis of bactericidal material generated by electrical devices advertising bactericidal ability against bacteria on the agar gel plates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Hidekazu

    2012-11-01

    Several Japanese companies sell electrical devices advertised as effective in inactivating viruses and killing bacteria by releasing special materials, e.g., Plasmacluster ions, Nanoe particle and minus ions, into the air. These companies claim that their devices killed bacteria on plates in their own experiments. We tested device effectiveness using the same experiments from the Plasmacluster ioniser SHARP Co., Japan, the Nanoe generator Panasonic Co., Japan, and the Vion KING JIM Co., Japan, to test their advertising claims. Bactericidal ability on agar plate was tested, using Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus, and Enterococcus faecalis as follows: the medium containing a certain amount of each bacterium was put onto an agar plate and smeared. Plates were kept in a closed chamber (inner volume 14.4 m3) or a glove box (inner volume 0.2 m), with one of the devices run for 2 hours. Plates not exposed to any device were used as controls. Each plate was retrieved and put in an incubator to count the number of bacterial colonies formed on the plate. There was no significant difference in the number of colonies on plates exposed to devices compared to control, in the number for all devices, or in all bacteria tested in experiments in the 14.4 m3 chamber. These results strongly suggest that these devices have almost no bactericidal effect, at least in space exceeding this volume. Colony formation was suppressed in the glove box in all devices and in all bacteria tested except P. aeruginosa, although the degree of suppression differed among experiments. The colony formation suppression mechanism was analyzed, and indicated that:colony formation did not change even after the removal of Plasmacluster ions, Nanoe particles, or negative ions from the air, while colony formation was decreased drastically by the removal of ozone from space, which was revealed to be generated inevitably during device operation. These results strongly suggest that the

  16. Dynamics of the Presence of Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus in Honey Bee Colonies with Colony Collapse Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Chunsheng; Rivkin, Hadassah; Slabezki, Yossi; Chejanovsky, Nor

    2014-01-01

    The determinants of Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), a particular case of collapse of honey bee colonies, are still unresolved. Viruses including the Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) were associated with CCD. We found an apiary with colonies showing typical CCD characteristics that bore high loads of IAPV, recovered some colonies from collapse and tested the hypothesis if IAPV was actively replicating in them and infectious to healthy bees. We found that IAPV was the dominant pathogen and ...

  17. Quantity of Candida Colonies in Saliva: 
A Diagnostic Evaluation for Oral Candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Pei Ru; Hua, Hong; Liu, Xiao Song

    To investigate the relationship between the quantity of Candida colonies in saliva and oral candidiasis (OC), as well as to identify the threshold for distinguishing oral candidiasis from healthy carriage. A diagnostic test was conducted in 197 patients with different oral problems. The diagnosis of OC was established based on clinical features. Whole saliva samples from the subjects were cultured for Candida species. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used in this study. OC patients had significantly more Candida colony-forming units per millilitre saliva (795 cfu/ml) than asymptomatic carriers (40 cfu/ml; P candidiasis, the quantity of Candida colonies differed. The number of Candida colonies in pseudomembranous type was significantly higher than that in the erythematous type (P < 0.05). Candida albicans was the predominant species of Candida. The cut-off point with the best fit for OC diagnosis was calculated to be 266 cfu/ml. The sensitivity and specificity were 0.720 and 0.825, respectively. Analysis of the ROC curve indicated that Candida colonies had a high diagnostic value for OC, as demonstrated by the area under the curve (AUC = 0.873). Based on this study, the value of 270 cfu/ml was considered a threshold for distinguishing OC from carriage.

  18. Scientific Ability and Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Kurt A.

    2007-01-01

    Following an introductory definition of "scientific ability and creativity", product-oriented, personality and social psychological approaches to studying scientific ability are examined with reference to competence and performance. Studies in the psychometric versus cognitive psychological paradigms are dealt with in more detail. These two…

  19. Grazing impacts of the invasive bivalve Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker, 1857 on single-celled, colonial and filamentous cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Gazulha

    Full Text Available Feeding behavior of the invasive bivalve Limnoperna fortunei in the presence of single-celled, colonial, and filamentous cyanobacteria was tested in laboratory experiments to evaluate the effects of size and shape on mussel feeding. The first hypothesis holds that golden mussel filters more efficiently smaller particles, such as single cells of Microcystis, which could be more easily assimilated by its filtering apparatus. The second hypothesis sustains that L. fortunei filters more efficiently rounded colonies, such as Microcystis, which would be more easily ingested than lengthy filamentous, such as Planktothrix. Filtration rates of golden mussel in the presence of single-celled, colonial and filamentous cyanobacteria were similar. Nevertheless, there was a great difference in the ingestion and pseudofeces production rates. Single cells were widely accepted as food, while filamentous and colonial cyanobacteria were massively expelled as pseudofeces. The results confirmed the first hypothesis that golden mussel prefers to ingest smaller particles. The second hypothesis was rejected since filamentous were preferentially ingested than colonial cyanobacteria. Golden mussel has the potential to remove toxic cells (Microcystis, however this potential would be reduced in cyanobacteria blooms, where colonial forms which are preferentially rejected by L. fortunei, are predominant. In this case, the presence of this invasive bivalve could also enhance the occurrence of blooms by rejecting colonial and filamentous cyanobacteria in pseudofeces.

  20. Physical Forces Modulate Oxidative Status and Stress Defense Meditated Metabolic Adaptation of Yeast Colonies: Spaceflight and Microgravity Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Timothy G.; Allen, Patricia L.; Gunter, Margaret A.; Chiang, Jennifer; Giaever, Guri; Nislow, Corey; Birdsall, Holly H.

    2017-12-01

    Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) has broad genetic homology to human cells. Although typically grown as 1-2mm diameter colonies under certain conditions yeast can form very large (10 + mm in diameter) or `giant' colonies on agar. Giant yeast colonies have been used to study diverse biomedical processes such as cell survival, aging, and the response to cancer pharmacogenomics. Such colonies evolve dynamically into complex stratified structures that respond differentially to environmental cues. Ammonia production, gravity driven ammonia convection, and shear defense responses are key differentiation signals for cell death and reactive oxygen system pathways in these colonies. The response to these signals can be modulated by experimental interventions such as agar composition, gene deletion and application of pharmaceuticals. In this study we used physical factors including colony rotation and microgravity to modify ammonia convection and shear stress as environmental cues and observed differences in the responses of both ammonia dependent and stress response dependent pathways We found that the effects of random positioning are distinct from rotation. Furthermore, both true and simulated microgravity exacerbated both cellular redox responses and apoptosis. These changes were largely shear-response dependent but each model had a unique response signature as measured by shear stress genes and the promoter set which regulates them These physical techniques permitted a graded manipulation of both convection and ammonia signaling and are primed to substantially contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms of drug action, cell aging, and colony differentiation.

  1. Glass forming ability and magnetic properties of Co{sub (40.2−x)}Fe{sub (20.1+x)}Ni{sub 6.7}B{sub 22.7}Si{sub 5.3}Nb{sub 5} (x=0–10) bulk metallic glasses produced by suction casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarlar, Kagan [Physics Department, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Uludag University, Gorukle Campus, 16059 Bursa (Turkey); Physics Department, Kamil Ozdag Faculty of Sciences, Karamanoglu Mehmetbey University, YunusEmre Campus, 70100 Karaman (Turkey); Kucuk, Ilker, E-mail: ikucuk@uludag.edu.tr [Physics Department, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Uludag University, Gorukle Campus, 16059 Bursa (Turkey)

    2015-01-15

    The effect of Fe concentration on the glass forming ability (GFA) and magnetic properties in Co{sub (40.2−x)}Fe{sub (20.1+x)}Ni{sub 6.7}B{sub 22.7}Si{sub 5.3}Nb{sub 5} (x=0–10) bulk metallic glasses were investigated. By suction casting method, the bulk metallic glasses with diameters up to 2 mm were produced. We try to find out which Fe concentration makes an influence on Co based system's magnetic properties and glass forming ability. The curves of thermal analysis, obtained using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), show that the Co{sub (40.2−x)}Fe{sub (20.1+x)}Ni{sub 6.7}B{sub 22.7}Si{sub 5.3}Nb{sub 5} (x=0–10) have a supercooled liquid region (∆T{sub x}) of about 44 K. The saturation magnetizations (J{sub s}) for as-cast BMG alloys were in the range of 0.62 T−0.81 T. - Highlights: • The effect of Fe concentration on the glass forming ability. • The substitution of an appropriate amount of Fe can enhance the GFA. • The substitution of Fe for Co also improves soft magnetic properties of the BMGs. • The high of J{sub s} 0.62−0.81 T with a low H{sub c} of 2−289 A/m of the alloys.

  2. Rapid behavioral maturation accelerates failure of stressed honey bee colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Clint J; Søvik, Eirik; Myerscough, Mary R; Barron, Andrew B

    2015-03-17

    Many complex factors have been linked to the recent marked increase in honey bee colony failure, including pests and pathogens, agrochemicals, and nutritional stressors. It remains unclear, however, why colonies frequently react to stressors by losing almost their entire adult bee population in a short time, resulting in a colony population collapse. Here we examine the social dynamics underlying such dramatic colony failure. Bees respond to many stressors by foraging earlier in life. We manipulated the demography of experimental colonies to induce precocious foraging in bees and used radio tag tracking to examine the consequences of precocious foraging for their performance. Precocious foragers completed far fewer foraging trips in their life, and had a higher risk of death in their first flights. We constructed a demographic model to explore how this individual reaction of bees to stress might impact colony performance. In the model, when forager death rates were chronically elevated, an increasingly younger forager force caused a positive feedback that dramatically accelerated terminal population decline in the colony. This resulted in a breakdown in division of labor and loss of the adult population, leaving only brood, food, and few adults in the hive. This study explains the social processes that drive rapid depopulation of a colony, and we explore possible strategies to prevent colony failure. Understanding the process of colony failure helps identify the most effective strategies to improve colony resilience.

  3. Varroa-Virus Interaction in Collapsing Honey Bee Colonies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francis, Roy Mathew; Nielsen, Steen L.; Kryger, Per

    2013-01-01

    in honey bees and varroa mites from 23 colonies (15 apiaries) under three treatment conditions: Organic acids (11 colonies), pyrethroid (9 colonies) and untreated (3 colonies). Approximately 200 bees were sampled every month from April 2011 to October 2011, and April 2012. The 200 bees were split to 10......Varroa mites and viruses are the currently the high-profile suspects in collapsing bee colonies. Therefore, seasonal variation in varroa load and viruses (Acute-Kashmir-Israeli complex (AKI) and Deformed Wing Virus (DWV)) were monitored in a year-long study. We investigated the viral titres...... subsamples of 20 bees and analysed separately, which allows us to determine the prevalence of virus-infected bees. The treatment efficacy was often low for both treatments. In colonies where varroa treatment reduced the mite load, colonies overwintered successfully, allowing the mites and viruses...

  4. Engaging With Colonial Archives: Reflections Of An End-User

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayodeji Olukoju

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Official and/or public archives were a byproduct of colonial rule in Africa. (Archives are a byproduct of administrative governance everywhere. Given the density and diversity of colonial archival records, historians have tended to rely on them for the study of the colonial period. Publications on the use of archives have not captured the perspective of end-users, who often face peculiar challenges in the use of colonial and metropolitan archives. This paper provides an end-user perspective on colonial archives in Nigeria and the United Kingdom. It highlights the challenges of data collection and prospects of optimal use of archival source material. The discussion is of general application to users of colonial archives especially in the former British colonies in Africa.

  5. Measuring Creative Imagery Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota M. Jankowska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the decades, creativity and imagination research developed in parallel, but they surprisingly rarely intersected. This paper introduces a new theoretical model of creative imagination, which bridges creativity and imagination research, as well as presents a new psychometric instrument, called the Test of Creative Imagery Abilities (TCIA, developed to measure creative imagery abilities understood in accordance with this model. Creative imagination is understood as constituted by three interrelated components: vividness (the ability to create images characterized by a high level of complexity and detail, originality (the ability to produce unique imagery, and transformativeness (the ability to control imagery. TCIA enables valid and reliable measurement of these three groups of abilities, yielding the general score of imagery abilities and at the same time making profile analysis possible. We present the results of eight studies on a total sample of more than 1,700 participants, showing the factor structure of TCIA using confirmatory factor analysis, as well as provide data confirming this instrument’s validity and reliability. The availability of TCIA for interested researchers may result in new insights and possibilities of integrating the fields of creativity and imagination science.

  6. Multiple Input Delays Estimation Using an Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Der Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the time delay estimation of the system described in the form of discrete-time state equation with multiple input delays. To estimate the input delays, a new evolutionary computation called the artificial bee colony (ABC algorithm is utilized. This algorithm is originally motivated from the social behaviors of honeybee organization, and it has been proven to be a powerful means for solving the optimized problem. Based on the proposed algorithm, the unknown system input delays can be further solved by minimizing a quadratic cost function of the system. Two illustrative examples are provided to verify the potential of the presented method in the time delay estimation. Some simulations containing different initial condition examinations and appearance of noises are further given. Numerical results show that the proposed method can do well in the multiple inputs delay estimation of discrete-time state equations.

  7. Viability of honeybee colonies exposed to sunflowers grown from seeds treated with the neonicotinoids thiamethoxam and clothianidin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernando, M Dolores; Gámiz, Victoria; Gil-Lebrero, Sergio; Rodríguez, Inmaculada; García-Valcárcel, Ana I; Cutillas, V; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R; Flores, José M

    2018-07-01

    In this study, honeybee colonies were monitored in a field study conducted on sunflowers grown from seeds treated with the systemic neonicotinoids thiamethoxam or clothianidin. This field trial was carried out in different representative growing areas in Spain over a beekeeping season. The health and development of the colonies was assessed by measuring factors that have a significant influence on their strength and overwintering ability. The parameters assessed were: colony strength (adult bees), brood development, amount of pollen and honey stores and presence and status of the queen. The concentration of residues (clothianidin and thiamethoxam) in samples of beebread and in adult bees was at the level of ng.g -1 ; in the ranges of 0.10-2.89 ng g -1 and 0.05-0.12 ng g -1 ; 0.10-0.37 ng g -1 and 0.01-0.05 ng g -1 , respectively. Multivariate models were applied to evaluate the interaction among factors. No significant differences were found between the honeybee colonies of the different treatment groups, either exposed or not to the neonicotinoids. The seasonal development of the colonies was affected by the environmental conditions which, together with the initial strength of the bee colonies and the characteristics of the plots, had a significant effect on the different variables studied. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A thermodynamic approach towards glass-forming ability of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    metallic alloys. SONAL R PRAJAPATI, SUPRIYA KASYAP and ARUN PRATAP. ∗. Condensed Matter Physics Laboratory, Applied Physics Department, Faculty of Technology and Engineering,. The M. S. ... have studied the GFA of. Ce-based alloys, using different GFA parameters. ... Sonal R Prajapati et al. P20,24,26,28.

  9. Poor glass-forming ability of Fe-based alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, H.J.; Hu, L.N.; Zhao, X.

    2017-01-01

    processes. By using the concept of fluid cluster and supercooled liquid fragility in metallic liquids, it has been found that this dynamic transition makes the Fe-based supercooled liquids become more unstable, which leads to the poor GFA of Fe-based alloys. Further, it has been found that the degree...

  10. Grazing on colonial and filamentous, toxic and non-toxic cyanobacteria by the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pires, L.M.D.; Bontes, B.M.; Van Donk, E.; Ibelings, B.W.

    2005-01-01

    Colony forming and toxic cyanobacteria form a problem in surface waters of shallow lakes, both for recreation and wildlife. Zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, have been employed to help to restore shallow lakes in the Netherlands, dominated by cyanobacteria, to their former clear state. Zebra

  11. Compulsory Land Acquisitions In Tanganyika Revisiting The British Colonial Expropriation Principles And Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cletus Eligius Ndjovu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The British took over Tanganyika from the Germans in 1919 after the First World War. In facilitating colonial economic policies the British Colonial Government enacted Land Ordinance Cap 113 of 1923 and Land Acquisition Ordinance Cap 118 of 1926. These laws facilitated the acquisition of native lands and considerably changed the way expropriation was handled leaving behind permanent marks on the later practice. The colonial practice exposed the inner most economic intents of the British government. Use of legal phrases like for public purpose embedded in the ordinance had multiple legal interpretations and loose definition befitting the colonial economic cravings of the time. Although major provisions of the colonial acquisition laws are reflected in the later laws evidence suggests that a few elements of colonial expropriation practices have also sneaked in as silent laws of expropriation but others have not. Quite a few practices had been deliberately discarded or inadvertently forgotten for lack of a political will to purify and emulate them or due to lack of good record keeping. Using historical data and archival records from the Tanzania National Archives this study explored colonial expropriations mainly by focusing on the principles laws practices and procedures used. The main objective of the study was to identify good practices used during the said era the intended and unintended consequences of these unreported practices especially those which need to be emulated by the current laws and practices. The study concluded by shedding light on bad practices which are being exercised to date uncritically but also acknowledging good colonial expropriation practices which existed then but could be emulated. First the study insists that public purpose clause in expropriation must be affected with good and fair intentions and a mechanism to check this be set. Secondly PAPs involvement in land acquisition and compensation negotiations

  12. Girls underestimate maths ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    A study by psychologists in the US has found that high-school girls rate their competence in mathematics lower than boys, even for those with similar abilities (Front. Psychol. 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00386).

  13. Influence of Y, Gd and Sm on the glass forming ability and thermal crystallization of aluminum based alloy; Efeito das terras raras Y, Gd e Sm na tendencia a formacao de amorfo e na cristalizacao termica em ligas a base de aluminio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliaga, L.C.R.; Bolfarini, C.; Kiminami, C.S.; Botta Filho, W.J., E-mail: aliaga@ufscar.b [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (DEMa/UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais; Danez, G.P. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (PPG-CEMUFSCar), SP (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    Al-based amorphous alloys represent an important family of metals and a great scientific activity has been devoted to determine the main features of both glass forming ability (GFA) and crystallization behavior in order to have a comprehensive framework aimed at potential technological applications. Nowadays, it is well known that the best Al-based amorphous alloys are formed in ternary systems such as Al- RE-TM, where RE is a rare earth and TM a transition metal. This paper presents results of research in Al{sub 85}Ni{sub 10}RE{sub 5} alloys (RE = Y, Gd and Sm). Amorphous ribbons were processed by melt-spinning under the same conditions and subsequently characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results show appreciable micro structural differences as function of the rare earth, thus crystal is obtained for Y, nano-glassy for Gd and, fully amorphous structure for Sm. (author)

  14. Metal contaminant accumulation in the hive: Consequences for whole-colony health and brood production in the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladun, Kristen R; Di, Ning; Liu, Tong-Xian; Trumble, John T

    2016-02-01

    Metal pollution has been increasing rapidly over the past century, and at the same time, the human population has continued to rise and produce contaminants that may negatively impact pollinators. Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) forage over large areas and can collect contaminants from the environment. The primary objective of the present study was to determine whether the metal contaminants cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and selenium (Se) can have a detrimental effect on whole-colony health in the managed pollinator A. mellifera. The authors isolated small nucleus colonies under large cages and fed them an exclusive diet of sugar syrup and pollen patty spiked with Cd, Cu, Pb, and Se or a control (no additional metal). Treatment levels were based on concentrations in honey and pollen from contaminated hives around the world. They measured whole-colony health including wax, honey, and brood production; colony weight; brood survival; and metal accumulation in various life stages. Colonies treated with Cd or Cu contained more dead pupae within capped cells compared with control, and Se-treated colonies had lower total worker weights compared to control. Lead had a minimal effect on colony performance, although many members of the hive accumulated significant quantities of the metal. By examining the honey bee as a social organism through whole-colony assessments of toxicity, the authors found that the distribution of toxicants throughout the colony varied from metal to metal, some caste members were more susceptible to certain metals, and the colony's ability to grow over time may have been reduced in the presence of Se. Apiaries residing near metal-contaminated areas may be at risk and can suffer changes in colony dynamics and survival. © 2015 SETAC.

  15. Intraspecific Variation among Social Insect Colonies: Persistent Regional and Colony-Level Differences in Fire Ant Foraging Behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison A Bockoven

    Full Text Available Individuals vary within a species in many ecologically important ways, but the causes and consequences of such variation are often poorly understood. Foraging behavior is among the most profitable and risky activities in which organisms engage and is expected to be under strong selection. Among social insects there is evidence that within-colony variation in traits such as foraging behavior can increase colony fitness, but variation between colonies and the potential consequences of such variation are poorly documented. In this study, we tested natural populations of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, for the existence of colony and regional variation in foraging behavior and tested the persistence of this variation over time and across foraging habitats. We also reared single-lineage colonies in standardized environments to explore the contribution of colony lineage. Fire ants from natural populations exhibited significant and persistent colony and regional-level variation in foraging behaviors such as extra-nest activity, exploration, and discovery of and recruitment to resources. Moreover, colony-level variation in extra-nest activity was significantly correlated with colony growth, suggesting that this variation has fitness consequences. Lineage of the colony had a significant effect on extra-nest activity and exploratory activity and explained approximately half of the variation observed in foraging behaviors, suggesting a heritable component to colony-level variation in behavior.

  16. Developmental plasticity of bacterial colonies and consortia in germ-free and gnotobiotic settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pátková Irena

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacteria grown on semi-solid media can build two types of multicellular structures, depending on the circumstances. Bodies (colonies arise when a single clone is grown axenically (germ-free, whereas multispecies chimeric consortia contain monoclonal microcolonies of participants. Growth of an axenic colony, mutual interactions of colonies, and negotiation of the morphospace in consortial ecosystems are results of intricate regulatory and metabolic networks. Multicellular structures developed by Serratia sp. are characteristically shaped and colored, forming patterns that reflect their growth conditions (in particular medium composition and the presence of other bacteria. Results Building on our previous work, we developed a model system for studying ontogeny of multicellular bacterial structures formed by five Serratia sp. morphotypes of two species grown in either "germ-free" or "gnotobiotic" settings (i.e. in the presence of bacteria of other conspecific morphotype, other Serratia species, or E. coli. Monoclonal bodies show regular and reproducible macroscopic appearance of the colony, as well as microscopic pattern of its growing margin. Standard development can be modified in a characteristic and reproducible manner in close vicinity of other bacterial structures (or in the presence of their products. Encounters of colonies with neighbors of a different morphotype or species reveal relationships of dominance, cooperation, or submission; multiple interactions can be summarized in "rock – paper – scissors" network of interrelationships. Chimerical (mixed plantings consisting of two morphotypes usually produced a “consortium” whose structure is consistent with the model derived from interaction patterns observed in colonies. Conclusions Our results suggest that development of a bacterial colony can be considered analogous to embryogenesis in animals, plants, or fungi: to proceed, early stages require thorough

  17. Improving Emergency Management by Modeling Ant Colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    neighboring cell than on the master plan, DNA .21 Johnson describes emergence as a means of self-organizing from the bottom-up. In emergent systems...carrying undesirable goods, such as bird poop, back to the nest. In the event poop makes it back to the nest, the poop is rejected near the entrance of the...by Army Ants,” 1124–5. 26 migrating to a colony raiding.98 A daily traffic jam is not indicative of organizational efficiency. Also, as the

  18. Apuntes sobre el urbanismo en Brasil colonial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Durán Rocca

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available El texto que el lector tiene en sus manos pretende hacer una síntesis del proceso de formación del espacio urbano colonial brasilero, ilustrando el trayecto de una práctica espacial de más de tres siglos, derivada de la milenaria tradición urbana portuguesa. A partir del reconocimiento de la dimensión histórico-artística de la arquitectura y los hechos urbanos2, se asume la indisolubilidad entre la sociedad y el espacio que ésta produce y se conceptúa la urbanización como un proceso social.

  19. Transculturation and the Colonial Difference. Double Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Mignolo, Walter D.; Schiwy, Freya

    2007-01-01

    En el marco del concepto wallersteineano de sistema mundo moderno/ colonial –como fue modificado por Mignolo (2000)- los autores abordan el problema de la traducción/transculturación. Misioneros y antropólogos en África, Asia y Mesoamérica solían realizar traducciones unidireccionales determinadas por los intereses metropolitanos con el fin de propiciar la asimilación y la conversión. La traducción fue, ciertamente, el proceso por el cual la colonialidad del poder articuló la diferencia cultu...

  20. Combined Final Report for Colony II Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kale, Laxmikant [University of Illinois; Jones, Terry [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Moreira, Jose [IBM Corp.

    2013-10-23

    (This report was originally submmited by the lead PI (Terry Jones, ORNL) on October 22, 2013 to the program manager, Lucy Nowell. It is being submitted from University of Illinois in accordance with instructions). HPC Colony II seeks to provide portable performance for leadership class machines. Our strategy is based on adaptive system software that aims to make the intelligent decisions necessary to allow domain scientists to safely focus on their task at hand and allow the system software stack to adapt their application to the underlying architecture. This report describes the research undertaken towards these objectives and the results obtained over the performance period of the project.

  1. Intercellular Genomics of Subsurface Microbial Colonies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortoleva, Peter [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Tuncay, Kagan [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Gannon, Dennis [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Meile, Christof [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)

    2007-02-14

    This report summarizes progress in the second year of this project. The objective is to develop methods and software to predict the spatial configuration, properties and temporal evolution of microbial colonies in the subsurface. To accomplish this, we integrate models of intracellular processes, cell-host medium exchange and reaction-transport dynamics on the colony scale. At the conclusion of the project, we aim to have the foundations of a predictive mathematical model and software that captures the three scales of these systems – the intracellular, pore, and colony wide spatial scales. In the second year of the project, we refined our transcriptional regulatory network discovery (TRND) approach that utilizes gene expression data along with phylogenic similarity and gene ontology analyses and applied it successfully to E.coli, human B cells, and Geobacter sulfurreducens. We have developed a new Web interface, GeoGen, which is tailored to the reconstruction of microbial TRNs and solely focuses on Geobacter as one of DOE’s high priority microbes. Our developments are designed such that the frameworks for the TRND and GeoGen can readily be used for other microbes of interest to the DOE. In the context of modeling a single bacterium, we are actively pursuing both steady-state and kinetic approaches. The steady-state approach is based on a flux balance that uses maximizing biomass growth rate as its objective, subjected to various biochemical constraints, for the optimal values of reaction rates and uptake/release of metabolites. For the kinetic approach, we use Karyote, a rigorous cell model developed by us for an earlier DOE grant and the DARPA BioSPICE Project. We are also investigating the interplay between bacterial colonies and environment at both pore and macroscopic scales. The pore scale models use detailed representations for realistic porous media accounting for the distribution of grain size whereas the macroscopic models employ the Darcy-type flow

  2. Apuntes sobre el urbanismo en Brasil colonial

    OpenAIRE

    Luisa Durán Rocca

    2009-01-01

    El texto que el lector tiene en sus manos pretende hacer una síntesis del proceso de formación del espacio urbano colonial brasilero, ilustrando el trayecto de una práctica espacial de más de tres siglos, derivada de la milenaria tradición urbana portuguesa. A partir del reconocimiento de la dimensión histórico-artística de la arquitectura y los hechos urbanos2, se asume la indisolubilidad entre la sociedad y el espacio que ésta produce y se conceptúa la urbanización como un proceso social....

  3. Colonial Subjectification: Foucault, Christianity and Governmentality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Petterson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Foucault’s concept of pastoral power is envisioned as a technique of power developed from the medieval period and carried through into modern political rationalities. As such, it is an old power technique – which originated in Christian institutions – in a new political shape, which he coined governmentality. This article uses Foucault’s genealogy of pastoral power and governmentality to discuss the intersection of domination and technology of self in the Greenlandic colonial context and to bring out the central role of religion in Foucault’s conceptualisation of governmentality.

  4. CHRISTIANITY AND COLONIALISM IN SOME ENGLISH SHORT STORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatang Iskarna

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Colonial and postcolonial studies are often linked to the power domination of the West upon the East in the way that the East economically, politically, and socially oppressed. Colonialism is often associated with three elements, the explorers dealing with geographical information, missionaries approaching the local people culturally, and the colonial administrators ruling the colony. Gold, glory, and gospel are the European’s concern. However, in representing the relation between Christianity and colonialism there is critical dialectic amongst historians, anthropologists, Christian missions, or cultural critics. Some propose that Christianity is considered to be the religious arm of colonialism. Others state that Christianity is spread without any secular interest as it is a great commandment of Jesus Christ. A few believe that Christianity give critical resistance against colonialism. The relation between Christianity and colonialism cannot be simplified as being neutral, in complicity, or in opposition. So, it is worth-discussing to understand how European writers construct the relation between Christianity and colonialism in their literary work. How Christianity is constructed and how Christianity is related to colonialism will be discussed in this paper. Using postcolonial paradigm, two English short stories will be analyzed in that way. They are Rudyard Kipling’s “Lispeth” and Doris Lessing’s “No Witchcraft for Sale”.

  5. Impact of chlorine on the cell integrity and toxin release and degradation of colonial Microcystis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jiajia; Rao, La; Chiu, Yi-Ting; Lin, Tsair-Fuh

    2016-10-01

    The occurrence of toxic cyanobacteria in drinking water sources is problematic for water authorities as they can impair drinking water quality. Chlorine as a commonly used oxidant in water treatment plants has shown the potential to lyse cyanobacterial cells, resulting in the release of secondary metabolites which are hard to be removed during conventional water treatment processes. The majority of cyanobacterial species such as Microcystis, often occur in colonial forms under natural conditions. However, previous studies have mainly focused on the influence of chlorination on individual cyanobacterial cells due to technique limitations. A syringe dispersion method combined with a fluorescence technique (SYTOX Green stain with flow cytometry), was successfully developed for the evaluation of cell integrity of colonial Microcystis. Chlorination of Microcystis-laden water was conducted at different chlorine dosages for different colonial sizes (mucilage. There was a lag phase before cell rupture occurred and a Delayed Chick Watson Model describes the experimental data very well for the kinetics of cyanobacterial cell rupture. The growing colonial size caused increases in the lag phases but decreases in the cell lysis rates. Chlorination also induced the release of microcystins (MCs) from colonial Microcystis cells. In particular, increased levels of dissolved MCs were observed in Cheng Kung Lake (CKL) water. In summary, the reaction of chlorine with colonial cyanobacteria is more complicated than with individual cells. The efficiency of chlorine oxidation could be reduced by the cell-bound mucilage and natural water matrix. These observations may provide insights for water authorities to assess the risk to drinking water quality posed by chlorination under natural conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of arithmetical abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Levstek

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Arithmetic (from the word 'arithmos' which means 'numbers' is an elementary branch of mathematics. Numeracy is essential for understanding mathematics, so the development of arithmetic abilities has been an area of scientific research for a long time. Recent research has shown that the development of arithmetic abilities is not based only on gaining experience and learning. Some arithmetic abilities, especially the sense of quantity, are innate. Even babies are able to distinguish between groups with different number of elements and they perceive numeracy amodally. Six-month-olds distinguish between two groups with the numeracy ratio of 1 : 2. With age this ratio improves rapidly. Five-year-old children already distinguish between groups with the number ratio 7 : 8. The ability to compare two quantities begins to develop after 15 months of age and children learn how to count spontaneously, together with the acquisition of language. Speech enables children to understand number in its abstract, symbolic sense, thus opening the way to symbolic arithmetic. During the preschool period children use intuition when doing calculations, but in school the arithmetic is based on the knowledge of arithmetical algorithms. So, in order to acquire mathematical knowledge, it is necessary to incorporate memory and automate arithmetical processes, without the use of intuition. However, research has shown that intuition is very important and is even a predictive factor for the development of mathematical abilities throughout the schooling process.

  7. Disrupting the Coloniality of Being: Toward De-Colonial Ontologies in Philosophy of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Troy A.

    2012-01-01

    This essay works to bridge conversations in philosophy of education with decolonial theory. The author considers Margonis' (1999, 2011a, b) use of Rousseau (1979) and Heidegger (1962) in developing an ontological attitude that counters social hierarchies and promotes anti-colonial relations. While affirming this effort, the essay outlines a…

  8. The regulation of British colonial lunatic asylums and the origins of colonial psychiatry, 1860-1864.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Sally

    2010-05-01

    In this paper I outline a brief period in the history of the British Empire, during which colonial lunatic asylum policy began to be formulated. I begin with a scandal that erupted in Jamaica and suggest that this set in motion processes that led to critical changes in asylum administration. The first of these processes was an audit of hospitals and asylums in the colonies. The results of the audit and the policy that emerged from it marked the beginning of systematic regulation of lunatic asylum practice across the British Empire. It revealed a formulation of policy that was intended to cut across the self-governing regimes that had up to this point been allowed to evolve. Drawing on the work of Michel Foucault and Nikolas Rose, I argue that the policy and the practices associated with it contribute to an understanding of the emergence of the psy-sciences in colonial settings. They illustrate the establishment of a panoptic gaze on previously neglected insane spaces. Systematic surveillance constituted government at a distance and made colonial lunacy administration a governable discursive space. The regulation of the medical officers, lunatic attendants, and hospital boards began the process of creating a professional psychiatric workforce. I conclude with a discussion of the implications and the mixed impact of this policy change for the mentally ill across the empire, over the ensuing decades.

  9. Stable isotope enrichment in laboratory ant colonies: effects of colony age, metamorphosis, diet, and fat storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecologists use stable isotopes to infer diets and trophic levels of animals in food webs, yet some assumptions underlying these inferences have not been thoroughly tested. We used laboratory-reared colonies of Solenopsis invicta Buren (Formicidae: Solenopsidini) to test the effects of metamorphosis,...

  10. Designing communicating colonies of biomimetic microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmakov, German V; Yashin, Victor V; Levitan, Steven P; Balazs, Anna C

    2010-07-13

    Using computational modeling, we design colonies of biomimetic microcapsules that exploit chemical mechanisms to communicate and alter their local environment. As a result, these synthetic objects can self-organize into various autonomously moving structures and exhibit ant-like tracking behavior. In the simulations, signaling microcapsules release agonist particles, whereas target microcapsules release antagonist particles and the permeabilities of both capsule types depend on the local particle concentration in the surrounding solution. Additionally, the released nanoscopic particles can bind to the underlying substrate and thereby create adhesion gradients that propel the microcapsules to move. Hydrodynamic interactions and the feedback mechanism provided by the dissolved particles are both necessary to achieve the collective dynamics exhibited by these colonies. Our model provides a platform for integrating both the spatial and temporal behavior of assemblies of "artificial cells," and allows us to design a rich variety of structures capable of exhibiting complex, cooperative behavior. Due to the cell-like attributes of polymeric microcapsules and polymersomes, material systems are available for realizing our predictions.

  11. Physicians of colonial India (1757–1900)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Anu

    2016-01-01

    The period of British rule from 1757 to 1900 is marked by major sociopolitical changes and scientific breakthroughs that impacted medical systems, institutions, and practitioners in India. In addition, historians have debated whether the colonial regime used Western medicine as a tool to expand and legitimize its rule. This paper reviews the secondary literature on this subject with emphasis on the individual physicians. During this period, the practice of “Doctory” or Western medicine gained momentum in India, buoyed with the support of the British as well as Western-educated Indians. Many Indians were trained in Western medicine and employed by the administration as “native doctors” in the subordinate medical service, and the superior medical service by and large comprised Europeans. The colonial regime gradually withdrew most of its patronage to the indigenous systems of medicine. The practitioners of these systems, the vaidyas and the hakims, suffered significant loss of prestige against Western medicine's claims of being a more rational “superior” system of medicine. Some of them became purists and defended and promoted their systems, while others adopted the methods and ideas of Western medicine into their education and practice. European doctors now rarely interacted with practitioners of Indian systems, but seriously pursued research into medicinal plants and tropical diseases. There is no mention of specialist physicians in this period, and all physicians and surgeons were generalists. Folk practitioners continued to be popular among the masses. PMID:28217577

  12. Physicians of colonial India (1757-1900

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Saini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The period of British rule from 1757 to 1900 is marked by major sociopolitical changes and scientific breakthroughs that impacted medical systems, institutions, and practitioners in India. In addition, historians have debated whether the colonial regime used Western medicine as a tool to expand and legitimize its rule. This paper reviews the secondary literature on this subject with emphasis on the individual physicians. During this period, the practice of "Doctory" or Western medicine gained momentum in India, buoyed with the support of the British as well as Western-educated Indians. Many Indians were trained in Western medicine and employed by the administration as "native doctors" in the subordinate medical service, and the superior medical service by and large comprised Europeans. The colonial regime gradually withdrew most of its patronage to the indigenous systems of medicine. The practitioners of these systems, the vaidyas and the hakims, suffered significant loss of prestige against Western medicine′s claims of being a more rational "superior" system of medicine. Some of them became purists and defended and promoted their systems, while others adopted the methods and ideas of Western medicine into their education and practice. European doctors now rarely interacted with practitioners of Indian systems, but seriously pursued research into medicinal plants and tropical diseases. There is no mention of specialist physicians in this period, and all physicians and surgeons were generalists. Folk practitioners continued to be popular among the masses.

  13. Physicians of colonial India (1757-1900).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Anu

    2016-01-01

    The period of British rule from 1757 to 1900 is marked by major sociopolitical changes and scientific breakthroughs that impacted medical systems, institutions, and practitioners in India. In addition, historians have debated whether the colonial regime used Western medicine as a tool to expand and legitimize its rule. This paper reviews the secondary literature on this subject with emphasis on the individual physicians. During this period, the practice of "Doctory" or Western medicine gained momentum in India, buoyed with the support of the British as well as Western-educated Indians. Many Indians were trained in Western medicine and employed by the administration as "native doctors" in the subordinate medical service, and the superior medical service by and large comprised Europeans. The colonial regime gradually withdrew most of its patronage to the indigenous systems of medicine. The practitioners of these systems, the vaidyas and the hakims , suffered significant loss of prestige against Western medicine's claims of being a more rational "superior" system of medicine. Some of them became purists and defended and promoted their systems, while others adopted the methods and ideas of Western medicine into their education and practice. European doctors now rarely interacted with practitioners of Indian systems, but seriously pursued research into medicinal plants and tropical diseases. There is no mention of specialist physicians in this period, and all physicians and surgeons were generalists. Folk practitioners continued to be popular among the masses.

  14. First recorded loss of an emperor penguin colony in the recent period of Antarctic regional warming: implications for other colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trathan, Philip N; Fretwell, Peter T; Stonehouse, Bernard

    2011-02-28

    In 1948, a small colony of emperor penguins Aptenodytes forsteri was discovered breeding on Emperor Island (67° 51' 52″ S, 68° 42' 20″ W), in the Dion Islands, close to the West Antarctic Peninsula (Stonehouse 1952). When discovered, the colony comprised approximately 150 breeding pairs; these numbers were maintained until 1970, after which time the colony showed a continuous decline. By 1999 there were fewer than 20 pairs, and in 2009 high-resolution aerial photography revealed no remaining trace of the colony. Here we relate the decline and loss of the Emperor Island colony to a well-documented rise in local mean annual air temperature and coincident decline in seasonal sea ice duration. The loss of this colony provides empirical support for recent studies (Barbraud & Weimerskirch 2001; Jenouvrier et al 2005, 2009; Ainley et al 2010; Barber-Meyer et al 2005) that have highlighted the vulnerability of emperor penguins to changes in sea ice duration and distribution. These studies suggest that continued climate change is likely to impact upon future breeding success and colony viability for this species. Furthermore, a recent circumpolar study by Fretwell & Trathan (2009) highlighted those Antarctic coastal regions where colonies appear most vulnerable to such changes. Here we examine which other colonies might be at risk, discussing various ecological factors, some previously unexplored, that may also contribute to future declines. The implications of this are important for future modelling work and for understanding which colonies actually are most vulnerable.

  15. First recorded loss of an emperor penguin colony in the recent period of Antarctic regional warming: implications for other colonies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip N Trathan

    Full Text Available In 1948, a small colony of emperor penguins Aptenodytes forsteri was discovered breeding on Emperor Island (67° 51' 52″ S, 68° 42' 20″ W, in the Dion Islands, close to the West Antarctic Peninsula (Stonehouse 1952. When discovered, the colony comprised approximately 150 breeding pairs; these numbers were maintained until 1970, after which time the colony showed a continuous decline. By 1999 there were fewer than 20 pairs, and in 2009 high-resolution aerial photography revealed no remaining trace of the colony. Here we relate the decline and loss of the Emperor Island colony to a well-documented rise in local mean annual air temperature and coincident decline in seasonal sea ice duration. The loss of this colony provides empirical support for recent studies (Barbraud & Weimerskirch 2001; Jenouvrier et al 2005, 2009; Ainley et al 2010; Barber-Meyer et al 2005 that have highlighted the vulnerability of emperor penguins to changes in sea ice duration and distribution. These studies suggest that continued climate change is likely to impact upon future breeding success and colony viability for this species. Furthermore, a recent circumpolar study by Fretwell & Trathan (2009 highlighted those Antarctic coastal regions where colonies appear most vulnerable to such changes. Here we examine which other colonies might be at risk, discussing various ecological factors, some previously unexplored, that may also contribute to future declines. The implications of this are important for future modelling work and for understanding which colonies actually are most vulnerable.

  16. Coalescing colony model: Mean-field, scaling, and geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carra, Giulia; Mallick, Kirone; Barthelemy, Marc

    2017-12-01

    We analyze the coalescing model where a `primary' colony grows and randomly emits secondary colonies that spread and eventually coalesce with it. This model describes population proliferation in theoretical ecology, tumor growth, and is also of great interest for modeling urban sprawl. Assuming the primary colony to be always circular of radius r (t ) and the emission rate proportional to r (t) θ , where θ >0 , we derive the mean-field equations governing the dynamics of the primary colony, calculate the scaling exponents versus θ , and compare our results with numerical simulations. We then critically test the validity of the circular approximation for the colony shape and show that it is sound for a constant emission rate (θ =0 ). However, when the emission rate is proportional to the perimeter, the circular approximation breaks down and the roughness of the primary colony cannot be discarded, thus modifying the scaling exponents.

  17. Precarious Worlds:Danish Colonialism and World Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Baggesgaard, Mads Anders

    2016-01-01

    The role played by Denmark in the triangular slave trade and colonial chattel slavery is rarely part of the tale told about Danish literature. This article investigates the reflections of this history in Denmark and discusses how this particular colonial history and its relationship to literature can be understood on the basis of readings of three texts from Denmark and its former colony St. Thomas. The central thesis is that exactly because of the peripheral and precarious nature of the Dani...

  18. Beyond denial and exclusion: The history of relations between Christians and Muslims in the Cape Colony during the 17th–18th centuries with lessons for a post-colonial theology of religions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaco Beyers

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Learning from the past prepares one for being able to cope with the future. History is made up of strings of relationships. This article follows a historical line from colonialism, through apartheid to post-colonialism in order to illustrate inter-religious relations in South-Africa and how each context determines these relations. Social cohesion is enhanced by a post-colonial theology of religions based on the current context. By describing the relationship between Christians and Muslims during the 17th–18th centuries in the Cape Colony, lessons can be deduced to guide inter-religious relations in a post-colonial era in South Africa. One of the most prominent Muslim leaders during the 17th century in the Cape Colony was Sheik Yusuf al-Makassari. His influence determined the future face of Islam in the Cape Colony and here, during the 18th century, ethics started playing a crucial role in determining the relationship between Christians and Muslims. The ethical guidance of the Imams formed the Muslim communities whilst ethical decline was apparent amongst the Christian colonists during the same period. The place of ethics as determinative of future inter-religious dialogue is emphasised. Denial and exclusion characterised relationships between Christians and Muslims. According to a post-colonial understanding of inter-religious contact the equality and dignity of non-Christian religions are to be acknowledged. In the postcolonial and postapartheid struggle for equality, also of religions, prof Graham Duncan, to whom this article is dedicated, contributed to the process of acknowledging the plurality of the religious reality in South Africa.

  19. Characterization of rabies virus isolated from a colony of Eptesicus furinalis bats in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilene Fernandes de Almeida

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Some bat species have adapted to the expanding human population by acquiring the ability to roost in urban buildings, increasing the exposure risk for people and domestic animals, and consequently, the likelihood of transmitting rabies. Three dead bats were found in the yard of a house in an urban area of Jundiaí city in the state of São Paulo in southeast Brazil. Two of the three bats tested positive for rabies, using Fluorescent Antibody and Mouse Inoculation techniques. A large colony of Eptesicus furinalis was found in the house's attic, and of the 119 bats captured, four more tested positive for rabies. The objectives of this study were to report the rabies diagnosis, characterize the isolated virus antigenically and genetically, and study the epidemiology of the colony.

  20. Visuospatial abilities in cerebellar disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, M; Petrosini, L; Misciagna, S; Leggio, M G

    2004-02-01

    Cerebellar involvement in spatial data management has been suggested on experimental and clinical grounds. To attempt a specific analysis of visuospatial abilities in a group of subjects with focal or atrophic cerebellar damage. Visuospatial performance was tested using the spatial subtests of the WAIS, the Benton line orientation test, and two tests of mental rotation of objects-the Minnesota paper form board test (MIN) and the differential aptitude test (DAT). In the Benton line orientation test, a test of sensory analysis and elementary perception, no deficits were present in subjects with cerebellar damage. In MIN, which analyses the capacity to process bidimensional complex figures mentally, and in the DAT, which is based on mental folding and manipulation of tridimensional stimuli, subjects with cerebellar damage were impaired. The results indicate that lesions of the cerebellar circuits affect visuospatial ability. The ability to rotate objects mentally is a possible functional substrate of the observed deficits. A comparison between visuospatial performance of subjects with focal right and left cerebellar lesions shows side differences in the characteristics of the visuospatial syndrome. Thus cerebellar influences on spatial cognition appear to act on multiple cognitive modules.

  1. Detection and quantification of intracellular bacterial colonies by automated, high-throughput microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernstsen, Christina L; Login, Frédéric H; Jensen, Helene H; Nørregaard, Rikke; Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Nejsum, Lene N

    2017-08-01

    To target bacterial pathogens that invade and proliferate inside host cells, it is necessary to design intervention strategies directed against bacterial attachment, cellular invasion and intracellular proliferation. We present an automated microscopy-based, fast, high-throughput method for analyzing size and number of intracellular bacterial colonies in infected tissue culture cells. Cells are seeded in 48-well plates and infected with a GFP-expressing bacterial pathogen. Following gentamicin treatment to remove extracellular pathogens, cells are fixed and cell nuclei stained. This is followed by automated microscopy and subsequent semi-automated spot detection to determine the number of intracellular bacterial colonies, their size distribution, and the average number per host cell. Multiple 48-well plates can be processed sequentially and the procedure can be completed in one working day. As a model we quantified intracellular bacterial colonies formed by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) during infection of human kidney cells (HKC-8). Urinary tract infections caused by UPEC are among the most common bacterial infectious diseases in humans. UPEC can colonize tissues of the urinary tract and is responsible for acute, chronic, and recurrent infections. In the bladder, UPEC can form intracellular quiescent reservoirs, thought to be responsible for recurrent infections. In the kidney, UPEC can colonize renal epithelial cells and pass to the blood stream, either via epithelial cell disruption or transcellular passage, to cause sepsis. Intracellular colonies are known to be clonal, originating from single invading UPEC. In our experimental setup, we found UPEC CFT073 intracellular bacterial colonies to be heterogeneous in size and present in nearly one third of the HKC-8 cells. This high-throughput experimental format substantially reduces experimental time and enables fast screening of the intracellular bacterial load and cellular distribution of multiple

  2. The scent of supercolonies: the discovery, synthesis and behavioural verification of ant colony recognition cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulc Robert

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ants form highly social and cooperative colonies that compete, and often fight, against other such colonies, both intra- and interspecifically. Some invasive ants take sociality to an extreme, forming geographically massive 'supercolonies' across thousands of kilometres. The success of social insects generally, as well as invasive ants in particular, stems from the sophisticated mechanisms used to accurately and precisely distinguish colonymates from non-colonymates. Surprisingly, however, the specific chemicals used for this recognition are virtually undescribed. Results Here, we report the discovery, chemical synthesis and behavioural testing of the colonymate recognition cues used by the widespread and invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile. By synthesizing pure versions of these chemicals in the laboratory and testing them in behavioural assays, we show that these compounds trigger aggression among normally amicable nestmates, but control hydrocarbons do not. Furthermore, behavioural testing across multiple different supercolonies reveals that the reaction to individual compounds varies from colony to colony -- the expected reaction to true colony recognition labels. Our results also show that both quantitative and qualitative changes to cuticular hydrocarbon profiles can trigger aggression among nestmates. These data point the way for the development of new environmentally-friendly control strategies based on the species-specific manipulation of aggressive behaviour. Conclusion Overall, our findings reveal the identity of specific chemicals used for colonymate recognition by the invasive Argentine ants. Although the particular chemicals used by other ants may differ, the patterns reported here are likely to be true for ants generally. As almost all invasive ants display widespread unicoloniality in their introduced ranges, our findings are particularly relevant for our understanding of the biology of these damaging

  3. Priming Ability Emotional Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Nicola S.; Malouff, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined whether priming self-schemas relating to successful emotional competency results in better emotional intelligence performance. In the first study participants were randomly assigned to a successful emotional competency self-schema prime condition or a control condition and then completed an ability measure of emotional…

  4. Neonicotinoid pesticides can reduce honeybee colony genetic diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadège Forfert

    Full Text Available Neonicotinoid insecticides can cause a variety of adverse sub-lethal effects in bees. In social species such as the honeybee, Apis mellifera, queens are essential for reproduction and colony functioning. Therefore, any negative effect of these agricultural chemicals on the mating success of queens may have serious consequences for the fitness of the entire colony. Queens were exposed to the common neonicotinoid pesticides thiamethoxam and clothianidin during their developmental stage. After mating, their spermathecae were dissected to count the number of stored spermatozoa. Furthermore, their worker offspring were genotyped with DNA microsatellites to determine the number of matings and the genotypic composition of the colony. Colonies providing the male mating partners were also inferred. Both neonicotinoid and control queens mated with drones originating from the same drone source colonies, and stored similar number of spermatozoa. However, queens reared in colonies exposed to both neonicotinoids experienced fewer matings. This resulted in a reduction of the genetic diversity in their colonies (i.e. higher intracolonial relatedness. As decreased genetic diversity among worker bees is known to negatively affect colony vitality, neonicotinoids may have a cryptic effect on colony health by reducing the mating frequency of queens.

  5. Improved Ant Colony Clustering Algorithm and Its Performance Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Clustering analysis is used in many disciplines and applications; it is an important tool that descriptively identifies homogeneous groups of objects based on attribute values. The ant colony clustering algorithm is a swarm-intelligent method used for clustering problems that is inspired by the behavior of ant colonies that cluster their corpses and sort their larvae. A new abstraction ant colony clustering algorithm using a data combination mechanism is proposed to improve the computational efficiency and accuracy of the ant colony clustering algorithm. The abstraction ant colony clustering algorithm is used to cluster benchmark problems, and its performance is compared with the ant colony clustering algorithm and other methods used in existing literature. Based on similar computational difficulties and complexities, the results show that the abstraction ant colony clustering algorithm produces results that are not only more accurate but also more efficiently determined than the ant colony clustering algorithm and the other methods. Thus, the abstraction ant colony clustering algorithm can be used for efficient multivariate data clustering. PMID:26839533

  6. Neonicotinoid pesticides can reduce honeybee colony genetic diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troxler, Aline; Retschnig, Gina; Gauthier, Laurent; Straub, Lars; Moritz, Robin F. A.; Neumann, Peter; Williams, Geoffrey R.

    2017-01-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides can cause a variety of adverse sub-lethal effects in bees. In social species such as the honeybee, Apis mellifera, queens are essential for reproduction and colony functioning. Therefore, any negative effect of these agricultural chemicals on the mating success of queens may have serious consequences for the fitness of the entire colony. Queens were exposed to the common neonicotinoid pesticides thiamethoxam and clothianidin during their developmental stage. After mating, their spermathecae were dissected to count the number of stored spermatozoa. Furthermore, their worker offspring were genotyped with DNA microsatellites to determine the number of matings and the genotypic composition of the colony. Colonies providing the male mating partners were also inferred. Both neonicotinoid and control queens mated with drones originating from the same drone source colonies, and stored similar number of spermatozoa. However, queens reared in colonies exposed to both neonicotinoids experienced fewer matings. This resulted in a reduction of the genetic diversity in their colonies (i.e. higher intracolonial relatedness). As decreased genetic diversity among worker bees is known to negatively affect colony vitality, neonicotinoids may have a cryptic effect on colony health by reducing the mating frequency of queens. PMID:29059234

  7. REVISITING COLONIAL BEHAVIOUR IN FRENCH ALGERIA AND BRITISH INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BELKACEM BELMEKKI

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The British and the French differed in both the approach and method adopted in governing their overseas subjects during their colonial enterprise in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. This had a tremendous impact on the psyche of the colonized and was a determinant factor in shaping the nature of the relationship between the colonizers and colonized before and after independence. Therefore, this paper seeks to juxtapose the colonial behaviour of two colonial powers, French and British, in two major colonies, Algeria and India.

  8. Varroa-virus interaction in collapsing honey bee colonies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy M Francis

    Full Text Available Varroa mites and viruses are the currently the high-profile suspects in collapsing bee colonies. Therefore, seasonal variation in varroa load and viruses (Acute-Kashmir-Israeli complex (AKI and Deformed Wing Virus (DWV were monitored in a year-long study. We investigated the viral titres in honey bees and varroa mites from 23 colonies (15 apiaries under three treatment conditions: Organic acids (11 colonies, pyrethroid (9 colonies and untreated (3 colonies. Approximately 200 bees were sampled every month from April 2011 to October 2011, and April 2012. The 200 bees were split to 10 subsamples of 20 bees and analysed separately, which allows us to determine the prevalence of virus-infected bees. The treatment efficacy was often low for both treatments. In colonies where varroa treatment reduced the mite load, colonies overwintered successfully, allowing the mites and viruses to be carried over with the bees into the next season. In general, AKI and DWV titres did not show any notable response to the treatment and steadily increased over the season from April to October. In the untreated control group, titres increased most dramatically. Viral copies were correlated to number of varroa mites. Most colonies that collapsed over the winter had significantly higher AKI and DWV titres in October compared to survivors. Only treated colonies survived the winter. We discuss our results in relation to the varroa-virus model developed by Stephen Martin.

  9. Enhancement of erythroid colony growth in culture by hemin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, P.N.; Meints, R.H.; Mesner, K.

    1979-01-01

    Hemin was found to enhance the growth of murine erythroid colonies in culture. In the presence of 100 mU/ml erythropoietin (EPO), the addition of hemin (0.05-0.2 mM) resulted in the growth of twice as many colonies as were obtained with EPO alone. Hemin also significantly increased erythroid colony formation in culture in the absence of added EPO. Hemoblobin synthesis as measured by the incorporation of 59 Fe into cyclohexanone extractable heme was augmented in culture by hemin. Neither Δ-aminolevulinic acid, a hemin precursor, nor FeCl 3 increased colony number. (author)

  10. Ant- and Ant-Colony-Inspired ALife Visual Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Gary; Machado, Penousal

    2015-01-01

    Ant- and ant-colony-inspired ALife art is characterized by the artistic exploration of the emerging collective behavior of computational agents, developed using ants as a metaphor. We present a chronology that documents the emergence and history of such visual art, contextualize ant- and ant-colony-inspired art within generative art practices, and consider how it relates to other ALife art. We survey many of the algorithms that artists have used in this genre, address some of their aims, and explore the relationships between ant- and ant-colony-inspired art and research on ant and ant colony behavior.

  11. Improved Ant Colony Clustering Algorithm and Its Performance Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Clustering analysis is used in many disciplines and applications; it is an important tool that descriptively identifies homogeneous groups of objects based on attribute values. The ant colony clustering algorithm is a swarm-intelligent method used for clustering problems that is inspired by the behavior of ant colonies that cluster their corpses and sort their larvae. A new abstraction ant colony clustering algorithm using a data combination mechanism is proposed to improve the computational efficiency and accuracy of the ant colony clustering algorithm. The abstraction ant colony clustering algorithm is used to cluster benchmark problems, and its performance is compared with the ant colony clustering algorithm and other methods used in existing literature. Based on similar computational difficulties and complexities, the results show that the abstraction ant colony clustering algorithm produces results that are not only more accurate but also more efficiently determined than the ant colony clustering algorithm and the other methods. Thus, the abstraction ant colony clustering algorithm can be used for efficient multivariate data clustering.

  12. [German colonial plans for Africa in the Nazi era].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linne, Karsten

    2003-12-01

    The German colonial plans concerning Africa in the era of National Socialism ascribed a central role the sciences. Scientists of all possible fields launched into activities. Especially subjects which were directly related to the practice of colonial policies, e.g. African languages, ethnology, law, economic sciences, and medicine, were developed. There were colonial ambitions at nearly every German university, but there was one which designated to become the centre of colonial sciences: the university of Hamburg. It has to be realized that working in this field of studies protected scientists from being drafted by the army for a long time.

  13. Varroa-virus interaction in collapsing honey bee colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Roy M; Nielsen, Steen L; Kryger, Per

    2013-01-01

    Varroa mites and viruses are the currently the high-profile suspects in collapsing bee colonies. Therefore, seasonal variation in varroa load and viruses (Acute-Kashmir-Israeli complex (AKI) and Deformed Wing Virus (DWV)) were monitored in a year-long study. We investigated the viral titres in honey bees and varroa mites from 23 colonies (15 apiaries) under three treatment conditions: Organic acids (11 colonies), pyrethroid (9 colonies) and untreated (3 colonies). Approximately 200 bees were sampled every month from April 2011 to October 2011, and April 2012. The 200 bees were split to 10 subsamples of 20 bees and analysed separately, which allows us to determine the prevalence of virus-infected bees. The treatment efficacy was often low for both treatments. In colonies where varroa treatment reduced the mite load, colonies overwintered successfully, allowing the mites and viruses to be carried over with the bees into the next season. In general, AKI and DWV titres did not show any notable response to the treatment and steadily increased over the season from April to October. In the untreated control group, titres increased most dramatically. Viral copies were correlated to number of varroa mites. Most colonies that collapsed over the winter had significantly higher AKI and DWV titres in October compared to survivors. Only treated colonies survived the winter. We discuss our results in relation to the varroa-virus model developed by Stephen Martin.

  14. Central Asia, Euro-centrism and Colonialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nargis T. Nurulla-Khodzhaeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The following article should not be dismissed as yet another attempt to construct a renewed round ofrevisionism in history. On the contrary, it aims to explore the possibility of scaling down the dominant Eurocentric epistemology that served as a basis for a stereotypical frame of knowledge about Central Asia. The majority of researchers of the region do not deem the need to review the scale of contradictory clashes created by the notion of Eurocentrism. The latter is reflected in numerous articles about the frozen (and sadly deadlock dilemma on why and how were the lands of Tajiks, Uzbeks and Kazakhs divided. By publishing conventional analyses on the region's "clumsy separation", experts illustrate their subaltern, narrowly framed by the colonial world, knowledge and hence, remain as gravestones of the Eurocentric methodology. In the process of such explication, the most important role is allocated to the modern culture, which encouraged the formation of the paradox, represented to us via the paraphrased Soviet aphorism: modernity and coloniality are twin brothers. The initiation of the process of decolonizing the mind within the five republics of the region is possible. One of the solutions involves recognizing the integrity of the pluralist-cycled culture and philosophy of the region. The proposed act will allow shrinking the focus on the knowledge within the limited national units and frames (thus, lessening the degree of'fetishism of the national identity', and rather creating conditions for designing the "bridge", linking different cultures, ideologies and institutional spaces in Central Asia, as a transnational intellectual matrix. The aforementioned theory will provide a basis and structure for empirical facts, and, therefore, drive the researchers from merely constituting to critically thinking, and consequently, inspire to come upon new approaches and fields of study, connecting them with the existing, colonial experiences. It is

  15. PinaColada: peptide-inhibitor ant colony ad-hoc design algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidman, Daniel; Wolfson, Haim J

    2016-08-01

    Design of protein-protein interaction (PPI) inhibitors is a major challenge in Structural Bioinformatics. Peptides, especially short ones (5-15 amino acid long), are natural candidates for inhibition of protein-protein complexes due to several attractive features such as high structural compatibility with the protein binding site (mimicking the surface of one of the proteins), small size and the ability to form strong hotspot binding connections with the protein surface. Efficient rational peptide design is still a major challenge in computer aided drug design, due to the huge space of possible sequences, which is exponential in the length of the peptide, and the high flexibility of peptide conformations. In this article we present PinaColada, a novel computational method for the design of peptide inhibitors for protein-protein interactions. We employ a version of the ant colony optimization heuristic, which is used to explore the exponential space ([Formula: see text]) of length n peptide sequences, in combination with our fast robotics motivated PepCrawler algorithm, which explores the conformational space for each candidate sequence. PinaColada is being run in parallel, on a DELL PowerEdge 2.8 GHZ computer with 20 cores and 256 GB memory, and takes up to 24 h to design a peptide of 5-15 amino acids length. An online server available at: http://bioinfo3d.cs.tau.ac.il/PinaColada/. danielza@post.tau.ac.il; wolfson@tau.ac.il. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Colony geometry and structural complexity of the endangered species Acropora cervicornis partly explains the structure of their associated fish assemblage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban A. Agudo-Adriani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, significant efforts have been made to describe fish-habitat associations. However, most studies have oversimplified actual connections between fish assemblages and their habitats by using univariate correlations. The purpose of this study was to identify the features of habitat forming corals that facilitate and influences assemblages of associated species such as fishes. For this we developed three-dimensional models of colonies of Acropora cervicornis to estimate geometry (length and height, structural complexity (i.e., volume, density of branches, etc. and biological features of the colonies (i.e., live coral tissue, algae. We then correlated these colony characteristics with the associated fish assemblage using multivariate analyses. We found that geometry and complexity were better predictors of the structure of fish community, compared to other variables such as percentage of live coral tissue or algae. Combined, the geometry of each colony explained 40% of the variability of the fish assemblage structure associated with this coral species; 61% of the abundance and 69% of fish richness, respectively. Our study shows that three-dimensional reconstructions of discrete colonies of Acropora cervicornis provides a useful description of the colonial structural complexity and may explain a great deal of the variance in the structure of the associated coral reef fish community. This demonstration of the strongly trait-dependent ecosystem role of this threatened species has important implications for restoration and conservation efforts.

  17. Modular forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edixhoven, B.; van der Geer, G.; Moonen, B.; Edixhoven, B.; van der Geer, G.; Moonen, B.

    2008-01-01

    Modular forms are functions with an enormous amount of symmetry that play a central role in number theory, connecting it with analysis and geometry. They have played a prominent role in mathematics since the 19th century and their study continues to flourish today. Modular forms formed the

  18. A economia colonial do Grão-Pará: uma avaliação crítica (1720-1822 The colonial economy of Grão-Pará: a critical evaluation (1720-1822

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Assis Costa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Com base em exaustivo trabalho de reconstituição de séries que se estendem de 1720 a 1822, o artigo objetiva contribuir para a construção de perspectivas da economia colonial amazônica que enfatizem o contexto global - a capacidade demonstrada de se afirmar como subsistema do Império Colonial Português no contexto do mercado mundial. Ao discutir essa capacidade, avalia a evolução das condições fundamentais de escala e eficiência, entendendo-as como determinadas pelas condições locais de operação do projeto colonial. Tais condições, caracterizadas pelos fundamentos naturais únicos do bioma amazônico, são avaliadas na referência das mudanças institucionais que marcam, vigorosamente, no tempo, a trajetória da economia e sociedade regionais.Based on work of restoration of time series of some important economic variables that extend from 1720 to 1822, the paper aims to contribute to a vision of the Amazonian colonial economy that emphasizes the global context - it means a demonstrated ability to assert itself as sub-system of the Portuguese Colonial Empire in the context of world market. In discussing this capacity, the article evaluates the evolution of fundamental conditions of efficiency of the colony, considering them as determined by the peculiar features that assumed the local operation of the colonial project in Grão-Pará. These conditions, strongly characterized by the uniqueness of the natural foundations of the Amazonian biome, are evaluated in reference to the institutional changes that mark in time the trajectory of the regional economy and society.

  19. Novel Perspectives on the Characterization of Species-Dependent Optical Signatures of Bacterial Colonies by Digital Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzalewicz, Igor; Kujawińska, Małgorzata; Krauze, Wojciech; Podbielska, Halina

    2016-01-01

    The use of light diffraction for the microbiological diagnosis of bacterial colonies was a significant breakthrough with widespread implications for the food industry and clinical practice. We previously confirmed that optical sensors for bacterial colony light diffraction can be used for bacterial identification. This paper is focused on the novel perspectives of this method based on digital in-line holography (DIH), which is able to reconstruct the amplitude and phase properties of examined objects, as well as the amplitude and phase patterns of the optical field scattered/diffracted by the bacterial colony in any chosen observation plane behind the object from single digital hologram. Analysis of the amplitude and phase patterns inside a colony revealed its unique optical properties, which are associated with the internal structure and geometry of the bacterial colony. Moreover, on a computational level, it is possible to select the desired scattered/diffracted pattern within the entire observation volume that exhibits the largest amount of unique, differentiating bacterial features. These properties distinguish this method from the already proposed sensing techniques based on light diffraction/scattering of bacterial colonies. The reconstructed diffraction patterns have a similar spatial distribution as the recorded Fresnel patterns, previously applied for bacterial identification with over 98% accuracy, but they are characterized by both intensity and phase distributions. Our results using digital holography provide new optical discriminators of bacterial species revealed in one single step in form of new optical signatures of bacterial colonies: digital holograms, reconstructed amplitude and phase patterns, as well as diffraction patterns from all observation space, which exhibit species-dependent features. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on bacterial colony analysis via digital holography and our study represents an innovative approach

  20. Area-based cell colony surviving fraction evaluation: A novel fully automatic approach using general-purpose acquisition hardware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Militello, Carmelo; Rundo, Leonardo; Conti, Vincenzo; Minafra, Luigi; Cammarata, Francesco Paolo; Mauri, Giancarlo; Gilardi, Maria Carla; Porcino, Nunziatina

    2017-10-01

    The current methodology for the Surviving Fraction (SF) measurement in clonogenic assay, which is a technique to study the anti-proliferative effect of treatments on cell cultures, involves manual counting of cell colony forming units. This procedure is operator-dependent and error-prone. Moreover, the identification of the exact colony number is often not feasible due to the high growth rate leading to the adjacent colony merging. As a matter of fact, conventional assessment does not deal with the colony size, which is generally correlated with the delivered radiation dose or the administered cytotoxic agent. Considering that the Area Covered by Colony (ACC) is proportional to the colony number and size as well as to the growth rate, we propose a novel fully automatic approach exploiting Circle Hough Transform, to automatically detect the wells in the plate, and local adaptive thresholding, which calculates the percentage of ACC for the SF quantification. This measurement relies just on this covering percentage and does not consider the colony number, preventing inconsistencies due to intra- and inter-operator variability. To evaluate the accuracy of the proposed approach, we compared the SFs obtained by our automatic ACC-based method against the conventional counting procedure. The achieved results (r = 0.9791 and r = 0.9682 on MCF7 and MCF10A cells, respectively) showed values highly correlated with the measurements using the traditional approach based on colony number alone. The proposed computer-assisted methodology could be integrated in laboratory practice as an expert system for the SF evaluation in clonogenic assays. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The effect of oxalic acid applied by sublimation on honey bee colony fitness: a comparison with amitraz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Papežíková

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxalic acid is one of the organic acids used for controlling Varroa destructor, a mite parasitizing the honey bee (Apis mellifera. The aim of this work was to examine the effect of oxalic acid applied by sublimation on honey bee colony fitness, and to compare it with the effect of amitraz, a routinely used synthetic acaricide. Bee colonies of equal strength were randomly divided into two groups. In December 2014, one group was treated with amitraz in the form of aerosol, and the second group was treated with oxalic acid applied by sublimation. The colonies were monitored over winter. Dead bees found at the bottom of the hive were counted regularly and examined microscopically for infection with Nosema sp. (Microsporidia. At the end of March 2015, living foragers from each hive were sampled and individually examined for Nosema sp. infection. Colony strength was evaluated at the beginning of April. No adverse effect of oxalic acid on colony strength was observed despite the fact that the total number of dead bees was non-significantly higher in the oxalic acid-treated group. Examination of dead bees for Nosema infection did not reveal significant differences in spore numbers between the experimental groups. There was a substantial difference in living individuals, however, with a significantly higher amount of spores per bee found in the amitraz-treated colonies compared to the oxalic acid-treated colonies. Compared to amitraz, oxalic acid applied by sublimation showed no adverse effects on bee colony fitness or on successful overwintering.

  2. Novel Perspectives on the Characterization of Species-Dependent Optical Signatures of Bacterial Colonies by Digital Holography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Buzalewicz

    Full Text Available The use of light diffraction for the microbiological diagnosis of bacterial colonies was a significant breakthrough with widespread implications for the food industry and clinical practice. We previously confirmed that optical sensors for bacterial colony light diffraction can be used for bacterial identification. This paper is focused on the novel perspectives of this method based on digital in-line holography (DIH, which is able to reconstruct the amplitude and phase properties of examined objects, as well as the amplitude and phase patterns of the optical field scattered/diffracted by the bacterial colony in any chosen observation plane behind the object from single digital hologram. Analysis of the amplitude and phase patterns inside a colony revealed its unique optical properties, which are associated with the internal structure and geometry of the bacterial colony. Moreover, on a computational level, it is possible to select the desired scattered/diffracted pattern within the entire observation volume that exhibits the largest amount of unique, differentiating bacterial features. These properties distinguish this method from the already proposed sensing techniques based on light diffraction/scattering of bacterial colonies. The reconstructed diffraction patterns have a similar spatial distribution as the recorded Fresnel patterns, previously applied for bacterial identification with over 98% accuracy, but they are characterized by both intensity and phase distributions. Our results using digital holography provide new optical discriminators of bacterial species revealed in one single step in form of new optical signatures of bacterial colonies: digital holograms, reconstructed amplitude and phase patterns, as well as diffraction patterns from all observation space, which exhibit species-dependent features. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on bacterial colony analysis via digital holography and our study represents an

  3. Novel Perspectives on the Characterization of Species-Dependent Optical Signatures of Bacterial Colonies by Digital Holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzalewicz, Igor; Kujawińska, Małgorzata; Krauze, Wojciech; Podbielska, Halina

    2016-01-01

    The use of light diffraction for the microbiological diagnosis of bacterial colonies was a significant breakthrough with widespread implications for the food industry and clinical practice. We previously confirmed that optical sensors for bacterial colony light diffraction can be used for bacterial identification. This paper is focused on the novel perspectives of this method based on digital in-line holography (DIH), which is able to reconstruct the amplitude and phase properties of examined objects, as well as the amplitude and phase patterns of the optical field scattered/diffracted by the bacterial colony in any chosen observation plane behind the object from single digital hologram. Analysis of the amplitude and phase patterns inside a colony revealed its unique optical properties, which are associated with the internal structure and geometry of the bacterial colony. Moreover, on a computational level, it is possible to select the desired scattered/diffracted pattern within the entire observation volume that exhibits the largest amount of unique, differentiating bacterial features. These properties distinguish this method from the already proposed sensing techniques based on light diffraction/scattering of bacterial colonies. The reconstructed diffraction patterns have a similar spatial distribution as the recorded Fresnel patterns, previously applied for bacterial identification with over 98% accuracy, but they are characterized by both intensity and phase distributions. Our results using digital holography provide new optical discriminators of bacterial species revealed in one single step in form of new optical signatures of bacterial colonies: digital holograms, reconstructed amplitude and phase patterns, as well as diffraction patterns from all observation space, which exhibit species-dependent features. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on bacterial colony analysis via digital holography and our study represents an innovative approach

  4. In the Post-Colonial Waiting Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca; Gad, Ulrik Pram

    2017-01-01

    This chapter investigates this puzzle of choosing non-sovereignty in a postcolonial setting. Historically, the question of freedom from imperial hegemony has been linked to how Western colonialism involved keeping the colonized in ‘the waiting room of history’ by insisting that they were not yet...... the colonizers leave so that the colonized people could decide for themselves. Many anti-imperial struggles settled for nation-states each acquiring a separate, formal sovereignty-based international status. More recent versions of postcolonialism, inspired by poststructuralism and critical constructivism, have...... authority rearticulate sovereignty. As this chapter demonstrates, a universalizing European discourse on a universal norm for how to organize community and authority as a sovereign state makes a range of postcolonial choices possible, which both constructivist and some postcolonial thinking fail to fully...

  5. Virtual Archaeology in an argentina colonial estancia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia Vázquez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This is a first approach to the application of virtual reconstruction techniques of a colonial house. In Argentina it is still uncommon to perform 3D modeling of archaeological sites and especially in historical archeology. As a first step, we used the Google SketchUp to model the country house located on the banks of the Río de la Plata (Buenos Aires. It has historical significance because it belonged to a Spanish councilman, housed hundreds of slaves and was the place where stayed the troops that carried out the Second British Invasion of Buenos Aires. In this case, the 3D modeling was useful for evaluating the future excavationa and activities of preservation of cultural heritage.

  6. Stages of Colonialism in Africa: From Occupation of Land to Occupation of Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein A. Bulhan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws primarily on my own scholarship, supplemented by the limited academic resources available in the “peripheries” of the world where I live and work (namely, Somali society and Darfur, Sudan, to consider the relationship between colonialism and psychology. I first consider the history of psychology in justifying and bolstering oppression and colonialism. I then consider the ongoing intersection of colonialism and psychology in the form of metacolonialism (or coloniality. I end with thoughts about decolonizing psychological science in teaching, social, and clinical practice. To decolonize psychological science, it is necessary to transform its focus from promotion of individual happiness to cultivation of collective well-being, from a concern with instinct to promotion of human needs, from prescriptions for adjustment to affordances for empowerment, from treatment of passive victims to creation of self-determining actors, and from globalizing, top-down approaches to context-sensitive, bottom-up approaches. Only then will the field realize its potential to advance Frantz Fanon’s call for humane and just social order.

  7. Hierarchical artificial bee colony algorithm for RFID network planning optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lianbo; Chen, Hanning; Hu, Kunyuan; Zhu, Yunlong

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel optimization algorithm, namely, hierarchical artificial bee colony optimization, called HABC, to tackle the radio frequency identification network planning (RNP) problem. In the proposed multilevel model, the higher-level species can be aggregated by the subpopulations from lower level. In the bottom level, each subpopulation employing the canonical ABC method searches the part-dimensional optimum in parallel, which can be constructed into a complete solution for the upper level. At the same time, the comprehensive learning method with crossover and mutation operators is applied to enhance the global search ability between species. Experiments are conducted on a set of 10 benchmark optimization problems. The results demonstrate that the proposed HABC obtains remarkable performance on most chosen benchmark functions when compared to several successful swarm intelligence and evolutionary algorithms. Then HABC is used for solving the real-world RNP problem on two instances with different scales. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is superior for solving RNP, in terms of optimization accuracy and computation robustness.

  8. Hierarchical Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for RFID Network Planning Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianbo Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel optimization algorithm, namely, hierarchical artificial bee colony optimization, called HABC, to tackle the radio frequency identification network planning (RNP problem. In the proposed multilevel model, the higher-level species can be aggregated by the subpopulations from lower level. In the bottom level, each subpopulation employing the canonical ABC method searches the part-dimensional optimum in parallel, which can be constructed into a complete solution for the upper level. At the same time, the comprehensive learning method with crossover and mutation operators is applied to enhance the global search ability between species. Experiments are conducted on a set of 10 benchmark optimization problems. The results demonstrate that the proposed HABC obtains remarkable performance on most chosen benchmark functions when compared to several successful swarm intelligence and evolutionary algorithms. Then HABC is used for solving the real-world RNP problem on two instances with different scales. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is superior for solving RNP, in terms of optimization accuracy and computation robustness.

  9. DIDS Using Cooperative Agents Based on Ant Colony Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nur Kholish Abdurrazaq

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Intrusion detection systems (IDS play an important role in information security. Two major problems in the development of IDSs are the computational aspect and the architectural aspect. The computational or algorithmic problems include lacking ability of novel-attack detection and computation overload caused by large data traffic. The architectural problems are related to the communication between components of detection, including difficulties to overcome distributed and coordinated attacks because of the need of large amounts of distributed information and synchronization between detection components. This paper proposes a multi-agent architecture for a distributed intrusion detection system (DIDS based on ant-colony clustering (ACC, for recognizing new and coordinated attacks, handling large data traffic, synchronization, co-operation between components without the presence of centralized computation, and good detection performance in real-time with immediate alarm notification. Feature selection based on principal component analysis (PCA is used for dimensional reduction of NSL-KDD. Initial features are transformed to new features in smaller dimensions, where probing attacks (Ra-Probe have a characteristic sign in their average value that is different from that of normal activity. Selection is based on the characteristics of these factors, resulting in a two-dimensional subset of the 75% data reduction.

  10. Reading Song-Ming Records on the Pre-colonial History of the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhenping

    2008-01-01

    Chinese records of the Song-Ming period provide the context necessary for our understanding of the history of the pre-colonial Philippines. Rulers of chiefdoms in the region employed unique methods and formed far-reaching networks when trading with each other and with China. Trade was one of their ways to build domestic power structure and to establish their positions relative to one another in regional politics. They also organized missions to seek Chinese recognition of these power relations.

  11. Metabolism and resources of spherical colonies of Nostoc zetterstedtii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaj Sand; Raun, Ane-Marie Løvendahl; Borum, Jens

    2009-01-01

    Constraints imposed by the spherical form and gelatinous matrix of centimeter-thick colonies of the cyanobacterium Nostoc zetterstedtii on its functional properties were tested by examining the scaling of its composition, light absorption, photosynthesis, and respiration to individual size...... formation should prevent grazing and increase longevity and nutrient recirculation. Nostoc zetterstedtii has become one of rarest freshwater macroalgae because of widespread lake eutrophication reducing water transparency and increasing competition from taller and faster-growing stands of filamentous algae...... and higher plants....

  12. The evolution of non-reproductive workers in insect colonies with haplodiploid genetics

    OpenAIRE

    Olejarz, Jason W; Allen, Benjamin; Veller, Carl; Nowak, Martin A

    2015-01-01

    eLife digest Certain wasps, bees and ants live in highly organized social groups in which one member of a colony (the queen) produces all or almost all of the offspring. This form of social organization ? called eusociality ? raises an important question for evolutionary biology: why do individuals that forego the chance to reproduce and instead raise the offspring of others evolve? One factor linked to the evolution of eusociality in insects is a system that determines the gender of offsprin...

  13. Dynamics of the Presence of Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus in Honey Bee Colonies with Colony Collapse Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunsheng Hou

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The determinants of Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD, a particular case of collapse of honey bee colonies, are still unresolved. Viruses including the Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV were associated with CCD. We found an apiary with colonies showing typical CCD characteristics that bore high loads of IAPV, recovered some colonies from collapse and tested the hypothesis if IAPV was actively replicating in them and infectious to healthy bees. We found that IAPV was the dominant pathogen and it replicated actively in the colonies: viral titers decreased from April to September and increased from September to December. IAPV extracted from infected bees was highly infectious to healthy pupae: they showed several-fold amplification of the viral genome and synthesis of the virion protein VP3. The health of recovered colonies was seriously compromised. Interestingly, a rise of IAPV genomic copies in two colonies coincided with their subsequent collapse. Our results do not imply IAPV as the cause of CCD but indicate that once acquired and induced to replication it acts as an infectious factor that affects the health of the colonies and may determine their survival. This is the first follow up outside the US of CCD-colonies bearing IAPV under natural conditions.

  14. Dynamics of the presence of israeli acute paralysis virus in honey bee colonies with colony collapse disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Chunsheng; Rivkin, Hadassah; Slabezki, Yossi; Chejanovsky, Nor

    2014-05-05

    The determinants of Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), a particular case of collapse of honey bee colonies, are still unresolved. Viruses including the Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) were associated with CCD. We found an apiary with colonies showing typical CCD characteristics that bore high loads of IAPV, recovered some colonies from collapse and tested the hypothesis if IAPV was actively replicating in them and infectious to healthy bees. We found that IAPV was the dominant pathogen and it replicated actively in the colonies: viral titers decreased from April to September and increased from September to December. IAPV extracted from infected bees was highly infectious to healthy pupae: they showed several-fold amplification of the viral genome and synthesis of the virion protein VP3. The health of recovered colonies was seriously compromised. Interestingly, a rise of IAPV genomic copies in two colonies coincided with their subsequent collapse. Our results do not imply IAPV as the cause of CCD but indicate that once acquired and induced to replication it acts as an infectious factor that affects the health of the colonies and may determine their survival. This is the first follow up outside the US of CCD-colonies bearing IAPV under natural conditions.

  15. Music and nonmusical abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, E G

    2001-06-01

    Reports that exposure to music causes benefits in nonmusical domains have received widespread attention in the mainstream media. Such reports have also influenced public policy. The so-called "Mozart effect" actually refers to two relatively distinct phenomena. One concerns short-term increases in spatial abilities that are said to occur from listening to music composed by Mozart. The other refers to the possibility that formal training in music yields nonmusical benefits. A review of the relevant findings indicates that the short-term effect is small and unreliable. Moreover, when it is evident, it can be explained by between-condition differences in the listener's mood or levels of cognitive arousal. By contrast, the effect of music lessons on nonmusical aspects of cognitive development is still an open question. Several studies have reported positive associations between formal music lessons and abilities in nonmusical (e.g., linguistic, mathematical, and spatial) domains. Nonetheless, compelling evidence for a causal link remains elusive.

  16. Modeling the growth of Byssochlamys fulva and Neosartorya fischeri on solidified apple juice by measuring colony diameter and ergosterol content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremarin, Andréia; Longhi, Daniel Angelo; Salomão, Beatriz de Cassia Martins; Aragão, Gláucia Maria Falcão

    2015-01-16

    Byssochlamys fulva and Neosartorya fischeri are heat-resistant fungi which are a concern to food industries (e.g. apple juice industry) since their growth represents significant economic liabilities. Although the most common method used to assess fungal growth in solid substrates is by measuring the colony's diameter, it is difficult to apply this method to food substrates. Alternatively, ergosterol contents have been used to quantify fungal contamination in some types of food. The current study aimed at modeling the growth of the heat-resistant fungi B. fulva and N. fischeri by measuring the colony diameter and ergosterol content, fitting the Baranyi and Roberts model to the results, and finally establishing a correlation between the parameters of the two analytical methods. Whereas the colony diameter was measured daily, the quantification of ergosterol was performed when the colonies reached diameters of 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 mm. Results showed that B. fulva and N. fischeri were able to grow successfully on solidified apple juice at 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 °C, and the Baranyi and Roberts model showed good ability to describe growth data. The correlation curves between the parameters of colony diameter and ergosterol content were obtained with satisfactory statistical indexes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Between Past and Present: The Sociopsychological Constructs of Colonialism, Coloniality and Postcolonialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomicic, Ana; Berardi, Filomena

    2018-03-01

    If one of the major aspirations of postcolonial theory is to re-establish a balance in the relationship between the (former) colonizer and the colonized by engaging the voices of the "subaltern", and on the other hand to illuminate how power relations of the present are embedded in history (Mills 2007), we argue that important theoretical insights might inform research by anchoring post-colonial theory within a sociopsychological framework. While there is a growing corpus of sociopsychological research articles focusing on how major geopolitical events and historical processes bear on people's lives, we aim to investigate the theoretical potential of postcolonial theory within the disciplines aiming at a sociopsychological approach. By focusing on the social dynamics of power imbalances, post-colonial theory finds its operational meaning: the feelings stemming from actions committed in the past are indeed crucial in determining reparatory attitudes and policies towards members of former colonized groups. Firstly, drawing from the sociopsychological scientific production related to consequences of colonial past, seen in recent years as a growing research interest in the field, we will explore patterns and trends through a thematic analysis of literature. Social Psychology as well as adjacent disciplines can greatly benefit from this theoretical fertilization, especially in the way post-colonial ideologies relate to the symbolic promotion versus exclusion of indigenous culture (Sengupta et al., International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 36(4), 506-517, 2012). Furthermore, by comparing and contrasting the ideological cosmologies relating to this particular topic, this study aims to establish the state of knowledge in the field, to identify how research methods and thematic fields are paired, to find "gaps" and create spaces for research that become integrative of postcolonial theory. While focusing on academic production, we also hope to contribute to develop

  18. Pre‐colonial and colonial forest culture in the Presidency of Bengal

    OpenAIRE

    Somnath Ghosal

    2011-01-01

    Indian forest based culture has a long history. Until the British colonial rule (1757 -1947), Indian forest has been controlled and used by several monarchies. The features of forest based livelihoods were also quite different from one period to another. Before Muslim period, Indian forest used to be considered as an important source of resource, but exploitation was quite less compared to total forest cover. People used to admire native forest for the role it used to play. However, during Mu...

  19. Breeding site selection by colonial waterbirds given various ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The number of active colonial waterbird nests at a series of four small constructed wetlands in Cape Town was counted monthly from 1999 to 2008. In total 491 pairs belonging to 11 waterbird species were involved. Between 1997 and 2004 a number of different artificial structures were used to attract colonial waterbirds to ...

  20. Heralding the Other: Sousa, Simulacra, and Settler Colonialism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Matthew C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the role of music and music education in the perpetuation of settler colonialism (a particular colonial configuration predicated on the expulsion of indigenous people and occupation of indigenous land) within the United States. Using Baudrillard's notion of simulacra, or "false truths," to look at racialized…