Sample records for colloidal actinide transport

  1. Decreased Salinity and Actinide Mobility: Colloid-Facilitated Transport or pH Change? (United States)

    Haliena, Brian; Zheng, Hangping; Melson, Nathan; Kaplan, Daniel I; Barnett, Mark O


    Colloids have been implicated in influencing the transport of actinides and other adsorbed contaminants in the subsurface, significantly increasing their mobility. Such colloid-facilitated transport can be induced by changes in groundwater chemistry that occur, for example, when high ionic strength contaminant plumes are displaced by infiltrating rainwater. We studied the transport and mobility of Th(IV), as an analogue for Pu(IV) and other tetravalent actinides [An(IV)], in saturated columns packed with a natural heterogeneous subsurface sandy sediment. As expected, decreases in ionic strength both promoted the mobilization of natural colloids and enhanced the transport of previously adsorbed Th(IV). However, colloid-facilitated transport played only a minor role in enhancing the transport of Th(IV). Instead, the enhanced transport of Th(IV) was primarily due to the pH-dependent desorption of Th(IV) caused by the change in ionic strength. In contrast, the adsorption of Th(IV) had a marked impact on the surface charge of the sandy sediment, significantly affecting the mobility of the colloids. In the absence of Th(IV), changes in ionic strength were ineffective at releasing colloids while in the presence of Th(IV), decreases in ionic strength liberated significant concentrations of colloids. Therefore, under the conditions of our experiments which mimicked acidic, high ionic strength groundwater contaminant plumes, Th(IV) had a much greater effect on colloid transport than colloids had on Th(IV) transport.

  2. Colloid-borne forms of tetravalent actinides: a brief review. (United States)

    Zänker, Harald; Hennig, Christoph


    Tetravalent actinides, An(IV), are usually assumed to be little mobile in near-neutral environmental waters because of their low solubility. However, there are certain geochemical scenarios during which mobilization of An(IV) in a colloid-borne (waterborne) form cannot be ruled out. A compilation of colloid-borne forms of tetravalent actinides described so far for laboratory experiments together with several examples of An(IV) colloids observed in field experiments and real-world scenarios are given. They are intended to be a knowledge base and a tool for those who have to interpret actinide behavior under environmental conditions. Synthetic colloids containing structural An(IV) and synthetic colloids carrying adsorbed An(IV) are considered. Their behavior is compared with the behavior of An(IV) colloids observed after the intentional or unintentional release of actinides into the environment. A list of knowledge gaps as to the behavior of An(IV) colloids is provided and items which need further research are highlighted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Oxyhydroxy Silicate Colloids: A New Type of Waterborne Actinide(IV) Colloids (United States)

    Weiss, Stephan; Hennig, Christoph; Brendler, Vinzenz; Ikeda‐Ohno, Atsushi


    Abstract At the near‐neutral and reducing aquatic conditions expected in undisturbed ore deposits or in closed nuclear waste repositories, the actinides Th, U, Np, and Pu are primarily tetravalent. These tetravalent actinides (AnIV) are sparingly soluble in aquatic systems and, hence, are often assumed to be immobile. However, AnIV could become mobile if they occur as colloids. This review focuses on a new type of AnIV colloids, oxyhydroxy silicate colloids. We herein discuss the chemical characteristics of these colloids and the potential implication for their environmental behavior. The binary oxyhydroxy silicate colloids of AnIV could be potentially more mobile as a waterborne species than the well‐known mono‐component oxyhydroxide colloids. PMID:27957406

  4. Saturated Zone Colloid Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. S. Viswanathan


    This scientific analysis provides retardation factors for colloids transporting in the saturated zone (SZ) and the unsaturated zone (UZ). These retardation factors represent the reversible chemical and physical filtration of colloids in the SZ. The value of the colloid retardation factor, R{sub col} is dependent on several factors, such as colloid size, colloid type, and geochemical conditions (e.g., pH, Eh, and ionic strength). These factors are folded into the distributions of R{sub col} that have been developed from field and experimental data collected under varying geochemical conditions with different colloid types and sizes. Attachment rate constants, k{sub att}, and detachment rate constants, k{sub det}, of colloids to the fracture surface have been measured for the fractured volcanics, and separate R{sub col} uncertainty distributions have been developed for attachment and detachment to clastic material and mineral grains in the alluvium. Radionuclides such as plutonium and americium sorb mostly (90 to 99 percent) irreversibly to colloids (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170025], Section The colloid retardation factors developed in this analysis are needed to simulate the transport of radionuclides that are irreversibly sorbed onto colloids; this transport is discussed in the model report ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170036]). Although it is not exclusive to any particular radionuclide release scenario, this scientific analysis especially addresses those scenarios pertaining to evidence from waste-degradation experiments, which indicate that plutonium and americium may be irreversibly attached to colloids for the time scales of interest. A section of this report will also discuss the validity of using microspheres as analogs to colloids in some of the lab and field experiments used to obtain the colloid retardation factors. In addition, a small fraction of colloids travels with the groundwater without any significant

  5. Experimental Evaluation of Actinide Transport in a Fractured Granodiorite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dittrich, Timothy M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reimus, Paul W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    The objective of this study was to demonstrate and evaluate new experimental methods for quantifying the potential for actinide transport in deep fractured crystalline rock formations. We selected a fractured granodiorite at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) in Switzerland as a model system because field experiments have already been conducted with uranium and additional field experiments using other actinides are planned at the site. Thus, working on this system provides a unique opportunity to compare lab experiment results with fieldscale observations. Rock cores drilled from the GTS were shipped to Los Alamos National Laboratory, characterized by x-ray diffraction and microscopy, and used in batch sorption and column breakthrough experiments. Solutions with pH 6.8 and 8.8 were tested. Solutions were switched to radionuclide-free synthetic Grimsel groundwater after near-steady actinide/colloid breakthrough occurred in column experiments. We are currently evaluating actinide adsorption/desorption rates as a function of water chemistry (initial focus on pH), with future testing planned to evaluate the influence of carbonate concentrations, flow rates, and mineralogy in solutions and suspensions with bentonite colloids. (auth)

  6. M4FT-16LL080303052-State of Knowledge for Colloid Facilitated Radionuclide Transport and Update on Actinide Diffusion in Bentonite Backfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zavarin, Mavrik [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Glenn T. Seaborg Inst.. Physical and Life Sciences; Joseph, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Glenn T. Seaborg Inst.. Physical and Life Sciences


    This progress report (Level 4 Milestone Number M4FT-16LL080303052) summarizes research conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) within the Crystalline Disposal R&D Activity Number FT-16LL080303051 and Crystalline International Collaborations Activity Number FT-16LL080303061. The focus of this research is the interaction of radionuclides with Engineered Barrier System (EBS) and host rock materials at various physico-chemical conditions relevant to subsurface repository environments. They include both chemical and physical processes such as solubility, sorption, and diffusion. The colloid-facilitated transport effort focused on preparation of a draft manuscript summarizing the state of knowledge and parameterization of colloid-facilitated transport mechanisms in support of reactive transport and performance assessment models for generic crystalline repositories. This draft manuscript is being submitted as a level 3 milestone with LANL as the primary author. LLNL’s contribution to that effort is summarized only briefly in the present report. A manuscript summarizing long-term U(VI) diffusion experiments through bentonite backfill material was recently accepted for publication; the contents of that manuscript are summarized in the present report. The Np(IV) diffusion experiments were started mid-year and are ongoing. The completion of these experiments is planned for early FY17. Our progress in quantifying Np(IV) diffusion in bentonite backfill is summarized in the present report. Our involvement with the NEA TDB project was summarized in a recent Argillite Disposal activity report. It is not included in this report.

  7. Experimental evidence for ternary colloid-facilitated transport of Th(IV) with hematite (α-Fe2O3) colloids and Suwannee River fulvic acid. (United States)

    Emerson, Hilary P; Hickok, Katherine A; Powell, Brian A


    Previous field experiments have suggested colloid-facilitated transport via inorganic and organic colloids as the primary mechanism of enhanced actinide transport in the subsurface at former nuclear weapons facilities. In this work, research was guided by the hypothesis that humic substances can enhance tetravalent actinide (An(IV)) migration by coating and mobilizing natural colloids in environmental systems and increasing An(IV) sorption to colloids. This mechanism is expected to occur under relatively acidic conditions where organic matter can sorb and coat colloid surfaces and facilitate formation of ternary colloid-ligand-actinide complexes. The objective of this work was to examine Th transport through packed columns in the presence of hematite colloids and/or Suwannee River fulvic acid (SRFA). In the presence of SRFA, with or without hematite colloids, significant transport (>60% recovery within the effluent) of thorium occurred through quartz columns. It is notable that the SRFA contributed to increased transport of both Th and hematite colloids, while insignificant transport occurred in the absence of fulvic acid. Further, in the presence of a natural sandy sediment (as opposed to pure quartz), transport is negligible in the presence of SRFA due to interactions with natural, clay-sized sediment coatings. Moreover, this data shows that the transport of Th through quartz columns is enhanced in ternary Th-colloid-SRFA and binary Th-SRFA systems as compared to a system containing only Th. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Colloid Transport and Retention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Hao; Shapiro, Alexander


    Book Description: Colloidal science and technology is one of the fastest growing research and technology areas. This book explores the cutting edge research in colloidal science and technology that will be usefull in almost every aspect of modern society. This book has a depth of information rela...

  9. Colloid facilitated transport of lanthanides through discrete fractures in chalk (United States)

    Tran, Emily; Klein Ben-David, Ofra; Teutsch, Nadya; Weisbrod, Noam


    Geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste is the internationally agreed-upon, long term solution for the disposal of long lived radionuclides and spent fuel. Eventually, corrosion of the waste canisters may lead to leakage of their hazardous contents, and the radionuclides can ultimately make their way into groundwater and pose a threat to the biosphere. Engineered bentonite barriers placed around nuclear waste repositories are generally considered sufficient to impede the transport of radionuclides from their storage location to the groundwater. However, colloidal-sized mobile bentonite particles eroding from these barriers have come under investigation as a potential transport vector for radionuclides sorbed to them. In addition, the presence of organic matter in groundwater has been shown to additionally facilitate the uptake of radionuclides by the clay colloids. This study aims to evaluate the transport behaviors of radionuclides in colloid-facilitated transport through a fractured chalk matrix and under geochemical conditions representative of the Negev desert, Israel. Lanthanides are considered an acceptable substitute to actinides for research on radionuclide transportation due to their similar chemical behavior. In this study, the migration of Ce both with and without colloidal particles was explored and compared to the migration of a conservative tracer (bromide). Tracer solutions containing known concentrations of Ce, bentonite colloids, humic acid and bromide were prepared in a matrix solution containing salt concentrations representative of that of the average rain water found in the Negev. These solutions were then injected into a flow system constructed around a naturally fractured chalk core. Samples were analyzed for Ce and Br using ICP-MS, and colloid concentrations were determined using spectrophotographic analysis. Breakthrough curves comparing the rates of transportation of each tracer were obtained, allowing for comparison of

  10. Colloid transport in dual-permeability media. (United States)

    Leij, Feike J; Bradford, Scott A


    It has been widely reported that colloids can travel faster and over longer distances in natural structured porous media than in uniform structureless media used in laboratory studies. The presence of preferential pathways for colloids in the subsurface environment is of concern because of the increased risks for disease caused by microorganisms and colloid-associated contaminants. This study presents a model for colloid transport in dual-permeability media that includes reversible and irreversible retention of colloids and first-order exchange between the aqueous phases of the two regions. The model may also be used to describe transport of other reactive solutes in dual-permeability media. Analytical solutions for colloid concentrations in aqueous and solid phases were obtained using Laplace transformation and matrix decomposition. The solutions proved convenient to assess the effect of model parameters on the colloid distribution. The analytical model was used to describe effluent concentrations for a bromide tracer and 3.2- or 1-μm-colloids that were observed after transport through a composite 10-cm long porous medium made up of a cylindrical lens or core of sand and a surrounding matrix with sand of a different grain size. The tracer data were described very well and realistic estimates were obtained for the pore-water velocity in the two flow domains. An accurate description was also achieved for most colloid breakthrough curves. Dispersivity and retention parameters were typically greater for the larger 3.2-μm-colloids while both reversible and irreversible retention rates tended to be higher for the finer sands than the coarser sand. The relatively small sample size and the complex flow pattern in the composite medium made it difficult to reach definitive conclusions regarding transport parameters for colloid transport. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Colloid transport in saturated porous media: Elimination of attachment efficiency in a new colloid transport model (United States)

    Landkamer, Lee L.; Harvey, Ronald W.; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Ryan, Joseph N.


    A colloid transport model is introduced that is conceptually simple yet captures the essential features of colloid transport and retention in saturated porous media when colloid retention is dominated by the secondary minimum because an electrostatic barrier inhibits substantial deposition in the primary minimum. This model is based on conventional colloid filtration theory (CFT) but eliminates the empirical concept of attachment efficiency. The colloid deposition rate is computed directly from CFT by assuming all predicted interceptions of colloids by collectors result in at least temporary deposition in the secondary minimum. Also, a new paradigm for colloid re-entrainment based on colloid population heterogeneity is introduced. To accomplish this, the initial colloid population is divided into two fractions. One fraction, by virtue of physiochemical characteristics (e.g., size and charge), will always be re-entrained after capture in a secondary minimum. The remaining fraction of colloids, again as a result of physiochemical characteristics, will be retained “irreversibly” when captured by a secondary minimum. Assuming the dispersion coefficient can be estimated from tracer behavior, this model has only two fitting parameters: (1) the fraction of the initial colloid population that will be retained “irreversibly” upon interception by a secondary minimum, and (2) the rate at which reversibly retained colloids leave the secondary minimum. These two parameters were correlated to the depth of the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) secondary energy minimum and pore-water velocity, two physical forces that influence colloid transport. Given this correlation, the model serves as a heuristic tool for exploring the influence of physical parameters such as surface potential and fluid velocity on colloid transport.

  12. Colloid-Facilitated Transport of Radionuclides through the Vadose Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flury, Markus; Harsh, James B.; Zachara, John M.; McCarthy, John F.; Lichtner, Peter C.


    This project seeks to improve the basic understanding of the role of colloids in facilitating the transport of contaminants in the vadose zone. We focus on three major thrusts: (1) thermodynamic stability and mobility of colloids formed by reactions of sediments with highly alkaline tank waste solutions, (2) colloid-contaminant interactions, and (3) in-situ colloid mobilization and colloid facilitated contaminant transport occurring in both contaminated and uncontaminated Hanford sediments.

  13. Actinide speciation in environmental remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plaue, Jon; Czerwinski, Ken R. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Nuclear Engineering Dept., Cambridge, MA (United States)


    Environmental actinide remediation is often performed in the absence of a clear understanding of the contaminant chemical forms. Remediation efforts are more concerned with the initial and final concentration of the contaminant actinides. Allowable final concentrations of actinides in remediation sites are mainly based on expected dose or prenegotiated levels. However, understanding the chemical forms of actinides in the environment is key to assessing their long-term behavior and developing enhanced analytical methods for their environmental detection. The dominant environmental chemical form will dictate the actinide transport behavior through solubility, colloid formation, or the interaction with natural ligands. This information can be used to evaluate the fate and potential transport of actinides. If the dominant environmental chemical species are understood, analytical methods for enhanced counting statistics and a reduction of counting error can be developed. A reduction in counting error will increase the fraction of verifiable waste below a given threshold, thereby increasing the rate of site clean up while reducing the cost. The impact of actinide speciation is presented in 2 sites contaminated with Am and Pu undergoing remediation. Actinide speciation has affected remediation strategies, regulatory response, and costs. (author)

  14. Factors influencing the transport of actinides in the groundwater environment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheppard, J.C.; Kittrick, J.A.


    This report summarizes investigations of factors that significantly influence the transport of actinide cations in the groundwater environment. Briefly, measurements of diffusion coefficients for Am(III), Cm(III), and Np(V) in moist US soils indicated that diffusion is negligible compared to mass transport in flowing groundwater. Diffusion coefficients do, however, indicate that, in the absence of flowing water, actinide elements will migrate only a few centimeters in a thousand years. The remaining investigations were devoted to the determination of distribution ratios (K/sub d/s) for representative US soils, factors influencing them, and chemical and physical processes related to transport of actinides in groundwaters. The computer code GARD was modified to include complex formation to test the importance of humic acid complexing on the rate of transport of actinides in groundwaters. Use of the formation constant and a range of humic acid, even at rather low concentrations of 10/sup -5/ to 10/sup -6/ molar, significantly increases the actinide transport rate in a flowing aquifer. These computer calculations show that any strong complexing agent will have a similar effect on actinide transport in the groundwater environment. 32 references, 9 figures.

  15. Colloid-Mediated Transport of PPCPs through Porous Media (United States)

    Chen, Xijuan; Xing, Yingna; Chen, Xin; Zhuang, Jie


    Pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) enter the soil through reclaimed water irrigation and biosolid land application. Colloids, such as clays that are present in soil, may interact with PPCPs to affect their fate and transport in the subsurface environment. This study addresses how soil colloids mediate the sorption and transport behaviors of PPCPs through laboratory column experiments. The affinities of PPCPs for colloids as well as the influence factors were investigated. For PPCPs that have high sorption (e.g., ciprofloxacin with Kd ˜104-5 L/kg) on soil colloids, the transport is dominantly controlled by colloids, with a higher extent of colloid-facilitated effect at lower ionic strength. For PPCPs that have intermediate sorption (e.g., tetracycline with Kd ˜103-4 L/kg) on soil colloids, the mobility of dissolved and colloid-bound PPCPs respond oppositely to the effect of changes in solution ionic strength, making the net effect of soil colloids on PPCP transport variable with soil solution chemistry. For PPCPs with low sorption (e.g., ibuprofen with Kd ˜102-3 L/kg) on soil colloids, other measures (such as pre-filtration) must be taken. This study suggested that colloids are significant carriers of PPCPs in the subsurface environment and could affect their off-site environmental risks.

  16. Colloid suspension stability and transport through unsaturated porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGraw, M.A.; Kaplan, D.I.


    Contaminant transport is traditionally modeled in a two-phase system: a mobile aqueous phase and an immobile solid phase. Over the last 15 years, there has been an increasing awareness of a third, mobile solid phase. This mobile solid phase, or mobile colloids, are organic or inorganic submicron-sized particles that move with groundwater flow. When colloids are present, the net effect on radionuclide transport is that radionuclides can move faster through the system. It is not known whether mobile colloids exist in the subsurface environment of the Hanford Site. Furthermore, it is not known if mobile colloids would likely exist in a plume emanating from a Low Level Waste (LLW) disposal site. No attempt was made in this study to ascertain whether colloids would form. Instead, experiments and calculations were conducted to evaluate the likelihood that colloids, if formed, would remain in suspension and move through saturated and unsaturated sediments. The objectives of this study were to evaluate three aspects of colloid-facilitated transport of radionuclides as they specifically relate to the LLW Performance Assessment. These objectives were: (1) determine if the chemical conditions likely to exist in the near and far field of the proposed disposal site are prone to induce flocculation (settling of colloids from suspension) or dispersion of naturally occurring Hanford colloids, (2) identify the important mechanisms likely involved in the removal of colloids from a Hanford sediment, and (3) determine if colloids can move through unsaturated porous media.

  17. Colloid mobilization and transport during capillary fringe fluctuations. (United States)

    Aramrak, Surachet; Flury, Markus; Harsh, James B; Zollars, Richard L


    Capillary fringe fluctuations due to changing water tables lead to displacement of air-water interfaces in soils and sediments. These moving air-water interfaces can mobilize colloids. We visualized colloids interacting with moving air-water interfaces during capillary fringe fluctuations by confocal microscopy. We simulated capillary fringe fluctuations in a glass-bead-filled column. We studied four specific conditions: (1) colloids suspended in the aqueous phase, (2) colloids attached to the glass beads in an initially wet porous medium, (3) colloids attached to the glass beads in an initially dry porous medium, and (4) colloids suspended in the aqueous phase with the presence of a static air bubble. Confocal images confirmed that the capillary fringe fluctuations affect colloid transport behavior. Hydrophilic negatively charged colloids initially suspended in the aqueous phase were deposited at the solid-water interface after a drainage passage, but then were removed by subsequent capillary fringe fluctuations. The colloids that were initially attached to the wet or dry glass bead surface were detached by moving air-water interfaces in the capillary fringe. Hydrophilic negatively charged colloids did not attach to static air-bubbles, but hydrophobic negatively charged and hydrophilic positively charged colloids did. Our results demonstrate that capillary fringe fluctuations are an effective means for colloid mobilization.

  18. Influence of biofilms on colloid transport: investigations with laponite as a model colloid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon-Morales, C.F.; Flemming, H.C.; Leis, A. [Duisburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Interface Biotechnology


    The synthetic clay mineral laponite RD was used as a model compound to investigate colloid transport in the presence of bacterial biofilms. A complex but pronounced delay in the transport of laponite was observed in colonised porous media, clearly demonstrating the influence of attached bacterial biomass on colloid transport. The transport of laponite under conditions which promoted laponite aggregation was associated with release of attached bacteria; this effect was shown to be independent of ionic strength, indicating that the colloids caused detachment of bacteria. Two major mechanisms are proposed to account for the different colloid transport patterns obtained in the presence or absence of biomass: (1) hydrodynamic effects due to aggregation of laponite and subsequent blockage of a proportion of the flow channels, and (2) sorption of laponite by bacterial biomass. (orig.)

  19. Colloid Bound Transport of Contaminats In The Unsaturated Zone (United States)

    Hofmann, T.; Christ, A.

    Colloids can play a major role in the relocation of contaminants in the unsaturated zone. The amount of colloid driven transport is defined by soil chemistry, soil water chemistry and water flow velocity as well as colloid composition and formation. In a current research project we investigate the filtration and mobilization of colloids in unsaturated column studies. We use different soil types, chosen by a wide range of mean grain size and heterogeneity. Particle tracers are polystyrene solids with a de- fined negative surface charge and defined size from 50 nm to 10 µm. In addition, we use natural colloids extracted from a wide range of contaminated and uncontaminated land. Experimental conditions are exactly controlled throughout all the time. We alter mainly flow velocity ionic strength in order to study the filtration behaviour of the soils. In addition, Pyrene and Lead are are used as model contaminants. First results show the colloids are not retarded in many coarse structured soil types. Preferential colloid flow shows a major impact in breakthrough behaviour. Colloid bound lead is relocated significant through the unsaturated zone, whereas non colloid bound lead species are strongly retarded. In the presentation we will show results of contami- nant processes and present new results on the filtration behaviour of colloids in the unsaturated zone depending on flow velocity, soil type and colloid size.

  20. Colloid transport and retention in unsaturated porous media: effect of colloid input concentration. (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Morales, Verónica L; Cakmak, M Ekrem; Salvucci, Anthony E; Geohring, Larry D; Hay, Anthony G; Parlange, Jean-Yves; Steenhuis, Tammo S


    Colloids play an important role in facilitating transport of adsorbed contaminants in soils. Recent studies showed that under saturated conditions colloid retention was a function of its concentration. It is unknown if this is the case under unsaturated conditions. In this study, the effect of colloid concentration on colloid retention was investigated in unsaturated columns by increasing concentrations of colloid influents with varying ionic strength. Colloid retention was observed in situ by bright field microscopy and quantified by measuring colloid breakthrough curves. In our unsaturated experiments, greater input concentrations resulted in increased colloid retention at ionic strength above 0.1 mM, but not in deionized water (i.e., 0 mM ionic strength). Bright field microscope images showed that colloid retention mainly occurred at the solid-water interface and wedge-shaped air-water-solid interfaces, whereas the retention at the grain-grain contacts was minor. Some colloids at the air-water-solid interfaces were rotating and oscillating and thus trapped. Computational hydrodynamic simulation confirmed that the wedge-shaped air-water-solid interface could form a "hydrodynamic trap" by retaining colloids in its low velocity vortices. Direct visualization also revealed that colloids once retained acted as new retention sites for other suspended colloids at ionic strength greater than 0.1 mM and thereby could explain the greater retention with increased input concentrations. Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) energy calculations support this concept. Finally, the results of unsaturated experiments were in agreement with limited saturated experiments under otherwise the same conditions.

  1. PCR detection of groundwater bacteria associated with colloidal transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz-Perez, P.; Stetzenbach, L.D.; Alvarez, A.J.


    Colloidal transport may increase the amount of contaminant material than that which could be transported by water flow alone. The role of colloids in groundwater contaminant transport is complicated and may involve many different processes, including sorption of elements onto colloidal particles, coagulation/dissolution, adsorption onto solid surfaces, filtration, and migration. Bacteria are known to concentrate minerals and influence the transport of compounds in aqueous environments and may also serve as organic colloids, thereby influencing subsurface transport of radionuclides and other contaminants. The initial phase of the project consisted of assembling a list of bacteria capable of sequestering or facilitating mineral transport. The development and optimization of the PCR amplification assay for the detection of the organisms of interest, and the examination of regional groundwaters for those organisms, are presented for subsequent research.

  2. Predicting colloid transport through saturated porous media: A critical review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Molnar, Ian L; Johnson, William P; Gerhard, Jason I; Willson, Clinton S; O'Carroll, Denis M


    ... of field‐scale predictions may be constrained by the simplifying assumptions built into mechanistic models, correlation equations, and their relationship to our growing understanding of actual, pore‐scale colloid behavior. Prediction of colloid transport through the subsurface is important for a wide range of environmental and human‐health...

  3. Predicting colloid transport through saturated porous media: A critical review (United States)

    Molnar, Ian L.; Johnson, William P.; Gerhard, Jason I.; Willson, Clinton S.; O'Carroll, Denis M.


    Understanding and predicting colloid transport and retention in water-saturated porous media is important for the protection of human and ecological health. Early applications of colloid transport research before the 1990s included the removal of pathogens in granular drinking water filters. Since then, interest has expanded significantly to include such areas as source zone protection of drinking water systems and injection of nanometals for contaminated site remediation. This review summarizes predictive tools for colloid transport from the pore to field scales. First, we review experimental breakthrough and retention of colloids under favorable and unfavorable colloid/collector interactions (i.e., no significant and significant colloid-surface repulsion, respectively). Second, we review the continuum-scale modeling strategies used to describe observed transport behavior. Third, we review the following two components of colloid filtration theory: (i) mechanistic force/torque balance models of pore-scale colloid trajectories and (ii) approximating correlation equations used to predict colloid retention. The successes and limitations of these approaches for favorable conditions are summarized, as are recent developments to predict colloid retention under the unfavorable conditions particularly relevant to environmental applications. Fourth, we summarize the influences of physical and chemical heterogeneities on colloid transport and avenues for their prediction. Fifth, we review the upscaling of mechanistic model results to rate constants for use in continuum models of colloid behavior at the column and field scales. Overall, this paper clarifies the foundation for existing knowledge of colloid transport and retention, features recent advances in the field, critically assesses where existing approaches are successful and the limits of their application, and highlights outstanding challenges and future research opportunities. These challenges and opportunities

  4. Colloid transport in dual-permeability media (United States)

    It has been widely reported that colloids can travel faster and over longer distances in natural structured porous media than in uniform structureless media used in laboratory studies. The presence of preferential pathways for colloids in the subsurface environment is of concern because of the incre...

  5. Colloid-Facilitated Plutonium Transport in Fractured Tuffaceous Rock. (United States)

    Wolfsberg, Andrew; Dai, Zhenxue; Zhu, Lin; Reimus, Paul; Xiao, Ting; Ware, Doug


    Colloids have the potential to enhance the mobility of strongly sorbing radionuclide contaminants in groundwater at underground nuclear test sites. This study presents an experimental and numerical investigation of colloid-facilitated plutonium transport in fractured porous media to identify plutonium reactive transport processes. The transport parameters for dispersion, diffusion, sorption, and filtration are estimated with inverse modeling by minimizing the least-squares objective function of multicomponent concentration data from multiple transport experiments with the shuffled complex evolution metropolis algorithm. Capitalizing on an unplanned experimental artifact that led to colloid formation, we adopt a stepwise strategy to first interpret the data from each experiment separately and then to incorporate multiple experiments simultaneously to identify a suite of plutonium-colloid transport processes. Nonequilibrium or kinetic attachment and detachment of plutonium-colloid in fractures were clearly demonstrated and captured in the inverted modeling parameters along with estimates of the source plutonium fraction that formed plutonium-colloids. The results from this study provide valuable insights for understanding the transport mechanisms and environmental impacts of plutonium in groundwater aquifers.

  6. Lattice symmetries and the topologically protected transport of colloidal particles. (United States)

    Loehr, Johannes; de Las Heras, Daniel; Loenne, Michael; Bugase, Jonas; Jarosz, Adam; Urbaniak, Maciej; Stobiecki, Feliks; Tomita, Andreea; Huhnstock, Rico; Koch, Iris; Ehresmann, Arno; Holzinger, Dennis; Fischer, Thomas M


    The topologically protected transport of colloidal particles on top of periodic magnetic patterns is studied experimentally, theoretically, and with computer simulations. To uncover the interplay between topology and symmetry we use patterns of all possible two dimensional magnetic point group symmetries with equal lengths lattice vectors. Transport of colloids is achieved by modulating the potential with external, homogeneous but time dependent magnetic fields. The modulation loops can be classified into topologically distinct classes. All loops falling into the same class cause motion in the same direction, making the transport robust against internal and external perturbations. We show that the lattice symmetry has a profound influence on the transport modes, the accessibility of transport networks, and the individual transport directions of paramagnetic and diamagnetic colloidal particles. We show how the transport of colloidal particles above a two fold symmetric stripe pattern changes from universal adiabatic transport at large elevations via a topologically protected ratchet motion at intermediate elevations toward a non-transport regime at low elevations. Transport above four-fold symmetric patterns is closely related to the two-fold symmetric case. The three-fold symmetric case however consists of a whole family of patterns that continuously vary with a phase variable. We show how this family can be divided into two topologically distinct classes supporting different transport modes and being protected by proper and improper six fold symmetries. We discuss and experimentally demonstrate the topological transition between both classes. All three-fold symmetric patterns support independent transport directions of paramagnetic and diamagnetic particles. The similarities and the differences in the lattice symmetry protected transport of classical over-damped colloidal particles versus the topologically protected transport in quantum mechanical systems are


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markus Flury; James B. Harsh; Fred Zhang; Glendon W. Gee; Earl D. Mattson; Peter C. L


    The main purpose of this project was to improve the fundamental mechanistic understanding and quantification of long-term colloid mobilization and colloid-facilitated transport of radionuclides in the vadose zone, with special emphasis on the semi-arid Hanford site. While we focused some of the experiments on hydrogeological and geochemical conditions of the Hanford site, many of our results apply to colloid and colloid-facilitated transport in general. Specific objectives were (1) to determine the mechanisms of colloid mobilization and colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport in undisturbed Hanford sediments under unsaturated flow, (2) to quantify in situ colloid mobilization and colloid-facilitated radionuclidetransport from Hanford sediments under field conditions, and (3) to develop a field-scale conceptual and numerical model for colloid mobilization and transport at the Hanford vadose zone, and use that model to predict long-term colloid and colloid- facilitated radionuclide transport. To achieve these goals and objectives, we have used a combination of experimental, theoretical, and numerical methods at different spatial scales, ranging from microscopic investigationsof single particle attachment and detachment to larger-scale field experiments using outdoor lysimeters at the Hanford site. Microscopic and single particle investigations provided fundamental insight into mechanisms of colloid interactions with the air-water interface. We could show that a moving air water interface (such as a moving water front during infiltration and drainage) is very effective in removing and mobilizing particles from a stationary surface. We further demonstrated that it is particularly the advancing air-water interface which is mainly responsible for colloid mobilization. Forces acting on the colloids calculated from theory corroborated our experimental results, and confirm that the detachment forces (surface tension forces) during the advancing air-water interface

  8. Chancellor Water Colloids: Characterization and Radionuclide Associated Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimus, Paul William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Boukhalfa, Hakim [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Column transport experiments were conducted in which water from the Chancellor nuclear test cavity was transported through crushed volcanic tuff from Pahute Mesa. In one experiment, the cavity water was spiked with solute 137Cs, and in another it was spiked with 239/240Pu(IV) nanocolloids. A third column experiment was conducted with no radionuclide spike at all, although the 137Cs concentrations in the water were still high enough to quantify in the column effluent. The radionuclides strongly partitioned to natural colloids present in the water, which were characterized for size distribution, mass concentration, zeta potential/surface charge, critical coagulation concentration, and qualitative mineralogy. In the spiked water experiments, the unanalyzed portion of the high-concentration column effluent samples were combined and re-injected into the respective columns as a second pulse. This procedure was repeated again for a third injection. Measurable filtration of the colloids was observed after each initial injection of the Chancellor water into the columns, but the subsequent injections (spiked water experiments only) exhibited no apparent filtration, suggesting that the colloids that remained mobile after relatively short transport distances were more resistant to filtration than the initial population of colloids. It was also observed that while significant desorption of 137Cs from the colloids occurred after the first injection in both the spiked and unspiked waters, subsequent injections of the spiked water exhibited much less 137Cs desorption (much greater 137Cs colloid-associated transport). This result suggests that the 137Cs that remained associated with colloids during the first injection represented a fraction that was more strongly adsorbed to the mobile colloids than the initial 137Cs associated with the colloids. A greater amount of the 239/240

  9. Blocking effect of colloids on arsenate adsorption during co-transport through saturated sand columns. (United States)

    Ma, Jie; Guo, Huaming; Lei, Mei; Wan, Xiaoming; Zhang, Hanzhi; Feng, Xiaojuan; Wei, Rongfei; Tian, Liyan; Han, Xiaokun


    Transport of environmental pollutants through porous media is influenced by colloids. Co-transport of As(V) and soil colloids at different pH were systematically investigated by monitoring breakthrough curves (BTCs) in saturated sand columns. A solute transport model was applied to characterize transport and retention sites of As(V) in saturated sand in the presence of soil colloids. A colloid transport model and the DLVO theory were used to reveal the mechanism and hypothesis of soil colloid-promoted As(V) transport in the columns. Results showed that rapid transport of soil colloids, regulated by pH and ionic strength, promoted As(V) transport by blocking As(V) adsorption onto sand, although soil colloids had low adsorption for As(V). The promoted transport was more significant at higher concentrations of soil colloids (between 25 mg L(-1) and 150 mg L(-1)) due to greater blocking effect on As(V) adsorption onto the sand surfaces. The blocking effect of colloids was explained by the decreases in both instantaneous (equilibrium) As adsorption and first-order kinetic As adsorption on the sand surface sites. The discovery of this blocking effect improves our understanding of colloid-promoted As transport in saturated porous media, which provides new insights into role of colloids, especially colloids with low As adsorption capacity, in As transport and mobilization in soil-groundwater systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Zero-tension lysimeters: An improved design to monitor colloid-facilitated contaminant transport in the vadose zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, M.L.; Scharf, R.L.; Shang, C.


    There is increasing evidence that mobile colloids facilitate the long-distance transport of contaminants. The mobility of fine particles and macromolecules has been linked to the movement of actinides, organic contaminants, and heavy metals through soil. Direct evidence for colloid mobility includes the presence of humic materials in deep aquifers as well as coatings of accumulated clay, organic matter, or sesquioxides on particle or aggregate surfaces in subsoil horizons of many soils. The potential for colloid-facilitated transport of contaminants from hazardous-waste sites requires adequate monitoring before, during, and after in-situ remediation treatments. Zero-tension lysimeters (ZTLs) are especially appropriate for sampling water as it moves through saturated soil, although some unsaturated flow events may be sampled as well. Because no ceramic barrier or fiberglass wick is involved to maintain tension on the water (as is the case with other lysimeters), particles suspended in the water as well as dissolved species may be sampled with ZTLs. In this report, a ZTL design is proposed that is more suitable for monitoring colloid-facilitated contaminant migration. The improved design consists of a cylinder made of polycarbonate or polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) that is placed below undisturbed soil material. In many soils, a hydraulically powered tube may be used to extract an undisturbed core of soil before placement of the lysimeter. In those cases, the design has significant advantages over conventional designs with respect to simplicity and speed of installation. Therefore, it will allow colloid-facilitated transport of contaminants to be monitored at more locations at a given site.

  11. Transport and Deposition of Variably Charged Soil Colloids in Saturated Porous Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Anu; Kawmoto, Ken; Møldrup, Per


    A series of column experiments was conducted to investigate the transport and deposition of variably charged colloids in saturated porous media. Soil colloids with diameters volcanic-ash soil from Nishi-Tokyo (referred to here as VAS colloids) and a red-yellow soil from...... Okinawa (RYS colloids) in Japan. The VAS colloids exhibited a negative surface charge with a high pH dependency, whereas the RYS colloids exhibited a negative surface charge with less pH dependency. The soil colloids were applied as colloidal suspensions to 10-cm-long saturated sand columns packed....... Breakthrough curves and deposition profiles for soil colloids were strong functions of the hydrodynamics, solution pH, and surface charge of the colloids and sand grains. Greater deposition was typical for lower flow rates and lower pH. The deposition of VAS colloids in both sands under low-pH conditions...

  12. Does water content or flow rate control colloid transport in unsaturated porous media? (United States)

    Knappenberger, Thorsten; Flury, Markus; Mattson, Earl D; Harsh, James B


    Mobile colloids can play an important role in contaminant transport in soils: many contaminants exist in colloidal form, and colloids can facilitate transport of otherwise immobile contaminants. In unsaturated soils, colloid transport is, among other factors, affected by water content and flow rate. Our objective was to determine whether water content or flow rate is more important for colloid transport. We passed negatively charged polystyrene colloids (220 nm diameter) through unsaturated sand-filled columns under steady-state flow at different water contents (effective water saturations Se ranging from 0.1 to 1.0, with Se = (θ - θr)/(θs - θr)) and flow rates (pore water velocities v of 5 and 10 cm/min). Water content was the dominant factor in our experiments. Colloid transport decreased with decreasing water content, and below a critical water content (Se colloid transport was inhibited, and colloids were strained in water films. Pendular ring and water film thickness calculations indicated that colloids can move only when pendular rings are interconnected. The flow rate affected retention of colloids in the secondary energy minimum, with less colloids being trapped when the flow rate increased. These results confirm the importance of both water content and flow rate for colloid transport in unsaturated porous media and highlight the dominant role of water content.

  13. Colloid-Mediated Transport of Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products through Porous Media (United States)

    Xing, Yingna; Chen, Xijuan; Chen, Xin; Zhuang, Jie


    Pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) enter soils through reclaimed water irrigation and biosolid land applications. Colloids, such as clays, that are present in soil may interact with PPCPs and thus affect their fate and transport in the subsurface environment. This study addresses the influence of soil colloids on the sorption and transport behaviors of PPCPs through laboratory column experiments. Results show that the affinities of PPCPs for colloids vary with their molecular chemistry and solution ionic strength. The presence of colloids promotes the breakthrough of ciprofloxacin (over 90% sorbed on colloids) from ~4% to 30–40%, and the colloid-facilitated effect was larger at lower ionic strength (e.g., 2 mM). In comparison, the net effect of colloids on the transport of tetracycline (~50% sorbed on colloids) could be facilitation or inhibition, depending on solution chemistry. This dual effect of colloids is primarily due to the opposite response of migration of dissolved and colloid-bound tetracycline to the change in solution ionic strength. Colloids could also facilitate the transport of ibuprofen (~10% sorbed on colloids) by ~50% due likely to exclusion of dispersion pathways by colloid straining. This study suggests that colloids are significant carriers or transport promoters of some PPCPs in the subsurface environment and could affect their off-site environmental risks. PMID:27734948

  14. Colloidal transport in complex potential energy landscapes created with light (United States)

    Ladavac, Kosta

    This thesis describes experimental studies of the overdamped transport of colloidal spheres moving through structured potential energy landscapes, precisely tailored with computer-generated holograms. In static landscapes, we demonstrate optical fractionation, a continuous and continuously optimized sorting technique, which can sort mixtures of colloidal particles by size and other properties. Separation is based on the ability of a periodic landscape to deflect trajectories away from the direction of an externally applied driving force. We show that the crossover from free-flowing to deflected transport can depend exponentially on an object's size, with this exceptional selectivity emerging from the periodicity of the environment. Next we describe colloidal motion induced by a dynamic potential energy landscape, a cycle of three optical trapping patterns. For diffusing colloidal spheres this system is an optical thermal ratchet, and the ratchet-driven transport displays flux reversal as a function of the cycle frequency and the inter-trap separation. This is the first experimental observation of flux reversal in a symmetric thermal ratchet. Active potential energy landscapes are implemented with optical vortices, created from helical modes of light, that exert torques as well as forces. We demonstrate that arrays of optical vortices can organize colloidal spheres into microoptomechanical pumps, assembled by optical gradient forces and actuated by photon orbital angular momentum. Concentric circulating rings of particles formed by coaxial optical vortices form a microscopic Couette cell, in which hydrodynamic drag experienced by the spheres depends on the relative sense of the rings' circulation. Tracking the particles' motions we measure hydrodynamic coupling between the circular particle trains.

  15. Modeling the co-transport of viruses and colloids in unsaturated porous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seetha, N.; Mohan Kumar, M. S.; Hassanizadeh, S. Majid


    A mathematical model is developed to simulate the co-transport of viruses and colloids in unsaturated porous media under steady-state flow conditions. The virus attachment to the mobile and immobile colloids is described using a linear reversible kinetic model. Colloid transport is assumed to be

  16. Assessment of the effect of kinetics on colloid facilitated radionuclide transport in porous media.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerd, van de H.; Leijnse, A.


    Binding of radionuclides to natural colloids can significantly alter their transport behaviour in porous media. Dependent on the interaction between radionuclides, colloids and the solid matrix, radionuclide transport may be enhanced or retarded as a result of the presence of colloids. Often,

  17. Transport of barrel and spherical shaped colloids in unsaturated porous media. (United States)

    Knappenberger, Thorsten; Aramrak, Surachet; Flury, Markus


    Model colloids are usually spherical, but natural colloids have irregular geometries. Transport experiments of spherical colloids may not reflect the transport characteristics of natural colloids in porous media. We investigated saturated and unsaturated transport of colloids with spherical and angular shapes under steady-state, flow conditions. A pulse of negatively-charged colloids was introduced into a silica sand column at three different effective water saturations (Se = 0.31, 0.45, and 1.0). Colloids were introduced under high ionic strength of [106]mM to cause attachment to the secondary energy minimum and later released by changing the pore water to low ionic strength. After the experiment, sand was sampled from different depths (0, -4, and -11 cm) for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis and colloid extraction. Water saturation affected colloid transport with more retention under low than under high saturation. Colloids were retained and released from a secondary energy minimum with more angular-shaped colloids being retained and released. Colloids extracted from the sand revealed highest colloid deposition in the top layer and decreasing deposition with depth. Pore straining and grain-grain wedging dominated colloid retention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of Redox Reactions on Colloid Transport in Saturated Porous Media: An Example of Ferrihydrite Colloids Transport in the Presence of Sulfide. (United States)

    Liao, Peng; Yuan, Songhu; Wang, Dengjun


    Transport of colloids in the subsurface is an important environmental process with most research interests centered on the transport in chemically stable conditions. While colloids can be formed under dynamic redox conditions, the impact of redox reactions on their transport is largely overlooked. Taking the redox reactions between ferrihydrite colloids and sulfide as an example, we investigated how and to what extent the redox reactions modulated the transport of ferrihydrite colloids in anoxic sand columns over a range of environmentally relevant conditions. Our results reveal that the presence of sulfide (7.8-46.9 μM) significantly decreased the breakthrough of ferrihydrite colloids in the sand column. The estimated travel distance of ferrihydrite colloids in the absence of sulfide was nearly 7-fold larger than that in the presence of 46.9 μM sulfide. The reduced breakthrough was primarily attributed to the reductive dissolution of ferrihydrite colloids by sulfide in parallel with formation of elemental sulfur (S(0)) particles from sulfide oxidation. Reductive dissolution decreased the total mass of ferrihydrite colloids, while the negatively charged S(0) decreased the overall zeta potential of ferrihydrite colloids by attaching onto their surfaces and thus enhanced their retention in the sand. Our findings provide novel insights into the critical role of redox reactions on the transport of redox-sensitive colloids in saturated porous media.


    Surface chemical effects on colloidal stability and transport through porous media were investigated using laboratory column techniques. Approximately 100 nm diameter, spherical, iron oxide particles were synthesized as the mobile colloidal phase. The column packing material was ...

  20. Structure and Transport Anomalies in Soft Colloids

    KAUST Repository

    Srivastava, Samanvaya


    Anomalous trends in nanoparticle correlation and motion are reported in soft nanoparticle suspensions using static and dynamic x-ray scattering measurements. Contrary to normal expectations, we find that particle-particle correlations decrease and particle dynamics become faster as volume fraction rises above a critical particle loading associated with overlap. Our observations bear many similarities to the cascade of structural and transport anomalies reported for complex, network forming molecular fluids such as water, and are argued to share similar physical origins. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  1. Dispersion stability and electrokinetic properties of intrinsic plutonium colloids: implications for subsurface transport. (United States)

    Abdel-Fattah, Amr I; Zhou, Dongxu; Boukhalfa, Hakim; Tarimala, Sowmitri; Ware, S Doug; Keller, Arturo A


    Subsurface transport of plutonium (Pu) may be facilitated by the formation of intrinsic Pu colloids. While this colloid-facilitated transport is largely governed by the electrokinetic properties and dispersion stability (resistance to aggregation) of the colloids, reported experimental data is scarce. Here, we quantify the dependence of ζ-potential of intrinsic Pu(IV) colloids on pH and their aggregation rate on ionic strength. Results indicate an isoelectric point of pH 8.6 and a critical coagulation concentration of 0.1 M of 1:1 electrolyte at pH 11.4. The ζ-potential/pH dependence of the Pu(IV) colloids is similar to that of goethite and hematite colloids. Colloid interaction energy calculations using these values reveal an effective Hamaker constant of the intrinsic Pu(IV) colloids in water of 1.85 × 10(-19) J, corresponding to a relative permittivity of 6.21 and refractive index of 2.33, in agreement with first principles calculations. This relatively high Hamaker constant combined with the positive charge of Pu(IV) colloids under typical groundwater aquifer conditions led to two contradicting hypotheses: (a) the Pu(IV) colloids will exhibit significant aggregation and deposition, leading to a negligible subsurface transport or (b) the Pu(IV) colloids will associate with the relatively stable native groundwater colloids, leading to a considerable subsurface transport. Packed column transport experiments supported the second hypothesis.

  2. Transport of reactive colloids and contaminants in groundwater: effect of nonlinear kinetic interactions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerd, van de H.; Leijnse, A.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.


    Transport of reactive colloids in groundwater may enhance the transport of contaminants in groundwater. Often, the interpretation of results of transport experiments is not a simple task as both reactions of colloids with the solid matrix and reactions of contaminants with the solid matrix and

  3. Selection of exception limits for all actinide nuclides based on revised criteria for safe international transport and including storage delay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavarenne, C.; Rouyer, V. [IRSN, Fontenay aux Roses (France); Mennerdahl, D. [EMS, TABY (Sweden); Dean, C. [SERCO, Winfrith Technology Center, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom); Barton, N. [Dept. for Transport, London (United Kingdom); Jean, F. [APTUS, Versailles (France)


    Since 1998, there have been some speculations about future transport of significant quantities and concentrations of other actinide nuclides than the four currently listed in the regulation for the safe transport of the radioactive material. Therefore, it raised a need to specify exception limits for such actinides. In order to define credible exception limits, it was necessary to have reasonably accurate data for all actinide nuclides. Then the DGTREN/participants decided to perform calculations with different codes (MONK, MCNP, CRISTAL and SCALE) and different cross-section libraries (JEF2.2, ENDFB, etc.). The parameters of interest (such as k-infinite, critical masses) were determined. This article presents the work achieved and the questions raised, e.g. related to the effect of the radioactive decay of the isotopes on the criticality risks. It also points out the need for an evolution of the regulation of the safe transport of radioactive materials and gives a proposition of modification for the IAEA requirements related to, firstly, the list of the fissile materials, secondly, the rule to determine the quantities of actinide nuclides that can be excepted from the requirements for the packages containing fissile materials.

  4. Effects of dissolved organic matter on the co-transport of mineral colloids and sorptive contaminants. (United States)

    Cheng, Tao; Saiers, James E


    Colloid-facilitated transport of contaminants in the vadose zone has important implications to groundwater quality, and has received considerable attention. Natural organic matter (NOM) is ubiquitous in subsurface environments, and its influence on mineral colloids and solute transport has been well documented. However, research on the influence of NOM on colloid-facilitated transport is limited. The objective of this paper is to elucidate the effects of NOM on colloid-facilitated transport of a radioactive contaminant (Cs-137) within partially-saturated sediments. Measurements made with re-packed columns reveal that Cs-137 mobility was low when mineral colloids were absent and was unaffected by the presence of NOM. The addition of mineral colloids to influent increased Cs-137 mobility, and effluent Cs-137 was dominated by the colloid-associated form. When NOM was added to systems that contained mineral colloids and Cs-137, the mobility of Cs-137 further increased. A mathematical model simulating colloid-facilitated transport showed that NOM increases Cs-137 transport by increasing colloid mobility and reducing the rate of Cs-137 adsorption to the porous medium. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Semianalytical Solutions of Radioactive Solute and Colloid Transport in Layered Fractured Media (United States)

    Moridis, G. J.


    In this paper, semianalytical solutions are developed for the problem of transport of radioactive solutes or colloids through a layered system of heterogeneous fractured media with misaligned fractures. The tracer transport equations in the matrix account for (a) diffusion (molecular or colloidal), (b) surface diffusion (for solutes only), (c) mass transfer between the mobile and immobile water fractions, (d) linear kinetic or equilibrium physical, chemical or combined sorption (for solutes) or filtration (for colloids), and (e) radioactive decay or first order chemical reactions. Any number of daughter products of radioactive decay (or of a linear, first-order reaction chain) can be tracked. The tracer transport equations in the fractures account for the same processes, in addition to advection and hydrodynamic dispersion. Additionally, the colloid transport equations account for pore size exclusion (straining) and velocity adjustments related to the colloidal size. The solutions, which are analytical in the Laplace space, are numerically inverted to provide the solution in time, and can accommodate any number of fractured and/or porous layers. The solutions are verified using analytical solutions of limiting cases of solute and colloid transport through fractured and porous media. The effect of important parameters on the transport of H-3, Np-237 and Pu-239 (and its daughters) is investigated in several test problems. Test problems of transport of Pu-239 colloids in multi-layered systems indicate significant colloid accumulations at straining interfaces but much faster transport of the colloid than the corresponding strongly-sorbing solute species.

  6. Colloid-facilitated transport of cesium in vadose-zone sediments: the importance of flow transients. (United States)

    Cheng, Tao; Saiers, James E


    Colloid-sized particles are commonly detected in vadose-zone pore waters and are capable of binding chemicals with sorptive affinities for geologic materials. Published research demonstrates that colloids are capable of facilitating the transport of sorptive contaminants under conditions of steady pore water flow, when volumetric moisture content and pore water velocity are constant. Less is known about the role of colloids in governing contaminant mobility under transient-flow conditions, which are characteristic of natural vadose-zone environments. The objective of this study is to elucidate the influences of flow transients on the mobilization and transport of in situ colloids and colloid-associated contaminants. We conducted column experiments in which the mobilization of in situ colloids and (137)Cs was induced by transients associated with the drainage and imbibition of (137)Cs contaminated-sediments. Our results demonstrate that substantial quantities of in situ colloids and colloid-associated (137)Cs are mobilized as volumetric moisture content declines during porous-medium drainage and as volumetric moisture content increases during porous-medium imbibition. We also find that the colloid-effect on (137)Cs transport is sensitive to changes in pore water ionic strength. That is, the quantities of colloids mobilized and the capacity of the these colloids to bind (137)Cs decrease with increasing ionic strength, leading to a decrease of the mass of (137)Cs eluted from the columns during porous-medium drainage and imbibition.

  7. Polymer Inclusion Membrane Containing a Tripodal Diglycolamide Ligand: Actinide Ion Uptake and Transport Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahanty, B.; Mohapatra, P.K.; Raut, D.R.; Das, D.K.; Behere, P.G.; Afzal, M.; Verboom, Willem


    A cellulose triacetate (CTA)-based polymer inclusion membrane (PIM) containing a C-pivot tripodal diglycolamide (T-DGA) as the carrier extractant and 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE) as the plasticizer shows potential for the uptake of actinides from acidic feed solutions. The uptake of actinides

  8. Mechanical environmental transport of actinides and ¹³⁷Cs from an arid radioactive waste disposal site. (United States)

    Snow, Mathew S; Clark, Sue B; Morrison, Samuel S; Watrous, Matthew G; Olson, John E; Snyder, Darin C


    Aeolian and pluvial processes represent important mechanisms for the movement of actinides and fission products at the Earth's surface. Soil samples taken in the early 1970's near a Department of Energy radioactive waste disposal site (the Subsurface Disposal Area, SDA, located in southeastern Idaho) provide a case study for studying the mechanisms and characteristics of environmental actinide and (137)Cs transport in an arid environment. Multi-component mixing models suggest actinide contamination within 2.5 km of the SDA can be described by mixing between 2 distinct SDA end members and regional nuclear weapons fallout. The absence of chemical fractionation between (241)Am and (239+240)Pu with depth for samples beyond the northeastern corner and lack of (241)Am in-growth over time (due to (241)Pu decay) suggest mechanical transport and mixing of discrete contaminated particles under arid conditions. Occasional samples northeast of the SDA (the direction of the prevailing winds) contain anomalously high concentrations of Pu with (240)Pu/(239)Pu isotopic ratios statistically identical to those in the northeastern corner. Taken together, these data suggest flooding resulted in mechanical transport of contaminated particles into the area between the SDA and a flood containment dike in the northeastern corner, following which subsequent contamination spreading in the northeastern direction resulted from wind transport of discrete particles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Three-Dimensional Radionuclide Transport Through the Unsaturated Zone of the Yucca Mountain Site 3 Colloids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. J. Moridis; Y. Seol


    The authors investigated colloid transport in the unsaturated fractured zone by means of three-dimensional site-scale numerical model under present-day climate infiltration, considering varying colloid diameters, kinetic declogging, and filtration. The radionuclide transport model was used to simulate continuous release of colloids into fractures throughout the proposed repository, in which any components of engineered barrier system such as waste package or drip shield were not considered. the results of the study indicate the importance of subsurface geology and site hydrology, i.e., the presence of faults (they dominate and control transport), fractures (the main migration pathways), and the relative distribution of zeolitic and vitric tuffs. The simulations indicate that (1) colloid transport is not significantly affected by varying the filtration parameters, (2) travel time to the water table decreases with the colloid size, (3) larger colloids show little retardation whereas very small ones are retarded significantly, and (4) fracture filtration can have an impact on transport. Because of uncertainties in the fundamentals of colloid transport and an extremely conservative approach (based on an improbably adverse worst-case scenario), caution should be exercised in the analysis and interpretation of the 3-D simulation results. The results discussed here should be viewed as an attempt to identify and evaluate the mechanisms, processes, and geological features that control colloidal transport.

  10. Column experiments to investigate transport of colloidal humic acid through porous media during managed aquifer recharge (United States)

    Liu, Dan; Zhou, Jingjing; Zhang, Wenjing; Huan, Ying; Yu, Xipeng; Li, Fulin; Chen, Xuequn


    Colloids act as vectors for pollutants in groundwater, thereby creating a series of environmental problems. While managed aquifer recharge plays an important role in protecting groundwater resources and controlling land subsidence, it has a significant effect on the transport of colloids. In this study, particle size and zeta potential of colloidal humic acid (HA) have been measured to determine the effects of different hydrochemistry conditions. Column experiments were conducted to examine the effects on the transport of colloidal HA under varying conditions of pH (5, 7, 9), ionic strength (<0.0005, 0.02, 0.05 M), cation valence (Na+, Ca2+) and flow rate (0.1, 0.2, 0.4 ml/min) through collectors (glass beads) to model the properties and quality of artificial recharge water and changes in the hydrodynamic field. Breakthrough curves showed that the behavior of colloidal HA being transported varied depending on the conditions. Colloid transport was strongly influenced by hydrochemical and hydrodynamic conditions. With decreasing pH or increasing ionic strength, a decrease in the peak effluent concentration of colloidal HA and increase in deposition could be clearly seen. Comparison of different cation valence tests indicated that changes in transport and deposition were more pronounced with divalent Ca2+ than with monovalent Na+. Changes in hydrodynamic field (flow rate) also had an impact on transportation of colloidal HA. The results of this study highlight the need for further research in this area.

  11. Field-scale variation in colloid dispersibility and transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norgaard, Trine; Moldrup, P.; Ferre´, T. P A


    risk of colloid-facilitated transport. Subsequently, using multiple linear regression (MLR) analyses, soil dispersibility was predicted at all three sample scales from the 24 measured, geo-referenced parameters to produce sets of only a few promising indicator parameters for evaluating soil stability...... and particle mobilization on field scale. The MLR analyses at each scale were separated in predictions using all, only north, and only south locations in the field. We found that different independent variables were included in the regression models when the sample scale increased from aggregate to column...... level. Generally, the predictive power of the regression models was better on the 1-2 mm aggregate scale than on the intact 100 cm3 and 20 cm × 20 cm scales. Overall, results suggested that different drivers controlled soil dispersibility 1 at the three scales and the two sub-areas of the field...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandip Patil


    Full Text Available During animal waste agricultural applications, the major concern is the pathogen spreading, which may contaminate groundwater. Colloid release and pathogen transport during irrigation were evaluated in intact agricultural soil columns in this research using Escherichia coli as a model strain. In order to be easily identified and quantified, E. coli was incorporated with green fluorescent protein genes. The experiments were conducted at a water flow rate of 100 ml/min and the elution was collected and analized for colloid release and E. coli transport. Colloid release and E. coli transport were simulated using an implicit, finite-difference scheme with colloid release rate coefficient and E. coli deposition rate coefficient as constant, linear and exponential functions of the soil depth, respectively. It seemed that exponential functions had the best fit against the colloid release and E. coli transport observations.

  13. A binomial modeling approach for upscaling colloid transport under unfavorable conditions: organic prediction of extended tailing (United States)

    Hilpert, Markus; Rasmuson, Anna; Johnson, William


    Transport of colloids in saturated porous media is significantly influenced by colloidal interactions with grain surfaces. Near-surface fluid domain colloids experience relatively low fluid drag and relatively strong colloidal forces that slow their down-gradient translation relative to colloids in bulk fluid. Near surface fluid domain colloids may re-enter into the bulk fluid via diffusion (nanoparticles) or expulsion at rear flow stagnation zones, they may immobilize (attach) via strong primary minimum interactions, or they may move along a grain-to-grain contact to the near surface fluid domain of an adjacent grain. We introduce a simple model that accounts for all possible permutations of mass transfer within a dual pore and grain network. The primary phenomena thereby represented in the model are mass transfer of colloids between the bulk and near-surface fluid domains and immobilization onto grain surfaces. Colloid movement is described by a sequence of trials in a series of unit cells, and the binomial distribution is used to calculate the probabilities of each possible sequence. Pore-scale simulations provide mechanistically-determined likelihoods and timescales associated with the above pore-scale colloid mass transfer processes, whereas the network-scale model employs pore and grain topology to determine probabilities of transfer from up-gradient bulk and near-surface fluid domains to down-gradient bulk and near-surface fluid domains. Inter-grain transport of colloids in the near surface fluid domain can cause extended tailing.

  14. Colloid transport in porous media: impact of hyper-saline solutions. (United States)

    Magal, Einat; Weisbrod, Noam; Yechieli, Yoseph; Walker, Sharon L; Yakirevich, Alexander


    The transport of colloids suspended in natural saline solutions with a wide range of ionic strengths, up to that of Dead Sea brines (10(0.9) M) was explored. Migration of microspheres through saturated sand columns of different sizes was studied in laboratory experiments and simulated with mathematical models. Colloid transport was found to be related to the solution salinity as expected. The relative concentration of colloids at the columns outlet decreased (after 2-3 pore volumes) as the solution ionic strength increased until a critical value was reached (ionic strength > 10(-1.8) M) and then remained constant above this level of salinity. The colloids were found to be mobile even in the extremely saline brines of the Dead Sea. At such high ionic strength no energetic barrier to colloid attachment was presumed to exist and colloid deposition was expected to be a favorable process. However, even at these salinity levels, colloid attachment was not complete and the transport of ∼ 30% of the colloids through the 30-cm long columns was detected. To further explore the deposition of colloids on sand surfaces in Dead Sea brines, transport was studied using 7-cm long columns through which hundreds of pore volumes were introduced. The resulting breakthrough curves exhibited a bimodal shape whereby the relative concentration (C/C(0)) of colloids at the outlet rose to a value of 0.8, and it remained relatively constant (for the ∼ 18 pore volumes during which the colloid suspension was flushed through the column) and then the relative concentration increased to a value of one. The bimodal nature of the breakthrough suggests different rates of colloid attachment. Colloid transport processes were successfully modeled using the limited entrapment model, which assumes that the colloid attachment rate is dependent on the concentration of the attached colloids. Application of this model provided confirmation of the colloid aggregation and their accelerated attachment during

  15. Mathematical Basis and Test Cases for Colloid-Facilitated Radionuclide Transport Modeling in GDSA-PFLOTRAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimus, Paul William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    This report provides documentation of the mathematical basis for a colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport modeling capability that can be incorporated into GDSA-PFLOTRAN. It also provides numerous test cases against which the modeling capability can be benchmarked once the model is implemented numerically in GDSA-PFLOTRAN. The test cases were run using a 1-D numerical model developed by the author, and the inputs and outputs from the 1-D model are provided in an electronic spreadsheet supplement to this report so that all cases can be reproduced in GDSA-PFLOTRAN, and the outputs can be directly compared with the 1-D model. The cases include examples of all potential scenarios in which colloid-facilitated transport could result in the accelerated transport of a radionuclide relative to its transport in the absence of colloids. Although it cannot be claimed that all the model features that are described in the mathematical basis were rigorously exercised in the test cases, the goal was to test the features that matter the most for colloid-facilitated transport; i.e., slow desorption of radionuclides from colloids, slow filtration of colloids, and equilibrium radionuclide partitioning to colloids that is strongly favored over partitioning to immobile surfaces, resulting in a substantial fraction of radionuclide mass being associated with mobile colloids.

  16. Copper distribution in water-dispersible colloids of swine manure and its transport through quartz sand. (United States)

    Bao, Qibei; Lin, Qi; Tian, Guangming; Wang, Guihao; Yu, Jian; Peng, Guiqun


    To demonstrate the potential risks associated with the application of solid agricultural wastes, we investigated Cu distribution in water-dispersible colloids derived from swine manure and its transport through quartz sand. Samples were sequentially centrifuged to obtain five colloid suspensions (sand particles, and fine colloids facilitated the transport of Cu. The formation of organic complexes was hypothesized to enhance the mobility of Cu. Further research is needed to incorporate our experimental findings into a realistic model of particle mobilization and transport through soil or groundwater aquifers. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Sensitivity analyses of a colloid-facilitated contaminant transport model for unsaturated heterogeneous soil conditions. (United States)

    Périard, Yann; José Gumiere, Silvio; Rousseau, Alain N.; Caron, Jean


    Certain contaminants may travel faster through soils when they are sorbed to subsurface colloidal particles. Indeed, subsurface colloids may act as carriers of some contaminants accelerating their translocation through the soil into the water table. This phenomenon is known as colloid-facilitated contaminant transport. It plays a significant role in contaminant transport in soils and has been recognized as a source of groundwater contamination. From a mechanistic point of view, the attachment/detachment of the colloidal particles from the soil matrix or from the air-water interface and the straining process may modify the hydraulic properties of the porous media. Šimůnek et al. (2006) developed a model that can simulate the colloid-facilitated contaminant transport in variably saturated porous media. The model is based on the solution of a modified advection-dispersion equation that accounts for several processes, namely: straining, exclusion and attachement/detachement kinetics of colloids through the soil matrix. The solutions of these governing, partial differential equations are obtained using a standard Galerkin-type, linear finite element scheme, implemented in the HYDRUS-2D/3D software (Šimůnek et al., 2012). Modeling colloid transport through the soil and the interaction of colloids with the soil matrix and other contaminants is complex and requires the characterization of many model parameters. In practice, it is very difficult to assess actual transport parameter values, so they are often calibrated. However, before calibration, one needs to know which parameters have the greatest impact on output variables. This kind of information can be obtained through a sensitivity analysis of the model. The main objective of this work is to perform local and global sensitivity analyses of the colloid-facilitated contaminant transport module of HYDRUS. Sensitivity analysis was performed in two steps: (i) we applied a screening method based on Morris' elementary

  18. Modeling the co-transport of viruses and colloids in unsaturated porous media. (United States)

    Seetha, N; Mohan Kumar, M S; Majid Hassanizadeh, S


    A mathematical model is developed to simulate the co-transport of viruses and colloids in unsaturated porous media under steady-state flow conditions. The virus attachment to the mobile and immobile colloids is described using a linear reversible kinetic model. Colloid transport is assumed to be decoupled from virus transport; that is, we assume that colloids are not affected by the presence of attached viruses on their surface. The governing equations are solved numerically using an alternating three-step operator splitting approach. The model is verified by fitting three sets of experimental data published in the literature: (1) Syngouna and Chrysikopoulos (2013) and (2) Walshe et al. (2010), both on the co-transport of viruses and clay colloids under saturated conditions, and (3) Syngouna and Chrysikopoulos (2015) for the co-transport of viruses and clay colloids under unsaturated conditions. We found a good agreement between observed and fitted breakthrough curves (BTCs) under both saturated and unsaturated conditions. Then, the developed model was used to simulate the co-transport of viruses and colloids in porous media under unsaturated conditions, with the aim of understanding the relative importance of various processes on the co-transport of viruses and colloids in unsaturated porous media. The virus retention in porous media in the presence of colloids is greater during unsaturated conditions as compared to the saturated conditions due to: (1) virus attachment to the air-water interface (AWI), and (2) co-deposition of colloids with attached viruses on its surface to the AWI. A sensitivity analysis of the model to various parameters showed that the virus attachment to AWI is the most sensitive parameter affecting the BTCs of both free viruses and total mobile viruses and has a significant effect on all parts of the BTC. The free and the total mobile viruses BTCs are mainly influenced by parameters describing virus attachment to the AWI, virus interaction

  19. Laboratory investigation of the role of desorption kinetics on americium transport associated with bentonite colloids. (United States)

    Dittrich, Timothy Mark; Boukhalfa, Hakim; Ware, Stuart Douglas; Reimus, Paul William


    Understanding the parameters that control colloid-mediated transport of radionuclides is important for the safe disposal of used nuclear fuel. We report an experimental and reactive transport modeling examination of americium transport in a groundwater-bentonite-fracture fill material system. A series of batch sorption and column transport experiments were conducted to determine the role of desorption kinetics from bentonite colloids in the transport of americium through fracture materials. We used fracture fill material from a shear zone in altered granodiorite collected from the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) in Switzerland and colloidal suspensions generated from FEBEX bentonite, a potential repository backfill material. The colloidal suspension (100 mg L(-1)) was prepared in synthetic groundwater that matched the natural water chemistry at GTS and was spiked with 5.5 × 10(-10) M (241)Am. Batch characterizations indicated that 97% of the americium in the stock suspension was adsorbed to the colloids. Breakthrough experiments conducted by injecting the americium colloidal suspension through three identical columns in series, each with mean residence times of 6 h, show that more than 95% of the bentonite colloids were transported through each of the columns, with modeled colloid filtration rates (k(f)) of 0.01-0.02 h(-1). Am recoveries in each column were 55-60%, and Am desorption rate constants from the colloids, determined from 1-D transport modeling, were 0.96, 0.98, and 0.91 h(-1) in the three columns, respectively. The consistency in Am recoveries and desorption rate constants in each column indicates that the Am was not associated with binding sites of widely-varying strengths on the colloids, as one binding site with fast kinetics represented the system accurately for all three sequential columns. Our data suggest that colloid-mediated transport of Am in a bentonite-fracture fill material system is unlikely to result in transport over long distance scales because


    The major hypothesis driving this research, that the transport of colloids in a contaminant plume is limited by the advance of the chemical agent causing colloid mobilization, was tested by (1) examining the dependence of colloid transport and mobilization on chemical perturbatio...

  1. Modeling the Co-transport of Viruses and Colloids in Unsaturated Porous Media (United States)

    Seetha, N.; Hassanizadeh S., Majid; Mohan Kumar M., S.


    Viruses are of major concern in groundwater because of their high infectivity, small size and persistence. Virus transport in groundwater is found to be significantly affected by colloids, which are abundant in both organic and inorganic forms and have a large surface area. Indeed, virus retention in porous media has been observed to increase in the presence of clay colloids due to the co-deposition of colloids with attached viruses. In unsaturated conditions, colloid (and virus) deposition have been observed to increase as the degree of saturation decreases due to the presence of the air-water interface and enhanced adsorption to the solid-water interface. In this study, we have developed a one-dimensional mathematical model to simulate the co-transport of viruses and colloids in porous media under variably saturated conditions. We use linear reversible kinetic model to describe virus attachment to colloids and soil grains. The governing coupled partial differential equations are solved numerically using alternating operator split approach. The colloid transport is decoupled from the virus transport and solved first. We have used our model to simulate two sets of published column experimental studies in literature on the co-transport of viruses and clay colloids under saturated conditions. We have found that the model fits the observed virus breakthrough curves well. The increased virus removal in the co-transport experiments is found due to: 1) the virus attachment to mobile and immobile colloids and 2) the increased attachment of clay colloids to the grain surface in the presence of viruses. The increased deposition of clay colloids in the co-transport experiments may be because of the decrease of the surface charge of the grains by the attached viruses; making the surface more favourable for colloid attachment. A sensitivity analysis of the model to various parameters under unsaturated conditions will be performed so as to understand the relative importance of

  2. Fate and transport of viruses and colloids in saturated and unsaturated porous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torkzaban, S.


    The fundamental mechanisms involved in fate and transport of colloidal particles (viruses and latex microspheres) in saturated and unsaturated porous media were systematically examined. Two different bacteriophages were used as surrogate for pathogenic viruses to investigate the effects of various

  3. Enhanced Transport of Colloid And Metal Cations by Freeze-thaw Cycles (United States)

    Mohanty, S. K.; Ryan, J. N.; Saiers, J. E.; Laboratory experiment


    Understanding the mechanisms of colloid mobilization is essential to predicting the importance of colloid-facilitated transport of contaminants in subsurface environments. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of freeze-thaw cycles on the mobilization of colloids and colloid-facilitated transport of cesium and strontium in intact soil cores. The soil cores were collected from a watershed in Tennessee, USA, where the soils are weathered from limey shale with fractured saprolite subsoils that have illite as the primary clay mineral. Each freeze-thaw cycle involved freezing the contaminated soil at -15 °C for 36 h followed by thawing at 25 °C for 24 h and infiltration of rainwater for 6 h. An 18-port grid was used to collect water sample from preferential flow paths. The amount of colloids mobilized by the freeze-thaw process was compared with the amount of colloids mobilized from a control soil-core at room temperature. The colloids mobilized during freeze-thaw were characterized using x-ray diffraction analysis. Results of current study indicated an enhanced mobilization of colloids from frozen soil compared to unfrozen soil. Colloids mobilized after five freeze-thaw cycles were two times higher than the amount of colloids mobilized from unfrozen soil. The duration of freezing had no significant impact on the amount of colloids mobilized. Results of XRD analysis indicated an increase in clay mineral and iron-containing minerals and a decrease in quartz fractions in the mobilized colloids compared to the soil from which colloids were mobilized. The soil consisted of 35.7% clay minerals, 43.3% quartz, and 1.5% iron-containing minerals including ferruginous smectite, goethite, and amphibole. In contrast, colloids mobilized from the soil by freeze-thaw cycles had 64.3% clay minerals, 21.7% quartz, and 5.5% of iron-containing minerals. The colloids mobilized in control soil had 73.7% clay minerals, 3.5% quartz, and 4.6% iron-containing minerals. The colloidal

  4. Influence of Humic Acid on the Transport and Deposition of Colloidal Silica under Different Hydrogeochemical Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Zhou


    Full Text Available The transport and deposition of colloids in aquifers plays an important role in managed aquifer recharge (MAR schemes. Here, the processes of colloidal silica transport and deposition were studied by displacing groundwater with recharge water. The results showed that significant amounts of colloidal silica transport occurred when native groundwater was displaced by HA solution. Solution contains varying conditions of ionic strength and ion valence. The presence of humic acid could affect the zeta potential and size of the colloidal silica, which led to obvious colloidal silica aggregation in the divalent ion solution. Humic acid increased colloidal silica transport by formation of non-adsorbing aqueous phase silica–HA complexes. The experimental and modeling results showed good agreement, indicating that the essential physics were accurately captured by the model. The deposition rates were less than 10−8 s−1 in deionized water and monovalent ion solution. Moreover, the addition of Ca2+ and increase of IS resulted in the deposition rates increasing by five orders of magnitude to 10−4 s−1. In all experiments, the deposition rates decreased in the presence of humic acid. Overall, the promotion of humic acid in colloidal silica was strongly associated with changes in water quality, indicating that they should receive greater attention during MAR.

  5. Effect of hydrofracking fluid on colloid transport in the unsaturated zone. (United States)

    Sang, Wenjing; Stoof, Cathelijne R; Zhang, Wei; Morales, Verónica L; Gao, Bin; Kay, Robert W; Liu, Lin; Zhang, Yalei; Steenhuis, Tammo S


    Hydraulic fracturing is expanding rapidly in the US to meet increasing energy demand and requires high volumes of hydrofracking fluid to displace natural gas from shale. Accidental spills and deliberate land application of hydrofracking fluids, which return to the surface during hydrofracking, are common causes of environmental contamination. Since the chemistry of hydrofracking fluids favors transport of colloids and mineral particles through rock cracks, it may also facilitate transport of in situ colloids and associated pollutants in unsaturated soils. We investigated this by subsequently injecting deionized water and flowback fluid at increasing flow rates into unsaturated sand columns containing colloids. Colloid retention and mobilization was measured in the column effluent and visualized in situ with bright field microscopy. While colloids were released by flushing with deionized water, 32-36% were released by flushing with flowback fluid in two distinct breakthrough peaks. These peaks resulted from 1) surface tension reduction and steric repulsion and 2) slow kinetic disaggregation of colloid flocs. Increasing the flow rate of the flowback fluid mobilized an additional 36% of colloids, due to the expansion of water filled pore space. This study suggests that hydrofracking fluid may also indirectly contaminate groundwater by remobilizing existing colloidal pollutants.

  6. Evaluation of colloid transport issues and recommendations for SKI performance assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickham, S. M.; Bennett, D. G.; Higgo, J. J. W. [Galson Sciences Ltd., Oakham (United Kingdom)


    The primary objective of this project was to develop recommendations to SKI for evaluating the potential significance of colloids in performance assessment (PA) studies by: Updating a previous review of the treatment of colloids in PA studies for radioactive waste repositories and to include information on PAs published in the period 1997-1999. We have reviewed sixteen PAs conducted in nine countries and have made the following observations: All PAs include colloid formation and colloid transport in their FEP list. Although some programmes have deferred consideration of colloidal radionuclide transport until further research has been performed, more recent PAs do account for the effects of colloids. PAs of disposal systems in which the waste canister is surrounded by a bentonite buffer do not consider the effect of colloids on the source term. These PAs assume that all colloids are filtered by the bentonite buffer and cannot escape from the near-field. PAs of disposal systems with no bentonite buffer have to account for mobilisation of radionuclides from the waste by colloids. The concentration of colloids that may form in the repository is a key uncertainty. Many PA programmes have modelled colloidal radionuclide transport in the geosphere using one-dimensional transport equations. No PA has included a comprehensive treatment of colloid transport using mechanistic modelling. Some PAs have not undertaken modelling of colloid transport in the geosphere, but have relied instead on arguments that such transport processes will be of low consequence to the performance of the disposal system. Five PAs have shown the effects of colloid transport through the geosphere to be potentially significant. For the disposal of spent nuclear fuel, SKB has developed the KBS-3 concept. For the disposal of long-lived low-level and intermediate-level radioactive waste, SKB has developed the SFL 3-5 concept. In the SFL 3-5 concept, waste is placed in underground disposal caverns and

  7. Software for fitting and simulating fate and transport of dense colloids and biocolloids in one-dimensional porous media: Re-introducing ColloidFit. (United States)

    Katzourakis, Vasileios; Chrysikopoulos, Constantinos


    The present work re-introduces ColloidFit, which is an autonomous, modular, multipurpose fitting software for dense colloid and biocolloid transport phenomena in porous media. The initial version of ColloidFit, introduced by Sim and Chrysikopoulos (1995), was substantially improved and combined with a relatively intuitive and easy to use graphical user interface. The re-introduced ColloidFit can simulate the migration of suspended colloid or biocolloid particles in one-dimensional, water saturated, homogeneous porous media with uniform flow, accounting for non-equilibrium attachment onto the solid matrix, as well as gravitational effects. Furthermore, the improved ColloidFit software employs a variety of non-equilibrium, linear and nonlinear models for the simulation of colloid attachment onto a solid matrix under batch experimental conditions. The re-introduced ColloidFit uses the state of the art fitting software "Pest" to estimate unknown model parameter values, together with their 95% confidence intervals. Pest is a model-independent parameter estimation software capable of adjusting model parameters, so that discrepancies between model-generated data and the corresponding experimental measurements are reduced to a user preselected minimum. The fitting process is graphed and displayed in real time. The user is allowed to overview every step of the fitting progress, and if needed to change the initial parameter values. The re-introduced ColloidFit software is expected to make the fitting process of colloid and biocolloid transport data, just a simple task.

  8. Colloid-Facilitated Transport of Low-Solubility Radionuclides: A Field, Experimental, and Modeling Investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kersting, A B; Reimus, P W; Abdel-Fattah, A; Allen, P G; Anghel, I; Benedict, F C; Esser, B K; Lu, N; Kung, K S; Nelson, J; Neu, M P; Reilly, S D; Smith, D K; Sylwester, E R; Wang, L; Ware, S D; Warren, RG; Williams, R W; Zavarin, M; Zhao, P


    For the last several years, the Underground Test Area (UGTA) program has funded a series of studies carried out by scientists to investigate the role of colloids in facilitating the transport of low-solubility radionuclides in groundwater, specifically plutonium (Pu). Although the studies were carried out independently, the overarching goals of these studies has been to determine if colloids in groundwater at the NTS can and will transport low-solubility radionuclides such as Pu, define the geochemical mechanisms under which this may or may not occur, determine the hydrologic parameters that may or may not enhance transport through fractures and provide recommendations for incorporating this information into future modeling efforts. The initial motivation for this work came from the observation in 1997 and 1998 by scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) that low levels of Pu originally from the Benham underground nuclear test were detected in groundwater from two different aquifers collected from wells 1.3 km downgradient (Kersting et al., 1999). Greater than 90% of the Pu and other radionuclides were associated with the naturally occurring colloidal fraction (< 1 micron particles) in the groundwater. The colloids consisted mainly of zeolite (mordenite, clinoptilolite/heulandite), clays (illite, smectite) and cristobalite (SiO{sub 2}). These minerals were also identified as alteration mineral components in the host rock aquifer, a rhyolitic tuff. The observation that Pu can and has migrated in the subsurface at the NTS has forced a rethinking of our basic assumptions regarding the mechanical and geochemical transport pathways of low-solubility radionuclides. If colloid-facilitated transport is the primary mechanism for transporting low-solubility radionuclides in the subsurface, then current transport models based solely on solubility arguments and retardation estimates may underestimate the flux and

  9. Chemical factors influencing colloid-facilitated transport of contaminants in porous media (United States)

    Roy, Sujoy B.; Dzombak, David A.


    The effects of colloids on the transport of two strongly sorbing solutesa hydrophobic organic compound, phenanthrene, and a metal ion, Ni2+were studied in sand-packed laboratory columns under different pH and ionic strength conditions. Two types of column experiments were performed as follows:  (i) sorption/mobilization experiments where the contaminant was first sorbed in the column under conditions where no colloids were released and mobilized under conditions where colloids were released as a result of ionic strength reduction in the influent; and (ii) transport experiments where the contaminant, dissolved or sorbed on colloids, was injected into columns packed with a strongly sorbing porous medium. In the first type of experiment, contaminant mobilization was significant only when all releasable colloids were flushed from the column. In all other cases, although high colloid particle concentrations were encountered, there was no marked effect on total contaminant concentrations. In the second type of experiment, colloid deposition efficiencies were shown to control the enhancement of transport. The deposition efficiency was a function of the pH (for a high organic content sand) and of the contaminant concentration (for a charged species such as Ni2+).

  10. Influence of mineral colloids and humic substances on uranium(VI) transport in water-saturated geologic porous media. (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Cheng, Tao; Wu, Yang


    Mineral colloids and humic substances often co-exist in subsurface environment and substantially influence uranium (U) transport. However, the combined effects of mineral colloids and humic substances on U transport are not clear. This study is aimed at quantifying U transport and elucidating geochemical processes that control U transport when both mineral colloids and humic acid (HA) are present. U-spiked solutions/suspensions were injected into water-saturated sand columns, and U and colloid concentrations in column effluent were monitored. We found that HA promoted U transport via (i) formation of aqueous U-HA complexes, and (ii) competition against aqueous U for surface sites on transport media. Illite colloids had no influence on U transport at pH5 in the absence of HA due to low mobility of the colloids. At pH9, U desorbed from mobile illite and the presence of illite decreased U transport. At pH5, high U transport occurred when both illite colloids and HA were present, which was attributed to enhanced U adsorption to illite colloids via formation of ternary illite-HA-U surface complexes, and enhanced illite transport due to HA attachment to illite and transport media. This study demonstrates that the combined effects of mineral colloids and HA on contaminant transport is different from simple addition of the individual effect. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Subsurface Biogeochemistry of Actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kersting, Annie B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Univ. Relations and Science Education; Zavarin, Mavrik [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Glenn T. Seaborg Inst.


    A major scientific challenge in environmental sciences is to identify the dominant processes controlling actinide transport in the environment. It is estimated that currently, over 2200 metric tons of plutonium (Pu) have been deposited in the subsurface worldwide, a number that increases yearly with additional spent nuclear fuel (Ewing et al., 2010). Plutonium has been shown to migrate on the scale of kilometers, giving way to a critical concern that the fundamental biogeochemical processes that control its behavior in the subsurface are not well understood (Kersting et al., 1999; Novikov et al., 2006; Santschi et al., 2002). Neptunium (Np) is less prevalent in the environment; however, it is predicted to be a significant long-term dose contributor in high-level nuclear waste. Our focus on Np chemistry in this Science Plan is intended to help formulate a better understanding of Pu redox transformations in the environment and clarify the differences between the two long-lived actinides. The research approach of our Science Plan combines (1) Fundamental Mechanistic Studies that identify and quantify biogeochemical processes that control actinide behavior in solution and on solids, (2) Field Integration Studies that investigate the transport characteristics of Pu and test our conceptual understanding of actinide transport, and (3) Actinide Research Capabilities that allow us to achieve the objectives of this Scientific Focus Area (SFA and provide new opportunities for advancing actinide environmental chemistry. These three Research Thrusts form the basis of our SFA Science Program (Figure 1).

  12. Virus-sized colloid transport in a single pore: model development and sensitivity analysis. (United States)

    Seetha, N; Mohan Kumar, M S; Majid Hassanizadeh, S; Raoof, Amir


    A mathematical model is developed to simulate the transport and deposition of virus-sized colloids in a cylindrical pore throat considering various processes such as advection, diffusion, colloid-collector surface interactions and hydrodynamic wall effects. The pore space is divided into three different regions, namely, bulk, diffusion and potential regions, based on the dominant processes acting in each of these regions. In the bulk region, colloid transport is governed by advection and diffusion whereas in the diffusion region, colloid mobility due to diffusion is retarded by hydrodynamic wall effects. Colloid-collector interaction forces dominate the transport in the potential region where colloid deposition occurs. The governing equations are non-dimensionalized and solved numerically. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the virus-sized colloid transport and deposition is significantly affected by various pore-scale parameters such as the surface potentials on colloid and collector, ionic strength of the solution, flow velocity, pore size and colloid size. The adsorbed concentration and hence, the favorability of the surface for adsorption increases with: (i) decreasing magnitude and ratio of surface potentials on colloid and collector, (ii) increasing ionic strength and (iii) increasing pore radius. The adsorbed concentration increases with increasing Pe, reaching a maximum value at Pe=0.1 and then decreases thereafter. Also, the colloid size significantly affects particle deposition with the adsorbed concentration increasing with increasing particle radius, reaching a maximum value at a particle radius of 100nm and then decreasing with increasing radius. System hydrodynamics is found to have a greater effect on larger particles than on smaller ones. The secondary minimum contribution to particle deposition has been found to increase as the favorability of the surface for adsorption decreases. The sensitivity of the model to a given parameter will be high if

  13. H51E-1535: Biogeochemical factors influencing the transport and fate of colloids and colloid-associated contaminants in the vadose zone (United States)

    The vadose zone exhibits large spatial and temporal variability in many physical, chemical, and biological factors that strongly influence the transport and fate of colloids (e.g., microbes, nanoparticles, clays, and dissolved organic matter) and colloid-associated contaminants (e.g., heavy metals, ...

  14. Transport of europium colloids in vadose zone lysimeters at the semiarid Hanford site. (United States)

    Liu, Ziru; Flury, Markus; Zhang, Z Fred; Harsh, James B; Gee, Glendon W; Strickland, Chris E; Clayton, Ray E


    The objective of this study was to quantify transport of Eu colloids in the vadose zone at the semiarid Hanford site. Eu-hydroxy-carbonate colloids, Eu(OH)(CO3), were applied to the surface of field lysimeters, and migration of the colloids through the sediments was monitored using wick samplers. The lysimeters were exposed to natural precipitation (145-231 mm/year) or artificial irrigation (124-348 mm/year). Wick outflow was analyzed for Eu concentrations, supplemented by electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. Small amounts of Eu colloids (colloids under both natural precipitation and artificial irrigation; that is, the leading edge of the Eu colloids moved at a velocity of 3 cm/day within the first 2 months after application. Episodic infiltration (e.g., Chinook snowmelt events) caused peaks of Eu in the wick outflow. While a fraction of Eu moved consistent with long-term recharge estimates at the site, the main mass of Eu remained in the top 30 cm of the sediments. This study illustrates that, under field conditions, near-surface colloid mobilization and transport occurred in Hanford sediments.

  15. Measuring and predicting the transport of actinides and fission product contaminants in unsaturated prairie soil (United States)

    Sims, D. J.

    Soil samples have been taken in 2001 from the area of a 1951 release from an underground storage tank of 6.7 L of an aqueous solution of irradiated uranium (360 GBq). A simulation of the dispersion of the actinides and fission products was conducted in the laboratory using irradiated natural uranium, non-irradiated natural uranium and metal standards dissolved in acidic aqueous solutions and added to soil columns containing uncontaminated prairie soil. The lab soil columns were allowed 12 to 14 months for contaminant transport. Soil samples were analyzed using gamma-ray spectroscopy, neutron activation analysis (NAA) and liquid scintillation counting (LSC) to determine the elemental concentrations of U, Cs and Sr. Diffusion coefficients from the 50 year soil samples and the lab soil samples were determined. The measured diffusion coefficients from the field samples were 3.0 x 10-4 cm2 s-1 (Cs-137), 1.8 x 10-5 cm2 s-1 (U-238) and 2.6 x 10-3 cm2 s-1 (Sr-90) and the values determined from lab simulation were 5 x 10-6 cm 2 s-1 (Cs-137), 3 x 10-5 cm2 s-1 (U-238) and 1.9 x 10-5 cm 2 s-1 (Sr-90). The differences between the sets of diffusion coefficients can be attributed to differences in retardation effects, weather effects and changes in the soil characteristics when transporting, such as porosity. The analytical work showed that Cs-137 content of soil can be determined effectively using gamma-ray spectroscopy; U-238 content can be measured using NAA; and Sr-90 content can be measured using LSC. For non- and low-radioactive species, it was shown that both flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) and inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) gave comparable results for Sr, Cs and Sm, with the average values ranging from 0.5 to 4.5 ppm of each other. The U-238 content results from NAA and from ICP-MS showed general agreement with an average difference of 81.3 ppm on samples having concentrations up to 988.2 ppm. The difference may have been due to matrix

  16. Colloid-Facilitated Transport of Cations in an Unsaturated Fractured Soil Under Transient Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, Joseph [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)


    Rainfall experiments were conducted using intact soil cores and an instrumented soil pedon to examine the effect of physical heterogeneity and rainfall characteristics on the mobilization of colloids, organic matter, cesium, and strontium in a fractured soil. To measure the spatial variability of infiltration of colloids and contaminants, samples were collected through a 19-port grid placed below the soil core in laboratory study and in 27 samplers at multiple depths in the soil pedon in the field study. Cesium and strontium were applied to the soil cores and the soil pedon prior to mobilization experiments. Rainwater solutions of multiple ionic strengths and organic matter concentrations were applied to the soil cores and soil pedon to mobilize in situ colloids, cesium, and strontium. The mobilization of colloids and metal cations occurred through preferential flow paths in the soil cores. Compared to steady rainfall, greater amounts of colloids were mobilized during rainfall interrupted by pauses, which indicates that the supply of colloids to be mobilized was replenished during the pauses. A maximum in the amount of mobilized colloids were mobilized during a rainfall following a pause of 2.5 d. Pauses of shorter or longer duration resulted in less colloid mobilization. Freeze-thaw cycles, a transient condition in winter, enhanced colloid mobilization and colloid-facilitated transport of cesium and strontium in the soil cores. The exchange of solutes between the soil matrix and macropores caused a hysteretic mobilization of colloids, cesium, and strontium during changes in ionic strength. Colloid-facilitated mobilization of cesium and strontium was important at low ionic strength in fractures where slow flow allowed greater exchange of flow between the fractures and the surrounding matrix. The release of cesium and strontium by cation exchange occurred at high ionic strength in fractures where there is a little exchange of pore water with the surrounding matrix

  17. Electrochemistry in Colloids and Dispersions. Volume 2. Solute Distribution, Diffusion, and Transport Colloidal Metals (United States)


    Electrochemical methods and physico-chemical structures of liquid disperse systems Alain Berthod Laboratoire des Sciences Analytique , Universite...Catalyse et Chimie des Surfaces, UA. 423 du CNRS, 4 Rue Blaise Pascal, F-67070 trasbourg, France 5 pp. 11-195 to 11-216 - 20. Modern aspects of colloidal...Electrochemical Methods and Physicochemical 3I Structures of Uquid Disperse Systems I I I I Alain Berthod Laboratoire des Sciences Analytiques , UA CNRS 435

  18. Combined physical and chemical nonequilibrium transport model: Analytical solution, moments, and application to colloids (United States)

    The transport of solutes and colloids in porous media is influenced by a variety of physical and chemical nonequilibrium processes. A combined physical–chemical nonequilibrium (PCNE) model was therefore used to describe general mass transport. The model partitions the pore space into “mobile” and “i...

  19. Colloids in groundwater: Their mobilization, subsurface transport, and sorption affinity for toxic chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    During the initial project period, we have pursued several activities with the overall goal of characterizing the roles of colloid in groundwater. First, we have collected soil cores from a site where we have previously found large quantities of kaolinite colloids in the groundwater. We have intensely investigated these cores to test our hypothesis that the colloids have been mobilized as a result of iron oxide dissolution. Next, we have constructed a soil core system in our laboratory with which we are attempting to mimic the factors that we think are governing colloid transport in the subsurface. Finally, we have pursued the issue of how well organic chemicals bind to the kinds of colloids that we are seeing at field sites. Together, with our knowledge of colloid mobility, we anticipate that this sorption data will enable us to predict the influence of groundwater colloids on contaminant fates in the subsurface. Our progress in each of these activities is described in this report. 7 refs., 12 figs.

  20. Colloid transport in dolomite rock fractures: effects of fracture characteristics, specific discharge, and ionic strength. (United States)

    Mondal, Pulin K; Sleep, Brent E


    The effects of fracture characteristics, specific discharge, and ionic strength on microsphere transport in variable-aperture dolomite rock fractures were studied in a laboratory-scale system. Fractures with different aperture distributions and mineral compositions were artificially created in two dolomite rock blocks. Transport tests were conducted with bromide and carboxylate-modified latex microspheres (20, 200, and 500 nm diameter). Under overall unfavorable attachment conditions, there was significant retention of the 20 nm microsphere and minimal retention of the 500 nm microsphere for all conditions examined. Aperture variability produced significant spatial variation in colloid transport. Flushing with low ionic strength solution (1 mM) following microsphere transport at 12 mM ionic strength solution produced a spike in effluent microsphere concentrations, consistent with retention of colloids in secondary energy minima. Surface roughness and charge heterogeneity effects may have also contributed to the effect of microsphere size on retention. Matrix diffusion influenced bromide transport but was not a dominant factor in transport for any microsphere size. Calibrated one-dimensional, two-site kinetic model parameters for colloid transport in fractured dolomite were sensitive to the physical and chemical properties of both the fractured dolomite and the colloids, indicating the need for mechanistic modeling for accurate prediction.

  1. Analytic solutions for colloid transport with time- and depth-dependent retention in porous media. (United States)

    Leij, Feike J; Bradford, Scott A; Sciortino, Antonella


    Elucidating and quantifying the transport of industrial nanoparticles (e.g. silver, carbon nanotubes, and graphene oxide) and other colloid-size particles such as viruses and bacteria is important to safeguard and manage the quality of the subsurface environment. Analytic solutions were derived for aqueous and solid phase colloid concentrations in a porous medium where colloids were subject to advective transport and reversible time and/or depth-dependent retention. Time-dependent blocking and ripening retention were described using a Langmuir-type equation with a rate coefficient that respectively decreased and increased linearly with the retained concentration. Depth-dependent retention was described using a rate coefficient that is a power-law function of distance. The stream tube modeling concept was employed to extend these analytic solutions to transport scenarios with two different partitioning processes (i.e., two types of retention sites). The sensitivity of concentrations was illustrated for the various time- and/or depth-dependent retention model parameters. The developed analytical models were subsequently used to describe breakthrough curves and, in some cases, retention profiles from several published column studies that employed nanoparticle or pathogenic microorganisms. Simulations results provided valuable insights on causes for many observed complexities associated with colloid transport and retention, including: increasing or decreasing effluent concentrations with continued colloid application, delayed breakthrough, low concentration tailing, and retention profiles that are hyper-exponential, exponential, linear, or non-monotonic with distance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Analytic solutions for colloid transport with time- and depth-dependent retention in porous media (United States)

    Leij, Feike J.; Bradford, Scott A.; Sciortino, Antonella


    Elucidating and quantifying the transport of industrial nanoparticles (e.g. silver, carbon nanotubes, and graphene oxide) and other colloid-size particles such as viruses and bacteria is important to safeguard and manage the quality of the subsurface environment. Analytic solutions were derived for aqueous and solid phase colloid concentrations in a porous medium where colloids were subject to advective transport and reversible time and/or depth-dependent retention. Time-dependent blocking and ripening retention were described using a Langmuir-type equation with a rate coefficient that respectively decreased and increased linearly with the retained concentration. Depth-dependent retention was described using a rate coefficient that is a power-law function of distance. The stream tube modeling concept was employed to extend these analytic solutions to transport scenarios with two different partitioning processes (i.e., two types of retention sites). The sensitivity of concentrations was illustrated for the various time- and/or depth-dependent retention model parameters. The developed analytical models were subsequently used to describe breakthrough curves and, in some cases, retention profiles from several published column studies that employed nanoparticle or pathogenic microorganisms. Simulations results provided valuable insights on causes for many observed complexities associated with colloid transport and retention, including: increasing or decreasing effluent concentrations with continued colloid application, delayed breakthrough, low concentration tailing, and retention profiles that are hyper-exponential, exponential, linear, or non-monotonic with distance.

  3. Actinides-1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Abstracts of 134 papers which were presented at the Actinides-1981 conference are presented. Approximately half of these papers deal with electronic structure of the actinides. Others deal with solid state chemistry, nuclear physic, thermodynamic properties, solution chemistry, and applied chemistry.

  4. Size- and concentration-dependent deposition of fluorescent silica colloids in saturated sand columns: transport experiments and modeling. (United States)

    Vitorge, Elsa; Szenknect, Stéphanie; Martins, Jean M F; Gaudet, Jean-Paul


    This study investigates the size and concentration effects on the transport of silica colloids in columns of sandy aquifer material. Colloid transport experiments were performed with specifically developed fluorescent labeled silica colloids in columns of a repacked natural porous medium under hydro-geochemical conditions representative of sandy aquifers. Breakthrough curves and vertical deposition profiles of colloids were measured for various colloid concentrations and sizes. The results showed that for a given colloid concentration injected, deposition increased when increasing the size of the colloids. For a given colloid size, retention was also shown to be highly concentration-dependent with a non-monotonous pattern presenting low and high concentration specificities. Deposition increases when increasing both size and injected concentration, until a threshold concentration is reached, above which retention decreases, thus increasing colloid mobility. Results observed above the threshold concentration agree with a classical blocking mechanism typical of a high concentration regime. Results observed at lower colloid concentrations were not modeled with a classical blocking model and a depth- and time-dependent model with a second order kinetic law was necessary to correctly fit the experimental data in the entire range of colloid concentrations with a single set of parameters for each colloidal size. The colloid deposition mechanisms occuring at low concentrations were investigated through a pore structure analysis carried out with Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry and image analysis. The determined pore size distribution permitted estimation of the maximal retention capacity of the natural sand as well as some low flow zones. Altogether, these results stress the key role of the pore space geometry of the sand in controlling silica colloids deposition under hydro-geochemical conditions typical of sandy aquifers. Our results also showed originally that colloid

  5. Surface chemical effects on colloid stability and transport through natural porous media (United States)

    Puls, Robert W.; Paul, Cynthia J.; Clark, Donald A.


    Surface chemical effects on colloidal stability and transport through porous media were investigated using laboratory column techniques. Approximately 100 nm diameter, spherical, iron oxide particles were synthesized as the mobile colloidal phase. The column packing material was retrieved from a sand and gravel aquifer on Cape Cod, MA. Previous studies have indicated enhanced stability and transport of iron oxide particles due to specific adsorption of some inorganic anions on the iron oxide surface. This phenomenon was further evaluated with an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate. Surfactants constitute a significant mass of the contaminant loading at the Cape Cod site and their presence may contribute to colloidal transport as a significant transport mechanism at the site. Other studies at the site have previously demonstrated the occurrence of this transport mechanism for iron phosphate particles. Photon correlation spectroscopy, micro-electrophoretic mobility, and scanning electron microscopy were used to evaluate particle stability, mobility and size. Adsorption of negatively charged organic and inorganic species onto the surface of the iron oxide particles was shown to significantly enhance particle stability and transport through alterations of the electrokinetic properties of the particle surface. Particle breakthrough generally occurred simultaneously with tritiated water, a conservative tracer. The extent of particle breakthrough was primarily dependent upon colloidal stability and surface charge.

  6. Size-dependent control of colloid transport via solute gradients in dead-end channels (United States)

    Shin, Sangwoo; Um, Eujin; Sabass, Benedikt; Ault, Jesse T.; Rahimi, Mohammad; Warren, Patrick B.; Stone, Howard A.


    Transport of colloids in dead-end channels is involved in widespread applications including drug delivery and underground oil and gas recovery. In such geometries, Brownian motion may be considered as the sole mechanism that enables transport of colloidal particles into or out of the channels, but it is, unfortunately, an extremely inefficient transport mechanism for microscale particles. Here, we explore the possibility of diffusiophoresis as a means to control the colloid transport in dead-end channels by introducing a solute gradient. We demonstrate that the transport of colloidal particles into the dead-end channels can be either enhanced or completely prevented via diffusiophoresis. In addition, we show that size-dependent diffusiophoretic transport of particles can be achieved by considering a finite Debye layer thickness effect, which is commonly ignored. A combination of diffusiophoresis and Brownian motion leads to a strong size-dependent focusing effect such that the larger particles tend to concentrate more and reside deeper in the channel. Our findings have implications for all manners of controlled release processes, especially for site-specific delivery systems where localized targeting of particles with minimal dispersion to the nontarget area is essential. PMID:26715753

  7. Transport of the colloid matter of riverine runoff through estuaries (United States)

    Lasareva, E. V.; Parfenova, A. M.; Demina, T. S.; Romanova, N. D.; Belyaev, N. A.; Romankevich, E. A.


    A procedure for separating the colloid component of natural waters is proposed. It was shown that this component is the main form of matter transfer in Ob River runoff, because the mass of colloid substance is two orders of magnitude higher than that of particulate matter in the outer part of the estuary. Simulation and field experiments revealed the influence of nature and concentration of organic matter on their ability to stabilize or flocculate clay particles with an increase in salinity, thus affecting the range of transfer of riverine runoff matter. It was shown that the interaction of humic acids and clay particles, as well as the increase in hydrophobic properties of a flocculant, improve flocculation efficiency. Criteria are proposed to recognize in the estuarine region areas of pronounced contribution of flocculation processes to sedimentation of fine particles. It is shown that the newly formed organic matter produced by biota under saline stress might be flocculants of fine particulate matter.

  8. Sorption of prioritized elements on montmorillonite colloids and their potential to transport radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wold, Susanna (Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). School of Chemical Science and Engineering, Nuclear Chemistry)


    Due to colloids potential to bind radionuclides (RN) and even mobilise sorbed RN, colloid transport of RN should be taken into account when modeling radionuclide transport in the scenario of a leaking canister in a deep bedrock repository of spent nuclear fuel. Colloids are always present in natural waters and the concentrations are controlled by the groundwater chemistry where specifically the ionic strength is of major importance. In many deep bedrock groundwaters, the ionic strength is fairly high (above the Critical Coagulation Concentration) and therefore colloids are not likely to be stable. In these types of groundwaters colloid concentrations up to 100 mug/l could be expected, and clay colloids organic degradation products and bacteria and viruses represent can be found. In a long time perspective cycles of glaciations can be expected in Sweden as in other Nordic countries. It can not be excluded that glacial melt water can intrude to repository depth with high flows. In this scenario the groundwater conditions may drastically change. In contact with dilute groundwater the bentonite barrier can start to propagate a bentonite gel and further release montmorillonite colloids into water bearing fractures. The concentration of colloids in vicinity of the bentonite barrier can then increase drastically. In contact with Grimsel groundwater types with [Na] and [Ca] of 0.001 and 0.0001 M respectively a montmorillonite concentration of a maximum of 20 mg/l is expected. Further, the groundwater chemistry of Grimsel seems to be representative for glacial meltwater when comparing with the water chemistry data on meltwaters from existing glaciers. A key to be able to model colloid transport of radionuclides is the sorption strength and the sorption reversibility. To facilitate this, a compilation of literature K{sub d}-values and an inventory of available sorption kinetic data has been composed for the prioritized elements Pu, Th, Am, Pb, Pa, Ra, Np, Cm, Ac, Tc, Cs, Nb

  9. Colloid Facilitated Transport of Radioactive Cations in the Vadose Zone: Field Experiments Oak Ridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James E. Saiers


    The overarching goal of this study was to improve understanding of colloid-facilitated transport of radioactive cations through unsaturated soils and sediments. We conducted a suite of laboratory experiments and field experiments on the vadose-zone transport of colloids, organic matter, and associated contaminants of interest to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The laboratory and field experiments, together with transport modeling, were designed to accomplish the following detailed objectives: 1. Evaluation of the relative importance of inorganic colloids and organic matter to the facilitation of radioactive cation transport in the vadose zone; 2. Assessment of the role of adsorption and desorption kinetics in the facilitated transport of radioactive cations in the vadose zone; 3. Examination of the effects of rainfall and infiltration dynamics and in the facilitated transport of radioactive cations through the vadose zone; 4. Exploration of the role of soil heterogeneity and preferential flow paths (e.g., macropores) on the facilitated transport of radioactive cations in the vadose zone; 5. Development of a mathematical model of facilitated transport of contaminants in the vadose zone that accurately incorporates pore-scale and column-scale processes with the practicality of predicting transport with readily available parameters.

  10. Impact of dissolved organic matter on colloid transport in the vadose zone: deterministic approximation of transport deposition coefficients from polymeric coating characteristics. (United States)

    Morales, Verónica L; Zhang, Wei; Gao, Bin; Lion, Leonard W; Bisogni, James J; McDonough, Brendan A; Steenhuis, Tammo S


    Although numerous studies have been conducted to discern colloid transport and stability processes, the mechanistic understanding of how dissolved organic matter (DOM) affects colloid fate in unsaturated soils (i.e., the vadose zone) remains unclear. This study aims to bridge the gap between the physicochemical responses of colloid complexes and porous media interfaces to solution chemistry, and the effect these changes have on colloid transport and fate. Measurements of adsorbed layer thickness, density, and charge of DOM-colloid complexes and transport experiments with tandem internal process visualization were conducted for key constituents of DOM, humic (HA) and fulvic acids (FA), at acidic, neutral and basic pH and two CaCl(2) concentrations. Polymeric characteristics reveal that, of the two tested DOM constituents, only HA electrosterically stabilizes colloids. This stabilization is highly dependent on solution pH which controls DOM polymer adsorption affinity, and on the presence of Ca(+2) which promotes charge neutralization and inter-particle bridging. Transport experiments indicate that HA improved colloid transport significantly, while FA only marginally affected transport despite having a large effect on particle charge. A transport model with deposition and pore-exclusion parameters fit experimental breakthrough curves well. Trends in deposition coefficients are correlated to the changes in colloid surface potential for bare colloids, but must include adsorbed layer thickness and density for sterically stabilized colloids. Additionally, internal process observations with bright field microscopy reveal that, under optimal conditions for retention, experiments with FA or no DOM promoted colloid retention at solid-water interfaces, while experiments with HA enhanced colloid retention at air-water interfaces, presumably due to partitioning of HA at the air-water interface and/or increased hydrophobic characteristics of HA-colloid complexes. © 2010

  11. How historical copper contamination affects soil structure and mobilization and transport of colloids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paradelo, Marcos; Møldrup, Per; Holmstrup, Martin

    Copper is accumulated in soils due to human activities such as mining industry, agriculture practises, or waste deposals. High concentrations of copper can affect plants and soil organisms, and subsequently the soil structure and its inner space architecture. In this work we investigated the effect...... of copper concentration on the movement of an inert tracer, tritium, and the mobilization and transport of colloid particles in undisturbed soil cores (10 cm diameter and 8 cm height). The cores were sampled along a copper gradient of 21 to 3837 mg Cu kg-1 soil on an abandoned arable soil polluted by copper...... between 0.01 to 0.43 pore volumes, with longer times for the most contaminated point, likely related with its higher soil density and lower air permeability. The copper pollution affected colloid and tracer transport in the soil columns. The release of colloids especially in the most contaminated points...

  12. Analytic solutions for colloid transport with time- or depth-dependent retention in porous media (United States)

    Elucidating and quantifying the transport of industrial nanoparticles (e.g. silver, carbon nanotubes, and graphene oxide) and other colloid-size particles such as viruses and bacteria is important to safeguard and manage the quality of the subsurface environment. Analytic solutions were derived for...

  13. Virus-sized colloid transport in a single pore: Model development and sensitivity analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seetha, N.; Mohan Kumar, M.S.; Hassanizadeh, S.M.; Raoof, A.


    A mathematical model is developed to simulate the transport and deposition of virus-sized colloids in a cylindrical pore throat considering various processes such as advection, diffusion, colloid–collector surface interactions and hydrodynamic wall effects. The pore space is divided into three

  14. Colloid transport, retention, and remobilization during two-phase flow: Micro-model investigation and modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Q.


    In this study the transport of colloids in a two-phase fluid system is investigated. In particular, the effects on the interface of two immiscible fluids in steady-state and transient circumstances in a micro-porous network are investigated. The experimental setup is designed consisting of micro

  15. Coupled Factors Influencing Concentration Dependent Colloid Transport and Retention in Saturated Porous Media (United States)

    The coupled influence of input suspension concentration (Ci), ionic strength (IS) and hydrodynamics on the transport and retention of 1.1 'm carboxyl modified latex colloids in saturated quartz sand (150 'm) was investigated. Results from batch experiments and interaction energy calculations indica...

  16. Colloid-borne americium migration in Gorleben groundwater: significance of iron secondary phase transformation. (United States)

    Schäfer, Thorsten; Artinger, Robert; Dardenne, Kathy; Bauer, Andreas; Schuessler, Wolfram; Kim, Jae Il


    The mobility of actinides in natural water may be enhanced by colloid-mediated transport. In this context the reversibility of actinide colloid interaction is a key factor. Iron is an element that can generate colloids under conditions found in natural waters. In this paper, the impact of hematite and the low-crystalline precursor 2-line ferrihydrite on colloid-mediated transport of americium(III) is investigated. Am(III)-containing iron colloids are generated from two different approaches, namely contact between the two in aqueous solution or coprecipitation of Am(III) during iron colloid generation. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC), especially humic substances, has a strong influence on the stability of inorganic colloids. In addition, humic substances interfere in the distribution and kinetics of exchange between groundwater and sediments. Four groundwaters from the Gorleben aquifer system are used with DOC concentrations varying between 0.9 and 81.6 mgC/L together with Pleistocene Aeolian quartz sand from this site. Batch and column experiments are conducted under near-natural conditions (Ar + 1% CO2). To study the influence of kinetics, contact times up to one month are studied. The dynamic light-scattering investigations show that the colloidal stability of the 2-line ferrihydrite increases with increasing DOC concentration. The low-crystalline iron colloids have a marginal influence on the Am(III) transport due to reversibility of americium sorption. Contrary to this, the crystalline hematite generated from coprecipitation of Am(III) leads to an increase of unretarded colloid-mediated Am(III) transport up to a factor of almost five. Chemical characterization of these hematite colloids shows that Am(III) is structurally entrapped in the hematite. The distribution of Am(III) and 2-line ferrihydrite between groundwater and sand sediment remained in disequilibrium even after one month. This shows that the kinetics of Am(III) distribution between the different

  17. Study of colloids transport during two-phase flow using a novel polydimethylsiloxane micro-model. (United States)

    Zhang, Qiulan; Karadimitriou, N K; Hassanizadeh, S M; Kleingeld, P J; Imhof, A


    As a representation of a porous medium, a closed micro-fluidic device made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), with uniform wettability and stable hydrophobic properties, was designed and fabricated. A flow network, with a mean pore size of 30 μm, was formed in a PDMS slab, covering an area of 1 mm × 10 mm. The PDMS slab was covered and bonded with a 120-μm-thick glass plate to seal the model. The glass plate was first spin-coated with a thin layer, roughly 10 μm, of PDMS. The micro-model was treated with silane in order to make it uniformly and stably hydrophobic. Fluorescent particles of 300 μm in diameter were used as colloids. It is known that more removal of colloids occurs under unsaturated conditions, compared to saturated flow in soil. At the same time, the change of saturation has been observed to cause remobilization of attached colloids. The mechanisms for these phenomena are not well understood. This is the first time that a closed micro-model, made of PDMS with uniform and stable wettability, has been used in combination with confocal microscopy to study colloid transport under transient two-phase flow conditions. With confocal microscopy, the movement of fluorescent particles and flow of two liquids within the pores can be studied. One can focus at different depths within the pores and thus determine where the particles exactly are. Thus, remobilization of attached colloids by moving fluid-fluid interfaces was visualized. In order to allow for the deposition and subsequent remobilization of colloids during two-phase flow, three micro-channels for the injection of liquids with and without colloids were constructed. An outlet channel was designed where effluent concentration breakthrough curves can be quantified by measuring the fluorescence intensity. A peak concentration also indicated in the breakthrough curve with the drainage event. The acquired images and breakthrough curve successfully confirmed the utility of the combination of such a PDMS

  18. Effect of gravity on colloid transport through water-saturated columns packed with glass beads: modeling and experiments. (United States)

    Chrysikopoulos, Constantinos V; Syngouna, Vasiliki I


    The role of gravitational force on colloid transport in water-saturated columns packed with glass beads was investigated. Transport experiments were performed with colloids (clays: kaolinite KGa-1b, montmorillonite STx-1b). The packed columns were placed in various orientations (horizontal, vertical, and diagonal) and a steady flow rate of Q = 1.5 mL/min was applied in both up-flow and down-flow modes. All experiments were conducted under electrostatically unfavorable conditions. The experimental data were fitted with a newly developed, analytical, one-dimensional, colloid transport model. The effect of gravity is incorporated in the mathematical model by combining the interstitial velocity (advection) with the settling velocity (gravity effect). The results revealed that flow direction influences colloid transport in porous media. The rate of particle deposition was shown to be greater for up-flow than for down-flow direction, suggesting that gravity was a significant driving force for colloid deposition.

  19. Modelling The Transport Of Solutes And Colloids In The Grimsel Migration Shear Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosakowski, G.; Smith, P


    This report describes modelling of the transport of solutes and colloids in an experimental system comprising an artificial dipole flow field in a water-conducting shear zone at Nagra's Grimsel Test Site (GTS) in the central Swiss Alps. The modelling work forms part of the Colloid and Radionuclide Retardation Project (CRR), which includes a series of field transport experiments and a supporting laboratory programme, as well as modelling studies. Four independent groups representing different organisations or research institutes have conducted the modelling, with each group employing its own modelling approach or approaches. Only the work conducted at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) is described in the present report. The modelling approaches used in the present study may not be directly applicable to safety assessment problems and the direct implications of the results of this study for safety assessment are limited. It can, however, be said that the study has demonstrated the high degree of mobility of bentonite and other colloids in a system that is at least in some ways comparable to those of interest in safety assessment, and has shown that bentonite colloids can at least potentially affect the transport of some safety relevant radionuclides over longer temporal and spatial scales than those addressed here. (author)

  20. Feedback-induced oscillations in one-dimensional colloidal transport. (United States)

    Lichtner, K; Pototsky, A; Klapp, S H L


    We investigate a driven, one-dimensional system of colloidal particles in a periodically corrugated narrow channel subject to a time-delayed feedback control. Our goal is to identify conditions under which the control induces oscillatory, time-periodic states. The investigations are based on the Fokker-Planck equation involving the density distribution of the system. First, by using the numerical continuation technique, we determine the linear stability of a stationary density. Second, the nonlinear regimes are analyzed by studying numerically the temporal evolution of the first moment of the density distribution. In this way we construct a bifurcation diagram revealing the nature of the instability. Apart from the case of a system with periodic boundary conditions, we also consider a microchannel of finite length. Finally, we study the influence of (repulsive) particle interactions based on dynamical density functional theory.

  1. Colloid formation and metal transport through two mixing zones affected by acid mine drainage near Silverton, Colorado (United States)

    Schemel, L.E.; Kimball, B.A.; Bencala, K.E.


    Stream discharges and concentrations of dissolved and colloidal metals (Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Pb, and Zn), SO4, and dissolved silica were measured to identify chemical transformations and determine mass transports through two mixing zones in the Animas River that receive the inflows from Cement and Mineral Creeks. The creeks were the dominant sources of Al, Cu, Fe, and Pb, whereas the upstream Animas River supplied about half of the Zn. With the exception of Fe, which was present in dissolved and colloidal forms, the metals were dissolved in the acidic, high-SO4 waters of Cement Creek (pH 3.8). Mixing of Cement Creek with the Animas River increased pH to near-neutral values and transformed Al and some additional Fe into colloids which also contained Cu and Pb. Aluminium and Fe colloids had already formed in the mildly acidic conditions in Mineral Creek (pH 6.6) upstream of the confluence with the Animas River. Colloidal Fe continued to form downstream of both mixing zones. The Fe- and Al-rich colloids were important for transport of Cu, Pb, and Zn, which appeared to have sorbed to them. Partitioning of Zn between dissolved and colloidal phases was dependent on pH and colloid concentration. Mass balances showed conservative transports for Ca, Mg, Mn, SO4, and dissolved silica through the two mixing zones and small losses (colloidal Al, Fe and Zn from the water column.

  2. Facilitated transport of heavy metals by bacterial colloids in sand columns (United States)

    Guiné, V.; Martins, J.; Gaudet, J. P.


    The aim of this work is to evaluate the ability of biotic collois (e.g. bacterial cells) to facilitate the transport of heavy metals in soils. and to identify the main factors influencing colloid transport in order to detelmine the geo-chemical conditions where this secondary transport process may become dominant. The model colloids studied here are living cells of Escherichia coli and Ralstonia metallidurans. We studied the transport of mercury zinc, and cadmium in columns of Fontainebleau sand. The properties (i.e. optical and morphological properties, charge (zeta potential, zeta) and hydrophobia (water/hexadecane distribution parameter, K_{hw})) of the bacterial cells surface were characterised, as well as their potential for heavy metals sorption (kinetic and isotherm). Both surface charge (zeta=-54 and -14 mV) and hydrophobia (K_{hw} = 0.25 and 0.05) differ strongly for the two bacteria. Column studies were conducted with bacteria and heavy metals separately or simultaneously. The cell surface differences led to different transport behaviour of the two bacteria, although the retardation factor is close to 1 for both. We observed that colloid mobility increases when increasing bacterial cells concentration and when decreasing the ionic strength. We also observed that bacterial colloids appeared as excellent vectors for Hg, Zn and Cd. Indeed, heavy metals adsorbed on the Fontainebleau sand when injected alone in columns (retardation factors of 1.4 ; 2.9 and 3.8 for Hg, Zn and Cd, respectively); whereas no retardation (R≈1) is observed when injected in the presence of both bacteria. Moreover, transport of bio-sorbed metal appears to be 4 to 6 times higher than dissolved heavy-metal.

  3. LUGH an experimental facility for preferential flow-colloidal transport in heterogeneous unsaturated soil (United States)

    Angulo-Jaramillo, R.; Bien, L.; Hehn, V.; Winiarski, T.


    Colloidal particles transport through vadose zone can contribute to fast transport of contaminants into groundwater. The objective is to study the preferential flow and transport of colloids in heterogeneous unsaturated soil subjected to high organic matter entry. A physically based model is developed based on a large laboratory lysimeter than usual laboratory column experiments. LUGH-Lysimeter for Unsaturated Groundwater Hydrodynamics- is used to embed a soil monolith (1.6 m3) made of different cross-bedded lithological types with contrasting hydraulic properties. The filling material is a carbonated graded sand and gravel from the fluvioglacial vadose zone of the east of Lyon (France). Materials are 3D arranged on contrasting textured lithofacies analogous to the sedimentary lithology of a fluvioglacial cross-bedded deposit. Tracer (Br 1E-2M) and colloid solutions were injected in a pulse mode using a rainfall simulator. Colloid solution is Chlamydomonas reinhardtii at 3.2E+6 units/mL concentration. These unicellular algae can be considered as spherical particles from 6 to 10 μm in diam. Their resistance and doubling time of cell growth are greater than the transfer time in the lysimeter. Algae moving into the porous medium do not immediately reproduce, and then the population size remains constant. During this period, called the lag phase (1 to 2 days), the cells are metabolically active and increase only in cell size. Tensiometers, TDR and electric resistivity enable measurements of the parameters related to flow, solute and colloid transfer. Eluted solutions are sampled by 15 separated fraction collectors, leading to independent breakthrough curves. Eluted colloid concentration is measured by spectrofluorometry. The model approach combines Richards equation, coupled to a convective-dispersive equation with a source/sink term for particle transport and mobilization. Macroscopic particle attachment/detachment from pores is assumed to follow first-order kinetics

  4. Soil colloidal behavior (United States)

    Recent understanding that organic and inorganic contaminants are often transported via colloidal particles has increased interest in colloid science. The primary importance of colloids in soil science stems from their surface reactivity and charge characteristics. Characterizations of size, shape,...

  5. Coupled effect of extended DLVO and capillary interactions on the retention and transport of colloids through unsaturated porous media. (United States)

    Xu, Shuang; Qi, Jun; Chen, Xijuan; Lazouskaya, Volha; Zhuang, Jie; Jin, Yan


    Colloids are potential vectors of contaminants in the subsurface environment. The knowledge of transport and retention behaviors of colloids is of primary importance for assessment and prediction of subsurface pollution risks. In this study, sand column experiments were conducted to investigate the coupled effects of various interfacial forces on the retention and transport of a hydrophilic silica colloid and a relatively hydrophobic latex colloid. Water column experiments were performed to observe the movement of colloids with air bubbles. Extended DLVO interaction energies and capillary potential energy were calculated to analyze colloid retention at air-water interface (AWI), solid-water interface (SWI), and air-water-solid interface (AWS). Results show that colloid retention decreases due to increase in electrostatic repulsion and Born repulsion as well as decrease in Lewis acid-base attraction and hydrophobic interactions. Water content effect and hydrophobic effect on colloid retention become more predominant in the solution of higher ionic strength. Colloid retention at AWI is minimal (i.e., due to nonexistence of primary and secondary minima) at the ionic strengths colloids is 4-5 orders of magnitude greater than the extended DLVO interaction energy (~10(3) KBT), suggesting that capillary retention at AWS is the primary mechanism controlling colloid retention in unsaturated porous media. Results from this study show that immobile solid phase (e.g., soil) could be much more important than air phase in determining colloid retention in unsaturated porous media under unfavorable conditions, especially in the solutions of high ionic strengths. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of graphene oxide on the transport and deposition behaviors of colloids in saturated porous media. (United States)

    Peng, Shengnan; Wu, Dan; Ge, Zhi; Tong, Meiping; Kim, Hyunjung


    The effects of graphene oxide (GO) on the transport and deposition behaviors of colloids with different sizes in packed quartz sand were investigated in both NaCl (10 and 50 mM) and CaCl 2 solutions (1 and 5 mM) at pH 6. Fluorescent carboxylate-modified polystyrene latex microspheres (CMLs) with size ranging from 0.2 to 2 μm were utilized as model colloids. Both breakthrough curves and retained profiles of colloids in the presence and absence of GO in suspensions under all examined solution conditions were analyzed. The breakthrough curves of all three different-sized CMLs with GO were higher yet the retained profiles were lower than those without GO at both examined ionic strengths in NaCl solutions. The observation showed that GO increased the transport and decreased the deposition of all three different-sized CMLs in NaCl solutions. However, in CaCl 2 solutions, opposite observation was achieved at two different ionic strength conditions. Specifically, the presence of GO increased the transport and decreased the deposition of all three different-sized CMLs in 1 mM CaCl 2 solutions, whereas, it decreased the transport and increased the deposition of all three different-sized CMLs in 5 mM CaCl 2 solutions. Comparison the breakthrough curves and retained profiles of CMLs versus those of GO yielded that the overall transport and deposition behaviors of all three different-sized CMLs with GO copresent in suspensions agreed well with the transport and deposition behaviors of GO under all examined conditions. The transport and deposition behaviors of CMLs in packed porous media clearly were controlled by those of GO under the conditions investigated in present study due to the adsorption of CMLs onto GO surfaces. Our study showed that once released into natural environment, GO would adsorb (interact with) different types of colloids and thus have significant influence on the fate and transport of colloids in porous media. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier

  7. In Situ Generated Colloid Transport of Cu and Zn in Reclaimed Mine Soil Profiles Associated with Biosolids Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarrod O. Miller


    Full Text Available Areas reclaimed for agricultural uses following coal mining often receive biosolids applications to increase organic matter and fertility. Transport of heavy metals within these soils may be enhanced by the additional presence of biosolids colloids. Intact monoliths from reclaimed and undisturbed soils in Virginia and Kentucky were leached to observe Cu and Zn mobility with and without biosolids application. Transport of Cu and Zn was observed in both solution and colloid associated phases in reclaimed and undisturbed forest soils, where the presence of unweathered spoil material and biosolids amendments contributed to higher metal release in solution fractions. Up to 81% of mobile Cu was associated with the colloid fraction, particularly when gibbsite was present, while only up to 18% of mobile Zn was associated with the colloid fraction. The colloid bound Cu was exchangeable by ammonium acetate, suggesting that it will release into groundwater resources.

  8. Transport of Colloid-Size Oil Droplets in Saturated and Unsaturated Sand Columns (United States)

    Weisbrod, N.; Travis, M.; Gross, A.


    Oil in wastewater poses significant treatment and subsequent environmental challenges. Accumulation of oils in soil leads to hydrophobicity, and the transport of colloidal-sized oil droplets may facilitate the co-transport of oil soluble contaminants such as pesticides or pharmaceutical materials. In order to determine transport characteristics of colloidal-sized, edible oil droplets, short-pulse column breakthrough experiments were conducted. Oil droplets (mean diameter 0.7 μm, ζ-potential -34±1, density 0.92 g cm-3) were injected simultaneously with latex microspheres (0.02, 0.2 and 1.0 μm, ζ-potentials -16±1, -30±2, and -49±1, respectively, density 1.055 g cm-3) and bromide in saturated and unsaturated quartz sand (ζ-potential -63±2 mV). Breakthrough of oil droplets was consistently detected first and recovery of oil droplets from the column was 20% greater than similarly sized microspheres in the saturated column, and 16% greater in high (0.18±0.01) volumetric water content (VWC) unsaturated columns. Higher variability was observed in the lower VWC (0.14±0.01) column experiments, and oil droplet recovery was just slightly greater than similarly sized microspheres and statistically higher only compared to the 0.02 μm microspheres. The research demonstrated that oil droplets are able to be transported as colloids in both saturated and unsaturated porous media. An important finding was that transport of oil droplets exceeded that of microspheres within the same size range and similar electrostatic properties. Classical filtration theory indicates that oil droplets in the diameter range of about 0.5 to 2 μm will exhibit reduced deposition due to buoyancy. However, current improvements to the theory do not accommodate prediction of buoyant particle transport and the theory needs review. High recovery of oil droplets in unsaturated porous media is a novel finding. As expected, straining appeared to be an important removal mechanism in unsaturated

  9. Transport of carbon colloid supported nanoscale zero-valent iron in saturated porous media. (United States)

    Busch, Jan; Meißner, Tobias; Potthoff, Annegret; Oswald, Sascha E


    Injection of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) has recently gained great interest as emerging technology for in-situ remediation of chlorinated organic compounds from groundwater systems. Zero-valent iron (ZVI) is able to reduce organic compounds and to render it to less harmful substances. The use of nanoscale particles instead of granular or microscale particles can increase dechlorination rates by orders of magnitude due to its high surface area. However, classical nZVI appears to be hampered in its environmental application by its limited mobility. One approach is colloid supported transport of nZVI, where the nZVI gets transported by a mobile colloid. In this study transport properties of activated carbon colloid supported nZVI (c-nZVI; d50=2.4μm) are investigated in column tests using columns of 40cm length, which were filled with porous media. A suspension was pumped through the column under different physicochemical conditions (addition of a polyanionic stabilizer and changes in pH and ionic strength). Highest observed breakthrough was 62% of the injected concentration in glass beads with addition of stabilizer. Addition of mono- and bivalent salt, e.g. more than 0.5mM/L CaCl2, can decrease mobility and changes in pH to values below six can inhibit mobility at all. Measurements of colloid sizes and zeta potentials show changes in the mean particle size by a factor of ten and an increase of zeta potential from -62mV to -80mV during the transport experiment. However, results suggest potential applicability of c-nZVI under field conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Magnetic propulsion of self-assembled colloidal carpets: efficient cargo transport via a conveyor-belt effect


    Martinez-Pedrero, Fernando; Tierno, Pietro


    We demonstrate a general method to assemble and propel highly maneuverable colloidal carpets which can be steered via remote control in any direction of the plane. These colloidal micropropellers are composed by an ensemble of spinning rotors and can be readily used to entrap, transport, and release biological cargos on command via a hydrodynamic conveyor-belt effect. An efficient control of the cargo transportation combined with remarkable "healing" ability to surpass obstacles demonstrate a...

  11. Colloid migration in groundwaters: Geochemical interactions of radionuclides with natural colloids. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.J. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiochemie; Delakowitz, B. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiochemie; Zeh, P. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiochemie; Probst, T. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiochemie; Lin, X. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiochemie; Ehrlicher, U. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiochemie; Schauer, C. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiochemie; Ivanovich, M. [AEA Environment and Energy, Harwell (United Kingdom); Longworth, G. [AEA Environment and Energy, Harwell (United Kingdom); Hasler, S.E. [AEA Environment and Energy, Harwell (United Kingdom); Gardiner, M. [AEA Decommissioning and Radwaste, Harwell (United Kingdom); Fritz, P. [Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH Muenchen, Neuherberg (Germany); Klotz, D. [Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH Muenchen, Neuherberg (Germany); Lazik, D. [Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH Muenchen, Neuherberg (Germany); Wolf, M. [Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH Muenchen, Neuherberg (Germany); Geyer, S. [Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH Muenchen, Neuherberg (Germany); Alexander, J.L. [Atkins (W.S.) Engineering Sciences, Epsom (United Kingdom); Read, D. [Atkins (W.S.) Engineering Sciences, Epsom (United Kingdom); Thomas, J.B. [Atkins (W.S.) Engineering Sciences, Epsom (United Kingdom)


    In this joint research programme the significance of groundwater colloids in far field radionuclide migration has been studied. The characterization, quantification and theoretical interpretation of colloid-borne transport phenomena for radionuclides were the main objectives of this research programme. Groundwaters, colloids and sediments were sampled from aquifer system overlying a saltdome in the Gorleben area in northern Germany and were characterized by various analytical methods (ICP-MS, ICP-AES, neutron activation analysis (NAA), DOC-Analyser, HPIC, potentiometric titration). Different natural isotopes ({sup 2}H, {sup 3}H, {sup 13}C, {sup 14}C, {sup 18}O, {sup 34}S, U/Th decay series) were determined and their ratios were compared with one another in the order to ascertain the provenance of the groundwater colloids. The investigated groundwaters contain substantial amounts of colloids mainly composed of humic and fulvic acids loaded with various metal ions. The chemical interaction of radionuclide ions of various oxidation states (Am, Eu, for M(III), Th, Pu for M(IV), Np for M(V) and U for M(VI)) with groundwater colloids was investigated in order to elucidate the colloid facilitated migration behaviour of actinides in a given aquifer system. Transport process studies with generated pseudocolloids of radionuclides in various oxidation states were undertaken in scaled column experiments, pre-equilibrated with colloid rich Gorleben groundwater. A modelling programme was developed to predict chemical transport of radionuclides in the presence of humic colloids using a modified version of the CHEMTARD code. Modelling predictions have generated acceptable results for Eu, Am and U and poorer agreement between experimental and modelling results for Th and Np as a result of more limited data. (orig.)

  12. Field-scale Variation in Colloid Dispersibility and Transport: Multiple Linear Regressions to Soil Physico-Chemical and Structural Properties. (United States)

    Norgaard, Trine; Moldrup, P; Ferré, T P A; Katuwal, S; Olsen, P; de Jonge, L W


    Water-dispersible soil colloids (WDC) act as carriers for sorbing chemicals in macroporous soils and hence constitute a significant risk for the aquatic environment. The prediction of WDC readily available for facilitated chemical transport is an unsolved challenge. This study identifies key parameters and predictive indicators for assessing field-scale variation of WDC. Samples representing three measurement scales (1- to 2-mm aggregates, intact 100-cm rings, and intact 6283 cm columns) were retrieved from the topsoil of a 1.69-ha agricultural field in a 15-m by 15-m grid to determine colloid dispersibility, mobilization, and transport. The amount of WDC was determined using (i) a laser diffraction method on 1- to 2-mm aggregates and (ii) an end-over-end shaking method on 100-cm intact rings. The accumulated amount of colloids leached from 20-cm by 20-cm intact columns was determined as a measure of the integrated colloid mobilization and transport. The WDC and the accumulated colloid transport were higher in samples from the northern part of the field. Using multiple linear regression (MLR) analyses, WDC or amount of colloids transported were predicted at the three measurement scales from 24 measured, geo-referenced parameters to identify parameters that could serve as indicator parameters for screening for colloid dispersibility, mobilization, and transport. The MLR analyses were performed at each sample scale using all, only northern, and only southern field locations. Generally, the predictive power of the regression models was best on the smallest 1- to 2-mm aggregate scale. Overall, our results suggest that different drivers controlled colloid dispersibility and transport at the three measurement scales and in the two subareas of the field. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  13. The Effects of Subsurface Bioremediation on Soil Structure, Colloid Formation, and Contaminant Transport (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Liang, X.; Zhuang, J.; Radosevich, M.


    Anaerobic bioremediation is widely applied to create anaerobic subsurface conditions designed to stimulate microorganisms that degrade organic contaminants and immobilize toxic metals in situ. Anaerobic conditions that accompany such techniques also promotes microbially mediated Fe(III)-oxide mineral reduction. The reduction of Fe(III) could potentially cause soil structure breakdown, formation of clay colloids, and alternation of soil surface chemical properties. These processes could then affect bioremediation and the migration of contaminants. Column experiments were conducted to investigate the impact of anaerobic bioreduction on soil structure, hydraulic properties, colloid formation, and transport of three tracers (bromide, DFBA, and silica shelled silver nanoparticles). Columns packed with inoculated water stable soil aggregates were placed in anaerobic glovebox, and artificial groundwater media was pumped into the columns to simulate anaerobic bioreduction process for four weeks. Decent amount of soluble Fe(II) accompanied by colloids were detected in the effluent from bioreduction columns a week after initiation of bioreduction treatment, which demonstrated bioreduction of Fe(III) and formation of colloids. Transport experiments were performed in the columns before and after bioreduction process to assess the changes of hydraulic and surface chemical properties through bioreduction treatment. Earlier breakthrough of bromide and DFBA after treatment indicated alterations in flow paths (formation of preferential flow paths). Less dispersion of bromide and DFBA, and less tailing of DFBA after treatment implied breakdown of soil aggregates. Dramatically enhanced transport and early breakthrough of silica shelled silver nanoparticles after treatment supported the above conclusion of alterations in flow paths, and indicated changes of soil surface chemical properties.

  14. Effect of different-sized colloids on the transport and deposition of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in quartz sand. (United States)

    Cai, Li; Peng, Shengnan; Wu, Dan; Tong, Meiping


    Colloids (non-biological and biological) with different sizes are ubiquitous in natural environment. The investigations regarding the influence of different-sized colloids on the transport and deposition behaviors of engineered-nanoparticles in porous media yet are still largely lacking. This study investigated the effects of different-sized non-biological and biological colloids on the transport of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nTiO2) in quartz sand under both electrostatically favorable and unfavorable conditions. Fluorescent carboxylate-modified polystyrene latex microspheres (CML) with sizes of 0.2-2 μm were utilized as model non-biological colloids, while Gram-negative Escherichia coli (∼ 1 μm) and Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis (∼ 2 μm) were employed as model biological colloids. Under the examined solution conditions, both breakthrough curves and retained profiles of nTiO2 with different-sized CML particles/bacteria were similar as those without colloids under favorable conditions, indicating that the copresence of model colloids in suspensions had negligible effects on the transport and deposition of nTiO2 under favorable conditions. In contrast, higher breakthrough curves and lower retained profiles of nTiO2 with CML particles/bacteria relative to those without copresent colloids were observed under unfavorable conditions. Clearly, the copresence of model colloids increased the transport and decreased the deposition of nTiO2 in quartz sand under unfavorable conditions (solution conditions examined in present study). Both competition of deposition sites on quartz sand surfaces and the enhanced stability/dispersion of nTiO2 induced by copresent colloids were found to be responsible for the increased nTiO2 transport with colloids under unfavorable conditions. Moreover, the smallest colloids had the highest coverage on sand surface and most significant dispersion effect on nTiO2, resulting in the greatest nTiO2 transport. Copyright © 2015. Published

  15. Combined time-lapse magnetic resonance imaging and modeling to investigate colloid deposition and transport in porous media. (United States)

    Lehoux, Alizée P; Faure, Pamela; Lafolie, François; Rodts, Stéphane; Courtier-Murias, Denis; Coussot, Philippe; Michel, Eric


    Colloidal particles can act as vectors of adsorbed pollutants in the subsurface, or be themselves pollutants. They can reach the aquifer and impair groundwater quality. The mechanisms of colloid transport and deposition are often studied in columns filled with saturated porous media. Time-lapse profiles of colloid concentration inside the columns have occasionally been derived from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data recorded in transport experiments. These profiles are valuable, in addition to particle breakthrough curves (BTCs), for testing and improving colloid transport models. We show that concentrations could not be simply computed from MRI data when both deposited and suspended colloids contributed to the signal. We propose a generic method whereby these data can still be used to quantitatively appraise colloid transport models. It uses the modeled suspended and deposited particle concentrations to compute modeled MRI data that are compared to the experimental data. We tested this method by performing transport experiments with sorbing colloids in sand, and assessed for the first time the capacity of the model calibrated from BTCs to reproduce the MRI data. Interestingly, the dispersion coefficient and deposition rate calibrated from the BTC were respectively overestimated and underestimated compared with those calibrated from the MRI data, suggesting that these quantities, when determined from BTCs, need to be interpreted with care. In a broader perspective, we consider that combining MRI and modeling offers great potential for the quantitative analysis of complex MRI data recorded during transport experiments in complex environmentally relevant porous media, and can help improve our understanding of the fate of colloids and solutes, first in these media, and later in soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Nano-colloid electrophoretic transport: Fully explicit modelling via dissipative particle dynamics (United States)

    Hassanzadeh Afrouzi, Hamid; Farhadi, Mousa; Sedighi, Kurosh; Moshfegh, Abouzar


    In present study, a novel fully explicit approach using dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) method is introduced for modelling electrophoretic transport of nano-colloids in an electrolyte solution. Slater type charge smearing function included in 3D Ewald summation method is employed to treat electrostatic interaction. Moreover, capability of different thermostats are challenged to control the system temperature and study the dynamic response of colloidal electrophoretic mobility under practical ranges of external electric field in nano scale application (0.072 600 in DPD units regardless of electric field intensity. Nosé-Hoover-Lowe-Andersen and Lowe-Andersen thermostats are found to function more effectively under high electric fields (E > 0.145 [ v / nm ]) while thermal equilibrium is maintained. Reasonable agreements are achieved by benchmarking the radial distribution function with available electrolyte structure modellings, as well as comparing reduced mobility against conventional Smoluchowski and Hückel theories, and numerical solution of Poisson-Boltzmann equation.

  17. Uranium facilitated transport by water-dispersible colloids in field and soil columns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crancon, P.; Pili, E. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, DIF, 91 (France); Charlet, L. [Univ Grenoble 1, Lab Geophys Interne and Tectonophys LGIT OSUG, CNRS, UJF, UMR5559, F-38041 Grenoble 9 (France)


    The transport of uranium through a sandy podsolic soil has been investigated in the field and in column experiments. Field monitoring, numerous years after surface contamination by depleted uranium deposits, revealed a 20 cm deep uranium migration in soil. Uranium retention in soil is controlled by the {<=} 50 {mu}m mixed humic and clayey coatings in the first 40 cm i.e. in the E horizon. Column experiments of uranium transport under various conditions were run using isotopic spiking. After 100 pore volumes elution, 60% of the total input uranium is retained in the first 2 cm of the column. Retardation factor of uranium on E horizon material ranges from 1300 (column) to 3000 (batch). In parallel to this slow uranium migration, we experimentally observed a fast elution related to humic colloids of about 1-5% of the total-uranium input, transferred at the mean pore-water velocity through the soil column. In order to understand the effect of rain events, ionic strength of the input solution was sharply changed. Humic colloids are retarded when ionic strength increases, while a major mobilization of humic colloids and colloid-borne uranium occurs as ionic strength decreases. Isotopic spiking shows that both {sup 238}U initially present in the soil column and {sup 233}U brought by input solution are desorbed. The mobilization process observed experimentally after a drop of ionic strength may account for a rapid uranium migration in the field after a rainfall event, and for the significant uranium concentrations found in deep soil horizons and in groundwater, 1 km downstream from the pollution source. (authors)

  18. Uranium facilitated transport by water-dispersible colloids in field and soil columns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crancon, P., E-mail: [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Pili, E. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Charlet, L. [Laboratoire de Geophysique Interne et Tectonophysique (LGIT-OSUG), University of Grenoble-I, UMR5559-CNRS-UJF, BP53, 38041 Grenoble cedex 9 (France)


    The transport of uranium through a sandy podzolic soil has been investigated in the field and in column experiments. Field monitoring, numerous years after surface contamination by depleted uranium deposits, revealed a 20 cm deep uranium migration in soil. Uranium retention in soil is controlled by the < 50 {mu}m mixed humic and clayey coatings in the first 40 cm i.e. in the E horizon. Column experiments of uranium transport under various conditions were run using isotopic spiking. After 100 pore volumes elution, 60% of the total input uranium is retained in the first 2 cm of the column. Retardation factor of uranium on E horizon material ranges from 1300 (column) to 3000 (batch). In parallel to this slow uranium migration, we experimentally observed a fast elution related to humic colloids of about 1-5% of the total-uranium input, transferred at the mean porewater velocity through the soil column. In order to understand the effect of rain events, ionic strength of the input solution was sharply changed. Humic colloids are retarded when ionic strength increases, while a major mobilization of humic colloids and colloid-borne uranium occurs as ionic strength decreases. Isotopic spiking shows that both {sup 238}U initially present in the soil column and {sup 233}U brought by input solution are desorbed. The mobilization process observed experimentally after a drop of ionic strength may account for a rapid uranium migration in the field after a rainfall event, and for the significant uranium concentrations found in deep soil horizons and in groundwater, 1 km downstream from the pollution source.

  19. Transport of colloidal silica in unsaturated sand: Effect of charging properties of sand and silica particles. (United States)

    Fujita, Yosuke; Kobayashi, Motoyoshi


    We have studied the transport of colloidal silica in various degrees of a water-saturated Toyoura sand column, because silica particles are widely used as catalyst carriers and abrasive agents, and their toxicity is reported recently. Since water-silica, water-sand, and air-water interfaces have pH-dependent negative charges, the magnitude of surface charge was controlled by changing the solution pH. The results show that, at high pH conditions (pH 7.4), the deposition of colloidal silica to the sand surface is interrupted and the silica concentration at the column outlet immediately reaches the input concentration in saturated conditions. In addition, the relative concentration of silica at the column outlet only slightly decreases to 0.9 with decreasing degrees of water saturation to 38%, because silica particles are trapped in straining regions in the soil pore and air-water interface. On the other hand, at pH 5 conditions (low pH), where sand and colloid have less charge, reduced repulsive forces result in colloidal silica attaching onto the sand in saturated conditions. The deposition amount of silica particles remarkably increases with decreasing degrees of water saturation to 37%, which is explained by more particles being retained in the sand column associated with the air-water interface. In conclusion, at higher pH, the mobility of silica particles is high, and the air-water interface is inactive for the deposition of silica. On the other hand, at low pH, the deposition amount increases with decreasing water saturation, and the particle transport is inhibited. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Polymer inclusion membrane containing a diglycolamide-functionalized calix[4]arene for actinide ion uptake and transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahanty, B.N.; Mohapatra, P.K.; Raut, D.R.; Das, D.K.; Behere, P.G.; Afzal, M.; Verboom, Willem


    Cellulose triacetate (CTA) -based polymer inclusion membranes (PIM) containing a diglycolamide-functionalized calix[4]arene (C4DGA) as the carrier extractant and 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE) as the plasticizer were evaluated for the separation of actinides such as Am3+, Pu4+, UO22+, and Th4+

  1. Pharmacological study of radioactive-gold colloid transport by blood and by serous exudate; Contribution a l'etude pharmacologique du transport des colloides d'or radioactif par le sang et les exsudats sereux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousselet, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    After giving the essential physico-chemical properties of the colloids, the author considers the biological role of these substances and, in connection with their transport by the blood, their capture by elements of the reticula-endothelial system. A summary is given of present knowledge concerning the role of serous proteins in the transport of substances, particularly that of radio-active colloidal gold. The blood fractions which can take part in colloidal gold transport are the red blood corpuscles, the leukocytes and histiocytic elements as well as the plasma. The radioactive distribution in these various fractions is obtained by autoradiography of blood sediments. After showing the importance of the role of the plasma in radioactive particle transport, the author, describes the attempts made to detect a possible of colloidal gold 198 on the various serous proteins using various methods of separation. The ''in vitro'' and ''in vivo'' bonds between colloidal gold-198 particles and either the serous proteins or healthy specimens or the effusion liquids of pathological origin in man, or due to an experimental inflammation with carregenin in the rat, have been studied. The bonding appears to be effective because of the protective macromolecular layer formed by the gelatine. The different positions of the colloidal grains on the electrophoregram can only be explained by their different physico-chemical characteristics. Gold in the ionic form, on the other hand, is combined only with the albumen is the amount metal present does not exceed a certain value. (author) [French] Apres avoir enonce les proprietes physicochimiques essentielles des colloides nous etudions le devenir biologique de ces substances et, en relation avec leur transport par le sang, leur captation par les elements du Systeme Reticulo-Endothelial. Nous resumons les connaissances acquises jusqu'alors sur le role des proteines seriques dans le transport des

  2. Magnetic Propulsion of Self-Assembled Colloidal Carpets: Efficient Cargo Transport via a Conveyor-Belt Effect (United States)

    Martinez-Pedrero, Fernando; Tierno, Pietro


    We demonstrate a general method to assemble and propel highly maneuverable colloidal carpets which can be steered via remote control in any direction of the plane. These colloidal micropropellers are composed by an ensemble of spinning rotors and can be readily used to entrap, transport, and release biological cargos on command via a hydrodynamic conveyor-belt effect. An efficient control of the cargo transportation combined with remarkable "healing" ability to surpass obstacles demonstrate a great potential towards development of multifunctional smart devices at the microscale.

  3. The Effect of a Simulated Macropore on the Colloid-Facilitated Transport of Cesium and Strontium: Experiment and Model Results (United States)

    Dittrich, T. M.; Ryan, J. N.; Saiers, J. E.


    The sorption of contaminants to mobile colloids has been shown to increase the transport of the contaminants in a process known as colloid-facilitated transport. Many laboratory experiments and computer model simulations have shown that enhanced transport can occur when a contaminant strongly associates with mobile colloids and release kinetics are slow relative to the rate of flow. Knowing when colloid-facilitated transport will affect field-scale situations and risk assessment decisions has been difficult. The three parts of our research were (1) conduct a set of isotherms and breakthrough curves for a well-characterized system (illite colloids, homogeneous quartz sand, saturated and unsaturated conditions), (2) conduct breakthrough experiments with the addition of a central macropore and, (3) model the results to identify and quantify the effects of desorption kinetics and unsaturated conditions on colloid-facilitated transport with a macropore. Breakthrough experiments used a 12.7 cm diameter and 33.5 cm long column packed with cleaned and sieved quartz sand. The homogeneous experiments used sand with a median grain size of 0.325 mm. For macropore experiments, a 2 cm diameter tube of 1.6 mm sand (about 5× the size of the matrix sand) was packed in the center of the column. A rainfall simulator was suspended over the column and a relative saturation of 1.0, 0.80, or 0.33 was established. Three moisture sensors and three tensiometers monitored the flow conditions. Effluent was collected with a peristaltic pump and a fraction collector and measured for total and dissolved ions, pH, and colloid concentration. Cesium and strontium were used as model contaminants because they are common contaminants found on Department of Energy sites in the United States and because they have contrasting sorption kinetics with illite. A previously developed model for saturated colloid-facilitated transport of cesium and strontium was extended to accommodate unsaturated conditions

  4. Role of low flow and backward flow zones on colloid transport in pore structures derived from real porous media. (United States)

    Li, Xiqing; Li, Zhelong; Zhang, Dongxiao


    To examine the relevance of low flow zones and flow vortices to colloid transport in real porous media, lattice-Boltzmann (LB) simulations were combined with X-ray microtomography (XMT) to simulate flow fields in glass beads and quartz sand. Backward flow zones were demonstrated to be widely present in both porous media, with a greater volume fraction in the former relative to the latter porous media. Glass beads in the XMT images were approximated as spheres and their coordinates and radii were extracted to allow reconstruction of pore structures. LB simulations were again performed and the simulated flow fields in the reconstructed pore structures were coupled to a three-dimensional particle tracking algorithm. Particle tracking simulations demonstrated that significant amounts of colloids stayed in the simulated domains for long periods (up to 50 pore volumes). The percentages of colloids with long residence time increased as the depth of the secondary energy minimum increased. The majority of the colloids with long residence time were translated to low flow zones while being associated with grain surfaces via secondary minima. A small fraction of colloids entered low flow zones without being associated with the grains surfaces. Backward flow zones were also found to trap a small fraction of colloids for significantly long time (up to 10 pore volumes). In overall, however, backward flow zones trapped fewer colloids for shorter durations than low flow zones. In summary, this work demonstrates the importance of temporary trapping of colloids by the low flow and backward flow zones in real porous media. This trapping process can explain a number of intriguing experimental observations.

  5. Long-term Effects of Organic Waste Fertilizers on Soil Structure, Tracer Transport, and Leaching of Colloids. (United States)

    Lekfeldt, Jonas Duus Stevens; Kjaergaard, Charlotte; Magid, Jakob


    Organic waste fertilizers have previously been observed to significantly affect soil organic carbon (SOC) content and soil structure. However, the effect of organic waste fertilizers on colloid dispersibility and leaching of colloids from topsoil has not yet been studied extensively. We investigated how the repeated application of different types of agricultural (liquid cattle slurry and solid cattle manure) and urban waste fertilizers (sewage sludge and composted organic household waste) affected soil physical properties, colloid dispersion from aggregates, tracer transport, and colloid leaching from intact soil cores. Total porosity was positively correlated with SOC content. Yearly applications of sewage sludge increased absolute microporosity (pores 30 μm) compared with the unfertilized control, whereas organic household waste compost fertilization increased both total porosity and the absolute porosity in all pore size classes (though not significant for 100-600 μm). Treatments receiving large amounts of organic fertilizers exhibited significantly lower levels of dispersible colloids compared with an unfertilized control and a treatment that had received moderate applications of cattle slurry. The content of water-dispersible colloids could not be explained by a single factor, but differences in SOC content, electrical conductivity, and sodium adsorption ratio were important factors. Moreover, we found that the fertilizer treatments did not significantly affect the solute transport properties of the topsoil. Finally, we found that the leaching of soil colloids was significantly decreased in treatments that had received large amounts of organic waste fertilizers, and we ascribe this primarily to treatment-induced differences in effluent electrical conductivity during leaching. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.


    Bacteriophage PRD1 and silica colloids were co-injected into sewage-contaminated and uncontaminated zones of an iron oxide-coated sand aquifer on Cape Cod, MA, and their transport was monitored over distances up to 6 m in three arrays. After deposition, the attache...

  7. Colloid-Facilitated Radionuclide Transport: Current State of Knowledge from a Nuclear Waste Repository Risk Assessment Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimus, Paul William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zavarin, Mavrik [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wang, Yifeng [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    This report provides an overview of the current state of knowledge of colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport from a nuclear waste repository risk assessment perspective. It draws on work that has been conducted over the past 3 decades, although there is considerable emphasis given to work that has been performed over the past 3-5 years as part of the DOE Used Fuel Disposition Campaign. The timing of this report coincides with the completion of a 3-year DOE membership in the Colloids Formation and Migration (CFM) partnership, an international collaboration of scientists studying colloid-facilitated transport of radionuclides at both the laboratory and field-scales in a fractured crystalline granodiorite at the Grimsel Test Site in Switzerland. This Underground Research Laboratory has hosted the most extensive and carefully-controlled set of colloid-facilitated solute transport experiments that have ever been conducted in an in-situ setting, and a summary of the results to date from these efforts, as they relate to transport over long time and distance scales, is provided in Chapter 3 of this report.


    A fluorescence-quenching method was developed to assess the hydrophobic organic pollutant binding potential of organic colloids (OC) in unaltered natural waters. This method allows (1) direct assessment of the importance of OC-enhanced pollutant transport for environmental sam- p...

  9. Influence of colloids on the attenuation and transport of phosphorus in alluvial gravel aquifer and vadose zone media. (United States)

    Pang, Liping; Lafogler, Mark; Knorr, Bastian; McGill, Erin; Saunders, Darren; Baumann, Thomas; Abraham, Phillip; Close, Murray


    Phosphorous (P) leaching (e.g., from effluents, fertilizers) and transport in highly permeable subsurface media can be an important pathway that contributes to eutrophication of receiving surface waters as groundwater recharges the base-flow of surface waters. Here we investigated attenuation and transport of orthophosphate-P in gravel aquifer and vadose zone media in the presence and absence of model colloids (Escherichia coli, kaolinite, goethite). Experiments were conducted using repacked aquifer media in a large column (2m long, 0.19m in diameter) and intact cores (0.4m long, 0.24m in diameter) of vadose zone media under typical field flow rates. In the absence of the model colloids, P was readily traveled through the aquifer media with little attenuation (up to 100% recovery) and retardation, and P adsorption was highly reversible. Conversely, addition of the model colloids generally resulted in reduced P concentration and mass recovery (down to 28% recovery), and increased retardation and adsorption irreversibility in both aquifer and vadose zone media. The degree of colloid-assisted P attenuation was most significant in the presence of fine material and Fe-containing colloids at low flow rate but was least significant in the presence of coarse gravels and E. coli at high flow rate. Based on the experimental results, setback distances of 49-53m were estimated to allow a reduction of P concentrations in groundwater to acceptable levels in the receiving water. These estimates were consistent with field observations in the same aquifer media. Colloid-assisted P attenuation can be utilized to develop mitigation strategies to better manage effluent applications in gravelly soils. To efficiently retain P within soil matrix and reduce P leaching to groundwater, it is recommended to select soils that are rich in iron oxides, to periodically disturb soil preferential flow paths by tillage, and to apply a low irrigation rate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  10. Selection of Actinide Chemical Analogues for WIPP Tests: Potential Nonradioactive Sorbing and Nonsorbing Tracers for Study of Ion Transport in the Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale Spall; Robert Villarreal


    Chemical characteristics of the actinides (Th, U, Np, Pu, Am) have been studied relative to nonradioactive chemical elements that have similar characteristics in an attempt to identify a group of actinide chemical analogues that are nonradioactive. In general, the chemistries of the actinides, especially U, Np, Pu, and Am, are very complex and attempts to identify a single chemical analogue for each oxidation state were not successful. However, the rationale for selecting a group of chemical analogues that would mimic the actinides as a group is provided. The categorization of possible chemical analogues (tracers) with similar chemical properties was based on the following criteria. Categorization was studied according.


    The stability and transport of radiolabeled Fe2O3 particles were studied using laboratory batch and column techniques. Core material collected from a shallow sand and gravel aquifer was used as the immobile column matrix material. Variables in the study incl...

  12. Engineering of Doping and Transport for Enhanced Colloidal Quantum Dot Photovoltaics (United States)

    Zhitomirsky, David

    Colloidal Quantum Dots (CQDs) are nanoscale quantum-tuned semiconductor particles suspended in solution. When deployed as optoelectronic materials, CQDs are closely packed together into thin films enabling charge transport. This also enables the formation of semiconductor junctions and contacts with other bulk semiconductor materials and metals, respectively. However, limited attention has been given to understanding the fundamental electronic behavior of these materials as bulk-like films, gaining fine control over their semiconducting properties, and then leveraging these insights to make better semiconductor devices. In this thesis, I explore two of the most fundamental concepts to CQD semiconductor device physics: charge carrier doping density and charge carrier transport. With the aid of optoelectronic simulation, I show that these are the most important paths to pursue in order to improve the photovoltaic device performance. I develop a doping density theory that I then rigorously test for the PbS CQD materials system; this theory is also applicable to other types of CQD materials. I demonstrate doping densities on the order of 10 16 cm-3 to 1018 cm-3 for both p- and n-type films. My work enables a previously unavailable p-n homojunction within one CQD materials system, and furthermore allows to grade the doping within the active absorber layer to reach power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) exceeding 7%. I then study CQD size polydispersity, and use it to investigate the details of charge transport in the rough energetic landscapes inherent to these materials. Here, I find that midgap trap elimination is the most important concept in rapidly obtaining dramatic photovoltaic performance gains. By directly measuring the diffusion length in highly coupled CQD films, and combined with optoelectronic modeling, I was able to develop a new passivation strategy achieving a record 8.5% PCE. My research serves as a roadmap for future performance improvements in CQD

  13. Colloid facilitated transport of humic substances in soil: laboratory experiment and modeling calculation. (United States)

    Dinu, Marina; Moiseenko, Tatyana


    An understanding of ability to predict the fate and transport of colloids in soil systems are of great importance in many environmental and industrial applications. Especially, in the case study sizes and zeta potentials of lignin and humus components (as a parameter reflecting the mobility and tread of organic substances). The objects of investigation were water extracts of gleepodzolic soil of European territory of Russia and Western Siberia, as well as humus substances extracted from this soil. In this study, evaluation of size, molecular weight distribution and zeta potential were used to predict the mobility of the organic component fractions of the soil. Fractionation was performed using multistage filtration plant (100 Da) and measuring physic-chemical parameters measured with the Malvern Zetasizer Nano ZSP. Significant differences in the distribution of organic matter on the molecular weight, charge (sign) of the zeta potential and the size of the sample of European Russia in comparison with samples of Western Siberia have been found. Also, laboratory studies have demonstrated of any differences in physicochemical parameters as infrared spectra, ultraviolet spectra, complexing ability of samples of the same soil type but different areas of Russia. The results can be used in the prediction of the migration ability of fractions humus substances and their stability at change physic-chemical conditions (the coefficient of mobility of the organic components by calculated in MathCad). This work was supported by the grant № 14-17-00460 RSF from 07.11.2014

  14. Colloids: a review of current knowledge with a view to application to phenomena of transportation within PWR; Colloides: point de vue sur les connaissances actuelles en vue d`une application aux phenomenes de transport dans les REP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guinard, L.


    In an attempt to minimise dosimetry within the primary circuit of PWR units, research is being carried out into understanding the phenomena of transportation and deposition of corrosion products. It is therefore desirable to known the form of these corrosion products and the laws governing this form. It is generally considered that they are in soluble or particulate form. A third starts with a general presentation of colloids and goes on to define points which are useful, both on a theoretical and experimental level, in terms of application to phenomena of transportation within PWRs. (author). 69 refs., 30 figs., 6 tabs., 3 appends.

  15. Colloidal Synthesis of Te-Doped Bi Nanoparticles: Low-Temperature Charge Transport and Thermoelectric Properties. (United States)

    Gu, Da Hwi; Jo, Seungki; Jeong, Hyewon; Ban, Hyeong Woo; Park, Sung Hoon; Heo, Seung Hwae; Kim, Fredrick; Jang, Jeong In; Lee, Ji Eun; Son, Jae Sung


    Electronically doped nanoparticles formed by incorporation of impurities have been of great interest because of their controllable electrical properties. However, the development of a strategy for n-type or p-type doping on sub-10 nm-sized nanoparticles under the quantum confinement regime is very challenging using conventional processes, owing to the difficulty in synthesis. Herein, we report the colloidal chemical synthesis of sub-10 nm-sized tellurium (Te)-doped Bismuth (Bi) nanoparticles with precisely controlled Te content from 0 to 5% and systematically investigate their low-temperature charge transport and thermoelectric properties. Microstructural characterization of nanoparticles demonstrates that Te ions are successfully incorporated into Bi nanoparticles rather than remaining on the nanoparticle surfaces. Low-temperature Hall measurement results of the hot-pressed Te-doped Bi-nanostructured materials, with grain sizes ranging from 30 to 60 nm, show that the charge transport properties are governed by the doping content and the related impurity and nanoscale grain boundary scatterings. Furthermore, the low-temperature thermoelectric properties reveal that the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient expectedly change with the Te content, whereas the thermal conductivity is significantly reduced by Te doping because of phonon scattering at the sites arising from impurities and nanoscale grain boundaries. Accordingly, the 1% Te-doped Bi sample exhibits a higher figure-of-merit ZT by ∼10% than that of the undoped sample. The synthetic strategy demonstrated in this study offers the possibility of electronic doping of various quantum-confined nanoparticles for diverse applications.

  16. Colloids in groundwater: Their mobilization, subsurface transport, and sorption affinity for toxic chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gschwend, P.M.


    Our originally stated objectives included: (1) development of a quantitative source function for colloid mobilization to groundwater, and (2) assessment of the most important colloidal phases to which nonpolar compounds sorb. We have been pursuing a series of studies to elucidate the roles of colloidal phases in subsurface environments. Most notably, we have discovered the critical role of secondary cementitious phases like goethite. We developed a new procedure for measuring surface iron oxides'' which is a great improvement over earlier methodologies. Currently, we are developing a unifying model with which we can predict the mobilization of colloids to groundwater flowing through such porous media. Also, we have been able to show that groundwater samples contain colloidal phases in sufficient quantities and of suitable properties to enhance the mobile load of toxic compounds like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Finally, we have synthesized our varied field investigations from sites in Massachusetts, New Jersey, Delaware, Nevada, Connecticut, and New York to yield a protocol for other researchers interested in evaluating colloids in groundwater. These accomplishments are discussed in more detail below. Through these efforts, we have become increasingly convinced of the central role played by colloidal phases in numerous subsurface phenomena controlling contaminant fates.

  17. Research in actinide chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choppin, G.R.


    This research studies the behavior of the actinide elements in aqueous solution. The high radioactivity of the transuranium actinides limits the concentrations which can be studied and, consequently, limits the experimental techniques. However, oxidation state analogs (trivalent lanthanides, tetravalent thorium, and hexavalent uranium) do not suffer from these limitations. Behavior of actinides in the environment are a major USDOE concern, whether in connection with long-term releases from a repository, releases from stored defense wastes or accidental releases in reprocessing, etc. Principal goal of our research was expand the thermodynamic data base on complexation of actinides by natural ligands (e.g., OH[sup [minus

  18. Exploring mobilisation and transport of diffuse substances using multiple sediment and colloid tracers applied to a temperate grassland catchment. (United States)

    Granger, S.; Hawkins, J.


    The mobilisation and transport of diffuse substances from livestock grassland systems to surface water bodies is known to impact aquatic ecology and human health. Diffuse substances include sediment and colloidal material detached from the soil surface and subsurface and colloidal material solubilised by water travelling across and through the soil matrix. Improving understanding of the dominant processes controlling the mobilisation and transport of sediment and colloid associated materials requires the application of established and novel tracing methods. In this study our objective was to link mobilisation from the plot to head water catchment scales by tracing the movement of slurry material delivered to a first order stream through the application of natural and artificial fluorescence and rare earth oxide (REO) tracing techniques. Slurry treated with fluorescent beads or REO's was applied to a hydrologically isolated field within a ~40 ha catchment. Novel natural fluorescence techniques were used to assess the presence of dissolved slurry material through the distinctive signature of samples in drainage waters. The particulate phase of slurry was traced using artificial fluorescent beads manufactured to represent two particulate phases of slurry: organic and mineral. The bead treated slurry was applied homogeneously across the entire field. REO treated slurry was applied in five 1 ha contour zones across the field, each zone receiving slurry labelled with different REOs. Surface drainage was monitored and sampled at a v-notch weir placed at the hydrological outlet of the field and at a trapezoidal flume at the catchment outlet.

  19. Geographically distributed classification of surface water chemical parameters influencing fate and behavior of nanoparticles and colloid facilitated contaminant transport. (United States)

    Hammes, Julia; Gallego-Urrea, Julián A; Hassellöv, Martin


    The current production and use of nanomaterials in consumer products have increased the concern about the possibility that these enter the rivers during their entire life cycle. Further, many aquatic contaminants undergo partitioning to the ubiquitous aquatic colloids. Here is presented the development of a set of European water types for environmental risk assessment of chemicals transported as nanovectors as is the case of environmental fate of manufactured nanoparticles and colloid-bound contaminants. A compilation of river quality geochemical data with information about multi-element composition for near 800 rivers in Europe was used to perform a principal component analysis (PCA) and define 6 contrasting water classes. With the aid of geographical information system algorithms, it was possible to analyse how the different sampling locations were predominantly represented within each European water framework directive drainage basin. These water classes and their associated Debye-Hückel parameter are determining factors to evaluate the large scale fate and behaviour of nanomaterials and other colloid-transported pollutants in the European aquatic environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Transport and Deposition of Suspended Soil-Colloids in Saturated Sand Columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Anu; Kawamoto, Ken; Møldrup, Per


    a red‐yellow soil from Okinawa, Japan. Different concentrations of suspended‐soil colloids (with diameter water‐saturated columns repacked with either Narita (mean diameter D50 = 0.64 mm) or Toyoura (mean diameter D50 = 0...

  1. Colloidal and physical transport textures exhibited by electrum and naumannite in bonanza epithermal veins from western USA, and their significance (United States)

    Saunders, James A.; Vikre, Peter G.; Unger, Derick L.; Beasley, Lee


    It is reasonably clear that disequilibrium or “far-from equilibrium” conditions lead to the formation of silica colloids and their deposition in many epithermal deposits. This implies ore-forming solutions had elevated concentrations of dissolved silica, well in excess of amorphous silica saturation. We have previously demonstrated that such colloidal silica particles were deposited in epithermal veins as silica gels and opal, which may later progress along a path to crystallize into more thermodynamically favored (less-soluble) silica phases such as quartz and chalcedony. Also, in some deposits, amorphous silica is co-deposited with precious-metal minerals, such as electrum in the banded super-bonanza ores of the Sleeper deposit (NV). Ore-mineral textures from some western USA bonanza epithermal ores indicate that two precious-metal phases (electrum and naumannite, Ag2Se) form colloidal particles that are transported by ore-forming fluids and are deposited either by aggregation (by sticking to other precious metal-particles) to make dendrites, or are deposited on the “lee” side of protrusion along vein walls (or perhaps by both processes). We can infer by analogy to silica that this also implies that ore-forming solutions contained elevated (supersaturated) dissolved concentrations of both gold and silver that formed colloidal particles under disequilibrium (often chaotic) conditions. Thus physical transport and deposition textures seem to indicate the presence of strongly precious-metal-enriched ore forming fluids, which led to (not surprisingly) the bonanza grades of these remarkable ores. What causes such a precious-metal-rich solution is debatable, but that is the subject of our continued investigations.

  2. Role of soil organic carbon and colloids in sorption and transport of TNT, RDX and HMX in training range soils. (United States)

    Sharma, Prasesh; Mayes, Melanie A; Tang, Guoping


    Contamination of soils and groundwater by munitions compounds (MCs) is of significant concern at many U.S. Department of Defense sites. Soils were collected from operational training ranges in Maryland (APG), Massachusetts (MMR-B and MMR-E) and Washington (JBLM) and sorption and transport studies were conducted to investigate the effects of soil organic carbon (OC) and textural clay content on fate of dissolved MCs (TNT, RDX, HMX). Sorption experiments showed higher distribution coefficients [TNT:42-68 L kg(-1), RDX:6.9-8.7 L kg(-1) and HMX:2.6-3.1 L kg(-1)] in OC rich soils (JBLM, MMR-E) compared to clay rich soils (MMR-B and APG) [TNT:19-21 L kg(-1), RDX:2.5-3.4 L kg(-1), HMX:0.9-1.2 L kg(-1)]. In column experiments, breakthrough of MCs was faster in MMR-B and APG compared to MMR-E and JBLM soils. Among TNT, RDX and HMX, breakthrough was fastest for RDX followed by HMX and TNT for all columns. Defining the colloidal fraction as the difference between unfiltered samples and samples filtered with a 3 kDa filter, ~36%, ~15% and ~9% of TNT, RDX and HMX were found in the colloidal fraction in the solutions from sorption experiments, and around 20% of TNT in the effluent from the transport experiments. Results demonstrate that OC rich soils may enhance sorption and delay transport of TNT, RDX and HMX compared to clay-rich soils. Further, transport of TNT may be associated with soil colloid mobilization. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Thermodynamic Properties of Actinides and Actinide Compounds (United States)

    Konings, Rudy J. M.; Morss, Lester R.; Fuger, Jean

    The necessity of obtaining accurate thermodynamic quantities for the actinide elements and their compounds was recognized at the outset of the Manhattan Project, when a dedicated team of scientists and engineers initiated the program to exploit nuclear energy for military purposes. Since the end of World War II, both fundamental and applied objectives have motivated a great deal of further study of actinide thermodynamics. This chapter brings together many research papers and critical reviews on this subject. It also seeks to assess, to systematize, and to predict important properties of the actinide elements, ions, and compounds, especially for species in which there is significant interest and for which there is an experimental basis for the prediction.

  4. Mobilization and transport of metal-rich colloidal particles from mine tailings into soil under transient chemical and physical conditions. (United States)

    Lu, Cong; Wu, Yaoguo; Hu, Sihai; Raza, Muhammad Ali; Fu, Yilin


    Exposed mine tailing wastes with considerable heavy metals can release hazardous colloidal particles into soil under transient chemical and physical conditions. Two-layered packed columns with tailings above and soils below were established to investigate mobilization and transport of colloidal particles from metal-rich mine tailings into soil under transient infiltration ionic strength (IS: 100, 20, 2 mM) and flow rate (FR: 20.7, 41, and 62.3 mm h(-1)), with Cu and Pb as representatives of the heavy metals. Results show that the tailing particles within the colloidal size (below 2 μm) were released from the columns. A step-decrease in infiltration IS and FR enhanced, whereas a step-increase in the IS and FR restrained the release of tailing particles from the column. The effects of step-changing FR were unexpected due to the small size of the released tailing particles (220-342 nm, being not sensitive to hydrodynamic shear force), the diffusion-controlled particle release process and the relatively compact pore structure. The tailing particles present in the solution with tested IS were found negatively charged and more stable than soil particles, which provides favorable conditions for tailing particles to be transported over a long distance in the soil. The mobilization and transport of Cu and Pb from the tailings into soil were mediated by the tailing particles. Therefore, the inherent toxic tailing particles could be considerably introduced into soil under certain conditions (IS reduction or FR decrease), which may result in serious environmental pollution.

  5. Colloid Release from Soil Aggregates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendelboe, Anders Lindblad; Møldrup, Per; Schjønning, Per


    The content of water-dispersible colloids (WDC) has a major impact on soil functions and structural stability. In addition, the presence of mobile colloids may increase the risk of colloid-facilitated transport of strongly sorbing environmental contaminants. The WDC content was measured in 39 soils...... not associated with organic C (r > 0.89, P colloid release rates were highly correlated with the total clay content (r > 0.84, P ... content measured using a more classical end-over-end method (r > 0.89, P 0.89, P colloids and colloid-facilitated transport...

  6. The Role of Desorption Kinetics on the Colloid-Facilitated Transport of Cesium and Strontium in a Partially-Saturated Quartz Sand Column (United States)

    Dittrich, T. M.; Ryan, J. N.; Saiers, J. E.


    Colloid-facilitated transport (CFT) is a mechanism for enhanced transport of contaminants under certain environmental conditions. In order for CFT to be significant, three conditions must be met: (1) colloids must be present at a significant concentration, 2) the contaminant must associate with and remain associated with the colloids, and 3) colloids must be transported faster than the contaminant on its own. Colloids are often present in significant concentrations; therefore, CFT strongly depends on slow desorption kinetics and colloid mobility. The goal of this research was to identify and quantify the effects of desorption kinetics on the transport of cesium and strontium through a quartz sand column at different degrees of saturation (moisture contents). Breakthrough experiments were conducted using a rainfall simulator suspended over a column (12.7 cm diameter, 33.5 cm depth) packed with clean, sieved quartz sand (d50 = 360 µm). The effluent was collected with a fraction collector. Cesium and strontium were used as model contaminants because they are common contaminants found on Department of Energy sites in the US and because they have contrasting sorption kinetics with illite, which was used as the model colloid. The column was instrumented with three tensiometers and three moisture sensors to ensure uniform flow under partially-saturated conditions. Relative saturations of 0.33, 0.80, and 1.0 were established in the column. For aqueous breakthrough experiments, solutions at pH 7.3 containing cesium or strontium at a concentration of 7.5 x 10-6 M were applied to the top of the column until breakthrough (C/C0 > 0.5) was achieved. Following breakthrough, the solution was switched to a cesium- or strontium-free pH 7.3 solution for about 40 pore volumes. These experiments were repeated with the addition of illite colloids at a concentration of 100 mg L-1 in equilibrium with the cesium of strontium solution. Cesium and strontium breakthrough was monitored by

  7. Effects of kaolinite colloids on Cd²⁺ transport through saturated sand under varying ionic strength conditions: Column experiments and modeling approaches. (United States)

    Wikiniyadhanee, Rakkreat; Chotpantarat, Srilert; Ong, Say Kee


    Column experiments were performed under various ionic strengths (0.0-0.9 mM) using 10 mg L(-1) of Cd(2+) without kaolinite colloids and 10 mg L(-1) Cd(2+) mixed with 100 mg L(-1) kaolinite colloids. The nonequilibrium two-site model (TSM) described the behavior of both Cd(2+) transport and Cd(2+) co-transported with kaolinite colloids better than the equilibrium model (CD(eq)) (R(2)=0.978-0.996). The results showed that an increase in ionic strength negatively impacted the retardation factors (R) of both Cd(2+) and Cd(2+) mixed with kaolinite colloids. The presence of kaolinite colloids increased the retardation factors of Cd(2+) from 7.23 to 7.89, 6.76 to 6.61 and 3.79 to 6.99 for ionic strengths of 0.225, 0.45 and 0.9 mM, respectively. On the other hand, the presence of kaolinite colloids decreased the retardation factor of Cd(2+) from 8.13 to 7.83 for ionic strength of 0.0 mM. The fraction of instantaneous sorption sites (f) parameters, kinetic constant for sorption sites (α) and Freundlich constant (K(f)) were estimated from HYDRUS-1D of TSM for Cd(2+) transport. The fraction of instantaneous sorption sites was found to increase for an increase in ionic strength. K(f) values of Cd(2+) transport without kaolinite colloids for 0.0, 0.225 and 0.45 mM were found to be higher than those of Cd(2+) transport with kaolinite colloids, except for ionic strength of 0.9 mM. Hence, the presence of kaolinite colloids probably retarded the mobility of Cd(2+) in porous media for higher ionic strengths. Furthermore, retardation factors and K(f) values of both Cd(2+) transport and Cd(2+) co-transport were shown to decrease when ionic strength increased. Interestingly, according to TSM, the fraction of instantaneous sorption sites tends to increase for an increase in ionic strength, which imply that the mechanism of Cd(2+) sorption onto quartz sand can be better described using equilibrium sorption rather than nonequilibrium sorption for an increase in ionic strength. Copyright

  8. Colloid-Facilitated Transport of 137Cs in Fracture-Fill Material. Experiments and Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dittrich, Timothy M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reimus, Paul William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    In this study, we demonstrate how a combination of batch sorption/desorption experiments and column transport experiments were used to effectively parameterize a model describing the colloid-facilitated transport of Cs in the Grimsel granodiorite/FFM system. Cs partition coefficient estimates onto both the colloids and the stationary media obtained from the batch experiments were used as initial estimates of partition coefficients in the column experiments, and then the column experiment results were used to obtain refined estimates of the number of different sorption sites and the adsorption and desorption rate constants of the sites. The desorption portion of the column breakthrough curves highlighted the importance of accounting for adsorption-desorption hysteresis (or a very nonlinear adsorption isotherm) of the Cs on the FFM in the model, and this portion of the breakthrough curves also dictated that there be at least two different types of sorption sites on the FFM. In the end, the two-site model parameters estimated from the column experiments provided excellent matches to the batch adsorption/desorption data, which provided a measure of assurance in the validity of the model.

  9. Formation of neptunium(IV)-silica colloids at near-neutral and slightly alkaline pH. (United States)

    Husar, Richard; Weiss, Stephan; Hennig, Christoph; Hübner, René; Ikeda-Ohno, Atsushi; Zänker, Harald


    The reducing conditions in a nuclear waste repository render neptunium tetravalent. Thus, Np is often assumed to be immobile in the subsurface. However, tetravalent actinides can also become mobile if they occur as colloids. We show that Np(IV) is able to form silica-rich colloids in solutions containing silicic acid at concentrations of both the regions above and below the "mononuclear wall" of silicic acid at 2 × 10(-3) M (where silicic acid is expected to start polymerization). These Np(IV)-silica colloids have a size of only very few nanometers and can reach significantly higher concentrations than Np(IV) oxyhydroxide colloids. They can be stable in the waterborne form over longer spans of time. In the Np(IV)-silica colloids, the actinide--oxygen--actinide bonds are increasingly replaced by actinide--oxygen--silicon bonds due to structural incorporation of Si. Possible implications of the formation of such colloids for environmental scenarios are discussed.

  10. Interface colloidal robotic manipulator (United States)

    Aronson, Igor; Snezhko, Oleksiy


    A magnetic colloidal system confined at the interface between two immiscible liquids and energized by an alternating magnetic field dynamically self-assembles into localized asters and arrays of asters. The colloidal system exhibits locomotion and shape change. By controlling a small external magnetic field applied parallel to the interface, structures can capture, transport, and position target particles.

  11. NOM-facilitated transport of metal ions in aquifers: importance of complex-dissociation kinetics and colloid formation. (United States)

    Schmitt, D; Saravia, F; Frimmel, F H; Schuessler, W


    The transport of metal ions (Al, Fe, Zn, Pb) complexed by natural organic matter (NOM) was investigated by column experiments. Direct breakthrough of metal-NOM complexes was observed after elution of one bed volume for Al, Fe, and Pb, but not for Zn. This observation cannot be understood assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium in the columns. Hence, a model was developed, taking into account the kinetics of the interactions of metal ions with NOM and the solid phase. Of all possible reactions during passage through the column, the dissociation of the metal-NOM complexes was assumed to be the rate-determining step. Dissociation-rate constants were determined by cation-exchange experiments with a non-NOM-adsorbing cation-exchange resin (Chelex-100). These rate constants were used to predict the migration of metal-NOM complexes in the column experiments. Experimental and modeling results were in good agreement for the bivalent metal ions. Also, the model well predicted the pH dependence of breakthrough of trivalent metal ions and the differences between Al and Fe breakthrough on a qualitative basis. This leads to the conclusion that the dissociation kinetics of metal-NOM complexes is an essential parameter for the estimation of NOM-facilitated metal transport. However, for the trivalent metals, Al and Fe, the model overestimated the direct breakthrough, thus giving a worst case prediction of metal transport. With the help of coupling size-exclusion chromatography to inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, the formation of Al-hydroxide and Fe-hydroxide colloids in addition to NOM complexes was detected. These colloids, which were not considered in the model, were partially filtered off in the column, thus leading to overestimation of metal breakthrough.

  12. Colloidal organization

    CERN Document Server

    Okubo, Tsuneo


    Colloidal Organization presents a chemical and physical study on colloidal organization phenomena including equilibrium systems such as colloidal crystallization, drying patterns as an example of a dissipative system and similar sized aggregation. This book outlines the fundamental science behind colloid and surface chemistry and the findings from the author's own laboratory. The text goes on to discuss in-depth colloidal crystallization, gel crystallization, drying dissipative structures of solutions, suspensions and gels, and similar-sized aggregates from nanosized particles. Special emphas

  13. Actinide oxide photodiode and nuclear battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sykora, Milan; Usov, Igor


    Photodiodes and nuclear batteries may utilize actinide oxides, such a uranium oxide. An actinide oxide photodiode may include a first actinide oxide layer and a second actinide oxide layer deposited on the first actinide oxide layer. The first actinide oxide layer may be n-doped or p-doped. The second actinide oxide layer may be p-doped when the first actinide oxide layer is n-doped, and the second actinide oxide layer may be n-doped when the first actinide oxide layer is p-doped. The first actinide oxide layer and the second actinide oxide layer may form a p/n junction therebetween. Photodiodes including actinide oxides are better light absorbers, can be used in thinner films, and are more thermally stable than silicon, germanium, and gallium arsenide.

  14. Molecular Doping of the Hole-Transporting Layer for Efficient, Single-Step Deposited Colloidal Quantum Dot Photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Kirmani, Ahmad R.


    Employment of thin perovskite shells and metal halides as surface-passivants for colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) have been important, recent developments in CQD optoelectronics. These have opened the route to single-step deposited high-performing CQD solar cells. These promising architectures employ a QD hole-transporting layer (HTL) whose intrinsically shallow Fermi level (EF) restricts band-bending at maximum power-point during solar cell operation limiting charge collection. Here, we demonstrate a generalized approach to effectively balance band-edge energy levels of the main CQD absorber and charge-transport layer for these high-performance solar cells. Briefly soaking the QD HTL in a solution of the metal-organic p-dopant, molybdenum tris(1-(trifluoroacetyl)-2-(trifluoromethyl)ethane-1,2-dithiolene), effectively deepens its Fermi level, resulting in enhanced band bending at the HTL:absorber junction. This blocks the back-flow of photo-generated electrons, leading to enhanced photocurrent and fill factor compared to undoped devices. We demonstrate 9.0% perovskite-shelled and 9.5% metal-halide-passivated CQD solar cells, both achieving ca. 10% relative enhancements over undoped baselines.

  15. The use of synthetic colloids in tracer transport experiments in saturated rock fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimus, Paul William [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Studies of groundwater flow and contaminant transport in saturated, fractured geologic media are of great interest to researchers studying the potential long-term storage of hazardous wastes in or near such media. A popular technique for conducting such studies is to introduce tracers having different chemical and physical properties into a system and then observe the tracers at one or more downstream locations, inferring flow and transport mechanisms from the breakthrough characteristics of the different tracers. Many tracer studies have been conducted in saturated, fractured media to help develop and/or refine models capable of predicting contaminant transport over large scales in such media.

  16. Transport of pollutants through porous media facilitated by colloids: Mathematical analysis of the hyperbolic case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toorn RA van der; Weerd H van de; LBG; RUL


    In dit rapport wordt een wiskundig model beschreven waarmee het advectief transport van verontreinigingen in grondwater onder invloed van colloiden bepaald kan worden. Er wordt vanuit gegaan dat de concentratie colloiden in het grondwater constant is en dat er geen binding van colloiden aan de


    The stability and transport of radio-labeled Fe2O3 particles were studied using laboratory batch and column techniques. Core material collected from shallow sand and gravel aquifer was used as the immobile column matrix material. Variables in the study included flow rate, pH, i...

  18. Transport and Retention of Colloids in Porous Media: Does Shape Really Matter? (United States)

    The effect of particle shape on its transport and retention in porous media was evaluated by stretching carboxylate-modified fluorescent polystyrene spheres into rod shapes with aspect ratios of 2:1 and 4:1. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation experiments (QCM-D) were c...

  19. Studies of actinides in a superanoxic fjord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, P.


    Water column and sediment profiles of Pu, Am, Th and U have been obtained in the superanoxic Framvaren fjord, southern Norway. The concentration of bomb test fallout Pu, Am as well as `dissolved` Th in the bottom water are the highest recorded in the marine environment. The behaviour of the actinides in the anoxic water mass is to a large extent governed by the behaviour of the colloidal material. Ultrafiltration reveals that 40-60% of the actinides are associated to the large colloids, surprisingly this is valid also for U. The sediment acts as a source for Pu, Am, and Th to the water column but primarily as a sink for U. The remobilization of Pu, Am and Th is evident from the water column profiles which have similar diffusion shape profiles as other constituents originating from the sediments. The vertical eddy diffusion coefficient calculated from the Pu profile is in the same order of magnitude as reported from the H{sub 2}S profile. Decreased bottom water concentrations (but a constant water column inventory) between 1989 and 1995 as well as pore water Pu concentrations nearly identical to the overlaying bottom water indicates that the present Pu flux from the sediments are low. Contrary to Pu and Am, the water column Th inventory ({sup 232}Th and {sup 230}Th) continues to increase. The flux of {sup 232}Th from the sediments was determined from changes in water column inventory between 1989 and 1995 and from a pore water profile to be in the order of 2-8 Bq/m{sup 2}/y. 208 refs.

  20. Actinide uptake by transferrin and ferritin metalloproteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Auwer, C.; Llorens, I.; Moisy, Ph. [CEA Marcoule DEN/DRCP/SCPS, Bagnols sur Ceze (France); Vidaud, C. [CEA Marcoule DSV/DIEP/SBTN, Bagnols sur Ceze (France); Goudard, F.; Barbot, C. [Univ. de Nantes, Faculte des Sciences, Biochim., Nantes (France); Solari, P.L. [BM29, ESRF, Grenoble (France); Funke, H. [FZR, Rossendorf beamline (BM20), ESRF, Grenoble (France)


    In order to better understand the mechanisms of actinide uptake by specific biomolecules, it is essential to explore the intramolecular interactions between the cation and the protein binding site. Although this has long been done for widely investigated transition metals, very few studies have been devoted to complexation mechanisms of actinides by active chelation sites of metalloproteins. In this field, X-ray absorption spectroscopy has been extensively used as a structural and electronic metal cation probe. The two examples that are presented here are related to two metalloproteins in charge of iron transport and storage in eukaryote cells: transferrin and ferritin. U(VI)O{sub 2}{sup 2+}, Np(IV) and Pu(IV) have been selected because of their possible role as contaminant from the geosphere. (orig.)

  1. Colloids in groundwater: Their mobilization, subsurface transport, and sorption affinity for toxic chemicals. Annual technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gschwend, P.M.


    Our originally stated objectives included: (1) development of a quantitative source function for colloid mobilization to groundwater, and (2) assessment of the most important colloidal phases to which nonpolar compounds sorb. We have been pursuing a series of studies to elucidate the roles of colloidal phases in subsurface environments. Most notably, we have discovered the critical role of secondary cementitious phases like goethite. We developed a new procedure for measuring ``surface iron oxides`` which is a great improvement over earlier methodologies. Currently, we are developing a unifying model with which we can predict the mobilization of colloids to groundwater flowing through such porous media. Also, we have been able to show that groundwater samples contain colloidal phases in sufficient quantities and of suitable properties to enhance the mobile load of toxic compounds like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Finally, we have synthesized our varied field investigations from sites in Massachusetts, New Jersey, Delaware, Nevada, Connecticut, and New York to yield a protocol for other researchers interested in evaluating colloids in groundwater. These accomplishments are discussed in more detail below. Through these efforts, we have become increasingly convinced of the central role played by colloidal phases in numerous subsurface phenomena controlling contaminant fates.

  2. Transport of carbon colloid supported nanoscale zero-valent iron in porous media (United States)

    Busch, Jan; Oswald, Sascha


    The use of nano zero-valent iron (nZVI) for environmental remediation is an emerging technology for in situ remediation of contaminated groundwater. Due to its high surface area and high reactivity nZVI is able to dechlorinate organic contaminants and render them to less harmful substances. Carbo-Iron is a newly developed material consisting of activated carbon particles (d50 = 0.6 - 2.4 µm) that are doted with nZVI particles. These particles combine the sorption capacity of activated carbon and the reactivity of nZVI. Additionally the main limitation for nZVI delivery, a limited mobility due to fast aggregation and sedimentation of nZVI in dispersions and soils, might be solved. According to transport theory, particles with a diameter of approximately 1 µm are more mobile than unsupported nZVI particles in sandy aquifer systems. Results from column tests and a two dimensional laboratory aquifer test system are presented: Column tests using columns of 40 cm length were filled with sand. A particle suspension was pumped against gravity through the system. Results show, addition of a polyanionic stabilizer such as Carboxymethylcellulouse (CMC) is required to enhancing mobility. Ionic strength and pH concentrations in an environmental relevant range do not interfere significantly with transport, but particle size was found to be crucial. Another experiment was performed in a two dimensional aquifer test system. The test system contains a sand filled container with a inner size of 40 x 5 x 110 cm and seven ports on each side. A constant flow of water was applied from the left to the right side through all ports and the middle port was fed with a Carbo-Iron suspension. Results show a transport through the laboratory aquifer within few exchanged pore volumes, and breakthrough of Carbo-Iron at the outlet. Deposits of immobile Carbo-Iron were found to be decreasing with distance from the injection port. No gravity effects were observed. Results suggest high mobility of

  3. Transport and retention of colloidal aggregates of C60 in porous media: effects of organic macromolecules, ionic composition, and preparation method. (United States)

    Espinasse, Benjamin; Hotze, Ernest M; Wiesner, Mark R


    The physical-chemical behavior of the fullerene C60 in environmental and physiological media is of interest for understanding the potential transport, exposure, and impacts of these materials on organisms and ecosystems. We considerthe role of electrolyte composition and concentration, the effect of organic macromolecules, and the mode of preparation of colloidal aggregates of C60 (nC60) on the deposition of these colloids in a porous medium such as a groundwater aquifer or a water treatment filter. Results for nC60 deposition are qualitatively consistent with trends anticipated by theory. Deposition was found to increase with increasing ionic strength, the presence of polysaccharide-type organic matter, and lower Darcy velocities. Factors that will tend to decrease the retention of these materials in porous media include a low ionic strength and the presence of humic-like substances, while the ionic strengths typical of many natural waters and the presence polysaccharide-based natural organic matter, as may be produced by algae or bacteria, will tend to favor deposition and reduced potential for exposure. Variability in the method of preparing colloidal aggregates of fullerenes was observed to yield significant differences in nC60 properties and transport behavior.

  4. Americium, Cesium, and Plutonium Colloid-Facilitated Transport in a Groundwater/Bentonite/Fracture Fill Material System: Column Experiments and Model Results (United States)

    Dittrich, T. M.; Boukhalfa, H.; Reimus, P. W.


    The objective of this study was to investigate and quantify the effects of desorption kinetics and colloid transport on radionuclides with different sorption affinities. We focused on quantifying transport mechanisms important for upscaling in time and distance. This will help determine the long-term fate and transport of radionuclides to aid in risk assessments. We selected a fractured/weathered granodiorite at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) in Switzerland as a model crystalline rock repository system because the system has been thoroughly studied and field experiments involving radionuclides have already been conducted. Working on this system provides a unique opportunity to compare lab experiments with field-scale observations. Weathered fracture fill material (FFM) and bentonite used as backfill at the GTS were characterized (e.g., BET, SEM/EDS, QXRD), and batch and breakthrough column experiments were conducted. Solutions were prepared in synthetic groundwaters that matched the natural water chemistry. FFM samples were crushed, rinsed, sieved (150-355 μm), and equilibrated with synthetic groundwater. Bentonite was crushed, sodium-saturated, equilibrated with synthetic groundwater, and settled to yield a stable suspension. Suspensions were equilibrated with Am, Cs, or Pu. All experiments were conducted with Teflon®materials to limit sorption to system components. After radionuclide/colloid injections reached stability, radionuclide-free solutions were injected to observe the desorption and release behavior. Aliquots of effluent were measured for pH, colloid concentration, and total and dissolved radionuclides. Unanalyzed effluent from the first column was then injected through a second column of fresh material. The process was repeated for a third column and the results of all three breakthrough curves were modeled with a multi-site/multi-rate MATLAB code to elucidate the sorption rate coefficients and binding site densities of the bentonite colloids and

  5. Actinide AMS at DREAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khojasteh, Nasrin B.; Merchel, Silke; Rugel, Georg; Scharf, Andreas; Ziegenruecker, Rene [HZDR, Dresden (Germany); Pavetich, Stefan [HZDR, Dresden (Germany); ANU, Canberra (Australia)


    Radionuclides such as {sup 236}U and {sup 239}Pu were introduced into the environment by atmospheric nuclear weapon tests, reactor accidents (Chernobyl, Fukushima), releases from nuclear reprocessing facilities (Sellafield, La Hague), radioactive waste disposal, and accidents with nuclear devices (Palomares, Thule) [1]. Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) is the most sensitive method to measure these actinides. The DREsden AMS (DREAMS) facility is located at a 6 MV accelerator, which is shared with ion beam analytics and implantation users, preventing major modifications of the accelerator and magnetic analyzers. DREAMS was originally designed for {sup 10}Be, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 41}Ca, and {sup 129}I. To modify the system for actinide AMS, a Time-of-Flight (TOF) beamline at the high-energy side has been installed and performance tests are on-going. Ion beam and detector simulations are carried out to design a moveable ionization chamber. Especially, the detector window and anode dimensions have to be optimized. This ionization chamber will act as an energy detector of the system and its installation is planned as closely as possible to the stop detector of the TOF beamline for highest detection efficiency.

  6. Transport and exchange of U-series nuclides between suspended material, dissolved load and colloids in rivers draining basaltic terrains (United States)

    Pogge von Strandmann, Philip A. E.; Burton, Kevin W.; Porcelli, Don; James, Rachael H.; van Calsteren, Peter; Gislason, Sigurður R.


    This study presents uranium and thorium concentrations and activity ratios for all riverine phases (bedload, suspended load, dissolved load and colloids) from basaltic terrains in Iceland and the Azores. Small basaltic islands, such as these, are thought to account for ~ 25% of CO2 consumed by global silicate weathering, and for ~ 45% of the flux of suspended material to the oceans. These data indicate that [U] and [Th] in the dissolved and colloidal fractions are strongly controlled by pH, and to a much lesser extent by levels of dissolved organic carbon (which are low in these environments). At high pH, basalt glass dissolution is enhanced, and secondary mineral formation (e.g. Fe-oxyhydroxides and allophane) is suppressed, resulting in high dissolved [U], and low colloidal [U] and [Th], indicating a direct chemical weathering control on elemental abundances. When the dissolved (234U/238U) activity ratio is >~1.3 (i.e. when physical weathering, groundwater contribution or soil formation are high), there is little isotope exchange between dissolved and colloidal fractions. At lower activity ratios, the dissolved load and colloids have indistinguishable activity ratios, suggesting that when chemical weathering rates are high, secondary clay formation is also high, and colloids rapidly adsorb dissolved U. Many of the suspended sediment samples have (234U/238U) activity ratios of > 1, which suggests that uptake of U onto the suspended load is important. Identical (230Th/232Th) in suspended, dissolved and colloidal samples suggests that Th, like U, is exchanged or sorbed rapidly between all riverine phases. This particle-reactivity, combined with poorly constrained contributions from groundwater and hydrothermal water, and short-term variations in input to soils (volcanic and glacial), suggests that U-series nuclides in riverine material from such basaltic terrains are unlikely to reflect steady state erosion processes.

  7. Importance of colloids in the transport within the dissolved phase (<450 nm) of artificial radionuclides from the Rhône river towards the Gulf of Lions (Mediterranean Sea). (United States)

    Eyrolle, Frédérique; Charmasson, Sabine


    The significance of colloidal fractions regarding the transport of artificial radionuclides in natural water systems is underlined by using sequential ultrafiltration both in the Rhône freshwater and the marine area under and outside the influence of the river outflow. Indeed, the Rhodanian aquatic system represents an interesting test site as various artificial radionuclides are released into the Rhône river by several nuclear installations. We focused our study on (137)Cs, (106)Ru, (60)Co, (238)Pu and (239+240)Pu. Our results show that Fe, Al and Organic carbon (OC) are the main components of colloidal matter. Colloids represent about 15% of dissolved (colloidal compounds are shown to account for the transport of 40% for both Co and Ru, 60% for (238)Pu and (239+240)Pu and have no significance on (137)Cs flux.

  8. Colloidal transport in the Gordon Gulch catchment of the Boulder Creek CZO and its effect on C-Q relationships for silicon (United States)

    Aguirre, Arnulfo A.; Derry, Louis A.; Mills, Taylor J.; Anderson, Suzanne P.


    The near-constant Si concentration under varying discharge observed in Gordon Gulch of the Boulder Critical Zone Observatory (CZO) indicates that the silica fluxes are strongly controlled by discharge. To identify the mechanisms supplying increased Si at high discharge (Q), we examine Si-Al-Fe-Ge in soils, streams, and groundwaters. We identify bedrock weathering in groundwater and colloidal transport as the two end-members that supply Si to the system. During base flow, streamflow is derived from groundwater, and weathering of feldspar is the main source of Si with a Ge/Si ratio 0.2-0.5 µmol/mol and low dissolved Al and Fe. The groundwater data are consistent with incongruent weathering of feldspar as the main source of dissolved Si. As discharge increases, Si-Al-Fe-bearing colloids are mobilized and the Ge/Si ratio of the stream rises to 3.0 µmol/mol. Mineralogical analysis using XRD identified Al-Si phases including kaolinite, illite, and quartz in the colloidal size fraction (plant operations.

  9. Hydrothermal Alteration of Glass from Underground Nuclear Tests: Formation and Transport of Pu-clay Colloids at the Nevada National Security Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zavarin, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zhao, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Joseph, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Begg, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Boggs, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dai, Z. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kersting, A. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    The testing of nuclear weapons at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), formerly the Nevada Test Site (NTS), has led to the deposition of substantial quantities of plutonium into the environment. Approximately 2.8 metric tons (3.1×104 TBq) of Pu were deposited in the NNSS subsurface as a result of underground nuclear testing. While 3H is the most abundant anthropogenic radionuclide deposited in the NNSS subsurface (4.7×106 TBq), plutonium is the most abundant from a molar standpoint. The only radioactive elements in greater molar abundance are the naturally occurring K, Th, and U isotopes. 239Pu and 240Pu represent the majority of alpha-emitting Pu isotopes. The extreme temperatures associated with underground nuclear tests and the refractory nature of Pu results in most of the Pu (98%) being sequestered in melted rock, referred to as nuclear melt glass (Iaea, 1998). As a result, Pu release to groundwater is controlled, in large part, by the leaching (or dissolution) of nuclear melt glass over time. The factors affecting glass dissolution rates have been studied extensively. The dissolution of Pu-containing borosilicate nuclear waste glasses at 90ºC has been shown to lead to the formation of dioctahedral smectite colloids. Colloid-facilitated transport of Pu at the NNSS has been observed. Recent groundwater samples collected from a number of contaminated wells have yielded a wide range of Pu concentrations from 0.00022 to 2.0 Bq/L. While Pu concentrations tend to fall below the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) established by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for drinking water (0.56 Bq/L), we do not yet understand what factors limit the Pu concentration or its transport behavior. To quantify the upper limit of Pu concentrations produced as a result of melt glass dissolution and determine the nature of colloids and Pu associations, we performed a 3 year nuclear melt glass dissolution experiment

  10. Actinide transmutation in nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganev, I.K.; Lopatkin, A.V.; Naumov, V.V.; Tocheny, L.V.


    Of some interest is the comparison between the actinide nuclide burning up (fission) rates such as americium 241, americium 242, curium 244, and neptunium 237, in the reactors with fast or thermal neutron spectra.

  11. Medical applications of colloids

    CERN Document Server

    Matijevic, Egon


    The first book of its type on the medical and biomedical applications of colloids, although there are some related titles on different topicsDiscusses the effects of uniform particles in drug formulations and releaseEvaluates particle transport and deposition in the human body.

  12. Hexadecapolar colloids (United States)

    Senyuk, Bohdan; Puls, Owen; Tovkach, Oleh M.; Chernyshuk, Stanislav B.; Smalyukh, Ivan I.


    Outermost occupied electron shells of chemical elements can have symmetries resembling that of monopoles, dipoles, quadrupoles and octupoles corresponding to filled s-, p-, d- and f-orbitals. Theoretically, elements with hexadecapolar outer shells could also exist, but none of the known elements have filled g-orbitals. On the other hand, the research paradigm of `colloidal atoms' displays complexity of particle behaviour exceeding that of atomic counterparts, which is driven by DNA functionalization, geometric shape and topology and weak external stimuli. Here we describe elastic hexadecapoles formed by polymer microspheres dispersed in a liquid crystal, a nematic fluid of orientationally ordered molecular rods. Because of conically degenerate boundary conditions, the solid microspheres locally perturb the alignment of the nematic host, inducing hexadecapolar distortions that drive anisotropic colloidal interactions. We uncover physical underpinnings of formation of colloidal elastic hexadecapoles and describe the ensuing bonding inaccessible to elastic dipoles, quadrupoles and other nematic colloids studied previously.

  13. Colloidal polypyrrole (United States)

    Armes, Steven P.; Aldissi, Mahmoud


    Processable electrically conductive latex polymer compositions including colloidal particles of an oxidized, polymerized aromatic heterocyclic monomer, a stabilizing effective amount of a vinyl pyridine-containing polymer and dopant anions and a method of preparing such polymer compositions are disclosed.

  14. 33rd Actinide Separations Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, L M; Wilk, P A


    Welcome to the 33rd Actinide Separations Conference hosted this year by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This annual conference is centered on the idea of networking and communication with scientists from throughout the United States, Britain, France and Japan who have expertise in nuclear material processing. This conference forum provides an excellent opportunity for bringing together experts in the fields of chemistry, nuclear and chemical engineering, and actinide processing to present and discuss experiences, research results, testing and application of actinide separation processes. The exchange of information that will take place between you, and other subject matter experts from around the nation and across the international boundaries, is a critical tool to assist in solving both national and international problems associated with the processing of nuclear materials used for both defense and energy purposes, as well as for the safe disposition of excess nuclear material. Granlibakken is a dedicated conference facility and training campus that is set up to provide the venue that supports communication between scientists and engineers attending the 33rd Actinide Separations Conference. We believe that you will find that Granlibakken and the Lake Tahoe views provide an atmosphere that is stimulating for fruitful discussions between participants from both government and private industry. We thank the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the United States Department of Energy for their support of this conference. We especially thank you, the participants and subject matter experts, for your involvement in the 33rd Actinide Separations Conference.

  15. STXM and LSLM investigation of Eu(III) induced humic acid colloid aggregation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plaschke, M; Rothe, J; Klenze, R [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Nukleare Entsorgung, Postfach 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Wissler, J; Naber, A, E-mail: plaschke@ine.fzk.d [Universitaet Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Wolfgang-Gaede-Strasse 1, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)


    Humic acids (HA) are potentially important in binding traces of actinides or lanthanides, thus affecting their transport in aquatic systems. Eu(III) induced HA colloid aggregation has been investigated by a combination of Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM) and Laser Scanning Luminescence Microscopy (LSLM). Both methods reveal the same aggregate morphology - optically dense zones embedded in a matrix of less dense material observed by STXM correspond to areas with increased Eu(III) luminescence yield in the LSLM micrographs. From these comparative measurements we infer the enrichment of Eu(III) cations in the optically dense zones. These areas also exhibit a C 1s-NEXAFS signature strongly differing from the signal extracted from the less dense areas. Spectral filtering of Eu(III) luminescence lines corresponding to valence transitions affected by organic acid complexation indicates that Eu(III) cations are more strongly bound in the dense zones.

  16. Nuclear waste forms for actinides (United States)

    Ewing, Rodney C.


    The disposition of actinides, most recently 239Pu from dismantled nuclear weapons, requires effective containment of waste generated by the nuclear fuel cycle. Because actinides (e.g., 239Pu and 237Np) are long-lived, they have a major impact on risk assessments of geologic repositories. Thus, demonstrable, long-term chemical and mechanical durability are essential properties of waste forms for the immobilization of actinides. Mineralogic and geologic studies provide excellent candidate phases for immobilization and a unique database that cannot be duplicated by a purely materials science approach. The “mineralogic approach” is illustrated by a discussion of zircon as a phase for the immobilization of excess weapons plutonium. PMID:10097054

  17. Actinides and Life's Origins (United States)

    Adam, Zachary


    There are growing indications that life began in a radioactive beach environment. A geologic framework for the origin or support of life in a Hadean heavy mineral placer beach has been developed, based on the unique chemical properties of the lower-electronic actinides, which act as nuclear fissile and fertile fuels, radiolytic energy sources, oligomer catalysts, and coordinating ions (along with mineralogically associated lanthanides) for prototypical prebiotic homonuclear and dinuclear metalloenzymes. A four-factor nuclear reactor model was constructed to estimate how much uranium would have been required to initiate a sustainable fission reaction within a placer beach sand 4.3 billion years ago. It was calculated that about 1-8 weight percent of the sand would have to have been uraninite, depending on the weight percent, uranium enrichment, and quantity of neutron poisons present within the remaining placer minerals. Radiolysis experiments were conducted with various solvents with the use of uranium- and thorium-rich minerals (metatorbernite and monazite, respectively) as proxies for radioactive beach sand in contact with different carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen reactants. Radiation bombardment ranged in duration of exposure from 3 weeks to 6 months. Low levels of acetonitrile (estimated to be on the order of parts per billion in concentration) were conclusively identified in 2 setups and tentatively indicated in a 3rd by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. These low levels have been interpreted within the context of a Hadean placer beach prebiotic framework to demonstrate the promise of investigating natural nuclear reactors as power production sites that might have assisted the origins of life on young rocky planets with a sufficiently differentiated crust/mantle structure. Future investigations are recommended to better quantify the complex relationships between energy release, radioactive grain size, fissionability, reactant phase, phosphorus

  18. Preliminary considerations concerning actinide solubilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, T.W.; Bayhurst, B.P.; Daniels, W.R.; Erdal, B.R.; Ogard, A.E.


    Work at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory on the fundamental solution chemistry of the actinides has thus far been confined to preliminary considerations of the problems involved in developing an understanding of the precipitation and dissolution behavior of actinide compounds under environmental conditions. Attempts have been made to calculate solubility as a function of Eh and pH using the appropriate thermodynamic data; results have been presented in terms of contour maps showing lines of constant solubility as a function of Eh and pH. Possible methods of control of the redox potential of rock-groundwater systems by the use of Eh buffers (redox couples) is presented.

  19. Colloid dispersion on the pore scale. (United States)

    Baumann, Thomas; Toops, Laura; Niessner, Reinhard


    Dispersion describes the spreading of a tracer or contaminant in an aquifer. Detailed knowledge of dispersion is the key to successful risk assessment in case of groundwater pollution or groundwater protection. The dispersion of colloids on the pore scale is controlled by flow velocity, ionic strength, colloid size, colloid concentration, and colloid-matrix interactions. The objective of this study was to provide quantitative data and to assess the scale dependency of colloid dispersion on the pore scale. The positions of carboxylated polystyrene microspheres (1 microm, 0.5 microm) were recorded during transport experiments in silicon micromodels with three pore topologies. The positions were combined into particle trajectories revealing the flow path of individual colloids. More than thousand trajectories were evaluated for each experiment to obtain the dispersivity of the colloids for flow distances between 10 and 1000 microm. All experiments were run at high Peclet numbers. The pore scale dispersivity was on the order of 8-30% of the flow distance with pure water, dependent on the heterogeneity of the pore topology. The dispersivity was positively correlated with the ionic strength and inversely correlated with the colloid size and the flow velocity. A coating of the micromodel surface with humic acid also increased dispersivity. The quantitative data set presented here supports the theoretical framework for colloid transport and allows to parametrize colloid transport on the pore scale. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. What happens when pharmaceuticals meet colloids. (United States)

    Xing, Yingna; Chen, Xijuan; Zhuang, Jie; Chen, Xin


    Pharmaceuticals (PCs) have been widely detected in natural environment due to agricultural application of reclaimed water, sludge and animal wastes. Their potential risks to various ecosystems and even to human health have caused great concern; however, little was known about their environmental behaviors. Colloids (such as clays, metal oxides, and particulate organics) are kind of substances that are active and widespread in the environment. When PCs meet colloids, their interaction may influence the fate, transport, and toxicity of PCs. This review summarizes the progress of studies on the role of colloids in mediating the environmental behaviors of PCs. Synthesized results showed that colloids can adsorb PCs mainly through ion exchange, complexation and non-electrostatic interactions. During this process the structure of colloids and the stability of PCs may be changed. The adsorbed PCs may have higher risks to induce antibiotic resistance; besides, their transport may also be altered considering they have great chance to move with colloids. Solution conditions (such as pH, ionic strength, and cations) could influence these interactions between PCs and colloids, as they can change the forms of PCs and alter the primary forces between PCs and colloids in the solution. It could be concluded that PCs in natural soils could bind with colloids and then co-transport during the processes of irrigation, leaching, and erosion. Therefore, colloid-PC interactions need to be understood for risk assessment of PCs and the best management practices of various ecosystems (such as agricultural and wetland systems).

  1. Mathematical modeling of liquid/liquid hollow fiber membrane contactor accounting for interfacial transport phenomena: Extraction of lanthanides as a surrogate for actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, J.D.


    This report is divided into two parts. The second part is divided into the following sections: experimental protocol; modeling the hollow fiber extractor using film theory; Graetz model of the hollow fiber membrane process; fundamental diffusive-kinetic model; and diffusive liquid membrane device-a rigorous model. The first part is divided into: membrane and membrane process-a concept; metal extraction; kinetics of metal extraction; modeling the membrane contactor; and interfacial phenomenon-boundary conditions-applied to membrane transport.

  2. Colloidal nematostatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Pergamenshchik


    Full Text Available We give a review of the theory of large distance colloidal interaction via the nematic director field. The new area of nematic colloidal systems (or nematic emulsions has been guided by the analogy between the colloidal nematostatics and electrostatics. The elastic charge density representation of the colloidal nematostatics [V.M. Pergamenshchik, V.O. Uzunova, Eur. Phys. J. E, 2007, 23, 161; Phys. Rev. E, 2007, 76, 011707] develops this analogy at the level of charge density and Coulomb interaction. The analogy is shown to lie in common mathematics based on the solutions of Laplace equation. However, the 3d colloidal nematostatics substantially differs from electrostatics both in its mathematical structure and physical implications. The elastic charge is a vector fully determined by the torque exerted upon colloid, the role of Gauss' theorem is played by conservation of the torque components. Elastic multipoles consist of two tensors (dyads. Formulas for the elastic multipoles, the Coulomb-like, dipole-dipole, and quadrupole-quadrupole pair interaction potentials are derived and illustrated by particular examples. Based on the tensorial structure, we list possible types of elastic dipoles and quadrupoles. An elastic dipole is characterized by its isotropic strength, anisotropy, chirality, and its longitudinal component. An elastic quadrupole can be uniaxial and biaxial. Relation between the multipole type and its symmetry is discussed, sketches of some types of multipoles are given. Using the mirror image method of electrostatics as a guiding idea, we develop the mirror image method in nematostatics for arbitrary director tilt at the wall. The method is applied to the charge-wall and dipole-wall interaction.

  3. Environmental research on actinide elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinder, J.E. III; Alberts, J.J.; McLeod, K.W.; Schreckhise, R.G. (eds.)


    The papers synthesize the results of research sponsored by DOE's Office of Health and Environmental Research on the behavior of transuranic and actinide elements in the environment. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the 21 individual papers. (ACR)

  4. LLNL SFA OBER SBR FY17 Program Management and Performance Report: Subsurface Biogeochemistry of Actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kersting, Annie B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    A major scientific challenge in environmental sciences is to identify the dominant processes controlling actinide transport in the environment. It is estimated that currently, over 2200 metric tons of anthropogenic plutonium (Pu) has accumulated worldwide, a number that increases yearly with additional spent nuclear fuel (Ewing et al., 2010). Plutonium has been shown to migrate on the scale of kilometers, giving way to a critical concern that the fundamental biogeochemical processes that control its behavior in the subsurface are not well understood (Kersting et al. 1999; Novikov et al. 2006; Santschi et al. 2002). Neptunium (Np) is less prevalent in the environment; however, it is predicted to be a significant long-term dose contributor in high-level nuclear waste. Our focus on Np chemistry in this Science Plan is intended to help formulate a better understanding of Pu redox transformations in the environment and clarify the differences between the two long-lived actinides. The research approach of our Science Plan combines (1) Fundamental Mechanistic Studies that identify and quantify biogeochemical processes that control actinide behavior in solution and on solids, (2) Field Integration Studies that investigate the transport characteristics of Pu and test our conceptual understanding of actinide transport, and (3) Actinide Research Capabilities that allow us to achieve the objectives of this Scientific Focus Area (SFA) and provide new opportunities for advancing actinide environmental chemistry. These three Research Thrusts form the basis of our SFA Science Program.

  5. Colloidal superballs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossi, L.


    This thesis is organized in four parts as follows. Part 1 focuses on the synthetic aspects of the colloidal model systems that will be used throughout the work described in this thesis. In Chapter 2 we describe synthetic procedures for the preparation of polycrystalline hematite superballs and

  6. Colloidal glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... state is reached by rapidly lowering the temperature. In colloidal glasses, glassy state is reached by increasing the concentration of the jamming entity above random loose packing threshold leading to a disordered state. Common examples: toothpaste, hair gel, shaving foam, concentrated suspensions, emulsions, etc.

  7. Actinide cation-cation complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoyer, Nancy Jane [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    The +5 oxidation state of U, Np, Pu, and Am is a linear dioxo cation (AnO2+) with a formal charge of +1. These cations form complexes with a variety of other cations, including actinide cations. Other oxidation states of actinides do not form these cation-cation complexes with any cation other than AnO2+; therefore, cation-cation complexes indicate something unique about AnO2+ cations compared to actinide cations in general. The first cation-cation complex, NpO2+•UO22+, was reported by Sullivan, Hindman, and Zielen in 1961. Of the four actinides that form AnO2+ species, the cation-cation complexes of NpO2+ have been studied most extensively while the other actinides have not. The only PuO2+ cation-cation complexes that have been studied are with Fe3+ and Cr3+ and neither one has had its equilibrium constant measured. Actinides have small molar absorptivities and cation-cation complexes have small equilibrium constants; therefore, to overcome these obstacles a sensitive technique is required. Spectroscopic techniques are used most often to study cation-cation complexes. Laser-Induced Photacoustic Spectroscopy equilibrium constants for the complexes NpO2+•UO22+, NpO2+•Th4+, PuO2+•UO22+, and PuO2+•Th4+ at an ionic strength of 6 M using LIPAS are 2.4 ± 0.2, 1.8 ± 0.9, 2.2 ± 1.5, and ~0.8 M-1.

  8. Does colloid shape affect detachment of colloids by a moving air-water interface? (United States)

    Aramrak, Surachet; Flury, Markus; Harsh, James B; Zollars, Richard L; Davis, Howard P


    Air-water interfaces interact strongly with colloidal particles by capillary forces. The magnitude of the interaction force depends on, among other things, the particle shape. Here, we investigate the effects of particle shape on colloid detachment by a moving air-water interface. We used hydrophilic polystyrene colloids with four different shapes (spheres, barrels, rods, and oblong disks), but otherwise identical surface properties. The nonspherical shapes were created by stretching spherical microspheres on a film of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The colloids were then deposited onto the inner surface of a glass channel. An air bubble was introduced into the channel and passed through, thereby generating a receding followed by an advancing air-water interface. The detachment of colloids by the air-water interfaces was visualized with a confocal microscope, quantified by image analysis, and analyzed statistically to determine significant differences. For all colloid shapes, the advancing air-water interface caused pronounced colloid detachment (>63%), whereas the receding interface was ineffective in colloid detachment (colloid shapes, the barrels were most readily removed (94%) by the advancing interface, followed by the spheres and oblong disks (80%) and the rods (63%). Colloid detachment was significantly affected by colloid shape. The presence of an edge, as it occurs in a barrel-shaped colloid, promoted colloid detachment because the air-water interface is being pinned at the edge of the colloid. This suggests that the magnitude of colloid mobilization and transport in porous media is underestimated for edged particles and overestimated for rodlike particles when a sphere is used as a model colloid.

  9. Actinide Waste Forms and Radiation Effects (United States)

    Ewing, R. C.; Weber, W. J.

    Over the past few decades, many studies of actinides in glasses and ceramics have been conducted that have contributed substantially to the increased understanding of actinide incorporation in solids and radiation effects due to actinide decay. These studies have included fundamental research on actinides in solids and applied research and development related to the immobilization of the high level wastes (HLW) from commercial nuclear power plants and processing of nuclear weapons materials, environmental restoration in the nuclear weapons complex, and the immobilization of weapons-grade plutonium as a result of disarmament activities. Thus, the immobilization of actinides has become a pressing issue for the twenty-first century (Ewing, 1999), and plutonium immobilization, in particular, has received considerable attention in the USA (Muller et al., 2002; Muller and Weber, 2001). The investigation of actinides and

  10. Efficacy of biochar amendments in limiting the transport of pathogenic bio-colloids in soils of different textures (United States)

    Biochar amendment has been shown to affect bacterial transport in soils. The effect of pyrolysis temperature of the added poultry litter biochar on the transport of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella typhimurium through fine sand and sandy loam soils were investigated in water-saturated column ...

  11. Conductivity maximum in a charged colloidal suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastea, S


    Molecular dynamics simulations of a charged colloidal suspension in the salt-free regime show that the system exhibits an electrical conductivity maximum as a function of colloid charge. We attribute this behavior to two main competing effects: colloid effective charge saturation due to counterion 'condensation' and diffusion slowdown due to the relaxation effect. In agreement with previous observations, we also find that the effective transported charge is larger than the one determined by the Stern layer and suggest that it corresponds to the boundary fluid layer at the surface of the colloidal particles.

  12. Interaction of bentonite colloids with Cs, Eu, Th and U in presence of humic acid: A flow field-flow fractionation study (United States)

    Bouby, Muriel; Geckeis, Horst; Lützenkirchen, Johannes; Mihai, Silvia; Schäfer, Thorsten


    The interaction of Cs(I), Eu(III), Th(IV) and U(VI) with montmorillonite colloids was investigated in natural Grimsel Test Site groundwater over a 3 years period. The asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation combined with various detectors was applied to study size variations of colloids and to monitor colloid association of trace metals. The colloids suspended directly in the low ionic strength ( I), slightly alkaline granitic groundwater ( I = 10 -3 mol/L, pH 9.6) showed a gradual agglomeration with a size distribution shift from initially 10-200 nm to 50-400 nm within over 3 years. The Ca 2+ concentration of 2.1 × 10 -4 mol/L in the ground water is believed to be responsible for the slow agglomeration due to Ca 2+ ion exchange against Li + and Na + at the permanently charged basal clay planes. Furthermore, the Ca 2+ concentration lies close to the critical coagulation concentration (CCC) of 10 -3 mol L -1 for clay colloids. Slow destabilization may delimit clay colloid migration in this specific groundwater over long time scales. Eu(III) and Th(IV) are found predominantly bound to clay colloids, while U(VI) prevails as the UO 2(OH) 3- complex and Cs(I) remains mainly as aquo ion under our experimental conditions. Speciation calculations qualitatively represent the experimental data. A focus was set on the reversibility of metal ion-colloid binding. Addition of humic acid as a competing ligand induces rapid metal ion dissociation from clay colloids in the case of Eu(III) even after previous aging for about 3 years. Interestingly only partial dissociation occurs in the case of Th(IV). Experiments and calculations prove that the humate complexes dominate the speciation of all metal ions under given conditions. The partial irreversibility of clay bound Th(IV) is presently not understood but might play an important role for the colloid-mediated transport of polyvalent actinides over wide distances in natural groundwater.

  13. Charge transport in light emitting devices based on colloidal quantum dots and a solution-processed nickel oxide layer. (United States)

    Nguyen, Huu Tuan; Jeong, Huiseong; Park, Ji-Yong; Ahn, Y H; Lee, Soonil


    We fabricated hybrid light emitting devices based on colloidal CdSe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots and a solution-processed NiO layer. The use of a sol-gel NiO layer as a hole injection layer (HIL) resulted in overall improvement in device operation compared to a control device with a more conventional poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) HIL. In particular, luminous efficiency increased substantially because of the suppression of excessive currents and became as large as 2.45 cd/A. To manifest the origin of current reduction, temperature- and electric field-dependent variations of currents with respect to bias voltages were investigated. In a low bias voltage range below the threshold for luminance turn-on, the Poole-Frenkel (PF) emission mechanism was responsible for the current-density variation. However, the space-charge-limited current modified with PF-type mobility ruled the current-density variation in high bias voltage range above the threshold.

  14. Actinide Solubility and Speciation in the WIPP [PowerPoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Donald T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The presentation begins with the role and need for nuclear repositories (overall concept, international updates (Sweden, Finland, France, China), US approach and current status), then moves on to the WIPP TRU repository concept (design, current status--safety incidents of February 5 and 14, 2014, path forward), and finally considers the WIPP safety case: dissolved actinide concentrations (overall approach, oxidation state distribution and redox control, solubility of actinides, colloidal contribution and microbial effects). The following conclusions are set forth: (1) International programs are moving forward, but at a very slow and somewhat sporadic pace. (2) In the United States, the Salt repository concept, from the perspective of the long-term safety case, remains a viable option for nuclear waste management despite the current operational issues/concerns. (3) Current model/PA prediction (WIPP example) are built on redundant conservatisms. These conservatisms are being addressed in the ongoing and future research to fill existing data gaps--redox control of plutonium by Fe(0, II), thorium (analog) solubility studies in simulated brine, contribution of intrinsic and biocolloids to the mobile concentration, and clarification of microbial ecology and effects.

  15. Pyrometallurgical processes for recovery of actinide elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battles, J.E.; Laidler, J.J.; McPheeters, C.C.; Miller, W.E.


    A metallic fuel alloy, nominally U-20-Pu-lOZr, is the key element of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) fuel cycle. Metallic fuel permits the use of an innovative, simple pyrometallurgical process, known as pyroprocessing, (the subject of this report), which features fused salt electrorefining of the spent fuel. Electrorefining separates the actinide elements from fission products, without producing a separate stream of plutonium. The plutonium-bearing product is contaminated with higher actinides and with a minor amount of rare earth fission products, making it diversion resistant while still suitable as a fuel material in the fast spectrum of the IFR core. The engineering-scale demonstration of this process will be conducted in the refurbished EBR-II Fuel Cycle Facility, which has entered the start-up phase. An additional pyrometallurgical process is under development for extracting transuranic (TRU) elements from Light Water Reactor (LWR) spent fuel in a form suitable for use as a feed to the IFR fuel cycle. Four candidate extraction processes have been investigated and shown to be chemically feasible. The main steps in each process are oxide reduction with calcium or lithium, regeneration of the reductant and recycle of the salt, and separation of the TRU product from the bulk uranium. Two processes, referred to as the lithium and salt transport (calcium reductant) processes, have been selected for engineering-scale demonstration, which is expected to start in late 1993. An integral part of pyroprocessing development is the treatment and packaging of high-level waste materials arising from the operations, along with the qualification of these waste forms for disposal in a geologic repository.

  16. Chancellor Water Colloids: Characterization and Radionuclide Association

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Fattah, Amr I. [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    Concluding remarks about this paper are: (1) Gravitational settling, zeta potential, and ultrafiltration data indicate the existence of a colloidal phase of both the alpha and beta emitters in the Chancellor water; (2) The low activity combined with high dispersion homogeneity of the Chancellor water indicate that both alpha and beta emitters are not intrinsic colloids; (3) Radionuclides in the Chancellor water, particularly Pu, coexist as dissolved aqueous and sorbed phases - in other words the radionuclides are partitioned between the aqueous phase and the colloidal phase; (4) The presence of Pu as a dissolved species in the aqueous phase, suggests the possibility of Pu in the (V) oxidation state - this conclusion is supported by the similarity of the k{sub d} value of Pu determined in the current study to that determined for Pu(V) sorbed onto smectite colloids, and the similar electrokinetic behavior of the Chancellor water colloids to smectite colloids; (5) About 50% of the Pu(V) is in the aqueous phase and 50% is sorbed on colloids (mass concentration of colloids in the Chancellor water is 0.12 g/L); (6) The k{sub d} of the Pu and the beta emitters (fission products) between aqueous and colloidal phases in the Chancellor water is {approx}8.0 x 10{sup 3} mL/g using two different activity measurement techniques (LSC and alpha spectroscopy); (7) The gravitational settling and size distributions of the association colloids indicate that the properties (at least the physical ones) of the colloids to which the alpha emitters are associated with seem to be different that the properties of the colloids to which the beta emitters are associated with - the beta emitters are associated with very small particles ({approx}50 - 120 nm), while the alpha emitters are associated with relatively larger particles; and (8) The Chancellor water colloids are extremely stable under the natural pH and ionic strength conditions, indicating high potential for transport in the

  17. Soil structure, colloids, and chemical transport as affected by short-term reducing conditions: a laboratory study (United States)

    Upland soils in the Midwestern US often undergo reducing conditions when soils are temporally flooded during the spring and remain water saturated for days or weeks. Short-term reducing conditions change the chemistry of the soil and may affect soil structure and solution chemical transport. The eff...

  18. Development of Metallic Fuels for Actinide Transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, Steven Lowe [Idaho National Laboratory; Fielding, Randall Sidney [Idaho National Laboratory; Benson, Michael Timothy [Idaho National Laboratory; Chichester, Heather Jean MacLean [Idaho National Laboratory; Carmack, William Jonathan [Idaho National Laboratory


    and 60%. In general, the performance of all of these substantially disparate metallic fuel alloys has been observed to be excellent, and their irradiation behaviors are generally consistent with historic norms for metallic fuels without minor actinide additions and having lower Pu or Zr contents. Future work is being undertaken with a view toward increasing the burnup potential of metallic fuels even more. Design innovations under investigation include: 1) lowering the fuel smear density in order to accommodate more swelling, 2) annular fuel geometry to eliminate the need for a sodium bond, 3) minor alloy additions to stabilize lanthanide fission products inside the fuel and prevent their transport to the cladding where they can participate in fuel-cladding chemical interaction (FCCI), and 4) coatings/liners on the cladding inner surface to mitigate FCCI and enable higher temperature operation. This paper will present the current state of development of metallic fuels for actinide transmutation in the US. Highlights will include recent results from metallic fuel casting experiments, experiments to identify alloy additions to immobilize lanthanide fission products, and postirradiation examinations of annular metallic fuels at low burnup.

  19. Prompt fission neutron spectrum of actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capote, R. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Chen, Y. -J. [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China); Hambsch, F. J. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre - IRRM, Geel (Belgium); Jurado, B. [CENBG, CNRS/IN2P3, Gradignan (France); Kornilov, N. [Ohio Univ., Athens, OH (United States); Lestone, J. P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Litaize, O. [CEA, DEN, DER, SPRC, Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Morillon, B. [CEA, DAM, DIF, Arpajon (France); Neudecker, D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Oberstedt, S. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre - IRRM, Geel (Belgium); Ohsawa, T. [Kinki Univ., Osaka-fu (Japan); Otuka, N. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Pronyaev, V. G. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Saxena, A. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Schmidt, K. H. [CENBG, CNRS/IN2P3, Gradignan (France); Serot, O. [CEA, DEN, DER, SPRC, Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Shcherbakov, O. A. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute of NRC " Kurchatov Institute" , Gatchina (Russian Federation); Shu, N. -C. [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China); Smith, D. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Talou, P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Trkov, A. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Tudora, A. C. [Univ. of Bucharest, Magurele (Romania); Vogt, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Vorobyev, A. S. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute of NRC " Kurchatov Institute" , Gatchina (Russian Federation)


    Here, the energy spectrum of prompt neutron emitted in fission (PFNS) plays a very important role in nuclear science and technology. A Coordinated Research Project (CRP) "Evaluation of Prompt Fission Neutron Spectra of Actinides" was established by the IAEA Nuclear Data Section in 2009, with the major goal to produce new PFNS evaluations with uncertainties for actinide nuclei.

  20. Calculated Atomic Volumes of the Actinide Metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, H.; Andersen, O. K.; Johansson, B.


    The equilibrium atomic volume is calculated for the actinide metals. It is possible to account for the localization of the 5f electrons taking place in americium.......The equilibrium atomic volume is calculated for the actinide metals. It is possible to account for the localization of the 5f electrons taking place in americium....

  1. Bending-durable colloidal quantum dot solar cell using a ZnO nanowire array as a three-dimensional electron transport layer (United States)

    Wang, Yinglin; Su, Wei; Zang, Shuaipu; Li, Meiying; Zhang, Xintong; Liu, Yichun


    The realization of both high efficiency and strong bending-durability is a critical issue for future applications of colloidal quantum dot solar cells (CQDSCs) in flexible devices. Herein, we fabricated flexible CQDSCs with a three-dimensional electron transport layer (ETL) composed of a ZnO nanowire (NW) array for efficient carrier collection and probed the effect of the NW array on the bendability of flexible cells. The good bendability of cells with ZnO NWs was verified from the consistency of photovoltaic performance during mechanical bending treatment with various bending angles and cycles. The efficient release of stress inside the three-dimensional CQDSCs with the ZnO NW array led to the maintenance of 97% of the initial power conversion efficiency at a bending angle of 160°. In contrast, crack formation on the common planar ETL of CQDSCs formed by ZnO nanoparticles resulted in a degradation of device performance to 77% of the initial one at the same angle. Our research demonstrated that the bending stability of the ZnO NW array may be promising for commercial applications of flexible photovoltaic devices.

  2. Cotransport of bismerthiazol and montmorillonite colloids in saturated porous media. (United States)

    Shen, Chongyang; Wang, Hong; Lazouskaya, Volha; Du, Yichun; Lu, Weilan; Wu, Junxue; Zhang, Hongyan; Huang, Yuanfang


    While bismerthiazol [N,N'-methylene-bis-(2-amino-5-mercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole)] is one of the most widely used bactericides, the transport of bismerthiazol in subsurface environments is unclear to date. Moreover, natural colloids are ubiquitous in the subsurface environments. The cotransport of bismerthiazol and natural colloids has not been investigated. This study conducted laboratory column experiments to examine the transport of bismerthiazol in saturated sand porous media both in the absence and presence of montmorillonite colloids. Results show that a fraction of bismerthiazol was retained in sand and the retention was higher at pH7 than at pH 4 and 10. The retention did not change with ionic strength. The retention was attributed to the complex of bismerthiazol with metals/metal oxides on sand surfaces through ligand exchange. The transport of bismerthiazol was enhanced with montmorillonite colloids copresent in the solutions and, concurrently, the transport of montmorillonite colloids was facilitated by the bismerthiazol. The transport of montmorillonite colloids was enhanced likely because the bismerthiazol and the colloids competed for the attachment/adsorption sites on collector surfaces and the presence of bismerthiazol changed the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) interaction energies between colloids and collectors. The transport of bismerthiazol was inhibited if montmorillonite colloids were pre-deposited in sand because bismerthiazol could adsorb onto the colloid surfaces. The adsorbed bismerthiazol could be co-remobilized with the colloids from primary minima by decreasing ionic strength. Whereas colloid-facilitated transport of pesticides has been emphasized, our study implies that transport of colloids could also be facilitated by the presence of pesticides. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Catalytic Organic Transformations Mediated by Actinide Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabell S. R. Karmel


    Full Text Available This review article presents the development of organoactinides and actinide coordination complexes as catalysts for homogeneous organic transformations. This chapter introduces the basic principles of actinide catalysis and deals with the historic development of actinide complexes in catalytic processes. The application of organoactinides in homogeneous catalysis is exemplified in the hydroelementation reactions, such as the hydroamination, hydrosilylation, hydroalkoxylation and hydrothiolation of alkynes. Additionally, the use of actinide coordination complexes for the catalytic polymerization of α-olefins and the ring opening polymerization of cyclic esters is presented. The last part of this review article highlights novel catalytic transformations mediated by actinide compounds and gives an outlook to the further potential of this field.

  4. Anisotropic Model Colloids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kats, C.M.


    The driving forces for fundamental research in colloid science are the ability to manage the material properties of colloids and to unravel the forces that play a role between colloids to be able to control and understand the processes where colloids play an important role. Therefore we are

  5. Advances in Metallic Fuels for High Burnup and Actinide Transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, S. L.; Harp, J. M.; Chichester, H. J. M.; Fielding, R. S.; Mariani, R. D.; Carmack, W. J.


    Research and development activities on metallic fuels in the US are focused on their potential use for actinide transmutation in future sodium fast reactors. As part of this application, there is a desire to demonstrate a multifold increase in burnup potential. A number of metallic fuel design innovations are under investigation with a view toward significantly increasing the burnup potential of metallic fuels, since higher discharge burnups equate to lower potential actinide losses during recycle. Promising innovations under investigation include: 1) lowering the fuel smeared density in order to accommodate the additional swelling expected as burnups increase, 2) utilizing an annular fuel geometry for better geometrical stability at low smeared densities, as well as the potential to eliminate the need for a sodium bond, and 3) minor alloy additions to immobilize lanthanide fission products inside the metallic fuel matrix and prevent their transport to the cladding resulting in fuel-cladding chemical interaction. This paper presents results from these efforts to advance metallic fuel technology in support of high burnup and actinide transmutation objectives. Highlights include examples of fabrication of low smeared density annular metallic fuels, experiments to identify alloy additions effective in immobilizing lanthanide fission products, and early postirradiation examinations of annular metallic fuels having low smeared densities and palladium additions for fission product immobilization.

  6. Behavior of actinides in the Integral Fast Reactor fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtney, J.C. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Nuclear Science Center; Lineberry, M.J. [Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Technology Development Div.


    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) under development by Argonne National Laboratory uses metallic fuels instead of ceramics. This allows electrorefining of spent fuels and presents opportunities for recycling minor actinide elements. Four minor actinides ({sup 237}Np, {sup 240}Pu, {sup 241}Am, and {sup 243}Am) determine the waste storage requirements of spent fuel from all types of fission reactors. These nuclides behave the same as uranium and other plutonium isotopes in electrorefining, so they can be recycled back to the reactor without elaborate chemical processing. An experiment has been designed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the high-energy neutron spectra of the IFR in consuming these four nuclides and plutonium. Eighteen sets of seven actinide and five light metal targets have been selected for ten day exposure in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-2 which serves as a prototype of the IFR. Post-irradiation analyses of the exposed targets by gamma, alpha, and mass spectroscopy are used to determine nuclear reaction-rates and neutron spectra. These experimental data increase the authors` confidence in their ability to predict reaction rates in candidate IFR designs using a variety of neutron transport and diffusion programs.

  7. EDITORIAL: Colloidal suspensions Colloidal suspensions (United States)

    Petukhov, Andrei; Kegel, Willem; van Duijneveldt, Jeroen


    Special issue in honour of Henk Lekkerkerker's 65th birthday Professor Henk N W Lekkerkerker is a world-leading authority in the field of experimental and theoretical soft condensed matter. On the occasion of his 65th birthday in the summer of 2011, this special issue celebrates his many contributions to science. Henk Lekkerkerker obtained his undergraduate degree in chemistry at the University of Utrecht (1968) and moved to Calgary where he received his PhD in 1971. He moved to Brussels as a NATO fellow at the Université Libre de Bruxelles and was appointed to an assistant professorship (1974), an associate professorship (1977) and a full professorship (1980) in physical chemistry at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel. In 1985 he returned to The Netherlands to take up a professorship at the Van 't Hoff Laboratory, where he has been ever since. He has received a series of awards during his career, including the Onsager Medal (1999) of the University of Trondheim, the Bakhuys Roozeboom Gold Medal (2003) of the Royal Dutch Academy of Arts and Sciences (KNAW), the ECIS-Rhodia European Colloid and Interface Prize (2003), and the Liquid Matter Prize of the European Physical Society (2008). He was elected a member of KNAW in 1996, was awarded an Academy Chair position in 2005, and has held several visiting lectureships. Henk's work focuses on phase transitions in soft condensed matter, and he has made seminal contributions to both the theoretical and experimental aspects of this field. Here we highlight three major themes running through his work, and a few selected publications. So-called depletion interactions may lead to phase separation in colloid-polymer mixtures, and Henk realised that the partitioning of polymer needs to be taken into account to describe the phase behaviour correctly [1]. Colloidal suspensions can be used as model fluids, with the time- and length-scales involved leading to novel opportunities, notably the direct observation of capillary waves at a

  8. Carrier transport mechanisms of organic bistable devices fabricated utilizing colloidal ZnO quantum dot-polymethylmethacrylate polymer nanocomposites (United States)

    Son, Dong Ick; You, Chan Ho; Jung, Jae Hun; Kim, Tae Whan


    Organic bistable devices (OBDs) fabricated utilizing ZnO quantum dots (QDs) embedded in a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) layer were fabricated by using a spin-coating technique. Transmission electron microscopy images revealed that 5-nm-diameter ZnO QDs were formed inside the PMMA polymer layer. Current-voltage (I-V) measurements on Al/ZnO QDs embedded in PMMA layer/indium-tin-oxide devices at 300 K showed electrical bistability. The maximum ON/OFF ratio of the current bistability for the OBDs was as large as 4×104. Carrier transport mechanisms for the OBDs are described by using several models to fit the experimental I-V data.

  9. Experimental studies of actinides in molten salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reavis, J.G.


    This review stresses techniques used in studies of molten salts containing multigram amounts of actinides exhibiting intense alpha activity but little or no penetrating gamma radiation. The preponderance of studies have used halides because oxygen-containing actinide compounds (other than oxides) are generally unstable at high temperatures. Topics discussed here include special enclosures, materials problems, preparation and purification of actinide elements and compounds, and measurements of various properties of the molten volts. Property measurements discussed are phase relationships, vapor pressure, density, viscosity, absorption spectra, electromotive force, and conductance. 188 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Subsurface interactions of actinide species and microorganisms : implications for the bioremediation of actinide-organic mixtures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banaszak, J.E.; Reed, D.T.; Rittmann, B.E.


    By reviewing how microorganisms interact with actinides in subsurface environments, we assess how bioremediation controls the fate of actinides. Actinides often are co-contaminants with strong organic chelators, chlorinated solvents, and fuel hydrocarbons. Bioremediation can immobilize the actinides, biodegrade the co-contaminants, or both. Actinides at the IV oxidation state are the least soluble, and microorganisms accelerate precipitation by altering the actinide's oxidation state or its speciation. We describe how microorganisms directly oxidize or reduce actinides and how microbiological reactions that biodegrade strong organic chelators, alter the pH, and consume or produce precipitating anions strongly affect actinide speciation and, therefore, mobility. We explain why inhibition caused by chemical or radiolytic toxicities uniquely affects microbial reactions. Due to the complex interactions of the microbiological and chemical phenomena, mathematical modeling is an essential tool for research on and application of bioremediation involving co-contamination with actinides. We describe the development of mathematical models that link microbiological and geochemical reactions. Throughout, we identify the key research needs.

  11. Preliminary Interpretation of a Radionuclide and Colloid Tracer Test in a Granodiorite Shear Zone at the Grimsel Test Site, Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimus, Paul W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    neptunium adsorbed appreciably to FEBEX bentonite colloids in Grimsel groundwater (Huber et al., 2011). The Grimsel groundwater has a relatively high pH of {approx}9, so the lack of uranium and neptunium adsorption to clay is not surprising given the tendency for these actinides to form very stable negative or neutrally-charged uranyl- or calcium-uranyl-carbonate complexes at these pH, particularly in a water that is effectively saturated with respect to calcite. It was also observed in testing conducted at LANL earlier in 2012 that uranium did not adsorb measurably to Grimsel granodiorite in a synthetic Grimsel groundwater at pH {approx}8.5 (Kersting et al., 2012). Thus, the planned experimental work was not pursued because all the available information clearly pointed to an expected result that uranium transport would not be facilitated by clay colloids in the Grimsel system.

  12. Actinides AMS at CIRCE in Caserta (Italy) (United States)

    De Cesare, M.; Gialanella, L.; Rogalla, D.; Petraglia, A.; Guan, Y.; De Cesare, N.; D'Onofrio, A.; Quinto, F.; Roca, V.; Sabbarese, C.; Terrasi, F.


    The operation of Nuclear Power Plants and atmospheric tests of nuclear weapons performed in the past, together with production, transport and reprocessing of nuclear fuel, lead to the release into the environment of a wide range of radioactive nuclides, such as uranium, plutonium, fission and activation products. These nuclides are present in the environment at ultra trace levels. Their detection requires sensitive techniques like AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry). In order to perform isotopic ratio measurements of the longer-lived actinides, e.g., of 236U relative to the primary 238U and various Pu isotopes relative to 239Pu, an upgrade of the CIRCE accelerator (Center for Isotopic Research on Cultural and Environmental Heritage) in Caserta, Italy, is underway. In this paper we report on the results of simulations aiming to define the best ion optics and to understand the origin of possible measurement background. The design of a high resolution TOF- E (Time of Flight-Energy) detector system is described, which will be used to identify the rare isotopes among interfering background signals.

  13. The colloid investigations conducted at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory during 2000-2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laaksoharju, Marcus [Geopoint AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Wold, Susanna [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). School of Chemical Science and Engineering, Nuclear Chemistry] (eds.)


    In 2000, SKB decided to initiate an international colloid project at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory in Sweden. The objectives of the colloid project are to: (i) study the role of bentonite as a colloid source, (ii) verify the background colloid concentration at Aespoe HRL and, (iii) investigate the potential for colloid formation/transport in natural groundwater concentrations. The experimental concepts for the colloid project are: laboratory experiments with bentonite, background field measurements of natural colloids, borehole specific bentonite colloid stability experiments and a fracture specific transport experiment. The activities concerning the laboratory experiments and background field measurements are described in this work; the other activities are ongoing or planned. The following conclusions were made: The bentonite colloid stability is strongly dependent on the groundwater ionic strength. Natural colloids are organic degradation products such as humic and fulvic acids, inorganic colloids (clay, calcite, iron hydroxide) and microbes. Microbes form few but large particles and their concentration increase with increasing organic carbon concentrations. The small organic colloids are present in very low concentrations in deep granitic groundwater. The concentrations can be rather high in shallow waters. The colloid concentration decreases with depth and salinity, since colloids are less stable in saline waters. The colloid content at Aespoe is less than 300 ppb. The colloid content at repository level is less than 50 ppb. The groundwater variability obtained in the boreholes reflects well the natural groundwater variability along the whole HRL tunnel.

  14. Advanced Aqueous Separation Systems for Actinide Partitioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, Kenneth L.; Clark, Sue; Meier, G Patrick; Alexandratos, Spiro; Paine, Robert; Hancock, Robert; Ensor, Dale


    One of the most challenging aspects of advanced processing of spent nuclear fuel is the need to isolate transuranium elements from fission product lanthanides. This project expanded the scope of earlier investigations of americium (Am) partitioning from the lanthanides with the synthesis of new separations materials and a centralized focus on radiochemical characterization of the separation systems that could be developed based on these new materials. The primary objective of this program was to explore alternative materials for actinide separations and to link the design of new reagents for actinide separations to characterizations based on actinide chemistry. In the predominant trivalent oxidation state, the chemistry of lanthanides overlaps substantially with that of the trivalent actinides and their mutual separation is quite challenging.

  15. BWR Assembly Optimization for Minor Actinide Recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Ivan Maldonado; John M. Christenson; J.P. Renier; T.F. Marcille; J. Casal


    The Primary objective of the proposed project is to apply and extend the latest advancements in LWR fuel management optimization to the design of advanced boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel assemblies specifically for the recycling of minor actinides (MAs).

  16. Spin and orbital moments in actinide compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebech, B.; Wulff, M.; Lander, G.H.


    The extended spatial distribution of both the transition-metal 3d electrons and the actinide 5f electrons results in a strong interaction between these electron states when the relevant elements are alloyed. A particular interesting feature of this hybridization, which is predicted by single-electron...... band-structure calculations, is that the orbital moments of the actinide 5f electrons are considerably reduced from the values anticipated by a simple application of Hund's rules. To test these ideas, and thus to obtain a measure of the hybridization, we have performed a series of neutron scattering...... experiments designed to determine the magnetic moments at the actinide and transition-metal sublattice sites in compounds such as UFe2, NpCo2, and PuFe2 and to separate the spin and orbital components at the actinide sites. The results show, indeed, that the ratio of the orbital to spin moment is reduced...

  17. Colloidal Dispersions (United States)

    Russel, W. B.; Saville, D. A.; Schowalter, W. R.


    The book covers the physical side of colloid science from the individual forces acting between submicron particles suspended in a liquid through the resulting equilibrium and dynamic properties. The relevant forces include Brownian motion, electrostatic repulsion, dispersion attraction, both attraction and repulsion due to soluble polymer, and viscous forces due to relative motion between the particles and the liquid. The balance among Brownian motion and the interparticle forces decides the questions of stability and phase behavior. Imposition of external fields produces complex effects, i.e. electrokinetic phenomena (electric field), sedimentation (gravitational field), diffusion (concentration/chemical potential gradient), and non-Newtonian rheology (shear field). The treatment aims to impart a sound, quantitative understanding based on fundamental theory and experiments with well-characterized model systems. This broad grasp of the fundamentals lends insight and helps to develop the intuitive sense needed to isolate essential features of technological problems and design critical experiments. Some exposure to fluid mechanics, statistical mechanics, and electricity and magnetism is assumed, but each subject is reintroduced in a self-contained manner.


    Moore, R.H.


    BS>A process is given for preparing alloys of aluminum with plutonium, uranium, and/or thorium by chlorinating actinide oxide dissolved in molten alkali metal chloride with hydrochloric acid, chlorine, and/or phosgene, adding aluminum metal, and passing air and/or water vapor through the mass. Actinide metal is formed and alloyed with the aluminum. After cooling to solidification, the alloy is separated from the salt. (AEC)

  19. Predictive Modeling in Actinide Chemistry and Catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ping [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    These are slides from a presentation on predictive modeling in actinide chemistry and catalysis. The following topics are covered in these slides: Structures, bonding, and reactivity (bonding can be quantified by optical probes and theory, and electronic structures and reaction mechanisms of actinide complexes); Magnetic resonance properties (transition metal catalysts with multi-nuclear centers, and NMR/EPR parameters); Moving to more complex systems (surface chemistry of nanomaterials, and interactions of ligands with nanoparticles); Path forward and conclusions.

  20. Application of chemical structure and bonding of actinide oxide materials for forensic science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkerson, Marianne Perry [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    We are interested in applying our understanding of actinide chemical structure and bonding to broaden the suite of analytical tools available for nuclear forensic analyses. Uranium- and plutonium-oxide systems form under a variety of conditions, and these chemical species exhibit some of the most complex behavior of metal oxide systems known. No less intriguing is the ability of AnO{sub 2} (An: U, Pu) to form non-stoichiometric species described as AnO{sub 2+x}. Environmental studies have shown the value of utilizing the chemical signatures of these actinide oxide materials to understand transport following release into the environment. Chemical speciation of actinide-oxide samples may also provide clues as to the age, source, or process history of the material. The scientific challenge is to identify, measure and understand those aspects of speciation of actinide analytes that carry information about material origin and history most relevant to forensics. Here, we will describe our efforts in material synthesis and analytical methods development that we will use to provide the fundamental science to characterize actinide oxide molecular structures for forensic science. Structural properties and initial results to measure structural variability of uranium oxide samples using synchrotron-based X-ray Absorption Fine Structure will be discussed.

  1. Aqueous chemistry of Ce(iv): estimations using actinide analogues. (United States)

    Marsac, Rémi; Réal, Florent; Banik, Nidhu Lal; Pédrot, Mathieu; Pourret, Olivier; Vallet, Valérie


    The prediction of cerium (Ce) aqueous speciation is relevant in many research fields. Indeed, Ce compounds are used for many industrial applications, which may require the control of Ce aqueous chemistry for their synthesis. The aquatic geochemistry of Ce is also of interest. Due to its growing industrial use and its release into the environment, Ce is now considered as an emerging contaminant. Cerium is also used as a proxy of (paleo)redox conditions due to the Ce(iv)/Ce(iii) redox transition. Finally, Ce(iv) is often presented as a relevant analogue of tetravalent actinides (An(iv)). In the present study, quantum chemical calculations were conducted to highlight the similarities between the structures of Ce(iv) and tetravalent actinide (An(iv); An = Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu) aqua-ions, especially Pu(iv). The current knowledge of An(iv) hydrolysis, solubility and colloid formation in water was briefly reviewed but important discrepancies were observed in the available data for Ce(iv). Therefore, new estimations of the hydrolysis constants of Ce(iv) and the solubility of Ce(iv)-(hydr)oxides are proposed, by analogy with Pu(iv). By plotting pH-Eh (Pourbaix) diagrams, we showed that the pH values corresponding to the onset of Ce(iv) species formation (i.e. Ce(iv)-(hydr)oxide or dissolved Ce(iv)) agreed with various experimental results. Although further experimental studies are required to obtain a more accurate thermodynamic database, the present work might yet help to predict more accurately the Ce chemical behavior in aqueous solution.

  2. Detection of the actinides and cesium from environmental samples (United States)

    Snow, Mathew Spencer

    Detection of the actinides and cesium in the environment is important for a variety of applications ranging from environmental remediation to safeguards and nuclear forensics. The utilization of multiple different elemental concentrations and isotopic ratios together can significantly improve the ability to attribute contamination to a unique source term and/or generation process; however, the utilization of multiple elemental "signatures" together from environmental samples requires knowledge of the impact of chemical fractionation for various elements under a variety of environmental conditions (including predominantly aqueous versus arid conditions). The research reported in this dissertation focuses on three major areas: 1. Improving the understanding of actinide-mineral interactions at ultra-low concentrations. Chapter 2 reports a batch sorption and modeling study of Np(V) sorption to the mineral goethite from attomolar to micromolar concentrations. 2. Improving the detection capabilities for Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS) analyses of ultra-trace cesium from environmental samples. Chapter 4 reports a new method which significantly improves the chemical yields, purification, sample processing time, and ultimately, the detection limits for TIMS analyses of femtogram quantities of cesium from a variety of environmental sample matrices. 3. Demonstrating how actinide and cesium concentrations and isotopic ratios from environmental samples can be utilized together to determine a wealth of information including environmental transport mechanisms (e.g. aqueous versus arid transport) and information on the processes which generated the original material. Chapters1, 3 and 5 demonstrate these principles using Pu, Am, Np, and Cs concentrations and isotopic ratios from contaminated soils taken near the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) of Idaho National Laboratory (INL) (a low level radioactive waste disposal site in southeastern Idaho).

  3. Recovery of Actinides from Actinide-Aluminium Alloys: Chlorination Route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, E.; Malmbeck, R.; Soucek, P.; Jardin, R.; Glatz, J.P. [European Commission, JRC, Institute for Transuranium Elements, Postfach 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Cassayre, L. [Laboratoire de Genie Chimique (LGC), Universite Paul Sabatier, UMR CNRS 5503, 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cedex 04 (France)


    A method for recovery of actinides (An) from An-Al alloys formed by electrochemical separation of metallic spent nuclear fuel on solid aluminium electrodes in molten chloride salts is described. The proposed route consists of three main steps: -) vacuum distillation of salt adhered on the electrodes, -) chlorination of An-Al alloy by pure chlorine gas and -) sublimation of formed AlCl{sub 3}. A thermochemical study of the route was performed to determine important chemical reactions and to find optimum experimental conditions for all process steps. Vacuum distillation of the electrode is efficient for complete removal of remaining salt and most fission products, full chlorination of the An-Al alloys is possible at any working temperature and evaporation of AlCl{sub 3} is achieved by heating under argon. Experiments have been carried out using U-Al alloy in order to define parameters providing full alloy chlorination without formation of volatile UCl{sub 5} and UCl{sub 6}. It was shown that full chlorination of An-Al alloys without An losses should be possible at a temperature approx. 150 deg. C. (authors)

  4. Colloid-Associated Radionuclide Concentration Limits: ANL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Mertz


    The purpose and scope of this report is to describe the analysis of available colloidal data from waste form corrosion tests at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to extract characteristics of these colloids that can be used in modeling their contribution to the source term for sparingly soluble radioelements (e.g., Pu). Specifically, the focus is on developing a useful description of the following waste form colloid characteristics: (1) composition, (2) size distribution, and (3) quantification of the rate of waste form colloid generation. The composition and size distribution information are intended to support analysis of the potential transport of the sparingly soluble radionuclides associated with the waste form colloids. The rate of colloid generation is intended to support analysis of the waste form colloid-associated radionuclide concentrations. In addressing the above characteristics, available data are interpreted to address mechanisms controlling colloid formation and stability. This report was developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report for SR'' (CRWMS M&O 2000). Because the end objective is to support the source term modeling we have organized the conclusions into two categories: (1) data analysis conclusions and (2) recommendations for colloid source term modeling. The second category is included to facilitate use of the conclusions from the data analysis in the abstraction of a colloid source term model. The data analyses and conclusions that are presented in this report are based on small-scale laboratory tests conducted on a limited number of waste glass compositions and spent fuel types.

  5. What Is a Colloid? (United States)

    Lamb, William G.


    Describes the properties of colloids, listing those commonly encountered (such as whipped cream, mayonnaise, and fog). Also presents several experiments using colloids and discusses "Silly Putty," a colloid with viscoelastic properties whose counterintuitive properties result from its mixture of polymers. (DH)

  6. Microbial effects on colloidal agglomeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hersman, L.


    Colloidal particles are known to enhance the transport of radioactive metals through soil and rock systems. This study was performed to determine if a soil microorganism, isolated from the surface samples collected at Yucca Mountain, NV, could affect the colloidal properties of day particles. The agglomeration of a Wyoming bentonite clay in a sterile uninoculated microbial growth medium was compared to the agglomeration in the medium inoculated with a Pseudomonas sp. In a second experiment, microorganisms were cultured in the succinate medium for 50 h and removed by centrifugation. The agglomeration of the clay in this spent was compared to sterile uninoculated medium. In both experiments, the agglomeration of the clay was greater than that of the sterile, uninoculated control. Based on these results, which indicate that this microorganism enhanced the agglomeration of the bentonite clay, it is possible to say that in the presence of microorganisms colloidal movement through a rock matrix could be reduced because of an overall increase in the size of colloidal particle agglomerates. 32 refs.

  7. Actinide transmutation in nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bultman, J.H.


    An optimization method is developed to maximize the burning capability of the ALMR while complying with all constraints imposed on the design for reliability and safety. This method leads to a maximal transuranics enrichment, which is being limited by constraints on reactivity. The enrichment can be raised by using the neutrons less efficiently by increasing leakage from the fuel. With the developed optimization method, a metallic and an oxide fueled ALMR were optimized. Both reactors perform equally well considering the burning of transuranics. However, metallic fuel has a much higher heat conductivity coefficient, which in general leads to better safety characteristics. In search of a more effective waste transmuter, a modified Molten Salt Reactor was designed. A MSR operates on a liquid fuel salt which makes continuous refueling possible, eliminating the issue of the burnup reactivity loss. Also, a prompt negative reactivity feedback is possible for an overmoderated reactor design, even when the Doppler coefficient is positive, due to the fuel expansion with fuel temperature increase. Furthermore, the molten salt fuel can be reprocessed based on a reduction process which is not sensitive to the short-lived spontaneously fissioning actinides. (orig./HP).

  8. TUCS/phosphate mineralization of actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, K.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)


    This program has as its objective the development of a new technology that combines cation exchange and mineralization to reduce the concentration of heavy metals (in particular actinides) in groundwaters. The treatment regimen must be compatible with the groundwater and soil, potentially using groundwater/soil components to aid in the immobilization process. The delivery system (probably a water-soluble chelating agent) should first concentrate the radionuclides then release the precipitating anion, which forms thermodynamically stable mineral phases, either with the target metal ions alone or in combination with matrix cations. This approach should generate thermodynamically stable mineral phases resistant to weathering. The chelating agent should decompose spontaneously with time, release the mineralizing agent, and leave a residue that does not interfere with mineral formation. For the actinides, the ideal compound probably will release phosphate, as actinide phosphate mineral phases are among the least soluble species for these metals. The most promising means of delivering the precipitant would be to use a water-soluble, hydrolytically unstable complexant that functions in the initial stages as a cation exchanger to concentrate the metal ions. As it decomposes, the chelating agent releases phosphate to foster formation of crystalline mineral phases. Because it involves only the application of inexpensive reagents, the method of phosphate mineralization promises to be an economical alternative for in situ immobilization of radionuclides (actinides in particular). The method relies on the inherent (thermodynamic) stability of actinide mineral phases.

  9. Field Scale Variation in Water Dispersible Colloids from Aggregates and Intact Soil Samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Trine; Møldrup, Per; Ferré, Ty P A

    Colloid-facilitated transport can play an important role in the transport of chemicals through the soil profile. The negative surface charge and large surface area makes colloids perfect carriers for strongly sorbing chemicals, like phosphorus and certain pesticides, in highly structured soils....... It is, however, difficult to quantify the amount of colloids ready available to participate in colloid-facilitated transport. In literature, the part of the colloidal fraction that readily disperses into suspension is referred to as water-dispersible clay (WDC). In this study we used two methods...

  10. Interaction and transport of actinides in natural clay rock with consideration of humic substances and clay organics. Characterization and quantification of the influence of clay organics on the interaction and diffusion of uranium and americium in the clay. Joint project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernhard, Gert [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V. (Germany). Inst. of Radiochemistry; Schmeide, Katja; Joseph, Claudia; Sachs, Susanne; Steudtner, Robin; Raditzky, Bianca; Guenther, Alix


    The objective of this project was the study of basic interaction processes in the systems actinide - clay organics - aquifer and actinide - natural clay - clay organics - aquifer. Thus, complexation, redox, sorption and diffusion studies were performed. To evaluate the influence of nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur containing functional groups of humic acid (HA) on the complexation of actinides in comparison to carboxylic groups, the Am(III) and U(VI) complexation by model ligands was studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy and TRLFS. The results show that Am(III) is mainly coordinated via carboxylic groups, however, probably stabilized by nitrogen groups. The U(VI) complexation is dominated by carboxylic groups, whereas nitrogen and sulfur containing groups play a minor role. Phosphorus containing groups may contribute to the U(VI) complexation by HA, however, due to their low concentration in HA they play only a subordinate role compared to carboxylic groups. Applying synthetic HA with varying sulfur contents (0 to 6.9 wt.%), the role of sulfur functionalities of HA for the U(VI) complexation and Np(V) reduction was studied. The results have shown that sulfur functionalities can be involved in U(VI) humate complexation and act as redox-active sites in HA for the Np(V) reduction. However, due to the low content of sulfur in natural HA, its influence is less pronounced. In the presence of carbonate, the U(VI) complexation by HA was studied in the alkaline pH range by means of cryo-TRLFS (-120 C) and ATR FT-IR spectroscopy. The formation of the ternary UO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}HA(II){sup 4-} complex was detected. The complex formation constant was determined with log {beta}{sub 0.1} M = 24.57 {+-} 0.17. For aqueous U(VI) citrate and oxalate species, luminescence emission properties were determined by cryo-TRLFS and used to determine stability constants. The existing data base could be validated. The U(VI) complexation by lactate, studied in the temperature range 7 to 65 C

  11. XAFS study of americium sorbed onto groundwater colloids. (United States)

    Degueldre, Claude; Reed, Donald; Kropf, A Jeremy; Mertz, Carol


    The sorption of americium, as Am(III), onto groundwater colloids obtained from a marl aquifer was studied in 2 x 10(-2)M sodium bicarbonate groundwater and 2 x 10(-2)M sodium chloride bicarbonate-free solutions. At the in situ groundwater pH of 8.6, the americium was strongly sorbed onto the colloids. XAFS analyses were performed on these sorbed Am species to establish the oxidation state and its near-neighbour bonding. These XAFS data, obtained at 400 mg l(-1) colloid concentrations and total Am concentration of 1.53 x 10(-5)M (dissolved and onto colloids), indicated that Am remains trivalent, and that surface complexes are formed with the colloids without surface precipitation. This conclusion is based on the absence of Am-Am interactions in the second or third shells. The surface complexes generated by the Am(III) sorbed onto active sites are described on the basis of the XAFS data. They include the presence of about seven water molecules around the ternary surface complexes of this trivalent actinide.

  12. The Actinide-Lanthanide Separation Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Gelis, Artem V.; Carter, Jennifer C.; Niver, Cynthia M.; Smoot, Margaret R.


    The Actinide-Lanthanide SEParation (ALSEP) process is described. The process uses an extractant phase consisting of either N,N,N',N'-tetraoctyldiglycolamide (TODGA) or N,N,N',N'-tetra(2 ethylhexyl)diglycolamide (T2EHDGA) combined with 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (HEH[EHP]). The neutral TODGA or T2EHDGA serves to co-extract the trivalent actinide and lanthanide ions from nitric acid media. Switching the aqueous phase chemistry to a citrate buffered diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) solution at pH 2.5 to 4 results in selective transfer of the actinides to the aqueous phase, thus resulting in separation of these two groups of elements.

  13. Monazite as a suitable actinide waste form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlenz, Hartmut; Heuser, Julia; Schmitz, Stephan; Bosbach, Dirk [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Energie und Klimaforschung (IEK), Nukleare Entsorgung und Reaktorsicherheit (IEK-6); Neumann, Andreas [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Energie und Klimaforschung (IEK), Nukleare Entsorgung und Reaktorsicherheit (IEK-6); RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Crystallography


    The conditioning of radioactive waste from nuclear power plants and in some countries even of weapons plutonium is an important issue for science and society. Therefore the research on appropriate matrices for the immobilization of fission products and actinides is of great interest. Beyond the widely used borosilicate glasses, ceramics are promising materials for the conditioning of actinides like U, Np, Pu, Am, and Cm. Monazite-type ceramics with general composition LnPO{sub 4} (Ln = La to Gd) and solid solutions of monazite with cheralite or huttonite represent important materials in this field. Monazite appears to be a promising candidate material, especially because of its outstanding properties regarding radiation resistance and chemical durability. This article summarizes the most recent results concerning the characterization of monazite and respective solid solutions and the study of their chemical, thermal, physical and structural properties. The aim is to demonstrate the suitability of monazite as a secure and reliable waste form for actinides. (orig.)

  14. Spin–orbit coupling in actinide cations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagus, Paul S.; Ilton, Eugene S.; Martin, Richard L.


    The limiting case of Russell–Saunders coupling, which leads to a maximum spin alignment for the open shell electrons, usually explains the properties of high spin ionic crystals with transition metals. For actinide compounds, the spin–orbit splitting is large enough to cause a significantly reduc...... spin alignment. Novel concepts are used to explain the dependence of the spin alignment on the 5f shell occupation. We present evidence that the XPS of ionic actinide materials may provide direct information about the angular momentum coupling within the 5f shell....

  15. Actinide and fission product separation and transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The second international information exchange meeting on actinide and fission product separation and transmutation, took place in Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois United States, on 11-13 November 1992. The proceedings are presented in four sessions: Current strategic system of actinide and fission product separation and transmutation, progress in R and D on partitioning processes wet and dry, progress in R and D on transmutation and refinements of neutronic and other data, development of the fuel cycle processes fuel types and targets. (A.L.B.)

  16. Colloid mobilization and seasonal variability in a semiarid headwater stream (United States)

    Mills, Taylor J.; Suzanne P. Ancerson,; Bern, Carleton; Aguirre, Arnulfo; Derry, Louis A.


    Colloids can be important vectors for the transport of contaminants in the environment, but little is known about colloid mobilization at the watershed scale. We present colloid concentration, composition, and flux data over a large range of hydrologic conditions from a small watershed (Gordon Gulch) in the foothills of the Colorado Front Range. Colloids, consisting predominantly of Si, Fe, and Al, were present in most stream samples but were not detected in groundwater samples. Mineralogical and morphological analysis indicated that the colloids were composed of kaolinite and illite clays with lesser amounts of amorphous Fe-hydroxides. Although colloid composition remained relatively constant over the sampled flow conditions, colloid concentrations varied considerably and increased as ionic strength of stream water decreased. The highest concentrations occurred during precipitation events after extended dry periods. These observations are consistent with laboratory studies that have shown colloids can be mobilized by decreases in pore-water ionic strength, which likely occurs during precipitation events. Colloidal particles constituted 30 to 35% of the Si mass flux and 93 to 97% of the Fe and Al mass fluxes in the Colloids are therefore a significant and often overlooked component of mass fluxes whose temporal variations may yield insight into hydrologic flowpaths in this semiarid catchment.

  17. Colloid process engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Peukert, Wolfgang; Rehage, Heinz; Schuchmann, Heike


    This book deals with colloidal systems in technical processes and the influence of colloidal systems by technical processes. It explores how new measurement capabilities can offer the potential for a dynamic development of scientific and engineering, and examines the origin of colloidal systems and its use for new products. The future challenges to colloidal process engineering are the development of appropriate equipment and processes for the production and obtainment of multi-phase structures and energetic interactions in market-relevant quantities. The book explores the relevant processes and for controlled production and how they can be used across all scales.

  18. Actinide measurements by AMS using fluoride matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornett, R.J., E-mail: [André E. Lalonde AMS Laboratory, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); Department of Earth Sciences, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); Kazi, Z.H. [André E. Lalonde AMS Laboratory, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); Department of Earth Sciences, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); Zhao, X.-L. [André E. Lalonde AMS Laboratory, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); Chartrand, M.G. [André E. Lalonde AMS Laboratory, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); Department of Earth Sciences, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); Charles, R.J.; Kieser, W.E. [André E. Lalonde AMS Laboratory, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada)


    Actinides can be measured by alpha spectroscopy (AS), mass spectroscopy or accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). We tested a simple method to separate Pu and Am isotopes from the sample matrix using a single extraction chromatography column. The actinides in the column eluent were then measured by AS or AMS using a fluoride target matrix. Pu and Am were coprecipitated with NdF{sub 3}. The strongest AMS beams of Pu and Am were produced when there was a large excess of fluoride donor atoms in the target and the NdF{sub 3} precipitates were diluted about 6–8 fold with PbF{sub 2}. The measured concentrations of {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 241}Am agreed with the concentrations in standards of known activity and with two IAEA certified reference materials. Measurements of {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 241}Am made at A.E. Lalonde AMS Laboratory agree, within their statistical uncertainty, with independent measurements made using the IsoTrace AMS system. This work demonstrated that fluoride targets can produce reliable beams of actinide anions and that the measurement of actinides using fluorides agree with published values in certified reference materials.

  19. Actinide and fission product partitioning and transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The third international information exchange meeting on actinide and fission product partitioning and transmutation, took place in Cadarache France, on 12-14 December 1994. The proceedings are presented in six sessions : an introduction session, the major programmes and international cooperation, the systems studies, the reactors fuels and targets, the chemistry and a last discussions session. (A.L.B.)

  20. Electronic Structure of the Actinide Metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, B.; Skriver, Hans Lomholt


    itinerant to localized 5f electron behaviour calculated to take place between plutonium and americium. From experimental data it is shown that the screening of deep core-holes is due to 5f electrons for the lighter actinide elements and 6d electrons for the heavier elements. A simplified model for the full...

  1. Calculated Bulk Properties of the Actinide Metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Hans Lomholt; Andersen, O. K.; Johansson, B.


    Self-consistent relativistic calculations of the electronic properties for seven actinides (Ac-Am) have been performed using the linear muffin-tin orbitals method within the atomic-sphere approximation. Exchange and correlation were included in the local spin-density scheme. The theory explains t...

  2. Further studies on the absorption of actinide elements from the gastrointestinal tract of neonatal animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, M.F.; Gorham, L.S. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))


    Plutonium retention was measured after intragastric administration to neonatal rats, dogs and swine. At 1 week after administration, substantially more of the actinide remained in swine and dog than in rats. The quantity of /sup 238/Pu absorbed by piglets was markedly influenced by such factors as compound solubility, mass of plutonium administered, oxidation state of the actinide, and age of the animal at gavage. Cortisone treatment reduced absorption, but was less effective in piglets than in neonatal rats. Measurements of /sup 238/Pu transport from ligated segments of the neonatal swine intestine indicated highest absorption from the duodenum, where the actinide was shown, autoradiographically, to be deposited in the epithelial region; in the ileum, deposition was predominantly in the lacteal region. Absorption of actinides by neonatal swine decreased in the order of /sup 233/U> /sup 238/Pu>/sup 237/Np>/sup 24/4Cm>/sup 241/Am. Measurements at 1 yr after gavage showed a much higher retention by swine than by rats.

  3. Further studies on the absorption of actinide elements from the gastrointestinal tract of neonatal animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, M.F.; Gorham, L.S.


    Plutonium retention was measured after intragastric administration to neonatal rats, dogs and swine. At 1 week after administration, substantially more of the actinide remained in swine and dogs than in rats. The quantity of /sup 238/Pu absorbed by piglets was markedly influenced by such factors as compound solubility, mass of plutonium administered, oxidation state of the actinide, and age of the animal at gavage. Cortisone treatment reduced absorption, but was less effective in piglets than in neonatal rats. Measurements of /sup 238/Pu transport from ligated segments of the neonatal swine intestine indicated highest absorption from the duodenum, where the actinide was shown, autoradiographically, to be deposited in the epithelial region; in the ileum, deposition was predominantly in the lacteal region. Absorption of actinides by neonatal swine decreased in the order of /sup 233/U greater than /sup 238/Pu greater than /sup 237/Np greater than /sup 244/Cm greater than /sup 241/Am. Measurements at 1 yr after gavage showed a much higher retention by swine than by rats.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, D.; Roberts, K.; Kaplan, D.; Seaman, J.


    Naturally occurring mobile colloids are ubiquitous and are involved in many important processes in the subsurface zone. For example, colloid generation and subsequent mobilization represent a possible mechanism for the transport of contaminants including radionuclides in the subsurface environments. For colloid-facilitated transport to be significant, three criteria must be met: (1) colloids must be generated; (2) contaminants must associate with the colloids preferentially to the immobile solid phase (aquifer); and (3) colloids must be transported through the groundwater or in subsurface environments - once these colloids start moving they become 'mobile colloids'. Although some experimental investigations of particle release in natural porous media have been conducted, the detailed mechanisms of release and re-deposition of colloidal particles within natural porous media are poorly understood. Even though this vector of transport is known, the extent of its importance is not known yet. Colloid-facilitated transport of trace radionuclides has been observed in the field, thus demonstrating a possible radiological risk associated with the colloids. The objective of this study was to determine if cementitious leachate would promote the in situ mobilization of natural colloidal particles from a SRS sandy sediment. The intent was to determine whether cementitious surface or subsurface structure would create plumes that could produce conditions conducive to sediment dispersion and mobile colloid generation. Column studies were conducted and the cation chemistries of influents and effluents were analyzed by ICP-OES, while the mobilized colloids were characterized using XRD, SEM, EDX, PSD and Zeta potential. The mobilization mechanisms of colloids in a SRS sandy sediment by cement leachates were studied.

  5. Adventures in Actinide Chemistry: A Year of Exploring Uranium and Thorium in Los Alamos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagano, Justin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The first part of this collection of slides is concerned with considerations when working with actinides. The topics discussed in the document as a whole are the following: Actinide chemistry vs. transition metal chemistry--tools we can use; New synthetic methods to obtain actinide hydrides; Actinide metallacycles: synthesis, structure, and properties; and Reactivity of actinide metallacycles.


    The Filter Flow Technology, Inc. (FFT) Colloid Polishing Filter Method (CPFM) was tested as a transportable, trailer mounted, system that uses sorption and chemical complexing phenomena to remove heavy metals and nontritium radionuclides from water. Contaminated waters can be pro...

  7. Manipulation of colloidal crystallization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermolen, E.C.M.


    Colloidal particles (approximately a micrometer in diameter) that are dispersed in a fluid, behave thermodynamically similar to atoms and molecules: at low concentrations they form a fluid, while at high concentrations they can crystallize into a colloidal crystal to gain entropy. The analogy with

  8. Influence of FIMA burnup on actinides concentrations in PWR reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oettingen Mikołaj


    Full Text Available In the paper we present the study on the dependence of actinides concentrations in the spent nuclear fuel on FIMA burnup. The concentrations of uranium, plutonium, americium and curium isotopes obtained in numerical simulation are compared with the result of the post irradiation assay of two spent fuel samples. The samples were cut from the fuel rod irradiated during two reactor cycles in the Japanese Ohi-2 Pressurized Water Reactor. The performed comparative analysis assesses the reliability of the developed numerical set-up, especially in terms of the system normalization to the measured FIMA burnup. The numerical simulations were preformed using the burnup and radiation transport mode of the Monte Carlo Continuous Energy Burnup Code – MCB, developed at the Department of Nuclear Energy, Faculty of Energy and Fuels of AGH University of Science and Technology.

  9. Final Technical Progress Report Long term risk from actinides in the environment: Modes of mobility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas B. Kirchner


    The key source of uncertainty in assessing actinide mobility is the relative importance of transport by: (1) wind erosion, (2) water erosion, and (3) vertical migration. Each of these three processes depends on several environmental factors and they compete with one another. A scientific assessment of the long-term risks associated with actinides in surface soils depends on better quantifying each of these three modes of mobility. The objective from our EMSP study was to quantify the mobility of soil actinides by wind erosion, water erosion, and vertical migration at three semiarid sites where actinide mobility is a key technical, social and legal issue. This EMSP project was the first to evaluate all three factors at a site. The approach has been to investigate both short- and long-term issues based on field and lab studies and model comparisons. Our results demonstrate the importance of incorporating threshold responses into a modeling framework that accounts for environmental factors and natural disturbances that trigger large changes in actinide mobility. The study measured erosional losses of sediment and fallout cesium (an actinide analogue) from field plots located near WIPP in 1998. The results highlight the large effect of burning as a disturbance on contaminant transport and mobility via runoff and erosion. The results show that runoff, erosion, and actinide transport are (1) strongly site specific-differences in radionuclide transport between WIPP and Rocky Flats differed by a factor of twelve because of soil and vegetation differences, and (2) are strongly impacted by disturbances such as fire, which can increase runoff, erosion, and actinide transport by more than an order of magnitude. In addition, a laboratory experiment using soil columns was conducted to investigate the vertical transport of contaminants in sandy soils. Nine columns of soil collected from the vicinity of the WIPP site were prepared. The column consisted of a piece of PVC pipe 20 cm

  10. Colloid mobilization by fluid displacement fronts in channels. (United States)

    Lazouskaya, Volha; Wang, Lian-Ping; Or, Dani; Wang, Gang; Caplan, Jeffrey L; Jin, Yan


    Understanding colloid mobilization during transient flow in soil is important for addressing colloid and contaminant transport issues. While theoretical descriptions of colloid detachment exist for saturated systems, corresponding mechanisms of colloid mobilization during drainage and imbibition have not been considered in detail. In this work, theoretical force and torque analyses were performed to examine the interactive effects of adhesion, drag, friction, and surface tension forces on colloid mobilization and to outline conditions corresponding to the mobilization mechanisms such as lifting, sliding, and rolling. Colloid and substrate contact angles were used as variables to determine theoretical criteria for colloid mobilization mechanisms during drainage and imbibition. Experimental mobilization of hydrophilic and hydrophobic microspheres with drainage and imbibition fronts was investigated in hydrophilic and hydrophobic channels using a confocal microscope. Colloid mobilization differed between drainage and imbibition due to different dynamic contact angles and interfacial geometries on the contact line. Experimental results did not fully follow the theoretical criteria in all cases, which was explained with additional factors not included in the theory such as presence of aggregates and trailing films. Theoretical force and torque analyses resulted in similar mobilization predictions and suggested that all mobilization mechanisms contributed to the observed colloid mobilization. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The effects of actinide based fuels on incremental cross sections in a Candu reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morreale, A.C.; Ball, M.R.; Novog, D.R.; Luxat, J.C., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Engineering Physics, McMaster University, Ontario (Canada)


    The reprocessing of spent fuel such as the extraction of actinide materials for use in mixed oxide fuels is a key component of reducing the end waste from nuclear power plant operations. Using recycled spent fuels in current reactors is becoming a popular option to help close the fuel cycle. In order to ensure safe and consistent operations in existing facilities, the properties of these fuels must be compatible with current reactor designs. This paper examines the features of actinide mixed oxide fuel, TRUMOX, in a CANDU reactor. Specifically, the effect of this fuel design on the incremental cross sections related to the use of adjuster rods is investigated. The actinide concentrations studied in this work were based on extraction from thirty year cooled spent fuel and mixed with natural uranium to yield a MOX fuel of 4.75% actinide by weight. The incremental cross sections were calculated using the DRAGON neutron transport code. The results for the actinide fuel were compared to those for standard natural uranium fuel and for a slightly enriched (1% U-235) fuel designed to reduce void reactivity. Adjuster reactivity effect calculations and void reactivity simulations were also performed. The impact of the adjuster on reactivity decreased by as much as 56% with TRUMOX fuel while the CVR was reduced by 71% due to the addition of central burnable poison. The incremental cross sections were largely affected by the use of the TRUMOX fuel primarily due to its increased level of fissile material (five times that of NU). The largest effects are in the thermal neutron group where the Σ{sub T} value is increased by 46.7%, the Σ{sub ny)} values increased by 13.0% and 9.9%. The value associated with thermal fission, υΣ{sub f}, increased by 496.6% over regular natural uranium which is expected due to the much higher reactivity of the fuel. (author)

  12. Recovery of actinides from actinide-aluminium alloys by chlorination: Part I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassayre, L., E-mail: [Laboratoire de Genie Chimique (LGC), Departement Procedes Electrochimiques, CNRS-UMR 5503, Universite de Toulouse III - Paul Sabatier, 31062 Toulouse (France); Soucek, P.; Mendes, E.; Malmbeck, R.; Nourry, C.; Eloirdi, R.; Glatz, J.-P. [European Commission, JRC, Institute for Transuranium Elements, Postfach 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany)


    Pyrochemical processes in molten LiCl-KCl are being developed in ITU for recovery of actinides from spent nuclear fuel. The fuel is anodically dissolved to the molten salt electrolyte and actinides are electrochemically reduced on solid aluminium cathodes forming solid actinide-aluminium alloys. A chlorination route is being investigated for recovery of actinides from the alloys. This route consists in three steps: Vacuum distillation for removal of the salt adhered on the electrode, chlorination of the actinide-aluminium alloys by chlorine gas and sublimation of the formed AlCl{sub 3}. A thermochemical study showed thermodynamic feasibility of all three steps. On the basis of the conditions identified by the calculations, experiments using pure UAl{sub 3} alloy were carried out to evaluate and optimise the chlorination step. The work was focused on determination of the optimal temperature and Cl{sub 2}/UAl{sub 3} molar ratio, providing complete chlorination of the alloy without formation of volatile UCl{sub 5} and UCl{sub 6}. The results showed high efficient chlorination at a temperature of 150 deg. C.

  13. Separation of plutonium oxide nanoparticles and colloids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Richard E.; Skanthakumar, S.; Soderholm, L. [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)


    Oil and vinegar: Colloidal plutonium is an important component of Pu aqueous speciation. Pu colloids are problematic in nuclear separations and are a potential transport vector in the environment. Using a mixture of n-octanol and trichloroacetic acid a selective and reversible separation of these particles can be achieved by exploiting their surface reactivity (Li{sub 2}[Pu{sub 38}O{sub 56}Cl{sub 42}(H{sub 2}O){sub 20}].15H{sub 2}O). (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Actinide and fission product separation and transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The first international information exchange meeting on actinide and fission product separation and transmutation, took place in Mito in Japan, on 6-8 November 1990. It starts with a number of general overview papers to give us some broad perspectives. Following that it takes a look at some basic facts about physics and about the quantities of materials it is talking about. Then it proceeds to some specific aspects of partitioning, starting with evolution from today commercially applied processes and going on to other possibilities. At the end of the third session it takes a look at the significance of partitioning and transmutation of actinides before it embarks on two sessions on transmutation, first in reactors and second in accelerators. The last session is designed to throw back into the discussion the main points which need to be looked at when considering future work in this area. (A.L.B.)

  15. Microbial Transformations of Actinides and Other Radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis,A.J.; Dodge, C. J.


    Microorganisms can affect the stability and mobility of the actinides and other radionuclides released from nuclear fuel cycle and from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Under appropriate conditions, microorganisms can alter the chemical speciation, solubility and sorption properties and thus could increase or decrease the concentrations of radionuclides in solution in the environment and the bioavailability. Dissolution or immobilization of radionuclides is brought about by direct enzymatic action or indirect non-enzymatic action of microorganisms. Although the physical, chemical, and geochemical processes affecting dissolution, precipitation, and mobilization of radionuclides have been extensively investigated, we have only limited information on the effects of microbial processes and biochemical mechanisms which affect the stability and mobility of radionuclides. The mechanisms of microbial transformations of the major and minor actinides U, Pu, Cm, Am, Np, the fission products and other radionuclides such as Ra, Tc, I, Cs, Sr, under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the presence of electron donors and acceptors are reviewed.

  16. Colloidal Plasmas: Basic physics of colloidal plasmas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The present contribution will review the basic physics of the charging mechanism of the colloidal particles as well as the physics of the collective normal mode behavior of the general multi-ion species plasmas. Emphasis will be laid on the clarification of the prevailing confusing ideas about distinct qualities of the various ...

  17. Actinide and fission product partitioning and transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The fourth international information exchange meeting on actinide and fission product partitioning and transmutation, took place in Mito City in Japan, on 111-13 September 1996. The proceedings are presented in six sessions: the major programmes and international cooperation, the partitioning and transmutation programs, feasibility studies, particular separation processes, the accelerator driven transmutation, and the chemistry of the fuel cycle. (A.L.B.)

  18. Actinide Topological Insulator Materials with Strong Interaction


    Zhang, X.; Zhang, H.; Wang, J.; Felser, C.; Zhang, S.-C.


    Topological band insulators have recently been discovered in spin-orbit coupled two and three dimensional systems. In this work, we theoretically predict a class of topological Mott insulators where interaction effects play a dominant role. In actinide elements, simple rocksalt compounds formed by Pu and Am lie on the boundary of metal to insulator transition. We show that interaction drives a quantum phase transition to a topological Mott insulator phase with a single Dirac cone on the surface.

  19. Preparation, properties, and some recent studies of the actinide metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haire, R.G.


    The actinide elements form a unique series of metals. The variation in their physial properties combined with the varying availability of the different elements offers a challenge to the preparative scientist. This article provides a brief review of selected methods used for preparing to kg amounts of the actinide metals and the properties of these metals. In addition, some recent studies on selected actinide metals are discussed. 62 refs.

  20. Actinide and lanthanide separation process (ALSEP) (United States)

    Guelis, Artem V.


    The process of the invention is the separation of minor actinides from lanthanides in a fluid mixture comprising, fission products, lanthanides, minor actinides, rare earth elements, nitric acid and water by addition of an organic chelating aid to the fluid; extracting the fluid with a solvent comprising a first extractant, a second extractant and an organic diluent to form an organic extractant stream and an aqueous raffinate. Scrubbing the organic stream with a dicarboxylic acid and a chelating agent to form a scrubber discharge. The scrubber discharge is stripped with a simple buffering agent and a second chelating agent in the pH range of 2.5 to 6.1 to produce actinide and lanthanide streams and spent organic diluents. The first extractant is selected from bis(2-ethylhexyl)hydrogen phosphate (HDEHP) and mono(2-ethylhexyl)2-ethylhexyl phosphonate (HEH(EHP)) and the second extractant is selected from N,N,N,N-tetra-2-ethylhexyl diglycol amide (TEHDGA) and N,N,N',N'-tetraoctyl-3-oxapentanediamide (TODGA).

  1. Characterization of uranium corrosion product colloids by dynamic light scattering.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mertz, C.; Bowers, D.; Goldberg, M.; Shelton-Davis, C.


    The Department of Energy plans to dispose of approximately 2100 metric tons of spent metallic uranium fuel in the mined repository at Yucca Mountain. Laboratory studies at Argonne National Laboratory have shown that corrosion of metallic uranium fuel with groundwater generates significant quantities of stable colloids. This finding is considered very important in light of the recent report (1) of rapid subsurface transport of radionuclides at the Nevada Test Site via colloids. Thus, sparingly soluble radionuclides can be transported with the colloids through the subsurface aqueous environment to much greater distances than is predicted based on the aqueous volubility of the radionuclides alone. Accordingly, characterization of colloids generated by fuel corrosion is necessary for assessing the long-term fate and transport of radionuclides in the repository environment.

  2. Hydrothermal decomposition of actinide(IV oxalates: a new aqueous route towards reactive actinide oxide nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Olaf


    Full Text Available The hydrothermal decomposition of actinide(IV oxalates (An= Th, U, Pu at temperatures between 95 and 250 °C is shown to lead to the production of highly crystalline, reactive actinide oxide nanocrystals (NCs. This aqueous process proved to be quantitative, reproducible and fast (depending on temperature. The NCs obtained were characterised by X-ray diffraction and TEM showing their size to be smaller than 15 nm. Attempts to extend this general approach towards transition metal or lanthanide oxalates failed in the 95–250 °C temperature range. The hydrothermal decomposition of actinide oxalates is therefore a clean, flexible and powerful approach towards NCs of AnO2 with possible scale-up potential.

  3. Colloids in Biotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Fanun, Monzer


    Colloids have come a long way from when Thomas Graham coined the term colloid to describe 'pseudo solutions'. This book enables scientists to close the gap between extensive research and translation into commercial options in biomedicine and biotechnology. It covers biosurfactants and surface properties, phase behavior, and orientational change of surfactant mixtures with peptides at the interface. It also covers adsorption of polymers and biopolymers on the surface and interface, discusses colloidal nanoparticles and their use in biotechnology, and delves into bioadhesion and microencapsulati

  4. Development of the Actinide-Lanthanide Separation (ALSEP) Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Carter, Jennifer C.; Niver, Cynthia M.; Gelis, Artem V.


    Separating the minor actinide elements (Am and Cm) from acidic high-level raffinates arising from the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel is an important step in closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Most proposed approaches to this problem involve two solvent extraction steps: 1) co-extraction of the trivalent lanthanides and actinides, followed by 2) separation of the actinides from the lanthanides. The objective of our work is to develop a single solvent-extraction process for isolating the minor actinide elements. We report here a solvent containing N,N,N',N'-tetra(2 ethylhexyl)diglycolamide (T2EHDGA) combined with 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (HEH[EHP]) that can be used to separate the minor actinides in a single solvent-extraction process. T2EHDGA serves to co-extract the trivalent actinide and lanthanide ions from nitric acid solution. Switching the aqueous phase chemistry to a citrate buffered solution of N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine-N,N',N'-triacetic acid at pH 2.5 to 4 results in selective transfer of the actinides to the aqueous phase, thus affecting separation of the actinides from the lanthanides. Separation factors between the lanthanides and actinides are approximately 20 in the pH range of 3 to 4, and the distribution ratios are not highly dependent on the pH in this system.

  5. Targeted delivery of colloids by swimming bacteria (United States)

    Koumakis, N.; Lepore, A.; Maggi, C.; Di Leonardo, R.


    The possibility of exploiting motile microorganisms as tiny propellers represents a fascinating strategy for the transport of colloidal cargoes. However, delivery on target sites usually requires external control fields to steer propellers and trigger cargo release. The need for a constant feedback mechanism prevents the design of compact devices where biopropellers could perform their tasks autonomously. Here we show that properly designed three-dimensional (3D) microstructures can define accumulation areas where bacteria spontaneously and efficiently store colloidal beads. The process is stochastic in nature and results from the rectifying action of an asymmetric energy landscape over the fluctuating forces arising from collisions with swimming bacteria. As a result, the concentration of colloids over target areas can be strongly increased or depleted according to the topography of the underlying structures. Besides the significance to technological applications, our experiments pose some important questions regarding the structure of stationary probability distributions in non-equilibrium systems. PMID:24100868

  6. Model simulations of particle aggregation effect on colloid exchange between streams and streambeds. (United States)

    Areepitak, Trachu; Ren, Jianhong


    Colloids found in natural streams have large reactive surface areas, which makes them significant absorbents and carriers for pollutants. Stream-subsurface exchange plays a critical role in regulating the transport of colloids and contaminants in natural streams. Previous process-based multiphase exchange models were developed without consideration of colloid-colloid interaction. However, many studies have indicated that aggregation is a significant process and needs to be considered in stream process analysis. Herein, a new colloid exchange model was developed by including particle aggregation in addition to colloid settling and filtration. Self-preserving size distribution concepts and classical aggregation theory were employed to model the aggregation process. Model simulations indicate that under conditions of low filtration and high degree of particle-particle interaction, aggregation could either decrease or increase the amount of colloids retained in streambeds, depending on the initial particle size. Thus, two possible cases may occur including enhanced colloid deposition and facilitated colloid transport. Also, when the aggregation rate is high and filtration increases, more particles are retained by bed sediments due to filtration, and fewer are aggregated, which reduces the extent of aggregation effect on colloid deposition. The work presented here will contribute to a better understanding and prediction of colloid transport phenomena in natural streams.

  7. Experimental Studies to Evaluate the Role of Colloids on the Radionuclide Migration in a Crystalline Medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albarran, Nairoby; Missana, Tiziana; Alonso, Ursula; Garcia-Gutierrez, Miguel; Mingarro, Manuel; Lopez, Trinidad [CIEMAT, Departamento de Medioambiente, Avenida Complutense, 22 28040 Madrid (Spain)


    In a deep geological repository (DGR) of high level radioactive waste, all the possible phenomena affecting radionuclide migration have to be studied to assess its security over time. Colloids can play an important role for contaminant transport if the following conditions are fulfilled: colloids exist in a non negligible concentration, they are mobile and stable in the environment of interest, and they are able to adsorb radionuclides irreversibly. In this study, different transport experiments where performed to improve the knowledge on the main mechanisms affecting the radionuclide migration in the presence of colloids in a crystalline medium. Firstly, colloid stability was analysed and then transport experiments in an artificial granite longitudinal fracture were carried out. Synthetic colloids of different size and bentonite clay colloids were used to evaluate the effects of colloid size, charge, and water flow rate on their mobility. Results showed that both major importance of the water flow rate on the mobility of colloids and their recovery and a higher interaction of smaller particles with the surface. Finally, the migration behaviour of Sr, and Sr adsorbed onto bentonite colloids was compared. The elution curves of Sr adsorbed onto colloid were significantly different from the ones of Sr alone, pointing out that sorption/desorption mechanisms must be taken into account to understand the radionuclide migration in the fracture in the presence of colloids. (authors)

  8. Interactions in charged colloidal suspensions: A molecular dynamics simulation study (United States)

    Padidela, Uday Kumar; Behera, Raghu Nath


    Colloidal suspensions are extensively used in everyday life and find several applications in the pharmaceutical, chemical, food industries, etc. We present the classical molecular dynamics simulation results of the structural and transport properties of charged colloidal suspensions as a function of its size, charge and concentration. The system is viewed as a two-component (colloids and counterions) primitive model consisting of spherical colloid particle (macroion) and the counterions (micro-particles), which are treated explicitly. The solvent is treated as dielectric continuum. A systematic trend in the radial distribution functions g(r), potential of mean force W(r), different thermodynamic properties and diffusion coefficients is obtained as a function of colloid charge, size and concentration. An attractive minimum in W(r) is obtained at short interparticle distance.

  9. Advanced Aqueous Separation Systems for Actinide Partitioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, Ken [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Martin, Leigh [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lumetta, Gregg [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    One of the most challenging aspects of advanced processing of used nuclear fuel is the separation of transplutonium actinides from fission product lanthanides. This separation is essential if actinide transmutation options are to be pursued in advanced fuel cycles, as lanthanides compete with actinides for neutrons in both thermal and fast reactors, thus limiting efficiency. The separation is difficult because the chemistry of Am3+ and Cm3+ is nearly identical to that of the trivalent lanthanides (Ln3+). The prior literature teaches that two approaches offer the greatest probability of devising a successful group separation process based on aqueous processes: 1) the application of complexing agents containing ligand donor atoms that are softer than oxygen (N, S, Cl-) or 2) changing the oxidation state of Am to the IV, V, or VI state to increase the essential differences between Am and lanthanide chemistry (an approach utilized in the PUREX process to selectively remove Pu4+ and UO22+ from fission products). The latter approach offers the additional benefit of enabling a separation of Am from Cm, as Cm(III) is resistant to oxidation and so can easily be made to follow the lanthanides. The fundamental limitations of these approaches are that 1) the soft(er) donor atoms that interact more strongly with actinide cations than lanthanides form substantially weaker bonds than oxygen atoms, thus necessitating modification of extraction conditions for adequate phase transfer efficiency, 2) soft donor reagents have been seen to suffer slow phase transfer kinetics and hydro-/radiolytic stability limitations and 3) the upper oxidation states of Am are all moderately strong oxidants, hence of only transient stability in media representative of conventional aqueous separations systems. There are examples in the literature of both approaches having been described. However, it is not clear at present that any extant process is sufficiently robust for application at the scale

  10. Unilateral palpebral colloid milia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kachhawa Dilip


    Full Text Available A 55-year old male presented with innumerable lesions of colloid millium unilaterally over eyelids of left eye. This case is reported because of unilateral distribution of lesions on sun protected area.

  11. Colloids: A microscopic army (United States)

    Tierno, Pietro


    Ensembles of magnetic colloids can undergo an instability triggering the formation of clusters that move faster than the particles themselves. The many-body process relies on hydrodynamics alone and may prove useful for load delivery in fluidics.

  12. Liquid crystal colloids

    CERN Document Server

    Muševič, Igor


    This book brings together the many concepts and discoveries in liquid crystal colloids contributed over the last twenty years and scattered across numerous articles and book chapters. It provides both a historical overview of the development of the field and a clear perspective on the future applications in photonics. The book covers all phenomena observed in liquid crystal colloids with an emphasis on experimental tools and applications of topology in condensed matter, as well as practical micro-photonics applications. It includes a number of spectacular manifestations of new topological phenomena not found or difficult to observe in other systems. Starting from the early works on nematic colloids, it explains the basics of topological defects in ordered media, charge and winding, and the elastic forces between colloidal particles in nematics. Following a detailed description of experimental methods, such as optical tweezing and particle tracking, the book eases the reader into the theoretical part, which de...

  13. MEDOR, a didactic tool to support interpretation of bioassay data after internal contamination by actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miele, A.; Blanchin, N. [Service medical du travail, CEA Cadarache, 13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Raynaud, P. [Service de sante au travail, COGEMA Marcoule, 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze (France); Quesne, B. [COGEMA-AREVA, BP 4, 78141 Velizy (France); Giraud, J.M.; Piechowski, J. [CEA, 31 rue de la Federation, 75752 Paris Cedex 15 (France); Fottorino, R. [Laboratoire d' analyses de biologie medicale, CEA Cadarache, 13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Berard, P. [Laboratoire d' Analyses BioMedicales, DSM, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Ansoborlo, E. [CETAMA DRCP/DEN/CEAVALRHO Marcoule, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze (France); Franck, D.; Blanchardon, E.; Challeton-de Vathaire, C. [Laboratoire d' evaluation de la dose interne, IRSN, BP 17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Lebaron-Jacobs, L. [CARMIN, CEA/DSV, BP 6, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Poncy, J.L.; Fritsch, P. [Laboratoire de Radiotoxicologie, SRCA/DRR/DSV/CEA, BP 12, 91680 Bruyeres le Chatel (France)


    A didactic software, Methodes Dosimetriques de Reference (MEDOR), is being developed to provide help in the interpretation of biological data. Its main purpose is to evaluate the pertinence of the application of different models. This paper describes its first version that is focused on inhalation exposure to actinide aerosols. With this tool, sensitivity analysis on different parameters of the ICRP models can be easily done for aerosol deposition, in terms of activity and particle number, actinide biokinetics and doses. The user can analyse different inhalation cases showing either that dose per unit intake cannot be applied if the aerosol contains a low number of particles or that an inhibition of the late pulmonary clearance by particle transport can occur which contributes to a 3-4 fold increase in effective dose as compared with application of default parameters. This underlines the need to estimate systematically the number of deposited particles, as well as to do chest monitoring as long as possible. (authors)


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    A significant experimental program was conducted in the early Hanford reactors to understand the reactor production of actinides. These experiments were conducted with sufficient rigor, in some cases, to provide useful information that can be utilized today in development of benchmark experiments that may be used for the validation of present computer codes for the production of these actinides in low enriched uranium fuel.

  15. Process for Making a Ceramic Composition for Immobilization of Actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebbinghaus, Bartley B.; Van Konynenburg, Richard A.; Vance, Eric R.; Stewart, Martin W.; Walls, Philip A.; Brummond, William Allen; Armantrout, Guy A.; Curtis, Paul G.; Hobson, Beverly F.; Farmer, Joseph; Herman, Connie Cicero; Herman, David Thomas


    Disclosed is a process for making a ceramic composition for the immobilization of actinides, particularly uranium and plutonium. The ceramic is a titanate material comprising pyrochlore, brannerite and rutile. The process comprises oxidizing the actinides, milling the oxides to a powder, blending them with ceramic precursors, cold pressing the blend and sintering the pressed material.

  16. Detailed calculations of minor actinide transmutation in a fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Toshikazu [Research Institute of Nuclear Engineering, University of Fukui, Kanawacho1-2-4,Tsuruga, Fukui, Japan 914-0051 (Japan)


    The transmutation of minor actinides in a fast reactor is investigated by a new method to investigate the transmutation behavior of individual minor actinides. It is found that Np-237 and Am-241 mainly contributes to the transmutation rate though the transmutation behaviors are very different.

  17. Lanthanides and actinides extraction by calixarenes containing CMPO groups; Extraction des lanthanides et des actinides au moyen de calixarenes portant des groupements CMPO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Carrera, A


    In the framework of the French program SPIN concerning the radioactive waste management, researches are performed to develop processes allowing the separation of long-lived radioisotopes in order to their transmutation or their specific conditioning. These studies deal with the extraction and the separation of trivalent lanthanides and actinides in acid solution. Many systems ''calixarene-diluent-aqueous phase'' are examined by extraction liquid-liquid and membrane transport. The extraction efficiency and the selectivity of the synthesized calixarene-CMPO and of the CMPO are compared with these cations, as the nitric acid extraction by these molecules. (A.L.B.)

  18. Actinide-Aluminate Speciation in Alkaline Radioactive Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. David L. Clark; Dr. Alexander M. Fedosseev


    Investigation of behavior of actinides in alkaline media containing AL(III) showed that no aluminate complexes of actinides in oxidation states (IIII-VIII) were formed in alkaline solutions. At alkaline precipitation IPH (10-14) of actinides in presence of AL(III) formation of aluminate compounds is not observed. However, in precipitates contained actinides (IIV)<(VI), and to a lesser degree actinides (III), some interference of components takes place that is reflected in change of solid phase properties in comparison with pure components or their mechanical mixture. The interference decreases with rise of precipitation PH and at PH 14 is exhibited very feebly. In the case of NP(VII) the individual compound with AL(III) is obtained, however it is not aluminate of neptunium(VII), but neptunate of aluminium(III) similar to neptunates of other metals obtained earlier.

  19. Research in actinide chemistry. Progress report, 1990--1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choppin, G.R.


    This research studies the behavior of the actinide elements in aqueous solution. The high radioactivity of the transuranium actinides limits the concentrations which can be studied and, consequently, limits the experimental techniques. However, oxidation state analogs (trivalent lanthanides, tetravalent thorium, and hexavalent uranium) do not suffer from these limitations. Behavior of actinides in the environment are a major USDOE concern, whether in connection with long-term releases from a repository, releases from stored defense wastes or accidental releases in reprocessing, etc. Principal goal of our research was expand the thermodynamic data base on complexation of actinides by natural ligands (e.g., OH{sup {minus}}, CO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}, PO{sub 4}{sup 3{minus}}, humates). The research undertakes fundamental studies of actinide complexes which can increase understanding of the environmental behavior of these elements.

  20. Status of nuclear data for actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzhovskii, B.Y.; Gorelov, V.P.; Grebennikov, A.N. [Russia Federal Nuclear Centre, Arzamas (Russian Federation)] [and others


    Nuclear data required for transmutation problem include many actinide nuclei. In present paper the analysis of neutron fission, capture, (n,2n) and (n,3n) reaction cross sections at energy region from thermal point to 14 MeV was carried out for Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, Am and Cm isotops using modern evaluated nuclear data libraries and handbooks of recommended nuclear data. Comparison of these data indicates on substantial discrepancies in different versions of files, that connect with quality and completeness of original experimental data.

  1. Fission cross section measurements for minor actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fursov, B. [IPPE, Obninsk (Russian Federation)


    The main task of this work is the measurement of fast neutron induced fission cross section for minor actinides of {sup 238}Pu, {sup 242m}Am, {sup 243,244,245,246,247,248}Cm. The task of the work is to increase the accuracy of data in MeV energy region. Basic experimental method, fissile samples, fission detectors and electronics, track detectors, alpha counting, neutron generation, fission rate measurement, corrections to the data and error analysis are presented in this paper. (author)

  2. Actinide management with commercial fast reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohki, Shigeo [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002, Narita-cho, O-arai-machi, Higashi-Ibaraki-gun, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan)


    The capability of plutonium-breeding and minor-actinide (MA) transmutation in the Japanese commercial sodium-cooled fast reactor offers one of practical solutions for obtaining sustainable energy resources as well as reducing radioactive toxicity and inventory. The reference core design meets the requirement of flexible breeding ratio from 1.03 to 1.2. The MA transmutation amount has been evaluated as 50-100 kg/GW{sub e}y if the MA content in fresh fuel is 3-5 wt%, where about 30-40% of initial MA can be transmuted in the discharged fuel.

  3. Benchmark Evaluation of Dounreay Prototype Fast Reactor Minor Actinide Depletion Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, J. D.; Gauld, I. C.; Gulliford, J.; Hill, I.; Okajima, S.


    Historic measurements of actinide samples in the Dounreay Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) are of interest for modern nuclear data and simulation validation. Samples of various higher-actinide isotopes were irradiated for 492 effective full-power days and radiochemically assayed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). Limited data were available regarding the PFR irradiation; a six-group neutron spectra was available with some power history data to support a burnup depletion analysis validation study. Under the guidance of the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD NEA), the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) and Spent Fuel Isotopic Composition (SFCOMPO) Project are collaborating to recover all measurement data pertaining to these measurements, including collaboration with the United Kingdom to obtain pertinent reactor physics design and operational history data. These activities will produce internationally peer-reviewed benchmark data to support validation of minor actinide cross section data and modern neutronic simulation of fast reactors with accompanying fuel cycle activities such as transportation, recycling, storage, and criticality safety.

  4. Evaluation of actinide biosorption by microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Happel, A.M.


    Conventional methods for removing metals from aqueous solutions include chemical precipitation, chemical oxidation or reduction, ion exchange, reverse osmosis, electrochemical treatment and evaporation. The removal of radionuclides from aqueous waste streams has largely relied on ion exchange methods which can be prohibitively costly given increasingly stringent regulatory effluent limits. The use of microbial cells as biosorbants for heavy metals offers a potential alternative to existing methods for decontamination or recovery of heavy metals from a variety of industrial waste streams and contaminated ground waters. The toxicity and the extreme and variable conditions present in many radionuclide containing waste streams may preclude the use of living microorganisms and favor the use of non-living biomass for the removal of actinides from these waste streams. In the work presented here, we have examined the biosorption of uranium by non-living, non-metabolizing microbial biomass thus avoiding the problems associated with living systems. We are investigating biosorption with the long term goal of developing microbial technologies for the remediation of actinides.

  5. Roles of cation valance and exchange on the retention and colloid-facilitated transport of functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes in a natural soil (United States)

    Saturated soil column experiments were conducted to investigate the transport, retention, and release behavior of a low concentration (1 mg L-1) of functionalized 14C-labeled multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in a natural soil under various solution chemistries. Breakthrough curves (BTCs) for M...

  6. Influence of biofilms on colloid mobility in the subsurface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strathmann, M.; Leon Morales, C.F.; Flemming, H.C.


    Transport processes in subsurface environments are determined by complex interactions between the soil matrix and dissolved as well as particulate substances. Biofilms play an important role in the transport of colloids in the subsurface, since biofilms cover the solid soil matrix and hence

  7. Colloidal Dancers: Designing networks of DNA-functionalized colloids for non-random walks (United States)

    Gehrels, Emily W.; Rogers, W. Benjamin; Zeravcic, Zorana; Manoharan, Vinothan N.


    We present experimental developments of a system of DNA-functionalized colloidal particles with the goal of creating directed motion (`dancing') along patterned substrates in response to temperature cycling. We take advantage of toehold exchange in the design of the DNA sequences that mediate the colloidal interactions to produce broadened, flat, or even re-entrant binding and unbinding transitions between the particles and substrate. Using this new freedom of design, we devise systems where, by thermal ratcheting, we can externally control the direction of motion and sequence of steps of the colloidal dancer. In comparison to DNA-based walkers, which move autonomously and whose motion is controlled by the substrate, our colloidal dancers respond to external driving, and their motion can be controlled in situ. Our use of DNA-functionalized colloidal particles instead of pure DNA systems also enables walking on the mesoscale in contrast to the molecular length scales previously demonstrated, allowing for the future prospect of directed transport over larger distances.

  8. Assessing the Potential Consequences of Subsurface Bioremediation: Fe-oxide Bioreductive Processes and the Propensity for Contaminant-colloid Co-transport and Media Structural Breakdown (United States)


    coated Ottawa quartz sand of the same sizes were used to evaluate the transport of silica-shelled silver nanoparticles (SSSNP) and the effect of...silica- coated silver nanoparticles used as non-diffusing particle tracers in this study. Image taken from NanoComposix website (http...remediation based on cost and effectiveness (Ellis et al., 2000; Coates and Anderson, 2000). Anaerobic bioremediation generally aims to create anaerobic

  9. Crystal growth methods dedicated to low solubility actinide oxalates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamain, C., E-mail: [CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, Marcoule, RadioChemistry & Processes Department, F-30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Arab-Chapelet, B. [CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, Marcoule, RadioChemistry & Processes Department, F-30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Rivenet, M. [University Lille Nord de France, Unité de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide, UCCS UMR CNRS 8181, ENSCL-USTL, B.P. 90108, F-59652 Villeneuve d’Ascq Cedex (France); Grandjean, S. [CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, Marcoule, RadioChemistry & Processes Department, F-30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Abraham, F. [University Lille Nord de France, Unité de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide, UCCS UMR CNRS 8181, ENSCL-USTL, B.P. 90108, F-59652 Villeneuve d’Ascq Cedex (France)


    Two novel crystal growth syntheses dedicated to low solubility actinide-oxalate systems and adapted to glove box handling are described. These methods based on the use of precursors of either actinide metal or oxalic acid have been optimized on lanthanide systems (analogue of actinides(III)) and then assessed on real actinide systems. They allow the synthesis of several actinide oxalate single crystals, Am{sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}·xH{sub 2}O, Th(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O, M{sub 2+x}[Pu{sup IV}{sub 2−x}Pu{sup III}{sub x}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 5}]·nH{sub 2}O and M{sub 1−x}[Pu{sup III}{sub 1−x}Pu{sup IV}{sub x}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2}·H{sub 2}O]·nH{sub 2}O. It is the first time that these well-known compounds are formed by crystal growth methods, thus enabling direct structural studies on transuranic element systems and acquisition of basic data beyond deductions from isomorphic (or not) lanthanide compounds. Characterizations by X-ray diffraction, UV–visible solid spectroscopy, demonstrate the potentialities of these two crystal growth methods to obtain oxalate compounds. - Graphical abstract: Two new single crystal growth methods dedicated to actinide oxalate compounds. - Highlights: • Use of diester as oxalate precursor for crystal growth of actinide oxalates. • Use of actinide oxide as precursor for crystal growth of actinide oxalates. • Crystal growth of Pu(III) and Am(III) oxalates. • Crystal growth of mixed Pu(III)/Pu(IV) oxalates.

  10. Secondary and Primary Energy Minimum Interactions of Colloids in Porous Media: A Novel Binomial Modeling Approach (United States)

    Hilpert, M.; Rasmuson, J. A.; Johnson, W. P.


    Aqueous transport of colloids in porous media is significantlyaffected by interactions with grain surfaces associated with theprimary and secondary energy minimum at colloid-surface separationdistances within a few to hundreds of nanometers, respectively. Nearsurface fluid domain colloids experience relatively low fluid drag andrelatively strong colloidal forces that slow their down-gradienttranslation relative to colloids in bulk fluid. Near surface fluiddomain colloids may re-enter into the bulk fluid via diffusion(nanoparticles) or expulsion at rear flow stagnation zones, or theymay immobilize (attach) via strong primary minimum interactions.Our new model accounts for all possible permutations of mass transferwithin a dual pore and grain network. The primary phenomena therebyrepresented in the model are mass transfer of colloids between thebulk and near-surface fluid domains and immobilization. A previouslydeveloped pore-scale model provides likelihoods and time scalesassociated with the above pore-scale colloid mass transfer processes,whereas the network-scale model employs fluid flow field and graintopology to determine probabilities of transfer from up-gradient bulkand near-surface fluid domains to down-gradient bulk and near-surfacefluid domains. We used the model to make predictions of colloid fateand transport at the column scale based on independently determinedpore-scale parameterizations. The models allows separating theeffects of hydrodynamic dispersion and colloid attachment anddetachment on breakthrough elution curves.

  11. An emergency bioassay method for actinides in urine. (United States)

    Dai, Xiongxin; Kramer-Tremblay, Sheila


    A rapid bioassay method has been developed for the sequential measurements of actinides in human urine samples. The method involves actinide separation from a urine matrix by co-precipitation with hydrous titanium oxide (HTiO), followed by anion exchange and extraction chromatography column purification, and final counting by alpha spectrometry after cerium fluoride micro-precipitation. The minimal detectable activities for the method were determined to be 20 mBq L(-1) or less for plutonium, uranium, americium and curium isotopes, with an 8-h sample turn-around time. Spike tests showed that this method would meet the requirements for actinide bioassay following a radiation emergency.

  12. Review of actinide nitride properties with focus on safety aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albiol, Thierry [CEA Cadarache, St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Arai, Yasuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment


    This report provides a review of the potential advantages of using actinide nitrides as fuels and/or targets for nuclear waste transmutation. Then a summary of available properties of actinide nitrides is given. Results from irradiation experiments are reviewed and safety relevant aspects of nitride fuels are discussed, including design basis accidents (transients) and severe (core disruptive) accidents. Anyway, as rather few safety studies are currently available and as many basic physical data are still missing for some actinide nitrides, complementary studies are proposed. (author)

  13. Separating the Minor Actinides Through Advances in Selective Coordination Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Braley, Jenifer C.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Carter, Jennifer C.


    This report describes work conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 under the auspices of the Sigma Team for Minor Actinide Separation, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy. Researchers at PNNL and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) are investigating a simplified solvent extraction system for providing a single-step process to separate the minor actinide elements from acidic high-level liquid waste (HLW), including separating the minor actinides from the lanthanide fission products.

  14. Extracting and conducting solids for the separation of actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racimor, David; Picart, Sebastien; Thouvenot, Rene; Bidan, Gerard; Jobelin, Isabelle


    The preparation of both extracting and conducting materials for chromatography is of great interest for the separation of actinides [1,2]. Indeed, most of actinides are relatively stable in aqueous media at different oxidation states and their affinity for extracting group is dependant of this oxidation state. Thus, the possibility to perform an extraction on a solid support at a controlled potential could favour a specific interaction between an actinide at a precise oxidation state and a grafted ligand. This study then concerns the synthesis of conductive materials incorporating complexing poly-oxo-metallates in their structure.

  15. Diffusional Nucleation of Nanocrystals and Their Self-Assembly into Uniform Colloids


    Privman, Vladimir


    We review theoretical explanation of mechanisms of control of uniformity in growth of nanosize particles and colloids. The nanoparticles are synthesized as nanocrystals, by burst nucleation from solution. The colloids are self-assembled by aggregation of these nanocrystals. The two kinetic processes are coupled, and both are driven by diffusional transport. The interrelation of the two processes allows for formation of narrow-size-distribution colloid dispersions which are of importance in ma...

  16. Separations and Actinide Science -- 2005 Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Separations and Actinide Science Roadmap presents a vision to establish a separations and actinide science research (SASR) base composed of people, facilities, and collaborations and provides new and innovative nuclear fuel cycle solutions to nuclear technology issues that preclude nuclear proliferation. This enabling science base will play a key role in ensuring that Idaho National Laboratory (INL) achieves its long-term vision of revitalizing nuclear energy by providing needed technologies to ensure our nation's energy sustainability and security. To that end, this roadmap suggests a 10-year journey to build a strong SASR technical capability with a clear mission to support nuclear technology development. If nuclear technology is to be used to satisfy the expected growth in U.S. electrical energy demand, the once-through fuel cycle currently in use should be reconsidered. Although the once-through fuel cycle is cost-effective and uranium is inexpensive, a once-through fuel cycle requires long-term disposal to protect the environment and public from long-lived radioactive species. The lack of a current disposal option (i.e., a licensed repository) has resulted in accumulation of more than 50,000 metric tons of spent nuclear fuel. The process required to transition the current once-through fuel cycle to full-recycle will require considerable time and significant technical advancement. INL's extensive expertise in aqueous separations will be used to develop advanced separations processes. Computational chemistry will be expanded to support development of future processing options. In the intermediate stage of this transition, reprocessing options will be deployed, waste forms with higher loading densities and greater stability will be developed, and transmutation of long-lived fission products will be explored. SASR will support these activities using its actinide science and aqueous separations expertise. In the final stage, full recycle will be

  17. Viscosity of colloidal suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, E.G.D. [Rockefeller Univ., New York, NY (United States); Schepper, I.M. de [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)


    Simple expressions are given for the effective Newtonian viscosity as a function of concentration as well as for the effective visco-elastic response as a function of concentration and imposed frequency, of monodisperse neutral colloidal suspensions over the entire fluid range. The basic physical mechanisms underlying these formulae are discussed. The agreement with existing experiments is very good.

  18. Nucleation in food colloids (United States)

    Povey, Malcolm J. W.


    Nucleation in food colloids has been studied in detail using ultrasound spectroscopy. Our data show that classical nucleation theory (CNT) remains a sound basis from which to understand nucleation in food colloids and analogous model systems using n-alkanes. Various interpretations and modifications of CNT are discussed with regard to their relevance to food colloids. Much of the evidence presented is based on the ultrasound velocity spectrometry measurements which has many advantages for the study of nucleating systems compared to light scattering and NMR due to its sensitivity at low solid contents and its ability to measure true solid contents in the nucleation and early crystal growth stages. Ultrasound attenuation spectroscopy also responds to critical fluctuations in the induction region. We show, however, that a periodic pressure fluctuation such as a quasi-continuous (as opposed to a pulse comprising only a few pressure cycles) ultrasound field can alter the nucleation process, even at very low acoustic intensity. Thus care must be taken when using ultrasound techniques that the measurements do not alter the studied processes. Quasi-continuous ultrasound fields may enhance or suppress nucleation and the criteria to determine such effects are derived. The conclusions of this paper are relevant to colloidal systems in foods, pharmaceuticals, agro-chemicals, cosmetics, and personal products.

  19. Fuel Sustainability And Actinide Production Of Doping Minor Actinide In Water-Cooled Thorium Reactor (United States)

    Permana, Sidik


    Fuel sustainability of nuclear energy is coming from an optimum fuel utilization of the reactor and fuel breeding program. Fuel cycle option becomes more important for fuel cycle utilization as well as fuel sustainability capability of the reactor. One of the important issues for recycle fuel option is nuclear proliferation resistance issue due to production plutonium. To reduce the proliferation resistance level, some barriers were used such as matrial barrier of nuclear fuel based on isotopic composition of even mass number of plutonium isotope. Analysis on nuclear fuel sustainability and actinide production composition based on water-cooled thorium reactor system has been done and all actinide composition are recycled into the reactor as a basic fuel cycle scheme. Some important parameters are evaluated such as doping composition of minor actinide (MA) and volume ratio of moderator to fuel (MFR). Some feasible parameters of breeding gains have been obtained by additional MA doping and some less moderation to fuel ratios (MFR). The system shows that plutonium and MA are obtained low compositions and it obtains some higher productions of even mass plutonium, which is mainly Pu-238 composition, as a control material to protect plutonium to be used as explosive devices.

  20. Aqueous recovery of actinides from aluminum alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, J.H.; Chostner, D.F.; Gray, L.W.


    Early in the 1980's, a joint Rocky Flats/Savannah River program was established to recover actinides from scraps and residues generated during Rocky Flats purification operations. The initial program involved pyrochemical treatment of Molten Salt Extraction (MSE) chloride salts and Electrorefining (ER) anode heel metal to form aluminum alloys suitable for aqueous processing at Savannah River. Recently Rocky Flats has expressed interest in expanding the aluminum alloy program to include treatment of chloride salt residues from a modified Molten Salt Extraction process and from the Electrorefining purification operations. Samples of the current aluminum alloy buttons were prepared at Rocky Flats and sent to Savannah River Laboratory for flowsheet development and characterization of the alloys. A summary of the scrub alloy-anode heel alloy program will be presented along with recent results from aqueous dissolution studies of the new aluminum alloys. 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Radiochemical studies of neutron deficient actinide isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, K.E.


    The production of neutron deficient actinide isotopes in heavy ion reactions was studied using alpha, gamma, x-ray, and spontaneous fission detection systems. A new isotope of berkelium, /sup 242/Bk, was produced with a cross-section of approximately 10 in reactions of boron on uranium and nitrogen on thorium. It decays by electron capture with a half-life of 7.0 +- 1.3 minutes. The alpha-branching ratio for this isotope is less than 1% and the spontaneous fission ratio is less than 0.03%. Studies of (Heavy Ion, pxn) and (Heavy Ion, ..cap alpha..xn) transfer reactions in comparison with (Heavy ion, xn) compound nucleus reactions revealed transfer reaction cross-sections equal to or greater than the compound nucleus yields. The data show that in some cases the yield of an isotope produced via a (H.I.,pxn) or (H.I.,..cap alpha..xn) reaction may be higher than its production via an xn compound nucleus reaction. These results have dire consequences for proponents of the ''Z/sub 1/ + Z/sub 2/ = Z/sub 1+2/'' philosophy. It is no longer acceptable to assume that (H.I.,pxn) and (H.I.,..cap alpha..xn) product yields are of no consequence when studying compound nucleus reactions. No evidence for spontaneous fission decay of /sup 228/Pu, /sup 230/Pu, /sup 232/Cm, or /sup 238/Cf was observed indicating that strictly empirical extrapolations of spontaneous fission half-life data is inadequate for predictions of half-lives for unknown neutron deficient actinide isotopes.

  2. The chemistry of the actinide elements, Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, J.J.; Seaborg, G.T.; Morss, L.R.


    The Chemistry of the Actinide Elements is an exposition of the chemistry and related properties of the 5f series of elements: actinium, thorium, protactinium, uranium and the first eleven. This second edition has been completely restructured and rewritten to incorporate current research in all areas of actinide chemistry and chemical physics. The descriptions of each element include accounts of their history, separation, metallurgy, solid-state chemistry, solution chemistry, thermo-dynamics and kinetics. Additionally, separate chapters on spectroscopy, magnetochemistry, thermodynamics, solids, the metallic state, complex ions and organometallic compounds emphasize the comparative chemistry and unique properties of the actinide series of elements. Comprehensive lists of properties of all actinide compounds and ions in solution are given, and there are special sections on such topics as biochemistry, superconductivity, radioisotope safety, and waste management, as well as discussion of the transactinides and future elements.

  3. Chemistry of the actinide elements. Vol. 1, 2nd Ed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, J.J.; Morss, L.R.; Seaborg, L.R. (eds.)


    The Chemistry of the Actinide Elements is a comprehensive, contemporary and authoritative exposition of the chemistry and related properties of the 5f series of elements: actinium, thorium, protactinium, uranium and the first eleven transuranium elements. This second edition has been completely restructured and rewritten to incorporate current research in all areas of actinide chemistry and chemical physics. The descriptions of each element include accounts of their history, separation, metallurgy, solid-state chemistry, solution chemistry, thermodynamics and kinetics. Additionally, separate chapters on spectroscopy, magnetochemistry, thermodynamics, solids, the metallic state, complex ions and organometallic compounds emphasize the comparative chemistry and unique properties of the actinide series of elements. Comprehensive lists of properties of all actinide compounds and ions in solution are given, and there are special sections on such topics as biochemistry, superconductivity, radioisotope safety, and waste management, as well as discussion of the transactinides and future elements.

  4. The chemistry of the actinide elements. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, J.J.; Seaborg, G.T.; Morss, L.R.


    The Chemistry of the Actinide Elements is a comprehensive, contemporary and authoritative exposition of the chemistry and related properties of the 5f series of elements: actinium, thorium, protactinium, uranium and the first eleven. This second edition has been completely restructured and rewritten to incorporate current research in all areas of actinide chemistry and chemical physics. The descriptions of each element include accounts of their history, separation, metallurgy, solid-state chemistry, solution chemistry, thermo-dynamics and kinetics. Additionally, separate chapters on spectroscopy, magnetochemistry, thermodynamics, solids, the metallic state, complex ions and organometallic compounds emphasize the comparative chemistry and unique properties of the actinide series of elements. Comprehensive lists of properties of all actinide compounds and ions in solution are given, and there are special sections on such topics as biochemistry, superconductivity, radioisotope safety, and waste management, as well as discussion of the transactinides and future elements.

  5. Advanced techniques for actinide spectroscopy (ATAS 2012). Abstract book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foerstendorf, Harald; Mueller, Katharina; Steudtner, Robin (eds.)


    The abstract book of the International workshop on advanced techniques for actinide spectroscopy (ATAS 2012) include contributions concerning the following issues: environmental applications, NMR spectroscopy, vibrational spectroscopy, X-ray spectroscopy and theory, technical application: separation processes, emission spectroscopy.

  6. Valence instabilities as a possible source of actinide system inconsistencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandenaw, T.A.


    The presence of a mixed-valence state in light actinides appears evident from the crystal structures of certain U, Np, and Pu phases. As supporting evidence, the physical property response of these actinide elements (and some of their alloys) is compared with that of rare-earth metallic compounds known to have an unstable valence. Impurities may stabilize an intermediate (different) valence state locally in rare-earth compounds in the presence of the valence state of the bulk phase. Impurity elements from different periodic table groupings may likewise stabilize different intermediate valence states in light actinide elements, thus contributing to inconsistencies in results reported by different experimentalists. Any model (theory) advanced for explaining the physical property behavior of U, Np, and Pu may also require consideration of a configurational limit. A phenomenological connection could exist between a martensitic transformation and the fluctuation temperature in both rare earth and actinide systems.

  7. Evaluating the efficacy of a minor actinide burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobbin, K.D.; Kessler, S.F.; Nelson, J.V.; Omberg, R.P.; Wootan, D.W.


    The efficacy of a minor actinide burner can be evaluated by comparing safety and economic parameters to the support ratio. Minor actinide mass produced per unit time in this number of Light Water Reactors (LWRs) can be burned during the same time period in one burner system. The larger the support ratio for a given set of safety and economic parameters, the better. To illustrate this concept, the support ratio for selected Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) burner core designs was compared with corresponding coolant void worths, a fundamental safety concern following the Chernobyl accident. Results can be used to evaluate the cost in reduced burning of minor actinides caused by LMR sodium void reduction efforts or to compare with other minor actinide burner systems.

  8. Actinide targets for the synthesis of super-heavy elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberto, J.B., E-mail:; Alexander, C.W.; Boll, R.A.; Burns, J.D.; Ezold, J.G.; Felker, L.K.; Hogle, S.L.; Rykaczewski, K.P.


    Since 2000, six new super-heavy elements with atomic numbers 113 through 118 have been synthesized in hot fusion reactions of {sup 48}Ca beams on actinide targets. These target materials, including {sup 242}Pu, {sup 244}Pu, {sup 243}Am, {sup 245}Cm, {sup 248}Cm, {sup 249}Cf, and {sup 249}Bk, are available in very limited quantities and require specialized production and processing facilities resident in only a few research centers worldwide. This report describes the production and chemical processing of heavy actinide materials for super-heavy element research, current availabilities of these materials, and related target fabrication techniques. The impact of actinide materials in super-heavy element discovery is reviewed, and strategies for enhancing the production of rare actinides including {sup 249}Bk, {sup 251}Cf, and {sup 254}Es are described.

  9. Formation of actinides in irradiated HTGR fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    dos Santos, A. M.


    Actinide nuclide concentrations of 11 spent AVR fuel elements were determined experimentally. The burnup of the spheres varied in the range between 10% and 100% fifa, the Th : U ratio was 5 : 1. The separation procedures for an actinide isolation were tested with highly irradiated ThO/sub 2/. Separation and decontamination factors are presented. Build-up of /sup 232/U was discussed. The AVR breeding rate was ascertained to be 0.5. The hazard potential of high activity waste was calculated. Actinide recovery factors were proposed in order to reduce the hazard potential of the waste by an actinide removal under consideration of the reprocessing technology which is available presently.

  10. Colloidal Thermal Fluids (United States)

    Lotzadeh, Saba

    In this dissertation, a reversible system with a well controlled degree of particle aggregation was developed. By surface modification of colloidal silica with aminosilanes, interactions among the particles were tuned in a controlled way to produce stable sized clusters at different pH values ranges from well-disposed to a colloidal gel. N-[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]ethylenediamine (TMPE) monolayer on particle surface not only removes all the reactive sites to prevent chemical aggregation, also provides steric stabilization in the absence of any repulsion. After surface modification, electrokinetic behavior of silica particles were changed to that of amino groups, positive in acidic pH and neutral at basic pH values. By tuning the pH, the balance between electrostatic repulsion and hydrophobic interactions was reversibly controlled. As a result, clusters with different sizes were developed. The effect of clustering on the thermal conductivity of colloidal dispersions was quantified using silane-treated silica, a system engineered to exhibit reversible clustering under well-controlled conditions. Thermal conductivity of this system was measured by transient hot wire, the standard method of thermal conductivity measurements in liquids. We show that the thermal conductivity increases monotonically with cluster size and spans the entire range between the two limits of Maxwell's theory. The results, corroborated by numerical simulation, demonstrate that large increases of the thermal conductivity of colloidal dispersions are possible, yet fully within the predictions of classical theory. Numerical calculations were performed to evaluate the importance of structural properties of particles/aggregates on thermal conduction in colloidal particles. Thermal conductivity of non-spherical particles including hollow particles, cubic particles and rods was studied using a Monte Carlo algorithm. We show that anisotropic shapes, increase conductivity above that of isotropic

  11. Thin extractive membrane for monitoring actinides in aqueous streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavan, Vivek [Radiochemistry Division, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Paul, Sumana [Fuel Chemistry Division, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Pandey, Ashok K., E-mail: [Radiochemistry Division, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Kalsi, P.C.; Goswami, A. [Radiochemistry Division, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India)


    Highlights: • Thin polymer inclusion membrane has been developed for selective actinide sorption. • Actinide sorption in membrane is dependent on acidity and oxidation states. • A scheme for selective preconcentration of target actinide has been developed. • Quantification of actinide in membrane is possible by SSNTD or α-spectrometry. • This membrane was used for assay of Pu in acidic waste and urine -- Abstract: Alpha spectrometry and solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) are used for monitoring ultra-trace amount of alpha emitting actinides in different aqueous streams. However, these techniques have limitations i.e. alpha spectrometry requires a preconcentration step and SSNTDs are not chemically selective. Therefore, a thin polymer inclusion membrane (PIM) supported on silanized glass was developed for preconcentraion and determination of ultra-trace concentration of actinides by α-spectrometry and SSNTDs. PIMs were formed by spin coating on hydrophobic glass slide or solvent casting to form thin and self-supported membranes, respectively. Sorption experiments indicated that uptakes of actinides in the PIM were highly dependent on acidity of solution i.e. Am(III) sorbed up to 0.1 mol L{sup −1} HNO{sub 3}, U(VI) up to 0.5 mol L{sup −1} HNO{sub 3} and Pu(IV) from HNO{sub 3} concentration as high as 4 mol L{sup −1}. A scheme was developed for selective sorption of target actinide in the PIM by adjusting acidity and oxidation state of actinide. The actinides sorbed in PIMs were quantified by alpha spectrometry and SSNTDs. For SSNTDs, neutron induced fission-fragment tracks and α-particle tracks were registered in Garware polyester and CR-39 for quantifications of natural uranium and α-emitting actinides ({sup 241}Am/{sup 239}Pu/{sup 233}U), respectively. Finally, the membranes were tested to quantify Pu in 4 mol L{sup −1} HNO{sub 3} solutions and synthetic urine samples.

  12. Crust formation in drying colloidal suspensions

    KAUST Repository

    Style, R. W.


    During the drying of colloidal suspensions, the desiccation process causes the suspension near the air interface to consolidate into a connected porous matrix or crust. Fluid transport in the porous medium is governed by Darcy\\'s law and the equations of poroelasticity, while the equations of colloid physics govern processes in the suspension. We derive new equations describing this process, including unique boundary conditions coupling the two regions, yielding a moving-boundary model of the concentration and stress profiles during drying. A solution is found for the steady-state growth of a nedimensional crust during constant evaporation rate from the surface. The solution is used to demonstrate the importance of the system boundary conditions on stress profiles and diffusivity in a drying crust. © 2011 The Royal Society.

  13. Colloid Release From Differently Managed Loess Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendelboe, Anders Lindblad; Schjønning, Per; Møldrup, Per


    of the total clay not associated with organic matter. No significant difference in release rate was found for air-dry aggregates. The low-carbon soils initially had a higher content of WSA but were more susceptible to disaggregation than the high-carbon soils. Furthermore, the application of NPK fertilizer had......The content of water-dispersible colloids (WDC) in a soil can have a major impact on soil functions, such as permeability to water and air, and on soil strength, which can impair soil fertility and workability. In addition, the content of WDC in the soil may increase the risk of nutrient loss...... and of colloid-facilitated transport of strongly sorbing compounds. In the present study, soils from the Bad Lauchstadt long-term static fertilizer experiment with different management histories were investigated to relate basic soil properties to the content of WDC, the content of water-stable aggregates (WSA...

  14. Fractal nematic colloids (United States)

    Hashemi, S. M.; Jagodič, U.; Mozaffari, M. R.; Ejtehadi, M. R.; Muševič, I.; Ravnik, M.


    Fractals are remarkable examples of self-similarity where a structure or dynamic pattern is repeated over multiple spatial or time scales. However, little is known about how fractal stimuli such as fractal surfaces interact with their local environment if it exhibits order. Here we show geometry-induced formation of fractal defect states in Koch nematic colloids, exhibiting fractal self-similarity better than 90% over three orders of magnitude in the length scales, from micrometers to nanometres. We produce polymer Koch-shaped hollow colloidal prisms of three successive fractal iterations by direct laser writing, and characterize their coupling with the nematic by polarization microscopy and numerical modelling. Explicit generation of topological defect pairs is found, with the number of defects following exponential-law dependence and reaching few 100 already at fractal iteration four. This work demonstrates a route for generation of fractal topological defect states in responsive soft matter. PMID:28117325

  15. Colloidal capsules: nano- and microcapsules with colloidal particle shells. (United States)

    Bollhorst, Tobias; Rezwan, Kurosch; Maas, Michael


    Utilizing colloidal particles for the assembly of the shell of nano- and microcapsules holds great promise for the tailor-made design of new functional materials. Increasing research efforts are devoted to the synthesis of such colloidal capsules, by which the integration of modular building blocks with distinct physical, chemical, or morphological characteristics in a capsule's shell can result in novel properties, not present in previous encapsulation structures. This review will provide a comprehensive overview of the synthesis strategies and the progress made so far of bringing nano- and microcapsules with shells of densely packed colloidal particles closer to application in fields such as chemical engineering, materials science, or pharmaceutical and life science. The synthesis routes are categorized into the four major themes for colloidal capsule formation, i.e. the Pickering-emulsion based formation of colloidal capsules, the colloidal particle deposition on (sacrificial) templates, the amphiphilicity driven self-assembly of nanoparticle vesicles from polymer-grafted colloids, and the closely related field of nanoparticle membrane-loading of liposomes and polymersomes. The varying fields of colloidal capsule research are then further categorized and discussed for micro- and nano-scaled structures. Finally, a special section is dedicated to colloidal capsules for biological applications, as a diverse range of reports from this field aim at pharmaceutical agent encapsulation, targeted drug-delivery, and theranostics.

  16. Predictions of Actinide Solubilities under Near-Field Conditions Expected in the WIPP (United States)

    Brush, L. H.; Xiong, Y.


    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) repository in southeast New Mexico for defense-related transuranic (TRU) waste. The repository, which opened in March 1999, is located at a subsurface depth of 655 m (2150 ft) in the Salado Fm., a Permian bedded-salt formation. The repository will eventually contain the equivalent of 844,000 208 L (55 gal) drums of TRU waste. After filling the rooms and access drifts and installing panel closures, creep closure of the salt will crush the steel waste containers in most cases and encapsulate the waste. The WIPP actinide source term model used for long-term performance assessment (PA) of the repository comprises dissolved and suspended submodels (solubilities and colloids). This presentation will describe the solubilities. From the standpoint of long-term PA, the order of importance of the radioelements in the TRU waste to be emplaced in the WIPP is Pu ~ Am >> U > Th >> Np ~ Cm and fission products. The DOE has included all of these actinides, but not fission products, in the WIPP Actinide Source Term Program (ASTP). Anoxic corrosion of Fe- and Al-base metals and microbial consumption of cellulosic, plastic, and rubber materials will produce gas and create strongly reducing conditions in the WIPP after closure. The use of MgO as an engineered barrier to consume microbially produced CO2 will result in low fCO2 and basic pH. Under these conditions, Th, U, Np, Pu, and Am will speciate essentially entirely as Th(IV), U(IV), Np(IV), Pu(III), and Am(III); or Th(IV), U(VI), Np(V), Pu(IV), and Am(III). The DOE has developed thermodynamic speciation-and-solubility models for +III, +IV, and +V actinides in brines. Experimental data for Nd, Am, and Cm species were used to parameterize the +III Pitzer activity-coefficient model; data for Th species were used for the +IV model; and data for Np(V) species were used for the +V model. These models include the effects of the organic ligands acetate, citrate

  17. Flocking ferromagnetic colloids. (United States)

    Kaiser, Andreas; Snezhko, Alexey; Aranson, Igor S


    Assemblages of microscopic colloidal particles exhibit fascinating collective motion when energized by electric or magnetic fields. The behaviors range from coherent vortical motion to phase separation and dynamic self-assembly. Although colloidal systems are relatively simple, understanding their collective response, especially under out-of-equilibrium conditions, remains elusive. We report on the emergence of flocking and global rotation in the system of rolling ferromagnetic microparticles energized by a vertical alternating magnetic field. By combing experiments and discrete particle simulations, we have identified primary physical mechanisms, leading to the emergence of large-scale collective motion: spontaneous symmetry breaking of the clockwise/counterclockwise particle rotation, collisional alignment of particle velocities, and random particle reorientations due to shape imperfections. We have also shown that hydrodynamic interactions between the particles do not have a qualitative effect on the collective dynamics. Our findings shed light on the onset of spatial and temporal coherence in a large class of active systems, both synthetic (colloids, swarms of robots, and biopolymers) and living (suspensions of bacteria, cell colonies, and bird flocks).

  18. Hysteresis of colloid retention and release in saturated porous media during transients in solution chemistry. (United States)

    Torkzaban, Saeed; Kim, Hyunjung N; Simunek, Jiri; Bradford, Scott A


    Saturated packed column and micromodel transport studies were conducted to gain insight on mechanisms of colloid retention and release under unfavorable attachment conditions. The initial deposition of colloids in porous media was found to be a strongly coupled process that depended on solution chemistry and pore space geometry. During steady state chemical conditions, colloid deposition was not a readily reversible process, and micromodel photos indicated that colloids were immobilized in the presence of fluid drag. Upon stepwise reduction in eluting solution ionic strength (IS), a sharp release of colloids occurred in each step which indicates that colloid retention depends on a balance of applied (hydrodynamic) and resisting (adhesive) torques which varied with pore space geometry, surface roughness, and interaction energy. When the eluting fluid IS was reduced to deionized water, the final retention locations occurred near grain-grain contacts, and colloid aggregation was sometimes observed in micromodel experiments. Significant amounts of colloid retention hysteresis with IS were observed in the column experiments, and it depended on the porous medium (glass beads compared with sand), the colloid size (1.1 and 0.5 mum), and on the initial deposition IS. These observations were attributed to weak adhesive interactions that depended on the double layer thickness (e.g., the depth of the secondary minimum and/or nanoscale heterogeneity), colloid mass transfer on the solid phase to regions where the torque and force balances were favorable for retention, the number and extent of grain-grain contacts, and surface roughness.

  19. Colloid and Phosphorus Leaching From Undisturbed Soil Cores Sampled Along a Natural Clay Gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendelboe, Anders Lindblad; Møldrup, Per; Heckrath, Goswin Johann


    The presence of strongly sorbing compounds in groundwater and tile drains can be a result of colloid-facilitated transport. Colloid and phosphorus leaching from macropores in undisturbed soil cores sampled across a natural clay gradient at Aarup, Denmark, were studied. The aim of the study...... was to correlate easily measurable soil properties, such as clay content and water-dispersible colloids, to colloid and phosphorus leaching. The clay contents across the gradient ranged from 0.11 to 0.23 kg kgj1. Irrigating with artificial rainwater, all samples showed a high first flush of colloids and phosphorus...... followed by lower and stable colloid and phosphorus concentrations. The mass of particles leached at first flush was independent of clay content and was attributed to the instant release of particles associated with the macropore walls and released upon contact with flowing water. Below a clay content of È...

  20. Photophysics of C60 Colloids (United States)


    of C60 Colloids 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Andrew Clements 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. C60 Colloids • Desired NLO Response • Overview of Nonlinear Scattering and Absorption • Previous Scholarship/Context • Thesis Question...Computer Modeling • Conclusions 2 UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED Description of C60 Colloids C60 Molecules • Cage molecules composed of 60

  1. The colloid hematite particle migration through the unsaturated porous bed at the presence of biosurfactants. (United States)

    Pawlowska, Agnieszka; Sznajder, Izabela; Sadowski, Zygmunt


    Colloidal particles have an ability to sorb heavy metals, metalloids, and organic compounds (e.g. biosurfactants) present in soil and groundwater. The pH and ionic strength changes may promote release of such particles causing potential contaminant transport. Therefore, it is very important to know how a colloid particle-mineral particle and colloid-mineral-biosurfactant system behaves in the natural environment. They can have negative impact on the environment and human health. This study highlighted the influence of biosurfactants produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa on the transport of colloidal hematite (α-Fe2O3) through porous bed (materials collected from the Szklary and Zloty Stok solid waste heaps from Lower Silesia, Poland). Experiments were conducted using column set in two variants: colloid solution with porous bed and porous bed with adsorbed biosurfactants, in the ionic strengths of 5 × 10-4 and 5 × 10-3 M KCl. The zeta potential of mineral materials and colloidal hematite, before and after adsorption of biosurfactant, was determined. Obtained results showed that reduction in ionic strength facilitates colloidal hematite transport through the porous bed. The mobility of colloidal hematite was higher when the rhamnolipid adsorbed on the surface of mineral grain.

  2. Comparative evaluation of actinide ion uptake by polymer inclusion membranes containing TODGA as the carrier extractant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahanty, B.N. [Advanced Fuel Fabrication Facility, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Tarapur, Maharashtra, 401502 (India); Raut, D.R. [Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai, 400085 (India); Mohapatra, P.K., E-mail: [Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai, 400085 (India); Das, D.K.; Behere, P.G.; Afzal, Md. [Advanced Fuel Fabrication Facility, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Tarapur, Maharashtra, 401502 (India)


    Highlights: • PIMs containing TODGA were used for actinide ion uptake and transport. • The trend of uptake was: Am{sup 3+} > Pu{sup 4+} > Th{sup 4+} > UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}. • The transport trend was similar though significant amount was held in the PIM. • The diffusion coefficients were lower than those obtained with SLM. - Abstract: Polymer inclusion membranes (PIM) containing TODGA (N,N,N′,N′-tetra-n-octyl diglycolamide) were evaluated for the separation of actinide ions such as Am{sup 3+}, Pu{sup 4+}, UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} and Th{sup 4+} from acidic feeds. The PIMs were prepared using cellulose triacetate (CTA) as the polymer matrix and 2-nitrophenyloctyl ether (NPOE) as the plasticizer along with the diglycolamide carrier extractants and were characterized by conventional techniques such as XRD, thermal analysis and AFM. The PIM composition was optimized by a series of studies which involved variation in the CTA, NPOE and carrier concentration which suggested 58% TODGA, 30% NPOE and 12% CTA to be optimum. The uptake studies were carried out using feed solutions containing varying concentrations of nitric acid and showed the trend: Am{sup 3+} > Pu{sup 4+} > Th{sup 4+} > UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}. Transport studies were carried out in a two-compartment cell where nitric acid concentration the feed was varied (1–3 M) while the receiver compartment contained alpha-hydroxy-iso-butyric acid (AHIBA). The actinide ion transport efficiencies with TODGA containing PIMs followed the same trend as seen in the uptake studies. The AFM patterns of the PIMs changed when loaded with Eu{sup 3+} carrier (used as a surrogate for Am{sup 3+}) while the regenerated membranes have displayed comparable morphologies. Diffusion coefficient values were experimentally obtained from the transport studies and were found to be 8.89 × 10{sup −8} cm{sup 2}/s for Am{sup 3+} transport.

  3. Flow of colloidal suspensions through small orifices (United States)

    Hidalgo, R. C.; Goñi-Arana, A.; Hernández-Puerta, A.; Pagonabarraga, I.


    In this work, we numerically study a dense colloidal suspension flowing through a small outlet driven by a pressure drop using lattice-Boltzmann methods. This system shows intermittent flow regimes that precede clogging events. Several pieces of evidence suggest that the temperature controls the dynamic state of the system when the driving force and the aperture size are fixed. When the temperature is low, the suspension's flow can be interrupted during long time periods, which can be even two orders of magnitude larger than the system's characteristic time (Stokes). We also find that strong thermal noise does not allow the formation of stable aggregate structures avoiding extreme clogging events, but, at the same time, it randomizes the particle trajectories and disturbs the advective particle flow through the aperture. Moreover, examining the particle velocity statistics, we obtain that in the plane normal to the pressure drop the colloids always move as free particles regardless of the temperature value. In the pressure drop direction, at high temperature the colloids experience a simple balance between advective and diffusive transport, but at low temperature the nature of the flow is much more complex, correlating with the occurrence of very long clogging events.

  4. An evaporation model of colloidal suspension droplets (United States)

    Sartori, Silvana; Li\\ Nán, Amable; Lasheras, Juan C.


    Colloidal suspensions of polymers in water or other solvents are widely used in the pharmaceutical industry to coat tablets with different agents. These allow controlling the rate at which the drug is delivered, taste or physical appearance. The coating is performed by simultaneously spraying and drying the tablets with the colloidal suspension at moderately high temperatures. The spreading of the coating on the pills surface depends on the droplet Webber and Reynolds numbers, angle of impact, but more importantly on the rheological properties of the drop. We present a model for the evaporation of a colloidal suspension droplet in a hot air environment with temperatures substantially lower than the boiling temperature of the carrier fluid. As the liquid vaporizes from the surface, a compacting front advances into the droplet faster than the liquid surface regresses, forming a shell of a porous medium where the particles reach their maximum packing density. While the surface regresses, the evaporation rate is determined by both the rate at which heat is transported to the droplet surface and the rate at which liquid vapor is diffused away from it. This regime continues until the compacting front reaches the center of the droplet, at which point the evaporation rate is drastically reduced.

  5. Development of the Chalmers Grouped Actinide Extraction Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halleröd Jenny


    Full Text Available Several solvents for Grouped ActiNide EXtraction (GANEX processes have been investigated at Chalmers University of Technology in recent years. Four different GANEX solvents; cyclo-GANEX (CyMe4- -BTBP, 30 vol.% tri-butyl phosphate (TBP and cyclohexanone, DEHBA-GANEX (CyMe4-BTBP, 20 vol.% N,N-di-2(ethylhexyl butyramide (DEHBA and cyclohexanone, hexanol-GANEX (CyMe4-BTBP, 30 vol.% TBP and hexanol and FS-13-GANEX (CyMe4-BTBP, 30 vol.% TBP and phenyl trifluoromethyl sulfone (FS-13 have been studied and the results are discussed and compared in this work. The cyclohexanone based solvents show fast and high extraction of the actinides but a somewhat poor diluent stability in contact with the acidic aqueous phase. FS-13-GANEX display high separation factors between the actinides and lanthanides and a good radiolytic and hydrolytic stability. However, the distribution ratios of the actinides are lower, compared to the cyclohexanone based solvents. The hexanol-GANEX is a cheap solvent system using a rather stable diluent but the actinide extraction is, however, comparatively low.

  6. A Summary of Actinide Enrichment Technologies and Capability Gaps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, Bradley D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Robinson, Sharon M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    The evaluation performed in this study indicates that a new program is needed to efficiently provide a national actinide radioisotope enrichment capability to produce milligram-to-gram quantities of unique materials for user communities. This program should leverage past actinide enrichment, the recent advances in stable isotope enrichment, and assessments of the future requirements to cost effectively develop this capability while establishing an experience base for a new generation of researchers in this vital area. Preliminary evaluations indicate that an electromagnetic isotope separation (EMIS) device would have the capability to meet the future needs of the user community for enriched actinides. The EMIS technology could be potentially coupled with other enrichment technologies, such as irradiation, as pre-enrichment and/or post-enrichment systems to increase the throughput, reduce losses of material, and/or reduce operational costs of the base EMIS system. Past actinide enrichment experience and advances in the EMIS technology applied in stable isotope separations should be leveraged with this new evaluation information to assist in the establishment of a domestic actinide radioisotope enrichment capability.

  7. Hydrophilic actinide complexation studied by solvent extraction radiotracer technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rydberg, J. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry and Radiochemistry Consultant Group, Vaestra Froelunda (Sweden)


    Actinide migration in the ground water is enhanced by the formation of water soluble complexes. It is essential to the risk analysis of a wet repository to know the concentration of central atoms and the ligands in the ground water, and the stability of complexes formed between them. Because the chemical behavior at trace concentrations often differ from that at macro concentrations, it is important to know the chemical behavior of actinides at trace concentrations in ground water. One method used for such investigations is the solvent extraction radiotracer (SXRT) technique. This report describes the SXRT technique in some detail. A particular reason for this analysis is the claim that complex formation constants obtained by SXRT are less reliable than results obtained by other techniques. It is true that several difficulties are encountered in the application of SXRT technique to actinide solution, such as redox instability, hydrophilic complexation by side reactions and sorption, but it is also shown that a careful application of the SXRT technique yields results as reliable as by any other technique. The report contains a literature survey on solvent extraction studies of actinide complexes formed in aqueous solutions, particularly by using the organic reagent thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA) dissolved in benzene or chloroform. Hydrolysis constants obtained by solvent extraction are listed as well as all actinide complexes studied by SX with inorganic and organic ligands. 116 refs, 11 tabs.

  8. Colloid thruster technology (United States)

    Perel, J.


    A program is described for attaining control, reproducibility, and predictability of operation for the annular colloid emitter. A thruster of an improved design was used for a 1000 hour test. The thruster was operated with a neutralizer for 1023 hours at 15 kV with an average thrust of 25 micropound and specific impulse of 1160 sec. The performance was stable, and the beam was vectored periodically. The clean condition of the emitter edge at the end of the test coupled with no degradation in performance during the test indicated that the lifetime could be extrapolated by at least an order of magnitude over the test time.

  9. Polymers and colloids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schurtenberger, P. [ETH Zurich, Inst. fuer Polymere, Zurich (Switzerland)


    A wealth of structural information from colloid and polymer solutions on a large range of length scales can be obtained using small angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments. After a general introduction to the field of soft condensed matter, I shall give a few selected examples on how SANS combined with suitable contrast variation schemes can be used to extract information on the size and conformation of polymer coils in solution and in the melt, and on the local structure and flexibility of polymerlike micelles and microemulsions. (author) 8 figs., tabs., 44 refs.

  10. Colloidal friction: Kinks in motion (United States)

    Vanossi, Andrea; Tosatti, Erio


    The ability of laser interference potentials to trap and control colloidal particles opens up a new potential area of 'toy systems' displaying real physics. A beautiful example is the study of friction between colloidal crystals and a variety of artificially created surface potentials.

  11. Colloid Adsorption onto Responsive Membranes (United States)

    Dias, Rita S.; Linse, Per


    The adsorption of colloids of varying sizes and charges onto a surface that carries both negative and positive charges, representing a membrane, has been investigated using a simple model employing Monte Carlo simulations. The membrane is made of positive and negative charges (headgroups) that are allowed to move along the membrane, simulating the translational diffusion of the lipids, and are also allowed to protrude into the solution, giving rise to a fluid and soft membrane. When an uncharged colloid is placed in the vicinity of the membrane, a short-range repulsion between the colloid and the membrane is observed and the membrane will deflect to avoid coming into contact with the colloid. When the colloid is charged, the membrane response is twofold: the headgroups of the membrane move toward the colloid, as if to partly embrace it, and the positive headgroups of the membrane approach the oppositely charged colloid, inducing the demixing of the membrane lipids (polarization). The presence of protrusions enhances the polarization of the membrane. Potential of mean force calculations show that protrusions give rise to a more long-range attractive colloid-membrane potential which has a smaller magnitude at short separations. PMID:18234818

  12. Colloidal heat engines: a review. (United States)

    Martínez, Ignacio A; Roldán, Édgar; Dinis, Luis; Rica, Raúl A


    Stochastic heat engines can be built using colloidal particles trapped using optical tweezers. Here we review recent experimental realizations of microscopic heat engines. We first revisit the theoretical framework of stochastic thermodynamics that allows to describe the fluctuating behavior of the energy fluxes that occur at mesoscopic scales, and then discuss recent implementations of the colloidal equivalents to the macroscopic Stirling, Carnot and steam engines. These small-scale motors exhibit unique features in terms of power and efficiency fluctuations that have no equivalent in the macroscopic world. We also consider a second pathway for work extraction from colloidal engines operating between active bacterial reservoirs at different temperatures, which could significantly boost the performance of passive heat engines at the mesoscale. Finally, we provide some guidance on how the work extracted from colloidal heat engines can be used to generate net particle or energy currents, proposing a new generation of experiments with colloidal systems.

  13. Colloid research for the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, E.A.


    Research is needed to understand the role of particulates in the migration of radionuclides away from the sites of nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. The process of testing itself may produce a reservoir of particles to serve as vectors for the transport of long-lived radionuclides in groundwater. Exploratory experiments indicate the presence of numerous particulates in the vicinity of the Cambric test but a much lower loading in a nearby well that has been pumped continuously for 15 years. Recent groundwater colloid research is briefly reviewed to identify sampling and characterization methods that may be applicable at the Nevada Test Site.

  14. Colloid retention at the meniscus-wall contact line in an open microchannel. (United States)

    Zevi, Yuniati; Gao, Bin; Zhang, Wei; Morales, Verónica L; Cakmak, M Ekrem; Medrano, Evelyn A; Sang, Wenjing; Steenhuis, Tammo S


    Colloid retention mechanisms in partially saturated porous media are currently being researched with an array of visualization techniques. These visualization techniques have refined our understanding of colloid movement and retention at the pore scale beyond what can be obtained from breakthrough experiments. One of the remaining questions is what mechanisms are responsible for colloid immobilization at the triple point where air, water, and soil grain meet. The objective of this study was to investigate how colloids are transported to the air-water-solid (AWS) contact line in an open triangular microchannel, and then retained as a function of meniscus contact angle with the wall and solution ionic strength. Colloid flow path, meniscus shape and meniscus-wall contact angle, and colloid retention at the AWS contact line were visualized and quantified with a confocal microscope. Experimental results demonstrated that colloid retention at the AWS contact line was significant when the meniscus-wall contact angle was less than 16°, but was minimal for the meniscus-wall contact angles exceeding 20°. Tracking of individual colloids and computational hydrodynamic simulation both revealed that for small contact angles (e.g., 12.5°), counter flow and flow vortices formed near the AWS contact line, but not for large contact angles (e.g., 28°). This counter flow helped deliver the colloids to the wall surface just below the contact line. In accordance with DLVO and hydrodynamic torque calculations, colloid movement may be stopped when the colloid reached the secondary minimum at the wall near the contact line. However, contradictory to the prediction of the torque analysis, colloid retention at the AWS contact line decreased with increasing ionic strength for contact angles of 10-20°, indicating that the air-water interface was involved through both counter flow and capillary force. We hypothesized that capillary force pushed the colloid through the primary energy

  15. Active Colloids in Isotropic and Anisotropic Electrolytes (United States)

    Peng, Chenhui

    Electrically driven flows of fluids with respect to solid surfaces (electro-osmosis) and transport of particles in fluids (electrophoresis), collectively called electrokinetics, is a technologically important area of modern science. In this thesis, we study the electrokinetic phenomena in both isotropic and anisotropic fluids. A necessary condition of electrokinetics is separation of electric charges in space. In classic linear electrokinetics, with an isotropic electrolyte such as water, the charges are separated through dissociation of ionic groups at the solid-fluid interface; presence of the electric field is not required. In the nonlinear electrokinetics, the charges are separated with the assistance of the electric field. In the so-called induced-charge electro-osmosis (ICEO) the electric field separates charges near strongly polarizable surfaces such as metals. We establish the patterns of electro-osmotic velocities caused by nonlinear ICEO around an immobilized metallic and Janus (metallic-dielectric) spheres placed in water. In the case of the Janus particles, the flows are asymmetric, which results in pumping of water around the particle if it is immobilized, or in electrophoresis is the particle is free. When the isotropic electrolyte such as water is replaced with a LC electrolyte, the mechanism of the field-assisted charge separation becomes very different. Namely, the charges are separated at the director gradients, thanks to the anisotropy of electric conductivity and dielectric permittivity of the LC. These distortions can be created by the colloidal particles placed in the LC. We demonstrate the occurrence of nonlinear LC-enabled electro-osmosis (LCEO) by studying the flow patterns around colloidal spheres with different surface anchoring. LCEO velocities grow with the square of the electric field, which allows one to use an AC field to drive steady flows and to avoid electrode damage. Director distortions needed to trigger the LCEO can also be

  16. Ground-state electronic structure of actinide monocarbides and mononitrides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petit, Leon; Svane, Axel; Szotek, Z.


    The self-interaction corrected local spin-density approximation is used to investigate the ground-state valency configuration of the actinide ions in the actinide monocarbides, AC (A=U,Np,Pu,Am,Cm), and the actinide mononitrides, AN. The electronic structure is characterized by a gradually...... to the localization transition. The calculated valence electron densities of states are in good agreement with photoemission data....... increasing degree of f electron localization from U to Cm, with the tendency toward localization being slightly stronger in the (more ionic) nitrides compared to the (more covalent) carbides. The itinerant band picture is found to be adequate for UC and acceptable for UN, while a more complex manifold...

  17. Fate and Transport of Colloidal Energetic Residues (United States)


    stormwater management . Given that most high use target areas are sparsely vegetated, and that targets are often on the “high ground” at operational...compositions. Sandia National Laboratories. Report# SAND2006-6697. 40. Pitt, R., R. Field, M. Lalor, and M. Brown. 1995. Urban stormwater toxic...the Environmental Restoration Program Manager at SERDP, for her guidance. Finally, we wish to acknowledge the DoD facilities and program managers

  18. Formation, Aggregation, and Deposition Dynamics of NOM-Iron Colloids at Anoxic-Oxic Interfaces. (United States)

    Liao, Peng; Li, Wenlu; Jiang, Yi; Wu, Jiewei; Yuan, Songhu; Fortner, John D; Giammar, Daniel E


    The important role of natural organic matter (NOM)-Fe colloids in influencing contaminant transport, and this role can be influenced by the formation, aggregation, and particle deposition dynamics of NOM-Fe colloids. In this work, NOM-Fe colloids at different C/Fe ratios were prepared by mixing different concentrations of humic acid (HA) with 10 mg/L Fe(II) under anoxic conditions. The colloids were characterized by an array of techniques and their aggregation and deposition behaviors were examined under both anoxic and oxic conditions. The colloids are composed of HA-Fe(II) at anoxic conditions, while they are made up of HA-Fe(III) at oxic conditions until the C/Fe molar ratio exceeds 1.6. For C/Fe molar ratios above 1.6, the aggregation and deposition kinetics of HA-Fe(II) colloids under anoxic conditions are slower than those of HA-Fe(III) colloids under oxic conditions. Further, the aggregation of HA-Fe colloids under both anoxic and oxic conditions decreases with increasing C/Fe molar ratio from 1.6 to 23.3. This study highlights the importance of the redox transformation of Fe(II) to Fe(III) and the C/Fe ratio for the formation and stability of NOM-Fe colloids that occur in subsurface environments with anoxic-oxic interfaces.

  19. Measurement of Actinides in Molybdenum-99 Solution Analytical Procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soderquist, Chuck Z. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weaver, Jamie L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    This document is a companion report to a previous report, PNNL 24519, Measurement of Actinides in Molybdenum-99 Solution, A Brief Review of the Literature, August 2015. In this companion report, we report a fast, accurate, newly developed analytical method for measurement of trace alpha-emitting actinide elements in commercial high-activity molybdenum-99 solution. Molybdenum-99 is widely used to produce 99mTc for medical imaging. Because it is used as a radiopharmaceutical, its purity must be proven to be extremely high, particularly for the alpha emitting actinides. The sample of 99Mo solution is measured into a vessel (such as a polyethylene centrifuge tube) and acidified with dilute nitric acid. A gadolinium carrier is added (50 µg). Tracers and spikes are added as necessary. Then the solution is made strongly basic with ammonium hydroxide, which causes the gadolinium carrier to precipitate as hydrous Gd(OH)3. The precipitate of Gd(OH)3 carries all of the actinide elements. The suspension of gadolinium hydroxide is then passed through a membrane filter to make a counting mount suitable for direct alpha spectrometry. The high-activity 99Mo and 99mTc pass through the membrane filter and are separated from the alpha emitters. The gadolinium hydroxide, carrying any trace actinide elements that might be present in the sample, forms a thin, uniform cake on the surface of the membrane filter. The filter cake is first washed with dilute ammonium hydroxide to push the last traces of molybdate through, then with water. The filter is then mounted on a stainless steel counting disk. Finally, the alpha emitting actinide elements are measured by alpha spectrometry.

  20. Colloid release and clogging in porous media: Effects of solution ionic strength and flow velocity. (United States)

    Torkzaban, Saeed; Bradford, Scott A; Vanderzalm, Joanne L; Patterson, Bradley M; Harris, Brett; Prommer, Henning


    The release and retention of in-situ colloids in aquifers play an important role in the sustainable operation of managed aquifer recharge (MAR) schemes. The processes of colloid release, retention, and associated permeability changes in consolidated aquifer sediments were studied by displacing native groundwater with reverse osmosis-treated (RO) water at various flow velocities. Significant amounts of colloid release occurred when: (i) the native groundwater was displaced by RO-water with a low ionic strength (IS), and (ii) the flow velocity was increased in a stepwise manner. The amount of colloid release and associated permeability reduction upon RO-water injection depended on the initial clay content of the core. The concentration of released colloids was relatively low and the permeability reduction was negligible for the core sample with a low clay content of about 1.3%. In contrast, core samples with about 6 and 7.5% clay content exhibited: (i) close to two orders of magnitude increase in effluent colloid concentration and (ii) more than 65% permeability reduction. Incremental improvement in the core permeability was achieved when the flow velocity increased, whereas a short flow interruption provided a considerable increase in the core permeability. This dependence of colloid release and permeability changes on flow velocity and colloid concentration was consistent with colloid retention and release at pore constrictions due to the mechanism of hydrodynamic bridging. A mathematical model was formulated to describe the processes of colloid release, transport, retention at pore constrictions, and subsequent permeability changes. Our experimental and modeling results indicated that only a small fraction of the in-situ colloids was released for any given change in the IS or flow velocity. Comparison of the fitted and experimentally measured effluent colloid concentrations and associated changes in the core permeability showed good agreement, indicating that the

  1. Mobile colloid generation induced by a cementitious plume: mineral surface-charge controls on mobilization. (United States)

    Li, Dien; Kaplan, Daniel I; Roberts, Kimberly A; Seaman, John C


    Cementitious materials are increasingly used as engineered barriers and waste forms for radiological waste disposal. Yet their potential effect on mobile colloid generation is not well-known, especially as it may influence colloid-facilitated contaminant transport. Whereas previous papers have studied the introduction of cement colloids into sediments, this study examined the influence of cement leachate chemistry on the mobilization of colloids from a subsurface sediment collected from the Savannah River Site, USA. A sharp mobile colloid plume formed with the introduction of a cement leachate simulant. Colloid concentrations decreased to background concentrations even though the aqueous chemical conditions (pH and ionic strength) remained unchanged. Mobile colloids were mainly goethite and to a lesser extent kaolinite. The released colloids had negative surface charges and the mean particle sizes ranged primarily from 200 to 470 nm. Inherent mineralogical electrostatic forces appeared to be the controlling colloid removal mechanism in this system. In the background pH of ~6.0, goethite had a positive surface charge, whereas quartz (the dominant mineral in the immobile sediment) and kaolinite had negative surface charges. Goethite acted as a cementing agent, holding kaolinite and itself onto the quartz surfaces due to the electrostatic attraction. Once the pH of the system was elevated, as in the cementitious high pH plume front, the goethite reversed to a negative charge, along with quartz and kaolinite, then goethite and kaolinite colloids were mobilized and a sharp spike in turbidity was observed. Simulating conditions away from the cementitious source, essentially no colloids were mobilized at 1:1000 dilution of the cement leachate or when the leachate pH was ≤ 8. Extreme alkaline pH environments of cementitious leachate may change mineral surface charges, temporarily promoting the formation of mobile colloids.

  2. Iron-rich colloids as carriers of phosphorus in streams: A field-flow fractionation study. (United States)

    Baken, Stijn; Regelink, Inge C; Comans, Rob N J; Smolders, Erik; Koopmans, Gerwin F


    Colloidal phosphorus (P) may represent an important fraction of the P in natural waters, but these colloids remain poorly characterized. In this work, we demonstrate the applicability of asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) coupled to high resolution ICP-MS for the characterization of low concentrations of P-bearing colloids. Colloids from five streams draining catchments with contrasting properties were characterized by AF4-ICP-MS and by membrane filtration. All streams contain free humic substances (2-3 nm) and Fe-bearing colloids (3-1200 nm). Two soft water streams contain primary Fe oxyhydroxide-humic nanoparticles (3-6 nm) and aggregates thereof (up to 150 nm). In contrast, three harder water streams contain larger aggregates (40-1200 nm) which consist of diverse associations between Fe oxyhydroxides, humic substances, clay minerals, and possibly ferric phosphate minerals. Despite the diversity of colloids encountered in these contrasting streams, P is in most of the samples predominantly associated with Fe-bearing colloids (mostly Fe oxyhydroxides) at molar P:Fe ratios between 0.02 and 1.5. The molar P:Fe ratio of the waters explains the partitioning of P between colloids and truly dissolved species. Waters with a high P:Fe ratio predominantly contain truly dissolved species because the Fe-rich colloids are saturated with P, whereas waters with a low P:Fe ratio mostly contain colloidal P species. Overall, AF4-ICP-MS is a suitable technique to characterize the diverse P-binding colloids in natural waters. Such colloids may increase the mobility or decrease the bioavailability of P, and they therefore need to be considered when addressing the transport and environmental effects of P in catchments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Colloid filtration in surface dense vegetation: experimental results and theoretical predictions. (United States)

    Wu, Lei; Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael; Gao, Bin; Yang, Wen; Pachepsky, Yakov A


    Understanding colloid and colloid-facilitated contaminant transport in overland flow through dense vegetation is important to protect water quality in the environment, especially for water bodies receiving agricultural and urban runoff. In previous studies, a single-stem efficiency theory for rigid and clean stem systems was developed to predict colloid filtration by plant stems of vegetation in laminar overland flow. Hence, in order to improve the accuracy of the single-stem efficiency theory to real dense vegetation system, we incorporated the effect of natural organic matter (NOM) on the filtration of colloids by stems. Laboratory dense vegetation flow chamber experiments and model simulations were used to determine the kinetic deposition (filtration) rate of colloids under various conditions. The results show that, in addition to flow hydrodynamics and solution chemistry, steric repulsion afforded by NOM layer on the plants stem surface also plays a significant role in controlling colloid deposition on vegetation in overland flow. For the first time, a refined single-stem efficiency theory with considerations of the NOM effect is developed that describes the experimental data with good accuracy. This theory can be used to not only help construct and refine mathematical models of colloid transport in real vegetation systems in overland flow, but also inform the development of theories of colloid deposition on NOM-coated surfaces in natural, engineered, and biomedical systems.

  4. Thermally unstable complexants/phosphate mineralization of actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)


    In situ immobilization is an approach to isolation of radionuclides from the hydrosphere that is receiving increasing attention. Rather than removing the actinides from contaminated soils, this approach transforms the actinides into intrinsically insoluble mineral phases resistant to leaching by groundwater. The principal advangates of this concept are the low cost and low risk of operator exposure and/or dispersion of the radionuclides to the wider environment. The challenge of this approach is toe accomplish the immobilization without causing collateral damage to the environment (the cure shouldn`t be worse than the disease) and verification of system performance.

  5. New molecules for the separation of actinides (III): the picolinamides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordier, P.Y.; Condamines, N.; Berthon, L.; Madic, C.


    Minor actinide partitioning from high level liquid wastes produced during the reprocessing of nuclear fuels by the Purex process, requires the design of new extracting molecules. These new extractants must be able to separate, for example, actinides from lanthanides. This separation is very difficult, due to the similar chemical properties of these metallic species, but it can possibly be reached by using extractants with soft donor atoms (N or S). Some new molecules : the picolinamides are investigated in this way. The general chemical formula and the behaviour of these compounds in acidic media are given. (O.L.). 3 refs.


    Hildebrandt, R.A.; Hyman, H.H.; Vogler, S.


    A process of countercurrently extracting an aqueous mineral acid feed solution for the separation of actinides from lanthanides dissolved therern is described. The feed solution is made acid-defrcient with alkali metal hydroxide prior with acid extractant; during extraction, however, acid is transferred from organic to aqueous solution and the aqueous solution gradually becomes acid. The acid-deficient phase ' of the process promotes the extraction of the actinides, while the latter acid phase'' of the process improves retention of the lanthanides in the aqueous solution. This provides for an improved separation. (AEC)


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The conclusions of this paper are: (1) mining of actinide cross-sections from reactor data is a viable and inexpensive approach to confirm burn-up codes; (2) extensive data for actinides in Hanford test data ({approx} 200 radiochemical analyses); (3) not only cross-section values and reaction rates can be established but also possible benchmark like data can be constructed to test and validate reactor and criticality safety codes such as SCALE/KENO or MCNPX; and (4) analysis along multiple transmutation paths can be evaluated to show consistency.

  8. Magnetic manipulation of self-assembled colloidal asters.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snezhko, A.; Aranson, I. S. (Materials Science Division)


    Self-assembled materials must actively consume energy and remain out of equilibrium to support structural complexity and functional diversity. Here we show that a magnetic colloidal suspension confined at the interface between two immiscible liquids and energized by an alternating magnetic field dynamically self-assembles into localized asters and arrays of asters, which exhibit locomotion and shape change. By controlling a small external magnetic field applied parallel to the interface, we show that asters can capture, transport, and position target microparticles. The ability to manipulate colloidal structures is crucial for the further development of self-assembled microrobots

  9. Colloidal epitaxy : a real-space analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, Jacob Pieter


    In colloidal epitaxy a patterned substrate is used to manipulate colloidal crystallization. The technique on the one hand serves as a model system to study the effects of interfaces and defects on (colloidal) crystallization and on the other hand as a means to direct colloidal self-assembly for

  10. SRNL Development of Recovery Processes for Mark-18A Heavy Actinide Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allender, Jeffrey S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Bridges, Nicholas J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Loftin, Bradley M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Dunsmuir, Michael D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are developing plans for the recovery of rare and unique isotopes contained within heavy-actinide target assemblies, specifically the Mark-18A. Mark-18A assemblies were irradiated in Savannah River Site (SRS) reactors in the 1970s under extremely high neutron-flux conditions and produced, virtually, the world's supply of plutonium-244, an isotope of key importance to high-precision actinide measurement and other scientific and nonproliferation uses; and curium highly enriched in heavy isotopes (e.g., curium-246 and curium-248). In 2015 and 2016, SRNL is pursuing tasks that would reduce program risk and budget requirements, including further characterization of unprocessed targets; engineering studies for the use of the SRNL Shielded Cells Facility (SCF) for recovery; and development of onsite and offsite shipping methods including a replacement for the heavy (70 ton) cask previously used for onsite transfer of irradiated items at SRS. A status update is provided for the characterization, including modeling using the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP); direct non-destructive assay measurements; and cask design.

  11. Transportation (United States)


    container. It now permits free transit of shipping containers from their western ports, if transported by rail directly to the U.S. ( Mireles , 2005, p...Transportation Industry Study Seminar. Mireles , Richard, Castillo. (2005, January). A Cure for West Coast Congestion. Logistics Today, Vol. 46, Issue 1. 1

  12. Molecular and electronic structure of actinide hexa-cyanoferrates; Structure moleculaire et electronique des hexacyanoferrates d'actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonhoure, I


    The goal of this work is to improve our knowledge on the actinide-ligand bond properties. To this end, the hexacyanoferrate entities have been used as pre-organized ligand. We have synthesized, using mild chemistry, the following series of complexes: An{sup IV}[Fe{sup II}(CN){sub 6}].xH{sub 2}O (An = Th, U, Np, Pu); Am{sup III}[Fe{sup III}(CN){sub 6}].xH{sub 2}O; Pu {sup III}[Co{sup III}(CN){sub 6}].xH{sub 2}O and K(H?)An{sup III}[Fe{sup II}(CN){sub 6}].xH{sub 2}O (An = Pu, Am). The metal oxidation states have been obtained thanks to the {nu}{sub CN}, stretching vibration and to the actinide L{sub III} absorption edge studies. As Prussian Blue, the An{sup IV}[Fe{sup II}(CN){sub 6}].xH{sub 2}O (An = Np, Pu) are class II of Robin and Day compounds. X-ray Diffraction has shown besides that these complexes crystallize in the P6{sub 3}/m space group, as the isomorphic LaKFe(CN){sub 6}.4H{sub 2}O complex used as structural model. The EXAFS oscillations at the iron K edge and at the An L{sub III} edge allowed to determine the An-N, An-O, Fe-C and Fe-N distances. The display of the multiple scattering paths for both edges explains the actinide contribution absence at the iron edge, whereas the iron signature is present at the actinide edge. We have shown that the actinide coordination sphere in actinides hexa-cyanoferrates is comparable to the one of lanthanides. However, the actinides typical behavior towards the lanthanides is brought to the fore by the An{sup IV} versus Ln{sup III} ions presence in this family of complexes. Contrarily to the 4f electrons, the 5f electrons influence the electronic properties of the compounds of this family. However, the gap between the An-N and Ln-N distances towards the corresponding metals ionic radii do not show any covalence bond evolution between the actinide and lanthanide series. (author)

  13. Colloids in Acute Burn Resuscitation. (United States)

    Cartotto, Robert; Greenhalgh, David


    Colloids have been used in varying capacities throughout the history of formula-based burn resuscitation. There is sound experimental evidence that demonstrates colloids' ability to improve intravascular colloid osmotic pressure, expand intravascular volume, reduce resuscitation requirements, and limit edema in unburned tissue following a major burn. Fresh frozen plasma appears to be a useful and effective immediate burn resuscitation fluid but its benefits must be weighed against its costs, and risks of viral transmission and acute lung injury. Albumin, in contrast, is less expensive and safer and has demonstrated ability to reduce resuscitation requirements and possibly limit edema-related morbidity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Investigation of the complexation and the migration of actinides and non-radioactive substances with humic acids under geogenic conditions. Complexation of humic acids with actinides in the ocidation state IV Th, U, Np

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachs, S.; Schmeide, K.; Brendler, V.; Krepelova, A.; Mibus, J.; Geipel, G.; Heise, K.H.; Bernhard, G.


    and the presence of HA. HA exhibits a significant influence on the transport of U(IV) and U(VI) in a laboratory quartz sand system. In order to provide the basis for a more reliable modeling of the actinide transport, the metal ion complexation with HA has to be integrated into existing geochemical speciation codes. Within this project the metal ion charge neutralization model was embedded into the geochemical modeling code EQ3/6. In addition to that, a digital data base was developed which covers HA complexation data basing on the charge neutralization model. (orig.)

  15. Explorative analysis of microbes, colloids and gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallbeck, Lotta; Pedersen, Karsten (Microbial Analytics Sweden AB, Goeteborg (Sweden))


    The overall objectives of the hydrogeochemical description for Forsmark are to establish a detailed understanding of the hydrogeochemical conditions at the site and to develop models that fulfil the needs identified by the safety assessment groups during the site investigation phase. Issues of concern to safety assessment are radionuclide transport and technical barrier behaviour, both of which are dependent on the chemistry of groundwater and pore water and their evolution with time. In this report, part of the final hydrogeochemical evaluation work of the site investigation at the Forsmark site, is presented. The work was conducted by SKB's hydrogeochemical project group, ChemNet, which consists of independent consultants and Univ. researchers with expertise in geochemistry, hydrochemistry, hydrogeochemistry, microbiology, geomicrobiology, analytical chemistry etc. The resulting site descriptive model version, mainly based on 2.2 data and complementary 2.3 data, was carried out during September 2006 to December 2007. This report focuses on microbiology, colloids and gases: - Microbes (Chapter 1): Several methods must be used to characterize active microbial communities in groundwater. Microbial parameters of interest are the total number of cells (TNC) and the presence of various metabolic groups of microorganisms. Different microbial groups influence the environment in different ways, depending on what metabolic group is dominant. Typically, the following redox couples are utilized by bacteria in granitic groundwater: H{sub 2}O/O{sub 2}, NO{sub 3}-/N{sub 2}, Mn2+/Mn(IV), Fe2+/Fe(III), S2-/SO{sub 4}2-, CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 3}COOH/CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}/H+. The data will indicate the activity of specific microbial populations at particular sites and how they may affect the geochemistry. - Colloids (Chapter 2): Particles in the size range from 1 to 1x10-3 mum are regarded as colloids. Their small size prohibits them from settling, which gives them the

  16. Colloid migration in groundwaters: Geochemical interactions of radionuclides with natural colloids. 5. progress report. Period covered: July - December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.I. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Delakowitz, B. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Zeh, P. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Probst, T. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Lin, X. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Ehrlicher, U. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Schauer, C. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Ivanovich, M. [Harwell Lab., AEA Environment and Energy, Oxon (United Kingdom); Longworth, G. [Harwell Lab., AEA Environment and Energy, Oxon (United Kingdom); Hasler, S.E. [Harwell Lab., AEA Environment and Energy, Oxon (United Kingdom); Gardiner, M. [Harwell Lab., AEA Decommissioning and RadWaste, Oxon (United Kingdom); Fritz, P. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit GmbH, Neuherberg (Germany); Klotz, D. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit GmbH, Neuherberg (Germany); Lazik, D. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit GmbH, Neuherberg (Germany); Wolf, M. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit GmbH, Neuherberg (Germany); Geyer, S. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit GmbH, Neuherberg (Germany); Alexander, J.L. [Atkins (W.S.) Engineering Sciences, Epsom (United Kingdom); Read, D. [Atkins (W.S.) Engineering Sciences, Epsom (United Kingdom); Thomas, J.B. [Atkins (W.S.) Engineering Sciences, Epsom (United Kingdom)


    The aim of the joint research programme is to determine the significance of groundwater colloids in far field radionuclide migration. The characterization, quantification and theoretical interpretation of colloid-borne transport phenomena of radionuclides in selected Gorleben aquifer systems are the main objectives of the present research programme. Gorleben aquifer systems are chosen because they are well characterized in terms of their hydrological and geological properties and because they contain substantial amounts of colloids of different chemical compositions as well as considerable quantities of chemical homologues and natural analogues of radionuclides, e.g. M(III), M(IV), M(VI), and Th and U decay series. The research tasks are investigated jointly by the four laboratories (listed below) in close coordination of experimental capacities of each laboratory. (orig.)

  17. Citrate based ``TALSPEAK`` lanthanide-actinide separation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Cul, G.D.; Bond, W.D.; Toth, L.M.; Davis, G.D.; Dai, S.; Metcalf, D.H.


    The potential hazard posed to future generations by long-lived radionuclides such as the transuranic elements (TRU) is perceived as a major problem associated with the use of nuclear power. TRU wastes have to remain isolated from the environment for ``geological`` periods of time. The costs of building, maintaining, and operating a ``geological TRU repository`` can be very high. Therefore, there are significant economical advantages in segregating the relatively low volume of TRU wastes from other nuclear wastes. The chemical behavior of lanthanides and actinides, 4f and 5f elements respectively, is rather similar. As a consequence, the separation of these two groups is difficult. The ``TALSPEAK`` process (Trivalent Actinide Lanthanide Separations by Phosphorus-reagent Extraction from Aqueous Complexes) is one of the few means available to separate the trivalent actinides from the lanthanides. The method is based on the preferential complexation of the trivalent actinides by an aminopolyacetic acid. Cold experiments showed that by using citric acid the deleterious effects produced by impurities such as zirconium are greatly reduced.

  18. Actinide Sputtering Induced by Fission with Ultra-cold Neutrons (United States)

    Shi, Tan; Venuti, Michael; Fellers, Deion; Martin, Sean; Morris, Chris; Makela, Mark


    Understanding the effects of actinide sputtering due to nuclear fission is important for a wide range of applications, including nuclear fuel storage, space science, and national defense. A new program at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center uses ultracold neutrons (UCN) to induce fission in actinides such as uranium and plutonium. By controlling the UCN energy, it is possible to induce fission at the sample surface within a well-defined depth. It is therefore an ideal tool for studying the effects of fission-induced sputtering as a function of interaction depth. Since the mechanism for fission-induced surface damage is not well understood, this work has the potential to deconvolve the various damage mechanisms. During the irradiation with UCN, NaI detectors are used to monitor the fission events and were calibrated by monitoring fission fragments with an organic scintillator. Alpha spectroscopy of the ejected actinide material is performed in an ion chamber to determine the amount of sputtered material. Actinide samples with various sample properties and surface conditions are irradiated and analyzed. In this talk, I will discuss our experimental setup and present the preliminary results from the testing of multiple samples. This work has been supported by Los Alamos National Laboratory and Seaborg Summer Research Fellowship.

  19. Electron-phonon coupling of the actinide metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, H. L.; Mertig, I.


    -phonon parameter λ is found to attain its maximum value in Ac, and they predict a transition temperature of 9K for this metal. In the light actinides Th through Pu, λ is found to be of order 0.4 and within a factor of 2 of experiments which is also the accuracy found in studies of the transition metals...

  20. Innovative SANEX process for trivalent actinides separation from PUREX raffinate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sypula, Michal


    Recycling of nuclear spent fuel and reduction of its radiotoxicity by separation of long-lived radionuclides would definitely help to close the nuclear fuel cycle ensuring sustainability of the nuclear energy. Partitioning of the main radiotoxicity contributors followed by their conversion into short-lived radioisotopes is known as partitioning and transmutation strategy. To ensure efficient transmutation of the separated elements (minor actinides) the content of lanthanides in the irradiation targets has to be minimised. This objective can be attained by solvent extraction using highly selective ligands that are able to separate these two groups of elements from each other. The objective of this study was to develop a novel process allowing co-separation of minor actinides and lanthanides from a high active acidic feed solution with subsequent actinide recovery using just one cycle, so-called innovative SANEX process. The conditions of each step of the process were optimised to ensure high actinide separation efficiency. Additionally, screening tests of several novel lipophilic and hydrophilic ligands provided by University of Twente were performed. These tests were aiming in better understanding the influence of the extractant structural modifications onto An(III)/Ln(III) selectivity and complexation properties. Optimal conditions for minor actinides separation were found and a flow-sheet of a new innovative SANEX process was proposed. Tests using a single centrifugal contactor confirmed high Eu(III)/Am(III) separation factor of 15 while the lowest SF{sub Ln/Am} obtained was 6,5 (for neodymium). In addition, a new masking agent for zirconium was found as a substitution for oxalic acid. This new masking agent (CDTA) was also able to mask palladium without any negative influence on An(III)/Ln(III). Additional tests showed no influence of CDTA on plutonium present in the feed solution unlike oxalic acid which causes Pu precipitation. Therefore, CDTA was proposed as

  1. Mechanical Failure in Colloidal Gels (United States)

    Kodger, Thomas Edward

    When colloidal particles in a dispersion are made attractive, they aggregate into fractal clusters which grow to form a space-spanning network, or gel, even at low volume fractions. These gels are crucial to the rheological behavior of many personal care, food products and dispersion-based paints. The mechanical stability of these products relies on the stability of the colloidal gel network which acts as a scaffold to provide these products with desired mechanical properties and to prevent gravitational sedimentation of the dispersed components. Understanding the mechanical stability of such colloidal gels is thus of crucial importance to predict and control the properties of many soft solids. Once a colloidal gel forms, the heterogeneous structure bonded through weak physical interactions, is immediately subject to body forces, such as gravity, surface forces, such as adhesion to a container walls and shear forces; the interplay of these forces acting on the gel determines its stability. Even in the absence of external stresses, colloidal gels undergo internal rearrangements within the network that may cause the network structure to evolve gradually, in processes known as aging or coarsening or fail catastrophically, in a mechanical instability known as syneresis. Studying gel stability in the laboratory requires model colloidal system which may be tuned to eliminate these body or endogenous forces systematically. Using existing chemistry, I developed several systems to study delayed yielding by eliminating gravitational stresses through density matching and cyclic heating to induce attraction; and to study syneresis by eliminating adhesion to the container walls, altering the contact forces between colloids, and again, inducing gelation through heating. These results elucidate the varied yet concomitant mechanisms by which colloidal gels may locally or globally yield, but then reform due to the nature of the physical, or non-covalent, interactions which form

  2. Emergent behavior in active colloids


    Zöttl, Andreas; Stark, Holger


    Active colloids are microscopic particles, which self-propel through viscous fluids by converting energy extracted from their environment into directed motion. We first explain how articial microswimmers move forward by generating near-surface flow fields via self-phoresis or the self-induced Marangoni effect. We then discuss generic features of the dynamics of single active colloids in bulk and in confinement, as well as in the presence of gravity, field gradients, and fluid flow. In the thi...

  3. Sequestering agents for the removal of actinides from waste streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, K.N.; White, D.J.; Xu, Jide; Mohs, T.R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    The goal of this project is to take a biomimetic approach toward developing new separation technologies for the removal of radioactive elements from contaminated DOE sites. To achieve this objective, the authors are investigating the fundamental chemistry of naturally occurring, highly specific metal ion sequestering agents and developing them into liquid/liquid and solid supported actinide extraction agents. Nature produces sideophores (e.g., Enterobactin and Desferrioxamine B) to selectivity sequester Lewis acidic metal ions, in particular Fe(III), from its surroundings. These chelating agents typically use multiple catechols or hydroxamic acids to form polydentate ligands that chelate the metal ion forming very stable complexes. The authors are investigating and developing analogous molecules into selective chelators targeting actinide(IV) ions, which display similar properties to Fe(III). By taking advantage of differences in charge, preferred coordination number, and pH stability range, the transition from nature to actinide sequestering agents has been applied to the development of new and highly selective actinide extraction technologies. Additionally, the authors have shown that these chelating ligands are versatile ligands for chelating U(VI). In particular, they have been studying their coordination chemistry and fundamental interactions with the uranyl ion [UO{sub 2}]{sup 2+}, the dominant form of uranium found in aqueous media. With an understanding of this chemistry, and results obtained from in vivo uranium sequestration studies, it should be possible to apply these actinide(IV) extraction technologies to the development of new extraction agents for the removal of uranium from waste streams.

  4. The INE-Beamline for actinide science at ANKA. (United States)

    Rothe, J; Butorin, S; Dardenne, K; Denecke, M A; Kienzler, B; Löble, M; Metz, V; Seibert, A; Steppert, M; Vitova, T; Walther, C; Geckeis, H


    Since its inauguration in 2005, the INE-Beamline for actinide research at the synchrotron source ANKA (KIT North Campus) provides dedicated instrumentation for x-ray spectroscopic characterization of actinide samples and other radioactive materials. R&D work at the beamline focuses on various aspects of nuclear waste disposal within INE's mission to provide the scientific basis for assessing long-term safety of a final nuclear waste repository. The INE-Beamline is accessible for the actinide and radiochemistry community through the ANKA proposal system and the European Union Integrated Infrastructure Initiative ACTINET-I3. Experiments with activities up to 1 × 10(+6) times the European exemption limit are feasible within a safe but flexible containment concept. Measurements with monochromatic radiation are performed at photon energies varying between ~2.1 keV (P K-edge) and ~25 keV (Pd K-edge), including the lanthanide L-edges and the actinide M- and L3-edges up to Cf. The close proximity of the INE-Beamline to INE controlled area labs offers infrastructure unique in Europe for the spectroscopic and microscopic characterization of actinide samples. The modular beamline design enables sufficient flexibility to adapt sample environments and detection systems to many scientific questions. The well-established bulk techniques x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy in transmission and fluorescence mode have been augmented by advanced methods using a microfocused beam, including (confocal) XAFS/x-ray fluorescence detection and a combination of (micro-)XAFS and (micro-)x-ray diffraction. Additional instrumentation for high energy-resolution x-ray emission spectroscopy has been successfully developed and tested. © 2012 American Institute of Physics

  5. Effect of particle shape on colloid retention and release in saturated porous media. (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Lazouskaya, Volha; He, Qingxiang; Jin, Yan


    Colloidal particles of environmental concern often have nonspherical shapes. However, theories and models such as the classical filtration theory have been developed based on the behavior of spherical particles. This study examined the effect of particle shape on colloid retention (e.g., attachment and straining) and release in saturated porous media. Two- and three-step transport experiments were conducted in water-saturated glass bead columns using colloids dispersed in deionized water and an electrolyte solution. The particles used in the experiments were carboxylate-modified latex colloids of spherical (500 nm diam.) and rod (aspect ratio, 7.0) shapes. The rod-like particles were prepared by stretching the spherical particles. Analysis of the colloid breakthrough curves indicates that particle shape affected transport behavior, but retention did not increase with increasing aspect ratio. Retention of the spherical particles occurred mainly in the secondary energy minimum, whereas retention of rod-like particles occurred in primary and secondary energy minima. There was less straining of rod-like particles compared with spherical ones, indicating that the minor axis was the critical dimension controlling the process. Release of spherical particles on elution was instantaneous, whereas release of rod-like particles was rate limited, giving rise to long tails, implying an orientation effect for rod-like colloids. The results suggest that the differences in electrostatic properties and shape contributed to the observed different retention and release behaviors of the two colloids.

  6. Modeling dense-colloid and virus cotransport in three-dimensional porous media. (United States)

    Katzourakis, Vasileios E; Chrysikopoulos, Constantinos V


    A three-dimensional numerical model was developed to investigate the simultaneous transport (cotransport) of dense colloids and viruses in homogeneous, water saturated, porous media with horizontal uniform flow. The dense colloids are assumed to exist in two different phases: suspended in the aqueous phase, and attached reversibly and/or irreversibly onto the solid matrix. The viruses are assumed to exist in four different phases: suspended in aqueous phase, attached onto the solid matrix, attached onto suspended colloids, and attached onto colloids already attached onto the solid matrix. The viruses in each of the four phases are assumed to undergo inactivation with different rates. Moreover, the suspended dense colloids as well as viruses attached onto suspended dense colloids are assumed to exhibit a "restricted" settling velocity as a consequence of the gravitational force; whereas, viruses due to their small sizes and densities are assumed to have negligible "restricted" settling velocity. The governing differential equations were solved numerically with the finite difference schemes, implicitly or explicitly implemented. Model simulations have shown that the presence of dense colloid particles can either enhance or hinder the horizontal transport of viruses, but also can increase the vertical migration of viruses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Waste Form and Indrift Colloids-Associated Radionuclide Concentrations: Abstraction and Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Aguilar


    This Model Report describes the analysis and abstractions of the colloids process model for the waste form and engineered barrier system components of the total system performance assessment calculations to be performed with the Total System Performance Assessment-License Application model. Included in this report is a description of (1) the types and concentrations of colloids that could be generated in the waste package from degradation of waste forms and the corrosion of the waste package materials, (2) types and concentrations of colloids produced from the steel components of the repository and their potential role in radionuclide transport, and (3) types and concentrations of colloids present in natural waters in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain. Additionally, attachment/detachment characteristics and mechanisms of colloids anticipated in the repository are addressed and discussed. The abstraction of the process model is intended to capture the most important characteristics of radionuclide-colloid behavior for use in predicting the potential impact of colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport on repository performance.

  8. Actinides compounds for the transmutation: scientific contributions of american and japanese collaborations; Composes d'actinides pour la transmutation: apports scientifiques de collaborations americaines et japonaises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raison, Ph.; Albiot, T


    This paper deals with the minor actinides transmutation and the scientific contribution of the ORNL and the JAERI. It presents researches on the Am-Zr-Y-O system in the framework of the heterogeneous reprocessing, the curium and pyrochlore structures, with the ORNL contribution and phase diagrams, data of Thermodynamics, actinides nitrides, with the JAERI. (A.L.B.)

  9. Solubility of actinides and surrogates in nuclear glasses; Solubilite des actinides et de leurs simulants dans les verres nucleaires. Limites d'incorporation et comprehension des mecanismes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Ch


    The nuclear wastes are currently incorporated in borosilicate glass matrices. The resulting glass must be perfectly homogeneous. The work discussed here is a study of actinide (thorium and plutonium) solubility in borosilicate glass, undertaken to assess the extent of actinide solubility in the glass and to understand the mechanisms controlling actinide solubilization. Glass specimens containing; actinide surrogates were used to prepare and optimize the fabrication of radioactive glass samples. These preliminary studies revealed that actinide Surrogates solubility in the glass was enhanced by controlling the processing temperature, the dissolution kinetic of the surrogate precursors, the glass composition and the oxidizing versus reducing conditions. The actinide solubility was investigated in the borosilicate glass. The evolution of thorium solubility in borosilicate glass was determined for temperatures ranging from 1200 deg C to 1400 deg C.Borosilicate glass specimens containing plutonium were fabricated. The experimental result showed that the plutonium solubility limit ranged from 1 to 2.5 wt% PuO{sub 2} at 1200 deg C. A structural approach based on the determination of the local structure around actinides and their surrogates by EXAFS spectroscopy was used to determine their structural role in the glass and the nature of their bonding with the vitreous network. This approach revealed a correlation between the length of these bonds and the solubility of the actinides and their surrogates. (author)

  10. Laser induced breakdown detection for the assessment of colloid mediated radionuclide migration

    CERN Document Server

    Walther, C; Hauser, W; Kim, J I; Scherbaum, F J


    Colloids play an important role in the transport of pollutants in the environment. Harmful substances can undergo transport over large distances if bound to colloids in aqueous surrounding. One important example is the migration of Pu(IV) at unexpectedly high rates over several miles at a Nevada nuclear detonation test site. For long term safety assessments of radioactive waste repositories, it is hence crucial to know about the amount, size distribution and chemical composition of colloids in the ground water. Standard methods (e.g. light scattering) can be applied for high concentrations and large sizes of particles. Colloids smaller than 50 nm, however, are detected with very low efficiency. Laser induced breakdown detection (LIBD) can fill this gap. A new instrumentation is presented, which as compared to previous instruments, opens up a much wider operational dynamic range, now covering three orders of magnitude in size (5-1000 nm) and seven orders of magnitude in particle concentration (1 ppt - several ...

  11. Toward coordinated colloids: site-selective growth of titania on patchy silica particles. (United States)

    Bae, Changdeuck; Kim, Hyunchul; Montero Moreno, Josep M; Yi, Gi-Ra; Shin, Hyunjung


    Rational synthesis of coordinated spherical colloids is reported by site-selective growth of secondary hemispherical patches on primary spherical particles with quasi-defined coordination numbers and positions. We clarify the importance of mass transport phenomena on the site-specific secondary nucleation/growth in nanoparticulate colloidal systems. By comparing ultrasonic and conventional agitation during patch growth, we found that enhanced mass transfer is the key to controlled, homogeneous transport of the molecular precursors in a solvent onto the nanoparticles. With chemically defined nucleation sites, the surfaces of spherical silica particles were modified for use as a new kind of colloid with patches at desired coordination positions. Our observations represent a significant breakthrough in colloidal chemistry and self-assembly.

  12. Computation of shear viscosity of colloidal suspensions by SRD-MD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laganapan, A. M. K.; Videcoq, A., E-mail:; Bienia, M. [SPCTS, UMR 7315, ENSCI, CNRS, Centre Européen de la Céramique, 12 rue Atlantis, 87068 Limoges Cedex (France); Ala-Nissila, T. [COMP CoE at the Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University School of Science, P.O. Box 11000, FIN-00076 Aalto, Espoo (Finland); Department of Physics, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912-1843 (United States); Bochicchio, D.; Ferrando, R. [Dipartimento di Fisica and CNR-IMEM, via Dodecaneso 33, Genova I-16146 (Italy)


    The behaviour of sheared colloidal suspensions with full hydrodynamic interactions (HIs) is numerically studied. To this end, we use the hybrid stochastic rotation dynamics-molecular dynamics (SRD-MD) method. The shear viscosity of colloidal suspensions is computed for different volume fractions, both for dilute and concentrated cases. We verify that HIs help in the collisions and the streaming of colloidal particles, thereby increasing the overall shear viscosity of the suspension. Our results show a good agreement with known experimental, theoretical, and numerical studies. This work demonstrates the ability of SRD-MD to successfully simulate transport coefficients that require correct modelling of HIs.

  13. Colloid Mobilization and Porous Media Permeability Changes by Dynamic Stress Stimulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Fattah, Amr I. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Roberts, Peter M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tarimala, Sowmitri [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ibrahim, Reem [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Beckham, Richard [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    Laboratory experiments on porous rock cores have shown that seismic-band (100 Hz or less) mechanical stress/strain cycling of the rock matrix can mobilize sub-pore-size particles (colloids) trapped in the pore space and allow them to be expelled during steady-state water flow. This coupling of dynamic stress to colloid mobility is a potential key mechanism whereby seismic waves may alter formation permeability and porous mass transport in Earth's crust. Experiments where colloid suspensions were injected into Fontainebleau sandstone cores demonstrated that colloid size and the ionic strength of the suspending fluid are major parameters that will control the ability of the colloids to attach to pore walls or to form particle bridges at pore throats. Both effects can lead to significant changes in permeability. A unique core-holder apparatus that applies low-frequency mechanical stress/strain to 2.54-cm-diameter porous rock samples during constant-rate fluid flow was used for those experiments. Microsphere injection caused the core's permeability to decline due to colloid bridging at pore throats. It was found that dynamic stress at 25 to 50 Hz mobilized these trapped colloids mainly when the ionic strength is low, and thereby partially restored the permeability of the sample. These earlier experiments on natural rocks were difficult to interpret in terms of how the colloids distributed themselves throughout the heterogeneous pore space and what interactions were occurring between the colloids and the solid matrix. Observed permeability changes appeared to be confined to the first 5-10 cm of the rock where the colloids were injected, yet significant transport of colloids was observed along the entire length of the sample. The 'natural rock' system is too complex geometrically at the pore scale to allow quantification of mass transport properties along its entire length. To remedy this problem, new colloid transport experiments were performed with

  14. Computation of shear viscosity of colloidal suspensions by SRD-MD (United States)

    Laganapan, A. M. K.; Videcoq, A.; Bienia, M.; Ala-Nissila, T.; Bochicchio, D.; Ferrando, R.


    The behaviour of sheared colloidal suspensions with full hydrodynamic interactions (HIs) is numerically studied. To this end, we use the hybrid stochastic rotation dynamics-molecular dynamics (SRD-MD) method. The shear viscosity of colloidal suspensions is computed for different volume fractions, both for dilute and concentrated cases. We verify that HIs help in the collisions and the streaming of colloidal particles, thereby increasing the overall shear viscosity of the suspension. Our results show a good agreement with known experimental, theoretical, and numerical studies. This work demonstrates the ability of SRD-MD to successfully simulate transport coefficients that require correct modelling of HIs.

  15. Transportes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidalgo Fernández-Cano, Amalio


    Full Text Available El movimiento de materiales dentro de la Factoría está atendido por tres principales medios de transporte, en consonancia con las características del material y de los desplazamientos. Así se han establecido: sistemas de cintas transportadoras, una red ferroviaria de ancho normal y una completa malla de caminos enlazando funcionalmente las instalaciones.

  16. EDITORIAL: Colloidal dispersions in external fields Colloidal dispersions in external fields (United States)

    Löwen, Hartmut


    tailor a random substrate potential for colloids [20] or to bind colloids optically [21]. External magnetic fields are typically used to create dipolar repulsions of colloids pending at an air-water interface. This provides an avenue to two-dimensional systems, where the freezing transition [22] and various transport phenomena through channels are the focus of recent research [23, 24]. Confinement typically leads to interfaces. The classical problem of the Tolman length for a fluid-fluid interface is reviewed in detail in [25]. In fact, colloid-polymer mixtures constitute ideal model systems for liquid-gas interfaces in various geometries [26] and are also suitable for measuring the Tolman length experimentally. Crystalline phases in confinement [27] and crystal-fluid interfaces [28] are even more complex due to the inhomogeneity of the solid phase. Also in the confined fluid phase, there are still open issues in slit-pore geometry. These include how to scale the interparticle distance [29] and how to measure hydrodynamic interactions between colloidal particles [30]. Other external fields which can be applied to colloids are gravity [31] and temperature [32]. An important field of recently emerging research is active colloidal particles (so-called microswimmers) which possess fascinating nonequilibrium properties; for recent reviews see [33-35]. Two examples are also included in this issue: an active deformable particle [36] moving in gravity and the collective turbulent swarming behaviour of dense self-propelled colloidal rod suspensions [37]. References [1]Löwen H 2001 J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13 R415 [2]Löwen H and Likos C N (ed) 2004 J. Phys. Condens. Matter 16 (special issue) [3]Löwen H 1976 J. Phys. Condens. Matter 20 404201 [4]Guu D, Dhont J K G, Vliegenthart G A and Lettinga M P 2012 J. Phys. Condens. Matter 24 464101 [5]Gupta S, Kundu S, Stellbrink J, Willner L, Allgaier J and Richter D 2012 J. Phys. Condens. Matter 24 464102 [6]Singh S P, Fedosov D A

  17. Crack formation and prevention in colloidal drops (United States)

    Kim, Jin Young; Cho, Kun; Ryu, Seul-A.; Kim, So Youn; Weon, Byung Mook


    Crack formation is a frequent result of residual stress release from colloidal films made by the evaporation of colloidal droplets containing nanoparticles. Crack prevention is a significant task in industrial applications such as painting and inkjet printing with colloidal nanoparticles. Here, we illustrate how colloidal drops evaporate and how crack generation is dependent on the particle size and initial volume fraction, through direct visualization of the individual colloids with confocal laser microscopy. To prevent crack formation, we suggest use of a versatile method to control the colloid-polymer interactions by mixing a nonadsorbing polymer with the colloidal suspension, which is known to drive gelation of the particles with short-range attraction. Gelation-driven crack prevention is a feasible and simple method to obtain crack-free, uniform coatings through drying-mediated assembly of colloidal nanoparticles.

  18. Metallic Colloid Wavelength-Ratiometric Scattering Sensors (United States)

    Roll, David; Malicka, Joanna; Gryczynski, Ignacy; Gryczynski, Zygmunt


    Gold and silver colloids display strong colors as a result of electron oscillations induced by incident light, which are referred to as the plasmon absorption. This absorption is dependent on colloid–colloid proximity, which has been the basis of absorption assays using colloids. We now describe a new approach to optical sensing using the light scattering properties of colloids. Colloid aggregation was induced by avidin–biotin interactions, which shifted the plasmon absorption to longer wavelengths. We found the spectral shift results in changes in the scattering at different incident wavelengths. By measuring the ratio of scattered intensities at two incident wavelengths, this measurement was made independent of the total colloid concentration. The high scattering efficiency of the colloids resulted in intensities equivalent to fluorescence when normalized by the optical density of the fluorophore and colloid. This approach can be used in a wide variety of assay formats, including those commonly used with fluorescence detection. PMID:14570195

  19. Crack formation and prevention in colloidal drops. (United States)

    Kim, Jin Young; Cho, Kun; Ryu, Seul-A; Kim, So Youn; Weon, Byung Mook


    Crack formation is a frequent result of residual stress release from colloidal films made by the evaporation of colloidal droplets containing nanoparticles. Crack prevention is a significant task in industrial applications such as painting and inkjet printing with colloidal nanoparticles. Here, we illustrate how colloidal drops evaporate and how crack generation is dependent on the particle size and initial volume fraction, through direct visualization of the individual colloids with confocal laser microscopy. To prevent crack formation, we suggest use of a versatile method to control the colloid-polymer interactions by mixing a nonadsorbing polymer with the colloidal suspension, which is known to drive gelation of the particles with short-range attraction. Gelation-driven crack prevention is a feasible and simple method to obtain crack-free, uniform coatings through drying-mediated assembly of colloidal nanoparticles.

  20. Chemistry of the actinide elements. Vol. 2. 2. Ed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, J.J.; Morss, L.R.; Seaborg, G.T. (eds.)


    This is a comprehensive, exposition of the chemistry and related properties of the 5f series of elements: actinium, thorium, protactinium, uranium and the first eleven transuranium elements. The descriptions of each element include accounts of their history, separation, metallurgy, solid-state chemistry, solution chemistry, thermodynamics and kinetics. Additionally, separate chapters on spectroscopy, magnetochemistry, thermodynamics, solids, the metallic state, complex ions and organometallic compounds emphasize the comparative chemistry and unique properties of the actinide series of elements. Comprehensive list of properties of all actinide compounds and ions in solution are given, and there are special sections on such topics as biochemistry, superconductivity, radioisotope safety, and waste management, as well as discussion of the transactinides and future elements.

  1. Superabsorbing gel for actinide, lanthanide, and fission product decontamination (United States)

    Kaminski, Michael D.; Mertz, Carol J.


    The present invention provides an aqueous gel composition for removing actinide ions, lanthanide ions, fission product ions, or a combination thereof from a porous surface contaminated therewith. The composition comprises a polymer mixture comprising a gel forming cross-linked polymer and a linear polymer. The linear polymer is present at a concentration that is less than the concentration of the cross-linked polymer. The polymer mixture is at least about 95% hydrated with an aqueous solution comprising about 0.1 to about 3 percent by weight (wt %) of a multi-dentate organic acid chelating agent, and about 0.02 to about 0.6 molar (M) carbonate salt, to form a gel. When applied to a porous surface contaminated with actinide ions, lanthanide ions, and/or other fission product ions, the aqueous gel absorbs contaminating ions from the surface.

  2. Actinide-specific sequestering agents and decontamination applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, William L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials and Molecular Research Division; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Raymond, Kenneth N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials and Molecular Research Division; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry


    With the commercial development of nuclear reactors, the actinides have become very important industrial elements. A major concern of the nuclear industry is the biological hazard associated with nuclear fuels and their wastes. The acute chemical toxicity of tetravalent actinides, as exemplified by Th(IV), is similar to Cr(III) or Al(III). However, the acute toxicity of 239Pu(IV) is similar to strychnine, which is much more toxic than any of the non-radioactive metals such as mercury. Although the more radioactive isotopes of the transuranium elements are more acutely toxic by weight than plutonium, the acute toxicities of 239Pu, 241Am, and 244Cm are nearly identical in radiation dose, ~100 μCi/kg in rodents. Finally and thus, the extreme acute toxicity of 239Pu is attributed to its high specific activity of alpha emission.

  3. Status of measurements of fission neutron spectra of Minor Actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drapchinsky, L.; Shiryaev, B. [V.G. Khlopin Radium Inst., Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation)


    The report considers experimental and theoretical works on studying the energy spectra of prompt neutrons emitted in spontaneous fission and neutron induced fission of Minor Actinides. It is noted that neutron spectra investigations were done for only a small number of such nuclei, most measurements, except those of Cf-252, having been carried out long ago by obsolete methods and imperfectapparatus. The works have no detailed description of experiments, analysis of errors, detailed numerical information about results of experiments. A conclusion is made that the available data do not come up to modern requirements. It is necessary to make new measurements of fission prompt neutron spectra of transuranium nuclides important for the objectives of working out a conception of minor actinides transmutation by means of special reactors. (author)

  4. Development of a remote bushing for actinide vitrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, R.F.; Ramsey, W.G.; Johnson, F.M. [and others


    The Savannah River Site (SRS) and the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) are combining their existing experience in handling highly radioactive, special nuclear materials with commercial glass fiberization technology in order to assemble a small vitrification system for radioactive actinide solutions. The vitrification system or {open_quotes}brushing{close_quotes}, is fabricated from platinum-rhodium alloy and is based on early marble remelt fiberization technology. Advantages of this unique system include its relatively small size, reliable operation, geometrical safety (nuclear criticality), and high temperature capability. The bushing design should be capable of vitrifying a number of the actinide nuclear materials, including solutions of americium/curium, neptunium, and possibly plutonium. State of the art, mathematical and oil model studies are being combined with basic engineering evaluations to verify and improve the thermal and mechanical design concepts.

  5. Partitioning of Mercury from Actinides in the TRUEX Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiskum, Sandra K.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Rapko, Brian M.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Lumetta, Gregg J.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))


    A mercury complexant, L-cysteine hydrochloride, was tested for use in separating Hg from actinides during TRUEX processing of wastes at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Mercury, americium, plutonium and uranyl distributions from TRUEX solvent were characterized over a nitric acid concentration range of 0.01 to 2 M. The applicability of cysteine was also evaluated for selective Hg complexation in an INEEL sodium-bearing waste simulant. A test was also conducted to evaluate the applicability of cysteine to separate Hg from Sr in the SREX process with Sr Resin used as a stand-in for the SREX process solvent. In all cases, the use of L-cysteine HCl retained Hg in the aqueous phase while causing no or little perturbation in the actinide and Sr distribution behavior.

  6. Atomic properties of actinide ions with particle-hole configurations (United States)

    Safronova, M. S.; Safronova, U. I.; Kozlov, M. G.


    We study the effects of higher-order electronic correlations in the systems with particle-hole excited states using a relativistic hybrid method that combines configuration interaction and linearized coupled-cluster approaches. We find the configuration interaction part of the calculation sufficiently complete for eight electrons while maintaining good quality of the effective coupled-cluster potential for the core. Excellent agreement with experiment was demonstrated for a test case of La3 +. We apply our method for homolog actinide ions Th4 + and U6 + which are of experimental interest due to a puzzle associated with the resonant excitation Stark ionization spectroscopy method. These ions are also of interest to actinide chemistry.

  7. Probing deviations from traditional colloid filtration theory by atomic forces microscopy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reno, Marissa Devan


    Colloid transport through saturated media is an integral component of predicting the fate and transport of groundwater contaminants. Developing sound predictive capabilities and establishing effective methodologies for remediation relies heavily on our ability to understand the pertinent physical and chemical mechanisms. Traditionally, colloid transport through saturated media has been described by classical colloid filtration theory (CFT), which predicts an exponential decrease in colloid concentration with travel distance. Furthermore, colloid stability as determined by Derjaguin-Landau-Veney-Overbeek (DLVO) theory predicts permanent attachment of unstable particles in a primary energy minimum. However, recent studies show significant deviations from these traditional theories. Deposition in the secondary energy minimum has been suggested as a mechanism by which observed deviations can occur. This work investigates the existence of the secondary energy minimum as predicted by DLVO theory using direct force measurements obtained by Atomic Forces Microscopy. Interaction energy as a function of separation distance between a colloid and a quartz surface in electrolyte solutions of varying ionic strength are obtained. Preliminary force measurements show promise and necessary modifications to the current experimental methodology have been identified. Stringent surface cleaning procedures and the use of high-purity water for all injectant solutions is necessary for the most accurate and precise measurements. Comparisons between direct physical measurements by Atomic Forces Microscopy with theoretical calculations and existing experimental findings will allow the evaluation of the existence or absence of a secondary energy minimum.

  8. Comparative Study of f-Element Electronic Structure across a Series of Multimetallic Actinide, Lanthanide-Actinide and Lanthanum-Actinide Complexes Possessing Redox-Active Bridging Ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schelter, Eric J.; Wu, Ruilian; Veauthier, Jacqueline M.; Bauer, Eric D.; Booth, Corwin H.; Thomson, Robert K.; Graves, Christopher R.; John, Kevin D.; Scott, Brian L.; Thompson, Joe D.; Morris, David E.; Kiplinger, Jaqueline L.


    A comparative examination of the electronic interactions across a series of trimetallic actinide and mixed lanthanide-actinide and lanthanum-actinide complexes is presented. Using reduced, radical terpyridyl ligands as conduits in a bridging framework to promote intramolecular metal-metal communication, studies containing structural, electrochemical, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy are presented for (C{sub 5}Me{sub 5}){sub 2}An[-N=C(Bn)(tpy-M{l_brace}C{sub 5}Me4R{r_brace}{sub 2})]{sub 2} (where An = Th{sup IV}, U{sup IV}; Bn = CH{sub 2}C{sub 6}H{sub 5}; M = La{sup III}, Sm{sup III}, Yb{sup III}, U{sup III}; R = H, Me, Et) to reveal effects dependent on the identities of the metal ions and R-groups. The electrochemical results show differences in redox energetics at the peripheral 'M' site between complexes and significant wave splitting of the metal- and ligand-based processes indicating substantial electronic interactions between multiple redox sites across the actinide-containing bridge. Most striking is the appearance of strong electronic coupling for the trimetallic Yb{sup III}-U{sup IV}-Yb{sup III}, Sm{sup III}-U{sup IV}-Sm{sup III}, and La{sup III}-U{sup IV}-La{sup III} complexes, [8]{sup -}, [9b]{sup -} and [10b]{sup -}, respectively, whose calculated comproportionation constant K{sub c} is slightly larger than that reported for the benchmark Creutz-Taube ion. X-ray absorption studies for monometallic metallocene complexes of U{sup III}, U{sup IV}, and U{sup V} reveal small but detectable energy differences in the 'white-line' feature of the uranium L{sub III}-edges consistent with these variations in nominal oxidation state. The sum of this data provides evidence of 5f/6d-orbital participation in bonding and electronic delocalization in these multimetallic f-element complexes. An improved, high-yielding synthesis of 4{prime}-cyano-2,2{prime}:6{prime},2{double_prime}-terpyridine is also reported.

  9. Chemical and Ceramic Methods Toward Safe Storage of Actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P.E.D. Morgan; R.M. Housley; J.B. Davis; M.L. DeHaan


    A very import, extremely-long-term, use for monazite as a radwaste encapsulant has been proposed. THe use of ceramic La-monazite for sequestering actinides (isolating them from the environment), especially plutonium and some other radioactive elements )e.g., fission-product rare earths), had been especially championed by Lynn Boatner of ORNL. Monazite may be used alone or, copying its compatibility with many other minerals in nature, may be used in diverse composite combinations.

  10. Surface energy and work function of the light actinides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kollár, J.; Vitos, Levente; Skriver, Hans Lomholt


    We have calculated the surface energy and work function of the light actinides Fr, Ra, Ac, Th, Pa, U, Np, and Pu by means of a Green's-function technique based on the linear-muffin-tin-orbitals method within the tight-binding representation. In these calculations we apply an energy functional which....... The calculated surface energies and work functions are in good agreement with the limited experimental data....

  11. Chemical properties of the heavier actinides and transactinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulet, E.K.


    The chemical properties of each of the elements 99 (Es) through 105 are reviewed and their properties correlated with the electronic structure expected for 5f and 6d elements. A major feature of the heavier actinides, which differentiates them from the comparable lanthanides, is the increasing stability of the divalent oxidation state with increasing atomic number. The divalent oxidation state first becomes observable in the anhydrous halides of californium and increases in stability through the series to nobelium, where this valency becomes predominant in aqueous solution. In comparison with the analogous 4f electrons, the 5f electrons in the latter part of the series are more tightly bound. Thus, there is a lowering of the 5f energy levels with respect to the Fermi level as the atomic number increases. The metallic state of the heavier actinides has not been investigated except from the viewpoint of the relative volatility among members of the series. In aqueous solutions, ions of these elements behave as a normal trivalent actinides and lanthanides (except for nobelium). Their ionic radii decrease with increasing nuclear charge which is moderated because of increased screening of the outer 6p electrons by the 5f electrons. The actinide series of elements is completed with the element lawrencium (Lr) in which the electronic configuration is 5f/sup 14/7s/sup 2/7p. From Mendeleev's periodicity and Dirac-Fock calculations, the next group of elements is expected to be a d-transition series corresponding to the elements Hf through Hg. The chemical properties of elements 104 and 105 only have been studied and they indeed appear to show the properties expected of eka-Hf and eka-Ta. However, their nuclear lifetimes are so short and so few atoms can be produced that a rich variety of chemical information is probably unobtainable.

  12. Validation of minor actinides fission neutron cross-sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pešić Milan P.


    Full Text Available Verification of neutron fission cross-sections of minor actinides from some recently available evaluated nuclear data libraries was carried out by comparison of the reaction rates calculated by the MCNP6.1 computer code to the experimental values. The experimental samples, containing thin layers of 235U, 237Np, 238,239,240,241Pu, 242mAm, 243Cm, 245Cm, and 247Cm, deposited on metal support and foils of 235U (pseudo-alloy 27Al + 235U, 238U, natIn, 64Zn, 27Al, and multi-component sample alloy 27Al + 55Mn + natCu + natLu + 197Au, were irradiated in the channels of the tank containing fluorine salts 0.52NaF + 0.48ZrF4, labelled as the Micromodel Salt Blanket, inserted in the lattice centre of the MAKET heavy water critical assembly at the Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow. This paper is a continuation of earlier initiated scientific-research activities carried out for validation of the evaluated fission cross-sections of actinides that were supposed to be used for the quality examination of the fuel design of the accelerator driven systems or fast reactors, and consequently, determination of transmutation rates of actinides, and therefore, determination of operation parameters of these reactor facilities. These scientific-research activities were carried out within a frame of scientific projects supported by the International Science and Technology Center and the International Atomic Energy Agency co-ordinated research activities, from 1999 to 2010. Obtained results confirm that further research is needed in evaluations in order to establish better neutron cross-section data for the minor actinides and selected nuclides which could be used in the accelerator driven systems or fast reactors.

  13. Gas Generation from Actinide Oxide Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Bailey; Elizabeth Bluhm; John Lyman; Richard Mason; Mark Paffett; Gary Polansky; G. D. Roberson; Martin Sherman; Kirk Veirs; Laura Worl


    This document captures relevant work performed in support of stabilization, packaging, and long term storage of plutonium metals and oxides. It concentrates on the issue of gas generation with specific emphasis on gas pressure and composition. Even more specifically, it summarizes the basis for asserting that materials loaded into a 3013 container according to the requirements of the 3013 Standard (DOE-STD-3013-2000) cannot exceed the container design pressure within the time frames or environmental conditions of either storage or transportation. Presently, materials stabilized and packaged according to the 3013 Standard are to be transported in certified packages (the certification process for the 9975 and the SAFKEG has yet to be completed) that do not rely on the containment capabilities of the 3013 container. Even though no reliance is placed on that container, this document shows that it is highly likely that the containment function will be maintained not only in storage but also during transportation, including hypothetical accident conditions. Further, this document, by summarizing materials-related data on gas generation, can point those involved in preparing Safety Analysis Reports for Packages (SARPs) to additional information needed to assess the ability of the primary containment vessel to contain the contents and any reaction products that might reasonably be produced by the contents.

  14. Crystalline matrices for the immobilization of plutonium and actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, E.B.; Burakov, E.E.; Galkin, Ya.B.; Starchenko, V.A.; Vasiliev, V.G. [V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)


    The management of weapon plutonium, disengaged as a result of conversion, is considered together with the problem of the actinide fraction of long-lived high level radioactive wastes. It is proposed to use polymineral ceramics based on crystalline host-phases: zircon ZrSiO{sub 4} and zirconium dioxide ZrO{sub 2}, for various variants of the management of plutonium and actinides (including the purposes of long-term safe storage or final disposal from the human activity sphere). It is shown that plutonium and actinides are able to form with these phases on ZrSiO{sub 4} and ZrO{sub 2} was done on laboratory level by the hot pressing method, using the plasmochemical calcination technology. To incorporate simulators of plutonium into the structure of ZrSiO{sub 4} and ZrO{sub 2} in the course of synthesis, an original method developed by the authors as a result of studying the high-uranium zircon (Zr,U) SiO{sub 4} form Chernobyl {open_quotes}lavas{close_quotes} was used.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, S.; Culligan, B.; Noyes, G.


    A new rapid method for the determination of actinides in soil and sediment samples has been developed at the Savannah River Site Environmental Lab (Aiken, SC, USA) that can be used for samples up to 2 grams in emergency response situations. The actinides in soil method utilizes a rapid sodium hydroxide fusion method, a lanthanum fluoride soil matrix removal step, and a streamlined column separation process with stacked TEVA, TRU and DGA Resin cartridges. Lanthanum was separated rapidly and effectively from Am and Cm on DGA Resin. Vacuum box technology and rapid flow rates are used to reduce analytical time. Alpha sources are prepared using cerium fluoride microprecipitation for counting by alpha spectrometry. The method showed high chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. This new procedure was applied to emergency soil samples received in the NRIP Emergency Response exercise administered by the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) in April, 2009. The actinides in soil results were reported within 4-5 hours with excellent quality.

  16. Development of ion beam sputtering techniques for actinide target preparation (United States)

    Aaron, W. S.; Zevenbergen, L. A.; Adair, H. L.


    Ion beam sputtering is a routine method for the preparation of thin films used as targets because it allows the use of a minimum quantity of starting material, and losses are much lower than most other vacuum deposition techniques. Work is underway in the Isotope Research Materials Laboratory (IRML) at ORNL to develop the techniques that will make the preparation of actinide targets up to 100 μg/cm 2 by ion beam sputtering a routinely available service from IRML. The preparation of the actinide material in a form suitable for sputtering is a key to this technique, as is designing a sputtering system that allows the flexibility required for custom-ordered target production. At present, development work is being conducted on low-activity actinides in a bench-top system. The system will then be installed in a hood or glove box approved for radioactive materials handling where processing of radium, actinium, and plutonium isotopes among others will be performed.

  17. Topical Report on Actinide-Only Burnup Credit for PWR Spent Nuclear Fuel Packages. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None


    The objective of this topical report is to present to the NRC for review and acceptance a methodology for using burnup credit in the design of criticality control systems for PWR spent fuel transportation packages, while maintaining the criticality safety margins and related requirements of 10 CFR Part 71 and 72. The proposed methodology consists of five major steps as summarized below: (1) Validate a computer code system to calculate isotopic concentrations in SNF created during burnup in the reactor core and subsequent decay. (2) Validate a computer code system to predict the subcritical multiplication factor, keff, of a spent nuclear fuel package. (3) Establish bounding conditions for the isotopic concentration and criticality calculations. (4) Use the validated codes and bounding conditions to generate package loading criteria (burnup credit loading curves). and (5) Verify that SNF assemblies meet the package loading criteria and confirm proper fuel assembly selection prior to loading. (This step is required but the details are outside the scope of this topical report.) When reviewed and accepted by the NRC, this topical report will serve as a criterion document for criticality control analysts and will provide steps for the use of actinide-only burnup credit in the design of criticality control systems. The NRC-accepted burnup credit methodology will be used by commercial SNF storage and transportation package designers. Design-specific burnup credit criticality analyses will be defined, developed, and documented in the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) for each specific storage or transportation package that uses burnup credit. These SARs will then be submitted to the NRC for review and approval. This topical report is expected to be referenced in a number of storage and transportation cask applications to be submitted by commercial cask and canister designers to the NRC. Therefore, NRC acceptance of this topical report will result in increased efficiency of the

  18. Colloids near phase transition lines under shear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenstra, T.A.J.


    The aim of this thesis is to investigate the structure formation and deformation in colloidal systems due to an externally applied shear flow. The focus is on two different kind of colloidal systems: suspensions of attractive spherical colloidal particles in the neighbourhood of a gas-liquid

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of Supramolecular Colloids. (United States)

    Vilanova, Neus; De Feijter, Isja; Voets, Ilja K


    Control over colloidal assembly is of utmost importance for the development of functional colloidal materials with tailored structural and mechanical properties for applications in photonics, drug delivery and coating technology. Here we present a new family of colloidal building blocks, coined supramolecular colloids, whose self-assembly is controlled through surface-functionalization with a benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamide (BTA) derived supramolecular moiety. Such BTAs interact via directional, strong, yet reversible hydrogen-bonds with other identical BTAs. Herein, a protocol is presented that describes how to couple these BTAs to colloids and how to quantify the number of coupling sites, which determines the multivalency of the supramolecular colloids. Light scattering measurements show that the refractive index of the colloids is almost matched with that of the solvent, which strongly reduces the van der Waals forces between the colloids. Before photo-activation, the colloids remain well dispersed, as the BTAs are equipped with a photo-labile group that blocks the formation of hydrogen-bonds. Controlled deprotection with UV-light activates the short-range hydrogen-bonds between the BTAs, which triggers the colloidal self-assembly. The evolution from the dispersed state to the clustered state is monitored by confocal microscopy. These results are further quantified by image analysis with simple routines using ImageJ and Matlab. This merger of supramolecular chemistry and colloidal science offers a direct route towards light- and thermo-responsive colloidal assembly encoded in the surface-grafted monolayer.

  20. Actinides and lanthanides under pressure: the pseudopotential approach; Actinides et terres rares sous pression: approche pseudopotentiel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, N


    In the Density Functional Theory Framework, the pseudopotential formalism offers a broader scope of study than other theoretical methods such as global relaxation of the parameters of the cell or ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. This method has been widely used to study light elements or transition metals but never to study f elements. We have generated two non local norm conserving Trouillier-Martins pseudopotentials (one in LDA and one in GGA) for the cerium. To check the validity of the pseudopotentials, we have calculated the equilibrium volume and the incompressibility modulus and compared our results to previous all-electron calculations. If the GGA and non linear core corrections are used, the equation of state is in a good agreement with the experimental equation of state. A static study of the previously proposed high pressure phases give a transitions fcc-a''(I)-bct. Using the pseudopotentials we have generated, an ab initio molecular dynamics simulation at constant pressure, in the region between 5 and 12 GPa where the stable phase of cerium is not well defined, lead us to predict that a centred monoclinic structure, as the a''(I) phase previously observed in some experiments, is the most stable phase. We have also generated pseudopotentials for the light actinides (Th, Pa, U and Np). We have study their phase transitions under pressure at zero temperature. We compared our results with all electron results. The structure parameters have always been relaxed in this study. And for the first time in pseudopotential calculation, the spin-orbit coupling has been taken into account. The curves describing the variation of the volume or the incompressibility modulus depending on the elements and the phase transitions are always in agreement with the one found in the all electron calculations. (author)

  1. Chemical properties of the trans-actinide elements studied in liquid phase with SISAK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omtvedt, J.P.; Alstad, J.; Bjornstad, T.; Opel, K.; Polakova, D.; Samadani, F.; Schulz, F.; Stavsetra, L.; Zheng, L. [Oslo Univ., Centre for Accelerator based Research and Energy Physics (SAFE) (Norway); Dullmann, Ch.E; Gregorich, K.E.; Hoffman, D.C.; Nitsche, H.; Sudowe, R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Nuclear Science Div., One Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA (United States); Dullmann, Ch.E.; Hoffman, D.C.; Nitsche, H. [California Univ., Dept. of Chemistry, Berkeley, CA (United States); Skarnemark, G. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Nuclear Chemistry, Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering (Sweden)


    This article starts with a review of the current SISAK liquid-liquid extraction system, as used after the physical pre-separator BGS (Berkeley Gas-filled Separator) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) for chemical studies of trans-actinide elements. Emphasis will be on new additions and developments. Then the possibilities offered by the new TASCA (Trans-Actinide Separator and Chemistry Apparatus) separator at GSI (Darmstadt, Germany) and the use of actinide targets at both GSI and LBNL are discussed with respect to future SISAK trans-actinide experiments. Finally, current and future liquid-liquid extraction systems for studying elements Rutherfordium up to Hassium are discussed. (authors)

  2. Model Analysis of Low-Level Actinide Waste Disposal in Deep Boreholes (United States)

    Glascoe, L. G.; Wolfsberg, A. V.


    Deep borehole disposal is considered as a possible mechanism for the safe removal of Greater Than Class C (GTCC) low level actinide waste (Am-241, Pu-239, and Pu-238). Of the three actinides in GTCC waste, only Pu-239 has a half-life greater than 500 years and, thus, will have the longest environmental presence. However, Am-241 and Pu-238 have the potential to create most of the heat associated with GTCC waste disposal in deep boreholes. Therefore, this study considers the nonisothermal release and subsequent migration toward a pumping well of the most persistent radionuclide, Pu-239, from a deep emplacement borehole taking into account the heat created by decay of all three actinides. The Finite-Element Heat- and Mass-Transfer code, FEHM, is employed to simulate three-dimensional, non-isothermal flow and solute transport using particle tracking. Multiple scenarios considering various source emplacement depths, aquifer properties, and hydraulic conditions are evaluated in a sensitivity analysis that seeks to demonstrate competing and offsetting processes affecting the concentration of Pu-239 in the pumped well 100 m down gradient from the borehole source. In general, lower groundwater fluxes, associated with lower gradients and/or lower aquifer permeabilities, lead to less dissolution of the source waste. However, conditions of decreasing groundwater flux also create larger sized capture zones by the pumping well, thus escalating the likelihood of pumping contaminants originating from a source deeper than the pumping well. Retardation by sorption of Pu-239, both in alluvial aquifers and following diffusion from fractures in a tuff aquifer, plays an important role both in delaying radionuclide migration and in reducing the peak aqueous concentration at the pumping well. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48. This work was

  3. Colloids and Nucleation (United States)

    Ackerson, Bruce


    The objectives of the work funded under this grant were to develop a microphotographic technique and use it to monitor the nucleation and growth of crystals of hard colloidal spheres. Special attention is given to the possible need for microgravity studies in future experiments. A number of persons have been involved in this work. A masters student, Keith Davis, began the project and developed a sheet illumination apparatus and an image processing system for detection and analysis. His work on a segmentation program for image processing was sufficient for his master's research and has been published. A post doctoral student Bernie Olivier and a graduate student Yueming He, who originally suggested the sheet illumination, were funded by another source but along with Keith made photographic series of several samples (that had been made by Keith Davis). Data extraction has been done by Keith, Bernie, Yueming and two undergraduates employed on the grant. Results are published in Langmuir. These results describe the sheet lighting technique as one which illuminates not only the Bragg scattering crystal, but all the crystals. Thus, accurate crystal counts can be made for nucleation rate measurements. The strange crystal length scale reduction, observed in small angle light scattering (SALS) studies, following the initial nucleation and growth period, has been observed directly. The Bragg scattering (and dark) crystal size decreases in the crossover region. This could be an effect due to gravitational forces or due to over- compression of the crystal during growth. Direct observations indicate a complex morphology for the resulting hard sphere crystals. The crystal edges are fairly sharp but the crystals have a large degree of internal structure. This structure is a result of (unstable) growth and not aggregation. As yet unpublished work compares growth exponents data with data obtained by SALS. The nucleation rate density is determined over a broad volume fraction range

  4. Workshop on environmental research for actinide elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watters, R.L. (ed.)


    The discussions in this fifth workshop were directed to the advances which have been made in the environmental chemistry of plutonium and to the feasibility and worth of developing environmental transport models which might serve as predictive tools for long term behavior and as guides for future research needs. Two plutonium models of the soil/plant pathway were presented for critique and as examples of possible approaches. Reports of the following four panels are presented in this proceedings: model development; marine; terrestrial and freshwater/groundwater.

  5. Applicability of colloid filtration theory in size-distributed, reduced porosity, granular media in the absence of energy barriers. (United States)

    Pazmino, Eddy F; Ma, Huilian; Johnson, William P


    The vast majority of colloid transport experiments use granular porous media with narrow size distribution to facilitate comparison with colloid filtration theory, which represents porous media with a single collector size. In this work we examine retention of colloids ranging in size from 0.21 to 9.1 μm in diameter, in columns packed with uniform and size-distributed borosilicate glass bead porous media with porosity ranging from 0.38 to 0.28. Conditions were favorable to attachment (absent a significant energy barrier). The goal was to determine the applicability of colloid filtration theory to colloid retention in these media. We also directly observed deposition at the pore scale in packed flow cells. The pore domain was characterized via high resolution computerized X-ray micro tomography (HRXMT). The flow field was examined using Lattice-Boltzmann flow simulation methods (LBM). The influence of preferential flow paths on colloid retention in the lowest porosity media was accounted for by correcting the fluid velocity. Straining in pore throats too small to pass was not a significant contributor to colloid retention despite colloid-to-collector size ratios up to 0.05. Mechanistic simulations via the Ma-Pedel-Fife-Johnson correlation equation (MPFJ) for colloid filtration predicted the experimentally observed trends in deposition with porosity when a number-based mean grain size was used.

  6. Advanced processes for minor actinides recycling: studies towards potential industrialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rostaing, C.; Baron, P.; Warin, D.; Duhamet, J.; Ochem, D. [CEA, Bagnols sur Ceze, Gard 30207 (France)


    In June 2006, a new act on sustainable management of radioactive waste was voted by the French parliament with a national plan on radioactive materials and radioactive waste management (PNG-MDR). Concerning partitioning and transmutation, the program is connected to 4. generation reactors, in which transmutation of minor actinides could be operated. In this frame, the next important milestone is 2012, with the assessment of the possible transmutation roads, which are either homogeneous recycling of the minor actinides in the whole reactor fleet, with a low content of M.A ({approx}3%) in all fuel assemblies, or heterogeneous recycling of the minor actinides in about one third of the reactor park, with a higher content of M.A. ({approx}20%) in dedicated targets dispatched in the periphery of the reactor. Advanced processes for the recycling of minor actinides are being developed to address the challenges of these various management options. An important part of the program consists in getting closer to process implementation conditions. The processes based on liquid-liquid extraction benefit from the experience gained by operating the PUREX process at the La Hague plant. In the field of extracting apparatus, a large experience is available. In the field of extracting apparatus, a large experience is already available. Nevertheless, the processes present specificities which have to be considered more precisely. They have been classified in the following fields: - Evolution of the simulation codes, including phenomenological representations: with such a simulation tool, it will be possible to assess operating tolerances, lead sensitivity studies and calculate transient states; - Definition of the implementation conditions in continuous contactors (such as pulse columns), according to the extractant physico-chemical characteristics; - Scale-up of new extractants, such as malonamides used in the DIAMEX process, facing purity specifications and costs estimation; - Solvent

  7. Plant Mounds as Concentration and Stabilization Agents for Actinide Soil Contaminants in Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.S. Shafer; J. Gommes


    Plant mounds or blow-sand mounds are accumulations of soil particles and plant debris around the base of shrubs and are common features in deserts in the southwestern United States. An important factor in their formation is that shrubs create surface roughness that causes wind-suspended particles to be deposited and resist further suspension. Shrub mounds occur in some plant communities on the Nevada Test Site, the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR), and Tonopah Test Range (TTR), including areas of surface soil contamination from past nuclear testing. In the 1970s as part of early studies to understand properties of actinides in the environment, the Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG) examined the accumulation of isotopes of Pu, 241Am, and U in plant mounds at safety experiment and storage-transportation test sites of nuclear devices. Although aerial concentrations of these contaminants were highest in the intershrub or desert pavement areas, the concentration in mounds were higher than in equal volumes of intershrub or desert pavement soil. The NAEG studies found the ratio of contaminant concentration of actinides in soil to be greater (1.6 to 2.0) in shrub mounds than in the surrounding areas of desert pavement. At Project 57 on the NTTR, 17 percent of the area was covered in mounds while at Clean Slate III on the TTR, 32 percent of the area was covered in mounds. If equivalent volumes of contaminated soil were compared between mounds and desert pavement areas at these sites, then the former might contain as much as 34 and 62 percent of the contaminant inventory, respectively. Not accounting for radionuclides associated with shrub mounds would cause the inventory of contaminants and potential exposure to be underestimated. In addition, preservation of shrub mounds could be important part of long-term stewardship if these sites are closed by fencing and posting with administrative controls.

  8. Colloid characterization and quantification in groundwater samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Stephen Kung


    This report describes the work conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory for studying the groundwater colloids for the Yucca Mountain Project in conjunction with the Hydrologic Resources Management Program (HRMP) and the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project. Colloidal particle size distributions and total particle concentration in groundwater samples are quantified and characterized. Colloid materials from cavity waters collected near underground nuclear explosion sites by HRMP field sampling personnel at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) were quantified. Selected colloid samples were further characterized by electron microscope to evaluate the colloid shapes, elemental compositions, and mineral phases. The authors have evaluated the colloid size and concentration in the natural groundwater sample that was collected from the ER-20-5 well and stored in a 50-gallon (about 200-liter) barrel for several months. This groundwater sample was studied because HRMP personnel have identified trace levels of radionuclides in the water sample. Colloid results show that even though the water sample had filtered through a series of Millipore filters, high-colloid concentrations were identified in all unfiltered and filtered samples. They had studied the samples that were diluted with distilled water and found that diluted samples contained more colloids than the undiluted ones. These results imply that colloids are probably not stable during the storage conditions. Furthermore, results demonstrate that undesired colloids have been introduced into the samples during the storage, filtration, and dilution processes. They have evaluated possible sources of colloid contamination associated with sample collection, filtrating, storage, and analyses of natural groundwaters. The effects of container types and sample storage time on colloid size distribution and total concentration were studied to evaluate colloid stability by using J13 groundwater. The data suggests that groundwater samples

  9. Influence of Intrinsic Colloid Formation on Migration of Cerium through Fractured Carbonate Rock. (United States)

    Tran, Emily L; Klein-BenDavid, Ofra; Teutsch, Nadya; Weisbrod, Noam


    Migration of colloids may facilitate the transport of radionuclides leaked from near surface waste sites and geological repositories. Intrinsic colloids are favorably formed by precipitation with carbonates in bicarbonate-rich environments, and their migration may be enhanced through fractured bedrock. The mobility of Ce(III) as an intrinsic colloid was studied in an artificial rainwater solution through a natural discrete chalk fracture. The results indicate that at variable injection concentrations (between 1 and 30 mg/L), nearly all of the recovered Ce takes the form of an intrinsic colloid of >0.45 μm diameter, including in those experiments in which the inlet solution was first filtered via 0.45 μm. In all experiments, these intrinsic colloids reached their maximum relative concentrations prior to that of the Br conservative tracer. Total Ce recovery from experiments using 0.45 μm filtered inlet solutions was only about 0.1%, and colloids of >0.45 μm constituted the majority of recovered Ce. About 1% of Ce was recovered when colloids of >0.45 μm were injected, indicating the enhanced mobility and recovery of Ce in the presence of bicarbonate.

  10. A short textbook of colloid chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Jirgensons, B


    A Short Textbook of Colloid Chemistry, Second Revised Edition details the factual aspect of colloid chemistry that includes the basic facts, established empirical and mathematical relationships, and practical applications. The chapters of the title are organized into two parts. In the first part, the text discusses the general concepts of colloid chemistry, such as the history and scope, basic terms, and basic methods in experiment with colloids. Part Two covers the technical aspect of colloid chemistry, such as the optical properties, electrical properties, and viscosity. The book will be of

  11. Supramolecular perspectives in colloid science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen Stuart, M.A.


    Supramolecular chemistry puts emphasis on molecular assemblies held together by non-covalent bonds. As such, it is very close in spirit to colloid science which also focuses on objects which are small, but beyond the molecular scale, and for which other forces than covalent bonds are crucial. We

  12. Basic physics of colloidal plasmas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Colloidal plasma is a distinct class of the impure plasmas with multispecies ionic com- position. The distinction lies in the phase distribution of the impurity-ion species. ... near the driven electrode by use of video laser scanning. Moreover, many workers for solid particles termed as the dust grains or grains reported ...

  13. Colloidal aspects of texture perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van T.


    The perception of complex textures in food is strongly related to the way food is processed during eating, and is modulated by other basic characteristics, such as taste and aroma. An understanding at the colloidal level of the basic processes in the mouth is essential in order to link the

  14. Colloidal liquid crystal reinforced nanocomposites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozdilek, C.


    The main objective of this research is to investigate the use of colloidal Boehmite rods as reinforcement filler for polymer nanocomposites and to introduce them as an alternative to the well-known clay systems. Since Boehmite rods have been studied for many years as a model nematic system, the

  15. Applicability of RELAP5-3D for Thermal-Hydraulic Analyses of a Sodium-Cooled Actinide Burner Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. B. Davis


    The Actinide Burner Test Reactor (ABTR) is envisioned as a sodium-cooled, fast reactor that will burn the actinides generated in light water reactors to reduce nuclear waste and ease proliferation concerns. The RELAP5-3D computer code is being considered as the thermal-hydraulic system code to support the development of the ABTR. An evaluation was performed to determine the applicability of RELAP5-3D for the analysis of a sodium-cooled fast reactor. The applicability evaluation consisted of several steps, including identifying the important transients and phenomena expected in the ABTR, identifying the models and correlations that affect the code’s calculation of the important phenomena, and evaluating the applicability of the important models and correlations for calculating the important phenomena expected in the ABTR. The applicability evaluation identified code improvements and additional models needed to simulate the ABTR. The accuracy of the calculated thermodynamic and transport properties for sodium was also evaluated.

  16. The attachment of colloidal particles to environmentally relevant surfaces and the effect of particle shape. (United States)

    McNew, Coy P; Kananizadeh, Negin; Li, Yusong; LeBoeuf, Eugene J


    Despite the prevalence of nonspherical colloidal particles, the role of particle shape in the transport of colloids is largely understudied. This study investigates the attachment of colloidal particles onto environmentally relevant surfaces while varying particle shape and ionic strength. Using quartz crystal microbalance and atomic force microscopy measurements, the role of particle shape was elucidated and possible mechanisms discussed. The attachment of both spherical and stretched polystyrene colloidal particles onto a smooth alginate-coated silica surface showed qualitative agreement with DLVO theory. Attachment onto a Harpeth humic acid (HHA) surface, however, significantly deviated from DLVO theory due to its high surface heterogeneity and extended confirmation from the silica surface. This extended confirmation provided increased potential for spherical particle entanglement, while the enlarged major axis of the stretched particles hindered their ability to attach. As ionic strength increased, the HHA layer condensed and provided less potential for spherical particle entanglement and therefore the selectivity for spherical particle attachment vanished. The findings presented in this study suggest that colloidal particle shape may play a complex and important role in predicting the transport of colloidal particles, especially in the presence of natural organic matter-coated surfaces. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Colloidal Photoluminescent Amorphous Porous Silicon, Methods Of Making Colloidal Photoluminescent Amorphous Porous Silicon, And Methods Of Using Colloidal Photoluminescent Amorphous Porous Silicon

    KAUST Repository

    Chaieb, Sahraoui


    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for a colloidal photoluminescent amorphous porous silicon particle suspension, methods of making a colloidal photoluminescent amorphous porous silicon particle suspension, methods of using a colloidal photoluminescent amorphous porous silicon particle suspension, and the like.

  18. Photocurrent extraction efficiency in colloidal quantum dot photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Kemp, K. W.


    The efficiency of photocurrent extraction was studied directly inside operating Colloidal Quantum Dot (CQD) photovoltaic devices. A model was derived from first principles for a thin film p-n junction with a linearly spatially dependent electric field. Using this model, we were able to clarify the origins of recent improvement in CQD solar cell performance. From current-voltage diode characteristics under 1 sun conditions, we extracted transport lengths ranging from 39 nm to 86 nm for these materials. Characterization of the intensity dependence of photocurrent extraction revealed that the dominant loss mechanism limiting the transport length is trap-mediated recombination. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.

  19. Theoretical investigation on electronic and mechanical properties of ternary actinide (U, Np, Pu) nitrides (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Juan; Zhou, Zhang-Jian; Lan, Jian-Hui; Bo, Tao; Ge, Chang-Chun; Chai, Zhi-Fang; Shi, Wei-Qun


    Actinide mononitrides as a promising advanced nuclear fuel have recently earned much attention. We herein studied the electronic and mechanical properties of the ternary actinide mixed mononitrides A0.5B0.5 N (A, B = U, Np, and Pu) using the density functional theory +U method. It is found that in the studied ternary mixed mononitrides, the 5f electronic states of all actinide atoms maintain the local electronic character and do not overlap with each other. Compared with their corresponding binary mononitrides, the U-N bond becomes more ionic, where the Np-N and Pu-N bonds become more covalent in ternary actinide mixed mononitrides. The mechanical properties (such as bulk and shear moduli, Young's modulus, and Poisson's ratio) of three ternary actinide (U-Pu) mononitrides are found to be similar to that of their corresponding binary actinide mononitrides and thus are expected not to misbehave with actinide mononitrides in respect of mechanics. In addition, all the three ternary actinide mononitrides have no imaginary frequencies in their vibration curves and correspondingly satisfy the stability criteria for elastic constants of tetragonal structures.

  20. Screening Evaluation of Sodium Nonatitanate for Strontium and Actinide Removal from Alkaline Salt Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, D.T.


    This report describes results from screening tests evaluating strontium and actinide removal characteristics of a sodium titanate material developed by Clearfield and coworkers at Texas A and M University and offered commercially by Honeywell. Sodium nonatitanate may exhibit improved actinide removal kinetics and filtration characteristics compared to MST and thus merit testing.

  1. Invisible structures in the X-ray absorption spectra of actinides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kvashnina, Kristina O.; De Groot, Frank M F|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/08747610X

    The X-ray absorption spectra of actinides are discussed with an emphasis on the fundamental effects that influence their spectral shape, including atomic multiplet theory, charge transfer theory and crystal field theory. Many actinide spectra consist of a single peak and it is shown that the use of

  2. Magnetic Assisted Colloidal Pattern Formation (United States)

    Yang, Ye

    Pattern formation is a mysterious phenomenon occurring at all scales in nature. The beauty of the resulting structures and myriad of resulting properties occurring in naturally forming patterns have attracted great interest from scientists and engineers. One of the most convenient experimental models for studying pattern formation are colloidal particle suspensions, which can be used both to explore condensed matter phenomena and as a powerful fabrication technique for forming advanced materials. In my thesis, I have focused on the study of colloidal patterns, which can be conveniently tracked in an optical microscope yet can also be thermally equilibrated on experimentally relevant time scales, allowing for ground states and transitions between them to be studied with optical tracking algorithms. In particular, I have focused on systems that spontaneously organize due to particle-surface and particle-particle interactions, paying close attention to systems that can be dynamically adjusted with an externally applied magnetic or acoustic field. In the early stages of my doctoral studies, I developed a magnetic field manipulation technique to quantify the adhesion force between particles and surfaces. This manipulation technique is based on the magnetic dipolar interactions between colloidal particles and their "image dipoles" that appear within planar substrate. Since the particles interact with their own images, this system enables massively parallel surface force measurements (>100 measurements) in a single experiment, and allows statistical properties of particle-surface adhesion energies to be extracted as a function of loading rate. With this approach, I was able to probe sub-picoNewton surface interactions between colloidal particles and several substrates at the lowest force loading rates ever achieved. In the later stages of my doctoral studies, I focused on studying patterns formed from particle-particle interaction, which serve as an experimental model of

  3. Impurities that cause difficulty in stripping actinides from commercial tetraalkylcarbamoylmethylphosphonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahner, C. T.; Shoun, R. R.; McDowell, W. J.


    Dihexyl((diethylcarbamoyl)methyl)phosphonate (DHDECMP) in diethylbenzene extracts actinides well from 6 M nitric acid solution, but commercially available DHDECMP contains impurities which interfere with stripping the actinides from the organic extract. DHDECMP purified by molecular distillation does not contain these impurities, but the pot residue contains increased concentrations of them. Heating the purified DHDECMP causes the formation of products which interfere with stripping in the same way, suggesting that high temperatures employed in the manufacture of DHDECMP may produce the offending impurities. These impurities can be separated from the heat-decomposed material or the pot residues by dilution with a large volume of hexanes (causing part of the impurities to separate as a second liquid phase) followed by equilibration of the hexane solution with dilute alkali. After the treatment with hexane and dilute alkali, the DHDECMP is readily recovered and functions well in the actinide extraction process. Dibutyl((dibutylcarbamoyl)methyl)-phosphonate (DBDBCMP) and di(2-ethylhexyl)((diethylcarbamoyl)-methyl)phosphonate (DEHDECMP) are purified less effectively by these methods. Similar separation methods using diethylbenzene or CCl/sub 4/ as solvent do not remove impurities as completely as the hexane process. Impurities can also be removed from a benzene solution of the DHDECMP pot residue by passing it through a column packed with silica gel or diethylaminoethyl cellulose. These impurities have been separated into fractions for analytical examination by use of various solvents and by column chromatography. Hexyl hydrogen ((diethylcarbamoyl)methyl)-phosphonate has been identified tentatively as a principal objectionable impurity. Dihexyl phosphoric acid and possibly dihexylphosphonate have been identified in other fractions.

  4. Neutronics design study on a minor actinide burner for transmuting spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hang Bok


    A liquid metal reactor was designed for the primary purpose of burning the minor actinide waste from commercial light water reactors. The design was constrained to maintain acceptable safety performance as measured by the burnup reactivity swing, the doppler coefficient, and the sodium void worth. Sensitivity studies were performed for homogeneous and decoupled core designs, and a minor actinide burner design was determined to maximize actinide consumption and satisfy safety constraints. One of the principal innovations was the use of two core regions, with a fissile plutonium outer core and an inner core consisting only of minor actinides. The physics studies performed here indicate that a 1200 MWth core is able to transmute the annual minor actinide inventory of about 16 LWRs and still exhibit reasonable safety characteristics. (author). 34 refs., 22 tabs., 14 figs.

  5. Interaction of Actinide Species with Microorganisms & Microbial Chelators: Cellular Uptake, Toxicity, & Implications for Bioremediation of Soil & Ground Water.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakim Boukhalfa


    Microorganisms influence the natural cycle of major elements, including C, N, P, S, and transition metals such as Mn and Fe. Bacterial processes can also influence the behavior of actinides in soil and ground water. While radionuclides have no known biological utility, they have the potential to interact with microorganisms and to interfere with processes involving other elements such as Fe and Mn. These interactions can transform radionuclides and affect their fate and transport. Organic acids, extruded by-products of cell metabolism, can solubilize radionuclides and facilitate their transport. The soluble complexes formed can be taken up by the cells and incorporated into biofilm structures. We have examined the interactions of Pu species with bacterial metabolites, studied Pu uptake by microorganisms and examined the toxicity of Pu and other toxic metals to environmentally relevant bacteria. We have also studied the speciation of Pu(IV) in the presence of natural and synthetic chelators.

  6. Stable colloids in molten inorganic salts (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Dasbiswas, Kinjal; Ludwig, Nicholas B.; Han, Gang; Lee, Byeongdu; Vaikuntanathan, Suri; Talapin, Dmitri V.


    A colloidal solution is a homogeneous dispersion of particles or droplets of one phase (solute) in a second, typically liquid, phase (solvent). Colloids are ubiquitous in biological, chemical and technological processes, homogenizing highly dissimilar constituents. To stabilize a colloidal system against coalescence and aggregation, the surface of each solute particle is engineered to impose repulsive forces strong enough to overpower van der Waals attraction and keep the particles separated from each other. Electrostatic stabilization of charged solutes works well in solvents with high dielectric constants, such as water (dielectric constant of 80). In contrast, colloidal stabilization in solvents with low polarity, such as hexane (dielectric constant of about 2), can be achieved by decorating the surface of each particle of the solute with molecules (surfactants) containing flexible, brush-like chains. Here we report a class of colloidal systems in which solute particles (including metals, semiconductors and magnetic materials) form stable colloids in various molten inorganic salts. The stability of such colloids cannot be explained by traditional electrostatic and steric mechanisms. Screening of many solute-solvent combinations shows that colloidal stability can be traced to the strength of chemical bonding at the solute-solvent interface. Theoretical analysis and molecular dynamics modelling suggest that a layer of surface-bound solvent ions produces long-ranged charge-density oscillations in the molten salt around solute particles, preventing their aggregation. Colloids composed of inorganic particles in inorganic melts offer opportunities for introducing colloidal techniques to solid-state science and engineering applications.

  7. Stable colloids in molten inorganic salts. (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Dasbiswas, Kinjal; Ludwig, Nicholas B; Han, Gang; Lee, Byeongdu; Vaikuntanathan, Suri; Talapin, Dmitri V


    A colloidal solution is a homogeneous dispersion of particles or droplets of one phase (solute) in a second, typically liquid, phase (solvent). Colloids are ubiquitous in biological, chemical and technological processes, homogenizing highly dissimilar constituents. To stabilize a colloidal system against coalescence and aggregation, the surface of each solute particle is engineered to impose repulsive forces strong enough to overpower van der Waals attraction and keep the particles separated from each other. Electrostatic stabilization of charged solutes works well in solvents with high dielectric constants, such as water (dielectric constant of 80). In contrast, colloidal stabilization in solvents with low polarity, such as hexane (dielectric constant of about 2), can be achieved by decorating the surface of each particle of the solute with molecules (surfactants) containing flexible, brush-like chains. Here we report a class of colloidal systems in which solute particles (including metals, semiconductors and magnetic materials) form stable colloids in various molten inorganic salts. The stability of such colloids cannot be explained by traditional electrostatic and steric mechanisms. Screening of many solute-solvent combinations shows that colloidal stability can be traced to the strength of chemical bonding at the solute-solvent interface. Theoretical analysis and molecular dynamics modelling suggest that a layer of surface-bound solvent ions produces long-ranged charge-density oscillations in the molten salt around solute particles, preventing their aggregation. Colloids composed of inorganic particles in inorganic melts offer opportunities for introducing colloidal techniques to solid-state science and engineering applications.

  8. Electronic structure and ionicity of actinide oxides from first principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petit, Leon; Svane, Axel; Szotek, Z.


    The ground-state electronic structures of the actinide oxides AO, A2O3, and AO2 (A=U, Np, Pu, Am, Cm, Bk, and Cf) are determined from first-principles calculations, using the self-interaction corrected local spin-density approximation. Emphasis is put on the degree of f-electron localization, which...... for AO2 and A2O3 is found to follow the stoichiometry, namely, corresponding to A4+ ions in the dioxide and A3+ ions in the sesquioxides. In contrast, the A2+ ionic configuration is not favorable in the monoxides, which therefore become metallic. The energetics of the oxidation and reduction...

  9. Comparison of fission and capture cross sections of minor actinides

    CERN Document Server

    Nakagawa, T


    The fission and capture cross sections of minor actinides given in JENDL-3.3 are compared with other evaluated data and experimental data. The comparison was made for 32 nuclides of Th-227, 228, 229, 230, 233, 234, Pa-231, 232, 233, U-232, 234, 236, 237, Np-236, 237, 238, Pu-236, 237, 238, 242, 244, Am-241, 242, 242m, 243, Cm-242, 243, 244, 245, 246, 247 and 248. Given in the present report are figures of these cross sections and tables of cross sections at 0.0253 eV and resonance integrals.

  10. Detection of Actinides via Nuclear Isomer De-Excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francy, Christopher J. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)


    This dissertation discusses a data collection experiment within the Actinide Isomer Identification project (AID). The AID project is the investigation of an active interrogation technique that utilizes nuclear isomer production, with the goal of assisting in the interdiction of illicit nuclear materials. In an attempt to find and characterize isomers belonging to 235U and its fission fragments, a 232Th target was bombarded with a monoenergetic 6Li ion beam, operating at 45 MeV.

  11. Dipole strength functions in the actinide mass region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, D.G.; Gardner, M.A.; Hoff, R.W.


    We have calculated a number of neutron- and photon-induced reactions for the actinide nuclei /sup 232/Th, /sup 238/U, and /sup 237/Np. By fitting average resonance capture (ARC) measurements and total neutron capture data, we deduced absolute dipole strength functions for /sup 233/Th and /sup 239/U. We have found that the M1/E1 ratio is the same as in the /sup 176/Lu case, but the total transition strength was larger by about 27%. 17 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Electrokinetic properties of polymer colloids (United States)

    Micale, F. J.; Fuenmayor, D. Y.


    The surface of polymer colloids, especially polystyrene latexes, were modified for the purpose of controlling the electrokinetic properties of the resulting colloids. Achievement required a knowledge of electrical double layer charging mechanism, as a function of the electrolyte conditions, at the polymer/water interface. The experimental approach is to control the recipe formulation in the emulsion polymerization process so as to systematically vary the strong acid group concentration on the surface of the polymer particles. The electrophoretic mobility of these model particles will then be measured as a function of surface group concentration and as a function of electrolyte concentration and type. An effort was also made to evaluate the electrophoretic mobility of polystyrene latexes made in space and to compare the results with latexes made on the ground.

  13. Colloid solutions for fluid resuscitation. (United States)

    Bunn, Frances; Trivedi, Daksha


    Colloids are widely used in the replacement of fluid volume. However doubts remain as to which colloid is best. Different colloids vary in their molecular weight and therefore in the length of time they remain in the circulatory system. Because of this and their other characteristics, they may differ in their safety and efficacy. To compare the effects of different colloid solutions in patients thought to need volume replacement. We searched the Cochrane Injuries Specialised Register (searched 1 Dec 2011), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials 2011, issue 4 (The Cochrane Library); MEDLINE (Ovid) (1948 to November Week 3 2011); EMBASE (Ovid) (1974 to 2011 Week 47); ISI Web of Science: Science Citation Index Expanded (1970 to 1 Dec 2011); ISI Web of Science: Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science (1990 to 1 Dec 2011); CINAHL (EBSCO) (1982 to 1 Dec 2011); National Research Register (2007, Issue 1) and PubMed (searched 1 Dec 2011). Bibliographies of trials retrieved were searched, and for the initial version of the review drug companies manufacturing colloids were contacted for information (1999). Randomised controlled trials comparing colloid solutions in critically ill and surgical patients thought to need volume replacement. Two authors independently extracted the data and assessed the quality of the trials. The outcomes sought were death, amount of whole blood transfused, and incidence of adverse reactions. Ninety trials, with a total of 5678 participants, met the inclusion criteria. Quality of allocation concealment was judged to be adequate in 35 trials and poor or uncertain in the rest.Deaths were obtained in 61 trials. For albumin or PPF versus hydroxyethyl starch (HES) 32 trials (n = 1769) reported mortality. The pooled relative risk (RR) was 1.07 (95% CI 0.87 to 1.32). When the trials by Boldt were removed from the analysis the pooled RR was 0.90 (95% CI 0.68 to 1.20). For albumin or PPF versus gelatin, nine trials (n = 824) reported


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, D.


    A number of laboratory studies have been conducted to determine the influence of mixing and mixing intensity, solution ionic strength, initial sorbate concentrations, temperature, and monosodium titanate (MST) concentration on the rates of sorbate removal by MST in high-level nuclear waste solutions. Of these parameters, initial sorbate concentrations, ionic strength, and MST concentration have the greater impact on sorbate removal rates. The lack of a significant influence of mixing and mixing intensity on sorbate removal rates indicates that bulk solution transport is not the rate controlling step in the removal of strontium and actinides over the range of conditions and laboratory-scales investigated. However, bulk solution transport may be a significant parameter upon use of MST in a 1.3 million-gallon waste tank such as that planned for the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) program. Thus, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) recommends completing the experiments in progress to determine if mixing intensity influences sorption rates under conditions appropriate for this program. Adsorption models have been developed from these experimental studies that allow prediction of strontium (Sr), plutonium (Pu), neptunium (Np) and uranium (U) concentrations as a function of contact time with MST. Fairly good agreement has been observed between the predicted and measured sorbate concentrations in the laboratory-scale experiments.

  15. Influence of Biochar on Deposition and Release of Clay Colloids in Saturated Porous Media. (United States)

    Haque, Muhammad Emdadul; Shen, Chongyang; Li, Tiantian; Chu, Haoxue; Wang, Hong; Li, Zhen; Huang, Yuanfang


    Although the potential application of biochar in soil remediation has been recognized, the effect of biochar on the transport of clay colloids, and accordingly the fate of colloid-associated contaminants, is unclear to date. This study conducted saturated column experiments to systematically examine transport of clay colloids in biochar-amended sand porous media in different electrolytes at different ionic strengths. The obtained breakthrough curves were simulated by the convection-diffusion equation, which included a first-order deposition and release terms. The deposition mechanisms were interpreted by calculating Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek interaction energies. A linear relationship between the simulated deposition rate or the attachment efficiency and the fraction of biochar was observed ( ≥ 0.91), indicating more favorable deposition in biochar than in sand. The interaction energy calculations show that the greater deposition in biochar occurs because the half-tube-like cavities on the biochar surfaces favor deposition in secondary minima and the nanoscale physical and chemical heterogeneities on the biochar surfaces increase deposition in primary minima. The deposited clay colloids in NaCl can be released by reduction of ionic strength, whereas the presence of a bivalent cation (Ca) results in irreversible deposition due to the formation of cation bridging between the colloids and biochar surfaces. The deposition and release of clay colloids on or from biochar surfaces not only change their mobilizations in the soil but also influence the efficiency of the biochar for removal of pollutants. Therefore, the influence of biochar on clay colloid transport must be considered before application of the biochar in soil remediation. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  16. Colloidal liquid crystal reinforced nanocomposites


    Ozdilek, C.


    The main objective of this research is to investigate the use of colloidal Boehmite rods as reinforcement filler for polymer nanocomposites and to introduce them as an alternative to the well-known clay systems. Since Boehmite rods have been studied for many years as a model nematic system, the motivation was to explore some additional properties which could arise from their nematic behaviour in a polymer matrix. The Boehmite system was expected to retain the nematic behavior in the polymer m...

  17. Implant materials modified by colloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zboromirska-Wnukiewicz Beata


    Full Text Available Recent advances in general medicine led to the development of biomaterials. Implant material should be characterized by a high biocompatibility to the tissue and appropriate functionality, i.e. to have high mechanical and electrical strength and be stable in an electrolyte environment – these are the most important properties of bioceramic materials. Considerations of biomaterials design embrace also electrical properties occurring on the implant-body fluid interface and consequently the electrokinetic potential, which can be altered by modifying the surface of the implant. In this work, the surface of the implants was modified to decrease the risk of infection by using metal colloids. Nanocolloids were obtained using different chemical and electrical methods. It was found that the colloids obtained by physical and electrical methods are more stable than colloids obtained by chemical route. In this work the surface of modified corundum implants was investigated. The implant modified by nanosilver, obtained by electrical method was selected. The in vivo research on animals was carried out. Clinical observations showed that the implants with modified surface could be applied to wounds caused by atherosclerotic skeleton, for curing the chronic and bacterial inflammations as well as for skeletal reconstruction surgery.

  18. Janus Nematic Colloids with Designable Valence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Čopar


    Full Text Available Generalized Janus nematic colloids based on various morphologies of particle surface patches imposing homeotropic and planar surface anchoring are demonstrated. By using mesoscopic numerical modeling, multiple types of Janus particles are explored, demonstrating a variety of novel complex colloidal structures. We also show binding of Janus particles to a fixed Janus post in the nematic cell, which acts as a seed and a micro-anchor for the colloidal structure. Janus colloidal structures reveal diverse topological defect configurations, which are effectively combinations of surface boojum and bulk defects. Topological analysis is applied to defects, importantly showing that topological charge is not a well determined topological invariant in such patchy nematic Janus colloids. Finally, this work demonstrates colloidal structures with designable valence, which could allow for targeted and valence-conditioned self-assembly at micro- and nano-scale.

  19. Crystallization of DNA-coated colloids (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Wang, Yufeng; Zheng, Xiaolong; Ducrot, Étienne; Yodh, Jeremy S.; Weck, Marcus; Pine, David J.


    DNA-coated colloids hold great promise for self-assembly of programmed heterogeneous microstructures, provided they not only bind when cooled below their melting temperature, but also rearrange so that aggregated particles can anneal into the structure that minimizes the free energy. Unfortunately, DNA-coated colloids generally collide and stick forming kinetically arrested random aggregates when the thickness of the DNA coating is much smaller than the particles. Here we report DNA-coated colloids that can rearrange and anneal, thus enabling the growth of large colloidal crystals from a wide range of micrometre-sized DNA-coated colloids for the first time. The kinetics of aggregation, crystallization and defect formation are followed in real time. The crystallization rate exhibits the familiar maximum for intermediate temperature quenches observed in metallic alloys, but over a temperature range smaller by two orders of magnitude, owing to the highly temperature-sensitive diffusion between aggregated DNA-coated colloids. PMID:26078020

  20. Crystallization of DNA-coated colloids. (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Wang, Yufeng; Zheng, Xiaolong; Ducrot, Étienne; Yodh, Jeremy S; Weck, Marcus; Pine, David J


    DNA-coated colloids hold great promise for self-assembly of programmed heterogeneous microstructures, provided they not only bind when cooled below their melting temperature, but also rearrange so that aggregated particles can anneal into the structure that minimizes the free energy. Unfortunately, DNA-coated colloids generally collide and stick forming kinetically arrested random aggregates when the thickness of the DNA coating is much smaller than the particles. Here we report DNA-coated colloids that can rearrange and anneal, thus enabling the growth of large colloidal crystals from a wide range of micrometre-sized DNA-coated colloids for the first time. The kinetics of aggregation, crystallization and defect formation are followed in real time. The crystallization rate exhibits the familiar maximum for intermediate temperature quenches observed in metallic alloys, but over a temperature range smaller by two orders of magnitude, owing to the highly temperature-sensitive diffusion between aggregated DNA-coated colloids.

  1. Actinide production from xenon bombardments of curium-248

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, R.B.


    Production cross sections for many actinide nuclides formed in the reaction of /sup 129/Xe and /sup 132/Xe with /sup 248/Cm at bombarding energies slightly above the coulomb barrier were determined using radiochemical techniques to isolate these products. These results are compared with cross sections from a /sup 136/Xe + /sup 248/Cm reaction at a similar energy. When compared to the reaction with /sup 136/Xe, the maxima in the production cross section distributions from the more neutron deficient projectiles are shifted to smaller mass numbers, and the total cross section increases for the production of elements with atomic numbers greater than that of the target, and decreases for lighter elements. These results can be explained by use of a potential energy surface (PES) which illustrates the effect of the available energy on the transfer of nucleons and describes the evolution of the di-nuclear complex, an essential feature of deep-inelastic reactions (DIR), during the interaction. The other principal reaction mechanism is the quasi-elastic transfer (QE). Analysis of data from a similar set of reactions, /sup 129/Xe, /sup 132/Xe, and /sup 136/Xe with /sup 197/Au, aids in explaining the features of the Xe + Cm product distributions, which are additionally affected by the depletion of actinide product yields due to deexcitation by fission. The PES is shown to be a useful tool to predict the general features of product distributions from heavy ion reactions.

  2. The EBR-II X501 Minor Actinide Burning Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. J. Carmack; M. K. Meyer; S. L. Hayes; H. Tsai


    The X501 experiment was conducted in EBR II as part of the Integral Fast Reactor program to demonstrate minor actinide burning through the use of a homogeneous recycle scheme. The X501 subassembly contained two metallic fuel elements loaded with relatively small quantities of americium and neptunium. Interest in the behavior of minor actinides (MA) during fuel irradiation has prompted further examination of existing X501 data and generation of new data where needed in support of the U.S. waste transmutation effort. The X501 experiment is one of the few MA bearing fuel irradiation tests conducted worldwide, and knowledge can be gained by understanding the changes in fuel behavior due to addition of MAs. Of primary interest are the effect of the MAs on fuel cladding chemical interaction and the redistribution behavior of americium. The quantity of helium gas release from the fuel and any effects of helium on fuel performance are also of interest. It must be stressed that information presented at this time is based on the limited PIE conducted in 1995–1996 and, currently, represents a set of observations rather than a complete understanding of fuel behavior. This report provides a summary of the X501 fabrication, characterization, irradiation, and post irradiation examination.

  3. Transformative Colloidal Nanomaterials for Mid- Infrared Devices (United States)


    Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Transformative Colloidal Nanomaterials for Mid- Infrared Devices The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this...reviewed journals: Final Report: Transformative Colloidal Nanomaterials for Mid-Infrared Devices Report Title The grant focused on the Photoluminescence...explored for mid-infrared photoluminescence, in view of applying it to LEDs, lasers or negative luminescence devices. Colloidal nanomaterials are already

  4. Binary Colloidal Alloy Test Conducted on Mir (United States)

    Hoffmann, Monica I.; Ansari, Rafat R.


    Colloids are tiny (submicron) particles suspended in fluid. Paint, ink, and milk are examples of colloids found in everyday life. The Binary Colloidal Alloy Test (BCAT) is part of an extensive series of experiments planned to investigate the fundamental properties of colloids so that scientists can make colloids more useful for technological applications. Some of the colloids studied in BCAT are made of two different sized particles (binary colloidal alloys) that are very tiny, uniform plastic spheres. Under the proper conditions, these colloids can arrange themselves in a pattern to form crystals. These crystals may form the basis of new classes of light switches, displays, and optical devices. Windows made of liquid crystals are already in the marketplace. These windows change their appearance from transparent to opaque when a weak electric current is applied. In the future, if the colloidal crystals can be made to control the passage of light through them, such products could be made much more cheaply. These experiments require the microgravity environment of space because good quality crystals are difficult to produce on Earth because of sedimentation and convection in the fluid. The BCAT experiment hardware included two separate modules for two different experiments. The "Slow Growth" hardware consisted of a 35-mm camera with a 250- exposure photo film cartridge. The camera was aimed toward the sample module, which contained 10 separate colloid samples. A rack of small lights provided backlighting for the photographs. The BCAT hardware was launched on the shuttle and was operated aboard the Russian space station Mir by American astronauts John Blaha and David Wolf (launched September 1996 and returned January 1997; reflown September 1997 and returned January 1998). To begin the experiment, one of these astronauts would mix the samples to disperse the colloidal particles and break up any crystals that might have already formed. Once the samples were mixed and

  5. Colloid Titration--A Rapid Method for the Determination of Charged Colloid. (United States)

    Ueno, Keihei; Kina, Ken'yu


    "Colloid titration" is a volumetric method for determining charged polyelectrolytes in aqueous solutions. The principle of colloid titration, reagents used in the procedure, methods of endpoint detection, preparation of reagent solutions, general procedure used, results obtained, and pH profile of colloid titration are considered. (JN)

  6. Colloidal paradigm in supercapattery electrode systems (United States)

    Chen, Kunfeng; Xue, Dongfeng


    Among decades of development, electrochemical energy storage systems are now sorely in need of a new design paradigm at the nano size and ion level to satisfy the higher energy and power demands. In this review paper, we introduce a new colloidal electrode paradigm for supercapattery that integrates multiple-scale forms of matter, i.e. ion clusters, colloidal ions, and nanosized materials, into one colloid system, coupled with multiple interactions, i.e. electrostatic, van der Waals forces, and chemical bonding, thus leading to the formation of many redox reactive centers. This colloidal electrode not only keeps the original ionic nature in colloidal materials, but also creates a new attribute of high electroactivity. Colloidal supercapattery is a perfect application example of the novel colloidal electrode, leading to higher specific capacitance than traditional electrode materials. The high electroactivity of the colloidal electrode mainly comes from the contribution of exposed reactive centers, owing to the confinement effect of carbon and a binder matrix. Systematic and thorough research on the colloidal system will significantly promote the development of fundamental science and the progress of advanced energy storage technology.

  7. Sorption Behavior of Strontium-85 Onto Colloids of Silica and Smectite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, N.; Triay, I.R.; Mason, C.F.V.; Longmire, P.A.


    Strontium-90 is one of the sizable radioactive contaminants found in DP Canyon at Los Alamos, New Mexico. Radioactive surveys found the {sup 90}Sr is present in surface and groundwater in DP Canyon and Los Alamos Canyon. Colloids may influence the transport of this radionuclide in surface water and groundwater environments in both canyons. In this study, we investigated the sorption/desorption behavior of Sr on colloids of smectite and silica. Laboratory batch sorption experiments were conducted using {sup 85}Sr as a surrogate to {sup 90}Sr. Groundwater, collected from DP Canyon and from Well J-13 at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and deionized water were used in this study. Our results show that 92% to 100% of {sup 85}Sr was rapidly adsorbed onto smectite colloids in all three waters. The concentrations of Ca{sup 2+} significantly influence the adsorption of {sup 85}Sr onto silica colloids. Desorption of {sup 85}Sr from smectite colloids is much slower than the sorption process. Desorption of {sup 85}Sr from silica colloids was rapid in DP groundwater and slow using J-13 groundwater and deionized water.

  8. Phytosiderophore Effects on Subsurface Actinide Contaminants: Potential for Phytostabilization and Phytoextraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruggiero, Christy


    This project seeks to understand the influence of phytosiderophore-producing plants (grasses, including crops such as wheat and barley) on the biogeochemistry of actinide and other metal contaminants in the subsurface environment, and to determine the potential of phytosiderophore-producing plants for phytostabilization and phytoextraction of actinides and some metal soil contaminants. Phytosiderophores are secreted by graminaceous plants such as barley and wheat for the solubilization, mobilization and uptake of Fe and other essential nutrients from soils. The ability for these phytosiderophores to chelate and absorb actinides using the same uptake system as for Fe is being investigated though characterization of actinide-phytosiderophore complexes (independently of plants), and characterization of plant uptake of such complexes. We may also show possible harm caused by these plants through increased chelation of actinides that increase in actinide mobilization & migration in the subsurface environment. This information can then be directly applied by either removal of harmful plants, or can be used to develop plant-based soil stabilization/remediation technologies. Such technologies could be the low-cost, low risk solution to many DOE actinide contamination problems.

  9. Synthesis and Analytical Centrifugation of Magnetic Model Colloids


    Luigjes, B.


    This thesis is a study of the preparation and thermodynamic properties of magnetic colloids. First, two types of magnetic model colloids are investigated: composite colloids and single-domain nanoparticles. Thermodynamics of magnetic colloids is studied using analytical centrifugation, including a specially adapted centrifuge for measuring heavy and strongly light absorbing colloids. Magnetic composite colloids can be prepared from thermodynamically stable Pickering emulsions of 3-methacrylox...

  10. Importance of nanoparticles and colloids from volcanic ash for riverine transport of trace elements to the ocean: evidence from glacial-fed rivers after the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull Volcano, Iceland. (United States)

    Tepe, Nathalie; Bau, Michael


    Volcanic ashes are often referenced as examples for natural nanoparticles, yet the particle size distribution rarely documented. We here report results of a geochemical study of glacial-fed rivers, glacial surface runoff, glacial base flow, and pure glacial meltwater from southern Iceland, that had been sampled 25 days after the explosive eruptions at Eyjafjallajökull in 2010. In addition to the dissolved concentrations of rare earth elements (REE), Zr, Hf, Nb, and Th in the 450 nm-filtered waters, we also studied the respective filter residues (river particulates >450 nm) and volcanic ash. In spite of the low solubilities and high particle-reactivities of the elements studied, most water samples show high dissolved concentrations, such as up to 971 ng/kg of Ce and 501 ng/kg of Zr. Except for the pure glacial meltwater and glacial base flow, all waters display the same shale-normalized REE patterns with pronounced light and heavy REE depletion and positive Eu anomalies. While such patterns are unusual for river waters, they are similar to those of the respective river particulates and the volcanic ash, though at different concentration levels. The distribution of dissolved Zr, Hf, Nb, and Th in the waters also matches that of filter residues and ash. This strongly suggests that in all 450 nm-filtered river waters, the elements studied are associated with solid ash particles smaller than 450 nm. This reveals that volcanic ash-derived nanoparticles and colloids are present in these glacial-fed rivers and that such ultrafine particles control the trace element distribution in the surface runoff. Subsequent to explosive volcanic eruptions, these waters provide terrigenous input from landmasses to estuaries, that is characterized by a unique trace element signature and that subsequent to modification by estuarine processes delivers a pulse of nutrients to coastal seawater in regions not affected by plume fall-out. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. An Advanced TALSPEAK Concept for Separating Minor Actinides. Part 2. Flowsheet Test with Actinide-spiked Simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilden, Andreas [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institut für Energie – und Klimaforschung – Nukleare Entsorgung und Reaktorsicherheit (IEK-6), Jülich, Germany; Lumetta, Gregg J. [Nuclear Science and Engineering Group, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, DC, USA; Sadowski, Fabian [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institut für Energie – und Klimaforschung – Nukleare Entsorgung und Reaktorsicherheit (IEK-6), Jülich, Germany; Schmidt, Holger [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institut für Energie – und Klimaforschung – Nukleare Entsorgung und Reaktorsicherheit (IEK-6), Jülich, Germany; Schneider, Dimitri [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institut für Energie – und Klimaforschung – Nukleare Entsorgung und Reaktorsicherheit (IEK-6), Jülich, Germany; Gerdes, Markus [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institut für Energie – und Klimaforschung – Nukleare Entsorgung und Reaktorsicherheit (IEK-6), Jülich, Germany; Law, Jack D. [Aqueous Separations and Radiochemistry Department, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID, USA; Geist, Andreas [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Nuclear Waste Disposal (INE), Karlsruhe, Germany; Bosbach, Dirk [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institut für Energie – und Klimaforschung – Nukleare Entsorgung und Reaktorsicherheit (IEK-6), Jülich, Germany; Modolo, Giuseppe [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institut für Energie – und Klimaforschung – Nukleare Entsorgung und Reaktorsicherheit (IEK-6), Jülich, Germany


    A solvent extraction system has been developed for separating trivalent actinides from lanthanides. This “Advanced TALSPEAK” system uses 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester to extract the lanthanides into a n-dodecane-based solvent phase, while the actinides are retained in a citrate-buffered aqueous phase by complexation to N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine-N,N',N'-triacetic acid. Batch distribution measurements indicate that the separation of americium from the light lanthanides decreases as the pH decreases. For example, the separation factor between La and Am increases from 2.5 at pH 2.0 to 19.3 at pH 3.0. However, previous investigations indicated that the extraction rates for the heavier lanthanides decrease with increasing pH. So, a balance between these two competing effects is required. An aqueous phase in which the pH was set at 2.6 was chosen for further process development because this offered optimal separation, with a minimum separation factor of ~8.4, based on the separation between La and Am. Centrifugal contactor single-stage efficiencies were measured to characterize the performance of the system under flow conditions.

  12. Electrochemistry in Colloids and Dispersions. Volume 3. Colloidal Semiconductors (United States)


    Technique’ Generation electrochemically RuO2 /polybrene rapid mixing 1-12 11 colloid & stopped flow I r electrochemically RuO./ TiO2 rapid mixing 1-12 11...8217OOOO1 92-06924 9 2i~ 1111 -1,llNi(ilI~l 11 Best Available Copy ~ REDOX MECHANISMS IN HETEROGENEOUS PHOTOCATALYSIS . THE CASE OF HOLES vs. OH*RADICAL...CONTENTS ABSTRACT p.i Volume III 21. Redox mechanisms in heterogeneous photocatalysis . The case of holes vs OH radical oxidation and free vs. surface-bound

  13. Fate and transport of plutonium-239 + 240 and Americium-241 in the soil of Rocky Flats, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litaor, M.I.; Barth, G.R.; Zika, E.M. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)


    Actinides contamination of soils around Rocky Flats, CO, resulted from leaking drums of Pu-contaminated oil stored at an outdoor site. The transport of these actinides through the soil to groundwater was studied using an advanced monitoring system (MS). The fully automated, remotely controlled MS gathered real-time data on soil water content, groundwater level, and timing of gravitationally flowing water. Controlled rain simulations coupled with measurements of volume flux and actinide activities provided essential information about the fate and transport of Pu-239 + 240 and Am-241. Volume fluxes at most sampling locations were similar, regardless of the antecedent moisture or the duration, frequency, and intensity of the simulated rain. Actinide activities were not correlated with the measured volume flux, or the duration, frequency, and intensity of the simulated rain. Flow was facilitated primarily via macropore channeling. The relatively short residence time precluded a continuous interaction between the soil and the flowing water, which minimized the movement of actinides in the soil. Actinide activities in the interstitial water collected from the upper 20 cm of the soil were significantly higher (P>0.001) than water collected at deeper sampling depths (20-70 cm). Actinide activity in water samples from the deepest sampling depth (40-70 cm) did not exceed 0.4 Bq/L. These results suggest that, under the experimental conditions, the movement of actinides was restricted to the top 20 cm. A transport mechanism involving discrete Pu oxide particles, coupled with macropore channeling is proposed to explain the observed actinide activities in the soil. 31 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. Advanced Extraction Methods for Actinide/Lanthanide Separations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, M.J.


    The separation of An(III) ions from chemically similar Ln(III) ions is perhaps one of the most difficult problems encountered during the processing of nuclear waste. In the 3+ oxidation states, the metal ions have an identical charge and roughly the same ionic radius. They differ strictly in the relative energies of their f- and d-orbitals, and to separate these metal ions, ligands will need to be developed that take advantage of this small but important distinction. The extraction of uranium and plutonium from nitric acid solution can be performed quantitatively by the extraction with the TBP (tributyl phosphate). Commercially, this process has found wide use in the PUREX (plutonium uranium extraction) reprocessing method. The TRUEX (transuranium extraction) process is further used to coextract the trivalent lanthanides and actinides ions from HLLW generated during PUREX extraction. This method uses CMPO [(N, N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethyl) octylphenylphosphineoxide] intermixed with TBP as a synergistic agent. However, the final separation of trivalent actinides from trivalent lanthanides still remains a challenging task. In TRUEX nitric acid solution, the Am(III) ion is coordinated by three CMPO molecules and three nitrate anions. Taking inspiration from this data and previous work with calix[4]arene systems, researchers on this project have developed a C3-symmetric tris-CMPO ligand system using a triphenoxymethane platform as a base. The triphenoxymethane ligand systems have many advantages for the preparation of complex ligand systems. The compounds are very easy to prepare. The steric and solubility properties can be tuned through an extreme range by the inclusion of different alkoxy and alkyl groups such as methyoxy, ethoxy, t-butoxy, methyl, octyl, t-pentyl, or even t-pentyl at the ortho- and para-positions of the aryl rings. The triphenoxymethane ligand system shows promise as an improved extractant for both tetravalent and trivalent actinide recoveries form

  15. Self-Assembly at the Colloidal Scale (United States)

    Zhong, Xiao

    The existence of self-assembly, the phenomenon of spontaneous structural formation from building blocks, transcends many orders of magnitude, ranging from molecular to cosmic. It is arguably the most common, important, and complex question in science. This thesis aims for understanding a spectrum of self-assembly-self assembly at the colloidal scale. Of the whole spectrum of self-assembly, the colloidal scale is of particular interest and importance to researchers, for not only comprehensive tools for colloidal scale studies have been well established, but also the various promising applications colloidal self-assembly can facilitate. In this thesis, a high throughput technique-Polymer Pen Lithography (PPL) is modified and its potential for creating corrals for colloidal assembly is evaluated. Then two different approaches of assembling colloids are explored in depth. One of them is by using a phenomenon called dielectrophoresis (DEP) as driving force to manipulate colloidal nucleation and crystal growth. And the other takes advantage of the Pt-catalyzed H2O 2 redox reaction to drive micrometer-scaled, rod-shaped colloids to swim and assemble. Lastly, an optical method called Holographic Video Microscopy (HVM) is used to monitor and characterize "bad" self-assembly of proteins, that is their aggregations. The four studies discussed in this thesis represent advancements in the colloidal scale from different aspects. The PPL technique enriched the toolbox for colloidal self-assembly. The DEP driven colloidal nucleation and crystal growth shed light on deeper understanding the mechanism of crystallization. And the swimming and assembly of micro-scale rods leads to kinetics reminiscent of bacterial run-and-tumble motion. Finally, the HVM technique for monitoring and understanding protein aggregation could potentially lead to better quality assurance for therapeutic proteins and could be a powerful tool for assessing their shelf lives.

  16. Use of superheated liquid dispersion technique for measuring alpha-emitting actinides in environmental samples (United States)

    Wang, C. K.; Lim, W.; Pan, L. K.


    This paper presents a novel fast screening technique of measuring concentrations of alpha-emitting actinides in environmental samples. This novel technique is called superheated liquid dispersion (SLD), which involves dispersing fine superheated liquid (e.g. Freon-12) droplets into a mixture of glycerin and the actinide-containing chemical extractant. The interactions between alpha particles and superheated liquid droplets trigger bubbles. Therefore, one may relate the number of bubbles to the actinide concentration in the sample. The results obtained from the computer simulation and the experiment support the above claim.

  17. Actinides recovery from irradiated metallic fuel in LiCl–KCl melts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, T., E-mail: [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), Komaeshi, Tokyo 201-8511 (Japan); Rodrigues, A.; Ougier, M. [Joint Research Center-Institute for Transuranium Elements (JRC-ITU), P.O. Box 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Iizuka, M.; Tsukada, T. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), Komaeshi, Tokyo 201-8511 (Japan); Glatz, J.-P. [Joint Research Center-Institute for Transuranium Elements (JRC-ITU), P.O. Box 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany)


    Electrorefining of irradiated metallic fuels was successfully demonstrated: Actinides (U, Pu, Np, Am and Cm) in the fuels were dissolved in LiCl–KCl melts with high dissolution ratios, while U was selectively deposited on a solid cathode and the simultaneous recovery of actinides in a liquid Cd cathode was confirmed. The behavior of actinides, the fuel matrix stabilizer Zr and fission products such as lanthanide, alkaline, alkaline earth and noble metal, at the electrorefining is discussed based on the ICP-MS analysis of the samples taken from molten salt electrolyte, anode fuel residues and cathode deposits.

  18. Actinide-zirconia based materials for nuclear applications: Cubic stabilized zirconia versus pyrochlore oxide (United States)

    Raison, P. E.; Haire, R. G.


    Concepts about nuclear energy and nuclear materials have changed considerably over the past six decades. Regardless of one's position on the nuclear generation of electric power, there are serious needs for pursuing fundamental and technological science of existing actinide materials. These needs are best addressed by obtaining an atomic and molecular understanding of these actinides and actinide containing materials. Although electro-nuclear energy is considered less polluting in terms of uncontrolled releases (e.g., SO2, heavy metals, CO2, etc.) into the environment, its use produces solid wastes, which offer a challenge for scientists. Fortunately, concepts are being developed to appropriately handle these materials after irradiation, reprocessing, etc.

  19. Conjugates of Actinide Chelator-Magnetic Nanoparticles for Used Fuel Separation Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiang, You; Paszczynski, Andrzej; Rao, Linfeng


    The actinide separation method using magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) functionalized with actinide specific chelators utilizes the separation capability of ligand and the ease of magnetic separation. This separation method eliminated the need of large quantity organic solutions used in the liquid-liquid extraction process. The MNPs could also be recycled for repeated separation, thus this separation method greatly reduces the generation of secondary waste compared to traditional liquid extraction technology. The high diffusivity of MNPs and the large surface area also facilitate high efficiency of actinide sorption by the ligands. This method could help in solving the nuclear waste remediation problem.

  20. Critical analysis of the data on complexation of lanthanides and actinides by natural organic matter: particular case of humic substances; Analyse critique des donnees de complexation des lanthanides et actinides par la matiere organique naturelle: cas des substances humiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiller, P.


    This document proposes a critical analysis of the models that describe the actinides and lanthanides complexation by natural organic matter in general and by humic substances in particular. In order to better delimit the particular properties of these substances the most influent physical and chemical properties on complexation are recalled as a preamble. Models as well as data that has been used are reviewed, compiled, and eventually compared to independent data in order to identify (i) their application domain, (ii) the possible simplifications which permit to obtain operational models, (iii) the conditions in which simplifications cannot be ascertained yet, and (iv) the data or fields of knowledge which are still too uncertain. A comparison between the different models is proposed in order to adapt parameters from one model to another minimising the experimental acquisitions, or at least to focus on missing data. Usually, data on the complexation of free ions M{sup z+} are reliable; as soon as hydrolysis, or competition with another ligand in general, in at stake data are much less reliable. Predictions from models are much more uncertain: formation of mixed complexes with hydroxide or carbonate anions is not univocal whatever the modelling strategy. Hints for transfer functions between models which are believed to be incompatible could be explored in order to justify necessary simplifications for using operational modelling. Influence on the solubility of oxides could be quantified, but it is difficult to clearly separate it from colloidal particles stabilisation. The account of the competition between cations by the models has also been tested. In view of the small number of available experimental data there still lie some uncertainties especially for the media that are close to neutrality and in the case of competition with magnesium, but overall in the case of the competition with aluminium and iron. The influence of redox activity of humic substances is

  1. Depinning and heterogeneous dynamics of colloidal crystal layers under shear flow (United States)

    Gerloff, Sascha; Klapp, Sabine H. L.


    Using Brownian dynamics (BD) simulations and an analytical approach we investigate the shear-induced, nonequilibrium dynamics of dense colloidal suspensions confined to a narrow slit-pore. Focusing on situations where the colloids arrange in well-defined layers with solidlike in-plane structure, the confined films display complex, nonlinear behavior such as collective depinning and local transport via density excitations. These phenomena are reminiscent of colloidal monolayers driven over a periodic substrate potential. In order to deepen this connection, we present an effective model that maps the dynamics of the shear-driven colloidal layers to the motion of a single particle driven over an effective substrate potential. This model allows us to estimate the critical shear rate of the depinning transition based on the equilibrium configuration, revealing the impact of important parameters, such as the slit-pore width and the interaction strength. We then turn to heterogeneous systems where a layer of small colloids is sheared with respect to bottom layers of large particles. For these incommensurate systems we find that the particle transport is dominated by density excitations resembling the so-called "kink" solutions of the Frenkel-Kontorova (FK) model. In contrast to the FK model, however, the corresponding "antikinks" do not move.

  2. Structural color from colloidal glasses (United States)

    Magkiriadou, Sofia

    When a material has inhomogeneities at a lengthscale comparable to the wavelength of light, interference can give rise to structural colors: colors that originate from the interaction of the material's microstructure with light and do not require absorbing dyes. In this thesis we study a class of these materials, called photonic glasses, where the inhomogeneities form a dense and random arrangement. Photonic glasses have angle-independent structural colors that look like those of conventional dyes. However, when this work started, there was only a handful of colors accessible with photonic glasses, mostly hues of blue. We use various types of colloidal particles to make photonic glasses, and we study, both theoretically and experimentally, how the optical properties of these glasses relate to their structure and constituent particles. Based on our observations from glasses of conventional particles, we construct a theoretical model that explains the scarcity of yellow, orange, and red photonic glasses. Guided by this model, we develop novel colloidal systems that allow a higher degree of control over structural color. We assemble glasses of soft, core-shell particles with scattering cores and transparent shells, where the resonant wavelength can be tuned independently of the reflectivity. We then encapsulate glasses of these core-shell particles into emulsion droplets of tunable size; in this system, we observe, for the first time, angle-independent structural colors that cover the entire visible spectrum. To enhance color saturation, we begin experimenting with inverse glasses, where the refractive index of the particles is lower than the refractive index of the medium, with promising results. Finally, based on our theoretical model for scattering from colloidal glasses, we begin an exploration of the color gamut that could be achieved with this technique, and we find that photonic glasses are a promising approach to a new type of long-lasting, non-toxic, and

  3. Engineering Entropy for Colloidal Design (United States)

    Geng, Yina; Anders, Greg Van; Dodd, Paul M.; Glotzer, Sharon C.; Glotzer group Collaboration

    The inverse design of target material structures is a fundamental challenge. Here, we demonstrate the direct inverse design of soft materials for target crystal structures using entropy alone. Our approach does not require any geometric ansatz. Instead, it efficiently samples 92- or 188-dimensional building-block parameter spaces to determine thermodynamically optimal shapes. We present detailed data for optimal particle characteristics and parameter tolerances for six target structures. Our results demonstrate a general, rational, and precise method for engineering new colloidal materials, and will guide nanoparticle synthesis to realize these materials.

  4. Structured fluids polymers, colloids, surfactants

    CERN Document Server

    Witten, Thomas A


    Over the last thirty years, the study of liquids containing polymers, surfactants, or colloidal particles has developed from a loose assembly of facts into a coherent discipline with substantial predictive power. These liquids expand our conception of what condensed matter can do. Such structured-fluid phenomena dominate the physical environment within living cells. This book teaches how to think of these fluids from a unified point of view showing the far-reaching effects ofthermal fluctuations in producing forces and motions. Keeping mathematics to a minimum, the book seeks the simplest expl

  5. Frost Heave in Colloidal Soils

    KAUST Repository

    Peppin, Stephen


    We develop a mathematical model of frost heave in colloidal soils. The theory accountsfor heave and consolidation while not requiring a frozen fringe assumption. Two solidificationregimes occur: a compaction regime in which the soil consolidates to accommodate the ice lenses, and a heave regime during which liquid is sucked into the consolidated soil from an external reservoir, and the added volume causes the soil to heave. The ice fraction is found to vary inversely with thefreezing velocity V , while the rate of heave is independent of V , consistent with field and laboratoryobservations. © 2011 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  6. Colloidal Electrolytes and the Critical Micelle Concentration (United States)

    Knowlton, L. G.


    Describes methods for determining the Critical Micelle Concentration of Colloidal Electrolytes; methods described are: (1) methods based on Colligative Properties, (2) methods based on the Electrical Conductivity of Colloidal Electrolytic Solutions, (3) Dye Method, (4) Dye Solubilization Method, and (5) Surface Tension Method. (BR)

  7. Manipulating colloids with charges and electric fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leunissen, M.E.


    This thesis presents the results of experimental investigations on a variety of colloidal suspensions. Colloidal particles are at least a hundred times larger than atoms or molecules, but suspended in a liquid they display the same phase behavior, including fluid and crystalline phases. Due to their

  8. Dynamics of colloidal crystals in shear flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, D.; Wu, Y.L.; van Blaaderen, A.; Imhof, A.


    We investigate particle dynamics in nearly hard sphere colloidal crystals submitted to a steady shear flow. Both the fluctuations of single colloids and the collective motion of crystalline layers as a whole are studied by using a home-built counter rotating shear cell in combination with confocal

  9. Structure and Dynamics at Colloidal Boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Villeneuve, V.W.A.


    This thesis is made up of several studies of boundaries occurring in colloidal hard sphere crystals and phase separated colloid-polymer mixtures. These boundaries can be studied on the particle level, in real space and in real time by confocal microscopy. A general introduction on the experimental

  10. Colloidal iron(III) pyrophosphate particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossi, L.; Velikov, K. P.; Philipse, A.P.


    Ferric pyrophosphate is a widely used material in the area of mineral fortification but its synthesis and properties in colloidal form are largely unknown. In this article, we report on the synthesis and characterisation of colloidal iron(III) pyrophosphate particles with potential for application

  11. Anion-Dependent Aggregate Formation and Charge Behavior of Colloidal Fullerenes (n-C60) (United States)

    The fate and transport of colloidal fullerenes (n-C60) in the environment is likely to be guided by electrokinetic and aggregation behavior. In natural water bodies inorganic ions exert significant effects in determining the size and charge of n-C60 nanoparticles. Although the ef...

  12. Facilities for preparing actinide or fission product-based targets

    CERN Document Server

    Sors, M


    Research and development work is currently in progress in France on the feasibility of transmutation of very long-lived radionuclides such as americium, blended with an inert medium such as magnesium oxide and pelletized for irradiation in a fast neutron reactor. The process is primarily designed to produce ceramics for nuclear reactors, but could also be used to produce targets for accelerators. The Actinide Development Laboratory is part of the ATALANTE complex at Marcoule, where the CEA investigates reprocessing, liquid and solid waste treatment and vitrification processes. The laboratory produces radioactive sources; after use, their constituents are recycled, notably through R and D programs requiring such materials. Recovered americium is purified, characterized and transformed for an experiment known as ECRIX, designed to demonstrate the feasibility of fabricating americium-based ceramics and to determine the reactor transmutation coefficients.

  13. Room temperature electrodeposition of actinides from ionic solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatchett, David W.; Czerwinski, Kenneth R.; Droessler, Janelle; Kinyanjui, John


    Uranic and transuranic metals and metal oxides are first dissolved in ozone compositions. The resulting solution in ozone can be further dissolved in ionic liquids to form a second solution. The metals in the second solution are then electrochemically deposited from the second solutions as room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL), tri-methyl-n-butyl ammonium n-bis(trifluoromethansulfonylimide) [Me.sub.3N.sup.nBu][TFSI] providing an alternative non-aqueous system for the extraction and reclamation of actinides from reprocessed fuel materials. Deposition of U metal is achieved using TFSI complexes of U(III) and U(IV) containing the anion common to the RTIL. TFSI complexes of uranium were produced to ensure solubility of the species in the ionic liquid. The methods provide a first measure of the thermodynamic properties of U metal deposition using Uranium complexes with different oxidation states from RTIL solution at room temperature.

  14. Scissors strength in the quasi-continuum of actinides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guttormsen M.


    Full Text Available The M1-scissors resonance has been measured for the first time in the quasi-continuum of actinides. The strength and position of the resonances in 231,232,233Th were determined by particle-γ coincidences using deuteron induced reactions on a 232Th target. The residual nuclei show a strong integrated strength of BM1 = 9 − 11 µn2 in the Eγ = 1.0 − 3.5 MeV region. The presence of the scissors resonance modifies significantly the (n,γ cross section, which has impact on fuel-cycle simulations of fast nuclear reactors and nucleosynthesis in explosive stellar environments.

  15. Specific sequestering agents for iron and the actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, K.N.


    The transuranium actinide ions represent one unique environmental hazard associated with the waste of the nuclear power industry. A major component associated with that waste and a potential hazard is plutonium. The synthesis of metal-ion-specific complexing agents for ions such as Pu(IV) potentially represents a powerful new approach to many of the problems posed by waste treatment. This document is a progress report of a rational approach to the synthesis of such chelating agents based on the similarities of Pu(IV) and Fe(III), the structures of naturally-occurring complexing agents which are highly specific for Fe(III), and the incorporation of the same kinds of ligating groups present in the iron complexes to make octadentate complexes highly specific for plutonium. Both thermodynamic and animal test results indicate that a relatively high degree of success has already been achieved in this aim.

  16. Chemistry of tetravalent actinides phosphates. The thorium phosphate-diphosphate as immobilisation matrix of actinides; Chimie des phosphates d'actinides tetravalents. Le phosphate-diphosphate de thorium en tant que matrice d'imobilisation des actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dacheux, N


    The author presents in this document its scientific works from 1992 to 2001, in order to obtain the enabling to manage scientific and chemical researches at the university Paris Sud Orsay. The first part gives an abstract of the thesis on the characterizations, lixiviation and synthesis of uranium and thorium based phosphate matrix in the framework of the search for a ceramic material usable in the radioactive waste storage. The second part presents briefly the researches realized at the CEA, devoted to a reliable, independent and accurate measure of some isotopes activity. The last part presents the abstracts of researches activities from 1996 to 2001 on the tetravalent actinides phosphates chemistry, the sintering of PDT and solid solutions of PDTU and the kinetic and thermodynamical studies of the PDT dissolution. Many references and some publication in full text are provided. (A.L.B.)

  17. Angular distributions in the neutron-induced fission of actinides

    CERN Multimedia

    In 2003 the n_TOF Collaboration performed the fission cross section measurement of several actinides ($^{232}$Th, $^{233}$U, $^{234}$U, $^{237}$Np) at the n_TOF facility using an experImental setup made of Parallel Plate Avalanche Counters (PPAC). The method based on the detection of the 2 fragments in coincidence allowed to clearly disentangle the fission reactions among other types of reactions occurring in the spallation domain. We have been therefore able to cover the very broad neutron energy range 1eV-1GeV, taking full benefit of the unique characteristics of the n_TOF facility. Figure 1 shows an example obtained in the case of $^{237}$Np where the n_ TOF measurement showed that the cross section was underestimated by a large factor in the resonance region.

  18. Colloidal astaxanthin: preparation, characterisation and bioavailability evaluation. (United States)

    Anarjan, Navideh; Tan, Chin Ping; Nehdi, Imededdine Arbi; Ling, Tau Chuan


    Astaxanthin colloidal particles were produced using solvent-diffusion technique in the presence of different food grade surface active compounds, namely, Polysorbate 20 (PS20), sodium caseinate (SC), gum Arabic (GA) and the optimum combination of them (OPT). Particle size and surface charge characteristics, rheological behaviour, chemical stability, colour, in vitro cellular uptake, in vitro antioxidant activity and residual solvent concentration of prepared colloidal particles were evaluated. The results indicated that in most cases the mixture of surface active compounds lead to production of colloidal particles with more desirable physicochemical and biological properties, as compared to using them individually. The optimum combination of PS20, SC and GA could produce the astaxanthin colloidal particles with small particle size, polydispersity index (PDI), conductivity and higher zeta potential, mobility, cellular uptake, colour intensity and in vitro antioxidant activity. In addition, all prepared astaxanthin colloidal particles had significantly (ppowder. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Resonant Laser-SNMS on actinides for spatially resolved ultra-trace analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzmann, Michael [Institut fuer Radiooekologie und Strahlenschutz, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover (Germany); Institut fuer Physik, Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Bosco, Hauke; Hamann, Linda; Walther, Clemens [Institut fuer Radiooekologie und Strahlenschutz, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover (Germany); Wendt, Klaus [Institut fuer Physik, Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet Mainz (Germany)


    The transport mechanisms and geochemical behavior of actinides in natural systems is of major importance to evaluate their distribution in geological formations at contaminated areas and storage sites. The composition analysis of hot particles, sorption on mineral surfaces and migration of trace concentrations of radionuclides requires an excellent suppression of organic background and isobaric contamination in combination with high spatial resolution while maintaining the natural structure of the sample. The new resonant Laser-SNMS system at the IRS Hannover was developed to cover those specifications by combining the high element selectivity of resonance ionization with the non-destructive spatially resolved analysis of a static TOF-SIMS. After the setup of a Ti:Sa laser system and the adaption of an IONTOF TOF.SIMS 5 for laser post-ionization we achieved a platform for a broad range of radioecological measurements. This talk presents the results of characterization and simulation based optimization of the system as well as latest measurements on artificial and environmental samples containing uranium, plutonium and other radionuclides.

  20. Microbial Transformation of TRU and Mixed Waste: Actinide Speciation and Waste Volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halada, Gary P


    In order to understand the susceptibility of transuranic and mixed waste to microbial degradation (as well as any mechanism which depends upon either complexation and/or redox of metal ions), it is essential to understand the association of metal ions with organic ligands present in mixed wastes. These ligands have been found in our previous EMSP study to limit electron transfer reactions and strongly affect transport and the eventual fate of radionuclides in the environment. As transuranic waste (and especially mixed waste) will be retained in burial sites and in legacy containment for (potentially) many years while awaiting treatment and removal (or remaining in place under stewardship agreements at government subsurface waste sites), it is also essential to understand the aging of mixed wastes and its implications for remediation and fate of radionuclides. Mixed waste containing actinides and organic materials are especially complex and require extensive study. The EMSP program described in this report is part of a joint program with the Environmental Sciences Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The Stony Brook University portion of this award has focused on the association of uranium (U(VI)) and transuranic analogs (Ce(III) and Eu(III)) with cellulosic materials and related compounds, with development of implications for microbial transformation of mixed wastes. The elucidation of the chemical nature of mixed waste is essential for the formulation of remediation and encapsulation technologies, for understanding the fate of contaminant exposed to the environment, and for development of meaningful models for contaminant storage and recovery.

  1. Dioxins, chlorophenols and other chlorinated organic pollutants in colloidal and water fractions of groundwater from a contaminated sawmill site. (United States)

    Persson, Ylva; Shchukarev, Andrei; Oberg, Lars; Tysklind, Mats


    The distribution of chlorinated organic contaminants in groundwater and the importance of colloids were studied in groundwater from a sawmill site contaminated by chlorophenol preservatives. The groundwater was fractionated into three different size ranges: (1) >0.7 microm, (2) 0.4-0.7 microm and (3) 0.2-0.4 microm and the filtered water phase. The concentrations of chlorophenols (CP), chlorinated phenoxy phenols (PCPP), chlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDE), chlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) and chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) were determined in each fraction. The colloids were characterised regarding the chemical composition using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Chlorophenols were mostly found in the water fraction and PCDD/Fs were found almost exclusively in the particulate fractions. For example, the filtered water phase contained 2,100 microg l(-1) and 0.72 ng l(-1) for CPs and PCDD/Fs, respectively, and the particulate fractions contained 27 microg l(-1) and 32 ng l(-1) for CPs and PCDD/Fs, respectively. XPS evaluation of the particulate phases showed no correlation between the surface chemistry of the particle properties and the distribution of chlorinated compounds. The results suggest that groundwater transport of CPs, PCPPs, PCDEs and PCDD/Fs may occur from contaminated sawmill sites and that the colloid-facilitated transport, especially of PCDD/Fs, is substantial. The results correlated well with previous studies of compounds sorbed to dissolved organic carbon, which indicate that dissolved and colloidal organic carbon facilitated the transport of PCDEs, PCDFs and PCDDs particularly. Several classes of chlorinated compounds were readily detected in the groundwater samples. Due to the differences in their physicochemical properties, CPs, PCPPs, PCDEs and PCDD/Fs vary in their partitioning between colloidal fractions and the filtered groundwater. The proportion of the bound fraction increased with an increasing hydrophobicity of the chlorinated

  2. Stable colloids in molten inorganic salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hao; Dasbiswas, Kinjal; Ludwig, Nicholas B.; Han, Gang; Lee, Byeongdu; Vaikuntanathan, Suri; Talapin, Dmitri V.


    A colloidal solution is a homogeneous dispersion of particles or droplets of one phase (solute) in a second, typically liquid, phase (solvent). Colloids are ubiquitous in biological, chemical and technological processes1, 2, homogenizing highly dissimilar constituents. To stabilize a colloidal system against coalescence and aggregation, the surface of each solute particle is engineered to impose repulsive forces strong enough to overpower van der Waals attraction and keep the particles separated from each other2. Electrostatic stabilization3, 4 of charged solutes works well in solvents with high dielectric constants, such as water (dielectric constant of 80). In contrast, colloidal stabilization in solvents with low polarity, such as hexane (dielectric constant of about 2), can be achieved by decorating the surface of each particle of the solute with molecules (surfactants) containing flexible, brush-like chains2, 5. Here we report a class of colloidal systems in which solute particles (including metals, semiconductors and magnetic materials) form stable colloids in various molten inorganic salts. The stability of such colloids cannot be explained by traditional electrostatic and steric mechanisms. Screening of many solute–solvent combinations shows that colloidal stability can be traced to the strength of chemical bonding at the solute–solvent interface. Theoretical analysis and molecular dynamics modelling suggest that a layer of surface-bound solvent ions produces long-ranged charge-density oscillations in the molten salt around solute particles, preventing their aggregation. Colloids composed of inorganic particles in inorganic melts offer opportunities for introducing colloidal techniques to solid-state science and engineering applications.

  3. Organophosphorus reagents in actinide separations: Unique tools for production, cleanup and disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, K. L.


    Interactions of actinide ions with phosphate and organophosphorus reagents have figured prominently in nuclear science and technology, particularly in the hydrometallurgical processing of irradiated nuclear fuel. Actinide interactions with phosphorus-containing species impact all aspects from the stability of naturally occurring actinides in phosphate mineral phases through the application of the bismuth phosphate and PUREX processes for large-scale production of transuranic elements to the development of analytical separation and environment restoration processes based on new organophosphorus reagents. In this report, an overview of the unique role of organophosphorus compounds in actinide production, disposal, and environment restoration is presented. The broad utility of these reagents and their unique chemical properties is emphasized.

  4. Review and needs in actinide chemistry in relation with biological purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansoborlo, E.; Moulin, V.; Bion, L.; Doizi, D.; Moulin, C.; Cote, G.; Madic, C.; Van der Lee, J


    In case of accidental release of radionuclides in the environment, actinides could occur and may present an healthy risk for human beings. In order to study their behavior in human organism (metabolism, retention, excretion), it is of prime importance to know solution actinide chemistry, and more particularly thermodynamic constants, which will allow to determine their speciation: speciation governs biological availability and toxicity of elements and is also of great interest for decorporation purposes. In this framework, a CEA working group on speciation has been created in order to share data both on thermodynamic constants and on speciation analytical methods, interesting chemists, environmentalists and biologists. It has been focused, in a first time, on actinides. The purpose of this paper is to present the state of the art on actinide speciation within biological media and to focus on the lack of information in order to orientate future research. (authors)

  5. SACSESS – the EURATOM FP7 project on actinide separation from spent nuclear fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bourg Stéphane


    Full Text Available Recycling of actinides by their separation from spent nuclear fuel, followed by transmutation in fast neutron reactors of Generation IV, is considered the most promising strategy for nuclear waste management. Closing the fuel cycle and burning long-lived actinides allows optimizing the use of natural resources and minimizing the long-term hazard of high-level nuclear waste. Moreover, improving the safety and sustainability of nuclear power worldwide. This paper presents the activities striving to meet these challenges, carried out under the Euratom FP7 collaborative project SACSESS (Safety of Actinide Separation Processes. Emphasis is put on the safety issues of fuel reprocessing and waste storage. Two types of actinide separation processes, hydrometallurgical and pyrometallurgical, are considered, as well as related aspects of material studies, process modeling and the radiolytic stability of solvent extraction systems. Education and training of young researchers in nuclear chemistry is of particular importance for further development of this field.

  6. Separation of actinides using capillary extraction chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Dominic S [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    Trace levels of actinides have been separated on extraction chromatography columns. Detection of the actinides was achieved using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS), which was coupled with the extraction chromatography system. In this study we compare 30 cm long, 4.6 mm ID columns to capillary columns (750 {micro}m ID) with lengths from 30 cm up to 150 cm. The columns that were tested were packed with TRU resin. We were able to separate a mixture of five actinides ({sup 232}Th, {sup 238}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 239}pU, {sup 241}Am). This work has application to rapid bioassay as well as for automated separations of actinide materials.

  7. Investigation of a colloidal damper. (United States)

    Suciu, C V; Iwatsubo, T; Deki, S


    A novel application of nanotechnology in the field of mechanical engineering, called colloidal damper (CD), is investigated. This device is complementary to the hydraulic damper (HD), having a cylinder-piston construction. Particularly for CD, the hydraulic oil is replaced by a colloidal suspension, which consists of a mesoporous matrix and a lyophobic fluid. In this work, the porous matrix is from silica gel modified by linear chains of n-alkylchlorosilanes and water is considered as an associated working fluid. A design solution from a practical point of view of the CD test rig and the measuring technique of the hysteresis are described. A brief review of the water physical properties relative to the CD concept is presented. Influence of the bonding density, length of the grafted molecule, pore diameter, and particle diameter on the CD hysteresis is investigated for distinctive types and mixtures of silica gels. Temperature variation during functioning is recorded and the CD cycle is interpreted from a thermodynamic standpoint. Variation of the CD dissipated energy and efficiency with pressure, water quantity, and relaxation time is illustrated. Experimental results are justified by the analysis of the water flow into the porous matrix, CD thermodynamics, and the mechanism of the energy dissipation. Our findings agree with the previously published data.

  8. Magnetic colloids as drug vehicles. (United States)

    Durán, J D G; Arias, J L; Gallardo, V; Delgado, A V


    This review article is a description of the present status of magnetic drug delivery systems (DDS). These are colloidal dispersions of composite nanoparticles consisting of a (polymeric or inorganic) biocompatible matrix and magnetic units, and designed to load and release therapeutic drugs. The matrix, together perhaps with adsorbed polymers or polyelectrolytes, provides the DDS with additional colloidal stability and eventually control of the immune response, and the magnetic inclusions have the goal of providing magnetic guidance. The techniques used in the production of the particles are described. The large surface/volume ratio of the particles brings about a superlative importance of the interface aspects, which are depicted in some detail. Attention is also paid to the possibilities that magnetic DDS offer to be guided by magnetic fields, and to their fate upon entering in contact with the blood proteins and the tumor cells. A description of in vitro and in vivo biodistribution experiments helps in this description. The number of animal experiments performed using magnetic DDS is rather large, but results in humans are far from being sufficient in number, something easily understood. The hopes for improvement and the challenges that must be overcome are described in the closing section.

  9. PREFACE: Colloidal and molecular electro-optics Colloidal and molecular electro-optics (United States)

    Palberg, Thomas; Löwen, Hartmut


    exciting trends and earn the interest of a good fraction of contemporary soft matter scientists. Note1 Note2 References [1] Weinberger P 2008 John Kerr and his effects found in 1877 and 1878 Phil. Mag. Lett. 88 897-907 [2] Benoit H 1948 Calcul de l'écart quadratique moyen entre les extrémités de diverses chaînes moléculaires de type usuel J. Polym. Sci. 3 376-87 [3] Benoit H 1949 Sur un dispositif de mesure de l'effet Kerr par impulsions electriques isoles Comptes Rendus 228 1716-8 [4] Benoit H 1951 Contribution a l'etude de l'effet Kerr presente par les solutions diluees de macromolecules rigide Ann. Phys. 6 561-609 Colloidal and molecular electro-optics contents Electric dichroism transients of aqueous solutions of DNA J A Bertolotto, G M Corral, E M Farias de La Torre and G B Roston The role of effective charges in the electrophoresis of highly charged colloids Apratim Chatterji and Jürgen Horbach Nonlinear response of the electric birefringence of polyelectrolyte solutions J L Déjardin and J M Martinez Kerr constant of multi-subunit particles and semiflexible, wormlike chains J García de la Torre, F G Díaz Baños and H E Pérez Sánchez Self-assembling electroactive hydrogels for flexible display technology Scott L Jones, Kok Hou Wong, Pall Thordarson and François Ladouceur Electrooptical effects in colloid systems subjected to short pulses of strong electric field S A Klemeshev, M P Petrov, A A Trusov and A V Voitylov The effect of ionic strength on electrical properties of polyelectrolyte multilayers on colloidal particles V Milkova and Ts Radeva Charge transport and current in non-polar liquids Kristiaan Neyts, Filip Beunis, Filip Strubbe, Matthias Marescaux, Bart Verboven, Masoumeh Karvar and Alwin Verschueren Ionic concentration- and pH-dependent electrophoretic mobility as studied by single colloid electrophoresis I Semenov, P Papadopoulos, G Stober and F Kremer Effect of magnesium ions and

  10. Radiochemical separation of actinides for their determination in environmental samples and waste products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleisberg, B. [Nuclear Engineering and Analytics Rossendorf, Inc. (VKTA), Dresden (Germany)


    The determination of low level activities of actinides in environmental samples and waste products makes high demands on radiochemical separation methods. Artificial and natural actinides were analyzed in samples form the surrounding areas of NPP and of uranium mines, incorporation samples, solutions containing radioactive fuel, solutions and solids resutling from the process, and in wastes. The activities are measured by {alpha}-spectrometry and {gamma}-spectrometry. (DG)

  11. An instrument for the investigation of actinides with spin resolved photoelectron spectroscopy and bremsstrahlung isochromat spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, S.-W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Tobin, J. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chung, B. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    A new system for spin resolved photoelectron spectroscopy and bremsstrahlung isochromat spectroscopy has been built and commissioned at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for the investigation of the electronic structure of the actinides.Actinide materials are very toxic and radioactive and therefore cannot be brought to most general user facilities for spectroscopic studies. The technical details of the new system and preliminary data obtained therein will be presented and discussed.

  12. A conceptual performance assessment model of the dissolved actinide source term for the WIPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiner, R.F.; Stockman, C.T.; Wang, Y.; Novak, C.F.


    This paper presents a performance assessment model of dissolved actinide concentrations for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The model assesses the concentration of each actinide oxidation state and combines these concentrations with an oxidation state distribution. The chemical behavior of actinides in the same oxidation state is presumed to be very similar for almost all situations, but exceptions arising from experimental evidence are accommodated. The code BRAGFLO calculates the gas pressure, brine mass, gas volume, and mass of remaining Fe and cellulosics for each time step and computational cell. The total CO{sub 2} in the repository and dissolved Ca(OH){sub 2} is estimated. Lookup tables are constructed for pmH and f(CO{sub 2}) as a function of brine type and volume, moles of CO{sub 2}, and Ca(OH){sub 2}. Amounts of five soluble complexants are considered. A model based on the formulation of Harvie et al. produces tables of solubilities for each actinide oxidation state as a function of pmH, f(CO{sub 2}), brine composition, and complexant. Experimental data yield lookup tables of fractions of Th, U, Np, Pu, and Am in each oxidation state as a function of f(CO{sub 2}) and complexant. The tables are then used to provide a concentration of a particular actinide at particular values of pmH and f(CO{sub 2}). Under steady-state conditions, the oxidation state of each actinide that is most stable in the particular chemical environment controls the concentration of that actinide in solution. In the absence of steady-state conditions, the oxidation state distribution of interest is that of the dissolved actinide, and the oxidation states may be treated as if they were separate compounds.

  13. Actinide interactions with aerobic soil microbes and their exudates: The reduction of plutonium with desferrioxamine siderophores (United States)

    Ruggiero, C. E.; Matonic, J. H.; Neu, M. P.; Reilly, S. P.


    Plutonium is thought to exist mostly as very low soluble and/or strongly sorbed plutonium(IV) hydroxide and oxide species in the environment, and therefore, has low risk of becoming mobile or bioavailable. However, compounds that solubilize plutonium can significantly increase its bioavailability and mobility. We are examining the fundamental inorganic chemistry of actinides with one type of biogenic chelator, microbial siderophores, in order to understand how they could affect actinide biogeochemistry.

  14. High carrier mobility in single ultrathin colloidal lead selenide nanowire field effect transistors. (United States)

    Graham, Rion; Yu, Dong


    Ultrathin colloidal lead selenide (PbSe) nanowires with continuous charge transport channels and tunable bandgap provide potential building blocks for solar cells and photodetectors. Here, we demonstrate a room-temperature hole mobility as high as 490 cm(2)/(V s) in field effect transistors incorporating single colloidal PbSe nanowires with diameters of 6-15 nm, coated with ammonium thiocyanate and a thin SiO(2) layer. A long carrier diffusion length of 4.5 μm is obtained from scanning photocurrent microscopy (SPCM). The mobility is increased further at lower temperature, reaching 740 cm(2)/(V s) at 139 K.

  15. Convective Flow of a Colloidal Suspension in a Vertical Slot Heated from Side Wall (United States)

    Cherepanov, I. N.; Smorodin, B. L.


    Convective flows and the transport of nanoparticles are numerically investigated in the vertical slot filled with a colloidal suspension and heated from the side. The thermodiffusion and gravitational sedimentation of the nanoparticles are taken into account. Two different regimes of laminar flow are found. The intensity of the first regime is much lower than in molecular liquids (the magnitudes of the convective and diffusion fluxes have the same order). The second regime is more intensive. The transitions between these two regimes are investigated. It is shown that intensive convective flow completely mixes the colloidal suspension to a homogeneous state as a result of the long transient process.

  16. Enhancing the actinide sciences in Europe through hot laboratories networking and pooling: from ACTINET to TALISMAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourg, S.; Poinssot, C. [French Nuclear and Alternative Energies Commission, CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, F RadioChemistry and Processes Department, CEA Marcoule, 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze (France)


    Since 2004, Europe supports the strengthening of the European actinides sciences scientific community through the funding of dedicated networks: (i) from 2004 to 2008, the ACTINET6 network of excellence (6. Framework Programme) gathered major laboratories involved in nuclear research and a wide range of academic research organisations and universities with the specific aims of funding and implementing joint research projects to be performed within the network of pooled facilities; (ii) from 2009 to 2013, the ACTINET-I3 integrated infrastructure initiative (I3) supports the cost of access of any academics in the pooled EU hot laboratories. In this continuation, TALISMAN (Trans-national Access to Large Infrastructures for a Safe Management of Actinides) gathers now the main European hot laboratories in actinides sciences in order to promote their opening to academics and universities and strengthen the EU-skills in actinides sciences. Furthermore, a specific focus is set on the development of advanced cutting-edge experimental and spectroscopic capabilities, the combination of state-of-the art experimental with theoretical first-principle methods on a quantum mechanical level and to benefit from the synergy between the different scientific and technical communities. ACTINET-I3 and TALISMAN attach a great importance and promote the Education and Training of the young generation of actinides scientists in the Trans-national access but also by organizing Schools (general Summer Schools or Theoretical User Lab Schools) or by granting students to attend International Conference on actinide sciences. (authors)


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, Kenneth L.


    In this project, both the fundamental chemistry of actinides in alkaline solutions (relevant to those present in Hanford-style waste storage tanks), and their dissolution from sludge simulants (and interactions with supernatants) have been investigated under representative sludge leaching procedures. The leaching protocols were designed to go beyond conventional alkaline sludge le