Poteete Anthony R
Full Text Available Abstract Background The elongation factor GreA binds to RNA polymerase and modulates transcriptional pausing. Some recent research suggests that the primary role of GreA may not be to regulate gene expression, but rather, to promote the progression of replication forks which collide with RNA polymerase, and which might otherwise collapse. Replication fork collapse is known to generate dsDNA breaks, which can be recombinogenic. It follows that GreA malfunction could have consequences affecting homologous recombination. Results Escherichia coli mutants bearing substitutions of the active site acidic residues of the transcription elongation factor GreA, D41N and E44K, were isolated as suppressors of growth inhibition by a toxic variant of the bacteriophage lambda Red-beta recombination protein. These mutants, as well as a D41A greA mutant and a greA deletion, were tested for proficiency in recombination events. The mutations were found to increase the efficiency of RecA-RecBCD-mediated and RecA-Red-mediated recombination, which are replication-independent, and to decrease the efficiency of replication-dependent Red-mediated recombination. Conclusion These observations provide new evidence for a role of GreA in resolving conflicts between replication and transcription.
Li, Kun; Jiang, Tianyi; Yu, Bo; Wang, Limin; Gao, Chao; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping; Ma, Yanhe
Bacterial GreA is an indispensable factor in the RNA polymerase elongation complex. It plays multiple roles in transcriptional elongation, and may be implicated in resistance to various stresses. In this study, we show that Escherichia coli GreA inhibits aggregation of several substrate proteins under heat shock condition. GreA can also effectively promote the refolding of denatured proteins. These facts reveal that GreA has chaperone activity. Distinct from many molecular chaperones, GreA does not form stable complexes with unfolded substrates. GreA overexpression confers the host cells with enhanced resistance to heat shock and oxidative stress. Moreover, GreA expression in the greA/greB double mutant could suppress the temperature-sensitive phenotype, and dramatically alleviate the in vivo protein aggregation. The results suggest that bacterial GreA may act as chaperone in vivo. These results suggest that GreA, in addition to its function as a transcription factor, is involved in protection of cellular proteins against aggregation.
Sivaramakrishnan, Priya; Sepúlveda, Leonardo A; Halliday, Jennifer A; Liu, Jingjing; Núñez, María Angélica Bravo; Golding, Ido; Rosenberg, Susan M; Herman, Christophe
Homologous recombination repairs DNA double-strand breaks and must function even on actively transcribed DNA. Because break repair prevents chromosome loss, the completion of repair is expected to outweigh the transcription of broken templates. However, the interplay between DNA break repair and transcription processivity is unclear. Here we show that the transcription factor GreA inhibits break repair in Escherichia coli. GreA restarts backtracked RNA polymerase and hence promotes transcription fidelity. We report that removal of GreA results in markedly enhanced break repair via the classic RecBCD-RecA pathway. Using a deep-sequencing method to measure chromosomal exonucleolytic degradation, we demonstrate that the absence of GreA limits RecBCD-mediated resection. Our findings suggest that increased RNA polymerase backtracking promotes break repair by instigating RecA loading by RecBCD, without the influence of canonical Chi signals. The idea that backtracked RNA polymerase can stimulate recombination presents a DNA transaction conundrum: a transcription fidelity factor that compromises genomic integrity.
Stewart, V; Yanofsky, C
We used site-directed mutagenesis to replace the Escherichia coli tryptophanase (tna) operon leader peptide start codon with AUC. This change greatly decreased the uninduced rate of tna operon expression, and it also lowered the response to inducer. We conclude that leader peptide synthesis plays an essential role in tna operon expression.
Wu, C J; Janssen, G R
The Streptomyces vinaceus viomycin phosphotransferase (vph) mRNA contains an untranslated leader with a conventional Shine-Dalgarno homology. The vph leader was removed by ligation of the vph coding sequence to the transcriptional start site of a Streptomyces or an Escherichia coli promoter, such that transcription would initiate at the first position of the vph start codon. Analysis of mRNA demonstrated that transcription initiated primarily at the A of the vph AUG translational start codon in both Streptomyces lividans and E. coli; cells expressing the unleadered vph mRNA were resistant to viomycin indicating that the Shine-Dalgarno sequence, or other features contained within the leader, was not necessary for vph translation. Addition of four nucleotides (5'-AUGC-3') onto the 5' end of the unleadered vph mRNA resulted in translation initiation from the vph start codon and the AUG triplet contained within the added sequence. Translational fusions of vph sequence to a Tn5 neo reporter gene indicated that the first 16 codons of vph coding sequence were sufficient to specify the translational start site and reading frame for expression of neomycin resistance in both E. coli and S. lividans.
Daniels, G H; Hegedüs, L; Marso, S P
AIMS: To report preliminary data on baseline serum calcitonin concentrations and associated clinical characteristics in a global population with type 2 diabetes before liraglutide or placebo randomization. METHODS: The ongoing LEADER trial has enrolled 9340 people with type 2 diabetes and at high......) baseline serum calcitonin values were 3.9 (1.0 to >7.6) ng/l in men and 1.0 (1.0 to >1) ng/l in women. Serum calcitonin was >10 ng/l in 14.6% of men and in 0.96% of women. In sex-specific multivariable linear analysis of covariance models, a reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was associated...... with higher serum calcitonin concentrations that were statistically significant. A 20 ml/min/1.73 m(2) decrease in estimated GFR (eGFR) was associated with a 14% increase in serum calcitonin in women and an 11% increase in men. CONCLUSIONS: In the LEADER population, the prevalence of elevated serum calcitonin...
.... Nevertheless, today's leaders should realize the need for persuasion. In one manner or another, leaders depend on persuasive rhetoric to convince, encourage, and energize superiors, peers, and subordinates...
... for the bacteria's medical name Escherichia coli . The strange thing about these bacteria — and lots of other ... In some cases, E. coli poisoning can cause life-threatening kidney problems. What Can Kids Do? Adults ...
Bøje, Jakob Ditlev; Frederiksen, Lars Frode
of the professional complex according to a Parsonian perspective) and a more distinct leader identity associated with business, management, and accountancy. We will attempt to go beyond some of the manifest expectations of school leaders, including expectations of their training programmes, and show how being...
Jesus was a great strategic leader who changed the world in many ways. Close study of what he did and how he did it reveals a pattern of behavior that is extremely useful and relevant to the modern strategic leader...
Ramsey, Jase R.; Rutti, Raina M.; Lorenz, Melanie P.
Despite significant increases in training and development of global managers, little is known about the precursors of transformational leadership in Multilatinas. While prior cross-cultural literature suggests that being an autocratic leader is ideal in Multilatinas, using transformational...... leadership theory, we argue that global leaders of Multilatinas embrace a more humanistic approach to leadership because of the importance of relationships between leaders and their followers. Additionally, we argue that global leaders with high levels of cultural intelligence will have high levels...
Fennell, Francis; Kobett, Beth McCord; Wray, Jonathan A.
Elementary school mathematics leaders often come to the realization that their position, however titled and determined, although dedicated to addressing needs in math teaching and learning, also entails and directly involves leadership. Elementary school math specialists/instructional leaders (referenced here as elementary mathematics leaders, or…
What are the traits of successful leaders and can they be applied to those of us in health care? Leaders must deal with conflict to get a group of people to move in the same direction. Successful leaders learn to have difficult conversations that increase understanding and morale and creatively deal with the inevitable interpersonal conflicts present in every organization made up of people. Another useful trait for a leader during uncertain and chaotic times is the ability to see things as they really are, rather than as we wish or believe them to be. Successful leaders are also usually optimists who level with their co-workers.
Garmann Johnsen, Christian
In the wake of a series of corporate scandals, there has been a growing call for authentic leadership in order to ensure ethical conduct in contemporary organizations. Authentic leadership, however, depends upon the ability to draw a distinction between the authentic and inauthentic leader......’s inverted Platonism, the paper challenges the practice by which authentic leaders are distinguished from inauthentic leaders. In conclusion, the paper suggests that an adequate concept of authentic leadership should consider how ethics can occur when the authentic leader is able to critically reflect his...
Everyone seems to agree the world desperately needs strong leaders who can manage a global workforce and all the inherent challenges that go with it. That's a big part of the raison d'etre for global leadership development programs. But are today's organizations fully utilizing these programs to develop global leaders, and, if so, are they…
Michigan-Ohio Regional Educational Lab., Inc., Detroit.
The purpose of this conference was to prepare key people in the field of education to function as inservice education leaders in their respective settings. It called for participants to learn what the MOREL inservice education program is and what it hopes to accomplish, to identify the role and functions of the inservice education leader, and to…
Schuh, John H.
A semistructured interview protocol was used to present perspectives on leadership from five national leaders in student affairs. Several major themes emerged. Issues were discussed about leaderships; how they manage difficulties; what work were they most proud of; and what was their advice for aspiring leaders. Reviews limitations and…
Fondiller, Shirley H.; And Others
Looks at the lives and accomplishments of four leaders in professional nursing: (1) Loretta Ford, who championed the cause of nurse practitioners; (2) Mable Staupers, a pioneer in community health and nursing; (3) Janet Geister, a leader in private nursing; and (4) Isabel Stewart, who led the movement to standardize nursing education. (JOW)
Ortiz, Mario R
This introduces the guest author's column on perspectives on the development of leaders in science. The need for leadership in science is discussed and a model for the development of science leaders in nursing is outlined. © The Author(s) 2015.
Force TV Radio Week in Photos About Us Air Force Senior Leaders SECAF CSAF CMSAF Biographies Adjunct Professors Senior Mentor Biographies Fact Sheets Commander's Call Topics CCT Archive CSAF Reading List 2017 Media Sites Site Registration Contact Us Search AF.mil: Home > About Us > Air Force Senior Leaders
Brown, Gary D
.... Especially lacking is a realization that there are four distinct types of proportionality. In determining whether a particular resort to war is just, national leaders must consider the proportionality of the conflict (i.e...
Johnsen, Christian Garmann
As authentic leadership, with its dictum of being true to the self, has become increasingly influential among practitioners and mainstream leadership scholars, critical writers have drawn attention to the negative consequences of this development. Yet, few scholars have investigated the problem...... of authentication within discourse of authentic leadership. If authentic leadership is to make any sense, it is necessary to be able to distinguish the authentic from the inauthentic leader – in other words, it is necessary to authenticate the leader. This paper uses Gilles Deleuze’s reading of Plato as the point...... of departure for discussing the problem of authentication – separating the authentic leader form the inauthentic one – in the leadership guru Bill George’s model of authentic leadership. By doing so, the paper offers a way of conceptualizing the problem of authenticating leaders, as well as challenging...
.... Persuasive argument is a vital aspect of strategic leadership. Any leader faced with the inherent complexities of leading his or her organization through transformational change must be capable of persuading...
.... Leadership at senior levels involves a different type of work than at lower organizational levels and this requires leaders to possess a different set of skills, knowledge, and attributes in order to be successful...
Burleson, Willard M
.... Although only 1 to 2 percent of the Army's senior leaders will attain a command position of strategic leadership, they are assisted by others, not only by teams specifically designed and structured...
Rus, Diana; van Knippenberg, Daan; Wisse, Barbara
The present research investigated the relationship between leader self-definition processes and leader self-serving behaviors. We hypothesized that self-definition as a leader interacts with social reference information (descriptive and injunctive) in predicting leader self-serving actions Six
Priest, Kerry L; Middleton, Eric
Taking on a leader identity can be a motivating force for pursuing leader development. This chapter explores the reciprocal and recursive nature of identity development and leader development, emphasizing how shifting views of self influence one's motivation to develop as a leader. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.
Goodsell, David S.
Diverse biological data may be used to create illustrations of molecules in their cellular context. I describe the scientific results that support a recent textbook illustration of an "Escherichia coli cell". The image magnifies a portion of the bacterium at one million times, showing the location and form of individual macromolecules. Results…
Khoshhal, Khalid I.; Guraya, Salman Y.
Objectives: To elaborate the desired qualities, traits, and styles of physician’s leadership with a deep insight into the recommended measures to inculcate leadership skills in physicians. Methods: The databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library were searched for the full-text English-language articles published during the period 2000-2015. Further search, including manual search of grey literature, was conducted from the bibliographic list of all included articles. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) keywords “Leadership” AND “Leadership traits” AND “Leadership styles” AND “Physicians’ leadership” AND “Tomorrow’s doctors” were used for the literature search. This search followed a step-wise approach defined by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). The retrieved bibliographic list was analyzed and non-relevant material such as abstracts, conference proceedings, letters to editor, and short communications were excluded. Finally, 21 articles were selected for this review. Results: The literature search showed a number of leadership courses and formal training programs that can transform doctors to physician leaders. Leaders can inculcate confidence by integrating diverse views and listening; supporting skillful conversations through dialogue and helping others assess their influence and expertise. In addition to their clinical competence, physician leaders need to acquire the industry knowledge (clinical processes, health-care trends, budget), problem-solving skills, and emotional intelligence. Conclusion: This review emphasizes the need for embedding formal leadership courses in the medical curricula for fostering tomorrow doctors’ leadership and organizational skills. The in-house and off-campus training programs and workshops should be arranged for grooming the potential candidates for effective leadership. PMID:27652355
Chevalier, S; Dedobbeleer, N; Tremblay, M
Although many methods of measuring leadership have been developed in sociological studies, there are few articles on the feasibility of these methods. The goal of this study was to verify the feasibility of the "modified positional-reputational approach" developed by Nix. The study was conducted in a small community located north of Montreal. Nix's questionnaire was translated, adapted and administered to 49 key informants. Two hundred and fourteen leaders were selected. Three types of leaders were identified: the legitimizers, the effectors and the activists. Through a sociometric analysis, we established links between the different leaders and we described the power structure of the community. Despite a few shortcomings, Nix's approach was found extremely useful.
awareness .......................................................................................................38 Self- education ...natural take-charge person; I am an introvert , so I don’t really influence others; If everyone is a leader, then who is following?; and, leadership roles...from Texas A&M University. He is also the owner of Sigma Breakthrough Technologies and served as its chief executive officer. Dr. Zinkgraf has over
Trevor Greene, the 2013 MetLife/NASSP National High School Principal of the Year, empowers staff members and students to be the best teachers and learners they can be and provides the community resources to support them. In this article, Greene, principal of Toppenish High School in Washington, shares his biggest motivator as a school leader and…
Future leaders' creativity and problem-solving skills have been honed in leadership courses, but that doesn't mean they are ready to use those skills to further a company's place in the world. With emerging markets in Asia, South America, and other areas of the world, a workforce needs to have an understanding of and interest in cultures beyond…
Kit, Ng W
.... Four key leadership competencies stand out. We need strategic leaders who are good at doing the right things and doing things right leaders who have the mental agility to choose the correct goals to achieve, the social intelligence to inspire...
... chat Live Help Fact Sheets Share Escherichia coli (E. coli) Friday, 01 September 2017 In every pregnancy, a ... risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to E. coli may increase the risk for birth defects over ...
... coli; Food poisoning - E. coli; E. coli diarrhea; Hamburger disease ... coleslaw or potato salad) that have been out of the refrigerator too ... reheated Fish or oysters Raw fruits or vegetables that have ...
Pellicer, Leonard O.; Anderson, Lorin W.
This handbook is written for teachers in leadership roles, including team leaders, lead teachers, department chairpersons, and master teachers. Part 1, "The Nature of School Leadership," is devoted to a description of teacher leaders and how they lead. Results are provided from research on teacher leaders, and persistent obstacles to…
Hendry, Julie Anne
This review article aims to explore the concept of radiography lecturers acting as leaders to their student followers. Through a brief review of the literature, a definition of leadership is suggested and some leadership theories explored. The path-goal theory, leader–member exchange theory and the contemporary theory of transformational leadership are examined more closely. Links between lecturer-leader behaviour and student motivation and learning are tentatively suggested with transformational leadership appearing to offer the optimal leadership style for lecturers to adopt. The paucity of literature relating directly to radiography is acknowledged and areas for further research are suggested. The article concludes with some of the author's practical ideas for incorporating transformational leadership styles and behaviours into radiography education today
Superb leaders have very different ways of directing a team, a division, or a company. Some are subdued and analytical; others are charismatic and go with their gut. And different of situations call for different types of leadership. Most mergers need a sensitive negotiator at the helm whereas many turnarounds require a more forceful kind of authority. Psychologist and noted author Daniel Goleman has found, however, that effective leaders are alike in one crucial way: they all have a high degree of what has come to be known as emotional intelligence. In fact, Goleman's research at nearly 200 large, global companies revealed that emotional intelligence--especially at the highest levels of a company--is the sine qua non for leadership. Without it, a person can have first-class training, an incisive mind, and an endless supply of good ideas, but he still won't make a great leader. The components of emotional intelligence--self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy, and social skill--can sound unbusinesslike. But exhibiting emotional intelligence at the workplace does not mean simply controlling your anger or getting along with people. Rather it means understanding your own and other people's emotional makeup well enough to move people in the direction of accomplishing your company's goals. In this article, the author discusses each component of emotional intelligence and shows through examples how to recognize it in potential leaders, how and why it leads to measurable business results, and how it can be learned. It takes time and, most of all, commitment. But the benefits that come from having a well-developed emotional intelligence, both for the individual and the organization, make it worth the effort.
Daniel Goleman , Emotional Intelligence (New York: Bantam, 1995). 2. David V. Day and Robert G. Lord, “Executive Leadership and Organizational Performance...preference are emotional decision mak- ers and are, therefore, not firmly wedded to a decision once made. The truth Winter2009-10 39 is that both Thinking... emotional tagging) can cause experienced leaders to make wrong decisions because they fail to recognize errors associated with these responses.33
Superb leaders have very different ways of directing a team, a division, or a company. Some are subdued and analytical; others are charismatic and go with their gut. And different situations call for different types of leadership. Most mergers need a sensitive negotiator at the helm, whereas many turnarounds require a more forceful kind of authority. Psychologist and noted author Daniel Goleman has found, however, that effective leaders are alike in one crucial way: they all have a high degree of what has come to be known as emotional intelligence. In fact, Goleman's research at nearly 200 large, global companies revealed that emotional intelligence--especially at the highest levels of a company--is the sine qua non for leadership. Without it, a person can have first-class training, an incisive mind, and an endless supply of good ideas, but he still won't make a great leader. The components of emotional intelligence--self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy, and social skill--can sound unbusinesslike. But exhibiting emotional intelligence at the workplace does not mean simply controlling your anger or getting along with people. Rather, it means understanding your own and other people's emotional makeup well enough to move people in the direction of accomplishing your company's goals. In this article, the author discusses each component of emotional intelligence and shows through examples how to recognize it in potential leaders, how and why it leads to measurable business results, and how it can be learned. It takes time and, most of all, commitment. But the benefits that come from having a well-developed emotional intelligence, both for the individual and the organization, make it worth the effort.
Bunkers, Sandra S
This column focuses on ideas concerning leaders and leadership. The author proposes that leadership is about showing up and participating with others in doing something. "Mandela: His 8 Lessons of Leadership" by Richard Stengel is explored in light of selected philosophical writings, literature on nursing leadership, and nurse theorist Rosemarie Rizzo Parse's humanbecoming leading-following model. Teaching-learning questions are then posed to stimulate further reflection on the lessons of leadership.
Yackley, Stephen G
.... The development of future strategic leaders requires an increased emphasis from senior leaders on subordinate leader development, combined with a method to enhance developmental feedback to these subordinate leaders...
Nonaka, Ikujiro; Takeuchi, Hirotaka
In an era of increasing discontinuity, wise leadership has nearly vanished. Many leaders find it difficult to reinvent their corporations rapidly enough to cope with new technologies, demographic shifts, and consumption trends. They can't develop truly global organizations that operate effortlessly across borders. And they find it tough to ensure that their people adhere to values and ethics. The authors assert that leaders must acquire practical wisdom, or what Aristotle called phronesis: experiential knowledge that enables people to make ethically sound judgments. Wise leaders demonstrate six abilities: (i) They make decisions on the basis of what is good for the organization and for society. (2) They quickly grasp the essence of a situation and fathom the nature and meaning of people, things, and events. (3) They provide contexts in which executives and employees can interact to create new meaning. (4) They employ metaphors and stories to convert their experience into tacit knowledge that others can use. (5) They exert political power to bring people together and spur them to act. (6) They use apprenticeship and mentoring to cultivate practical wisdom in orders.
Escherichia coli strains are important commensals of the intestinal tract of humans and animals; however, pathogenic strains, including diarrhea-inducing E. coli and extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli. Intestinal E. coli pathotypes may cause a dehydrating watery diarrhea, or more severe diseases su...
Stoner, Charles R
Although the selection and development of emerging leaders is fundamental to organizational growth and success, many organizations are facing a troubling scenario - a striking gap between the leaders they need and the talent available to assume the mantle of leadership. This book, grounded in empirical investigations and philosophical insights into the study of leadership, is designed to help emerging leaders bridge the gap between 'new leader' and confident, respected difference maker. From the development of leadership skills to the practice and application of successful strategies, award-wi
David Schmitz, J; Murray, Gregg R
Partisan identification is a fundamental force in individual and mass political behavior around the world. Informed by scholarship on human sociality, coalitional psychology, and group behavior, this research argues that partisan identification, like many other group-based behaviors, is influenced by forces of evolution. If correct, then party identifiers should exhibit adaptive behaviors when making group-related political decisions. The authors test this assertion with citizen assessments of the relative physical formidability of competing leaders, an important adaptive factor in leader evaluations. Using original and novel data collected during the contextually different 2008 and 2012 U.S. presidential elections, as well as two distinct measures obtained during both elections, this article presents evidence that partisans overestimate the physical stature of the presidential candidate of their own party compared with the stature of the candidate of the opposition party. These findings suggest that the power of party identification on political behavior may be attributable to the fact that modern political parties address problems similar to the problems groups faced in human ancestral times.
Ebert, U.; Carlson, B. E.; Koehn, C.
The stepping of negative leaders is well observed, but not well understood. A major problem consists of the fact that the streamer corona is typically invisible within a thunderstorm, but determines the evolution of a leader. Motivated by recent observations of streamer and leader formation in the laboratory by T.M.P. Briels, S. Nijdam, P. Kochkin, A.P.J. van Deursen et al., by recent simulations of these processes by J. Teunissen, A. Sun et al., and by our theoretical understanding of the process, we suggest how laboratory phenomena can be extrapolated to lightning leaders to explain the stepping mechanism.
Chavez, Carolyn I.; Gomez, Claudia; Valenzuela, Marcus; Perera, Yasanthi B.
This article describes an exercise that allows students to experience and understand the importance of perception in leader emergence. Based on implicit leadership theories, this exercise asks students to provide one another with anonymous feedback about what extent they exhibit various trait-based leader behaviors. This exercise, which can be…
Cottle, Lena; D'Angelo, Nicole
The Nebraska Equine Advancement Level Leader Certification Program is an online learning tool that clarifies principles of the Nebraska 4-H Equine Advancement Programs. Through an online Moodle course through eXtension.org, 4-H leaders and Extension educators are able to fulfill the certification requirement from any location before allowing youth…
Daskin, Anmer; Kais, Sabre
We present a new global optimization algorithm in which the influence of the leaders in social groups is used as an inspiration for the evolutionary technique which is designed into a group architecture. To demonstrate the efficiency of the method, a standard suite of single and multi-dimensional optimization functions along with the energies and the geometric structures of Lennard-Jones clusters are given as well as the application of the algorithm on quantum circuit design problems. We show that as an improvement over previous methods, the algorithm scales as N 2.5 for the Lennard-Jones clusters of N-particles. In addition, an efficient circuit design is shown for a two-qubit Grover search algorithm which is a quantum algorithm providing quadratic speedup over the classical counterpart.
Hale, Wayne N.
Even though working on a problem has been your primary effort for the past year, your leadership may have heard about this once in a briefing a decade ago. Now they are basically clueless. Pretend that you are talking to your daughter's fifth-grade class. Explain how your complicated gizmo works. If possible, do not use acronyms. Define your terms. Put your work in context. Assume your leader has no idea what you do, who you work for, or what your gizmo does. That is a good place to start. Remember, taking the next century to study the problem or spending the Gross National Product to invent a new solution are probably not going to be acceptable solutions. Real engineers and technicians build real hardware that works in the real world in a reasonable manner within a reasonable time at a reasonable cost. True, skimping on time or money can cause mistakes, but folks whose gizmos are delayed unreasonably or cost more than is practical get their programs canceled, force the business into bankruptcy, or give the market over to the competition. Real engineers and technicians always consider cost and schedule in their work. Raising questions is important. However, we are in the business of doing things. Engineers and technicians are paid to get things done. Yes, you have to identify the problem, frame the design, identify the tests, perform the analysis, and assemble the hardware. But the goal is to solve the problem. Nobody ever said flying in space was easy. We make it look easy the same way that an Olympic champion makes her sport look easy: by working hard at improving performance every day. Better are the results of a well-defined test. Remember that a test on a laboratory bench is always an approximation of reality, and rules similar to those for good analysis also apply. One should always be mindful of Mechelay's rule: "It is better to be stupid than to run a stupid test." Often we try to overtest. If a piece of hardware passes an unbelievably difficult test, then
Eisenstat, Russell A; Beer, Michael; Foote, Nathaniel; Fredberg, Tobias; Norrgren, Flemming
Managing the tension between performance and people is at the heart of the CEO's job. But CEOs under fierce pressure from capital markets often focus solely on the shareholder, which can lead to employee disenchantment. Others put so much stock in their firms' heritage that they don't notice as their organizations slide into complacency. Some leaders, though, manage to avoid those traps and create high-commitment, high-performance (HCHP) companies. The authors' in-depth research of HCHP CEOs reveals several shared traits: These CEOs earn the trust of their organizations through their openness to the unvarnished truth. They are deeply engaged with their people, and their exchanges are direct and personal. They mobilize employees around a focused agenda, concentrating on only one or two initiatives. And they work to build collective leadership capabilities. These leaders also forge an emotionally resonant shared purpose across their companies. That consists of a three-part promise: The company will help employees build a better world and deliver performance they can be proud of, and will provide an environment in which they can grow. HCHP CEOs approach finding a firm's moral and strategic center in a competitive market as a calling, not an engineering problem. They drive their firms to be strongly market focused while at the same time reinforcing their firms' core values. They are committed to short-term performance while also investing in long-term leadership and organizational capabilities. By refusing to compromise on any of these terms, they build great companies.
Tartus alustas tegevust LEADER infokeskus, mille eesmärk on informeerida ja nõustada maakondade omavalitsustöötajate, ettevõtjate ning MTÜde esindajaid, kes on huvitatud Eesti riikliku arengukava meetme "Kohaliku initsiatiivi arendamine - LEADER-tüüpi meetme raames toetuse saamisest ning selleks vajalike partnerlusel põhinevate kohalike tegevusgruppide loomisest"
Earley, Peter; Weindling, Dick; Bubb, Sara; Glenn, Meli
The recruitment and retention of senior school leaders is high on the UK Government's agenda with much attention currently being given to succession planning. Future Leaders and other fast track leadership development programmes are, in part, a response to this "crisis" brought about by demographic change--many headteachers are due to…
Weigel, Kathleen; Jones, Richard
Leadership is essential to successful schools. One of the ways to support effective school leadership is to share ideas and best practices to address the common challenges faced by school leaders. This question and response format addresses common challenges and questions from practicing school leaders in the manner that a mentor might respond to…
Kalshoven, K.; den Hartog, D.N.
The study examines factors that mediate the impact of ethical leader behavior on leader effectiveness. Little is known about how ethical leadership impacts leader effectiveness. We hypothesized that prototypicality and trust sequentially mediate the relationship between ethical leader behavior and
E. coli is the name of a type of bacteria that lives in your intestines. Most types of E. coli are harmless. However, some types can make you ... type causes travelers' diarrhea. The worst type of E. coli causes bloody diarrhea, and can sometimes cause kidney ...
Fu, Mingchen; Xue, Yan; DeSoto, K Andrew; Yuan, Ti-Fei
In two studies, we examined Chinese students' memory for the names of the leaders of China. In Study 1, subjects were cued with the names of periods from China's history. Subjects listed as many leaders as possible from each period and put them in the correct ordinal position when they could (see Roediger and DeSoto, 2014). Results showed that within each period, a primacy effect and sometimes a recency effect emerged. Moreover, the average recall probability for leaders within a specific period was a function of the ordinal position of the period. In Study 2, we asked another group of subjects to identify the sources through which they were able to recall each leader. We found that most subjects remembered leaders due to class and coursework. We also found a relation between a leader's recall probability and the amount of information available on that leader on the Internet. Our findings further imply that the serial position function captures the form of collective memory.
Putko, Christopher J
.... An Army Training and Leader Development Panel (ATLDP) - 2001 cited team building components in need of improvement to include command climate empowerment of subordinates, mentorship, counseling, accountability, and feedback...
Monsma, Stephen V.
Indicates that potential contenders for public office are likely to be more knowledgeable, interested, and libertarian than the average citizen. Concludes that these differences exist before leaders are elected and that this discrimination is functional in a democracy. (MB)
Full Text Available This paper presents the research about employees and the leaders who are included in leading the organization, as an important segment of the modern business. The aim of this research is to show the real picture about presence new strategies of leaders in the organizations, as well as the analysis of the perception of employees about their leaders. The research in business organizations conducted on the sample of leaders and employees. The construction of high-quality questionnaire represents the important segment of modern statistical and business researches. The issues in questionnaire construction are very complex and they are in the focus of all statistical and research methodologies. It was conducted on the sample of at least 250 examinees (employees in bigger companies in Serbia. Research results showed that understanding communication satisfaction, with its link to job satisfaction, should provide an ability to better target resources to improve communication satisfaction issues.
The purpose of this project is to determine if the Army's officer education and training systems adequately prepare our leaders to operate within, and to deploy, fight, and win in the Information Age...
Marian Aurelian Bârgău
Besides leading theories of people in one way or another from different angles reveal the types of leaders who can meet in business management literature contains classifications of management styles, which take into account different criteria or viewpoints. The word “leadership‟ has been used in various aspects of human endeavor such as politics, businesses, academics, social works, etc. Previous views about leadership show it as personal ability. The individual leader traits dep...
This paper discusses the competence required in the leadership of virtual organization. The specics of virtual organization presents a challenge to traditional managerial styles. In order to achieve success in virtual environment, a leader must develop specic abilities. This analysis examines the uniqueness of the virtual organization, including team work and management. The last part presents ndings and summaries regarding e€ective e-leadership requirement. A virtual leader ma...
Full Text Available In two studies, we examined Chinese students’ memory for the names of the leaders of China. In Study 1, subjects were cued with the names of periods from China’s history. Subjects listed as many leaders as possible from each period and put them in the correct ordinal position when they could (see Roediger & DeSoto, 2014. Results showed that within each period, a primacy effect and sometimes a recency effect emerged. Moreover, the average recall probability for leaders within a specific period was a function of the ordinal position of the period. In Study 2, we asked another group of subjects to identify the sources through which they were able to recall each leader. We found that most subjects remembered leaders thanks to class and coursework. We also found a relation between a leader’s recall probability and the amount of information available on that leader on the Internet. Our findings further imply that the serial position function captures the form of collective memory.
Marron, Joseph M.; Cunniff, Dan
This paper outlined the traits of an innovative educational leader in our changing society. It discussed the difference in a manager and leader, as well as the specific dispositions that differentiate the innovative educational leader from what many consider the average leader. The authors used the acronym "HELPSS" to highlight the…
Shen, Qiuhua; Peltzer, Jill; Teel, Cynthia; Pierce, Janet
To evaluate the effectiveness of the Kansas Nurse Leader Residency (KNLR) programme in improving nurses' leadership knowledge and skills and its acceptability, feasibility and fidelity. The Future of Nursing Report (Institute of Medicine, 2011) calls for nurses to lead change and advance health. The 6-month KNLR programme was developed by the Kansas Action Coalition to support nurses' leadership development. Nurses (n = 36) from four nursing specialties (acute care, long-term care, public health and school health) participated in the programme. The adapted Leader Knowledge and Skill Inventory was used to assess leadership knowledge and skills. Programme acceptability, feasibility and implementation fidelity also were evaluated. The programme completion rate was 67.7% (n = 24). Programme completers had significantly improved self-assessed and mentor-assessed leadership knowledge and skills (p leaders are critical for successful transition into management positions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Barbuto, John E., Jr.; Bugenhagen, Marilyn J.
Eighty elected leaders and 388 followers were sampled to test the relationships between leaders' emotional intelligence and the quality of leader-member exchange. Results of the field study found a significant relationship between leaders' emotional intelligence (total) and leader-member exchange quality. Specific subscales of emotional…
Nevicka, Barbara; Van Vianen, Annelies E M; De Hoogh, Annebel H B; Voorn, Bart C M
Although narcissists often emerge as leaders, research has thus far shown inconsistent results on the relationship between leader narcissism and effectiveness in the eyes of followers. Here we draw on leader distance theory (Shamir, 1995) and implicit leader theory (Lord & Maher, 1991) to propose that followers' assessment of a narcissistic leader and followers' overall job attitudes depend on the leader's visibility to the followers. The more opportunities followers have to observe narcissistic leaders the more they will experience these leaders' toxic behavior (e.g., exploitativeness) and the less they will perceive the leader as effective. To test our hypotheses we collected multisource, longitudinal data from 175 retail stores and obtained subjective (followers' perceptions of leader effectiveness and their overall job attitudes) as well as objective (leaders' organizational experience at time of hire, employee absenteeism trends) indices of leader functionality. Results showed that narcissistic leaders had less organizational experience at the time they were hired. Moreover, when followers had fewer opportunities to observe their leader, leader narcissism was positively related to perceived leadership effectiveness and job attitudes. However, when followers had more opportunity to observe their leader, the positive relationship disappeared. Finally, leader narcissism was neither positively nor negatively associated with absenteeism, whereas absenteeism declined over time under non-narcissistic leaders. These findings advance our knowledge of how followers respond to narcissistic leaders and how these leaders function in organizational settings where they have legitimate positions of power. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
It has been known for some time that positive leaders exhibit impulsive charge motion and optical emissions as they extend. However, laboratory and field observations have not produced any evidence of a process analogous to the space leader mechanism of negative leader extension. Instead, observations have suggested that the positive leader tip undergoes a continuous to intermittent series of corona streamer bursts, each burst resulting in a small forward extension of the positive leader channel. Traditionally, it has been held that lightning positive leaders extend in a continuous or quasi-continuous fashion. Lately, however, many have become concerned that this position is incongruous with observations of impulsive activity during lightning positive leader extension. It is increasingly suggested that this impulsive activity is evidence that positive leaders also undergo "stepping". There are two issues that must be addressed. The first issue concerns whether or not the physical processes underlying impulsive extension in negative and positive leaders are distinct. We argue that these processes are in fact physically distinct, and offer new high-speed video evidence to support this position. The second issue regards the proper use of the term "step" as an identifier for the impulsive forward extension of a leader. Traditional use of this term has been applied only to negative leaders, due primarily to their stronger impulsive charge motions and photographic evidence of clearly discontinuous forward progression of the luminous channel. Recently, due to the increasing understanding of the distinct "space leader" process of negative leader extension, the term "step" has increasingly come to be associated with the space leader process itself. Should this emerging association, "step" = space leader attachment, be canonized? If not, then it seems reasonable to use the term "step" to describe impulsive positive leader extension. If, however, we do wish to associate the
2015 RAHAYU ANGGREINI coli Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melakukan identifikasi cemaran bakteri E. coli O157:H7 pada daging sapi di kota Makassar. Sampel pada penelitian ini sebanyak 72 sampel Kata Kunci : Daging sapi, pasar tradisional, E. coli, E. coli O157:H7, kontaminasi bakteri, identifikasi E. coli O157:H7.
Yoo, Kyung-Hyan; Gretzel, Ulrike; Zach, Florian
While opinion leadership has been recognized as important in tourism, there has been very little empirical research investigating the phenomenon. Given new developments in social media technologies, it is especially important to understand whether travel opinion leadership and seeking are drivers...... of specific social media perceptions and behaviours. Based on an online survey of US online travellers, this paper seeks to identify travel opinion leaders and seekers and their characteristics. Further, the research conducted investigated linkages between travel opinion leadership/seeking and travel social...... media use. The findings suggest that travel opinion leadership and seeking are distinct but connected. Both opinion leaders and seekers are technology savvy, young, educated, involved in travel planning and engaged in social media use for travel. What distinguishes opinion leaders is their greater...
This article highlights eight leadership competencies likely to be an essential part of the nurse leader's repertoire in 2020. Planning for the future is difficult, even when environments are relatively static. When environments are dynamic, the challenges multiply exponentially. Unfortunately, few environments have been more unpredictable in the 21st century than health care. The healthcare system is in chaos, as is much of the business world. It is critical then that contemporary nursing and healthcare leaders identify skill sets that will be needed by nurse leaders in 2020 and begin now to create the educational models and management development programs necessary to assure these skills are present. Essential nurse leader competencies for 2020 include: (i) A global perspective or mindset regarding healthcare and professional nursing issues. (ii) Technology skills which facilitate mobility and portability of relationships, interactions, and operational processes. (iii) Expert decision-making skills rooted in empirical science. (iv) The ability to create organization cultures that permeate quality healthcare and patient/worker safety. (v) Understanding and appropriately intervening in political processes. (vi) Highly developed collaborative and team building skills. (vii) The ability to balance authenticity and performance expectations. (viii) Being able to envision and proactively adapt to a healthcare system characterized by rapid change and chaos. Nursing education programmes and healthcare organizations must be begin now to prepare nurses to be effective leaders in 2020. This will require the formal education and training that are a part of most management development programmes as well as a development of appropriate attitudes through social learning. Proactive succession planning will also be key to having nurse leaders who can respond effectively to the new challenges and opportunities that will be presented to them in 2020.
Formal training is one of the methods for development of strategic leaders. The development of strategic Ordnance leaders is rooted initially with an officer first becoming competent as a leader and knowledgeable in their technical skills...
Wallin, Desna L.
The overall mission of the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) is "Building a Nation of Learners by Advancing America's Community Colleges." A significant component of this mission statement involves the development of leadership. The AACC believes that leadership can be learned and is committed to supporting and growing leaders. In…
Kalshoven, K.; den Hartog, D.N.
The study examines factors that mediate the impact of ethical leader behavior on leader effectiveness. Little is known about how ethical leadership impacts leader effectiveness. We hypothesized that prototypicality and trust sequentially mediate the relationship between ethical leader behavior and perceived leader effectiveness. The group prototype forms an ideal representation of the group’s identity, prescribing appropriate attitudes and behaviors. Ethical leaders are role models and thus a...
Boyer, Herbert (Yale University, New Haven, Conn.). Conjugation in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 91:1767–1772. 1966.—The sex factor of Escherichia coli K-12 was introduced into an E. coli B/r strain by circumventing the host-controlled modification and restriction incompatibilities known to exist between these closely related strains. The sexual properties of the constructed F+ B strain and its Hfr derivatives were examined. These studies showed that the E. coli strain B/r F+ and Hfr derivatives are similar to the E. coli strain K-12 F+ and Hfr derivatives. However, the site of sex factor integration was found to be dependent on the host genome. PMID:5327905
James, Adrian; Moore, Lori
This article explored the learning styles and leadership styles of Supplemental Instruction (SI) leaders at Texas A&M University, and the impact of those preferences on recurring attendance to their sessions. The Learning Style Inventory, the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, and a demographic instrument were administered to SI leaders…
d'Adda, Giovanna; Darai, Donja; Pavanini, Nicola; Weber, Roberto A.
We study whether leaders influence the unethical conduct of followers. To avoid selection issues present in natural environments, we use an experiment in which we create simple laboratory firms and assign leadership roles at random. In our first experiment, firms engage in competition and unethical
Läänemaa LEADER-tegevusgrupi eesmärk on maakonna kui terviku ühtne areng, et kogu Läänemaa oleks vajalike teenustega kaetud ning ettevõtjad julgeks ning suudaks uute teenuste ja toodetega turule tulla
Maci, I.; Žigić, Krešimir
-, č. 375 (2008), s. 1-29 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : competition policy * market leaders * innovation Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp375.pdf
Maci, Ilir; Žigić, K.
-, č. 375 (2008), s. 1-29 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : competition policy * market leaders * innovation Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp375.pdf
Ehrich, Lisa Catherine; Kimber, Megan; Cranston, Neil; Starr, Karen
Internationally universities have been characterised by shrinking government funding, fierce competition for student enrolments, and greater pressures to become commercially viable. It is against this complex background that academic leaders have been required to confront and resolve a multitude of conflicting interests as they seek to balance a…
Rayburn, Carole A.; And Others
This study examined stress, strain, and coping mechanisms in women religious leaders. Subjects were nuns (N=51), Reform women rabbis (N=45), Episcopal women priests (N=32), United Methodist clergywomen (N=45) and Presbyterian clergywomen (N=45), matched for age and years on the job and pulpit assignments. All subjects were given the Osipow and…
Turner, Jennifer D.; Applegate, Anthony J.; Applegate, Mary DeKonty
In this article, the authors speak directly to new teachers in order to encourage them to be literacy leaders in their classrooms and schools. They offer the following suggestions in the hope of inspiring these new teachers: (1) Develop your vision of teaching and be true to it; (2) Be creative in using instruction that works; (3) Team with…
N. Hoogervorst (Niek)
textabstractThe collateral damage to companies caused by unethical behaviour can be enormous, especially when it is perceived to be systemic within an organisation. We look to leaders to set an example. So how can they be encouraged to set aside selfinterest and provide an ethical role model for
Gunther, Vicki; McGowan, James; Donegan, Kate
Gunther, McGowan and Donegan draw on their own experiences and those of others in the field, to explain the importance of communication in school leadership. In focusing on the communication process--why it's critical for schools, and how it can be executed well--they make the case that communication must be a primary emphasis for leaders, not an…
Marian Aurelian Bârgău
Full Text Available Besides leading theories of people in one way or another from different angles reveal the types of leaders who can meet in business management literature contains classifications of management styles, which take into account different criteria or viewpoints. The word “leadership‟ has been used in various aspects of human endeavor such as politics, businesses, academics, social works, etc. Previous views about leadership show it as personal ability. The individual leader traits depend not only on personal abilities and his characteristics, but in special on the characteristics of the situation and environment in which he finds himself. People could become members of an organization in other to achieve certain personal objectives, the extent to which they are active members depends on how they are convinced that their membership will enable them to achieve their predetermined objectives. The leader will support an organization if he believes that through it his personal objectives and goals could be met otherwise the person’s interest will decline. The type leader or style of leading in an organization is one of the factors that play significant role in enhancing or retarding the interest and commitment of the individuals in the organization.
Reinout E. de Vries
Full Text Available This review offers an integration of dark leadership styles with dark personality traits. The core of dark leadership consists of Three Nightmare Traits (TNT—leader dishonesty, leader disagreeableness, and leader carelessness—that are conceptualized as contextualized personality traits aligned with respectively (low honesty-humility, (low agreeableness, and (low conscientiousness. It is argued that the TNT, when combined with high extraversion and low emotionality, can have serious (“explosive” negative consequences for employees and their organizations. A Situation-Trait-Outcome Activation (STOA model is presented in which a description is offered of situations that are attractive to TNT leaders (situation activation, situations that activate TNT traits (trait activation, and the kinds of outcomes that may result from TNT behaviors (outcome activation. Subsequently, the TNT and STOA models are combined to offer a description of the organizational actions that may strengthen or weaken the TNT during six career stages: attraction, selection, socialization, production, promotion, and attrition. Except for mainly negative consequences of the TNT, possible positive consequences of TNT leadership are also explored, and an outline of a research program is offered that may provide answers to the most pressing questions in dark leadership research.
Horner, Beth A.
Women are under-represented in educational research and are much less likely to hold administrative positions than are men. This study, using the Liberal Feminist Theory and Structural Barrier Theory, proffers possible explanations for this phenomenon. Four women leaders were interviewed to gain insight into their instructional leadership…
Farson, Richard; Keyes, Ralph
"The fastest way to succeed," IBM's Thomas Watson, Sr., once said, "is to double your failure rate." In recent years, more and more executives have embraced Watson's point of view, coming to understand what innovators have always known: Failure is a prerequisite to invention. But while companies may grasp the value of making mistakes at the level of corporate practices, they have a harder time accepting the idea at the personal level. People are afraid to fail, and corporate culture reinforces that fear. In this article, psychologist and former Harvard Business School professor Richard Farson and coauthor Ralph Keyes discuss how companies can reduce the fear of miscues. What's crucial is the presence of failure-tolerant leaders--executives who, through their words and actions, help employees overcome their anxieties about making mistakes and, in the process, create a culture of intelligent risk-taking that leads to sustained innovation. Such leaders don't just accept productive failure, they promote it. Drawing from their research in business, politics, sports, and science, the authors identify common practices among failure-tolerant leaders. These leaders break down the social and bureaucratic barriers that separate them from their followers. They engage at a personal level with the people they lead. They avoid giving either praise or criticism, preferring to take a nonjudgmental, analytical posture as they interact with staff. They openly admit their own mistakes rather than trying to cover them up or shifting the blame. And they try to root out the destructive competitiveness built into most organizations. Above all else, failure-tolerant leaders push people to see beyond traditional definitions of success and failure. They know that as long as a person views failure as the opposite of success, rather than its complement, he or she will never be able to take the risks necessary for innovation.
Dean, Peter J.
Presents an historical overview of the leadership literature. Highlights include "great man" theories; studies of leaders' traits; studies of leaders' behavioral style; studies of leadership functions; and studies of the situational aspects of leadership. (LRW)
Edmonson, Cole; Sumagaysay, Dio; Cueman, Marie; Chappell, Stacey
Leaders from the American Organization of Nurse Executives describe the dynamic state of today's healthcare system related to crisis management. Adaptive leadership, driven by strong values and morality, can guide leaders and organizations through the most difficult times.
den Hartog, D.N.; Caley, A.; Dewe, P.
Recruiting the right leaders is an important challenge for organisations. How do organisations find these leaders? This article looks at the recruitment of leaders through advertisements. We address to what extent the 'vocabulary of leadership' originating in influential leadership theories is
Field, Stephanie C.; Lauzon, Lara L.; Meldrum, John T.
Limited qualitative research exists on the experiences of outdoor education leaders. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the job-related experiences of outdoor education leaders within and outside the workplace. Five participants who had experience as outdoor education leaders completed in-depth, one-on-one interviews about…
Valente, Thomas W.; Pumpuang, Patchareeya
This article reviews 10 techniques used to identify opinion leaders to promote behavior change. Opinion leaders can act as gatekeepers for interventions, help change social norms, and accelerate behavior change. Few studies document the manner in which opinion leaders are identified, recruited, and trained to promote health. The authors categorize…
Timpo, Phyllis; Price, Temple; Salina, Doreen; Witek, Caroline; Pommer, Nicole; Jason, Leonard A
This qualitative study examined women assuming leadership roles in Oxford Houses, which are communal, democratically run recovery settings for substance use disorder. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 women Oxford House leaders who shared their thoughts and experiences on leadership. Several themes emerged from qualitative data analysis, most notably that stepping up and accepting a leadership role in Oxford House had a positive effect on self-esteem, which is vital to women with a history of substance abuse. Barriers to leadership were also identified such as negative interpersonal relationships with other women. A number of methods mentioned to increase the number of women leaders included: developing workshops, providing positive encouragement, and accessing existing female role models. The implications of this study are discussed.
Full Text Available Escherichia coli is a bacterium that is commonly found in the gut of humans and warm-blooded animals. Most strains of E. coli are harmless for human. E. coli O157:H7 is the most common member of a group of pathogenic E. coli strains known variously as enterohaemorrhagic, verocytotoxin-producing, or Shiga-toxin-producing organisms. EHEC bacterium is the major cause of haemorrhagic colitis and haemolytic uraemic syndrome. The reservoir of this pathogen appears to be mainly cattle and other ruminants such as camels. It is transmitted to humans primarily through consumption of contaminated foods. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(4.000: 387-388
Lindeberg, Yrja Lisa; Egedal, Karen; Hossain, Zenat Zebin
, and the numbers of flies landing on the exposed rice were counted. Following exposure, the surface of the rice was microbiologically and molecularly analysed for the presence of E. coli and genes of diarrheagenic E. coli and Shigella strains. RESULTS: Rice was at greater risk (p ... with E. coli if flies landed on the rice than if no flies landed on the rice (odds ratio 5·4 (p ...-landings, the average CFU per fly-landing was > 0·6 x 103 CFU. Genes of diarrheagenic E. coli and Shigella species were detected in 39 of 60 (65%) of exposed rice samples. Two fly species were identified; the common housefly (Musca domestica) and the oriental latrine fly (Chrysomya megacephala). CONCLUSION: Flies may...
Ready, Douglas A
Few leaders excel at both the unit and enterprise levels. More than ever, though, corporations need people capable of running business units, functions, or regions and focusing on broader company goals. It's up to organizations to develop leaders who can manage the inherent tensions between unit and enterprise priorities. Take the example of RBC Financial Group, one of the largest, most profitable companies in Canada. In the mid-1990's, RBC revamped its competitive strategy in a couple of ways. After the government announced that the Big Six banks in Canada could neither merge with nor acquire one another, RBC decided to grow through cross-border acquisitions. Additionally, because customers were starting to seek bundled products and services, RBC reached across its traditional stand-alone businesses to offer integrated solutions. These changes in strategy didn't elicit immediate companywide support. Instinctively, employees reacted against what would amount to a delicate balancing act: They would have to lift their focus out of their silos while continuing to meet unit goals. However, by communicating extensively with staff members, cross-fertilizing talent across unit boundaries, and targeting rewards to shape performance, RBC was able to cultivate rising leaders with the unit expertise and the enterprise vision to help the company fulfill its new aims. Growing such well-rounded leaders takes sustained effort because unit-enterprise tensions are quite real. Three common conditions reinforce these tensions. First, most organizational structures foster silo thinking and unimaginative career paths. Second, most companies lack venues for airing and resolving conflicts that arise when there are competing priorities. Third, many have misguided reward systems that pit unit performance against enterprise considerations. Such long-established patterns of organizational behavior are tough to break. Fortunately, as RBC discovered, people can be trained to think and work
Timpo, Phyllis; Price, Temple; Salina, Doreen; Witek, Caroline; Pommer, Nicole; Jason, Leonard A.
This qualitative study examined women assuming leadership roles in Oxford Houses, which are communal, democratically run recovery settings for substance use disorder. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 women Oxford House leaders who shared their thoughts and experiences on leadership. Several themes emerged from qualitative data analysis, most notably that stepping up and accepting a leadership role in Oxford House had a positive effect on self-esteem, which is vital to women w...
Shammas, H F
A case of Escherichia coli septicemia with associated metastatic en dophthalmitis and endocarditis is presented. The ocular signs and symptoms were the initial manifestations of sepsis. Irreversible damage to the eye occurred in less than 24 hours. The pattern of metastatic bacterial endophthalmitis has changed since the introduction of potent antimicrobial agents, with an increased incidence of Gram-negative bacillemia. E. coli endophthalmitis carries a poor prognosis. Early diagnosis and systemic treatment will prevent the life-threatening complications of sepsis.
textabstractThe aim of this dissertation is to uncover the relationship between leader affective displays and leadership effectiveness. Five empirical studies were conducted to test the influence of several leader affective displays on different follower outcomes that indicate leadership effectiveness. The results showed that leader happy displays enhance followers’ creative performance, whereas leader sad displays enhance followers’ analytical performance. In addition, a leader displaying ha...
Ritter, Barbara A; Lord, Robert G
In 2 studies, this research demonstrated the existence of leader transference, a cognitive process whereby mental representations of previous leaders are activated and used for evaluation when new, similar leaders are encountered. The 1st study demonstrated that exposure to a new leader who was similar to a past leader led to erroneous generalization of leader characteristics and associated underlying attributions. The 2nd study showed that expectations of just treatment and abuse were also subject to transfer from old to new, similar leaders, although positive and negative affective responses were not. Results suggested that individuals exposed to a leader who was not reminiscent of an old leader were more likely to use a general leader prototype to form leader expectations, whereas individuals exposed to a leader who was similar to an old leader activated a significant other mental representation for use in making judgments. These results have implications for individual- and relational-level processes as characterized by implicit leadership theory and leader-member exchange theory as well as macro theories of leader succession and organizational culture change. (c) 2007 APA
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to expand attention to responsible leader behavior in the world's health sectors by explaining how this concept applies to health sectors, considering why health sector leaders should behave responsibly, reviewing how they can do so, and asserting potential impact through an applied example. Design/methodology/approach This paper is a viewpoint, reflecting conceptualizations rooted in leadership literature which are then specifically applied to health sectors. A definition of responsible leader behavior is affirmed and applied specifically in health sectors. Conceptualizations and viewpoints about practice of responsible leader behavior in health sectors and potential consequences are then discussed and asserted. Findings Leadership failures and debacles found in health, but more so in other sectors, have led leadership researchers to offer insights, many of them empirical, into the challenges of leadership especially by more clearly delineating responsible leader behavior. Practical implications Much of what has been learned in the research about responsible leader behavior offers pathways for health sector leaders to more fully practice responsible leadership. Social implications This paper asserts and provides a supporting example that greater levels of responsible leader behavior in health sectors hold potentially important societal benefits. Originality/value This paper is the first to apply emerging conceptualizations and early empirical findings about responsible leader behavior specifically to leaders in health sectors.
Zacher, Hannes; Rosing, Kathrin; Henning, Thomas; Frese, Michael
In this study, the authors investigated leader generativity as a moderator of the relationships between leader age, leader-member exchange, and three criteria of leadership success (follower perceptions of leader effectiveness, follower satisfaction with leader, and follower extra effort). Data came
Holmgren, A.; Ohlsson, I.; Grankvist, M.L.
A competition radioimmunoassay for Escherichia coli thioredoxin using 125 I-labeled thioredoxin-S 2 and a double antibody technique was developed. The method permits determination of picomole amounts of thioredoxin in crude cell extracts and was used to study the localization of thioredoxin cell fractions. E. coli B was calculated to have approximately 10,000 copies of thioredoxin per cell mainly located in the soluble fraction after separation of the membrane and soluble fractions by gentle lysis and centrifugation. E. coli B tsnC mutants which are defective in the replication of phage T7 DNA in vivo and in vitro were examined for their content of thioredoxin. E. coli B tsnC 7004 contained no detectable level of thioredoxin in cell-free extracts examined under a variety of conditions. The results strongly suggest that tsnC 7004 is a nonsense or deletion mutant. Two other E. coli tsnC mutants, 7007 and 7008, contained detectable levels of thioredoxin in crude extracts as measured by thioredoxin reductase and gave similar immunoprecipitation reactions as the parent strain B/1. By radioimmunoassay incompletely cross-reacting material was present in both strains. These results show that tsnC 7007 and 7008 belong to a type of thioredoxin mutants with missence mutations in the thioredoxin gene affecting the function of thioredoxin as subunit in phage T7 DNA polymerase
Hansen, Anne Mette
adopted an alternative view in which IS strategy represents a shared understanding of the role of IS within the organization. The assumption in these studies is that IS and business leaders constantly negotiate their understandings of the role of IS and strategic objectives as a basis for investment...... to the IS strategy literature by providing a detailed and rich description of IS and business leaders’ learning during IS strategizing. Second, it informs organizational learning theory by providing fundamental new insights to the 4I framework, extending our knowledge of its core constructs and revealing a potential...
Community leaders from Mississippi and Louisiana break ground for the new INFINITY at NASA Stennis Space Center facility during a Nov. 20 ceremony. Groundbreaking participants included (l to r): Gottfried Construction representative John Smith, Mississippi Highway Commissioner Wayne Brown, INFINITY board member and Apollo 13 astronaut Fred Haise, Stennis Director Gene Goldman, Studio South representative David Hardy, Leo Seal Jr. family representative Virginia Wagner, Hancock Bank President George Schloegel, Mississippi Rep. J.P. Compretta, Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians representative Charlie Benn and Louisiana Sen. A.G. Crowe.
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to study the academic advisors’ profile from the attitudes in the learning process view point, being the center of which the need that as an educator, the advisor has to be a leader educated in values. The research was documental, according to the theoretical contributions of Arana and Batista (2006, Ortega and Minguez (2001 and Denis (2000, among others. It is concluded that an academic advisor in values allows individual and collective trasnformation and an education without values as its center, it is a hollow and useless education.
Hernández Baeza, Ana; Araya Lao, Cristina; García Meneses, Juliana; González Romá, Vicente
In this study, we evaluate the role of leader charisma in fostering positive affective team climate and preventing negative affective climate. The analysis of a longitudinal database of 137 bank branches by means of hierarchical moderated regression shows that leader charisma has a stronger effect on team optimism than on team tension. In addition, the leader's influence and the frequency of leader-team interaction moderate the relationship between charisma and affective climate. However, whereas the leader's influence enhances the relationship between leader charisma and positive affective climate, the frequency of interaction has counterproductive effects.
Kosiara-Pedersen, Karina; Hansen, Kasper Møller
Is there a relationship between party leader gender and voters' assessments? Yes, according to theses on gender identity and stereotyping. A voter survey during the 2011 Danish general election allows for a comprehensive analysis of a less likely case with four male and four female party leaders...... of gender does not increase with age, actually, the opposite is the case among men since younger male voters have smaller sympathy for female party leaders. Furthermore, there is no support for the expectation that voters with more education or with higher levels of political interest and knowledge are more....... Female party leaders are assessed more positively by female voters than male voters both in regard to general party leader sympathy and assessment of specific characteristics, whereas it is not the case that male party leaders are assessed more positively by male voters than female voters. The impact...
VARIATIONS IN VIRULENCE OF THREE (3) ESCHERICHIA COLI. SEROTYPES CONFIRMED IN ... ows are susceptible to E. coli infection because. E. coli exist in the .... Coli infections in mice: A laboratory animal model for research in.
J. Tyson Chatagnier; Alex Mintz; Yair Samban
This article contributes to the literature on terrorist group decision-making by introducing a new procedure, Applied Decision Analysis, in an attempt to understand how leaders of terrorist organizations make decisions. We examine twenty-three decisions taken by leaders of three terrorist organizations: Al-Qaeda, Hamas, and Hizballah. We also demonstrate the use of the Applied Decision Analysis procedure to uncover the "Decision DNA" or “decision code” of leaders of such organizat...
Abhik Roy; Dominique M. Hanssens; Jagmohan S. Raju
We examine the problem of pricing in a market where one brand acts as a price leader. We develop a procedure to estimate a leader's price rule, which is optimal given a sales target objective, and allows for the inclusion of demand forecasts. We illustrate our estimation procedure by calibrating this optimal price rule for both the leader and the follower using data on past sales and prices from the mid-size sedan segment of the U.S. automobile market. Our results suggest that a leader-follow...
The educational system plays a huge role in developing the moral leaders of tomorrow. The Quarterly takes a closer look at diversity in South Africa's schools, at the young generation in China, and at the making of moral leaders with both a global and local mindset.......The educational system plays a huge role in developing the moral leaders of tomorrow. The Quarterly takes a closer look at diversity in South Africa's schools, at the young generation in China, and at the making of moral leaders with both a global and local mindset....
V.A. Visser (Victoria)
textabstractThe aim of this dissertation is to uncover the relationship between leader affective displays and leadership effectiveness. Five empirical studies were conducted to test the influence of several leader affective displays on different follower outcomes that indicate leadership
Gao, L.; Janssen, O.; Shi, K.
This paper explored how employees' trust in their leader interacted with empowering leader behaviors in promoting employee voice. Using data collected from 314 employees in the telecommunication industry in China, we found that the relationship between leader trust and employee voice became more
van Knippenberg, B.M.; van Knippenberg, D.
Self-sacrificing behavior of the leader and the extent to which the leader is representative of the group (i.e., group prototypical) are proposed to interact to influence leadership effectiveness. The authors expected self-sacrificing leaders to be considered more effective and to be able to push
Jiang, Jing; Chen, Chuansheng; Dai, Bohan; Shi, Guang; Ding, Guosheng; Liu, Li; Lu, Chunming
The neural mechanism of leader emergence is not well understood. This study investigated (i) whether interpersonal neural synchronization (INS) plays an important role in leader emergence, and (ii) whether INS and leader emergence are associated with the frequency or the quality of communications. Eleven three-member groups were asked to perform a leaderless group discussion (LGD) task, and their brain activities were recorded via functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)-based hyperscanning. Video recordings of the discussions were coded for leadership and communication. Results showed that the INS for the leader-follower (LF) pairs was higher than that for the follower-follower (FF) pairs in the left temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), an area important for social mentalizing. Although communication frequency was higher for the LF pairs than for the FF pairs, the frequency of leader-initiated and follower-initiated communication did not differ significantly. Moreover, INS for the LF pairs was significantly higher during leader-initiated communication than during follower-initiated communications. In addition, INS for the LF pairs during leader-initiated communication was significantly correlated with the leaders' communication skills and competence, but not their communication frequency. Finally, leadership could be successfully predicted based on INS as well as communication frequency early during the LGD (before half a minute into the task). In sum, this study found that leader emergence was characterized by high-level neural synchronization between the leader and followers and that the quality, rather than the frequency, of communications was associated with synchronization. These results suggest that leaders emerge because they are able to say the right things at the right time.
Washburn, E R
Today's physicians feel helpless and angry about changing conditions in the medical landscape. This is due, in large part, to our postmodernist world view and the influence of corporations on medical practice. The life and work of existentialist psychiatrist Viktor Frankl is proposed as a role model for physicians to take back control of their profession. Physician leaders are in the best position to bring the teachings and insight of Frankl's logotherapy to rank-and-file physicians in all practice settings, as well as into the board rooms of large medical corporations. This article considers the spiritual and moral troubles of American medicine, Frankl's answer to that affliction, and the implications of logotherapy for physician organizations and leadership. Physician executives are challenged to take up this task.
Counterintuitively, the more one develops as a leader, the less of a leader one becomes. What do great leaders do? Great leaders are ambitious first and foremost for the cause, the mission, the work--not themselves. Educators as "serving leaders" sense that every action they take, together with every decision that they make, either…
People have a psychological need to master their environment and the roles they enact (Ashforth, 2001). Individuals who take on leader roles are no exception. However, as the leader role is filled with complex, demanding, conflicting and ambiguous role expectations (Conger & Fishel, 2007; Denis, Langley, & Pineault, 2000; Levin, 2010) mastering the leader role may be particularly challenging. This thesis addresses three complementary approaches to mastering the leader role and deals with each...
As part of its efforts to support environmental technology innovation clusters, U.S. EPA hosted a Water Technology Innovation Cluster Leaders Meeting on September 25, 2016, in New Orleans, Louisiana. The meeting was an opportunity for cluster leaders from across the globe to meet...
Yu, Shu; Jong-A-Pin, Richard
We examine whether economic and military competence of political leaders affect their duration in office. We introduce leader heterogeneity in the selectorate theory of Bueno de Mesquita et al. (2003) and derive the hypothesis that in the presence of a revolutionary threat, economic competence is
Biotechnology Leaders to Gather for Conference For more information contact: e:mail: Public Affairs biotechnology leaders gather in Fort Collins, CO May 2-6 for the 21st Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and special session on funding opportunities for U.S. biotechnology projects. More than 175 presentations are
A 7-week summer program for college-bound American Indian students prepares them for college and trains them to become leaders. Through role playing a fictitious Native tribe, students encounter realistic dilemmas similar to those facing tribal governments and realize that tribal leaders' decisions involve many social and political issues…
J.M.T. Romijn (Judi)
textabstractThe HAVi specification proposes an architecture for audio/video interoperability in home networks. Part of the HAVi specification is a distributed leader election protocol. We have modelled this leader election protocol in Promela and Lotos and have checked several properties with the
Colbert, Thomas B.
Profiles four Iowans who became agricultural leaders and committed themselves to addressing farmers' needs: Henry Wallace, James R. Howard, Milo Reno, and Ruth Buxton Sayre. Identifies farm organizations with which each was affiliated, such as the Farm Bureau and the Farmers' Union. Summarizes each leader's major accomplishments and political…
Enoksen, Elisabeth; Lynch, Pip
Recent leadership research has demonstrated a need for better understanding the process of becominga leader because it might be qualitatively different to being a leader. If so, there is likely to be a need for pedagogies designed deliberately to support first-time outdoor leadership experiences and any such pedagogies must be informed by the…
Woulfin, Sarah L.; Donaldson, Morgaen L.; Gonzales, Richard
Purpose: Educator evaluation systems have recently undergone scrutiny and reform, and district and school leaders play a key role in interpreting and enacting these systems. This article uses framing theory to understand district leaders' interpretation and advancement of a state's new educator evaluation policy. Research Methods: The article…
Davis, Hartwell T. Paul
Leaders are made, not born. Like so many other of life's complex issues, the question of nature vs. nurture in leadership is one that is analyzed, researched, and debated by educators, philosophers, social scientist, and even leaders themselves. Leadership has been dissected as to personality, character, and behavior. Researchers have developed…
Schyns, Birgit; Sanders, Karin
Research on the evaluation of leaders has shown that evaluation ratings are prone to several biases. The present study deals with one possible bias, namely, the relationship between mood and the perception or evaluation of a leader. The affect-as-information framework, which indicates that mood
Rus, Diana; van Knippenberg, Daan; Wisse, Barbara
In this research we investigated the role played by leader power in determining leader self-serving behavior. Based on an integration of insights from research on the determinants of leader behavior and the power-approach theory, we hypothesized that with higher leader power leader self-serving
Wirtz, Nina; Rigotti, Thomas; Otto, Kathleen; Loeb, Carina
Although a growing body of research links leadership behavior to follower health, comparatively little is known about the health effects of being in the lead. This longitudinal study of 315 team members and 67 leaders examined the crossover of emotional exhaustion and work engagement from followers to leaders. Leader emotional self-efficacy was tested as a moderator in the crossover process. Multiple regression analyses revealed that followers' work engagement was positively related to leaders' work engagement eight months later, controlling for followers' tenure with the leader, leader gender, autonomy, workload, and work engagement at Time 1. Leaders' emotional self-efficacy did not moderate the crossover of work engagement. Followers' emotional exhaustion was not directly related to leaders' emotional exhaustion over time. We did find a significant interaction effect for follower emotional exhaustion and leader emotional self-efficacy. This study is the first to show that crossover of emotional exhaustion and work engagement can unfold over time from team members to leaders. Main theoretical implications lie in the finding that-in line with job demands-resources theory-followers' psychological states can pose a demand or resource for leaders, and influence their well-being. For practitioners, our results offer valuable insights regarding the design of organizational health interventions as well as leadership development measures. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Damen, F.; van Knippenberg, B.M.; van Knippenberg, D.
Leader emotions may play an important role in leadership effectiveness. Extending earlier research on leader emotional displays and leadership effectiveness, we propose that the affective match between follower positive affect (PA) and leaders' emotional displays moderates the effectiveness of
Sanaa Mahdi Oraibi
Full Text Available The presence of Escherichia coli in the air of facilities involved in management and composting of post-slaughter poultry wastes in selected plants of West Western Pomerania region was studied. Measurements were made on four dates in a variety of weather conditions during the year. The study was conducted at 5 objects that differ in the type of waste and the degree of preparation for composting. These were: chemical treatment and preliminary processing plant, liquid wastes reservoir, platform for preparation of materials for composting, storage of biological sediments, and composting facility. Measurement of bacteria count was carried out in accordance with the applicable procedures on selective chromogenic TBX medium. The assays revealed the presence of E. coli at all test objects, but not always on all measurement dates. It has been shown that the presence of E. coli was from 20 to 3047 CFU∙m-3 of air, although the largest quantities were most frequently detected in the air of the building for post-slaughter waste pre-treatment in chemical treatment plant.
Tuononen, T; Lammintakanen, J; Suominen, A L
The aim was to study factors associated with staying in a dentist leadership position. We used an electronic questionnaire to gather data from 156 current or former Finnish dentist leaders in 2014. Principal component analysis categorized statements regarding time usage and opportunities in managerial work into five main components. Associations between these main component scores and the tendency to stay as a leader were analyzed with logistic regression. Out of the five main components, two were significantly associated with staying as a leader: 'career intentions', which represented intent to continue or to leave the leadership position; and 'work time control opportunities', which represented how leaders could control their own work time. Other factors that supported staying were leadership education, more work time available for leadership work, and lower age. The main component 'work pressure' decreased, although not significantly, the odds of continuing; it included lack of leadership work time, and pressure from superiors or subordinates. Leaders have important roles in health care, ensuring everyday operations as well as developing their organizations to meet future challenges. Knowledge of these supporting factors will enable dentist leaders and their organizations to improve working conditions in order to recruit and retain motivated and competent persons. In addition, well-designed education is important to inspire and encourage future leaders. Copyright© 2017 Dennis Barber Ltd.
Carey Roth Bayer
Full Text Available We assessed the training needs of health policy leaders and practitioners across career stages; identified areas of core content for health policy training programs; and, identified training modalities for health policy leaders.We convened a focus group of health policy leaders at varying career stages to inform the development of the Health Policy Leaders' Training Needs Assessment tool. We piloted and distributed the tool electronically. We used descriptive statistics and thematic coding for analysis.Seventy participants varying in age and stage of career completed the tool. "Cost implications of health policies" ranked highest for personal knowledge development and "intersection of policy and politics" ranked highest for health policy leaders in general. "Effective communication skills" ranked as the highest skill element and "integrity" as the highest attribute element. Format for training varied based on age and career stage.This study highlighted the training needs of health policy leaders personally as well as their perceptions of the needs for training health policy leaders in general. The findings are applicable for current health policy leadership training programs as well as those in development.
Ibarra, Herminia; Hansen, Morten T
Social media and technologies have put connectivity on steroids and made collaboration more integral to business than ever. But without the right leadership, collaboration can go astray. Employees who try to collaborate on everything may wind up stuck in endless meetings, struggling to reach agreement. On the other side of the coin, executives who came of age during the heyday of "command and control" management can have trouble adjusting their style to fit the new realities. In their research on top-performing CEOs, Insead professors Ibarra and Hansen have examined what it takes to be a collaborative leader. They've found that it requires connecting people and ideas outside an organization to those inside it, leveraging diverse talent, modeling collaborative behavior at the top, and showing a strong hand to keep teams from getting mired in debate. In this article, they describe tactics that executives from Akamai, GE, Reckitt Benckiser, and other firms use in those four areas and how they foster high-performance collaborative cultures in their organizations.
Full Text Available Romania lacks a ”map of the future”. This chart of the future depends just on the human factor. More specifically, on the continuous investment in the human factor. During the last 2 decades of freedom of attitude, very few positive and sustained steps have been taken through solid arguments, with clear reference points and stages that have to be followed .It is absolutely compulsory to rebuild with new tools, as a surprise for the opponents and as an optimalsolution for the supporters. This would be a new, superior creation, with an invincible astonishing result. This new tool means an effort of retraining, with a view to getting better, professional skills.This study proposes a comparative analysis, 80 years later, following the physiognomy, the attitudes and examples of good practice regarding the social mechanism through which a youngster could be calibrated into a leader of his generation, as well as finding the obstacles of the present social system. Besides the historical, social and cultural perspective of this analysis, we would take into account elements of socialethology and anthropology, and the whole thing would be built and based on an analysis with a prognosis effect for the next generation, starting from the history of the last 30 years and discussing the effects this\\r\
Fulmer, C Ashley; Ostroff, Cheri
Low levels of employee trust in top leaders pose challenges to organizations with respect to retention, performance, and profits. This research examines how trust in top leaders can be fostered through the relationships individuals have with their direct leaders. We propose a trickle-up model whereby trust in direct leaders exerts an upward influence on trust in top leaders. Drawing on the group value model, we predict that direct leaders' procedural justice serves as the key mechanism in facilitating the trickle-up process. Further, this process should be particularly strong for employees high on vertical collectivism, and the trickled-up trust in top leaders should exert a stronger impact on employees' overall performance in the organization than trust in direct leaders. Multiphase and multisource data from 336 individuals support these hypotheses. The findings advance our understanding of trust and leadership by highlighting that trust in leaders at different levels does not form independently and that trust in leaders trickles up across hierarchical levels. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Egekvist, Ulla Egidiussen; Lyngdorf, Niels Erik; Du, Xiangyun
This paper explores how internationalization ideas in primary and lower secondary schools can be developed through the acquisition of international experience abroad by leaders. The study was inspired by existing literature on internationalization and leadership, and theories of experiential...... learning and reflection. Empirically, qualitative material was derived from a study of nineteen Danish school leaders participating in an eight-day delegation visit to China. This study shows that international experience for leaders can be used to develop ideas for internationalization at the school level...
These are hard times for medical school deans--high turnover among deans, the fiscal distress of many medical schools, the gap between what deans expect the job will be and what is required of them, the stark differences between what the job of dean is today and what it was in the past, and the threats to the academic missions of education and research. Using stories, anecdotes, and parables, the authors illustrates how these very difficulties might be an opportunity to rethink the role of deans and to re-examine the attributes and skills required of successful deans today. The ultimate goals of medical education have not changed, but the drastic nature of the changes taking place all around, and within, medical education make it more critical than ever to keep in mind what is really important. Deans must be exquisitely attuned to what is really important and they must make sure that the academic medical community never loses sight of what that is. To do that, deans must be deeply rooted personally in the enduring values and commitments that inform medicine as a profession and a vocation and in the fundamental values of medical education and scholarship; they must personify and embody these values; and they must remind us of these values and inspire us to embrace them and be guided by them. This is the sense in which deans must be "spiritual" leaders--that is, through their personal example, they must rekindle and engage the spirit of those working on behalf of the academic mission. While the need for fiscal expertise, management skills, and diplomatic and interpersonal skills in deans is widely acknowledged, the need for sensitivity to the spiritual dimensions of the work of deans has not received the attention it deserves.
Xiao Deng; Zhishuang Guan
As leader creativity is found to be effective at promoting outcomes for organizations,more and more organizations select creative individuals as leaders.However,the influence of leader creativity has not received enough attention.Thus,this research seeks to focus on the potential influences of leader creativity in organizations.Based on social cognitive theory,we explore the relationship between leader creativity and subordinate organizational citizenship behavior (OCB).We find that leader creativity is positively related to subordinate OCB,and perceived team creative efficacy mediates the relationship.Moreover,creative self-efficacy moderates the relationships between perceived team creative efficacy and subordinate OCB.We then discuss implications and limitations,and suggest directions for future research.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to reveal the corporate social responsibility (CSR understandings of corporations from the leaders’ perspective and discuss how leaders define and explain CSR practices their organizations executed as spokesperson via social media channels of their organizations. In this context, a content analysis aiming to display the ideas of Turkey’s top 250 corporations’ leaders (CEO, chairman of the board, general manager designated by Istanbul Chamber of Industry in 2013. The leader messages about different dimensions of CSR and CSR practices that are partaking in corporate web sites were examined. According to the results of the analysis, it is found that the leaders act as responsible leaders, and also the spokesperson of their corporations. In addition it is found out that responsible leaders included multiplexed information on different dimensions and various practices of CSR in their social media messages.
Kaini, B K
Interprofessional care is an essential part of the health service delivery system. It helps to achieve improved care and to deliver the optimal and desired health outcomes by working together, sharing and learning skills. Health care organisation is a collective sum of many leaders and followers. Successful delivery of interprofessional care relies on the contribution of interprofessional care team leaders and health care professionals from all groups. The role of the interprofessional care team leader is vital to ensuring continuity and consistency of care and to mobilise and motivate health care professionals for the effective delivery of health services. Medical professionals usually lead interprofessional care teams. Interprofessional care leaders require various skills and competencies for the successful delivery of interprofessional care.
Mar 1, 2018 ... It also assessed the level of interaction and perception of people within the host community on the park. ... management is in good touch with the leaders of the host communities. However ..... An International Multi-Disciplinary.
Roosna, Harda, 1956-
EL-i maaelu toetusprogrammi LEADER+ rakendamist on katsetatud Põlva-, Valga-, Pärnu- ja Võrumaal. Hiiumaal arutletakse programmi rakendamiseks vajaliku tegevusgrupi moodustamise üle märtsis. Lisad: Ajalugu; Näited
Markussen, Thomas; Tyran, Jean-robert
In this experiment, voters select a leader who can either act in the public interest, i.e. make efficient and equitable policy choices, or act in a corrupt way, i.e. use public funds for private gain. Voters can observe candidates pro-social behavior and their score in a cognitive ability test...... prior to the election, and this fact is known to candidates. Therefore, self-interested candidates have incentives to act in a pro-social manner, i.e. to pretend to be public-spirited leaders. We find that both truly pro-social and egoistic leaders co-exist, but that political selection is ineffective...... in choosing public-spirited leaders. The main reason is that egoistic candidates strategically pretend to be pro-social to increase their chances of winning the election....
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 10. Yelavarthy Nayudamma: Scientist, Leader, and Mentor Extraordinary. J Raghava Rao T Ramasami. General Article Volume 19 Issue 10 October 2014 pp 887-899 ...
Kean, Susanne; Haycock-Stuart, Elaine
Contemporary healthcare policies tend to imply that successful leadership can be attributed to a single leader. Such an understanding of leadership ignores the significant contribution followers make to successful leadership and their influence on leaders. In reality, followers rarely simply follow leaders. Following is a complex process that depends on the context and involves followers making judgements about prospective leaders while deciding whether or not to follow them. This interdependence is ignored all too often or misunderstood by those who see leadership as something that can resolve the problems of the NHS. Using data from a study of leadership in community nursing in which the authors were involved, they argue that senior staff who ignore followers and their contribution to leadership do so at the peril of their organisations.
Lund Pedersen, Carsten; Ritter, Thomas
Everyone has their own way of organising a project. Read about the four types of leadership, and why a diversity of types is good for any organisation. And take the quiz: What type of project leader are you?......Everyone has their own way of organising a project. Read about the four types of leadership, and why a diversity of types is good for any organisation. And take the quiz: What type of project leader are you?...
Knee, Robert Everett
The purpose of the present study was to establish evidence for the suggested integration of the theories of connectionism and leadership. Recent theoretical writings in the field of leadership have suggested that the dynamic representations generated by the connectionist perspective is an appropriate approach to understanding how we perceive leaders. Similarly, implicit leadership theory (ILT) explains that our cognitive understandings of leaders are based on a cognitive structure that we u...
Demirağ, Elif Gizem; Demirag, Elif Gizem
How do a state's political regime type and power status influence leader's mediation attempts? This study develops an explanation as a response to this question derived from the democratic peace theory which underlines the role of democratic norms in motivating state leaders to play a third party role in peace processes. Based on this approach, the expectation is that democratic country representatives are more likely to mediate especially in the early stage of their careers. In addition, I a...
Full Text Available Japan established the medical system in Taiwan during its 50 years of occupation, which evolved into the present National Taiwan University Hospital system. This paper summarizes the biographies of 97 Japanese leaders in various medical disciplines during the Japanese occupation of Taiwan. These leaders were among the elite of Japan, with superior intellectual, social and economic status, who helped to establish the important attributes of medical professionals in Taiwan, such as a good academic background, heritage, and research skills.
expectation other than rudimentary dialogues on career paths. Some senior leaders are superb mentors , but this appears to be a result of the personality... mentoring discussions, as well as resources and senior -level attention to these expectations, could complement individual development plans and structured...including senior leaders. This extends to the reserve components (RC) and their “critical bridge to the civilian population, infusing the Joint
Developing nurse leaders for today and tomorrow is a priority considering the powerful relationship between leadership strength and the influence of the nursing profession in the future of health care. This article addresses leadership theories and research as they relate to visionary leadership. Education for visionary leadership is also addressed including the competencies and skill sets for effective visionary leaders. Visioning is a powerful force for change in shaping organizations and building teams for the future.
Many new leaders believe that the way to get things done is to be autocratic and directive. Successful leadership is a negotiated process with the employees that must be mutually satisfying for the evolution into a high-performing unit or organization. Well-intentioned leaders often overlook the very simple truth of learning to help people move forward in their work and to treat people as decent human beings.
Many new leaders believe that the way to get things done is to be autocratic and directive. Successful leadership is a negotiated process with the employees that must be mutually satisfying for the evolution into a high-performing unit or organization. Well-intentioned leaders often overlook the very simple truth of learning to help people move forward in their work and to treat people as decent human beings.
Scott, Elaine S.
Elaine S ScottCollege of Nursing, Graduate Nursing Science Department, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC USAAbstract: Healthcare delivery systems are complex entities that must merge the best of administrative and clinical practices into a new model of leadership. But, despite growing recognition that healthcare organizational leaders must partner with clinical leaders to address patient safety, evidence based practice, financial sustainability, and capacity, tensions between the group...
Stolzenburg, M.; Marshall, T. C.; Karunarathne, S.; Orville, R. E.
High-speed video and electric field change (E-change) data are used to describe the first 5 ms of a natural negative cloud-to-ground (CG) flash. These observations reveal differences in appearance of both the video luminosity and the E-change pulses before the leader transitions to propagating as a negative stepped leader (SL). During the initial breakdown (IB) stage, the initial leader advances intermittently forward in jumps of 78-175 m, at intervals of 100-280 μs, and in separate bursts that are bright for a few 20-μs video frames. The IB pulses accompanying these luminosity bursts have long duration, large amplitude, and a characteristic bipolar shape in nearby E-change observations. In the time between IB pulses, the initial leader is very dim or not visible during the earliest 1-2 ms of the IB stage. Over the next few milliseconds, the leader propagation transitions to an early SL phase, in which the leader tips advance 20-59 m forward at more regular intervals of 40-80 μs during relatively dim and brief steps. In the E-change data, the accompanying SL pulses have very short duration, small amplitude, and are typically unipolar. These data indicate that when the entire initial leader length behind the lower end begins to remain illuminated between bursts, the propagation mode changes from IB bursts to SL steps, and the IB stage ends. Additional differences in initial leader character are evident during the return stroke, as its luminosity speed decreases sharply upon reaching the topmost initial leader section of the channel, and that section of channel does not saturate the video intensity. Results of these analyses support a prior hypothesis that the early initial leader development occurs in the absence of a continuously hot channel, and consequently, the initial leader propagation is unlike the self-propagating advance of the later stepped leader.
Sportsman, Susan; Wieck, Lynn; Yoder-Wise, Patricia S; Light, Kathleen M; Jordan, Clair
The Texas Nurses Association initiated an Emerging Nurse Leaders Program as an approach to engaging new nurses in the leadership of the professional association. This article explains the program's origin, the commitment of the Texas Nurses Association to this process, the implementation of the plan, and the discussions that launched a new way of connecting leaders across generations. Further, it is an approach that any professional organization can use to encourage the involvement of new leaders.
Angela - Olimpia Lobonea (Oltean
Full Text Available These people were called in the past chiefs, rulers. Now they are known as leaders. After management by objectives, strategic planning, project organization, this concept appears as a tool called "fourth generation". It is called VISION. Leadership and vision exist in the actual sense, which has become modern a few decades ago, managing to gather during this time a variety of scientific instruments. The connection between these two domains creates a certain type of leader, the visionary leader. The hypothesis from which we start is that all active leaders have a vision of what needs to be accomplished, and the inability to predict something that could be provided involves loss the capacity of the leader. Without vision, the energy reaches the lowest quotas, production decreases, terms limits are exceeded and human resources begin to dissipate.. The conclusion is that visionary leaders are endowed with multiple attributes (multiple intelligence, even if sometimes the role of intuition and unconscious in building vision at the expense of reason that is based on experience and facts is exaggerated.
Owens, Bradley P; Wallace, Angela S; Walker, Angela S; Waldman, David A
[Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 100(4) of Journal of Applied Psychology (see record 2015-29666-001). The last name of the second author was misspelled in the Online First version of the article. All versions of this article have been corrected.] In response to recent calls to theorize and examine how multiple leader characteristics may work together in their effects, the current research examines how leader narcissism and humility interact to predict perceived leader effectiveness and follower (i.e., direct-report) job engagement and performance. Although an examination of leaders who are narcissistic yet humble may seem oxymoronic and even paradoxical, researchers have suggested that seemingly contradictory personal attributes may exist simultaneously and may actually work together to produce positive outcomes. Results from survey data from followers and leaders working for a large health insurance organization showed that the interaction of leader narcissism and leader humility is associated with perceptions of leader effectiveness, follower job engagement, and subjective and objective follower job performance. Together, these results suggest that narcissistic leaders can have positive effects on followers when their narcissism is tempered by humility. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Power, Robert Leo
Unlike many other prominent leadership theories, leader-member exchange (LMX) theory does not focus on the specific characteristics of an effective organizational leader. Rather, LMX focuses on the nature and quality of the relationships between a leader and his or her individual subordinates. The ideal is for a leader to develop as many…
Dubreuil, J. Daniel; Isaacson, Richard E.; Schifferli, Dieter M.
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is the most common cause of E. coli diarrhea in farm animals. ETEC are characterized by the ability to produce two types of virulence factors; adhesins that promote binding to specific enterocyte receptors for intestinal colonization and enterotoxins responsible for fluid secretion. The best-characterized adhesins are expressed in the context of fimbriae, such as the F4 (also designated K88), F5 (K99), F6 (987P), F17 and F18 fimbriae. Once established in the animal small intestine, ETEC produces enterotoxin(s) that lead to diarrhea. The enterotoxins belong to two major classes; heat-labile toxin that consist of one active and five binding subunits (LT), and heat-stable toxins that are small polypeptides (STa, STb, and EAST1). This chapter describes the disease and pathogenesis of animal ETEC, the corresponding virulence genes and protein products of these bacteria, their regulation and targets in animal hosts, as well as mechanisms of action. Furthermore, vaccines, inhibitors, probiotics and the identification of potential new targets identified by genomics are presented in the context of animal ETEC. PMID:27735786
Chutzpah, according to the Oxford Dictionary of Current English (1996) is a slang term from the Yiddish language which means shameless audacity. Chutzpah has been used to identify people with courage who take on situations that others avoid and somehow achieve the impossible. Tim Porter-O'Grady (1997) recently wrote that management is dead, and has been replaced by process leadership. Health care organizations have made shifts from hierarchical structures to process or program models where people have dual/multiple reporting/communication relationship. In this new orientation, management functions of controlling, directing, organizing and disciplining are replaced by process leadership functions of coordinating, facilitating, linking and sustaining (Porter O'Grady, 1997). Herein lies the challenge for oncology nurse leaders: "what lies behind us and what lies before us are tiny matters compared to what lies within us" (Ralph Waldo Emerson). Leadership is not a function of job title. The evidence for this is clear in current practice.... There are no/few positions of nurse leaders. Titles have changed to eliminate the professional discipline, and reflect a non-descript orientation. The new titles are process leaders, program leaders, professional practice leaders. Nurse leaders need new points of reference to take in the challenges of influencing, facilitating and linking. Those points of reference are: principle-centered leadership, integrity and chutzpah. This presentation will focus on examining current thinking, defining key characteristics and attributes, and using scenarios to illustrate the impact of leadership. We, as leaders in oncology nursing, must use chutzpah to make positive change and long-term gains for patient care and the profession of nursing.
Full Text Available During the past few decades, Thai women have learned how to extent their roles from a care taker of children and a household to natural resources and environmental protection and management in local and inter-regional communities. Due to the application of National Economic and Social Development Plans, rapid resource exploitation has brought in natural resource and environmental degradation all over the country threatening communal security. For this reason, there have been a number of emerging environmental leaders who want to correct directions of national development, especially Thai woman environmental leaders who are taking a successful role of environmental guardian in their communities. This research attempts to explore why they took leadership role in environment, how they work so successful as an environmental guardian, and what their next move is. During early 2013 till mid-2014, there are 28 Thai woman leaders who received the award of Thai Environmental Conservation Mother from the Faculty of Environment and Resource Studies, Mahidol University between 2004 and 2012. They were in-depth interviewed and collected data were preceded by content analysis. Their lessons learnt show that most leaders saved their communities' environment and natural resources from the intervention of new development activities. Most of them had their parents as a good role model in environmental management who provide knowledge of morals and environmental ethics as a good basic of leadership while some shared their husband's responsibility in the same matter. Significantly, teamwork is their working style with the assistance of public participation to hold teamwork and collaboration of the community. Almost all leaders had systematic working with talents of patience, gentleness and sensitivity. The working network also broadens their new information and knowledge between practitioners. In the same time, more than half of the leaders can prepare their
Ancona, Deborah; Malone, Thomas W; Orlikowski, Wanda J; Senge, Peter M
Today's top executives are expected to do everything right, from coming up with solutions to unfathomably complex problems to having the charisma and prescience to rally stakeholders around a perfect vision of the future. But no one leader can be all things to all people. It's time to end the myth of the complete leader, say the authors. Those at the top must come to understand their weaknesses as well as their strengths. Only by embracing the ways in which they are incomplete can leaders fill in the gaps in their knowledge with others' skills. The incomplete leader has the confidence and humility to recognize unique talents and perspectives throughout the organization--and to let those qualities shine. The authors' work studying leadership over the past six years has led them to develop a framework of distributed leadership. Within that model, leadership consists of four capabilities: sensemaking, relating, "visioning," and inventing. Sensemaking involves understanding and mapping the context in which a company and its people operate. A leader skilled in this area can quickly identify the complexities of a given situation and explain them to others. The second capability, relating, means being able to build trusting relationships with others through inquiring (listening with intention), advocating (explaining one's own point of view), and connecting (establishing a network of allies who can help a leader accomplish his or her goals). Visioning, the third capability, means coming up with a compelling image of the future. It is a collaborative process that articulates what the members of an organization want to create. Finally, inventing involves developing new ways to bring that vision to life. Rarely will a single person be skilled in all four areas. That's why it's critical that leaders find others who can offset their limitations and complement their strengths. Those who don't will not only bear the burden of leadership alone but will find themselves at the helm
Long, Mengni; Becerra, Marley; Thottappillil, Rajeev
This paper presents the numerical evaluation of the propagation of positive upward connecting leaders under the influence of lightning dart leaders. The simulation is performed with the self-consistent leader inception and propagation model - SLIM-. An analytical expression is derived for calculating the charge per unit length required to thermalize a new upward leader segment. The simulation is validated with two dart leader attachment events in a lightning triggering experiment reported in ...
Zacher, Hannes; Pearce, Liane K.; Rooney, David; McKenna, Bernard
Business scholars have recently proposed that the virtue of personal wisdom may predict leadership behaviors and the quality of leader-follower relationships. This study investigated relationships among leaders' personal wisdom-defined as the integration of advanced cognitive, reflective, and
Hesselbein, Frances, Ed.; Cohen, Paul M., Ed.
Amid unprecedented social, demographic, and economic changes, leaders must enhance performance and deliver desired results. The growing importance of managing the explosion in information requires attention to defining organizational missions and visions. The 37 chapters in this work are divided into 7 parts. Part 1, "On Leaders and…
Bittner, John R.; Cash, William B.
The data tends to imply that campus leaders have attitudes on the issue of marihuana legalization which conform to the norms of a major midwestern university sampling. Drug education programs might include student leaders with local credibility and who may possess attitudes very similar to their peers. (Author/BY)
Butow, Phyllis; Ussher, Jane; Kirsten, Laura; Hobbs, Kim; Smith, Katharine; Wain, Gerald; Sandoval, Mirjana; Stenlake, Annie
Cancer support groups are an important source of support for cancer patients, yet little is known about the characteristics of, and barriers to, effective leadership, and the training needs of both professionally trained and untrained leaders. This study explored the views of 179 leaders of 184 cancer support groups in NSW, Australia, regarding these issues. Four hundred and sixteen members of 50 groups selected from the larger cohort completed questionnaires eliciting the importance of group processes, including leader qualities, and satisfaction with group leadership. Finally, members of nine groups participated in focus groups regarding effective group processes. The importance of the leader(s) was emphasized in all stages of the research. Fifty-nine percent of group leaders were currently experiencing a difficulty, primarily related to infrastructure or group process. Three characteristics of effective leaders were identified: educational qualities, facilitation skills, and personal qualities. There is clearly a need to develop and evaluate effective interventions to maintain leaders in these roles, if the proven benefits for cancer patients are to be protected.
Murphy, Susan Elaine; Johnson, Stefanie K
This chapter describes the role of two types of self-efficacy-leader self-efficacy and leader developmental efficacy-for enhancing leadership development. Practical implications for designing and developing leadership programs that take into account these two types of self-efficacy are discussed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.
Lü, Linyuan; Zhang, Yi-Cheng; Yeung, Chi Ho; Zhou, Tao
Finding pertinent information is not limited to search engines. Online communities can amplify the influence of a small number of power users for the benefit of all other users. Users' information foraging in depth and breadth can be greatly enhanced by choosing suitable leaders. For instance in delicious.com, users subscribe to leaders' collection which lead to a deeper and wider reach not achievable with search engines. To consolidate such collective search, it is essential to utilize the leadership topology and identify influential users. Google's PageRank, as a successful search algorithm in the World Wide Web, turns out to be less effective in networks of people. We thus devise an adaptive and parameter-free algorithm, the LeaderRank, to quantify user influence. We show that LeaderRank outperforms PageRank in terms of ranking effectiveness, as well as robustness against manipulations and noisy data. These results suggest that leaders who are aware of their clout may reinforce the development of social networks, and thus the power of collective search.
Full Text Available Finding pertinent information is not limited to search engines. Online communities can amplify the influence of a small number of power users for the benefit of all other users. Users' information foraging in depth and breadth can be greatly enhanced by choosing suitable leaders. For instance in delicious.com, users subscribe to leaders' collection which lead to a deeper and wider reach not achievable with search engines. To consolidate such collective search, it is essential to utilize the leadership topology and identify influential users. Google's PageRank, as a successful search algorithm in the World Wide Web, turns out to be less effective in networks of people. We thus devise an adaptive and parameter-free algorithm, the LeaderRank, to quantify user influence. We show that LeaderRank outperforms PageRank in terms of ranking effectiveness, as well as robustness against manipulations and noisy data. These results suggest that leaders who are aware of their clout may reinforce the development of social networks, and thus the power of collective search.
Fransen, Katrien; Vanbeselaere, Norbert; De Cuyper, Bert; Vande Broek, Gert; Boen, Filip
Effective leadership is perceived as a key factor for optimal team functioning. The present study aimed to identify the characteristics of athlete leaders with respect to four different leadership roles (i.e., task leader, motivational leader, social leader, and external leader), while recognizing the surrounding team context. Furthermore, we aimed to identify the most decisive characteristics for a player’s perceived leadership quality on each of these leadership roles. An on-line survey was...
Detsky, Allan S
Individuals who take on leadership positions in academic health science centers help facilitate the mission of those institutions. However, they are often chosen on the basis of success in the core activities in research, education and patient care rather than on the basis of demonstrated leadership and management skills. Indeed, most academic leaders in the past have "learned on the job." This commentary provides practical advice on how to be an effective leader on the basis of the author's experiences as a Division Head and Chief of Medicine. It covers six themes (vision, managerial style, knowledge, people skills, organizational orientation and personal development) and offers 21 specific suggestions, one for each year of the author's leadership. It is hoped that this experience-derived advice will help future leaders in academic medicine.
Alkhnbashi, Omer; Shah, Shiraz Ali; Garrett, Roger Antony
The CRISPR-Cas system is an adaptive immune system in many archaea and bacteria, which provides resistance against invading genetic elements. The first phase of CRISPR-Cas immunity is called adaptation, in which small DNA fragments are excised from genetic elements and are inserted into a CRISPR...... array generally adjacent to its so called leader sequence at one end of the array. It has been shown that transcription initiation and adaptation signals of the CRISPR array are located within the leader. However, apart from promoters, there is very little knowledge of sequence or structural motifs...... sequences by focusing on the consensus repeat of the adjacent CRISPR array and weak upstream conservation signals. We applied our tool to the analysis of a comprehensive genomic database and identified several characteristic properties of leader sequences specific to archaea and bacteria, ranging from...
Egekvist, Ulla Egidiussen; Lyngdorf, Niels Erik; Du, Xiangyun
This paper explores how internationalization ideas in primary and lower secondary schools can be developed through the acquisition of international experience abroad by leaders. The study was inspired by existing literature on internationalization and leadership, and theories of experiential...... through reflections of lived experiences, participation in meaningful activities, and active engagement in interaction with international and local colleagues. However, the realization of ideas depends on various elements, including leadership, teacher engagement, policy support, and financial support....... learning and reflection. Empirically, qualitative material was derived from a study of nineteen Danish school leaders participating in an eight-day delegation visit to China. This study shows that international experience for leaders can be used to develop ideas for internationalization at the school level...
F. J. Carstens
Full Text Available This study set out to investigate what role the quality of the relationship between business leaders and their employees played in the performance of their business. The study compared the business performance of forty-five area managers in one of the major listed banks in South Africa with their specific leader/employee relationship profiles. The research approach was quantitative and of a correlational nature. The results indicate that although certain elements within the relationship between business leaders and employees indeed have an influence on business performance this alone was not a sufficient condition. The study suggested that the dimensions relating to vision, trust, accountability and decision- making have the strongest influence on business performance. Further research in this area is suggested.
How leaders deal with a variety of feelings will deduce how successful they are in dealing with the daily challenges of being in a leadership position. Successful healthcare leaders are those who lead with heart and possess the soft skills needed to positively influence others. All humans have two minds: the rational one and the emotional one, which operate in tight harmony to assist in decision making. When passions surge, the emotional mind takes over and sometimes makes a decision before the rational mind has time to react. Some strategies to help leaders strengthen emotional intelligence include keeping an emotional journal, daily meditation, positive visualization, appreciative inquiry, thought before action, and empathetic listening. Four skills that will enhance an individual's emotional intelligence include self awareness, self management, social management, and relationship management.
If you want to know why so many organizations sink into chaos, look no further than their leaders' mouths. Over and over, leaders present grand, overarching-yet fuzzy-notions of where they think the company is going. They assume everyone shares their definitions of"vision;" "accountability," and "results". The result is often sloppy behavior and misalignment that can cost a company dearly. Effective communication is a leader's most critical tool for doing the essential job of leadership: inspiring the organization to take responsibility for creating a better future. Five topics wield extraordinary influence within a company: organizational structure and hierarchy, financial results, the leader's sense of his or her job, time management, and corporate culture. Properly defined, disseminated, and controlled, these topics give the leader opportunities for increased accountability and substantially better performance. For example, one CEO always keeps communications about hierarchy admirably brief and to the point. When he realized he needed to realign internal resources, he told the staff: "I'm changing the structure of resources so that we can execute more effectively." After unveiling a new organization chart, he said, "It's 10:45. You have until noon to be annoyed, should that be your reaction. At noon, pizza will be served. At one o'clock, we go to work in our new positions." The most effective leaders ask themselves, "What needs to happen today to get where we want to go? What vague belief or notion can I clarify or debunk?" A CEO who communicates precisely to ten direct reports, each of whom communicates with equal precision to 40 other employees, aligns the organization's commitment and energy with a well-understood vision of the firm's real goals and opportunities.
George, William W; Denham, Charles R; Burgess, L Hayley; Angood, Peter B; Keohane, Carol
The National Quality Forum (NQF) Safe Practices are a group of 34 evidence-based Safe Practices that should be universally used to reduce the risk of harm to patients. Four of these practices specifically address leadership. A recently published book, 7 Lessons for Leading in Crisis, offers practical advice on how to lead in crisis. An analysis of how concepts from the 7 lessons could be applied to the Safe Practices was presented nationally by webinar to assess the audience's reaction to the information. The objective of this article was to present the information and the audience's reaction to it. Recommendations for direct actions that health care leaders can take to accelerate adoption of NQF Safe Practices were presented to health care leaders, followed by an immediate direct survey that used Reichheld's "Net Promoter Score" to assess whether the concepts presented were considered applicable and valuable to the audience. In a separate presentation, the challenges and crises facing nursing leaders were addressed by nursing leaders. Six hundred seventy-four hospitals, with an average of 4.5 participants per hospital, participated in the webinar. A total of 272 safety leaders responded to a survey immediately after the webinar. A Net Promoter Score assessment revealed that 58% of those surveyed rated the value of the information at 10, and 91% scored the value of the webinar to be between 8 and 10, where 10 is considered a strong recommendation that those voting would recommend this program to others. The overwhelmingly high score indicated that the principles presented were important and valuable to this national audience of health care leadership. The 2010 environment of uncertainty and shrinking financial resources poses significant risk to patients and new challenges for leaders at all levels. A values-grounded focus on personal accountability for leading in crisis situations strongly resonates with those interested in or leading patient safety initiatives.
Hancock, Viktoria; Nielsen, E.M.; Klemm, Per
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) affect millions of people each year. Escherichia coli is the most common organism associated with asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) in humans. Persons affected by ABU may carry a particular E. coli strain for extended periods of time without any symptoms. In contrast...... to uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) that cause symptomatic UTI, very little is known about the mechanisms by which these strains colonize the urinary tract. Here, we have investigated the growth characteristics in human urine as well as adhesin repertoire of nine ABU strains; the ability of ABU strains to compete...
Barfod, Jakob Rømer; Bakkegaard, Bjarne
The Danish Army has more than ten years of experience working with developing emotional intelligence in the Royal Danish Army Officers’ Academy (RDAOA), and the Academy has developed military leaders who have benefitted from emotional intelligence training. Today many of the military leaders...... are better at understanding themselves as well as their ability to build relationships whilst under great pressure e.g. during combat operations. On the basis of field experience, qualitative research and quantitative data the effects of working with emotional intelligence in a structured way is presented...
Shapiro, Debra L; Boss, Alan D; Salas, Silvia; Tangirala, Subrahmaniam; Von Glinow, Mary Ann
Using Hollander's (1958) idiosyncrasy credit theory of leadership as the theoretical backdrop, we examined when and why organizational leaders escape punitive evaluation for their organizational transgressions. In a sample of 162 full-time employees, we found that leaders who were perceived to be more able and inspirationally motivating were less punitively evaluated by employees for leader transgressions. These effects were mediated by the leaders' LMX (leader-member exchange) with their employees. Moreover, the tendency of leaders with higher LMX to escape punitive evaluations for their transgressions was stronger when those leaders were more valued within the organization. Finally, employees who punitively evaluated their leaders were more likely to have turnover intentions and to psychologically withdraw from their organization. Theoretical and practical implications associated with relatively understudied leader-transgression dynamics are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.
Jørgensen, Steffen L; Kudirkiene, Egle; Li, Lili
Escherichia coli causing infection outside the gastrointestinal system are referred to as extra-intestinal pathogenic E. coli. Avian pathogenic E. coli is a subgroup of extra-intestinal pathogenic E. coli and infections due to avian pathogenic E. coli have major impact on poultry production econo...
Godrèche, C; Grandclaude, H; Luck, J M
We investigate various aspects of the statistics of leaders in growing network models defined by stochastic attachment rules. The leader is the node with highest degree at a given time (or the node which reached that degree first if there are co-leaders). This comprehensive study includes the full distribution of the degree of the leader, its identity, the number of co-leaders, as well as several observables characterizing the whole history of lead changes: number of lead changes, number of distinct leaders, lead persistence probability. We successively consider the following network models: uniform attachment, linear attachment (the Barabási–Albert model), and generalized preferential attachment with initial attractiveness
Barling, Julian; Cloutier, Anika
While employees' mental health is the focus of considerable attention from researchers, the public, and policymakers, leaders' mental health has almost escaped attention. We start by considering several reasons for this, followed by discussions of the effects of leaders' mental health on their own leadership behaviors, the emotional toll of high-quality leadership, and interventions to enhance leaders' mental health. We offer 8 possible directions for future research on leaders' mental health. Finally, we discuss methodological obstacles encountered when investigating leaders' mental health, and policy dilemmas raised by leaders' mental health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Eddy, Pamela L.
Community college leaders serve as linchpins for framing meaning on campus. The current pressures on institutions (given declining financial resources, demands for accountability, changing faculty ranks, and societal need for new knowledge) require presidents to juggle multiple priorities while presenting a cohesive message to campus constituents.…
Koning, J.B.M.; Waistell, J.
This study investigates how business leaders dynamically narrate their aspirational ethical leadership identities. In doing so, it furthers understanding of ethical leadership as a process situated in time and place. The analysis focuses on the discursive strategies used to narrate identity and
Shaked, Haim; Schechter, Chen
Systems thinking is a holistic approach that puts the study of wholes before that of parts. This study explores systems thinking among school middle leaders--teachers who have management responsibility for a team of teachers or for an aspect of the school's work. Interviews were held with 93 school coordinators, among them year heads, heads of…
Serafin, Ana Gil
This paper discusses issues related to the recruitment of Hispanic-American educational leaders, focusing on the El Centro de Recursos Educativos outreach center at Northeastern Illinois University in Chicago, which began operation in Fall 1997. It examines the characteristics of successful programs for Hispanic recruitment and retention and the…
Williamson, Kevin D.
On January 20, 2009, Dr. Manmohan Singh, the prime minister of India, became the leader of the free world. The free world's attention was focused elsewhere: Senator Barack Obama, who on that day became President Barack Obama, quietly abdicated the role now taken up by Dr. Singh, having run an election campaign premised upon the ever-present but…
"Coming from complexity science, the term emergence describes the dynamic and unpredictable ways through which change unfolds in organizations," writes Shane Safir in this article about how teacher leaders can transform a school's climate and culture. Using Berkeley High School in California as an example, Safir explains how successful…
Dunlap, Erik Scott
This study investigated the perceptions of workplace safety held by industry leaders who were near completion of a Master of Business Administration (MBA) degree. This was a qualitative study that utilized interpretivism as the theoretical framework. The study sought to answer four research questions. (1) How do participants conceptualize…
Alfred, Richard L.
Strategic thinking is an organized, analytical process by which college leaders can assess: (1) existing and potential competitors; (2) sources of competitive advantage; and (3) college capabilities and competitive position. Three outcomes of strategic thinking are: (1) clear institutional strategy and direction; (2) improved institutional…
The purpose of this article is to be a tool for community college leaders, as well as campus members, to positively and effectively utilize framing on their campuses. The fictional case of Maggie Pascal at Midwestern Community College illustrates the process of framing the change of a new partnership with Wind Energy Corporation to internal…
Jacobs, Jacqueline E.; O'Gorman, Kevin L.
With this book, principals, principals-in-training, and other school leaders get practical, easy-to-implement strategies for professional growth, strengthening relationships with faculty and staff, and making the necessary changes to improve K-12 learning environments. Grounded in specific, real-world examples and personal experiences, "The…
The purpose of this study was to examine the leadership practices perceived by nursing education leaders as measured by the Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI). The framework used was a contemporary transformational leadership model described in "The Leadership Challenge" ("4th ed.") by Dr. James Kouzes and Dr. Barry Posner,…
Lindstrom, Phyllis H.; Speck, Marsha
Individual teachers have the greatest effect on student performance. Principals, as professional development leaders, are in the best position to provide teachers with the professional development strategies they need to improve skills and raise student achievement. This book guides readers through a step-by-step process to formulate, implement,…
Kitchen, Margaret; Gray, Susan; Jeurissen, Maree
This article draws on data from three multicultural New Zealand primary schools to reconceptualize principals' roles as leaders for learning. In doing so, the writers build on Sinnema and Robinson's (2012) article on goal setting in principal evaluation. Sinnema and Robinson found that even principals hand-picked for their experience fell short on…
Roberts, Christine K.
Educational researchers have examined both observed and perceived influences of the job satisfaction levels of secondary teachers and post-secondary department chairs. However, researchers have largely ignored a third group of educators: secondary Content Area Leaders (CALs). The overall satisfaction levels and the potentially influencing factors…
In contrast to transformational leadership where the leader works with employees to identify the needed change, creating a vision to guide the change through inspiration, and executing the change in tandem with committed members of the group, transactional leadership styles focus on the use of rewards and punishments ...
Emans, B.J.M.; Munduate, L; Klaver, E; Van de Vliert, E.
In contrast to non-forcing influence styles used by leaders, their forcing influence styles are commonly found to be ineffective, evoking sheer resistance, rather than compliance. As a corollary of conglomerate conflict behavior theory, we state that forcing, if combined with non-forcing, may
Mangin, Melinda M.; Stoelinga, Sara Ray
In response to increased performance expectations, schools and districts are turning to nonsupervisory, school-based, instructional teacher leader roles to help improve teachers' instruction and enhance student learning. Increased opportunities to learn about teacher leadership may facilitate the implementation and institutionalization of…
Rohm, Fredric W., Jr.
Servant leadership as envisioned by Robert Greenleaf (1970) is a philosophy whereby leaders put the interests and growth of the follower ahead of themselves. Though the concept has been around since antiquity, scholars and practitioners in organizations began to embrace and expand the idea since the early 1990s. There are currently 20 models of…
Thompson, R E
Authority, influence, and power are not synonyms. In working with elected medical staff leaders, a physician executive who chooses to exert authority may soon find him- or herself relatively powerless. But one who chooses to downplay authority, to influence through persuasion, and to coach leaders to lead effectively soon generates support for his or her ideas. The need to coax, cajole, explain, persuade, and "seek input" frustrates many leaders in all kinds of organizations. It would be much easier just to order people about. It's so tempting to think: "Who needs 'em? I'm the 'chief physician.' I know what needs to be done. Let's weigh anchor, take her out, and do what it takes to sail those rough, uncharted seas." If you really enjoy sailing a large ship in rough seas without a crew, go right ahead. Or if you think it makes sense to run an organization with only an executive staff and no knowledgeable middle managers, by all means let clinician leaders know that, now that you're aboard, they're just window-dressing. If you can make this approach work, well and good. Your life will be much less complicated, each day will have far fewer frustrations, and progress toward established goals will be much faster. However, given the reality of traditionally thinking physicians, it would be best to keep an up-dated resume in the locked lower left-hand drawer of your desk.
Keira Sewell has just finished her second year as a Challenge Leader for the Faraday Challenge, a STEM-based scheme run by the Institution of Engineering and Technology. Aimed at 12-13 year-old students, its purpose is to engage students in future careers in engineering. Each year, a new challenge is held in over sixty schools and universities…
The traditional view of management, back in 1977 when Abraham Zaleznik wrote this article, centered on organizational structure and processes. Managerial development at the time focused exclusively on building competence, control, and the appropriate balance of power. That view, Zaleznik argued, omitted the essential leadership elements of inspiration, vision, and human passion which drive corporate success. The difference between managers and leaders, he wrote, lies in the conceptions they hold, deep in their psyches, of chaos and order. Managers embrace process, seek stability and control, and instinctively try to resolve problems quickly--sometimes before they fully understand a problems significance. Leaders, in contrast, tolerate chaos and lack of structure and are willing to delay closure to understand the issues more fully. In this way, Zaleznik argued, business leaders have much more in common with artists, scientists, and other creative thinkers than they do with managers. Organizations need both managers and leaders to succeed, but developing both requires a reduced focus on logic and strategic exercises in favor of an environment where creativity and imagination are permitted to flourish.
Adami, G R; Marlor, C W; Barrett, N L; Carmichael, G G
Polyomavirus late mRNA molecules contain multiple, tandem copies of a noncoding 57-base "late leader" exon at their 5' ends. This exon is encoded only once in the genome. Leader multiplicity arises from leader-leader splicing in giant primary transcripts, which are the result of multiple circuits of the viral genome by RNA polymerase II. We have been interested in learning more about the role of the leader exon in late viral gene expression. We recently showed that an abbreviated-leader mutan...
Meyer, Linda Platt
OBJECTIVE: To present Situational Leadership as a model that can be implemented by clinical instructors during clinical education. Effective leadership occurs when the leadership style is matched with the observed followers' characteristics. Effective leaders anticipate and assess change and adapt quickly and grow with the change, all while leading followers to do the same. As athletic training students' levels of readiness change, clinical instructors also need to transform their leadership styles and strategies to match the students' ever-changing observed needs in different situations. DATA SOURCES: CINAHL (1982-2002), MEDLINE (1990-2001), SPORT Discus (1949-2002), ERIC (1966-2002), and Internet Web sites were searched. Search terms included leadership, situational leadership, clinical instructors and leadership, teachers as leaders, and clinical education. DATA SYNTHESIS: Situational Leadership is presented as a leadership model to be used by clinical instructors while teaching and supervising athletic training students in the clinical setting. This model can be implemented to improve the clinical-education process. Situational leaders, eg, clinical instructors, must have the flexibility and range of skills to vary their leadership styles to match the challenges that occur while teaching athletic training students. CONCLUSIONS/RECOMMENDATIONS: This leadership style causes the leader to carry a substantial responsibility to lead while giving power away. Communication is one of the most important leadership skills to develop to become an effective leader. It is imperative for the future of the profession that certified athletic trainers continue to develop effective leadership skills to address the changing times in education and expectations of the athletic training profession.
Kutz, Mary N. Hill
Scope and method of study. The purpose of the study was to examine the personal traits, skills, practices, behaviors, background, academic, and career success patterns of selected aviation leaders in Oklahoma. A purposive sample of 18 leaders who had achieved a top-ranked position of aviation leadership in an organization or a position of influence in the community was selected for interview. The leaders chosen for interview came from a variety of aviation organizations including government, academia, military, corporate aviation, and air carrier leadership as well as community leadership (specifically those aviation personnel who were engaged in a political or civic leadership role). Findings and conclusions. This study identified no common career choices, educational, family, or other background factors exclusively responsible for leadership success of all of the participants. Some of the more significant findings were that a high percentage of the leaders held undergraduate and advanced degrees; however, success had been achieved by some who had little or no college education. Aviation technical experience was not a prerequisite for aviation leadership success in that a significant number of the participants held no airman rating and some had entered positions of aviation leadership from non-aviation related careers. All had received some positive learning experience from their family background even those backgrounds which were less than desirable. All of the participants had been involved in volunteer civic or humanitarian leadership roles, and all had received numerous honors. The most frequently identified value expressed by the leaders was honesty; the predominant management style was participative with a strong backup style for directing, the most important skills were communication and listening skills, and the most frequently mentioned characteristics of success were honesty, credibility, vision, high standards, love for aviation and fiscal
Greenstein, Fred I.
Describes 10- to 14-year old children's responses to open-ended questions about political leaders in Britain, France, and United States in light of political socialization literature. For journal availability see SO 504 327. (ND)
Rutten, G.E.; Tack, C.J.J.; Pieber, T.R.; Comlekci, A.; Orsted, D.D.; Baeres, F.M.; Marso, S.P.; Buse, J.B.
AIMS: To determine whether US and European participants in the Liraglutide Effect and Action in Diabetes: Evaluation of cardiovascular outcome Results (LEADER) trial differ regarding risk factors for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. METHODS: Baseline data, stratified for prior cardiovascular
Rutten, Guy E H M; Tack, Cees J.; Pieber, Thomas R.; Comlekci, Abdurrahman; Ørsted, David Dynnes; Baeres, Florian M M; Marso, Steven P.; Buse, John B.
Aims: To determine whether US and European participants in the Liraglutide Effect and Action in Diabetes: Evaluation of cardiovascular outcome Results (LEADER) trial differ regarding risk factors for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Methods: Baseline data, stratified for prior cardiovascular
van der Kam, Niels A.; Janssen, Onne; van der Vegt, Geert; Stoker, Janka I.
Although studies have shown that inflated self-perceptions of transformational leadership behavior negatively affect leader performance, insight into the underlying processes explaining this relationship is lacking. The current study addresses this gap by identifying vertical conflict between
emotional intelligence , as defined by Daniel Goleman , is how leaders handle themselves and their relationships. More important than what a leader does...to be that leadership is a combination of art and science; some elements are trainable and controllable and some not. Daniel Goleman , well known for...introducing the groundbreaking term emotional intelligence to the study of leadership, presents six styles of leadership in “Leadership That Gets
Reyes, Daniel; Vilchez, Samuel; Paniagua, Margarita; Colque-Navarro, Patricia; Weintraub, Andrej; Möllby, Roland; Kühn, Inger
We analyzed the prevalence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) markers and common phenotypes in 2,164 E. coli isolates from 282 DEC-positive samples. Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) were very diverse and were not correlated with diarrhea. Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) estA and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) belonged to a few phenotypes and were significantly correlated with diarrhea.
Kivimets, Ardi, 1947-
Jõgevamaa Koostöökoja juhatus ja liikmed ning külade esindajad arutasid LEADER-meetme rakendamist maakonnas ning tegevuspiirkonna arengustrateegia koostamist. Oma kogemusi jagasid Soome Turu piirkonna Varsinais-Suomen LEADER-tegevusgrupi esindajad
... and leadership doctrine, Army leaders do not emphasize its value, and the Army provides neither the tools nor the support to enable its leaders to make self-development an effective component of lifelong learning...
The importance of opinion leaders in agricultural production among male and ... farmers do not have adequate access to extension services due to, amongst others, the ... In view of these problems, the role of opinion leaders is important and ...
Laustsen, Lasse; Petersen, Michael Bang
Research demonstrates that the physical traits of leaders and political candidates influence election outcomes and that subjects favor functionally different physical traits in leaders when their social groups face problems related to war and peace, respectively. Previous research has interpreted...
Montgomery III, William H
Being self aware and using interpersonal skills will be significant to leader success given the 2006 release of the Army's new mandate to create, develop, and nurture a different kind of Army leader...
.... up to a maximum of seven years of service. It analyzes the present leader development process of Pakistan Army to see its effectiveness to train leaders at the tactical level to perform effectively in future...
Being a leader in health care today requires the ability to implement a visionary style of leadership. The visionary leader has the challenge of formulating and articulating a corporate vision that employees can buy into and work toward.
Vidyarthi, Prajya R; Erdogan, Berrin; Anand, Smriti; Liden, Robert C; Chaudhry, Anjali
In this study, we develop and test a model that extends leader-member exchange (LMX) theory to a dual leadership context. Drawing upon relative deprivation theory, we assert that when employees work for 2 leaders, each relationship exists within the context of the other relationship. Thus, the level of alignment or misalignment between the 2 relationships has implications for employees' job satisfaction and voluntary turnover. Employing polynomial regression on time-lagged data gathered from 159 information technology consultants nested in 26 client projects, we found that employee outcomes are affected by the quality of the relationship with both agency and client leaders, such that the degree of alignment between the 2 LMXs explained variance in outcomes beyond that explained by both LMXs. Results also revealed that a lack of alignment in the 2 LMXs led to asymmetric effects on outcomes, such that the relationship with agency leader mattered more than the relationship with one's client leader. Finally, frequency of communication with the agency leader determined the degree to which agency LMX affected job satisfaction in the low client LMX condition. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Kirsten, Laura; Butow, Phyllis; Price, Melanie; Hobbs, Kim; Sunquist, Kendra
Cancer support groups are an important source of support for cancer patients, yet little is known about the challenges and training needs of both professionally trained and untrained leaders. The aim of this study was to discover the difficulties experienced and training desired by cancer support group leaders. Twenty-seven leaders of 34 cancer support groups participated in focus groups or individual interviews. Groups were purposively selected as representative of 173 support groups identified in New South Wales which were for adults with cancer and/or their adult carers and were not therapeutic or education-only groups. Difficulties identified included dealing with people's different communication styles and needs; dealing with recurrence, metastases and death; practical issues, including resources, setting the programme and funding security; maintaining personal balance and preventing burn out; establishing group credibility; dealing with group cycles; and leading groups in rural areas. Leaders also identified benefits and rewards from group leadership such as contributing to others' well-being, self-development and insight into others' lives. Non-professionally trained leaders experienced more difficulties, particularly in dealing with group process and practical issues. Difficulties identified were related both to working with a cancer population specifically and to working with groups in general. While some issues were common to both health professionals and non-health professionals, non-health professionals reported greater supportive needs. Clear guidelines, targeted training and development of better methods of support to reduce the stress and burn out experienced by group leaders are needed.
Laurent, Timothy G; Bradney, Debbie A
Athletic trainers are in positions of leadership. To determine self-reported leadership practices of head athletic trainers (HATCs) and program directors (PDs). Cross-sectional study. Respondents' academic institutions. A total of 238 athletic training leaders completed the Leadership Practices Inventory. Of these, 50.4% (n = 120) were HATCs and 49.6% (n = 118) were PDs; 69.3% (n = 165) were men and 30.7% (n = 73) were women; almost all respondents (97.1%, n = 231) were white. Respondents typically reported having 11 to 15 years of experience as an athletic trainer (n = 57, 23.9%) and being between the ages of 30 and 39 years (n = 109, 45.8%). Categories of leadership behaviors (ie, Model, Inspire, Challenge, Encourage, and Enable) were scored from 1 (almost never) to 10 (almost always). Item scores were summed to compute mean category scores. We analyzed demographic information; used t ratios to compare the data from athletic training leaders (PDs and HATCs) with normative data; compared sex, age, position, ethnicity, and years of experience with leadership practices; and computed mean scores. Athletic training leaders reported using leadership behaviors similar to those of other leaders. The PDs reported using inspiring, challenging, enabling, and encouraging leadership behaviors more often than did the HATCs. No differences were found by ethnicity, age, years of experience, or leadership practices. Athletic training leaders are transformational leaders. Athletic training education program accreditation requirements likely account for the difference in leadership practices between PDs and HATCs.
Alvarez, Francisco; André, Francisco J.
We analise emission permit auctions under leader-follower competition when the leader bids strategically and the follower acts as price-taker both at the auction and the secondary market. We obtain linear equilibrium bidding strategies for both firms and a unique equilibrium of the auction, which is optimal ex-post for the leader. Under specific distributional assumptions we conclude that the auction always awards less permits to the leader than the cost-effective amount. Our central result i...
McIntosh, Keith W.
Many people think there is a quick road to leadership success. Those who want to become IT leaders--that is, "aspiring leaders"--often think: "If I just do my job well, I will rise to a leadership position." Those who are already IT leaders--that is, "residing leaders"--often think: "If I just do my job well, I will leave a lasting legacy." Doing…
Drury, Brett M.; Almeida, José João
Direct quotations from business leaders can communicate to the wider public the latent state of their organization as well as the beliefs of the organization's leaders. Candid quotes from business leaders can have dramatic effects upon the share price of their organization. For example, Gerald Ratner in 1991 stated that his company's products were crap and consequently his company (Ratners) lost in excess of 500 million pounds in market value. Information in quotes from business leaders can b...
Zhao, Helen H; Seibert, Scott E; Taylor, M Susan; Lee, Cynthia; Lam, Wing
Leader succession often occurs during organizational change processes, but the implications of leader succession, in terms of reactions to the change, rarely have been investigated. Employee attitudes and behaviors during organizational change may be influenced jointly by a former leader who recently has transitioned out of the team and the new leader who recently has transitioned into it. We predict an interaction between former and new leaders' transformational leadership on employees' behavioral resistance to and support for change. On the basis of contrast effect theory, a highly transformational former leader constrains the potential effectiveness of the new leader, but a former leader low in transformational leadership enhances this potential effectiveness. We also propose conditional indirect effects transmitted through commitment to the changing organization. Our research was conducted in a large Chinese hospitality organization that was implementing radical organizational change, during which virtually all aspects of processes and products are changed. We collected a 2-wave multisource data from employees who had recently experienced a leader succession and their newly assigned leaders. On the basis of a final sample of 203 employees from 22 teams, we found empirical support for the proposed interaction effects. The conditional indirect effects were also consistent with our expectations, but the effect on behavioral resistance to change was stronger than the effect on behavioral support for change. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
transforms people because it aids leaders in understanding individual emotions , values, and ethics, establishing standards, and achieving long-term goals...According to Bass and Riggio,41 leaders use inspirational motivation to build emotional commitment to a mission or goal. The transformational leader...9 Inspirational Motivation
Möller, L.; Gentile, B.; Parise, F.; Grammatico, S.; Lygeros, J.
We consider a mean field game among a large population of noncooperative agents divided into two categories: leaders and followers. Each agent is subject to heterogeneous convex constraints and minimizes a quadratic cost function; the cost of each leader is affected by the leaders' aggregate
... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Employment § 404... leader's or the farm operator's), the crew leader is deemed to be the employer of the workers and is self... determine the crew leader's status. Work Excluded From Employment ...
Transforming Organizations: Growing Leaders for Tomorrow. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Kolb , D. (1984). Experiential learning : Experiences...development tools, job aides, or other on-the-job leader development interventions. Implicitly, the handbook employs adult learning theory to engage...most effective and efficient methods of leader development for a unit environment. Principles of adult learning theory were then applied to
Schwartz, Arthur J
This chapter describes the behaviors of the ethical leader and explores the reasons why leaders do not always act ethically. The chapter also offers five recommendations to help educators integrate the practices of ethical leadership into their work with student leaders. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.
Romanuck Murphy, Cammy
This three article dissertation explores educational leaders' perceptions, roles, and responsibilities associated with inclusive special education. Educational leaders include district leaders involved in the special education decision-making process, principals, and assistant principals. Article one provides a detailed literature review outlining…
Hulsbos, Frank Arnoud; Evers, Arnoud Theodoor; Kessels, Joseph Willem Marie
In recent years policy makers' interest in the professional development of school leaders has grown considerably. Although we know some aspect of formal educational programs for school leaders, little is known about school leaders' incidental and non-formal learning in the workplace. This study aims to grasp what workplace learning activities…
satisfaction and performance in relatively relaxed, nonstressful work environments, while formalized leader structure was more conducive to effective...leader behavior and subordinate satisfaction and performance : A test of some situational moderators. Journal ofApplied Psychology, 1976, 61, 634-641...Stogdill, 1974; Vroom , 1976). Studies have focused on such varying issues as relationships between quality of military life and perceived leader attributes
Dormer, Jan Edwards
School leaders have the unique opportunity and responsibility to play a crucial role in creating a culture of high expectations and an environment of support so that ELLs can succeed and continue to enrich the fabric of our country. "What School Leaders Need to Know About English Learners" offers school leaders the foundation, the ideas,…
Collins, Belva C.; Leahy, Maria Marsella; Ault, Melinda Jones
Special education teachers have a unique set of skills and opportunities to become leaders in the field of education. Some rural special education teachers, however, may not see themselves as potential leaders or believe they have opportunities to be leaders. This article provides guidelines for rural special education teachers to consider in…
de Hoogh, A.H.B.; den Hartog, D.N.; Nevicka, B.
Researchers have obtained inconsistent results on the relationship between leader narcissism and leader effectiveness evaluations. Here we draw on social role theory and recent findings on prescriptive gender stereotypes to propose that leader's and follower's gender influence the degree to which
Resilience is an essential component of effective nursing leadership. It is defined as the ability to survive and thrive in the face of adversity. Resilience can be developed and internalized as a measure to improve retention and reduce burnout. Nurse leaders at all levels should develop these competencies to survive and thrive in an increasingly complex health care environment. Building positive relationships, maintaining positivity, developing emotional insight, creating work-life balance, and reflecting on successes and challenges are effective strategies for resilience building. Nurse leaders have a professional obligation to develop resilience in themselves, the teams they supervise, and the organization as a whole. Additional benefits include reduced turnover, reduced cost, and improved quality outcomes through organizational mindfulness.
Roberto Saban takes over as new Engineering Department leader on 1 July 2010, at a time when the LHC is entering a stable operation phase. Roberto Saban presents his plans and vision. Roberto Saban, new leader of the EN Department. The CERN Engineering (EN) Department's main areas of activity are technical coordination, the design and operation with beam of accelerator components and experimental facilities, the associated infrastructure systems, such as electrical distribution, cooling, ventilation and transport, and finally the design and construction of mechanical elements for the facilities. “I do not plan to change the internal structure of the Department because it works well but, with the LHC entering a phase of stable functioning, the Department will shift its focus to operation and maintenance. In this new situation, our role is not limited to supporting LHC operation but, on the contrary, we fully take part in it thanks to the synergy with the BE and TE Departments inside th...
Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Yang, Yan-Hong; Wang, Gang-Jin; Zhou, Wei-Xing
Mutually interacting components form complex systems and these components usually have long-range cross-correlated outputs. Using wavelet leaders, we propose a method for characterizing the joint multifractal nature of these long-range cross correlations; we call this method joint multifractal analysis based on wavelet leaders (MF-X-WL). We test the validity of the MF-X-WL method by performing extensive numerical experiments on dual binomial measures with multifractal cross correlations and bivariate fractional Brownian motions (bFBMs) with monofractal cross correlations. Both experiments indicate that MF-X-WL is capable of detecting cross correlations in synthetic data with acceptable estimating errors. We also apply the MF-X-WL method to pairs of series from financial markets (returns and volatilities) and online worlds (online numbers of different genders and different societies) and determine intriguing joint multifractal behavior.
Bazarov, Tahir Y.
Full Text Available This article describes psychological challenges that executive leaders of companies face nowadays. The study of the social context is based on changes that took place with the development of information technologies. The analysis touches upon such phenomena as virtualization, involvement in the external sociocommunicative environment, and the emergence of multiple identity. It is suggested that in order to adapt to changing conditions one should follow the path of self-development—in particular, to develop attention, imagination, and willpower. In connection with the traits generally attributed to executive leaders, the article emphasizes self-adjustment; common sense as an integral part of intuition, emotions, and imagination; and the readiness to make choices in fifty-fifty situations.
Full Text Available I will try in this article to go over some lessons that can and should we learn from leaders in different fields (sales, politics, sports. Some of these lessons can be translated even in a lifestyle, it can help us all to change our perception of things that we were coming forward as we wanted and we can understand how little effort it takes to change this situation. Some of these leaders didn’t had learned how to be successful from school or books but they have qualities like drive, passion, commitment. They have had the courage to go away from what they did before, and gone to something that didn’t exist before. They have built bridges to be crossed by them and their followers.
Hicks, Joel M
Communication is perhaps one of the greatest challenges facing managers and leaders today. Clearly articulating ideas and expectations to employees is vital to the productivity and the longevity of an organization. Furthermore, the style in which the communication is delivered has an influence on the satisfaction levels of employees. Research has discovered that there are many different styles in which a leader may communicate with employees. Research has provided several methods that aid in determining which style is the most appropriate for any given circumstance. Research has demonstrated how appropriate and effective communication is used to promote organizational health. Furthermore, research has demonstrated how inappropriate communication may decrease employee satisfaction. Finally, research has provided methods to aid in improving communication styles and delivery.
UNITS Successful operational units do not arise without tough, realistic, and challenging training. Field Manual (FM) 7-0, Training Units and D...operations. The manual provides junior leaders with guidance on how to conduct training and training management. Of particular importance is the definition...1 Relation htp between ADDIE and the Anny Training Management Model. The Army Training Management Model and ADDIE process appear in TRADOC PAM 350
Amabile, Teresa M; Khaire, Mukti
In today's innovation-driven economy, understanding how to generate great ideas has become an urgent managerial priority. Suddenly, the spotlight has turned on the academics who've studied creativity for decades. How relevant is their research to the practical challenges leaders face? To connect theory and practice, Harvard Business School professors Amabile and Khaire convened a two-day colloquium of leading creativity scholars and executives from companies such as Google, IDEO, Novartis, Intuit, and E Ink. In this article, the authors present highlights of the research presented and the discussion of its implications. At the event, a new leadership agenda began to take shape, one rooted in the awareness that you can't manage creativity--you can only manage for creativity. A number of themes emerged: The leader's job is not to be the source of ideas but to encourage and champion ideas. Leaders must tap the imagination of employees at all ranks and ask inspiring questions. They also need to help their organizations incorporate diverse perspectives, which spur creative insights, and facilitate creative collaboration by, for instance, harnessing new technologies. The participants shared tactics for enabling discoveries, as well as thoughts on how to bring process to bear on creativity without straitjacketing it. They pointed out that process management isn't appropriate in all stages of creative work; leaders should apply it thoughtfully and manage the handoff from idea generators to commercializers deftly. The discussion also examined the need to clear paths through bureaucracy, weed out weak ideas, and maximize the organization's learning from failure. Though points of view varied, the theories and frameworks explored advance the understanding of creativity in business and offer executives a playbook for increasing innovation.
Egekvist, Ulla Egidiussen; Lyngdorf, Niels Erik; Du, Xiangyun
through reflections of lived experiences, participation in meaningful activities, and active engagement in interaction with international and local colleagues. However, the realization of ideas depends on various elements, including leadership, teacher engagement, policy support, and financial support.......This paper explores how internationalization ideas in primary and lower secondary schools can be developed through the acquisition of international experience abroad by leaders. The study was inspired by existing literature on internationalization and leadership, and theories of experiential...
Ideology is one of the foundations of authoritative regimes and forms the image of their leaders. Using Uzbekistan as an example, A. March comes to the conclusion that the ideological system imposed by the state has a tangible impact on society, even one that has already lived at one time under the communist ideology. Based on an analysis of several special features of the development of the post-Communist countries (and several others), the conclusion is drawn that during a political regime ...
LIFE model Element Investigative Question Strategy How does (development program) posture (or fail to posture ) leaders to meet organizational...Management How does (development program) adequately posture (or fail to posture ) officer talent capable of filling talent gaps within the...LIFE model in figure 1 stems from conceptualizing and integrat- ing elements of leadership development in the work of Stephen Co- hen , Lisa Gabel
Lucian Ciprian CRIȘAN
Full Text Available From a managerial point of view, all the media means of professional communication, socialization and interaction emphasize entrepreneurial success stories. One of the modern concerns of all current researchers is to underline the place and role of leaders in the institutional framework. The leadership is perceived as a support pillar in maintaining any business. The analysis of this phenomenon is extremely extensive, starting with the culture of a company, the purpose of its existence and comprises aspects concerning the employees motivation and the degree of identifying themselves with the organizational objective. A constant concern in analyzing this phenomenon is retaining the employees and encouraging them to bring added value to the organization where they perform their daily activities. Nevertheless, the Romanian banking system in Timişoara seems to display a strong resistance towards change. The leadership of this industry is comprised of people with great managerial abilities. The transactional method, manifested by the leader in the Romanian private banking system in Timişoara, seems to be the main phenomenon at the basis of their daily activity. The manager – leader hypothesis is slowly taking shape. Due to the resistance to change, generated by the educational model, from a managerial point of view, the balance is strongly tilting towards the managerial traits at the expense of the leadership ones. We are still at the stage where the tolerance towards liberty, uncertainty, are some of the traits of the leader in the Romanian private banking system in Timişoara, which are poorly identified at the management level of this very important segment of activity.
Qu, Rujie; Janssen, Onne; Shi, Kan
We examined leader and follower expectations for creativity as moderators in the relationship between leader-member exchange (LMX) and follower creativity. The results of a survey among 193 leader-follower dyads from two high-tech companies in mainland China show that LMX positively relates to
Ikeda, Hiroshi; Furukawa, Hisataka
The purpose of this study was to examine the sources of confidence that organization leaders had. As potential sources of the confidence, we focused on fulfillment of expectations made by self and others, reflection on good as well as bad job experiences, and awareness of job experiences in terms of commonality, differentiation, and multiple viewpoints. A questionnaire was administered to 170 managers of Japanese companies. Results were as follows: First, confidence in leaders was more strongly related to fulfillment of expectations made by self and others than reflection on and awareness of job experiences. Second, the confidence was weakly related to internal processing of job experiences, in the form of commonality awareness and reflection on good job experiences. And finally, years of managerial experiences had almost no relation to the confidence. These findings suggested that confidence in leaders was directly acquired from fulfillment of expectations made by self and others, rather than indirectly through internal processing of job experiences. Implications of the findings for leadership training were also discussed.
Michiel Frederick Coetzer
Full Text Available Servant leadership has been researched internationally and various types of favourable individual, team, and organisational outcomes have been linked to the construct. Different servant leadership measures have been validated to date and a clear distinction has been made between the theory of servant leadership and other leadership theories. However, it seems that research on the implementation of servant leadership within an organisation is still in need. The main functions of a servant leader are not yet conceptualised in the literature to help researchers or practitioners to implement servant leadership successfully within organisations. After conducting a systematic literature review, the main functions of a servant leader were identified. These functions were clustered into strategic servant leadership and operational servant leadership and supported by servant leadership characteristics and competencies as defined by current literature. The results of this study might help practitioners to develop servant leaders more effectively and assist organisations to cultivate a servant leadership culture within companies. Limitations and future research needs are discussed.
Full Text Available A crisis in management has led to the appearance of Authentic leadership. The aim of this work is to determine the characteristics of Authentic leadership in educational institutions and to respond to the question as to whether authentic leaders are satisfied with their job. The third aim is to determine differences among the researched regions. The sample included 227 randomly selected directors from primary and secondary schools in Serbia, Montenegro and the Republika Srpska. The research used an ALQ questionnaire for the estimation of leadership behaviour. Descriptions for the results prediction and multiple linear regressions were used. A multivariance analysis of variance was used to compare the groups. The research results showed that every fourth director is an authentic leader. Authentic leadership has a significant influence on job satisfaction through two aspects: internalised perspective and balanced processing. There are no differences in Authentic leadership in the researched areas. The results could be useful for educational institutions in countries where the research was conducted. Further research could be carried out in other countries while cultural differences should be taken into account. One limiting factor consists of the fact that the analysed data are obtained only from school directors. Leaders of educational institutions should provide management through the development of their own authenticity and the authenticity of their followers. The characteristics of Authentic leadership were reviewed and tested practically in the West-Balkan environment.
Golubev, A.I.; Zolotovskil, V.I.; Ivanovskil, A.V.
A hypothetical scheme for the development of the step leader of streak lightning is discussed. The mathematical problem of modeling the propagation of the leader in this scheme is stated. The main parameters of the leader are estimated: the length and propagation velocity of the step, the average propagation velocity, etc. This is compared with data from observations in nature. The propagation of the leader is simulated numerically. Results of the calculation are presented for two 'flashes' of the step leader. 25 refs., 6 figs
Snapka, R.M.; Fuselier, C.O.
Escherichia coli photoreactivating enzyme (PRE) has been purified in large amounts from an E.coli strain lysogenic for a defective lambda bacteriophage carrying the phr gene. The resulting enzyme had a pH optimum of 7.2 and an ionic strength optimum of 0.18. It consisted of an apoprotein and cofactor, both of which were necessary for catalytic activity. The apoprotein had a monomer molecular weight of 35,200 and showed stable aggregates under denaturing conditions. The amino acid analysis of the E.coli enzyme was very similar to that of the photoreactivating enzyme from orchid seedlings (Cattelya aurantiaca). Both had arginine at the amino terminus. The cofactor, like the holoenzyme, showed absorption, magnetic circular dichroism, and emission properties indicative of an adenine moiety. Although the isolated enzyme had an action spectrum which peaked at about 360 nm, neither the cofactor, apoenzyme nor holoenzyme showed any detectable absorption between 300 and 400 nm. (author)
Snapka, R M; Fuselier, C O [California Univ., Irvine (USA)
Escherichia coli photoreactivating enzyme (PRE) has been purified in large amounts from an E.coli strain lysogenic for a defective lambda bacteriophage carrying the phr gene. The resulting enzyme had a pH optimum of 7.2 and an ionic strength optimum of 0.18. It consisted of an apoprotein and cofactor, both of which were necessary for catalytic activity. The apoprotein had a monomer molecular weight of 35,200 and showed stable aggregates under denaturing conditions. The amino acid analysis of the E.coli enzyme was very similar to that of the photoreactivating enzyme from orchid seedlings (Cattelya aurantiaca). Both had arginine at the amino terminus. The cofactor, like the holoenzyme, showed absorption, magnetic circular dichroism, and emission properties indicative of an adenine moiety. Although the isolated enzyme had an action spectrum which peaked at about 360 nm, neither the cofactor, apoenzyme nor holoenzyme showed any detectable absorption between 300 and 400 nm.
Becerra, Marley; Cooray, Vernon
The knowledge of the initiation and propagation of an upward moving connecting leader in the presence of a downward moving lightning stepped leader is a must in the determination of the lateral attraction distance of a lightning flash by any grounded structure. Even though different models that simulate this phenomenon are available in the literature, they do not take into account the latest developments in the physics of leader discharges. The leader model proposed here simulates the advancement of positive upward leaders by appealing to the presently understood physics of that process. The model properly simulates the upward continuous progression of the positive connecting leaders from its inception to the final connection with the downward stepped leader (final jump). Thus, the main physical properties of upward leaders, namely the charge per unit length, the injected current, the channel gradient and the leader velocity are self-consistently obtained. The obtained results are compared with an altitude triggered lightning experiment and there is good agreement between the model predictions and the measured leader current and the experimentally inferred spatial and temporal location of the final jump. It is also found that the usual assumption of constant charge per unit length, based on laboratory experiments, is not valid for lightning upward connecting leaders
Krogsdam, Anne-M; Kristiansen, Karsten; Nøhr, Jane
intracellularly in soluble form. In E. coli, proteins containing disulfide bonds are best produced by secretion because the disulfide forming foldases reside in the periplasm. Likewise, a correct N-terminus is more likely to be obtained upon secretion. Moreover, potentially toxic proteins are more likely......Owing to cost advantage, speed of production, and often high product yield (up to 50% of total cell protein), expression in Escherichia coli is generally the first choice when attempting to express a recombinant protein. Expression systems exist to produce recombinant protein intracellularly...
The evolution from unicellular to multicellular behavior is an essential step in the history of life. Our aim is to investigate the emergence of collective behavior in the model organism Escherichia coli (E. coli) and its selection advantages, such as better utilization of public goods. Our preliminary results suggest that the evolution of collective behavior may be a natural response to stressed conditions. Mailing address: Room 306 Science Centre North Block, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T. Hong Kong SAR. Phone: +852-3943-6354. Fax: +852-2603-5204. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Myasnik, M.N.; Skvortsov, V.G.; Sokolov, V.A.
In experiments on E. coli strains deficient in some stages of DNA repair from radiation damages, it was demonstrated that the value of the oxygen effect, under optimal conditions for manifestation thereof, decreases in the following order: E. coli WP2 (the wild type) → E. coli WP2 exr - and E. coli B → E. coli WP2 uvr A6 → E. coli WP2 rec Al and E. coli WP2 hcr - exr - . It was detected that 0.14 M NaCl solution sensitizes the anoxic cells of some E. coli strains to the effect of γ-radiation. It was established that mutation of the uvr A-gene increases sharply the sensitivity of cells to iradiation under the anoxic conditions in the presence of NaCl, the reverse'' oxygen effect being observed
Philip, Achsah; Desai, Avani; Nguyen, Phouc Anne; Birney, Patrick; Colavecchia, Anthony; Karralli, Rusol; Smith, Lindsey; Lorimer, Dirk; Burgess, Gwen; Munch, Kyle; Daniel, Nelvin; Lionetti, Jason; Garey, Kevin W
Pharmacy leader development over time was analyzed using the seven action logics. As part of an ongoing leadership seminar series, students were required to select a visionary pharmacy leader and conduct a structured interview to evaluate pharmacy leaders' action logics. A standardized questionnaire comprising 13 questions was created by the class. Questions addressed leadership qualities during the leaders' early years, education years, and work years. Transcripts were then coded by two separate trained investigators based on the leader's stage of life to provide a score for each action logic individually over time. Kappa coefficient was used to evaluate interrater agreement. A total of 14 leaders were interviewed. All leaders were currently employed and had won national awards for their contributions to pharmacy practice. Overall, there was 82% agreement between the two evaluators' scores for the various characteristics. Action logics changed based on the leaders' life stage. Using aggregate data from all leader interviews, a progression from lower-order action logics (opportunist, diplomat, expert) to higher-order action logics (strategist, alchemist) was found. Ten leaders (71%) were diplomats during their early years. Six leaders (43%) were experts during their education years, and 4 (29%) were strategists or alchemists. During the third life stage analyzed (the work years), 6 leaders (43%) were strategists, and 2 were alchemists. During their work years, all leaders had a percentage of their answers coded as alchemist (range, 5-22%). Throughout their professional careers, pharmacy leaders continually develop skills through formal education and mentorship that follow action logics. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.
Aarons, Gregory A; Ehrhart, Mark G; Torres, Elisa M; Finn, Natalie K; Beidas, Rinad S
Discrepancies, or perceptual distance, between leaders' self-ratings and followers' ratings of the leader are common but usually go unrecognized. Research on discrepancies is limited, but there is evidence that discrepancies are associated with organizational context. This study examined the association of leader-follower discrepancies in Implementation Leadership Scale (ILS) ratings of mental health clinic leaders and the association of those discrepancies with organizational climate for involvement and performance feedback. Both involvement and performance feedback are important for evidence-based practice (EBP) implementation in mental health. A total of 593 individuals-supervisors (leaders, N=80) and clinical service providers (followers, N=513)-completed surveys that included ratings of implementation leadership and organizational climate. Polynomial regression and response surface analyses were conducted to examine the associations of discrepancies in leader-follower ILS ratings with organizational involvement climate and performance feedback climate, aspects of climate likely to support EBP implementation. Both involvement climate and performance feedback climate were highest where leaders rated themselves low on the ILS and their followers rated those leaders high on the ILS ("humble leaders"). Teams with "humble leaders" showed more positive organizational climate for involvement and for performance feedback, contextual factors important during EBP implementation and sustainment. Discrepancy in leader and follower ratings of implementation leadership should be a consideration in understanding and improving leadership and organizational climate for mental health services and for EBP implementation and sustainment in mental health and other allied health settings.
Knoche, Hendrik; Jamadagni, HS; Rao, PR Sheshagiri
To improve their agricultural output, farmers require timely and contextualized information and advice. Relevant information and advice provided by trusted peers represents a promising approach. We present the considerations for the design of coli, an agricultural information network on touch scr...
Friedrich, Alexander; Stein, Jürgen; Dignass, Axel
E. coli ist ein wesentlicher Bestandteil der physiologischen Darmflora des Menschen. Die üblicherweise im Darm vorkommenden Kolibakterien sind apathogen und für den Menschen eher nützlich (Sonnenborn u. Greinwald 1990). Allerdings kennen wir bei dieser Bakterienspezies auch ein breites Spektrum von
... beef, Escherichia coli and coliphages were found in chicken, fresh pork, fresh oyster, fresh mushrooms, lettuce, chicken pot pie, biscuit dough, deli loaf, deli roasted turkey, and package roasted chicken... surfaces, and in foods such as ground beef, pork sausage, chicken, oysters, cheese, fresh mushrooms, and...
ABSTRACT. The bio-effects of the ethanol extracts from the leaf and stem of Momordica charantia were studied with the view to ascertain the medical usefulness ascribed to the plant by the locals. The plant parts, stem and leaf, revealed remarkable activity against Escherichia coli and Staphlococcus aureus. The leaves ...
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 8. Conjugal Pairing in Escherichia Coli. Joshua Lederberg. Classics Volume 13 Issue 8 August 2008 pp 793-794. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/013/08/0793-0794 ...
Jansen, GJ; Wildeboer-Veloo, ACM; van der Waaij, D; Degener, JE
The influence of oral treatment with a suspension of non-pathogenic Escherichia coli cells (commercially available as: Symbioflor II(R)) on the morphological composition of the gut microflora and on the systemic humoral immune response (the IgG-, IgA- and IgM-isotype) against the bacterial cells in
Krogsdam, Anne-M; Kristiansen, Karsten; Nøhr, Jane
intracellularly in soluble form. In E. coli, proteins containing disulfide bonds are best produced by secretion because the disulfide forming foldases reside in the periplasm. Likewise, a correct N-terminus is more likely to be obtained upon secretion. Moreover, potentially toxic proteins are more likely...
Torbeck, Laura; Rozycki, Grace; Dunnington, Gary
Leadership has emerged as a crucial component of professional development for physicians in academic medicine. Most leadership skills can be learned and therefore best practices of delivering leadership development are in high demand. For practicing surgeons, specific strategies to teach leadership have been lacking. The purpose of this paper is to describe the structure of a tier-based leadership development program called Leaders Growing Leaders, to identify the major curricular components to each tier including measures and outcomes, and to share lessons learned for those who may want to begin a similar leadership development program. Copyright © 2018 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kuhn, Robert Lawrence
How China’s next generation of leaders think and what that means for its future China will soon undergo a complete change of senior leaders and this book covers that new generation’s background and ideas based on personal interviews with member of China’s ruling party. It covers the future of state media, culture, the press, religion, science and technology, healthcare, agricultural, and economic and financial issues. For anyone who wants to understand China’s future, this book offers valuable insight.
Varpio, Lara; O'Brien, Bridget; J Durning, Steven; van der Vleuten, Cees; Gruppen, Larry; Ten Cate, Olle; Humphrey-Murto, Susan; Irby, David M; Hamstra, Stanley J; Hu, Wendy
Health professions education scholarship units (HPESUs) are organizational structures within which a group is substantively engaged in health professions education scholarship. Little research investigates the strategies employed by HPESU administrative leaders to secure and maintain HPESU success. Using institutional entrepreneurship as a theoretical lens, this study asks: Do HPESU administrative leaders act as institutional entrepreneurs (IEs)? This study recontextualizes two preexisting qualitative datasets that comprised interviews with leaders in health professions education in Canada (2011-2012) and Australia and New Zealand (2013-1014). Two researchers iteratively analyzed the data using the institutional entrepreneurship construct until consensus was achieved. A third investigator independently reviewed and contributed to the recontextualized analyses. A summary of the analyses was shared with all authors, and their feedback was incorporated into the final interpretations. HPESU leaders act as IEs in three ways. First, HPESU leaders construct arguments and position statements about how the HPESU resolves an institution's problem(s). This theorization discourse justifies the existence and support of the HPESU. Second, the leaders strategically cultivate relationships with the leader of the institution within which the HPESU sits, the leaders of large academic groups with which the HPESU partners, and the clinician educators who want careers in health professions education. Third, the leaders work to increase the local visibility of the HPESU. Practical insights into how institutional leaders interested in launching an HPESU can harness these findings are discussed.
H. L., & Dreyfus, S. E. (1986). Mind over machine: The power of human intuitive expertise in the era of the computer. New York: The Free Press...at them then squat down to begin playing a dice game. The maneuver squad leader judged this behavior as an anomaly, because the boys didn’t begin
The authors report a survey made just after the Fukushima accident on a panel of opinion leaders (belonging to political, economical or media sector) in order to compare their perception of risks with that of the public. The questions addressed the perception of risks, the role of scientific experts, the usefulness and breaks on the diffusion of expertise results, the perception of pluralist bodies, and the Fukushima accident. The answers are analysed and discussed with respect to fifteen hazardous situations, to their opinion of expertise, and to their opinion on safety audit and information
Mishra, Aneil K
It''s time to discover a new way for individuals to lead organizations and societies. Trust in a variety of institutions, including governmental and business, is at an all-time low. In order to strengthen society from its foundations, we need to rebuild trust. Research shows that leaders are critical to building trust in organizations, and that trust in leadership is significantly related to a number of attitudes, behaviors and performance outcomes. This new book, with its emphasis on the critical role of leadership in trust-building as well as the novel perspective on the trust circle of lea
Cao, Yangfeng; Zhang, Kai; Luo, Wenhao
This study aims to put forward a new concept in charismatic leadership theory: source of leader charisma (SLC). Using an inductive approach, we identified the various dimensions of SLC in the Chinese context, and found that SLC comprises of charismatic personality and charismatic behaviors....... Charismatic personality consists of three dimensions: high morality, outstanding talents, and attractive characteristics. Charismatic behavior also includes three dimensions: visional inspiration, character development, and morale stimulation. Finally, we developed a primary model to explore the mechanism...... by which the SLCs are attributed to charisma by follower. Our findings in the present study contribute to new evidence that charismatic leadership theory may transcend cultural boundaries....
Great leadership usually starts with a willing heart, a positive attitude, and a desire to make a difference. Strong leadership is important, in today's health care climate, to ensure optimal patient outcomes and the fostering of future generations of knowledgeable, motivated and enthusiastic perioperative nurses. This article will explore key elements necessary for the development of authentic leadership. While highlighting the role that personal development plays in leadership skills, this article will also discuss ways to cultivate authenticity in leadership. The following questions will be addressed: What is authentic leadership? How does one become an authentic leader?
Diniz, S.O.F.; Cardoso, V.N.; Resende, B.M.; Nunan, E.A.; Simal, C.J.R.
Samples of a culture of unlabeled Escherichia coli were incubated with different concentrations of stannous chloride for various time periods. 99m Tc (26.0 MBq) was added to each preparation and the results showed a labelling yield of 98% for E. coli. Since the bacterial viability of 99m Tc-E. coli and E. coli did not show any statistical differences, these results demonstrate that labelling of E. coli with 99m Tc does not modify the bacterial viability, and the radiolabelled bacteria may be a good model to study bacterial translocation
KIM, KWANG SIK
E. coli is the most common Gram-negative bacillary organism causing meningitis and E. coli meningitis continues to be an important cause of mortality and morbidity throughout the world. Our incomplete knowledge of its pathogenesis contributes to such mortality and morbidity. Recent reports of E. coli strains producing CTX-M-type or TEM-type extended-spectrum β-lactamases create a challenge. Studies using in vitro and in vivo models of the blood-brain barrier have shown that E. coli meningitis follows a high-degree of bacteremia and invasion of the blood-brain barrier. E. coli invasion of the blood-brain barrier, the essentials step in the development of E. coli meningitis, requires specific microbial and host factors as well as microbe- and host-specific signaling molecules. Blockade of such microbial and host factors contributing to E. coli invasion of the blood-brain barrier is shown to be efficient in preventing E. coli penetration into the brain. The basis for requiring a high-degree of bacteremia for E. coli penetration of the blood-brain barrier, however, remains unclear. Continued investigation on the microbial and host factors contributing to a high-degree of bacteremia and E. coli invasion of the blood-brain barrier is likely to identify new targets for prevention and therapy of E. coli meningitis. PMID:27223820
Suzuki, Kazushi; 鈴木, 一史
In many species of bacteria, the Csr (carbon storage regulator) global regulatory system coordinates the expression of various genes. In Escherichia coli, the central component of this system, CsrA, is a RNA-binding protein. The CsrA is a homodimer and binds to leader segments of target mRNAs, affecting their translation and stability. CsrA activity is regulated by two small non-coding RNAs, CsrB and CsrC. These RNAs contain multiple CsrA-binding sequences and act by sequestering CsrA. In thi...
Taylor Backor, Karen; Gordon, Stephen P.
Although research has established links between the principal's instructional leadership and student achievement, there is considerable concern in the literature concerning the capacity of principal preparation programs to prepare instructional leaders. This study interviewed educational leadership faculty as well as expert principals and teacher…
Fierce pressures for cost containment. Demands for quality improvements. The drive toward patient-centered care. The push for community involvement. Insistent voices of payers, patients, consumers, physicians. Accumulated tensions amid the chaos of change. Balancing all of these demands while inspiring and encouraging the professionals and other workers within the healthcare organization requires a high level of leadership ability. One that insists on the best from everyone involved in a healthcare system--from physicians to staff, nurses to social workers. And then strives for more. The four young executives who are this year's Emerging Leaders in Healthcare have all pushed their systems beyond traditional boundaries into new territory, helping their patients, their employees, their physicians, and their communities rise to new levels of achievement. At the same time, these leaders emphasize teamwork and consensus-style management, so that their co-workers feel like they're participating in the changes, not being victimized by them. Gita Budd, Colene Daniel, Elizabeth Gallup, and Scott Wordelman are winners of the 1995 award from The Healthcare Forum and Korn/Ferry International that honors ¿dynamic, decisive young leaders (under 40) with the proven ability to nurture the growth of the industry.¿ Korn/Ferry International and The Healthcare Forum are proud to present 1995's Emerging Leaders.
N.A. Hakimi (Natalia)
textabstractThe present dissertation tries to shed light on the phenomenon of empowering leadership. We aim to understand the antecedents of leader empowering behaviour. In doing so, we mean to remedy the stated lack of research on empowering leadership and on the effect of follower’s behaviour on
Full Text Available When exposed to the theoretic leadership concepts, it is rather rare that managers - either already acting or pursuing this role – don’t identify themselves as leaders. A leader is a person who motivates , supports and listens. To be a leader means to mobilize human resources , to establish a direction emerged from a personal vision on the evolution of things, to have the power to transform this vision into reality. And yet, real leaders are far more rare than most managers are ready to admit. Both have their added value within an organization and in practice it’s rather challenging to see things moving ahead without having both roles pulling together. So far, a leader's skills are necessary to deal with the ambiguities and uncertainties with which they are accustomed. Another aspect is the strategic positioning in case of conflict . This paper aims to identify the influences of a leader in team building.
Formal academic education and experience as a nurse are established preparation for the chief nurse executive (CNE) or upcoming nurse leaders. This article proposes that the nurse leader must build on these fundamentals through self-discipline, lifelong learning, and practice. Three critical ingredients are discussed to guide the nurse leader on a life/career for the CNE and the nurse leader at every level. These include fostering relationships, feeding intellectual curiosity, and engaging in self-care practices. These indispensable ingredients of the successful nurse leader serve as an augmentation to formal education and experience for the nurse aspiring to reach the CNE level and beyond as well as for the current CNE mentoring future leaders.
The dental profession is guided by normative principles that provide guidance to our leaders and practicing dentists in addressing the needs of patients and the profession, yet there is room for incorporating new ideas that help dental professionals meet their professional obligations. The purpose of this essay is to discuss the concept of "servant leadership," especially in contrast with "self-serving leaders," and to suggest that servant leadership is consistent with the high ethical and professional ideals of the dental profession. The servant leader is the antithesis of the self-serving leader, who incessantly seeks more power and acquisition of material possessions. The servant leader's highest priority is the people (patients/students/customers) he or she serves. The concept of the servant-leader can take us away from self-serving, top-down leadership and encourage us to think harder about how to respect, value, and motivate people and ultimately provide better service to our patients.
Salmela, Susanne; Eriksson, Katie; Fagerström, Lisbeth
The aim of the study was to achieve more profound understanding of nurse leaders' perceptions of an approaching organizational change. We used a three-dimensional hermeneutical method of interpretation to analyze text from 17 interviews. The results suggest that nurse leaders were positive toward and actively engaged in continual change to their units, even though they perceived themselves as mere spectators of the change process. The nurse leaders believed that change might benefit patients and patient care, yet their adaptation lacked deeper engagement. The approaching merger affected the nurse leaders' identities on a deeply personal level. They experienced uneasiness and anxiety with regard to being nurse leaders, the future of nursing care, and their mandate as patient advocates. Nurse leaders are in a critical position to influence the success of organizational change, but the organizations covered in this study were not incorporating their knowledge and experiences into the change.
Full Text Available Leadership is a concept appeared in the second part of the twentieth century which developed later on because of the business necessity as the economic environment has become more and more complex and the classic managerial style was no more efficient. In this complex world of business, women were traditionally involved in business at the administrative level, with small chances to reach top structures in a company. Due to the modern times, they won their rights to prove their management skills and to obtain more important jobs in famous companies. This paper presents the results of a research based on interview method and getting responses from Romanian women involved in business at the middle and top management in multinational companies. The main goal of the study was to identify the main features that define the women as a leader or a manager by finding lateral thinking skills. This research revealed that most of the women interviewed have their features closer to the conventional leader and only few of them have developed strong lateral thinking skills.
Souba, Wiley; Souba, Matthew
Human beings are fundamentally future oriented. Most of our decisions and undertakings are for the sake of a future to which we are committed or obligated. This future orientation is essential to effective leadership in health care, especially during this time of significant reform, when people are at risk of becoming cynical and disengaged. Conventional thinking holds that our effectiveness as leaders is primarily a function of what we have learned in the past-our knowledge, expertise, and experience. In contrast, the emerging model contends that our effectiveness is also a function of how the future (outcome) of our leadership challenges "shows up" for us. If, despite daunting circumstances, we can "see" an aspired future ahead, we are more likely to commit and engage. Our story of the future becomes the "narrative frame" through which we see and tackle leadership challenges today. Because organizations are fundamentally networks of conversations, an organization's ability to create new language practices is tantamount to its ability to evolve. What makes the future compelling is the embodiment of our deepest convictions and ideals in our image of the future. Because health care reform has challenged the medical profession along the entire spectrum of its traditional values and roles, working toward a unifying vision of the future has been difficult. To enroll others in creating a better future, effective leaders must underscore the purpose and importance of their work and motivate them with inspiring stories.
In co-operation with the GEBERT RÜF FOUNDATION and the Ernest & Young Entrepreneur of the Year Award, venturelab will be presenting the Venture Leaders Prize. The Venture Leaders Prize, which is the new guise of the NETS (New Entrepreneurs in Technology and Science) Prize, will give twenty research entrepreneurs with projects to develop innovative technologies the opportunity to win the chance of participating in a programme to assist them in starting up their companies. The winners will go to spend 10 days in the Boston area (United States) where they will take part in a development programme for their project, which will include an entrepreneurship course, opportunities to meet start-up companies and financing experts, etc. This prize has already spawned many companies such as id Quantique, Selexis or ABMI which have contributed to the economic development of regions, particularly in French-speaking Switzerland. The competition is open to students and scientists from all fields, who would like to s...
Rector, T. A.; Jacoby, S. H.; Lockwood, J. F.; McCarthy, D. W.
NOAO facilities will be used in support of ``Teacher Leaders in Research Based Science Education" (TLRBSE), a new Teacher Retention and Renewal program that will be funded through the National Science Foundation's Directorate for Education and Human Resources. The goal of TLRBSE is to provide professional development for secondary teachers of mathematics and science in an effort to support novice teachers beginning their careers as well as to motivate and retain experienced teachers. Within the context of astronomy, TLRBSE will develop master teachers who will mentor a second tier of novice teachers in the exemplary method of research-based science education, a proven effective teaching method which models the process of inquiry and exploration used by scientists. Participants will be trained through a combination of in-residence workshops at Kitt Peak National Observatory and the National Solar Observatory, a distance-learning program during the academic year, interaction at professional meetings and mentor support from teacher leaders and professional astronomers. A total of 360 teachers will participate in the program over five years.
Article 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 1 February 2015-31 October 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Correlation between Leadership Style and Leader Power...Transformational and Transactional leadership style and leader power. Leadership style was measured by the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ...between the factors representing Leadership Style and Leader Power. The CFA results are contrary to developer’s theories of both scales, but are
personality trait that has shown potential in predicting leader emergence is locus of control (Anderson & Schneier, 1978; Johnson, Luthans ...leaderless group. In general terms, it appears that an individual’s view of leaders (and the inspiration to become one), could possibly affect his or... inspire them to “step up” and become leaders themselves, not at all dissimilar from the natural tendency to mimic behaviors of those held in high
Jiang, Rubin; Qie, Xiushu; Wang, Zhichao; Zhang, Hongbo; Lu, Gaopeng; Sun, Zhuling; Liu, Mingyuan; Li, Xun
The grounding process and the associated leader behavior were analyzed by using high-speed video record and time-correlated electric field change for 37 natural negative cloud-to-ground flashes. Weak luminous grounded channel was recognized below the downward leader tip in the frame preceding the return stroke, which is inferred as upward connecting leader considering the physical process of lightning attachment, though not directly confirmed by sequential frames. For stepped leader-first return strokes, the upward connecting leaders tend to be induced by those downward leader branches with brighter luminosity and lower channel tip above ground, and they may accomplish the attachment with great possibility. The upward connecting leaders for 2 out of 61 leader-subsequent stroke sequences were captured in the frame prior to the return stroke, exhibiting relatively long channel lengths of 340 m and 105 m, respectively. The inducing downward subsequent leaders were of the chaotic type characterized by irregular electric field pulse train with duration of 0.2-0.3 ms. The transient drop of the high potential difference between stepped leader system and ground when the attachment occurred would macroscopically terminate the propagation of those ungrounded branches while would not effectively prevent the development of the existing space stem systems in the low-conductivity streamer zone apart from the leader tip. When the ungrounded branches are of poor connection with the main stroke channel, their further propagation toward ground would be feasible. These two factors may contribute to the occurrence of multiple grounding within the same leader-return stroke sequence.
Schalk W. Grobler
Contribution: Organisations can benefit from an insight into understanding how the identified requisite leader behavioural competencies possibly can impact organisational performance in their respective environments.
Mexico faces numerous social, economic, and political challenges. Higher education institutions provide opportunity for change by educating socially responsible leaders to become civically engaged citizens.
.... The study team interviewed senior leaders in the Army's First Digital Division and I Corps, capturing previously undocumented knowledge acquired through practical experience Digital training experts...
... direction, skills, training and education, career management guidance, and leadership and command opportunities to nurture, develop, and retain acquisition officers to become the best strategic acquisition leaders...
Ethical leadership: perceptions of instructors and academic leaders of western cluster public ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... to understand their respective institutions and develop effective communication systems.
.... Areas investigated include personal confidence in decision-making of various types, amount of training and education received in peace operations, and assessments of Army preparations of leaders...
Montgomery III, William H
...". Success in the future Army environment will be measured by the leader's ability to build relationships with various governmental interagency, military multinational and non-governmental organizations...
.... Naval Academy midshipmen. Binary logistical regressions were used to analyze the impact of selected explanatory variables on the probability of an individual performing effectively as a squad leader...
.... In their role as advisor to commanders chaplains are contacting local religious leaders to build bridges of mutual understanding that foster a more secure environment for mission accomplishment...
Mitchell, Pamela H; Robins, Lynne S; Schaad, Dotiglas
... of physicians, nurses, and other health professional faculty leaders. Methods: Executive and advisory committees became a collaborative team, surveying and cataloguing existing educational tools and materials...
Martin, Theodore D
.... This paper analyzes the impact of the rise of BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India, China), technology, globalization, and makes recommendations for elements of a future strategic leader development model...
Jadhav, Emmanuel D.; Holsinger, James W.; Fardo, David W.
Background During the 2008–2010 economic recession, Kentucky local health department (LHD) leaders utilized innovative strategies to maintain their programs. A characteristic of innovative strategy is leader openness to change. Leader demographical research in for-profit organizations has yielded valuable insight into leader openness to change. For LHD leaders, the nature of the association between leader demographic and organizational characteristics on leader openness to change is unknow...
Emmanuel D Jadhav; James W. Holsinger; David W Fardo
Background: During the 2008-10 economic recession, Kentucky local health department (LHD) leaders utilized innovative strategies to maintain their programs. A characteristic of innovative strategy is leader openness to change. Leader demographical research in for-profit organizations has yielded valuable insight into leader openness to change. For LHD leaders the nature of the association between leader demographic and organizational characteristics on leader openness to change is unknown. Th...
Full Text Available Pneumatosis coli (PC is a rare condition of the gastrointestinal tract involving extraluminal gas confined within the bowel wall. We report the case of a 40-year-old gentleman presenting clinically and endoscopically with suspected colorectal cancer. In light of the patient’s red flag symptoms, and carpet of polyps seen endoscopically, surgical management by an anterior resection was performed with the patient making a successful recovery. Histological analysis of the resected specimen confirmed pneumatosis coli with no evidence of colonic neoplasia. Although PC can be an incidental finding in asymptomatic patients and considered a benign condition, it can also present as a life-threatening emergency with bowel necrosis and obstruction requiring emergency surgical intervention. Also, when PC mimics malignancy, surgical management is the most appropriate step to ensure that the diagnosis of cancer is not missed.
Toma, Claudia; Lu, Yan; Higa, Naomi; Nakasone, Noboru; Chinen, Isabel; Baschkier, Ariela; Rivas, Marta; Iwanaga, Masaaki
A multiplex PCR assay for the identification of human diarrheagenic Escherichia coli was developed. The targets selected for each category were eae for enteropathogenic E. coli, stx for Shiga toxin-producing E. coli, elt and est for enterotoxigenic E. coli, ipaH for enteroinvasive E. coli, and aggR for enteroaggregative E. coli. This assay allowed the categorization of a diarrheagenic E. coli strain in a single reaction tube.
Poulsen, Peter; Jensen, Kaj Frank; Valentin-Hansen, Poul
leader segment in front of the protein-coding region. This leader contains a structure with features characteristic for a (translated?) rho-independent transcriptional terminator, which is preceded by a cluster of uridylate residues. This indicates that the frequency of pyrE transcription is regulated......Orotate phosphoribosyltransferase (EC 188.8.131.52) was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity from a strain of Escherichia coli containing the pyrE gene cloned on a multicopy plasmid. The relative molecular masses (Mr) of the native enzyme and its subunit were estimated by means of gel filtration...
Näthke, I S
Mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene are associated with most colorectal cancers. The APC protein has been implicated in many aspects of tumour development. This article will discuss recent data suggesting that APC may have multiple functions in the cell. First, APC is a component of the Wnt signalling pathway; second, APC may have a role in cell migration; finally, APC may regulate proliferation and apoptosis.
Lebofsky, Larry A.; McCarthy, Donald; DeVore, Edna; Harman, Pamela; Reaching Stars Team
This year, the University of Arizona is conducting its first two Leadership Workshops for Girl Scout adult leaders. These workshops are being supported by a five-year NASA Collaborative Agreement, Reaching for the Stars: NASA Science for Girl Scouts (www.seti.org/GirlScoutStars), through the SETI Institute in collaboration with the University of Arizona, Girl Scouts of the USA (GSUSA), the Girl Scouts of Northern California, the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, and Aries Scientific, Inc. These workshops are an outgrowth of Astronomy Camp for Girl Scout Leaders, a 14-year "Train the Trainer" program funded by NASA through the James Webb Space Telescope's Near Infrared Camera (NIRCam) education and outreach team. We are continuing our long-term relationship with all Girl Scout Councils to engage girls and young women not only in science and math education, but also in the astronomical and technological concepts relating to NASA's scientific mission. Our training aligns with the GSUSA Journey: It's Your Planet-Love It! and introduces participants to some of the activities that are being developed by the Girl Scout Stars team for GSUSA's new space science badges for all Girl Scout levels being developed as a part of Reaching for the Stars: NASA Science for Girl Scouts.The workshops include hands-on activities in basic astronomy (night sky, stars, galaxies, optics, telescopes, etc.) as well as some more advanced concepts such as lookback time and the expansion of the Universe. Since the inception of our original Astronomy Camp in 2003, our team has grown to include nearly 280 adult leaders, staff, and volunteers from over 79 Councils in 43 states and the District of Columbia so they can, in turn, teach young women essential concepts in astronomy, the night sky environment, applied math, and engineering. Our workshops model what astronomers do by engaging participants in the process of science inquiry, while equipping adults to host astronomy-related programs with
Bazelyan, E M; Raizer, Yu P; Aleksandrov, N L
New results of observations of the leader process in a pressure chamber are presented for reduced air pressures. The analysis of these data and observations of the leader discharge in peak regions shows that the length of the leader tip and some other characteristics vary by several times as pressure decreases from 1 to 0.3 atm, whereas, under the conditions considered, the leader velocity remains almost independent of air density, the leader current being the same. These data are used to extract relationships between discharge parameters. It is shown that, at reduced air densities, electric field in a 'young' section of the leader channel exceeds electric field in the streamer zone. Therefore, transition of the leader process to the final-jump phase is not inevitably followed by a breakdown of the gap for reduced pressures, as opposed to the discharge in atmospheric pressure air. The model suggested previously by the authors for the streamer-to- leader transition at atmospheric pressure is amended to take into account hydrodynamic expansion of the channel and used to simulate the process at a relative air density of 0.3. The calculated results are used to interpret the observations of the leader process at reduced air pressures
Full Text Available This study deals with Romanian prospective leaders' view on outstanding leadership dimensions (styles. It is a part of a European research project, GLOBE Students, dealing with the interrelations between societal culture and leadership. The basic theoretical constructs and methodological framework of investigation are those developed by GLOBE international research project. The sample consists in 429 students in business/economics and engineering, belonging to three Romanian universities. The findings show that the most preferred leadership styles are team oriented and charismatic (value based. Only a few leadership styles seem to have weak, but statistically significant correlations against a sig. = 0.50 probability threshold with important socialization agents for the students.
Zaher, C A
As the business role of health care delivery expands and complex reform is imposed, physicians must assume leadership roles and imprint medical expertise on business dynamics. Before the end of this century, health care and its delivery will likely become unrecognizable to those who ended their practices only a decade ago. Traditional management will wither away to be replaced by self-managed, self-trained, and self-motivated workers, no longer employed in jobs but working through processes, projects, and assignments in integrative health care delivery systems. Becoming a leader is an active and arduous process that can no longer be approached haphazardly. To be effective, the physician must plot a course with clear and calculated intent and effort, which requires acquiring organizational tools and administrative skills to innovatively alter medical care for the good of all.
Polar Educators International (PEI) is a global professional network for those who educate in, for, and about the polar regions. Our goal is to connect educators, scientists, and community members to share expertise around the world and to rekindle student and public engagement with global environmental change. The growing membership in over 30 countries is now recognized as a leading organization capable of fulfilling E&O goals of international science organizations and training educators to facilitate outstanding polar science and climate change education in classrooms. This session will address the importance of dedicated, high-caliber, interpersonal professional networks that are linked directly to the expert science community to better serve science goals and education in classrooms. Discover that the educators and scientists in the network are resources themselves to help you become a leader in polar and climate education; arguably our most important content at the international level.
If the United States wants to help shape the future of a possibly vital energy option, and if it wants to continue to pursue its nonproliferation objectives through commercial nuclear power, it can only do this through a strong domestic nuclear power base and technological leadership. To strengthen nuclear power in the United States requires that long-term institutional arrangements be developed so that legitimate government responsibilities for public safety and international security can be carried out within a framework supportive of nuclear power. To become a technological leader once again requires the willingness to invest in technological advances not now economic. The author proposes revival of the Atoms for Peace program, the regaining of nuclear leadership and through it, the progress, the adventure, and the influence of the past
J. David Johnson
Full Text Available The intersection of teamwork and leadership results in tensions, dilemmas, and paradoxes for both individuals and for institutions such as simultaneously empowering individuals at the same time it frustrates them when our naive, cultural understanding of leadership centralizes power and values leaders who can impose their will and vision on others. Perhaps the fundamental paradox of teamwork and leadership is that the more leadership is focused on an individual the less likely a team’s potential will be realized. Six specific domains where tensions arise are: at team boundaries; culture; who is in charge, rationality/cognition; diversity; and collaborations. Three approaches - clarifying different levels of analysis, temporal factors, and overarching concepts - to resolving tensions are discussed. New conceptions of leadership and the importance of the larger cultural frame within which they are embedded are needed for the management of technology and innovation.
Full Text Available Recently, in Lithuanian educational discourse there has been a lot of discussion about leadership. This has become so popular phenomenon that quite often one even does not go deep into the most important parameters of this phenomenon. Leadership phenomenon is not a very new thing, having started to be investigated more exhaustively as far back as the second half of the 20th century, however, over the last decade a lot of attention has been devoted to this in Lithuania. One can reasonably assert, that this is even a matter of fashion. During the aforementioned period, various questions such as teacher leadership, leadership development in schools (as if everyone has to be only a leader, leadership influence on organisation management and other have been investigated in one way or another.
Conger, Jay A.
A systematic understanding of how various behavioral components (vision, articulation skills, empowerment, unconventionality, and risk-taking) work together to set apart certain individuals as charismatic leaders is presented. Using illustrations from the careers of charismatic leaders, including Steve Jobs, Lee Iacocca, Mary Kay, John DeLorean,…
In organizational behavior and management survey courses, students are likely to maximize certain career-appropriate knowledge when their classroom groups are leadered rather than leaderless. Using leadered groups facilitates the learning of the professional and managerial skills associated with formal leadership while reducing some problematic…
Basham, Lloyd Moman
This study is concerned with the traits and characteristics of presidents of institutions of higher education who are considered transformational leaders. The study adds current data to the published and perceived characterization of leaders in higher education and their approaches to changing the learning environment at their institutions. This…
Shooter, Wynn; Paisley, Karen; Sibthorp, Jim
This study examined trust development between participants of outdoor education programs and outdoor leaders. Participants were college students enrolled in outdoor education courses. Using a factorial survey design, the technical ability, interpersonal ability, benevolence, integrity, and gender of an outdoor leader was displayed randomly in a…
Starbuck, J. David; Bell, Brent J.
In this study, we investigated how student (peer) leaders of college outdoor orientation programs understand the effects of their leadership experience on personal growth and development. We collected data through in-depth interviews of 36 first-time student leaders at four colleges. Findings indicate that the majority of students at all four…
family guide. Fort Hood, TX: Author. Granovsky , N. (1998). Family Support Group leader basic handbook (Operation READY). Alexandria, VA: U. S...Readiness and Financial Planning " (22.3 minutes). Granovsky , N. (1998). Family Support Group Leader Basic Handbook (Operation READY). Alexandria
LEADER-programmi rakendumise edukusest Eestis. Vt. samas: 1. Kuidas teie kohalikul tegevusgrupil läheb? 2. Mida uut on toonud LEADER teie piirkonda? Küsimustele vastavad: Aili Ilves, Hardi Murula, Merle Adams, Sille Tars, Jaak Vitsur, Mercedes Merimaa ja Piia Kärssin. Lisa: Statistikat ja infot kohalike tegevusgruppide kohta
Patkotak, Elise Sereni
To create a strong local economy, the community needs a workforce. In Native communities, the workforce should be grounded in the local culture and values. On the North Slope of Alaska, this has long been a goal of leaders. To achieve this goal, North Slope leaders came together February 2010 in Barrow, Alaska, for the "Tumitchiat"…
Greer, L.L.; Jehn, K.A.
In this multi-method study, we investigated the strategies used by members who emerged as leaders in organizations communicating primarily via e-mail communication. We hypothesized and found that members who emerged as leaders tended to rely on soft influence tactics, were consistent in their usage
Jung, Charles; And Others
This manual is to be used by leaders of RUPS (Research Utilizing Problem Solving) workshops for school or district administrators. The workshop's goal is for administrators to develop problem solving skills by using the RUPS simulation situations in a teamwork setting. Although workshop leaders should be familiar with the RUPS materials and…
The purpose of this study was to seek to further the formation of the emerging transcendent leadership model by exploring the archetypal image identified as wounded leader. The wounded leader archetype is introduced as a leadership style of influence that fits well within the framework of the transcendent leadership model. This study…
Gerstl-Pepin, Cynthia; Aiken, Judith A.
The purpose of this article is to learn from active educational leaders engaged in the practice of democratic, ethical leadership. In this article, we share findings of a qualitative study that used narrative inquiry to examine the stories of eight educational leaders. We discuss three themes arising from the participants' narratives that define…
Discusses the role of educational leaders in a global society. Explains the globalization of technology, finance, production, and culture. Other topics include the withering away of the state, rebalancing states and markets, development as freedom, and the development as freedom for educational leaders. (Contains 32 references.) (PKP)
In today's political and global world, it's not enough to remain a solid educational leader; leaders must become advocates for education--on Capitol Hill, in state legislatures, and within communities. In this book, Sandra Whitaker examines key issues facing education, demonstrates methods for unpacking the issues, and discusses strategies to…
Tucker, Cheryl A.
The Institute of Medicine (2011) challenged nursing to ensure the nursing workforce includes a sufficient number of academic nurse leaders, nurse educators, and doctorally prepared nurses for the future healthcare needs of the people of the United States. National data reveals a fragile supply of academic nurse educators and leaders. This tenuous…
Michigan-Ohio Regional Educational Lab., Inc., Detroit.
The purpose of this conference was to prepare key people in the field of education to function as inservice education leaders in their respective settings. The design called for participants to learn what the MOREL inservice education program is and what it hopes to accomplish, to identify the role and functions of the inservice education leader,…
Most analyses of conflict assume that conflicting groups act in a unitary fashion. This assumption is often violated: to reduce their risk of replacement, group leaders prevent both group members and soldiers from acting collectively, making it difficult for leaders to make credible commitments to them. Lifting the assumption that groups are unitary shifts the analysis of a wide range of c...
Introduction: There exists scanty literature on the awareness of Nigerians towards palliative care. This study was conducted to determine the level of awareness of religious leaders and seminarians in Ibadan, Nigeria, on palliative care. Methods: Data obtained from a cross-section of 302 religious leaders and seminarians in ...
Wood, Kristin R.
Leaders have limited understanding regarding mobile technology (Ramo & Edenius, 2008). However, with over 1 billion users (Meeker, Devitt & Wu, 2011), managers are tasked with making leadership decisions regarding technology adoption, management and use. Leaders may find this difficult to undertake given the limited body of knowledge in…
Byrne, Alyson; Crossan, Mary; Seijts, Gerard
Business schools strive to develop leadership excellence in their students. In this essay, we suggest that educators should find ways to help students develop and deepen leader character, a fundamental component of exemplary leadership. Frequently, business school students have preconceived ideas of leadership, often neglecting leader character.…
Frick, William C.; Riley, Ann T.
This paper presents a self-study project that goes beyond the surface of praxis to examine the internal academic teaching process of a PK-12 school leader educator. The study systematically relates one professor's intrapersonal struggle and professional challenge in addressing his lived contradiction of teaching aspiring school leaders. Results…
Miller, Michael T.; Pope, Myron L.
This study, part of the National Data Base on Faculty Involvement in Governance project at the University of Alabama, attempted to profile the role orientations of faculty governance unit leaders, and to determine if those orientations differed under conditions of communication apprehension (how a unit leader interacts with others) or were…
Spencer, Jennifer Dawn
This dissertation addresses the question of how suburban school district leaders in one large Midwestern school district respond to increasing student poverty. The purpose of this study was to determine how suburban school district leaders respond to increasing student poverty in their decision making and actions. Data for this study came from one…
School leaders are expected to be visibly in charge, always on top of their game, doing the right things to advance the school, and exuding confidence and command. For these traits, leaders have extensive resources to draw on to foster their professional growth. The National Association of Independent Schools (NAIS), the regional and state…
Feb 8, 2011 ... Now a professor in the Department of Political Science at the ... on major policy questions such as land tenure, gender issues, and health. ... leaders into democratic forms of government, in several others — mostly those who ... (See box for more on traditional leaders' involvement in the fight against AIDS.).
Kalshoven, K.; den Hartog, D.N.; de Hoogh, A.H.B.
Most research on ethical leadership to date investigates the consequences of ethical leadership rather than its antecedents. Here, we aim to contribute to this field by studying leader personality as a potential antecedent of ethical leader behavior. In two multisource studies, we investigated the
Snyder, Robert Scott
The purpose of this study was to understand and perceive how student leaders, and specifically student body presidents, navigated social power and used influence with institutional leaders in the higher education decision-making environment to achieve the goals and objectives of their presidencies. The foundational texts of higher education…
This article reports an action research study that examined the Leadership Study Group, one learning activity designed to build knowledge and skills for aspiring school leaders and implemented in a six-credit introductory course for school leader certification. Through analysis of a variety of qualitative data collected over nine semesters, I…
Strom, Stephen L.; Sanchez, Alex A.; Downey-Schilling, JoAnna
Over the next decade, as the community college's current generation of leaders and administrators begin retiring in large numbers, important steps must be taken to identify and develop future leaders for the institution. A variety of internal opportunities (e.g., internships, leadership development programs, graduate school programs) provide…
Leadership development continues to be a topic of conversation, education, and research. Reflection has been named as one of the key competencies needed for effective leaders particularly as the workplace grows more complex and multicultural. But how does one develop reflective skill in college students, the leaders of the future? This paper…
Behnke, Andrew O.; Ames, Natalie; Hancock, Tina U.
Understanding what Latino church leaders believe about domestic violence, and what they do when they confront it, is a key step in developing programs to help them engage in domestic violence prevention and intervention activities in their congregations. This article presents the findings from an exploratory study of 28 Latino church leaders. The…
Seemann, Daniel C.
Studied effects of leader style and a group of people classified as either high-anxious or low-anxious. Measured participants' (N=71) responses to the leader styles using Galvanic Skin Response. Results indicated similar responses of participants to both autocratic and democratic leadership styles. (RC)
Joseph S. Himes
Full Text Available In a paper not previously published, the founding president of the North Carolina Sociological Association explores changing leadership styles among black leaders. By the 1960s, when this paper was written as a thought piece, leadership patterns had changed from those embeded in local institutions towards leaders who could master complex legal issues. Four leadership styles are found and discussed.
Ahad, Lamia Rahman; Gunter, Helen
Women have long been under-represented in organization leader roles within higher education. Research has identified, mapped and examined the data, with recommendations for change. The research reported in this article adds to current knowledge, and raises methodological questions by focusing on senior female leaders in higher education in…
The Institute of Medicine's Future of Nursing report identifies the clinical nurse leader as an innovative new role for meeting higher health-care quality standards. However, specific clinical nurse leader practices influencing documented quality outcomes remain unclear. Lack of practice clarity limits the ability to articulate, implement and measure clinical nurse leader-specific practice and quality outcomes. Interpretive synthesis design and grounded theory analysis were used to develop a theoretical understanding of clinical nurse leader practice that can facilitate systematic and replicable implementation across health-care settings. The core phenomenon of clinical nurse leader practice is continuous clinical leadership, which involves four fundamental activities: facilitating effective ongoing communication; strengthening intra and interprofessional relationships; building and sustaining teams; and supporting staff engagement. Clinical nurse leaders continuously communicate and develop relationships within and across professions to promote and sustain information exchange, engagement, teamwork and effective care processes at the microsystem level. Clinical nurse leader-integrated care delivery systems highlight the benefits of nurse-led models of care for transforming health-care quality. Managers can use this study's findings to frame an implementation strategy that addresses theoretical domains of clinical nurse leader practice to help ensure practice success. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Margolis, Jason; Huggins, Kristin Shawn
This article examines teacher leader role development and definition by looking at one emergent model of distributed leadership: the hybrid teacher leader (HTL). HTLs are teachers whose official schedule includes both teaching K-12 students and leading teachers in some capacity. Participants included six HTLs across four school districts over 2…
Seeger, M; Niemeyer, L; Bujotzek, M
The breakdown mechanism of compressed SF 6 in gas insulation is known to be controlled by stepped leader propagation. This process is still not well understood in uniform and weakly non-uniform background fields with small electrode protrusions, such as particles or surface roughness. In a previous publication an investigation of partial discharges and breakdown in uniform background fields that focused on streamer and leader inception mechanisms was presented (Seeger et al 2008 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41 185204). In this paper we present for the first time a physical leader propagation model that consistently describes the observed phenomena in uniform background fields in SF 6 . The model explains two different types of leader breakdown; these can be associated with the precursor and the stem mechanisms. It also yields the parameters of stepped leader propagation, which include step lengths, associated step charges, step times and fields and temperatures in the leader channel. Further, it explains the features of arrested leaders in uniform background fields. The model predicts the range of parameters under which arrested and breakdown leaders occur in good agreement with the experimental data.
Mattson, Malin; Hellgren, Johnny; Göransson, Sara
Leader communication is known to influence a number of employee behaviors. When it comes to the relationship between leader communication and safety, the evidence is more scarce and ambiguous. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether and in what way leader communication relates to safety outcomes. The study examines two leader communication approaches: leader safety priority communication and feedback to subordinates. These approaches were assumed to affect safety outcomes via different employee behaviors. Questionnaire data, collected from 221 employees at two hospital wards, were analyzed using structural equation modeling. The two examined communication approaches were both positively related to safety outcomes, although leader safety priority communication was mediated by employee compliance and feedback communication by organizational citizenship behaviors. The findings suggest that leader communication plays a vital role in improving organizational and patient safety and that different communication approaches seem to positively affect different but equally essential employee safety behaviors. The results highlights the necessity for leaders to engage in one-way communication of safety values as well as in more relational feedback communication with their subordinates in order to enhance patient safety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. and National Safety Council. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
All school leaders at some point will find themselves confronted by the need to shepherd their school communities through emotionally draining experiences. Death requires school leaders to act with compassion, care, and awareness that they are modeling for young people how to grieve. Few better examples of servant leadership exist. Communication…
Murphy, Lin G
This article explores how chief nurse executives became and remained authentic leaders. Using narrative inquiry, this qualitative study focused on the life stories of participants. Results demonstrate the importance of reframing, reflection in alignment with values, and the courage needed as nurse leaders progress to authenticity.
male opinion leaders was only 33.3 percent. These findings emphasise the necessity of extension to focus knowledge support on female opinion leaders in order to promote the diffusion process among the many female farmers. 3.3.3. Friendship. Friendship epitomises accessibility and consequently it is expected that.
Over the years, Asia has produced some of the worlds most formidable women leaders, including Indira Ghandi, Madame Mao, Benazir Bhutto, and Corazon Aquino. The list continues with South Asia's leaders, prime ministers, opposition leaders, and vice-presidents, however, such an impressive list does not reflect true equality nor enlightened gender politics. According to Sonny Lo, sociology professor at Hong Kong University, no Asian political system observes true gender equality. It is noted that these Asian leaders rose into prominence after the death or imprisonment of their fathers or husbands. Nevertheless, the elections of Anson Chan and life-long dissident Annette Lu, signal the emergence of a new model for women leaders in Asia. Still, Lo emphasizes that this new trend is merely a reflection of civil service equal opportunity rules. Lo adds that even Taiwan President Chen Sui-Bian's all-women cabinet does not reflect the nation's sentiment, but a wish to project an image.
Eagly, Alice H; Karau, Steven J
A role congruity theory of prejudice toward female leaders proposes that perceived incongruity between the female gender role and leadership roles leads to 2 forms of prejudice: (a) perceiving women less favorably than men as potential occupants of leadership roles and (b) evaluating behavior that fulfills the prescriptions of a leader role less favorably when it is enacted by a woman. One consequence is that attitudes are less positive toward female than male leaders and potential leaders. Other consequences are that it is more difficult for women to become leaders and to achieve success in leadership roles. Evidence from varied research paradigms substantiates that these consequences occur, especially in situations that heighten perceptions of incongruity between the female gender role and leadership roles.
Bøggild, Troels; Laustsen, Lasse
This article argues that followers’ preferences for dominant leadership vary according to two types of exploitation risks from other individuals within the group. Previous work demonstrates that contexts of inter-group war and peace make followers prefer dominant- and non-dominant-looking leaders......, respectively. We add an intra-group perspective to this literature. Four original studies demonstrate that contexts with high risks of free-riding and criminal behavior from other group members (i.e., horizontal exploitation) increase preferences for dominant-looking leaders, whereas contexts with high risks...... of unresponsive, self-interested behavior from leaders themselves (i.e., vertical exploitation) decrease preferences for dominant-looking leaders. Moreover, within this framework of intra-group exploitation risks we show that followers prefer leaders from another vis-à-vis their own ethnic coalition to look less...
Annual Surveillance Summary: Escherichia coli ( E . coli ) Infections in the Military Health System (MHS...or position of the Department of the Navy, Department of Defense, nor the U.S. Government. i i E . coli in the MHS: Annual Summary 2015 Prepared...March 2017 EpiData Center Department NMCPHC-EDC-TR-187-2017 ii ii E . coli in the MHS: Annual Summary 2015 Prepared March 2017 EpiData
Jørgensen, Steffen L; Kudirkiene, Egle; Li, Lili; Christensen, Jens P; Olsen, John E; Nolan, Lisa; Olsen, Rikke H
Escherichia coli causing infection outside the gastrointestinal system are referred to as extra-intestinal pathogenic E. coli. Avian pathogenic E. coli is a subgroup of extra-intestinal pathogenic E. coli and infections due to avian pathogenic E. coli have major impact on poultry production economy and welfare worldwide. An almost defining characteristic of avian pathogenic E. coli is the carriage of plasmids, which may encode virulence factors and antibiotic resistance determinates. For the same reason, plasmids of avian pathogenic E. coli have been intensively studied. However, genes encoded by the chromosome may also be important for disease manifestation and antimicrobial resistance. For the E. coli strain APEC_O2 the plasmids have been sequenced and analyzed in several studies, and E. coli APEC_O2 may therefore serve as a reference strain in future studies. Here we describe the chromosomal features of E. coli APEC_O2. E. coli APEC_O2 is a sequence type ST135, has a chromosome of 4,908,820 bp (plasmid removed), comprising 4672 protein-coding genes, 110 RNA genes, and 156 pseudogenes, with an average G + C content of 50.69%. We identified 82 insertion sequences as well as 4672 protein coding sequences, 12 predicated genomic islands, three prophage-related sequences, and two clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats regions on the chromosome, suggesting the possible occurrence of horizontal gene transfer in this strain. The wildtype strain of E. coli APEC_O2 is resistant towards multiple antimicrobials, however, no (complete) antibiotic resistance genes were present on the chromosome, but a number of genes associated with extra-intestinal disease were identified. Together, the information provided here on E. coli APEC_O2 will assist in future studies of avian pathogenic E. coli strains, in particular regarding strain of E. coli APEC_O2, and aid in the general understanding of the pathogenesis of avian pathogenic E. coli .
Schierack, Peter; Weinreich, Joerg; Ewers, Christa; Tachu, Babila; Nicholson, Bryon; Barth, Stefanie
Testing 1,666 fecal or intestinal samples from healthy and diarrheic pigs, we obtained hemolytic Escherichia coli isolates from 593 samples. Focusing on hemolytic E. coli isolates without virulence-associated genes (VAGs) typical for enteropathogens, we found that such isolates carried a broad variety of VAGs typical for extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli.
Full Text Available The end of the Cold War is often associated with the close of the year 1989, characterizedby the regaining of independence in Eastern Europe countries that were under dictatorships.The endof the Cold War was also connected with the fall of the Berlin Wall or with the disintegration of theSoviet Union in 1991. This paper is aimed to present Slobodan Milošević, analyzed as a toxic but alsoas a charismatic leader. Furthermore, this paper analyses the role of this political leader in Serbia andalso in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. The paper presents the concept of “toxic” leader, with thepurpose of identifying characteristics of this type of leaders. In order to perceive the complexity of theconcept, the paper is focused on a multidimensional study that should emphasize the intentions, thebehaviors, the character of a “toxic” leader, the impact and also the consequences of his decisions andactions. Focusing on Slobodan Milošević, this paper also outlines essential aspects which describe“charismatic” leaders and addresses the challenging possibility of the “charismatic” leaders being“toxic” leaders simultaneously.
Sijbom, Roy B.L.; Janssen, Onne; Van Yperen, Nico W.
In the present research we investigated when and why leaders tend to oppose or adopt radical creative ideas voiced by their subordinates. In a field study (Study 1, N=127) we showed that leaders' performance goals were positively related to their tendency to oppose radical creative ideas, whereas
Van Kleef, Gerben A; Homan, Astrid C; Beersma, Bianca; van Knippenberg, Daan
Do followers perform better when their leader expresses anger or when their leader expresses happiness? We propose that this depends on the follower's level of agreeableness. Anger is associated with hostility and conflict-states that are at odds with agreeable individuals' goals. Happiness facilitates affiliation and positive relations-states that are in line with agreeable individuals' goals. Accordingly, the two studies we conducted showed that agreeableness moderates the effects of a leader's emotional displays. In a scenario study, participants with lower levels of agreeableness responded more favorably to an angry leader, whereas participants with higher levels of agreeableness responded more favorably to a neutral leader. In an experiment involving four-person teams, teams composed of participants with lower average levels of agreeableness performed better when their leader expressed anger, whereas teams composed of participants with higher average levels of agreeableness performed better when their leader expressed happiness. Team performance was mediated by experienced workload, which was highest among agreeable followers with an angry leader. Besides having important practical implications, the findings shed new light on the fundamental question of how emotional expressions regulate social behavior.
van Kleef, G.A.; Homan, A.C.; Beersma, B.; van Knippenberg, D.
Do followers perform better when their leader expresses anger or when their leader expresses happiness? We propose that this depends on the follower’s level of agreeableness. Anger is associated with hostility and conflict—states that are at odds with agreeable individuals’ goals. Happiness
Greer, L. L.; Homan, A.C.; de Hoogh, A. H. B.; Den Hartog, D. N.
Despite the increasing prevalence of ethnic diversity, findings regarding its effects on team performance remain contradictory. We suggest that past inconsistencies can be reconciled by examining the joint impact of leader behavior and leader categorization tendencies in ethnically diverse teams. We
de Hoogh, A.H.B.; den Hartog, D.N.
Ethical leadership is seen as important by many researchers and practitioners. However, empirical research on ethical leader behaviour is limited and to date multilevel research is hardly found in this area. This study examines the relationships of two forms of perceived ethical leader behaviour
Greer, L.L.; Homan, A.C.; de Hoogh, A.H.B.; den Hartog, D.N.
Despite the increasing prevalence of ethnic diversity, findings regarding its effects on team performance remain contradictory. We suggest that past inconsistencies can be reconciled by examining the joint impact of leader behavior and leader categorization tendencies in ethnically diverse teams. We
Sleegers, Peter; Wassink, Hartger; van Veen, Klaas; Imants, Jeroen
In addition to cognitive research on school leaders' problem solving, this study focuses on the situated and personal nature of problem framing by combining insights from cognitive research on problem solving and sense-making theory. The study reports the results of a case study of two school leaders solving problems in their daily context by…
Hebbelstrup Jensen, Betina; Stensvold, Christen R.; Struve, Carsten
Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) has been associated with persistent diarrhea, reduced growth acceleration, and failure to thrive in children living in developing countries and with childhood diarrhea in general in industrialized countries. The clinical implications of an EAEC carrier...... and answered a questionnaire regarding gastrointestinal symptoms and exposures. Exposures included foreign travel, consumption of antibiotics, and contact with a diseased animal. In the capital area of Denmark, a total of 179 children aged 0-6 years were followed in a cohort study, in the period between 2009...
Full Text Available To explore the problem of leader prestige Chinese is familiar with, an empirical study was conducted. Base on the results of a sample of full-time employees in enterprises, the present study analyzed the effects of leader prestige on subordinates’ job attitude and behavior. The study proves that leader prestige can improve leader trust and organization identification of subordinates. Leader prestige can give birth to positive effects on leader trust, and then improve organizational identification of subordinates. Leader prestige has positive effects on job satisfaction and job engagement by the full mediator of organizational identification and leader trust. Leader’s power and leader-member exchange can moderate the positive relationship between leader prestige and subordinates’ organizational identification, but cannot moderate the relationship between leader prestige and leader trust.
de Vries, R.E.; Bakker-Pieper, A.; Oostenveld, W.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relations between leaders' communication styles and charismatic leadership, human-oriented leadership (leader's consideration), task-oriented leadership (leader's initiating structure), and leadership outcomes. Methodology: A survey was
Prof. Milhaya Dianalan Langco
Full Text Available This study determined the role of traditional Maranao leaders and local political leaders towards collaboration in promotion of peace in Marawi City. The study used the descriptive – explanatory research design. Descriptive statistics such as frequency counts and percentage distribution were used in the presentation and analysis of data. Furthermore, this study explored the association among variables. Pearson R tests were conducted to determine if there were associations between the traits and characteristics of Maranao traditional leaders and their role in promotion of peace; association between the administrative capabilities of local political leaders and their role in promotion of peace; both as independent variables, and association between roles of traditional and political leaders and their level of collaboration in promotion of peace, as the dependent variables. Percentage was used to quantitatively describe and analyze the responses given by the respondents while weighted mean was used to determine the average value of the responses in each item of the given questionnaire. Results of the findings revealed that the Sulutan was the highest traditional leader involved in conflict resolution while the Datu was the second most influential traditional leaders involved in the same. Furthermore, these traditional Maranao leaders is still seen by the respondents as honest and dependable, morally upright, tenacious and responsible, able to identify and clarify the needs and desires of groups, as well as that of the community as their priority. Moreover, the local political leaders in Marawi City including those of the Province of Lanao del Sur, are being seen to be important along with the Maranao traditional leaders in terms of conflict resolution and promotion of peace in the aforementioned areas.
Vergauwe, Jasmine; Wille, Bart; Hofmans, Joeri; Kaiser, Robert B; De Fruyt, Filip
This study advanced knowledge on charisma by (a) introducing a new personality-based model to conceptualize and assess charisma and by (b) investigating curvilinear relationships between charismatic personality and leader effectiveness. Moreover, we delved deeper into this curvilinear association by (c) examining moderation by the leader's level of adjustment and by (d) testing a process model through which the effects of charismatic personality on effectiveness are explained with a consideration of specific leader behaviors. Study 1 validated HDS charisma (Hogan Development Survey) as a useful trait-based measure of charisma. In Study 2 a sample of leaders (N = 306) were assessed in the context of a 360-degree development center. In line with the too-much-of-a-good-thing effect, an inverted U-shaped relationship between charismatic personality and observer-rated leader effectiveness was found, indicating that moderate levels are better than low or high levels of charisma. Study 3 (N = 287) replicated this curvilinear relationship and further illustrated the moderating role of leader adjustment, in such a way that the inflection point after which the effects of charisma turn negative occurs at higher levels of charisma when adjustment is high. Nonlinear mediation modeling further confirmed that strategic and operational leader behaviors fully mediate the curvilinear relationship. Leaders low on charisma are less effective because they lack strategic behavior; highly charismatic leaders are less effective because they lack operational behavior. In sum, this work provides insight into the dispositional nature of charisma and uncovers the processes through which and conditions under which leader charisma translates into (in)effectiveness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Barkhordari-Sharifabad, Maasoumeh; Ashktorab, Tahereh; Atashzadeh-Shoorideh, Foroozan
Ethics play an important role in activating the manpower and achieving the organizational goals. The nurse leaders' ethical behavior can promote the care quality by affecting the nurses' performance and bringing up several positive consequences for the organization. The aim of this study was to identify and describe the ethical competency of nurse leaders in cultural domains and the working conditions of the Iranian healthcare setting to arrive at a more comprehensive and specific perspective. This was a qualitative conventional content analysis study conducted with the participation of 14 nurse leaders at various levels. The participants were selected using the purposive sampling method, and the required data were collected using deep interview and also semi-structured interview. A deductive method of content analysis was applied in data analysis. Ethical considerations: This study was conducted in accord with the principles of research ethics and national rules and regulations relating to informed consent and confidentiality. Data analysis resulted in 17 subcategories that were subsequently grouped into three major categories including empathetic interactions, ethical behavior, and exalted manners. Our findings are consistent with previous ones, yet presenting a more complete knowledge about aspects of ethical competency of nurse leaders. The nurse leaders can provide a proper behavioral model for the work environment through the use of new information. The nurse leaders introduced various aspects of ethical competency, so the leaders' ethical competency could be promoted via planning and managing some ethical development programs. More future research is needed regarding the experiences of the subordinates and other related parties.
Ross, Erin J; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J; Click, Elizabeth R; Krouse, Helene J; Clavelle, Joanne T
This study describes the transformational leadership (TL) practices of nurse leaders in professional nursing associations (PNAs). Professional nursing associations are vehicles to provide educational opportunities for nurses as well as leadership opportunities for members. Little has been published about the leadership practices of PNA members. E-mail surveys of 448 nurse leaders in PNAs were conducted in 2013 using the Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI). The top 2 TL practices of these nurse leaders were enabling others to act and encouraging the heart. Respondents with more leadership training reported higher TL practices. This is the 1st study to describe TL practices of nurse leaders in PNAs. Results of this study show that nurse leaders of PNAs emulate practices of TL. Transformational leaders can mobilize and direct association members in reaching shared values, objectives, and outcomes. Understanding TL practices of nurse leaders in PNAs are important to the future of nursing in order to enable nurses to lead change and advance health through these organizations.
Leach, Linda Searle; McFarland, Patricia
The objective of this study was to identify the professional development topics that senior nurse leaders believe are important to their advancement and success. Senior/experienced nurse leaders at the executive level are able to influence the work environment of nurses and institutional and health policy. Their development needs are likely to reflect this and other contemporary healthcare issues and may be different from middle and frontline managers. A systematic way of assessing professional development needs for these nurse leaders is needed. A descriptive study using an online survey was distributed to a convenience sample of nurse leaders who were members of the Association of California Nurse Leaders (ACNL) or have participated in an ACNL program. Visionary leadership, leading complexity, and effective teams were the highest ranked leadership topics. Leading change, advancing health: The future of nursing, healthy work environments, and healthcare reform were also highly ranked topics. Executive-level nurse leaders are important to nurse retention, effective work environments, and leading change. Regular assessment and attention to the distinct professional development needs of executive-level nurse leaders are a valuable human capital investment.
Korolev, Semen A; Zverkov, Oleg A; Seliverstov, Alexandr V; Lyubetsky, Vassily A
Short leader genes usually do not encode stable proteins, although their importance in expression control of bacterial genomes is widely accepted. Such genes are often involved in the control of attenuation regulation. However, the abundance of leader genes suggests that their role in bacteria is not limited to regulation. Specifically, we hypothesize that leader genes increase the expression of protein-coding (structural) genes via ribosome reinitiation at the leader peptide in the case of a short distance between the stop codon of the leader gene and the start codon of the structural gene. For instance, in Actinobacteria, the frequency of leader genes at a distance of 10-11 bp is about 70 % higher than the mean frequency within the 1 to 65 bp range; and it gradually decreases as the range grows longer. A pronounced peak of this frequency-distance relationship is also observed in Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Spirochaetales, Acidobacteria, the Deinococcus-Thermus group, and Planctomycetes. In contrast, this peak falls to the distance of 15-16 bp and is not very pronounced in Firmicutes; and no such peak is observed in cyanobacteria and tenericutes. Generally, this peak is typical for many bacteria. Some leader genes located close to a structural gene probably play a regulatory role as well.
Epstein, Andrew L; Bard, Marc A
Clinical service lines and interdisciplinary centers have emerged as important strategic programs within academic health centers (AHCs). Effective physician leadership is significant to their success, but how these leaders are chosen has not been well studied. The authors conducted a study to identify current models for selecting the physician leaders of clinical service lines, determine critical success factors, and learn how the search process affected service line performance. In 2003 and 2004, the authors interviewed clinical and executive personnel involved in 14 programs to establish, or consider establishing, heart or cancer service lines, at 13 AHCs. The responses were coded to identify and analyze trends and themes. The key findings of the survey were (1) the goals and expectations that AHCs set for their service line leaders vary greatly, depending on both the strategic purpose of the service line in the AHC and the service line's stage of development, (2) the matrix organizational structure employed by most AHCs limits the leader's authority over necessary resources, and calls forth a variety of compensating strategies if the service line is to succeed, (3) the AHCs studied used relatively informal processes to identify, evaluate, and select service line leaders, and (4) the leader's job is vitally shaped by the AHC's strategic, structural, and political context, and selection criteria should be determined accordingly. Institutions should be explicit about the strategic purpose and stage of development of their clinical service lines and be clear about their expectations and requirements in hiring service line leaders.
Steege, Linsey M; Pinekenstein, Barbara J; Arsenault Knudsen, Élise; Rainbow, Jessica G
To describe hospital nurse leaders' experiences of fatigue. Fatigue is a critical challenge in nursing. Existing literature focuses on staff nurse fatigue, yet nurse leaders are exposed to high demands that may contribute to fatigue and associated risks to patient, nurse and organisational outcomes. A mixed method approach comprising semi-structured interviews and the Occupational Fatigue Exhaustion Recovery scale with 21 nurse administrators (10 nurse managers and 11 nurse executives) from hospitals in a Midwestern state. Most nurse leaders experience fatigue; nurse managers reported higher levels of chronic fatigue. Participants identified multiple sources of fatigue including 24 h accountability and intensity of role expectations, and used a combination of wellness, restorative, social support and boundary setting strategies to cope with fatigue. The consequences of nurse leader fatigue include an impact on decision-making, work-life balance and turnover intent. The high prevalence of nurse leader fatigue could impact the turnover intent of nurse administrators and quality of care. This study highlights the significance and consequences of nurse leader fatigue. As health care organisations continue to raise awareness and establish systems to reduce nurse fatigue, policies and programmes must be adapted to address nurse leader fatigue. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
van Heijenoort, Jean
Summary: The review summarizes the abundant information on the 35 identified peptidoglycan (PG) hydrolases of Escherichia coli classified into 12 distinct families, including mainly glycosidases, peptidases, and amidases. An attempt is also made to critically assess their functions in PG maturation, turnover, elongation, septation, and recycling as well as in cell autolysis. There is at least one hydrolytic activity for each bond linking PG components, and most hydrolase genes were identified. Few hydrolases appear to be individually essential. The crystal structures and reaction mechanisms of certain hydrolases having defined functions were investigated. However, our knowledge of the biochemical properties of most hydrolases still remains fragmentary, and that of their cellular functions remains elusive. Owing to redundancy, PG hydrolases far outnumber the enzymes of PG biosynthesis. The presence of the two sets of enzymes acting on the PG bonds raises the question of their functional correlations. It is difficult to understand why E. coli keeps such a large set of PG hydrolases. The subtle differences in substrate specificities between the isoenzymes of each family certainly reflect a variety of as-yet-unidentified physiological functions. Their study will be a far more difficult challenge than that of the steps of the PG biosynthesis pathway. PMID:22126997
Albert, M. R.; Virginia, R. A.
The high northern and southern latitudes of the earth share an extreme climate, but are vastly different in their histories, ecological systems and human cultures. Polar regions are increasingly under threat from climate change, resource extraction, and the collapse of large-scale marine ecosystems. These systems are important indicators of human influence on global scale processes (ozone depletion, global warming) and are valued for their biodiversity and uniquely adapted cultures. Unfortunately, the polar regions are often poorly understood by our citizens. Dartmouth College offers a liberal arts undergraduate education that trains tomorrow's leaders in politics, humanities, science and medicine. Through the Dickey Institute of Arctic Studies at Dartmouth College, we designed and taught an undergraduate interdisciplinary course to introduce the major physical, ecological and human systems of high latitudes, including the circumpolar northern Arctic regions and the continent of Antarctic and its southern oceans. Using an interdisciplinary approach we examined the science, societies, politics and policies that shape our viewpoint of cold regions. The connections of the polar regions to global processes and international issues were emphasized. In this paper we will describe our use of differing viewpoints to examine varying topics of importance in the polar regions. Starting the course as a tourist, we proceeded as traveler, explorer, scientist, resident, and politician to reach our final goal as informed voter at the end of the semester. A variety of invited speakers enhanced the course. Hoping before the course to attract twenty students, the fifty students enrolled in the course gave us high ratings. .
Halverson and Isham (2003) quote sources that report the accidental death rate of simply being in a hospital is " ... four hundred times more likely than your risk of death from traveling by train, forty times higher than driving a car, and twenty times higher than flying in a commercial aircraft" (p. 13). High-reliability organizations such as nuclear power plants and aircraft carriers have been pioneers in the business of recognizing weak signals. Weike and Sutcliffe (2001) note that high-reliability organizations distinguish themselves from others because of their mindfulness which enables them to see the significance of weak signals and to give strong interventions to weak signals. To act mindfully, these organizations have an underlying mental model of continually updating, anticipating, and focusing the possibility of failure using the intelligence that weak signals provides. Much of what happens is unexpected in health care. However, with a culture that is continually looking for weak signals, and intervenes and rescues when these signals are detected, the unexpected happens less often. This is the epitome of how leaders can build a culture of safety that focuses on recognizing the weak signals to manage the unforeseen.
Every nuclear utility has a culture which either drives or becomes a barrier to the vision of high performance and accountability of its personnel. This paper discusses two very powerful cultures at work in the nuclear power industry that may have very different values or ways of doing things. Employees from fossil plants have moved over to the nuclear plants where they meet with personnel who have been raised in the US Navy Nuclear Power Program. If these two cultures collide, as many plants have experienced, no one wins. Left alone, the two cultures may merge naturally, but if not, no amount of technical or procedural training will bridge the gulf. A second powerful influence within nuclear utilities is leadership. While culture explains how we do things around here, leadership has to do with the example people follow. This example may be set by a top executive in the corporate office or by a supervisor in the control room. The influence of leaders, whether positive or negative, can be seen at all levels of the utility. Team training, at any level, begins with a thorough understanding of the parent utility's culture, followed closely by an efficient method of implanting a culture suited to the company's strategy
Since the beginning of the 1970's, the potentialities of photovoltaic energy has been recognized by the Japanese government which has sustained this technology in two ways. First, by the financing of R and D programs, and second, by giving subsidies to citizens for the installation of solar panels. Today, Japan is the world leader of photovoltaic energy, both for the installed power and for the production of solar cells. In 2003, the International Energy Agency was reporting 1.809 GW of worldwide installed capacity among which 48% was in Japan (0.86 GW) with respect to 0.4 GW in Germany, 0.275 GW in the USA and only 20 MW in France. This capacity would have exceeded 1.1 GW at the end of 2004. Half of the solar modules are manufactured in Japan. The ministry of economy, trade and industry (METI) has fixed ambitious goals for 2010: the overall new energy sources much represent 3% of the primary energy (with respect to 1% today) and the installed capacity must reach 4.8 GW. The road-map of the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organisation (NEDO) foresees 100 GW by 2030. (J.S.)
Tsai, Jeanne L; Ang, Jen Ying Zhen; Blevins, Elizabeth; Goernandt, Julia; Fung, Helene H; Jiang, Da; Elliott, Julian; Kölzer, Anna; Uchida, Yukiko; Lee, Yi-Chen; Lin, Yicheng; Zhang, Xiulan; Govindama, Yolande; Haddouk, Lise
Cultures differ in the emotions they teach their members to value ("ideal affect"). We conducted 3 studies to examine whether leaders' smiles reflect these cultural differences in ideal affect. In Study 1, we compared the smiles of top-ranked American and Chinese government leaders, chief executive officers, and university presidents in their official photos. Consistent with findings that Americans value excitement and other high-arousal positive states more than Chinese, American top-ranked leaders (N = 98) showed more excited smiles than Chinese top-ranked leaders (N = 91) across occupations. In Study 2, we compared the smiles of winning versus losing political candidates and higher versus lower ranking chief executive officers and university presidents in the United States and Taiwan/China. American leaders (N = 223) showed more excited smiles than Taiwanese/Chinese leaders (N = 266), regardless of election outcome or ranking. In Study 3, we administered self-report measures of ideal affect in college student samples from 10 different nations (N = 1,267) and then 8 years later, coded the smiles that legislators from those nations showed in their official photos (N = 3,372). The more nations valued excitement and other high arousal positive states, the more their leaders showed excited smiles; similarly, the more nations valued calm and other low-arousal positive states, the more their leaders showed calm smiles. These results held after controlling for national differences in democratization, human development, and gross domestic product per capita. Together, these findings suggest that leaders' smiles reflect the affective states valued by their cultures. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Kanerva, Anne; Kivinen, Tuula; Lammintakanen, Johanna
Purpose The organisational level and leadership development are crucial elements in advancing patient safety, because patient safety weaknesses are often caused by system failures. However, little is known about how frontline leader and director teams can be supported to develop patient safety practices. The purpose of this study is to describe the patient safety development process carried out by nursing leaders and directors. The research questions were: how the chosen development areas progressed in six months' time and how nursing leaders view the participatory development process. Design/methodology/approach Participatory action research was used to engage frontline nursing leaders and directors into developing patient safety practices. Semi-structured group interviews ( N = 10) were used in data collection at the end of a six-month action cycle, and data were analysed using content analysis. Findings The participatory development process enhanced collaboration and gave leaders insights into patient safety as a part of the hospital system and their role in advancing it. The chosen development areas advanced to different extents, with the greatest improvements in those areas with simple guidelines to follow and in which the leaders were most participative. The features of high-reliability organisation were moderately identified in the nursing leaders' actions and views. For example, acting as a change agent to implement patient safety practices was challenging. Participatory methods can be used to support leaders into advancing patient safety. However, it is important that the participants are familiar with the method, and there are enough facilitators to steer development processes. Originality/value Research brings more knowledge of how leaders can increase their effectiveness in advancing patient safety and promoting high-reliability organisation features in the healthcare organisation.
Proceedings of the Third E. Coli Genome Meeting are provided. Presentations were divided into sessions entitled (1) Large Scale Sequencing, Sequence Analysis; (2) Databases; (3) Sequence Analysis; (4) Sequence Divergence in E. coli Strains; (5) Repeated Sequences and Regulatory Motifs; (6) Mutations, Rearrangements and Stress Responses; and (7) Origins of New Genes. The document provides a collection of abstracts of oral and poster presentations.
inactivation of bacterial microorganisms in areas with low ... disinfection of water contaminated with fecal indicators such as E. coli ... media, brain heart infusion, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide ... furnace at temperature 105 and 320°C f0r 60 min. For 2- and .... charge of E. coli logarithmic growth phase might affect the ...
Commensal bacteria contribute to the distribution and persistence of antimicrobial resistance in the environment. This study monitored antimicrobial resistance in commensal Escherichia coli from the faeces of on-farm and slaughter cattle and beef. A total of 342 (89.5%) E. coli isolates were obtained from 382 samples.
Background: Escherichia coli strains mainly fall into four phylogenetic groups (A, B1, B2, and D) and that virulent extra‑intestinal strains mainly belong to groups B2 and D. Aim: The aim was to determine the association between phylogenetic groups of E. coli causing extraintestinal infections (ExPEC) regarding the site of ...
This study was designed to determine the isolation rate, serotypes and biochemical profiles of E. coli from colibacillosis and dead-in-shell embryos in Zaria, Northern-Nigeria. The isolation rate of E. coli from hatcheries studied were 4.67% and 7.50% from farms of Simtu Agricultural Company and National Animal Production ...
Electrolyte and haematological parameters in rabbits infected with pathogenic isolates of Escherichia coli from rural water supplies in Rivers State, Nigeria, where monitored. Rabbits were orally infected with suspension containing 3x107 cfu /ml of Escherichia coli to induce diarrhoea, and the electrolyte (sodium, potassium ...
Alrowais, Hind; McElheny, Christi L; Spychala, Caressa N; Sastry, Sangeeta; Guo, Qinglan; Butt, Adeel A; Doi, Yohei
Fosfomycin resistance in Escherichia coli is rare in the United States. An extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing E. coli clinical strain identified in Pennsylvania, USA, showed high-level fosfomycin resistance caused by the fosA3 gene. The IncFII plasmid carrying this gene had a structure similar to those found in China, where fosfomycin resistance is commonly described.
Mott, John E.
Examines heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and the role of regulatory sequences which control gene expression at transcription resulting in abundant production of messenger RNA and regulatory sequences in mRNA which promote efficient translation. Also examines the role of E. coli cells in stabilizing mRNA and protein that is…
Knowing the survival rates of water-borne Escherichia coli is important in evaluating microbial contamination and making appropriate management decisions. E. coli survival rates are dependent on temperature, a dependency that is routinely expressed using an analogue of the Q10 mo...
Lukjancenko, Oksana; Wassenaar, T. M.; Ussery, David
Escherichia coli is an important component of the biosphere and is an ideal model for studies of processes involved in bacterial genome evolution. Sixty-one publically available E. coli and Shigella spp. sequenced genomes are compared, using basic methods to produce phylogenetic and proteomics...
Jul 19, 2012 ... Commensal bacteria contribute to the distribution and persistence of antimicrobial resistance in the environment. This study monitored antimicrobial resistance in commensal Escherichia coli from the faeces of on-farm and slaughter cattle and beef. A total of 342 (89.5%) E. coli isolates were obtained.
Klemm, Per; Hancock, Viktoria; Schembri, Mark A.
Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) represent an important subclass of E. coli that cause a wide spectrum of diseases in human and animal hosts. Fimbriae are key virulence factors of ExPEC strains. These long surface located rod-shaped organelles mediate receptor-specific attachment...
Aug 22, 2011 ... The beta lactamase enzyme producing E. coli, resistant to β-lactam antibiotics, created many problems ... Key words: Escherichia coli, β-lactamase enzymes, TEM-type extended spectrum ... difficulties in treatment using antibiotics that are currently ... and chloramphenicol (30 µg) (Mast Diagnostics Ltd., UK).
Manges, Kirstin; Scott-Cawiezell, Jill; Ward, Marcia M
Facilitating team development is challenging, yet critical for ongoing improvement across healthcare settings. The purpose of this exemplary case study is to examine the role of nurse leaders in facilitating the development of a high-performing Change Team in implementing a patient safety initiative (TeamSTEPPs) using the Tuckman Model of Group Development as a guiding framework. The case study is the synthesis of 2.5 years of critical access hospital key informant interviews (n = 50). Critical juncture points related to team development and key nurse leader actions are analyzed, suggesting that nurse leaders are essential to maximize clinical teams' performance. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Cusack, Sandra A.; Thompson, Wendy
Canada Geese are never stuck for leaders, because every goose shares the leadership. Every goose is a volunteer-every volunteer is a leader. Flying in V-formation is aerodynamically efficient-every individual- goose/volunteer gets more lift when all are working together. The purpose of this blueprint is to help you promote goose leadership by giving volunteers the lift they need to get them off the ground and flying high. Every volunteer is a potential leader, and when they get the lift that'...
Alistarh, Dan; Gelashvili, Rati; Vladu, Adrian
The problem of electing a leader from among $n$ contenders is one of the fundamental questions in distributed computing. In its simplest formulation, the task is as follows: given $n$ processors, all participants must eventually return a win or lose indication, such that a single contender may win. Despite a considerable amount of work on leader election, the following question is still open: can we elect a leader in an asynchronous fault-prone system faster than just running a $\\Theta(\\log n...
Dereniowski, Dariusz; Pelc, Andrzej
Topology recognition and leader election are fundamental tasks in distributed computing in networks. The first of them requires each node to find a labeled isomorphic copy of the network, while the result of the second one consists in a single node adopting the label 1 (leader), with all other nodes adopting the label 0 and learning a path to the leader. We consider both these problems in networks whose nodes are equipped with not necessarily distinct labels called colors, and ports at each n...
Little has been done to address the issue of how to overcome resistance to change in a change effort in the church world. “How to overcome resistance to change?” is a question that requires serious consideration among church leaders. Church leaders continue to act in ways that produce resistance to change and ultimately failed change efforts. These actions on the part of church leaders often strengthen and reinforce the sources of resistance to change, making it very difficult for change to b...
Corrigan, P W; Garman, A N; Lam, C; Leary, M
The authors present the findings of the first phase of a 3-year study developing a skills training curriculum for mental health team leaders. A factor model empirically generated from clinical team members was compared to Bass' (1990) Multifactor Model of Leadership. Members of mental health teams generated individual responses to questions about effective leaders. Results from this survey were subsequently administered to a sample of mental health team members. Analysis of these data yielded six factors: Autocratic Leadership, Clear Roles and Goals, Reluctant Leadership, Vision, Diversity Issues, and Supervision. Additional analyses suggest Bass' Multifactor Model offers a useful paradigm for developing a curriculum specific to the needs of mental health team leaders.
Henriquez, C; Navarro, G; Pereda, C
Some time ago the CCHEN authorities decided to produce a set of 50 low enrichment fuel elements. These elements were produced in the PEC (Fuel Elements Plant), located at CCHEN offices in Lo Aguirre. These new fuel elements have basically the same geometrical characteristics of previous ones, which were British and made with raw material from the U.S. The principal differences between our fuel elements and the British ones is the density of fissile material, U-235, which was increased to compensate the reduction in enrichment. Last year, the Fuel Elements Plant (PEC) delivered the shipment's first four (4) fuel elements, called leaders, to the RECH1. A test element was delivered too, and the complete set was introduced into the reactor's nucleus, following the normal routine, but performing a special follow-up on their behavior inside the nucleus. This experimental element has only one outside fuel plate, and the remaining (15) structural plates are aluminum. In order to study the burnup, the test element was taken out of the nucleus, in mid- November 1999, and left to decay until June 2000, when it was moved to the laboratory (High Activity Cell), to start the burnup measurements, with a gamma spectroscopy system. This work aims to show the results of these measurements and in addition to meet the following objectives: (a) Visual test of the plate's general condition; (b) Sipping test of fission products; (c) Study of burn-up distribution in the plate; (d) Check and improve the calculus algorithm; (e) Comparison of the results obtained from the spectroscopy with the ones from neutron calculus
Bronk, Kendall Cotton; McLean, Derrick C
The founder of TOMS Shoes, Blake Mycoskie, and the late Apple cofounder and CEO, Steve Jobs, model the role of passion and purpose in leader developmental readiness. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.
Full Text Available This study investigates the associations between the narcissistic leader and performance and the moderating effect of a leader’s tenure and self-esteem. The hypothesis were studied with Pearson correlations and stepwise hierarchical multiple regression analyses (n=203. The moderating effect of leader’s tenure on the relationship between narcissism and leader performance was confirmed. The narcissistic leader’s performance tends to be positively evaluated only because the leader has held the position for a very short period. Self-esteem exhibited a very strong correlation to leader performance. The results support the view that narcissism is a personality dimension, albeit one that is not necessarily pathological. The results of this study suggest it would be wise to add Rorschach Comprehensive System (RCS to the tools available in the personnel assessment situation.
Sustained School Improvement: A Case of How School Leaders Strategise for School Improvement in Zimbabwean Primary Schools. ... Zimbabwe Journal of Educational Research. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search ...
Westphal, Richard J
.... Semi-structured interviews and military policies were used as data sources to analyze the language, knowledge, and attitudes of Navy surface fleet leaders about mental illness and mental health...
Moran, Robert T
This book is a must-read for anyone responsible for projects and initiatives that span functional and geographical divides. Authors Moran and Youngdahl bring extensive experience and learning from industry practice to present a clear and straightforward treatment of the leadership skills and knowledge required to lead projects that are global in nature. They have written the first book of its kind to address the three essential skills of global project leaders - strategic project management, project leadership, and cross-cultural leadership. The authors argue that global project leadership is an essential skill in our project-based world and that we are all either intentional or accidental project leaders. Intentional project leaders pursue formal project management education and even certification whereas accidental project leaders find themselves leading global projects and initiatives as a result of a special assignment or promotion. Moran and Youndahl have found that the vast majority of global projects ...
The influence of leaders' character (e.g., integrity, humility/forgiveness) has rarely been examined in leadership research. The current investigation focused on the impact of integrity and humility/forgiveness on both followers' perceptions of leaders' worthiness of being followed (WBF) and stress. Results from a scenario experiment (n = 347) and a field study (n = 110) indicated that these aspects incrementally predict WBF above and beyond the impact of transformational leadership. Similar results were found concerning followers' stress with the exception of leader integrity in the field study. According to relative importance analyses, integrity and transformational leadership predict WBF equally well. The results have conceivable implications for human resources (personnel selection and development). Future research should examine additional outcome variables that are affected by certain leader characteristics as well as potential negative effects of the examined character aspects.
.... Research indicates that currently our government does not grow effective leaders. Often those "rising to the top" are technical experts with minimal leadership experiences, mostly unacquainted with the fundamentals of leadership...
Leaders who inspire are affirming to everyone in the meeting. They create the environment that meets the needs of the people first, not the leaders. People yearn to be heard, and to be engaged with their soul in genuine dialogue and engagement. If that doesn't happen in the meeting, then they search for meaning and support of their soul elsewhere and sneaker time increases. Leaders get from people what they give to them. If people in a meeting are given nothing, they in turn have nothing to give. If they truly feel they are served by the leader, they will give back much more than they receive. As Martin Luther King, Jr. so aptly said: "Everyone can be great because everyone can serve.
From October 31 to November 12, 1999, 115 civilian and military officials from Africa, Europe, and the United States participated in the inaugural Senior Leader Seminar of the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) in Dakar, Senegal...
Monsignor Dieudonné Nzapalainga
Full Text Available In the Central African Republic, where religion has been used as a tool to divide and manipulate the population, religious leaders have come together to promote tolerance and forgiveness as a basis for rebuilding peaceful cohabitation.
Waits, Wendi; Brent, Elizabeth
In today's fast-paced, data-saturated, zero-tolerance practice environment, psychiatrists and other health care providers are expected to maintain clinical, fiscal, and administrative competence. The authors present a unique type of psychiatric leader—the leader-teacher—who incorporates teaching of these elements into day-to-day practice, enhancing lifelong learning for credentialed staff and increasing their confidence in managing complex clinical and administrative issues. Particular emphasis is placed on leader-teachers working in military environments. The article discusses the primary characteristics of this type of leader, including their tendency to (1) seek clarification, (2) distill information, (3) communicate guidance, and (4) catalogue products. The authors also address the advantages and disadvantages of being a leader-teacher and present several illustrative cases.
Haynes, Kenneth G
.... The convergence of Full Spectrum Operations, Network Centric Warfare, and Krulak's "Three Block War" have facilitated an urgent need for junior leaders that are more capable, adaptive, and mature...
Becker, Bradley A
...: interpersonal skills, conceptual skills, and technical skills. From these three primary strategic leadership skills, there is a list of twenty-one competencies that a strategic leader should posses...
Bourke, Lisa; Luloff, A. E.
Data from nearly 50 community leaders in 4 nonmetropolitan Pennsylvania counties show that both positive and negative impacts from tourism development were expected; local support was essential. Some feared that tourism was a threat to the rural atmosphere. (SK)
María Laura Lupano Perugini
Full Text Available An investigation was realized to analyze the way leaders and subordinates describe themselves in relation to perceived gender stereotypic characteristics and, to verify if exists differences in these characteristics according position (leader/ subordinate. Participate 612 individuals, 329 male (54% y 283 female (46%, age average = 37,54 years (DE=11,88. 59 % of the participants occupied executive positions and the rest were subordinates. It was utilized and abbreviate version of the Bem Sex Roles (Bem, 1974 to data recollection. The obtained results show that male leaders describe themselves mainly with agentic-masculine attributes (e.g. dominant, compared with subordinates who describe themselves with communal- feminine characteristics (e.g. submission. On the other hand, the female leaders describe themselves mainly with androgyny attributes combining qualities of both genders (e.g. dominant and sensible to the needs of others; however the female subordinates show communal attributes (e.g. submission
.... This will not change as we transform our military throughout the 21th Century. The development of operational leaders will continue to be a significant challenge for our military in the coming years...
.... Likewise, the Army Medical Department (AMEDD) must insure its leaders, specifically those selected to deploy world-wide, have a more diverse skill set that enables them to fully operate within the full spectrum of scenarios...
Jul 14, 2011 ... ... which brought Jerry Rawlings to power, "I saw examples where the grassroots ... over the Internet via the Traditional Authority Applied Research Network ... In this study, the research team is focusing on traditional leaders ...
Cao, Linlin; Zheng, Mingchun; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Fuming
With the rapid development of mobile Internet, user gradually become the leader of social media, the abruptly rise of new media has changed the traditional information's dissemination pattern and regularity. There is new era significance of opinion leaders, gatekeepers in the classical theory of mass communication, and it has further expansion and extension to a certain extent. In the existing mining of opinion leaders, it is mainly from the research of network structure and user behavior without considering an important attribute: whether the user has a real impact. In this paper, we take the symbolic network as the research tool, by giving symbol which correspondingly represents support or oppose to the link about point of view relationship between users and combining traditional algorithms of mining with symbolism which can describe the change of view between users, we will get the opinion leader who has real impact on users, then the result is more accurate and effective.
.... Given the importance that acquisition leaders play in the success of their organizations and in the development of our future warfighting capabilities, is the Air Force providing the appropriate...
Barksdale, Michael M
.... The purpose of the paper is twofold. The first purpose is to review the communication and organizational literature on power to illustrate how various uses and forms of power impact employee perceptions of leaders...
Gordin, Peggy Cohen; Trey, Beulah
Leadership is an important topic in nursing. We recognize the importance of leaders who represent us well to those outside of the profession, yet many nurses do not view themselves as "leaders." This is unfortunate, because real leadership is less about a title or institutionally granted power, and more about how we "show up" in the many situations that make up our days. The image of the nursing profession is formed in the many day-to-day interactions between nurses and patients, families, the public, physicians, and administrators. Nurses who can find their inner leader and use it in their practice, at whatever level of the organization they contribute, will find that they are able to positively impact patient care and outcomes. This paper describes a framework for finding your inner leader that is based upon 5 "skill-cepts" (skills derived from leadership concepts), which we have found essential to leading.
Boyce, Lisa A; Wisecarver, Michelle M; Zaccaro, Stephen J
.... The model depicts a person with a mastery, work, and career-growth orientation as more motivated to perform leader self-development and more skilled at performing instructional and self-regulatory...
Marlise van Zyl
Full Text Available As a large part of South Africa’s economy is based on the mining industry, this research focused on exploring the coping strategies of business leaders in the mining industry during an economic downturn. Using qualitative research within a constructivist-interpretive paradigm, the researchers sought a deeper understanding of how mining leaders cope during an economic downturn. A purposive sample of seven executive mining leaders of different mining houses was interviewed and data was analysed using Atlas.ti. A conceptual framework for understanding coping strategies at the individual, group and organisational levels for business leaders during an economic downturn was developed and is discussed here. This study contributed to theory and practice by focusing on coping responses to specific situations within a specific context instead of on general coping strategies.
Chutnik, Monika; Grzesik, Katarzyna
Increasing number of companies operate in the setup of teams whose members are geographically scattered and have different cultural origins. They work through access to the same digital network and communicate by means of modern technology. Sometimes they are located in different time zones and have never met each other face to face. This is the age of a virtual team leader. Virtual leadership in intercultural groups requires special skills from leaders. Many of these reflect leadership s...
This article seeks to raise awareness of the leader-member exchange (LMX) theory of leadership and its potential benefit to the health information management (HIM) profession. A literature review that was conducted identified a leadership challenge for HIM practitioners. The review also provides examples of leadership definitions, and potential benefits of LMX to HIM professionals in leading people and influencing leaders in their organizations. The LMX concept may be an avenue to investigate...
Guy, Timothy Michael
This research study explores the intersection of school leadership and ethics. This study used the hermeneutic phenomenological approach described by Max Van Manen (1990, 2014) to explore the question: How do school leaders experience ethical dilemmas in their role as school leaders? Hermeneutic phenomenology seeks to find the meaning of a phenomenon, which in this case is the experience of an ethical dilemma. Hermeneutic refers to the interpretive-reflective-analytical component and phenom...
Iudin, Dmitry; Syssoev, Artem; Davydenko, Stanislav; Rakov, Vladimir
It is well-known that the negative leaders develop in a step manner using a mechanism of the so-called space leaders in contrary to positive ones, which propagate continuously. Despite this fact has been known for about a hundred years till now no one had developed any plausible model explaining this asymmetry. In this study we suggest a model of the stepped development of the negative lightning leader which for the first time allows carrying out the numerical simulation of its evolution. The model is based on the probability approach and description of temporal evolution of the discharge channels. One of the key features of our model is accounting for the presence of so called space streamers/leaders which play a fundamental role in the formation of negative leader's steps. Their appearance becomes possible due to the accounting of potential influence of the space charge injected into the discharge gap by the streamer corona. The model takes into account an asymmetry of properties of negative and positive streamers which is based on well-known from numerous laboratory measurements fact that positive streamers need about twice weaker electric field to appear and propagate as compared to negative ones. An extinction of the conducting channel as a possible way of its evolution is also taken into account. This allows us to describe the leader channel's sheath formation. To verify the morphology and characteristics of the model discharge, we use the results of the high-speed video observations of natural negative stepped leaders. We can conclude that the key properties of the model and natural negative leaders are very similar.
Knak, Henrik; Hald, Kim Sundtoft
Dette års udgave af Supply Chain Leaders Forum diskede op med innovation, inspiration og ny indsigt i outsourcing. Konferencen var arrangeret i et samarbejde mellem Copenhagen Business School og Tata Consultancy Services. (Artiklen er på engelsk).......Dette års udgave af Supply Chain Leaders Forum diskede op med innovation, inspiration og ny indsigt i outsourcing. Konferencen var arrangeret i et samarbejde mellem Copenhagen Business School og Tata Consultancy Services. (Artiklen er på engelsk)....
The qualitative research undertaken was set out to understand the challenges experienced by female leaders at the workplace. Therefore, semi-structured interviews with 12 female leaders in top management positions from different industries were conducted. As a consequence, a duality between tensions concerning 1) character traits, 2) beauty and 3) motherhood was confirmed through the experiences shared by the participants. Women identified these tensions as highly challenging and difficult to...
What's it like to work on a great software development team facing an impossible problem? How do you build an effective team? Beautiful Teams takes you behind the scenes with some of the most interesting teams in software engineering history. You'll learn from veteran team leaders' successes and failures, told through a series of engaging personal stories -- and interviews -- by leading programmers, architects, project managers, and thought leaders.
Feltner, Arta; Mitchell, Barbara; Norris, Elfi; Wolfle, Clara
Effective leadership can promote a satisfying and productive work environment in which staff members positively contribute to the success of the organization. Nurses at a magnet hospital in Florida undertook a project to determine what staff nurses believed were the characteristics of an effective leader. Using one-on-one interviews and surveys, the project team discovered that the most highly ranked qualities and characteristics of an effective leader included effective communication skills, fairness, and knowledge about staff members' jobs.
Scoble, Kathleen B; Russell, Gail
The demand for knowledgeable and skilled nursing leaders at the first, middle, and executive levels of management in healthcare organizations drove a multi-phased project about the kinds of nurse managers who will be needed in the future and their educational needs. This first article in a two-part series describes seasoned nurse leaders' opinions about the educational preparation, experiences, and competencies desired in nurse managers for the year 2020.
Stoller, James K
Clinicians are inveterate leaders. We lead patients through the difficult maze of illness, families through the travails of ill loved ones, and physicians-in-training through the gauntlet of learning medicine. Yet, in the context of a range of leadership styles that effective leaders must be able to deploy situationally, physician leaders have traditionally defaulted to a "command and control" style that fosters the concept of physicians as "Viking warriors" or "heroic lone healers." The perverse effects of "command and control" are that this style conspires against collaboration and tends to be perpetuated as aspiring leaders emulate their predecessors. Because healthcare faces challenges of cost, access, and quality and is in the throes of change, the current landscape requires effective leadership. Though still relatively uncommon among healthcare organizations, frontrunner organizations are offering leadership development programs. The design of such programs requires clarity about requisite leadership competencies and about how and when to best to deliver such curricula. As one example, the American Thoracic Society has launched its Emerging Leaders Program (ELP), which is currently offering a leadership development curriculum to 18 selected emerging leaders. The ATS ELP curriculum focuses on awareness of self and system and incorporates highly participatory sessions on emotional intelligence, teambuilding, change management, situational leadership, appreciative inquiry, process and quality improvement, strategic planning, and organizational culture. Short-term deliverables are the development and presentation of business plans for innovations proposed by the group. Hoped for longer-term outcomes include an enhanced leadership pipeline for global respiratory health.
Martin, Jacqueline S; McCormack, Brendan; Fitzsimons, Donna; Spirig, Rebecca
This is an evaluation study of the impact of the adapted RCN Clinical Leadership Programme on the development of leadership competencies of nurse leaders in Switzerland. Transformational leadership competencies are essential for delivering high-quality care within health-care organizations. However, many countries have identified a lack of leadership skills in nurse leaders. Consequently, the development of leadership competencies is a major objective for health-care centres. This article describes the quantitative results of a mixed methods study. A one-group pre-test-post-test quasi-experimental design was used. A convenience sample of 14 ward leaders were assessed three times using the Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI). Descriptive and inferential data analysis techniques were employed. In total 420 observer-assessment questionnaires and 42 self-assessment questionnaires were distributed. Our main finding was that nurse leaders following the programme, demonstrated significant improvement in two subscales of the LPI -'inspiring a shared vision' and 'challenging the process'. This study showed improvement in two leadership practices of nurse leaders following a programme that has been adapted to Swiss health care. Findings concur with others studies that suggest that investments in educational programs to facilitate leadership skills in nurse leaders are justified. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
This study aims at comparing operational codes (namely, philosophical and instrumental beliefs about the political universe) of political leaders from different cultures. According to Schwartz (2004), cultures can be categorised into 3 dimensions: autonomy-embeddedness, egalitarianism-hierarchy and mastery-harmony. This study draws upon the 1st dimension (akin to the most popular cultural dimension of Hofstede: individualism-collectivism) and focuses on comparing the leaders of autonomous and embedded cultures based on how cooperative/conflictual they are. The main research hypothesis is as follows: the leaders of embedded cultures would be more cooperative than the leaders of autonomous cultures. For this purpose, 3 autonomous cultures (the UK, Canada and Australia) and embedded cultures (Singapore, South Africa and Malaysia) cultures were chosen randomly and the cooperativeness of the correspondent countries' leaders were compared after being profiled by Profiler Plus. The results indicated that the leaders of embedded cultures were significantly more cooperative than autonomous cultures after holding the control variables constant. The findings were discussed in the light of relevant literature. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.
Mrayyan, Majd; Khasawneh, Israa
Leadership' is a social process in which a member or members of a group influence the interpretation of events, choice of goals/outcomes, organization of work activities, motivation, abilities, power relations, and shared orientations. This study identifies leadership behaviours of Jordanian nursing leaders. A descriptive comparative design was used to collect data from four governmental and three private hospitals. Data were collected during April 2005. The total number of recruited nursing leaders was 140 with a 70% response rate. T-tests and chi-squares were performed to compare the phenomenon of interest. The mean reported leadership behaviours were slightly higher in private hospitals than those in governmental hospitals. However, more than half of the time, leaders in both types of hospitals used supportive leadership behaviours. There were significant differences between governmental and private hospitals in most demographics of the sample. Based on types of hospitals and gender, differences in leadership behaviours were advantageous for nursing leaders in private hospitals, while differences based on units and wards were advantageous for nursing leaders in governmental hospitals. In general, Jordanian nursing leaders used supportive leadership behaviours. Differences in leadership behaviours have implications for nursing practice, research, and education.
Tucci, K.; González-Avella, J. C.; Cosenza, M. G.
We investigate the role of opinion leaders or influentials in the collective behavior of a social system. Opinion leaders are characterized by their unidirectional influence on other agents. We employ a model based on Axelrod's dynamics for cultural interaction among social agents that allows for non-interacting states. We find three collective phases in the space of parameters of the system, given by the fraction of opinion leaders and a quantity representing the number of available states: one ordered phase having the state imposed by the leaders; another nontrivial ordered phase consisting of a majority group in a state orthogonal or alternative to that of the opinion leaders, and a disordered phase, where many small groups coexist. We show that the spontaneous rise of an alternative group in the presence of opinion leaders depends on the existence of a minimum number of long-range connections in the underlying network. This phenomenon challenges the common idea that influentials are fundamental to propagation processes in society, such as the formation of public opinion.
Junger, Stacey; Trinkle, Nicole; Hall, Norma
The aim was to examine the effect of a nurse leader certification preparation course on the confidence levels of the participants. Limited literature is available regarding nurse leader development and certifications. Barriers exist related to lack of confidence, high cost, time and lack of access to a preparation course. Nurse leaders (n = 51) completed a pre- and post-survey addressing confidence levels of participants related to the topics addressed in the nurse leader certification preparation course. There were statistically significant increases in confidence levels related to all course content for the participants. At the time of the study, there were 31.4% of participants intending to sit for the certification examination, and 5 of the 51 participants successfully sat for and passed the examination. A nurse leader certification preparation course increases confidence levels of the participants and removes barriers, thereby increasing the number of certifications obtained. The health-care climate is increasingly complex and nurse leaders need the expertise to navigate the ever-changing health-care environment. Certification in a specialty, such as leadership, serves as an indicator of a high level of competence in the field. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Robert Leo Power
Full Text Available Unlike many other prominent leadership theories, leader-member exchange (LMX theory does not focus on the specific characteristics of an effective organizational leader. Rather, LMX focuses on the nature and quality of the relationships between a leader and his or her individual subordinates. The ideal is for a leader to develop as many high-quality relationships as possible. This will lead to increases in subordinates’ sense of job satisfaction and organizational citizenship, as well as to increased productivity and attainment of organizational goals. LMX has been criticized for its potential to alienate some subordinates, failing to account for the effects of group dynamics and social identity, and failing to provide specific advice on how leaders can develop high-quality relationships. However, LMX has been heralded as an important leadership theory in higher and distance educational contexts because of its emphasis on promoting autonomy and citizenship, as well as its ability to complement and mediate transformational leadership styles. Recent authors have attempted to provide specific advice for leaders who want to learn how to build and capitalize on the high-quality relationships described by LMX theory.
Zhu, Meixia; Xie, Guangqiang
Aiming at the weight of trust someone given to participate in the interaction in Hegselmann-Krause's type consensus model is the same and virtual social networks among individuals with different level of education, personal influence, etc. For differences between agents, a novelty bounded confidence model was proposed with leader's opinion considered priority. Interaction neighbors can be divided into two kinds. The first kind is made up of "opinion leaders" group, another kind is made up of ordinary people. For different groups to give different weights of trust. We also analyzed the related characteristics of the new model under the symmetrical bounded confidence parameters and combined with the classical HK model were analyzed. Simulation experiment results show that no matter the network size and initial view is subject to uniform distribution or discrete distribution. We can control the "opinion-leader" good change the number of views and values, and even improve the convergence speed. Experiment also found that the choice of "opinion leaders" is not the more the better, the model well explain how the "opinion leader" in the process of the evolution of the public opinion play the role of the leader.
Nagahama, Akihito; Yanagisawa, Daichi; Nishinari, Katsuhiro
The analysis of the microscopic view of mixed traffic offers a basis for resolving traffic jams which are inhomogeneous due to several types of vehicles. In this study, we research the dependence of driving characteristics upon vehicle order in a platoon. By focusing particularly upon the manner in which the driving characteristics of a follower are affected by both their own vehicle type and that of their leader, we measured the trajectories of platoons comprising two vehicles selected from motorcycles, passenger cars, and trucks on a test course. Analysis based on vehicle order showed that the vehicle types of both the leader and the follower as well as the leader's driving characteristics affected the velocity, acceleration, deceleration, operational delay of followers, and the distance gap between leaders and followers in different ways. In addition, we investigated the factors affecting driving characteristics by multiple regression analysis. We revealed that the operational delay and the maximum distance gap tend to be large when the length of leaders is large. Furthermore, as long as a follower can follow, we need not consider vehicle types among the parameters determining maximum velocity in car-following models. The vehicle types of the leader and the follower should be considered to determine maximum acceleration. When determining maximum deceleration, the vehicle types of the follower should be considered.
Silver, Cheryl H; Benitez, Andreana; Armstrong, Kira; Tussey, Chriscelyn M
Inspired by panel discussions at various neuropsychology conferences, the aim of this paper is to share wisdom that women in neuropsychology acquired from their leadership experiences. We identified 46 women leaders in governance and academic research through reviews of organizational websites and journal editorial boards, and requested their response to brief questions via email. Twenty-one leaders provided responses to three questions formulated by the authors. This paper summarizes the primary themes for the following questions: (1) What advice would you give to a woman neuropsychologist who is seeking to move into a leadership role? Responses included: increase visibility, make connections, know yourself, be confident, and gather information. (2) What leadership style(s) works best? No respondents endorsed a 'best' leadership style; however, they suggested that leaders should know their own personal style, be open and transparent, find a shared mission, and most importantly - use a collaborative approach. (3) What helps a woman earn respect as a leader in neuropsychology? Respondents recommended that leaders should: get involved in the work, demonstrate integrity, do your homework, be dependable, and keep meetings focused. It is the authors' intent that by gathering and distilling advice from successful women leaders in neuropsychology, more women may be catalyzed to pursue leadership roles in our profession.
Andersson, R.; Schalen, C.; Tranberg, K.G.
The effect of intraperitoneal bile on growth, peritoneal absorption, and clearance of Escherichia coli was determined in E coli peritonitis in the rat. In E coli peritonitis, intraperitoneal bacterial counts gradually decreased, whereas they increased (after 2 hours) with subsequent development of bacteremia in E coli plus bile peritonitis. After an intraperitoneal injection of labeled bacteria, blood radioactivity was only initially lower in E coli plus bile peritonitis compared with E coli peritonitis. Clearance from blood was lower in E coli plus bile peritonitis than in E coli peritonitis. Organ localization was similar in E coli peritonitis and E coli plus bile peritonitis with decreased splenic, increased pulmonary, and unchanged hepatic uptakes compared with controls. Impaired peritoneal absorption of bacteria, together with impaired local host defense, is likely to enhance the noxious effect of bile in E coli peritonitis
Venkataramani, Vijaya; Richter, Andreas W; Clarke, Ronald
Employee radical creativity critically depends on substantive informational resources from others across the wider organization. We propose that the social network ties of employees' immediate leaders assume a central role in garnering these resources, thereby fostering their employees' radical creativity both independent of and interactively with employees' own network ties. Drawing on data from 214 employees working in 30 teams of a public technology and environmental services organization, we find that team leaders' betweenness centrality in the idea network within their teams as well as among their peer leaders provides creative benefits beyond employees' own internal and external ties. Further, employees' and leaders' ties within and external to the team interactively predict employee radical creativity. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Lauridsen, Trine Kiilerich; Arpi, Magnus; Fritz-Hansen, Thomas
Although Escherichia coli is among the most common causes of Gram-negative bacteraemia, infectious endocarditis (IE) due to this pathogen is rare. A 67-y-old male without a previous medical history presented with a new mitral regurgitation murmur and persisting E. coli bacteraemia in spite of broad......-spectrum intravenous antibiotics. Transthoracic and transoesophageal echocardiography revealed a severe mitral endocarditis. E. coli DNA was identified from the mitral valve and the vegetation, and no other pathogen was found. The case was further complicated by spondylodiscitis and bilateral endophthalmitis. Extra...
Hoogervorst, N; De Cremer, D; Van Dijke, M
Theories that explain employees’ positive emotional, cognitive and behavioral responses to fair procedures rely on control and relational processes. In the present study, we build on these models but reverse this perspective to examine when leaders provide voice opportunities in their interactions with employees. We argued that leaders may take care of employees’ perceived individual control needs (which influence their own outcomes) by granting them with voice. However, this will be the case...
Woteki, Catherine E
Leadership is a quality that can be learned. It is a behavior that one practices, and, after lots of practice, it becomes a habit. This is a lesson I learned from my father, who was a career pilot in the US Air Force and instilled this into me and my siblings from a very early age. It is also something I have learned in observing others. I have frequently asked why some people from certain disciplinary backgrounds seem to have an advantage in the leadership area. Think of the backgrounds of our Presidents, for example; so many of them have been attorneys. Members of Congress, as well, also frequently come from that disciplinary background. Key decision makers in government frequently come from economics backgrounds. I have also asked why this is the case. Frequently, the answer seems to be that these disciplines define themselves as being those that create leaders, not that they limit their members' aspirations. Why are so few veterinarians in leadership positions? It seems quite a paradox that they are not. The assets of an education in veterinary medicine are many. The education provides a very broad background in systems biology, medicine, and public health. There are many career paths for veterinarians. Most choose private practice, but, beyond that, career paths exist in industry, particularly the biomedical industry; in trade associations; in government and industry research; and in public health and regulatory positions. There are also many opportunities in academia, certainly in colleges of veterinary medicine but, beyond that, also in human medicine and in the biology disciplines. International opportunities also exist in governmental and non-governmental organizations, such as the Food and Agriculture Organization at the United Nations and the World Health Organization, and in advocacy and lobbying. Veterinarians are also making news these days. The emerging zoonotic diseases that have seized headlines in papers around the world give prominence to
The contamination of lettuce, spinach and basil with pathogenic E. coli has caused numerous illnesses over the past decade. E. coli O157:H7, E. coli O104:H4 and avian pathogenic E. coli (APECstx- and APECstx+) were inoculated on basil plants and in promix soiless substrate using drip and overhead ir...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Escherichia coli serological reagents. 866.3255... coli serological reagents. (a) Identification. Escherichia coli serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify Escherichia coli from cultured...
In the Eastern Cape Province E. coli and enterococci were detected in 7 and 4 of the 15 RHRW tanks, respectively. Enterococci were detected only from one river whereas E. coli was detected in all three rivers; in spring water neither enterococci nor E. coli were detected. Samples from GRWH tanks were positive for E. coli ...
Lin, Szu-Han Joanna; Ma, Jingjing; Johnson, Russell E
The literature to date has predominantly focused on the benefits of ethical leader behaviors for recipients (e.g., employees and teams). Adopting an actor-centric perspective, in this study we examined whether exhibiting ethical leader behaviors may come at some cost to leaders. Drawing from ego depletion and moral licensing theories, we explored the potential challenges of ethical leader behavior for actors. Across 2 studies which employed multiwave designs that tracked behaviors over consecutive days, we found that leaders' displays of ethical behavior were positively associated with increases in abusive behavior the following day. This association was mediated by increases in depletion and moral credits owing to their earlier displays of ethical behavior. These results suggest that attention is needed to balance the benefits of ethical leader behaviors for recipients against the challenges that such behaviors pose for actors, which include feelings of mental fatigue and psychological license and ultimately abusive interpersonal behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
MacDonald, Elisa B.
This article describes the role of the skillful leader and what practical solutions are needed to overcome hurdles. What distinguishes the skillful team leader from a less-effective leader is his or her approach to overcoming hurdles, and are rooted in the leader's values, mindset, intelligence, and skill. When faced with hurdles to team…
This dissertation studies how the media portray party leaders in terms of their character traits, and when and to what extent these mediated leadership images have electoral consequences. The research focusses on the media portrayal of party leaders to establish leader effects, instead of leader
Aaldering, L.; van der Meer, T.; van der Brug, W.
Conventional wisdom holds that party leaders matter in democratic elections. As very few voters have direct contact with party leaders, media are voters’ primary source of information about these leaders and, thus, the likely origin of leader effects on party support. Our study focuses on these
Vahjen, W; Cuisiniere, T; Zentek, J
To investigate the inhibitory effect of indigenous enterobacteria on pathogenic Escherichia coli, a challenge trial with postweaning pigs was conducted. A pathogenic E. coli strain was administered to all animals and their health was closely monitored thereafter. Faecal samples were taken from three healthy and three diarrhoeic animals. Samples were cultivated on MacConkey agar and isolates were subcultured. A soft agar overlay assay was used to determine the inhibitory activity of the isolates. A total of 1,173 enterobacterial isolates were screened for their ability to inhibit the E. coli challenge strain. Colony forming units of enterobacteria on MacConkey agar were not different between healthy and diarrhoeic animals in the original samples. Furthermore, numbers of isolates per animal were also not significantly different between healthy (482 isolates) and diarrhoeic animals (691 isolates). A total of 43 isolates (3.7%) with inhibitory activity against the pathogenic E. coli challenge strain were detected. All inhibitory isolates were identified as E. coli via MALDI-TOF. The isolates belonged to the phylotypes A, C and E. Many isolates (67.4%) were commensal E. coli without relevant porcine pathogenic factors, but toxin- and fimbrial genes (stx2e, fae, estIb, elt1a, fas, fan) were detected in 14 inhibitory isolates. Healthy animals showed significantly (P=0.003) more inhibitory isolates (36 of 482 isolates; 7.5%) than diseased animals (7 of 691 isolates; 1.0%). There were no significant correlations regarding phylotype or pathogenic factors between healthy and diseased animals. This study has shown that a small proportion of indigenous E. coli is able to inhibit in vitro growth of a pathogenic E. coli strain in pigs. Furthermore, healthy animals possess significantly more inhibitory E. coli strains than diarrhoeic animals. The inhibition of pathogenic E. coli by specific indigenous E. coli strains may be an underlying principle for the containment of pathogenic
Leaders of the Group of 8 countries backed the IAEA's work at their annual summit held 15-17 July 2006 in St. Petersburg, Russia. A concluding summary statement endorsed IAEA programmes and initiatives in areas of nuclear safety, security, and safeguards. The G8 nations adopted a St. Petersburg Plan of Action to increase transparency, predictability and stability of the global energy markets, improve the investment climate in the energy sector, promote energy efficiency and energy saving, diversify energy mix, ensure physical safety of critical energy infrastructure, reduce energy poverty and address climate change and sustainable development. In a statement on global energy security, the G8 said countries who have or are considering plans for nuclear energy believe it will contribute to global energy security while reducing air pollution and addressing climate change. The G8 said it acknowledged the efforts made in development by the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) and the IAEA's International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO). GIF and INPRO both bring together countries to develop next generation nuclear energy systems, including small reactors, very high temperature reactors and supercritical water-cooled reactors. The G8 reaffirmed its full commitment to all three pillars of the NPT and called on all States to comply with their NPT obligations, including IAEA safeguards as well as developing effective measures aimed at preventing trafficking in nuclear equipment, technology and materials. The G8 is seeking universal adherence to IAEA comprehensive safeguards agreements and is actively engaged in efforts to make comprehensive safeguards agreements together with an Additional Protocol the universally accepted verification standard. The G8 noted that an expansion of the peaceful use of nuclear energy must be carried forward in a manner consistent with nuclear non-proliferation commitments and standards. It discussed concrete
Haber Lesław H.
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to present the management system evolution, from functional to process to network management. The network management system requires new organizational solutions associated with the fulfilment of external functions in management, directed at the acquisition of stakeholders from the environment who are treated as relational capital. That also requires new skills and competences in searching for relational capital. Possession of that type of capital indicates the importance of a company on a competitive market. The author pointed out the significance of the mobile network leaders’ personal traits, from the viewpoint of their causative power in searching for relational capital. It was pointed out that not every mobile network leader may possess specific personal capabilities to attain relevant objectives.
We all admire leaders. In trying to understand how leadership works, however, we often lose sight of the fact that followers are a crucial part of the equation. Regrettably, they get short shrift in the management literature, where they are described as merely responding to their leaders' charisma or caring attitudes. What most analyses seem to ignore is that followers have their own motivations and are as powerfully driven to follow as leaders are to lead. In this article, psychoanalyst, anthropologist, and management consultant Michael Maccoby delves into the unconscious recesses of followers' minds. He looks closely at the often irrational tendency to relate to a leader as some important person from the past--a parent, a sibling, a close friend, or even a nanny. Sigmund Freud discovered this dynamic when working with his patients and called it"transference." But as important as it is, the concept remains little understood outside the realm of clinical psychoanalysis. This is unfortunate, because a solid understanding of transference can yield great insight into organizational behavior and endow you with the wisdom and compassion to be a tremendous leader. The author explains the most common types of transference--paternal, maternal, and sibling--and shows how they play out in the workplace. He notes that they have evolved as our family structures have changed. Whether followers perceive a leader as an all-knowing father figure, as an authoritative yet unconditionally loving mother figure, or as a brother or sister who isn't necessarily a model of good behavior, the leader can manage transferential ties by bringing unconscious projections to light. Then debilitating resentment and animosity can give way to mutual understanding and productivity--and a limping organization can start to thrive.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In emergency situations, it is important for the trauma team to efficiently communicate their observations and assessments. One common communication strategy is “closed-loop communication”, which can be described as a transmission model in which feedback is of great importance. The role of the leader is to create a shared goal in order to achieve consensus in the work for the safety of the patient. The purpose of this study was to analyze how formal leaders communicate knowledge, create consensus, and position themselves in relation to others in the team. Methods Sixteen trauma teams were audio- and video-recorded during high fidelity training in an emergency department. Each team consisted of six members: one surgeon or emergency physician (the designated team leader, one anaesthesiologist, one nurse anaesthetist, one enrolled nurse from the theatre ward, one registered nurse and one enrolled nurse from the emergency department (ED. The communication was transcribed and analyzed, inspired by discourse psychology and Strauss’ concept of “negotiated order”. The data were organized and coded in NVivo 9. Results The findings suggest that leaders use coercive, educational, discussing and negotiating strategies to work things through. The leaders in this study used different repertoires to convey their knowledge to the team, in order to create a common goal of the priorities of the work. Changes in repertoires were dependent on the urgency of the situation and the interaction between team members. When using these repertoires, the leaders positioned themselves in different ways, either on an authoritarian or a more egalitarian level. Conclusion This study indicates that communication in trauma teams is complex and consists of more than just transferring messages quickly. It also concerns what the leaders express, and even more importantly, how they speak to and involve other team members.
Background In emergency situations, it is important for the trauma team to efficiently communicate their observations and assessments. One common communication strategy is “closed-loop communication”, which can be described as a transmission model in which feedback is of great importance. The role of the leader is to create a shared goal in order to achieve consensus in the work for the safety of the patient. The purpose of this study was to analyze how formal leaders communicate knowledge, create consensus, and position themselves in relation to others in the team. Methods Sixteen trauma teams were audio- and video-recorded during high fidelity training in an emergency department. Each team consisted of six members: one surgeon or emergency physician (the designated team leader), one anaesthesiologist, one nurse anaesthetist, one enrolled nurse from the theatre ward, one registered nurse and one enrolled nurse from the emergency department (ED). The communication was transcribed and analyzed, inspired by discourse psychology and Strauss’ concept of “negotiated order”. The data were organized and coded in NVivo 9. Results The findings suggest that leaders use coercive, educational, discussing and negotiating strategies to work things through. The leaders in this study used different repertoires to convey their knowledge to the team, in order to create a common goal of the priorities of the work. Changes in repertoires were dependent on the urgency of the situation and the interaction between team members. When using these repertoires, the leaders positioned themselves in different ways, either on an authoritarian or a more egalitarian level. Conclusion This study indicates that communication in trauma teams is complex and consists of more than just transferring messages quickly. It also concerns what the leaders express, and even more importantly, how they speak to and involve other team members. PMID:22747848
Jacobsson, Maritha; Hargestam, Maria; Hultin, Magnus; Brulin, Christine
In emergency situations, it is important for the trauma team to efficiently communicate their observations and assessments. One common communication strategy is "closed-loop communication", which can be described as a transmission model in which feedback is of great importance. The role of the leader is to create a shared goal in order to achieve consensus in the work for the safety of the patient. The purpose of this study was to analyze how formal leaders communicate knowledge, create consensus, and position themselves in relation to others in the team. Sixteen trauma teams were audio- and video-recorded during high fidelity training in an emergency department. Each team consisted of six members: one surgeon or emergency physician (the designated team leader), one anaesthesiologist, one nurse anaesthetist, one enrolled nurse from the theatre ward, one registered nurse and one enrolled nurse from the emergency department (ED). The communication was transcribed and analyzed, inspired by discourse psychology and Strauss' concept of "negotiated order". The data were organized and coded in NVivo 9. The findings suggest that leaders use coercive, educational, discussing and negotiating strategies to work things through. The leaders in this study used different repertoires to convey their knowledge to the team, in order to create a common goal of the priorities of the work. Changes in repertoires were dependent on the urgency of the situation and the interaction between team members. When using these repertoires, the leaders positioned themselves in different ways, either on an authoritarian or a more egalitarian level. This study indicates that communication in trauma teams is complex and consists of more than just transferring messages quickly. It also concerns what the leaders express, and even more importantly, how they speak to and involve other team members.
Nov 21, 2011 ... the most common serious bacterial infections in infants ... UTI is a common cause of morbidity .... of ESBL and non-ESBL producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia. ... in hospital and community acquired infections.
Full Text Available Infections due to enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (Escherichia coli have a low incidence but can have severe and sometimes fatal health consequences, and thus represent some of the most serious diseases due to the contamination of water and food. New, fast and simple devices that monitor these pathogens are necessary to improve the safety of our food supply chain. In this work we report on mesoporous titania thin-film substrates as sensors to detect E. coli O157:H7. Titania films treated with APTES ((3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane and GA (glutaraldehyde were functionalized with specific antibodies and the absorption properties monitored. The film-based biosensors showed a detection limit for E. coli of 1 × 102 CFU/mL, constituting a simple and selective method for the effective screening of water samples.
Sharma, Umesh; Schwan, William R; Agger, William A
Pyomyositis due to Escherichia coli (E. coil) is rarely reported in immunocompromised patients with hematological malignancy. We present a case report of a 34-year-old man who developed E. coli pyomyositis as a complication of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the right hip suggested myofascial infection of the gluteal muscles, and a needle muscle aspiration grew E. coli phylogenetic group B2. The patient responded to intravenous piperacillin/tazobactam followed by prolonged oral levofloxacin. Pyomyositis should be suspected in all immunocompromised patients complaining of muscle pain and may exhibit signs of localized muscle infection. Appropriate antibiotic therapy targeting fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli should be considered for initial empiric therapy of pyomyositis in immunocompromised patients.
tract infection (UTI), bacteremia, pneumonia, soft-tissue infection, and ... Keywords: Drug resistance, Escherichia coli, Extraintestinal infections, Polymerase chain reaction, .... gynecology, 12 from orthopedics and 5 from pediatrics units.
Lauridsen, Trine Kiilerich; Arpi, Magnus; Fritz-Hansen, Thomas
Although Escherichia coli is among the most common causes of Gram-negative bacteraemia, infectious endocarditis (IE) due to this pathogen is rare. A 67-y-old male without a previous medical history presented with a new mitral regurgitation murmur and persisting E. coli bacteraemia in spite of broad......-spectrum intravenous antibiotics. Transthoracic and transoesophageal echocardiography revealed a severe mitral endocarditis. E. coli DNA was identified from the mitral valve and the vegetation, and no other pathogen was found. The case was further complicated by spondylodiscitis and bilateral endophthalmitis. Extra......-intestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) are able to colonize tissue outside the gastrointestinal tract and contain a variety of virulence factors that may enable the pathogens to invade and induce infections in the cardiac endothelia. In these cases echocardiography as the imaging technology is of paramount importance...
Reisner, A.; Holler, B.M.; Molin, Søren
Bacterial biofilms, often composed of multiple species and genetically distinct strains, develop under complex influences of cell-cell interactions. Although detailed knowledge about the mechanisms underlying formation of single-species laboratory biofilms has emerged, little is known about...... the pathways governing development of more complex heterogeneous communities. In this study, we established a laboratory model where biofilm-stimulating effects due to interactions between genetically diverse strains of Escherichia coli were monitored. Synergistic induction of biofilm formation resulting from...... the cocultivation of 403 undomesticated E. coli strains with a characterized E. coli K-12 strain was detected at a significant frequency. The survey suggests that different mechanisms underlie the observed stimulation, yet synergistic development of biofilm within the subset of E. coli isolates (n = 56) exhibiting...
Olsen, Rikke Heidemann; Thøfner, Ida; Pors, Susanne Elisabeth
Several types of Escherichia coli have been associated with extra-intestinal infections in poultry, however, they may vary significantly in their virulence potential. The aim of the present study was to investigate the virulence of five strains of E. coli obtained from different disease......) had a distinct ability to cause disease. Results of the study shows major differences in virulence of different strains of E. coli in ascending infections; however, there was no indication of tissue-specific adaptation, since strains obtained from lesions unrelated to the reproductive system were...... fully capable of causing experimental infection. In conclusion, the study provides evidence for the clinical outcome of infection with E. coli in poultry is largely influenced by the specific strain as well as individual host factors....
This paper addresses the developing political forces and budgetary issues that may lead civilian leaders to overrule the objections of senior military leaders and direct them to eliminate a division...
Post, David A.; Hove-Jensen, Bjarne; Switzer, Robert L.
The prs gene, encoding phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase, is preceded by a leader, which is 302 bp long in Escherichia coli and 417 bp in Salmonella typhimurium. A potential open reading frame (ORF) extends across the prs promoter and into the leader. The region between the prs coding region...... two promoters, the first promoter (P1) originating upstream of ORF 1, and expressing the prs gene in a tricistronic operon and a second promoter (P2), located within the ORF 2 coding frame, which transcribes the prs gene only. The transcripts encoding prs only were 20 times as abundant...... in the amount of message originating from the promoter P2....
Guo, An Chi; Jewison, Timothy; Wilson, Michael; Liu, Yifeng; Knox, Craig; Djoumbou, Yannick; Lo, Patrick; Mandal, Rupasri; Krishnamurthy, Ram; Wishart, David S.
The Escherichia coli Metabolome Database (ECMDB, http://www.ecmdb.ca) is a comprehensively annotated metabolomic database containing detailed information about the metabolome of E. coli (K-12). Modelled closely on the Human and Yeast Metabolome Databases, the ECMDB contains >2600 metabolites with links to ?1500 different genes and proteins, including enzymes and transporters. The information in the ECMDB has been collected from dozens of textbooks, journal articles and electronic databases. E...
Yugoslavia (ICTY by dying before the end of his trial, Saddam Hussein was prosecuted and sentenced to death before the Iraqi High Tribunal, and Omar al-Bashir has recently been the subject of a request for an arrest warrant from the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court. Surely international criminal law reaches its iconographic apogee with the prosecution of such leaders, brought down to size by the majesty of the law (if not the grandeur of the often aseptic courtrooms?
Full Text Available Orientation: This study contributes to an in-depth understanding of emotional intelligence (EI in women leaders in Higher Education Institutions (HEIs in South Africa from an inside perspective. Research purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore EI in South African women leaders working in HEIs to identify women leader’s strengths, foci and their possible areas of development. The aim is to get deeper insights in EI in women leaders because EI is associated with effective leadership qualities, creativity and innovation, as well as empathetic communication which is needed in the challenging HEI workplaces. Motivation for the study: Emotional intelligence is an important source for women leaders to increase leadership qualities. This study is motivated by a deep interest to explore aspects of EI in women leaders in this specific professional context. Research design, approach and method: The study uses a qualitative research design and an approach based on Dilthey’s modern hermeneutics of ‘Verstehen’ (understanding. Twenty-three women leaders of the Higher Education Research Service (HERS-SA network were interviewed through semi-structured interviews. One researcher observed behaviour in one HEI to support the interpretation of the data. Data were analysed through content analysis. Main findings: Findings show that women leaders mainly refer to intrapersonal emotional quotient (EQ, followed by interpersonal EQ, adaptability, stress management and, finally, general mood. The most highly rated components of EQ are self-regard, followed by interpersonal relationships, problem solving, empathy, emotional self-awareness, assertiveness, impulse control and social responsibility. Findings also provide ideas on what EQ components can be further developed. Practical/managerial implications: New insights are provided on what components of EI should be developed in women leaders to increase overall EI, on cognitive and behavioural levels
Dwyer, J. R.; Liu, N.; Ihaddadene, K. M. A.
Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) are bright sub-millisecond bursts of gamma rays that originate from thunderstorms. Because lightning leaders near the ground have been observed to emit x-rays, presumably due to runaway electron production in the high-field regions near the leader tips, models of TGFs have been developed by several groups that assume a similar production mechanism of runaway electrons from lightning leaders propagating through thunderclouds. However, it remains unclear exactly how and where these runaway electrons are produced, since lightning propagation at thunderstorm altitudes remains poorly understood. In addition, it is not obvious how to connect the observed behavior of the x-ray production from lightning near the ground with the properties of TGFs. For example, it is not clear how to relate the time structure of the x-ray emission near the ground to that of TGFs, since x-rays from stepped leaders near the ground are usually produced in a series of sub-microsecond bursts, but TGFs are usually observed as much longer pulses without clear substructures, at sub-microsecond timescales or otherwise. In this presentation, spacecraft observations of TGFs, ground-based observations of x-rays from lightning and laboratory sparks, and Monte Carlo and PIC simulations of runaway electron and gamma ray production and propagation will be used to constrain the lightning leader models of TGFs.
Elton Lima Macêdo
Full Text Available Introduction: Religion has helped the lower classes to raise the perspective of "divine justice" in the struggle for survival by allowing their believers to seek, in their practices, under the influence of religious leaders, the main guidelines to alleviate the suffering from the health-disease process. Objective: Unveil the limits and potentialities of religious leaders' influence on the health-disease process. Materials and Methods: Exploratory-type research, with a qualitative approach, based methodologically on the Historical Dialectical Materialism. For the data analysis, one used the discourse analysis technique proposed by Fiorin. Results: From the empirical universe, two analytical categories emerged: (1. Limits and possibilities of religious influence in relation to the health-disease process; 2. Vulnerabilities of the Unified Health System and the complementarity of religion: Interfaces of the health-disease process in postmodernity, in which religious practices, institutions and leaders express positively health care in the face of the disease process. However, the religious leader's power relations over the community and religious fanaticism make the search for religion to have a negative influence on people's health-disease process. Conclusion: Religious leaders encourage the complementarity between religion and medicine only at times when their believers need medium and high-complexity assistance, showing little attention to the preventive aspects of self-care, which reinforces the need to invest in new studies in the area.
Ito, Atsuki; Gobel, Matthias S; Uchida, Yukiko
Previous research has shown that leadership is signaled through nonverbal assertiveness. However, those studies have been mostly conducted in individualistic cultural contexts, such as in the U.S. Here, we suggest that one important strategy for goal attainment in collectivistic cultures is for leaders to self-regulate their behaviors. Thus, contrary to the previous evidence from individualistic cultural contexts, in collectivistic cultural contexts, leaders might suppress nonverbal assertiveness. To test this possibility, we assessed nonverbal behaviors (NVB) of Japanese leaders and members, and how they were evaluated by observers. We recruited Japanese leaders and members of university clubs and video-recorded them while introducing their club. Then, we coded their nonverbal rank signaling behavior. Finally, we asked a new set of naïve observers to watch these video-clips and to judge targets' suitability for being possible club leaders. Results of a multilevel analysis (level 1: individual participants, level 2: clubs) suggested that the more the club culture focused on tasks (rather than relationships), the more likely were leaders (but not members) of those clubs to suppress their nonverbal assertiveness. Naïve observers judged individuals who restrained from emitting nonverbal assertiveness as being more suitable and worthy club leaders. Thus, our findings demonstrate the cultural fit between contextual effects at the collective level (i.e., cultural orientation of a group) and the signaling and perceiving of social ranks at the individual level (i.e., suppression of nonverbal assertiveness). We discuss the importance of studying the cultural fit between the collective reality that people inhabit and people's psychology for future research in cultural psychology.