WorldWideScience

Sample records for cold climatic conditions

  1. Wind energy under cold climate conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maribo Pedersen, B.

    1999-03-01

    There is an increasing interest in wind energy production under different climatic conditions, among them cold climate and icing conditions. More and more wind turbines are being installed in cold climates and even adapted technology has been developed for that environment. Various national activities are going on in at least Finland, Canada, Italy, Sweden, etc. and international collaboration has been carried out within the European Union's Non-nuclear energy programme. Wind turbine operation is affected by both the cold temperatures and the formation of ice on the blades and the supporting structure. Cold temperatures can be handled by material selections known in other technical fields but to prevent icing, new techniques have to be - and have been - developed. Icing affects the reliability of anemometers, which concerns both turbine control and resource estimation, and changes the aerodynamics of the blades, which eventually stops the turbine. In addition, occasional icing events can locally affect public safety. The development of applied technology has entered some different paths and different solutions are tried out. As the applications are entering a commercial phase, these is a request to gather the experiences and monitor the reliability in a form that can be utilised by developers, manufactureres, consultants and other tenderers. The Topical Experts Meeting will focus on site classification, operational experiences, modelling and mesurements of ice induced loads and safety aspects. (EHS)

  2. Properties of volcanic soils in cold climate conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Elena

    2017-04-01

    Layers of volcanic ash and the Andosol soils derived from them may play an important role in preserving snow and ice as well as developing permafrost conditions in the immediate vicinity of volcanoes of high elevation or those situated at high latitudes, and land areas, often distant from volcanic activity that are either prone to permafrost or covered by snow and ice, but are affected by the deposition of subaerial ash. The special properties of volcanic ash that are responsible are critically reviewed particularly in relation to recent research in Kamchatka in the Far East of Russia. Of particular importance are the thermal properties and the unfrozen water contents of ash layers and the rate at which the weathering of volcanic glass takes place. Volcanic glass is the most easily weathered component of volcanic ejecta (Shoji et al., 1993; Kimble et al., 2000). There are many specific environmental conditions, including paleoclimate and present-day climate, the composition of volcanic tephra and glaciation history, which cause the differences in weathering and development of volcanic ash soils (Zehetner et al., 2003). The preservation of in situ, unweathered, and unaltered surficial ash-fall deposits in the cold regions has important implications for paleoclimate and glacial history. Ash-fall deposits, which trap and preserve the soils, sediments, and landforms on which they fall, can be used to resolve local climate conditions (temperature and moisture) at the ash site during ash-fall deposition. The preservation of detailed sedimentary features (e.g. bedding in the ash, sharpness of stratigraphic contacts) can tell us about their post-depositional history, whether they have been redeposited by wind or water, or overridden by glaciers (Marchant et al., 1996). Weathering of volcanic glass results in the development of amorphous clay minerals (e.g. allophane, opal, palagonite) but this takes place much slower in cold than under warmer climate conditions. Only few

  3. Key factors affecting urban runoff pollution under cold climatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtanen, Marjo; Sillanpää, Nora; Setälä, Heikki

    2015-10-01

    Urban runoff contains various pollutants and has the potential of deteriorating the quality of aquatic ecosystems. In this study our objective is to shed light on the factors that control the runoff water quality in urbanized catchments. The effects of runoff event characteristics, land use type and catchment imperviousness on event mass loads (EML) and event mean concentrations (EMC) were studied during warm and cold periods in three study catchments (6.1, 6.5 and 12.6 ha in size) in the city of Lahti, Finland. Runoff and rainfall were measured continuously for two years at each catchment. Runoff samples were taken for total nutrients (tot-P and tot-N), total suspended solids (TSS), heavy metals (Zn, Cr, Al, Co, Ni, Cu, Pb, Mn) and total organic carbon (TOC). Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis (SMLR) was used to identify general relationships between the following variables: event water quality, runoff event characteristics and catchment characteristics. In general, the studied variables explained 50-90% of the EMLs but only 30-60% of the EMCs, with runoff duration having an important role in most of the SMLR models. Mean runoff intensity or peak flow was also often included in the runoff quality models. Yet, the importance (being the first, second or third best) and role (negative or positive impact) of the explanatory variables varied between the cold and warm period. Land use type often explained cold period concentrations, but imperviousness alone explained EMCs weakly. As for EMLs, the influence of imperviousness and/or land use was season and pollutant dependent. The study suggests that pollutant loads can be - throughout the year - adequately predicted by runoff characteristics given that seasonal differences are taken into account. Although pollutant concentrations were sensitive to variation in seasonal and catchment conditions as well, the accurate estimation of EMCs would require a more complete set of explanatory factors than used in this

  4. Green Technologies for Energy-Efficient Buildings in Cold Climate Conditions of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharovarova, E. P.; Alekhin, V. N.; Maltseva, I. N.

    2017-11-01

    At present, energy preservation is the urgent task. Though Russia have all sufficient resources supplied to European and Asian countries, the abundance of fuel-power resources does not imply extravagance.The major objective of this study is to find out the application of green technologies into the buildings in the cold climate conditions of Russia. The present study describes a green methodology of building design and the approaches of green technologies implementation in Russia. The existing individual house in the village near Ekaterinburg, Russia, was used as an example to show the application of the green methodology suitable for this climatic conditions and to demonstrate the integration of energy-efficient architectural and engineering solutions into the building.

  5. The potential for cold climate conditions and permafrost in Forsmark in the next 60 000 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandefelt, Jenny; Naeslund, Jens-Ove [Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering, Stockholm (Sweden); Zhang, Qiong [Dept. of Meteorology, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden); Hartikainen, Juha [School of Engineering, Aalto Univ., Aalto (Finland)

    2013-05-15

    This report presents results of a study devoted to extend the current knowledge of the climate in Sweden in the next {approx}60,000 years (60 ka). Specifically, the potential of cold climate and permafrost development in south-central Sweden, and in the Forsmark region, over this time horizon was investigated. The climate system is an interactive system consisting of five major components: the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, the cryo sphere, the land surface and the biosphere, forced or influenced by various external forcing mechanisms, of which the most important is the Sun. Also the direct effect of human activities on the climate system is considered an external forcing. The latitudinal and seasonal distribution of incoming solar radiation (insolation) varies on millennial time scales due to variations in the Earth's orbit and axial tilt. These variations, together with variations in the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration, are viewed as two main factors in determining the climate variation between interglacial (warmer) and glacial (colder) climates. Summer insolation at high northern latitudes is at a minimum 17 ka and 54 ka after present (AP). These periods were therefore identified as potential future periods of cold climate conditions in high northern latitudes in general and in south-central Sweden in particular. Due to human emissions of carbon to the atmosphere, the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration is currently 392 ppmv (2011 AD), a substantial increase as compared to the range of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations of 180-295 ppmv found in ice cores for the last 400 ka. The future atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration is determined by i) future human carbon emissions to the atmosphere, ii) possible emissions due to feedbacks in the climate system, and iii) by the global carbon cycle. To investigate the potential of cold climate conditions in south-central Sweden in the next 60 ka the future air temperature in Forsmark was estimated based on

  6. High-quality eddy-covariance CO2 budgets under cold climate conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittler, Fanny; Eugster, Werner; Foken, Thomas; Heimann, Martin; Kolle, Olaf; Göckede, Mathias

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed at quantifying potential negative effects of instrument heating to improve eddy-covariance flux data quality in cold environments. Our overarching objective was to minimize heating-related bias in annual CO2 budgets from an Arctic permafrost system. We used continuous eddy-covariance measurements covering three full years within an Arctic permafrost ecosystem with parallel sonic anemometers operation with activated heating and without heating as well as parallel operation of open- and closed-path gas analyzers, the latter serving as a reference. Our results demonstrate that the sonic anemometer heating has a direct effect on temperature measurements while the turbulent wind field is not affected. As a consequence, fluxes of sensible heat are increased by an average 5 W m-2 with activated heating, while no direct effect on other scalar fluxes was observed. However, the biased measurements in sensible heat fluxes can have an indirect effect on the CO2 fluxes in case they are used as input for a density-flux WPL correction of an open-path gas analyzer. Evaluating the self-heating effect of the open-path gas analyzer by comparing CO2 flux measurements between open- and closed-path gas analyzers, we found systematically higher CO2 uptake recorded with the open-path sensor, leading to a cumulative annual offset of 96 gC m-2, which was not only the result of the cold winter season but also due to substantial self-heating effects during summer. With an inclined sensor mounting, only a fraction of the self-heating correction for vertically mounted instruments is required.

  7. Validation of Empirical and Semi-empirical Net Radiation Models versus Observed Data for Cold Semi-arid Climate Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    aliakbar sabziparvar

    2017-03-01

    Wright approaches in evapotranspiration models, it was found that the aforesaid Rn models are not suitable for cold semi-arid regions such as Hamedan. This result is in good agreement with the findings of Izoimon et al. (2000 and MirgaloyBayat (2011. In general, for cold climate condition of Hamedan, the Basic Regression Models are more reliable than the other Rn models. This study was performed based on 18-month field data and 12-Rn models. To achieve more accurate results, using a longer term experimental data and examining more Rn models are suggested as the future works. To achieve a regional Rn zoning, inclusion of satellite-based dataset is also recommended.

  8. The cold climate geomorphology of the Eastern Cape Drakensberg: A reevaluation of past climatic conditions during the last glacial cycle in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, S. C.; Barrows, T. T.; Telfer, M. W.; Fifield, L. K.

    2017-02-01

    Southern Africa is located in a unique setting for investigating past cold climate geomorphology over glacial-interglacial timescales. It lies at the junction of three of the world's major oceans and is affected by subtropical and temperate circulation systems, therefore recording changes in Southern Hemisphere circulation patterns. Cold climate landforms are very sensitive to changes in climate and thus provide an opportunity to investigate past changes in this region. The proposed existence of glaciers in the high Eastern Cape Drakensberg mountains, together with possible rock glaciers, has led to the suggestion that temperatures in this region were as much as 10-17 °C lower than present. Such large temperature depressions are inconsistent with many other palaeoclimatic proxies in Southern Africa. This paper presents new field observations and cosmogenic nuclide exposure ages from putative cold climate landforms. We discuss alternative interpretations for the formation of the landforms and confirm that glaciers were absent in the Eastern Cape Drakensberg during the last glaciation. However, we find widespread evidence for periglacial activity down to an elevation of 1700 m asl, as illustrated by extensive solifluction deposits, blockstreams, and stone garlands. These periglacial deposits suggest that the climate was significantly colder ( 6 °C) during the Last Glacial Maximum, in keeping with other climate proxy records from the region, but not cold enough to initiate or sustain glaciers or rock glaciers.

  9. Improved Windows for Cold Climates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    important. In the heating season in cold climates the solar gain through windows can be utilized for space heating which results in a corresponding reduction in the energy production that is often based on fossil fuels. A suitable quantity for evaluating the energy performance of windows in a simple...

  10. Wet and cold climate conditions recorded by coral geochemical proxies during the beginning of the first millennium CE in the northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hangfang; Deng, Wenfeng; Chen, Xuefei; Wei, Gangjian; Zeng, Ti; Zhao, Jian-xin

    2017-03-01

    The past two millennia include some distinct climate intervals, such as the Medieval Warm Period (MWP) and the Little Ice Age (LIA), which were caused by natural forcing factors, as well as the Current Warm Period (CWP) that has been linked to anthropogenic factors. Therefore, this period has been of great interest to climate change researchers. However, most studies are based on terrestrial proxy records, historical documentary data, and simulation results, and the ocean and the tropical record are very limited. The Eastern Han, Three Kingdoms, and Western Jin periods (25-316 CE) cover the beginning first millennium CE in China, and were characterized by a cold climate and frequent wars and regime changes. This study used paired Sr/Ca and δ18O series recovered from a fossil coral to reconstruct the sea surface water conditions during the late Eastern Han to Western Jin periods (167-309 CE) at Wenchang, eastern Hainan Island in the northern South China Sea (SCS), to investigate climate change at this time. The long-term sea surface temperature (SST) during the study interval was 25.1 °C, which is about 1.5 °C lower than that of the CWP (26.6 °C). Compared with the average value of 0.40‰ during the CWP, the long-term average seawater δ18O (-0.06‰) was more negative. These results indicate that the climate conditions during the study period were cold and wet and comparable with those of the LIA. This colder climate may have been associated with the weaker summer solar irradiance. The wet conditions were caused by the reduced northward shift of the intertropical convergence zone/monsoon rainbelt associated with the retreat of the East Asian summer monsoon. Interannual and interdecadal climate variability may also have contributed to the variations in SST and seawater δ18O recorded over the study period.

  11. Wood construction under cold climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiaodong; Hagman, Olle; Sundqvist, Bror

    2014-01-01

    As wood constructions increasingly use engineered wood products worldwide, concerns arise about the integrity of the wood and adhesives system. The glueline stability is a crucial issue for engineered wood application, especially under cold climate. In this study, Norway spruce (Picea abies...... specimens need to be tested in further work to more completely present the issue. The EN 301 and EN 302 may need to be specified based on wood species....

  12. Inoculation with a psychrotrophic-thermophilic complex microbial agent accelerates onset and promotes maturity of dairy manure-rice straw composting under cold climate conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Changlong; Wang, Yuqiong; Zhang, Xiqing; Lou, Yujie; Gao, Yunhang

    2017-11-01

    The objective was to determine the effects of psychrotrophic-thermophilic complex microbial agent (PTCMA) comprised of a psychrotrophic bacterium consortium (PBC) and a thermophilic cellulolytic fungi consortium (TCFC), on composting in a cold climate. Mixtures of dairy manure and rice straw were inoculated with PTCMA, PBC, TCFC and sterile water (control) and composted at an initial ambient temperatures of -2 to 5°C. In compost piles inoculated with PBC or PTCMA, temperatures reached the thermophilic phase (>55°C) faster (8-11d) than piles inoculated with TCFC or control. Furthermore, compost inoculated with TCFC or PTCMA had greater decreases in total organic carbon and carbon-to-nitrogen ratios, as well as significant increases in total nitrogen, degradation of cellulose and lignin and germination index than PBC inoculation or Control compost. Consequently, inoculation with both (i.e. PTCMA) accelerated the onset and promoted maturity of composting under cold-climate conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Clay Mineralogy and Crystallinity as a Climatic Indicator: Evidence for Both Cold and Temperate Conditions on Early Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horgan, B.; Rutledge, A.; Rampe, E. B.

    2015-01-01

    Surface weathering on Earth is driven by precipitation (rain/snow melt). Here we summarize the influence of climate on minerals produced during surface weathering, based on terrestrial literature and our new laboratory analyses of weathering products from glacial analog sites. By comparison to minerals identified in likely surface environments on Mars, we evaluate the implications for early martian climate.

  14. Constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment in cold climate - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mo; Zhang, Dong Qing; Dong, Jian Wen; Tan, Soon Keat

    2017-07-01

    Constructed wetlands (CWs) have been successfully used for treating various wastewaters for decades and have been identified as a sustainable wastewater management option worldwide. However, the application of CW for wastewater treatment in frigid climate presents special challenges. Wetland treatment of wastewater relies largely on biological processes, and reliable treatment is often a function of climate conditions. To date, the rate of adoption of wetland technology for wastewater treatment in cold regions has been slow and there are relatively few published reports on CW applications in cold climate. This paper therefore highlights the practice and applications of treatment wetlands in cold climate. A comprehensive review of the effectiveness of contaminant removal in different wetland systems including: (1) free water surface (FWS) CWs; (2) subsurface flow (SSF) CWs; and (3) hybrid wetland systems, is presented. The emphasis of this review is also placed on the influence of cold weather conditions on the removal efficacies of different contaminants. The strategies of wetland design and operation for performance intensification, such as the presence of plant, operational mode, effluent recirculation, artificial aeration and in-series design, which are crucial to achieve the sustainable treatment performance in cold climate, are also discussed. This study is conducive to further research for the understanding of CW design and treatment performance in cold climate. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Building America Best Practices Series: Volume 3; Builders and Buyers Handbook for Improving New Home Efficiency, Comfort, and Durability in the Cold and Very Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-08-01

    The guide book is a resource to help builders large and small build high-quality, energy-efficient homes that achieve 30% energy savings in space conditioning and water heating in the cold and very cold climates.

  16. Sustainable Algae Biodiesel Production in Cold Climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudras Baliga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This life cycle assessment aims to determine the most suitable operating conditions for algae biodiesel production in cold climates to minimize energy consumption and environmental impacts. Two hypothetical photobioreactor algae production and biodiesel plants located in Upstate New York (USA are modeled. The photobioreactor is assumed to be housed within a greenhouse that is located adjacent to a fossil fuel or biomass power plant that can supply waste heat and flue gas containing CO2 as a primary source of carbon. Model results show that the biodiesel areal productivity is high (19 to 25 L of BD/m2/yr. The total life cycle energy consumption was between 15 and 23 MJ/L of algae BD and 20 MJ/L of soy BD. Energy consumption and air emissions for algae biodiesel are substantially lower than soy biodiesel when waste heat was utilized. Algae's most substantial contribution is a significant decrease in the petroleum consumed to make the fuel.

  17. Hygrothermal conditions in cold, north facing attic spaces under the eaves with vapour-open roofing underlay in a cool, temperate climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarløv, Søren Peter; Johnston, C.J.; Hansen, M.H.

    2016-01-01

    compliance with the current Danish Building Regulations (BR10) for airtightness (pressure difference) can ensure acceptable moisture levels in attics with vapour-open roofing underlays. North facing cold attic spaces under the eaves constitute a worst case scenario. Following best...... practice recommendations concerning ventilation of the cold attic space under the eaves and fulfilling the requirements in BR10 regarding air tightness of the building envelope did not ensure the absence of mould growth in the attics. Through winter the attics with infiltration through leaks (dimensioned...... to allow an influx of 3.3 l/s of conditioned indoor air 20 °C and 60% RH at a pressure difference of 50 Pa) and ventilation (singled-sided, passive ventilation) contained more moisture and had significantly higher levels of mould growth than the non-ventilated attics. Under the same physical conditions...

  18. Microalgae at wastewater treatment in cold climate

    OpenAIRE

    Grönlund, Erik

    2002-01-01

    The thesis concludes that microalgae may improve wastewater treatment in ponds in cold climate, from a treatment perspective as well as a sustainability perspective. A literature review revealed that the microalgae biomass produced may find economic use, depending on what species will come to dominate, since there are many possible products from microalgae biomass. Laboratory experiments showed that microalgae collected in the Mid Sweden region can grow readily in wastewater from the same reg...

  19. Study of wind turbine foundations in cold climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    This report provides an overview of the processes at work in soil in cold climates and their effect on wind turbine foundations. Havsnaes wind farm consists of 48 turbines located in Jaemtland county in central Sweden. Havsnaes has provided an appropriate research environment to investigate the engineering challenges related to the design and construction of wind turbine foundations in sub-arctic conditions and the experienced gained from this project informs this report.

  20. The accelerating effects of the microorganisms on biodeterioration of stone monuments under air pollution and continental-cold climatic conditions in Erzurum, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuhoglu, Y; Oguz, E; Uslu, H; Ozbek, A; Ipekoglu, B; Ocak, I; Hasenekoglu, I

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the accelerating effects of microorganisms on the biodeterioration of stone under air pollution and continental-cold climatic region in Erzurum, Turkey. Studies have been carried out on specimens of the Rustempasa Bazaar, the Lalapasa Mosque, the Erzurum Castle Mosque, the Double Minarets-Madrasah, the Great Mosque and the Haji Mehmet Fountain aged from 441 to 823 years old. The results showed that vegetative and reproductive (generative) forms of the microorganisms could develop during the winter months when the night time average temperature was even -25 degrees C. Also the reproductive forms had developed and the whole stone surface was covered with a biofilm caused by the microorganisms. Silicon, aluminum, calcium, potassium, titanium, magnesium, zinc, sulfur, iron, sodium, and niobium were found in the stones of the historical buildings with varying amounts through the SEM-EDS analysis. Some of these elements could be used as an energy resource for the microorganisms together with the air pollutants such as sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and particles on the stone surfaces. Of 21 isolates, 15 species from 6 bacterium genera and 5 species from 5 fungi genera plus 1 fungi genera were identified on the deteriorated stone surfaces even during the coldest months by microbial identification system (MIS) and these findings were tested by SEM investigations.

  1. The accelerating effects of the microorganisms on biodeterioration of stone monuments under air pollution and continental-cold climatic conditions in Erzurum, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuhoglu, Y.; Oguz, E. [Atatuerk University, Department of Environmental Engineering, Engineering Faculty, 25240, Erzurum (Turkey); Uslu, H.; Ozbek, A. [Atatuerk University, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Medicine Faculty, 25240, Erzurum (Turkey); Ipekoglu, B. [Izmir Institute of Technology, Faculty of Architecture, Department of Architectural Restoration 35430, Izmir (Turkey); Ocak, I.; Hasenekoglu, I. [Atatuerk University, Department of Biology, K.K Education Faculty, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the accelerating effects of microorganisms on the biodeterioration of stone under air pollution and continental-cold climatic region in Erzurum, Turkey. Studies have been carried out on specimens of the Rustempasa Bazaar, the Lalapasa Mosque, the Erzurum Castle Mosque, the Double Minarets-Madrasah, the Great Mosque and the Haji Mehmet Fountain aged from 441 to 823 years old. The results showed that vegetative and reproductive (generative) forms of the microorganisms could develop during the winter months when the night time average temperature was even -25 {sup o}C. Also the reproductive forms had developed and the whole stone surface was covered with a biofilm caused by the microorganisms. Silicon, aluminum, calcium, potassium, titanium, magnesium, zinc, sulfur, iron, sodium, and niobium were found in the stones of the historical buildings with varying amounts through the SEM-EDS analysis. Some of these elements could be used as an energy resource for the microorganisms together with the air pollutants such as sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and particles on the stone surfaces. Of 21 isolates, 15 species from 6 bacterium genera and 5 species from 5 fungi genera plus 1 fungi genera were identified on the deteriorated stone surfaces even during the coldest months by microbial identification system (MIS) and these findings were tested by SEM investigations. (author)

  2. High-efficiency Commercial Cold Climate Heat Pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoud, Ahmad M. [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Cogswell, F. [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Verma, P. [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States)

    2015-08-28

    United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) proposed in 2012 to design, develop and demonstrate an air-source 10TR high-efficiency commercial cold climate heat pump (CCCHP). The proposed heat pump would be scalable beyond 40TR, cost effective with a simple payback of < 3 years upon commercialization and would reduce annual electricity use for building space heating in cold climates by at least 20%. This would represent an annual savings of $2.3 billion and a 20% displacement of total greenhouse gases generated upon full commercialization. The primary objective was to develop a highly integrated system that shall meet or exceed DOE capacity and efficiency targets at key conditions and is scalable, cost-effective and simple relative to the state-of-the-art. Specifically, the goal of the project was to design, develop and demonstrate a CCCHP that exceeds DOE capacity degradation requirements at +17F and -13F conditions (0 and <15% degradation vs. 10 and 25% DOE requirements, respectively) while meeting or exceeding DOE capacity and system efficiency requirements at all other conditions.

  3. Cold Climate Heat Pumps Using Tandem Compressors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    In cold climate zones, e.g. ASHRAE climate regions IV and V, conventional electric air-source heat pumps (ASHP) do not work well, due to high compressor discharge temperatures, large pressure ratios and inadequate heating capacities at low ambient temperatures. Consequently, significant use of auxiliary strip heating is required to meet the building heating load. We introduce innovative ASHP technologies as part of continuing efforts to eliminate auxiliary strip heat use and maximize heating COP with acceptable cost-effectiveness and reliability. These innovative ASHP were developed using tandem compressors, which are capable of augmenting heating capacity at low temperatures and maintain superior part-load operation efficiency at moderate temperatures. Two options of tandem compressors were studied; the first employs two identical, single-speed compressors, and the second employs two identical, vapor-injection compressors. The investigations were based on system modeling and laboratory evaluation. Both designs have successfully met the performance criteria. Laboratory evaluation showed that the tandem, single-speed compressor ASHP system is able to achieve heating COP = 4.2 at 47 F (8.3 C), COP = 2.9 at 17 F (-8.3 C), and 76% rated capacity and COP = 1.9 at -13 F (-25 C). This yields a HSPF = 11.0 (per AHRI 210/240). The tandem, vapor-injection ASHP is able to reach heating COP = 4.4 at 47 F, COP = 3.1 at 17 F, and 88% rated capacity and COP = 2.0 at -13 F. This yields a HSPF = 12.0. The system modeling and further laboratory evaluation are presented in the paper.

  4. Performance House -- A Cold Climate Challenge Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puttagunta, S.; Grab, J.; Williamson, J.

    2013-08-01

    Working with builder partners on a test homes allows for vetting of whole-house building strategies to eliminate any potential unintended consequences prior to implementing these solution packages on a production scale. To support this research, CARB partnered with Preferred Builders Inc. on a high-performance test home in Old Greenwich, CT. The philosophy and science behind the 2,700 ft2 'Performance House' was based on the premise that homes should be safe, healthy, comfortable, durable, efficient, and adapt with the homeowners. The technologies and strategies used in the 'Performance House' were not cutting-edge, but simply 'best practices practiced'. The focus was on simplicity in construction, maintenance, and operation. When seeking a 30% source energy savings targets over a comparable 2009 IECC code-built home in the cold climate zone, nearly all components of a home must be optimized. Careful planning and design are critical. To help builders and architects seeking to match the performance of this home, a step-by-step guide through the building shell components of DOE's Challenge Home are provided in a pictorial story book. The end result was a DOE Challenge Home that achieved a HERS Index Score of 20 (43 without PV, the minimum target was 55 for compliance). This home was also awarded the 2012 HOBI for Best Green Energy Efficient Home from the Home Builders & Remodelers Association of Connecticut.

  5. Calcium nutrition and climatic conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, C.; Voogt, W.

    2009-01-01

    The climatic conditions are one of the most striking differences between the growing conditions of field crops and those of protected crops, especially in the moderate climate zones. The increased temperature and the humidity in greenhouses are the dominating factors responsible for the differences.

  6. Assessment of cold-climate environmental research priorities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    States, J.B.

    1983-04-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has consistently recognized that cold regions pose unique environmental problems. This report sets forth the conceptual framework and research plans for several high priority research areas. It provides the fundamental basis for implementation of the EPA Cold-Climate Environmental Research Program. This three- to five-year program encompasses both short- and long-term research of high relevance to the EPA and to the cold regions that it serves.

  7. Western European cold spells in current and future climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de H.; Haarsma, R.; Hazeleger, W.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses western European cold spells (where temperature falls below the 10\\\\% quantile of the winter temperature distribution) in current and future climate. It is demonstrated that many of the projected future changes in cold-spell statistics (duration, return period, intensity) can be

  8. Ocean climate and seal condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crocker Daniel E

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The condition of many marine mammals varies with fluctuations in productivity and food supply in the ocean basin where they forage. Prey is impacted by physical environmental variables such as cyclic warming trends. The weaning weight of northern elephant seal pups, Mirounga angustirostris, being closely linked to maternal condition, indirectly reflects prey availability and foraging success of pregnant females in deep waters of the northeastern Pacific. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of ocean climate on foraging success in this deep-diving marine mammal over the course of three decades, using cohort weaning weight as the principal metric of successful resource accrual. Results The mean annual weaning weight of pups declined from 1975 to the late 1990s, a period characterized by a large-scale, basin-wide warm decadal regime that included multiple strong or long-duration El Niños; and increased with a return to a cool decadal regime from about 1999 to 2004. Increased foraging effort and decreased mass gain of adult females, indicative of reduced foraging success and nutritional stress, were associated with high ocean temperatures. Conclusion Despite ranging widely and foraging deeply in cold waters beyond coastal thermoclines in the northeastern Pacific, elephant seals are impacted significantly by ocean thermal dynamics. Ocean warming redistributes prey decreasing foraging success of females, which in turn leads to lower weaning mass of pups. Annual fluctuations in weaning mass, in turn, reflect the foraging success of females during the year prior to giving birth and signals changes in ocean temperature cycles.

  9. Solar shading control strategy for office buildings in cold climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røseth Karlsen, Line; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Bryn, Ida

    2016-01-01

    Highlights •Solar shading control strategy for office buildings in cold climate is developed. •Satisfying energy and indoor environmental performance is confirmed. •Importance of integrated evaluations when selecting shading strategy is illustrated.......Highlights •Solar shading control strategy for office buildings in cold climate is developed. •Satisfying energy and indoor environmental performance is confirmed. •Importance of integrated evaluations when selecting shading strategy is illustrated....

  10. Special Issue ;Sediment cascades in cold climate geosystems;

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morche, David; Krautblatter, Michael; Beylich, Achim A.

    2017-06-01

    This Editorial introduces the Special Issue on sediment cascades in cold climate geosystems that evolved from the eighth I.A.G./A.I.G. SEDIBUD (Sediment Budgets in Cold Environments; http://www.geomorph.org/sedibud-working-group/) workshop. The workshop was held from 1st to 4th September 2014 at the Environmental Research Station ;Schneefernerhaus; (http://www.schneefernerhaus.de/en/home.html) located at Mt. Zugspitze, the highest peak of Germany, (2962 m asl). Paper and poster presentations focused on observations, measurements and modeling of geomorphological processes in sediment cascades in cold climate geosystems. This resulting Special Issue brings together ten selected contributions from arctic and alpine environments.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF A HIGH PERFORMANCE COLD CLIMATE HEAT PUMP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton, W. Travis [Purdue University; Groll, Eckhard A. [Purdue University; Braun, James E. [Purdue University

    2014-06-01

    compression technologies is a lower discharge temperature, which allows for continued operation at lower ambient temperatures. A bin analysis of the vapor injected prototype cold climate heat pump predicts a 6% improvement in HSPF for Minneapolis. This improvement is mainly a result of the increased capacity of the system for active vapor injection. For the oil flooded system, a slightly larger performance improvement is predicted, in this case mostly caused by an increase in heating COP. Based on an economic analysis of these results, the maximum additional cost of the system changes, for the Minneapolis location, are $430 for the vapor injected system and $391 for the oil flooded system. These estimates assume that a 3-year simple payback period is accepted by the customer. For the hybrid flow control of evaporators, a new type of balancing valve was developed together with Emerson Climate technologies to reduce the cost of the control scheme. In contrast to conventional stepper motor valves, this valve requires less cables and can be driven by a cheaper output circuit on the control board. The correct valve size was determined in a dedicated test stand in several design iterations. The performance benefits of the hybrid control of the evaporator coil were determined for clean coil conditions as well as with partial blockage of the air inlet grille and under frosting conditions. For clean coil conditions, the benefits in terms of COP and capacity are negligible. However, significant benefits were noted for severely air-maldistributed operating conditions. For the H2-test, the maximum COP improvement of 17% along with a capacity improvement of nearly 40% was observed. Overall, the hybrid control scheme leads to a significant amount of performance improvement, if the air inlet conditions to the evaporator are maldistributed.

  12. Mechanical ventilation with heat recovery in cold climates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Jesper; Rose, Jørgen; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    like the Northern Europe or in arctic climate like in Greenland or Alaska these ventilation systems will typically face problems with ice formation in the heat exchanger. When the warm humid room air comes in contact with the cold surfaces inside the exchanger (cooled by the outside air), the moisture......Building ventilation is necessary to achieve a healthy and comfortable indoor environment, but as energy prices continue to rise it is necessary to reduce the energy consumption. Using mechanical ventilation with heat recovery reduces the ventilation heat loss significantly, but in cold climates...

  13. Effective Climate Refugia for Cold-water Fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersole, J. L.; Morelli, T. L.; Torgersen, C.; Isaak, D.; Keenan, D.; Labiosa, R.; Fullerton, A.; Massie, J.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change threatens to create fundamental shifts in in the distributions and abundances of endothermic organisms such as cold-water salmon and trout species (salmonids). Recently published projected declines in mid-latitude salmonid distributions under future climates range from modest to severe, depending on modeling approaches, assumptions, and spatial context of analyses. Given these projected losses, increased emphasis on management for ecosystem resilience to help buffer cold-water fish populations and their habitats against climate change is emerging. Using terms such as "climate-proofing", "climate-ready", and "climate refugia", such efforts stake a claim for an adaptive, anticipatory planning response to the climate change threat. To be effective, such approaches will need to address critical uncertainties in both the physical basis for projected landscape changes in water temperature and streamflow, as well as the biological responses of organisms. Recent efforts define future potential climate refugia based on projected streamflows, air temperatures, and associated water temperature changes. These efforts reflect the relatively strong conceptual foundation for linkages between regional climate change and local hydrological responses and thermal dynamics. Yet important questions remain. Drawing on case studies throughout the Pacific Northwest, we illustrate some key uncertainties in the responses of salmonids and their habitats to altered hydro-climatic regimes currently not well addressed by physical or ecological models. Key uncertainties include biotic interactions, organismal adaptive capacity, local climate decoupling due to groundwater-surface water interactions, the influence of human engineering responses, and synergies between climatic and other stressors. These uncertainties need not delay anticipatory planning, but rather highlight the need for identification and communication of actions with high probabilities of success, and targeted

  14. PERSIAN GARDENS IN COLD AND DRY CLIMATE: A CASE STUDY OF TABRIZ’S HISTORICAL GARDENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahad Nejad Ebrahimi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Throughout history, gardens and garden designing has been in the attention of Persian architects who had special expertise in the construction of gardens. The appearance of Islam and allegories of paradise taken from that in Koran and Saints’ sayings gave spirituality to garden construction. Climate conditions have also had an important role in this respect but little research has been done about it and most of the investigations have referred to spiritual aspects and forms of garden. The cold and dry climate that has enveloped parts of West and North West of Iran has many gardens with different forms and functions, which have not been paid much attention to by studies done so far. The aim of this paper is to identify the features and specifications of cold and dry climate gardens with an emphasis on Tabriz’s Gardens.  Due to its natural and strategic situation, Tabriz has always been in the attention of governments throughout history; travellers and tourists have mentioned Tabriz as a city that has beautiful gardens. But, the earthquakes and wars have left no remains of those beautiful gardens. This investigation, by a comparative study of the climates in Iran and the effect of those climates on the formation of gardens and garden design, tries to identify the features and characteristics of gardens in cold and dry climate. The method of study is interpretive-historical on the basis of written documents and historic features and field study of existing gardens in this climate. The results show that, with respect to natural substrate, vegetation, the form of water supply, and the general form of the garden; gardens in dry and cold climate are different from gardens in other climates.

  15. Use of Synthetic Aperture Radar in Cold Climate Flood Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarbrough, L. D.

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the usefulness of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) satellite images during a cold climate disaster response event. There were 15 European Space Agency (ESA) Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar ASAR scenes, five Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) scenes, one RADARSAT2 scene, and numerous optical sensor data. These data were primarily used to indentify floodwater inundation polygons and flow vectors. However, in cold climate flooding, there are complicating factors such as frazil ice, ice jams, and snow-covered, frozen flood waters that are not present during warmer flooding events. The imagery was obtained through the International Charter "Space and Major Disasters.” The Charter aims at providing a unified system of space data acquisition and delivery to those affected by natural or man-made disasters through Authorized Users. Each member agency has committed resources to support the provisions of the Charter, and thus is helping to mitigate the effects of disasters on human life and property. On 25 March 2009, the Charter was activated in response to the flooding along the Red River of the North in the states of North Dakota and Minnesota of the United States. The delivery time of a single SAR scene from a Charter participant was less than 12 hours from the time of acquisition. This expedited service allowed additional time for creating image-based derivations, field checking and delivery to a decision maker or emergency responder. SAR-derived data sets include identification of river ice and saturated ground conditions. This data could be provided to experts in river ice engineering for use in the development of plans to reduce ice jamming, its effect on water levels and additional stresses on river infrastructure. During disaster response applications, SAR data was found to very useful in indentifying open water and the front of ice jams. Using a river

  16. Behavioural adaptations of Rana temporaria to cold climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Gerda; Sinsch, Ulrich; Pelster, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Environmental conditions at the edge of a species' ecological optimum can exert great ecological or evolutionary pressure at local populations. For ectotherms like amphibians temperature is one of the most important abiotic factors of their environment as it influences directly their metabolism and sets limits to their distribution. Amphibians have evolved three ways to cope with sub-zero temperatures: freeze tolerance, freeze protection, freeze avoidance. The aim of this study was to assess which strategy common frogs at mid and high elevation use to survive and thrive in cold climates. In particular we (1) tested for the presence of physiological freeze protection, (2) evaluated autumnal activity and overwintering behaviour with respect to freeze avoidance and (3) assessed the importance of different high-elevation microhabitats for behavioural thermoregulation. Common frogs did not exhibit any signs of freeze protection when experiencing temperatures around 0 °C. Instead they retreated to open water for protection and overwintering. High elevation common frogs remained active for around the same period of time than their conspecifics at lower elevation. Our results suggest that at mid and high elevation common frogs use freeze avoidance alone to survive temperatures below 0 °C. The availability of warm microhabitats, such as rock or pasture, provides high elevation frogs with the opportunity of behavioural thermoregulation and thus allows them to remain active at temperatures at which common frogs at lower elevation cease activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Hydrological drought types in cold climates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, Van A.F.; Ploum, S.W.; Parajka, J.; Fleig, A.K.; Garnier, E.; Laaha, G.; Lanen, Van H.A.J.

    2015-01-01

    For drought management and prediction, knowledge of causing factors and socio-economic impacts of hydrological droughts is crucial. Propagation of meteorological conditions in the hydrological cycle results in different hydrological drought types that require separate analysis. In addition to the

  18. Cold Surge Activity Over the Gulf of Mexico in a Warmer Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Perez Perez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cold surges are a dominant feature of midlatitude tropical interaction. During the North Hemisphere (NH winter, midlatitude waves propagating from the Rocky Mountains into the Gulf of Mexico result in cold surges, also known as Nortes or Tehuantepecers, associated with severe weather over the southern part of Mexico. The magnitude of their intense surface winds, precipitation and drops in surface temperature depends on the characteristics of the midlatitude wave propagating into the tropics. The high spatial resolution (20km X 20km version of the TL959L60-AGC Model of the Meteorological Research Institute of Japan is used to examine changes in cold surge activity under the A1B greenhouse gas emission scenario for the 2080 - 2099 period. The model realistically reproduces the spatial and temporal characteristics of cold surges for the 1980 - 1989 control period. The effect of changes in baroclinicity, static stability and mean flow over North America suggest that in a warmer climate, increased cold surge activity over the Gulf of Mexico would occur. However, these systems would have shorter wavelength (higher phase speeds and shorter lifespans that could reduce the total amount of winter precipitation. The increased frequency of cold surges over the Gulf of Mexico would be a consequence of weaker baroclinicity and static stability in the lower troposphere over the cold surge genesis region, along with more dominant westerly winds, resulting from ENSO-like conditions in the atmospheric circulations over North America.

  19. Cold-water refuges for climate resilience in Oregon coastal ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many rivers and streams in the Pacific Northwest are currently listed as impaired under the Clean Water Act as a result of high summer water temperatures. Adverse effects of warm waters include impacts to salmon and steelhead populations that may already be stressed by habitat alteration, disease, predation, and fishing pressures. Thermal refuges may help mitigate the effects of increasing temperatures. In this presentation, we define cold-water refuges as areas buffered from regional climate effects by groundwater, physical habitat heterogeneity, or other watershed attributes. Processes forming these features include groundwater-surface water interactions, and hyporheic exchange at a range of spatial and temporal scales. Patterns associated with these processes may provide useful indicators for mapping and predicting the locations and extent of these features. Fish may congregate at high densities within cold-water refuges during critical periods of thermal stress, but there may be trade-offs associated with refuge use including predation, disease risk, and reduced foraging opportunities. These factors all contribute to determining refuge effectiveness. Watershed management and restoration strategies could consider these features and their potential utility to cold-water fish, and we conclude with examples of types of watershed restoration actions that might help foster cold-water refuge creation and maintenance.M Many rivers and streams in the Pacific Nort

  20. Field Performance of Inverter-Driven Heat Pumps in Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, James [Consortium of Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States); Aldrich, Robb [Consortium of Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2015-08-19

    Traditionally, air-source heat pumps (ASHPs) have been used more often in warmer climates; however, some new ASHPs are gaining ground in colder areas. These systems operate at subzero (Fahrenheit) temperatures and many do not include backup electric resistance elements. There are still uncertainties, however, about capacity and efficiency in cold weather. Also, questions such as “how cold is too cold?” do not have clear answers. These uncertainties could lead to skepticism among homeowners; poor energy savings estimates; suboptimal system selection by heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning contractors; and inconsistent energy modeling. In an effort to better understand and characterize the heating performance of these units in cold climates, the U.S. Department of Energy Building America team, Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), monitored seven inverter-driven, ductless ASHPs across the Northeast. Operating data were collected for three Mitsubishi FE18 units, three Mitsubishi FE12 units, and one Fujitsu 15RLS2 unit. The intent of this research was to assess heat output, electricity consumption, and coefficients of performance (COPs) at various temperatures and load conditions. This assessment was accomplished with long- and short-term tests that measured power consumption; supply, return, and outdoor air temperatures; and airflow through the indoor fan coil.

  1. Cold climate specialization: adaptive covariation between metabolic rate and thermoregulation in pregnant vipers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourdais, Olivier; Guillon, Michaël; Denardo, Dale; Blouin-Demers, Gabriel

    2013-07-02

    We compared thermoregulatory strategies during pregnancy in two congeneric viperid snakes (Vipera berus and Vipera aspis) with parapatric geographic ranges. V. berus is a boreal specialist with the largest known distribution among terrestrial snakes while V. aspis is a south-European species. Despite contrasted climatic affinities, the two species displayed identical thermal preferences (Tset) in a laboratory thermal gradient. Under identical natural conditions, however, V. berus was capable of maintaining Tset for longer periods, especially when the weather was constraining. Consistent with the metabolic cold adaptation hypothesis, V. berus displayed higher standard metabolic rate at all temperatures considered. We used the thermal dependence of metabolic rate to calculate daily metabolic profiles from body temperature under natural conditions. The boreal specialist experienced higher daily metabolic rate and minimized gestation duration chiefly because of differences in the metabolic reaction norms, but also superior thermoregulatory efficiency. Under cold climates, thermal constraints should make precise thermoregulation costly. However, a shift in the metabolic reaction norm may compensate for thermal constraints and modify the cost-benefit balance of thermoregulation. Covariation between metabolic rate and thermoregulation efficiency is likely an important adaptation to cold climates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Definition of initial conditions and soil profile depth for Hydrological Land Surface Models in Cold Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapriza-Azuri, G.; Gamazo, P. A.; Razavi, S.; Wheater, H. S.

    2016-12-01

    Earth system models are essential for the evaluation of the impact of climate change. At global and regional scales, General Circulation Models (GCM) and Regional Climate Models (RCM) are used to simulate climate change evolution. Hydrological Land Surface Models (HLSM) are used along with GCMs and RCMs (coupled or offline) to have a better representation of the hydrological cycle. All these models typically have a common implementation of the energy and water balance in the soil, known as the Land Surface Model (LSM). In general, a standard soil configuration with a depth of no more than 4 meters is used in all LSMs that are commonly implemented in GCMs, RCMs and HLSMs. For moderate climate conditions, this depth is sufficient to capture the intra-annual variability in the energy and water balance. However, for cold regions and for long-term simulations, deeper subsurface layers are needed in order to allow the heat signal to propagate through the soil to deeper layers and hence to avoid erroneous near-surface states and fluxes. Deeper soil/rock configurations create longer system memories, and as such, particular care should be taken to define the initial conditions for the subsurface system. In this work we perform a sensitivity analysis of the main factors that affect the subsurface energy and water balance for LSMs in cold regions - depth of soil, soil parameters, initial conditions and climate conditions for a warm-up period. We implement a 1D model using the Canadian Land Surface Scheme (CLASS) LSM for a study area in northern Canada where measurements of soil temperature profiles are available. Results suggest that an adequate representation of the heat propagation process in the soil requires the simulation of a soil depth of greater than 25 meters. As for initial conditions we recommend to spin-up over a cycle of an average climate year and then use reconstructed climate time series with a length of more than 300 years.

  3. Vertical gradient of climate change and climate tourism conditions in the Black Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endler, Christina; Oehler, Karoline; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Due to the public discussion about global and regional warming, the regional climate and the modified climate conditions are analyzed exemplarily for three different regions in the southern Black Forest (southwest Germany). The driving question behind the present study was how can tourism adapt to modified climate conditions and associated changes to the tourism potential in low mountain ranges. The tourism potential is predominately based on the attractiveness of natural resources being climate-sensitive. In this study, regional climate simulations (A1B) are analyzed by using the REMO model. To analyze the climatic tourism potential, the following thermal, physical and aesthetic parameters are considered for the time span 1961-2050: thermal comfort, heat and cold stress, sunshine, humid-warm conditions (sultriness), fog, precipitation, storm, and ski potential (snow cover). Frequency classes of these parameters expressed as a percentage are processed on a monthly scale. The results are presented in form of the Climate-Tourism-Information-Scheme (CTIS). Due to warmer temperatures, winters might shorten while summers might lengthen. The lowland might be more affected by heat and sultriness (e.g., Freiburg due to the effects of urban climate). To adapt to a changing climate and tourism, the awareness of both stakeholders and tourists as well as the adaptive capability are essential.

  4. Present weather and climate: evolving conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerling, Martin P; Dettinger, Michael; Wolter, Klaus; Lukas, Jeff; Eischeid, Jon K.; Nemani, Rama; Liebmann, Brant; Kunkel, Kenneth E.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter assesses weather and climate variability and trends in the Southwest, using observed climate and paleoclimate records. It analyzes the last 100 years of climate variability in comparison to the last 1,000 years, and links the important features of evolving climate conditions to river flow variability in four of the region’s major drainage basins. The chapter closes with an assessment of the monitoring and scientific research needed to increase confidence in understanding when climate episodes, events, and phenomena are attributable to human-caused climate change.

  5. Cold truths: how winter drives responses of terrestrial organisms to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Caroline M; Henry, Hugh A L; Sinclair, Brent J

    2015-02-01

    Winter is a key driver of individual performance, community composition, and ecological interactions in terrestrial habitats. Although climate change research tends to focus on performance in the growing season, climate change is also modifying winter conditions rapidly. Changes to winter temperatures, the variability of winter conditions, and winter snow cover can interact to induce cold injury, alter energy and water balance, advance or retard phenology, and modify community interactions. Species vary in their susceptibility to these winter drivers, hampering efforts to predict biological responses to climate change. Existing frameworks for predicting the impacts of climate change do not incorporate the complexity of organismal responses to winter. Here, we synthesise organismal responses to winter climate change, and use this synthesis to build a framework to predict exposure and sensitivity to negative impacts. This framework can be used to estimate the vulnerability of species to winter climate change. We describe the importance of relationships between winter conditions and performance during the growing season in determining fitness, and demonstrate how summer and winter processes are linked. Incorporating winter into current models will require concerted effort from theoreticians and empiricists, and the expansion of current growing-season studies to incorporate winter. © 2014 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2014 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  6. Climatic conditions, cultural diversity, and labor productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Gundlach, Erich; Matus-Velasco, Ximena

    2000-01-01

    Countries with the highest labor productivity overwhelmingly lie in the world's temperate climatic zones far away from the equator. The question we address is whether climatic conditions as measured by distance from the equator remain correlated with labor productivity after other variables are taken into account. We find that climatic conditions do not have a significant impact on labor productivity once we control for factor accumulation and cultural diversity within countries. Our regressi...

  7. Energy-saving strategies with personalized ventilation in cold climates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shiavon, Stefano; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2009-01-01

    In this study the influence of the personalized supply air temperature control strategy on energy consumption and the energy-saving potentials of a personalized ventilation system have been investigated by means of simulations with IDA-ICE software. GenOpt software was used to determine the optimal...... supply air temperature. The simulated office room was located in a cold climate. The results reveal that the supply air temperature control strategy has a marked influence on energy consumption. The energy consumption with personalized ventilation may increase substantially (in the range: 61......–268%) compared to mixing ventilation alone if energy-saving strategies are not applied. The results show that the best supply air temperature control strategy is to provide air constantly at 20 °C. The most effective way of saving energy with personalized ventilation is to extend the upper room operative...

  8. The Effect of Thermal Mass on Annual Heat Load and Thermal Comfort in Cold Climate Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevens, Vanessa; Kotol, Martin; Grunau, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Thermal mass in building construction refers to a building material's ability to absorb and release heat based on changing environmental conditions. In building design, materials with high thermal mass used in climates with a diurnal temperature swing around the interior set-point temperature have...... been shown to reduce the annual heating demand. However, few studies exist regarding the effects of thermal mass in cold climates. The purpose of this research is to determine the effect of high thermal mass on the annual heat demand and thermal comfort in a typical Alaskan residence using energy...... that while increased thermal mass does have advantages in all climates, such as a decrease in summer overheating, it is not an effective strategy for decreasing annual heat demand in typical residential buildings in Alaska. (C) 2015 American Society of Civil Engineers....

  9. Impact of climate change on cold hardiness of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii): Environmental and genetic considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheel Bansal; Bradley J. St. Clair; Constance A. Harrington; Peter J. Gould

    2015-01-01

    The success of conifers over much of the world’s terrestrial surface is largely attributable to their tolerance to cold stress (i.e., cold hardiness). Due to an increase in climate variability, climate change may reduce conifer cold hardiness, which in turn could impact ecosystem functioning and productivity in conifer-dominated forests. The expression of cold...

  10. [Effect of climatic mean value change on the evaluation result of rice delayed cold damage in Liaoning Province, Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Rui-peng; Yu, Wen-ying; Wu, Jin-wen; Feng, Rui; Zhang, Yu-shu

    2015-06-01

    The anomaly of mean temperature summation from May to September (ΔT5-9) was commonly used to assess delayed cold damage of rice in Northeast China, but whether the change of statistics years for climatic mean value (ΣT5-9) would affect the, evaluation results of Liaoning rice under cold damage needed to be further studied. By using the meteorological industry standard of the People's Republic of China "technical standard on rice cold damage evaluation" (QX/T 182- 2013) and the supplemental indices (ΔT5-9), the index (ΣT5-9) was calculated in four periods 1961-1990 (S1), 1971-2000 (S2), 1981-2010 (S3) and 1961-2010 (S4), and the spatial and temporal changes of cold damage in Liaoning Province were analyzed based on the ratio between cold damage stations and total stations (IOC) and the occurrence frequency. The results showed that the heat condition (Σ T5-9) in rice growing season increased obviously and the spatial and temporal changes were significant from 1961 to 2010. The original meteorological index of rice cold damage was improved by using quadratic polynomial model. The identification results were similar between S2 and S4. The variation coefficient of IOC in S3 was lower than that of the other three. Compared with the typical rice yield reduction years, the evaluation results accorded better with the actual situation in evaluating the rice delayed cold damage in Liaoning during study period by using the S3 climate mean value. The results could provide evidence for accurately evaluating the variation of rice cold damage in spatial and temporal distribution in Liaoning Province under the background of global climate change.

  11. The Performance House - A Cold Climate Challenge Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puttagunta, S. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Grab, J. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Williamson, J. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Working with builder partners on test homes allows for vetting of whole-house building strategies to eliminate any potential unintended consequences prior to implementing these solution packages on a production scale. To support this research, CARB partnered with Preferred Builders Inc. on a high-performance test home in Old Greenwich, CT. The philosophy and science behind the 2,700 ft2 "Performance House" was based on the premise that homes should be safe, healthy, comfortable, durable, efficient, and adapt with the homeowners. The technologies and strategies used in the "Performance House" were not cutting-edge, but simply "best practices practiced". The focus was on simplicity in construction, maintenance, and operation. When seeking a 30% source energy savings targets over a comparable 2009 IECC code-built home in the cold climate zone, nearly all components of a home must be optimized. Careful planning and design are critical. To help builders and architects seeking to match the performance of this home, a step-by-step guide through the building shell components of DOE's Challenge Home are provided in a pictorial story book. The end result was a DOE Challenge Home that achieved a HERS Index Score of 20 (43 without PV, the minimum target was 55 for compliance). This home was also awarded the 2012 HOBI for Best Green Energy Efficient Home from the Home Builders & Remodelers Association of Connecticut.

  12. Strategy Guideline: Energy Retrofits for Low-Rise Multifamily Buildings in Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brozyna, K. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Badger, L. [Vermont Energy Investment Corporation, Burlington, VT (United States)

    2013-04-01

    This Strategy Guideline explains the benefits of evaluating and identifying energy efficiency retrofit measures that could be made during renovation and maintenance of multifamily buildings. It focuses on low-rise multifamily structures (three or fewer stories) in a cold climate. These benefits lie primarily in reduced energy use, lower operating and maintenance costs, improved durability of the structure, and increased occupant comfort. This guideline focuses on retrofit measures for roof repair or replacement, exterior wall repair or gut rehab, and eating system maintenance. All buildings are assumed to have a flat ceiling and a trussed roof, wood- or steel-framed exterior walls, and one or more single or staged boilers. Estimated energy savings realized from the retrofits will vary, depending on the size and condition of the building, the extent of efficiency improvements, the efficiency of the heating equipment, the cost and type of fuel, and the climate location.

  13. Insulated Concrete Form Walls Integrated With Mechanical Systems in a Cold Climate Test House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallay, D. [Home Innovation Research Labs, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Wiehagen, J. [Home Innovation Research Labs, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Transitioning from standard light frame to a thermal mass wall system in a high performance home will require a higher level of design integration with the mechanical systems. The much higher mass in the ICF wall influences heat transfer through the wall and affects how the heating and cooling system responds to changing outdoor conditions. This is even more important for efficient, low-load homes with efficient heat pump systems in colder climates where the heating and cooling peak loads are significantly different from standard construction. This report analyzes a range of design features and component performance estimates in an effort to select practical, cost-effective solutions for high performance homes in a cold climate.

  14. Arctic sea ice reduction and European cold winters in CMIP5 climate change experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Shuting; Christensen, Jens H.

    2012-01-01

    , we find that episodes of cold months will continue to occur and there remains substantial probability for the occurrence of cold winters in Europe linked with sea ice reduction in the Barents and Kara Sea sector. A pattern of cold-European warm-Arctic anomaly is typical for the cold events......European winter climate and its possible relationship with the Arctic sea ice reduction in the recent past and future as simulated by the models of the Climate Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) is investigated, with focus on the cold winters. While Europe will warm overall in the future...... in the future, which is associated with the negative phase of the Arctic Oscillation. These patterns, however, differ from the corresponding patterns in the historical period, and underline the connection between European cold winter events and Arctic sea ice reduction....

  15. Climatic growing conditions of Jatropha curcas L.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maes, W.H.; Achten, W.M.J.; Muys, B. [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Division Forest, Nature and Landscape, Celestijnenlaan 200 E Box 2411, BE-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Trabucco, A. [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Division Forest, Nature and Landscape, Celestijnenlaan 200 E Box 2411, BE-3001 Leuven (Belgium); International Water Management Institute (IWMI), P.O. Box 2075, Colombo (Sri Lanka)

    2009-10-15

    The massive investment in new jatropha plantations worldwide is not sufficiently based on a profound scientific knowledge of its ecology. In this article, we define the climatic conditions in its area of natural distribution by combining the locations of herbarium specimens with corresponding climatic information, and compare these conditions with those in 83 jatropha plantations worldwide. Most specimens (87%) were found in tropical savannah and monsoon climates (A{sub m}, A{sub w}) and in temperate climates without dry season and with hot summer (C{sub fa}), while very few were found in semi-arid (B{sub S}) and none in arid climates (B{sub W}). Ninety-five percent of the specimens grew in areas with a mean annual rainfall above 944 mm year{sup -1} and an average minimum temperature of the coldest month (T{sub min}) above 10.5 C. The mean annual temperature range was 19.3-27.2 C. The climatic conditions at the plantations were different from those of the natural distribution specimens for all studied climatic variables, except average maximum temperature in the warmest month. Roughly 40% of the plantations were situated in regions with a drier climate than in 95% of the area of the herbarium specimens, and 28% of the plantations were situated in areas with T{sub min} below 10.5 C. The observed precipitation preferences indicate that jatropha is not common in regions with arid and semi-arid climates. Plantations in arid and semi-arid areas hold the risk of low productivity or irrigation requirement. Plantations in regions with frost risk hold the risk of damage due to frost. (author)

  16. A warm or a cold early Earth? New insights from a 3-D climate-carbon model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnay, Benjamin; Le Hir, Guillaume; Fluteau, Frédéric; Forget, François; Catling, David C.

    2017-09-01

    Oxygen isotopes in marine cherts have been used to infer hot oceans during the Archean with temperatures between 60 °C (333 K) and 80 °C (353 K). Such climates are challenging for the early Earth warmed by the faint young Sun. The interpretation of the data has therefore been controversial. 1D climate modeling inferred that such hot climates would require very high levels of CO2 (2-6 bars). Previous carbon cycle modeling concluded that such stable hot climates were impossible and that the carbon cycle should lead to cold climates during the Hadean and the Archean. Here, we revisit the climate and carbon cycle of the early Earth at 3.8 Ga using a 3D climate-carbon model. We find that CO2 partial pressures of around 1 bar could have produced hot climates given a low land fraction and cloud feedback effects. However, such high CO2 partial pressures should not have been stable because of the weathering of terrestrial and oceanic basalts, producing an efficient stabilizing feedback. Moreover, the weathering of impact ejecta during the Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB) would have strongly reduced the CO2 partial pressure leading to cold climates and potentially snowball Earth events after large impacts. Our results therefore favor cold or temperate climates with global mean temperatures between around 8 °C (281 K) and 30 °C (303 K) and with 0.1-0.36 bar of CO2 for the late Hadean and early Archean. Finally, our model suggests that the carbon cycle was efficient for preserving clement conditions on the early Earth without necessarily requiring any other greenhouse gas or warming process.

  17. Building integration of photovoltaic systems in cold climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athienitis, Andreas K.; Candanedo, José A.

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents some of the research activities on building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) systems developed by the Solar and Daylighting Laboratory at Concordia University. BIPV systems offer considerable advantages as compared to stand-alone PV installations. For example, BIPV systems can play a role as essential components of the building envelope. BIPV systems operate as distributed power generators using the most widely available renewable source. Since BIPV systems do not require additional space, they are especially appropriate for urban environments. BIPV/Thermal (BIPV/T) systems may use exterior air to extract useful heat from the PV panels, cooling them and thereby improving their electric performance. The recovered thermal energy can then be used for space heating and domestic hot water (DHW) heating, supporting the utilization of BIVP/T as an appropriate technology for cold climates. BIPV and BIPV/T systems are the subject of several ongoing research and demonstration projects (in both residential and commercial buildings) led by Concordia University. The concept of integrated building design and operation is at the centre of these efforts: BIPV and BIPV/T systems must be treated as part of a comprehensive strategy taking into account energy conservation measures, passive solar design, efficient lighting and HVAC systems, and integration of other renewable energy systems (solar thermal, heat pumps, etc.). Concordia Solar Laboratory performs fundamental research on heat transfer and modeling of BIPV/T systems, numerical and experimental investigations on BIPV and BIPV/T in building energy systems and non-conventional applications (building-attached greenhouses), and the design and optimization of buildings and communities.

  18. Tolerance to multiple climate stressors: A case study of Douglas-fir drought and cold hardiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Sheel; Harrington, Constance A; St. Clair, John Bradley

    2016-01-01

    Summary: 1. Drought and freeze events are two of the most common forms of climate extremes which result in tree damage or death, and the frequency and intensity of both stressors may increase with climate change. Few studies have examined natural covariation in stress tolerance traits to cope with multiple stressors among wild plant populations. 2. We assessed the capacity of coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii), an ecologically and economically important species in the northwestern USA, to tolerate both drought and cold stress on 35 populations grown in common gardens. We used principal components analysis to combine drought and cold hardiness trait data into generalized stress hardiness traits to model geographic variation in hardiness as a function of climate across the Douglas-fir range. 3. Drought and cold hardiness converged among populations along winter temperature gradients and diverged along summer precipitation gradients. Populations originating in regions with cold winters had relatively high tolerance to both drought and cold stress, which is likely due to overlapping adaptations for coping with winter desiccation. Populations from regions with dry summers had increased drought hardiness but reduced cold hardiness, suggesting a trade-off in tolerance mechanisms. 4. Our findings highlight the necessity to look beyond bivariate trait–climate relationships and instead consider multiple traits and climate variables to effectively model and manage for the impacts of climate change on widespread species.

  19. Exterior Insulation Implications for Heating and Cooling Systems in Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herk, Anastasia [IBACOS Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Poerschke, Andrew [IBACOS Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2015-04-09

    The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) is interested in finding cost-effective solutions for deep energy retrofits (DERs) related to exterior wall insulation in a cold climate, with targets of 50% peak load reduction and 50% space conditioning energy savings. The U.S. Department of Energy Building America team, IBACOS, in collaboration with GreenHomes America, Inc. (GHA), was contracted by NYSERDA to research exterior wall insulation solutions. In addition to exterior wall insulation, the strategies included energy upgrades where needed in the attic, mechanical and ventilation systems, basement, band joist, walls, and floors. Under Building America, IBACOS is studying the impact of a “thermal enclosure” DER on the sizing of the space conditioning system and the occupant comfort if the thermal capacity of the heating and cooling system is dramatically downsized without any change in the existing heating and cooling distribution system (e.g., size, tightness and supply outlet configurations).

  20. Exterior Insulation Implications for Heating and Cooling Systems in Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herk, Anastasia; Poerschke, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) is interested in finding cost-effective solutions for deep energy retrofits (DERs) related to exterior wall insulation in a cold climate, with targets of 50% peak load reduction and 50% space conditioning energy savings. The U.S. Department of Energy Building America team, IBACOS, in collaboration with GreenHomes America, Inc. (GHA), was contracted by NYSERDA to research exterior wall insulation solutions. In addition to exterior wall insulation, the strategies included energy upgrades where needed in the attic, mechanical and ventilation systems, basement, band joist, walls, and floors. Under Building America, IBACOS is studying the impact of a “thermal enclosure” DER on the sizing of the space conditioning system and the occupant comfort if the thermal capacity of the heating and cooling system is dramatically downsized without any change in the existing heating and cooling distribution system (e.g., size, tightness and supply outlet configurations).

  1. Produção de forragem de capim-elefante sob clima frio: curva de crescimento e valor nutritivo Forage production of elephantgrass under cold climate conditions: growth curve and nutritive value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Dall'Agnol

    2004-10-01

    established in plots in a complete block design. The treatments were the sum of growing days up to the evaluation day, in order to establish a growth curve. The accumulated dry matter (DM started 42 days after an uniformization cut and the plots were cut in sequence every 21 days, up to complete 210 days of growth, always leaving a 50 cm stubble. The regrowth ability in each period was also evaluated every 21 days. Data were submitted to variance and regression analyses. The elephantgrass dry matter accumulation was significantly dependent of days of growth, showing growth rates of 185 and 65 kg DM/ha/day on 1983/84 and 1984/85, respectively. In the first growing period, it was obtained 31,132 kg DM/ha with 210 days of growth and 3,310 kg DM/ha in the first 63 days of growth. In 1984/85, the plants accumulated about one-third of that obtained in the previous year, probably due to nutritional problems and to a drought spell. In the regrowth evaluations, the highest yields were obtained with plants growing for 42 (1,149 kg DM/ha and 63 days (1,259 kg DM/ha. The two years average of crude protein and in vitro dry matter digestibility was 20% and 65%, respectively. Although the cold climate, the elephantgrass is a viable alternative for the Santa Catarina highlands.

  2. Changes in population susceptibility to heat and cold over time: assessing adaptation to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbuthnott, Katherine; Hajat, Shakoor; Heaviside, Clare; Vardoulakis, Sotiris

    2016-03-08

    In the context of a warming climate and increasing urbanisation (with the associated urban heat island effect), interest in understanding temperature related health effects is growing. Previous reviews have examined how the temperature-mortality relationship varies by geographical location. There have been no reviews examining the empirical evidence for changes in population susceptibility to the effects of heat and/or cold over time. The objective of this paper is to review studies which have specifically examined variations in temperature related mortality risks over the 20(th) and 21(st) centuries and determine whether population adaptation to heat and/or cold has occurred. We searched five electronic databases combining search terms for three main concepts: temperature, health outcomes and changes in vulnerability or adaptation. Studies included were those which quantified the risk of heat related mortality with changing ambient temperature in a specific location over time, or those which compared mortality outcomes between two different extreme temperature events (heatwaves) in one location. The electronic searches returned 9183 titles and abstracts, of which eleven studies examining the effects of ambient temperature over time were included and six studies comparing the effect of different heatwaves at discrete time points were included. Of the eleven papers that quantified the risk of, or absolute heat related mortality over time, ten found a decrease in susceptibility over time of which five found the decrease to be significant. The magnitude of the decrease varied by location. Only two studies attempted to quantitatively attribute changes in susceptibility to specific adaptive measures and found no significant association between the risk of heat related mortality and air conditioning prevalence within or between cities over time. Four of the six papers examining effects of heatwaves found a decrease in expected mortality in later years. Five studies

  3. Building America Best Practices Series: Volume 3; Builders and Buyers Handbook for Improving New Home Efficiency, Comfort, and Durability in Cold and Very Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2005-08-01

    This best practices guide is part of a series produced by Building America. The guide book is a resource to help builders large and small build high-quality, energy-efficient homes that achieve 30% energy savings in space conditioning and water heating in the cold and very cold climates. The savings are in comparison with the 1993 Model Energy Code. The guide contains chapters for every member of the builder's team-from the manager to the site planner to the designers, site supervisors, the trades, and marketers. There is also a chapter for homeowners on how to use the book to provide help in selecting a new home or builder.

  4. Diesel soot aging in urban plumes within hours under cold dark and humid conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, A C; Wittbom, C; Roldin, P; Sporre, M; Öström, E; Nilsson, P; Martinsson, J; Rissler, J; Nordin, E Z; Svenningsson, B; Pagels, J; Swietlicki, E

    2017-09-28

    Fresh and aged diesel soot particles have different impacts on climate and human health. While fresh diesel soot particles are highly aspherical and non-hygroscopic, aged particles are spherical and hygroscopic. Aging and its effect on water uptake also controls the dispersion of diesel soot in the atmosphere. Understanding the timescales on which diesel soot ages in the atmosphere is thus important, yet knowledge thereof is lacking. We show that under cold, dark and humid conditions the atmospheric transformation from fresh to aged soot occurs on a timescale of less than five hours. Under dry conditions in the laboratory, diesel soot transformation is much less efficient. While photochemistry drives soot aging, our data show it is not always a limiting factor. Field observations together with aerosol process model simulations show that the rapid ambient diesel soot aging in urban plumes is caused by coupled ammonium nitrate formation and water uptake.

  5. Body temperature and cold sensation during and following exercise under temperate room conditions in cold-sensitive young trained females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Naoto; Aoki-Murakami, Erii; Tsuji, Bun; Kenny, Glen P; Nagashima, Kei; Kondo, Narihiko; Nishiyasu, Takeshi

    2017-11-01

    We evaluated cold sensation at rest and in response to exercise-induced changes in core and skin temperatures in cold-sensitive exercise trained females. Fifty-eight trained young females were screened by a questionnaire, selecting cold-sensitive (Cold-sensitive, n = 7) and non-cold-sensitive (Control, n = 7) individuals. Participants rested in a room at 29.5°C for ~100 min after which ambient temperature was reduced to 23.5°C where they remained resting for 60 min. Participants then performed 30-min of moderate intensity cycling (50% peak oxygen uptake) followed by a 60-min recovery. Core and mean skin temperatures and cold sensation over the whole-body and extremities (fingers and toes) were assessed throughout. Resting core temperature was lower in the Cold-sensitive relative to Control group (36.4 ± 0.3 vs. 36.7 ± 0.2°C). Core temperature increased to similar levels at end-exercise (~37.2°C) and gradually returned to near preexercise rest levels at the end of recovery (>36.6°C). Whole-body cold sensation was greater in the Cold-sensitive relative to Control group during resting at a room temperature of 23.5°C only without a difference in mean skin temperature between groups. In contrast, cold sensation of the extremities was greater in the Cold-sensitive group prior to, during and following exercise albeit this was not paralleled by differences in mean extremity skin temperature. We show that young trained females who are sensitive to cold exhibit augmented whole-body cold sensation during rest under temperate ambient conditions. However, this response is diminished during and following exercise. In contrast, cold sensation of extremities is augmented during resting that persists during and following exercise. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  6. Produção de forragem de capim-elefante sob clima frio: 2. produção e seletividade animal Elephantgrass forage yield under cold climate conditions: 2. production and animal selectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Dall'Agnol

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram comparadas, neste estudo, a produção e a seletividade animal de cultivares de capim-elefante em condições de clima frio, em Lages, Santa Catarina. O ensaio constou de 12 cultivares (Mineiro X-23A, Mineiro, Taiwan A-144, CAC-262, Mole da Volta Grande, Teresópolis, Vrukwona, Merckeron Pinda, Turrialba, Porto Rico, Taiwan A-14 e Cameroon, estabelecidas em parcelas de 17,5 m², em um delineamento de blocos casualizados, com três repetições. Cada parcela foi formada por sete linhas espaçadas 0,50 m, considerando-se como área útil as três linhas centrais. Os cortes para avaliação da produção de forragem foram realizados em janeiro, março e maio de 1985 e 1986, sempre que as plantas atingiram cerca de 1,5 m de estatura. A avaliação da seletividade animal foi realizada em janeiro e março de 1987, após o pastoreio, mediante notas atribuídas ao resíduo de forragem na parcela (método Botanal. A análise da variância mostrou efeito significativo de anos e de cultivares para a produção total de forragem, não havendo efeito significativo para a interação desses fatores. Na média dos dois anos, o potencial de produção variou entre 11 t e 21 t MS/ha. Observou-se uma redução de 27% na produção de forragem no segundo ano, com média geral dos cultivares de 12.116 kg MS/ha, que foi significativamente inferior à do ano anterior (16.662 kg MS/ha. O cv. Mineiro X-23A foi o que apresentou a maior produção de forragem, superando 20 t MS/ha. O cv. Porto Rico destacou-se pela maior proporção de folhas e maior seletividade pelos animais e o cv. CAC-262, pela maior estabilidade, ou seja, menor variância nos dois anos de avaliação.This work was aimed to compare the production and animal selectivity of elephant grass cultivars in the cold conditions, of Southern Brasil (Lages, Santa Catarina. Twelve cultivars of elephantgrass were used (Mineiro X-23A, Mineiro, Taiwan A-144, CAC-262, Mole da Volta Grande, Teres

  7. Insulated Concrete Form Walls Integrated With Mechanical Systems in a Cold Climate Test House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallay, D.; Wiehagen, J.

    2014-09-01

    Transitioning from standard light frame to a thermal mass wall system in a high performance home will require a higher level of design integration with the mechanical systems. The much higher mass in the ICF wall influences heat transfer through the wall and affects how the heating and cooling system responds to changing outdoor conditions. This is even more important for efficient, low-load homes with efficient heat pump systems in colder climates where the heating and cooling peak loads are significantly different from standard construction. This report analyzes a range of design features and component performance estimates in an effort to select practical, cost-effective solutions for high performance homes in a cold climate. Of primary interest is the influence of the ICF walls on developing an effective air sealing strategy and selecting an appropriate heating and cooling equipment type and capacity. The domestic water heating system is analyzed for costs and savings to investigate options for higher efficiency electric water heating. A method to ensure mechanical ventilation air flows is examined. The final solution package includes high-R mass walls, very low infiltration rates, multi-stage heat pump heating, solar thermal domestic hot water system, and energy recovery ventilation. This solution package can be used for homes to exceed 2012 International Energy Conservation Code requirements throughout all climate zones and achieves the DOE Challenge Home certification.

  8. Porphyrin-based Symmetric Redox Flow Batteries towards Cold-Climate Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ting; Pan, Zeng; Miao, Licheng; Chen, Chengcheng; Han, Mo; Shang, Zhenfeng; Chen, Jun

    2018-01-24

    Electrochemical energy storage with redox flow batteries (RFBs) under subzero temperature is of great significance for utilizing renewable energy in cold regions. However, RFBs are generally utilized above 10 °C. Here we present non-aqueous organic RFBs which employed 5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrin (H2TPP) as a bipolar redox-active material (anode: [H2TPP]2-/H2TPP, cathode: H2TPP/[H2TPP]2+ ) and a high ionic conductive Y-zeolite-polyvinylidene fluoride (Y-PVDF) ion-selective membrane as separator. The constructed RFBs exhibit a high volumetric capacity of 8.72 Ah/L with a high voltage of 2.83 V and an excellent cycling stability (capacity retention exceeding 99.98% per cycle) in temperature range of 20~-40 °C. Our work serves as principles for designing low-temperature working RFBs, offering a promising pathway for realizing electrochemical energy storage under cold-climate conditions. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Development of a joint Nordic master in cold climate engineering within the Nordic five tech alliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Tuhkuri, Jukka; Høyland, Knut V.

    2017-01-01

    Developments in the Arctic regions are intensifying and the industry now demands engineers who have Arctic competencies. Working as an engineer in the Arctic requires special skills, but yet no full Master’s programme in cold climate engineering has been offered in Europe. A joint Nordic master......, Nordic Five Tech, which was established in 2006 with the goal of utilizing the shared and complementary strengths of the universities and creating synergies, also within education in the form of joint master programmes. The Cold Climate Engineering students study for one year at two of the universities...

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF COLD CLIMATE HEAT PUMP USING TWO-STAGE COMPRESSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Shrestha, Som S [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses a well-regarded, hardware based heat pump system model to investigate a two-stage economizing cycle for cold climate heat pump applications. The two-stage compression cycle has two variable-speed compressors. The high stage compressor was modelled using a compressor map, and the low stage compressor was experimentally studied using calorimeter testing. A single-stage heat pump system was modelled as the baseline. The system performance predictions are compared between the two-stage and single-stage systems. Special considerations for designing a cold climate heat pump are addressed at both the system and component levels.

  11. Residential Solar-Based Seasonal Thermal Storage Systems in Cold Climates: Building Envelope and Thermal Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Hugo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of electricity use for heating and domestic hot water in cold climates can be achieved by: (1 reducing the heating loads through the improvement of the thermal performance of house envelopes, and (2 using solar energy through a residential solar-based thermal storage system. First, this paper presents the life cycle energy and cost analysis of a typical one-storey detached house, located in Montreal, Canada. Simulation of annual energy use is performed using the TRNSYS software. Second, several design alternatives with improved thermal resistance for walls, ceiling and windows, increased overall air tightness, and increased window-to-wall ratio of South facing windows are evaluated with respect to the life cycle energy use, life cycle emissions and life cycle cost. The solution that minimizes the energy demand is chosen as a reference house for the study of long-term thermal storage. Third, the computer simulation of a solar heating system with solar thermal collectors and long-term thermal storage capacity is presented. Finally, the life cycle cost and life cycle energy use of the solar combisystem are estimated for flat-plate solar collectors and evacuated tube solar collectors, respectively, for the economic and climatic conditions of this study.

  12. Physiologic Systems and Their Responses to Conditions of Heat and Cold

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    the effects of both heat stress and cold stress on physiologic responses and exercise capabilities. Human thermoregulation during exercise is...code) 2012 Book Chapter-ACSM’s Advanced Exercise Physiology Physiologic Systems and Their Responses to Conditions of Heat and Cold M.N. Sawka, J.W...although the effects of exercise training on physiologic responses during thermal (heat or cold ) stress are discussed. physiologic systems, heat

  13. Performance of a Battery Electric Vehicle in the Cold Climate and Hilly Terrain of Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-23

    The goal of this research project was to determine the performance of a battery electric vehicle (BEV) in the cold climate and hilly terrain of Vermont. For this study, a 2005 Toyota Echo was converted from an internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle...

  14. Effect of Corridor Design on Energy Consumption for School Buildings in the Cold Climate.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, A.; Sun, Y.; Huang, Qiong; Bokel, R.M.J.; van den Dobbelsteen, A.A.J.F.

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the energy impact of corridor design for school buildings in the cold climate of China. Local school buildings were classified into three types in terms of the corridor design patterns. Architectural related parameters of corridors which could have a potential impact on the

  15. Post cold-storage conditioning time affects soil denitrifying enzyme activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chirinda, Ngoni; Olesen, Jørgen E; Porter, John R.

    2011-01-01

    Soil denitrifying enzyme activity (DEA) is often assessed after cold storage. Previous studies using the short-term acetylene inhibition method have not considered conditioning time (post-cold-storage warm-up time prior to soil analysis) as a factor influencing results. We observed fluctuations...

  16. Alpine Cold Vegetation Response to Climate Change in the Western Nyainqentanglha Range in 1972–2009

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Xu; Sun, Ziyong; Zhou, Ai-Guo

    2014-01-01

    ... dependent on the climate conditions and their habitat, vegetation distribution has been shown to be very sensitive to climate and habitat change [1]. Considered as the Third-Pole of the earth, t...

  17. The Occurrence of Cold Spells in the Alps Related to ClimateChange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seon Ki Park

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is not only a likely prospect for the end of this century, but it is already occurring. Part of the changes will include global warming and increasing temperature variability, both at global and regional scales. This increased variability was investigated in this paper from the point of view of the occurrence of cold spells in the Alps in the future climate (2071–2100, compared with the present climate (1961–1990. For this purpose, a regionalisation of the climate change effects was performed within the Alps. To avoid possible errors in the estimate of the 2m air temperature, the analysis was performed on the soil surface temperature. To get realistic values for this variable, a land surface scheme, UTOPIA, has been run on the selected domain, using the output of the Regional Climate Model (RegCM3 simulations as the driving force. The results show that, in general, the number of cold breaks is decreasing over the Alps, due to the temperature increment. However, there are certain zones where the behaviour is more complicated. The analysis of the model output also allowed a relationship to be found between the number of cold breaks and their duration. The significance of these results over the whole area was assessed.

  18. Assessing the Climate Sensitivity of Cold Content and Snowmelt in Seasonal Alpine and Subalpine Snowpacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, K. S.; Molotch, N. P.

    2016-12-01

    In cold, high-elevation sites, snowpack cold content acts as a buffer against climate warming by resisting snowmelt during periods of positive energy fluxes. To test the climate sensitivity of cold content and snowmelt, we employed the physical SNOWPACK snow model, forced with a 23-year, hourly, quality-controlled, gap-filled meteorological dataset from the Niwot Ridge Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) site in the Front Range mountains of Colorado. SNOWPACK was run at two points with seasonal snowpacks within the LTER, one in the alpine (3528 m) and one in the subalpine (3022 m). Model output was validated using snow water equivalent (SWE), snowpack temperature, and cold content data from snow pits dug near the met stations and automated SWE data from nearby SNOTEL snow pillows. Cold content accumulates primarily through additions of new snow, while negative energy fluxes—cooling through longwave emission and sublimation—play a lesser role, particularly in the deeper snowpack of the alpine. On average, the snowpack energy balance becomes positive on April 1 in the alpine and March 8 in the subalpine. Peak SWE occurs after these dates and its timing is primarily determined by the amount of precipitation received after peak cold content, with persistent snowfall delaying the main snowmelt pulse. Years with lower cold content, due to reduced precipitation and/or increased air temperature, experience an earlier positive energy balance with more melt events occurring before the date of peak SWE, which has implications for soil moisture, streamflow volume and timing, water uptake by vegetation, and microbial respiration. Synthetic warming experiments show significant cold content reductions and increased late-winter/early-spring melt as positive energy balances occur earlier in the snow season (a forward shift between 5.1 and 21.0 days per °C of warming). These results indicate cold, high-elevation sites, which are critical for water resources in the western

  19. A Literature Review on Heating of Ventilation Air with Large Diameter Earth Tubes in Cold Climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Tan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Earth-air heat exchange (EAHE systems offer the possibility of reducing use of nonrenewable energy for heating ventilation air in cold climates. The number of installations of large diameter (greater than 900 mm EAHE systems reported for cold climates is small. Even less has been reported on their heating performance, but the available information suggests that further rigorous assessment is warranted to determine whether the reported better than expected temperature rise is supported and, if so, the reasons for this. Another concern is the possibility of long-term heat depletion in the surrounding soil, which would affect performance. Only a couple of short-term experimental studies of ground temperature effects of heating with EAHE were found for cool climates. Four articles that addressed ground temperature effects with horizontal ground source heat pump exchangers had conflicting findings regarding heat depletion in the soil.

  20. Higher climatological temperature sensitivity of soil carbon in cold than warm climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koven, Charles D.; Hugelius, Gustaf; Lawrence, David M.; Wieder, William R.

    2017-11-01

    The projected loss of soil carbon to the atmosphere resulting from climate change is a potentially large but highly uncertain feedback to warming. The magnitude of this feedback is poorly constrained by observations and theory, and is disparately represented in Earth system models (ESMs). To assess the climatological temperature sensitivity of soil carbon, we calculate apparent soil carbon turnover times that reflect long-term and broad-scale rates of decomposition. Here, we show that the climatological temperature control on carbon turnover in the top metre of global soils is more sensitive in cold climates than in warm climates and argue that it is critical to capture this emergent ecosystem property in global-scale models. We present a simplified model that explains the observed high cold-climate sensitivity using only the physical scaling of soil freeze-thaw state across climate gradients. Current ESMs fail to capture this pattern, except in an ESM that explicitly resolves vertical gradients in soil climate and carbon turnover. An observed weak tropical temperature sensitivity emerges in a different model that explicitly resolves mineralogical control on decomposition. These results support projections of strong carbon-climate feedbacks from northern soils and demonstrate a method for ESMs to capture this emergent behaviour.

  1. Climate, invasive species and land use drive population dynamics of a cold-water specialist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovach, Ryan P.; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Whited, Diane C.; Schmetterling, David A.; Dux, Andrew M; Muhlfeld, Clint C.

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is an additional stressor in a complex suite of threats facing freshwater biodiversity, particularly for cold-water fishes. Research addressing the consequences of climate change on cold-water fish has generally focused on temperature limits defining spatial distributions, largely ignoring how climatic variation influences population dynamics in the context of other existing stressors.We used long-term data from 92 populations of bull trout Salvelinus confluentus – one of North America's most cold-adapted fishes – to quantify additive and interactive effects of climate, invasive species and land use on population dynamics (abundance, variability and growth rate).Populations were generally depressed, more variable and declining where spawning and rearing stream habitat was limited, invasive species and land use were prevalent and stream temperatures were highest. Increasing stream temperature acted additively and independently, whereas land use and invasive species had additive and interactive effects (i.e. the impact of one stressor depended on exposure to the other stressor).Most (58%–78%) of the explained variation in population dynamics was attributed to the presence of invasive species, differences in life history and management actions in foraging habitats in rivers, lakes and reservoirs. Although invasive fishes had strong negative effects on populations in foraging habitats, proactive control programmes appeared to effectively temper their negative impact.Synthesis and applications. Long-term demographic data emphasize that climate warming will exacerbate imperilment of cold-water specialists like bull trout, yet other stressors – especially invasive fishes – are immediate threats that can be addressed by proactive management actions. Therefore, climate-adaptation strategies for freshwater biodiversity should consider existing abiotic and biotic stressors, some of which provide potential and realized opportunity for conservation

  2. Climate change and heat and cold wave frequencies for different locations in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parey, Sylvie; Thu Huong Hoang, Thi; Dacunha-Castelle, Didier

    2014-05-01

    Heat and cold waves are important meteorological events related to electricity production and consumption. Therefore, we developed a stochastic model for temperature able to correctly reproduce extreme events and this tool can be used to downscale climate model simulations. As a matter of fact, the stochastic model simulates the residues after removing trends and seasonalities in the mean and the variance of temperature time-series. Thus, once the model has been calibrated on an observed time-series, future time series can be re-constructed from the modelled residues and the trends and seasonalities given by any climate model simulation, suitably corrected. This technique allows increasing the number of temperature time-series in order to infer the significance of possible changes. When applied to study the frequency changes of heat or cold waves of different lengths, from 1 day to more than 15 days, preliminary results have shown that the changes are significant only for very long heat or cold waves in the near future. This first analysis will be extended to further locations in Europe and future time periods, using the CMIP5 simulation results of different climate models, in order to check the robustness of such results and to further investigate possible changes in the frequencies of heat and cold waves. The presentation will thus describe the used methodology and detail the main results obtained when applied for different temperature time-series.

  3. Analysis of Natural Ventilation in a Passive House Located in Cold Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oropeza-Perez, Ivan; Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Remmen, Arne

    2013-01-01

    This article shows the potential of using natural ventilation as a passive method of cooling buildings that are located in cold climate countries using Denmark as a case study. The energy saving potential of natural ventilation is found by performing thermal simulations of a household located in ...

  4. Passive air conditioning methods for different climates, special ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There should be a deep attention to the climate of each region to study passive air conditioning there. In this research different approaches for some major climates are discussed. There is a special focus on Iran's climates and new ideas are presented for passive air conditioning in some of them. Results show that passive ...

  5. Disordered conditioned pain modulation system in patients with posttraumatic cold intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, E S; Selles, R W; Huygen, F J P; Duraku, L S; Hovius, S E R; Walbeehm, E T

    2014-01-01

    Conditioned pain modulation (CPM) is a phenomenon of 'pain inhibiting pain' that is important for understanding idiopathic pain syndromes. Because the pathophysiology of posttraumatic cold intolerance is still unknown but it could involve similar mechanisms as idiopathic pain syndromes, we evaluated the functioning of the CPM system in patients with posttraumatic cold intolerance compared to healthy controls. Fourteen healthy controls and 24 patients diagnosed with cold intolerance using the Cold Intolerance Symptom Severity questionnaire were included in the study. Of the 24 patients with cold intolerance, 11 had a nerve lesion and 13 an amputation of one or more digits. To quantify the CPM, pain threshold for mechanical pressure was measured at the affected region as a baseline measure. Then, the contralateral hand received a cold stimulus of ice water to evoke the noxious conditioning. After the cold stimulus, the pain threshold for mechanical pressure was determined again. The absolute and relative changes in algometer pressure (CPM effect) between pre- and post-conditioning were significantly smaller in the cold intolerance group compared to the control group (absolute p = 0.019, relative p = 0.004). The CPM effect was significantly different between the control group and the subgroups of nerve lesion (p = 0.003) and amputation patients (p = 0.011). In this study, we found a CPM effect after a cold stimulus in both controls and patients. A significant weaker CPM effect compared to the controls was found, as in other chronic pain conditions. The CPM system within patients with cold intolerance is altered. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Investigation of pajama properties on skin under mild cold conditions: the interaction between skin and clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lei; Gohel, Mayur D I; Li, Yi; Chung, Waiyee J

    2011-07-01

    Clothing is considered the second skin of the human body. The aim of this study was to determine clothing-wearer interaction on skin physiology under mild cold conditions. Skin physiological parameters, subjective sensory response, stress level, and physical properties of clothing fabric from two longitude parallel-designed wear trials were studied. The wear trials involved four kinds of pajamas made from cotton or polyester material that had hydrophilic or hydrophobic treatment, conducted for three weeks under mild cold conditions. Statistical tools, factor analysis, hierarchical linear regression, and logistic regression were applied to analyze the strong predictors of skin physiological parameters, stress level, and sensory response. A framework was established to illustrate clothing-wearer interactions with clothing fabric properties, skin physiology, stress level, and sensory response under mild cold conditions. Fabric has various effects on the human body under mild cold conditions. A fabric's properties influence skin physiology, sensation, and psychological response. © 2011 The International Society of Dermatology.

  7. Disordered conditioned pain modulation system in patients with posttraumatic cold intolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, E.S.; Selles, R.W.; Huygen, F.J.A.; Duraku, L.S.; Hovius, S.E.; Walbeehm, E.T.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Conditioned pain modulation (CPM) is a phenomenon of 'pain inhibiting pain' that is important for understanding idiopathic pain syndromes. Because the pathophysiology of posttraumatic cold intolerance is still unknown but it could involve similar mechanisms as idiopathic pain syndromes,

  8. Food security measures during uncertain climatic conditions in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food security measures during uncertain climatic conditions in Nigeria. ... Journal Home > Vol 9, No 2 (2009) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Keywords: Climate-variability, confidence limits, productivity, drought

  9. Warming effects on the urban hydrology in cold climate regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvi, L; Grimmond, C S B; McFadden, J P; Christen, A; Strachan, I B; Taka, M; Warsta, L; Heimann, M

    2017-07-19

    While approximately 338 million people in the Northern hemisphere live in regions that are regularly snow covered in winter, there is little hydro-climatologic knowledge in the cities impacted by snow. Using observations and modelling we have evaluated the energy and water exchanges of four cities that are exposed to wintertime snow. We show that the presence of snow critically changes the impact that city design has on the local-scale hydrology and climate. After snow melt, the cities return to being strongly controlled by the proportion of built and vegetated surfaces. However in winter, the presence of snow masks the influence of the built and vegetated fractions. We show how inter-year variability of wintertime temperature can modify this effect of snow. With increasing temperatures, these cities could be pushed towards very different partitioning between runoff and evapotranspiration. We derive the dependency of wintertime runoff on this warming effect in combination with the effect of urban densification.

  10. Infrared Thermal Signature Evaluation of a Pure and Saline Ice for Marine Operations in Cold Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taimur Rashid

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Marine operations in cold climates are subjected to abundant ice accretion, which can lead to heavy ice loads over larger surface area. For safe and adequate operations on marine vessels over a larger area, remote ice detection and ice mitigation system can be useful. To study this remote ice detection option, lab experimentation was performed to detect the thermal gradient of ice with the infrared camera. Two different samples of ice blocks were prepared from tap water and saline water collected from the North Atlantic Ocean stream. The surfaces of ice samples were observed at room temperature. A complete thermal signature over the surface area was detected and recorded until the meltdown process was completed. Different temperature profiles for saline and pure ice samples were observed, which were kept under similar conditions. This article is focused to understand the experimentation methodology and thermal signatures of samples. However, challenges remains in terms of the validation of the detection signature and elimination of false detection.

  11. Retrofitting a 1960s Split-Level, Cold-Climate Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puttagunta, Srikanth [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2015-07-01

    National programs such as Home Performance with ENERGY STAR® and numerous other utility air sealing programs have brought awareness to homeowners of the benefits of energy efficiency retrofits. Yet, these programs tend to focus on the low-hanging fruit: air-sealing the thermal envelope and ductwork where accessible, switch to efficient lighting, and low-flow fixtures. At the other end of the spectrum, deep-energy retrofit programs are also being encouraged by various utilities across the country. While deep energy retrofits typically seek 50% energy savings, they are often quite costly and most applicable to gut-rehab projects. A significant potential for lowering energy usage in existing homes lies between the low hanging fruit and deep energy retrofit approaches - retrofits that save approximately 30% in energy over the existing conditions. A key is to be non-intrusive with the efficiency measures so the retrofit projects can be accomplished in occupied homes. This cold climate retrofit project involved the design and optimization of a home in Connecticut that sought to improve energy savings by at least 30% (excluding solar PV) over the existing home's performance. This report documents the successful implementation of a cost-effective solution package that achieved performance greater than 30% over the pre-retrofit - what worked, what did not, and what improvements could be made.

  12. IEA HPT ANNEX 41 – Cold climate heat pumps: US country report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groll, Eckhard A. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Baxter, Van D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-08-01

    In 2012 the International Energy Agency (IEA) Heat Pump Programme (now the Heat Pump Technologies (HPT) program) established Annex 41 to investigate technology solutions to improve performance of heat pumps for cold climates. Four IEA HPT member countries are participating in the Annex – Austria, Canada, Japan, and the United States (U.S.). The principal focus of Annex 41 is on electrically driven air-source heat pumps (ASHP) since that system type has the lowest installation cost of all heat pump alternatives. They also have the most significant performance challenges given their inherent efficiency and capacity issues at cold outdoor temperatures. Availability of ASHPs with improved low ambient performance would help bring about a much stronger heat pump market presence in cold areas, which today rely predominantly on fossil fuel furnace heating systems.

  13. Retrofitting Forced Air Combi Systems: A Cold Climate Field Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenbauer, Ben [NorthernSTAR, St. Paul, MN (United States); Bohac, Dave [NorthernSTAR, St. Paul, MN (United States); McAlpine, Jack [NorthernSTAR, St. Paul, MN (United States); Hewett, Martha [NorthernSTAR, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    2017-06-01

    This project analyzed combined condensing water heaters or boilers and hydronic air coils to provide high efficiency domestic hot water (DHW) and forced air space heating. Called "combi" systems, they provided similar space and water heating performance less expensively than installing two condensing appliances. The system's installed costs were cheaper than installing a condensing furnace and either a condensing tankless or condensing storage water heater. However, combi costs must mature and be reduced before they are competitive with a condensing furnace and power vented water heater (energy factor of 0.60). Better insulation and tighter envelopes are reducing space heating loads for new and existing homes. For many homes, decreased space heating loads make it possible for both space and domestic water heating loads to be provided with a single heating plant. These systems can also eliminate safety issues associated with natural draft appliances through the use of one common sealed combustion vent. The combined space and water heating approach was not a new idea. Past systems have used non-condensing heating plants, which limited their usefulness in climates with high heating loads. Previous laboratory work (Schoenbauer et al. 2012a) showed that proper installation was necessary to achieve condensing with high efficiency appliances. Careful consideration was paid to proper system sizing and minimizing the water temperature returning from the air handling unit to facilitate condensing operation.

  14. Retrofitting Forced Air Combi Systems: A Cold Climate Field Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenbauer, Ben [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States). NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership; Bohac, Dave [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States). NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership; McAlpine, Jake [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States). NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership; Hewett, Martha [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States). NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership

    2017-06-23

    This project analyzed combined condensing water heaters or boilers and hydronic air coils to provide high efficiency domestic hot water (DHW) and forced air space heating. Called 'combi' systems, they provided similar space and water heating performance less expensively than installing two condensing appliances. The system's installed costs were cheaper than installing a condensing furnace and either a condensing tankless or condensing storage water heater. However, combi costs must mature and be reduced before they are competitive with a condensing furnace and power vented water heater (energy factor of 0.60). Better insulation and tighter envelopes are reducing space heating loads for new and existing homes. For many homes, decreased space heating loads make it possible for both space and domestic water heating loads to be provided with a single heating plant. These systems can also eliminate safety issues associated with natural draft appliances through the use of one common sealed combustion vent. The combined space and water heating approach was not a new idea. Past systems have used non-condensing heating plants, which limited their usefulness in climates with high heating loads. Previous laboratory work (Schoenbauer et al. 2012a) showed that proper installation was necessary to achieve condensing with high efficiency appliances. Careful consideration was paid to proper system sizing and minimizing the water temperature returning from the air handling unit to facilitate condensing operation.

  15. Climate conditions in Sweden in a 100,000-year time perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjellstroem, Erik; Strandberg, Gustav (Rossby Centre, SMHI, Norrkoeping (Sweden)); Brandefelt, Jenny (Dept. of Mechanics, Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)); Naeslund, Jens-Ove (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)); Smith, Ben (Dept of Physical Geography and Ecosystems Analysis, Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden)); Wohlfarth, Barbara (Dept. of Geology and Geochemistry, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-04-15

    This report presents results from a project devoted to describing the climatic extremes within which the climate in Fennoscandia may vary over a 100,000 year time span. Based on forcing conditions which have yielded extreme conditions during the last glacial-interglacial cycle, as well as possible future conditions following continued anthropogenic emissions, projections of climate conditions have been made with climate models. Three different periods have been studied; i) a stadial within Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS 3) during the last glacial cycle, representing a cold period with a relatively small ice sheet covering parts of Fennoscandia, ii) the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), with an extensive ice sheet covering large parts of northern Europe and iii) a possible future period in a climate warmer than today. The future case is characterised by high greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere and a complete loss of the Greenland ice sheet. The climate modelling involved the use of a global climate model (GCM) for producing boundary conditions that were used by a regional climate model (RCM). The regional model produced detailed information on climate variables like near-surface air temperature and precipitation over Europe. These climate variables were subsequently used to force a vegetation model that produced a vegetation cover over Europe, consistent with the simulated regional climate. In a final step, the new vegetation cover from the vegetation model was used in the regional climate model to produce the final regional climate. For the studied periods, data on relevant climate parameters have been extracted from the regional model for the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas on the Swedish east coast and the Olkiluoto region on the west coast of Finland. Due to computational constraints, the modelling efforts include only one forcing scenario per time period. As there is a large degree of uncertainty in the choice of an appropriate forcing scenario, we perform

  16. Field Investigation of an Air-Source Cold Climate Heat Pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    In the U.S., there are approximately 2.6 million dwellings that use electricity for heating in cold and very cold regions with an annual energy consumption of 0.16 quads (0.17 EJ). A high performance cold climate heat pump (CCHP) would result in significant savings over current technologies (greater than 60% compared to electric resistance heating). We developed an air-source cold climate heat pump, which uses tandem compressors, with a single compressor rated for the building design cooling load, and running two compressors to provide, at -13 F (-25 C), 75% of rated heating capacity. The tandem compressors were optimized for heating operation and are able to tolerate discharge temperatures up to 280 F (138 C). A field investigation was conducted in the winter of 2015, in an occupied home in Ohio, USA. During the heating season, the seasonal COP was measured at 3.16, and the heat pump was able to operate down to -13 F (-25 C) and eliminate resistance heat use. The heat pump maintained an acceptable comfort level throughout the heating season. In comparison to a previous single-speed heat pump in the home, the CCHP demonstrated more than 40% energy savings in the peak heating load month. This paper illustrates the measured field performance, including compressor run time, frost/defrosting operations, distributions of building heating load and capacity delivery, comfort level, field measured COPs, etc.

  17. A wet-geology and cold-climate Mars model: Punctuation of a slow dynamic approach to equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargel, J. S.

    1993-01-01

    It was suggested that Mars may have possessed a relatively warm humid climate and a vigorous hydrological cycle involving meteoric precipitation, oceans, and continental ice sheets. Baker hypothesized that these geologically active conditions may have been repeated several times; each of these dynamic epochs was followed by a collapse of the climate and hydrologic cycle of Mars into essentially current conditions, completing what is termed a 'Baker cycle'. The purpose is to present an endmember possibility that Martian glacial landscapes, including some that were previously considered to have formed under warm climatic conditions, might be explained by processes compatible with an extremely cold surface. Two aspects of hypothesized Martian glacial terrains were cited as favoring a warm climate during Baker cycles: (1) the formation of some landscapes, including possible eskers, tunnel channels, drumlins, and outwash plains, appears to have required liquid water, and (2) a liquid-surfaced ocean was probably necessary to feed the glaciers. The requirement for liquid water, if these features were correctly interpreted, is difficult to avoid; it is entirely possible that a comparatively warm climate was involved, but it is not clear that formation of landforms by wet-based glaciers actually requires a warm climate. Even less certain is the supposed requirement for liquid oceans. Formation of glaciers only requires a source of water or ice to supply an amount of precipitation that exceeds losses due to melting and sublimation. At Martian temperatures precipitation is very low, but so are melting and sublimation, so a large body of ice that is unstable with respect to sublimation may take the role of Earth's oceans in feeding the glaciers. Recent models suggest that even current Martian polar caps, long thought to be static bodies of ice and dust, might actually be slow-moving, cryogenic continental glaciers. Is it possible that subglacial processes beneath cryogenic

  18. A method to identify potential cold-climate vine growing sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jørgen L; Olesen, Asger; Breuning-Madsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    A method for surveying the suitability of cold climate vine growing sites in Denmark is presented with focus on limiting growth parameters. The four most important parameters are identified on the basis of literary studies and discussions with approximately 150 vine growers in Denmark. These are: i......) Sum of growing degree days (SDD), ii) Risk of frost damage, iii) Number of sunshine hours during growth season, and iv) Soil drainage. A two-step method based on GIS and already existing climate, soil, and topographic data was implemented. First the most suitable areas in Denmark for vine growing were...

  19. Residential Solar-Based Seasonal Thermal Storage Systems in Cold Climates: Building Envelope and Thermal Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Hugo; Radu Zmeureanu

    2012-01-01

    The reduction of electricity use for heating and domestic hot water in cold climates can be achieved by: (1) reducing the heating loads through the improvement of the thermal performance of house envelopes, and (2) using solar energy through a residential solar-based thermal storage system. First, this paper presents the life cycle energy and cost analysis of a typical one-storey detached house, located in Montreal, Canada. Simulation of annual energy use is performed using the TRNSYS softwar...

  20. Finalize field testing of cold climate heat pump (CCHP) based on tandem vapor injection compressors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Baxter, Van D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Abdelaziz, Omar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rice, C. Keith [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    This report describes the system diagram and control algorithm of a prototype air-source cold climate heat pump (CCHP) using tandem vapor injection (VI) compressors. The prototype was installed in Fairbanks, Alaska and underwent field testing starting in 09/2016. The field testing results of the past six months, including compressor run time fractions, measured COPs and heating capacities, etc., are presented as a function of the ambient temperature. Two lessons learned are also reported.

  1. Prediction of thermal sensation in non-air-conditioned buildings in warm climates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanger, Povl Ole; Toftum, Jørn

    2002-01-01

    The PMV model agrees well with high-quality field studies in buildings with HVAC systems, situated in cold, temperate and warm climates, studied during both summer and winter. In non-air-conditioned buildings in warm climates, occupants may sense the warmth as being less severe than the PMV...... predicts. The main reason is low expectations, but a metabolic rate that is estimated too high can also contribute to explaining the difference. An extension of the PMV model that includes an expectancy factor is introduced for use in non-air-conditioned buildings in warm climates. The extended PMV model...... agrees well with quality field studies in non-air-conditioned buildings of three continents....

  2. Extension of the PMV model to non-air-conditioned building in warm climates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanger, Povl Ole; Toftum, Jørn

    2002-01-01

    The PMV model agrees well with high-quality field studies in buildings with HVAC systems, situated in cold, temperate and warm climates, studied during both summer and winter. In non-air-conditioned buildings in warm climates, occupants may sense the warmth as being less severe than the PMV...... predicts. The main reason is low expectations, but a metabolic rate that is estimated too high can also contribute to explaining the difference. An extension of the PMV model that includes an expectancy factor is introduced for use in non-air-conditioned buildings in warm climates. The extended PMV model...... agrees well with quality field studies in non-air-conditioned buildings of three continents....

  3. Validating Savings Claims of Cold Climate Zero Energy Ready Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, J. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States); Puttagunta, S. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This report details the validation methods used to analyze consumption at each of these homes. It includes a detailed end-use examination of consumptions from the following categories: 1) Heating, 2) Cooling, 3) Lights, Appliances, and Miscellaneous Electric Loads (LAMELS) along with Domestic Hot Water Use, 4) Ventilation, and 5) PV generation. A utility bill disaggregation method, which allows a crude estimation of space conditioning loads based on outdoor air temperature, was also performed and the results compared to the actual measured data.

  4. Incorporating cold-air pooling into downscaled climate models increases potential refugia for snow-dependent species within the Sierra Nevada Ecoregion, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Jennifer A; Flint, Lorraine E; Flint, Alan L; Lundquist, Jessica D; Hudgens, Brian; Boydston, Erin E; Young, Julie K

    2014-01-01

    We present a unique water-balance approach for modeling snowpack under historic, current and future climates throughout the Sierra Nevada Ecoregion. Our methodology uses a finer scale (270 m) than previous regional studies and incorporates cold-air pooling, an atmospheric process that sustains cooler temperatures in topographic depressions thereby mitigating snowmelt. Our results are intended to support management and conservation of snow-dependent species, which requires characterization of suitable habitat under current and future climates. We use the wolverine (Gulo gulo) as an example species and investigate potential habitat based on the depth and extent of spring snowpack within four National Park units with proposed wolverine reintroduction programs. Our estimates of change in spring snowpack conditions under current and future climates are consistent with recent studies that generally predict declining snowpack. However, model development at a finer scale and incorporation of cold-air pooling increased the persistence of April 1st snowpack. More specifically, incorporation of cold-air pooling into future climate projections increased April 1st snowpack by 6.5% when spatially averaged over the study region and the trajectory of declining April 1st snowpack reverses at mid-elevations where snow pack losses are mitigated by topographic shading and cold-air pooling. Under future climates with sustained or increased precipitation, our results indicate a high likelihood for the persistence of late spring snowpack at elevations above approximately 2,800 m and identify potential climate refugia sites for snow-dependent species at mid-elevations, where significant topographic shading and cold-air pooling potential exist.

  5. Incorporating cold-air pooling into downscaled climate models increases potential refugia for snow-dependent species within the Sierra Nevada Ecoregion, CA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A Curtis

    Full Text Available We present a unique water-balance approach for modeling snowpack under historic, current and future climates throughout the Sierra Nevada Ecoregion. Our methodology uses a finer scale (270 m than previous regional studies and incorporates cold-air pooling, an atmospheric process that sustains cooler temperatures in topographic depressions thereby mitigating snowmelt. Our results are intended to support management and conservation of snow-dependent species, which requires characterization of suitable habitat under current and future climates. We use the wolverine (Gulo gulo as an example species and investigate potential habitat based on the depth and extent of spring snowpack within four National Park units with proposed wolverine reintroduction programs. Our estimates of change in spring snowpack conditions under current and future climates are consistent with recent studies that generally predict declining snowpack. However, model development at a finer scale and incorporation of cold-air pooling increased the persistence of April 1st snowpack. More specifically, incorporation of cold-air pooling into future climate projections increased April 1st snowpack by 6.5% when spatially averaged over the study region and the trajectory of declining April 1st snowpack reverses at mid-elevations where snow pack losses are mitigated by topographic shading and cold-air pooling. Under future climates with sustained or increased precipitation, our results indicate a high likelihood for the persistence of late spring snowpack at elevations above approximately 2,800 m and identify potential climate refugia sites for snow-dependent species at mid-elevations, where significant topographic shading and cold-air pooling potential exist.

  6. Final report on a cold climate permeable interlocking concrete pavement test facility at the University of New Hampshire Stormwater Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    University of New Hampshire Stormwater Center (UNHSC) completed a two year field verification study of a permeable interlocking concrete pavement (PICP) stormwater management system. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cold climate function...

  7. Wetter and cooler: pronounced temperate climate conditions in western Anatolia during the Middle Miocene Climatic Optimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güner, Tuncay H.; Bouchal, Johannes M.; Köse, Nesibe; Denk, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    During the course of an ongoing palaeobotanical investigation of the lignite mines of the Yataǧan Basin, Muǧla province, Turkey, the fossil leaves of the Eskihisar lignite mine were analysed using the Climate Leaf Analysis Multivariate Program (CLAMP). The investigated fossil leaves derive from the marls and clayey limestones (Sekköy Member) overlying the exploited lignite seam (uppermost Turgut Member). The age of the studied sedimentary rocks is well constrained by vertebrate fossils occuring in the main lignite seam (MN6 → Gomphoterium angustidens Cuvier, 1817; Percrocuta miocenica Pavlov & Thenius, 1965) and at the Yenieskihisar Mammal locality (MN7/8, uppermost Sekköy Member). 719 specimens were measured and assigned to 65 leaf morphotypes. Using this data, CLAMP reconstructed the following climate parameters: mean annual temperature (MAT) 12.58 (+/-1.5)°C, warm month mean temperature (WMMT) 23.72 (+/-2.5)°C, cold month mean temperature (WMMT) 2.29 (+/-2)°C, length of growing season (LGS) 7.52 (+/-0.75) month, mean growing season precipitation (GSP) 130.1 (+/-40) cm, precipitation during the three wettest months (3-WET) 67 (+/-25) cm, precipitation during the three driest months (3-DRY) 20.4 (+/-7.5) cm. The reconstructed parameters are too cool for tropical climates (the 18˚ C winter isotherm being a threshold for tropical climates) and indicate temperate conditions; climates fitting these parameters (Cfb according to the Köppen-Geiger climate classification) can be found today in regions known as "Tertiary relict areas" (e.g. Black sea coast of Northeast Turkey, eastern China, Japan). Based on a substantial amount of rainfall during the three driest months, it is further possible to exclude markedly seasonal climates such as a summer-dry and winter-wet Mediterranean climate and a summer-wet and winter-dry monsoon climate as commonly found along the southern foothills of the Himalayas and in southwestern China. Instead, a fully humid Cf climate is

  8. Influence of prefermentative cold maceration on the color and anthocyanic copigmentation of organic Tempranillo wines elaborated in a warm climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordillo, Belen; López-Infante, M Isabel; Ramírez-Pérez, Pilar; González-Miret, M Lourdes; Heredia, Francisco J

    2010-06-09

    The stabilization of red wine color by the copigmentation phenomenon is a crucial process that does not always proceed favorably under natural conditions during the first stages of vinification. The impact of the prefermentative cold maceration technique on the phenolic composition and magnitude of the copigmentation level of organic Tempranillo wines elaborated in a warm climate have been studied as an enological alternative to the traditional maceration for obtaining highly colored wines. Tristimulus colorimetry was applied to study the color of wines during vinification, and a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) procedure was used for the analysis of phenolic compounds. Spectrophotometric and colorimetric analyses were also performed to evaluate the copigmentation level of the wines. Significant chemical and color differences were found depending on the maceration technique applied. Prefermentative cold macerated wines were richer in those compounds accounting directly for the color of red wine (anthocyanins) and those involved in anthocyanin stabilization through copigmentation reactions (phenols), which was in accordance with the higher copigmentation degree and darker, more saturated and vivid bluish colors. The evaluation of the copigmentation based on colorimetric parameters in the CIELAB color space showed that prefermentative cold maceration caused greater effectiveness of copigmentation than traditional maceration since it induces more important and hence more easily perceptible color changes.

  9. The influence of warm versus cold climate on the effect of physiotherapy in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedal, T; Myhr, K-M; Aarseth, J H; Gjelsvik, B; Beiske, A G; Glad, S B; Strand, L I

    2011-07-01

    To compare the effect of inpatient physiotherapy in a warm versus cold climate in short- and long-term perspectives. Sixty multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with gait problems, without heat intolerance, were included in a randomized cross-over study of 4-week inpatient physiotherapy in warm (Spain) and cold (Norway) climate. The primary outcome, 6-min walk test (6MWT), and secondary physical performance and self-reported measures were scored at screening, baseline, after treatment and at 3 and 6 months of follow-up. Treatment effects were analysed by mixed models. After treatment, the mean walking distance had increased by 70 m in Spain and 49 m in Norway (P = 0.060). Improvement in favour of warm climate was demonstrated at 6 months of follow-up, 43 m (Spain) compared to 20 m (Norway) (P = 0.048). The patients reported less exertion after walking (6MWT) in favour of treatment in Spain at all time points (P change were detected for the other physical performance measures. Most self-reported measures showed more improvement after treatment in Spain, but these improvements were not sustained at follow-up. The results indicate that MS patients without heat intolerance have additional benefits from physiotherapy in a warm climate. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Overly persistent circulation in climate models contributes to overestimated frequency and duration of heat waves and cold spells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavcová, Eva; Kyselý, Jan

    2016-05-01

    The study examines links of summer heat waves and winter cold spells in Central Europe to atmospheric circulation and specifically its persistence in an ensemble of regional climate models (RCMs). We analyse 13 RCMs driven by the ERA-40 reanalysis and compare them against observations over reference period 1971-2000. Using objective classification of circulation types and an efficiency coefficient with a block resampling test, we identify circulation types significantly conducive to heat waves and cold spells. We show that the RCMs have a stronger tendency to group together days with very high or low temperature and tend to simulate too many heat waves and cold spells, especially those lasting 5 days and more. Circulation types conducive to heat waves in summer are characterized by anticyclonic, southerly and easterly flow, with increasing importance of warm advection during heat waves. Winter cold spells are typically associated with easterly and anticyclonic flow, and the onset of cold spells tends to be linked to northerly and cyclonic flow with cold advection. The RCMs are generally able to reproduce the links between circulation and heat waves or cold spells, including the radiation-to-advection effect for heat waves and the opposite advection-to-radiation effect for cold spells. They capture relatively well also changes of mean temperature anomalies during sequences of given circulation types, namely the tendency towards temperature increase (decrease) during those types conducive to heat waves (cold spells). Since mean lengths of all circulation supertypes are overestimated in the RCMs, we conclude that the overly persistent circulation in climate models contributes to the overestimated frequency of long heat waves and cold spells. As these biases are rather general among the examined RCMs and similar drawbacks are likely to be manifested in climate model simulations for the twenty-first century, the results also suggest that climate change scenarios for

  11. Quantitative and creative design tools for urban design in cold and windy climates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koss, Holger; Jensen, Lotte Bjerregaard; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

    2014-01-01

    In cold and windy climates, the quality of the urban spaces is severely challenged. A design process with a very high level of information regarding wind, sun, daylight and water from the earliest of the design process will help create the most optimized design. For the last couple of years......, the Technical University of Denmark has had an initiative to combine the University’s existing knowledge, relevant for large scale physical planning, in new ways. Technical-scientific knowledge about traffic and transportation, water-management, snow drift, wind engineering, sun and daylight have prospered...... between the design processes and the academic knowledge available is a focus area. The effects of climate change and a general higher demand for quantitative assessment of urban planning proposals in hard climatic locations have created a demand for research based design advice. The paper will present...

  12. A method to identify potential cold-climate vine growing sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jørgen Lundegaard; Olesen, Asger; Breuning-Madsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    A method for surveying the suitability of cold climate vine growing sites in Denmark is presented with focus on limiting growth parameters. The four most important parameters are identified on the basis of literary studies and discussions with approximately 150 vine growers in Denmark. These are: i......) Sum of growing degree days (SDD), ii) Risk of frost damage, iii) Number of sunshine hours during growth season, and iv) Soil drainage. A two-step method based on GIS and already existing climate, soil, and topographic data was implemented. First the most suitable areas in Denmark for vine growing were...... located on the basis of nation-wide climatic data on the sum of degree days and risk of frost. Within the most suitable areas a detailed survey of the amount of sunshine, topography, drainage and soil was carried out on the Røsnæs peninsula in north western Zealand, and eight well-suited vine growing...

  13. Documentary evidence of climate variability during cold seasons in Lesotho, southern Africa, 1833-1900

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grab, Stefan W. [University of the Witwatersrand, School of Geography, Archaeology and Environmental Studies, Wits (South Africa); Nash, David J. [University of Brighton, School of Environment and Technology, Brighton (United Kingdom)

    2010-03-15

    This study presents the first 19th century cold season climate chronology for the Kingdom of Lesotho in southern Africa. The chronology is constructed using a variety of documentary sources including letters, diaries, reports, monographs and newspaper articles obtained from southern African and British archives. Information relating to cold season weather phenomena during the austral autumn, winter and early spring months were recorded verbatim. Each of the cold seasons from 1833 to 1900 was then classified as ''very severe'', ''severe'' or ''normal/mild'', with a confidence rating ranging from low (1) to high (3) awarded against each annual classification. The accuracy of the document-derived chronology was verified against temperature data for Maseru for the period 1893-1900. Excellent correspondence of the document-derived chronology with the Maseru instrumental data and also with other global proxy temperature records for the 19th century is achieved. The results indicate 12 (18% of the total) very severe, 16 (23%) severe and 40 (59%) normal/mild cold seasons between 1833 and 1900. The overall trend is for more severe and snow-rich cold seasons during the early part of the study period (1833-1854) compared with the latter half of the 19th century (with the exception of the 1880s). A reduction in the duration of the frost season by over 20 days during the 19th century is also tentatively identified. Several severe to very severe cold seasons in Lesotho follow after major tropical and SH volcanic eruptions; such years are usually characterized by early frosts, and frequent and heavy snowfalls. The blocking of solar radiation and the enhanced northward displacement of polar fronts that are directly or indirectly associated with volcanic events, may account for many of the most severe Lesotho winters during the 19th century. (orig.)

  14. Residential Cold Climate Heat Pump (CCHP) w/Variable Speed Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messmer, Craig S. [Unico, Inc., Arnold, MO (United States)

    2016-09-30

    This report summarizes the results of a three year program awarded to Unico, Inc. to commercialize a residential cold climate heat pump. Several designs were investigated. Compressors were selected using analysis from Oakridge National Laboratories followed by prototype construction and lab testing in a specially built environmental chamber capable of reaching -30°F. The initial design utilized two variable speed compressors in series with very good capacity results and acceptable efficiency at very cold temperatures. The design was then modified to reduce cost and complexity by redesigning the system using three dual-stage compressors: two in parallel followed by one in series. Extensive testing found significant challenge with oil management, reliability, weight and cost which prevented the system from being fully commercialized. Further analysis of other conceptual designs indicated that these challenges could be overcome in the future.

  15. Relationship between climate conditions and nosocomial infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    especially in March and May with severe damp and mould problems. Therefore, excessive pathogen propagation caused by high relative humidity has great impact on patients with low immunity, and NIRs increase with relative humidity. Many climatic factors, especially temperature, play important parts in the propagation.

  16. Relationship between climate conditions and nosocomial infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Nosocomial infections constitute a global health problem. Objective: To explore the relationship between nosocomial infection rates (NIRs) and climatic factors including temperature and relative humidity in Guangzhou area of China. Methods: 30892 patients in our hospital in 2009 were investigated for ...

  17. Community responses to extreme climatic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric JIGUET, Lluis BROTONS, Vincent DEVICTOR

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Species assemblages and natural communities are increasingly impacted by changes in the frequency and severity of extreme climatic events. Here we propose a brief overview of expected and demonstrated direct and indirect impacts of extreme events on animal communities. We show that differential impacts on basic biological parameters of individual species can lead to strong changes in community composition and structure with the potential to considerably modify the functional traits of the community. Sudden disequilibria have even been shown to induce irreversible shifts in marine ecosystems, while cascade effects on various taxonomic groups have been highlighted in Mediterranean forests. Indirect effects of extreme climatic events are expected when event-induced habitat changes (e.g. soil stability, vegetation composition, water flows altered by droughts, floods or hurricanes have differential consequences on species assembled within the communities. Moreover, in increasing the amplitude of trophic mismatches, extreme events are likely to turn many systems into ecological traps under climate change. Finally, we propose a focus on the potential impacts of an extreme heat wave on local assemblages as an empirical case study, analysing monitoring data on breeding birds collected in France. In this example, we show that despite specific populations were differently affected by local temperature anomalies, communities seem to be unaffected by a sudden heat wave. These results suggest that communities are tracking climate change at the highest possible rate [Current Zoology 57 (3: 406–413, 2011].

  18. Processing conditions affect nutrient digestibility of cold-pressed canola cake for grower pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seneviratne, R W; Beltranena, E; Newkirk, R W; Goonewardene, L A; Zijlstra, R T

    2011-08-01

    Cold-pressed canola cake is a coproduct of biodiesel production that contains more residual oil than expeller-pressed and solvent-extracted canola meal. Cold-pressed canola cake might be an attractive feedstuff for swine due to local availability from small plants. However, the nutritional quality and content of anti-nutritional factors of cold-pressed canola cake are poorly defined and vary with processing conditions. This experiment evaluated cold-pressed canola cake processed using 4 different conditions: a nonheated and heated barrel at slow and fast screw speed in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Seven ileally cannulated barrows (26 kg of BW) were fed twice daily at 2.8 × maintenance diets containing either 44% of 1 of the 4 cold-pressed canola cake samples, expeller-pressed canola meal, canola seed, or an N-free diet in a 7 × 7 Latin square. The objectives were to measure the energy and AA digestibility and to calculate standardized ileal digestible (SID) AA and NE content. Each 9-d experimental period consisted of a 5-d diet adaptation, followed by 2-d feces and 2-d ileal digesta collections, and 7 observations per diet were obtained. Cold-pressed canola cake contained 41% CP, 16% ether extract, and 5 µmol of total glucosinolates/g (DM basis). Both apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and total tract energy digestibility of energy in cold-pressed canola cake was 36% greater (P canola cake was 13 and 118% greater (P canola meal and canola seed, respectively. Heat and speed interacted (P canola cake was 0.73 and 0.52 Mcal/kg greater (P=0.001; DM basis), respectively, than expeller-pressed canola meal and did not differ from canola seed. Cold-pressed canola cake averaged 4.17 Mcal of DE/kg, 2.84 Mcal of NE/kg, 0.87% SID Lys, 0.46% SID Met, and 0.79% SID Thr (DM basis). In conclusion, processing conditions greatly affected the digestible nutrient content of cold-pressed canola cake. Content of residual ether extract was an important determinant of the energy

  19. Comparing Reactive Surface Area of Sediments in Hot and Cold Arid Climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funderburg, R.; Elwood Madden, M.; Joo, Y. J.; Marra, K. R.; Soreghan, G. S.; Hall, B. L.

    2014-12-01

    The reactive surface area of primary silicate phases in sediment is an important determinant in weathering rates and fluxes in the critical zone. Weathering rates in warm climates are presumed to be faster than rates in cold climates, but glacial stream systems have chemical fluxes similar to temperate climates due to the production of highly reactive fresh mineral surfaces. To assess climate as a controller on weathering rates by comparing reactive surface area in cold arid and hot arid systems, samples were collected at the base of Denton Glacier, Wright Valley, Antarctica, and in the Anza Borrego Desert, California. Sediments were wet sieved and treated to remove carbonates and organics. Mud and very fine fractions were freeze dried. Surface areas of each size fraction were determined using the BET method. Sediment reactivity was measured through batch dissolution experiments in water buffered to pH 8.4. Samples were removed and filtered at predetermined time intervals, then refrigerated prior to ICP-OES analysis. Antarctic glacial sediment released an order of magnitude or more cations to solution compared to alluvial sediments from the Anza Borrego Desert. The Anza Borrego sand fraction was more reactive than the mud for Ca, P, Mn, and Si, while the Antarctic mud was more reactive than the sand for all cations. The high reactivity of the glacial mud can be attributed to the high reactive surface area (10.42 m2/g) created by physical crushing. In addition, the cation exchange capacity of the mud fraction was reached more quickly in the Antarctica samples, while Anza Borrego muds produced more complicated weathering fluxes, likely due to their higher clay mineral component. These results emphasize a strong climate control and the importance of physical weathering mechanisms on the chemical weathering fluxes over geologic time scales.

  20. Evaluation of cold tolerance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    homa azizi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Cold tolerance of 14 wheat cultivars under field conditions was investigated. Cultivars including Anza, Bezostaja, Pishtaz, Tous, Zagros, Zarrin, Shahryar, Falat, Ghuds, Glenson, Maroon, Navid, Niknejad and MV-17 were planted in a complete randomized block design with 3 replications in the experimental station of college of agriculture , Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in autumn of 2004-2005. Growth stage of plants and chlorophyll content were measured before cold and winter survival, plant height, yield components and seed yield were measured at the end of growing season. Results showed that despite of a relatively extreme cold (-9.2 oC, most of the cultivars tolerated winter and only Zagros and Maroon with 93.3 and 73.3% winter survival, respectively, suffering winter damage. Toos cultivar had the highest seed yield and Maroon and Zagros cultivar had the lowest yield. Seed yield had the positive correlations with spikelet number per spike (r=0.85***, and 1000-seed weight (r=0.85***. Results of this experiment suggested that Glenson had the most level of cold tolerance and Maroon was the most cold sensitive cultivar. Key words: Cold tolerance, winter survival, yield, yield components, wheat.

  1. Agroclimatic conditions in Europe under climate change

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trnka, Miroslav; Olesen, J. E.; Kersebaum, K. C.; Skjelvag, A. O.; Eitzinger, J.; Seguin, B.; Peltonen-Sainio, P.; Rotter, R.; Iglesias, A.; Orlandini, S.; Dubrovský, Martin; Hlavinka, P.; Balek, J.; Eckersten, H.; Cloppet, E.; Calanca, P.; Vucetic, V.; Nejedlík, P.; Kumar, S.; Lalic, B.; Mestre, A.; Rossi, F.; Kozyra, J.; Alexandrov, V.; Semerádová, D.; Žalud, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 7 (2011), s. 2298-2318 ISSN 1354-1013 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520; CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : agroclimatic extremes * agroclimatic index * climate- change impacts * crop production * environmental zones Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 6.862, year: 2011

  2. Impacts of extreme climatic events on the energetics of long-lived vertebrates: the case of the greater flamingo facing cold spells in the Camargue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deville, Anne-Sophie; Labaude, Sophie; Robin, Jean-Patrice; Béchet, Arnaud; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; Porter, Warren; Fitzpatrick, Megan; Mathewson, Paul; Grémillet, David

    2014-10-15

    Most studies analyzing the effects of global warming on wild populations focus on gradual temperature changes, yet it is also important to understand the impact of extreme climatic events. Here we studied the effect of two cold spells (January 1985 and February 2012) on the energetics of greater flamingos (Phoenicopterus roseus) in the Camargue (southern France). To understand the cause of observed flamingo mass mortalities, we first assessed the energy stores of flamingos found dead in February 2012, and compared them with those found in other bird species exposed to cold spells and/or fasting. Second, we evaluated the monthly energy requirements of flamingos across 1980-2012 using the mechanistic model Niche Mapper. Our results show that the body lipids of flamingos found dead in 2012 corresponded to 2.6±0.3% of total body mass, which is close to results found in woodcocks (Scolopax rusticola) that died from starvation during a cold spell (1.7±0.1%), and much lower than in woodcocks which were fed throughout this same cold spell (13.0±2%). Further, Niche Mapper predicted that flamingo energy requirements were highest (+6-7%) during the 1985 and 2012 cold spells compared with 'normal' winters. This increase was primarily driven by cold air temperatures. Overall, our findings strongly suggest that flamingos starved to death during both cold spells. This study demonstrates the relevance of using mechanistic energetics modelling and body condition analyses to understand and predict the impact of extreme climatic events on animal energy balance and winter survival probabilities. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Accounts from 19th-century Canadian Arctic explorers' logs reflect present climate conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overland, James E.; Wood, Kevin

    The widely perceived failure of 19th-century expeditions to find and transit the Northwest Passage in the Canadian Arctic is often attributed to extraordinary cold climatic conditions associated with the “Little Ice Age” evident in proxy records. However, examination of 44 explorers' logs for the western Arctic from 1818 to 1910 reveals that climate indicators such as navigability, the distribution and thickness of annual sea ice, monthly surface air temperature, and the onset of melt and freeze were within the present range of variability.The quest for the Northwest Passage through the Canadian archipelago during the 19th century is frequently seen as a vain and tragic failure. Polar exploration during the Victorian era seems to us today to have been a costly exercise in heroic futility, which in many respects it was. This perspective has been reinforced since the 1970s, when paleoclimate reconstructions based on Arctic ice core stratigraphy appeared to confirm the existence of exceptionally cold conditions consistent with the period glaciologists had termed the “Little Ice Age” (Figure 1a), with temperatures more than one standard deviation colder relative to an early 20th-century mean [Koerner, 1977; Koerner and Fisher, 1990; Overpeck et al., 1998]. In recent years, the view of the Little Ice Age as a synchronous worldwide and prolonged cold epoch that ended with modern warming has been questioned [Bradley and Jones, 1993; Jones and Briffa, 2001 ;Ogilvie, 2001].

  4. Role of the oxytocin receptor expressed in the rostral medullary raphe in thermoregulation during cold conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki eKasahara

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent papers have reported that oxytocin (Oxt and the oxytocin receptor (Oxtr may be involved in the regulation of food intake in mammals. We therefore suspected the Oxt/Oxtr system to be involved in energy homeostasis. In previous studies, we found a tendency toward obesity in Oxtr-deficient mice, as well as impaired thermoregulation when these mice were exposed to cold conditions. In the present study, we observed the expression of Oxtr in the rostral medullary raphe (RMR, the brain region known to control thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue. Through immunohistochemistry, we detected neurons expressing Oxtr and c-Fos in the RMR of mice exposed to cold conditions. Up to 40% of Oxtr-positive neurons in RMR were classified as glutamatergic neurons, as shown by immunostaining using anti-VGLUT3 antibody. In addition, mice with exclusive expression of Oxtr in the RMR were generated by injecting an AAV-Oxtr vector into the RMR region of Oxtr-deficient mice. We confirmed the recovery of thermoregulatory ability in the manipulated mice during exposure to cold conditions. Moreover, mice with RMR-specific expression of Oxtr lost the typical morphological change in brown adipose tissue observed in Oxtr-deficient mice. Additionally, increased expression of the β3-adrenergic receptor gene, Adrb3 was observed in brown adipose tissue. These results are the first to show the critical role of RMR Oxtr expression in thermoregulation during cold conditions.

  5. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Building Industry Research Alliance (BIRA); Building Science Consortium (BSC); Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB); Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC); IBACOS; National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    2006-08-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in Cold Climates on a cost-neutral basis.

  6. Cold Climate Foundation Retrofit Experimental Hygrothermal Performance. Cloquet Residential Research Facility Laboratory Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, Louise F. [NorthernSTAR, St. Paul, MN (United States); Harmon, Anna C. [NorthernSTAR, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    2015-04-09

    This project was funded jointly by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ORNL focused on developing a full basement wall system experimental database to enable others to validate hygrothermal simulation codes. NREL focused on testing the moisture durability of practical basement wall interior insulation retrofit solutions for cold climates. The project has produced a physically credible and reliable long-term hygrothermal performance database for retrofit foundation wall insulation systems in zone 6 and 7 climates that are fully compliant with the performance criteria in the 2009 Minnesota Energy Code. These data currently span the period from November 10, 2012 through May 31, 2014 and are anticipated to be extended through November 2014. The experimental data were configured into a standard format that can be published online and that is compatible with standard commercially available spreadsheet and database software.

  7. Heating up relations between cold fish: competition modifies responses to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Mark C; Holt, Robert D; Gilman, Sarah E; Tewksbury, Joshua

    2011-05-01

    Most predictions about species responses to climate change ignore species interactions. Helland and colleagues (2011) test whether this assumption is valid by evaluating whether ice cover affects competition between brown trout [Salmo trutta (L.)] and Arctic charr [Salvelinus alpines (L.)]. They show that increasing ice cover correlates with lower trout biomass when Arctic charr co-occur, but not in charr's absence. In experiments, charr grew better in the cold, dark environments that typify ice-covered lakes. Decreasing ice cover with warmer winters could mean more trout and fewer charr. More generally, their results provide an excellent example, suggesting that species interactions can strongly modify responses to climate change. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2011 British Ecological Society.

  8. Multidecadal climate and seasonal snow conditions in Svalbard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Pelt, W. J.J.; Kohler, J.; Liston, G. E.; Hagen, J. O.; Luks, B.; Reijmer, C. H.; Pohjola, V. A.

    2016-01-01

    Svalbard climate is undergoing amplified change with respect to the global mean. Changing climate conditions directly affect the evolution of the seasonal snowpack, through its impact on accumulation, melt, and moisture exchange. We analyze long-term trends and spatial patterns of seasonal snow

  9. Modeling current climate conditions for forest pest risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank H. Koch; John W. Coulston

    2010-01-01

    Current information on broad-scale climatic conditions is essential for assessing potential distribution of forest pests. At present, sophisticated spatial interpolation approaches such as the Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) are used to create high-resolution climatic data sets. Unfortunately, these data sets are based on 30-year...

  10. Directional analysis of extreme winds under mixed climate conditions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kruger, A

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available -1 European-African Conference on Wind Engineering 2013, Robinson College, Cambridge, July 2013 Directional Analysis of Extreme Winds under Mixed Climate Conditions *Andries Kruger1, Adam Goliger2 and Johan Retief3 1Climate Service, South African...

  11. The DYNAFLUX / DYNACOLD Network: Dynamics, Fluxes, Stability, Succession and Landscape Formation in Cold Climate Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beylich, Achim A.

    2016-04-01

    There is a wide range of high-latitude and high-altitude cold climate landscapes in Europe, covering a significant proportion of the total land surface area. This spectrum of defined cold climate landscapes represents a variety of stages of deglaciation history and landscape formation. We can find landscapes at different levels of postglacial stabilization which is providing the opportunity to study the interactions between geo-, bio-, social and socio-economic systems at the land surface. The DYNAFLUX / DYNACOLD Network (2004-) bridges across the geo-, bio-, social and socio-economic sciences in order to analyze the complex dynamics of stabilization, succession and landscape formation during and after ice retreat and under ongoing human influences. The network provides a multidisciplinary forum where researchers come together. In addition, it is linking a number of networks, working groups and programs and creates an umbrella network and a forum for sharing knowledge. The scientific focus of this network is also relevant for different end users, including risk and vulnerability assessment, sustainable land use, land management and conservation. In addition, key questions related to Global Change like, e.g., hazards, permafrost degradation and loss of biodiversity are discussed.

  12. Potential Effects of Climate Change on the Distribution of Cold-Tolerant Evergreen Broadleaved Woody Plants in the Korean Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Kyung Ah; Kong, Woo-Seok; Nibbelink, Nathan P; Hopkinson, Charles S; Lee, Joon Ho

    2015-01-01

    Climate change has caused shifts in species' ranges and extinctions of high-latitude and altitude species. Most cold-tolerant evergreen broadleaved woody plants (shortened to cold-evergreens below) are rare species occurring in a few sites in the alpine and subalpine zones in the Korean Peninsula. The aim of this research is to 1) identify climate factors controlling the range of cold-evergreens in the Korean Peninsula; and 2) predict the climate change effects on the range of cold-evergreens. We used multimodel inference based on combinations of climate variables to develop distribution models of cold-evergreens at a physiognomic-level. Presence/absence data of 12 species at 204 sites and 6 climatic factors, selected from among 23 candidate variables, were used for modeling. Model uncertainty was estimated by mapping a total variance calculated by adding the weighted average of within-model variation to the between-model variation. The range of cold-evergreens and model performance were validated by true skill statistics, the receiver operating characteristic curve and the kappa statistic. Climate change effects on the cold-evergreens were predicted according to the RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios. Multimodel inference approach excellently projected the spatial distribution of cold-evergreens (AUC = 0.95, kappa = 0.62 and TSS = 0.77). Temperature was a dominant factor in model-average estimates, while precipitation was minor. The climatic suitability increased from the southwest, lowland areas, to the northeast, high mountains. The range of cold-evergreens declined under climate change. Mountain-tops in the south and most of the area in the north remained suitable in 2050 and 2070 under the RCP 4.5 projection and 2050 under the RCP 8.5 projection. Only high-elevations in the northeastern Peninsula remained suitable under the RCP 8.5 projection. A northward and upper-elevational range shift indicates change in species composition at the alpine and subalpine

  13. Potential Effects of Climate Change on the Distribution of Cold-Tolerant Evergreen Broadleaved Woody Plants in the Korean Peninsula.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Ah Koo

    Full Text Available Climate change has caused shifts in species' ranges and extinctions of high-latitude and altitude species. Most cold-tolerant evergreen broadleaved woody plants (shortened to cold-evergreens below are rare species occurring in a few sites in the alpine and subalpine zones in the Korean Peninsula. The aim of this research is to 1 identify climate factors controlling the range of cold-evergreens in the Korean Peninsula; and 2 predict the climate change effects on the range of cold-evergreens. We used multimodel inference based on combinations of climate variables to develop distribution models of cold-evergreens at a physiognomic-level. Presence/absence data of 12 species at 204 sites and 6 climatic factors, selected from among 23 candidate variables, were used for modeling. Model uncertainty was estimated by mapping a total variance calculated by adding the weighted average of within-model variation to the between-model variation. The range of cold-evergreens and model performance were validated by true skill statistics, the receiver operating characteristic curve and the kappa statistic. Climate change effects on the cold-evergreens were predicted according to the RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios. Multimodel inference approach excellently projected the spatial distribution of cold-evergreens (AUC = 0.95, kappa = 0.62 and TSS = 0.77. Temperature was a dominant factor in model-average estimates, while precipitation was minor. The climatic suitability increased from the southwest, lowland areas, to the northeast, high mountains. The range of cold-evergreens declined under climate change. Mountain-tops in the south and most of the area in the north remained suitable in 2050 and 2070 under the RCP 4.5 projection and 2050 under the RCP 8.5 projection. Only high-elevations in the northeastern Peninsula remained suitable under the RCP 8.5 projection. A northward and upper-elevational range shift indicates change in species composition at the alpine and

  14. Age and origin of cold climate landforms from the Eastern Cape Drakensberg, southern Africa: palaeoclimatic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Stephanie C.; Barrows, Timothy T.; Fifield, L. Keith

    2014-05-01

    Reliable dating is crucial for resolving the nature and timing of cold events in southern Africa and the associated cold climate landforms produced. Evidence for glaciation has been proposed for the Eastern Cape Drakensberg, based on the identification of moraines that were presumed to be of last glacial maximum age. Temperature depressions of 10-17°C have been proposed for this region, based on the presence of these moraines (Lewis and Illgner, 2001) and the identification of a relict rock glacier. Such large temperature depressions are, however, unsupported by other palaeoclimatic proxies in southern Africa. Debate regarding the occurrence of glaciation in southern Africa has been ongoing for several decades. There is good evidence for small-scale glaciation during the last glacial cycle in Lesotho, at elevations exceeding 3000 m a.s.l., but these sites are more than 1000 m higher in elevation than those identified in the Eastern Cape, and suggest a temperature depression of only ~6°C and a change to a winter dominated precipitation regime during the last glacial cycle. This paper presents preliminary cosmogenic nuclide exposure ages for the Eastern Cape 'moraines' and a periglacial blockstream in this region. We discuss potential alternative interpretations for the formation of the landforms and suggest that glaciers were absent in the Eastern Cape Drakensberg during the last glacial period. However, there is widespread evidence for periglacial activity down to an elevation of ~1700 m a.s.l., as illustrated by extensive blockstreams, stone garlands and solifluction deposits. These periglacial deposits suggest that the climate was much colder (~6ºC) during the last glacial cycle, in keeping with other proxy records, but not cold enough to initiate or sustain glaciers at low elevations. References Lewis C. A., Illgner, P. M., 2001. Late Quaternary glaciation in Southern Africa: moraine ridges and glacial deposits at Mount Enterprise in the Drakensberg of the

  15. The Association between Depression and Climatic Conditions in the Iran Way to Preventive of Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lida Mirzakhani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neurotransmitters, such as dopamine and serotonin, play an undeniable role in the incidence of mental illnesses. Almost all humans will experience depression. Furthermore, most humans lack the ability to control and reduce depression, the disorder can lead to physical damage. The main goal of this study was to determine the association between distribution of depression and the climatic conditions in the Iran country. Methods: Spatial distribution maps of depression were plotted by using data recorded during 2010 year in the Iran health center registry. The geographical mapping of depression and climatic conditions were then incorporated into a geographic information system to create a spatial distribution model and in this study we used neural network to model the trend of depression and climatic conditions. Results: The spatial distributions of depression diseases in the country, followed by were scattered based on climatic conditions. In fact, common depression was more prevalent in the parts of the country where cold and rainy weather was more abundant. Conclusions: The findings of this study can be useful for psychologists and controlling of this disease, because lack the ability to control and reduce depression, the disorder can lead to physical damage. Data are also important to establish further effects modeling for depression. Moreover, psychologists and health professionals should consider the impact of environmental factors on their patients′ health.

  16. Germination of dimorphic seeds of Suaeda aralocaspica in response to light and salinity conditions during and after cold stratification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Ling Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cold stratification is a requirement for seed dormancy breaking in many species, and thus it is one of the important factors for the regulation of timing of germination. However, few studies have examined the influence of various environmental conditions during cold stratification on subsequent germination, and no study has compared such effects on the performance of dormant versus non-dormant seeds. Seeds of halophytes in the cold desert might experience different light and salinity conditions during and after cold stratification. As such, dimorphic seeds (non-dormant brown seeds and black seeds with non-deep physiological dormancy of Suaeda aralocaspica were cold stratified under different light (12 h light–12 h darkness photoperiod or continuous darkness or salinity (0, 200 or 1,000 mmol L-1 NaCl conditions for 20 or 40 days. Then stratified seeds were incubated under different light or salinity conditions at daily (12/12 h temperature regime of 10:25 °C for 20 days. For brown seeds, cold stratification was also part of the germination period. In contrast, almost no black seeds germinated during cold stratification. The longer the cold stratification, the better the subsequent germination of black seeds, regardless of light or salinity conditions. Light did not influence germination of brown seeds. Germination of cold-stratified black seeds was inhibited by darkness, especially when they were stratified in darkness. With an increase in salinity at the stage of cold stratification or germination, germination percentages of both seed morphs decreased. Combinational pre-treatments of cold stratification and salinity did not increase salt tolerance of dimorphic seeds in germination phase. Thus, light and salinity conditions during cold stratification partly interact with these conditions during germination stage and differentially affect germination of dimorphic seeds of S. aralocaspica.

  17. Protection against cold in prehospital care-thermal insulation properties of blankets and rescue bags in different wind conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksson, Otto; Lundgren, J Peter; Kuklane, Kalev; Holmér, Ingvar; Bjornstig, Ulf

    2009-01-01

    In a cold, wet, or windy environment, cold exposure can be considerable for an injured or ill person. The subsequent autonomous stress response initially will increase circulatory and respiratory demands, and as body core temperature declines, the patient's condition might deteriorate. Therefore, the application of adequate insulation to reduce cold exposure and prevent body core cooling is an important part of prehospital primary care, but recommendations for what should be used in the field mostly depend on tradition and experience, not on scientific evidence. The objective of this study was to evaluate the thermal insulation properties in different wind conditions of 12 different blankets and rescue bags commonly used by prehospital rescue and ambulance services. The thermal manikin and the selected insulation ensembles were setup inside a climatic chamber in accordance to the modified European Standard for assessing requirements of sleeping bags. Fans were adjusted to provide low (thermal transfer, the total resultant insulation value, Itr (m2 C/Wclo; where C = degrees Celcius, and W = watts), was calculated from ambient air temperature (C), manikin surface temperature (C), and heat flux (W/m2). In the low wind condition, thermal insulation of the evaluated ensembles correlated to thickness of the ensembles, ranging from 2.0 to 6.0 clo (1 clo = 0.155 m2 C/W), except for the reflective metallic foil blankets that had higher values than expected. In moderate and high wind conditions, thermal insulation was best preserved for ensembles that were windproof and resistant to the compressive effect of the wind, with insulation reductions down to about 60-80% of the original insulation capacity, whereas wind permeable and/or lighter materials were reduced down to about 30-50% of original insulation capacity. The evaluated insulation ensembles might all be used for prehospital protection against cold, either as single blankets or in multiple layer combinations

  18. Surface clay formation during short-term warmer and wetter conditions on a largely cold ancient Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Janice L.; Fairén, Alberto G.; Michalski, Joseph R.; Gago-Duport, Luis; Baker, Leslie L.; Velbel, Michael A.; Gross, Christoph; Rampe, Elizabeth B.

    2018-03-01

    The ancient rock record for Mars has long been at odds with climate modelling. The presence of valley networks, dendritic channels and deltas on ancient terrains points towards running water and fluvial erosion on early Mars1, but climate modelling indicates that long-term warm conditions were not sustainable2. Widespread phyllosilicates and other aqueous minerals on the Martian surface3-6 provide additional evidence that an early wet Martian climate resulted in surface weathering. Some of these phyllosilicates formed in subsurface crustal environments5, with no association with the Martian climate, while other phyllosilicate-rich outcrops exhibit layered morphologies and broad stratigraphies7 consistent with surface formation. Here, we develop a new geochemical model for early Mars to explain the formation of these clay-bearing rocks in warm and wet surface locations. We propose that sporadic, short-term warm and wet environments during a generally cold early Mars enabled phyllosilicate formation without requiring long-term warm and wet conditions. We conclude that Mg-rich clay-bearing rocks with lateral variations in mixed Fe/Mg smectite, chlorite, talc, serpentine and zeolite occurrences formed in subsurface hydrothermal environments, whereas dioctahedral (Al/Fe3+-rich) smectite and widespread vertical horizonation of Fe/Mg smectites, clay assemblages and sulphates formed in variable aqueous environments on the surface of Mars. Our model for aluminosilicate formation on Mars is consistent with the observed geological features, diversity of aqueous mineralogies in ancient surface rocks and state-of-the-art palaeoclimate scenarios.

  19. Innovative Air Conditioning and Climate Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, John

    2015-01-01

    NASA needed to develop a desiccant wheel based humidity removal system to enable the long term testing of the Orion CO2 scrubber on the International Space Station. In the course of developing that system, we learned three things that are relevant to energy efficient air conditioning of office towers. NASA developed a conceptual design for a humidity removal system for an office tower environment. We are looking for interested partners to prototype and field test this concept.

  20. [Adaptive mechanisms and behavioural recommendations: playing football in heat, cold and high altitude conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Born, D-P; Hoppe, M W; Lindner, N; Freiwald, J; Holmberg, H-C; Sperlich, B

    2014-03-01

    Football is played worldwide and players often have to cope with hot and cold temperatures as well as high altitude conditions. The upcoming and past world championships in Brazil, Qatar and South Africa illustrate the necessity for behavioural strategies and adaptation to extreme environmental conditions. When playing football in the heat or cold, special clothing, hydration and nutritional and acclimatisation strategies are vital for high-level performance. When playing at high altitude, the reduced oxygen partial pressure impairs endurance performance and alters the technical and tactical requirements. Special high-altitude adaptation and preparation strategies are essential for football teams based at sea-level in order to perform well and compete successfully. Therefore, the aim of the underlying review is: 1) to highlight the difficulties and needs of football teams competing in extreme environmental conditions, 2) to summarise the thermoregulatory, physiological, neuronal and psychological mechanism, and 3) to provide recommendations for coping with extreme environmental conditions in order to perform at a high level when playing football in the heat, cold and at high altitude. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Role of the Oxytocin Receptor Expressed in the Rostral Medullary Raphe in Thermoregulation During Cold Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Kasahara, Yoshiyuki; Tateishi, Yuko; Hiraoka, Yuichi; Otsuka, Ayano; Mizukami, Hiroaki; Ozawa, Keiya; Sato, Keisuke; Hidema, Shizu; Nishimori, Katsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Recent papers have reported that oxytocin (Oxt) and the oxytocin receptor (Oxtr) may be involved in the regulation of food intake in mammals. We therefore suspected the Oxt/Oxtr system to be involved in energy homeostasis. In previous studies, we found a tendency toward obesity in Oxtr-deficient (Oxtr ?/?) mice, as well as impaired thermoregulation when these mice were exposed to cold conditions. In the present study, we observed the expression of Oxtr in the rostral medullary raphe (RMR), th...

  2. Assessment of future climate change impacts on nonpoint source pollution in snowmelt period for a cold area using SWAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Bian, Jianmin; Zhao, Yongsheng; Tang, Jie; Jia, Zhuo

    2018-02-05

    The source area of Liao River is a typical cold region in northeastern China, which experiences serious problems with agricultural nonpoint source pollution (NPS), it is important to understand future climate change impacts on NPS in the watershed. This issue has been investigated by coupling semi distributed hydrological model (SWAT), statistical downscaling model (SDSM) and global circulation model (GCMs). The results show that annual average temperature would rise by 2.1 °C (1.3 °C) in the 2080 s under scenario RCP8.5 (RCP4.5), and annual precipitation would increase by 67 mm (33 mm). The change in winter temperature and precipitation is most significant with an increase by 0.23 °C/10a (0.17 °C/10a) and 1.94 mm/10a (2.78 mm/10a). The future streamflow, TN and TP loads would decrease by 19.05% (10.59%), 12.27% (8.81%) and 10.63% (6.11%), respectively. Monthly average streamflow, TN and TP loads would decrease from March to November, and increase from December to February. This is because the increased precipitation and temperature in winter, which made the spring snowpack melting earlier. These study indicate the trends of nonpoint source pollution during the snowmelt period under climate change conditions, accordingly adaptation measures will be necessary.

  3. Modelling climate change impacts on stream habitat conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boegh, Eva; Conallin, John; Karthikeyan, Matheswaran

    Impact from groundwater abstraction on freshwater resources and ecosystems is an issue of sincere concern in Denmark and many other countries worldwide. In addition, climate change projections add complexity to the existing conflict between water demands to satisfy human needs and water demands...... forest land use can in some cases restore water temperatures to tolerable levels. The sensitivity to climate change impacts on flow and temperature is evaluated and discussed......., climate impacts on stream ecological conditions were quantified by combining a heat and mass stream flow with a habitat suitability modelling approach. Habitat suitability indices were developed for stream velocity, water depth, water temperature and substrate. Generally, water depth was found...

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF AUTOMATED SYSTEM OF CLIMATE CONDITIONS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novikova L.V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The scientific work is devoted to the analysis and development of the automated control system of the climatic conditions of the minites. The analysis of existing automated control systems is carried out, in particular attention is paid to the systems of climate control of greenhouses. The technical means of the control system are determined. As a platform, Arduino®Uno is selected.

  5. The influence of a heat and moisture exchanger on tracheal climate in a cold environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuur, J Karel; Muller, Sara H; Vincent, Andrew; Sinaasappel, Michiel; de Jongh, Frans H C; Hilgers, Frans J M

    2009-09-01

    The incidence of pulmonary complaints, severe tracheitis and lung function deterioration is increased during wintertime in laryngectomized individuals. We analyzed how a heat and moisture exchanger (HME) performs in cold and dry ambient circumstances, and how its efficiency in this environmental climate might be improved. Randomized crossover. Intra-tracheal temperature and humidity were measured in 10 laryngectomized patients with and without HME, in a cold (mean, 4.7 degrees C) and dry (mean, 4.5 mgH2O/L) room. Presence of an HME causes the intra-tracheal mean humidity minima and maxima to increase with 4.2 mgH2O/L (95%CI: 3.3-5.0 mgH2O/L; p<0.001) and 2.4 mgH2O/L (95%CI: 1.7-3.1 mgH2O/L; p<0.001), respectively. The intra-tracheal mean temperature minima and maxima increased with 3.9 degrees C (95%CI: 2.7-5.1 degrees C; p<0.001) and 1.2 degrees C (95%CI: 0.8-1.2 degrees C; p<0.001), respectively. In the majority of patients, the calculated relative humidity values appear to reach well above 100% during inspiration. In a cold environment, presence of an HME significantly increases both inspiratory and expiratory temperature and humidity values. Relative humidity calculations suggest the formation of condense droplets during inspiration. To further increase its effectiveness, improvement of the HME's thermal capacity should be aimed for.

  6. Ground Source Heat Pump Sub-Slab Heat Exchange Loop Performance in a Cold Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittereder, Nick [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Poerschke, Andrew [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This report presents a cold-climate project that examines an alternative approach to ground source heat pump (GSHP) ground loop design. The innovative ground loop design is an attempt to reduce the installed cost of the ground loop heat exchange portion of the system by containing the entire ground loop within the excavated location beneath the basement slab. Prior to the installation and operation of the sub-slab heat exchanger, energy modeling using TRNSYS software and concurrent design efforts were performed to determine the size and orientation of the system. One key parameter in the design is the installation of the GSHP in a low-load home, which considerably reduces the needed capacity of the ground loop heat exchanger. This report analyzes data from two cooling seasons and one heating season.

  7. Technology Solutions Case Study: Insulated Siding Retrofit in a Cold Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-01

    In this study, the U.S. Department of Energy’s team Building America Partner¬ship for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC) worked with Kinsley Construction Company to evaluate the real-world performance of insulated sid¬ing when applied to an existing home. A 1960s home was selected for analysis. It is located in a cold climate (zone 6) where the addition of insulated siding and a carefully detailed water-resistive barrier have the potential to offer significant benefits. In particular, the team quantified building airtightness and heating energy use as a function of outdoor temperatures before and after the installa¬tion of the insulated siding.

  8. Human-biometeorological conditions in the southern Baltic coast based on the universal thermal climate index (UTCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolendowicz, Leszek; Półrolniczak, Marek; Szyga-Pluta, Katarzyna; Bednorz, Ewa

    2017-10-01

    The paper focuses on bioclimatic conditions in the southern part of the Baltic coast based on universal thermal climate index values. Taking into consideration the observational data from coastline stations as well as reanalysis data from the National Center for Environmental Prediction and National Center for Atmospheric Research (sea level pressure and the 500 hPa geopotential height), the authors attempt to explain which of the synoptic situations are responsible for the occurrence of days with very strong and extreme cold or heat stress. The obtained results confirm that the extreme thermal heat and cold stress conditions are for the most part associated with high-pressure systems. The researched area is usually situated in the western or southern periphery of the anticyclones. The cold stress also occurs during the advection from west or northwest, caused by the direct influence of a low-pressure system whose center is situated over the North Sea, southern Scandinavia, or the southern Baltic Sea.

  9. Effects of ice and floods on vegetation in streams in cold regions: implications for climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Lovisa; Nilsson, Christer; Weber, Christine

    2014-11-01

    Riparian zones support some of the most dynamic and species-rich plant communities in cold regions. A common conception among plant ecologists is that flooding during the season when plants are dormant generally has little effect on the survival and production of riparian vegetation. We show that winter floods may also be of fundamental importance for the composition of riverine vegetation. We investigated the effects of ice formation on riparian and in-stream vegetation in northern Sweden using a combination of experiments and observations in 25 reaches, spanning a gradient from ice-free to ice-rich reaches. The ice-rich reaches were characterized by high production of frazil and anchor ice. In a couple of experiments, we exposed riparian vegetation to experimentally induced winter flooding, which reduced the dominant dwarf-shrub cover and led to colonization of a species-rich forb-dominated vegetation. In another experiment, natural winter floods caused by anchor-ice formation removed plant mimics both in the in-stream and in the riparian zone, further supporting the result that anchor ice maintains dynamic plant communities. With a warmer winter climate, ice-induced winter floods may first increase in frequency because of more frequent shifts between freezing and thawing during winter, but further warming and shortening of the winter might make them less common than today. If ice-induced winter floods become reduced in number because of a warming climate, an important disturbance agent for riparian and in-stream vegetation will be removed, leading to reduced species richness in streams and rivers in cold regions. Given that such regions are expected to have more plant species in the future because of immigration from the south, the distribution of species richness among habitats can be expected to show novel patterns.

  10. Combined installation of electric and heat supply for climatic conditions of Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaisi, Osama Al; Sidenkov, D. V.

    2017-11-01

    Electricity, heating and cooling are the three main components that make up the energy consumption base in residential, commercial and public buildings around the world. Demand for energy and fuel costs are constantly growing. Combined cooling, heating and power generation or trigeneration can be a promising solution to such a problem, providing an efficient, reliable, flexible, competitive and less harmful alternative to existing heat and cold supply systems. In this paper, scheme of the tri-generation plant on non-aqueous working substances is considered as an installation of a locally centralized electro-heat and cold supply of a typical residential house in a hot climate. The scheme of the combined installation of electro-heat (cold) supply consisted of the vapor power plant and heat pump system on low-boiling working substance for local consumers under the climatic conditions of Iraq is presented. The possibility of using different working substances in the thermodynamic cycles of these units, which will provide better efficiency of such tri-generation systems is shown. The calculations of steam turbine cycles and heat pump part on the selected working substances are conducted. It is proposed to use heat exchangers of plate type as the main exchangers in the combined processing. The developed method of thermal-hydraulic calculation of heat exchangers implemented in MathCad, which allows to evaluate the efficiency of plants of this type using the ε - NTU method. For the selected working substances of the steam part the optimal temperature of heat supply to the steam generator is determined. The results of thermodynamic and technical-economic analysis of the application of various working substances in the “organic” Rankine cycle of the steam turbine unit and the heat pump system of the heat and cold supply system are presented.

  11. Challenges of Cold Conditioning and Static Testing the Second Ares Demonstration Motor (DM-2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Shyla; Davis, Larry C.

    2011-01-01

    On August 31, 2010, a five-segment demonstration motor (DM) for the Ares program was successfully tested. A series of demonstration motors (DMs) will be tested in different conditioned environments to confirm they meet their design specifications. The second demonstration motor (DM-2) was the first cold motor. The motor needed to be subjected to sub-freezing temperatures for two months so that its internal propellant mean bulk temperature (PMBT) was approximately 40 F. Several challenges had to be overcome to make this a successful test. One challenge was to condition four field joints to get the O-rings approximately 32 F. This would be done by applying conditioning shrouds to externally cool each field joint after the test bay was pulled off. The purpose of this conditioning was to validate the new O-ring design and allow joint heaters to be eliminated. Another challenge was maintaining temperature requirements for components in the nozzle vectoring system. A separate heating system was used to warm these components during cold conditioning. There were 53 test objectives that required 764 channels of data to be recorded; 460 were specific to DM-2. This instrumentation had to be installed prior to conditioning, which meant the baseline process and timeline had to be modified to meet this time critical schedule.

  12. The cold-water climate shield: Delineating refugia for preserving salmonid fishes through the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Isaak; Michael K. Young; David E. Nagel; Dona L. Horan; Matthew C. Groce

    2015-01-01

    The distribution and future fate of ectothermic organisms in a warming world will be dictated by thermalscapes across landscapes. That is particularly true for stream fishes and cold-water species like trout, salmon, and char that are already constrained to high elevations and latitudes. The extreme climates in those environments also preclude invasions by most non-...

  13. Integrating net-zero energy and high-performance green building technologies into contemporary housing in a cold climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin Yoklic; Mark Knaebe; Karen Martinson

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this research project are (1) to show how the sustainable resources of forest biomass, solar energy, harvested rainwater, and small-diameter logs can be integrated to a system that provides most or all of the energy and water needs of a typical cold climate residential household, and (2) to effectively interpret the results and convey the sustainable...

  14. Rapid climate variability during warm and cold periods in polar regions and Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masson-Delmotte, V.; Landais, A.; Combourieu-Nebout, N.

    2005-01-01

    rapid cooling recorded during the Holocene in Greenland ice cores and in Ammersee, Germany. The rate of warming during previous warmer interglacial periods is estimated from polar ice cores to 1.5 °C per millennium, without abrupt changes. Climate change expected for the 21st century should however......Typical rapid climate events punctuating the last glacial period in Greenland, Europe and Antarctica are compared to two rapid events occurring under warmer conditions: (i) Dansgaard-Oeschger event 25, the first abrupt warming occurring during last glacial inception; (ii) 8.2 ka BP event, the only...

  15. Land-ice teleconnections of cold climatic periods during the last Glacial/Interglacial transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauer, A. [GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (Germany); Faculte des Sciences et Techniques de Saint-Jerome, Laboratoire de Botanique Historique et Palynologie, F-13379 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Guenter, C. [GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (Germany); Universitaet Potsdam, Institut fuer Geowissenschaften, Postfach 60 15 53, D-14415 Potsdam (Germany); Johnsen, S.J. [Niels Bohr Institute of Astronomy, Department of Geophysics, University of Copenhagen, Haraldsgade 6, Copenhagen (Denmark); Iceland Univ., Reykjavik (Iceland). Science Inst.; Negendank, J.F.W. [GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (Germany)

    2000-02-01

    Independent calendar year chronologies are a basic requirement for the establishment of high resolution land-ice teleconnections. The annually laminated Meerfelder Maar record provides both an independent chronology, established by varve counting, and high resolution lithological proxy data for the period of the last Glacial/Interglacial transition. These data reveal a series of four periods of climatic deterioration coinciding with negative isotopic deviations in the GRIP record signal, thus demonstrating the synchronicity of environment changes in Western Germany and temperature shifts in Greenland. The terrestrial data supports a further subdivision of the event stratigraphy based on the GRIP core, by introducing the cold event GI-1c2 between 13 500 and 13 400 calendar years BP. Multiproxy analyses reveal that the environmental response at Meerfelder Maar was not linear throughout the Lateglacial but was modified by local processes. A change in the response of the lake environment to climate deterioration was observed during substage GI-1b (Gerzensee oscillation), the only event with gradual rather than abrupt transitions. The two-fold character of the Younger Dryas as seen in the GRIP record is more pronounced in the Meerfelder Maar record. This lithological signal occurred with a delay of 60 years to the GRIP signal, and has been linked to a shift in the catchment. It is proposed that the trigger for this shift was a trend towards a more humid second half of the Younger Dryas. (orig.)

  16. Optimum soil frost depth to alleviate climate change effects in cold region agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, Yosuke; Iwata, Yukiyoshi; Hirota, Tomoyoshi

    2017-03-01

    On-farm soil frost control has been used for the management of volunteer potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.), a serious weed problem caused by climate change, in northern Japan. Deep soil frost penetration is necessary for the effective eradication of unharvested small potato tubers; however, this process can delay soil thaw and increase soil wetting in spring, thereby delaying agricultural activity initiation and increasing nitrous oxide emissions from soil. Conversely, shallow soil frost development helps over-wintering of unharvested potato tubers and nitrate leaching from surface soil owing to the periodic infiltration of snowmelt water. In this study, we synthesised on-farm snow cover manipulation experiments to determine the optimum soil frost depth that can eradicate unharvested potato tubers without affecting agricultural activity initiation while minimising N pollution from agricultural soil. The optimum soil frost depth was estimated to be 0.28-0.33 m on the basis of the annual maximum soil frost depth. Soil frost control is a promising practice to alleviate climate change effects on agriculture in cold regions, which was initiated by local farmers and further promoted by national and local research institutes.

  17. Optimum soil frost depth to alleviate climate change effects in cold region agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, Yosuke; Iwata, Yukiyoshi; Hirota, Tomoyoshi

    2017-03-21

    On-farm soil frost control has been used for the management of volunteer potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.), a serious weed problem caused by climate change, in northern Japan. Deep soil frost penetration is necessary for the effective eradication of unharvested small potato tubers; however, this process can delay soil thaw and increase soil wetting in spring, thereby delaying agricultural activity initiation and increasing nitrous oxide emissions from soil. Conversely, shallow soil frost development helps over-wintering of unharvested potato tubers and nitrate leaching from surface soil owing to the periodic infiltration of snowmelt water. In this study, we synthesised on-farm snow cover manipulation experiments to determine the optimum soil frost depth that can eradicate unharvested potato tubers without affecting agricultural activity initiation while minimising N pollution from agricultural soil. The optimum soil frost depth was estimated to be 0.28-0.33 m on the basis of the annual maximum soil frost depth. Soil frost control is a promising practice to alleviate climate change effects on agriculture in cold regions, which was initiated by local farmers and further promoted by national and local research institutes.

  18. Advanced Extended Plate and Beam Wall System in a Cold-Climate House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallay, Dave [Home Innovation Research Labs, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Wiehagen, Joseph [Home Innovation Research Labs, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Kochkin, Vladimir [Home Innovation Research Labs, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2016-01-29

    This report presents the design and evaluation of an innovative wall system. This highly insulated (high-R) light-frame wall system for use above grade in residential buildings is referred to as Extended Plate & Beam (EP&B). The EP&B design is the first of its kind to be featured in a new construction test house (NCTH) for the DOE Building America program. The EP&B wall design integrates standard building methods and common building products to construct a high-R wall that minimizes transition risks and costs to builders. The EP&B design combines optimized framing with integrated rigid foam sheathing to increase the wall system's R-value and reduce thermal bridging. The foam sheathing is installed between the wall studs and structural wood sheathing. The exterior wood sheathing is attached directly to a framing extension formed by extended top and bottom plates. The exterior wood sheathing can dry to the exterior and provides bracing, a clear drainage plane and flashing surface for window and door openings, and a nailing surface for siding attachment. With support of the DOE Building America program, Home Innovation Research Labs partnered with Lancaster County Career and Technology Center (LCCTC) to build a NCTH in Lancaster, PA to demonstrate the EP&B wall design in a cold climate (IECC climate zone 5A). The results of the study confirmed the benefits of the systems and the viability of its integration into the house construction process.

  19. Cold Climate Foundation Retrofit Experimental Hygrothermal Performance: Cloquet Residential Research Facility Laboratory Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, Louise F. [NorthernSTAR, St. Paul, MN (United States); Harmon, Anna C. [NorthernSTAR, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Thermal and moisture problems in existing basements create a unique challenge because the exterior face of the wall is not easily or inexpensively accessible. This approach addresses thermal and moisture management from the interior face of the wall without disturbing the exterior soil and landscaping. the interior and exterior environments. This approach has the potential for improving durability, comfort, and indoor air quality. This project was funded jointly by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ORNL focused on developing a full basement wall system experimental database to enable others to validate hygrothermal simulation codes. NREL focused on testing the moisture durability of practical basement wall interior insulation retrofit solutions for cold climates. The project has produced a physically credible and reliable long-term hygrothermal performance database for retrofit foundation wall insulation systems in zone 6 and 7 climates that are fully compliant with the performance criteria in the 2009 Minnesota Energy Code. The experimental data were configured into a standard format that can be published online and that is compatible with standard commercially available spreadsheet and database software.

  20. Assessing cover crop management under actual and climate change conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Ayuso, María; Quemada, Miguel; Vanclooster, Marnik; Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita; Rodriguez, Alfredo; Gabriel, José Luis

    2017-10-22

    The termination date is recognized as a key management factor to enhance cover crops for multiple benefits and to avoid competition with the following cash crop. However, the optimum date depends on annual meteorological conditions, and climate variability induces uncertainty in a decision that needs to be taken every year. One of the most important cover crop benefits is reducing nitrate leaching, a major concern for irrigated agricultural systems and highly affected by the termination date. This study aimed to determine the effects of cover crops and their termination date on the water and N balances of an irrigated Mediterranean agroecosystem under present and future climate conditions. For that purpose, two field experiments were used for inverse calibration and validation of the WAVE model (Water and Agrochemicals in the soil and Vadose Environment), based on continuous soil water content data, soil nitrogen content and crop measurements. The calibrated and validated model was subsequently used in advanced scenario analysis under present and climate change conditions. Under present conditions, a late termination date increased cover crop biomass and subsequently soil water and N depletion. Hence, preemptive competition risk with the main crop was enhanced, but a reduction of nitrate leaching also occurred. The hypothetical planting date of the following cash crop was also an important tool to reduce preemptive competition. Under climate change conditions, the simulations showed that the termination date will be even more important to reduce preemptive competition and nitrate leaching. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Climatic and edaphic conditions at Eragrostis lehmanniana Nees ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Climatic and edaphic conditions in central Botswana and north-eastern Namibia generally range between those in south-eastern Arizona and the Cape Province, RSA and we expect that seeded Lehmann lovegrass stands in these areas would enhance semi-desert grassland productivity. Keywords: arizona; botany ...

  2. Effect of summer climatic conditions on different heat tolerance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of climatic conditions during summer on different heat tolerance indicators was determined in Friesian and ... Friesian cows, and that Jerseys should be more widely used in the warmer regions of South Africa. Die invloed van ..... McDOWELL, R.E., LEE, D.H.K., FOHRMAN, M.H. & ANDERSON,. R.S., 1953.

  3. Improvement of greenhouse climate control in Mediterranean conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuzel, Y.; Zwart, De H.F.; Sapounas, A.; Hemming, S.; Stanghellini, C.

    2017-01-01

    In Turkey, protected cultivation includes the production in greenhouses and under low plastic tunnels. The total area reached 64 912 ha in 2014, of which 76% is greenhouses. As in the other Mediterranean countries, protected cultivation is mainly located where the climatic conditions are favourable

  4. Diagnostics of Cold-Sprayed Particle Velocities Approaching Critical Deposition Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauer, G.; Singh, R.; Rauwald, K.-H.; Schrüfer, S.; Wilson, S.; Vaßen, R.

    2017-10-01

    In cold spraying, the impact particle velocity plays a key role for successful deposition. It is well known that only those particles can achieve successful bonding which have an impact velocity exceeding a particular threshold. This critical velocity depends on the thermomechanical properties of the impacting particles at impacting temperature. The latter depends on the gas temperature in the torch but also on stand-off distance and gas pressure. In the past, some semiempirical approaches have been proposed to estimate particle impact and critical velocities. Besides that, there are a limited number of available studies on particle velocity measurements in cold spraying. In the present work, particle velocity measurements were performed using a cold spray meter, where a laser beam is used to illuminate the particles ensuring sufficiently detectable radiant signal intensities. Measurements were carried out for INCONEL® alloy 718-type powders with different particle sizes. These experimental investigations comprised mainly subcritical spray parameters for this material to have a closer look at the conditions of initial deposition. The critical velocities were identified by evaluating the deposition efficiencies and correlating them to the measured particle velocity distributions. In addition, the experimental results were compared with some values estimated by model calculations.

  5. Forecasting conditional climate-change using a hybrid approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfahani, Akbar Akbari; Friedel, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    A novel approach is proposed to forecast the likelihood of climate-change across spatial landscape gradients. This hybrid approach involves reconstructing past precipitation and temperature using the self-organizing map technique; determining quantile trends in the climate-change variables by quantile regression modeling; and computing conditional forecasts of climate-change variables based on self-similarity in quantile trends using the fractionally differenced auto-regressive integrated moving average technique. The proposed modeling approach is applied to states (Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah) in the southwestern U.S., where conditional forecasts of climate-change variables are evaluated against recent (2012) observations, evaluated at a future time period (2030), and evaluated as future trends (2009–2059). These results have broad economic, political, and social implications because they quantify uncertainty in climate-change forecasts affecting various sectors of society. Another benefit of the proposed hybrid approach is that it can be extended to any spatiotemporal scale providing self-similarity exists.

  6. Biological feedbacks as cause and demise of the Neoproterozoic icehouse: astrobiological prospects for faster evolution and importance of cold conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekka Janhunen

    Full Text Available Several severe glaciations occurred during the Neoproterozoic eon, and especially near its end in the Cryogenian period (630-850 Ma. While the glacial periods themselves were probably related to the continental positions being appropriate for glaciation, the general coldness of the Neoproterozoic and Cryogenian as a whole lacks specific explanation. The Cryogenian was immediately followed by the Ediacaran biota and Cambrian Metazoan, thus understanding the climate-biosphere interactions around the Cryogenian period is central to understanding the development of complex multicellular life in general. Here we present a feedback mechanism between growth of eukaryotic algal phytoplankton and climate which explains how the Earth system gradually entered the Cryogenian icehouse from the warm Mesoproterozoic greenhouse. The more abrupt termination of the Cryogenian is explained by the increase in gaseous carbon release caused by the more complex planktonic and benthic foodwebs and enhanced by a diversification of metazoan zooplankton and benthic animals. The increased ecosystem complexity caused a decrease in organic carbon burial rate, breaking the algal-climatic feedback loop of the earlier Neoproterozoic eon. Prior to the Neoproterozoic eon, eukaryotic evolution took place in a slow timescale regulated by interior cooling of the Earth and solar brightening. Evolution could have proceeded faster had these geophysical processes been faster. Thus, complex life could theoretically also be found around stars that are more massive than the Sun and have main sequence life shorter than 10 Ga. We also suggest that snow and glaciers are, in a statistical sense, important markers for conditions that may possibly promote the development of complex life on extrasolar planets.

  7. Challenges of Cold Conditioning and Static Testing the Ares Demonstration Motor (DM-2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Shyla; Davis, Larry C.

    2011-01-01

    The Ares first stage rocket is a "human-rated" motor capable of producing and sustaining 3.5 million pounds of thrust throughout it s two-minute burn period. A series of demonstration motors (DM) will be tested in different conditioned environments to confirm they meet all design specifications. The second demonstration motor (DM-2) was designated to be a "cold motor", this means the internal propellant mean bulk temperature (PMBT) was 40 +5\\-3 F. The motor was subjected to subfreezing temperatures for two months.

  8. Effect of climate on the quality and berry coloration of red globe grape variety with cold storage ability in Eğirdir/Isparta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gargin Seckin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional climatic conditions can have a dramatic effect on the degree and rate of natural grape coloration and quality parameters. In this study it was aimed to evaluate effect of the climate for Red Globe variety cultivated in Lakes Region which is in Eğirdir town of Isparta city in Turkey. Red Globe grape variety was evaluated for quality and especially for berry skin coloration and cold storage ability. Study was done between 2013–2015. Vineyard was designed according to randomized block design with three replicates. Rational pergola system was used. Excellent berry coloration for Red Globe grape variety was determined and average quality parameters yield per vine (7.0–9.8 kg, soluble sugar content %16.–17.6 titratable acidity (4.2–4.4 g/lt, single berry weight (9.0–10.2 g, and phenological observations were done. Yield and other quality parameters were evaluated well in this period. Grapes were stored in cold storage (NA conditions with SO2 and without SO2 pads after harvest. Quality changes were determined in storage period by 1 month interval, it was carried out with weight loses, fruit skin color, fruit firmness, total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, sensual evaluations, microbiological and shelf life analyzes. It was evaluated that with SO2 pads Red Globe variety can be stored commercially up to 90–100 days. It was determined that climate of the region had a good positive effect on the excellent coloration and quality parameters and cold storage performance of the Red Globe.

  9. A multi-country analysis on potential adaptive mechanisms to cold and heat in a changing climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicedo-Cabrera, Ana M; Sera, Francesco; Guo, Yuming; Chung, Yeonseung; Arbuthnott, Katherine; Tong, Shilu; Tobias, Aurelio; Lavigne, Eric; de Sousa Zanotti Stagliorio Coelho, Micheline; Hilario Nascimento Saldiva, Paulo; Goodman, Patrick G; Zeka, Ariana; Hashizume, Masahiro; Honda, Yasushi; Kim, Ho; Ragettli, Martina S; Röösli, Martin; Zanobetti, Antonella; Schwartz, Joel; Armstrong, Ben; Gasparrini, Antonio

    2017-12-18

    Temporal variation of temperature-health associations depends on the combination of two pathways: pure adaptation to increasingly warmer temperatures due to climate change, and other attenuation mechanisms due to non-climate factors such as infrastructural changes and improved health care. Disentangling these pathways is critical for assessing climate change impacts and for planning public health and climate policies. We present evidence on this topic by assessing temporal trends in cold- and heat-attributable mortality risks in a multi-country investigation. Trends in country-specific attributable mortality fractions (AFs) for cold and heat (defined as below/above minimum mortality temperature, respectively) in 305 locations within 10 countries (1985-2012) were estimated using a two-stage time-series design with time-varying distributed lag non-linear models. To separate the contribution of pure adaptation to increasing temperatures and active changes in susceptibility (non-climate driven mechanisms) to heat and cold, we compared observed yearly-AFs with those predicted in two counterfactual scenarios: trends driven by either (1) changes in exposure-response function (assuming a constant temperature distribution), (2) or changes in temperature distribution (assuming constant exposure-response relationships). This comparison provides insights about the potential mechanisms and pace of adaptation in each population. Heat-related AFs decreased in all countries (ranging from 0.45-1.66% to 0.15-0.93%, in the first and last 5-year periods, respectively) except in Australia, Ireland and UK. Different patterns were found for cold (where AFs ranged from 5.57-15.43% to 2.16-8.91%), showing either decreasing (Brazil, Japan, Spain, Australia and Ireland), increasing (USA), or stable trends (Canada, South Korea and UK). Heat-AF trends were mostly driven by changes in exposure-response associations due to modified susceptibility to temperature, whereas no clear patterns were

  10. Climate Degradation and Extreme Icing Events Constrain Life in Cold-Adapted Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, J; Hartway, C; Gruzdev, A; Johnson, M

    2018-01-18

    Despite the growth in knowledge about the effects of a warming Arctic on its cold-adapted species, the mechanisms by which these changes affect animal populations remain poorly understood. Increasing temperatures, declining sea ice and altered wind and precipitation patterns all may affect the fitness and abundance of species through multiple direct and indirect pathways. Here we demonstrate previously unknown effects of rain-on-snow (ROS) events, winter precipitation, and ice tidal surges on the Arctic's largest land mammal. Using novel field data across seven years and three Alaskan and Russian sites, we show arrested skeletal growth in juvenile muskoxen resulting from unusually dry winter conditions and gestational ROS events, with the inhibitory effects on growth from ROS events lasting up to three years post-partum. Further, we describe the simultaneous entombment of 52 muskoxen in ice during a Chukchi Sea winter tsunami (ivuniq in Iñupiat), and link rapid freezing to entrapment of Arctic whales and otters. Our results illustrate how once unusual, but increasingly frequent Arctic weather events affect some cold-adapted mammals, and suggest that an understanding of species responses to a changing Arctic can be enhanced by coalescing groundwork, rare events, and insights from local people.

  11. Decline in temperature and humidity increases the occurrence of influenza in cold climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Both temperature and humidity may independently or jointly contribute to the risk of influenza infections. We examined the relations between the level and decrease of temperature, humidity and the risk of influenza A and B virus infections in a subarctic climate. Methods We conducted a case-crossover study among military conscripts (n = 892) seeking medical attention due to respiratory symptoms during their military training period and identified 66 influenza A and B cases by PCR or serology. Meteorological data such as measures of average and decline in ambient temperature and absolute humidity (AH) during the three preceding days of the onset (hazard period) and two reference periods, prior and after the onset were obtained. Results The average temperature preceding the influenza onset was −6.8 ± 5.6°C and AH 3.1 ± 1.3 g/m3. A decrease in both temperature and AH during the hazard period increased the occurrence of influenza so that a 1°C decrease in temperature and 0.5 g decrease per m3 in AH increased the estimated risk by 11% [OR 1.11 (1.03 to 1.20)] and 58% [OR 1.58 (1.28 to 1.96)], respectively. The occurrence of influenza infections was positively associated with both the average temperature [OR 1.10 per 1°C (95% confidence interval 1.02 to 1.19)] and AH [OR 1.25 per g/m3 (1.05 to 1.49)] during the hazard period prior to onset. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that a decrease rather than low temperature and humidity per se during the preceding three days increase the risk of influenza episodes in a cold climate. PMID:24678699

  12. Vegetation type and age drive changes in soil properties, nitrogen and carbon sequestration in urban parks under cold climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heikki Martti Setälä

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Urban green spaces provide ecosystem properties fundamental to the provision of ecosystem services, such as the sequestration of carbon and nutrients and serving as a reservoir for organic matter. Although urban vegetation influences soil physico-chemical properties, it remains unknown whether ecosystem properties depend on plant species portfolios. We tested the influence of three common functional plant groups (evergreen trees, deciduous trees, grass/lawn for their ability to modify soils in parks of various ages under cold climatic conditions in Finland. We hypothesized that (i plant functional groups affect soils differently resulting in divergent ecosystem properties, and (ii that these ecosystem properties also depend on park age. We included 41 urban parks of varying ages (10, 50 and > 100 years and additional control forests. Park soils were sampled for physico-chemical parameters up to 50 cm depth. Our data indicate that plant functional groups modify soils differently, especially between the evergreen and lawn treatments at 50 and > 100 year old parks. Soils under evergreen trees had the lowest pH and generally the highest percentage organic matter, percentage total carbon and percentage total nitrogen. Soil pH remained the same, whereas concentrations of organic matter, total carbon and total nitrogen declined by depth. Soils in the reference forests had lower pH but higher percentages organic matter, total carbon and total nitrogen than those in parks. We estimate that old parks with evergreen trees can store 35.5 kg C m-2 and 2.3 kg N m-2 – considerably more than in urban soils in warmer climates. Our data suggest that plant-soil interactions in urban parks, in spite of being constructed environments, are surprisingly similar to those in natural forests.

  13. Effect of cold conditions on manual performance while wearing petroleum industry protective clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggen, Øystein Nordrum; Heen, Sigri; Færevik, Hilde; Reinertsen, Randi Eidsmo

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate manual performance and thermal responses during low work intensity in persons wearing standard protective clothing in the petroleum industry when they were exposed to a range of temperatures (5, -5, -15 and -25℃) that are relevant to environmental conditions for petroleum industry personnel in northern regions. Twelve men participated in the study. Protective clothing was adjusted for the given cold exposure according to current practices. The subjects performed manual tests five times under each environmental condition. The manual performance test battery consisted of four different tests: tactile sensation (Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments), finger dexterity (Purdue Pegboard), hand dexterity (Complete Minnesota dexterity test) and grip strength (grip dynamometer). We found that exposure to -5℃ or colder lowered skin and body temperatures and reduced manual performance during low work intensity. In conclusion the current protective clothing at a given cold exposure is not adequate to maintain manual performance and thermal balance for petroleum workers in the high north.

  14. Processing Conditions Affecting Grain Size and Mechanical Properties in Nanocomposites Produced via Cold Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaliere, P.; Perrone, A.; Silvello, A.

    2014-10-01

    Cold spray is a coating technology based on aerodynamics and high-speed impact dynamics. In this process, spray particles (usually 1-50 μm in diameter) are accelerated to a high velocity (typically 300-1200 m/s) by a high-speed gas (pre-heated air, nitrogen, or helium) flow that is generated through a convergent-divergent de Laval-type nozzle. A coating is formed through the intensive plastic deformation of particles impacting on a substrate at a temperature below the melting point of the spray material. In the present paper the main processing parameters affecting the microstructural and mechanical behavior of metal-metal cold spray deposits are described. The effect of process parameters on grain refinement and mechanical properties were analyzed for composite particles of Al-Al2O3, Ni-BN, Cu-Al2O3, and Co-SiC. The properties of the formed nanocomposites were compared with those of the parent materials sprayed under the same conditions. The process conditions, leading to a strong grain refinement with an acceptable level of the deposit mechanical properties such as porosity and adhesion strength, are discussed.

  15. Ground Source Heat Pump Sub-Slab Heat Exchange Loop Performance in a Cold Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittereder, N.; Poerschke, A.

    2013-11-01

    This report presents a cold-climate project that examines an alternative approach to ground source heat pump (GSHP) ground loop design. The innovative ground loop design is an attempt to reduce the installed cost of the ground loop heat exchange portion of the system by containing the entire ground loop within the excavated location beneath the basement slab. Prior to the installation and operation of the sub-slab heat exchanger, energy modeling using TRNSYS software and concurrent design efforts were performed to determine the size and orientation of the system. One key parameter in the design is the installation of the GSHP in a low-load home, which considerably reduces the needed capacity of the ground loop heat exchanger. This report analyzes data from two cooling seasons and one heating season. Upon completion of the monitoring phase, measurements revealed that the initial TRNSYS simulated horizontal sub-slab ground loop heat exchanger fluid temperatures and heat transfer rates differed from the measured values. To determine the cause of this discrepancy, an updated model was developed utilizing a new TRNSYS subroutine for simulating sub-slab heat exchangers. Measurements of fluid temperature, soil temperature, and heat transfer were used to validate the updated model.

  16. Risk based management and bioremediation of crude oil-contaminated site in cold climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuyukina, M.S.; Ivshina, I.B. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Perm (Russian Federation). Inst. of Ecology and Genetics of Microorganisms; Peshkur, T.A.; Cunningham, C.J. [Edinburgh Univ., Scotland (United Kingdom). Contaminated Land Assessment and Remediation Research Centre

    2009-07-01

    Crude oil contamination of soils is a serious environmental hazard in oil-producing countries. Integrated ex situ bioremediation treatments for oil-contaminated site management in cold climates were considered in this study. Bioaugmentation and biosurfactant applications, a slurry bioreactor, and biopile treatments were used to remediate heavily contaminated soils. A risk-based approach was used to determine the proposed remediation techniques used in the pilot-scale field trials located in Siberia. The approach considered the hydrophobicity and recalcitrance of compounds caused by weathering. The model contained fate and transport model for vadose and saturated zones in order to estimate receptor point concentrations. Site evaluations were conducted to collect ecological, topographical, and meteorological data. Laboratory experiments were conducted to select the appropriate bioremediation techniques. It was concluded that the proposed scheme remediated the soils within a set of specific pre-determined limits. Subsequent tests showed that soil phytotoxicity was minimal in the remediated soils. 13 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  17. Methane production and energy evaluation of a farm scaled biogas plant in cold climate area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjørtoft, Kristian; Morken, John; Hanssen, Jon Fredrik; Briseid, Tormod

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the specific methane production and the energy balance at a small farm scaled mesophilic biogas plant in a cold climate area. The main substrate was dairy cow slurry. Fish silage was used as co-substrate for two of the three test periods. Energy production, substrate volumes and thermal and electric energy consumption was monitored. Methane production depended mainly on type and amount of substrates, while energy consumption depended mainly on the ambient temperature. During summer the main thermal energy consumption was caused by heating of new substrates, while covering for thermal energy losses from digester and pipes required most thermal energy during winter. Fish silage gave a total energy production of 1623 k Wh/m(3), while the dairy cow slurry produced 79 k Wh/m(3) slurry. Total energy demand at the plant varied between 26.9% and 88.2% of the energy produced. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A Study on Electric Vehicle Heat Pump Systems in Cold Climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziqi Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicle heat pumps are drawing more and more attention due to their energy-saving and high efficiency designs. Some problems remain, however, in the usage of the heat pumps in electric vehicles, such as a drainage problem regarding the external heat exchangers while in heat pump mode, and the decrease in heating performance when operated in a cold climate. In this article, an R134a economized vapor injection (EVI heat pump system was built and tested. The drainage problem common amongst external heat exchangers was solved by an optimized 5 mm diameter tube-and-fin heat exchanger, which can meet both the needs of a condenser and evaporator based on simulation and test results. The EVI system was also tested under several ambient temperatures. It was found that the EVI was a benefit to the system heating capacity. Under a −20 °C ambient temperature, an average improvement of 57.7% in heating capacity was achieved with EVI and the maximum capacity was 2097 W, with a coefficient of performance (COP of 1.25. The influences of injection pressure and economizer capacity are also discussed in this article.

  19. Runoff and nutrient losses during winter periods in cold climates--requirements to nutrient simulation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deelstra, Johannes; Kvaernø, Sigrun H; Granlund, Kirsti; Sileika, Antanas Sigitas; Gaigalis, Kazimieras; Kyllmar, Katarina; Vagstad, Nils

    2009-03-01

    Large areas in Europe may experience frozen soils during winter periods which pose special challenges to modelling. Extensive data are collected in small agricultural catchments in Nordic and Baltic countries. An analysis on measurements, carried out in four small agricultural catchments has shown that a considerable amount of the yearly nutrient loss occurs during the freezing period. A freezing period was defined as the time period indicated by the maximum and minimum points on the cumulative degree-day curve. On average 6-32% of the yearly runoff was generated during this period while N-loss varied from 5-35% and P loss varied from 3-33%. The results indicate that infiltration into frozen soils might occur during the freezing period and that the runoff generating processes, at least during a considerable part of the freezing period, are rather similar compared to the processes outside the freezing period. Freeze-thaw cycles affect the infiltration capacity and aggregate stability, thereby the erosion and nutrient losses. The Norwegian catchment had a high P loss during the freezing period compared to the other catchments, most likely caused by catchment characteristics such as slope, soil types, tillage methods and fertiliser application. It is proposed to use data, collected on small agricultural dominated catchments, in the calibration and validation of watershed management models and to take into account runoff and nutrient loss processes which are representative for cold climates, thereby obtaining reliable results.

  20. Assessment of upscaling potential of alternative adsorbent materials for highway stormwater treatment in cold climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyas, Aamir; Muthanna, Tone M

    2017-03-01

    Generally, studies on alternative adsorbents focus on adsorbent removal capacity, as a function of pollutant concentration, and other practical aspects, such as costs, environmental impact and end of life costs, that can affect the upscaling of adsorbents for real-life applications, are not explicitly considered. Therefore, this study combines multi-criteria modeling with experimental evaluation to integrate both technical and non-technical factors in assessing the upscaling potential of alternative adsorbents. The experimental step was used to verify the reported pollutant removal as well as testing environmental stability, of the alternative adsorbents, in cold climates. Important factors/criteria for the upscaling process were identified with the help of principal component analysis. The results indicated that adsorbents such as pine bark, olivine and charcoal were the best available options for upscaling. The statistical analysis revealed that factors such as initial costs, hydraulic loads and end-of-life costs were important for the upscaling process and, therefore, should be explicitly included in any future evaluation of the alternative adsorbents.

  1. Extra-tropical origin of equatorial Pacific cold bias in climate models with links to cloud albedo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burls, Natalie J.; Muir, Leslie; Vincent, Emmanuel M.; Fedorov, Alexey

    2017-09-01

    General circulation models frequently suffer from a substantial cold bias in equatorial Pacific sea surface temperatures (SSTs). For instance, the majority of the climate models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) have this particular problem (17 out of the 26 models evaluated in the present study). Here, we investigate the extent to which these equatorial cold biases are related to mean climate biases generated in the extra-tropics and then communicated to the equator via the oceanic subtropical cells (STCs). With an evident relationship across the CMIP5 models between equatorial SSTs and upper ocean temperatures in the extra-tropical subduction regions, our analysis suggests that cold SST biases within the extra-tropical Pacific indeed translate into a cold equatorial bias via the STCs. An assessment of the relationship between these extra-tropical SST biases and local surface heat flux components indicates a link to biases in the simulated shortwave fluxes. Further sensitivity studies with a climate model (CESM) in which extra-tropical cloud albedo is systematically varied illustrate the influence of cloud albedo perturbations, not only directly above the oceanic subduction regions but across the extra-tropics, on the equatorial bias. The CESM experiments reveal a quadratic relationship between extra-tropical Pacific albedo and the root-mean-square-error in equatorial SSTs—a relationship with which the CMIP5 models generally agree. Thus, our study suggests that one way to improve the equatorial cold bias in the models is to improve the representation of subtropical and mid-latitude cloud albedo.

  2. Tomato crop coefficient grown under mediterranean climate conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerekovic, Natasa; Todorovic, Mladen; Snyder, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    parameters which can contribute in difference of Kc values for this climatic region. The results of investigations on Policoro data confirmed relevant difference in the length of the growing period in respect to the data presented in FAO 56. Therefore, careful consideration of all growing and management...... parameters is needed when crop evapotranspiration has to be estimated under local conditions. This work has shown that peak Kc estimation can be improved by applying the corrections for relative humidity, wind speed and plant height as it suggested in FAO 56. This improvement is particularly important...... techniques, crop management, climatic conditions changes (temperature, relative humidity, wind speed) and irrigation technique have a significant impact on the crop development and crop coefficient values....

  3. The 1430s: a cold period of extraordinary internal climate variability during the early Spörer Minimum with social and economic impacts in north-western and central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camenisch, Chantal; Keller, Kathrin M.; Salvisberg, Melanie; Amann, Benjamin; Bauch, Martin; Blumer, Sandro; Brázdil, Rudolf; Brönnimann, Stefan; Büntgen, Ulf; Campbell, Bruce M. S.; Fernández-Donado, Laura; Fleitmann, Dominik; Glaser, Rüdiger; González-Rouco, Fidel; Grosjean, Martin; Hoffmann, Richard C.; Huhtamaa, Heli; Joos, Fortunat; Kiss, Andrea; Kotyza, Oldřich; Lehner, Flavio; Luterbacher, Jürg; Maughan, Nicolas; Neukom, Raphael; Novy, Theresa; Pribyl, Kathleen; Raible, Christoph C.; Riemann, Dirk; Schuh, Maximilian; Slavin, Philip; Werner, Johannes P.; Wetter, Oliver

    2016-12-01

    Changes in climate affected human societies throughout the last millennium. While European cold periods in the 17th and 18th century have been assessed in detail, earlier cold periods received much less attention due to sparse information available. New evidence from proxy archives, historical documentary sources and climate model simulations permit us to provide an interdisciplinary, systematic assessment of an exceptionally cold period in the 15th century. Our assessment includes the role of internal, unforced climate variability and external forcing in shaping extreme climatic conditions and the impacts on and responses of the medieval society in north-western and central Europe.Climate reconstructions from a multitude of natural and anthropogenic archives indicate that the 1430s were the coldest decade in north-western and central Europe in the 15th century. This decade is characterised by cold winters and average to warm summers resulting in a strong seasonal cycle in temperature. Results from comprehensive climate models indicate consistently that these conditions occurred by chance due to the partly chaotic internal variability within the climate system. External forcing like volcanic eruptions tends to reduce simulated temperature seasonality and cannot explain the reconstructions. The strong seasonal cycle in temperature reduced food production and led to increasing food prices, a subsistence crisis and a famine in parts of Europe. Societies were not prepared to cope with failing markets and interrupted trade routes. In response to the crisis, authorities implemented numerous measures of supply policy and adaptation such as the installation of grain storage capacities to be prepared for future food production shortfalls.

  4. A sensitivity study to global desertification in cold and warm climates: results from the IPSL OAGCM model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkama, Ramdane [GAME/CNRM, CNRS/Meteo-France, Toulouse (France); Kageyama, Masa; Ramstein, Gilles [LSCE/IPSL UMR CEA-CNRS-UVSQ 8212, Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2012-04-15

    Many simulations have been devoted to study the impact of global desertification on climate, but very few have quantified this impact in very different climate contexts. Here, the climatic impacts of large-scale global desertification in warm (2100 under the SRES A2 scenario forcing), modern and cold (Last Glacial Maximum, 21 thousand years ago) climates are assessed by using the IPSL OAGCM. For each climate, two simulations have been performed, one in which the continents are covered by modern vegetation, the other in which global vegetation is changed to desert i.e. bare soil. The comparison between desert and present vegetation worlds reveals that the prevailing signal in terms of surface energy budget is dominated by the reduction of upward latent heat transfer. Replacing the vegetation by bare soil has similar impacts on surface air temperature South of 20 N in all three climatic contexts, with a warming over tropical forests and a slight cooling over semi-arid and arid areas, and these temperature changes are of the same order of magnitude. North of 20 N, the difference between the temperatures simulated with present day vegetation and in a desert world is mainly due to the change in net radiation related to the modulation of the snow albedo by vegetation, which is obviously absent in the desert world simulations. The enhanced albedo in the desert world simulations induces a large temperature decrease, especially during summer in the cold and modern climatic contexts, whereas the largest difference occurs during winter in the warm climate. This temperature difference requires a larger heat transport to the northern high latitudes. Part of this heat transport increase is achieved through an intensification of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. This intensification reduces the sea-ice extent and causes a warming over the North Atlantic and Arctic oceans in the warm climate context. In contrast, the large cooling North of 20 N in both the modern

  5. Environmental water demand assessment under climate change conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarzaeim, Parisa; Bozorg-Haddad, Omid; Fallah-Mehdipour, Elahe; Loáiciga, Hugo A

    2017-07-01

    Measures taken to cope with the possible effects of climate change on water resources management are key for the successful adaptation to such change. This work assesses the environmental water demand of the Karkheh river in the reach comprising Karkheh dam to the Hoor-al-Azim wetland, Iran, under climate change during the period 2010-2059. The assessment of the environmental demand applies (1) representative concentration pathways (RCPs) and (2) downscaling methods. The first phase of this work projects temperature and rainfall in the period 2010-2059 under three RCPs and with two downscaling methods. Thus, six climatic scenarios are generated. The results showed that temperature and rainfall average would increase in the range of 1.7-5.2 and 1.9-9.2%, respectively. Subsequently, flows corresponding to the six different climatic scenarios are simulated with the unit hydrographs and component flows from rainfall, evaporation, and stream flow data (IHACRES) rainfall-runoff model and are input to the Karkheh reservoir. The simulation results indicated increases of 0.9-7.7% in the average flow under the six simulation scenarios during the period of analysis. The second phase of this paper's methodology determines the monthly minimum environmental water demands of the Karkheh river associated with the six simulation scenarios using a hydrological method. The determined environmental demands are compared with historical ones. The results show that the temporal variation of monthly environmental demand would change under climate change conditions. Furthermore, some climatic scenarios project environmental water demand larger than and some of them project less than the baseline one.

  6. The transferability of hydrological models under nonstationary climatic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Z. Li

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates issues involved in calibrating hydrological models against observed data when the aim of the modelling is to predict future runoff under different climatic conditions. To achieve this objective, we tested two hydrological models, DWBM and SIMHYD, using data from 30 unimpaired catchments in Australia which had at least 60 yr of daily precipitation, potential evapotranspiration (PET, and streamflow data. Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE, modified index of agreement (d1 and water balance error (WBE were used as performance criteria. We used a differential split-sample test to split up the data into 120 sub-periods and 4 different climatic sub-periods in order to assess how well the calibrated model could be transferred different periods. For each catchment, the models were calibrated for one sub-period and validated on the other three. Monte Carlo simulation was used to explore parameter stability compared to historic climatic variability. The chi-square test was used to measure the relationship between the distribution of the parameters and hydroclimatic variability. The results showed that the performance of the two hydrological models differed and depended on the model calibration. We found that if a hydrological model is set up to simulate runoff for a wet climate scenario then it should be calibrated on a wet segment of the historic record, and similarly a dry segment should be used for a dry climate scenario. The Monte Carlo simulation provides an effective and pragmatic approach to explore uncertainty and equifinality in hydrological model parameters. Some parameters of the hydrological models are shown to be significantly more sensitive to the choice of calibration periods. Our findings support the idea that when using conceptual hydrological models to assess future climate change impacts, a differential split-sample test and Monte Carlo simulation should be used to quantify uncertainties due to

  7. Health hazards in areas of military operations conducted in different climatic and sanitary conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the most common health hazards occurring among personnel of peacekeeping and stabilization missions functioning within armed conflicts in the contemporary world. Military operations have been executed in diverse climatic and sanitary conditions, which are frequently unfamiliar for their participants. Some of them, e.g. the UN peacekeeping missions in the Middle East (Lebanon, the Golan Heights), have been carried out in a relatively stable geopolitical environment; whereas, stabilization missions in Iraq and Afghanistan, which are actually combat activities, undoubtedly fall into the group of the most perilous military operations in the world. Hot or cold climate, poor sanitary and hygienic conditions along with warfare facilitate the occurrence of numerous diseases and body injuries not only among the local people but also among peacekeepers, who represent the population of immigrants. Health hazards which pose major epidemiological threats in combat zones are arthropod-borne, food and water-borne, respiratory tract diseases, sexually transmitted diseases, enzootic diseases, battle injuries, and non- -battle injuries, e.g. traffic accidents. Another considerable health problem are psychiatric disorders, which can either appear directly after the occurrence of a traumatic event in a combat zone or indirectly, after some time had elapsed. In addition to the health hazards listed above, environmental factors such as changeable weather conditions and local fauna may also be life threatening.

  8. Climate Twins - a tool to explore future climate impacts by assessing real world conditions: Exploration principles, underlying data, similarity conditions and uncertainty ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loibl, Wolfgang; Peters-Anders, Jan; Züger, Johann

    2010-05-01

    To achieve public awareness and thorough understanding about expected climate changes and their future implications, ways have to be found to communicate model outputs to the public in a scientifically sound and easily understandable way. The newly developed Climate Twins tool tries to fulfil these requirements via an intuitively usable web application, which compares spatial patterns of current climate with future climate patterns, derived from regional climate model results. To get a picture of the implications of future climate in an area of interest, users may click on a certain location within an interactive map with underlying future climate information. A second map depicts the matching Climate Twin areas according to current climate conditions. In this way scientific output can be communicated to the public which allows for experiencing climate change through comparison with well-known real world conditions. To identify climatic coincidence seems to be a simple exercise, but the accuracy and applicability of the similarity identification depends very much on the selection of climate indicators, similarity conditions and uncertainty ranges. Too many indicators representing various climate characteristics and too narrow uncertainty ranges will judge little or no area as regions with similar climate, while too little indicators and too wide uncertainty ranges will address too large regions as those with similar climate which may not be correct. Similarity cannot be just explored by comparing mean values or by calculating correlation coefficients. As climate change triggers an alteration of various indicators, like maxima, minima, variation magnitude, frequency of extreme events etc., the identification of appropriate similarity conditions is a crucial question to be solved. For Climate Twins identification, it is necessary to find a right balance of indicators, similarity conditions and uncertainty ranges, unless the results will be too vague conducting a

  9. Transcriptomic analysis of fruit stored under cold conditions using controlled atmosphere in Prunus persica cv. ‘Red Pearl’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayan eSanhueza

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cold storage (CS can induce a physiological disorder known as chilling injury (CI in nectarine fruits. The main symptom is mealiness that is perceived as non-juicy fruit by consumers. Postharvest treatments such as controlled atmosphere (CA; a high CO2 concentration and low O2 have been used under cold conditions to avoid this disorder. With the objective of exploring the mechanisms involved in the CA effect on mealiness prevention, we analyzed transcriptomic changes under six conditions of ‘Red Pearl’ nectarines by RNA-Seq. Our analysis included just harvested nectarines, juicy non-stored fruits, fruits affected for CI after CS and fruits stored in a combination of CA plus CS without CI phenotype. Nectarines stored in cold conditions combined with CA treatment resulted in less mealiness; we obtained 21.6% of juice content compared with just CS fruits (7.7%; mealy flesh. RNA-Seq data analyses were carried out to study the gene expression for different conditions assayed. During ripening, we detected that nectarines exposed to CA treatment expressed a similar number of genes compared with fruits that were not exposed to cold conditions. Firm fruits have more differentially expressed genes than soft fruits, which suggest that most important changes occur during CS. On the other hand, gene ontology analysis revealed enrichment mainly in metabolic and cellular processes. Differentially expressed genes analysis showed that low O2 concentrations combined with cold conditions slows the metabolic processes more than just the cold storage, resulting mainly in the suppression of primary metabolism and cold stress response. This is a significant step toward unraveling the molecular mechanism that explains the effectiveness of CA as a tool to prevent CI development on fruits.

  10. Agricultural pests under future climate conditions: downscaling of regional climate scenarios with a stochastic weather generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschi, M.; Stöckli, S.; Dubrovsky, M.; Spirig, C.; Rotach, M. W.; Calanca, P.; Samietz, J.

    2010-09-01

    As a consequence of current and projected climate change in temperate regions of Europe, agricultural pests and diseases are expected to occur more frequently and possibly to extend to previously unaffected regions. Given their economic and ecological relevance, detailed forecasting tools for various pests have been developed, which model the infestation depending on actual weather conditions. Assessing the future risk of pest-related damages therefore requires future weather data at high temporal and spatial resolution. In particular, pest forecast models are often not based on screen temperature and precipitation alone (i.e., the most generally projected climate variables), but might require input variables such as soil temperature, in-canopy net radiation or leaf wetness. Here, we use a stochastic weather and a re-sampling procedure for producing site-specific hourly weather data from regional climate change scenarios for 2050 in Switzerland. The climate change scenarios were derived from multi-model projections and provide probabilistic information on future regional changes in temperature and precipitation. Hourly temperature, precipitation and radiation data were produced by first generating daily weather data for these climate scenarios and then using a nearest neighbor re-sampling approach for creating realistic diurnal cycles. These hourly weather time series were then used for modeling important phases in the lifecycle of codling moth, the major insect pest in apple orchards worldwide. First results indicate a shift in the occurrence and duration of phases relevant for pest disease control for projected as compared to current climate (e.g. the flight of the codling moth starts about ten days earlier in future climate), continuing an already observed trend towards more favorable conditions for this insect during the last 20 years.

  11. The effect of time of day on cold water ingestion by high-level swimmers in a tropical climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hue, Olivier; Monjo, Roland; Lazzaro, Marc; Baillot, Michelle; Hellard, Philippe; Marlin, Laurent; Jean-Etienne, A

    2013-07-01

    The authors tested the effect of cold water ingestion during high-intensity training in the morning vs the evening on both core temperature (TC) and thermal perceptions of internationally ranked long-distance swimmers during a training period in a tropical climate. Nine internationally ranked long-distance swimmers (5 men and 4 women) performed 4 randomized training sessions (2 in the evening and 2 in the morning) with 2 randomized beverages with different temperatures for 3 consecutive days. After a standardized warm-up of 1000 m, the subjects performed a standardized training session that consisted of 10 x 100 m (start every 1'20″) at a fixed velocity. The swimmers were then followed for the next 3000 m of the training schedule. Heart rate (HR) was continuously monitored during the 10 x 100 m, whereas TC, thermal comfort, and thermal sensation (TS) were measured before and after each 1000-m session. Before and after each 1000 m, the swimmers were asked to drink 190 mL of neutral (26.5 ± 2.5°C) or cold (1.3 ± 0.3°C) water packaged in standardized bottles. Results demonstrated that cold water ingestion induced a significant effect on TC, with a pronounced decrease in the evening, resulting in significantly lower mean TC and lower mean delta TC in evening cold (EC) than in evening neutral (EN), concomitant with significantly lower TS in EC than in EN and a significant effect on exercise HR. Moreover, although TC increased significantly with time in MN, MC, and EN, TC was stabilized during exercise in EC. To conclude, we demonstrate that a cold beverage had a significant effect on TC, TS, and HR during training in high-level swimmers in a tropical climate, especially during evening training.

  12. Thermal State Of Permafrost In Urban Environment Under Changing Climatic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streletskiy, D. A.; Grebenets, V. I.; Kerimov, A. G.; Kurchatova, A.; Andruschenko, F.; Gubanov, A.

    2015-12-01

    Risks and damage, caused by deformation of building and constructions in cryolithozone, are growing for decades. Worsening of cryo-ecological situation and loss of engineering-geocryological safety are induced by both technogenic influences on frozen basement and climate change. In such towns on permafrost as Vorkuta, Dixon more than 60% of objects are deformed, in Yakutsk, Igarka- nearly 40%, in Norilsk, Talnakh, Mirnij 35%, in old indigenous villages - approximately 100%; more than 80% ground dams with frozen cores are in poor condition. This situation is accompanied by activation of dangerous cryogenic processes. For example in growing seasonally-thaw layer is strengthening frost heave of pipeline foundation: only on Yamburg gas condensate field (Taz Peninsula) are damaged by frost heave and cut or completely replaced 3000 - 5000 foundations of gas pipelines. Intensity of negative effects strongly depends on regional geocryology, technogenic loads and climatic trends, and in Arctic we see a temperature rise - warming, which cause permafrost temperature rise and thaw). In built areas heat loads are more diverse: cold foundations (under the buildings with ventilated cellars or near termosyphons) are close to warm areas with technogenic beddings (mainly sandy), that accumulate heat, close to underground collectors for communications, growing thaw zones around, close to storages of snows, etc. Note that towns create specific microclimate with higher air temperature. So towns are powerful technogenic (basically, thermal) presses, placed on permafrost; in cooperation with climate changes (air temperature rise, increase of precipitation) they cause permafrost degradation. The analysis of dozens of urban thermal fields, formed in variable cryological and soil conditions, showed, that nearly 70% have warming trend, 20% - cooling and in 10% of cases the situation after construction is stable. Triggered by warming of climate changes of vegetation, depth and temperature of

  13. Diverging Responses of Tropical Andean Biomes under Future Climate Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Carolina; Arnillas, Carlos Alberto; Cuesta, Francisco; Buytaert, Wouter

    2013-01-01

    Observations and projections for mountain regions show a strong tendency towards upslope displacement of their biomes under future climate conditions. Because of their climatic and topographic heterogeneity, a more complex response is expected for biodiversity hotspots such as tropical mountain regions. This study analyzes potential changes in the distribution of biomes in the Tropical Andes and identifies target areas for conservation. Biome distribution models were developed using logistic regressions. These models were then coupled to an ensemble of 8 global climate models to project future distribution of the Andean biomes and their uncertainties. We analysed projected changes in extent and elevational range and identified regions most prone to change. Our results show a heterogeneous response to climate change. Although the wetter biomes exhibit an upslope displacement of both the upper and the lower boundaries as expected, most dry biomes tend to show downslope expansion. Despite important losses being projected for several biomes, projections suggest that between 74.8% and 83.1% of the current total Tropical Andes will remain stable, depending on the emission scenario and time horizon. Between 3.3% and 7.6% of the study area is projected to change, mostly towards an increase in vertical structure. For the remaining area (13.1%–17.4%), there is no agreement between model projections. These results challenge the common believe that climate change will lead to an upslope displacement of biome boundaries in mountain regions. Instead, our models project diverging responses, including downslope expansion and large areas projected to remain stable. Lastly, a significant part of the area expected to change is already affected by land use changes, which has important implications for management. This, and the inclusion of a comprehensive uncertainty analysis, will help to inform conservation strategies in the Tropical Andes, and to guide similar assessments for

  14. Breeding crops for improved mineral nutrition under climate change conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilbeam, David J

    2015-06-01

    Improvements in understanding how climate change may influence chemical and physical processes in soils, how this may affect nutrient availability, and how plants may respond to changed availability of nutrients will influence crop breeding programmes. The effects of increased atmospheric CO2 and warmer temperatures, both individually and combined, on soil microbial activity, including mycorrhizas and N-fixing organisms, are evaluated, together with their implications for nutrient availability. Potential changes to plant growth, and the combined effects of soil and plant changes on nutrient uptake, are discussed. The organization of research on the efficient use of macro- and micronutrients by crops under climate change conditions is outlined, including analysis of QTLs for nutrient efficiency. Suggestions for how the information gained can be used in plant breeding programmes are given. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Uncoupling protein-1 is protective of bone mass under mild cold stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Amy D; Lee, Nicola J; Wee, Natalie K Y; Zhang, Lei; Enriquez, Ronaldo F; Khor, Ee Cheng; Nie, Tao; Wu, Donghai; Sainsbury, Amanda; Baldock, Paul A; Herzog, Herbert

    2018-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT), largely controlled by the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), has the ability to dissipate energy in the form of heat through the actions of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1), thereby critically influencing energy expenditure. Besides BAT, the SNS also strongly influences bone, and recent studies have demonstrated a positive correlation between BAT activity and bone mass, albeit the interactions between BAT and bone remain unclear. Here we show that UCP-1 is critical for protecting bone mass in mice under conditions of permanent mild cold stress for this species (22°C). UCP-1 -/- mice housed at 22°C showed significantly lower cancellous bone mass, with lower trabecular number and thickness, a lower bone formation rate and mineralising surface, but unaltered osteoclast number, compared to wild type mice housed at the same temperature. UCP-1 -/- mice also displayed shorter femurs than wild types, with smaller cortical periosteal and endocortical perimeters. Importantly, these altered bone phenotypes were not observed when UCP-1 -/- and wild type mice were housed in thermo-neutral conditions (29°C), indicating a UCP-1 dependent support of bone mass and bone formation at the lower temperature. Furthermore, at 22°C UCP-1 -/- mice showed elevated hypothalamic expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) relative to wild type, which is consistent with the lower bone formation and mass of UCP-1 -/- mice at 22°C caused by the catabolic effects of hypothalamic NPY-induced SNS modulation. The results from this study suggest that during mild cold stress, when BAT-dependent thermogenesis is required, UCP-1 activity exerts a protective effect on bone mass possibly through alterations in central NPY pathways known to regulate SNS activity. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Evaluating the Performance of a Climate-Driven Mortality Model during Heat Waves and Cold Spells in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Lowe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of climate change on human health is a serious concern. In particular, changes in the frequency and intensity of heat waves and cold spells are of high relevance in terms of mortality and morbidity. This demonstrates the urgent need for reliable early-warning systems to help authorities prepare and respond to emergency situations. In this study, we evaluate the performance of a climate-driven mortality model to provide probabilistic predictions of exceeding emergency mortality thresholds for heat wave and cold spell scenarios. Daily mortality data corresponding to 187 NUTS2 regions across 16 countries in Europe were obtained from 1998–2003. Data were aggregated to 54 larger regions in Europe, defined according to similarities in population structure and climate. Location-specific average mortality rates, at given temperature intervals over the time period, were modelled to account for the increased mortality observed during both high and low temperature extremes and differing comfort temperatures between regions. Model parameters were estimated in a Bayesian framework, in order to generate probabilistic simulations of mortality across Europe for time periods of interest. For the heat wave scenario (1–15 August 2003, the model was successfully able to anticipate the occurrence or non-occurrence of mortality rates exceeding the emergency threshold (75th percentile of the mortality distribution for 89% of the 54 regions, given a probability decision threshold of 70%. For the cold spell scenario (1–15 January 2003, mortality events in 69% of the regions were correctly anticipated with a probability decision threshold of 70%. By using a more conservative decision threshold of 30%, this proportion increased to 87%. Overall, the model performed better for the heat wave scenario. By replacing observed temperature data in the model with forecast temperature, from state-of-the-art European forecasting systems, probabilistic mortality

  17. Evaluating the performance of a climate-driven mortality model during heat waves and cold spells in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Rachel; Ballester, Joan; Creswick, James; Robine, Jean-Marie; Herrmann, François R; Rodó, Xavier

    2015-01-23

    The impact of climate change on human health is a serious concern. In particular, changes in the frequency and intensity of heat waves and cold spells are of high relevance in terms of mortality and morbidity. This demonstrates the urgent need for reliable early-warning systems to help authorities prepare and respond to emergency situations. In this study, we evaluate the performance of a climate-driven mortality model to provide probabilistic predictions of exceeding emergency mortality thresholds for heat wave and cold spell scenarios. Daily mortality data corresponding to 187 NUTS2 regions across 16 countries in Europe were obtained from 1998-2003. Data were aggregated to 54 larger regions in Europe, defined according to similarities in population structure and climate. Location-specific average mortality rates, at given temperature intervals over the time period, were modelled to account for the increased mortality observed during both high and low temperature extremes and differing comfort temperatures between regions. Model parameters were estimated in a Bayesian framework, in order to generate probabilistic simulations of mortality across Europe for time periods of interest. For the heat wave scenario (1-15 August 2003), the model was successfully able to anticipate the occurrence or non-occurrence of mortality rates exceeding the emergency threshold (75th percentile of the mortality distribution) for 89% of the 54 regions, given a probability decision threshold of 70%. For the cold spell scenario (1-15 January 2003), mortality events in 69% of the regions were correctly anticipated with a probability decision threshold of 70%. By using a more conservative decision threshold of 30%, this proportion increased to 87%. Overall, the model performed better for the heat wave scenario. By replacing observed temperature data in the model with forecast temperature, from state-of-the-art European forecasting systems, probabilistic mortality predictions could

  18. Evaluating the Performance of a Climate-Driven Mortality Model during Heat Waves and Cold Spells in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Rachel; Ballester, Joan; Creswick, James; Robine, Jean-Marie; Herrmann, François R.; Rodó, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    The impact of climate change on human health is a serious concern. In particular, changes in the frequency and intensity of heat waves and cold spells are of high relevance in terms of mortality and morbidity. This demonstrates the urgent need for reliable early-warning systems to help authorities prepare and respond to emergency situations. In this study, we evaluate the performance of a climate-driven mortality model to provide probabilistic predictions of exceeding emergency mortality thresholds for heat wave and cold spell scenarios. Daily mortality data corresponding to 187 NUTS2 regions across 16 countries in Europe were obtained from 1998–2003. Data were aggregated to 54 larger regions in Europe, defined according to similarities in population structure and climate. Location-specific average mortality rates, at given temperature intervals over the time period, were modelled to account for the increased mortality observed during both high and low temperature extremes and differing comfort temperatures between regions. Model parameters were estimated in a Bayesian framework, in order to generate probabilistic simulations of mortality across Europe for time periods of interest. For the heat wave scenario (1–15 August 2003), the model was successfully able to anticipate the occurrence or non-occurrence of mortality rates exceeding the emergency threshold (75th percentile of the mortality distribution) for 89% of the 54 regions, given a probability decision threshold of 70%. For the cold spell scenario (1–15 January 2003), mortality events in 69% of the regions were correctly anticipated with a probability decision threshold of 70%. By using a more conservative decision threshold of 30%, this proportion increased to 87%. Overall, the model performed better for the heat wave scenario. By replacing observed temperature data in the model with forecast temperature, from state-of-the-art European forecasting systems, probabilistic mortality predictions could

  19. Future aridity under conditions of global climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi Zarch, Mohammad Amin; Sivakumar, Bellie; Malekinezhad, Hossein; Sharma, Ashish

    2017-11-01

    Global climate change is anticipated to cause some major changes in hydroclimatic conditions around the world. As aridity is a reliable indicator of potential available water, assessment of its changes under future climatic conditions is important for proper management of water. This study employs the UNESCO aridity/humidity index, which is a derivative of precipitation (P) and potential evapotranspiration (PET), for assessment of aridity. Historical (1901-2005) simulations and future (2006-2100) projections of 22 global climate models (GCMs) from the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) are studied. The Nested Bias Correction (NBC) approach is used to correct possible biases of precipitation (simulated directly by the GCMs) and PET (estimated by applying FAO56-Penman-Monteith model on simulated parameters of the GCMs). To detect future aridity changes, the areal extents of the aridity zones in the past and future periods as well as through four sub-periods (2006-2025, 2026-2050, 2051-2075, and 2076-2100) of the future are compared. The results indicate that changes in climate will alter the areal extents of aridity zones in the future. In general, from the first sub-period towards the last one, the area covered by hyper-arid, arid, semi-arid, and sub-humid zones will increase (by 7.46%, 7.01%, 5.80%, and 2.78%, respectively), while the area of the humid regions will decrease (by 4.76%), suggesting that there will be less water over the global land area in the future. To understand the cause of these changes, precipitation and PET are also separately assumed to be stationary throughout the four future sub-periods and the resulting aridity changes are then analyzed. The results reveal that the aridity changes are mostly caused by the positive PET trends, even though the slight precipitation increase lessens the magnitude of the changes.

  20. Unregulated gaseous exhaust emission from modern ethanol fuelled light duty vehicles in cold ambient condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clairotte, M.; Adam, T. W.; Zardini, A. A.; Astorga, C.

    2011-12-01

    According to Directive 2003/30/EC and 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and the Council, Member States should promote the use of biofuel. Consequently, all petrol and diesel used for transport purpose available on the market since the 1st of January 2011 must contain a reference value of 5.75% of renewable energy. Ethanol in gasoline could be a promising alternative to comply with this objective, and is actually available in higher proportion in Sweden and Brazil. In addition to a lower dependence on fossil fuel, it is well established that ethanol contributes to reduce air pollutant emissions during combustion (CO, THC), and presents a beneficial effect on the greenhouse gas emissions. However, these statements rely on numerous chassis dynamometer emission studies performed in warm condition (22°C), and very few emission data are available at cold ambient condition encountered in winter, particularly in the north of Europe. In this present study, the effects of ethanol (E75-E85) versus gasoline (E5) have been investigated at cold ambient temperature (-7°C). Experiments have been carried out in a chassis dynamometer at the Vehicle Emission Laboratory (VELA) of the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC - Ispra, Italy). Emissions of modern passenger cars complying with the latest European standard (Euro4 and Euro5a) were tracked over the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Unregulated gaseous compounds like greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide), and air quality related compounds (ammonia, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde) were monitored by an online Fourier Transformed Infra-Red spectrometer with 1 Hz acquisition frequency. In addition, a number of ozone precursors (carbonyls and volatile organic hydrocarbons) were collected in order to assess the ozone formation potential (OFP) of the exhaust. Results showed higher unregulated emissions at -7°C, regardless of the ethanol content in the fuel blend. Most of the emissions occurred during

  1. A Trnsys simulation of a solar-driven ejector air conditioning system with an integrated PCM cold storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allouche, Yosr; Varga, Szabolcs; Bouden, Chiheb; Oliveira, Armando

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, the development of a TRNSYS model, for the simulation of a solar driven ejector cooling system with an integrated PCM cold storage is presented. The simulations were carried out with the aim of satisfying the cooling needs of a 140 m3 space during the summer season in Tunis, Tunisia. The system is composed of three main subsystems, which include: a solar loop, an ejector cycle and a PCM cold storage tank. The latter is connected to the air-conditioned space. The influence of applying cold storage on the system performance was investigated. It was found that the system COP increased compared to a system without cold storage. An optimal storage volume of 1000 l was identified resulting in the highest cooling COP and highest indoor comfort (95% of the time with a room temperature below 26°C). The maximum COP and solar thermal ratio (STR) were 0.193 and 0.097, respectively.

  2. Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) influences biofilm formation and motility in the novel Antarctic species Pseudomonas extremaustralis under cold conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribelli, Paula M; López, Nancy I

    2011-09-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are highly reduced bacterial storage compounds that increase fitness in changing environments. It has previously shown that polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) accumulation is essential during the growth under cold conditions. In this work, the relationship between PHB accumulation and biofilm development at low temperature was investigated. P. extremaustralis, an Antarctic strain able to accumulate PHB, and its phaC mutant, impaired in the synthesis of this polymer, were used to analyze microaerobic growth, biofilm development, EPS content and motility. PHB accumulation increased motility and survival of planktonic cells in the biofilms developed by P. extremaustralis under cold conditions. Microaerobic conditions rescued the cold growth defect of the mutant strain. The PHB accumulation capability could constitute an adaptative advantage for the colonization of new ecological niches in stressful environments.

  3. THE DYNAMICS OF THE CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF THE TEREK-KUMA LOWLAND DURING 120 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Gasanov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Aim. This article is devoted to the analysis of climatic conditions of the territory of the Terek-Kuma Lowland. Data of the last 60 years (1951–2010 are compared with conditions of 1881–1935 (air temperature and 1898–1948 (precipitation and relative humidity. Determination of tendencies in the age-old range, and for the last 60 years is given.Location. Terek-Kuma Lowland, Eastern Ciscaucasia, Russia.Methods. The following environmental parameters are characterized: the amount of monthly rainfall, average temperatures and humidity, evaporation, moisture ratio and the lack of moisture. Statistical characteristics (mean, variance, coefficient of variation of annual precipitation, mean annual temperature and humidity, evaporation, lack of moisture are calculated. Separately, the same parameters were calculated for the warm (April – October and cold (November – March seasons. Significance of differences between them was assessed by the standard deviation (α and the coefficient of variation (Cv.Results. Our analysis of the moisture conditions of the Terek-Kuma Lowland in the last 60 years has shown significant changes in key climate indicators in comparison with the corresponding (for the duration of observations rates in preceding years. The average annual temperature for the period , including for the warm season (April – October, increased by 0.6 °C, annual precipitation decreased respectively by 29.6 and 35.9 mm. Coefficient of humidity (ratio of annual precipitation to evaporation in the ambient range from 0.11 in 1898–1948 increased to 0.14 in 1951–2010.Conclusions. Aridity of the climate did not increase on this territory. In 1951–2010 coefficient of humidity increased to 0.14, and fits into the range for dry (arid regions, while in 1898–1948 coefficient of humidity was 0.11 and it was an important characteristic of extra arid (very dry areas.

  4. Challenges of using air conditioning in an increasingly hot climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren-Kownacki, Karin; Hornyanszky, Elisabeth Dalholm; Chu, Tuan Anh; Olsson, Johanna Alkan; Becker, Per

    2017-12-01

    At present, air conditioning (AC) is the most effective means for the cooling of indoor space. However, its increased global use is problematic for various reasons. This paper explores the challenges linked to increased AC use and discusses more sustainable alternatives. A literature review was conducted applying a transdisciplinary approach. It was further complemented by examples from cities in hot climates. To analyse the findings, an analytical framework was developed which considers four societal levels—individual, community, city, and national. The main challenges identified from the literature review are as follows: environmental, organisational, socio-economical, biophysical and behavioural. The paper also identifies several measures that could be taken to reduce the fast growth of AC use. However, due to the complex nature of the problem, there is no single solution to provide sustainable cooling. Alternative solutions were categorised in three broad categories: climate-sensitive urban planning and building design, alternative cooling technologies, and climate-sensitive attitudes and behaviour. The main findings concern the problems arising from leaving the responsibility to come up with cooling solutions entirely to the individual, and how different societal levels can work towards more sustainable cooling options. It is concluded that there is a need for a more holistic view both when it comes to combining various solutions as well as involving various levels in society.

  5. Exposure to hot and cold environmental conditions does not affect the decision making ability of soccer referees following an intermittent sprint protocol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee eTaylor

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Soccer referees enforce the laws of the game and the decisions they make can directly affect match results. Fixtures within European competitions take place in climatic conditions that are often challenging (e.g. Moscow ~ -5oC, Madrid ~30oC. Effects of these temperatures on player performance are well documented; however, little is known how this environmental stress may impair cognitive performance of soccer referees and if so, whether exercise exasperates this. The present study aims to investigate the effect of cold (COLD; 5oC, 40% relative humidity (RH, hot (HOT; 30oC, 40% RH and temperate (CONT; 18oC, 40% RH conditions on decision making during soccer specific exercise. On separate occasions within each condition, thirteen physically active males; either semi-professional referees or semi-professional soccer players completed three 90 min intermittent treadmill protocols that simulated match play, interspersed with 4 computer delivered cognitive tests to measure vigilance and dual task capacity. Core and skin temperature, heart rate, rating of perceived exertion and thermal sensation were recorded throughout the protocol. There was no significant difference between conditions for decision making (p > 0.05 despite significant differences in measured physiological variables (skin temperature = HOT 34.5 ± 5.1°C; CONT 31.2 ± 0.1°C and COLD 26.7 ± 0.5°C; p < 0.05. It is hypothesised that the lack of difference observed in decision making ability between conditions was due to the exercise protocol used, as it may not have elicited an appropriate and valid soccer specific internal load to alter cognitive functioning.

  6. Biocrust spectral response as affected by changing climatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Caballero, Emilio; Guirado, Emilio; Escribano, Paula; Reyes, Andres; Weber, Bettina

    2017-04-01

    Drylands are characterized by scarce vegetation coverage and low rates of biological activity, both constrained by water scarcity. Under these conditions, biocrusts form key players of ecosystem functioning. They comprise complex poikilohydric communities of cyanobacteria, algae, lichens and bryophytes together with heterotrophic bacteria, archaea and fungi, which cover the uppermost soil layer. Biocrusts can cope with prolonged phases of drought, being rapidly re-activated when water becomes available again. Upon reactivation, biocrusts almost immediately turn green, fixing atmospheric carbon and nitrogen and increasing ecosystem productivity. However, due to their inconspicuous growth they have only rarely been analysed and spatially and temporally continuous information on their response to water pulses is missing. These data are particularly important under changing climatic conditions predicting an increase in aridity and variations in precipitation patterns within most of the dryland regions. In the present study, we used multi-temporal series of NDVI obtained from LANDSAT images to analyze biocrust and vegetation response to water pulses within the South African Succulent Karoo and we predicted their future response under different climate change scenarios. The results showed that biocrust and vegetation greenness are controlled by aridity, solar radiation and soil water content, showing similar annual patterns, with minimum values during dry periods that increased within the rainy season and decreased again after the onset of drought. However, biocrusts responded faster to water availability and turned green almost immediately after small rains, producing a small NDVI peak only few days after rainfall, whereas more time was needed for vegetation to grow new green tissue. However, once the photosynthetic tissue of vegetation was restored, it caused the highest increase of NDVI values after the rain. Predicted changes in precipitation patterns and aridity

  7. Pilot Scale Testing of Adsorbent Amended Filters under High Hydraulic Loads for Highway Runoff in Cold Climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Monrabal-Martinez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an estimation of the service life of three filters composed of sand and three alternative adsorbents for stormwater treatment according to Norwegian water quality standards for receiving surface waters. The study conducted pilot scale column tests on three adsorbent amended filters for treatment of highway runoff in cold climates under high hydraulic loads. The objectives were to evaluate the effect of high hydraulic loads and the application of deicing salts on the performance of these filters. From previous theoretical and laboratory analysis granulated activated charcoal, pine bark, and granulated olivine were chosen as alternative adsorbent materials for the present test. Adsorption performance of the filters was evaluated vis-à-vis four commonly found hazardous metals (Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn in stormwater. The results showed that the filters were able to pass water at high inflow rates while achieving high removal. Among the filters, the filters amended with olivine or pine bark provided the best performance both in short and long-term tests. The addition of NaCl (1 g/L did not show any adverse impact on the desorption of already adsorbed metals, except for Ni removal by the charcoal amended filter, which was negatively impacted by the salt addition. The service life of the filters was found to be limited by zinc and copper, due to high concentrations observed in local urban runoff, combined with moderate affinity with the adsorbents. It was concluded that both the olivine and the pine bark amended filter should be tested in full-scale conditions.

  8. Multi-stage hybrid subsurface flow constructed wetlands for treating piggery and dairy wastewater in cold climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaomeng; Inoue, Takashi; Kato, Kunihiko; Izumoto, Hayato; Harada, June; Wu, Da; Sakuragi, Hiroaki; Ietsugu, Hidehiro; Sugawara, Yasuhide

    2017-01-01

    This study followed three field-scale hybrid subsurface flow constructed wetland (CW) systems constructed in Hokkaido, northern Japan: piggery O (2009), dairy G (2011), and dairy S (2006). Treatment performance was monitored from the outset of operation for each CW. The ranges of overall purification efficiency for these systems were 70-86%, 40-85%, 71-90%, 91-96%, 94-98%, 84-97%, and 70-97% for total N (TN), NH4-N, total P, chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand, suspended solid, and total Coliform, respectively. The hybrid system's removal rates were highest when influent loads were high. COD removal rates were 46.4 ± 49.2, 94.1 ± 36.6, and 25.1 ± 15.5 g COD m-2 d-1 in piggery O, dairy G, and dairy S, with average influent loads of 50.5 ± 51.5, 98.9 ± 37.1, and 26.9 ± 16.0 g COD m-2 d-1, respectively. The systems had overall COD removal efficiencies of around 90%. TN removal efficiencies were 62 ± 19%, 82 ± 9%, and 82 ± 15% in piggery O, dairy G, and dairy S, respectively. NH4-N removal efficiency was adversely affected by the COD/TN ratio. Results from this study prove that these treatment systems have sustained and positive pollutant removal efficiencies, which were achieved even under extremely cold climate conditions and many years after initial construction.

  9. Climate Control Load Reduction Strategies for Electric Drive Vehicles in Cold Weather: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffers, Matthew; Chaney, Lawrence; Rugh, John

    2016-03-31

    When operated, the climate control system is the largest auxiliary load on a vehicle. This load has significant impact on fuel economy for conventional and hybrid vehicles, and it drastically reduces the driving range of all electric vehicles (EVs). Heating is even more detrimental to EV range than cooling because no engine waste heat is available. Reducing the thermal loads on the heating, ventilating, and air conditioning system will extend driving range and increase the market penetration of EVs. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory have evaluated strategies for vehicle climate control load reduction with special attention toward grid connected electric vehicles. Outdoor vehicle thermal testing and computational modeling were used to assess potential strategies for improved thermal management and to evaluate the effectiveness of thermal load reduction technologies. A human physiology model was also used to evaluate the impact on occupant thermal comfort. Experimental evaluations of zonal heating strategies demonstrated a 5.5% to 28.5% reduction in cabin heating energy over a 20-minute warm-up. Vehicle simulations over various drive cycles show a 6.9% to 18.7% improvement in EV range over baseline heating using the most promising zonal heating strategy investigated. A national-level analysis was conducted to determine the overall national impact. If all vehicles used the best zonal strategy, the range would be improved by 7.1% over the baseline heating range. This is a 33% reduction in the range penalty for heating.

  10. Projection of climatic suitability for Aedes albopictus Skuse (Culicidae) in Europe under climate change conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Dominik; Thomas, Stephanie Margarete; Niemitz, Franziska; Reineking, Björn; Beierkuhnlein, Carl

    2011-07-01

    During the last decades the disease vector Aedes albopictus ( Ae. albopictus) has rapidly spread around the globe. The spread of this species raises serious public health concerns. Here, we model the present distribution and the future climatic suitability of Europe for this vector in the face of climate change. In order to achieve the most realistic current prediction and future projection, we compare the performance of four different modelling approaches, differentiated by the selection of climate variables (based on expert knowledge vs. statistical criteria) and by the geographical range of presence records (native range vs. global range). First, models of the native and global range were built with MaxEnt and were either based on (1) statistically selected climatic input variables or (2) input variables selected with expert knowledge from the literature. Native models show high model performance (AUC: 0.91-0.94) for the native range, but do not predict the European distribution well (AUC: 0.70-0.72). Models based on the global distribution of the species, however, were able to identify all regions where Ae. albopictus is currently established, including Europe (AUC: 0.89-0.91). In a second step, the modelled bioclimatic envelope of the global range was projected to future climatic conditions in Europe using two emission scenarios implemented in the regional climate model COSMO-CLM for three time periods 2011-2040, 2041-2070, and 2071-2100. For both global-driven models, the results indicate that climatically suitable areas for the establishment of Ae. albopictus will increase in western and central Europe already in 2011-2040 and with a temporal delay in eastern Europe. On the other hand, a decline in climatically suitable areas in southern Europe is pronounced in the Expert knowledge based model. Our projections appear unaffected by non-analogue climate, as this is not detected by Multivariate Environmental Similarity Surface analysis. The generated risk maps

  11. Hydrological drought types in cold climates: quantitative analysis of causing factors and qualitative survey of impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Van Loon

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available For drought management and prediction, knowledge of causing factors and socio-economic impacts of hydrological droughts is crucial. Propagation of meteorological conditions in the hydrological cycle results in different hydrological drought types that require separate analysis. In addition to the existing hydrological drought typology, we here define two new drought types related to snow and ice. A snowmelt drought is a deficiency in the snowmelt discharge peak in spring in snow-influenced basins and a glaciermelt drought is a deficiency in the glaciermelt discharge peak in summer in glacierised basins. In 21 catchments in Austria and Norway we studied the meteorological conditions in the seasons preceding and at the time of snowmelt and glaciermelt drought events. Snowmelt droughts in Norway were mainly controlled by below-average winter precipitation, while in Austria both temperature and precipitation played a role. For glaciermelt droughts, the effect of below-average summer air temperature was dominant, both in Austria and Norway. Subsequently, we investigated the impacts of temperature-related drought types (i.e. snowmelt and glaciermelt drought, but also cold and warm snow season drought and rain-to-snow-season drought. In historical archives and drought databases for the US and Europe many impacts were found that can be attributed to these temperature-related hydrological drought types, mainly in the agriculture and electricity production (hydropower sectors. However, drawing conclusions on the frequency of occurrence of different drought types from reported impacts is difficult, mainly because of reporting biases and the inevitably limited spatial and temporal scales of the information. Finally, this study shows that complete integration of quantitative analysis of causing factors and qualitative analysis of impacts of temperature-related droughts is not yet possible. Analysis of selected events, however, points out that it can be a

  12. Analysis of air-to-water heat pump in cold climate: comparison between experiment and simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolis Januševičius

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Heat pump systems are promising technologies for current and future buildings and this research presents the performance of air source heat pump (ASHP system. The system was monitored, analysed and simulated using TRNSYS software. The experimental data were used to calibrate the simulation model of ASHP. The specific climate conditions are evaluated in the model. It was noticed for the heating mode that the coefficient of performance (COP varied from 1.98 to 3.05 as the outdoor temperature changed from –7.0 ºC to +5.0 ºC, respectively. TRNSYS simulations were also performed to predict seasonal performance factor of the ASHP for Vilnius city. It was identified that seasonal performance prediction could be approximately 15% lower if frost formation effects are not included to air-water heat pump simulation model.

  13. Resistance of Two Mediterranean Cold-Water Coral Species to Low-pH Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juancho Movilla

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Deep-water ecosystems are characterized by relatively low carbonate concentration values and, due to ocean acidification (OA, these habitats might be among the first to be exposed to undersaturated conditions in the forthcoming years. However, until now, very few studies have been conducted to test how cold-water coral (CWC species react to such changes in the seawater chemistry. The present work aims to investigate the mid-term effect of decreased pH on calcification of the two branching CWC species most widely distributed in the Mediterranean, Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata. No significant effects were observed in the skeletal growth rate, microdensity and porosity of both species after 6 months of exposure. However, while the calcification rate of M. oculata was similar for all colony fragments, a heterogeneous skeletal growth pattern was observed in L. pertusa, the younger nubbins showing higher growth rates than the older ones. A higher energy demand is expected in these young, fast-growing fragments and, therefore, a reduction in calcification might be noticed earlier during long-term exposure to acidified conditions.

  14. Integrated luminous and thermal design : a cold climate approach to zero-energy carbon-neutral design education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzowski, M.; Abraham, L. [Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis, MN (United States). School of Architecture

    2009-07-01

    In order to address environmental concerns, the School of Architecture at the University of Minnesota recently eliminated all of the required environmental technology courses in the professional graduate architecture program and replaced them with a new studio/technology hybrid course that focuses on the integration of luminous and thermal design for zero energy and carbon-neutral architecture. The purpose was to ask students to consider how architectural design can respond to global warming and climate change and to explore the role of solar design in shaping the next generation of sustainable architecture. In particular, the new course focused on a cold-climate approach to zero-energy carbon-neutral design education. It emphasized the role of daylighting, passive cooling, natural ventilation in significantly reducing or eliminating fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Thermal and bioclimatic considerations for cold climate architecture were also investigated. This paper described the methods used in the design studio and how they were integrated into the ecological and environmental content of zero-energy and carbon-neutral design processes. The design studio curriculum content, methods, outcomes, and lessons learned were discussed, as well as the design tools and assessment and analytical methods. It was concluded that the integrated ecological design model succeeded in helping students to meaningfully integrate zero-energy and carbon-neutral design thinking into their personal design and decision-making processes. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Analysis and mapping of present and future drought conditions over Greek areas with different climate conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparrizos, Spyridon; Maris, Fotios; Weiler, Markus; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    Estimation of drought in a certain temporal and spatial scale is crucial in climate change studies. The current study targets on three agricultural areas widespread in Greece, Ardas River Basin in Northeastern Greece, Sperchios River Basin in Central Greece, and Geropotamos River Basin in Crete Island in South Greece that are characterized by diverse climates as they are located in various regions. The objective is to assess the spatiotemporal variation of drought conditions prevailing in these areas. The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) was used to identify and assess the present and future drought conditions. Future simulated data were derived from a number of Regional Climatic Models (RCMs) from the ENSEMBLES European Project. The analysis was performed for the future periods of 2021-2050 and 2071-2100, implementing A1B and B1 scenarios. The spatial analysis of the drought conditions was performed using a combined downscaling technique and the Ordinary Kriging. The Mann-Kendall test was implemented for trend investigation. During both periods and scenarios, drought conditions will tend to be more severe in the upcoming years. The decrease of the SPI values in the Sperchios River Basin is expected to be the strongest, as it is the only study area that will show a negative balance (in SPI values), regarding the drought conditions. For the Ardas and the Geropotamos River Basins, a great increase of the drought conditions will occur during the 2021-2050 period, while for 2071-2100 period, the decrease will continue but it will be tempered. Nevertheless, the situation in all study areas according to the SPI classification is characterized as "Near-normal", in terms of drought conditions.

  16. Assessment of cold-climate environmental research priorities. Appendixes A, B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    States, J.B.

    1983-04-01

    These appendices present research plans in the areas of air pollution, water contamination/consumption, habitat modification and waste management that are relevant to the EPA's cold regions program. (ACR)

  17. People who live in a cold climate: thermal adaptation differences based on availability of heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, J; Cao, G; Cui, W; Ouyang, Q; Zhu, Y

    2013-08-01

    Are there differences in thermal adaptation to cold indoor environments between people who are used to living in heating and non-heating regions in China? To answer this question, we measured thermal perceptions and physiological responses of young men from Beijing (where there are indoor space heating facilities in winter) and Shanghai (where there are not indoor space heating facilities in winter) during exposures to cold. Subjects were exposed to 12°C, 14°C, 16°C, 18°C, 20°C for 1 h. Subjects from Beijing complained of greater cold discomfort and demonstrated poorer physiological acclimatization to cold indoor environments than those from Shanghai. These findings indicate that people's chronic indoor thermal experience might be an important determinant of thermal adaptation. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Arctic sea ice reduction and European cold winters in CMIP5 climate change experiments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yang, Shuting; Christensen, Jens H

    2012-01-01

    European winter climate and its possible relationship with the Arctic sea ice reduction in the recent past and future as simulated by the models of the Climate Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5...

  19. Sales down due to particularly mild climatic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Paris, 27 July 2007 - For the six months to 30 June 2007, Gaz de France's consolidated sales amounted to euro 13,778 million, down 11 per cent compared to the same period in 2006. This performance continues the trend seen over the first quarter of 2007 and in particular reflects the continuation into the second quarter of the climatic factors that affected the start of the year: an exceptionally warm 2006/2007 winter, followed by a spring season with particularly high temperatures. The average temperature of the first half of 2007 corresponds to a heat risk of less than one per cent, meaning that the probability of such a temperature taking place is less than one per cent. Over the first half of the year, volumes distributed in France were down by 25 TWh compared to a comparable period with average weather conditions, whereas in 2006 they were 15 TWh above average. The impact of the weather had similar effects outside of France. Under average weather conditions, the downturn in Group sales was limited to only 0.8 per cent mainly due to market conditions made difficult by the climate, leading to a lower level of gas production and arbitrage activities. Over the first six months of 2007, the Group sought to: - Continue to strengthen its international presence, currently with euro 5,602 million in sales outside of France. The percentage of sales generated outside of France represented 41 per cent of the Group total at the end of June 2007 and increased by 4 percentage points between the first half of 2006 and the first half of 2007. - Prepare for the deregulation of the markets on 1 July 2007 and a new commercial policy for retail customers that has been built around multi-energy and multi-service market offerings. - Create a new subsidiary for the distribution, a process which will be effective at the end of the year as announced. In spite of this unfavourable context, the Group maintains the financial objective for 2007 presented with the 2006 accounts: &apos

  20. Smart city planning under the climate change condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Dexiang; Zhao, Yue; Zhou, Xi

    2017-08-01

    With the aggravation of climate change, extreme weather events occur continuously, cities are not resilient to climate change, and we need to change the concept of urban planning, centering on climate research and its research achievements, combining with the modern intelligent technology and formulating a smart city that resilience to the climate change, realizing the sustainable development of human, city, environment and society.

  1. Decision-support system for urban air pollution under future climate conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steen Solvang; Brandt, Jørgen; Hvidberg, Martin

    2011-01-01

    emissions from vegetation, changes in the chemistry of the atmosphere and changes in deposition of particulate air pollution. This paper describes a conceptual outline of a decision-support system for assessment of the impacts of climate change on urban climate and air quality, and for assessment......Climate change is expected to influence urban living conditions and challenge the ability of cities to adapt to and mitigate climate change. Urban climates will be faced with elevated temperatures and future climate conditions are expected to cause higher ozone concentrations, increased biogenic...... of integrated climate change and air pollution adaptation and mitigation strategies....

  2. Building America Best Practices Series Volume 12: Builders Challenge Guide to 40% Whole-House Energy Savings in the Cold and Very Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechler, Michael C.; Gilbride, Theresa L.; Hefty, Marye G.; Cole, Pamala C.; Love, Pat M.

    2011-02-01

    This best practices guide is the twelfth in a series of guides for builders produced by PNNL for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America program. This guide book is a resource to help builders design and construct homes that are among the most energy-efficient available, while addressing issues such as building durability, indoor air quality, and occupant health, safety, and comfort. With the measures described in this guide, builders in the cold and very cold climates can build homes that have whole-house energy savings of 40% over the Building America benchmark with no added overall costs for consumers. The best practices described in this document are based on the results of research and demonstration projects conducted by Building America’s research teams. Building America brings together the nation’s leading building scientists with over 300 production builders to develop, test, and apply innovative, energy-efficient construction practices. Building America builders have found they can build homes that meet these aggressive energy-efficiency goals at no net increased costs to the homeowners. Currently, Building America homes achieve energy savings of 40% greater than the Building America benchmark home (a home built to mid-1990s building practices roughly equivalent to the 1993 Model Energy Code). The recommendations in this document meet or exceed the requirements of the 2009 IECC and 2009 IRC and thos erequirements are highlighted in the text. This document will be distributed via the DOE Building America website: www.buildingamerica.gov.

  3. Anthocyanin Concentration of “Assaria” Pomegranate Fruits During Different Cold Storage Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graça Miguel

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of anthocyanins in fruits of “Assaria” pomegranate, a sweet Portuguese cultivar typically grown in Algarve (south Portugal, was monitored during storage under different conditions. The fruits were exposed to cold storage (5∘C after the following treatments: spraying with wax; spraying with 1.5% CaCl2; spraying with wax and 1.5% CaCl2; covering boxes with 25 μc thickness low-density polyethylene film. Untreated fruits were used as a control. The anthocyanin levels were quantified by either comparison with an external standard of cyanidin 3-rutinoside (based on the peak area or individual calculation from the peak areas based on standard curves of each anthocyanin type. The storage time as well as the fruit treatment prior to storage influenced total anthocyanin content. The highest levels were observed at the end of the first month of storage, except for the fruits treated with CaCl2, where the maximal values were achieved at the end of the second month. The anthocyanin quantification method influenced the final result. When total anthocyanin was calculated as a sum of individual pigments quantified based on standard curves of each anthocyanin type, lower values were obtained.

  4. A Numerical Study on Contact Condition and Wear of Roller in Cold Rolling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qichao Jin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available An accurate determination of the contact pressure and local sliding in a cold rolling process is an essential step towards the prediction of the roller’s life due to wear damage. This investigation utilized finite element analysis to quantify the local contact pressure and local sliding over the rolling bite in a plate cold rolling process. It was the first study to quantify the local sliding distance in a rolling process using the Finite Element Analysis (FEA. The numerical results indicate that the local contact pressure over the rolling bite demonstrates a hill profile, and the peak coincides with the neutral plane. The local sliding distance over the rolling bite demonstrates a double-peak profile with the two peaks appearing at the forward slip and backward slip zones respectively. The amplitude of sliding distance in the backward slip zone is larger than that in the forward slip zone. A stick zone was confirmed between the forward slip and backward slip zones. According to a parametric study, the local contact pressure and sliding distance decrease when the thickness reduction is reduced or the diameter of the roller is decreased. The location of the neutral plane always presents at the rolling exit side of the rolling bite’s center. The size of the stick zone enlarges and the sizes of slip zones shrink significantly when the friction coefficient is increased. Finally, a novel concept of wear intensity was defined to examine the wear of the roller based on the local contact pressure and local sliding distance. The results show that a two-peak wear response exists in the backward and forward slip zones. The magnitude of the wear in the backward slip zone is larger than that in the forward slip zone. For a given roller and blank material combination, using a smaller thickness reduction, a smaller diameter roller and a higher friction coefficient condition can reduce the wear of the roller for a single rolling cycle. The current paper

  5. Risk Assessment of Oil Pipeline Accidents in Special Climatic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vtorushina, A. N.; Anishchenko, Y. V.; Nikonova, E. D.

    2017-05-01

    The present study identifies the main accidents’ factors and causes for oil pipeline located in Siberia and operated in special climatic conditions. Various types of pipeline accident scenarios were modeled. It is showed that the most dangerous scenarios are oil spills fire and oil vapor explosion due to the loss of piping integrity (rupture) of the pipeline’s section, laying on marshlands and oil spill on the water surface due to the loss of piping integrity (puncture). The most probable scenario is oil spills fire due to the loss of piping integrity (puncture) of the pipeline’s section, laying on dry lands and marshlands. To estimate the scenarios «event tree analysis» is used. Also such risk indexes as individual, societal, public and potential risks were determined.

  6. Variation in Biological Soil Crust Bacterial Abundance and Diversity as a Function of Climate in Cold Steppe Ecosystems in the Intermountain West, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blay, Erika S; Schwabedissen, Stacy G; Magnuson, Timothy S; Aho, Ken A; Sheridan, Peter P; Lohse, Kathleen A

    2017-10-01

    Biological soil crust (biocrust) is a composite of mosses, lichens, and bacteria that performs many important soil system functions, including increasing soil stability, protecting against wind erosion, reducing nutrient loss, and mediating carbon and nitrogen fixation cycles. These cold desert and steppe ecosystems are expected to experience directional changes in both climate and disturbance. These include increased temperatures, precipitation phase changes, and increased disturbance from anthropogenic land use. In this study, we assessed how climate and grazing disturbance may affect the abundance and diversity of bacteria in biocrusts in cold steppe ecosystems located in southwestern Idaho, USA. To our knowledge, our study is the first to document how biocrust bacterial composition and diversity change along a cold steppe climatic gradient. Analyses based on 16S small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences identified the phylum Actinobacteria as the major bacterial component within study site biocrusts (relative abundance = 36-51%). The abundance of the phyla Actinobacteria and Firmicutes was higher at elevations experiencing cooler, wetter climates, while the abundance of Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Chloroflexi decreased. The abundance of the phyla Cyanobacteria and Proteobacteria showed no significant evidence of decline in grazed areas. Taken together, results from this study indicate that bacterial communities from rolling biocrusts found in cold steppe ecosystems are affected by climate regime and differ substantially from other cold desert ecosystems, resulting in potential differences in nutrient cycling and ecosystem dynamics.

  7. The yield of eggplant depending on climate conditions and mulching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamczewska-Sowińska Katarzyna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The field production of eggplant in moderate climates is difficult as it depends heavily on thermal conditions. Eggplant is a species that is sensitive to low temperatures, and temperatures below 16°C constrain the growth of young plants. Other disadvantageous factors include: temperatures that are too high, water shortage and excessive soil humidity. The growth conditions for eggplant can be improved by using mulches. The purpose of the experiment was the assessment of eggplant cropping while using synthetic mulches of polyethylene foil and polypropylene textile. The research took five years (2008-2012 and on the basis of the obtained results it was possible to determine the influence of weather conditions on the yielding of this species. It was proven that eggplant cropping significantly depended on the air temperature and the amount of rainfall during the vegetation period. The highest yield was observed when the average air temperature was high and at the same time rainfall was evenly distributed throughout the vegetation season. It also turned out that the agro-technical procedure which significantly increased eggplant fruit cropping was mulching the soil with polyethylene black foil, or transparent foil, previously having applied a herbicide.

  8. Assessing Foundation Insulation Strategies for the 2012 International Energy Conservation Code in Cold Climate New Home Construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VonThoma, E.; Ojczyk, C.; Mosiman, G.

    2013-04-01

    While the International Energy Conservation Code 2012 (IECC 2012) has been adopted at a national level, only two cold climate states have adopted it as their new home energy code. Understanding the resistance to adoption is important in assisting more states accept the code and engage deep energy strategies nationwide. This three-part assessment by the NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership was focused on foundation insulation R-values for cold climates and the design, construction, and performance implications. In Part 1 a literature review and attendance at stakeholder meetings held in Minnesota were used to assess general stakeholder interest and concerns regarding proposed code changes. Part 2 includes drawings of robust foundation insulation systems that were presented at one Minnesota stakeholder meeting to address critical issues and concerns for adopting best practice strategies. In Part 3 a sampling of builders participated in a telephone interview to gain baseline knowledge on insulation systems used to meet the current energy code and how the same builders propose to meet the new proposed code.

  9. Projecting climate change, drought conditions and crop productivity in Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sen, B.; Topcu, S.; Türkes, M.; Warner, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the evaluation of regional climate model simulation for Turkey for the 21st century. A regional climate model, ICTP-RegCM3, with 20 km horizontal resolution, is used to downscale the reference and future climate scenario (IPCC-A2) simulations. Characteristics of droughts as

  10. Climate Change and Crop Exposure to Adverse Weather: Changes to Frost Risk and Grapevine Flowering Conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mosedale, Jonathan R; Wilson, Robert J; Maclean, Ilya M D

    2015-01-01

    .... Yet the effects of climate change on the risk of adverse weather conditions or events at key stages of crop development are not always captured by aggregated measures of seasonal or yearly climates...

  11. Southwest Pacific modulation of abrupt climate change during the Antarctic Cold Reversal - Younger Dryas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carter, L.; Manighetti, B.; Ganssen, G.M.

    2008-01-01

    The giant piston core, MD97-2121 (2314-m water depth), collected north of the Subtropical Front, New Zealand, provides a well-dated, stable isotopic record of subtropical and sub-Antarctic influences on the surface and deep ocean over the last deglaciation, especially during the Antarctic Cold

  12. Cold Urticaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... management of physical urticaria. Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. 2013;111:235. Nov. 21, 2014 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/cold-urticaria/basics/definition/CON-20034524 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions ...

  13. Slow climate velocities of mountain streams portend their role as refugia for cold-water biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Isaak; Michael K. Young; Charlie Luce; Steven W. Hostetler; Seth J. Wenger; Erin E. Peterson; Jay M. Ver Hoef; Matthew C. Groce; Dona L. Horan; David E. Nagel

    2016-01-01

    The imminent demise of montane species is a recurrent theme in the climate change literature, particularly for aquatic species that are constrained to networks and elevational rather than latitudinal retreat as temperatures increase. Predictions of widespread species losses, however, have yet to be fulfilled despite decades of climate change, suggesting that trends are...

  14. Winter climate change, plant traits and nutrient and carbon cycling in cold biomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, J.H.C.; Makoto, K.

    2014-01-01

    It is essential that scientists be able to predict how strong climate warming, including profound changes to winter climate, will affect the ecosystem services of alpine, arctic and boreal areas, and how these services are driven by vegetation-soil feedbacks. One fruitful avenue for studying such

  15. Tolerance to multiple climate stressors: a case study of Douglas-fir drought and cold hardiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheel Bansal; Connie Harrington; Brad St. Clair

    2016-01-01

    1. Drought and freeze events are two of the most common forms of climate extremes which result in tree damage or death, and the frequency and intensity of both stressors may increase with climate change. Few studies have examined natural covariation in stress tolerance traits to cope with multiple stressors among wild plant populations. 2. We assessed the...

  16. Impact of in-consistency between the climate model and its initial conditions on climate prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xueyuan; Köhl, Armin; Stammer, Detlef; Masuda, Shuhei; Ishikawa, Yoichi; Mochizuki, Takashi

    2017-08-01

    We investigated the influence of dynamical in-consistency of initial conditions on the predictive skill of decadal climate predictions. The investigation builds on the fully coupled global model "Coupled GCM for Earth Simulator" (CFES). In two separate experiments, the ocean component of the coupled model is full-field initialized with two different initial fields from either the same coupled model CFES or the GECCO2 Ocean Synthesis while the atmosphere is initialized from CFES in both cases. Differences between both experiments show that higher SST forecast skill is obtained when initializing with coupled data assimilation initial conditions (CIH) instead of those from GECCO2 (GIH), with the most significant difference in skill obtained over the tropical Pacific at lead year one. High predictive skill of SST over the tropical Pacific seen in CIH reflects the good reproduction of El Niño events at lead year one. In contrast, GIH produces additional erroneous El Niño events. The tropical Pacific skill differences between both runs can be rationalized in terms of the zonal momentum balance between the wind stress and pressure gradient force, which characterizes the upper equatorial Pacific. In GIH, the differences between the oceanic and atmospheric state at initial time leads to imbalance between the zonal wind stress and pressure gradient force over the equatorial Pacific, which leads to the additional pseudo El Niño events and explains reduced predictive skill. The balance can be reestablished if anomaly initialization strategy is applied with GECCO2 initial conditions and improved predictive skill in the tropical Pacific is observed at lead year one. However, initializing the coupled model with self-consistent initial conditions leads to the highest skill of climate prediction in the tropical Pacific by preserving the momentum balance between zonal wind stress and pressure gradient force along the equatorial Pacific.

  17. Survival of Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) nymphs under cold conditions is negatively influenced by frequent temperature variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Coralie; Gern, Lise

    2013-09-01

    In this study, we tested the survival of Ixodes ricinus under cold conditions in the laboratory. We investigated how the frequency of temperature variations (from -5 °C or -10 °C to 13 °C), and infection with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) influenced survival of questing nymphs collected in spring and autumn 2011. In experiment 1, survival of 1760 nymphs was tested at -10 °C over a short period of time to simulate very cold winter conditions. In experiment 2, survival of 1600 nymphs was tested under cold condition (-5 °C) over a long period of time to simulate common winter conditions. Ticks used for survival tests at -5 °C were screened for Borrelia by quantitative PCR, and genospecies identification was achieved by reverse line blotting. Tick age and frequency of temperature variations had a highly significant effect on I. ricinus survival while Borrelia infection was marginally significant. Hence, survival rate was higher in younger (autumn) than older (spring) nymphs and in nymphs exposed to low rather than high-frequency temperature variations. Borrelia-infected ticks tended to survive better than their uninfected counterparts. These findings suggest that in nature (i) frequent temperature changes in winter threaten tick survival more importantly than very low temperatures, (ii) older (spring) ticks are less resistant to cold than younger (autumn) individuals, and (iii) Borrelia infection plays a marginal role in I. ricinus survival during winter conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Icing Conditions Over Northern Eurasia in Changing Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulygina, O.; Arzhanova, N.; Groisman, P. Y.

    2013-12-01

    Climate of the Russian Federation for the national territory. This Reference Book addresses the current state of these weather phenomena. However, the ongoing and projected humidity changes in the high latitudes will strongly affect the circum-polar area (land and ocean) and impact the frequency and intensity of these potentially dangerous weather phenomena across the entire extratropical land area. Therefore the goal of the present study is to quantify icing conditions over the northern Eurasia. Our analysis includes data of 958 Russian stations from 1977 to 2012. Regional analysis of gololed characteristics was carried out using quasi-homogeneous climatic regions. Maps (climatology, trends) are presented mostly for visualization purposes. The area-averaging technique using station values converted to anomalies with respect to a common reference period (in this study, from 1977 to 2012). Anomalies were arithmetically averaged first within 1N x 2E grid cells and thereafter by a weighted average value derived over the quasi-homogeneous climatic regions. This approach provides a more uniform spatial field for averaging.

  19. Exergy characteristics of a ceiling-type residential air conditioning system operating under different climatic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozbek, Arif [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Ceyhan Engineering Faculty, Cukurova University, Adana (Turkmenistan)

    2016-11-15

    In this study an energy and exergy analysis of a Ceiling-type residential air conditioning (CTRAC) system operating under different climatic conditions have been investigated for provinces within the different geographic regions of Turkey. Primarily, the hourly cooling load capacities of a sample building (Q{sub evap}) during the months of April, May, June, July, August and September were determined. The hourly total heat gain of the sample building was determined using the Hourly analysis program (HAP). The Coefficient of performance (COP), exergy efficiency (η) and exergy destruction (Ex{sub dest}) values for the whole system and for each component were obtained. The results showed that lower atmospheric temperature (T{sub atm}) influenced the performance of the system and each of its components.

  20. Characterization of two Ti-Nb-Hf-Zr alloys under different cold rolling conditions

    OpenAIRE

    González, M.; Gil Mur, Francisco Javier; Manero Planella, José María; Peña, J.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to obtain a new biomaterial to use in the load transfer medical implants field. The influence of cold work in the thermoelastic martensitic transformation and elastic modulus was investigated for a previously developed Ti-24.8Nb-16.2Hf-1Zr alloy (A1) and a new Ti-35Nb-9Hf-1Zr alloy (A2). The nanoindentation tests with spherical tip showed a decrease of the elastic modulus when increasing the cold work percentage. The lowest value (46 GPa) was achieved afte...

  1. Icing conditions over Northern Eurasia in changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulygina, Olga N.; Arzhanova, Natalia M.; Groisman, Pavel Ya

    2015-02-01

    Icing conditions, particularly in combination with wind, affect greatly the operation of overhead communication and transmission lines causing serious failures, which result in tremendous economic damage. Icing formation is dangerous to agriculture, forestry, high seas fishery, for land and off coast man-made infrastructure. Quantitative icing characteristics such as weight, thickness, and duration are very important for the economy and human wellbeing when their maximum values exceed certain thresholds. Russian meteorological stations perform both visual and instrumental monitoring of icing deposits. Visual monitoring is ocular estimation of the type and intensity of icing and the date of ice appearance and disappearance. Instrumental monitoring is performed by ice accretion indicator that in addition to the type, intensity and duration of ice deposits reports also their weight and size. We used observations at 958 Russian stations for the period 1977-2013 to analyze changes in the ice formation frequency at individual meteorological stations and on the territory of quasi-homogeneous climatic regions in Russia. It was found that hoar frosts are observed in most parts of Russia, but icing only occurs in European Russia and the Far East. On the Arctic coast of Russia, this phenomenon can even be observed in summer months. Statistically significant decreasing trends in occurrence of icing and hoar frost events are found over most of Russia. An increasing trend in icing weights (IWs) was found in the Atlantic Arctic region in autumn. Statistically significant large negative trends in IWs were found in the Pacific Arctic in winter and spring.

  2. A review of Tertiary climate changes in southern South America and the Antarctic Peninsula. Part 1: Oceanic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roux, J. P.

    2012-03-01

    Oceanic conditions around southern South America and the Antarctic Peninsula have a major influence on climate patterns in these subcontinents. During the Tertiary, changes in ocean water temperatures and currents also strongly affected the continental climates and seem to have been controlled in turn by global tectonic events and sea-level changes. During periods of accelerated sea-floor spreading, an increase in the mid-ocean ridge volumes and the outpouring of basaltic lavas caused a rise in sea-level and mean ocean temperature, accompanied by the large-scale release of CO2. The precursor of the South Equatorial Current would have crossed the East Pacific Rise twice before reaching the coast of southern South America, thus heating up considerably during periods of ridge activity. The absence of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current before the opening of the Drake Passage suggests that the current flowing north along the present western seaboard of southern South American could have been temperate even during periods of ridge inactivity, which might explain the generally warm temperatures recorded in the Southeast Pacific from the early Oligocene to middle Miocene. Along the east coast of southern South America, water temperatures also fluctuated between temperate-cool and warm until the early Miocene, when the first incursion of temperate-cold to cold Antarctic waters is recorded. The cold Falkland/Malvinas Current initiated only after the middle Miocene. After the opening of the Drake Passage, the South Equatorial Current would have joined the newly developed, cold Antarctic Circumpolar Current on its way to Southern South America. During periods of increased sea-floor spreading, it would have contributed heat to the Antarctic Circumpolar Current that caused a poleward shift in climatic belts. However, periods of decreased sea-floor spreading would have been accompanied by diminishing ridge volumes and older, cooler and denser oceanic plates, causing global sea

  3. Performance Analysis of Air-to-Water Heat Pump in Latvian Climate Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazjonovs, Janis; Sipkevics, Andrejs; Jakovics, Andris; Dancigs, Andris; Bajare, Diana; Dancigs, Leonards

    2014-12-01

    Strategy of the European Union in efficient energy usage demands to have a higher proportion of renewable energy in the energy market. Since heat pumps are considered to be one of the most efficient heating and cooling systems, they will play an important role in the energy consumption reduction in buildings aimed to meet the target of nearly zero energy buildings set out in the EU Directive 2010/31/EU. Unfortunately, the declared heat pump Coefficient of Performance (COP) corresponds to a certain outdoor temperature (+7 °C), therefore different climate conditions, building characteristics and settings result in different COP values during the year. The aim of this research is to investigate the Seasonal Performance factor (SPF) values of air-to-water heat pump which better characterize the effectiveness of heat pump in a longer selected period of time, especially during the winter season, in different types of residential buildings in Latvian climate conditions. Latvia has four pronounced seasons of near-equal length. Winter starts in mid-December and lasts until mid-March. Latvia is characterized by cold, maritime climate (duration of the average heating period being 203 days, the average outdoor air temperature during the heating period being 0.0 °C, the coldest five-day average temperature being -20.7 °C, the average annual air temperature being +6.2 °C, the daily average relative humidity being 79 %). The first part of this research consists of operational air-towater heat pump energy performance monitoring in different residential buildings during the winter season. The second part of the research takes place under natural conditions in an experimental construction stand which is located in an urban environment in Riga, Latvia. The inner area of this test stand, where air-to-water heat pump performance is analyzed, is 9 m2. The ceiling height is 3 m, all external wall constructions (U = 0.16 W/(m2K)) have ventilated facades. To calculate SPF, the

  4. Groundwater flow modelling of periods with temperate climate conditions - Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joyce, Steven; Simpson, Trevor; Hartley, Lee; Applegate, David; Hoek, Jaap; Jackson, Peter; Roberts, David; Swan, David (Serco Technical Consulting Services (United Kingdom)); Gylling, Bjoern; Marsic, Niko (Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)); Rhen, Ingvar (SWECO Environment AB, Falun (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    As a part of the license application for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken a series of groundwater flow modelling studies. These represent time periods with different hydraulic conditions and the simulations carried out contribute to the overall evaluation of the repository design and long-term radiological safety. This report concerns the modelling of a repository at the Laxemar-Simpevarp site during temperate climate conditions as a comparison to corresponding modelling carried out for Forsmark /Joyce et al. 2010/. The collation and implementation of onsite hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical data from previous reports are used in the construction of a Hydrogeological base case (reference case conceptualisation) and then an examination of various areas of uncertainty within the current understanding by a series of model variants. The Hydrogeological base case models at three different scales, 'repository', 'site' and 'regional' make use of a discrete fracture network (DFN) and equivalent continuous porous medium (ECPM) models. The use of hydrogeological models allow for the investigation of the groundwater flow from a deep disposal facility to the biosphere and for the calculation of performance measures that will provide an input to the site performance assessment. The focus of the study described in this report has been to perform numerical simulations of the hydrogeological system from post-closure and throughout the temperate period up until the receding shoreline leaves the modelling domain at around 15,000 AD. Besides providing quantitative results for the immediate temperate period following post-closure, these results are also intended to give a qualitative indication of the evolution of the groundwater system during future temperate periods within an ongoing cycle of glacial/inter-glacial events

  5. Groundwater flow modelling of periods with temperate climate conditions - Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joyce, Steven; Simpson, Trevor; Hartley, Lee; Applegate, David; Hoek, Jaap; Jackson, Peter; Swan, David (Serco Technical Consulting Services (United Kingdom)); Marsic, Niko (Kemakta Konsult AB (Sweden)); Follin, Sven (SF GeoLogic AB (Sweden))

    2010-11-15

    As a part of the license application for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken a series of groundwater flow modelling studies. These represent time periods with different climate conditions and the simulations carried out contribute to the overall evaluation of the repository design and long-term radiological safety. This report concerns the modelling of a repository at the Forsmark site during temperate conditions; i.e. from post-closure and throughout the temperate period up until the receding shoreline leaves the modelling domain at around 12,000 AD. The collation and implementation of onsite hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical data from previous reports are used in the construction of a hydrogeological base case (reference case conceptualisation) and then in an examination of various areas of uncertainty within the current understanding by a series of model variants. The hydrogeological base case models at three different scales, 'repository', 'site' and 'regional', make use of continuous porous medium (CPM), equivalent continuous porous medium (ECPM) and discrete fracture network (DFN) models. The use of hydrogeological models allow for the investigation of the groundwater flow from a deep disposal facility to the biosphere and for the calculation of performance measures that will provide an input to the site performance assessment. The focus of the study described in this report has been to perform numerical simulations of the hydrogeological system from post-closure and throughout the temperate period. Besides providing quantitative results for the immediate temperate period following post-closure, these results are also intended to give a qualitative indication of the evolution of the groundwater system during future temperate periods within an ongoing cycle of glacial/inter-glacial events

  6. Data on the changes of the mussels' metabolic profile under different cold storage conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aru, Violetta; Pisano, Maria Barbara; Savorani, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    One of the main problems of seafood marketing is the ease with which fish and shellfish undergo deterioration after death. 1H NMR spectroscopy and microbiological analysis were applied to get in depth insight into the effects of cold storage (4 °C and 0 °C) on the spoilage of the mussel Mytilus...

  7. Enzymatic hydrolysis as a means of expanding the cold gelation conditions of soy proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, B.J.H.; Koningsveld, van G.A.; Alting, A.C.; Driehuis, F.; Gruppen, H.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2005-01-01

    Acid-induced cold gelation of soy protein hydrolysates was studied. Hydrolysates with degrees of hydrolysis (DH) of up to 10% were prepared by using subtilisin Carlsberg. The enzyme was inhibited to uncouple the hydrolysis from the subsequent gelation; the latter was induced by the addition of

  8. Climate Change and Crop Exposure to Adverse Weather: Changes to Frost Risk and Grapevine Flowering Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosedale, Jonathan R; Wilson, Robert J; Maclean, Ilya M D

    2015-01-01

    The cultivation of grapevines in the UK and many other cool climate regions is expected to benefit from the higher growing season temperatures predicted under future climate scenarios. Yet the effects of climate change on the risk of adverse weather conditions or events at key stages of crop development are not always captured by aggregated measures of seasonal or yearly climates, or by downscaling techniques that assume climate variability will remain unchanged under future scenarios. Using fine resolution projections of future climate scenarios for south-west England and grapevine phenology models we explore how risks to cool-climate vineyard harvests vary under future climate conditions. Results indicate that the risk of adverse conditions during flowering declines under all future climate scenarios. In contrast, the risk of late spring frosts increases under many future climate projections due to advancement in the timing of budbreak. Estimates of frost risk, however, were highly sensitive to the choice of phenology model, and future frost exposure declined when budbreak was calculated using models that included a winter chill requirement for dormancy break. The lack of robust phenological models is a major source of uncertainty concerning the impacts of future climate change on the development of cool-climate viticulture in historically marginal climatic regions.

  9. CD36 is indispensable for thermogenesis under conditions of fasting and cold stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putri, Mirasari [Department of Medicine and Biological Science, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan); Department of Public Health, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan); Syamsunarno, Mas Rizky A.A. [Department of Medicine and Biological Science, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan); Department of Biochemistry, Universitas Padjadjaran, Jl. Raya Bandung Sumedang KM 21, Jatinangor, West Java 45363 (Indonesia); Iso, Tatsuya, E-mail: isot@gunma-u.ac.jp [Department of Medicine and Biological Science, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan); Education and Research Support Center, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Aiko; Hanaoka, Hirofumi [Department of Bioimaging Information Analysis, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan); Sunaga, Hiroaki [Department of Laboratory Sciences, Gunma University Graduate School of Health Sciences, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan); Koitabashi, Norimichi [Department of Medicine and Biological Science, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan); Matsui, Hiroki [Department of Laboratory Sciences, Gunma University Graduate School of Health Sciences, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan); Yamazaki, Chiho; Kameo, Satomi [Department of Public Health, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan); Tsushima, Yoshito [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan); and others

    2015-02-20

    Hypothermia can occur during fasting when thermoregulatory mechanisms, involving fatty acid (FA) utilization, are disturbed. CD36/FA translocase is a membrane protein which facilitates membrane transport of long-chain FA in the FA consuming heart, skeletal muscle (SkM) and adipose tissues. It also accelerates uptake of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein by brown adipose tissue (BAT) in a cold environment. In mice deficient for CD36 (CD36{sup −/−} mice), FA uptake is markedly reduced with a compensatory increase in glucose uptake in the heart and SkM, resulting in lower levels of blood glucose especially during fasting. However, the role of CD36 in thermogenic activity during fasting remains to be determined. In fasted CD36{sup −/−} mice, body temperature drastically decreased shortly after cold exposure. The hypothermia was accompanied by a marked reduction in blood glucose and in stores of triacylglycerols in BAT and of glycogen in glycolytic SkM. Biodistribution analysis using the FA analogue {sup 125}I-BMIPP and the glucose analogue {sup 18}F-FDG revealed that uptake of FA and glucose was severely impaired in BAT and glycolytic SkM in cold-exposed CD36{sup −/−} mice. Further, induction of the genes of thermogenesis in BAT was blunted in fasted CD36{sup −/−} mice after cold exposure. These findings strongly suggest that CD36{sup −/−} mice exhibit pronounced hypothermia after fasting due to depletion of energy storage in BAT and glycolytic SkM and to reduced supply of energy substrates to these tissues. Our study underscores the importance of CD36 for nutrient homeostasis to survive potentially life-threatening challenges, such as cold and starvation. - Highlights: • We examined the role of CD36 in thermogenesis during cold exposure. • CD36{sup −/−} mice exhibit rapid hypothermia after cold exposure during fasting. • Uptake of fatty acid and glucose is impaired in thermogenic tissues during fasting. • Storage of energy substrates is

  10. Winter energy behaviour in multi-family block buildings in a temperate-cold climate in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippin, C. [CONICET - CC302, Santa Rosa, 6300 La Pampa (Argentina); Larsen, S. Flores [CONICET - CC302, Santa Rosa, 6300 La Pampa (Argentina); INENCO - Instituto de Investigaciones en Energias No Convencionales, U.N.Sa., CONICET, Avda. Bolivia 5150 - CP 4400, Salta Capital (Argentina); Mercado, V. [LAHV-Laboratorio de Ambienet Humano y Vivienda (INCIHUSA-CCT-CONICET) (Argentina)

    2011-01-15

    This paper analyzes the thermal and energy behaviour of apartments in three-story block buildings located along a NE-SW axis (azimuth = 120 ) in a temperate-cold climate (latitude: 36 57'; longitude: 64 27') in the city of Santa Rosa, La Pampa, central Argentina. Four apartments had been monitored during May and June 2009. Three of them are located in Block 126. Two of these apartments face South: 15 and 23 on the SE end, ground and first floor, respectively; 18 faces N on the second floor. Finally apartment, 12 is located in Block 374, on the first floor, faces N and shows a carpentry-closed balcony. The purpose of this work is - to study the evolution of the indoor temperature in each apartment; to analyze energy consumption and comfort conditions; to study energy potential and energy intervention in order to reduce energy consumption; to analyze bioclimatic alternatives feasibility and the possibility to extrapolate results to all blocks. On the basis of the analysis of natural gas historical consumption records, results showed that regarding heating energy consumption during the period May-June, Apartment 12, facing N, with its only bedroom facing NW and its carpentry-closed, transparent glass balcony, presented a mean temperature of 21.2 C, using a halogen heater for 6 h/day between 9 pm and 2 am (0.16 kWh/day/m{sup 2}). Apartment 15, on the SE end, first floor of the block consumed 22.5 kWh/day (0.43 kWh/day/m{sup 2}) (mean temperature = 22.2 C). Apartment 23, located on the second and top floor (on top of Apartment 15) with higher energy loss, consumed 28 kWh/day (0.54 kWh/day/m{sup 2}) (mean temperature 23.7 C). Apartment 18, also on the second floor and facing N, located in the centre and with its only bedroom facing SE, consumed 18.8 kWh/day (0.48 kWh/day/m{sup 2}) (mean temperature = 22.3 C). Apartment 23, with higher thermal loss through its envelope, but with heat transfer from the apartment located below, is the one that showed the highest

  11. Uncertainties in extreme precipitation under climate change conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunyer Pinya, Maria Antonia

    The latest report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) states that it is unequivocal that climate change is occurring. One of the largest impacts of climate change is anticipated to be an increase in the severity of extreme events, such as extreme precipitation. Floods caused...... by extreme precipitation pose a threat to human life and cause high economic losses for society. Thus, strategies to adapt to changes in extreme precipitation are currently being developed and established worldwide. Information on the expected changes in extreme precipitation is required for the development...... of adaptation strategies, but these changes are subject to uncertainties. The focus of this PhD thesis is the quantification of uncertainties in changes in extreme precipitation. It addresses two of the main sources of uncertainty in climate change impact studies: regional climate models (RCMs) and statistical...

  12. CD36 is indispensable for thermogenesis under conditions of fasting and cold stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, Mirasari; Syamsunarno, Mas Rizky A A; Iso, Tatsuya; Yamaguchi, Aiko; Hanaoka, Hirofumi; Sunaga, Hiroaki; Koitabashi, Norimichi; Matsui, Hiroki; Yamazaki, Chiho; Kameo, Satomi; Tsushima, Yoshito; Yokoyama, Tomoyuki; Koyama, Hiroshi; Abumrad, Nada A; Kurabayashi, Masahiko

    2015-02-20

    Hypothermia can occur during fasting when thermoregulatory mechanisms, involving fatty acid (FA) utilization, are disturbed. CD36/FA translocase is a membrane protein which facilitates membrane transport of long-chain FA in the FA consuming heart, skeletal muscle (SkM) and adipose tissues. It also accelerates uptake of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein by brown adipose tissue (BAT) in a cold environment. In mice deficient for CD36 (CD36(-/-) mice), FA uptake is markedly reduced with a compensatory increase in glucose uptake in the heart and SkM, resulting in lower levels of blood glucose especially during fasting. However, the role of CD36 in thermogenic activity during fasting remains to be determined. In fasted CD36(-/-) mice, body temperature drastically decreased shortly after cold exposure. The hypothermia was accompanied by a marked reduction in blood glucose and in stores of triacylglycerols in BAT and of glycogen in glycolytic SkM. Biodistribution analysis using the FA analogue (125)I-BMIPP and the glucose analogue (18)F-FDG revealed that uptake of FA and glucose was severely impaired in BAT and glycolytic SkM in cold-exposed CD36(-/-) mice. Further, induction of the genes of thermogenesis in BAT was blunted in fasted CD36(-/-) mice after cold exposure. These findings strongly suggest that CD36(-/-) mice exhibit pronounced hypothermia after fasting due to depletion of energy storage in BAT and glycolytic SkM and to reduced supply of energy substrates to these tissues. Our study underscores the importance of CD36 for nutrient homeostasis to survive potentially life-threatening challenges, such as cold and starvation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Climatic and environmental conditions favoring the crossing of the Carpathians by early Neolithic populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perşoiu, Ioana; Perşoiu, Aurel

    2015-04-01

    The study of the origin and spread of Neolithic has been the subject of heated debate since the early studies of Childe (1942). To what extent the dispersal process was influenced by environmental factors is still debated, one of the issues being whether climatic conditions influencing agricultural practices, could have influenced the dispersal route, "blocking" some of the Neolithic societies in front of ecological barriers. Data from Neolithic sites in SE Europe shows that a continuous stream of people and cultures flowed through the Danube's Iron Gates towards Central Europe, while in the eastern part of Europe this process was delayed, people and cultures "moving" around the Carpathians and crossing them with a delay of ca. 1000 years. One of the possible avenues for this crossing is the floodplain of Someşu Mic River (Transylvanian depression), home to the oldest (~8500 cal. BP) Neolithic settlement in Romania. In this paper, we review the climatic and environmental changes that affected the region at the time of Neolithic dispersal. Pollen and stable isotopes in cave ice indicate an early Holocene rapid warming during summer months, peaking around 7 ka cal. BP; and a delayed warming for autumn and winter months, peaking at 5 ka cal. BP, both followed by a continuous cooling trend towards the present. Someşu Mic River developed and maintained a narrow sinuous channel during the Holocene, with local development of meanders and anabranches, in response to both climatic and geologic controlling factors. Archaeological finds in the floodplain and the lower terraces suggest that human societies in the region responded in sensitive manner to these climatic and environmental changes. During warm and dry periods, with low fluvial activity, the number of settlements increased in the floodplain's perimeter, while during the short cold and humid periods, the number of settlements rapidly increased on the lower terraces and on the valley slopes, disappearing from the

  14. Towards a CFD Model for Prediction of Wind Turbine Power Losses due to Icing in Cold Climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie Cecilie; Sørensen, Henrik

    Icing induced power losses is an important issue when operating wind turbines in cold climate. This paper presents a concept of modelling ice accretion on wind turbines using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The modelling concept works towards unifying the processes of modelling ice accretion...... and the aerodynamic analysis of the iced object into one CFD-based icing model. Modelling of icing and obtaining ice shapes in combination with mesh update by surface boundary displacement was demonstrated in the paper. It has been done by expressing in-cloud icing in CFD by an Eulerian multiphase model, implementing...... an icing module into the CFD solution and finally by surface boundary displacement also included in the CFD solution. The model has been developed using ANSYS-FLUENT and user-defined functions. The naca profile, NACA64618, has been used to illustrate the functionality of the model. Running ice accretion...

  15. Effects of sodium chloride and fat supplementation on finishing steers exposed to hot and cold conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaughan, J B; Mader, T L

    2009-02-01

    Three studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of supplemental fat and salt (sodium chloride) on DMI, daily water intake (DWI), body temperature, and respiration rate (RR) in Bos taurus beef cattle. In Exp. 1 and 2, whole soybeans (SB) were used as the supplemental fat source. In Exp. 3, palm kernel meal and tallow were used. Experiment 1 (winter) and Exp. 2 (summer) were undertaken in an outside feedlot. Experiment 3 was conducted in a climate-controlled facility (mean ambient temperature = 29.9 degrees C). In Exp. 1, three diets, 1) control; 2) salt (control + 1% sodium chloride); and 3) salt-SB (control + 5% SB + 1% sodium chloride), were fed to 144 cattle (BW = 327.7 kg), using a replicated 3 x 3 Latin square design. In Exp. 2, 168 steers (BW = 334.1 kg) were used. In Exp. 2, the same dietary treatments were used as in Exp. 1, and a 5% SB dietary treatment was included in an incomplete 3 x 4 Latin square design. In Exp. 3, three diets, 1) control; 2) salt (control + 0.92% NaCl); and 3) salt-fat (control + 3.2% added fat + 0.92% NaCl) were fed to 12 steers (BW = 602 kg) in a replicated Latin square design. In Exp. 1, cattle fed the salt-SB diet had elevated (P salt (38.50 degrees C) diet. In Exp. 2, cattle fed the salt and salt-SB diets had less (P salt-SB diet had the greatest (P salt diet or only the SB diet had the least (P salt and salt-fat diets declined by approximately 40% compared with only 24% for the control cattle. During hot conditions, DWI was greatest (P salt-fat diet. These steers also had the greatest (P diet was the least (P salt plus fat decreased DMI under hot conditions, these data suggest that switching to diets containing the combination of added salt and fat can elevate body temperature, which would be a detriment in the summer but a benefit to the animal during winter. Nevertheless, adding salt plus fat to diets resulted in increased DWI under hot conditions. Diet ingredients or the combination of ingredients that can be used to

  16. Airtightness Results of Roof-Only Air Sealing Strategies on 1-1/2 Story Homes in Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojczyk, C.; Murry, T.; Mosiman, G.

    2014-07-01

    In this second study on solutions to ice dams in 1-1/2 story homes, five test homes located in both cold and very cold climates were analyzed for air leakage reduction rates following modifications by independent contractors on owner-occupied homes. The reason for choosing this house type was they are very common in our area and very difficult to air seal and insulate effectively. Two projects followed a roof-only Exterior Thermal Moisture Management System (ETMMS) process. One project used an interior-only approach to roof air sealing and insulation. The remaining two projects used a deep energy retrofit approach for whole house (foundation wall, above grade wall, roof) air leakage and heat loss reduction. All were asked to provide information regarding project goals, process, and pre and post-blower door test results. Additional air leakage reduction data was provided by several NorthernSTAR Building America industry partners for interior-applied, roof-only modifications on 1-1/2 story homes. The data represents homes in the general market as well as homes that were part of the state of Minnesota weatherization program. A goal was to compare exterior air sealing methods with interior approaches. This pool of data enabled us to compare air tightness data from over 220 homes using similar air seal methods.

  17. Airtightness Results of Roof-Only Air Sealing Strategies on 1 ½-Story Homes in Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojczyk, C.; Murry, T.; Mosiman, G.

    2014-07-01

    In this second study on solutions to ice dams in 1-1/2 story homes, the NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership team analyzed five test homes located in both cold and very cold climates for air leakage reduction rates following modifications by independent contractors on owner-occupied homes. These homes were chosen for testing as they are common in Minnesota and very difficult to air seal and insulate effectively. Two projects followed a roof-only Exterior Thermal Moisture Management System (ETMMS) process. One project used an interior-only approach to roof air sealing and insulation. The remaining two projects used a deep energy retrofit approach for whole house (foundation wall, above grade wall, roof) air leakage and heat loss reduction. All were asked to provide information regarding project goals, process, and pre and post-blower door test results. Additional air leakage reduction data was provided by several NorthernSTAR industry partners for interior-applied, roof-only modifications on 1-1/2 story homes. The data represents homes in the general market as well as homes that were part of the state of Minnesota weatherization program. A goal was to compare exterior air sealing methods with interior approaches. This pool of data enabled the team to compare air tightness data from over 220 homes using similar air seal methods.

  18. Thermographic evaluation of climatic conditions on lambs from different genetic groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Prado Paim, Tiago; Borges, Bárbara Oliveira; de Mello Tavares Lima, Paulo; Gomes, Edgard Franco; Dallago, Bruno Stéfano Lima; Fadel, Rossala; de Menezes, Adriana Morato; Louvandini, Helder; Canozzi, Maria Eugênia Andrighetto; Barcellos, Júlio Otavio Jardim; McManus, Concepta

    2013-01-01

    In production systems the characterization of genetic resources in relation to their capacity to respond to environmental conditions is necessary. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of infrared thermography for separation of animals from different genetic groups and determine which phenotypic traits are important for climatic adaptation. A total of 126 suckling lambs from four different genetic groups (Santa Inês - SI, Bergamasca - B, Bergamasca X Santa Inês - BS, and Ile de France X Santa Inês - IL) were used. The animals were divided into two groups, one housed and another in an outside paddock. Thermograph photographs were taken at four-hour intervals over three full days. Temperatures of the nose, skull, neck, fore and rear flanks and rump were measured, as well as coat depth, the density and length of hairs, reflectance and color. The daily temperature range during the experimental period was more than 20°C, with animals experiencing heat (12 h to 15 h) and cold (24 h to 4 h) stress. The three main phenotypic traits that influenced genetic group separation were hair density, height of coat, and length of hairs. Thermograph temperatures were able to detect different responses of the genetic groups to the environment. Therefore, infrared thermography is a promising technique to evaluate the response of animals to the environment and to differentiate between genetic groups.

  19. Critical Deposition Condition of CoNiCrAlY Cold Spray Based on Particle Deformation Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Yuji; Ogawa, Kazuhiro

    2017-02-01

    Previous research has demonstrated deposition of MCrAlY coating via the cold spray process; however, the deposition mechanism of cold spraying has not been clearly explained—only empirically described by impact velocity. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the critical deposit condition. Microscale experimental measurements of individual particle deposit dimensions were incorporated with numerical simulation to investigate particle deformation behavior. Dimensional parameters were determined from scanning electron microscopy analysis of focused ion beam-fabricated cross sections of deposited particles to describe the deposition threshold. From Johnson-Cook finite element method simulation results, there is a direct correlation between the dimensional parameters and the impact velocity. Therefore, the critical velocity can describe the deposition threshold. Moreover, the maximum equivalent plastic strain is also strongly dependent on the impact velocity. Thus, the threshold condition required for particle deposition can instead be represented by the equivalent plastic strain of the particle and substrate. For particle-substrate combinations of similar materials, the substrate is more difficult to deform. Thus, this study establishes that the dominant factor of particle deposition in the cold spray process is the maximum equivalent plastic strain of the substrate, which occurs during impact and deformation.

  20. Harsh climate promotes harsh governance (except in cold-dry-wealthy environments)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Vliert, Evert; Tol, Richard S. J.

    Human societies are usually thought to adapt culturally to mean climatic temperature. Here we alternatively propose that cultural adaptations are fine-tuned, using monetary means as tools, to harsh deviations from optimally livable winter and summer temperatures around 22 degrees C. We test for the

  1. Harsh climate promotes harsh governance (except in cold-dry-wealthy environments)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Vliert, E.; Tol, R.S.J.

    2014-01-01

    Human societies are usually thought to adapt culturally to mean climatic temperature. Here we alternatively propose that cultural adaptations are fine-tuned, using monetary means as tools, to harsh deviations from optimally livable winter and summer temperatures around 22°C. We test for the first

  2. Formation Of Substellar Bodies In Cold Conditions : Gravitational Stability Of Fluids In A Phase Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Füglistaler, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    This thesis shows that the physics of cold self-gravitation fluids such as dark molecular clouds is much richer than usually assumed. The segregation in a gravitational field of small grains towards larger bodies such as comets and planetoids cannot be simulated with traditional hydro- dynamical codes, but is possible with a super-molecular approach. Observations, linear and virial analysis as well as computer simulations suggest the possibility of the formation of substellar H2 bodies due to the combination of phase transition and gravity in cold regions, as fluids in a phase transition are gravitationally unstable, independent of the strength of the gravitational potential. H2 phase transition is reached easily during plane-parallel collapses if the initial temperature is ≤ 15 K.

  3. climatic condition of calabar as typified by some meteorological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    GLOBAL JOURNAL OF PURE AND APPLIED SCIENCES VOL. ... growth due to the renewed emphases on tourism, urbanization and business typified by the establishment of TINAPA business resort in Calabar, Nigeria. KEYWORDS: Climate trend, weather composites, urbanization, tourism, TINAPA business resort.

  4. A new transducer for roll gap measurements of the roll pressure distribution and the friction condition in cold flat rolling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagergren, Jonas; Wanheim, Tarras; Presz, W.

    2005-01-01

    Background/purpose The only way to establish the true rolling pressure and the true friction condition in cold rolling is to conduct measurements in the roll bite. A new transducer design is therefore proposed, this to overcome problems in previous measurements in the past 70 years. Method The new...... idea is to increase the contact surface of the transducer, to be larger than the arc of contact. This is in the opposite way, compared to the smaller and smaller contact pin design that has been prevailing. Results The measurements where conducted during cold dry rolling of both copper strips...... and stainless steel strips in a pilot mill. The recordings were selected from a steady state with no disturbance from the material flow. The transducer was able to simultaneously measure both the normal pressure and the friction stress. An estimation of the coefficient of friction was accordingly performed...

  5. Lightning Location System Data from Wind Power Plants Compared to Meteorological Conditions of Warm- and Cold Thunderstorm Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Stephan; Lopez, Javier; Garolera, Anna Candela

    2016-01-01

    between warm and cold season thunderstorms can be identified. In total, 27 severe thunderstorms events, which were detected by a LLS in the vicinity of the wind turbines, are investigated. The analysis of cold season thunderstorms shows that lightning discharges are triggered in a very big area over......Five years of Lightning Location System (LLS) data from five different wind turbine sites in Europe are analysed. The sites are located in Croatia, Italy, Spain, France and one offshore wind power plant in the North sea. Each location exhibits individual characteristic properties in terms...... is a measure of lightning observations per day. Statistics about the monthly exposure of the wind turbines are provided. In order to complement the analysis, meteorological parameters related to the lightning events were analysed. Radio sounding measurements provide an analysis of the condition...

  6. Predicting the Effects of Powder Feeding Rates on Particle Impact Conditions and Cold Spray Deposited Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Ozan C.; Widener, Christian A.; Carter, Michael J.; Johnson, Kyle W.

    2017-10-01

    As the industrial application of the cold spray technology grows, the need to optimize both the cost and the quality of the process grows with it. Parameter selection techniques available today require the use of a coupled system of equations to be solved to involve the losses due to particle loading in the gas stream. Such analyses cause a significant increase in the computational time in comparison with calculations with isentropic flow assumptions. In cold spray operations, engineers and operators may, therefore, neglect the effects of particle loading to simplify the multiparameter optimization process. In this study, two-way coupled (particle-fluid) quasi-one-dimensional fluid dynamics simulations are used to test the particle loading effects under many potential cold spray scenarios. Output of the simulations is statistically analyzed to build regression models that estimate the changes in particle impact velocity and temperature due to particle loading. This approach eases particle loading optimization for more complete analysis on deposition cost and time. The model was validated both numerically and experimentally. Further numerical analyses were completed to test the particle loading capacity and limitations of a nozzle with a commonly used throat size. Additional experimentation helped document the physical limitations to high-rate deposition.

  7. The climatic conditions of the Arctic and new approaches to the forecast of the climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris G. Sherstyukov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The properties of climate variability are represented resulting from the special statistical analysis of observations of the world meteorological network of stations, taking into account the features of the northern regions. By the example of air temperature free and forced oscillation of characteristics of the climate system in their interaction are considered. There are formulated new ideas about the structure of the oscillations and the possible causes of climate change. A statistical model of a periodic nonstationarity of climate is suggested for forecasting climate variations for next two decades and there is suggested a model for monthly and seasonal weather forecasts for the next year. The practical importance of predictive research is particularly high in the harsh climate of the north, where the climate is one of the limiting factors of industrial development of the northern regions.

  8. USE OF ARTIFICIAL AQUATIC FOOD-WEB FOR POST-TREATMENT OF DOMESTIC WASTEWATER IN COLD CLIMATE: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aigars Lavrinovičs

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Eutrophication-promoting phosphorous loads originating from wastewater treatment plants are commonly controlled by chemical precipitation in the tertiary treatment phase. However, this approach is costly and generates additional waste. Therefore, inexpensive and sustainable methods for wastewater post-treatment are wanted. The artificial aquatic food-web that performs wastewater phycoremediation by algae and subsequent biomass harvest by filter-feeding organisms not only requires low energy consumption but also produces biomass for treatment process cost recovery. Still, the knowledge on its performance at different scales and under different climates are limited. In this review, the application possibilities of the artificial aquatic food-web for domestic wastewater post-treatment is discussed, focusing on its use in cold climate regions. Considering the reduced biological activity of aquatic organisms at low ambient temperature, possible solutions for its performance and prospect application at low temperatures are suggested. Finally, directions for future research regarding the practical use of artificial aquatic food-web are highlighted.

  9. Potential effects of permeable and hygroscopic lightweight structures on thermal comfort and perceived IAQ in a cold climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnitski, J; Kalamees, T; Palonen, J; Eskola, L; Seppänen, O

    2007-02-01

    In this study, we simulated and measured the effect of permeable and hygroscopic lightweight structures on indoor air quality (IAQ) and thermal comfort in a cold climate. The potential effect of hygroscopic mass was assessed with the simulation of extreme cases, where permeable and hygroscopic lightweight structures with unfinished surfaces were compared with impermeable and non-hygroscopic ones. Measurements were conducted in 78 rooms of 46 newly built detached timber-framed houses and analyzed according to hygroscopic surface materials and envelope permeability. From the simulations, it was shown that permeable and hygroscopic structures considerably improved perceived air quality in summer, when a ventilation rate of 6 l/s pers. in the non-hygroscopic case corresponded roughly to 4 l/s pers. in the hygroscopic case. However, window airing and furnishing will reduce this difference in practice. Both simulated and measured results showed that permeable and hygroscopic structures significantly reduced peak indoor relative humidity levels and daily changes in relative humidity, but had no long-term effects. Measured results also indicated that completely non-hygroscopic houses did not exist in reality. Limited knowledge is available about building envelope and ventilation system interactions with consequent effects on indoor climate. To take such effects adequately into account in design and construction of buildings, solid scientific data explaining the significance of the phenomena studied are needed. We have demonstrated that moisture exchange has evidently enough importance to be taken into account in future building simulation tools.

  10. Regional feedbacks under changing climate and land-use conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batlle Bayer, L.; van den Hurk, B. J. J. M.; Strengers, B. J.; van Minnen, J. G.

    2012-04-01

    Ecosystem responses to a changing climate and human-induced climate forcings (e.g. deforestation) might amplify (positive feedback) or dampen (negative feedback) the initial climate response. Feedbacks may include the biogeochemical (e.g. carbon cycle) and biogeophysical feedbacks (e.g. albedo and hydrological cycle). Here, we first review the most important feedbacks and put them into the context of a conceptual framework, including the major processes and interactions between terrestrial ecosystems and climate. We explore potential regional feedbacks in four hot spots with pronounced potential changes in land-use/management and local climate: sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), Europe, the Amazon Basin and South and Southeast Asia. For each region, the relevant human-induced climate forcings and feedbacks were identified based on published literature. When evapotranspiration is limited by a soil water deficit, heat waves in Europe are amplified (positive soil moisture-temperature feedback). Drought events in the Amazon lead to further rainfall reduction when water recycling processes are affected (positive soil moisture-precipitation feedback). In SSA, the adoption of irrigation in the commonly rainfed systems can modulate the negative soil moisture-temperature feedback. In contrast, future water shortage in South and Southeast Asia can turn the negative soil moisture-temperature feedback into a positive one. Further research including advanced modeling strategies is needed to isolate the dominant processes affecting the strength and sign of the feedbacks. In addition, the socio-economic dimension needs to be considered in the ecosystems-climate system to include the essential role of human decisions on land-use and land-cover change (LULCC). In this context, enhanced integration between Earth System (ES) and Integrated Assessment (IA) modeling communities is strongly recommended.

  11. Microalgae at wastewater pond treatment in cold climate:an ecological engineering approach

    OpenAIRE

    Grönlund, Erik

    2004-01-01

    Three types of wastewater ponds in subarctic climates were investigated, each of them highly dependent on microalgae. They were fellingsdams, i.e. wastewater stabilization ponds complemented with chemical precipitation, high-rate algal ponds (HRAPs), and a type of aquaculture interface ponds between a wastewater treatment plant and the natural surrounding. From a microalgae taxa perspective green algae and cryptophytes were dominant in the wastewater ponds. Green algae and cryptophytes were a...

  12. Seasonal variation of carcass decomposition and gravesoil chemistry in a cold (Dfa) climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jessica; Anderson, Brianna; Carter, David O

    2013-09-01

    It is well known that temperature significantly affects corpse decomposition. Yet relatively few taphonomy studies investigate the effects of seasonality on decomposition. Here, we propose the use of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification system and describe the decomposition of swine (Sus scrofa domesticus) carcasses during the summer and winter near Lincoln, Nebraska, USA. Decomposition was scored, and gravesoil chemistry (total carbon, total nitrogen, ninhydrin-reactive nitrogen, ammonium, nitrate, and soil pH) was assessed. Gross carcass decomposition in summer was three to seven times greater than in winter. Initial significant changes in gravesoil chemistry occurred following approximately 320 accumulated degree days, regardless of season. Furthermore, significant (p pH (positive correlation) and between nitrate and pH (negative correlation). We hope that future decomposition studies employ the Köppen-Geiger climate classification system to understand the seasonality of corpse decomposition, to validate taphonomic methods, and to facilitate cross-climate comparisons of carcass decomposition. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  13. Moisture rivals temperature in limiting photosynthesis by trees establishing beyond their cold-edge range limit under ambient and warmed conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyes, Andrew B; Germino, Matthew J; Kueppers, Lara M

    2015-09-01

    Climate change is altering plant species distributions globally, and warming is expected to promote uphill shifts in mountain trees. However, at many cold-edge range limits, such as alpine treelines in the western United States, tree establishment may be colimited by low temperature and low moisture, making recruitment patterns with warming difficult to predict. We measured response functions linking carbon (C) assimilation and temperature- and moisture-related microclimatic factors for limber pine (Pinus flexilis) seedlings growing in a heating × watering experiment within and above the alpine treeline. We then extrapolated these response functions using observed microclimate conditions to estimate the net effects of warming and associated soil drying on C assimilation across an entire growing season. Moisture and temperature limitations were each estimated to reduce potential growing season C gain from a theoretical upper limit by 15-30% (c. 50% combined). Warming above current treeline conditions provided relatively little benefit to modeled net assimilation, whereas assimilation was sensitive to either wetter or drier conditions. Summer precipitation may be at least as important as temperature in constraining C gain by establishing subalpine trees at and above current alpine treelines as seasonally dry subalpine and alpine ecosystems continue to warm. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. Investigation of influential factors on the tensile strength of cold recycled mixture with bitumen emulsion due to moisture conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouhamed Bayane Bouraima

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study attempts to investigate the effect of moisture conditioning on the indirect tensile strength (ITS of cold recycled mixture with bitumen emulsion. Firstly, samples were prepared using a Superpave gyratory compactor. They were hence conditioned using moisture induced sensitivity tester (MIST device. Factorial design was carried out considering four factors each at two different levels. These factors were specimen thickness, air voids content, pressure and number of cycles. In the MIST device, samples are cyclically subjected to water pressure through the sample pores. The MIST conditioned samples were tested for indirect tensile strength. The analysis of two-level full-factorial designed experiments revealed that all four factors have a negative effect on tensile strength of cold recycled mixture with bitumen emulsion. Specimen thickness was the most significant factor affecting the tensile strength followed by air voids content. In two-factor interaction, specimen thickness-number of cycles, air voids content-pressure, and pressure-number of cycles were significant. The most significant three-factor interaction was specimen thickness-pressure-number of cycles. The results from the study suggest that in measuring tensile strength, the appropriate specimen thickness and air voids content should be selected to quantify the representative tensile strength for in-situ conditions.

  15. Two-dimensional finite difference model to study temperature distribution in SST regions of human limbs immediately after physical exercise in cold climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Babita; Adlakha, Neeru

    2015-02-01

    Thermoregulation is a complex mechanism regulating heat production within the body (chemical thermoregulation) and heat exchange between the body and the environment (physical thermoregulation) in such a way that the heat exchange is balanced and deep body temperatures are relatively stable. The external heat transfer mechanisms are radiation, conduction, convection and evaporation. The physical activity causes thermal stress and poses challenges for this thermoregulation. In this paper, a model has been developed to study temperature distribution in SST regions of human limbs immediately after physical exercise under cold climate. It is assumed that the subject is doing exercise initially and comes to rest at time t = 0. The human limb is assumed to be of cylindrical shape. The peripheral region of limb is divided into three natural components namely epidermis, dermis and subdermal tissues (SST). Appropriate boundary conditions have been framed based on the physical conditions of the problem. Finite difference has been employed for time, radial and angular variables. The numerical results have been used to obtain temperature profiles in the SST region immediately after continuous exercise for a two-dimensional unsteady state case. The results have been used to analyze the thermal stress in relation to light, moderate and vigorous intensity exercise.

  16. Moisture rivals temperature in limiting photosynthesis by trees establishing beyond their cold-edge range limit under ambient and warmed conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyes, Andrew B.; Germino, Matthew J.; Kueppers, Lara M.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is altering plant species distributions globally, and warming is expected to promote uphill shifts in mountain trees. However, at many cold-edge range limits, such as alpine treelines in the western United States, tree establishment may be colimited by low temperature and low moisture, making recruitment patterns with warming difficult to predict.

  17. Biochemical and molecular characterization of the antioxidative system of Coffea sp. under cold conditions in genotypes with contrasting tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunato, Ana S; Lidon, Fernando C; Batista-Santos, Paula; Leitão, António Eduardo; Pais, Isabel P; Ribeiro, Ana I; Ramalho, José Cochicho

    2010-03-15

    Low positive temperature (chilling) is frequently linked to the promotion of oxidative stress conditions, and is of particular importance in the coffee plant due to its severe impact on growth, development, photosynthesis and production. Nevertheless, some acclimation ability has been reported within the Coffea genus, and is possibly related to oxidative stress control. Using an integrated biochemical and molecular approach, the characterization of the antioxidative system of genotypes with different cold acclimation abilities was performed. Experiments were carried out using 1.5-year-old coffee seedlings of Coffea canephora cv. Apoatã, C. arabica cv. Catuaí, C. dewevrei and 2 hybrids, Icatu (C. arabicaxC. canephora) and Piatã (C. dewevreixC. arabica) subjected to a gradual cold treatment and a recovery period. Icatu showed the greatest ability to control oxidative stress, as reflected by the enhancement of several antioxidative components (Cu,Zn-SOD and APX activities; ascorbate, alpha-tocopherol and chlorogenic acids (CGAs) contents) and lower reactive oxygen species contents (H(2)O(2) and OH). Gene expression studies show that GRed, DHAR and class III and IV chitinases might also be involved in the cold acclimation ability of Icatu. Catuaí showed intermediate acclimation ability through the reinforcement of some antioxidative molecules, usually to a lesser extent than that observed in Icatu. On the other hand, C. dewevrei showed the poorest response in terms of antioxidant accumulation, and also showed the greatest increase in OH values. The difference in the triggering of antioxidative traits supports the hypothesis of its importance to cold (and photoinhibition) tolerance in Coffea sp. and could provide a useful probe to identify tolerant genotypes. Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Behaviour of wrapped cold-formed steel columns under different loading conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baabu, B. Hari; Sreenath, S.

    2017-07-01

    The use of Cold Formed Steel (CFS) sections as structural members is widely accepted because of its light nature. However, the load carrying capacity of these sections will be less compared to hot rolled sections. This study is meant to analyze the possibility of strengthening cold formed members by wrapping it with Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) laminates. Light gauge steel columns of cross sectional dimensions 100mm x 50mm x 3.15mm were taken for this study. The effective length of the section is about 750mm. A total of 8 specimens including the control specimen is tested under axial and eccentric loading. The columns were tested keeping both ends hinged. For both loading cases the buckling behaviour, ultimate load carrying capacity and load-deflection characteristics of the CFS columns were analyzed. The GFRP laminates were wrapped on columns in three different ways such that wrapping the outer surface of web and flange throughout the length of specimen, wrapping the outer surface of web alone throughout the length of specimen and wrapping the outer surface of web and flange for the upper half length of the specimen where the buckling is expected. For both loading cases, the results indicated that the column with wrapping at the outer surface of web and flange throughout the length of specimen provides better strength for it.

  19. Plankton dynamics under different climatic conditions in space and time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Senerpont Domis, de L.N.; Elser, J.J.; Huszar, V.L.M.; Ibelings, B.W.; Jeppesen, E.; Kosten, S.; Mooij, W.M.; Roland, F.; Sommer, U.; Donk, van E.; Winder, M.; Lurling, M.

    2013-01-01

    1.Different components of the climate system have been shown to affect temporal dynamics in natural plankton communities on scales varying from days to years. The seasonal dynamics in temperate lake plankton communities, with emphasis on both physical and biological forcing factors, were captured in

  20. Climatic condition of Calabar as typified by some meteorological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aims at analysing some meteorological data collected by the meteorological department of the Margaret Ekpo International Airport, Calabar between 1985 and 2003. The main objectives were to provide average figures and curves of Calabar climate, and to identify possible trends since 1985. Results show that ...

  1. The effects of climatic conditions on attitudinal changes towards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using a quasi-experimental research design, the study investigates changes in attitudes after rainstorms in relation to respondents' preferred building materials, preferred qualities of materials, and reasons for disliking earth materials. This article reports on the results of an investigation into the effects of local climatic ...

  2. Southern United States climate, land use, and forest conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Wear; Thomas L. Mote; J. Marshall Shepherd; K. C. Benita; Christopher W. Strother

    2014-01-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has concluded, with 90% certainty, that human or "anthropogenic" activities (emissions of greenhouse gases, aerosols and pollution, landuse/land-cover change) have altered global temperature patterns over the past 100-150 years (IPCC 2007a). Such temperature changes have a set of cascading, and sometimes...

  3. Dry and wet heat transfer through clothing dependent on the clothing properties under cold conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, M.G.M.; Rossi, R.; Meinander, H.; Broede, P.; Candas, V.; Hartog, E.A. den; Holmér, I.; Nocker, W.; Havenith, G.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of moisture on the heat transfer through clothing in relation to the water vapour resistance, type of underwear, location of the moisture and climate. This forms part of the work performed for work package 2 of the European Union THERMPROTECT

  4. QTL mapping of inbreeding-related cold sensitivity and conditional lethality in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeulen, Corneel J.; Bijlsma, R.; Loeschcke, Volker

    2008-01-01

    of inbreeding-related and conditionally expressed lethality in Drosophila melanogaster. The lethal effect was triggered by exposure to a cold shock. We used a North Carolina crossing Design 3 to establish the mapping population, as well as to estimate the average dominance ratio and heritability. We found two...... QTL on the major autosomes carrying recessive lethals that caused male mortality, one of which also affected female mortality. More detailed study of these loci will provide information on the mechanistic basis and environmental sensitivity of inbreeding depression....

  5. Domicile-related carbon monoxide poisoning in cold months and its relation with climatic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Tiekuan; Zhang, Yanping; Wu, Jack S; Wang, Houli; Ji, Xu; Xu, Tengda; Li, Yi; Xu, Lingjie; Lewin, Matthew R

    2010-10-01

    Many studies have identified strong correlations between winter months and acute, unintentional carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. In this study, we aimed to investigate the incidence pattern of acute domicile-related CO poisoning in Beijing and its relation with climatic factors. Data on CO poisoning were collected from the emergency medical service system during August 1, 2005, to July 31, 2007, in Beijing. Variations of the monthly and seasonal distribution of CO poisoning occurrences were examined with χ(2) testing. Climatic data including temperature, barometric pressure, humidity, wind speed, and visibility were obtained from the Beijing Meteorological Bureau. Correlations between the occurrence of CO poisoning and mean of each meteorological parameter spanning 3 days were analyzed with partial correlation test, with related parameters controlled. Significant differences were found among the cases occurring each month of the year (P poisoning (P incidences of CO poisoning were highest during winter, particularly during the time period when charcoal or coal use for indoor heating would be most prevalent in Beijing. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Relating changes of organic matter composition of two German peats to climatic conditions during peat formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knicker, Heike; Nikolova, Radoslava; Rumpel, Cornelia; González-Vila, Francisco, J.; Drösler, Matthias

    2010-05-01

    Peatlands have been recognized as an important factor within the global C-cycle, since they store about one-third of the global terrestrial C-pool. Furthermore, peat deposits have the potential to record detailed paleoclimatic and - vegetational changes. They are formed in peculiar paleoecosystems where the slow biodegradation of plant residues depends on a series of pedo-climatic and hydromorphic factors leading to a progressive accumulation of organic matter stabilized in different evolutionary stages. Thus, its chemical composition should be applicable as a fingerprint of former prevailing environmental conditions and vegetation configurations. The aim of the present work was to identify this fingerprint in the cores of two German fens, one derived from the Havelland close to Berlin (Großer Bolchow) and the other derived from the alpine region of Bavaria (Kendlmühlfilzen) by investigating the organic matter transformation as a function of peat depths. The C/N ratios and δ13C values revealed several distinctive trends in the two profiles related to prevailing peat forming conditions. Compared to the other layers, at depths of 14-85 cm and 132-324 cm in the Kendlmühlfilzen fen, high C/N ratios and less depleted δ13C values, indicated that the accumulation of these two layers occurred during a humid and cold period. In the case of the "Großer Bolchow", algal contributions were clearly detected using δ13C values. Solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy demonstrated loss of celluloses and accumulation of lipids and lignin derivatives during peatification, confirming that under the mostly O2-depleted conditions in peats, decomposition was selective. The results obtained by pyrolysis-GC/MS were in good agreement with the NMR data showing that processes ascribed to gradual biotransformation of the lignin occurred in both peats. However, the "Großer Bolchow" peat revealed a more advanced decomposition stage then the "Kendlmühlfilzen" peat, which is in agreement with

  7. Heat or Cold: Which One Exerts Greater Deleterious Effects on Health in a Basin Climate City? Impact of Ambient Temperature on Mortality in Chengdu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yan; Yin, Fei; Deng, Ying; Volinn, Ernest; Chen, Fei; Ji, Kui; Zeng, Jing; Zhao, Xing; Li, Xiaosong

    2016-12-10

    Background: Although studies from many countries have estimated the impact of ambient temperature on mortality, few have compared the relative impacts of heat and cold on health, especially in basin climate cities. We aimed to quantify the impact of ambient temperature on mortality, and to compare the contributions of heat and cold in a large basin climate city, i.e., Chengdu (Sichuan Province, China); Methods: We estimated the temperature-mortality association with a distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM) with a maximum lag-time of 21 days while controlling for long time trends and day of week. We calculated the mortality risk attributable to heat and cold, which were defined as temperatures above and below an "optimum temperature" that corresponded to the point of minimum mortality. In addition, we explored effects of individual characteristics; Results: The analysis provides estimates of the overall mortality burden attributable to temperature, and then computes the components attributable to heat and cold. Overall, the total fraction of deaths caused by both heat and cold was 10.93% (95%CI: 7.99%-13.65%). Taken separately, cold was responsible for most of the burden (estimate 9.96%, 95%CI: 6.90%-12.81%), while the fraction attributable to heat was relatively small (estimate 0.97%, 95%CI: 0.46%-2.35%). The attributable risk (AR) of respiratory diseases was higher (19.69%, 95%CI: 14.45%-24.24%) than that of cardiovascular diseases (11.40%, 95%CI: 6.29%-16.01%); Conclusions: In Chengdu, temperature was responsible for a substantial fraction of deaths, with cold responsible for a higher proportion of deaths than heat. Respiratory diseases exert a larger effect on death than other diseases especially on cold days. There is potential to reduce respiratory-associated mortality especially among the aged population in basin climate cities when the temperature deviates beneath the optimum. The result may help to comprehensively assess the impact of ambient temperature

  8. Measurement of heat stress conditions at cow level and comparison to climate conditions at stationary locations inside a dairy barn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüller, Laura K; Heuwieser, Wolfgang

    2016-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine heat stress conditions at cow level and to investigate the relationship to the climate conditions at 5 different stationary locations inside a dairy barn. In addition, we compared the climate conditions at cow level between primiparous and multiparous cows for a period of 1 week after regrouping. The temperature-humidity index (THI) differed significantly between all stationary loggers. The lowest THI was measured at the window logger in the experimental stall and the highest THI was measured at the central logger in the experimental stall. The THI at the mobile cow loggers was 2·33 THI points higher than at the stationary loggers. Furthermore, the mean daily THI was higher at the mobile cow loggers than at the stationary loggers on all experimental days. The THI in the experimental pen was 0·44 THI points lower when the experimental cow group was located inside the milking parlour. The THI measured at the mobile cow loggers was 1·63 THI points higher when the experimental cow group was located inside the milking parlour. However, there was no significant difference for all climate variables between primiparous and multiparous cows. These results indicate, there is a wide range of climate conditions inside a dairy barn and especially areas with a great distance to a fresh air supply have an increased risk for the occurrence of heat stress conditions. Furthermore, the heat stress conditions are even higher at cow level and cows not only influence their climatic environment, but also generate microclimates within different locations inside the barn. Therefore climate conditions should be obtained at cow level to evaluate the heat stress conditions that dairy cows are actually exposed to.

  9. Warm and cold molecular gas conditions modeled in 87 galaxies observed by the Herschel SPIRE FTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenetzky, Julia; Rangwala, Naseem; Glenn, Jason

    2018-01-01

    Molecular gas is the raw material for star formation, and like the interstellar medium (ISM) in general, it can exist in regions of higher and lower excitation. Rotational transitions of the CO molecule are bright and sensitive to cold molecular gas. While the majority of the molecular gas exists in the very cold component traced by CO J=1-0, the higher-J lines trace the highly excited gas that may be more indicative of star formation processes. The atmosphere is opaque to these lines, but the launch of the Herschel Space Observatory made them accessible for study of Galactic and extragalactic sources. We have conducted two-component, non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) modeling of the CO lines from J=1‑0 through J=13‑12 in 87 galaxies observed by the Herschel SPIRE Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS). We used the nested sampling algorithm Multinest to compare the measured CO spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) to the ones produced by a custom version of the non-LTE code RADEX. This allowed us to fully examine the degeneracies in parameter space for kinetic temperature, molecular gas density, CO column density, and area filling factor.Here we discuss the major findings of our study, as well as the important implications of two-component molecular gas modeling. The average pressure of the warm gas is slightly correlated with galaxy LFIR, but that of the cold gas is not. A high-J (such as J=11-10) to J=1-0 line ratio is diagnostic of warm component pressure. We find a very large spread in our derived values of "alpha-CO," with no discernable trend with LFIR, and average molecular gas depletion times that decrease with LFIR. If only a few molecular lines are available in a galaxy's SLED, the limited ability to model only one component will change the results. A one-component fit often underestimates the flux of carbon monoxide (CO) J=1‑0 and the mass. If low-J lines are not included, mass is underestimated by an order of magnitude. Even when

  10. Collaborative Research for Water Resource Management under Climate Change Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brundiers, K.; Garfin, G. M.; Gober, P.; Basile, G.; Bark, R. H.

    2010-12-01

    We present an ongoing project to co-produce science and policy called Collaborative Planning for Climate Change: An Integrated Approach to Water-Planning, Climate Downscaling, and Robust Decision-Making. The project responds to motivations related to dealing with sustainability challenges in research and practice: (a) state and municipal water managers seek research that addresses their planning needs; (b) the scientific literature and funding agencies call for more meaningful engagement between science and policy communities, in ways that address user needs, while advancing basic research; and (c) empirical research contributes to methods for the design and implementation of collaborative projects. To understand how climate change might impact water resources and management in the Southwest US, our project convenes local, state, and federal water management practitioners with climate-, hydrology-, policy-, and decision scientists. Three areas of research inform this collaboration: (a) the role of paleo-hydrology in water resources scenario construction; (b) the types of uncertainties that impact decision-making beyond climate and modeling uncertainty; and (c) basin-scale statistical and dynamical downscaling of climate models to generate hydrologic projections for regional water resources planning. The project engages all participants in the research process, from research design to workshops that build capacity for understanding data generation and sources of uncertainty to the discussion of water management decision contexts. A team of “science-practice translators” facilitates the collaboration between academic and professional communities. In this presentation we contextualize the challenges and opportunities of use-inspired science-policy research collaborations by contrasting the initial project design with the process of implementation. We draw from two sources to derive lessons learned: literature on collaborative research, and evaluations provided by

  11. Endolithic Microbial Life in Extreme Cold Climate: Snow Is Required, but Perhaps Less Is More

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry J. Sun

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria and lichens living under sandstone surfaces in the McMurdo Dry Valleys require snow for moisture. Snow accumulated beyond a thin layer, however, is counterproductive, interfering with rock insolation, snow melting, and photosynthetic access to light. With this in mind, the facts that rock slope and direction control colonization, and that climate change results in regional extinctions, can be explained. Vertical cliffs, which lack snow cover and are perpetually dry, are devoid of organisms. Boulder tops and edges can trap snow, but gravity and wind prevent excessive buildup. There, the organisms flourish. In places where snow-thinning cannot occur and snow drifts collect, rocks may contain living or dead communities. In light of these observations, the possibility of finding extraterrestrial endolithic communities on Mars cannot be eliminated.

  12. Data on the changes of the mussels׳ metabolic profile under different cold storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta Aru

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the main problems of seafood marketing is the ease with which fish and shellfish undergo deterioration after death. 1H NMR spectroscopy and microbiological analysis were applied to get in depth insight into the effects of cold storage (4 °C and 0 °C on the spoilage of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. This data article provides information on the average distribution of the microbial loads in mussels׳ specimens and on the acquisition, processing, and multivariate analysis of the 1H NMR spectra from the hydrosoluble phase of stored mussels. This data article is referred to the research article entitled “Metabolomics analysis of shucked mussels’ freshness” (Aru et al., 2016 [1].

  13. Hot house global climate change and the human condition

    CERN Document Server

    Strom, Robert G

    2007-01-01

    Global warming is addressed by almost all sciences including many aspects of geosciences, atmospheric, the biological sciences, and even astronomy. It has recently become the concern of other diverse disciplines such as economics, agriculture, demographics and population statistics, medicine, engineering, and political science. This book addresses these complex interactions, integrates them, and derives meaningful conclusions and possible solutions. The text provides an easy-to-read explanation of past and present global climate change, causes and possible solutions to the problem, including t

  14. Investigation the Frost Resistance of Vegetative and Reproductive Buds of Pear Cultivars in Mashhad Climate Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shadan khorshidi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Most deciduous trees need low temperature to break flower bud dormancy. One of the most important abiotic stresses is low temperature which limits production of temperate fruits. Pear production has been considerably reduced in recent years. Important pear cultivars show different levels of resistance to cold. Cold compatibility followed by resistance increase is controlled genetically and contains several mechanisms which lead to production of different metabolites such as: polypeptides, amino acids and sugars. The object of this research was to evaluate the frost resistance of different ‘Dare Gazi’ genotypes and other pear cultivars in Mashhad climate condition. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted to investigate the frost resistance of 23 ‘Dare Gazi’ pear genotypes and nine other cultivars include: ‘William’s’, ‘Bell de june’, ‘Spadona’, ‘Koshia’, ‘Domkaj’, ‘Torsh’, ‘Sebri’ and ‘Tabrizi’. Plant material contained vegetative and reproductive buds of one-year-old shoot samples which were collected from 25-year old trees on March 2014, four days after winter cold (-6.6 °C in three directions of trees and sent to the laboratory. Frost damages of vegetative and reproductive buds were investigated based on visual observations (%, electrolyte leakage (EC and proline content. EC was measured with a Metrohm 644 digital conductivity meter and proline content was measured based on Bates et al. (1973 method, using acid ninhydrin. The experiment was performed on completely randomized experimental design with three replications. Statistical analysis was carried out using MSTAT-C and Excel software. Mean values were compared using the least significance difference test (LSD at 1% levels. Cluster analysis was conducted by SPSS 16 program. Results and Discussion: Highest EC of reproductive buds was observed in ‘Dare Gazi’ 10, 19, ‘Tabrizi’ and ‘Torsh’ whereas ‘Dare Gazi’ 8, 18

  15. Behavioral and life history responses to extreme climatic conditions: Studies on a migratory songbird

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Møller

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral responses to environmental change are the mechanisms that allow for rapid phenotypic change preventing temporary or permanent damage and hence preventing reductions in fitness. Extreme climatic events are by definition rare, although they are predicted to increase in amplitude and frequency in the coming years. However, our current knowledge about behavioral responses to such extreme events is scarce. Here I analyze two examples of the effects of extreme weather events on behavior and life history: (1 A comparison of behavior and life history during extremely warm and extremely cold years relative to normal years; and (2 a comparison of behavior before and after the extremely early snowfall in fall 1974 when numerous birds died in the Alps during September-October. Behavioral and life history responses of barn swallows Hirundo rustica to extremely cold and extremely warm years were positively correlated, with particularly large effect sizes in cold years. Extreme mortality in barn swallows during fall migration 1974 in the Alps eliminated more than 40% of the breeding population across large areas in Central and Northern Europe, and this affected first arrival date, changes in timing and extent of reproduction and changes in degree of breeding sociality supposedly as a consequence of correlated responses to selection. Finally, I provide directions for research that will allow us to better understand behavior and life history changes in response to extreme climate change [Current Zoology 57 (3: 351–362, 2011].

  16. Byggmeister Test Home: Cold Climate Multifamily Masonry Building Condition Assessment and Retrofit Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wytrykowska, H.; Ueno, K.; Van Straaten, R.

    2012-09-01

    This report describes a retrofit project undertaken by Building Science Corporation and partner Byggmeister on a multifamily brick row house located in Jamaica Plain, MA. This project studied the row house to determine the right combination of energy efficiency measures that are feasible, affordable, and suitable for this type of construction and acceptable to homeowners.

  17. Byggmeister Test Home. Cold Climate Multifamily Masonry Building Condition Assessment and Retrofit Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wytrykowska, H. [Building Science Corporation (BSC), Somerville, MA (United States); Ueno, K. [Building Science Corporation (BSC), Somerville, MA (United States); Van Straaten, R. [Building Science Corporation (BSC), Somerville, MA (United States)

    2012-09-01

    This report describes a retrofit project undertaken by Building Science Corporation and partner Byggmeister on a multifamily brick row house located in Jamaica Plain, MA. This project studied the row house to determine the right combination of energy efficiency measures that are feasible, affordable, and suitable for this type of construction and acceptable to homeowners.

  18. Cold fluorescent light as major inducer of lipid oxidation in soybean oil stored at household conditions for eight weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignitter, Marc; Stolze, Klaus; Gartner, Stephanie; Dumhart, Bettina; Stoll, Christiane; Steiger, Georg; Kraemer, Klaus; Somoza, Veronika

    2014-03-12

    Light, temperature, and oxygen availability has been shown to promote rancidity in vegetable oils. However, the contribution of each of these environmental factors to lipid oxidation in oil stored under household conditions is not known. We aimed to identify the major inducer of oxidative deterioration of soybean oil stored at constant (67.0 mL) or increasing (67.0-283 mL) headspace volume, 22 or 32 °C, with or without illumination by cold fluorescent light for 56 days by means of fatty acid composition, peroxide value, formation of conjugated dienes, lipid radicals, hexanal, and the decrease in the contents of tocopherols. Soybean oil stored in the dark for 56 days showed an increase of the peroxide value by 124 ± 0.62% (p = 0.006), whereas exposure of the oil to light in a cycle of 12 h light alternating with 12 h darkness for 56 days led to a rise of the peroxide value by 1473 ± 1.79% (p ≤ 0.001). Little effects on the oxidative status of the oil were observed after elevating the temperature from 22 to 32 °C and the headspace volume from 67.0 to 283 mL during 56 days of storage. We conclude that storing soybean oil in transparent bottles under household conditions might pose an increased risk for accelerated lipid oxidation induced by exposure to cold fluorescent light.

  19. Sustainability Challenges from Climate Change and Air Conditioning Use in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Lundgren

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Global climate change increases heat loads in urban areas causing health and productivity risks for millions of people. Inhabitants in tropical and subtropical urban areas are at especial risk due to high population density, already high temperatures, and temperature increases due to climate change. Air conditioning is growing rapidly, especially in South and South-East Asia due to income growth and the need to protect from high heat exposures. Studies have linked increased total hourly electricity use to outdoor temperatures and humidity; modeled future predictions when facing additional heat due to climate change, related air conditioning with increased street level heat and estimated future air conditioning use in major urban areas. However, global and localized studies linking climate variables with air conditioning alone are lacking. More research and detailed data is needed looking at the effects of increasing air conditioning use, electricity consumption, climate change and interactions with the urban heat island effect. Climate change mitigation, for example using renewable energy sources, particularly photovoltaic electricity generation, to power air conditioning, and other sustainable methods to reduce heat exposure are needed to make future urban areas more climate resilient.

  20. The study of climate suitability for grapevine cropping using ecoclimatic indicators under climatic change conditions in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia de Cortazar-Atauri, I.; Caubel, J.; Cufi, J.; Huard, F.; Launay, M.; deNoblet, N.

    2013-12-01

    Climatic conditions play a fundamental role in the suitability of geographical areas for cropping. In the case of grape, climatic conditions such as water supply and temperatures have an effect of grape quality. In the context of climate change, we could expect changes in overall climatic conditions and so, in grape quality. We proposed to use GETARI (Generic Evaluation Tool of Ecoclimatic Indicators) in order to assess the future climate suitability of two French sites for grape (Vitis vinifera) regarding its quality. GETARI calculates an overall climate suitability index at the annual scale, from a designed evaluation tree. This aggregation tool proposes the major ecophysiological processes taking place during phenological periods, together with the climatic effects that are known to affect their achievement. The effects of climate on the ecophysiological processes are captured by the ecoclimatic indicators, which are agroclimatic indicators calculated over phenological periods. They give information about crop response to climate through ecophysiological or agronomic thresholds. These indicators are normalized and aggregated according to aggregation rules in order to compute an overall climate index. To assess the future climate suitability of two French sites for grape regarding its quality, we designed an evaluation tree from GETARI, by considering the effect of water deficit between flowering and veraison and the effect of water deficit, water excess, heat stress, temperature ranges between day and night, night temperatures and mean temperatures between veraison and harvest. The two sites are located in Burgundy and Rhone valley which are two of the most important vineyards in the world. Ecoclimatic indicators are calculated using phenological cycle of the crop. For this reason we chose Grenache and Pinot Noir as long and short cycle varieties respectively. Flowering, veraison and harvest dates were simulated (Parker et al., 2011; Yiou et al., 2012). Daily

  1. Optimization of first order decay gas generation model parameters for landfills located in cold semi-arid climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Hoang Lan; Ng, Kelvin Tsun Wai; Richter, Amy

    2017-11-01

    Canada has one of the highest waste generation rates in the world. Because of high land availability, land disposal rates in the province of Saskatchewan are high compared to the rest of the country. In this study, landfill gas data was collected at semi-arid landfills in Regina and Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, and curve fitting was carried out to find optimal k and Lo or DOC values using LandGEM, Afvalzorg Simple, and IPCC first order decay models. Model parameters at each landfill were estimated and compared using default k and Lo or DOC values. Methane generation rates were substantially overestimated using default values (with percentage errors from 55 to 135%). The mean percentage errors for the optimized k and Lo or DOC values ranged from 11.60% to 19.93% at the Regina landfill, and 1.65% to 10.83% at the Saskatoon landfill. Finally, the effect of different iterative methods on the curve fitting process was examined. The residual sum of squares for each model and iterative approaches were similar, with the exception of iterative method 1 for the IPCC model. The default values in these models fail to represent landfills located in cold semi-arid climates. The use of site specific data, provided enough information is available regarding waste mass and composition, can greatly help to improve the accuracy of these first order decay models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A plant to plate pilot: a cold-climate high school garden increased vegetable selection but also waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wansink, Brian; Hanks, Andrew S; Just, David R

    2015-08-01

    Can high school gardens in cold climates influence vegetable intake in the absence of nutrition education? This study followed a before/after design where student tray-waste data were collected using the quarter-waste method. The study took place March-April 2012 in a high school in upstate New York. The subjects were 370 enrolled high school students that purchased lunch from the school cafeteria. Prior to the introduction of garden greens in the salad, salads were served as usual. On April 24, harvested greens were included in the salad, and changes in selection and plate waste were measured. When the salad bar contained garden produce, the percentage of students selecting salad rose from 2% to 10% (p school gardens increased selection and intake of school-raised produce. Although a third was not eaten, it is promising to see that still more produce was consumed compared to the past. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Transformational leadership climate : Performance linkages, mechanisms, and boundary conditions at the organizational level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menges, J.; Walter, F.; Vogel, B.; Bruch, H.

    2011-01-01

    Transformational leadership (TFL) climate describes the degree to which leaders throughout an organization engage in TFL behaviors. In this study, we investigate performance linkages, mechanisms, and boundary conditions of TFL climate at the organizational level of analysis. In a sample of 158

  4. Cold climate performance analysis of on-site domestic wastewater treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Eric

    2010-06-01

    Household on-site septic systems with secondary wastewater treatment in Anchorage, Alaska, were sampled and analyzed for performance parameters during the winter to spring months. System types included intermittent dosing sand filters (ISF), three types of recirculating trickling filters (RTF), and suspended-growth aeration tanks. Total nitrogen from the trickling filter and aeration tank effluent was fairly uniform, at approximately 30 mg/L. Total suspended solids (TSS) means were mostly less than 15 mg/L. The 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BODs) showed considerable variability, with means ranging from 9.2 mg/ L for ISFs up to 39.5 mg/L for one type of RTF, even though this type has shown excellent results in several test programs. The data suggested that effluent temperature within the sample range had almost no effect on effluent concentrations of BOD5 or TSS and only a small effect on the removal of total nitrogen. Non-climatic factors were probably of equal importance to treatment results.

  5. Cold climate during the closest Stage 11 analog to recent Millennia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddiman, William F.

    2005-05-01

    The early part of marine isotopic Stage 11 near 400,000 years ago provides the closest analog to Holocene insolation levels of any interglaciation during the era of strong 100,000-year climatic cycles. The CH 4 concentration measured in Vostok ice fell to ˜450 ppb, and CO 2 values to ˜250 ppm. These natural decreases contrast with the increases in recent millennia and support the early anthropogenic hypothesis of major gas emissions from late-Holocene farming. During the same interval, δD values fell from typical interglacial to nearly glacial values, indicating a major cooling in Antarctica early in Stage 11. Other evidence suggests that new ice was accumulating during the closest insolation analog to the present day: a major increase in δ18O atm at Vostok, a similar increase in marine δ18O values, and re-initiation of ice rafting in the Nordic Sea. The evidence permits extended (>20,000 year) intervals of Stage 11 interglacial warmth in the Antarctic and North Atlantic, yet it also requires that this warmth ended and a new glacial era began when insolation was most similar to recent millennia. The Holocene CO 2 anomaly was produced only in part by direct anthropogenic emissions; over half of the anomaly resulted from the failure of CO 2 values to fall as they had during previous interglaciations because of natural responses, including a sea-ice advance in the Antarctic and ice-sheet growth in the northern hemisphere.

  6. Thermal comfort in air-conditioned buildings in hot and humid climates--why are we not getting it right?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhar, S C

    2016-02-01

    While there are plenty of anecdotal experiences of overcooled buildings in summer, evidence from field studies suggests that there is indeed an issue of overcooling in tropical buildings. The findings suggest that overcooled buildings are not a consequence of occupant preference but more like an outcome of the HVAC system design and operation. Occupants' adaptation in overcooled indoor environments through additional clothing cannot be regarded as an effective mitigating strategy for cold thermal discomfort. In the last two decades or so, several field studies and field environmental chamber studies in the tropics provided evidence for occupants' preference for a warmer temperature with adaptation methods such as elevated air speeds. It is important to bear in mind that indoor humidity levels are not compromised as they could have an impact on the inhaled air condition that could eventually affect perceived air quality. This review article has attempted to track significant developments in our understanding of the thermal comfort issues in air-conditioned office and educational buildings in hot and humid climates in the last 25 years, primarily on occupant preference for thermal comfort in such climates. The issue of overcooled buildings, by design intent or otherwise, is discussed in some detail. Finally, the article has explored some viable adaptive thermal comfort options that show considerable promise for not only improving thermal comfort in tropical buildings but are also energy efficient and could be seen as sustainable solutions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. High Energy-Efficient Windows with Silica Aerogel for Building Refurbishment: Experimental Characterization and Preliminary Simulations in Different Climate Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Buratti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the potential of high energy-efficient windows with granular silica aerogel for energy saving in building refurbishment. Different glazing systems were investigated considering two kinds of granular silica aerogel and different glass layers. Thermal transmittance and optical properties of the samples were measured and used in building simulations. The aerogel impact on heat transfer is remarkable, allowing a thermal transmittance of 1.0–1.1 W/(m2·K with granular aerogel in interspace only 15 mm in thickness. A 63% reduction in U-value was achieved when compared to the corresponding conventional windows, together with a significant reduction (30% in light transmittance. When assembled with a low-e glass, the U-value reduction was lower (31%, but a moderate reduction in light transmittance (about 10% was observed for larger granules. Energy simulations for a case study in different climate conditions (hot, moderate, and cold showed a reduction in energy demand both for heating and cooling for silica aerogel glazing systems, when compared to the conventional ones. The new glazings are a suitable solution for building refurbishment, thanks to low U-values and total solar transmittance, also in warm climate conditions.

  8. Projected climatic changes on drought conditions over Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Valdecasas Ojeda, Matilde; Quishpe-Vásquez, César; Raquel Gámiz-Fortis, Sonia; Castro-Díez, Yolanda; Jesús Esteban-Parra, María

    2017-04-01

    In a context of global warming, the evapotranspiration processes will have a strong influence on drought severity. For this reason, the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) was computed at different timescales in order to explore the projected drought changes for the main watersheds in Spain. For that, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model has been used in order to obtain current (1980-2010) and future (2021-2050 and 2071-2100) climate output fields. WRF model was used over a domain that spans the Iberian Peninsula with a spatial resolution of 0.088°, and nested in the coarser 0.44° EURO-CORDEX domain, and driving by the global bias-corrected climate model output data from version 1 of NCAR's Community Earth System Model (CESM1), using two different Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios: RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5. Besides, to examine the behavior of this drought index, a comparison with the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), which does not consider the evapotranspiration effects, was also performed. Additionally the relationship between the SPEI index and the soil moisture has also been analyzed. The results of this study suggest an increase in the severity and duration of drought, being larger when the SPEI index is used to define drought events. This fact confirms the relevance of taking into account the evapotranspiration processes to detect future drought events. The results also show a noticeable relationship between the SPEI and the simulated soil moisture content, which is more significant at higher timescales. Keywords: Drought, SPEI, SPI, Climatic change, Projections, WRF. Acknowledgements: This work has been financed by the projects P11-RNM-7941 (Junta de Andalucía-Spain) and CGL2013-48539-R (MINECO-Spain, FEDER).

  9. The Behaviour of the Pigs Housed in Hot Climatic Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Ondrej Debreceni; Andrea Lehotayová; Ondřej Bučko; Juraj Petrák

    2014-01-01

    The effect of high temperature on the behaviour of growing-finishing pigs was studied. The pigs were housed in a climate controlled chamber, the air temperature was kept constant at 30°C and the relative humidity was 32.5% during the whole 3 months. Aggressive behaviour and daily activities of the pigs were recorded during the light hours, from 6:00 till 18:00. Detailed observations showed that during the experiment, the pigs were most of the time lying (72%, P

  10. Sealed Crawl Spaces with Integrated Whole-House Ventilation in a Cold Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoeller, William [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Williamson, James [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Puttafunta, Srikanth [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-07-30

    One method of code-compliance for crawlspaces is to seal and insulate the crawlspace, rather than venting to the outdoors. However, codes require mechanical ventilation; either via conditioned supply air from the HVAC system, or a continuous exhaust ventilation strategy. As the CARB's building partner, Ithaca Neighborhood Housing Services, intended to use the unvented crawlspace in a recent

  11. Performance and Modelling of a Highway Wet Detention Pond Designed for Cold Climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollertsen, Jes; Åstebøl, Svein Ole; Coward, Jan Emil

    2009-01-01

    A wet detention pond in Norway has been monitored for 12 months. The pond receives runoff from a highway with a traffic load of 42,000 average daily traffic. Hydraulic conditions in terms of inflow, outflow, and pond water level were recorded every minute. Water quality was monitored by volume...

  12. A study of the passive cooling potential in simulated building in Latvian climate conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prozuments, A.; Vanags, I.; Borodinecs, A.; Millers, R.; Tumanova, K.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper authors point out that overheating in buildings during summer season is a major problem in moderate and cold climates, not only in warm climate zones. Mostly caused by solar heat gains, especially in buildings with large glazed areas overheating is a common problem in recently constructed low-energy buildings. At the same time, comfort demands are increasing. While heating loads can be decreased by improving the insulation of the building envelope, cooling loads are also affecting total energy demand. Passive cooling solutions allow reduction of heat gains, and thus reducing the cooling loads. There is a significant night cooling potential with low temperatures at night during summer in moderate and cold climates. Night cooling is based on cooling of buildings thermal mass during the night and heat accumulation during the day. This approach allows to provide thermal comfort, reducing cooling loads during the day. Authors investigate thermal comfort requirements and causes for discomfort. Passive cooling methods are described. The simulation modeling is carried out to analyze impact of constructions and building orientation on energy consumption for cooling using the IDA-ICE software. Main criteria for simulation analysis are energy consumption for cooling and thermal comfort.

  13. Tourism and climate conditions in San Juan, Puerto Rico, 2000-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo A. Méndez-Lázaro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The general behavior of the tourism sector in Puerto Rico, with its marked seasonality, hints at a close relationship between tourism activities and climate conditions. Even if weather condition is only one of many variables considered by travelling tourists, climate conditions weigh heavily in the majority of the decisions. The effect of climate variability on the environment could be manifested in warmer temperature, heat waves, and changes in the frequency of extreme weather events, such as severe storms and hurricanes, floods, and sea level rise. These conditions affect different sectors of society, among them public health and the economy. Therefore, our research has two main objectives: to establish a tourism climate index (TCI for Puerto Rico and to analyze if occupancy rates in hotels correspond to local weather conditions. Even though there are many other variables that could have positive or negative effects on tourism activities, results showed a significant association between occupancy rate in Puerto Rico and climate indexes. According to both TCI and the mean historical climate for tourism indexes, the most favorable months for tourism in Puerto Rico were February and March (winter, whereas the worst season was the end of August and the beginning of September (summer-fall. Although winter represents dry conditions and lower temperatures in San Juan, it also represents the highest occupancy rate during the years examined. In summer and fall, data showed high occupancy rates, yet climate conditions were not suitable; these months also correspond to the hurricane season. During this season, high relative occupancy rates responded to internal and local tourism patterns. It can therefore be assumed that until the climate-tourism relationship is well characterized, there is little hope of fully understanding the potential economic effects, detrimental or beneficial, of global climate change, not only on tourism in Puerto Rico, but on

  14. In situ warming and soil venting to enhance the biodegradation of JP-4 in cold climates: A critical study and analysis. Master`s thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, R.D.

    1995-12-01

    In cold climates, bioremediation is limited to the summer when soil temperatures are sufficient to support microbial growth. Laboratory studies directly correlate increased biodegradation rates with temperature. By raising soil temperatures, in situ jet fuel remediation can be accelerated which was shown by a bioventing project conducted in 1991 at Eielson AFB, Alaska, where three soil warming techniques were used. This study critically analyzes the project data to determine its effectiveness in enhancing biodegradation. This study also models the temperature-biodegradation relationship at the test plots using the van`t Hoff-Arrhenius equation. Using paired oxygen consumption rates and temperatures, application of the equation was valid only for the warm water and passive warming plots. This study demonstrates that bioremediation is feasible in cold climates and can be enhanced by soil warming. Soil warming can significantly decrease remediation time with acceptable cost increases.

  15. Using ORYZA2000 to model cold rice yield response to climate change in the Heilongjiang province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingting Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Rice (Oryza sativa L. is one of the most important staple crops in China. Increasing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations and associated climate change may greatly affect rice production. We assessed the potential impacts of climate change on cold rice production in the Heilongjiang province, one of China's most important rice production regions. Data for a baseline period (1961–1990 and the period 2010–2050 in A2 and B2 scenarios were used as input to drive the rice model ORYZA2000 with and without accounting for the effects of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration. The results indicate that mean, maximum, and minimum temperature during the rice growing season, in the future period considered, would increase by 1.8 °C under the A2 scenario and by 2.2 °C under the B2 scenario compared with those in the baseline. The rate of change in average maximum and minimum temperatures would increase by 0.6 °C per 10-year period under the A2 scenario and by 0.4 °C per 10-year period under the B2 scenario. Precipitation would increase slightly in the rice growing season over the next 40 years. The rice growing season would be shortened and the yield would increase in most areas in the Heilongjiang province. Without accounting for CO2 effect, the rice growing season in the period 2010–2050 would be shortened by 4.7 and 5.8 days, and rice yields would increase by 11.9% and 7.9%, under the A2 and B2 scenarios, respectively. Areas with simulated rice yield increases greater than 30.0% were in the Xiaoxing'an Mountain region. The simulation indicated a decrease in yield of less than 15% in the southwestern Songnen Plain. The rate of change in simulated rice yield was 5.0% and 2.5% per 10 years under the A2 and B2 scenarios, respectively. When CO2 effect was accounted for, rice yield increased by 44.5% and 31.3% under the A2 and B2 scenarios, respectively. The areas of increasing yield were sharply expanded. The area of decreasing yield in the

  16. Marine water quality under climate change conditions/scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Jonathan; Torresan, Silvia; Critto, Andrea; Zabeo, Alex; Brigolin, Daniele; Carniel, Sandro; Pastres, Roberto; Marcomini, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    The increase of sea temperature and the changes in marine currents are generating impacts on coastal waters such as changes in water biogeochemical and physical parameters (e.g. primary production, pH, salinity) leading to progressive degradation of the marine environment. With the main aim of analysing the potential impacts of climate change on coastal water quality, a Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology was developed and applied to coastal marine waters of the North Adriatic (i.e. coastal water bodies of the Veneto and Friuli Venezia Giulia regions, Italy). RRA integrates the outputs of regional models providing information on macronutrients (i.e. dissolved inorganic nitrogen e reactive phosphorus), dissolved oxygen, pH, salinity and temperature, etc., under future climate change scenarios with site-specific environmental and socio-economic indicators (e.g. biotic index, presence and extension of seagrasses, presence of aquaculture). The presented approach uses Geographic Information Systems to manage, analyse, and visualize data and employs Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis for the integration of stakeholders preferences and experts judgments into the evaluation process. RRA outputs are hazard, exposure, vulnerability, risk and damage maps useful for the identification and prioritization of hot-spot areas and vulnerable targets in the considered region. Therefore, the main aim of this contribution is to apply the RRA methodology to integrate, visualize, and rank according to spatial distribution, physical and chemical data concerning the coastal waters of the North Adriatic Sea in order to predict possible changes of the actual water quality.

  17. Enzymatic hydrolysis as a means of expanding the cold gelation conditions of soy proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Bas J H; van Koningsveld, Gerrit A; Alting, Arno C; Driehuis, Frank; Gruppen, Harry; Voragen, Alphons G J

    2005-02-23

    Acid-induced cold gelation of soy protein hydrolysates was studied. Hydrolysates with degrees of hydrolysis (DH) of up to 10% were prepared by using subtilisin Carlsberg. The enzyme was inhibited to uncouple the hydrolysis from the subsequent gelation; the latter was induced by the addition of glucono-delta-lactone. Visual observations, confocal scanning laser microscopy images, and the elasticity modulus showed that hydrolysates gelled at higher pH values with increasing DH. The nonhydrolyzed soy protein isolate gelled at pH approximately 6.0, whereas a DH = 5% hydrolysate gelled at pH approximately 7.6. Gels made from hydrolysates had a softer texture when manually disrupted and showed syneresis below a pH of 5-5.5. Monitoring of gelation by measuring the development of the storage modulus could be replaced by measuring the pH onset of aggregate formation (pH(Aggr-onset)) using turbidity measurements. The rate of acidification was observed to also influence this pH(Aggr-onset). Changes in ionic strength (0.03, 0.2, and 0.5 M) had only a minor influence on the pH(Aggr-onset), indicating that the aggregation is not simply a balance between repulsive electrostatic and attractive hydrophobic interactions, but is much more complex.

  18. Sealed Crawl Spaces with Integrated Whole-House Ventilation in a Cold Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoeller, William [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States); Williamson, James [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States); Puttagunta, Srikanth [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2015-07-01

    One method of code-compliance for crawlspaces is to seal and insulate the crawlspace, rather than venting to the outdoors. However, codes require mechanical ventilation; either via conditioned supply air from the HVAC system, or a continuous exhaust ventilation strategy. As the CARB's building partner, Ithaca Neighborhood Housing Services, intended to use the unvented crawlspace in a recent development, CARB was interested in investigating a hybrid ventilation method that includes the exhaust air from the crawlspace as a portion of an ASHRAE 62.2 compliant whole-house ventilation strategy. This hybrid ventilation method was evaluated through a series of long-term monitoring tests that observed temperature, humidity, and pressure conditions through the home and crawlspace.

  19. Field Testing Unvented Roofs with Asphalt Shingles in Cold and Hot-Humid Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, Kohta [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lstiburek, Joseph W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Insulating roofs with dense-pack cellulose (instead of spray foam) has moisture risks, but is a lower cost approach. If moisture risks could be addressed, buildings could benefit from retrofit options, and the ability to bring HVAC systems within the conditioned space. Test houses with unvented roof assemblies were built to measure long-term moisture performance, in the Chicago area (5A) and the Houston area (2A). The Chicago-area test bed had seven experimental rafter bays, including a control vented compact roof, and six unvented roof variants with cellulose or fiberglass insulation. The interior was run at 50% RH. All roofs except the vented cathedral assembly experienced wood moisture contents and RH levels high enough to constitute failure. Disassembly at the end of the experiment showed that the unvented fiberglass roofs had wet sheathing and mold growth. In contrast, the cellulose roofs only had slight issues, such as rusted fasteners and sheathing grain raise. The Houston-area roof was an unvented attic insulated with spray-applied fiberglass. Most ridges and hips were built with a diffusion vent detail, capped with vapor permeable roof membrane. Some ridge sections were built as a conventional unvented roof, as a control. In the control unvented roofs, roof peak RHs reached high levels in the first winter; as exterior conditions warmed, RHs quickly fell. In contrast, the diffusion vent roofs had drier conditions at the roof peak in wintertime, but during the summer, RHs and MCs were higher than the unvented roof (albeit in the safe range).

  20. Changes in Spatiotemporal Precipitation Patterns in Changing Climate Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Won; Stein, Michael L.; Wang, Jiali; Kotamarthi, V. Rao; Moyer, Elisabeth J.

    2016-12-01

    Climate models robustly imply that some significant change in precipitation patterns will occur. Models consistently project that the intensity of individual precipitation events increases by approximately 6-7%/K, following the increase in atmospheric water content, but that total precipitation increases by a lesser amount (2-3%/K in the global average). Some other aspect of precipitation events must then change to compensate for this difference. We develop here a new methodology for identifying individual rainstorms and studying their physical characteristics - including starting location, intensity, spatial extent, duration, and trajectory - that allows identifying that compensating mechanism. We apply this technique to precipitation over the contiguous U.S. from both radar-based data products and high-resolution model runs simulating 100 years of business-as-usual warming. In model studies, we find that the dominant compensating mechanism is a reduction of storm size. In summer, rainstorms become more intense but smaller; in winter, rainstorm shrinkage still dominates, but storms also become less numerous and shorter duration. These results imply that flood impacts from climate change will be less severe than would be expected from changes in precipitation intensity alone. We show also that projected changes are smaller than model-observation biases, implying that the best means of incorporating them into impact assessments is via "data-driven simulations" that apply model-projected changes to observational data. We therefore develop a simulation algorithm that statistically describes model changes in precipitation characteristics and adjusts data accordingly, and show that, especially for summertime precipitation, it outperforms simulation approaches that do not include spatial information.

  1. Reactive Desorption of CO Hydrogenation Products under Cold Pre-stellar Core Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, K.-J.; Fedoseev, G.; Qasim, D.; Ioppolo, S.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Linnartz, H.

    2018-02-01

    The astronomical gas-phase detection of simple species and small organic molecules in cold pre-stellar cores, with abundances as high as ∼10‑8–10‑9 n H, contradicts the generally accepted idea that at 10 K, such species should be fully frozen out on grain surfaces. A physical or chemical mechanism that results in a net transfer from solid-state species into the gas phase offers a possible explanation. Reactive desorption, i.e., desorption following the exothermic formation of a species, is one of the options that has been proposed. In astronomical models, the fraction of molecules desorbed through this process is handled as a free parameter, as experimental studies quantifying the impact of exothermicity on desorption efficiencies are largely lacking. In this work, we present a detailed laboratory study with the goal of deriving an upper limit for the reactive desorption efficiency of species involved in the CO–H2CO–CH3OH solid-state hydrogenation reaction chain. The limit for the overall reactive desorption fraction is derived by precisely investigating the solid-state elemental carbon budget, using reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy and the calibrated solid-state band-strength values for CO, H2CO and CH3OH. We find that for temperatures in the range of 10 to 14 K, an upper limit of 0.24 ± 0.02 for the overall elemental carbon loss upon CO conversion into CH3OH. This corresponds with an effective reaction desorption fraction of ≤0.07 per hydrogenation step, or ≤0.02 per H-atom induced reaction, assuming that H-atom addition and abstraction reactions equally contribute to the overall reactive desorption fraction along the hydrogenation sequence. The astronomical relevance of this finding is discussed.

  2. What drives cold-related excess mortality in a south Asian tropical monsoon climate-season vs. temperatures and diurnal temperature changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkart, Katrin; Kinney, Patrick L

    2017-06-01

    Despite the tropical climate which is characterized by generally high temperatures and persistent mild temperatures during the winter season, Bangladesh, along with many other tropical countries, experiences strong winter and cold-related excess mortality. The objective of this paper was to analyse the nature of these cold effects and understand the role of season vs. temperature and diurnal changes in temperature. For approaching these questions, we applied different Poisson regression models. Temperature as well as diurnal temperature range (DTR) were considered as predictor variables. Different approaches to seasonality adjustment were evaluated and special consideration was given to seasonal differences in atmospheric effects. Our findings show that while seasonality adjustment affected the magnitude of cold effects, cold-related mortality persisted regardless the adjustment approach. Strongest effects of low temperatures were observed at the same day (lag 1) with an increase of 1.7% (95% CI = 0.86-2.54%) per 1 °C decrease in temperature during the winter season. Diurnal temperature affected mortality with increasing levels at higher ranges. Mortality increased with 0.97% (95% CI = 0.17-1.75%) when looking at the entire season, but effects of DTR were not significant during winter when running a seasonal model. Different from effects observed in the mid-latitudes, cold effects in Bangladesh occurred on a very short time scale highlighting the role of temperature versus season. Insufficient adaptation with regard to housing and clothing might lead to such cold-related increases in mortality despite rather moderate temperature values. Although the study did not demonstrate an effect of DTR during the cold season, the strong correlation with (minimum) temperature might cause a multicollinearity problem and effects are difficult to attribute to one driver.

  3. Environmental impacts of barley cultivation under current and future climatic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dijkman, Teunis Johannes; Birkved, Morten; Saxe, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to compare the environmental impacts of spring barley cultivation in Denmark under current (year 2010) and future (year 2050) climatic conditions. Therefore, a Life Cycle Assessment was carried out for the production of 1 kg of spring barley in Denmark, at farm gate....... Both under 2010 and 2050 climatic conditions, four subscenarios were modelled, based on a combination of two soil types and two climates. Included in the assessment were seed production, soil preparation, fertilization, pesticide application, and harvest. When processes in the life cycle resulted in co...

  4. Validity of Differently Bias-Corrected Regional Climate Model Simulations for Streamflow Simulations under Changing Climate Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teutschbein, C.; Seibert, J.

    2012-04-01

    The direct application of Regional Climate Model (RCM) simulations in hydrological climate-change impact studies can be questionable due to the potential risk for considerable biases. Several bias correction approaches - ranging from simple scaling to rather sophisticated methods - have been developed to help impact modelers coping with the various problems linked to biased RCM output. The main disadvantage of any of these correction procedures is their underlying assumption of stationarity: the correction algorithm and its parameterization for current climate are expected to also be valid for future climate conditions. Whether or not this presupposition is actually fulfilled for future conditions cannot be evaluated - given our lack of time machines. Nevertheless, systematic testing of how well bias correction procedures perform for conditions different from those used for calibration can be done by applying a differential split-sample as proposed by Klemeš ["Operational testing of hydrological simulation models", Hydrological Sciences Journal 31, no. 1 (1986): 13-24]. This contribution summarizes shortly available bias correction methods and demonstrates their application using the example of an ensemble of 11 different RCM-simulated temperature and precipitation series. We then applied a differential split-sample test which enabled us to evaluate the performance of different bias correction procedures under changing climate conditions with only a limited amount of data (30-year records). Furthermore, we evaluated the different correction methods based on their combined influence on hydrological simulations of monthly mean streamflow as well as spring and autumn flood peaks for five meso-scale catchments in Sweden under current (1961-1990) and future (2021-2050) climate conditions. This differential split-sample test resulted in a large spread and a clear bias for some of the correction methods during validation based on an independent data set. More

  5. Field Testing Unvented Roofs with Asphalt Shingles in Cold and Hot-Humid Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, Kohta [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States); Lstiburek, Joseph W. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Test houses with unvented roof assemblies were built to measure long-term moisture performance, in the Chicago area (5A) and the Houston area (2A). The Chicago-area test bed had seven experimental rafter bays, including a control vented compact roof, and six unvented roof variants with cellulose or fiberglass insulation. The interior was run at 50% RH. The Houston-area roof was an unvented attic insulated with spray-applied fiberglass. Most ridges and hips were built with a diffusion vent detail, capped with vapor permeable roof membrane. In contrast, the diffusion vent roofs had drier conditions at the roof peak in wintertime, but during the summer, RHs and MCs were higher than the unvented roof (albeit in the safe range).

  6. Impact of mitigation strategies on icing accumulation rate for wind turbines in cold climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraj, A.G.; Bibeau, E.L [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Icing of wind power equipment can cause non-optimized power generation and lead to safety problems. Ice accumulation changes the aerodynamic profile shape of turbine blades. With a less effective lift-to-drag ratio, the turbine is not capable of efficient wind energy production. This presentation provided details of an experiment conducted to evaluate icing mitigation strategies to reduce the negative icing characteristics on turbine blade surfaces and prevent or delay ice accretion. Both glaze and rime icing regimes were described. A review of various de-icing strategies included aerospace applications; complex thermo-fluid dynamic systems; reducing ice-adhesion force; coatings; and traditional wire heaters. Both icephobic and hydrophobic coatings were considered to improve resistance of ice accretion and adhesion to the aerofoil surface. Finely dispersed metal coated carbon fibres which allowed heat to be generated at the point of use were also considered. Experiments were performed at the University of Manitoba Icing Tunnel Facility. Icing was conducted by cooled airflows and water droplets from a spray-bar. Variables included glaze and rime ice conditions; plain, icephobic and hydrophobic coatings; de-icing and anti-icing thermal regimes; and various combinations of the above de-icing methods. A high speed camera and data acquisition system was used over a period of 20 minutes to observe ice profile shape changes. Ice adhesion force, accumulation amounts, and accumulation rates were measured. Results showed that glaze icing responded best with a hydrophobic coating combined with a de-icing regime. Rime icing responded best with an icephobic coating and an anti-icing regime. It was concluded that a combination of mitigation strategies must be designed for the climatological conditions best suited for their use and within their scope of capability. refs., tabs., figs.

  7. Climatic Droughts conditions in US during the Past Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Y.; Apurv, T.; Cai, X.

    2015-12-01

    It has been debated whether drought has become more severe under climate change. Different data sources of Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) have been used to address the issue. This study assesses drought frequency in the continental US using two PDSI datasets (generated by Sheffield et al., 2012 and Dai, 2013). The uni-variate return period for three drought characteristics (duration, severity and intensity) and the bi-variate return period based on the Copulas distribution for combinations of duration and severity/intensity are generated in a time series of sequential moving windows with a horizon of 40 years (1900-1939, 1901-1940, …, 1973-2012). This time series will allow us to analyze both short-term (e.g., 10-year) and long-term (e.g., 100-year) droughts. A change point detection method is applied to the generated time series to detect both abrupt and gradual changes of drought in terms of return periods. The detection results can tell whether short-term (e.g., 5-year return period) or long-term (e.g., 100-year return period) droughts have occurred with larger intensity, longer duration, and/or higher severity and when a trend, if existing, in those characteristics began or stopped (e.g., the increasing trend of intensity levels at all return periods began around 1970 at a location in Northern California as shown in Figure 1a). We find some different results when comparing short- and long-term drought events. For examples, the levels of duration, severity and intensity for short-term (e.g., 5-year and 10-year return period) and long-term (e.g., 50-year and 100-year return period) drought events experienced different trends in central Colorado (Figure 1b). This presentation will provide the results for the entire continental U.S. and especially the spatial heterogeneity and distribution of the changes. References A. Dai, Nature Climate Change, 3, 52-58 (2013). J. Sheffield, E.F. Wood, M. L. Roderick, Nature, 491, 435-438 (2012) Figure 1. Levels of

  8. Retrofitting a 1960s Split-Level, Cold-Climate Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puttagunta, Srikanth [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-07-13

    National programs such as Home Performance with ENERGY STAR® and numerous other utility air-sealing programs have made homeowners aware of the benefits of energy-efficiency retrofits. Yet these programs tend to focus only on the low-hanging fruit: they recommend air sealing the thermal envelope and ductwork where accessible, switching to efficient lighting and low-flow fixtures, and improving the efficiency of mechanical systems (though insufficient funds or lack of knowledge to implement these improvements commonly prevent the implementation of these higher cost upgrades). At the other end of the spectrum, various utilities across the country are encouraging deep energy retrofit programs. Although deep energy retrofits typically seek 50% energy savings, they are often quite costly and are most applicable to gut-rehab projects. A significant potential for lowering energy use in existing homes lies between the lowhanging fruit and deep energy retrofit approaches—retrofits that save approximately 30% in energy compared to the pre-retrofit conditions. The energy-efficiency measures need to be nonintrusive so the retrofit projects can be accomplished in occupied homes.

  9. Condition and biochemical profile of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) cultured at different depths in a cold water coastal environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardi, Daria; Mills, Terry; Donnet, Sebastien; Parrish, Christopher C.; Murray, Harry M.

    2017-08-01

    The growth and health of cultured blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) are affected by environmental conditions. Typically, culture sites are situated in sheltered areas near shore (i.e., conflicts and environmental impact in coastal areas are concerns and interest in developing deep water (> 20 m depth) mussel culture has been growing. This study evaluated the effect of culture depth on blue mussels in a cold water coastal environment (Newfoundland, Canada). Culture depth was examined over two years from September 2012 to September 2014; mussels from three shallow water (5 m) and three deep water (15 m) sites were compared for growth and biochemical composition; culture depths were compared for temperature and chlorophyll a. Differences between the two years examined were noted, possibly due to harsh winter conditions in the second year of the experiment. In both years shallow and deep water mussels presented similar condition; in year 2 deep water mussels had a significantly better biochemical profile. Lipid and glycogen analyses showed seasonal variations, but no significant differences between shallow and deep water were noted. Fatty acid profiles showed a significantly higher content of omega-3 s (20:5ω3; EPA) and lower content of bacterial fatty acids in deep water sites in year 2. Everything considered, deep water appeared to provide a more favorable environment for mussel growth than shallow water under harsher weather conditions.

  10. The Behaviour of the Pigs Housed in Hot Climatic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondrej Debreceni

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of high temperature on the behaviour of growing-finishing pigs was studied. The pigs were housed in a climate controlled chamber, the air temperature was kept constant at 30°C and the relative humidity was 32.5% during the whole 3 months. Aggressive behaviour and daily activities of the pigs were recorded during the light hours, from 6:00 till 18:00. Detailed observations showed that during the experiment, the pigs were most of the time lying (72%, P<0.001. Pigs spent more time lying on the floor without bedding (86.65%, P<0.01 compared to floor with bedding (13.35%, P<0.001. The second activity, which occurred most after lying was eating (16%, P<0.001 then standing (10%, P<0.001. From all observation activities, the least amount of time the pigs were sitting (1% and moving (1%. Drinking and social contacts – aggression were less frequent. After the each week, a significant decrease in aggression was recorded (P<0.001, an aggressive contacts occurred mainly during the eating and drinking. The pigs were active with peaks in the morning and afternoon. This study confirms that the high temperature influences the behaviour of the animals; the pigs are not very active, the most of the time they are lying on the cool places without bedding.

  11. A One-Dimensional Flow Model with Adiabatic Friction for Rapid Estimation of Cold Spray Flow Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hezhou; Yin, Yanhua; Wang, Jianfeng

    2015-08-01

    While commercially available computational fluid dynamic packages are employed nowadays to analyze the spraying behavior of the cold spray (CS) system and optimize the nozzle geometry design, using these packages is often prohibitive because of complex computational resource requirements and expensive copyright licenses. This paper proposes a quick and economical method for predicting the performance of the CS system, while asking for minimal computational resource. A one-dimensional adiabatic friction model with the consideration of friction was developed to calculate the critical pressure of nozzles under different expansion ratios and the gas/particle velocity at different spraying conditions. The accuracy of the critical pressure calculation was evidenced by polymeric nozzle destructive tests. The particle velocities achieved from the nozzles with different expansion ratios were measured and compared with the velocity values calculated by the model. The suggested adiabatic friction model is validated by the well-matched values between the calculated results and the experimental data.

  12. EXTREME WINTERS IN XX–XXI CENTURIES AS INDICATORS OF SNOWINESS AND AVALANCHE HAZARD IN THE PAST AND EXPECTED CLIMATE CHANGE CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Oleynikov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, due to the global climate change and increasing frequency of weather events focus is on prediction of climate extremes. Large-scale meteorological anomalies can cause long-term paralysis of social and economic infrastructure of the major mountain regions and even individual states. In winter periods, these anomalies are associated with prolonged heavy snowfalls and associated with them catastrophic avalanches which cause significant social and economic damage. The climate system maintains a certain momentum during periods of adjustment and transition to other conditions in the ratio of heat and moisture and contains a climate «signal» of the climates of the past and the future. In our view seasonal and yearly extremes perform the role of these indicators, study of which enables for a deeper understanding and appreciation of the real situation of the climate periods related to the modern ones. The paper provides an overview of the criteria for selection of extreme winters. Identification of extremely cold winters during the period of instrumental observation and assessment of their snowiness and avalanche activity done for the Elbrus region, which is a model site for study of the avalanche regime in the Central Caucasus. The studies aim to identify the extreme winters in the Greater Caucasus, assess their frequency of occurrence, characterize the scale and intensity of the avalanche formation. The data obtained can be used to identify winter-analogues in the reconstruction and long-term forecast of avalanches. 

  13. Testing of different soil combinations as substrates in slalom slopes and golf courses in the cold climate environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihlaja, Jouni

    2010-05-01

    Testing of different soil combinations as substrates in slalom slopes and golf courses in the cold climate environment Jouni Pihlaja, Geological Survey of Finland, Northern Finland Office, P.O. Box 77, FIN-96101 Rovaniemi, Finland. jouni.pihlaja@gtk.fi, www.gtk.fi The Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) is, with some partners, carrying out a cooperative project, POMARA, in the Levi tourist center in northern Finland. The purpose of this applied geology project is to determine which soil combinations work best over the long term as substrates on slalom slopes and golf course areas. Since the tourist center is located in a cold climate area, it gives extra challenges to those landscaping activities. The average temperature in January is about -15°C and in July +14°C. In the Levi area, the slalom slopes have normally been covered by local carex peat during the shaping phase of slopes. The problem has been that on the top part of the fell, the peat has "disappeared" after some years and stones have come up under the peat layer, since these areas are naturally covered by block fields. The main assumption at the beginning of the project was that frost weathering is causing the problems. In this project, test areas have been prepared on the slopes. The most important task is to compare test areas covered by carex peat to areas covered by a combination of sandy till and carex peat. The reason why sandy till was chosen to be the additional material was that it is supposed to stand up better against frost weathering than peat itself. Also, when considering future landscaping, the sandy till is the most economically viable mineral material to be used because of its nearby location . In the golf course areas, a combination of fine sand and sphagnum peat has been used in landscaping. The peat was brought from the Simo area, 300 km south of Levi. In this project, the goal is to determine if the local carex peat is working properly in the green areas of the golf club. The

  14. Conditional statistical models: a discourse about the local scale in climate simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storch, H. von [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Hydrophysik

    1997-12-31

    The local scale of climate plays two different roles; it is the scale at which people experience climate, so that it is the dominant scale of applied climate research, ranging from climate impact to forecasting weather in the atmosphere and the ocean. On the other hand, the local scale is not important in its details for the formation of the global climate. For the understanding, and simulation, of the global climate, the small scales matter only in a statistical sense so that their influence may be described by means of parameterizations. In the present essay, we demonstrate that both processes, `downscaling` (the derivation of local information in climate change and climate variability simulations and in weather forecasts) and `parametrization` (the description of the net effect of small scales on the larger scales) may formally be understood as the building of empirical models whose parameters are conditioned upon larger-scale features of the state of the atmosphere or ocean. It is suggested to acknowledge the presence of unknown processes by building downscaling and parameterization procedures with a randomized design, conditioned upon the known resolved scales. (orig.)

  15. HVAC--the importance of clean intake section and dry air filter in cold climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssen, S O

    2004-01-01

    HVAC systems, if properly designed, installed, operated and maintained, will improve thermal conditions and air quality indoors. However, the success strongly depends on the design of the system and the quality of the components we use in our HVAC installations. Regrettably, several investigations have revealed that many HVAC installations have a lot of operational and maintenance problems, especially related to moisture, rain and snow entrainment. In short, it seems that too little attention is placed on the design of the intake section, despite the fact that there exists a large number of national and international guidelines and recommendations. This is a serious problem because the air intake is the initial component of the ventilation plant and as such the first line of defense against debris and other outdoor air pollutants. Unfortunately, the design is often an argued compromise between the architect, the civil engineer and the HVAC engineer. In the future, the technical, hygienic and microbiological feature of air intakes must be better ensured in order to avoid the air intake becoming a risk component as regards contamination and indoor air quality. Further, it seems that the magnitude of the problem is not well known, or recognized, by the building designers, engineers and professionals involved in the construction and operation of buildings. This fact needs to be addressed more seriously, because obviously there is a big difference between the idealistic architectonic design, engineering intentions and the real life situation. Several practical recommendations for design and operation of HVAC systems are presented. Following the recommendations will result in less pollution from the HVAC-system and increased indoor environmental quality.

  16. Paroc passive house. Cold climate energy solution; Paroc-passiivitalo. Kylmaen ilmaston energiaratkaisu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouhia, I.; Nieminen, J.; Holopainen, R.

    2013-01-15

    The energy requirements for a passive house are quite strict. These requirements need to be adopted already in early phase of project planning. Collaboration between different design domains is a necessity. System design requires accurate information on the performance parameters of equipment. This information has to be available for the designers. Paroc passive house shows that HVAC system settings and trimming are a condition of the required performance. System adjustments and trimming were carried out almost for one year after the building was finished. The need for adjustments comes from poor documentation of the performance parameters of the equipment. Accurate monitoring results are available for less than one year; however, the results show that the building meets the requirements set on the delivered energy and primary energy. The primary energy use in the two apartments is 96 and 130 kWh/m{sup 2}. The airtightness of the building envelope were n{sub 50} = 0.37 1/h and n{sub 50} = 0.25 1/h correspondingly. The primary energy use in the passive house Paroc Lupaus is 130 kWh/m{sup 2} and the airtightness of the building envelope n{sub 50} = 0.5 1/h. The energy used for space heating 30 kWh/m{sup 2} exceeds the set requirement of 25 kWh/m{sup 2}. The indoor temperature has been higher than assumed in the design. The monitoring shows that the technical systems do not perform as expected. There is still need for adjustments and trimming both for the ventilation system and heat pump. In general, the performance parameters of the HVAC systems are not accurate enough for passive house design. (orig.)

  17. Unusual spontaneous cold auto-hemagglutination phenomenon in blood units stored under blood bank condition: A retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanmukh R Joshi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cold agglutinins (CA are benign naturally occurring low titer autoantibodies present in most individuals. Those with moderate strength are found in infections, malignancies or autoimmune conditions with diagnostic importance. Aim: Present report deals with CA that brought spontaneous hemagglutination in blood units stored at 2-6°C. Study design: Over 32 months period between July 1993 and December 1995, blood units were inspected for spontaneous cold auto-hemagglutination (SpCA phenomenon. The plasma from these units was separated and investigated for serological specificity using in house red cell panel and standard serological methods. Results: Among 51,671 blood units, 112 units showed SpCA phenomenon. A rising trend seen in first half of study period significantly fell in remaining half. Specificities of the antibodies detected include anti-I (27, anti-i (53, anti-Pr (21 with remaining few being undetermined specificity. Absorption of serum using enzyme-treated red cells revealed a presence of anti-Pr among the cases, the two of which with new specificities that reacted preferentially with red cells from either new-born or adults and were tentatively named as anti-Pr Fetal and anti-Pr adult , respectively. While 9 cases showed optimum reaction at neutral pH of 7, 68 (62% cases reacted at pH 5.8 through 8.0, 28 (26% cases preferred an acidic pH 5.8 and 4 cases opted an alkaline pH 8. Of 28 cases with antibodies preferentially reacting in acidic medium, 17 (60% cases were anti-i and 7 (25% cases were anti-Pr. Conclusion: Unique SpCA phenomenon observed in blood units stored under blood bank conditions seems to be due to CA developed in response to vector-borne infectious agents. Majority of the cases displayed their specificities, otherwise are rare to be encountered.

  18. Geochemical and climate modeling evidence for Holocene aridification in Hawaii: dynamic response to a weakening equatorial cold tongue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchikawa, Joji; Popp, Brian N.; Schoonmaker, Jane E.; Timmermann, Axel; Lorenz, Stephan J.

    2010-11-01

    A 13.5 m sequence of Holocene limnic sediments from a sinkhole on Oahu, Hawaii provides a valuable paleoclimatic record for the central subtropical Pacific. δ 13C analysis of plant leaf waxes ( n-alkanes: n-C 27, n-C 29, n-C 31 and n-C 33) is used to infer vegetative changes. Average δ 13C values of the suite of n-alkanes increase from approximately -31 ± 0.5‰ at 10 ca kyr BP (calibrated thousand years before present) to about -27 ± 0.5‰ by 6 ca kyr BP and then remain roughly constant until the Polynesian arrival (about 1.15 ca kyr BP). The increase in δ 13C values of n-alkanes is interpreted to indicate a shift in the local vegetation from C 3 to C 4-dominated flora. Based on mass-balance calculations, the observed increase in the δ 13C values translates to at least a doubling of the relative abundance of C 4 plants. We argue that the expansion of C 4 plants was a response to decreased overall water availability (aridification) due to reduced wintertime precipitation. Model simulations of an orbitally-induced increase in insolation along the equator during the Holocene provide evidence for a wintertime drying trend in the eastern subtropical North Pacific. This trend is associated with boreal fall to winter warming of the cold tongue in the eastern equatorial Pacific (EEP). These model results provide a conceptual framework to explain a dynamic link between the reconstructed Holocene drying trend in Hawaii and orbitally-forced climate change in the EEP that is analogous to the modern El Niño-Southern Oscillation teleconnection.

  19. Catchment sensitivity to changing climate conditions: the importance of landscape characteristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teutschbein, C.; Karlsen, R.; Grabs, T.; Laudon, H.; Bishop, K. H.

    2014-12-01

    The scientific literature is full of studies analyzing future climate change impacts on hydrology with focus on individual catchments. However, we recently found that hydrologic behavior and specific discharge vary considerably even in neighboring and rather similar catchments under current climate conditions and that these variations are related to landscape characteristics. Therefore we hypothesize that these landscape characteristics also play a fundamental role for the sensitivity of a catchment to changing climate conditions. We analyzed the hydrological response of 14 neighboring catchments in Northern Sweden with slightly different topography, land cover, size and geology. Current (1981-2010) and future (2061-2090) streamflow was simulated with the HBV light model. Climate projections were based on 14 regional climate models (ENSEMBLES EU project) and bias-corrected with a distribution-mapping approach. Our simulations revealed that future spring flood peaks will occur much earlier and decrease by 13 to 32 %, whereas winter base flows will increase slightly. These changes are somewhat expected and mainly triggered by a projected increase in winter temperature, which leads to less snow accumulation on the ground. However, these values also highlight that there is a large variability amongst the catchments in their hydrological response to the same future climate conditions. For example, spring flood peaks in catchments without wetlands decrease by only 13 to 15 %, whereas catchments with wetlands show a spring flood peak reduction of 20 to 32 %. In addition to wetlands, we also identified lakes, peat soils and higher elevations as factors that seem to cause a stronger hydrological response to the climate change signal, whereas catchments dominated by forests, steeper slopes and till soils seem to be less strongly affected by a changing climate. Therefore, our results suggest that the sensitivity of catchments to future climate conditions is strongly linked to

  20. Multilayers Polyethylene Film for Crop Protection in Harsh Climatic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dehbi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work the performance and durability of a new generation of greenhouse covers, in which the cover is composed of five layers, are investigated. A sand wind ageing was performed under different exposure conditions. Surface morphology and chemical, physical, and thermal characteristics were investigated by using optical microscopy, FTIR, and tensile test techniques. In addition, the mechanical integrity of the five-layer film was assessed. The analysis indicated that the sand wind treatments have a significant influence only on the performance of the film. An attempt has been done to compare the properties of the five-layer film with the monolayer and trilayer films with or without air bubble under similar conditions. The results revealed that the five-layer film proved to be a promising greenhouse covering film.

  1. Multilayers Polyethylene Film for Crop Protection in Harsh Climatic Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    A. Dehbi; Youssef, B; Chappey, C; A.-H. I. Mourad; Picuno, P.; D. Statuto

    2017-01-01

    In this work the performance and durability of a new generation of greenhouse covers, in which the cover is composed of five layers, are investigated. A sand wind ageing was performed under different exposure conditions. Surface morphology and chemical, physical, and thermal characteristics were investigated by using optical microscopy, FTIR, and tensile test techniques. In addition, the mechanical integrity of the five-layer film was assessed. The analysis indicated that the sand wind treatm...

  2. COLD STORAGE-SUPPORTED AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM IN URBAN TRANSPORT VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Jarzyna

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A bottleneck for the development of public transport vehicles is their electricity supply. Electric buses are almost exclusively equipped with electrochemical batteries, while nearly 40% of the energy is used in the processes of air conditioning. For this reason, we developed and built a demonstration system for storing thermal energy in public transport vehicles. The most important effects are: significant reduction of financial expenses and of the total weight of all batteries with the same amount of stored energy.

  3. Impacts of boundary condition changes on regional climate projections over West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jee Hee; Kim, Yeonjoo; Wang, Guiling

    2017-06-01

    Future projections using regional climate models (RCMs) are driven with boundary conditions (BCs) typically derived from global climate models. Understanding the impact of the various BCs on regional climate projections is critical for characterizing their robustness and uncertainties. In this study, the International Center for Theoretical Physics Regional Climate Model Version 4 (RegCM4) is used to investigate the impact of different aspects of boundary conditions, including lateral BCs and sea surface temperature (SST), on projected future changes of regional climate in West Africa, and BCs from the coupled European Community-Hamburg Atmospheric Model 5/Max Planck Institute Ocean Model are used as an example. Historical, future, and several sensitivity experiments are conducted with various combinations of BCs and CO2 concentration, and differences among the experiments are compared to identify the most important drivers for RCMs. When driven by changes in all factors, the RegCM4-produced future climate changes include significantly drier conditions in Sahel and wetter conditions along the Guinean coast. Changes in CO2 concentration within the RCM domain alone or changes in wind vectors at the domain boundaries alone have minor impact on projected future climate changes. Changes in the atmospheric humidity alone at the domain boundaries lead to a wetter Sahel due to the northward migration of rain belts during summer. This impact, although significant, is offset and dominated by changes of other BC factors (primarily temperature) that cause a drying signal. Future changes of atmospheric temperature at the domain boundaries combined with SST changes over oceans are sufficient to cause a future climate that closely resembles the projection that accounts for all factors combined. Therefore, climate variability and changes simulated by RCMs depend primarily on the variability and change of temperature aspects of the RCM BCs. Moreover, it is found that the response

  4. Electrophoretic and Immunological Comparisons of Soluble Root Proteins of Medicago sativa L. Genotypes in the Cold Hardened and Non-Hardened Condition 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, E. A.; Bula, R. J.; Davis, R. L.

    1966-01-01

    Electrophoretic and immunological properties of the soluble root protein complement of 6 Medicago sativa L. genotypes in the cold hardened and non-hardened physiological condition were compared. These 6 genotypes were chosen to represent a range of abilities to survive exposure to subfreezing temperatures when in the cold hardened condition. A zone of highly charged and/or low molecular weight protein components were found to be more prevalent in the protein complements of the cold-hardened material than the non-hardened material. Immunodiffusion plate tests were not so definitive as the electrophoretic patterns for identifying the genotypes or physiological conditions, but did corroborate the electrophoretic interpretations. Images Fig. 2 PMID:16656458

  5. Theoretical and experimental validation study on automotive air-conditioning based on heat pipe and LNG cold energy for LNG-fueled heavy vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Dong; Cheng, Jiang-ping; Zhang, Sheng-chang; Ge, Fang-gen

    2017-08-01

    As a clean fuel, LNG has been used in heavy vehicles widely in China. Before reaching the engine for combustion, LNG store in a high vacuum multi-layer thermal insulation tank and need to be evaporated from its cryogenic state to natural gas. During the evaporation, the available cold energy of LNG has been calculated. The concept has been proposed that the separated type heat pipe technology is employed to utilize the available cold energy for automotive air-conditioning. The experiment has been conducted to validate the proposal. It is found that it is feasible to use the separated type heat pipe to convey the cold energy from LNG to automotive air-conditioning. And the cooling capacity of the automotive air-conditioning increase with the LNG consumption and air flow rate increasing.

  6. [Interconnected operator's activity under the conditions of experimental climatic stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Es'kov, K N; Vinokhodova, A G

    2014-01-01

    Homeostatic testing was used to monitor the interpersonal instrumental interaction of participants in the experiment with isolation in the conditions of abnormally high temperatures and pall of smoke. It was found that the factor of extreme exposure influenced the team work activity in the isolated small group. Homeostatic testing allowed differentiation between 2 types of people, i.e. leaders and subordinates, and identify those who combine traits of both the leader and subordinate. The data suggest that success of a common task is determined as by well-considered, purposive actions of the leader, so by spontaneous, on the pattern of random search, contribution from operators.

  7. Cold basal conditions during surges control flow of fringing Arctic ice caps in Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Samuel; Christoffersen, Poul; Todd, Joe; Palmer, Steven

    2017-04-01

    Fringing ice caps separated from larger ice sheets are rarely studied, yet they are an important part of earth's cryosphere, which has become the largest source of global sea-level rise. Understanding marginal ice caps is crucial for being able to predict sea-level change as they are responsible for up to 20% of Greenland's mass loss for 2003-2008. Studies of fringing ice caps can furthermore provide useful insights into processes operating on glaciers that surge. Surging has been the focus of much recent glaciological work, especially with reference to thermal evolution of polythermal glaciers in High Mountain Asia and the High Arctic. This has shown that the classic divide between hydrologically-controlled surges ('hard-bed') in Alaska and thermally-regulated ('soft-bed') surges elsewhere is less stark than previously assumed. Studying marginal ice caps can therefore be valuable in several ways. The largest fringing ice cap in Greenland is Flade Isblink. Previous work has established that this ice cap is showing a range of dynamic behaviour, including subglacial lake drainage and varied patterns of mass-balance change. In particular, a substantial surge, assumed to be caused by a version of the thermally-regulated mechanism, occurred between 1996 and 2000, making the ice cap a useful case study for investigating this process. Here we investigate the surge on Flade Isblink using the open-source, Full-Stokes model Elmer/Ice to invert for basal conditions and englacial temperatures using the adjoint method. We specifically study steady-state conditions representative of the active surge phase in 2000, and the subsequent quiescent phase, using patterns of surface velocity observed in 2000, 2005, 2008 and 2015. Under constant geometry, temperature and geothermal heat, it is shown that surging increases basal freezing rates by over 60% across an area that is twice as large as the area over which the bed freezes in the quiescent phase. The process responsible for this

  8. From cold to cool in northernmost Norway: Lateglacial and early Holocene multi-proxy environmental and climate reconstructions from Jansvatnet, Hammerfest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birks, Hilary H.; Jones, Vivienne J.; Brooks, Stephen J.; Birks, H. John B.; Telford, Richard J.; Juggins, Stephen; Peglar, Sylvia M.

    2012-02-01

    A multi-proxy palaeoecological study of the lateglacial and early Holocene sediments of Jansvatnet, Hammerfest, northernmost Norway (70°39' N) showed that cold and arid conditions prevailed in both the lateglacial interstadial and the Younger Dryas. Terrestrial proxies are macrofossils and pollen. Aquatic proxies are plant and invertebrate macrofossils, pollen, diatoms, and chironomids. Mean July temperatures were reconstructed using pollen and chironomid calibration functions and ecological knowledge of the fossil flora and fauna. Lake-water pH was reconstructed using a diatom pH-calibration function. Above sterile basal deglacial silts, biotic activity was detected around 14600 years ago in the interstadial (chronologically equivalent to the Bølling-Allerød in the Greenland Ice-Core Chronology). Catchment vegetation resembled polar desert and ultra-cold stenothermic chironomids lived in the lake. However, diatom assemblages were diverse and dynamic. In the Younger Dryas stadial, conditions deteriorated. In the early Younger Dryas chironomid-inferred air temperatures (CI-Tjul) fell about 1 °C. Pollen-inferred temperatures (PI-Tjul) did not fall and the terrestrial vegetation hardly changed because of the extreme aridity. The lake water was turbid from suspended clay which diminished aquatic life. Later in the Younger Dryas (ca 12400 cal yr BP) reconstructed mean July temperatures fell by a further 3 °C and were close to the minimum to support life, at around 3-4 °C. However, decreased turbidity allowed moss growth on the lake bottom that provided habitats for invertebrates and diatoms. In the last 200 years of the Younger Dryas temperatures increased by 2-3 °C and terrestrial and aquatic organisms responded quickly. At the start of the Holocene a rapid increase of more than 3 °C in PI-Tjul to 9.5 °C initiated the replacement of sparse arctic tundra by low-arctic dwarf-shrub heath. Simultaneously, a further 2 °C increase in CI-Tjul to 10-11 °C reflected

  9. Climate change and land management impact rangeland condition and sage-grouse habitat in southeastern Oregon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan K. Creutzburg

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary pressures on sagebrush steppe from climate change, exotic species, wildfire, and land use change threaten rangeland species such as the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus. To effectively manage sagebrush steppe landscapes for long-term goals, managers need information about the potential impacts of climate change, disturbances, and management activities. We integrated information from a dynamic global vegetation model, a sage-grouse habitat climate envelope model, and a state-and-transition simulation model to project broad-scale vegetation dynamics and potential sage-grouse habitat across 23.5 million acres in southeastern Oregon. We evaluated four climate scenarios, including continuing current climate and three scenarios of global climate change, and three management scenarios, including no management, current management and a sage-grouse habitat restoration scenario. All climate change scenarios projected expansion of moist shrub steppe and contraction of dry shrub steppe, but climate scenarios varied widely in the projected extent of xeric shrub steppe, where hot, dry summer conditions are unfavorable for sage-grouse. Wildfire increased by 26% over the century under current climate due to exotic grass encroachment, and by two- to four-fold across all climate change scenarios as extreme fire years became more frequent. Exotic grasses rapidly expanded in all scenarios as large areas of the landscape initially in semi-degraded condition converted to exotic-dominated systems. Due to the combination of exotic grass invasion, juniper encroachment, and climatic unsuitability for sage-grouse, projected sage-grouse habitat declined in the first several decades, but increased in area under the three climate change scenarios later in the century, as moist shrub steppe increased and rangeland condition improved. Management activities in the model were generally unsuccessful in controlling exotic grass invasion but were

  10. Morro do Cruzeiro UFOP Campus evaluation of indoors climatic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela A. Faria

    Full Text Available Abstract The comfort conditions of a given environment can directly influence the performance of the activities performed therein. When considering the school space in relationship with the user, the environment is even more important, since it may reflect fully on the learning process. This article evaluates the thermal comfort perceptions of classroom users of the Federal University of Ouro Preto, specifically the School of Mining, the Institute of Physical and Biological Sciences and the Building Block of Classrooms. The research is conducted through questionnaires and measurements of environmental variables in loco simultaneously in the three areas throughout the months of June, July and September 2011. The results were statistically analyzed using the calculation of the standard deviation from the mean operative temperature and humidity to give comfort zone. Approximately 75% of the users were satisfied with the thermal environment.

  11. Effects of city expansion on heat stress under climate change conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argüeso, Daniel; Evans, Jason P; Pitman, Andrew J; Di Luca, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    We examine the joint contribution of urban expansion and climate change on heat stress over the Sydney region. A Regional Climate Model was used to downscale present (1990-2009) and future (2040-2059) simulations from a Global Climate Model. The effects of urban surfaces on local temperature and vapor pressure were included. The role of urban expansion in modulating the climate change signal at local scales was investigated using a human heat-stress index combining temperature and vapor pressure. Urban expansion and climate change leads to increased risk of heat-stress conditions in the Sydney region, with substantially more frequent adverse conditions in urban areas. Impacts are particularly obvious in extreme values; daytime heat-stress impacts are more noticeable in the higher percentiles than in the mean values and the impact at night is more obvious in the lower percentiles than in the mean. Urban expansion enhances heat-stress increases due to climate change at night, but partly compensates its effects during the day. These differences are due to a stronger contribution from vapor pressure deficit during the day and from temperature increases during the night induced by urban surfaces. Our results highlight the inappropriateness of assessing human comfort determined using temperature changes alone and point to the likelihood that impacts of climate change assessed using models that lack urban surfaces probably underestimate future changes in terms of human comfort.

  12. The non-uniform early structural response of globular proteins to cold denaturing conditions: A case study with Yfh1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterjee, Prathit; Bagchi, Sayan, E-mail: n.sengupta@ncl.res.in, E-mail: s.bagchi@ncl.res.in; Sengupta, Neelanjana, E-mail: n.sengupta@ncl.res.in, E-mail: s.bagchi@ncl.res.in [Physical Chemistry Division, CSIR-National Chemical Laboratory, Pune 411008 (India)

    2014-11-28

    The mechanism of cold denaturation in proteins is often incompletely understood due to limitations in accessing the denatured states at extremely low temperatures. Using atomistic molecular dynamics simulations, we have compared early (nanosecond timescale) structural and solvation properties of yeast frataxin (Yfh1) at its temperature of maximum stability, 292 K (T{sub s}), and the experimentally observed temperature of complete unfolding, 268 K (T{sub c}). Within the simulated timescales, discernible “global” level structural loss at T{sub c} is correlated with a distinct increase in surface hydration. However, the hydration and the unfolding events do not occur uniformly over the entire protein surface, but are sensitive to local structural propensity and hydrophobicity. Calculated infrared absorption spectra in the amide-I region of the whole protein show a distinct red shift at T{sub c} in comparison to T{sub s}. Domain specific calculations of IR spectra indicate that the red shift primarily arises from the beta strands. This is commensurate with a marked increase in solvent accessible surface area per residue for the beta-sheets at T{sub c}. Detailed analyses of structure and dynamics of hydration water around the hydrophobic residues of the beta-sheets show a more bulk water like behavior at T{sub c} due to preferential disruption of the hydrophobic effects around these domains. Our results indicate that in this protein, the surface exposed beta-sheet domains are more susceptible to cold denaturing conditions, in qualitative agreement with solution NMR experimental results.

  13. Effects of future climate conditions on terrestrial export from coastal southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, D.; Zhao, Y.; Raoufi, R.; Beighley, E.; Melack, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Santa Barbara Coastal - Long Term Ecological Research Project (SBC-LTER) is focused on investigating the relative importance of land and ocean processes in structuring giant kelp forest ecosystems. Understanding how current and future climate conditions influence terrestrial export is a central theme for the project. Here we combine the Hillslope River Routing (HRR) model and daily precipitation and temperature downscaled using statistical downscaling based on localized constructed Analogs (LOCA) to estimate recent streamflow dynamics (2000 to 2014) and future conditions (2015 to 2100). The HRR model covers the SBC-LTER watersheds from just west of the Ventura River to Point Conception; a land area of roughly 800 km2 with 179 watersheds ranging from 0.1 to 123 km2. The downscaled climate conditions have a spatial resolution of 6 km by 6 km. Here, we use the Penman-Monteith method with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) limited climate data approximations and land surface conditions (albedo, leaf area index, land cover) measured from NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Terra and Aqua satellites to estimate potential evapotranspiration (PET). The HRR model is calibrated for the period 2000 to 2014 using USGS and LTER streamflow. An automated calibration technique is used. For future climate scenarios, we use mean 8-day land cover conditions. Future streamflow, ET and soil moisture statistics are presented and based on downscaled P and T from ten climate model projections from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5).

  14. Attributing Climate Conditions for Stable Malaria Transmission to Human Activity in sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldrake, L.; Mitchell, D.; Allen, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    Temperature and precipitation limit areas of stable malaria transmission, but the effects of climate change on the disease remain controversial. Previously, studies have not separated the influence of anthropogenic climate change and natural variability, despite being an essential step in the attribution of climate change impacts. Ensembles of 2900 simulations of regional climate in sub-Saharan Africa for the year 2013, one representing realistic conditions and the other how climate might have been in the absence of human influence, were used to force a P.falciparium climate suitability model developed by the Mapping Malaria Risk in Africa project. Strongest signals were detected in areas of unstable transmission, indicating their heightened sensitivity to climatic factors. Evidently, impacts of human-induced climate change were unevenly distributed: the probability of conditions being suitable for stable malaria transmission were substantially reduced (increased) in the Sahel (Greater Horn of Africa (GHOA), particularly in the Ethiopian and Kenyan highlands). The length of the transmission season was correspondingly shortened in the Sahel and extended in the GHOA, by 1 to 2 months, including in Kericho (Kenya), where the role of climate change in driving recent malaria occurrence is hotly contested. Human-induced warming was primarily responsible for positive anomalies in the GHOA, while reduced rainfall caused negative anomalies in the Sahel. The latter was associated with anthropogenic impacts on the West African Monsoon, but uncertainty in the RCM's ability to reproduce precipitation trends in the region weakens confidence in the result. That said, outputs correspond well with broad-scale changes in observed endemicity, implying a potentially important contribution of anthropogenic climate change to the malaria burden during the past century. Results support the health-framing of climate risk and help indicate hotspots of climate vulnerability, providing

  15. Thermomechanical and hygroelastic properties of an epoxy system under humid and cold-warm cycling conditions

    KAUST Repository

    El Yagoubi, Jalal

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we study the hygrothermal aging of an anhydride-cured epoxy under temperature and hygrometry conditions simulating those experienced by an aircraft in wet tropical or subtropical regions. Gravimetric and dimensional measurements were performed and they indicate that there are three stages in this aging process: the first one, corresponding to the early cycles can be called the "induction stage". The second stage of about 1000 cycles duration, could be named the "swelling stage", during which the volume increase is almost equal to the volume of the (liquid) water absorbed. Both the first and second stages are accompanied by modifications of the mechanical properties and the glass transition temperature. During the third ("equilibrium") stage, up to 3000 cycles, there is no significant change in the physical properties despite the continuous increase of water uptake. This can be explained by the fact that only physically sorbed water can influence physical properties. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. LHC Dipole Axis, Spool Piece Alignment and Field Angle in Warm and Cold Conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Coccoli, M; García-Pérez, J

    2004-01-01

    The installation and commissioning of LHC requires knowledge of the magnetic alignment of the spool piece correctors mounted on the dipole end plates are, as well as of the dipole main field direction. The installation is based on the use of geometric information derived from mechanical measurements performed in warm conditions, assuming that geometric and magnetic axes coincide, and that thermal contractions of the assembly are homothetic. A series of measurements has been performed at room and superfluid Helium temperature to validate these assumptions. In this paper, a statistical analysis of the correlations obtained is presented for both corrector alignment and main field direction, and the results are compared with beam optics-based specifications.

  17. Conditions for a market uptake of climate services for adaptation in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Cavelier

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This perspective paper reports the results of a collaborative survey of French research institutes concerned with environmental issues, which examined the potential for a market uptake of climate services for adaptation in France. The study is based on a review of existing reports on the market of climate services, and on interviews of 68 climate service providers and users in public and private organizations. Although the study does not allow to provide quantified estimations regarding the present and future size of the market, its results offer new perspectives with implications extending far beyond the sole case of France: first, while the market is still in its infancy, significant opportunities exist in sectors such as flooding risks, and, to a slightly lesser extent, hydro and nuclear energy and viticulture. In addition, the study identifies critical conditions for the uptake in climate services: (1 a coordinated delivery of data, information, expertise and training by public research institutes concerned with climate change and its impacts; (2 the inclusion of adaptation in the regulation and in public and private tenders. Finally, (3 uncertainties in climate projections appear as a major barrier to the uptake of climate services. However, ambitious greenhouse gas emission reduction as planned by the COP-21 Paris Agreement contribute to reducing this uncertainties by allowing users to select a subset of climate change projections, avoiding those for which adaptation is most problematic.

  18. Building construction materials effect in tropical wet and cold climates: A case study of office buildings in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modeste Kameni Nematchoua

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an experimental study that was conducted in 15 office buildings in the humid and cold tropics during the working hours of the dry and rainy seasons in Cameroon. This was with the aim to study the effects that local and imported materials had on indoor air quality. To achieve this objective, the adaptive model approach has been selected. In accordance with the conditions of this model, all workers were kept in natural ventilation and, in accordance with the general procedure, a questionnaire was distributed to them, while variables, like air temperature, wind speed, and relative humidity were sampled. The results showed a clear agreement between expected behaviour, in accordance with the characteristics of building construction, and its real indoor ambience once they were statistically analysed. On the other hand, old buildings showed a higher percentage of relative humidity and a lower degree of indoor air temperature. Despite this, local thermal comfort indices and questionnaires showed adequate indoor ambience in each group of buildings, except when marble was used for external tiling. The effect of marble as an external coating helps to improve indoor ambience during the dry season. This is due to more indoor air and relative humidity being accumulated. At the same time, these ambiences are degraded when relative humidity is higher. Finally, these results should be taken cognisance of by architects and building designers in order to improve indoor environment, and overcome thermal discomfort in the Saharan area.

  19. A review of Tertiary climate changes in southern South America and the Antarctic Peninsula. Part 2: continental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roux, J. P.

    2012-03-01

    Climate changes in southern South America and the Antarctic Peninsula during the Tertiary show a strong correlation with ocean warming and cooling events, which are in turn related to tectonic processes. During periods of accelerated sea-floor spreading and mid-ocean ridge activity, sea-levels rose so that parts of the continents were flooded and forests were destroyed. However, this was balanced by the large-scale release of CO2 during volcanic outgassing and carbonate precipitation on the continental shelves, which caused rising air temperatures and the poleward expansion of (sub)tropical and temperate forests. Cooling episodes generally caused an increase in the north-south thermal gradient because of an equatorward shift in climate belts, so that the Westerly Winds intensified and brought higher rainfall to the lower latitudes. An increase in wind-blown dust caused temperatures to drop further by reflecting sunlight back into space. The rising Andes Range had a marked influence on climate patterns. Up to the middle Miocene it was still low enough to allow summer rainfall to reach central and north-central Chile, but after about 14 Ma it rose rapidly and effectively blocked the spill-over of moisture from the Atlantic Ocean and Amazon Basin. At this time, the cold Humboldt Current was also established, which together with the Andes helped to create the "Arid Diagonal" of southern South America stretching from the Atacama Desert to the dry steppes of Patagonia. This caused the withdrawal of subtropical forests to south-central Chile and the expansion of sclerophytic vegetation to central Chile. However, at the same time it intercepted more rain from the northeast, causing the effect of the South American monsoon to intensify in northwestern Argentina and southern Bolivia, where forest communities presently occur. In Patagonia, glaciation started as early as 10.5 Ma, but by 7 Ma had become a prominent feature of the landscape and continued apparently

  20. Study of tensile test behavior of austenitic stainless steel type 347 seamless thin-walled tubes in cold worked condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terui, Clarice, E-mail: clarice.terui@marinha.mil.br [Centro Tecnológico da Marinha em São Paulo (CINA/CTMSP), Iperó, SP (Brazil). Centro Industrial Nuclear da Marinha; Lima, Nelson B. de, E-mail: nblima@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNE-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    These austenitic stainless steel type 347 seamless thin-walled tubes are potential candidates to be used in fuel elements of nuclear power plants (as PWR - Pressurized Water Reactor). So, their metallurgical condition and mechanical properties, as the tensile strength and yield strength, normally are very restrict in demanding project and design requirements. Several full size tensile tests at room temperature and high temperature (315 deg C) were performed in these seamless tubes in cold-worked condition. The results of specified tensile and yield strengths were achieved but the elongation of the tube, in the geometry of the component, could not be measured at high temperature due to unconventional mode of rupture (helical mode without separation of parts). The average value of elongation was obtained from stress-strain curves of hot tensile tests and was around 5%. The results obtained in this research show that this behavior of the full size tensile test samples of thin-walled tube (wall thickness less than 0.5 mm) in high temperature (315°C) is due to the combination of the manufacturing process, the material (crystallographic structure and chemical composition) and the final geometry of the component. In other words, the strong crystallographic texture of material induced by tube drawing process in addition with the geometry of the component are responsible for the behavior in hot uniaxial tensile tests. (author)

  1. The mixed impact of chemical and physical factors on reproductive system of rats in conditions of cold stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zavgorodnii I.V.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of experimental investigations on studying features of gonadotoxic effect of nitrobenzene (NB, methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE and electromagnetic radiation (EMR both in conditions of cold stress and in conditions of thermal acceptability are given. The investigations were carried out on laboratory animals, in 30-fold intragastric administration of NB or MTBE in a dose of 1/10 LD50 and exposition of animals in two different thermal regimens – 4 hours a day, 5 times a week. Effect of EMR was simulated in 70 kHz frequency, 600 V/m voltage. The features of gonadotoxic effect of NB and MTBE were studied by the indices of spermatozoa functional state, general histological analysis of the state of testicle tissues, supplemented with morphometric values, was carried out,. The analysis of results of experimental research proves that morpho-functional changes of reproductive system in laboratory animals during the influence of chemical factors (NB and MTBE, physical factors (EMR in two different thermal regimens are similar provided that there is the increase of gonadotoxic effect in mixed effect of mentioned factors and decreased temperature.

  2. Wetting Behavior of Molten AZ61 Magnesium Alloy on Two Different Steel Plates Under the Cold Metal Transfer Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZENG Cheng-zong

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The wetting behavior and interfacial microstructures of molten magnesium AZ61 alloy on the surface of two different Q235 and galvanized steel plates under the condition of cold metal transfer were investigated by using dynamic sessile drop method. The results show that the wetting behavior is closely related to the wire feed speed. Al-Fe intermetallic layer was observed whether the substrate is Q235 steel or galvanized steel, and the formation of Al-Fe intermetallic layer should satisfy the thermodynamic condition of such Mg-Al/Fe system. The wettability of molten AZ61 magnesium alloy is improved with the increase of wire feed speed whether on Q235 steel surface or on galvanized steel surface, good wettability on Q235 steel surface is due to severe interface reaction when wire feed speed increases, good wettability on galvanized steel surface is attributed to the aggravating zinc volatilization. When the wire feed speed is ≤10.5m·min-1, the wettability of Mg alloy on Q235 steel plate is better than on galvanized steel plate. However, Zn vapor will result in instability for metal transfer process.

  3. Climate Change and Crop Exposure to Adverse Weather: Changes to Frost Risk and Grapevine Flowering Conditions: e0141218

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jonathan R Mosedale; Robert J Wilson; Ilya M D Maclean

    2015-01-01

    .... Yet the effects of climate change on the risk of adverse weather conditions or events at key stages of crop development are not always captured by aggregated measures of seasonal or yearly climates...

  4. Does safety climate moderate the influence of staffing adequacy and work conditions on nurse injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Barbara A; Hughes, Linda C; Belyea, Michael; Chang, Yunkyung; Hofmann, David; Jones, Cheryl B; Bacon, Cynthia T

    2007-01-01

    Hospital nurses have one of the highest work-related injury rates in the United States. Yet, approaches to improving employee safety have generally focused on attempts to modify individual behavior through enforced compliance with safety rules and mandatory participation in safety training. We examined a theoretical model that investigated the impact on nurse injuries (back injuries and needlesticks) of critical structural variables (staffing adequacy, work engagement, and work conditions) and further tested whether safety climate moderated these effects. A longitudinal, non-experimental, organizational study, conducted in 281 medical-surgical units in 143 general acute care hospitals in the United States. Work engagement and work conditions were positively related to safety climate, but not directly to nurse back injuries or needlesticks. Safety climate moderated the relationship between work engagement and needlesticks, while safety climate moderated the effect of work conditions on both needlesticks and back injuries, although in unexpected ways. DISCUSSION AND IMPACT ON INDUSTRY: Our findings suggest that positive work engagement and work conditions contribute to enhanced safety climate and can reduce nurse injuries.

  5. After a cold conditioning swim, UCP2-deficient mice are more able to defend against the cold than wild type mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhamid, Ramy E; Kovács, Katalin J; Nunez, Myra G; Larson, Alice A

    2014-08-01

    Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) is widely distributed throughout the body including the brain, adipose tissue and skeletal muscles. In contrast to UCP1, UCP2 does not influence resting body temperature and UCP2-deficient (-/-) mice have normal thermoregulatory responses to a single exposure to cold ambient temperatures. Instead, UCP2-deficient mice are more anxious, exhibit anhedonia and have higher circulating corticosterone than wild type mice. To test the possible role of UCP2 in depressive behavior we exposed UCP2-deficient and wild type mice to a cold (26°C) forced swim and simultaneously measured rectal temperatures during and after the swim. The time that UCP2-deficient mice spent immobile did not differ from wild type mice and all mice floated more on day 2. However, UCP2-deficient mice were more able to defend against the decrease in body temperature during a second daily swim at 26°C than wild type mice (area under the curve for wild type mice: 247.0±6.4; for UCP2-deficient mice: 284.4±3.8, Pthermoregulation of wild type mice during a second swim at 26°C correlated with their greater immobility whereas defense against the warmth during a swim at 41°C correlated better with greater immobility of UCP2-deficient mice. Together these data indicate that while the lack of UCP2 has no acute effect on body temperature, UCP2 may inhibit rapid improvements in defense against cold, in contrast to UCP1, whose main function is to promote thermogenesis. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Effect of wet-cold weather transportation conditions on thermoregulation and the development of accidental hypothermia in pullets under tropical conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minka, Ndazo S.; Ayo, Joseph O.

    2016-03-01

    The present study examines onboard thermal microclimatic conditions and thermoregulation of pullets exposed to accidental hypothermia during wet-cold weather transportation conditions, and the effect of rewarming on colonic temperature (CT) of the birds immediately after transportation. A total of 2200 pullets were transportation for 5 h in two separate vehicles during the nighttime. The last 3 h of the transportation period was characterized by heavy rainfall. During the precipitation period, each vehicle was covered one fourth way from the top-roof with a tarpaulin. The onboard thermal conditions inside the vehicles during transportation, which comprised ambient temperature and relative humidity were recorded, while humidity ratio and specific enthalpy were calculated. The CT of the birds was recorded before and after transportation. During transportation, onboard thermal heterogeneity was observed inside the vehicles with higher ( p < 0.05) values in the front and center, and lower values recorded at the air inlets at the sides and rear planes. The CT values recorded in birds at the front and center planes were between 42.2 and 42.5 °C, indicative of mild hypothermia; while lower CT values between 28 and 38 °C were recorded at the sides and rear planes, indicative of mild to severe hypothermia. Several hours of gradual rewarming returned the CT to normal range. The result, for the first time, demonstrated the occurrence of accidental hypothermia in transported pullets under tropical conditions and a successful rewarming outcome. In conclusion, transportation of pullets during wet weather at onboard temperature of 18-20 °C induced hypothermia on birds located at the air inlets, which recovered fully after several hours of gradual rewarming.

  7. Catchment Sensitivity to Changing Climate Conditions: The Importance of Landscape Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teutschbein, Claudia; Karlsen, Reinert; Grabs, Thomas; Laudon, Hjalmar; Bishop, Kevin

    2015-04-01

    The scientific literature is full of studies analyzing future climate change impacts on hydrology with focus on individual catchments. We recently found, however, that hydrologic behavior and specific discharge vary considerably even in neighboring and rather similar catchments under current climate conditions and that these variations are related to landscape characteristics. Therefore we hypothesize that these landscape characteristics also play a fundamental role for the sensitivity of a catchment to changing climate conditions. We analyzed the hydrological response of 14 partially nested catchments in Northern Sweden with slightly different topography, land cover, size and geology. Current (1981-2010) and future (2061-2090) streamflows were simulated with the hydrological model HBV light based on 15 regional climate model projections that were bias-corrected with a distribution-mapping approach. Our simulations revealed that - in a future climate- the total annual streamflow will be higher, spring flood peaks will occur earlier and decrease considerably, whereas winter base flows will more than double. These changes are somewhat expected and mainly triggered by a projected increase in winter temperature, which leads to less snow accumulation on the ground. However, our results also show that there is a large variability amongst these catchments in their hydrological response to the same future climate conditions. We identified wetlands, lakes, peat soils and higher elevations as factors that had a stronger effect on spring floods, whereas catchments dominated by forests, steeper slopes and till soils showed stronger responses in winter base flows and total annual streamflow. Therefore, our results suggest that the sensitivity of catchments to future climate conditions is strongly linked to landscape characteristics and also depends on the streamflow characteristic as well as season analyzed.

  8. Sub-zero cold tolerance of Spartina pectinata (prairie cordgrass) and Miscanthus ? giganteus: candidate bioenergy crops for cool temperate climates

    OpenAIRE

    Friesen, Patrick C.; Peixoto, Murilo de Melo; Lee, D. K.; Sage, Rowan F.

    2015-01-01

    Miscanthus ? giganteus grown in cool temperate regions of North America and Europe can exhibit severe mortality in the year after planting, and poor frost tolerance of leaves. Spartina pectinata (prairie cordgrass), a productive C4 perennial grass native to North America, has been suggested as an alternative biofuel feedstock for colder regions; however, its cold tolerance relative to M. ? giganteus is uncertain. Here, we compare the cold tolerance thresholds for winter-dormant rhizomes and s...

  9. Sensitivity of Pliocene climate simulations in MRI-CGCM2.3 to respective boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamae, Youichi; Yoshida, Kohei; Ueda, Hiroaki

    2016-08-01

    Accumulations of global proxy data are essential steps for improving reliability of climate model simulations for the Pliocene warming climate. In the Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project phase 2 (PlioMIP2), a part project of the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project phase 4, boundary forcing data have been updated from the PlioMIP phase 1 due to recent advances in understanding of oceanic, terrestrial and cryospheric aspects of the Pliocene palaeoenvironment. In this study, sensitivities of Pliocene climate simulations to the newly archived boundary conditions are evaluated by a set of simulations using an atmosphere-ocean coupled general circulation model, MRI-CGCM2.3. The simulated Pliocene climate is warmer than pre-industrial conditions for 2.4 °C in global mean, corresponding to 0.6 °C warmer than the PlioMIP1 simulation by the identical climate model. Revised orography, lakes, and shrunk ice sheets compared with the PlioMIP1 lead to local and remote influences including snow and sea ice albedo feedback, and poleward heat transport due to the atmosphere and ocean that result in additional warming over middle and high latitudes. The amplified higher-latitude warming is supported qualitatively by the proxy evidences, but is still underestimated quantitatively. Physical processes responsible for the global and regional climate changes should be further addressed in future studies under systematic intermodel and data-model comparison frameworks.

  10. Performance Based Evaluation of Concrete Strength under Various Curing Conditions to Investigate Climate Change Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Kyun Kim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the manifestation of global warming-induced climate change has been observed through super typhoons, heavy snowfalls, torrential rains, and extended heat waves. These climate changes have been occurring all over the world and natural disasters have caused severe damage and deterioration of concrete structures and infrastructure. In an effort to deal with these problems due to extreme and abnormal climate changes, studies have been conducted to develop construction technologies and design guidelines. Nevertheless, study results applicable to construction sites continue to be ineffective and insufficient. Therefore, this study proposes ways to cope with climate change by considering the effect of concrete curing condition variations on concrete material performance. More specifically, the 3-, 7- and 28-day compressive and split tensile strength properties of concrete mix cured under various climatic factors including temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and sunlight exposure time were evaluated to determine whether the concrete meets the current design requirements. Thereafter, a performance based evaluation (PBE was performed using satisfaction probabilities based on the test values to understand the problems associated with the current mix proportion design practice and to identify countermeasures to deal with climate change-induced curing conditions.

  11. Environmental risk of climate change and groundwater abstraction on stream ecological conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seaby, Lauren Paige; Bøgh, Eva; Jensen, Niels H.

    climate from 11 ENSEMBLES climate models are first bias corrected with a distribution based scaling method and then used to force hydrological simulations of stream discharge, groundwater recharge, and nitrate leaching from the root zone. Hydrological modelling utilises a sequential coupling methodology......A doubling of groundwater abstraction rates has been proposed in selected areas of Denmark to meet water resource demands. Combined with projected climate change, which is characterised by increased annual temperature, precipitation, and evapotranspiration rates for the country, the impacts to low...... flows and groundwater levels are of interest, as they relate to aquatic habitat and nitrate leaching, respectively. This study evaluates the risk to stream ecological conditions for a lowland Danish catchment under multiple scenarios of climate change and groundwater abstraction. Projections of future...

  12. Conditions for Emergence, Stability and Change in New Organizations in the Field of Citizens Climate Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figueroa, Maria Josefina

    Climate change represents a crisis of tangible measure and the emergence of a field of action within which acting today needs to be motivated for what can contribute to benefit climate and transform society into a low carbon tomorrow. With the breadth and scope of citizen action on climate change...... expanding worldwide the weight of expectations can be boiled down to two: One refers to their potential for delivering specific mitigation/adaptation goals; the second refers to their organizational potential, stability and the manner in which they can ultimately affect societal transformational change....... This contribution is concerned with the latter. It proposes that using field analysis it is possible to understand conditions of emergence, stability and change in citizen engagement in climate action. The present contribution offers only a preliminary exploration of possibilities for how using field theory can...

  13. Hydrological Modeling in Northern Tunisia with Regional Climate Model Outputs: Performance Evaluation and Bias-Correction in Present Climate Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Foughali

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to evaluate the performance of a hydrological balance model in a watershed located in northern Tunisia (wadi Sejnane, 378 km2 in present climate conditions using input variables provided by four regional climate models. A modified version (MBBH of the lumped and single layer surface model BBH (Bucket with Bottom Hole model, in which pedo-transfer parameters estimated using watershed physiographic characteristics are introduced is adopted to simulate the water balance components. Only two parameters representing respectively the water retention capacity of the soil and the vegetation resistance to evapotranspiration are calibrated using rainfall-runoff data. The evaluation criterions for the MBBH model calibration are: relative bias, mean square error and the ratio of mean actual evapotranspiration to mean potential evapotranspiration. Daily air temperature, rainfall and runoff observations are available from 1960 to 1984. The period 1960–1971 is selected for calibration while the period 1972–1984 is chosen for validation. Air temperature and precipitation series are provided by four regional climate models (DMI, ARP, SMH and ICT from the European program ENSEMBLES, forced by two global climate models (GCM: ECHAM and ARPEGE. The regional climate model outputs (precipitation and air temperature are compared to the observations in terms of statistical distribution. The analysis was performed at the seasonal scale for precipitation. We found out that RCM precipitation must be corrected before being introduced as MBBH inputs. Thus, a non-parametric quantile-quantile bias correction method together with a dry day correction is employed. Finally, simulated runoff generated using corrected precipitation from the regional climate model SMH is found the most acceptable by comparison with runoff simulated using observed precipitation data, to reproduce the temporal variability of mean monthly runoff. The SMH model is the most accurate to

  14. Preferred habitat of breeding birds may be compromised by climate change: unexpected effects of an exceptionally cold, wet spring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Whitehouse

    Full Text Available Previous studies of the consequences for breeding birds of climate change have explored how their populations may respond to increasing temperatures. However, few have considered the likely outcome of predicted extreme conditions and the relative vulnerability of populations in different habitats. Here, we compare phenology and breeding success in great tits and blue tits over a 10 year period, including the extremely harsh conditions during spring 2012, at three sites in eastern England--mixed deciduous woodland, riparian and urban habitat. Production, measured as brood biomass, was significantly lower in 2012 compared with the previous 9 years, with the decrease in productivity relatively greatest in woodland habitat. Production was related to hatch delay, i.e. birds not initiating incubation immediately after clutch completion, which was more common in 2012 than in previous years. The best predictor of hatch delay was daytime temperature (not nighttime minimum temperature and rainfall, which convincingly reflected low growth and activity of caterpillar prey. We found that birds breeding in riparian and urban habitats were less vulnerable to the extremes of weather than those breeding in mixed deciduous woodland.

  15. The role of Xylella fastidiosa cold shock proteins in Pierce’s disease of grapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce’s disease of grapevine, caused by the bacterial pathogen Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) is limited to warmer climates, and plant infection can be eliminated by cold winter conditions. Milder winters can increase the likelihood of pathogen persistence from one growing season to the next. Cold adaptat...

  16. Assessment of production risks for winter wheat in different German regions under climate change conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersebaum, K. C.; Gandorfer, M.; Wegehenkel, M.

    2012-04-01

    The study shows climate change impacts on wheat production in selected regions across Germany. To estimate yield and economic effects the agro-ecosystem model HERMES was used. The model performed runs using 2 different releases of the model WETTREG providing statistically downscaled climate change scenarios for the weather station network of the German Weather Service. Simulations were done using intersected GIS information on soil types and land use identifying the most relevant sites for wheat production. The production risks for wheat yields at the middle of this century were compared to a reference of the present climate. The irrigation demand was determined by the model using an automatic irrigation mode. Production risks with and without irrigation were assessed and the economic feasibility to reduce production risks by irrigation was evaluated. Costs and benefits were compared. Additionally, environmental effects, e.g. groundwater recharge and nitrogen emissions were assessed for irrigated and rain fed systems. Results show that positive and negative effects of climate change occur within most regions depending on the site conditions. Water holding capacity and groundwater distance were the most important factors which determined the vulnerability of sites. Under climate change condition in the middle of the next century we can expect especially at sites with low water holding capacity decreasing average gross margins, higher production risks and a reduced nitrogen use efficiency under rainfed conditions. Irrigation seems to be profitable and risk reducing at those sites, provided that water for irrigation is available. Additionally, the use of irrigation can also increase nitrogen use efficiency which reduced emissions by leaching. Despite the site conditions results depend strongly on the used regional climate scenario and the model approach to consider the effect of elevated CO2 in the atmosphere.

  17. Cold Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH COLD STRESS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Workers who ... cold environments may be at risk of cold stress. Extreme cold weather is a dangerous situation that ...

  18. Dry skin conditions are related to the recovery rate of skin temperature after cold stress rather than to blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida-Amano, Yasuko; Nomura, Tomoko; Sugiyama, Yoshinori; Iwata, Kayoko; Higaki, Yuko; Tanahashi, Masanori

    2017-02-01

    Cutaneous blood flow plays an important role in the thermoregulation, oxygen supply, and nutritional support necessary to maintain the skin. However, there is little evidence for a link between blood flow and skin physiology. Therefore, we conducted surveys of healthy volunteers to determine the relationship(s) between dry skin properties and cutaneous vascular function. Water content of the stratum corneum, transepidermal water loss, and visual dryness score were investigated as dry skin parameters. Cutaneous blood flow in the resting state, the recovery rate (RR) of skin temperature on the hand after a cold-stress test, and the responsiveness of facial skin blood flow to local cooling were examined as indices of cutaneous vascular functions. The relationships between dry skin parameters and cutaneous vascular functions were assessed. The RR correlated negatively with the visual dryness score of skin on the leg but correlated positively with water content of the stratum corneum on the arm. No significant correlation between the resting state of blood flow and dry skin parameters was observed. In both the face and the body, deterioration in skin dryness from summer to winter was significant in subjects with low RR. The RR correlated well with the responsiveness of facial skin blood flow to local cooling, indicating that the RR affects systemic dry skin conditions. These results suggest that the RR but not blood flow at the resting state is associated with dry skin conditions and is involved in skin homeostasis during seasonal environmental changes. © 2016 The Authors. International Journal of Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Society of Dermatology.

  19. Impact of US Biofuel Policy in the Presence of Uncertain Climate Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuñez, H.M.; Trujillo Barrera, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the impact of total and partial waivers of the US Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) under uncertain changes in climate conditions that affects crop yield distributions. Results show that reducing RFS would make world agricultural consumers better off, and increase the US corn share in the

  20. Threats to xylem hydraulic function of trees under 'new climate normal' conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwieniecki, Maciej A; Secchi, Francesca

    2015-09-01

    Climate models predict increases in frequency and intensity of extreme environmental conditions, such as changes to minimum and maximum temperatures, duration of drought periods, intensity of rainfall/snowfall events and wind strength. These local extremes, rather than average climatic conditions, are closely linked to woody plant survival, as trees cope with such events over long lifespans. While the xylem provides trees with structural strength and is considered the most robust part of a tree's structure, it is also the most physiologically vulnerable as tree survival depends on its ability to sustain water supply to the tree crown under variable environmental conditions. Many structural, functional and biological tree properties evolved to protect xylem from loss of transport function because of embolism or to restore xylem transport capacity following embolism formation. How 'the new climate normal' conditions will affect these evolved strategies is yet to be seen. Our understanding of xylem physiology and current conceptual models describing embolism formation and plant recovery from water stress, however, can provide insight into near-future challenges that woody plants will face. In addition, knowledge of species-specific properties of xylem function may help guide mitigation of climate change impacts on woody plants in natural and agricultural tree communities. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Long-term sustainability of the landscape in new climatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubeckova, D.; Krocova, S.

    2017-10-01

    The long-term sustainability of the landscape and its natural environment must be the decisive task of the public administration and, in the wider concept, of every citizen. In new climatic conditions, this need has intensified. The following article suggests in a basic scope whether the above-mentioned task can be accomplished, and what means of solution should be used.

  2. Adapting to Mother Nature's changing climatic conditions: Flexible stocking for enhancing profitability of Wyoming ranchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranching is a dynamic business in which profitability is impacted by changing weather and climatic conditions. A ranch-level model using a representative ranch in southeastern Wyoming was used to compare economic outcomes from growing season precipitation scenarios of: 1) historical precipitation da...

  3. Exhaust-gas aftertreatment under extreme conditions: validation in a climatic-altitude chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gompel, P. van; Willems, F.P.T.; Doosje, E.; Vergouwe, M.

    2009-01-01

    By testing the vehicle under a wide range of conditions, the new climatic-altitude chamber at TNO will be essential in the various development stages for the integrated systems approach. The CA chamber allows to efficiently deal with the impact of system configuration and system integration on

  4. Simple model for daily evaporation from fallow tilled soil under spring conditions in a temperate climate.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boesten, J.J.T.I.; Stroosnijder, L.

    1986-01-01

    A simple parametric model is presented to estimate daily evaporation from fallow tilled soil under spring conditions in a temperate climate. In this model, cumulative actual evaporation during a drying cycle is directly proportional to the square root of cumulative potential evaporation. The model

  5. Paleo-Eskimo kitchen midden preservation in permafrost under future climate conditions at Qajaa, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, Bo; Matthiesen, Henning; Jørgensen, Christian Juncher

    2011-01-01

    Remains from Paleo-Eskimo cultures are well-documented, but complete preservation is rare. Two kitchen middens in Greenland are known to hold extremely well-preserved organic artefacts. Here, we assess the fate of the Qajaa site in Western Greenland under future climate conditions based on site...

  6. Stability of continental relic methane hydrates for the holocene climatic optimum and for contemporary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzhanov, M. M.; Mokhov, I. I.

    2017-10-01

    Modelling of the thermal regime of permafrost soils has made it possible to estimate the stability of methane hydrates in the continental permafrost in the Northern Eurasian and North American regions with the risk of gas emissions into the atmosphere as a result of possible dissociation of gas hydrates in the Holocene Optimum and under contemporary climatic conditions [1, 2].

  7. Middle Pliocene vegetation: Reconstructions, paleoclimatic inferences, and boundary conditions for climate modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R.S.; Fleming, R.F.

    1996-01-01

    The general characteristics of global vegetation during the middle Pliocene warm period can be reconstructed from fossil pollen and plant megafossil data. The largest differences between Pliocene vegetation and that of today occurred at high latitudes in both hemispheres, where warming was pronounced relative to today. In the Northern Hemisphere coniferous forests lived in the modern tundra and polar desert regions, whereas in the Southern Hemisphere southern beech apparently grew in coastal areas of Antarctica. Pliocene middle latitude vegetation differed less, although moister-than-modern conditions supported forest and woodland growth in some regions now covered by steppe or grassland. Pliocene tropical vegetation reflects essentially modern conditions in some regions and slightly cooler-than-or warmer-than- modern climates in other areas. Changes in topography induced by tectonics may be responsible for many of the climatic changes since the Pliocene in both middle and lower latitudes. However, the overall latitudinal progression of climatic conditions on land parallels that seen in the reconstruction of middle Pliocene sea-surface temperatures. Pliocene paleovegetational data was employed to construct a 2????2?? global grid of estimated mid-Pliocene vegetational cover for use as boundary conditions for numerical General Circulation Model simulations of middle Pliocene climates. Continental outlines and topography were first modified to represent the Pliocene landscape on the 2????2?? grid. A modern 1????1?? vegetation grid was simplified and mapped on this Pliocene grid, and then modified following general geographic trends evident in the Pliocene paleovegetation data set.

  8. Comparative Analysis of Energy Efficiency in Wheat Production in Different Climate Conditions en Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golaszewski, J.; Voort, van der M.P.J.; Meyer-Aurich, A.; Baptista, F.; Balafoutis, A.T.; Mikkola, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents results concerning energy efficiency of wheat production considered in the context of specific energy input variation in different climatic conditions of Europe as well as case studies on implementation of selected energy saving measures in practice. The source data collected

  9. Climate variations in greenhouse cultivated with gerbera and relationship with external conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade Júnior,Aderson S. de; Damasceno,Lisânea M. O.; Dias,Nildo da S.; Gheyi,Hans R.; Guiselini,Cristiane

    2011-01-01

    Black meshes used in greenhouses provide shade to plants, affecting photosynthesis and presenting certain properties that change the microclimatic conditions in these environments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the variation in climate elements in greenhouse cultivated with gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii, Vr. Rambo) in relation to external conditions and the reference evapotranspiration (ETo) at Teresina, State of Piauí, Brazil. The measurements were obtained from July to October 20...

  10. Hydrological response to changing climate conditions: Spatial streamflow variability in the boreal region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teutschbein, Claudia; Grabs, Thomas; Karlsen, Reinert H.; Laudon, Hjalmar; Bishop, Kevin

    2016-04-01

    It has long been recognized that streamflow-generating processes are not only dependent on climatic conditions, but also affected by physical catchment properties such as topography, geology, soils and land cover. We hypothesize that these landscape characteristics do not only lead to highly variable hydrologic behavior of rather similar catchments under the same stationary climate conditions (Karlsen et al., 2014), but that they also play a fundamental role for the sensitivity of a catchment to a changing climate (Teutschbein et al., 2015). A multi-model ensemble based on 15 regional climate models was combined with a multi-catchment approach to explore the hydrologic sensitivity of 14 partially nested and rather similar catchments in Northern Sweden to changing climate conditions and the importance of small-scale spatial variability. Current (1981-2010) and future (2061-2090) streamflow was simulated with the HBV model. As expected, projected increases in temperature and precipitation resulted in increased total available streamflow, with lower spring and summer flows, but substantially higher winter streamflow. Furthermore, significant changes in flow durations with lower chances of both high and low flows can be expected in boreal Sweden in the future. This overall trend in projected streamflow pattern changes was comparable among the analyzed catchments while the magnitude of change differed considerably. This suggests that catchments belonging to the same region can show distinctly different degrees of hydrological responses to the same external climate change signal. We reason that differences in spatially distributed physical catchment properties at smaller scales are not only of great importance for current streamflow behavior, but also play a major role as first-order control for the sensitivity of catchments to changing climate conditions. References Karlsen, R.H., T. Grabs, K. Bishop, H. Laudon, and J. Seibert (2014). Landscape controls on

  11. Varroa destructor and viruses association in honey bee colonies under different climatic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacobino, Agostina; Molineri, Ana I; Pacini, Adriana; Fondevila, Norberto; Pietronave, Hernán; Rodríguez, Graciela; Palacio, Alejandra; Bulacio Cagnolo, Natalia; Orellano, Emanuel; Salto, César E; Signorini, Marcelo L; Merke, Julieta

    2016-06-01

    Honey bee colonies are threatened by multiple factors including complex interactions between environmental and diseases such as parasitic mites and viruses. We compared the presence of honeybee-pathogenic viruses and Varroa infestation rate in four apiaries: commercial colonies that received treatment against Varroa and non-treated colonies that did not received any treatment for the last 4 years located in temperate and subtropical climate. In addition, we evaluated the effect of climate and Varroa treatment on deformed wing virus (DWV) amounts. In both climates, DWV was the most prevalent virus, being the only present virus in subtropical colonies. Moreover, colonies from subtropical climate also showed reduced DWV amounts and lower Varroa infestation rates than colonies from temperate climate. Nevertheless, non-treated colonies in both climate conditions are able to survive several years. Environment appears as a key factor interacting with local bee populations and influencing colony survival beyond Varroa and virus presence. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Collaborative Research. Quantifying Climate Feedbacks of the Terrestrial Biosphere under Thawing Permafrost Conditions in the Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, Qianlai [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Schlosser, Courtney [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Melillo, Jerry [Marine Biological Lab. (MBL), Woods Hole, MA (United States); Walter, Katey [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Our overall goal is to quantify the potential for threshold changes in natural emission rates of trace gases, particularly methane and carbon dioxide, from pan-arctic terrestrial systems under the spectrum of anthropogenically-forced climate warming, and the conditions under which these emissions provide a strong feedback mechanism to global climate warming. This goal is motivated under the premise that polar amplification of global climate warming will induce widespread thaw and degradation of the permafrost, and would thus cause substantial changes to the landscape of wetlands and lakes, especially thermokarst (thaw) lakes, across the Arctic. Through a suite of numerical experiments that encapsulate the fundamental processes governing methane emissions and carbon exchanges – as well as their coupling to the global climate system - we intend to test the following hypothesis in the proposed research: There exists a climate warming threshold beyond which permafrost degradation becomes widespread and stimulates large increases in methane emissions (via thermokarst lakes and poorly-drained wetland areas upon thawing permafrost along with microbial metabolic responses to higher temperatures) and increases in carbon dioxide emissions from well-drained areas. Besides changes in biogeochemistry, this threshold will also influence global energy dynamics through effects on surface albedo, evapotranspiration and water vapor. These changes would outweigh any increased uptake of carbon (e.g. from peatlands and higher plant photosynthesis) and would result in a strong, positive feedback to global climate warming.

  13. Historical Consumption of Heating Natural Gas and Thermal Monitoring of a Multifamily High-Rise Building in a Temperate/Cold Climate in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celina Filippín

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the historical consumption of natural gas in a multifamily high-rise building and the monitored winter thermal behavior of an apartment sample. The building is located in the center of Argentina (latitude: 36º27’S; longitude: 64º27’W, where the climate is a cold temperate with an absolute minimum temperature that may reach −10 °C. The building has two blocks, North and South. The building’s annual gas consumption and its variability between 1996 and 2008 are shown. The South block consumed 78% more gas, a situation expected due to lower solar resource availability and greater vulnerability regarding strong and cold SW winds. Indoor temperatures monitored during 2009 in four apartments are described. The outdoor minimum temperature reached −5 °C, with solar irradiance around 500 W/m2 at midday. Results showed that the average indoor temperatures were 20.1, 20.6, 24.0 and 22.1 °C. The highest consumption value corresponded to the apartment exposed to SW cold winds. Compared to the rest of the building, the apartment on the top floor consumes 59% more energy than the average for the gas consumed throughout the year. The authors assume that the energy potentials of intervention are different, and not necessarily all the apartments should have the same technological response.

  14. Screening variability and change of soil moisture under wide-ranging climate conditions: Snow dynamics effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrot, Lucile; Destouni, Georgia

    2015-01-01

    Soil moisture influences and is influenced by water, climate, and ecosystem conditions, affecting associated ecosystem services in the landscape. This paper couples snow storage-melting dynamics with an analytical modeling approach to screening basin-scale, long-term soil moisture variability and change in a changing climate. This coupling enables assessment of both spatial differences and temporal changes across a wide range of hydro-climatic conditions. Model application is exemplified for two major Swedish hydrological basins, Norrström and Piteälven. These are located along a steep temperature gradient and have experienced different hydro-climatic changes over the time period of study, 1950-2009. Spatially, average intra-annual variability of soil moisture differs considerably between the basins due to their temperature-related differences in snow dynamics. With regard to temporal change, the long-term average state and intra-annual variability of soil moisture have not changed much, while inter-annual variability has changed considerably in response to hydro-climatic changes experienced so far in each basin.

  15. Impact of climatic conditions on the design of a water treatment plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arregoitia, C.; Mesa, M. P.

    2012-04-01

    The abundance or scarcity of resources causes enormous problems for populations and societies. They mark the direction of the development that a society will take. Water imbalances, may distort optimal environmental and socioeconomic conditions of the food production. Water scarcity may limit food production and supply, putting pressure on food prices and increasing countries' dependence on food imports. Rising demand for food caused by growing populations and shifting diets, production shortfall in some countries, increased costs for key agricultural inputs and meat supply (driven in turn by energy costs), bioenergy-related incentives in some countries and possible financial speculation have all contributed to the steep rises in food prices. According to United Nations Over the past century world water withdrawals increased almost twice as fast as population growth and an increasing number of regions are chronically water short. Climate change has been defined as a change in the statistical properties of the climate system when considered over long periods of time, regardless of cause. Different factors can shape the climate forces or mechanisms and impact the food production system such as the cattle production field. This paper considers the step by step design and implementation of a water treatment plant of a community cattle farm located in Jadacaquiva under changing climatic conditions. The byproducts of the cattle, as well as the community can also have an impact depending on the decisions taken for the plant. Keywords: water, climate change, treatment plant, food scarcity

  16. Energy Saving Potential of PCMs in Buildings under Future Climate Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdo Abdullah Ahmed Gassar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption reduction under changing climate conditions is a major challenge in buildings design, where excessive energy consumption creates an economic and environmental burden. Improving thermal performance of the buildings through support applying phase change material (PCM is a promising strategy for reducing building energy consumption under future climate change. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the energy saving potentials in buildings under future climate conditions in the humid and snowy regions in the hot continental and humid subtropical climates of the east Asia (Seoul, Tokyo and Hong Kong when various PCMs with different phase change temperatures are applied to a lightweight building envelope. Methodology in this work is implemented in two phases: firstly, investigation of energy saving potentials in buildings through inclusion of three types of PCMs with different phase temperatures into the building envelop separately and use weather file in the present (2017; and, secondly, evaluation of the effect of future climate change on the performance of PCMs by analyzing energy saving potentials of PCMs with 2020, 2050 and 2080 weather data. The results show that the inclusion of PCM into the building envelope is a promising strategy to increase the energy performance in buildings during both heating and cooling seasons in Seoul, Tokyo and Hong Kong under future climate conditions. The energy savings achieved by using PCMs in those regions are electricity savings of 4.48–8.21%, 3.81–9.69%, and 1.94–5.15%, and gas savings of 1.65–16.59%, 7.60–61.76%, and 62.07–93.33% in Seoul, Tokyo and Hong Kong, respectively, for the years 2017, 2020, 2050 and 2080. In addition, BioPCM and RUBITHERMPCM are the most efficient for improving thermal performance and saving energy in buildings in the tested regions and years.

  17. Residential air-conditioning and climate change: voices of the vulnerable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farbotko, Carol; Waitt, Gordon

    2011-12-01

    Decreasing the risk of heat-stress is an imperative in health promotion, and is widely accepted as necessary for successful adaptation to climate change. Less well understood are the vulnerabilities that air-conditioning use exacerbates, and conversely, the need for the promotion of alternative strategies for coping with heat wave conditions. This paper considers these issues with a focus on the role of air-conditioning in the everyday life of elderly public housing tenants living alone, a sector of the population that has been identified as being at high risk of suffering heat stress. A vulnerability analysis of domestic air-conditioning use, drawing on literature and policy on air-conditioning practices and ethnographic research with households. Residential air-conditioning exacerbated existing inequities. Case studies of two specifically selected low-income elderly single person households revealed that such households were unlikely to be able to afford this 'solution' to increasing exposure to heat waves in the absence of energy subsidies. Residential air-conditioning use during heat waves caused unintended side-effects, such as system-wide blackouts, which, in turn, led to escalating electricity costs as power companies responded by upgrading infrastructure to cope with periods of excess demand. Air-conditioning also contributed to emissions that cause climate change. Residential air-conditioning is a potentially maladaptive technology for reducing the risk of heat stress.

  18. Solar Air Collectors for Space Heating and Ventilation Applications—Performance and Case Studies under Romanian Climatic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanda Budea

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Solar air collectors have various applications: on the one hand, they can be used for air heating in cold seasons; on the other hand they can be used in summer to evacuate the warm and polluted air from residential, offices, industrial, and commercial buildings. The paper presents experimental results of a solar collector air, under the climatic conditions of the Southeastern Europe. The relationships between the direct solar irradiation, the resulting heat flow, the air velocity at the outlet, the air flow rate, the nominal regime of the collector and the efficiency of conversion of solar energy into thermal energy are all highlighted. Thus, it was shown that after a maximum 50 min, solar air collectors, with baffles and double air passage can reach over 50% efficiency for solar irradiation of 900–1000 W/m2. The article also presents a mathematical model and the results of a computational program that allows sizing solar collectors for the transfer of air, with the purpose of improving the natural ventilation of buildings. The article is completed with case studies, sizing the area to be covered with solar collectors, to ensure ventilation of a house with two floors or for an office building. In addition, the ACH (air change per hour coefficient was calculated and compared.

  19. Modeling the effects of climate on date palm scale ( Parlatoria blanchardi) population dynamics during different phenological stages of life history under hot arid conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idder-Ighili, Hakima; Idder, Mohamed Azzedine; Doumandji-Mitiche, Bahia; Chenchouni, Haroun

    2015-10-01

    The date palm scale (DPS) Parlatoria blanchardi is a serious pest due to the damage it inflicts on its host tree ( Phoenix dactylifera). To develop an effective control against DPS in arid regions, it is essential to know its bio-ecology including population dynamics and climatic factors influencing the duration and timing of life history and also the densities of different phenological stages (crawlers, first and second instars nymphs, adult males, and adult females). Monitoring of biological cycle and population dynamics of the pest were achieved through weekly counts of DPS densities on leaflets sampled at different position of date palm trees in an oasis of Ouargla region (Algerian Sahara Desert). Within this hyper-arid region, DPS established four generations per year, the most important was the spring generation. Two overlapping generations occurred in spring-early summer and two in autumn-early winter; these two pairs of generations were interspersed by two phases of high-mortality rates, the first corresponds to winter cold and the second refers to the extreme heat of summer. Statistical analysis of the effects of the studied climatic conditions (minimum, maximum and mean temperatures, precipitation, humidity, wind, rain days, and climatic indices) on the DPS densities at different phenological stages showed great variability from one stage to another. Among these, adult females were the most affected by climate factors. For the total DPS population, high values of minimum temperatures negatively affected population density, while high maximum temperatures, hygrometry, and De Martonne aridity index showed a positive influence.

  20. Optimal control strategies for deficit irrigation systems under different climate conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetze, Niels; Wagner, Michael

    2017-04-01

    In this contribution, the suitability of different control strategies for the operation of irrigation systems under limited water and different climate conditions is investigated. To treat the climate uncertainty within a simulation optimization framework for irrigation management we formulated a probabilistic framework that is based on Monte Carlo simulations. Thus, results show which control strategy can ensure food security since higher quantiles (90% and above) are of interest. This study also demonstrates the efficiency of a stack-ordering technique for generating high productive irrigation schedules which is based on statistically appropriate sample sizes and a reliable optimal management.

  1. Field study of thermal comfort in non-air-conditioned buildings in a tropical island climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shilei; Pang, Bo; Qi, Yunfang; Fang, Kun

    2018-01-01

    The unique geographical location of Hainan makes its climate characteristics different from inland areas in China. The thermal comfort of Hainan also owes its uniqueness to its tropical island climate. In the past decades, there have been very few studies on thermal comfort of the residents in tropical island areas in China. A thermal environment test for different types of buildings in Hainan and a thermal comfort field investigation of 1944 subjects were conducted over a period of about two months. The results of the survey data show that a high humidity environment did not have a significant impact on human comfort. The neutral temperature for the residents in tropical island areas was 26.1 °C, and the acceptable temperature range of thermal comfort was from 23.1 °C to 29.1 °C. Residents living in tropical island areas showed higher heat resistance capacity, but lower cold tolerance than predicted. The neutral temperature for females (26.3 °C) was higher than for males (25.8 °C). Additionally, females were more sensitive to air temperature than males. The research conclusions can play a guiding role in the thermal environment design of green buildings in Hainan Province. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Weather, Climate, and You.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    Information from the American Institute of Medical Climatologists on human responses to weather and climatic conditions, including clouds, winds, humidity, barometric pressure, heat, cold, and other variables that may exert a pervasive impact on health, behavior, disposition, and the level of efficiency with which individuals function is reviewed.…

  3. Projections of climate conditions that increase coral disease susceptibility and pathogen abundance and virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Jeffrey; van Hooidonk, Ruben; Eakin, C. Mark; Puotinen, Marjetta; Garren, Melissa; Williams, Gareth; Heron, Scott F.; Lamb, Joleah; Weil, Ernesto; Willis, Bette; Harvell, C. Drew

    2015-07-01

    Rising sea temperatures are likely to increase the frequency of disease outbreaks affecting reef-building corals through impacts on coral hosts and pathogens. We present and compare climate model projections of temperature conditions that will increase coral susceptibility to disease, pathogen abundance and pathogen virulence. Both moderate (RCP 4.5) and fossil fuel aggressive (RCP 8.5) emissions scenarios are examined. We also compare projections for the onset of disease-conducive conditions and severe annual coral bleaching, and produce a disease risk summary that combines climate stress with stress caused by local human activities. There is great spatial variation in the projections, both among and within the major ocean basins, in conditions favouring disease development. Our results indicate that disease is as likely to cause coral mortality as bleaching in the coming decades. These projections identify priority locations to reduce stress caused by local human activities and test management interventions to reduce disease impacts.

  4. Conceptualizing Cold Disasters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauta, Kristian Cedervall; Dahlberg, Rasmus; Vendelø, Morten Thanning

    2017-01-01

    In the present article, we explore in more depth the particular circumstances and characteristics of governing what we call ‘cold disasters’, and thereby, the paper sets out to investigate how disasters in cold contexts distinguish themselves from other disasters, and what the implications hereof...... are for the conceptualization and governance of cold disasters. Hence, the paper can also be viewed as a response to Alexander’s (2012a) recent call for new theory in the field of disaster risk reduction. The article is structured in four overall parts. The first part, Cold Context, provides an overview of the specific...... conditions in a cold context, exemplified by the Arctic, and zooms in on Greenland to provide more specific background for the paper. The second part, Disasters in Cold Contexts, discusses “cold disasters” in relation to disaster theory, in order to, elucidate how cold disasters challenge existing...

  5. Tolerance and potential for adaptation of a Baltic Sea rockweed under predicted climate change conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugiu, Luca; Manninen, Iita; Rothäusler, Eva; Jormalainen, Veijo

    2018-03-01

    Climate change is threating species' persistence worldwide. To predict species responses to climate change we need information not just on their environmental tolerance but also on its adaptive potential. We tested how the foundation species of rocky littoral habitats, Fucus vesiculosus, responds to combined hyposalinity and warming projected to the Baltic Sea by 2070-2099. We quantified responses of replicated populations originating from the entrance, central, and marginal Baltic regions. Using replicated individuals, we tested for the presence of within-population tolerance variation. Future conditions hampered growth and survival of the central and marginal populations whereas the entrance populations fared well. Further, both the among- and within-population variation in responses to climate change indicated existence of genetic variation in tolerance. Such standing genetic variation provides the raw material necessary for adaptation to a changing environment, which may eventually ensure the persistence of the species in the inner Baltic Sea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. An application of a hydraulic model simulator in flood risk assessment under changing climatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroszkiewicz, J. M.; Romanowicz, R. J.

    2016-12-01

    The standard procedure of climate change impact assessment on future hydrological extremes consists of a chain of consecutive actions, starting from the choice of GCM driven by an assumed CO2 scenario, through downscaling of climatic forcing to a catchment scale, estimation of hydrological extreme indices using hydrological modelling tools and subsequent derivation of flood risk maps with the help of a hydraulic model. Among many possible sources of uncertainty, the main are the uncertainties related to future climate scenarios, climate models, downscaling techniques and hydrological and hydraulic models. Unfortunately, we cannot directly assess the impact of these different sources of uncertainties on flood risk in future due to lack of observations of future climate realizations. The aim of this study is an assessment of a relative impact of different sources of uncertainty on the uncertainty of flood risk maps. Due to the complexity of the processes involved, an assessment of total uncertainty of maps of inundation probability might be very computer time consuming. As a way forward we present an application of a hydraulic model simulator based on a nonlinear transfer function model for the chosen locations along the river reach. The transfer function model parameters are estimated based on the simulations of the hydraulic model at each of the model cross-sections. The study shows that the application of a simulator substantially reduces the computer requirements related to the derivation of flood risk maps under future climatic conditions. Biala Tarnowska catchment, situated in southern Poland is used as a case study. Future discharges at the input to a hydraulic model are obtained using the HBV model and climate projections obtained from the EUROCORDEX project. The study describes a cascade of uncertainty related to different stages of the process of derivation of flood risk maps under changing climate conditions. In this context it takes into account the

  7. Waning habitats due to climate change: the effects of changes in streamflow and temperature at the rear edge of the distribution of a cold-water fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    María Santiago, José; Muñoz-Mas, Rafael; Solana-Gutiérrez, Joaquín; García de Jalón, Diego; Alonso, Carlos; Martínez-Capel, Francisco; Pórtoles, Javier; Monjo, Robert; Ribalaygua, Jaime

    2017-08-01

    Climate changes affect aquatic ecosystems by altering temperatures and precipitation patterns, and the rear edges of the distributions of cold-water species are especially sensitive to these effects. The main goal of this study was to predict in detail how changes in air temperature and precipitation will affect streamflow, the thermal habitat of a cold-water fish (the brown trout, Salmo trutta), and the synergistic relationships among these variables at the rear edge of the natural distribution of brown trout. Thirty-one sites in 14 mountain rivers and streams were studied in central Spain. Models of streamflow were built for several of these sites using M5 model trees, and a non-linear regression method was used to estimate stream temperatures. Nine global climate models simulations for Representative Concentration Pathways RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios were downscaled to the local level. Significant reductions in streamflow were predicted to occur in all of the basins (max. -49 %) by the year 2099, and seasonal differences were noted between the basins. The stream temperature models showed relationships between the model parameters, geology and hydrologic responses. Temperature was sensitive to streamflow in one set of streams, and summer reductions in streamflow contributed to additional stream temperature increases (max. 3.6 °C), although the sites that are most dependent on deep aquifers will likely resist warming to a greater degree. The predicted increases in water temperatures were as high as 4.0 °C. Temperature and streamflow changes will cause a shift in the rear edge of the distribution of this species. However, geology will affect the extent of this shift. Approaches like the one used herein have proven to be useful in planning the prevention and mitigation of the negative effects of climate change by differentiating areas based on the risk level and viability of fish populations.

  8. The impact of climate change on air conditioning requirements in Andalusia at a detailed scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limones-Rodríguez, Natalia; Marzo-Artigas, Javier; Pita-López, María Fernanda; Díaz-Cuevas, María Pilar

    2017-11-01

    This work calculates the current heating and cooling degree days and also examines heating and cooling degree days in relation to three subdivisions of the twenty-first century. On the basis of these data, we were able to calculate the heating and cooling degree months and degree years. After examining both sets of data, we studied the total needs of air conditioning—also referred to in the current paper as climatization needs——for Andalusia as a whole. The results indicate an increase in air conditioning needs, and we also noted that the areas adversely affected by this increase were more numerous than those which benefited, at the end of the century. It should be noted that climate change will also necessitate the gradual replacement of heating with cooling, which will require profound changes in the energy, land planning, and housing policies of the region. The true magnitude of the challenge becomes clear when the climatization degree days are related to the population which they affect; the majority of the population is located in areas where the climatization needs will increase over the course of the century. Undoubtedly, this issue is a major protagonist in the climate change adaptation process in Andalusia.

  9. Biological and physical factors controlling aggregate stability under different climatic conditions in Southern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ángel Gabarrón-Galeote, Miguel; Damián Ruiz-Sinoga, Jose; Francisco Martinez-Murillo, Juan; Lavee, Hanoch

    2013-04-01

    Soil aggregation is a key factor determining the soil structure. The presence of stable aggregates is essential to maintain a good soil structure, that in turn plays an important role in sustaining agricultural productivity and preserving environmental quality. A wide range of physical and biological soil components are involved in the aggregate formation and stabilization, namely clay mineral content; the quantity and quality of organic matter, that can be derived from plants, fungal hyphae, microorganism and soil animals; and the soil water content. Climatic conditions, through their effect on soil water content, vegetation cover and organic matter content, are supposed to affect soil aggregation. Thus the main objective of this research is to analyse the effect of organic matter, clay content and soil water content on aggregate stability along a climatic transect in Southern Spain. This study was conducted in four catchments along a pluviometric gradient in the South of Spain (rainfall depth decreases from west to east from more than 1000 mm year-1 to less than 300 mm year-1) and was based on a methodology approximating the climatic gradient in Mediterranean conditions. The selected sites shared similar conditions of geology, topography and soil use, which allowed making comparisons among them and relating the differences to the pluviometric conditions. In February 2007, 250 disturbed and undisturbed samples from the first 5cm of the soil were collected along the transect. We measured the aggregate stability, organic matter, clay content and bulk density of every sample. In the field we measured rainfall, air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, wind direction, solar radiation, potential evapotranspiration, soil water content, vegetation cover and presence of litter. Our results suggest that aggregate stability is a property determined by a great number of highly variable factors, which can make extremely difficult to predict its behavior taking in

  10. Groundwater flow modelling of periods with periglacial and glacial climate conditions - Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidstrand, Patrik (TerraSolve AB, Floda (Sweden)); Rhen, Ingvar (SWECO Environment AB, Falun (Sweden)); Zugec, Nada (Bergab, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    As a part of the license application for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken a series of groundwater flow modelling studies. These represent time periods with different hydraulic conditions and the simulations carried out contribute to the overall evaluation of the repository design and long-term radiological safety. This report is concerned with the modelling of a repository at the Laxemar-Simpevarp site during periglacial and glacial climate conditions as a comparison to corresponding modelling carried out for Forsmark /Vidstrand et al. 2010/. The groundwater flow modelling study reported here comprises a coupled thermal-hydraulic-chemical (T-H-C) analysis of periods with periglacial and glacial climate conditions. The objective of the report is to provide bounding hydrogeological estimates at different stages during glaciation and deglaciation of a glacial cycle at Laxemar. Three cases with different climate conditions are analysed here: (i) Temperate case, (ii) Glacial case without permafrost, and (iii) Glacial case with permafrost. The glacial periods are transient and encompass approximately 13,000 years. The simulation results comprise pressures, Darcy fluxes, and water salinities, as well as advective transport performance measures obtained by particle tracking such as flow path lengths, travel times and flow-related transport resistances. The modelling is accompanied by a sensitivity study that addresses the impact of the following matters: the direction of the ice sheet advance and the bedrock hydraulic and transport properties

  11. Climatic conditions produce contrasting influences on demographic traits in a long-distance Arctic migrant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleasby, Ian R; Bodey, Thomas W; Vigfusdottir, Freydis; McDonald, Jenni L; McElwaine, Graham; Mackie, Kerry; Colhoun, Kendrew; Bearhop, Stuart

    2017-03-01

    The manner in which patterns of variation and interactions among demographic rates contribute to population growth rate (λ) is key to understanding how animal populations will respond to changing climatic conditions. Migratory species are likely to be particularly sensitive to climatic conditions as they experience a range of different environments throughout their annual cycle. However, few studies have provided fully integrated demographic analyses of migratory populations in response to changing climatic conditions. Here, we employed integrated population models to demonstrate that the environmental conditions experienced during a short but critical period play a central role in the demography of a long-distance migrant, the light-bellied Brent goose (Branta bernicla hrota). Female survival was positively associated with June North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) values, whereas male survival was not. In contrast, breeding productivity was negatively associated with June NAO, suggesting a trade-off between female survival and reproductive success. Both adult female and adult male survival showed low temporal variation, whereas there was high temporal variation in recruitment and breeding productivity. In addition, while annual population growth was positively correlated with annual breeding productivity, a sensitivity analysis revealed that population growth was most sensitive to changes in adult survival. Our results demonstrate that the environmental conditions experienced during a relatively short-time window at the start of the breeding season play a critical role in shaping the demography of a long-distant Arctic migrant. Crucially, different demographic rates responded in opposing directions to climatic variation, emphasising the need for integrated analysis of multiple demographic traits when understanding population dynamics. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2016 British Ecological Society.

  12. Southern Hemisphere anticyclonic circulation drives oceanic and climatic conditions in late Holocene southernmost Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Annette; Schefuß, Enno; Andò, Sergio; Cawthra, Hayley C.; Frenzel, Peter; Kugel, Martin; Meschner, Stephanie; Mollenhauer, Gesine; Zabel, Matthias

    2017-06-01

    Due to the high sensitivity of southern Africa to climate change, a reliable understanding of its hydrological system is crucial. Recent studies of the regional climatic system have revealed a highly complex interplay of forcing factors on precipitation regimes. This includes the influence of the tropical easterlies, the strength of the southern hemispheric westerlies as well as sea surface temperatures along the coast of the subcontinent. However, very few marine records have been available in order to study the coupling of marine and atmospheric circulation systems. Here we present results from a marine sediment core, recovered in shallow waters off the Gouritz River mouth on the south coast of South Africa. Core GeoB18308-1 allows a closer view of the last ˜ 4 kyr. Climate sensitive organic proxies, like the distribution and isotopic composition of plant-wax lipids as well as indicators for sea surface temperatures and soil input, give information on oceanographic and hydrologic changes during the recorded time period. Moreover, the micropaleontology, mineralogical and elemental composition of the sediments reflect the variability of the terrigenous input to the core site. The combination of down-core sediment signatures and a catchment-wide provenance study indicate that the Little Ice Age ( ˜ 300-650 cal yr BP) was characterized by climatic conditions favorable to torrential flood events. The Medieval Climate Anomaly ( ˜ 950-650 cal yr BP) is expressed by lower sea surface temperatures in the Mossel Bay area and humid conditions in the Gouritz River catchment. These new results suggest that the coincidence of humid conditions and cooler sea surface temperatures along the south coast of South Africa resulted from a strengthened and more southerly anticyclonic circulation. Most probably, the transport of moisture from the Indian Ocean by strong subtropical easterlies was coupled with Agulhas Bank upwelling pulses, which were initiated by an increase in

  13. How can we best use climate information and hydrologic initial conditions to improve seasonal streamflow forecasts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, P. A.; Wood, A. W.; Rothwell, E.; Clark, M. P.; Brekke, L. D.; Arnold, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Over the last decades, a number of forecasting centers around the world have offered seasonal streamflow predictions, using methodologies that span a wide range of data requirements and complexity. In the western United States, two primary approaches have been adopted for operational purposes: (i) development of regression equations between future streamflow and in situ observations (e.g. rainfall, snow water equivalent), and (ii) ensemble hydrologic model simulations that combine initial watershed moisture states with historically observed weather sequences for the forecast period (e.g., Ensemble Streamflow Prediction, ESP). Nevertheless, none of these methodologies makes use of analyzed or forecast climate information, which might increase the skill of seasonal predictions. Further, there is a need to better understand the marginal benefits of using more complex methods (from statistical to dynamical) and different types of information. In this work, we provide a systematic intercomparison of various seasonal streamflow forecasting techniques, including: (1) a dynamical approach based on conceptual hydrologic modeling and ESP, (2) statistical regression using climate information and/or initial hydrologic conditions, (3) an ESP trace weighting scheme based on analog climatic conditions, and (4) combination of dynamical and statistical forecasts (i.e. hybrid approach). Climate information is taken from the NCEP CFSv2 reanalysis and reforecast datasets. These methods are tested for predicting spring (e.g., May-September) runoff volumes at case study basins located in the US Pacific Northwest, and results obtained for several initialization times are evaluated in terms of accuracy, probabilistic skill and statistical consistency. Preliminary results show that for earlier initialization times (October 1 to December 1), statistical and hybrid techniques that make use of climate information outperform ESP in terms of correlation and probabilistic skill. Although ESP at

  14. Effect of farm and simulated laboratory cold environmental conditions on the performance and physiological responses of lactating dairy cows supplemented with bovine somatotropin (BST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, B. A.; Johnson, H. D.; Li, R.; Collier, R. J.

    1990-09-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of bovine somatotropin (BST) supplementation in twelve lactating dairy cows maintained in cold environmental conditions. Six cows were injected daily with 25 mg of BST; the other six were injected with a control vehicle. Cows were maintained under standard dairy management during mid-winter for 30 days. Milk production was recorded twice daily, and blood samples were taken weekly. Animals were then transferred to environmentally controlled chambers and exposed to cycling thermoneutral (15° to 20° C) and cycling cold (-5° to +5° C) temperatures for 10 days in a split-reversal design. Milk production, feed and water intake, body weights and rectal temperatures were monitored. Blood samples were taken on days 1, 3, 5, 8 and 10 of each period and analyzed for plasma triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), cortisol, insulin and prolactin. Under farm conditions, BST-treated cows produced 11% more milk than control-treated cows and in environmentally controlled chambers produced 17.4% more milk. No differences due to BST in feed or water intake, body weights or rectal temperatures were found under laboratory conditions. Plasma T3 and insulin increased due to BST treatment while no effect was found on cortisol, prolactin or T4. The results showed that the benefits of BST supplementation in lactating dairy cows were achieved under cold environmental conditions.

  15. Conditioning model output statistics of regional climate model precipitation on circulation patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Wetterhall

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Dynamical downscaling of Global Climate Models (GCMs through regional climate models (RCMs potentially improves the usability of the output for hydrological impact studies. However, a further downscaling or interpolation of precipitation from RCMs is often needed to match the precipitation characteristics at the local scale. This study analysed three Model Output Statistics (MOS techniques to adjust RCM precipitation; (1 a simple direct method (DM, (2 quantile-quantile mapping (QM and (3 a distribution-based scaling (DBS approach. The modelled precipitation was daily means from 16 RCMs driven by ERA40 reanalysis data over the 1961–2000 provided by the ENSEMBLES (ENSEMBLE-based Predictions of Climate Changes and their Impacts project over a small catchment located in the Midlands, UK. All methods were conditioned on the entire time series, separate months and using an objective classification of Lamb's weather types. The performance of the MOS techniques were assessed regarding temporal and spatial characteristics of the precipitation fields, as well as modelled runoff using the HBV rainfall-runoff model. The results indicate that the DBS conditioned on classification patterns performed better than the other methods, however an ensemble approach in terms of both climate models and downscaling methods is recommended to account for uncertainties in the MOS methods.

  16. The Effect of Local Lacustrine Conditions on the Expression of Regional Holocene Climate in the Ruby Mountains, Nevada, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starratt, S.; Kusler, J. E.; Addison, J. A.; Wahl, D.

    2013-12-01

    Climate of the north-central Great Basin currently exhibits a bimodal precipitation pattern, dominated by winter (NDJF) precipitation from the eastern Pacific Ocean, augmented by late spring (MJ) convectional precipitation. Reconstruction of past moisture variability has proven difficult due to limited paleoclimate records in this region and the effect of lake-specific and local watershed characteristics. In order to better understand the Holocene climate record a series of cores were collected in Favre Lake (2902 masl, 8 ha, 12 m deep) using a modified Livingstone piston corer. The presence of the Mazama ash in the basal sediment (~4 m below the sediment/water interface) indicates the record extends to ~7700 cal yr B.P. The pollen record is dominated by Pinus and Artemisia, followed by subordinate levels of Poaceae, Asteraceae, Amaranthaceae, and Sarcobatus. Small fragilarioid diatoms (Pseudostaurosira, Staurosira, and Staurosirella) comprise as much as 80% of the assemblage. The remainder of the assemblage is dominated by benthic taxa. Planktonic species account for about 10% of the assemblage. Biogenic silica values vary between 20 and 30 wt %. These proxies suggest that the lake was small between 7,700 and 5,500 cal yr BP; for most of the remainder of the record, the lake covered a shallow (~1 m deep) shelf, resulting in the dominance of small fragilarioid diatoms. Planktonic species increase in abundance in the last 200 years, indicating the establishment of modern conditions. In order to evaluate the role of local conditions on the climate record, surface sediments were collected from tarns in the northern Ruby Mountains (Lamoille Lake, 2976 masl, 6 ha; Upper Dollar Lake, 2942 masl, ~1 ha, 2 m deep; Lower Dollar Lake, 2937 masl, ~1 ha, 2 m deep; Liberty Lake, 3064 masl, 9 ha, 33 m deep; Castle Lake, 2980 masl, 6 ha, 4.6 m deep; Favre Lake), and East Humboldt Range (Angel Lake, 2553 masl, 5 ha, 9 m deep). Slope aspects above the lakes are north (Lamoille

  17. Regression tree modeling of forest NPP using site conditions and climate variables across eastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Y.

    2013-12-01

    As evidence of global warming continue to increase, being able to predict forest response to climate changes, such as expected rise of temperature and precipitation, will be vital for maintaining the sustainability and productivity of forests. To map forest species redistribution by climate change scenario has been successful, however, most species redistribution maps lack mechanistic understanding to explain why trees grow under the novel conditions of chaining climate. Distributional map is only capable of predicting under the equilibrium assumption that the communities would exist following a prolonged period under the new climate. In this context, forest NPP as a surrogate for growth rate, the most important facet that determines stand dynamics, can lead to valid prediction on the transition stage to new vegetation-climate equilibrium as it represents changes in structure of forest reflecting site conditions and climate factors. The objective of this study is to develop forest growth map using regression tree analysis by extracting large-scale non-linear structures from both field-based FIA and remotely sensed MODIS data set. The major issue addressed in this approach is non-linear spatial patterns of forest attributes. Forest inventory data showed complex spatial patterns that reflect environmental states and processes that originate at different spatial scales. At broad scales, non-linear spatial trends in forest attributes and mixture of continuous and discrete types of environmental variables make traditional statistical (multivariate regression) and geostatistical (kriging) models inefficient. It calls into question some traditional underlying assumptions of spatial trends that uncritically accepted in forest data. To solve the controversy surrounding the suitability of forest data, regression tree analysis are performed using Software See5 and Cubist. Four publicly available data sets were obtained: First, field-based Forest Inventory and Analysis (USDA

  18. Basalt Weathering in a Cold and Icy Climate: Three Sisters, Oregon as an Analog for Early Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampe, E. B.; Horgan, B.; Smith, R. J.; Scudder, N. A.; Rutledge, A. M.; Bamber, E.; Morris, R. V.

    2017-01-01

    There is abundant evidence for liquid water on early Mars, but the debate remains whether early Mars was warm and wet or cold and icy with punctuated periods of melting. To further investigate the hypothesis of a cold and icy early Mars, we collected rocks and sediments from the Collier and Diller glacial valleys in the Three Sisters volcanic complex in Oregon. We analyzed rocks and sediments with X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning and transmission electron microscopies with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM, TEM, EDS), and visible, short-wave infrared (VSWIR) and thermal-IR (TIR) spectroscopies to characterize chemical weathering and sediment transport through the valleys. Here, we focus on the composition and mineralogy of the weathering products and how they compare to those identified on the martian surface. Phyllosilicates (smectite), zeolites, and poorly crystalline phases were discovered in pro- and supra-glacial sediments, whereas Si-rich regelation films were found on hand samples and boulders in the proglacial valleys. Most phyllosilicates and zeolites are likely detrital, originating from hydrothermally altered units on North Sister. TEM-EDS analyses of the cold and icy environment.

  19. Analysis of a Solar Cooling System for Climatic Conditions of Five Different Cities of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mujahid Rafique

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Air high in humidity leads to uncomfortable conditions and promotes the growth of different fungi and bacteria, which may cause health problems. The control of moisture content in the air using traditional air conditioning techniques is not a suitable option due to large consumption of primary energy and hence emission of greenhouse gases. The evaporative cooling technology is a cost effective and eco-friendly alternative but can provide thermal comfort conditions only under low humidity conditions. However, the evaporative cooling method can be used effectively in conjunction with desiccant dehumidifiers for better control of humidity. Such systems can control the temperature and humidity of the air independently and can effectively utilize the low-grade thermal energy resources. In this paper, the theoretical analysis of desiccant based evaporative cooling systems is carried out for five cities in Saudi Arabia (Jeddah, Jazan, Riyadh, Hail, and Dhahran. It has been observed that the coefficient of performance (COP of the system varies from 0.275 to 0.476 for different locations. The water removal capacity of the desiccant wheel is at its maximum for the climatic conditions of Jazan and at its minimum for Hail. The effect of climatic conditions of five cities on regeneration temperature, air mass flow rate, and potential of solar energy has been evaluated using RET Screen software.

  20. DETERMINATION OF WATER AND DRY MATTER IN ORNAMENTAL TREES UNDER THE CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF IASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lamban

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some results concerning the determination of water and dry matter through the quantitative gravimetric method in ornamental trees (leaves and branches of Juniperus, Thuja, Chamaecyparis, Picea, Pinus, Abies, Pseudotzuga genera, under the climatic conditions of Iasi. The purpose of carrying on this work is to see if moisture of vegetative part remains under normal limits. The success of propagation, planting, transplanting of woody plants is largely dependant on the presence of water.

  1. Evaluation of Climate Change Effect on Agricultural Production of Iran: I. Predicting the Future Agroclimatic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Koocheki

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Future climate change may affect agricultural production through changes in both mean and variability of climatic conditions which in turn could affect crop growth and development. Results of many studies have shown that crop production systems of dry regions are more vulnerable to the predicted climate changes (5 and these impacts are mainly due to the effects of increased temperature on agro-climatic variables (4. During the last decade future changes in agro-climatic variables such as growth degree days, length of growth period and duration of dry season have been studied at regional or national scale with different results depending on studied location (1, 6. However, such information are not available for Iran. In this study different agro-climatic indices of Iran across the country are calculated for the target year 2050 based on business as usual scenario and the results are compared with the current conditions. Materials and Methods Long term climatic data (1965-2005 of 34 stations covering different climates across the country were used as the baseline for predicting future climate as well as current conditions. Two general circulation models (GISS and GFDL were used for prediction of climatic variables in the selected stations for the year 2050 based on business as usual (A1f scenario of CERES family (2 and the results were statistically downscaled for higher resolution (Koocheki et al., 2006. Daily temperatures (minimum, maximum and mean and precipitation were generated from the predicted monthly values. Several agro-climatic indices including potential evapotranspiration, length of growing season (time period between the last spring frost and the first autumn frost, length of dry season (time period where evapotranspiration exceeds precipitation which obtained from ombrothermic curve, and precipitation deficiency index (sum of differences between evapotranspiration and precipitation were calculated based on daily

  2. Weather conditions conducive to Beijing severe haze more frequent under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wenju; Li, Ke; Liao, Hong; Wang, Huijun; Wu, Lixin

    2017-03-01

    The frequency of Beijing winter severe haze episodes has increased substantially over the past decades, and is commonly attributed to increased pollutant emissions from China’s rapid economic development. During such episodes, levels of fine particulate matter are harmful to human health and the environment, and cause massive disruption to economic activities, as occurred in January 2013. Conducive weather conditions are an important ingredient of severe haze episodes, and include reduced surface winter northerlies, weakened northwesterlies in the midtroposphere, and enhanced thermal stability of the lower atmosphere. How such weather conditions may respond to climate change is not clear. Here we project a 50% increase in the frequency and an 80% increase in the persistence of conducive weather conditions similar to those in January 2013, in response to climate change. The frequency and persistence between the historical (1950-1999) and future (2050-2099) climate were compared in 15 models under Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 (RCP8.5). The increased frequency is consistent with large-scale circulation changes, including an Arctic Oscillation upward trend, weakening East Asian winter monsoon, and faster warming in the lower troposphere. Thus, circulation changes induced by global greenhouse gas emissions can contribute to the increased Beijing severe haze frequency.

  3. Impact of protein pre-treatment conditions on the iron encapsulation efficiency of whey protein cold-set gel particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, A.H.; Jong, G.A.H. de

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the possibility for iron fortification of food using protein gel particles in which iron is entrapped using cold-set gelation. The aim is to optimize the iron encapsulation efficiency of whey protein by giving the whey protein different heat treatment prior to gelation with

  4. A natural resource condition assessment for Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks: Appendix 22: climatic change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Adrian J.; Stephenson, Nathan L.

    2013-01-01

    Climate is a master controller of the structure, composition, and function of biotic communities, affecting them both directly, through physiological effects, and indirectly, by mediating biotic interactions and by influencing disturbance regimes. Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Park’s (SEKI’s) dramatic elevational changes in biotic communities -- from warm mediterranean to cold alpine -- are but one manifestation of climate’s overarching importance in shaping SEKI’s landscape. Yet humans are now altering the global climate, with measurable effects on ecosystems (IPCC 2007). Over the last few decades across the western United States, human-induced climatic changes have likely contributed to observed declines in fraction of precipitation falling as snow and snowpack water content (Mote et al. 2005, Knowles et al. 2006), advance in spring snowmelt (Stewart et al. 2005, Barnett et al. 2008), and consequent increase in area burned in wildfires (Westerling et al. 2006). In the Sierra Nevada, warming temperatures have likely contributed to observed glacial recession (Basagic 2008), uphill migration of small mammals (Moritz et al. 2008), and increasing tree mortality rates (van Mantgem and Stephenson 2007, van Mantgem et al. 2009). More substantial changes can be expected for the future (e.g., IPCC 2007). Given the central importance of climate and climatic changes, we sought to describe long-term trends in temperature and precipitation at SEKI. Time and budget constraints limited us to analyses of mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation, using readily-available data. If funds become available in the future, further analyses will be needed to analyze trends by season, trends in daily minimum and maximum temperatures, and so on. We chose to analyze data from individual weather stations rather than use interpolated climatic data from sources such as PRISM (http://www.prism.oregonstate.edu/). In topographically complex mountainous regions with few

  5. Common Cold

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nose, coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In ... avoid colds. There is no cure for the common cold. For relief, try Getting plenty of rest Drinking ...

  6. Impact of regional afforestation on climatic conditions in metropolitan areas: case study of Copenhagen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stysiak, Aleksander Andrzej; Bergen Jensen, Marina; Mahura, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Like most other places, European metropolitan areas will face a range of climate-related challenges over the next decades that may influence the nature of urban life across the continent. Under future urbanization and climate change scenarios the well-being and comfort of the urban population might become progressively compromised. In urban areas, the effects of the warming climate will be accelerated by combination of Urban Heat Island effect (UHI) and extreme heat waves. The land cover composition directly influences atmospheric variability, and can either escalate or downscale the projected changes. Vegetation, forest ecosystems in particular, are anticipated to play an important role in modulating local and regional climatic conditions, and to be vital factor in the process of adapting cities to warming climate. This study investigates the impact of forest and land-cover change on formation and development of temperature regimes in the Copenhagen Metropolitan Area (CPH-MA). Potential to modify the UHI effect in CPH-MA is estimated. Using 2009 meteorological data, and up-to-date 2012 high resolution land-cover data we employed the online integrated meteorology-chemistry/aerosols Enviro-HIRLAM (Environment - High Resolution Limited Area Model) modeling system to simulate air temperature (at 2 meter height) fields for a selected period in July 2009. Employing research tools (such as METGRAF meteorological software and Geographical Information Systems) we then estimated the influence of different afforestation and urbanization scenarios with new forests being located after the Danish national afforestation plan, after proximity to the city center, after dominating wind characteristics, and urbanization taking place as densification of the existing conurbation. This study showed the difference in temperature up to 3.25°C, and the decrease in the spatial extent of temperature fields up to 68%, depending on the selected scenario. Performed simulations demonstrated

  7. Uncertainties in Predicting Rice Yield by Current Crop Models Under a Wide Range of Climatic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Hasegawa, Toshihiro; Yin, Xinyou; Zhu, Yan; Boote, Kenneth; Adam, Myriam; Bregaglio, Simone; Buis, Samuel; Confalonieri, Roberto; Fumoto, Tamon; hide

    2014-01-01

    Predicting rice (Oryza sativa) productivity under future climates is important for global food security. Ecophysiological crop models in combination with climate model outputs are commonly used in yield prediction, but uncertainties associated with crop models remain largely unquantified. We evaluated 13 rice models against multi-year experimental yield data at four sites with diverse climatic conditions in Asia and examined whether different modeling approaches on major physiological processes attribute to the uncertainties of prediction to field measured yields and to the uncertainties of sensitivity to changes in temperature and CO2 concentration [CO2]. We also examined whether a use of an ensemble of crop models can reduce the uncertainties. Individual models did not consistently reproduce both experimental and regional yields well, and uncertainty was larger at the warmest and coolest sites. The variation in yield projections was larger among crop models than variation resulting from 16 global climate model-based scenarios. However, the mean of predictions of all crop models reproduced experimental data, with an uncertainty of less than 10 percent of measured yields. Using an ensemble of eight models calibrated only for phenology or five models calibrated in detail resulted in the uncertainty equivalent to that of the measured yield in well-controlled agronomic field experiments. Sensitivity analysis indicates the necessity to improve the accuracy in predicting both biomass and harvest index in response to increasing [CO2] and temperature.

  8. Under which climate and soil conditions the plant productivity-precipitation relationship is linear or nonlinear?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jian-Sheng; Pei, Jiu-Ying; Fang, Chao

    2018-03-01

    Understanding under which climate and soil conditions the plant productivity-precipitation relationship is linear or nonlinear is useful for accurately predicting the response of ecosystem function to global environmental change. Using long-term (2000-2016) net primary productivity (NPP)-precipitation datasets derived from satellite observations, we identify >5600pixels in the North Hemisphere landmass that fit either linear or nonlinear temporal NPP-precipitation relationships. Differences in climate (precipitation, radiation, ratio of actual to potential evapotranspiration, temperature) and soil factors (nitrogen, phosphorous, organic carbon, field capacity) between the linear and nonlinear types are evaluated. Our analysis shows that both linear and nonlinear types exhibit similar interannual precipitation variabilities and occurrences of extreme precipitation. Permutational multivariate analysis of variance suggests that linear and nonlinear types differ significantly regarding to radiation, ratio of actual to potential evapotranspiration, and soil factors. The nonlinear type possesses lower radiation and/or less soil nutrients than the linear type, thereby suggesting that nonlinear type features higher degree of limitation from resources other than precipitation. This study suggests several factors limiting the responses of plant productivity to changes in precipitation, thus causing nonlinear NPP-precipitation pattern. Precipitation manipulation and modeling experiments should combine with changes in other climate and soil factors to better predict the response of plant productivity under future climate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Potential Changes in Flood Frequency and Timing in an Alpine Watershed under Climate Change Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeberger, Klaus; Dobler, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Climate change may have significant effects on the frequency and intensity of floods across many regions of the world. In mountain regions, the complex process of runoff generation is the result from a combination of higher precipitation induced by orographic effects, reduced evapotranspiration rates caused by relatively low mean temperatures, and temporary storage in form of snow and ice. Potential changes in temperature and precipitation patterns may lead to a modification of these factors, and thus, may significantly affect hydrological processes in Alpine catchments. The aim of this study is to assess how climate change may affect flood frequency and timing in an Alpine watershed. The Tyrolean Lech Valley, a typical Alpine watershed (~1,000 km²) situated in the Northern Alps, was selected as study area. Current approaches to assess climate change impacts on peak flows usually follow a 'top-down' approach, where the results of climate models are used as input into a hydrological model. However, a number of recent studies have shown that projections based on such modelling chains are associated with high uncertainty, which makes it difficult to obtain clear signals. In this study we applied an alternative approach to assess changes in flood frequency and timing in the Lech watershed. Thereby, hypothetical climate change scenarios were constructed and, in a next step, used as an input into a hydrological model. The main advantage of this approach is that the full range of climate change can be considered, including results beyond what current models project. The hydrological model applied in this study is the semi-distributive rainfall-runoff model HQsim, which has been calibrated and validated on observed meteorological and hydrological data. The results show that climate change may have significant effects on the flood regime of the Alpine Lech watershed. We found strong changes in the timing of annual maximum floods. Under warmer climate conditions, the

  10. Coupling climate conditions, sediment sources and sediment transport in an alpine basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainato, Riccardo; Picco, Lorenzo; Cavalli, Marco; Mao, Luca; Neverman, Andrew J.; Tarolli, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    In a fluvial system, mountain basins control sediment export to the lowland rivers. Hence, the analysis of the erosion processes and sediment delivery patterns that act in mountain basins is important. Several studies have investigated the alterations triggered by recent climatic change on the hydrological regime, whilst only a few works have explored the consequences on the sediment dynamics. Here we combined and analyzed the quasi-unique dataset of climatic conditions, landscape response, and sediment export produced, since 1986 in the Rio Cordon basin (5 km2, Eastern Italian Alps) to examine the sediment delivery processes occurring in the last three decades. The temperature, precipitation, and fluvial sediment fluxes in the basin were analyzed using continuous measurement executed by a permanent monitoring station, while the landscape evolution was investigated by three sediment source inventories established in 1994, 2006, and 2016. Thus, the analysis focused on the trends exhibited during the periods 1986-1993, 1994-2006, and 2007-2015. In terms of climatic conditions, three distinct climate forcing stages can be observed in the periods analyzed: a relatively stable phase (1986-1993), a period characterized by temperature and rainfall fluctuations (1994-2006), and a more recent warmer and wetter phase (2007-2015). In the 1986-1993 period, the fluvial sediment fluxes reflected the stable trend exhibited by the climatic conditions. In the subsequent 1994-2006 period, the average temperature and precipitation were in line with that previously observed, although with higher interannual variability. Notwithstanding the climate forcing and the occurrence of high magnitude/low frequency floods that strongly influenced the source areas, between 1994 and 2006 the Rio Cordon basin showed relatively limited erosion activity. Hence, the climatic conditions and the landscape response can only partially explain the strong increase of sediment export recorded in the 1994

  11. Rainfall Downscaling Conditional on Upper-air Variables: Assessing Rainfall Statistics in a Changing Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langousis, Andreas; Deidda, Roberto; Marrocu, Marino; Kaleris, Vassilios

    2014-05-01

    Due to its intermittent and highly variable character, and the modeling parameterizations used, precipitation is one of the least well reproduced hydrologic variables by both Global Climate Models (GCMs) and Regional Climate Models (RCMs). This is especially the case at a regional level (where hydrologic risks are assessed) and at small temporal scales (e.g. daily) used to run hydrologic models. In an effort to remedy those shortcomings and assess the effect of climate change on rainfall statistics at hydrologically relevant scales, Langousis and Kaleris (2013) developed a statistical framework for simulation of daily rainfall intensities conditional on upper air variables. The developed downscaling scheme was tested using atmospheric data from the ERA-Interim archive (http://www.ecmwf.int/research/era/do/get/index), and daily rainfall measurements from western Greece, and was proved capable of reproducing several statistical properties of actual rainfall records, at both annual and seasonal levels. This was done solely by conditioning rainfall simulation on a vector of atmospheric predictors, properly selected to reflect the relative influence of upper-air variables on ground-level rainfall statistics. In this study, we apply the developed framework for conditional rainfall simulation using atmospheric data from different GCM/RCM combinations. This is done using atmospheric data from the ENSEMBLES project (http://ensembleseu.metoffice.com), and daily rainfall measurements for an intermediate-sized catchment in Italy; i.e. the Flumendosa catchment. Since GCM/RCM products are suited to reproduce the local climatology in a statistical sense (i.e. in terms of relative frequencies), rather than ensuring a one-to-one temporal correspondence between observed and simulated fields (i.e. as is the case for ERA-interim reanalysis data), we proceed in three steps: a) we use statistical tools to establish a linkage between ERA-Interim upper-air atmospheric forecasts and

  12. Evaluation of Cold Tolerance in Field Grown Mentha (Mentha piperita‎‏ L.‎ under ‎Laboratory Conditions by Electrolyte Leakage Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Kheirkhah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine cold tolerance of field grown Mentha (Mentha Piperita L. under controlled conditions, using electrolyte leakage index, an experiment was carried out at the College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, based on a completely randomized design with four replications. Experimental factors included six freezing temperatures (Zero, -4, -8, -12, -16 and -20 °C, seven harvest ‎time (November, December, January, February, March, April and May and ‎four Peppermint organs (leaves, Stems, Stolons and Rhizomes. So, field grown ‎and acclimated Pepermint was harvested from the faculty field every month. ‎After separating the Peppermint organs, they were subjected to freezing ‎temperatures. The membrane stability index was measured through ‎electrolyte leakage (EL and also lethal temperature 50 ‎according to EL (LT50el was determined. The results showed that electrolyte leakages were affected significantly by freezing temperature. By reduction of freezing temperature electrolyte leakages percentage increased. Among different organs of peppermint, stolon and leaf were the most cold tolerant and the most cold sensitive according to EL and LT50el , respectively. Also cold tolerance varied according to different harvest time in all organs. However, in May, all organs had lowest cold tolerance. Also leaves and stolons had the highest and the lowest LT50el, respectively. For all organs the highest LT50el‎ was observed in May. According to the high correlation between electrolyte leakages percent and LT50el (r = 0.96**, it seems that using this index for evaluation of freezing tolerance injury in Mentha piperita could be useful.

  13. Germination success and seedling development of Argania spinosa under different climatic conditions and browsing intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunzunegui, María; Jáuregui, Juan; Ain-Lhout, Fatima; Boutaled, Said; Alvarez-Cansino, Leonor; Esquivias, Maripaz

    2013-01-01

    The present study assesses whether the germination and establishment success of Argania spinosa seeds are affected by the environmental conditions under which the mother plant has grown. Seeds from three populations with different climatic conditions and herbivory intensity were collected and sown in the laboratory after different treatments. Our study suggests that the seed germination process and initial stages of seedling growth are adaptive. Seeds from the population of Agadir with the highest herbivory pressure and high air relative humidity in summer (due to the proximity to the sea) were stimulated by acid treatment, and showed a lower root/stem ratio, which allows them to take advantage of the atmospheric water resources. Seeds from the Mountain population, where the most arid environmental conditions were found, produced early-germinating seeds with the highest root/stem ratio that would facilitate seedling establishment when the harshest environmental conditions appear in summer.

  14. Near-bed environmental conditions influencing cold-water coral growth on Viosca Knoll, Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mienis, F.; Duineveld, G.; Davies, A. J.; Weering, T. V.; Ross, S.; Roberts, M.; Seim, H.

    2010-12-01

    During recent decades research has shown that cold-water coral (CWC) ecosystems are widely distributed on the margins of the Atlantic Ocean, representing the most species rich ecosystems in the upper bathyal zone. On the European continental margin and the continental slope from North Carolina to Florida, CWCs have formed large reef and mound structures. Presently detailed studies on the environmental constraints in CWC areas are limited to the NE Atlantic. This is the first study showing long-term environmental variability in a CWC habitat in the West Atlantic. The most extensive CWC area known in the Gulf of Mexico is found on the Viosca Knoll (480 m), located in the vicinity of the Mississippi River. This source dominates sedimentation patterns, discharging large amounts of sediments and dispersing organic matter and nutrients. In the coral area, CTD transects were made and benthic landers were deployed for a period of 12 months to identify near-bed environmental conditions, seasonal variability and the forcing mechanisms of particle supply. The importance of studying the functioning of deep water ecosystems was underpinned by the recent Deepwater Horizon oil spill, which might pose a risk for the CWC ecosystems. CTD transects showed an oxygen minimum zone at the depth of the corals. Long term deployments of landers revealed intra-annual temperature (6.5-11.6 °C) and salinity fluctuations, which co-vary during the year. Food supply appears not to be driven by surface processes due to low fluorescence (except for two periods in April and June), but an indirect mechanism of transport may be a 24 hour diel vertical migration of zooplankton. The average current speed in the area varies at around 8 cms-1, whilst peak current speeds were recorded up to 38 cms-1. East-west currents are strongest in the area corresponding with flow along isobaths. During westward flow, the amount of particles in the water column increases, while during eastward flow clearer water is

  15. Land-Atmosphere Interactions in Cold Environments (LATICE): The role of Atmosphere - Biosphere - Cryosphere - Hydrosphere interactions in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, J. F.; Tallaksen, L. M.; Stordal, F.; Berntsen, T.; Westermann, S.; Kristjansson, J. E.; Etzelmuller, B.; Hagen, J. O.; Schuler, T.; Hamran, S. E.; Lande, T. S.; Bryn, A.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is impacting the high latitudes more rapidly and significantly than any other region of the Earth because of feedback processes between the atmosphere and the underlying surface. A warmer climate has already led to thawing of permafrost, reducing snow cover and a longer growing season; changes, which in turn influence the atmospheric circulation and the hydrological cycle. Still, many studies rely on one-way coupling between the atmosphere and the land surface, thereby neglecting important interactions and feedbacks. The observation, understanding and prediction of such processes from local to regional and global scales, represent a major scientific challenge that requires multidisciplinary scientific effort. The successful integration of earth observations (remote and in-situ data) and model development requires a harmonized research effort between earth system scientists, modelers and the developers of technologies and sensors. LATICE, which is recognized as a priority research area by the Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences at the University of Oslo, aims to advance the knowledge base concerning land atmosphere interactions and their role in controlling climate variability and climate change at high northern latitudes. The consortium consists of an interdisciplinary team of experts from the atmospheric and terrestrial (hydrosphere, cryosphere and biosphere) research groups, together with key expertise on earth observations and novel sensor technologies. LATICE addresses critical knowledge gaps in the current climate assessment capacity through: Improving parameterizations of processes in earth system models controlling the interactions and feedbacks between the land (snow, ice, permafrost, soil and vegetation) and the atmosphere at high latitudes, including the boreal, alpine and artic zone. Assessing the influence of climate and land cover changes on water and energy fluxes. Integrating remote earth observations with in-situ data and

  16. Effects of Simulated Climate Conditions on Phosphorus Cycling in an Annual Grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellett, T.; Defforey, D.; Paytan, A.

    2012-12-01

    The Jasper Ridge Global Change Experiment is a long-term study of the effects of simulated climate change conditions on an annual grassland. The different treatments consist of elevated atmospheric CO2 levels, enhanced nitrate deposition, as well as higher temperatures and precipitation rates. The above ground vegetation from each plot is harvested and separated by species, with the dominant species being selected for analysis. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of different climate conditions on the phosphorus content and phosphorus cycling in terrestrial plants. Phosphorus content in grass samples is determined using the colorimetric reaction (soluble reactive phosphorus content), as well as combustion and acid digestion (total phosphorus content). Since phosphorus only has one stable isotope, the δ18O signature in phosphate is used as a proxy to investigate phosphorus cycling in this ecosystem. These three tools will be combined and evaluated as indicators for phosphorus limitation in each respective treatment site and provide a better understanding of phosphorus cycling in annual grasslands and the potential effects of climate change on phosphorus cycling.

  17. Costs and benefits of cold acclimation in field released Drosophila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Torsten N; Hoffmann, Ary A; Overgaard, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    One way animals can counter the effects of climatic extremes is via physiological acclimation, but acclimating to one extreme might decrease performance under different conditions. Here, we use field releases of Drosophila melanogaster on two continents across a range of temperatures to test...... for costs and benefits of developmental or adult cold acclimation. Both types of cold acclimation had enormous benefits at low temperatures in the field; in the coldest releases only cold-acclimated flies were able to find a resource. However, this advantage came at a huge cost; flies that had not been cold......-acclimated were up to 36 times more likely to find food than the cold-acclimated flies when temperatures were warm. Such costs and strong benefits were not evident in laboratory tests where we found no reduction in heat survival of the cold-acclimated flies. Field release studies, therefore, reveal costs of cold...

  18. Climatic conditions for the last Neanderthals: Herpetofaunal record of Gorham’s Cave, Gibraltar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, Hugues-Alexandre; Gleed-Owen, Chris P; López-García, Juan Manuel; Carrión, José Sebastian; Jennings, Richard; Finlayson, Geraldine; Finlayson, Clive; Giles-Pacheco, Francisco

    2013-04-01

    Gorham’s Cave is located in the British territory of Gibraltar in the southernmost end of the Iberian Peninsula. Recent excavations, which began in 1997, have exposed an 18 m archaeological sequence that covered the last evidence of Neanderthal occupation and the first evidence of modern human occupation in the cave. By applying the Mutual Climatic Range method on the amphibian and reptile assemblages, we propose here new quantitative data on the terrestrial climatic conditions throughout the latest Pleistocene sequence of Gorham’s Cave. In comparison with current climatic data, all mean annual temperatures were about 1.6-1.8 degrees C lower in this region. Winters were colder and summers were similar to today. Mean annual precipitation was slightly lower, but according to the Aridity Index of Gaussen there were only four dry months during the latest Pleistocene as opposed to five dry months today during the summer. The climate was Mediterranean and semi-arid (according to the Aridity Index of Dantin-Revenga) or semi-humid (according to the Aridity Index of Martonne). The atmospheric temperature range was higher during the latest Pleistocene, mainly due to lower winter temperatures. Such data support recent bioclimatic models, which indicate that high rainfall levels may have been a significant factor in the late survival of Neanderthal populations in southern Iberia. The Solutrean levels of Gorham’s Cave and climate records from cores in the Alboran Sea indicate increasing aridity from Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3-2. Because Neanderthals seem to have been associated with woodland habitats, we propose that lessening rainfall may have caused the degradation of large areas of forest and may have made late surviving Neanderthal populations more vulnerable outside southern refuges like the Rock of Gibraltar.

  19. Adverse weather conditions for European wheat production will become more frequent with climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trnka, Miroslav; Rötter, Reimund P.; Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    Europe is the largest producer of wheat, the second most widely grown cereal crop after rice. The increased occurrence and magnitude of adverse and extreme agroclimatic events are considered a major threat for wheat production. We present an analysis that accounts for a range of adverse weather...... events that might significantly affect wheat yield in Europe. For this purpose we analysed changes in the frequency of the occurrence of 11 adverse weather events. Using climate scenarios based on the most recent ensemble of climate models and greenhouse gases emission estimates, we assessed...... the probability of single and multiple adverse events occurring within one season. We showed that the occurrence of adverse conditions for 14 sites representing the main European wheat-growing areas might substantially increase by 2060 compared to the present (1981–2010). This is likely to result in more frequent...

  20. Assessing potential changes of chestnut productivity in Europe under future climate conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calheiros, T.; Pereira, M. G.; Pinto, J. G.; Caramelo, L.; Gomes-Laranjo, J.; Dacamara, C. C.

    2012-04-01

    The European chestnut is cultivated for its nuts and wood. Several studies point to the dependency of chestnut productivity on specific soil and climate characteristics. For instance, this species dislikes chalky and poorly drained soils, appreciates sedimentary, siliceous and acidic to neutral soils. Chestnut trees also seems to appreciate annual mean values of sunlight spanning between 2400 and 2600 h, rainfall ranging between 600 and 1500 mm, mean annual temperature between 9 and 13°C, 27°C being the mean of the maximum temperature (Heiniger and Conedera, 1992; Gomes-Laranjo et al.,2008). The amount of heat between May and October must range between 1800°D and 2400°D (Dinis et al., 2011) . In Poland, the growing season is defined as the period of time when the mean 24-h temperature is greater than 5°C (Wilczynski and Podalski, 2007). In Portugal, maximum photosynthetic activity occurs at 24-28°C for adult trees, but exhibits more than 50% of termoinhibition when the air temperature is above 32°C, which is frequent during summer (Gomes- Laranjo et al., 2006, 2008). Recently Pereira et al (2011) identified a set of meteorological variables/parameters with high impact on chestnut productivity. The main purpose of this work is to assess the potential impacts of future climate change on chestnut productivity in Portugal as well as on European chestnut orchards. First, observed data from the European Climate assessment (ECA) and simulations with the Regional Circulation Model (RCM) COSMO-CLM for recent climate conditions are used to assess the ability of the RCM to model the actual meteorological conditions. Then, ensemble projections from the ECHAM5/COSMO-CLM model chain for two climate scenarios (A1B and B1) are used to estimate the values of relevant meteorological variables and parameters und future climate conditions. Simulated values are then compared with those obtained for present climate. Results point to changes in the spatial and temporal

  1. Future projection of drought conditions in Europe: A comprehensive study using the ENSEMBLES regional climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Georg; Gobiet, Andreas

    2010-05-01

    Drought is a natural recurrent phenomenon which occurs in a variety of different temporal and spatial scales and significantly affects natural and socio-economic systems. Under the aspect of the human induced climate change it is of high interest to decision makers how drought conditions might change at regional scale in order to map out adequate mitigation and adaption strategies. For this study, the most recent regional climate scenarios for Europe with a horizontal resolution of approximately 25 km are used (provided by the EU FP6 Integrated Project ENSEMBLES - http://ensembles-eu.org/). Based on seasonal temperature and precipitation climate change signals, eight scenarios out of the entire ensemble are selected in order to span a large fraction of the uncertainty range. These eight scenarios are analysed in more detail. A quantile mapping approach based on the E-OBS observational dataset is applied to daily temperature and precipitation to reduce model errors before investigating drought conditions in nine European sub regions. Two commonly used drought indices are calculated as drought indicators - the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) which is solely based on precipitation and the self calibrated Palmer Drought Severity Index (scPDSI) which is additionally based on temperature and available water capacity of the soil. The SPI is calculated for various time scales, accounting for different drought types, and the scPDSI is calculated on monthly basis. Both indices are calibrated in the past (1951 - 2000) and then applied to the future scenarios (2021 - 2050) according to the concept of relative drought indices. The temporal and spatial characteristics of projected future drought conditions are analysed with focus on moderately and extremely dry and wet conditions and the uncertainty in the projections. Finally, first results will be presented. Acknowledgement: "The ENSEMBLES data used in this work was funded by the EU FP6 Integrated Project ENSEMBLES

  2. The Effect of Body Weight on Heat Strain Indices in Hot and Dry Climatic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Being overweight is a characteristic that may influence a person’s heat exchange. Objectives The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of body weight on heat strain indices in hot and dry climatic conditions. Materials and Methods This study was completed with a sample of 30 participants with normal weights, as well as 25 participants who were overweight. The participants were physically inactive for a period of 120 minutes in a climatic chamber with hot and dry conditions (22 - 32°C and with 40% relative humidity (RH.The physiological strain index (PSI and heat strain score index (HSSI questionnaires were used. Simultaneous measurements were completed during heat exposure for periods of five minutes. The resting periods acted as the initial measurements for 15 minutes. Results In both groups, oral temperature, heart rate, and thermal perceptual responses increased during heat exposure. The means and standard deviations of heart rate and oral temperature were gathered when participants were in hot and dry climatic conditions and were not physically active. The heart rates and oral temperatures were 79.21 ± 5.93 bpm and 36.70 ± 0.45°C, respectively, for those with normal weights. For overweight individuals, the measurements for heart rate and oral temperature reached 82.21 ± 8.9 bpm and 37.84 ± 0.37°C, respectively. Conclusions The results showed that, compared to participants with normal weights, physiological and thermal perceptual responses were higher in overweight participants. Therefore, overweight individuals should avoid hot/dry weather conditions to decrease the amount of heat strain.

  3. Some like it cold: populations of the tellinid bivalve Macoma balthica (L.) suffer in various way from a warming climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukema, J.J.; Dekker, R.; Jansen, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Because of its relatively low tolerance to elevated temperatures, Macoma balthica (L.) may be one of the first important marine species in temperate coastal areas to suffer from a warming climate. For the last few decades, the abundance of the species in the Dutch Wadden Sea has been seriously

  4. Ridge and furrow systems with film cover increase maize yields and mitigate climate risks of cold and drought stress in continental climates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dong, Wanlin; Zhang, Lizhen; Duan, Yu; Sun, Li; Zhao, Peiyi; Werf, van der Wopke; Evers, Jochem B.; Wang, Qi; Wang, Ruonan; Sun, Zhigang

    2017-01-01

    Ridge-furrow tillage and plastic film cover are widely applied in China to mitigate climate risks, e.g. cool temperature and low rainfall. This study aimed to quantify the effects of ridge-furrow tillage and film cover on maize growth and yield in an environment with frequent seasonal drought and

  5. Effects of Climatic Conditions and Soil Properties on Cabernet Sauvignon Berry Growth and Anthocyanin Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Cheng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Climatic conditions and soil type have significant influence on grape ripening and wine quality. The reported study was conducted in two “Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.V” vineyards located in Xinjiang, a semiarid wine-producing region of China during two vintages (2011 and 2012. The results indicate that soil and climate affected berry growth and anthocyanin profiles. These two localities were within a distance of 5 km from each other and had soils of different physical and chemical composition. For each vineyard, the differences of anthocyanin concentrations, and parameters concerning berry growth and composition between the two years could be explained by different climatic conditions. Soil effect was studied by investigation of differences in berry composition and anthocyanin profiles between the two vineyards in the same year, which could be explained mainly by the different soil properties, vine water and nitrogen status. Specifically, the soils with less water and organic matter produced looser clusters, heavier berry skins and higher TSS, which contributed to the excellent performance of grapes. Compared with 2011, the increases in anthocyanin concentrations for each vineyard in 2012 could be attributed to smaller number of extreme temperature (>35 °C days and rainfall, lower vine water status and N level. The explanation for higher anthocyanin concentrations in grape skins from the soils with less water and organic matter could be the vine status differences, lighter berry weight and heavier skin weight at harvest. In particular, grapes from the soils with less water and organic matter had higher levels of 3′5′-substituded, O-methylated and acylated anthocyanins, which represented a positive characteristic conferring more stable pigmentation to the corresponding wine in the future. The present work clarifies the effects of climate and soil on berry growth and anthocyanin profiles, thus providing guidance for production of

  6. Meteorological conditions, climate change, new emerging factors, and asthma and related allergic disorders. A statement of the World Allergy Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, Gennaro; Holgate, Stephen T; Pawankar, Ruby; Ledford, Dennis K; Cecchi, Lorenzo; Al-Ahmad, Mona; Al-Enezi, Fatma; Al-Muhsen, Saleh; Ansotegui, Ignacio; Baena-Cagnani, Carlos E; Baker, David J; Bayram, Hasan; Bergmann, Karl Christian; Boulet, Louis-Philippe; Buters, Jeroen T M; D'Amato, Maria; Dorsano, Sofia; Douwes, Jeroen; Finlay, Sarah Elise; Garrasi, Donata; Gómez, Maximiliano; Haahtela, Tari; Halwani, Rabih; Hassani, Youssouf; Mahboub, Basam; Marks, Guy; Michelozzi, Paola; Montagni, Marcello; Nunes, Carlos; Oh, Jay Jae-Won; Popov, Todor A; Portnoy, Jay; Ridolo, Erminia; Rosário, Nelson; Rottem, Menachem; Sánchez-Borges, Mario; Sibanda, Elopy; Sienra-Monge, Juan José; Vitale, Carolina; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella

    2015-01-01

    , including: deaths and acute morbidity due to heat waves and extreme meteorological events; increased frequency of acute cardio-respiratory events due to higher concentrations of ground level ozone; changes in the frequency of respiratory diseases due to trans-boundary particle pollution; altered spatial and temporal distribution of allergens (pollens, molds, and mites); and some infectious disease vectors. According to this report, these impacts will not only affect those with current asthma but also increase the incidence and prevalence of allergic respiratory conditions and of asthma. The effects of climate change on respiratory allergy are still not well defined, and more studies addressing this topic are needed. Global warming is expected to affect the start, duration, and intensity of the pollen season on the one hand, and the rate of asthma exacerbations due to air pollution, respiratory infections, and/or cold air inhalation, and other conditions on the other hand.

  7. Southern Hemisphere anticyclonic circulation drives oceanic and climatic conditions in late Holocene southernmost Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hahn

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the high sensitivity of southern Africa to climate change, a reliable understanding of its hydrological system is crucial. Recent studies of the regional climatic system have revealed a highly complex interplay of forcing factors on precipitation regimes. This includes the influence of the tropical easterlies, the strength of the southern hemispheric westerlies as well as sea surface temperatures along the coast of the subcontinent. However, very few marine records have been available in order to study the coupling of marine and atmospheric circulation systems. Here we present results from a marine sediment core, recovered in shallow waters off the Gouritz River mouth on the south coast of South Africa. Core GeoB18308-1 allows a closer view of the last  ∼  4 kyr. Climate sensitive organic proxies, like the distribution and isotopic composition of plant-wax lipids as well as indicators for sea surface temperatures and soil input, give information on oceanographic and hydrologic changes during the recorded time period. Moreover, the micropaleontology, mineralogical and elemental composition of the sediments reflect the variability of the terrigenous input to the core site. The combination of down-core sediment signatures and a catchment-wide provenance study indicate that the Little Ice Age ( ∼  300–650 cal yr BP was characterized by climatic conditions favorable to torrential flood events. The Medieval Climate Anomaly ( ∼  950–650 cal yr BP is expressed by lower sea surface temperatures in the Mossel Bay area and humid conditions in the Gouritz River catchment. These new results suggest that the coincidence of humid conditions and cooler sea surface temperatures along the south coast of South Africa resulted from a strengthened and more southerly anticyclonic circulation. Most probably, the transport of moisture from the Indian Ocean by strong subtropical easterlies was coupled with Agulhas Bank

  8. Range shifts or extinction? Ancient DNA and distribution modelling reveal past and future responses to climate warming in cold-adapted birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagerholm, Vendela K; Sandoval-Castellanos, Edson; Vaniscotte, Amélie; Potapova, Olga R; Tomek, Teresa; Bochenski, Zbigniew M; Shepherd, Paul; Barton, Nick; Van Dyck, Marie-Claire; Miller, Rebecca; Höglund, Jacob; Yoccoz, Nigel G; Dalén, Love; Stewart, John R

    2017-04-01

    Global warming is predicted to cause substantial habitat rearrangements, with the most severe effects expected to occur in high-latitude biomes. However, one major uncertainty is whether species will be able to shift their ranges to keep pace with climate-driven environmental changes. Many recent studies on mammals have shown that past range contractions have been associated with local extinctions rather than survival by habitat tracking. Here, we have used an interdisciplinary approach that combines ancient DNA techniques, coalescent simulations and species distribution modelling, to investigate how two common cold-adapted bird species, willow and rock ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus and Lagopus muta), respond to long-term climate warming. Contrary to previous findings in mammals, we demonstrate a genetic continuity in Europe over the last 20 millennia. Results from back-casted species distribution models suggest that this continuity may have been facilitated by uninterrupted habitat availability and potentially also the greater dispersal ability of birds. However, our predictions show that in the near future, some isolated regions will have little suitable habitat left, implying a future decrease in local populations at a scale unprecedented since the last glacial maximum. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Effects of climatic conditions on the biting density and relative abundance of [i]Simulium damnosum[/i] complex in a rural Nigerian farm settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Effiong Eyo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [b]introduction and objective[/b]. The effect of climatic conditions on the biting density and relative abundance of [i]Simulium damnosum[/i] complex at Adani, Nigeria, from August 2010 – January 2011 was investigated. [b]materials and methods[/b]. The classical method of collecting blackflies for a period of 11 hours using human attractants was employed in the study. Monthly climatic data, such as rainfall, relative humidity and temperature were collected for the period of study. [b]results. [/b]Rainfall, relative humidity, temperature, harmattan (cold, dry wind and deforestation were observed to affect the biting density and relative abundance of blackflies at the site. A total of 548 female adult blackflies were collected. The biting density of the flies ranged from 0.5 Flies/Man/Hour (FMH in December to 5.5 FMH in January. The relative abundance of the flies ranged from 21 in December to 243 in January. Regression analysis showed that temperature and relative humidity had a positive correlation with relative abundance of [i]Simulium damnosum [/i]complex (y = -0.0006x + 5.593, r = 0.0519 and (y = -0.1213x + 78.794, r = 0.505, respectively. [b]conclusions[/b]. The risk of getting infected with Onchocerca volvulus increased during the dry season with its associated weather conditions.

  10. A Database for Climatic Conditions around Europe for Promoting GSHP Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele De Carli

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Weather plays an important role for energy uses in buildings. For this reason, it is required to define the proper boundary conditions in terms of the different parameters affecting energy and comfort in buildings. They are also the basis for determining the ground temperature in different locations, as well as for determining the potential for using geothermal energy. This paper presents a database for climates in Europe that has been used in a freeware tool developed as part of the H2020 research project named “Cheap-GSHPs”. The standard Köppen-Geiger climate classification has been matched with the weather data provided by the ENERGYPLUS and METEONORM software database. The Test Reference Years of more than 300 locations have been considered. These locations have been labelled according to the degree-days for heating and cooling, as well as by the Köppen-Geiger scale. A comprehensive data set of weather conditions in Europe has been created and used as input for a GSHP sizing software, helping the user in selecting the weather conditions closest to the location of interest. The proposed method is based on lapse rates and has been tested at two locations in Switzerland and Ireland. It has been demonstrated as quite valid for the project purposes, considering the spatial distribution and density of available data and the lower computing load, in particular for locations where altitude is the main factor controlling on the temperature variations.

  11. Variation of moisture content of some varnished woods in indoor climatic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Üçüncü

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, moisture change of varnished wood of black poplar (Populus nigra and yellow pine (Pinus silvestris L. used in indoor climate conditions with central heating in Trabzon (Turkey were investigated. 300 mm length wood specimens, with cross section of 12.5 mm in tangential and in radial and with the square sections of 25mm and 50 mm, were obtained from two species grown in Kanuni Campus of the Karadeniz Technical University. In this research, un-varnished wood samples were also used for reference. The wood moisture content was determined by the weighing method, the wood equilibrium moisture content by the Hailwood-Horrobin equation, and the relative humidity in the indoor climatic conditions by humid air thermodynamic principles. As a result; it was observed that the moisture content of varnished wood samples has a strong relationship with equilibrium moisture content, temperature and relative humidity. It was found that the moisture content of varnished woods was higher than the moisture content of un-varnished woods in the same climatic conditions. It was observed that the difference between the monthly average moisture content was lower in varnished woods in proportion to un-varnished woods. According to these results, it can be indicated that it would be more appropriate to select higher moisture content in the drying of wood than the equilibrium moisture content. Such an application would also reduce drying costs. Further, it can be recommended to use varnished wood in various applications because the low change range of average moisture content can affect the swelling or shrinking of wood.

  12. Root biomass of Fagus sylvatica L. stands depending on the climatic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grygoruk Dorota

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fine root biomass of forest trees is a recognised indicator of environmental changes in the conditions of global climate change. The present study was carried out in six old-growth beech forests (112-140 years located in different climatic conditions on the range border of Fagus sylvatica L. in Poland. The root biomass was investigated by soil coring method in the upper soil layers (0-5 cm, 5-15 cm and total layer 0-15 cm. The significantly greater total root biomass was found in the beech stands, which characterised by higher average precipitation and lower average annual temperatures in the period 2000-2005. The share of roots of diameter > 5 mm increased with increasing depth of top soils. Biomass of fine roots (diameter ≤ 2 mm decreased with increasing depth of upper soil layers. The average biomass of fine roots ranged from 175.36 to 418.16 g m-2 in the soil layer 0-15 cm. The significant differences of fine root biomass were found between studied stands in the soil layers 0-5 cm and 0-15 cm. Also, it was found significant positive correlation between fine root biomass in the soil layer 0-15 cm and precipitation during the growing season in 2006. Precipitation in the study period was connected with very high rainfall in August 2006, repeatedly exceeding the long-term monthly levels. Regional climatic conditions, in that extreme weather events in growing seasons can significantly to affect changes of fine root biomass of forest trees, consequently, changes of relationships between the growth of above- and below-ground of the old-growth forest stands.

  13. Investigating the impact of Lake Agassiz drainage routes on the 8.2 ka cold event with climate modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Y.-X. Li; H. Renssen; A. P. Wiersma; T. E. Törnqvist

    2009-01-01

    The 8.2 ka event is the most prominent abrupt climate change in the Holocene and is widely believed to result from catastrophic drainage of proglacial lakes Agassiz and Ojibway (LAO) that routed through the Hudson Bay and the Labrador Sea into the North Atlantic Ocean, and perturbed Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (MOC). One key assumption of this triggering mechanism is that the LAO freshwater drainage was spread over the Labrador Sea. Recent data, however, show no evidence of lo...

  14. Citric acid production from partly deproteinized whey under non-sterile culture conditions using immobilized cells of lactose-positive and cold-adapted Yarrowia lipolytica B9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Nazli Pinar; Aydogan, Mehmet Nuri; Taskin, Mesut

    2016-08-10

    The present study was performed to produce citric acid (CA) from partly deproteinized cheese whey (DPCW) under non-sterile culture conditions using immobilized cells of the cold-adapted and lactose-positive yeast Yarrowia lipolytica B9. DPCW was prepared using the temperature treatment of 90°C for 15min. Sodium alginate was used as entrapping agent for cell immobilization. Optimum conditions for the maximum CA production (33.3g/L) in non-sterile DPCW medium were the temperature of 20°C, pH 5.5, additional lactose concentration of 20g/L, sodium alginate concentration of 2%, number of 150 beads/100mL and incubation time of 120h. Similarly, maximum citric acid/isocitric acid (CA/ICA) ratio (6.79) could be reached under these optimal conditions. Additional nitrogen and phosphorus sources decreased CA concentration and CA/ICA ratio. Immobilized cells were reused in three continuous reaction cycles without any loss in the maximum CA concentration. The unique combination of low pH and temperature values as well as cell immobilization procedure could prevent undesired microbial contaminants during CA production. This is the first work on CA production by cold-adapted microorganisms under non-sterile culture conditions. Besides, CA production using a lactose-positive strain of the yeast Y. lipolytica was investigated for the first time in the present study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The importance of moisture buffering for indoor climate and energy conditions of buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Grau, Karl

    2007-01-01

    A new Nordic test method specifies a test protocol for determination of the so-called Moisture Buffer Value (MBV) of building materials. But how important is moisture buffering to determine the indoor humidity condition of buildings? The paper will present the new MBV-definition. Although...... buffering to save energy by reducing the requirement for ventilation in periods, and still maintain the same quality of the indoor climate? The paper will outline some possibilities for analytical/numerical calculations, and will answer some of the posed questions on the probable benefit of taking moisture...

  16. Phytoremdiation Species And Their Modification Under By Weed Varying Climatic Condition A Changing Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Singh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The major reasons for environmental contamination are population explosion increase in industrial and other urban activities. One of the consequent effect of these activities is heavy metal pollution. It is one of the serious issue to be discussed by the scientists and academicians that how to solve this problem to protect the environment. As heavy metals are non-biodegradable so they require effective cleanup technology. Most of the traditional methods such as excavation solidification and burial are very costly or they simply involve the isolation of the metals from contaminated sites. Among different technologies phytoremediation is best approach for removing metal contamination from environment. It involves plants to remove detoxify or immobilize metals from environment. Weed plants are found to be play very important role in metal remediation. They get affected by climatic variation which is also a consequent effect of environmental pollution. The physiology of plants as well as physiochemical properties of soil gets affected by varying climatic condition. Therefore the present review gives the information on metal remediation processes and how these process particularly phytoremediation by weed plants get affected by climatic changes.

  17. Climatic Conditions for modelling the Northern Hemisphere ice sheets throughout the ice age cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Abe-Ouchi

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The ice sheet-climate interaction as well as the climatic response to orbital parameters and atmospheric CO2 concentration are examined in order to drive an ice sheet model throughout an ice age cycle. Feedback processes between ice sheet and atmosphere are analyzed by numerical experiments using a high resolution General Circulation Model (GCM under different conditions at the Last Glacial Maximum. Among the proposed processes, the ice albedo feedback, the elevation-mass balance feedback and the desertification effect over the ice sheet were found to be the dominant processes for the ice-sheet mass balance. For the elevation-mass balance feedback, the temperature lapse rate over the ice sheet is proposed to be weaker than assumed in previous studies. Within the plausible range of parameters related to these processes, the ice sheet response to the orbital parameters and atmospheric CO2 concentration for the last glacial/interglacial cycle was simulated in terms of both ice volume and geographical distribution, using a three-dimensional ice-sheet model. Careful treatment of climate-ice sheet feedback is essential for a reliable simulation of the ice sheet changes during ice age cycles.

  18. Establishment and performance of an experimental green roof under extreme climatic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Petra M; Coffman, Reid

    2015-04-15

    Green roofs alter the surface energy balance and can help in mitigating urban heat islands. However, the cooling of green roofs due to evapotranspiration strongly depends on the climatic conditions, and vegetation type and density. In the Southern Central Plains of the United States, extreme weather events, such as high winds, heat waves and drought conditions pose challenges for successful implementation of green roofs, and likely alter their standard performance. The National Weather Center Experimental Green Roof, an interdisciplinary research site established in 2010 in Norman, OK, aimed to investigate the ecological performance and surface energy balance of green roof systems. Starting in May 2010, 26 months of vegetation studies were conducted and the radiation balance, air temperature, relative humidity, and buoyancy fluxes were monitored at two meteorological stations during April-October 2011. The establishment of a vegetative community trended towards prairie plant dominance. High mortality of succulents and low germination of grasses and herbaceous plants contributed to low vegetative coverage. In this condition succulent diversity declined. Bouteloua gracilis and Delosperma cooperi showed typological dominance in harsh climatic conditions, while Sedum species experienced high mortality. The plant community diversified through volunteers such as Euphorbia maculate and Portulaca maculate. Net radiation measured at a green-roof meteorological station was higher than at a control station over the original, light-colored roofing material. These findings indicate that the albedo of the green roof was lower than the albedo of the original roofing material. The low vegetative coverage during the heat and drought conditions in 2011, which resulted in the dark substrate used in the green roof containers being exposed, likely contributed to the low albedo values. Nevertheless, air temperatures and buoyancy fluxes were often lower over the green roof indicating

  19. Storm surges in the Mediterranean Sea: Variability and trends under future climatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androulidakis, Yannis S.; Kombiadou, Katerina D.; Makris, Christos V.; Baltikas, Vassilis N.; Krestenitis, Yannis N.

    2015-09-01

    The trends of storm surge extremes in the Mediterranean Sea for a period of 150 years (1951-2100) are explored, using a high-resolution storm surge model. Numerical simulations are forced by the output of regional climate simulations with RegCM3, which uses IPCC's historical data on greenhouse gasses emissions for the (past) period 1951-2000, and IPCC's A1B climate scenario for the (future) period 2001-2100. Comparisons between observations and modeling results show good agreement and confirm the ability of our model to estimate the response of the sea surface to future climatic conditions. We investigate the future trends, the variability and frequency of local extremes and the main forcing mechanisms that can induce strong surges in the Mediterranean region. Our results support that there is a general decreasing trend in storminess under the considered climate scenario, mostly related to the frequency of local peaks and the duration and spatial coverage of the storm surges. The northward shift in the location of storm tracks is a possible reason for this storminess attenuation, especially over areas where the main driving factor of extreme events is the inverted barometer effect. However, the magnitudes of sea surface elevation extremes may increase in several Mediterranean sub-regions, i.e., Southern Adriatic, Balearic and Tyrrhenian Seas, during the 21st century. There are clear distinctions in the contributions of winds and pressure fields to the sea level height for various regions of the Mediterranean Sea, as well as on the seasonal variability of extreme values; the Aegean and Adriatic Seas are characteristic examples, where high surges are predicted to be mainly induced by low pressure systems and favorable winds, respectively.

  20. A temporal-omic study of Propionibacterium freudenreichii CIRM-BIA1 adaptation strategies in conditions mimicking cheese ripening in the cold.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Dalmasso

    Full Text Available Propionibacterium freudenreichii is used as a ripening culture in Swiss cheese manufacture. It grows when cheeses are ripened in a warm room (about 24°C. Cheeses with an acceptable eye formation level are transferred to a cold room (about 4°C, inducing a marked slowdown of propionic fermentation, but P. freudenreichii remains active in the cold. To investigate the P. freudenreichii strategies of adaptation and survival in the cold, we performed the first global gene expression profile for this species. The time-course transcriptomic response of P. freudenreichii CIRM-BIA1(T strain was analyzed at five times of incubation, during growth at 30°C then for 9 days at 4°C, under conditions preventing nutrient starvation. Gene expression was also confirmed by RT-qPCR for 28 genes. In addition, proteomic experiments were carried out and the main metabolites were quantified. Microarray analysis revealed that 565 genes (25% of the protein-coding sequences of P. freudenreichii genome were differentially expressed during transition from 30°C to 4°C (P1. At 4°C, a general slowing down was observed for genes implicated in the cell machinery. On the contrary, P. freudenreichii CIRM-BIA1(T strain over-expressed genes involved in lactate, alanine and serine conversion to pyruvate, in gluconeogenesis, and in glycogen synthesis. Interestingly, the expression of different genes involved in the formation of important cheese flavor compounds, remained unchanged at 4°C. This could explain the contribution of P. freudenreichii to cheese ripening even in the cold. In conclusion, P. freudenreichii remains metabolically active at 4°C and induces pathways to maintain its long-term survival.

  1. Arabidopsis RING E3 ubiquitin ligase AtATL80 is negatively involved in phosphate mobilization and cold stress response in sufficient phosphate growth conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Ji Yeon; Kim, Woo Taek

    2015-08-07

    Phosphate (Pi) remobilization in plants is critical to continuous growth and development. AtATL80 is a plasma membrane (PM)-localized RING E3 ubiquitin (Ub) ligase that belongs to the Arabidopsis Tóxicos en Levadura (ATL) family. AtATL80 was upregulated by long-term low Pi (0-0.02 mM KH2PO4) conditions in Arabidopsis seedlings. AtATL80-overexpressing transgenic Arabidopsis plants (35S:AtATL80-sGFP) displayed increased phosphorus (P) accumulation in the shoots and lower biomass, as well as reduced P-utilization efficiency (PUE) under high Pi (1 mM KH2PO4) conditions compared to wild-type plants. The loss-of-function atatl80 mutant line exhibited opposite phenotypic traits. The atatl80 mutant line bolted earlier than wild-type plants, whereas AtATL80-overexpressors bloomed significantly later and produced lower seed yields than wild-type plants under high Pi conditions. Thus, AtATL80 is negatively correlated not only with P content and PUE, but also with biomass and seed yield in Arabidopsis. In addition, AtATL80-overexpressors were significantly more sensitive to cold stress than wild-type plants, while the atatl80 mutant line exhibited an increased tolerance to cold stress. Taken together, our results suggest that AtATL80, a PM-localized ATL-type RING E3 Ub ligase, participates in the Pi mobilization and cold stress response as a negative factor in Arabidopsis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Climate and Health Vulnerability to Vector-Borne Diseases: Increasing Resilience under Climate Change Conditions in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccato, P.

    2015-12-01

    The International Research Institute for Climate and Society (IRI), the City University of New York (CUNY) and NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in collaboration with NASA SERVIR are developing tools to monitor climate variables (precipitation, temperature, vegetation, water bodies, inundation) that help projects in Africa to increase resilience to climate change for vector-borne diseases ( malaria, trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and schistosomiasis). Through the development of new products to monitor precipitation, water bodies and inundation, IRI, CUNY and JPL provide tools and capacity building to research communities; ministries of health; the WMO Global Framework for Climate and Services; and World Health Organization in Africa to: 1) Develop research teams' ability to appropriately use climate data as part of their research 2) Enable research teams and ministries to integrate climate information into social and economic drivers of vulnerability and opportunities for adaptation to climate change 3) Inform better policies and programs for climate change adaptation. This oral presentation will demonstrate how IRI, CUNY, and JPL developed new products, tools and capacity building to achieve the three objectives mentioned above with examples in South Africa, Zimbabwe, Tanzania and Malawi.

  3. Working in the Cold

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-02-08

    During the winter, many workers are outdoors, working in cold, wet, icy, or snowy conditions. Learn how to identify symptoms that tell you there may be a problem and protect yourself from cold stress.  Created: 2/8/2016 by National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).   Date Released: 2/8/2016.

  4. Investigating the impact of Lake Agassiz drainage routes on the 8.2 ka cold event with a climate model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-X. Li

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The 8.2 ka event is the most prominent abrupt climate change in the Holocene and is often believed to result from catastrophic drainage of proglacial lakes Agassiz and Ojibway (LAO that routed through the Hudson Bay and the Labrador Sea into the North Atlantic Ocean, and perturbed Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (MOC. One key assumption of this triggering mechanism is that the LAO freshwater drainage was dispersed over the Labrador Sea. Recent data, however, show no evidence of lowered δ18O values, indicative of low salinity, from the open Labrador Sea around 8.2 ka. Instead, negative δ18O anomalies are found close to the east coast of North America, extending as far south as Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, suggesting that the freshwater drainage may have been confined to a long stretch of continental shelf before fully mixing with North Atlantic Ocean water. Here we conduct a sensitivity study that examines the effects of a southerly drainage route on the 8.2 ka event with the ECBilt-CLIO-VECODE model. Hosing experiments of four routing scenarios, where freshwater was introduced to the Labrador Sea in the northerly route and to three different locations along the southerly route, were performed to investigate the routing effects on model responses. The modeling results show that a southerly drainage route is possible but generally yields reduced climatic consequences in comparison to those of a northerly route. This finding implies that more freshwater would be required for a southerly route than for a northerly route to produce the same climate anomaly. The implicated large amount of LAO drainage for a southerly routing scenario is in line with a recent geophysical modelling study of gravitational effects on sea-level change associated with the 8.2 ka event, which suggests that the volume of drainage might be larger than previously estimated.

  5. Some like it cold: populations of the tellinid bivalve Macoma balthica (L.) suffer in various way from a warming climate

    OpenAIRE

    Beukema, J. J.; Dekker, R.; Jansen, J M

    2009-01-01

    Because of its relatively low tolerance to elevated temperatures, Macoma balthica (L.) may be one of the first important marine species in temperate coastal areas to suffer from a warming climate. For the last few decades, the abundance of the species in the Dutch Wadden Sea has been seriously declining. At lower latitudes, the southern edge of its range recently shifted several 100s of km to the north. To understand changes in abundance related to high temperatures, we studied short-term pop...

  6. Carryover effects and climatic conditions influence the postfledging survival of greater sage-grouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomberg, Erik J.; Sedinger, James S.; Gibson, Daniel; Coates, Peter S.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Prebreeding survival is an important life history component that affects both parental fitness and population persistence. In birds, prebreeding can be separated into pre- and postfledging periods; carryover effects from the prefledging period may influence postfledging survival. We investigated effects of body condition at fledging, and climatic variation, on postfledging survival of radio-marked greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in the Great Basin Desert of the western United States. We hypothesized that body condition would influence postfledging survival as a carryover effect from the prefledging period, and we predicted that climatic variation may mediate this carryover effect or, alternatively, would act directly on survival during the postfledging period. Individual body condition had a strong positive effect on postfledging survival of juvenile females, suggesting carryover effects from the prefledging period. Females in the upper 25th percentile of body condition scores had a postfledging survival probability more than twice that (Φ = 0.51 ± 0.06 SE) of females in the bottom 25th percentile (Φ = 0.21 ± 0.05 SE). A similar effect could not be detected for males. We also found evidence for temperature and precipitation effects on monthly survival rates of both sexes. After controlling for site-level variation, postfledging survival was nearly twice as great following the coolest and wettest growing season (Φ = 0.77 ± 0.05 SE) compared with the hottest and driest growing season (Φ = 0.39 ± 0.05 SE). We found no relationships between individual body condition and temperature or precipitation, suggesting that carryover effects operated independently of background climatic variation. The temperature and precipitation effects we observed likely produced a direct effect on mortality risk during the postfledging period. Conservation actions that focus on improving prefledging habitat for sage-grouse may have indirect benefits

  7. Characterization and dating of coastal deposits of NW Portugal (Minho-Neiva area): A record of climate, eustasy and crustal uplift during the Quaternary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalhido, Ricardo P.; Pereira, Diamantino I.; Cunha, Pedro P.

    2014-01-01

    ) and probably reflecting cold/mid-cold and wet/dry climate conditions; c) this sub-unit is topped by soliflucted lobes and sandy-silty/silty deposits recording cold and dry climate dated 20-13 ka (MIS2), and d) a top subunit dated to 16-18th century, recording Little Ice Age events, consisting of fluvial...... sediments coeval with temperate climate evolving to aeolian dunes from the Maunder Minimum (cold windy dry conditions). (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA. All rights reserved....

  8. Climatic conditions and herbivory effects on morphological plasticity of Argania spinosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ain-Lhout, Fatima; Zunzunegui, María; Díaz Barradas, Mari Cruz; Jáuregui, Juan; Tagma, Tarik; Boutaleb, Said

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this paper was to look into the morphological differentiation patterns and phenotypic plasticity in four populations of Argania spinosa with environmentally contrasted conditions. Mean response, magnitude and pattern of morphological intra- and inter-population plasticity indexes were measured and analyzed in order to identify which characters contribute the most to the acclimation of this species. Populations growing in the ecological optimum of the species presented the lowest plasticity, while those growing in the most stressed habitats showed an increased morphological variability. The study of four populations showed that human pressure seems to play an important function in the regulation of morphological characters. However, climatic conditions seem to play a significant role in the increase of morphological plasticity.

  9. Ecosystem-atmosphere exchange of carbon in a heathland under future climatic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selsted, Merete Bang

    . Fluxes of CO2 from soil to atmosphere depend on a physical equilibrium between those two medias, why it is important to keep the CO2 gradient between soil and atmosphere unchanged during measurement. Uptake to plants via photosynthesis depends on a physiological process, which depends strongly...... understanding plant and soil responses to such changes are necessary, as ecosystems potentially can ameliorate or accelerate global change. To predict the feedback of ecosystems to the atmospheric CO2 concentrations experiments imitating global change effects are therefore an important tool. This work...... on ecosystem-atmosphere exchange of carbon in a heathland under future climatic conditions, shows that extended summer drought in combination with elevated temperature will ensure permanent dryer soil conditions, which decreases carbon turnover, while elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations will increase...

  10. Ecosystem-atmosphere exchange of carbon in a heathland under future climatic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selsted, Merete Bang

    on ecosystem-atmosphere exchange of carbon in a heathland under future climatic conditions, shows that extended summer drought in combination with elevated temperature will ensure permanent dryer soil conditions, which decreases carbon turnover, while elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations will increase......Global change is a reality. Atmospheric CO2 levels are rising as well as mean global temperature and precipitation patterns are changing. These three environmental factors have separately and in combination effect on ecosystem processes. Terrestrial ecosystems hold large amounts of carbon, why...... understanding plant and soil responses to such changes are necessary, as ecosystems potentially can ameliorate or accelerate global change. To predict the feedback of ecosystems to the atmospheric CO2 concentrations experiments imitating global change effects are therefore an important tool. This work...

  11. Ecosystem-atmosphere exchange of carbon in a heathland under future climatic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selsted, Merete Bang

    Global change is a reality. Atmospheric CO2 levels are rising as well as mean global temperature and precipitation patterns are changing. These three environmental factors have separately and in combination effect on ecosystem processes. Terrestrial ecosystems hold large amounts of carbon, why...... on ecosystem-atmosphere exchange of carbon in a heathland under future climatic conditions, shows that extended summer drought in combination with elevated temperature will ensure permanent dryer soil conditions, which decreases carbon turnover, while elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations will increase...... understanding plant and soil responses to such changes are necessary, as ecosystems potentially can ameliorate or accelerate global change. To predict the feedback of ecosystems to the atmospheric CO2 concentrations experiments imitating global change effects are therefore an important tool. This work...

  12. Ecosystem-atmosphere exchange of carbon in a heathland under future climatic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selsted, Merete Bang

    understanding plant and soil responses to such changes are necessary, as ecosystems potentially can ameliorate or accelerate global change. To predict the feedback of ecosystems to the atmospheric CO2 concentrations experiments imitating global change effects are therefore an important tool. This work...... on ecosystem-atmosphere exchange of carbon in a heathland under future climatic conditions, shows that extended summer drought in combination with elevated temperature will ensure permanent dryer soil conditions, which decreases carbon turnover, while elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations will increase...... on the atmospheric CO2 concentration. Photosynthesis and respiration run in parallel during measurements of net ecosystem exchange, and these measurements should therefore be performed with care to both the atmospheric CO2 concentration and the CO2 soil-atmosphere gradient....

  13. Runoff conditions in the Zambezi basin under historic climate and possible future scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kling, H.; Preishuber, M.; Fuchs, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Zambezi basin covers 1.4 Mio km2 and is Africa's fourth largest basin.