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Sample records for cognitive performance tests

  1. Motivational deficits and cognitive test performance in schizophrenia.

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    Fervaha, Gagan; Zakzanis, Konstantine K; Foussias, George; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel; Agid, Ofer; Remington, Gary

    2014-09-01

    Motivational and cognitive deficits are core features of schizophrenia, both closely linked with functional outcomes. Although poor effort and decreased motivation are known to affect performance on cognitive tests, the extent of this relationship is unclear in patients with schizophrenia. To evaluate the association between intrinsic motivation and cognitive test performance in patients with schizophrenia. Cross-sectional and 6-month prospective follow-up study performed at 57 sites in the United States, including academic and community medical treatment centers, participating in the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness study. The primary sample included 431 stable patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia currently receiving a stable medication regimen. Cognitive performance and intrinsic motivation were evaluated using a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery and a derived measure from the Heinrichs-Carpenter Quality of Life Scale, respectively. Symptom severity and functional status were also assessed. The primary outcome variable was global neurocognition. Individual domains of cognition were also evaluated for their association with motivation. Level of intrinsic motivation was significantly and positively correlated with global cognitive test performance, a relationship that held for each domain of cognition evaluated (correlation range, 0.20-0.34; P motivation and cognitive performance also remained significant after controlling for antipsychotic dose (P motivation during the 6-month follow-up was also found to be significantly related to improvement in global cognitive performance (P motivation and cognitive performance and suggest that test performance is not purely a measure of ability. Future studies assessing cognition in patients with schizophrenia should consider potential moderating variables such as effort and motivation. Implications for the assessment and interpretation of cognitive impairment based on

  2. Is Cognitive Test-Taking Anxiety Associated With Academic Performance Among Nursing Students?

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    Duty, Susan M; Christian, Ladonna; Loftus, Jocelyn; Zappi, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    The cognitive component of test anxiety was correlated with academic performance among nursing students. Modest but statistically significant lower examination grade T scores were observed for students with high compared with low levels of cognitive test anxiety (CTA). High levels of CTA were associated with reduced academic performance.

  3. The "Rod and Fran Test": relationship priming influences cognitive-perceptual performance.

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    Baldwin, Mark W; Bagust, Jeff; Docherty, Sharon; Browman, Alexander S; Jackson, Joshua C

    2014-01-01

    We theorized that interpersonal relationships can provide structures for experience. In particular, we tested whether primes of same-sex versus mixed-sex relationships could foster cognitive-perceptual processing styles known to be associated with independence versus interdependence respectively. Seventy-two participants visualized either a same-sex or other-sex relationship partner and then performed two measures of cognitive-perceptual style. On a computerized Rod and Frame Test, individuals were more field-dependent after visualizing a mixed-sex versus same-sex relationship partner. On a measure involving perceptions of group behavior, participants demonstrated more holistic/contextually based perception after being primed with a female versus male relationship partner. These findings support the hypothesis that activated cognitive structures representing interpersonal relationships can shape individuals' cognitive-perceptual performance.

  4. Individual differences in infant fearfulness and cognitive performance: a testing, performance, or competence effect?

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    Rieser-Danner, Loretta A

    2003-02-01

    The author conducted 2 studies to examine the relations between infant fear and cognitive testing performance in 12-month-old infants. In Study 1, fear was assessed by using 2 standard temperament questionnaires and a laboratory-based, standardized stranger approach. Individual differences in cognitive development were assessed using the Object Permanence Scale of the Infant Psychological Development Scales (I. C. Uzgiris & J. M. Hunt, 1975). All 3 assessments of fear significantly predicted object permanence performance, with correlations ranging from -.32 to -.35. In Study 2, fear was assessed via a maternal report questionnaire, and habituation performance was assessed via a basic-level categorization task. Familiarity with the examiner and with the testing environment was manipulated to test for a familiarity influence on performance. Testing revealed individual differences in both fear and habituation. Results suggest that highly fearful infants required more trials to habituate and were less likely to meet the habituation criterion than infants who were less fearful. Methodological and conceptual implications of these results are discussed.

  5. Test Takers' Performance Appraisals, Appraisal Calibration, and Cognitive and Metacognitive Strategy Use

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    Phakiti, Aek

    2016-01-01

    The current study explores the nature and relationships among test takers' performance appraisals, appraisal calibration, and reported cognitive and metacognitive strategy use in a language test situation. Performance appraisals are executive processes of strategic competence for judging test performance (e.g., evaluating the correctness or…

  6. Effects of Motion in the Far Peripheral Visual Field on Cognitive Test Performance and Cognitive Load.

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    Bevilacqua, Andy; Paas, Fred; Krigbaum, Genomary

    2016-04-01

    Cognitive load theory posits that limited attention is in actuality a limitation in working memory resources. The load theory of selective attention and cognitive control sees the interplay between attention and awareness as separate modifying functions that act on working memory. Reconciling the theoretical differences in these two theories has important implications for learning. Thirty-nine adult participants performed a cognitively demanding test, with and without movement in the far peripheral field. Although the results for movement effects on cognitive load in this experiment were not statistically significant, men spent less time on the cognitive test in the peripheral movement condition than in the conditions without peripheral movement. No such difference was found for women. The implications of these results and recommendations for future research that extends the present study are presented. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Relationship between self-reported cognitive difficulties, objective neuropsychological test performance and psychological distress in chronic pain.

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    Baker, K S; Gibson, S J; Georgiou-Karistianis, N; Giummarra, M J

    2018-03-01

    Persons with chronic pain often report problems with cognitive abilities, such as memory or attention. There is limited understanding of whether objective performance is consistent with subjective reports, and how psychological factors contribute. We aimed to investigate these relationships in a group of patients expressing cognitive concerns, and evaluate the utility of self-report tools for pain management settings. Participants with chronic pain (n = 41) completed standardized neuropsychological tests, and self-report measures of cognitive functioning, pain, mood and sleep, as part of a broader study investigating cognitive performance in pain. Average neuropsychological test performance was subtly below normative means (within one standard deviation). Twenty-five percent of the sample scored substantially below age-adjusted norms on one or more objective tests. There were moderate-to-large associations between objective performance (e.g. Trail-Making B) and subjective cognitive complaints (e.g. Everyday Memory Questionnaire - Revised), controlling for age and education level. This was moderated by anxiety, such that subjective-objective relationships were particularly strong in those with higher anxiety. Poorer test performance was associated with higher pain intensity and catastrophizing. Subjective-objective cognition relationships remained after controlling for catastrophizing. Patients' self-reported cognitive concerns concurred with objectively measured performance, independent of age, education and catastrophizing. Moreover, those with severe anxiety were more accurate in predicting their cognitive performance. The findings highlight some interesting cognition-mood relationships, and suggest that easy-to-administer questionnaires, such as the Everyday Memory Questionnaire - Revised and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function - Adult Version, may be useful to capture cognitive concerns in clinical settings. Cognitive concerns in chronic pain

  8. Reverse translated and gold standard continuous performance tests predict global cognitive performance in schizophrenia.

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    Bismark, Andrew W; Thomas, Michael L; Tarasenko, Melissa; Shiluk, Alexandra L; Rackelmann, Sonia Y; Young, Jared W; Light, Gregory A

    2018-04-12

    Attentional dysfunction contributes to functional impairments in schizophrenia (SZ). Sustained attention is typically assessed via continuous performance tasks (CPTs), though many CPTs have limited cross-species translational validity and place demands on additional cognitive domains. A reverse-translated 5-Choice Continuous Performance Task (5C-CPT) for human testing-originally developed for use in rodents-was designed to minimize demands on perceptual, visual learning, processing speed, or working memory functions. To-date, no studies have validated the 5C-CPT against gold standard attentional measures nor evaluated how 5C-CPT scores relate to cognition in SZ. Here we examined the relationship between the 5C-CPT and the CPT-Identical Pairs (CPT-IP), an established and psychometrically robust measure of vigilance from the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) in a sample of SZ patients (n = 35). Relationships to global and individual subdomains of cognition were also assessed. 5C-CPT and CPT-IP measures of performance (d-prime) were strongly correlated (r = 0.60). In a regression model, the 5C-CPT and CPT-IP collectively accounted for 54% of the total variance in MCCB total scores, and 27.6% of overall cognitive variance was shared between the 5C-CPT and CPT-IP. These results indicate that the reverse translated 5C-CPT and the gold standard CPT-IP index a common attentional construct that also significantly overlaps with variance in general cognitive performance. The use of simple, cross-species validated behavioral indices of attentional/cognitive functioning such as the 5C-CPT could accelerate the development of novel generalized pro-cognitive therapeutics for SZ and related neuropsychiatric disorders.

  9. Family-based clusters of cognitive test performance in familial schizophrenia

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    Partonen Timo

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognitive traits derived from neuropsychological test data are considered to be potential endophenotypes of schizophrenia. Previously, these traits have been found to form a valid basis for clustering samples of schizophrenia patients into homogeneous subgroups. We set out to identify such clusters, but apart from previous studies, we included both schizophrenia patients and family members into the cluster analysis. The aim of the study was to detect family clusters with similar cognitive test performance. Methods Test scores from 54 randomly selected families comprising at least two siblings with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and at least two unaffected family members were included in a complete-linkage cluster analysis with interactive data visualization. Results A well-performing, an impaired, and an intermediate family cluster emerged from the analysis. While the neuropsychological test scores differed significantly between the clusters, only minor differences were observed in the clinical variables. Conclusions The visually aided clustering algorithm was successful in identifying family clusters comprising both schizophrenia patients and their relatives. The present classification method may serve as a basis for selecting phenotypically more homogeneous groups of families in subsequent genetic analyses.

  10. Performance of low-educated elders with depression on Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ace-r) test.

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    Beckert, Michele; Loureiro, Fernanda; Menta, Caroline; Mello, Elisa Fasolin; Nogueira, Eduardo L; von Gunten, Armin; Gomes, Irênio

    2016-01-01

    Along with cognitive disorders, depression has been a concern for mental health services due to its highly debilitating effect on the functioning and quality of life of the elderly. However, there is still little understanding of the cognitive alterations resulting from depression or of the difficult differential diagnosis with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). It is known that performance on cognitive tests is strongly influenced by education but few studies have been conducted involving low-educated populations. To evaluate the performance of elders with low education and no dementia on Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R) test and its cognitive domains, and compare patients with Current Major Depressive Episode (CMDE) against those without depressive symptoms. A retrospective, cross-sectional analytical study was conducted based on medical files of patients treated at the Cerebral Aging Clinic of the Hospital São Lucas of the PUCRS. The study included 116 individuals with low education (Examination, and the five cognitive domains. There was also no difference between the groups on separate analyses of results on the clock drawing test, the categorical verbal and phonological fluency test, and the naming test. The results of this study showed that depressive symptoms did not influence scores on the ACE-R tests conducted in elders with low education.

  11. Incremental rate of prefrontal oxygenation determines performance speed during cognitive Stroop test: the effect of ageing.

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    Endo, Kana; Liang, Nan; Idesako, Mitsuhiro; Ishii, Kei; Matsukawa, Kanji

    2018-02-19

    Cognitive function declines with age. The underlying mechanisms responsible for the deterioration of cognitive performance, however, remain poorly understood. We hypothesized that an incremental rate of prefrontal oxygenation during a cognitive Stroop test decreases in progress of ageing, resulting in a slowdown of cognitive performance. To test this hypothesis, we identified, using multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy, the characteristics of the oxygenated-hemoglobin concentration (Oxy-Hb) responses of the prefrontal cortex to both incongruent Stroop and congruent word-reading test. Spatial distributions of the significant changes in the three components (initial slope, peak amplitude, and area under the curve) of the Oxy-Hb response were compared between young and elderly subjects. The Stroop interference time (as a difference in total periods for executing Stroop and word-reading test, respectively) approximately doubled in elderly as compared to young subjects. The Oxy-Hb in the rostrolateral, but not caudal, prefrontal cortex increased during the Stroop test in both age groups. The initial slope of the Oxy-Hb response, rather than the peak and area under the curve, had a strong correlation with cognitive performance speed. Taken together, it is likely that the incremental rate of prefrontal oxygenation may decrease in progress of ageing, resulting in a decline in cognitive performance.

  12. Driving with Mild Cognitive Impairment or Dementia: Cognitive Test Performance and Proxy Report of Daily Life Function in Older Women.

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    Vaughan, Leslie; Hogan, Patricia E; Rapp, Stephen R; Dugan, Elizabeth; Marottoli, Richard A; Snively, Beverly M; Shumaker, Sally A; Sink, Kaycee M

    2015-09-01

    To investigate associations between proxy report of cognitive and functional limitations and cognitive performance and current or former driving status in older women with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and all-cause dementia. Cross-sectional data analysis of retrospectively identified older women with adjudicated MCI and all-cause dementia in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study-Epidemiology of Cognitive Health Outcomes (WHIMS-ECHO). Academic medical center. Women (mean age ± standard deviation 83.7 ± 3.5) adjudicated with MCI or dementia during Year 1, 2, 3, or 4 of the WHIMS-ECHO follow-up period (N = 385). The telephone-administered cognitive battery included tests of attention, verbal learning and memory, verbal fluency, executive function, working memory, and global cognitive function plus self-report measures of depressive symptomatology. The Dementia Questionnaire (DQ) was administered to a knowledgeable proxy (family member, friend). Sixty percent of women with MCI and 40% of those with dementia are current drivers. Proxy reports of functional limitations in instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) are associated with current driving status in women with MCI, whereas performance-based cognitive tests are not. In women with dementia, proxy reports of functional limitations in IADLs and performance-based cognitive tests are associated with current driving status, as expected. These findings have clinical implications for the importance of evaluating driving concurrently with other instrumental functional abilities in MCI and dementia. Additional work is needed to determine whether proxy report of cognitive and functional impairments should help guide referrals for driving assessment and rehabilitation or counseling for driving transition. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  13. Effects of mental practice on performance are moderated by cognitive anxiety as measured by the Sport Competition Anxiety Test.

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    Halvari, H

    1996-12-01

    45 subjects were assessed for cognitive anxiety on the Sport Competition Anxiety Test. Two months later they observed a person performing a new motor task which required high cognitive processing to be performed well. After this observation, 22 subjects were randomly assigned to a Mental Practice and 23 to a Control group. The former performed a cognitive rehearsal of the task, whereas the latter did not. None practiced the task physically before being tested. Analysis of variance showed that both errors and performance time interacted significantly with Mental Practice versus Control group scores and scores on the Sport Competition Anxiety Test. Among subjects who practiced mentally, those scoring low on cognitive anxiety performed significantly better than subjects who scored high. Further, the relationship between test scores of cognitive anxiety and performance for the total sample was analysed by different curvilinear regression models. The cubic model fitted the data better and accounted for a greater percent of variance on error performance explained by anxiety test scores (R = .39) than the linear correlation (r = .25). This cubic model formed a polynomial relationship between cognitive anxiety test scores and error in performance.

  14. Performance of cognitive tests, individually and combined, for the detection of cognitive disorders amongst community-dwelling elderly people with memory complaints: the EVATEM study.

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    Vannier-Nitenberg, C; Dauphinot, V; Bongue, B; Sass, C; Bathsavanis, A; Rouch, I; Deville, N; Beauchet, O; Krolak-Salmon, P; Fantino, B

    2016-03-01

    Dementia is a leading cause of dependence amongst the aged population. Early identification of cognitive impairment could help to delay advanced stages of dependence. This study aimed at assessing the performance of three neuropsychological tests to detect cognitive disorders in elderly subjects with memory complaints. The EVATEM study is a prospective multicentre cohort with a 1-year follow-up. Subjects with memory complaints were selected during preventive health examinations, and three neuropsychological tests (five-word, cognitive disorders examination, verbal fluency) were administered. Two groups were identified in memory clinics: (i) cognitively healthy individuals (CHI) and (ii) mild cognitive impairment or demented individuals (MCI-DI). Cross-sectional analyses were performed on data at inclusion. The relationship between the diagnosis of MCI-DI/CHI and the neuropsychological tests was assessed using logistic regressions. The performance of the neuropsychological tests, individually and combined, to detect cognitive disorders was calculated. Of 585 subjects, 31.11% had cognitive disorders (MCI, 176 subjects; DI, six subjects). Amongst the three tests studied, the odds ratio for MCI-DI was higher for the five-word test <10 [odds ratio 3.2 (1.81; 5.63)]. The best performance was observed when the three tests were combined: specificity 90.5% and sensitivity 42.4% compared to respectively 89.2% and 28.3% for the five-word test. Despite the poor sensitivity of the five-word test, it seems to be the most adapted for the diagnosis of MCI-DI in older adults with a memory complaint, in prevention centres, taking into account its high specificity and its rapid administration compared to the other tests. © 2015 EAN.

  15. Performance on naturalistic virtual reality tasks depends on global cognitive functioning as assessed via traditional neurocognitive tests.

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    Oliveira, Jorge; Gamito, Pedro; Alghazzawi, Daniyal M; Fardoun, Habib M; Rosa, Pedro J; Sousa, Tatiana; Picareli, Luís Felipe; Morais, Diogo; Lopes, Paulo

    2017-08-14

    This investigation sought to understand whether performance in naturalistic virtual reality tasks for cognitive assessment relates to the cognitive domains that are supposed to be measured. The Shoe Closet Test (SCT) was developed based on a simple visual search task involving attention skills, in which participants have to match each pair of shoes with the colors of the compartments in a virtual shoe closet. The interaction within the virtual environment was made using the Microsoft Kinect. The measures consisted of concurrent paper-and-pencil neurocognitive tests for global cognitive functioning, executive functions, attention, psychomotor ability, and the outcomes of the SCT. The results showed that the SCT correlated with global cognitive performance as measured with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). The SCT explained one third of the total variance of this test and revealed good sensitivity and specificity in discriminating scores below one standard deviation in this screening tool. These findings suggest that performance of such functional tasks involves a broad range of cognitive processes that are associated with global cognitive functioning and that may be difficult to isolate through paper-and-pencil neurocognitive tests.

  16. Performance of low-educated elders with depression on Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ace-r test

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    Michele Beckert

    Full Text Available Along with cognitive disorders, depression has been a concern for mental health services due to its highly debilitating effect on the functioning and quality of life of the elderly. However, there is still little understanding of the cognitive alterations resulting from depression or of the difficult differential diagnosis with mild cognitive impairment (MCI. It is known that performance on cognitive tests is strongly influenced by education but few studies have been conducted involving low-educated populations. Objective : To evaluate the performance of elders with low education and no dementia on Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R test and its cognitive domains, and compare patients with Current Major Depressive Episode (CMDE against those without depressive symptoms. Methods : A retrospective, cross-sectional analytical study was conducted based on medical files of patients treated at the Cerebral Aging Clinic of the Hospital São Lucas of the PUCRS. The study included 116 individuals with low education (< 8 years of education aged between 60 and 84 (69.6 ± 6.4 years, with MCDE (N = 41 and controls (N = 75. Results : No significant difference was observed between control and MCDE groups in median scores on the ACE-R, Mini-Mental State Examination, and the five cognitive domains. There was also no difference between the groups on separate analyses of results on the clock drawing test, the categorical verbal and phonological fluency test, and the naming test. Conclusion : The results of this study showed that depressive symptoms did not influence scores on the ACE-R tests conducted in elders with low education.

  17. Use of the Cognitive Performance Test for Identifying Deficits in Hospitalized Older Adults

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    Alison Douglas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The Cognitive Performance Test (CPT is a functional assessment for persons with dementia. The study purpose was to evaluate the reliability, discriminant, and concurrent validity of the CPT. Method. The CPT was tested against other measures of cognition (Standardized Mini Mental Status Exam (SMMSE and Assessment of Motor and Process Skills-Process scale (AMPS-Process. Participants were persons 65 years and older admitted to a geriatric rehabilitation unit (n=47. Results. The CPT correlated moderately with measures of cognition (SMMSE r=0.47, AMPS-Process r=0.53, P<0.01, and ADL burden of care (FIM r=0.32, P<0.05. Scores were not affected by age, sex, years of education, motor skills, or comorbidities. The CPT differentiated between impaired and unimpaired individuals differently from other measures. Conclusion. While CPT appears related to other measures of cognition, test interpretation requires noting the variability between CPT scores and those measures.

  18. Evolution of short cognitive test performance in stroke patients with vascular cognitive impairment and vascular dementia: Baseline evaluation and follow-up

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    Custodio, Nilton; Montesinos, Rosa; Lira, David; Herrera-Perez, Eder; Bardales, Yadira; Valeriano-Lorenzo, Lucia

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT. There is limited evidence about the progression of cognitive performance during the post-stroke stage. Objective: To assess the evolution of cognitive performance in stroke patients without vascular cognitive impairment (VCI), patients with vascular mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and patients with vascular dementia (VD). Methods: A prospective cohort of stroke outpatients from two secondary medical centers in Lima, Peru was studied. We performed standardized evaluations at definitive diagnosis (baseline evaluation), and control follow-ups at 6 and 12 months, including a battery of short cognitive tests: Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR), Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE), and INECO Frontal Screening (IFS). Results: 152 outpatients completed the follow-up, showing progressive increase in mean score on the CDR(0.34 to 0.46), contrary to the pattern observed on the ACE and IFS (78.18 to 76.48 and 23.63 to 22.24). The box plot for the CDR test showed that VCI patients had progressive worsening (0.79 to 0.16). Conversely, this trend was not observed in subjects without VCI. The box plot for the ACE and IFS showed that, for the majority of the differentiated stroke types, both non-VCI and VCI patients had progressive worsening. Conclusion: According to both ACE and IFS results during a 1-year follow-up, the cognitive performance of stroke patients worsened, a trend which was particularly consistent in infarction-type stroke patients. PMID:29354218

  19. Evolution of short cognitive test performance in stroke patients with vascular cognitive impairment and vascular dementia: Baseline evaluation and follow-up

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    Nilton Custodio

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. There is limited evidence about the progression of cognitive performance during the post-stroke stage. Objective: To assess the evolution of cognitive performance in stroke patients without vascular cognitive impairment (VCI, patients with vascular mild cognitive impairment (MCI, and patients with vascular dementia (VD. Methods: A prospective cohort of stroke outpatients from two secondary medical centers in Lima, Peru was studied. We performed standardized evaluations at definitive diagnosis (baseline evaluation, and control follow-ups at 6 and 12 months, including a battery of short cognitive tests: Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR, Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE, and INECO Frontal Screening (IFS. Results: 152 outpatients completed the follow-up, showing progressive increase in mean score on the CDR(0.34 to 0.46, contrary to the pattern observed on the ACE and IFS (78.18 to 76.48 and 23.63 to 22.24. The box plot for the CDR test showed that VCI patients had progressive worsening (0.79 to 0.16. Conversely, this trend was not observed in subjects without VCI. The box plot for the ACE and IFS showed that, for the majority of the differentiated stroke types, both non-VCI and VCI patients had progressive worsening. Conclusion: According to both ACE and IFS results during a 1-year follow-up, the cognitive performance of stroke patients worsened, a trend which was particularly consistent in infarction-type stroke patients.

  20. Effects of Reducing the Cognitive Load of Mathematics Test Items on Student Performance

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    Susan C. Gillmor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores a new item-writing framework for improving the validity of math assessment items. The authors transfer insights from Cognitive Load Theory (CLT, traditionally used in instructional design, to educational measurement. Fifteen, multiple-choice math assessment items were modified using research-based strategies for reducing extraneous cognitive load. An experimental design with 222 middle-school students tested the effects of the reduced cognitive load items on student performance and anxiety. Significant findings confirm the main research hypothesis that reducing the cognitive load of math assessment items improves student performance. Three load-reducing item modifications are identified as particularly effective for reducing item difficulty: signalling important information, aesthetic item organization, and removing extraneous content. Load reduction was not shown to impact student anxiety. Implications for classroom assessment and future research are discussed.

  1. The effects of gamelike features and test location on cognitive test performance and participant enjoyment

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    Jim Lumsden

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Computerised cognitive assessments are a vital tool in the behavioural sciences, but participants often view them as effortful and unengaging. One potential solution is to add gamelike elements to these tasks in order to make them more intrinsically enjoyable, and some researchers have posited that a more engaging task might produce higher quality data. This assumption, however, remains largely untested. We investigated the effects of gamelike features and test location on the data and enjoyment ratings from a simple cognitive task. We tested three gamified variants of the Go-No-Go task, delivered both in the laboratory and online. In the first version of the task participants were rewarded with points for performing optimally. The second version of the task was framed as a cowboy shootout. The third version was a standard Go-No-Go task, used as a control condition. We compared reaction time, accuracy and subjective measures of enjoyment and engagement between task variants and study location. We found points to be a highly suitable game mechanic for gamified cognitive testing because they did not disrupt the validity of the data collected but increased participant enjoyment. However, we found no evidence that gamelike features could increase engagement to the point where participant performance improved. We also found that while participants enjoyed the cowboy themed task, the difficulty of categorising the gamelike stimuli adversely affected participant performance, increasing No-Go error rates by 28% compared to the non-game control. Responses collected online vs. in the laboratory had slightly longer reaction times but were otherwise very similar, supporting other findings that online crowdsourcing is an acceptable method of data collection for this type of research.

  2. Collaborative Testing: Cognitive and Interpersonal Processes Related to Enhanced Test Performance

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    Kapitanoff, Susan H.

    2009-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that collaborative testing, working on tests in groups, leads to improved test scores but the mechanism by which this occurs has not been specified. Three factors were proposed as mediators: cognitive processes, interpersonal interactions and reduced test-anxiety. Thirty-three students completed a multiple-choice exam…

  3. Word Memory Test Performance Across Cognitive Domains, Psychiatric Presentations, and Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

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    Rowland, Jared A; Miskey, Holly M; Brearly, Timothy W; Martindale, Sarah L; Shura, Robert D

    2017-05-01

    The current study addressed two aims: (i) determine how Word Memory Test (WMT) performance relates to test performance across numerous cognitive domains and (ii) evaluate how current psychiatric disorders or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) history affects performance on the WMT after excluding participants with poor symptom validity. Participants were 235 Iraq and Afghanistan-era veterans (Mage = 35.5) who completed a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Participants were divided into two groups based on WMT performance (Pass = 193, Fail = 42). Tests were grouped into cognitive domains and an average z-score was calculated for each domain. Significant differences were found between those who passed and those who failed the WMT on the memory, attention, executive function, and motor output domain z-scores. WMT failure was associated with a larger performance decrement in the memory domain than the sensation or visuospatial-construction domains. Participants with a current psychiatric diagnosis or mTBI history were significantly more likely to fail the WMT, even after removing participants with poor symptom validity. Results suggest that the WMT is most appropriate for assessing validity in the domains of attention, executive function, motor output and memory, with little relationship to performance in domains of sensation or visuospatial-construction. Comprehensive cognitive batteries would benefit from inclusion of additional performance validity tests in these domains. Additionally, symptom validity did not explain higher rates of WMT failure in individuals with a current psychiatric diagnosis or mTBI history. Further research is needed to better understand how these conditions may affect WMT performance. Published by Oxford University Press 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  4. Performance of low-educated elders with depression on Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ace-r) test

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    Beckert,Michele; Loureiro,Fernanda; Menta,Caroline; Mello,Elisa Fasolin; Nogueira,Eduardo L.; Gunten,Armin von; Gomes,Irênio

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Along with cognitive disorders, depression has been a concern for mental health services due to its highly debilitating effect on the functioning and quality of life of the elderly. However, there is still little understanding of the cognitive alterations resulting from depression or of the difficult differential diagnosis with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). It is known that performance on cognitive tests is strongly influenced by education but few studies have been conducted invol...

  5. Influence of seasonal variation in mood and behavior on cognitive test performance among young adults.

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    Merikanto, Ilona; Lahti, Tuuli; Castaneda, Anu E; Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari; Aalto-Setälä, Terhi; Suvisaari, Jaana; Partonen, Timo

    2012-10-01

    Seasonal variations in mood and behavior are common among the general population and may have a deteriorating effect on cognitive functions. In this study the effect of seasonal affective disorder (SAD-like symptoms) on cognitive test performance were evaluated in more detail. The data were derived from the study Mental Health in Early Adulthood in Finland. Participants (n = 481) filled in a modified Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ) and performed cognitive tests in verbal and visual skills, attention and general intelligence. SAD-like symptoms, especially regarding the seasonal variations in weight and appetite, had a significant effect on working memory (Digit Span Backward, P = 0.008) and auditory attention and short-term memory (Digit Span Forward, P = 0.004). The seasonal variations in sleep duration and mood had an effect on auditory attention and short-term memory (Digit Span Forward, P = 0.02 and P = 0.0002, respectively). The seasonal variations in social activity and energy level had no effect. Seasonal changes in mood, appetite and weight have an impairing effect on auditory attention and processing speed. If performance tests are not to repeated in different seasons, attention needs to be given to the most appropriate season in which to test.

  6. Cognitive performance in patients with COPD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liesker, JJW; Postma, DS; Beukema, RJ; ten Hacken, NHT; van der Molen, T; Riemersma, RA; van Zomeren, EH; Kerstjens, HAM

    Background: Hypoxemic patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) have impaired cognitive performance. These neuropsychological impairments are related to the degree of hypoxemia. So far, cognitive performance has not been tested in non-hypoxemic patients with COPD. Methods: We

  7. Determining the Association between Language and Cognitive Tests in Poststroke Aphasia

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    Kylie J. Wall

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIndividuals with aphasia are often excluded from studies exploring poststroke cognition because so many of the standard cognitive assessments rely on language ability. Our primary objective was to examine the association between performance on cognitive tests and performance on comprehension and naming tests in poststroke aphasia. Second, we aimed to determine the association between language performance and a real-life measure of cognition (Kettle Test. Third, we explored the feasibility of administering cognitive tests in aphasia.MethodsThirty-six participants with poststroke aphasia and 32 controls were assessed on a battery of pen-and-paper cognitive tests recommended in stroke. Auditory comprehension was measured using the Comprehensive Aphasia Test and naming was measured using the Boston Naming Test. Twenty-two community dwelling participants with aphasia and controls were also asked to complete the Kettle Test. Multiple linear regressions were used to explore the relationship between language performance and performance on the cognitive tests. Feasibility was determined by quantifying missing data.ResultsThe cognitive tests with the highest variance accounted for by auditory comprehension and naming were animal fluency (R2 = 0.67, R2 = 0.78 and the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (recognition discrimination index (R2 = 0.65, R2 = 0.78. All cognitive tests were significantly associated with auditory comprehension and naming, except for the Star Cancellation Test and the Kettle Test. Thirty-three percent of participants with aphasia were unable to complete all the cognitive tests.ConclusionLanguage and non-linguistic cognitive processes are often interrelated. Most pen-and-paper cognitive tests were significantly associated with both auditory comprehension and naming, even in tests that do not require a verbal response. Language performance was not significantly associated with a real-life cognitive performance measure. Task

  8. Development and validation of a new cognitive screening test: The Hong Kong Brief Cognitive Test (HKBC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Helen F K; Zhong, Bao-Liang; Leung, Tony; Li, S W; Chow, Paulina; Tsoh, Joshua; Yan, Connie; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Wong, Mike

    2018-07-01

    To develop and examine the validity of a new brief cognitive test with less educational bias for screening cognitive impairment. A new cognitive test, Hong Kong Brief Cognitive Test (HKBC), was developed based on review of the literature, as well as the views of an expert panel. Three groups of subjects aged 65 or above were recruited after written consent: normal older people recruited in elderly centres, people with mild NCD (neurocognitive disorder), and people with major NCD. The brief cognitive test, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment Scale (MoCA), were administered to the subjects. The performance of HKBC in differentiating subjects with major NCD, mild NCD, and normal older people were compared with the clinical diagnosis, as well as the MMSE and MoCA scores. In total, 359 subjects were recruited, with 99 normal controls, 132 subjects with major NCD, and 128 with mild NCD. The mean MMSE, MoCA, and HKBC scores showed significant differences among the 3 groups of subjects. In the receiving operating characteristic curve analysis of the HKBC in differentiating normal subjects from those with cognitive impairment (mild NCD + major NCD), the area under the curve was 0.955 with an optimal cut-off score of 21/22. The performances of MMSE and MoCA in differentiating normal from cognitively impaired subjects are slightly inferior to the HKBC. The HKBC is a brief instrument useful for screening cognitive impairment in older adults and is also useful in populations with low educational level. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Explicit versus implicit social cognition testing in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callenmark, Björn; Kjellin, Lars; Rönnqvist, Louise; Bölte, Sven

    2014-08-01

    Although autism spectrum disorder is defined by reciprocal social-communication impairments, several studies have found no evidence for altered social cognition test performance. This study examined explicit (i.e. prompted) and implicit (i.e. spontaneous) variants of social cognition testing in autism spectrum disorder. A sample of 19 adolescents with autism spectrum disorder and 19 carefully matched typically developing controls completed the Dewey Story Test. 'Explicit' (multiple-choice answering format) and 'implicit' (free interview) measures of social cognition were obtained. Autism spectrum disorder participants did not differ from controls regarding explicit social cognition performance. However, the autism spectrum disorder group performed more poorly than controls on implicit social cognition performance in terms of spontaneous perspective taking and social awareness. Findings suggest that social cognition alterations in autism spectrum disorder are primarily implicit in nature and that an apparent absence of social cognition difficulties on certain tests using rather explicit testing formats does not necessarily mean social cognition typicality in autism spectrum disorder. © The Author(s) 2013.

  10. Cognitive performance and aphasia recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, José; Raposo, Ana; Martins, Isabel Pavão

    2018-03-01

    Objectives This study assessed cognitive performance of subjects with aphasia during the acute stage of stroke and evaluated how such performance relates to recovery at 3 months. Materials & methods Patients with aphasia following a left hemisphere stroke were evaluated during the first (baseline) and the fourth-month post onset. Assessment comprised non-verbal tests of attention/processing speed (Symbol Search, Cancelation Task), executive functioning (Matrix Reasoning, Tower of Hanoi, Clock Drawing, Motor Initiative), semantic (Camel and Cactus Test), episodic and immediate memory (Memory for Faces Test, 5 Objects Memory Test, and Spatial Span. Recovery was measured by the Token Test score at 3 months. The impact of baseline performance on recovery was evaluated by logistic regression adjusting for age, education, severity of aphasia and the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT (ASPECT) score. Results Thirty-nine subjects (with a mean of 66.5 ± 10.6 years of age, 17 men) were included. Average baseline cognitive performance was within normal range in all tests except in memory tests (semantic, episodic and immediate memory) for which scores were ≤-1.5sd. Subjects with poor aphasia recovery (N = 27) were older and had fewer years of formal education but had identical ASPECT score compared to those with favorable recovery. Considering each test individually, the score obtained on the Matrix Reasoning test was the only one to predict aphasia recovery (Exp(B)=24.085 p = 0.038). Conclusions The Matrix Reasoning Test may contribute to predict aphasia recovery. Cognitive performance is a measure of network disruption but may also indicate the availability of recovery strategies.

  11. Measurement of mental attention: Assessing a cognitive component underlying performance on standardized intelligence tests

    OpenAIRE

    Steven J. Howard; Janice Johnson; Juan Pascual-Leone

    2013-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of standardized IQ tests to measure human intelligence, problems with such measures have led some to suggest that better indices may derive from measurement of cognitive processes underlying performance on IQ tests (e.g., working memory capacity). However, measures from both approaches may exhibit performance biases in favour of majority groups, due to the influence of prior learning and experience. Mental attentional (M-) capacity is proposed to be a causal factor ...

  12. How to choose the most appropriate cognitive test to evaluate cognitive complaints in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Jolien; Koekkoek, Paula S.; Moll van Charante, Eric P.; Jaap Kappelle, L.; Biessels, Geert Jan; Rutten, Guy E. H. M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Despite the wealth of research devoted to the performance of individual cognitive tests for diagnosing cognitive impairment (including mild cognitive impairment and dementia), it can be difficult for general practitioners to choose the most appropriate test for a patient with cognitive

  13. Effort testing in children: can cognitive and symptom validity measures differentiate malingered performances?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambo, Philip L; Callahan, Jennifer L; Hogan, Lindsey R; Hullmann, Stephanie; Wrape, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Recent efforts have contributed to significant advances in the detection of malingered performances in adults during cognitive assessment. However, children's ability to purposefully underperform has received relatively little attention. The purpose of the present investigation was to examine children's performances on common intellectual measures, as well as two symptom validity measures: the Test of Memory Malingering and the Dot-Counting Test. This was accomplished through the administration of measures to children ages 6 to 12 years old in randomly assigned full-effort (control) and poor-effort (treatment) conditions. Prior to randomization, children's general intellectual functioning (i.e., IQ) was estimated via administration of the Kaufman Brief Intellectual Battery-Second Edition (KBIT-2). Multivariate analyses revealed that the conditions significantly differed on some but not all administered measures. Specifically, children's estimated IQ in the treatment condition significantly differed from the full-effort IQ initially obtained from the same children on the KBIT-2, as well as from the IQs obtained in the full-effort control condition. These findings suggest that children are fully capable of willfully underperforming during cognitive testing; however, consistent with prior investigations, some measures evidence greater sensitivity than others in evaluating effort.

  14. Addressing criticisms of existing predictive bias research: cognitive ability test scores still overpredict African Americans' job performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Christopher M; Zhao, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Predictive bias studies have generally suggested that cognitive ability test scores overpredict job performance of African Americans, meaning these tests are not predictively biased against African Americans. However, at least 2 issues call into question existing over-/underprediction evidence: (a) a bias identified by Aguinis, Culpepper, and Pierce (2010) in the intercept test typically used to assess over-/underprediction and (b) a focus on the level of observed validity instead of operational validity. The present study developed and utilized a method of assessing over-/underprediction that draws on the math of subgroup regression intercept differences, does not rely on the biased intercept test, allows for analysis at the level of operational validity, and can use meta-analytic estimates as input values. Therefore, existing meta-analytic estimates of key parameters, corrected for relevant statistical artifacts, were used to determine whether African American job performance remains overpredicted at the level of operational validity. African American job performance was typically overpredicted by cognitive ability tests across levels of job complexity and across conditions wherein African American and White regression slopes did and did not differ. Because the present study does not rely on the biased intercept test and because appropriate statistical artifact corrections were carried out, the present study's results are not affected by the 2 issues mentioned above. The present study represents strong evidence that cognitive ability tests generally overpredict job performance of African Americans. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Background music and cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Leslie A; Polzella, Donald J; Elvers, Greg C

    2010-06-01

    The present experiment employed standardized test batteries to assess the effects of fast-tempo music on cognitive performance among 56 male and female university students. A linguistic processing task and a spatial processing task were selected from the Criterion Task Set developed to assess verbal and nonverbal performance. Ten excerpts from Mozart's music matched for tempo were selected. Background music increased the speed of spatial processing and the accuracy of linguistic processing. The findings suggest that background music can have predictable effects on cognitive performance.

  16. Cognitive testing in non-demented Turkish immigrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T. Rune; Vogel, Asmus M.; Gade, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Nielsen, T. R. Vogel, A., Gade, A. & Waldemar, G. (2012). Cognitive testing in healthy Turkish immigrants - comparison of the RUDAS and the MMSE. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 53, 455-460. Methods for culturally and linguistically appropriate cognitive testing of elderly minority populations...... are lacking in Europe. The aim of this study was to compare performance on the Rowland Universal Dementia Assessment Scale (RUDAS) and the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) in Turkish immigrants in Denmark and determine the impact of demographic and health-related variables on test performance. A sample...... of non-demented community-dwelling Turkish immigrants was recruited from the greater Copenhagen area. All participants completed a structured interview regarding demographic, physical and mental health status, as well as measures of depression and acculturation, and cognitive testing with the RUDAS...

  17. The Multiple Object Test as a Performance Based Tool to Assess Cognitive Driven Activity of Daily Living Function in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glonnegger, Hannah; Beyle, Aline; Cerff, Bernhard; Gräber, Susanne; Csoti, Ilona; Berg, Daniela; Liepelt-Scarfone, Inga

    2016-07-06

    There is need for multidimensional quantitative assessment of cognitive driven activities of daily living (ADL) functions in Parkinson's disease (PD). To determine whether there is an ADL profile related to cognitive impairment in PD assessed by the Multiple Object Test (MOT). We assumed MOT performance to be lower in PD patients versus controls and in PD patients with more severe cognitive impairment. 50 PD patients with no cognitive impairment (PD-NC), 54 patients with PD-mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI), 29 with Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), and 40 healthy controls (HC) were investigated. Besides comprehensive cognitive testing, the MOT, a performance based test consisting of five routine tasks (e.g., preparing a cup of coffee), was applied. Quantitative (total errors and time) and qualitative (error type) MOT parameters were analyzed. Total time and number of MOT errors was increased in PD patients compared to controls (p < 0.001). These parameters also differentiated PDD patients from other cognitive groups (p < 0.05). No control subject had ≥ 4 errors in the MOT, but 30% of PD patients, especially PDD, scored above this cut-off. Omission (p < 0.001) and mislocation (p < 0.03) errors were more prominent in PDD than other cognitive groups. Perplexity errors did not differ between PD-MCI and PDD but between PD-NC and PDD (p = 0.01). MOT parameters discriminating between cognitive groups correlated mainly with lower test performance in psychomotor speed and executive function. Performance based testing is promising to identify quantitative and qualitative ADL aspects differentiating between different cognitive groups which might be helpful for an early detection of PDD.

  18. Gender Differences in Performance Predictions: Evidence from the Cognitive Reflection Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Patrick; Neyse, Levent; David-Barett, Tamas; Schmidt, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies performance predictions in the 7-item Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT) and whether they differ by gender. After participants completed the CRT, they predicted their own (i), the other participants' (ii), men's (iii), and women's (iv) number of correct answers. In keeping with existing literature, men scored higher on the CRT than women and both men and women were too optimistic about their own performance. When we compare gender-specific predictions, we observe that men think they perform significantly better than other men and do so significantly more than women. The equality between women's predictions about their own performance and their female peers cannot be rejected. Our findings contribute to the growing literature on the underpinnings of behavior in economics and in psychology by uncovering gender differences in confidence about one's ability relative to same and opposite sex peers.

  19. Perceptual-cognitive skill and the in situ performance of soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Maarseveen, Mariëtte J J; Oudejans, Raôul R D; Mann, David L; Savelsbergh, Geert J P

    2018-02-01

    Many studies have shown that experts possess better perceptual-cognitive skills than novices (e.g., in anticipation, decision making, pattern recall), but it remains unclear whether a relationship exists between performance on those tests of perceptual-cognitive skill and actual on-field performance. In this study, we assessed the in situ performance of skilled soccer players and related the outcomes to measures of anticipation, decision making, and pattern recall. In addition, we examined gaze behaviour when performing the perceptual-cognitive tests to better understand whether the underlying processes were related when those perceptual-cognitive tasks were performed. The results revealed that on-field performance could not be predicted on the basis of performance on the perceptual-cognitive tests. Moreover, there were no strong correlations between the level of performance on the different tests. The analysis of gaze behaviour revealed differences in search rate, fixation duration, fixation order, gaze entropy, and percentage viewing time when performing the test of pattern recall, suggesting that it is driven by different processes to those used for anticipation and decision making. Altogether, the results suggest that the perceptual-cognitive tests may not be as strong determinants of actual performance as may have previously been assumed.

  20. Classification of cognitive performance in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparding, Timea; Silander, Katja; Pålsson, Erik; Östlind, Josefin; Ekman, Carl Johan; Sellgren, Carl M; Joas, Erik; Hansen, Stefan; Landén, Mikael

    2017-09-01

    To understand the etiology of cognitive impairment associated with bipolar disorder, we need to clarify potential heterogeneity in cognitive functioning. To this end, we used multivariate techniques to study if the correlation structure of cognitive abilities differs between persons with bipolar disorder and controls. Clinically stable patients with bipolar disorder (type I: n = 64; type II: n = 44) and healthy controls (n = 86) were assessed with a wide range of cognitive tests measuring executive function, speed, memory, and verbal skills. Data were analysed with multivariate techniques. A distinct subgroup (∼30%) could be identified that performed significantly poorer on tests concerning memory function. This cognitive phenotype subgroup did not differ from the majority of bipolar disorder patients with respect to other demographic or clinical characteristics. Whereas the majority of patients performed similar to controls, a subgroup of patients with bipolar disorder differed substantially from healthy controls in the correlation pattern of low-level cognitive abilities. This suggests that cognitive impairment is not a general trait in bipolar disorder but characteristic of a cognitive subgroup. This has important clinical implications for cognitive rehabilitation and remediation.

  1. Visual and cognitive predictors of performance on brake reaction test: Salisbury eye evaluation driving study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Baldwin, Kevin; Munoz, Beatriz; Munro, Cynthia; Turano, Kathleen; Hassan, Shirin; Lyketsos, Constantine; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; West, Sheila K

    2007-01-01

    Concern for driving safety has prompted research into understanding factors related to performance. Brake reaction speed (BRS), the speed with which persons react to a sudden change in driving conditions, is a measure of performance. Our aim is to determine the visual, cognitive, and physical factors predicting BRS in a population sample of 1425 older drivers. The Maryland Department of Motor Vehicles roster of persons aged 67-87 and residing in Salisbury, MD, was used for recruitment of the study population. Procedures included the following: habitual, binocular visual acuity using ETDRS charts, contrast sensitivity using a Pelli-Robson chart, visual fields assessed with a 81-point screening Humphrey field at a single intensity threshold, and a questionnaire to ascertain medical conditions. Cognitive status was assessed using a standard battery of tests for attention, memory, visuo-spatial, and scanning. BRS was assessed using a computer-driven device that measured separately the initial reaction speed (IRS) (from light change to red until removing foot from accelerator) and physical response speed (PRS) (removing foot from accelerator to full brake depression). Five trial times were averaged, and time was converted to speed. The median brake reaction time varied from 384 to 5688 milliseconds. Age, gender, and cognition predicted total BRS, a non-informative result as there are two distinct parts to the task. Once separated, decrease in IRS was associated with low scores on cognitive factors and missing points on the visual field. A decrease in PRS was associated with having three or more physical complaints related to legs and feet, and poorer vision search. Vision was not related to PRS. We have demonstrated the importance of segregating the speeds for the two tasks involved in brake reaction. Only the IRS depends on vision. Persons in good physical condition may perform poorly on brake reaction tests if their vision or cognition is compromised.

  2. Test anxiety, perfectionism, goal orientation, and academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eum, KoUn; Rice, Kenneth G

    2011-03-01

    Dimensions of perfectionism and goal orientation have been reported to have differential relationships with test anxiety. However, the degree of inter-relationship between different dimensions of perfectionism, the 2 × 2 model of goal orientations proposed by Elliot and McGregor, cognitive test anxiety, and academic performance indicators is not known. Based on data from 134 university students, we conducted correlation and regression analyses to test associations between adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism, four types of goal orientations, cognitive test anxiety, and two indicators of academic performance: proximal cognitive performance on a word list recall test and distal academic performance in terms of grade point average. Cognitive test anxiety was inversely associated with both performance indicators, and positively associated with maladaptive perfectionism and avoidance goal orientations. Adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism accounted for significant variance in cognitive test anxiety after controlling for approach and avoidance goal orientations. Overall, nearly 50% of the variance in cognitive test anxiety could be attributed to gender, goal orientations, and perfectionism. Results suggested that students who are highly test anxious are likely to be women who endorse avoidance goal orientations and are maladaptively perfectionistic.

  3. Gender Differences in Performance Predictions: Evidence from the Cognitive Reflection Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Ring

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies performance predictions in the 7-item Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT and whether they differ by gender. After participants completed the CRT, they predicted their own (i, the other participants’ (ii, men’s (iii, and women’s (iv number of correct answers. In keeping with existing literature, men scored higher on the CRT than women and both men and women were too optimistic about their own performance. When we compare gender-specific predictions, we observe that men think they perform significantly better than other men and do so significantly more than women. The equality between women’s predictions about their own performance and their female peers cannot be rejected. Our findings contribute to the growing literature on the underpinnings of behavior in economics and in psychology by uncovering gender differences in confidence about one’s ability relative to same and opposite sex peers.

  4. A cognitive-behavioral group treatment for test-anxious adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WESSEL, Ineke; MERSCH, PPA

    1994-01-01

    Test anxiety is referring to distress experienced in formal test-taking and social-evaluative situations. Worrisome cognitions appear to be a key factor in test anxiety, and cognitive interference plays a major role in impairing academic performance in test-anxious persons. In the present study the

  5. Is Perceived Control a Critical Factor in Understanding the Negative Relationship between Cognitive Test Anxiety and Examination Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putwain, David W.; Aveyard, Ben

    2018-01-01

    A well established finding is that the cognitive component of test anxiety (worry) is negatively related to examination performance. The present study examined how 3 self-beliefs (academic buoyancy, perceived control, and test competence) moderated the strength of the relationship between worry and examination performance in a sample of 270 final…

  6. Development and Validation of the Cognition Test Battery for Spaceflight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basner, Mathias; Savitt, Adam; Moore, Tyler M; Port, Allison M; McGuire, Sarah; Ecker, Adrian J; Nasrini, Jad; Mollicone, Daniel J; Mott, Christopher M; McCann, Thom; Dinges, David F; Gur, Ruben C

    2015-11-01

    Sustained high-level cognitive performance is of paramount importance for the success of space missions, which involve environmental, physiological, and psychological stressors that may affect brain functions. Despite subjective symptom reports of cognitive fluctuations in spaceflight, the nature of neurobehavioral functioning in space has not been clarified. We developed a computerized cognitive test battery (Cognition) that has sensitivity to multiple cognitive domains and was specifically designed for the high-performing astronaut population. Cognition consists of 15 unique forms of 10 neuropsychological tests that cover a range of cognitive domains, including emotion processing, spatial orientation, and risk decision making. Cognition is based on tests known to engage specific brain regions as evidenced by functional neuroimaging. Here we describe the first normative and acute total sleep deprivation data on the Cognition test battery as well as several efforts underway to establish the validity, sensitivity, feasibility, and acceptability of Cognition. Practice effects and test-retest variability differed substantially between the 10 Cognition tests, illustrating the importance of normative data that both reflect practice effects and differences in stimulus set difficulty in the population of interest. After one night without sleep, medium to large effect sizes were observed for 3 of the 10 tests addressing vigilant attention (Cohen's d = 1.00), cognitive throughput (d = 0.68), and abstract reasoning (d = 0.65). In addition to providing neuroimaging-based novel information on the effects of spaceflight on a range of cognitive functions, Cognition will facilitate comparing the effects of ground-based analogues to spaceflight, increase consistency across projects, and thus enable meta-analyses.

  7. Automated cognitive testing of monkeys in social groups yields results comparable to individual laboratory-based testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazes, Regina Paxton; Brown, Emily Kathryn; Basile, Benjamin M; Hampton, Robert R

    2013-05-01

    Cognitive abilities likely evolved in response to specific environmental and social challenges and are therefore expected to be specialized for the life history of each species. Specialized cognitive abilities may be most readily engaged under conditions that approximate the natural environment of the species being studied. While naturalistic environments might therefore have advantages over laboratory settings for cognitive research, it is difficult to conduct certain types of cognitive tests in these settings. We implemented methods for automated cognitive testing of monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in large social groups (Field station) and compared the performance to that of laboratory-housed monkeys (Laboratory). The Field station animals shared access to four touch-screen computers in a large naturalistic social group. Each Field station subject had an RFID chip implanted in each arm for computerized identification and individualized assignment of cognitive tests. The Laboratory group was housed and tested in a typical laboratory setting, with individual access to testing computers in their home cages. Monkeys in both groups voluntarily participated at their own pace for food rewards. We evaluated performance in two visual psychophysics tests, a perceptual classification test, a transitive inference test, and a delayed matching-to-sample memory test. Despite the differences in housing, social environment, age, and sex, monkeys in the two groups performed similarly in all tests. Semi-free ranging monkeys living in complex social environments are therefore viable subjects for cognitive testing designed to take advantage of the unique affordances of naturalistic testing environments.

  8. Cognitive therapy for performance anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodebaugh, Thomas L; Chambless, Dianne L

    2004-08-01

    We present and illustrate the major components of cognitive therapy for performance anxiety, focusing on the performance fears of a client treated with a protocol designed for social phobia. The basic supposition of cognitive theory is that a client's thoughts and beliefs about situations maintain distressing feelings, such as anxiety. Changing these beliefs involves detection and disputation of anxiety-provoking thoughts, as well as testing of these thoughts through exposure to feared situations. Through a process of identifying existing beliefs about performance situations and challenging these beliefs, clients can gain a more realistic and less anxiety-producing perspective on performance tasks. Specific techniques, along with common difficulties and potential solutions, are presented in a detailed case study. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Adolescent Anorexia Nervosa: cognitive performance after weight recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Serra, Estefanía; Andrés-Perpiña, Susana; Lázaro-García, Luisa; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina

    2014-01-01

    Although there is no definitive consensus on the impairment of neuropsychological functions, most studies of adults with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) find impaired functioning in cognitive domains such as visual-spatial abilities. The objective of this study is to assess the cognitive functions in adolescents with AN before and after weight recovery and to explore the relationship between cognitive performance and menstruation. Twenty-five female adolescents with AN were assessed by a neuropsychological battery while underweight and then following six months of treatment and weight recovery. Twenty-six healthy female subjects of a similar age were also evaluated at both time points. Underweight patients with AN showed worse cognitive performance than control subjects in immediate recall, organization and time taken to copy the Rey's Complex Figure Test (RCFT). After weight recovery, AN patients presented significant improvements in all tests, and differences between patients and controls disappeared. Patients with AN and persistence of amenorrhea at follow-up (n=8) performed worse on Block Design, delayed recall of Visual Reproduction and Stroop Test than patients with resumed menstruation (n=14) and the control group, though the two AN groups were similar in body mass index, age and psychopathological scale scores. Weight recovery improves cognitive functioning in adolescents with AN. The normalization of neuropsychological performance is better in patients who have recovered at least one menstrual cycle. The normalization of hormonal function seems to be essential for the normalization of cognitive performance, even in adolescents with a very short recovery time. © 2013.

  10. The "Test Your Memory" test performs better than the MMSE in a population without known cognitive dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koekkoek, P.S.; Rutten, G.E.H.M.; Van den Berg, E.; van Sonsbeek, S.; Gorter, K.J.; Kappelle, L.J.; Biessels, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    1. Introduction Brief cognitive tests are increasingly implemented in both clinical and research settings. They are not only used for early recognition of cognitive deficits and dementia [1], but also for measuring differences in cognitive functioning between groups, for assessment of treatment

  11. Development and Validation of the Cognition Test Battery for Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basner, Mathias; Savitt, Adam; Moore, Tyler M.; Port, Allison M.; McGuire, Sarah; Ecker, Adrian J.; Nasrini, Jad; Mollicone, Daniel J.; Mott, Christopher M.; McCann, Thom; Dinges, David F.; Gur, Ruben C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Sustained high-level cognitive performance is of paramount importance for the success of space missions, which involve environmental, physiological and psychological stressors that may affect brain functions. Despite subjective symptom reports of cognitive fluctuations in spaceflight, the nature of neurobehavioral functioning in space has not been clarified. Methods We developed a computerized cognitive test battery (Cognition) that has sensitivity to multiple cognitive domains and was specifically designed for the high-performing astronaut population. Cognition consists of 15 unique forms of 10 neuropsychological tests that cover a range of cognitive domains including emotion processing, spatial orientation, and risk decision making. Cognition is based on tests known to engage specific brain regions as evidenced by functional neuroimaging. Here we describe the first normative and acute total sleep deprivation data on the Cognition test battery as well as several efforts underway to establish the validity, sensitivity, feasibility, and acceptability of Cognition. Results Practice effects and test-retest variability differed substantially between the 10 Cognition tests, illustrating the importance of normative data that both reflect practice effects and differences in stimulus set difficulty in the population of interest. After one night without sleep, medium to large effect sizes were observed for 3 of the 10 tests addressing vigilant attention (Cohen’s d=1.00), cognitive throughput (d=0.68), and abstract reasoning (d=0.65). Conclusions In addition to providing neuroimaging-based novel information on the effects of spaceflight on a range of cognitive functions, Cognition will facilitate comparing the effects of ground-based analogs to spaceflight, increase consistency across projects, and thus enable meta-analyses. PMID:26564759

  12. The Cognitive Change Index as a Measure of Self and Informant Perception of Cognitive Decline: Relation to Neuropsychological Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanabannakit, Chatchawan; Risacher, Shannon L; Gao, Sujuan; Lane, Kathleen A; Brown, Steven A; McDonald, Brenna C; Unverzagt, Frederick W; Apostolova, Liana G; Saykin, Andrew J; Farlow, Martin R

    2016-01-01

    The perception of cognitive decline by individuals and those who know them well ("informants") has been inconsistently associated with objective cognitive performance, but strongly associated with depressive symptoms. We investigated associations of self-report, informant-report, and discrepancy between self- and informant-report of cognitive decline obtained from the Cognitive Change Index (CCI) with cognitive test performance and self-reported depressive symptoms. 267 participants with normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), or mild dementia were included from a cohort study and memory clinic. Association of test performance and self-rated depression (Geriatric Depression Scale, GDS) with CCI scores obtained from subjects (CCI-S), their informants (CCI-I), and discrepancy scores between subjects and informants (CCI-D; CCI-S minus CCI-I) were analyzed using correlation and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) models. CCI-S and CCI-I scores showed high internal consistency (Cronbach alpha 0.96 and 0.98, respectively). Higher scores on CCI-S and CCI-I, and lower scores on the CCI-D, were associated with lower performance on various cognitive tests in both univariate and in ANCOVA models adjusted for age, gender, and education. Adjustment for GDS slightly weakened the relationships between CCI and test performance but most remained significant. Self- and informant-report of cognitive decline, as measured by the CCI, show moderately strong relationships with objective test performance independent of age, gender, education, and depressive symptoms. The CCI appears to be a valid cross-sectional measure of self and informant perception of cognitive decline across the continuum of functioning. Studies are needed to address the relationship of CCI scores to longitudinal outcome.

  13. The effects of low-intensity cycling on cognitive performance following sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slutsky, Alexis B; Diekfuss, Jed A; Janssen, James A; Berry, Nate T; Shih, Chia-Hao; Raisbeck, Louisa D; Wideman, Laurie; Etnier, Jennifer L

    2017-10-15

    This study examined the effect of 24h of sleep deprivation on cognitive performance and assessed the effect of acute exercise on cognitive performance following sleep deprivation. Young, active, healthy adults (n=24, 14 males) were randomized to control (age=24.7±3.7years, BMI=27.2±7.0) or exercise (age=25.3±3.3years, BMI=25.6±5.1) groups. Cognitive testing included a 5-min psychomotor vigilance task (PVT), three memory tasks with increasing cognitive load, and performance of the PVT a second time. On morning one, cognitive testing followed a typical night's sleep. Following 24-h of sustained wakefulness, cognitive testing was conducted again prior to and after the acute intervention. Participants in the exercise condition performed low-intensity cycling (∼40%HRR) for 15-min and those in the control condition sat quietly on the bike for 15-min. t-Tests revealed sleep deprivation negatively affected performance on the PVT, but did not affect memory performance. Following the acute intervention, there were no cognitive performance differences between the exercise and rested conditions. We provide support for previous literature suggesting that during simple tasks, sleep deprivation has negative effects on cognitive performance. Importantly, in contrast to previous literature which has shown multiple bouts of exercise adding to cognitive detriment when combined with sleep deprivation, our results did not reveal any further detriments to cognitive performance from a single-bout of exercise following sleep deprivation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. English Language Proficiency and Test Performance: An Evaluation of Bilingual Students with the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo-Dynega, Marlene; Ortiz, Samuel O.; Flanagan, Dawn P.; Chaplin, William F.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we report the findings of an exploratory empirical study that investigated the relationship between English Language Proficiency (ELP) on performance on the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities-Third Edition (WJ III) when administered in English to bilingual students of varying levels of ELP. Sixty-one second-grade…

  15. Genetic associations between fibrinogen and cognitive performance in three Scottish cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marioni, Riccardo E; Deary, Ian J; Murray, Gordon D; Lowe, Gordon D O; Strachan, Mark W J; Luciano, Michelle; Houlihan, Lorna M; Gow, Alan J; Harris, Sarah E; Rumley, Ann; Stewart, Marlene C; Fowkes, F Gerry R; Price, Jackie F

    2011-09-01

    There is increasing evidence to suggest that elevated plasma levels of fibrinogen are associated with late-life cognitive performance. This study tested the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the fibrinogen α (FGA) and β (FGB) genes with cognitive performance. Data were analysed from three community-dwelling populations of older persons (>50 years) in central Scotland: the Aspirin for Asymptomatic Atherosclerosis (AAA) Trial (n = 2,091), the Edinburgh Type 2 Diabetes Study (ET2DS, n = 1,066), and the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 (LBC1936, n = 1,091). Cognition was assessed using a battery of five, seven, and four psychometric tests, respectively. This information was used to derive a general cognitive factor. Weakly significant associations were found between the rs4220 (FGB), and rs2227412 (FGB) SNPs and a single test of cognitive performance in the AAA Trial (p determinant of late-life cognitive performance and justify further attempts at replication in older persons.

  16. Atypical performance patterns on Delis-Kaplan Executive Functioning System Color-Word Interference Test: Cognitive switching and learning ability in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Jody-Lynn; Swan, Natasha M; Banks, Sarah J; Miller, Justin B

    2016-09-01

    Cognitive set shifting requires flexible application of lower level processes. The Delis-Kaplan Executive Functioning System (DKEFS) Color-Word Interference Test (CWIT) is commonly used to clinically assess cognitive set shifting. An atypical pattern of performance has been observed on the CWIT; a subset of individuals perform faster, with equal or fewer errors, on the more difficult inhibition/switching than the inhibition trial. This study seeks to explore the cognitive underpinnings of this atypical pattern. It is hypothesized that atypical patterns on CWIT will be associated with better performance on underlying cognitive measures of attention, working memory, and learning when compared to typical CWIT patterns. Records from 239 clinical referrals (age: M = 68.09 years, SD = 10.62; education: M = 14.87 years, SD = 2.73) seen for a neuropsychological evaluation as part of diagnostic work up in an outpatient dementia and movement disorders clinic were sampled. The standard battery of tests included measures of attention, learning, fluency, executive functioning, and working memory. Analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were conducted to compare the cognitive performance of those with typical versus atypical CWIT patterns. An atypical pattern of performance was confirmed in 23% of our sample. Analyses revealed a significant group difference in acquisition of information on both nonverbal (Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised, BVMT-R total recall), F(1, 213) = 16.61, p < .001, and verbal (Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised, HVLT-R total recall) learning tasks, F(1, 181) = 6.43, p < .01, and semantic fluency (Animal Naming), F(1, 232) = 7.57, p = .006, with the atypical group performing better on each task. Effect sizes were larger for nonverbal (Cohen's d = 0.66) than verbal learning (Cohen's d = 0.47) and semantic fluency (Cohen's d = 0.43). Individuals demonstrating an atypical pattern of performance on the CWIT inhibition/switching trial also demonstrated relative

  17. Optimisation of cognitive performance in rodent operant (touchscreen) testing: Evaluation and effects of reinforcer strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Benjamin U; Heath, Christopher J; Ossowska, Zofia; Bussey, Timothy J; Saksida, Lisa M

    2017-09-01

    Operant testing is a widely used and highly effective method of studying cognition in rodents. Performance on such tasks is sensitive to reinforcer strength. It is therefore advantageous to select effective reinforcers to minimize training times and maximize experimental throughput. To quantitatively investigate the control of behavior by different reinforcers, performance of mice was tested with either strawberry milkshake or a known powerful reinforcer, super saccharin (1.5% or 2% (w/v) saccharin/1.5% (w/v) glucose/water mixture). Mice were tested on fixed (FR)- and progressive-ratio (PR) schedules in the touchscreen-operant testing system. Under an FR schedule, both the rate of responding and number of trials completed were higher in animals responding for strawberry milkshake versus super saccharin. Under a PR schedule, mice were willing to emit similar numbers of responses for strawberry milkshake and super saccharin; however, analysis of the rate of responding revealed a significantly higher rate of responding by animals reinforced with milkshake versus super saccharin. To determine the impact of reinforcer strength on cognitive performance, strawberry milkshake and super saccharin-reinforced animals were compared on a touchscreen visual discrimination task. Animals reinforced by strawberry milkshake were significantly faster to acquire the discrimination than animals reinforced by super saccharin. Taken together, these results suggest that strawberry milkshake is superior to super saccharin for operant behavioral testing and further confirms that the application of response rate analysis to multiple ratio tasks is a highly sensitive method for the detection of behavioral differences relevant to learning and motivation.

  18. Test-retest reliability of cognitive EEG

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, L. K.; Smith, M. E.; Gevins, A.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Task-related EEG is sensitive to changes in cognitive state produced by increased task difficulty and by transient impairment. If task-related EEG has high test-retest reliability, it could be used as part of a clinical test to assess changes in cognitive function. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of the EEG recorded during the performance of a working memory (WM) task and a psychomotor vigilance task (PVT). METHODS: EEG was recorded while subjects rested quietly and while they performed the tasks. Within session (test-retest interval of approximately 1 h) and between session (test-retest interval of approximately 7 days) reliability was calculated for four EEG components: frontal midline theta at Fz, posterior theta at Pz, and slow and fast alpha at Pz. RESULTS: Task-related EEG was highly reliable within and between sessions (r0.9 for all components in WM task, and r0.8 for all components in the PVT). Resting EEG also showed high reliability, although the magnitude of the correlation was somewhat smaller than that of the task-related EEG (r0.7 for all 4 components). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that under appropriate conditions, task-related EEG has sufficient retest reliability for use in assessing clinical changes in cognitive status.

  19. Dual-Task Performance: Influence of Frailty, Level of Physical Activity, and Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti Rossi, Paulo; Pires de Andrade, Larissa; Hotta Ansai, Juliana; Silva Farche, Ana Claudia; Carnaz, Leticia; Dalpubel, Daniela; Ferriolli, Eduardo; Assis Carvalho Vale, Francisco; de Medeiros Takahashi, Anielle Cristhine

    2018-03-08

    Cognition and level of physical activity have been associated with frailty syndrome. The development of tools that assess deficits related to physical and cognitive frailties simultaneously are of common interest. However, little is known about how much these aspects influence the performance of dual-task tests. Our aims were (a) to verify the influence of frailty syndrome and objectively measured physical activity and cognition on the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test and Timed Up and Go associated with dual-task (TUG-DT) performances; and (b) to compare TUG and TUG-DT performances between older adults who develop frailty syndrome. Sixty-four community-dwelling older adults were divided into frail, prefrail, and nonfrail groups, according to frailty phenotype. Assessments included anamnesis, screening of frailty syndrome, cognitive assessment (Addenbrooke's cognitive examination), placement of a triaxial accelerometer to assess level of physical activity, and TUG and TUG-DT (TUG associated with a motor-cognitive task of calling a phone number) performances. After 7 days, the accelerometer was removed. A multiple linear regression was applied to identify which independent variables could explain performances in the TUG and TUG-DT. Subsequently, the analysis of covariance test, adjusted for age, cognition, and level of physical activity covariates, was used to compare test performances. There were no differences in cognition between groups. Significant differences in the level of physical activity were found in the frail group. Compared with the frail group, the nonfrail group required less time and fewer steps to complete the TUG. Regarding the TUG-DT, cognition and age influenced the time spent and number of steps, respectively; however, no differences were found between groups. Frail older adults presented worse performance in the TUG when compared with nonfrail older adults. The dual-task test does not differentiate older adults with frailty syndrome, regardless of

  20. The Effects of Aerobic Exercise and Gaming on Cognitive Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douris, Peter C; Handrakis, John P; Apergis, Demitra; Mangus, Robert B; Patel, Rima; Limtao, Jessica; Platonova, Svetlana; Gregorio, Aladino; Luty, Elliot

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate the effects of video gaming, aerobic exercise (biking), and the combination of these two activities on the domains of cognitive performance: selective attention, processing speed, and executive functioning. The study was a randomized clinical trial with 40 subjects (mean age 23.7 ± 1.8 years) randomized to one of four thirty-minute conditions: video gaming, biking, simultaneous gaming and biking, and a control condition. Cognitive performance was measured pre and post condition using the Stroop test and Trails B test. A mixed design was utilized. While video gaming, biking, simultaneous gaming and biking conditions improved selective attention and processing speed (p bike condition improved the highest order of cognitive performance, executive function (p biking and gaming may have surpassed attentional capacity limits, ultimately increasing errors during the executive function tests of our cognitive performance battery. The results suggest that the fatiguing effects of a combined physically and mentally challenging task that extends after the exercise cessation may overcome the eventual beneficial cognitive effects derived from the physical exercise.

  1. Microvascular endothelial function and cognitive performance: The ELSA-Brasil cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brant, Luisa; Bos, Daniel; Araujo, Larissa Fortunato; Ikram, M Arfan; Ribeiro, Antonio Lp; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2018-06-01

    Impaired microvascular endothelial function may be implicated in the etiology of cognitive decline. Yet, current data on this association are inconsistent. Our objective is to investigate the relation of microvascular endothelial function to cognitive performance in the ELSA-Brasil cohort study. A total of 1521 participants from ELSA-Brasil free of dementia underwent peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT) to quantify microvascular endothelial function (PAT-ratio and mean baseline pulse amplitude (BPA)) and cognitive tests that covered the domains of memory, verbal fluency, and executive function at baseline. Cognitive tests in participants aged 55 years old and above were repeated during the second examination (mean follow-up: 3.5 (0.3) years). Linear regression and generalized linear models were used to evaluate the association between endothelial function, global cognitive performance, and performance on specific cognitive domains. In unadjusted cross-sectional analyses, we found that BPA and PAT-ratio were associated with worse global cognitive performance (mean difference for BPA: -0.07, 95% CI: -0.11; -0.03, p<0.01; mean difference for PAT-ratio: 0.11, 95% CI: 0.01; 0.20, p=0.02), worse performance on learning, recall, and word recognition tests (BPA: -0.87, 95% CI: -1.21; -0.52, p<0.01; PAT-ratio: 1.58, 95% CI: 0.80; 2.36, p<0.01), and only BPA was associated with worse performance in verbal fluency tests (-0.70, 95% CI: -1.19; -0.21, p<0.01). Adjustments for age, sex, and level of education rendered the associations statistically non-significant. Longitudinally, there was no association between microvascular endothelial and cognitive functions. The associations between microvascular endothelial function and cognition are explained by age, sex, and educational level. Measures of microvascular endothelial function may be of limited value with regard to preclinical cognitive deficits.

  2. Cognitive Performance in College Women Throughout the Menstrual Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Gustavo Manrique-Abril

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available To determine whether fluctuations of estrogen levels across the menstrual cycle influence cognitive performance, 13 university women between 20 and 23 years old were tested in four cognitive tasks; verbal memory, visuospatial ability, short term memory and visuo-motor coordination, three times across a menstrual cycle. Radioimmunoassay tests were performed in order to determine the hormonal state. Significant differences were not found in visuo-spatial ability and visuo-motor coordination performance, but results suggest a better verbal memory performance associated with high estrogen levels; short term memory performance didn’t show to be sensitive to fluctuations in estrogen levels.

  3. Maximal cardiorespiratory fitness testing in individuals with chronic stroke with cognitive impairment: practice test effects and test-retest reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Charles; Doré, Jean; Blanchet, Sophie; Brooks, Dina; Richards, Carol L; Martel, Guy; Robitaille, Nancy-Michelle; Maltais, Désirée B

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate, for individuals with chronic stroke with cognitive impairment, (1) the effects of a practice test on peak cardiorespiratory fitness test results; (2) cardiorespiratory fitness test-retest reliability; and (3) the relationship between individual practice test effects and cognitive impairment. Cross-sectional. Rehabilitation center. A convenience sample of 21 persons (men [n=12] and women [n=9]; age range, 48-81y; 44.9±36.2mo poststroke) with cognitive impairments who had sufficient lower limb function to perform the test. Not applicable. Peak oxygen consumption (Vo(2)peak, ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)). Test-retest reliability of Vo(2)peak was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient model 2,1 [ICC2,1]=.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], .86-.98). A paired t test showed that there was no significant difference for the group for Vo(2)peak obtained from 2 symptom-limited cardiorespiratory fitness tests performed 1 week apart on a semirecumbent cycle ergometer (test 2-test 1 difference, -.32ml·kg(-1)·min(-1); 95% CI, -.69 to 1.33ml·kg(-1)·min(-1); P=.512). Individual test-retest differences in Vo(2)peak were, however, positively related to general cognitive function as measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination (ρ=.485; Preliably measured in this group without a practice test. General cognitive function, however, may influence the effect of a practice test in that those with lower general cognitive function appear to respond differently to a practice test than those with higher cognitive function. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cognitive test performance following exposure to noise in an open-office simulation study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Søren Peter; Kristiansen, Jesper; Persson, Roger

    each simulated workday, the participants performed different tests, including Choice Reaction Time (CRT) test, Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART) test, and a Two-Back Task (TBT) test. Results: Working in noise did not affect the number of correct trials in the cognitive test after work. Yet......Objective: Noise in open-plan offices may increase mental fatigue of the employees at the end of the day. Measurements: 225 employees completed a screening questionnaire. Of these, 50 persons (33 females) who normally worked in open-plan offices agreed to participate in the experiment. All who...... participated completed two counter balanced experimental sessions, one with exposure to simulation of office noise (Leq=55 dB(A)) and one without noise (Leq=50 dB(A)). To simulate a workday, each session lasted about 7 hours, where the participants engaged in different computerised work tasks. Before and after...

  5. The Effects of Aerobic Exercise and Gaming on Cognitive Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douris Peter C.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our study was to investigate the effects of video gaming, aerobic exercise (biking, and the combination of these two activities on the domains of cognitive performance: selective attention, processing speed, and executive functioning. The study was a randomized clinical trial with 40 subjects (mean age 23.7 ± 1.8 years randomized to one of four thirty-minute conditions: video gaming, biking, simultaneous gaming and biking, and a control condition. Cognitive performance was measured pre and post condition using the Stroop test and Trails B test. A mixed design was utilized. While video gaming, biking, simultaneous gaming and biking conditions improved selective attention and processing speed (p < 0.05, only the bike condition improved the highest order of cognitive performance, executive function (p < 0.01. There were no changes in cognitive performance for the control condition. Previous studies have shown that if tasks approach the limits of attentional capacity there is an increase in the overall chance for errors, known as the dual-task deficit. Simultaneous biking and gaming may have surpassed attentional capacity limits, ultimately increasing errors during the executive function tests of our cognitive performance battery. The results suggest that the fatiguing effects of a combined physically and mentally challenging task that extends after the exercise cessation may overcome the eventual beneficial cognitive effects derived from the physical exercise.

  6. Do Glucose and Caffeine Nasal Sprays Influence Exercise or Cognitive Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pauw, Kevin; Roelands, Bart; Van Cutsem, Jeroen; Decroix, Lieselot; Valente, Angelica; Taehee, Kim; Lettan, Robert B; Carrillo, Andres E; Meeusen, Romain

    2017-10-01

    Nasal spray (NAS) containing caffeine (CAF) or glucose (GLUC) activates sensory(motor) cortices. To investigate the influence of CAF or GLUC NAS on exercise and cognitive performance. Eleven male subjects (age 22 ± 2 y) performed a maximal cycle test and 2 familiarization and 3 experimental trials. Each trial included a 30-s Wingate test and a 30-min time-trial (TT) performance test interspersed by 15 min of rest. Before and after each exercise test a Stroop task was conducted. Placebo NAS with or without CAF or GLUC was provided before each exercise session and at each completed 25% of the TT. Exercise-performance, physiological, and cognitive measures were obtained. Magnitude-based inferences determined the likelihood that NAS solutions would be beneficial, trivial, or negative to exercise-performance measures based on the smallest worthwhile effect. Physiological and cognitive measures were analyzed using (non)parametric tests (P performance enhancements were found for both substances. In addition, no significant differences in physiological and cognitive measures were observed. In line with mouth rinsing, GLUC was shown to substantially enhance endurance performance, probably due to the activation of the olfactory pathway and/or extra-oral sweet-taste receptors. GLUC NAS enhances endurance performance, which indicates a novel administration route. The higher activity in sensory brain cortices probably elicited the ergogenic effect. However, no further physiological and cognitive changes occurred, indicating that higher doses of substrates might be required.

  7. Noncredible cognitive performance at clinical evaluation of adult ADHD: An embedded validity indicator in a visuospatial working memory test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Tucha, Oliver; Koerts, Janneke; Lange, Klaus W; Weisbrod, Matthias; Aschenbrenner, Steffen; Tucha, Lara

    2017-12-01

    The assessment of performance validity is an essential part of the neuropsychological evaluation of adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Most available tools, however, are inaccurate regarding the identification of noncredible performance. This study describes the development of a visuospatial working memory test, including a validity indicator for noncredible cognitive performance of adults with ADHD. Visuospatial working memory of adults with ADHD (n = 48) was first compared to the test performance of healthy individuals (n = 48). Furthermore, a simulation design was performed including 252 individuals who were randomly assigned to either a control group (n = 48) or to 1 of 3 simulation groups who were requested to feign ADHD (n = 204). Additional samples of 27 adults with ADHD and 69 instructed simulators were included to cross-validate findings from the first samples. Adults with ADHD showed impaired visuospatial working memory performance of medium size as compared to healthy individuals. Simulation groups committed significantly more errors and had shorter response times as compared to patients with ADHD. Moreover, binary logistic regression analysis was carried out to derive a validity index that optimally differentiates between true and feigned ADHD. ROC analysis demonstrated high classification rates of the validity index, as shown in excellent specificity (95.8%) and adequate sensitivity (60.3%). The visuospatial working memory test as presented in this study therefore appears sensitive in indicating cognitive impairment of adults with ADHD. Furthermore, the embedded validity index revealed promising results concerning the detection of noncredible cognitive performance of adults with ADHD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. What Does Eye-Blink Rate Variability Dynamics Tell Us About Cognitive Performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafal Paprocki

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive performance is defined as the ability to utilize knowledge, attention, memory, and working memory. In this study, we briefly discuss various markers that have been proposed to predict cognitive performance. Next, we develop a novel approach to characterize cognitive performance by analyzing eye-blink rate variability dynamics. Our findings are based on a sample of 24 subjects. The subjects were given a 5-min resting period prior to a 10-min IQ test. During both stages, eye blinks were recorded from Fp1 and Fp2 electrodes. We found that scale exponents estimated for blink rate variability during rest were correlated with subjects' performance on the subsequent IQ test. This surprising phenomenon could be explained by the person to person variation in concentrations of dopamine in PFC and accumulation of GABA in the visual cortex, as both neurotransmitters play a key role in cognitive processes and affect blinking. This study demonstrates the possibility that blink rate variability dynamics at rest carry information about cognitive performance and can be employed in the assessment of cognitive abilities without taking a test.

  9. Night shift decreases cognitive performance of ICU physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltese, François; Adda, Mélanie; Bablon, Amandine; Hraeich, Sami; Guervilly, Christophe; Lehingue, Samuel; Wiramus, Sandrine; Leone, Marc; Martin, Claude; Vialet, Renaud; Thirion, Xavier; Roch, Antoine; Forel, Jean-Marie; Papazian, Laurent

    2016-03-01

    The relationship between tiredness and the risk of medical errors is now commonly accepted. The main objective of this study was to assess the impact of an intensive care unit (ICU) night shift on the cognitive performance of a group of intensivists. The influence of professional experience and the amount of sleep on cognitive performance was also investigated. A total of 51 intensivists from three ICUs (24 seniors and 27 residents) were included. The study participants were evaluated after a night of rest and after a night shift according to a randomized order. Four cognitive skills were tested according to the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. All cognitive abilities worsened after a night shift: working memory capacity (11.3 ± 0.3 vs. 9.4 ± 0.3; p night shift. The cognitive abilities of intensivists were significantly altered following a night shift in the ICU, regardless of either the amount of professional experience or the duration of sleep during the shift. The consequences for patients' safety and physicians' health should be further evaluated.

  10. Cognitive Determinants of Academic Performance in Nigerian Pharmacy Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansgiry, Sujit S.; Ukwe, Chinwe V.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate cognitive factors that might influence academic performance of students in Nigerian pharmacy schools. Methods. A cross-sectional, multi-center survey of Nigerian pharmacy students from 7 schools of pharmacy was conducted using 2 validated questionnaires measuring cognitive constructs such as test anxiety, academic competence, test competence, time management, and strategic study habits. Results. Female students and older students scored significantly better on time management skills and study habits, respectively. Test anxiety was negatively associated with academic performance while test competence, academic competence, and time management were positively associated with academic performance. These 4 constructs significantly discriminated between the lower and higher performing students, with the first 2 contributing to the most differences. Conclusion. Test and academic competence, test anxiety, and time management were significant factors associated with low and high academic performance among Nigerian pharmacy students. The study also demonstrated the significant effects of age, gender, and marital status on these constructs. PMID:27168614

  11. Cognitive Determinants of Academic Performance in Nigerian Pharmacy Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubaka, Chukwuemeka M; Sansgiry, Sujit S; Ukwe, Chinwe V

    2015-09-25

    Objective. To evaluate cognitive factors that might influence academic performance of students in Nigerian pharmacy schools. Methods. A cross-sectional, multi-center survey of Nigerian pharmacy students from 7 schools of pharmacy was conducted using 2 validated questionnaires measuring cognitive constructs such as test anxiety, academic competence, test competence, time management, and strategic study habits. Results. Female students and older students scored significantly better on time management skills and study habits, respectively. Test anxiety was negatively associated with academic performance while test competence, academic competence, and time management were positively associated with academic performance. These 4 constructs significantly discriminated between the lower and higher performing students, with the first 2 contributing to the most differences. Conclusion. Test and academic competence, test anxiety, and time management were significant factors associated with low and high academic performance among Nigerian pharmacy students. The study also demonstrated the significant effects of age, gender, and marital status on these constructs.

  12. How Does Exercise Benefit Performance on Cognitive Tests in Primary-School Pupils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Liam J. B.; Williams, Justin H. G.; Aucott, Lorna; Thomson, Jenny; Mon-Williams, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Aim: We have previously demonstrated improved cognitive performance after a classroom-based exercise regime. In this study, we examined the reproducibility of this effect in a more socio-economically diverse sample and also investigated whether cognitive benefits of exercise were moderated by body mass index (BMI) or symptoms of…

  13. Education plays a greater role than age in cognitive test performance among participants of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azeredo Passos, Valéria Maria; Giatti, Luana; Bensenor, Isabela; Tiemeier, Henning; Ikram, M Arfan; de Figueiredo, Roberta Carvalho; Chor, Dora; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2015-10-09

    Brazil has gone through fast demographic, epidemiologic and nutritional transitions and, despite recent improvements in wealth distribution, continues to present a high level of social and economic inequality. The ELSA-Brasil, a cohort study, aimed at investigating cardiovascular diseases and diabetes, offers a great opportunity to assess cognitive decline in this aging population through time-sequential analyses drawn from the same battery of tests over time. The purpose of this study is to analyze the influence of sex, age and education on cognitive tests performance of the participants at baseline. Analyses pertain to 14,594 participants with aged 35 to 74 years, who were functionally independent and had no history of stroke or use of neuroleptics, anticonvulsants, cholinesterase inhibitors or antiparkinsonian agents. Mean age was 52.0 ± 9.0 years and 54.2% of participants were women. Cognitive tests included the word memory tests (retention, recall and recognition), verbal fluency tests (VFT, animals and letter F) and Trail Making Test B. Multivariable linear regression analysis was used to determine the influence of sociodemographic characteristics on the distribution of the final score of each test. Women had significant and slightly higher scores than men in all memory tests and VFT, but took more time to perform Trail B. Reduced performance in all tests was seen with an increase age and, more importantly, with decrease level of education. The word list and VFT scores decreased at about one word for every 10 years of age; whereas higher-educated participants scored four words more on the word list test, and six or seven more correct words on VFT, when compared to lower-educated participants. Additionally, the oldest and less educated participants showed significant lower response rates in all tests. The higher influence of education than age in this Brazilian population reinforce the need for caution in analyzing and diagnosing cognitive impairments based

  14. Validity of the Symbol Digit Modalities Test as a cognition performance outcome measure for multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Ralph Hb; DeLuca, John; Phillips, Glenn; LaRocca, Nicholas; Hudson, Lynn D; Rudick, Richard

    2017-04-01

    Cognitive and motor performance measures are commonly employed in multiple sclerosis (MS) research, particularly when the purpose is to determine the efficacy of treatment. The increasing focus of new therapies on slowing progression or reversing neurological disability makes the utilization of sensitive, reproducible, and valid measures essential. Processing speed is a basic elemental cognitive function that likely influences downstream processes such as memory. The Multiple Sclerosis Outcome Assessments Consortium (MSOAC) includes representatives from advocacy organizations, Food and Drug Administration (FDA), European Medicines Agency (EMA), National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), academic institutions, and industry partners along with persons living with MS. Among the MSOAC goals is acceptance and qualification by regulators of performance outcomes that are highly reliable and valid, practical, cost-effective, and meaningful to persons with MS. A critical step for these neuroperformance metrics is elucidation of clinically relevant benchmarks, well-defined degrees of disability, and gradients of change that are deemed clinically meaningful. This topical review provides an overview of research on one particular cognitive measure, the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), recognized as being particularly sensitive to slowed processing of information that is commonly seen in MS. The research in MS clearly supports the reliability and validity of this test and recently has supported a responder definition of SDMT change approximating 4 points or 10% in magnitude.

  15. Performances on a cognitive theory of mind task: specific decline or general cognitive deficits? Evidence from normal aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliss, Rafika; Lemerre, Marion; Mollard, Audrey

    2016-06-01

    Compromised theory of mind (ToM) can be explained either by a failure to implement specific representational capacities (mental state representations) or by more general executive selection demands. In older adult populations, evidence supporting affected executive functioning and cognitive ToM in normal aging are reported. However, links between these two functions remain unclear. In the present paper, we address these shortcomings by using a specific task of ToM and classical executive tasks. We studied, using an original cognitive ToM task, the effect of age on ToM performances, in link with the progressive executive decline. 96 elderly participants were recruited. They were asked to perform a cognitive ToM task, and 5 executive tests (Stroop test and Hayling Sentence Completion Test to appreciate inhibitory process, Trail Making Test and Verbal Fluency for shifting assessment and backward span dedicated to estimate working memory capacity). The results show changes in cognitive ToM performance according to executive demands. Correlational studies indicate a significant relationship between ToM performance and the selected executive measures. Regression analyzes demonstrates that level of vocabulary and age as the best predictors of ToM performance. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that ToM deficits are related to age-related domain-general decline rather than as to a breakdown in specialized representational system. The implications of these findings for the nature of social cognition tests in normal aging are also discussed.

  16. Associations between physical function, dual-task performance and cognition in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobol, Nanna Aue; Hoffmann, Kristine; Vogel, Asmus; Lolk, Annette; Gottrup, Hanne; Høgh, Peter; Hasselbalch, Steen G; Beyer, Nina

    2016-11-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) causes a gradual decline in cognition, limitations of dual-tasking and physical function leading to total dependence. Hence, information about the interaction between physical function, dual-task performance and cognition may lead to new treatment strategies with the purpose of preserving function and quality of life. The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between physical function, dual-task performance and cognition in community-dwelling patients with mild AD. Baseline results from 185 participants (50-90 years old) in the single blinded multicenter RCT 'ADEX' (Alzheimer's disease: the effect of physical exercise) were used. Assessments included tests of physical function: 400-m walk test, 10-m walk test, Timed Up and Go test and 30-s chair stand test; dual-task performance, i.e., 10-m walk while counting backwards from 50 or naming the months backwards; and cognition, i.e., Mini Mental State Examination, Symbol Digit Modalities Test, the Stroop Color and Word Test, and Lexical verbal fluency test. Results in the 30-s chair stand test correlated significantly with all tests of cognition (r = .208-.242) while the other physical function tests only randomly correlated with tests of cognition. Results in the dual-task counting backwards correlated significantly with results in all tests of cognition (r = .259-.388), which accounted for 7%-15% of the variation indicating that a faster time to complete dual-task performance was associated with better cognitive performance. The evidence of the associations between physical function, dual-task performance and cognition is important when creating new rehabilitation interventions to patients with mild AD.

  17. Computerised working memory based cognitive remediation therapy does not affect Reading the Mind in the Eyes test performance or neural activity during a Facial Emotion Recognition test in psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothersill, David; Dillon, Rachael; Hargreaves, April; Castorina, Marco; Furey, Emilia; Fagan, Andrew J; Meaney, James F; Fitzmaurice, Brian; Hallahan, Brian; McDonald, Colm; Wykes, Til; Corvin, Aiden; Robertson, Ian H; Donohoe, Gary

    2018-05-27

    Working memory based cognitive remediation therapy (CT) for psychosis has recently been associated with broad improvements in performance on untrained tasks measuring working memory, episodic memory and IQ, and changes in associated brain regions. However, it is unclear if these improvements transfer to the domain of social cognition and neural activity related to performance on social cognitive tasks. We examined performance on the Reading the Mind in the Eyes test (Eyes test) in a large sample of participants with psychosis who underwent working memory based CT (N = 43) compared to a Control Group of participants with psychosis (N = 35). In a subset of this sample, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine changes in neural activity during a facial emotion recognition task in participants who underwent CT (N = 15) compared to a Control Group (N = 15). No significant effects of CT were observed on Eyes test performance or on neural activity during facial emotion recognition, either at pworking memory based CT does not significantly impact an aspect of social cognition which was measured behaviourally and neurally. It provides further evidence that deficits in the ability to decode mental state from facial expressions are dissociable from working memory deficits, and suggests that future CT programs should target social cognition in addition to working memory for the purposes of further enhancing social function. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Explicit versus Implicit Social Cognition Testing in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callenmark, Björn; Kjellin, Lars; Rönnqvist, Louise; Bölte, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Although autism spectrum disorder is defined by reciprocal social-communication impairments, several studies have found no evidence for altered social cognition test performance. This study examined explicit (i.e. prompted) and implicit (i.e. spontaneous) variants of social cognition testing in autism spectrum disorder. A sample of 19 adolescents…

  19. Effects of Sleep Deprivation on the Cognitive Performance of Nurses Working in Shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliyaperumal, Deepalakshmi; Elango, Yaal; Alagesan, Murali; Santhanakrishanan, Iswarya

    2017-08-01

    Sleep deprivation and altered circadian rhythm affects the cognitive performance of an individual. Quality of sleep is compromised in those who are frequently involved in extended working hours and shift work which is found to be more common among nurses. Cognitive impairment leads to fatigability, decline in attention and efficiency in their workplace which puts their health and patients' health at risk. To find out the prevalence of sleep deprivation and its impact on cognition among shift working nurses. Sleep deprivation among 97 female and three male healthy nurses of age 20-50 years was assessed by Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS). Cognition was assessed by Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) questionnaire. Mobile applications were used to test their vigilance, reaction time, photographic memory and numerical cognition. The above said parameters were assessed during end of day shift and 3-4 days after start of night shift. Poor sleep quality was observed among 69% of shift working nurses according to ESS scores. The cognitive performance was analysed using Wilcoxon signed rank test. The MoCA score was found to be lesser among 66% of nurses during night (25.72) than day (26.81). During the night, 32% made more mathematical errors. It was also found that, 71%, 83% and 68% of the nurses scored lesser during night in the Stroop's colour test, vigilance test and memory tests respectively. Thus, impairment in cognitive performance was statistically significant (pworking nurses. Cognitive performance was found to be impaired among shift working nurses, due to poor sleep quality and decreased alertness during wake state. Thus, shift work poses significant cognitive risks in work performance of nurses.

  20. Relationship between Age Cognitive Decline and Performance of Cognitive Motor Tasks in Seniors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Mudrák

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Relationship between Age Cognitive Decline and Performance of Cognitive Motor Tasks in Seniors Relationship between the age-related cognitive decline and decline in cognitive processing speed, in a variety of cognitive motor tasks was examined. The sample consisted of 33 well-adjusted older adults (on average 68 years old, recruited from several physical activity programs. The participants performed five cognitive tests selected from the Vienna test system battery. Subsequently, the relationship of their age and the measures of cognitive function was analyzed. It was found that the age of respondents was related only to their performance in complex tasks which included a processing speed component. The participant’s performance in simple tasks and in measures unaffected by processing speed was unrelated to age. Results are consistent with the processing speed theory of adult age differences in cognition (Salthouse, 1996. Furthermore, the performance in complex cognitive tasks was influenced by the level of participation in leisure physical activities; this suggests that physically active lifestyle may limit the impact of age on cognitive function. Stárnutí a rychlost zpracování kognitivních funkcí V předkládáné studii se zabýváme některými aspekty věkem podmíněného úbytku kognitivních funkcí. Konkrétně zkoumáme předpoklady vycházející z teorie rychlosti zpracování (Salthouse, 1996 týkající se toho, že věkem podmíněný pokles kognitivních funkcí je dán především poklesem rychlosti kognitivních procesů, což se projevuje především u komplexních kognitivních úkolů. Vzorek v naší studii se skládal z 33 seniorů a seniorek (průměrný věk byl 68 let, které jsme oslovili prostřednictvím několika programů pro seniory. Respondenti byli testováni prostřednictvím pěti testů kognitivních funkcí, které jsme vybrali z testové baterie Vienna test systém. Následně jsme analyzovali

  1. Resting-state slow wave power, healthy aging and cognitive performance

    OpenAIRE

    Eleni L. Vlahou; Franka Thurm; Iris-Tatjana Kolassa; Winfried Schlee

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive functions and spontaneous neural activity show significant changes over the life-span, but the interrelations between age, cognition and resting-state brain oscillations are not well understood. Here, we assessed performance on the Trail Making Test and resting-state magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recordings from 53 healthy adults (18–89 years old) to investigate associations between age-dependent changes in spontaneous oscillatory activity and cognitive performance. Results show tha...

  2. Reliability and validity of the revised Gibson Test of Cognitive Skills, a computer-based test battery for assessing cognition across the lifespan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moore AL

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Amy Lawson Moore, Terissa M Miller Gibson Institute of Cognitive Research, Colorado Springs, CO, USA Purpose: The purpose of the current study is to evaluate the validity and reliability of the revised Gibson Test of Cognitive Skills, a computer-based battery of tests measuring short-term memory, long-term memory, processing speed, logic and reasoning, visual processing, as well as auditory processing and word attack skills.Methods: This study included 2,737 participants aged 5–85 years. A series of studies was conducted to examine the validity and reliability using the test performance of the entire norming group and several subgroups. The evaluation of the technical properties of the test battery included content validation by subject matter experts, item analysis and coefficient alpha, test–retest reliability, split-half reliability, and analysis of concurrent validity with the Woodcock Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities and Tests of Achievement.Results: Results indicated strong sources of evidence of validity and reliability for the test, including internal consistency reliability coefficients ranging from 0.87 to 0.98, test–retest reliability coefficients ranging from 0.69 to 0.91, split-half reliability coefficients ranging from 0.87 to 0.91, and concurrent validity coefficients ranging from 0.53 to 0.93.Conclusion: The Gibson Test of Cognitive Skills-2 is a reliable and valid tool for assessing cognition in the general population across the lifespan. Keywords: testing, cognitive skills, memory, processing speed, visual processing, auditory processing

  3. Computer-aided cognitive rehabilitation improves cognitive performances and induces brain functional connectivity changes in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis patients: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonavita, S; Sacco, R; Della Corte, M; Esposito, S; Sparaco, M; d'Ambrosio, A; Docimo, R; Bisecco, A; Lavorgna, L; Corbo, D; Cirillo, S; Gallo, A; Esposito, F; Tedeschi, G

    2015-01-01

    To better understand the effects of short-term computer-based cognitive rehabilitation (cCR) on cognitive performances and default mode network (DMN) intrinsic functional connectivity (FC) in cognitively impaired relapsing remitting (RR) multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Eighteen cognitively impaired RRMS patients underwent neuropsychological evaluation by the Rao's brief repeatable battery and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate FC of the DMN before and after a short-term (8 weeks, twice a week) cCR. A control group of 14 cognitively impaired RRMS patients was assigned to an aspecific cognitive training (aCT), and underwent the same study protocol. Correlations between DMN and cognitive performances were also tested. After cCR, there was a significant improvement of the following tests: SDMT (p Color-Word Interference Test and FC in the PCC emerged. After aCT, the control group did not show any significant effect either on FC or neuropsychological tests. No significant differences were found in brain volumes and lesion load in both groups when comparing data acquired at baseline and after cCR or aCT. In cognitively impaired RRMS patients, cCR improves cognitive performances (i.e., processing speed and visual and verbal sustained memory), and increases FC in the PCC and IPC of the DMN. This exploratory study suggests that cCR may induce adaptive cortical reorganization favoring better cognitive performances, thus strengthening the value of cognitive exercise in the general perspective of building either cognitive or brain reserve.

  4. Cognitive function affects trainability for physical performance in exercise intervention among older adults with mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Kazuki; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Makizako, Hyuma; Doi, Takehiko; Yoshida, Daisuke; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Anan, Yuya; Suzuki, Takao

    2013-01-01

    Although much evidence supports the hypothesis that cognitive function and physical function are interrelated, it is unclear whether cognitive decline with mild cognitive impairment influences trainability of physical performance in exercise intervention. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between cognitive function at baseline and change in physical performance after exercise intervention in older adults with mild cognitive impairment. Forty-four older adults diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment based on the Peterson criteria (mean age 74.8 years) consented to and completed a 6-month twice weekly exercise intervention. The Timed Up and Go (TUG) test was used as a measure of physical performance. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Trail Making Test Part B, Geriatric Depression Scale, baseline muscle strength of knee extension, and attendance rate of intervention, were measured as factors for predicting trainability. In the correlation analysis, the change in TUG showed modest correlations with attendance rate in the exercise program (r = -0.354, P = 0.027) and MMSE at baseline (r = -0.321, P = 0.034). A multiple regression analysis revealed that change in TUG was independently associated with attendance rate (β = -0.322, P = 0.026) and MMSE score (β = -0.295, P = 0.041), controlling for age and gender. General cognitive function was associated with improvements in physical performance after exercise intervention in subjects with mild cognitive impairment. Further research is needed to examine the effects of exercise programs designed to address cognitive obstacles in older adults with mild cognitive impairment.

  5. The Effects of Maximal Intensity Exercise on Cognitive Performance in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Roy David

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available High intensity physical exercise has previously been found to lead to a decline in cognitive performance of adults. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of maximal intensity exercise on cognitive performance of children. Using a repeated-measures design, 20 children and adolescents aged 8-17 years completed a battery of tests measuring memory and attention. Forward and Backward Digit Span tests, the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT and the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST were performed at baseline, immediately after, and one hour after a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test. Forward and Backward Digit Span scores significantly improved post-recovery compared with baseline measurements. There was a significant decrease in RAVLT scores post-exercise, which returned to baseline values after recovery. The DSST test scores were mildly elevated from post-exercise to after recovery. Maximal intensity exercise in children and adolescents may result in both beneficial and detrimental cognitive effects, including transient impairment in verbal learning. Cognitive functions applying short term memory improve following a recovery period. Parents, educators and coaches should consider these changes in memory and attention following high-intensity exercise activities in children.

  6. Cognitive correlates of performance in advanced mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Yuan, Hongbo; Chen, Chuansheng; Zhou, Xinlin

    2012-03-01

    Much research has been devoted to understanding cognitive correlates of elementary mathematics performance, but little such research has been done for advanced mathematics (e.g., modern algebra, statistics, and mathematical logic). To promote mathematical knowledge among college students, it is necessary to understand what factors (including cognitive factors) are important for acquiring advanced mathematics. We recruited 80 undergraduates from four universities in Beijing. The current study investigated the associations between students' performance on a test of advanced mathematics and a battery of 17 cognitive tasks on basic numerical processing, complex numerical processing, spatial abilities, language abilities, and general cognitive processing. The results showed that spatial abilities were significantly correlated with performance in advanced mathematics after controlling for other factors. In addition, certain language abilities (i.e., comprehension of words and sentences) also made unique contributions. In contrast, basic numerical processing and computation were generally not correlated with performance in advanced mathematics. Results suggest that spatial abilities and language comprehension, but not basic numerical processing, may play an important role in advanced mathematics. These results are discussed in terms of their theoretical significance and practical implications. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  7. Does sleep deprivation impair orthopaedic surgeons' cognitive and psychomotor performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Michael J; O'Toole, Robert V; Newell, Mary Zadnik; Lydecker, Alison D; Nascone, Jason; Sciadini, Marcus; Pollak, Andrew; Turen, Clifford; Eglseder, W Andrew

    2012-11-07

    Sleep deprivation may slow reaction time, cloud judgment, and impair the ability to think. Our purpose was to study the cognitive and psychomotor performances of orthopaedic trauma surgeons on the basis of the amount of sleep that they obtained. We prospectively studied the performances of thirty-two orthopaedic trauma surgeons (residents, fellows, and attending surgeons) over two four-week periods at an urban academic trauma center. Testing sessions used handheld computers to administer validated cognitive and psychomotor function tests. We conducted a multivariate analysis to examine the independent association between test performance and multiple covariates, including the amount of sleep the night before testing. Our analysis demonstrated that orthopaedic surgeons who had slept four hours or less the night before the test had 1.43 times the odds (95% confidence interval, 1.04 to 1.95; p = 0.03) of committing at least one error on an individual test compared with orthopaedic surgeons who had slept more than four hours the previous night. The Running Memory test, which assesses sustained attention, concentration, and working memory, was most sensitive to deterioration in performance in participants who had had four hours of sleep or less; when controlling for other covariates, the test demonstrated a 72% increase in the odds of making at least one error (odds ratio, 1.72 [95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 2.90]; p = 0.04). No significant decrease in performance with sleep deprivation was shown with the other three tests. Orthopaedic trauma surgeons showed deterioration in performance on a validated cognitive task when they had slept four hours or less the previous night. It is unknown how performance on this test relates to surgical performance.

  8. Motivated to do well: an examination of the relationships between motivation, effort, and cognitive performance in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foussias, G; Siddiqui, I; Fervaha, G; Mann, S; McDonald, K; Agid, O; Zakzanis, K K; Remington, G

    2015-08-01

    The uncertain relationship between negative symptoms, and specifically motivational deficits, with cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia is in need of further elucidation as it pertains to the interpretation of cognitive test results. Findings to date have suggested a possible mediating role of motivational deficits on cognitive test measures, although findings from formal examinations of effort using performance validity measures have been inconsistent. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between motivation, effort exerted during cognitive testing, and cognitive performance in schizophrenia. Sixty-nine outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were evaluated for psychopathology, severity of motivational deficits, effort exerted during cognitive testing, and cognitive performance. Motivation and degree of effort exerted during cognitive testing were significantly related to cognitive performance, specifically verbal fluency, verbal and working memory, attention and processing speed, and reasoning and problem solving. Further, effort accounted for 15% of the variance in cognitive performance, and partially mediated the relationship between motivation and cognitive performance. Examining cognitive performance profiles for individuals exerting normal or reduced effort revealed significant differences in global cognition, as well as attention/processing speed and reasoning and problem solving. These findings suggest that cognitive domains may be differentially affected by impairments in motivation and effort, and highlight the importance of understanding the interplay between motivation and cognitive performance deficits, which may guide the appropriate selection of symptom targets for promoting recovery in patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of alternating postures on cognitive performance for healthy people performing sedentary work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Bernhard; Kapellusch, Jay M; Schrempf, Andreas; Probst, Kathrin; Haller, Michael; Baca, Arnold

    2018-06-01

    Prolonged sitting is a risk factor for several diseases and the prevalence of worksite-based interventions such as sit-to-stand workstations is increasing. Although their impact on sedentary behaviour has been regularly investigated, the effect of working in alternating body postures on cognitive performance is unclear. To address this uncertainty, 45 students participated in a two-arm, randomised controlled cross-over trial under laboratory conditions. Subjects executed validated cognitive tests (working speed, reaction time, concentration performance) either in sitting or alternating working postures on two separate days (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02863731). MANOVA results showed no significant difference in cognitive performance between trials executed in alternating, standing or sitting postures. Perceived workload did not differ between sitting and alternating days. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant learning effects regarding concentration performance and working speed for both days. These results suggest that working posture did not affect cognitive performance in the short term. Practitioner Summary: Prior reports indicated health-related benefits based on alternated (sit/stand) body postures. Nevertheless, their effect on cognitive performance is unknown. This randomised controlled trial showed that working in alternating body postures did not influence reaction time, concentration performance, working speed or workload perception in the short term.

  10. Exposure to Music and Cognitive Performance: Tests of Children and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Nakata, Takayuki; Hunter, Patrick G.; Tamoto, Sachiko

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on two experiments of exposure to music and cognitive performance. In Experiment 1, Canadian undergraduates performed better on an IQ subtest (Symbol Search) after listening to an up-tempo piece of music composed by Mozart in comparison to a slow piece by Albinoni. The effect was evident, however, only when the two pieces also…

  11. Emotional exhaustion and cognitive performance in apparently healthy teachers: a longitudinal multi-source study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerhahn, Nicolas; Stamov-Roßnagel, Christian; Wolfram, Maren; Bellingrath, Silja; Kudielka, Brigitte M

    2013-10-01

    We investigate how emotional exhaustion (EE), the core component of burnout, relates to cognitive performance, job performance and health. Cognitive performance was assessed by self-rated cognitive stress symptoms, self-rated and peer-rated cognitive impairments in everyday tasks and a neuropsychological test of learning and memory (LGT-3); job performance and physical health were gauged by self-reports. Cross-sectional linear regression analyses in a sample of 100 teachers confirm that EE is negatively related to cognitive performance as assessed by self-rating and peer-rating as well as neuropsychological testing (all p Longitudinal linear regression analyses confirm similar trends (p longitudinal analyses, EE also significantly predicts physical health. Contrary to our expectations, EE does not affect job performance. When reversed causation is tested, none of the outcome variables at Time 1 predict EE at Time 2. This speaks against cognitive dysfunctioning serving as a vulnerability factor for exhaustion. In sum, results underpin the negative consequences of EE for cognitive performance and health, which are relevant for individuals and organizations alike. In this way, findings might contribute to the understanding of the burnout syndrome. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Screening for cognitive dysfunction in Huntington's disease with the clock drawing test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terwindt, Paul W; Hubers, Anna A M; Giltay, Erik J; van der Mast, Rose C; van Duijn, Erik

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the performance of the clock drawing test as a screening tool for cognitive impairment in Huntington's disease (HD) mutation carriers. The performance of the clock drawing test was assessed in 65 mutation carriers using the Shulman and the Freund scoring systems. The mini-mental state examination, the Symbol Digit Modalities Test, the Verbal Fluency Test, and the Stroop tests were used as comparisons for the evaluation of cognitive functioning. Correlations of the clock drawing test with various cognitive tests (convergent validity), neuropsychiatric characteristics (divergent validity) and clinical characteristics were analysed using the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Receiver-operator characteristic analyses were performed for the clock drawing test against both the mini-mental state examination and against a composite variable for executive cognitive functioning to assess optimal cut-off scores. Inter-rater reliability was high for both the Shulman and Freund scoring systems (ICC = 0.95 and ICC = 0.90 respectively). The clock drawing tests showed moderate to high correlations with the composite variable for executive cognitive functioning (mean ρ = 0.75) and weaker correlations with the mini-mental state examination (mean ρ = 0.62). Mean sensitivity of the clock drawing tests was 0.82 and mean specificity was 0.79, whereas the mean positive predictive value was 0.66 and the mean negative predictive value was 0.87. The clock drawing test is a suitable screening instrument for cognitive dysfunction in HD, because it was shown to be accurate, particularly so with respect to executive cognitive functioning, and is easy and quick to use. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Association between unsafe driving performance and cognitive-perceptual dysfunction in older drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Si-Woon; Choi, Eun Seok; Lim, Mun Hee; Kim, Eun Joo; Hwang, Sung Il; Choi, Kyung-In; Yoo, Hyun-Chul; Lee, Kuem Ju; Jung, Hi-Eun

    2011-03-01

    To find an association between cognitive-perceptual problems of older drivers and unsafe driving performance during simulated automobile driving in a virtual environment. Cross-sectional study. A driver evaluation clinic in a rehabilitation hospital. Fifty-five drivers aged 65 years or older and 48 drivers in their late twenties to early forties. All participants underwent evaluation of cognitive-perceptual function and driving performance, and the results were compared between older and younger drivers. The association between cognitive-perceptual function and driving performance was analyzed. Cognitive-perceptual function was evaluated with the Cognitive Perceptual Assessment for Driving (CPAD), a computer-based assessment tool consisting of depth perception, sustained attention, divided attention, the Stroop test, the digit span test, field dependency, and trail-making test A and B. Driving performance was evaluated with use of a virtual reality-based driving simulator. During simulated driving, car crashes were recorded, and an occupational therapist observed unsafe performances in controlling speed, braking, steering, vehicle positioning, making lane changes, and making turns. Thirty-five older drivers did not pass the CPAD test, whereas all of the younger drivers passed the test. When using the driving simulator, a significantly greater number of older drivers experienced car crashes and demonstrated unsafe performance in controlling speed, steering, and making lane changes. CPAD results were associated with car crashes, steering, vehicle positioning, and making lane changes. Older drivers who did not pass the CPAD test are 4 times more likely to experience a car crash, 3.5 times more likely to make errors in steering, 2.8 times more likely to make errors in vehicle positioning, and 6.5 times more likely to make errors in lane changes than are drivers who passed the CPAD test. Unsafe driving performance and car crashes during simulated driving were more

  14. Impact of Educational Level on Performance on Auditory Processing Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Cristina F B; Rabelo, Camila M; Silagi, Marcela L; Mansur, Letícia L; Schochat, Eliane

    2016-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that a higher level of education is associated with better performance on cognitive tests among middle-aged and elderly people. However, the effects of education on auditory processing skills have not yet been evaluated. Previous demonstrations of sensory-cognitive interactions in the aging process indicate the potential importance of this topic. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to investigate the performance of middle-aged and elderly people with different levels of formal education on auditory processing tests. A total of 177 adults with no evidence of cognitive, psychological or neurological conditions took part in the research. The participants completed a series of auditory assessments, including dichotic digit, frequency pattern and speech-in-noise tests. A working memory test was also performed to investigate the extent to which auditory processing and cognitive performance were associated. The results demonstrated positive but weak correlations between years of schooling and performance on all of the tests applied. The factor "years of schooling" was also one of the best predictors of frequency pattern and speech-in-noise test performance. Additionally, performance on the working memory, frequency pattern and dichotic digit tests was also correlated, suggesting that the influence of educational level on auditory processing performance might be associated with the cognitive demand of the auditory processing tests rather than auditory sensory aspects itself. Longitudinal research is required to investigate the causal relationship between educational level and auditory processing skills.

  15. Cognitive performance modeling based on general systems performance theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondraske, George V

    2010-01-01

    General Systems Performance Theory (GSPT) was initially motivated by problems associated with quantifying different aspects of human performance. It has proved to be invaluable for measurement development and understanding quantitative relationships between human subsystem capacities and performance in complex tasks. It is now desired to bring focus to the application of GSPT to modeling of cognitive system performance. Previous studies involving two complex tasks (i.e., driving and performing laparoscopic surgery) and incorporating measures that are clearly related to cognitive performance (information processing speed and short-term memory capacity) were revisited. A GSPT-derived method of task analysis and performance prediction termed Nonlinear Causal Resource Analysis (NCRA) was employed to determine the demand on basic cognitive performance resources required to support different levels of complex task performance. This approach is presented as a means to determine a cognitive workload profile and the subsequent computation of a single number measure of cognitive workload (CW). Computation of CW may be a viable alternative to measuring it. Various possible "more basic" performance resources that contribute to cognitive system performance are discussed. It is concluded from this preliminary exploration that a GSPT-based approach can contribute to defining cognitive performance models that are useful for both individual subjects and specific groups (e.g., military pilots).

  16. Cognitive function affects trainability for physical performance in exercise intervention among older adults with mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uemura K

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Kazuki Uemura,1,3 Hiroyuki Shimada,1 Hyuma Makizako,1,3 Takehiko Doi,1 Daisuke Yoshida,1 Kota Tsutsumimoto,1 Yuya Anan,1 Takao Suzuki21Section for Health Promotion, Department for Research and Development to Support Independent Life of Elderly, Center for Gerontology and Social Science, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, 2Research Institute, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Aichi, 3Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo, JapanBackground: Although much evidence supports the hypothesis that cognitive function and physical function are interrelated, it is unclear whether cognitive decline with mild cognitive impairment influences trainability of physical performance in exercise intervention. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between cognitive function at baseline and change in physical performance after exercise intervention in older adults with mild cognitive impairment.Methods: Forty-four older adults diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment based on the Peterson criteria (mean age 74.8 years consented to and completed a 6-month twice weekly exercise intervention. The Timed Up and Go (TUG test was used as a measure of physical performance. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, Trail Making Test Part B, Geriatric Depression Scale, baseline muscle strength of knee extension, and attendance rate of intervention, were measured as factors for predicting trainability.Results: In the correlation analysis, the change in TUG showed modest correlations with attendance rate in the exercise program (r = -0.354, P = 0.027 and MMSE at baseline (r = -0.321, P = 0.034. A multiple regression analysis revealed that change in TUG was independently associated with attendance rate (ß = -0.322, P = 0.026 and MMSE score (ß = -0.295, P = 0.041, controlling for age and gender.Conclusion: General cognitive function was associated with improvements in physical performance after exercise intervention in

  17. Have Standard Tests of Cognitive Function Been Misappropriated in the Study of Cognitive Enhancement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iseult A. Cremen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, there has emerged a vast research literature dealing with attempts to harness brain plasticity in older adults, with a view to improving cognitive function. Since cognitive training (CT has shown restricted utility in this regard, attention has increasingly turned to interventions that use adjunct procedures such as motor training or physical activity (PA. As evidence builds that these have some efficacy, it becomes necessary to ensure that the outcome measures being used to infer causal influence upon cognitive function are subjected to appropriate critical appraisal. It has been highlighted previously that the choice of specific tasks used to demonstrate transfer to the cognitive domain is of critical importance. In the context of most intervention studies, standardized tests and batteries of cognitive function are de rigueur. The argument presented here is that the latent constructs to which these tests relate are not usually subject to a sufficient level of analytic scrutiny. We present the historical origins of some exemplar tests, and give particular consideration to the limits on explanatory scope that are implied by their composition and the nature of their deployment. In addition to surveying the validity of these tests when used to appraise intervention-related changes in cognitive function, we also consider their neurophysiological correlates. In particular, we argue that the broadly distributed brain activity associated with the performance of many tests of cognitive function, extending to the classical motor networks, permits the impact of interventions based on motor training or PA to be better understood.

  18. Gait and Cognition in Parkinson’s Disease: Cognitive Impairment Is Inadequately Reflected by Gait Performance during Dual Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiko Gaßner

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionCognitive and gait deficits are common symptoms in Parkinson’s disease (PD. Motor-cognitive dual tasks (DTs are used to explore the interplay between gait and cognition. However, it is unclear if DT gait performance is indicative for cognitive impairment. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate if cognitive deficits are reflected by DT costs of spatiotemporal gait parameters.MethodsCognitive function, single task (ST and DT gait performance were investigated in 67 PD patients. Cognition was assessed by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA followed by a standardized, sensor-based gait test and the identical gait test while subtracting serial 3’s. Cognitive impairment was defined by a MoCA score <26. DT costs in gait parameters [(DT − ST/ST × 100] were calculated as a measure of DT effect on gait. Correlation analysis was used to evaluate the association between MoCA performance and gait parameters. In a linear regression model, DT gait costs and clinical confounders (age, gender, disease duration, motor impairment, medication, and depression were correlated to cognitive performance. In a subgroup analysis, we compared matched groups of cognitively impaired and unimpaired PD patients regarding differences in ST, DT, and DT gait costs.ResultsCorrelation analysis revealed weak correlations between MoCA score and DT costs of gait parameters (r/rSp ≤ 0.3. DT costs of stride length, swing time variability, and maximum toe clearance (|r/rSp| > 0.2 were included in a regression analysis. The parameters only explain 8% of the cognitive variance. In combination with clinical confounders, regression analysis showed that these gait parameters explained 30% of MoCA performance. Group comparison revealed strong DT effects within both groups (large effect sizes, but significant between-group effects in DT gait costs were not observed.ConclusionThese findings suggest that DT gait performance is not indicative

  19. Participation in recreation and cognitive activities as a predictor of cognitive performance of adults with/without Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifshitz-Vahav, Hefziba; Shnitzer, Shlomit; Mashal, Nira

    2016-09-01

    The Cognitive Activity Theory suggests an association between participation in cognitive activities during midlife and cognitive functioning in the short term. We examined the impact of participation in cognitively stimulating activities conveyed during leisure activities on crystallized and fluid tests' performance among adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). Adults (n = 32; chronological age = 25-55) with non-specific ID and with Down syndrome rated the frequency of their participation in leisure activities. Pursuits included more cognitively involving (reading, participating in academic courses) and less cognitively involving (cooking, dancing) activities. Three judges ranked activities according to their cognitive load on a 1 (few cognitive components) to 5 (many cognitive components) points scale. The findings indicate two new scales: cognitively stimulating activities and recreational stimulating activities. The crystallized battery included phonemic fluency, synonyms, idioms, and verbal metaphors. The fluid battery included the Homophone Meaning Generation Test, Metaphoric Triad Test, Novel Metaphors Test, and Trail Making Test. Hierarchal regression with chronological and mental age, recreational, and cognitively stimulating activities indicated that participation in recreational activities contributed significantly to the explained variance of word fluency. Participation in cognitive activities contributed significantly to the explained variance of most of the crystallized and fluid tests. The findings support the Cognitive Activity Theory in populations with ID. The findings also support the Compensation Age Theory: not only endogenous factors (age, etiology, IQ level), but also exogenous factors such as life style determining the cognitive functioning of adults with ID. However, frequency and the cognitive load of the activities influenced their cognitive functioning.

  20. Reliability and validity of the revised Gibson Test of Cognitive Skills, a computer-based test battery for assessing cognition across the lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Amy Lawson; Miller, Terissa M

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to evaluate the validity and reliability of the revised Gibson Test of Cognitive Skills, a computer-based battery of tests measuring short-term memory, long-term memory, processing speed, logic and reasoning, visual processing, as well as auditory processing and word attack skills. This study included 2,737 participants aged 5-85 years. A series of studies was conducted to examine the validity and reliability using the test performance of the entire norming group and several subgroups. The evaluation of the technical properties of the test battery included content validation by subject matter experts, item analysis and coefficient alpha, test-retest reliability, split-half reliability, and analysis of concurrent validity with the Woodcock Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities and Tests of Achievement. Results indicated strong sources of evidence of validity and reliability for the test, including internal consistency reliability coefficients ranging from 0.87 to 0.98, test-retest reliability coefficients ranging from 0.69 to 0.91, split-half reliability coefficients ranging from 0.87 to 0.91, and concurrent validity coefficients ranging from 0.53 to 0.93. The Gibson Test of Cognitive Skills-2 is a reliable and valid tool for assessing cognition in the general population across the lifespan.

  1. The Relationship between Tests of Neurocognition and Performance on a Laparoscopic Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oumar Kuzbari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To estimate if there is a relationship between the results of tests of neurocognition and performance on a laparoscopic surgery simulator. Methods and Materials. Twenty participants with no prior laparoscopic experience had baseline cognitive tests administered (Trail Making Test, Part A and B (TMT-A and TMT-B, Grooved Peg Board Test, Symbol Digit Modalities Test, Symbol Digit Recall Test, and Stroop Interference Test, completed a demographic questionnaire, and then performed laparoscopy using a simulator. We correlated the results of cognitive tests with laparoscopic surgical performance. Results. One cognitive test sensitive to frontal lobe function, TMT-A, significantly correlated with laparoscopic surgical performance on the simulator (correlation coefficient of 0.534 with P<.05. However, the correlation between performance and other cognitive tests (TMT-B, Grooved Peg Board Test, Symbol Digit Modalities Test, Symbol Digit Recall Test, and Stroop Interference Test was not statistically significant. Conclusion. Laparoscopic performance may be related to measures of frontal lobe function. Neurocognitive tests may predict motor skills abilities and performance on laparoscopic simulator.

  2. Retrospective lifetime dietary patterns predict cognitive performance in community-dwelling older Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosking, Diane E; Nettelbeck, Ted; Wilson, Carlene; Danthiir, Vanessa

    2014-07-28

    Dietary intake is a modifiable exposure that may have an impact on cognitive outcomes in older age. The long-term aetiology of cognitive decline and dementia, however, suggests that the relevance of dietary intake extends across the lifetime. In the present study, we tested whether retrospective dietary patterns from the life periods of childhood, early adulthood, adulthood and middle age predicted cognitive performance in a cognitively healthy sample of 352 older Australian adults >65 years. Participants completed the Lifetime Diet Questionnaire and a battery of cognitive tests designed to comprehensively assess multiple cognitive domains. In separate regression models, lifetime dietary patterns were the predictors of cognitive factor scores representing ten constructs derived by confirmatory factor analysis of the cognitive test battery. All regression models were progressively adjusted for the potential confounders of current diet, age, sex, years of education, English as native language, smoking history, income level, apoE ɛ4 status, physical activity, other past dietary patterns and health-related variables. In the adjusted models, lifetime dietary patterns predicted cognitive performance in this sample of older adults. In models additionally adjusted for intake from the other life periods and mechanistic health-related variables, dietary patterns from the childhood period alone reached significance. Higher consumption of the 'coffee and high-sugar, high-fat extras' pattern predicted poorer performance on simple/choice reaction time, working memory, retrieval fluency, short-term memory and reasoning. The 'vegetable and non-processed' pattern negatively predicted simple/choice reaction time, and the 'traditional Australian' pattern positively predicted perceptual speed and retrieval fluency. Identifying early-life dietary antecedents of older-age cognitive performance contributes to formulating strategies for delaying or preventing cognitive decline.

  3. Test-retest reliability and task order effects of emotional cognitive tests in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Thomas; Pounder, Zoe; Preston, Sally; Hanson, Andy; Gallagher, Peter; Harmer, Catherine J; McAllister-Williams, R Hamish

    2016-11-01

    Little is known of the retest reliability of emotional cognitive tasks or the impact of using different tasks employing similar emotional stimuli within a battery. We investigated this in healthy subjects. We found improved overall performance in an emotional attentional blink task (EABT) with repeat testing at one hour and one week compared to baseline, but the impact of an emotional stimulus on performance was unchanged. Similarly, performance on a facial expression recognition task (FERT) was better one week after a baseline test, though the relative effect of specific emotions was unaltered. There was no effect of repeat testing on an emotional word categorising, recall and recognition task. We found no difference in performance in the FERT and EABT irrespective of task order. We concluded that it is possible to use emotional cognitive tasks in longitudinal studies and combine tasks using emotional facial stimuli in a single battery.

  4. Performance in normal subjects on a novel battery of driving-related sensory-motor and cognitive tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, Carrie R H; Jones, Richard D; Anderson, Tim J; Hollobon, Susan G; Dalrymple-Alford, John C

    2009-05-01

    Currently, there is no international standard for the assessment of fitness to drive for cognitively or physically impaired persons. A computerized battery of driving-related sensory-motor and cognitive tests (SMCTests) has been developed, comprising tests of visuoperception, visuomotor ability, complex attention, visual search, decision making, impulse control, planning, and divided attention. Construct validity analysis was conducted in 60 normal, healthy subjects and showed that, overall, the novel cognitive tests assessed cognitive functions similar to a set of standard neuropsychological tests. The novel tests were found to have greater perceived face validity for predicting on-road driving ability than was found in the equivalent standard tests. Test-retest stability and reliability of SMCTests measures, as well as correlations between SMCTests and on-road driving, were determined in a subset of 12 subjects. The majority of test measures were stable and reliable across two sessions, and significant correlations were found between on-road driving scores and measures from ballistic movement, footbrake reaction, hand-control reaction, and complex attention. The substantial face validity, construct validity, stability, and reliability of SMCTests, together with the battery's level of correlation with on-road driving in normal subjects, strengthen our confidence in the ability of SMCTests to detect and identify sensory-motor and cognitive deficits related to unsafe driving and increased risk of accidents.

  5. A meta-analysis of perceptual and cognitive functions involved in useful-field-of-view test performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woutersen, Karlijn; Guadron, Leslie; van den Berg, Albert V; Boonstra, F Nienke; Theelen, Thomas; Goossens, Jeroen

    2017-12-01

    The useful-field-of-view (UFOV) test measures the amount of information someone can extract from a visual scene in one glance. Its scores show relatively strong relationships with everyday activities. The UFOV test consists of three computer tests, suggested to measure processing speed and central vision, divided attention, and selective attention. However, other functions seem to be involved as well. In order to investigate the contribution of these suggested and other perceptual and cognitive functions, we performed a meta-analysis of 116 Pearson's correlation coefficients between UFOV scores and other test scores reported in 18 peer-reviewed articles. We divided these correlations into nine domains: attention, executive functioning, general cognition, memory, spatial ability, visual closure, contrast sensitivity, visual processing speed, and visual acuity. A multivariate mixed-effects model analysis revealed that each domain correlated significantly with each of the UFOV subtest scores. These correlations were stronger for Subtests 2 and 3 than for Subtest 1. Furthermore, some domains were more strongly correlated to the UFOV than others across subtests. We did not find interaction effects between subtest and domain, indicating that none of the UFOV subtests is more selectively sensitive to a particular domain than the others. Thus, none of the three UFOV subtests seem to measure one clear construct. Instead, a range of visual and cognitive functions is involved. Perhaps this is the reason for the UFOV's high ecological validity, as it involves many functions at once, making it harder to compensate if one of them fails.

  6. A comparison of cognitive performance decreases during acute, progressive fatigue arising from different concurrent stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogt, Donovan L; Kalns, John E; Michael, Darren J

    2010-12-01

    Fatigue is known to impair cognitive performance, but it remains unclear whether concurrent common stressors affect cognitive performance similarly. We used the Stroop Color-Word Conflict Test to assess cognitive performance over 24 hours for four groups: control, sleep-deprived (SD), SD + energy deficit, and SD + energy deficit + fluid restricted. Fatigue levels were quantified using the Profile of Mood States (POMS) survey. Linear mixed-effects (LME) models allowed for testing of group-specific differences in cognitive performance while accounting for subject-level variation. Starting fatigue levels were similar among all groups, while 24-hour fatigue levels differed significantly. For each cognitive performance test, results were modeled separately. The simplest LME model contained a significant fixed-effects term for slope and intercept. Moreover, the simplest LME model used a single slope coefficient to fit data from all four groups, suggesting that loss in cognitive performance over a 24-hour duty cycle with respect to fatigue level is similar regardless of the cause.

  7. Cognitive Performance in Operational Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Michael; McGhee, James; Friedler, Edna; Thomas, Maria

    2005-01-01

    Optimal cognition during complex and sustained operations is a critical component for success in current and future military operations. "Cognitive Performance, Judgment, and Decision-making" (CPJD) is a newly organized U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command research program focused on sustaining operational effectiveness of Future Force Warriors by developing paradigms through which militarily-relevant, higher-order cognitive performance, judgment, and decision-making can be assessed and sustained in individuals, small teams, and leaders of network-centric fighting units. CPJD evaluates the impact of stressors intrinsic to military operational environments (e.g., sleep deprivation, workload, fatigue, temperature extremes, altitude, environmental/physiological disruption) on military performance, evaluates noninvasive automated methods for monitoring and predicting cognitive performance, and investigates pharmaceutical strategies (e.g., stimulant countermeasures, hypnotics) to mitigate performance decrements. This manuscript describes the CPJD program, discusses the metrics utilized to relate militarily applied research findings to academic research, and discusses how the simulated combat capabilities of a synthetic battle laboratory may facilitate future cognitive performance research.

  8. Reduced Electromyographic Fatigue Threshold after Performing a Cognitive Fatiguing Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Justine R; Tomlinson, Mary A; Ward, Tayler N; Pepin, Marie E; Malek, Moh H

    2018-02-22

    Cognitive fatigue tasks performed prior to exercise may reduce exercise capacity. The electromyographic fatigue threshold (EMGFT) is the highest exercise intensity that can be maintained without significant increase in the EMG amplitude versus time relationship. To date, no studies have examined the effect of cognitive fatigue on the estimation of the EMGFT. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to determine whether or not cognitive fatigue prior to performing exercise reduces the estimated EMGFT. Eight healthy college-aged men were recruited from a university student population and visited the laboratory on multiple occasions. In a randomized order, subjects performed either the cognitive fatigue task (AX Continuous Performance Test; AX-CPT) for 60 min on one visit (experimental condition) or watched a video on trains for 60 min on the other visit (control condition). After each condition, subjects performed the incremental single-leg knee-extensor ergometry test while the EMG amplitude was recorded from the rectus femoris muscle and heart rate was monitored throughout. Thereafter, the EMGFT was calculated for each participant for each visit and compared using paired samples t-test. For exercise outcomes, there were no significant mean differences for maximal power output between the two conditions (control: 51 ± 5 vs. fatigue: 50 ± 3 W), but a significant decrease in EMGFT between the two conditions (control: 31 ± 3 vs. fatigue: 24 ± 2 W; p = 0.013). Moreover, maximal heart rate was significantly different between the two conditions (control: 151 ± 5 vs. fatigue: 132 ± 6; p = 0.027). These results suggest that performing the cognitive fatiguing task reduces the EMGFT with a corresponding reduction in maximal heart rate response.

  9. Cross-cultural differences in cognitive performance and Spearman's hypothesis : g or c?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helms-Lorenz, M; Van de Vijver, FJR; Poortinga, YH

    2003-01-01

    Common tests of Spearman's hypothesis, according to which performance differences between cultural groups on cognitive tests increase with their g loadings, confound cognitive complexity and verbal-cultural aspects. The present study attempts to disentangle these components. Two intelligence

  10. Testing the tests--an empirical evaluation of screening tests for the detection of cognitive impairment in aviators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, A F; Banich, M T; Elledge, V C

    1991-08-01

    The FAA has expressed concern that flight safety could be compromised by undetected cognitive impairment in pilots due to conditions such as substance abuse, mental illness, and neuropsychological problems. Interest has been shown in the possibility of adding a brief "mini-mental exam," or a simple automated test-battery to the standard flight medical to screen for such conditions. The research reported here involved the empirical evaluation of two "mini-mental exams," two paper-and-pencil test batteries, and a prototype version of an automated screening battery. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value were calculated for each sub-task in a discriminant study of 54 pilots and 62 individuals from a heterogeneous clinical population. Results suggest that the "mini-mental exams" are poor candidates for a screening test. The automated battery showed the best discrimination performance, in part because of the incorporation of dual-task tests of divided attention performance. These tests appear to be particularly sensitive to otherwise difficult-to-detect cognitive impairments of a mild or subtle nature. The use of an automated battery of tests as a screening instrument does appear to be feasible in principle, but the practical success of a screening program is heavily dependent upon the actual prevalence of cognitive impairment in the medical applicant population.

  11. Timed Up and Go test, atrophy of medial temporal areas and cognitive functions in community-dwelling older adults with normal cognition and mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kose, Yujiro; Ikenaga, Masahiro; Yamada, Yosuke; Morimura, Kazuhiro; Takeda, Noriko; Ouma, Shinji; Tsuboi, Yoshio; Yamada, Tatsuo; Kimura, Misaka; Kiyonaga, Akira; Higaki, Yasuki; Tanaka, Hiroaki

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to ascertain if performance on the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test is associated with indicators of brain volume and cognitive functions among community-dwelling older adults with normal cognition or mild cognitive impairment. Participants were 80 community-dwelling older adults aged 65-89years (44 men, 36 women), including 20 with mild cognitive impairment. Participants completed the TUG and a battery of cognitive assessments, including the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Logical Memory I and II (LM-I, LM-II) subtests of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised; and the Trail Making Test A and B (TMT-A, TMT-B). Bilateral, right- and left-side medial temporal area atrophy as well as whole gray and white matter indices were determined with the Voxel-based Specific Regional Analysis System for Alzheimer's Disease. We divided participants into three groups based on TUG performance: "better" (≤6.9s); "normal" (7-10s); and "poor" (≥10.1s). Worse TMT-A and TMT-B performance showed significant independent associations with worse TUG performance (Pareas were significantly independently associated with worse TUG performance (Parea atrophy in community-dwelling older adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cognitive and tactile factors affecting human haptic performance in later life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Kalisch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vision and haptics are the key modalities by which humans perceive objects and interact with their environment in a target-oriented manner. Both modalities share higher-order neural resources and the mechanisms required for object exploration. Compared to vision, the understanding of haptic information processing is still rudimentary. Although it is known that haptic performance, similar to many other skills, decreases in old age, the underlying mechanisms are not clear. It is yet to be determined to what extent this decrease is related to the age-related loss of tactile acuity or cognitive capacity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the haptic performance of 81 older adults by means of a cross-modal object recognition test. Additionally, we assessed the subjects' tactile acuity with an apparatus-based two-point discrimination paradigm, and their cognitive performance by means of the non-verbal Raven-Standard-Progressive matrices test. As expected, there was a significant age-related decline in performance on all 3 tests. With the exception of tactile acuity, this decline was found to be more distinct in female subjects. Correlation analyses revealed a strong relationship between haptic and cognitive performance for all subjects. Tactile performance, on the contrary, was only significantly correlated with male subjects' haptic performance. CONCLUSIONS: Haptic object recognition is a demanding task in old age, especially when it comes to the exploration of complex, unfamiliar objects. Our data support a disproportionately higher impact of cognition on haptic performance as compared to the impact of tactile acuity. Our findings are in agreement with studies reporting an increase in co-variation between individual sensory performance and general cognitive functioning in old age.

  13. Cognitive Fatigue Influences Students’ Performance on Standardized Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sievertsen, Hans Henrik; Gino, Francesca; Piovesan, Marco

    2016-01-01

    We identify one potential source of bias that influences children’s performance on standardized tests and that is predictable based on psychological theory: the time at which students take the test. Using test data for all children attending Danish public schools between school years 2009....../10 and 2012/13, we find that, for every hour later in the day, test scores decrease by 0.9% of an SD. In addition, a 20- to 30-minute break improves average test scores. Time of day affects students’ test performance because, over the course of a regular day, students’ mental resources get taxed. Thus......, as the day wears on, students become increasingly fatigued and consequently more likely to underperform on a standardized test....

  14. Homocysteine and Cognitive Performance in Elders with Self-Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Elevated plasma homocysteine has been associated with altered cognitive performance in older adults. Elders referred to Adult Protective Services (APS) for self-neglect have been reported to have elevated plasma homocysteine levels and to suffer from cognitive impairment. This study assesses the association, if any, between plasma homocysteine and cognitive performance among elders with self-neglect. Methods: Sixty-five community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 matched controls (matched for age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS), the Wolf-Klein Clock Drawing Tests (CDT) and a comprehensive nutritional biochemistry panel, which included plasma homocysteine. Student s t tests and Pearson correlations were conducted to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Elders with self-neglect had significantly higher plasma homocysteine levels (M=12.68umol/L, sd=4.4) compared to the controls (M=10.40umol/L, sd=3.61;t=3.21, df=127, p=.002). There were no statistically significant associations between cognitive performance and plasma homocysteine in the self-neglect group, however there was a significant correlation between plasma homocysteine and the CDT among the controls (r=-.296, p=.022). Conclusion: Mean plasma homocysteine levels were significantly higher in elders with self-neglect, however, they do not appear to be related to cognitive performance, indicating that cognitive impairment in elder self-neglect involve mechanisms other than hyperhomocysteinemia. These findings warrant further investigation

  15. The impact of educational level on performance on auditory processing tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina F.B. Murphy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Research has demonstrated that a higher level of education is associated with better performance on cognitive tests among middle-aged and elderly people. However, the effects of education on auditory processing skills have not yet been evaluated. Previous demonstrations of sensory-cognitive interactions in the aging process indicate the potential importance of this topic. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to investigate the performance of middle-aged and elderly people with different levels of formal education on auditory processing tests. A total of 177 adults with no evidence of cognitive, psychological or neurological conditions took part in the research. The participants completed a series of auditory assessments, including dichotic digit, frequency pattern and speech-in-noise tests. A working memory test was also performed to investigate the extent to which auditory processing and cognitive performance were associated. The results demonstrated positive but weak correlations between years of schooling and performance on all of the tests applied. The factor years of schooling was also one of the best predictors of frequency pattern and speech-in-noise test performance. Additionally, performance on the working memory, frequency pattern and dichotic digit tests was also correlated, suggesting that the influence of educational level on auditory processing performance might be associated with the cognitive demand of the auditory processing tests rather than auditory sensory aspects itself. Longitudinal research is required to investigate the causal relationship between educational level and auditory processing skills.

  16. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D predicts cognitive performance in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darwish H

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hala Darwish,1 Pia Zeinoun,2 Husam Ghusn,3,4 Brigitte Khoury,2 Hani Tamim,5 Samia J Khoury6 1Hariri School of Nursing, Faculty of Medicine, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon; 2Psychiatry Department, Faculty of Medicine, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon; 3Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon; 4Geriatrics Department, Ain Wazein Hospital, El Chouf, Lebanon; 5Clinical Research Institute, Faculty of Medicine, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon; 6Neurology Department, Faculty of Medicine, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon Background: Vitamin D is an endogenous hormone known to regulate calcium levels in the body and plays a role in cognitive performance. Studies have shown an association between vitamin D deficiency and cognitive impairment in older adults. Lebanon has a high 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD deficiency prevalence across all age groups. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we explored the cognitive performance and serum 25(OHD levels using an electrochemoluminescent immunoassay in 254 older (>60 years as well as younger (30–60 years adults. Subjects’ characteristics, including age, years of education, wearing of veil, alcohol consumption, smoking, and physical exercise, were collected. Participants were screened for depression prior to cognitive screening using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Arabic version. Visuospatial memory was tested using the Rey Complex Figure Test and Recognition Trial, and speed of processing was assessed using the Symbol Digit Modalities test. Results: Pearson’s correlation and stepwise linear regression analyses showed that a low vitamin D level was associated with greater risk of cognitive impairment in older as well as younger adults. Conclusion: These findings suggest that correction of vitamin D needs to be explored as an intervention to prevent cognitive impairment. Prospective

  17. Effects of Cognitive Demand on Situational Interest and Running Task Performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xihe; Chen, Senlin

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effect of cognitive demand on situational interest and performance using running tasks in physical education. Adolescents (N = 179) participated in a field study involving three different levels of cognitive demand. Running performances and situational interest were measured four times with a testing interval of seven days.…

  18. Sarcopenia and impairment in cognitive and physical performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolea MI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Magdalena I Tolea,1 James E Galvin1–3 1Alzheimer’s Disease Center, Department of Neurology, 2Department of Psychiatry, 3Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA Background: Whether older adults with sarcopenia who underperform controls on tests of physical performance and cognition also have a higher likelihood of combined cognitive-physical impairment is not clear. We assessed the impact of sarcopenia on impairment in both aspects of functionality and the relative contribution of its components, muscle mass and strength.Methods: Two hundred and twenty-three community-dwelling adults aged 40 years and older (mean age =68.1±10.6 years; 65% female were recruited and underwent physical functionality, anthropometry, and cognitive testing. Participants with low muscle mass were categorized as pre-sarcopenic; those with low muscle mass and muscle strength as sarcopenic; those with higher muscle mass and low muscle strength only were categorized as non-sarcopenic and were compared on risk of cognitive impairment (Montreal Cognitive Assessment <26; Ascertaining Dementia 8 ≥2, physical impairment (Mini Physical Performance Test <12, both, or neither by ordinal logistic regression. Results: Compared to controls, those with sarcopenia were six times more likely to have combined cognitive impairment/physical impairment with a fully adjusted model showing a three-fold increased odds ratio. The results were consistent across different measures of global cognition (odds ratio =3.46, 95% confidence interval =1.07–11.45 for the Montreal Cognitive Assessment; odds ratio =3.61, 95% confidence interval =1.11–11.72 for Ascertaining Dementia 8. Pre-sarcopenic participants were not different from controls. The effect of sarcopenia on cognition is related to low muscle strength rather than low muscle mass. Conclusion: Individuals with sarcopenia are not only more likely to have single but also to have dual

  19. Social Cognitive Career Theory, Conscientiousness, and Work Performance: A Meta-Analytic Path Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Steven D.; Lent, Robert W.; Telander, Kyle; Tramayne, Selena

    2011-01-01

    We performed a meta-analytic path analysis of an abbreviated version of social cognitive career theory's (SCCT) model of work performance (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994). The model we tested included the central cognitive predictors of performance (ability, self-efficacy, performance goals), with the exception of outcome expectations. Results…

  20. Effect of multi-micronutrient-fortified rice on cognitive performance depends on premix composition and cognitive function tested

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiorentino, Marion; Perignon, Marlène; Khov, Kuong

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Even though current policy is strongly focused on the crucial first '1000 days', it might be still possible to enhance cognitive function during the pre-adolescent and adolescent years by improving micronutrient status. In Cambodia, nutritional status is poor. Provision of rice fortified...... with micronutrients through a school meal programme (SMP) could be a cost-effective strategy to help improve health and school performance. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of three different micronutrient-fortified rice formulations on cognitive function in Cambodian children. SETTING: Sixteen...

  1. A multimedia situational judgment test with a constructed-response item format: Its relationship with personality, cognitive ability, job experience, and academic performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostrom, J.K.; Born, M.Ph.; Serlie, A.W.; Van der Molen, H.T.

    2011-01-01

    Advances in computer technology have created opportunities for the development of a multimedia situational test in which responses are filmed with a webcam. This paper examined the relationship of a so-called webcam test with personality, cognitive ability, job experience, and academic performance.

  2. Inefficient cognitive control in adult ADHD: evidence from trial-by-trial Stroop test and cued task switching performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heuser Isabella

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Contemporary neuropsychological models of ADHD implicate impaired cognitive control as contributing to disorder characteristic behavioral deficiencies and excesses; albeit to varying degrees. While the traditional view of ADHD postulates a core deficiency in cognitive control processes, alternative dual-process models emphasize the dynamic interplay of bottom-up driven factors such as activation, arousal, alerting, motivation, reward and temporal processing with top-down cognitive control. However, neuropsychological models of ADHD are child-based and have yet to undergo extensive empirical scrutiny with respect to their application to individuals with persistent symptoms in adulthood. Furthermore, few studies of adult ADHD samples have investigated two central cognitive control processes: interference control and task-set coordination. The current study employed experimental chronometric Stroop and task switching paradigms to investigate the efficiency of processes involved in interference control and task-set coordination in ADHD adults. Methods 22 adults diagnosed with persistent ADHD (17 males and 22 matched healthy control subjects performed a manual trial-by-trial Stroop color-word test and a blocked explicitly cued task switching paradigm. Performance differences between neutral and incongruent trials of the Stroop task measured interference control. Task switching paradigm manipulations allowed for measurement of transient task-set updating, sustained task-set maintenance, preparatory mechanisms and interference control. Control analyses tested for the specificity of group × condition interactions. Results Abnormal processing of task-irrelevant stimulus features was evident in ADHD group performance on both tasks. ADHD group interference effects on the task switching paradigm were found to be dependent on the time allotted to prepare for an upcoming task. Group differences in sustained task-set maintenance and

  3. Predicting story goodness performance from cognitive measures following traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lê, Karen; Coelho, Carl; Mozeiko, Jennifer; Krueger, Frank; Grafman, Jordan

    2012-05-01

    This study examined the prediction of performance on measures of the Story Goodness Index (SGI; Lê, Coelho, Mozeiko, & Grafman, 2011) from executive function (EF) and memory measures following traumatic brain injury (TBI). It was hypothesized that EF and memory measures would significantly predict SGI outcomes. One hundred sixty-seven individuals with TBI participated in the study. Story retellings were analyzed using the SGI protocol. Three cognitive measures--Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS; Delis, Kaplan, & Kramer, 2001) Sorting Test, Wechsler Memory Scale--Third Edition (WMS-III; Wechsler, 1997) Working Memory Primary Index (WMI), and WMS-III Immediate Memory Primary Index (IMI)--were entered into a multiple linear regression model for each discourse measure. Two sets of regression analyses were performed, the first with the Sorting Test as the first predictor and the second with it as the last. The first set of regression analyses identified the Sorting Test and IMI as the only significant predictors of performance on measures of the SGI. The second set identified all measures as significant predictors when evaluating each step of the regression function. The cognitive variables predicted performance on the SGI measures, although there were differences in the amount of explained variance. The results (a) suggest that storytelling ability draws on a number of underlying skills and (b) underscore the importance of using discrete cognitive tasks rather than broad cognitive indices to investigate the cognitive substrates of discourse.

  4. Positive associations between physical and cognitive performance measures in fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Barbara J; Zettel-Watson, Laura; Chang, Jennifer C; Shimizu, Renee; Rutledge, Dana N; Jones, C Jessie

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the associations between perceived physical function (self-report) and physical and cognitive performance (objective assessments) in persons with fibromyalgia (FM). Correlational study. Exercise testing laboratory in Southern California. Community-residing ambulatory adults meeting the American College of Rheumatology 1990 criteria for FM (N=68; mean age, 59.5y). Not applicable. Composite Physical Function scale, Senior Fitness Test (3 items), Fullerton Advanced Balance scale, 30-foot walk, Trail Making Test parts A and B, Digit Symbol Substitution Test, a composite score of these 3 cognitive measures, attention/executive function composite, processing speed composite, problem solving, inhibition, and episodic memory composite. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that after controlling for age and FM symptoms, better physical performance (based on assessments, not self-report) was associated with higher cognitive function in attention/executive function, processing speed, problem solving, and inhibition. Researchers should continue to investigate the relationship between physical and cognitive function in both clinical and nonclinical populations, as well as explore changes across time. Because physical activity has been associated with neural improvements, further research may identify whether particular mechanisms, such as neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, or changes in inflammatory marker levels, are involved. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Performance Enhancement with Low Stress and Anxiety Modulated by Cognitive Flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyung Woo; Kee, Baik Seok; Na, Churl; Na, Do-Hyun E.; Zaichkowsky, Leonard

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to compare cognitive flexibility abilities, stress, and anxiety between starters and non-starter athletes. Methods A total of 30 male professional-soccer and 40 professional-baseball athletes were recruited. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and Trail Making Test A & B (TMT A & B) were administered to assess cognitive flexibility during competition. The Korean version of the STAI form Y (STAI-KY) and Visual analogue scale for anxiety and stress were used to assess the anxiety and stress. Results The starter group had better cognitive function (fewer perseverative errors and rapid TMTB times) (Z=3.32, panxiety (F=4.34, p=0.01; F=6.61, pcognitive performances were negatively correlated with stress and anxiety. Current results suggested that cognitive flexibility would enhance human performance by modulation of the anxiety and stress during competition. PMID:21994509

  6. C-TOC (Cognitive Testing on Computer): investigating the usability and validity of a novel self-administered cognitive assessment tool in aging and early dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacova, Claudia; McGrenere, Joanna; Lee, Hyunsoo S; Wang, William W; Le Huray, Sarah; Corenblith, Emily F; Brehmer, Matthew; Tang, Charlotte; Hayden, Sherri; Beattie, B Lynn; Hsiung, Ging-Yuek R

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive Testing on Computer (C-TOC) is a novel computer-based test battery developed to improve both usability and validity in the computerized assessment of cognitive function in older adults. C-TOC's usability was evaluated concurrently with its iterative development to version 4 in subjects with and without cognitive impairment, and health professional advisors representing different ethnocultural groups. C-TOC version 4 was then validated against neuropsychological tests (NPTs), and by comparing performance scores of subjects with normal cognition, Cognitive Impairment Not Dementia (CIND) and Alzheimer disease. C-TOC's language tests were validated in subjects with aphasic disorders. The most important usability issue that emerged from consultations with 27 older adults and with 8 cultural advisors was the test-takers' understanding of the task, particularly executive function tasks. User interface features did not pose significant problems. C-TOC version 4 tests correlated with comparator NPT (r=0.4 to 0.7). C-TOC test scores were normal (n=16)>CIND (n=16)>Alzheimer disease (n=6). All normal/CIND NPT performance differences were detected on C-TOC. Low computer knowledge adversely affected test performance, particularly in CIND. C-TOC detected impairments in aphasic disorders (n=11). In general, C-TOC had good validity in detecting cognitive impairment. Ensuring test-takers' understanding of the tasks, and considering their computer knowledge appear important steps towards C-TOC's implementation.

  7. Sensitivity of cognitive tests in four cognitive domains in discriminating MDD patients from healthy controls: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, JaeHyoung; Oh, In Kyung; Han, Changsu; Huh, Yu Jeong; Jung, In-Kwa; Patkar, Ashwin A; Steffens, David C; Jang, Bo-Hyoung

    2013-09-01

    We performed a meta-analysis in order to determine which neuropsychological domains and tasks would be most sensitive for discriminating between patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and healthy controls. Relevant articles were identified through a literature search of the PubMed and Cochrane Library databases for the period between January 1997 and May 2011. A meta-analysis was conducted using the standardized means of individual cognitive tests in each domain. The heterogeneity was assessed, and subgroup analyses according to age and medication status were performed to explore the sources of heterogeneity. A total of 22 trials involving 955 MDD patients and 7,664 healthy participants were selected for our meta-analysis. MDD patients showed significantly impaired results compared with healthy participants on the Digit Span and Continuous Performance Test in the attention domain; the Trail Making Test A (TMT-A) and the Digit Symbol Test in the processing speed domain; the Stroop Test, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and Verbal Fluency in the executive function domain; and immediate verbal memory in the memory domain. The Finger Tapping Task, TMT-B, delayed verbal memory, and immediate and delayed visual memory failed to separate MDD patients from healthy controls. The results of subgroup analysis showed that performance of Verbal Fluency was significantly impaired in younger depressed patients (memory was significantly reduced in depressed patients using antidepressants. Our findings have inevitable limitations arising from methodological issues inherent in the meta-analysis and we could not explain high heterogeneity between studies. Despite such limitations, current study has the strength of being the first meta-analysis which tried to specify cognitive function of depressed patients compared with healthy participants. And our findings may provide clinicians with further evidences that some cognitive tests in specific cognitive domains have sensitivity

  8. Martial Art Training and Cognitive Performance in Middle-Aged Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douris Peter

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive performance includes the processes of attention, memory, processing speed, and executive functioning, which typically declines with aging. Previous research has demonstrated that aerobic and resistance exercise improves cognitive performance immediately following exercise. However, there is limited research examining the effect that a cognitively complex exercise such as martial art training has on these cognitive processes. Our study compared the acute effects of 2 types of martial art training to aerobic exercise on cognitive performance in middle-aged adults. We utilized a repeated measures design with the order of the 3 exercise conditions randomly assigned and counterbalanced. Ten recreational middle-aged martial artists (mean age = 53.5 ± 8.6 years participated in 3 treatment conditions: a typical martial art class, an atypical martial art class, and a one-hour walk at a self-selected speed. Cognitive performance was assessed by the Stroop Color and Word test. While all 3 exercise conditions improved attention and processing speed, only the 2 martial art conditions improved the highest order of cognitive performance, executive function. The effect of the 2 martial art conditions on executive function was not different. The improvement in executive function may be due to the increased cortical demand required by the more complex, coordinated motor tasks of martial art exercise compared to the more repetitive actions of walking.

  9. Martial Art Training and Cognitive Performance in Middle-Aged Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douris, Peter; Douris, Christopher; Balder, Nicole; LaCasse, Michael; Rand, Amir; Tarapore, Freya; Zhuchkan, Aleskey; Handrakis, John

    2015-09-29

    Cognitive performance includes the processes of attention, memory, processing speed, and executive functioning, which typically declines with aging. Previous research has demonstrated that aerobic and resistance exercise improves cognitive performance immediately following exercise. However, there is limited research examining the effect that a cognitively complex exercise such as martial art training has on these cognitive processes. Our study compared the acute effects of 2 types of martial art training to aerobic exercise on cognitive performance in middle-aged adults. We utilized a repeated measures design with the order of the 3 exercise conditions randomly assigned and counterbalanced. Ten recreational middle-aged martial artists (mean age = 53.5 ± 8.6 years) participated in 3 treatment conditions: a typical martial art class, an atypical martial art class, and a one-hour walk at a self-selected speed. Cognitive performance was assessed by the Stroop Color and Word test. While all 3 exercise conditions improved attention and processing speed, only the 2 martial art conditions improved the highest order of cognitive performance, executive function. The effect of the 2 martial art conditions on executive function was not different. The improvement in executive function may be due to the increased cortical demand required by the more complex, coordinated motor tasks of martial art exercise compared to the more repetitive actions of walking.

  10. The effects of individual differences, prior experience and cognitive load on the transfer of dynamic decision-making performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Brad; O'Hare, David

    2014-01-01

    Situational awareness is recognised as an important factor in the performance of individuals and teams in dynamic decision-making (DDM) environments (Salmon et al. 2014 ). The present study was designed to investigate whether the scores on the WOMBAT™ Situational Awareness and Stress Tolerance Test (Roscoe and North 1980 ) would predict the transfer of DDM performance from training under different levels of cognitive load to a novel situation. Participants practised a simulated firefighting task under either low or high conditions of cognitive load and then performed a (transfer) test in an alternative firefighting environment under an intermediate level of cognitive load. WOMBAT™ test scores were a better predictor of DDM performance than scores on the Raven Matrices. Participants with high WOMBAT™ scores performed better regardless of their training condition. Participants with recent gaming experience who practised under low cognitive load showed better practice phase performance but worse transfer performance than those who practised under high cognitive load. The relationship between task experience, situational awareness ability, cognitive load and the transfer of dynamic decision-making (DDM) performance was investigated. Results showed that the WOMBAT™ test predicted transfer of DDM performance regardless of task cognitive load. The effects of cognitive load on performance varied according to previous task-relevant experience.

  11. Effects of Cognitive Load on Driving Performance: The Cognitive Control Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engström, Johan; Markkula, Gustav; Victor, Trent; Merat, Natasha

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this paper was to outline an explanatory framework for understanding effects of cognitive load on driving performance and to review the existing experimental literature in the light of this framework. Although there is general consensus that taking the eyes off the forward roadway significantly impairs most aspects of driving, the effects of primarily cognitively loading tasks on driving performance are not well understood. Based on existing models of driver attention, an explanatory framework was outlined. This framework can be summarized in terms of the cognitive control hypothesis: Cognitive load selectively impairs driving subtasks that rely on cognitive control but leaves automatic performance unaffected. An extensive literature review was conducted wherein existing results were reinterpreted based on the proposed framework. It was demonstrated that the general pattern of experimental results reported in the literature aligns well with the cognitive control hypothesis and that several apparent discrepancies between studies can be reconciled based on the proposed framework. More specifically, performance on nonpracticed or inherently variable tasks, relying on cognitive control, is consistently impaired by cognitive load, whereas the performance on automatized (well-practiced and consistently mapped) tasks is unaffected and sometimes even improved. Effects of cognitive load on driving are strongly selective and task dependent. The present results have important implications for the generalization of results obtained from experimental studies to real-world driving. The proposed framework can also serve to guide future research on the potential causal role of cognitive load in real-world crashes.

  12. Shift Work and Cognitive Flexibility: Decomposing Task Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Philip; Tallent, Gabriel; Bender, Thomas John; Tran, Kieulinh Michelle; Drake, Christopher L

    2017-04-01

    Deficits in cognitive functioning associated with shift work are particularly relevant to occupational performance; however, few studies have examined how cognitive functioning is associated with specific components of shift work. This observational study examined how circadian phase, nocturnal sleepiness, and daytime insomnia in a sample of shift workers ( N = 30) were associated with cognitive flexibility during the night shift. Cognitive flexibility was measured using a computerized task-switching paradigm, which produces 2 indexes of flexibility: switch cost and set inhibition. Switch cost represents the additional cognitive effort required in switching to a different task and can impact performance when multitasking is involved. Set inhibition is the efficiency in returning to previously completed tasks and represents the degree of cognitive perseveration, which can lead to reduced accuracy. Circadian phase was measured via melatonin assays, nocturnal sleepiness was assessed using the Multiple Sleep Latency Test, and daytime insomnia was assessed using the Insomnia Severity Index. Results indicated that those with an earlier circadian phase, insomnia, and sleepiness exhibited reduced cognitive flexibility; however, specific components of cognitive flexibility were differentially associated with circadian phase, insomnia, and sleepiness. Individuals with an earlier circadian phase (thus more misaligned to the night shift) exhibited larger switch costs, which was also associated with reduced task efficiency. Shift workers with more daytime insomnia demonstrated difficulties with cognitive inhibition, whereas nocturnal sleepiness was associated with difficulties in reactivating previous tasks. Deficits in set inhibition were also related to reduced accuracy and increased perseverative errors. Together, this study indicates that task performance deficits in shift work are complex and are variably impacted by different mechanisms. Future research may examine

  13. Harmine treatment enhances short-term memory in old rats: Dissociation of cognition and the ability to perform the procedural requirements of maze testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennenga, Sarah E; Gerson, Julia E; Dunckley, Travis; Bimonte-Nelson, Heather A

    2015-01-01

    Harmine is a naturally occurring monoamine oxidase inhibitor that has recently been shown to selectively inhibit the dual-specificity tyrosine-(Y)-phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A). We investigated the cognitive effects of 1mg (low) Harmine and 5mg (high) Harmine using the delayed-match-to-sample (DMS) asymmetrical 3-choice water maze task to evaluate spatial working and recent memory, and the Morris water maze task (MM) to test spatial reference memory. Animals were also tested on the visible platform task, a water-escape task with the same motor, motivational, and reinforcement components as the other tasks used to evaluate cognition, but differing in its greater simplicity and that the platform was visible above the surface of the water. A subset of the Harmine-high treated animals showed clear motor impairments on all behavioral tasks, and the visible platform task confirmed a lack of competence to perform the procedural components of water maze testing. After excluding animals from the high dose group that could not perform the procedural components of a swim task, it was revealed that both high- and low-dose treatment with Harmine enhanced performance on the latter portion of DMS testing, but had no effect on MM performance. Thus, this study demonstrates the importance of confirming motor and visual competence when studying animal cognition, and verifies the one-day visible platform task as a reliable measure of ability to perform the procedural components necessary for completion of a swim task. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. No Effect of Commercial Cognitive Training on Brain Activity, Choice Behavior, or Cognitive Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kable, Joseph W; Caulfield, M Kathleen; Falcone, Mary; McConnell, Mairead; Bernardo, Leah; Parthasarathi, Trishala; Cooper, Nicole; Ashare, Rebecca; Audrain-McGovern, Janet; Hornik, Robert; Diefenbach, Paul; Lee, Frank J; Lerman, Caryn

    2017-08-02

    Increased preference for immediate over delayed rewards and for risky over certain rewards has been associated with unhealthy behavioral choices. Motivated by evidence that enhanced cognitive control can shift choice behavior away from immediate and risky rewards, we tested whether training executive cognitive function could influence choice behavior and brain responses. In this randomized controlled trial, 128 young adults (71 male, 57 female) participated in 10 weeks of training with either a commercial web-based cognitive training program or web-based video games that do not specifically target executive function or adapt the level of difficulty throughout training. Pretraining and post-training, participants completed cognitive assessments and functional magnetic resonance imaging during performance of the following validated decision-making tasks: delay discounting (choices between smaller rewards now vs larger rewards in the future) and risk sensitivity (choices between larger riskier rewards vs smaller certain rewards). Contrary to our hypothesis, we found no evidence that cognitive training influences neural activity during decision-making; nor did we find effects of cognitive training on measures of delay discounting or risk sensitivity. Participants in the commercial training condition improved with practice on the specific tasks they performed during training, but participants in both conditions showed similar improvement on standardized cognitive measures over time. Moreover, the degree of improvement was comparable to that observed in individuals who were reassessed without any training whatsoever. Commercial adaptive cognitive training appears to have no benefits in healthy young adults above those of standard video games for measures of brain activity, choice behavior, or cognitive performance. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Engagement of neural regions and circuits important in executive cognitive function can bias behavioral choices away from immediate

  15. Normal weight children have higher cognitive performance - Independent of physical activity, sleep, and diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjorth, Mads F; Sørensen, Louise B; Andersen, Rikke; Dyssegaard, Camilla B; Ritz, Christian; Tetens, Inge; Michaelsen, Kim F; Astrup, Arne; Egelund, Niels; Sjödin, Anders

    2016-10-15

    Aside from the health consequences, observational studies indicate that being overweight may also negatively affect cognitive function. However, existing evidence has to a large extent not controlled for the possible confounding effect of having different lifestyles. Therefore, the objective was to examine the independent associations between weight status and lifestyle indicators with cognitive performance in 8-11year old Danish children. The analyses included 828 children (measured in 2011-2012) each having one to three measurement occasions separated by approximately 100days. Dietary intake, physical activity, sedentary time, and sleep duration were measured using dietary records and accelerometers. The Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire was used to access sleep problems and the Andersen test was carried out to estimate cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF). Weight status (underweight, normal weight, and overweight/obese) was defined according to body mass index and cognitive performance was assessed using the d2-test of attention, a reading test, and a math test. A linear mixed model including a number of fixed and random effects was used to test associations between lifestyle indicators as well as BMI category and cognitive performance. After adjustment for demographics, socioeconomics, and multiple lifestyle indicators, normal weight children had higher cognitive test scores than overweight/obese and underweight children of up to 89% and 48% of expected learning within one school year (Pbreakfast consumption, fewer sleep problems, higher CRF, less total physical activity, more sedentary time, and less light physical activity were associated with higher cognitive performance independently of each other in at least one of the three cognitive tests (Pperformance compared to overweight/obese as well as underweight children, independent of multiple lifestyle indicators. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Spatial recognition test: A novel cognition task for assessing topographical memory in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havolli, Enes; Hill, Mark Dw; Godley, Annie; Goetghebeur, Pascal Jd

    2017-06-01

    Dysfunction in topographical memory is a core feature of several neurological disorders. There is a large unmet medical need to address learning and memory deficits as a whole in central nervous system disease. There are considerable efforts to identify pro-cognitive compounds but current methods are either lengthy or labour intensive. Our test used a two chamber apparatus and is based on the preference of rodents to explore novel environments. It was used firstly to assess topographical memory in mice at different retention intervals (RI) and secondly to investigate the effect of three drugs reported to be beneficial for cognitive decline associated with Alzheimer's disease, namely: donepezil, memantine and levetiracetam. Animals show good memory performance at all RIs tested under four hours. At the four-hour RI, animals show a significantly poorer memory performance which can be rescued using donepezil, memantine and levetiracetam. Using this test we established and validated a spatial recognition paradigm to address topographical memory in mice by showing a decremental time-induced forgetting response and reversing this decrease in performance using pharmacological tools. The spatial recognition test differs from more commonly used visuospatial laboratory tests in both throughput capability and potentially neuroanatomical substrate. This test has the potential to be used to assess cognitive performance in transgenic animals, disease models and to screen putative cognitive enhancers or depressors.

  17. Cognitive Modification and Systematic Desensitization with Test Anxious High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Lois L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Compares the relative effectiveness of cognitive modification and systematic desensitization with test anxious high school students (N=30). The systematic desensitization treatment appeared to be significantly more effective on the performance measure while cognitive modification was more effective on one of the self-report measures. (Author/JAC)

  18. The Effect of Movement on Cognitive Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raed Mualem

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the relationship between walking, cognitive, and academic skills. Students from elementary, middle, high school, and college were required to walk for 10 min prior to completing feature detection, Simon-type memory, and mathematical problem-solving tasks. Participants were counterbalanced to remove a time bias. Ten minutes of walking had a significant positive effect on Simon-type memory and critical feature-detection tasks among all age groups. Separately, with mathematical problem-solving ability, higher performing high-school students demonstrated significant positive effects on mathematical reasoning tasks based on the Bloom Taxonomy. However, poorly achieving high-school students performed significantly better than those with higher grades in mathematics on tests of mathematical problem-solving ability based on the Bloom’s Taxonomy. The study indicates that there is justification to employ relatively simple means to effect lifestyle, academic, and cognitive performance.

  19. Cognitive performance after mild traumatic brain injury: the impact of poor effort on test results and its relation to distress, personality and litigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stulemeijer, Maja; Andriessen, Teuntje M J C; Brauer, Jolanda M P; Vos, Pieter E; Van Der Werf, Sieberen

    2007-03-01

    To compare consecutive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (MTBI) patients with and without adequate effort on cognitive performance, litigation status, fatigue, distress and personality. (Neuro)psychological assessment was done 6 months post-injury in 110 patients from a cohort of 618 consecutive MTBI patients aged 18-60, who attended the emergency department of our level I trauma centre. Effort was tested with the Amsterdam Short Term Memory test. Thirty patients (27%) failed the effort test. Poor effort was associated with significantly poorer scores on seven out of eleven measures, covering all tested domains. Poor effort was associated with lower educational level and changes in work status, but not litigation. Furthermore, poor effort was related to high levels of distress, Type-D personality and fatigue. Even in a sample of non-referred MTBI patients, poor effort was common and was strongly associated with inferior test performance. These findings imply that effort testing should be part of all cognitive assessments, also outside mediolegal settings. Behavioural factors like distress and personality should be considered as potential threats to the validity of neuropsychological testing after MTBI.

  20. Does cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia improve cognitive performance? A systematic review and narrative synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Vanessa; Kyle, Simon D; Pratt, Daniel

    2018-06-01

    Individuals with insomnia report difficulties pertaining to their cognitive functioning. Cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) is associated with robust, long-term improvements in sleep parameters, however less is known about the impact of CBT-I on the daytime correlates of the disorder. A systematic review and narrative synthesis was conducted in order to summarise and evaluate the evidence regarding the impact of CBT-I on cognitive functioning. Reference databases were searched and studies were included if they assessed cognitive performance as an outcome of CBT-I, using either self-report questionnaires or cognitive tests. Eighteen studies met inclusion criteria, comprising 923 individuals with insomnia symptoms. The standardised mean difference was calculated at post-intervention and follow-up. We found preliminary evidence for small to moderate effects of CBT-I on subjective measures of cognitive functioning. Few of the effects were statistically significant, likely due to small sample sizes and limited statistical power. There is a lack of evidence with regards to the impact of CBT-I on objective cognitive performance, primarily due to the small number of studies that administered an objective measure (n = 4). We conclude that adequately powered randomised controlled trials, utilising both subjective and objective measures of cognitive functioning are required. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cognitive performance of juvenile monkeys after chronic fluoxetine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, Mari S; Hackett, Edward P; Hogrefe, Casey E; Leranth, Csaba; Elsworth, John D; Roth, Robert H

    2017-08-01

    Potential long term effects on brain development are a concern when drugs are used to treat depression and anxiety in childhood. In this study, male juvenile rhesus monkeys (three-four years of age) were dosed with fluoxetine or vehicle (N=16/group) for two years. Histomorphometric examination of cortical dendritic spines conducted after euthanasia at one year postdosing (N=8/group) suggested a trend toward greater dendritic spine synapse density in prefrontal cortex of the fluoxetine-treated monkeys. During dosing, subjects were trained for automated cognitive testing, and evaluated with a test of sustained attention. After dosing was discontinued, sustained attention, recognition memory and cognitive flexibility were evaluated. Sustained attention was affected by fluoxetine, both during and after dosing, as indexed by omission errors. Response accuracy was not affected by fluoxetine in post-dosing recognition memory and cognitive flexibility tests, but formerly fluoxetine-treated monkeys compared to vehicle controls had more missed trial initiations and choices during testing. Drug treatment also interacted with genetic and environmental variables: MAOA genotype (high- and low transcription rate polymorphisms) and testing location (upper or lower tier of cages). Altered development of top-down cortical regulation of effortful attention may be relevant to this pattern of cognitive test performance after juvenile fluoxetine treatment. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Cognitive Fatigue Influences Students’ Performance on Standardized Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sievertsen, Hans Henrik; Gino, Francesca; Piovesan, Marco

    2016-01-01

    /10 and 2012/13, we find that, for every hour later in the day, test scores decrease by 0.9% of an SD. In addition, a 20- to 30-minute break improves average test scores. Time of day affects students’ test performance because, over the course of a regular day, students’ mental resources get taxed. Thus...

  3. Expert music performance: cognitive, neural, and developmental bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rachel M; Zatorre, Robert J; Penhune, Virginia B

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we explore what happens in the brain of an expert musician during performance. Understanding expert music performance is interesting to cognitive neuroscientists not only because it tests the limits of human memory and movement, but also because studying expert musicianship can help us understand skilled human behavior in general. In this chapter, we outline important facets of our current understanding of the cognitive and neural basis for music performance, and developmental factors that may underlie musical ability. We address three main questions. (1) What is expert performance? (2) How do musicians achieve expert-level performance? (3) How does expert performance come about? We address the first question by describing musicians' ability to remember, plan, execute, and monitor their performances in order to perform music accurately and expressively. We address the second question by reviewing evidence for possible cognitive and neural mechanisms that may underlie or contribute to expert music performance, including the integration of sound and movement, feedforward and feedback motor control processes, expectancy, and imagery. We further discuss how neural circuits in auditory, motor, parietal, subcortical, and frontal cortex all contribute to different facets of musical expertise. Finally, we address the third question by reviewing evidence for the heritability of musical expertise and for how expertise develops through training and practice. We end by discussing outlooks for future work. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory conducts basic and applied human research studies to characterize cognitive performance as influenced by militarily-relevant contextual and physical...

  5. Recall Tests Are Effective to Detect Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of 108 Diagnostic Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoi, Kelvin K F; Chan, Joyce Y C; Hirai, Hoyee W; Wong, Adrian; Mok, Vincent C T; Lam, Linda C W; Kwok, Timothy C Y; Wong, Samuel Y S

    2017-09-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a prevalent symptom associated with the increased risk of dementia. There are many cognitive tests available for detection of MCI, and investigation of the diagnostic performance of the tests is deemed necessary. This study aims to evaluate the diagnostic performance of different cognitive tests used for MCI detection. A list of cognitive tests was identified in previous reviews and from online search engines. Literature searches were performed on each of the cognitive tests in MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO from the earliest available dates of individual databases to December 31, 2016. Google Scholar was used as a supplementary search tool. Studies that were used to assess the diagnostic performance of the cognitive tests were extracted with inclusion and exclusion criteria. Each test's performance was compared with the standard diagnostic criteria. Bivariate random effects models were used to summarize the test performance as a point estimate for sensitivity and specificity, and presented in a summary receiver operating characteristic curve. Reporting quality and risk of bias were evaluated. A total of 108 studies with 23,546 participants were selected to evaluate 9 cognitive tests for MCI detection. Most of the studies used the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) (n = 58) and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) (n = 35). The combined diagnostic performance of the MMSE in MCI detection was 0.71 sensitivity [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.66-0.75] and 0.74 specificity (95% CI: 0.70-0.78), and of the MoCA in MCI detection was 0.83 sensitivity (95% CI: 0.80-0.86) and 0.75 specificity (95% CI: 0.69-0.80). Among the 9 cognitive tests, recall tests showed the best diagnostic performance with 0.89 sensitivity (95% CI: 0.86-0.92) and 0.84 specificity (95% CI, 0.79-0.89). In subgroup analyses, long- or short-delay recall tests have shown better performance than immediate recall tests. Recall tests were shown to be the most

  6. Resting-state slow wave power, healthy aging and cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahou, Eleni L; Thurm, Franka; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana; Schlee, Winfried

    2014-05-29

    Cognitive functions and spontaneous neural activity show significant changes over the life-span, but the interrelations between age, cognition and resting-state brain oscillations are not well understood. Here, we assessed performance on the Trail Making Test and resting-state magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recordings from 53 healthy adults (18-89 years old) to investigate associations between age-dependent changes in spontaneous oscillatory activity and cognitive performance. Results show that healthy aging is accompanied by a marked and linear decrease of resting-state activity in the slow frequency range (0.5-6.5 Hz). The effects of slow wave power on cognitive performance were expressed as interactions with age: For older (>54 years), but not younger participants, enhanced delta and theta power in temporal and central regions was positively associated with perceptual speed and executive functioning. Consistent with previous work, these findings substantiate further the important role of slow wave oscillations in neurocognitive function during healthy aging.

  7. [The effect of energy drinks on the cognitive performance of adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, P; van Diepen, M A C; Nieuwenhuis, L; Boulogne, T L A

    2013-01-01

    Manufacturers of energy drinks claim that their drinks can have a positive effect on cognitive performance. So far, there is little evidence that energy drinks do in fact enhance the cognitive performance of adolescents. To find out, via a series of tests, whether the manufacturers of energy drinks are justified in claiming that their drinks improve the cognitive performance of young people. In a quasi-experimental design a number of young people (aged 15-18) were divided into three groups: a control group, each of whose members drank water beforehand; a placebo group whose members drank a glass of sugar-free lemonade, and an experimental group whose members drank a currently available energy drink (Megaforce). Pencil and paper tests were administered to the members of each group in order to measure attention and concentration, learning ability, memory, verbal and numerical reasoning, numerical aptitude and vocabulary. No significant differences between groups were found that could solely be ascribed to the effect of energy drink. Given the warnings about the potential health-risks of energy drinks and the fact that no evidence was found for positive effects of energy drinks on the cognitive performance of young people, we are of the opinion that youngsters should stay away from such drinks.

  8. HIV-associated cognitive performance and psychomotor impairment in a Thai cohort on long-term cART.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Tanya C; Kerr, Stephen J; Avihingsanon, Anchalee; Suksawek, Saowaluk; Klungkang, Supalak; Channgam, Taweesak; Odermatt, Christoph C; Maek-A-Nantawat, Wirach; Ruxtungtham, Kiat; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Valcour, Victor; Reiss, Peter; Wit, Ferdinand W

    2018-01-01

    To assess cognitive performance and psychomotor impairment in an HIV-positive cohort, well-suppressed on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), in an Asian resource-limited setting. Cross-sectional sociodemographic and cognitive data were collected in 329 HIV-positive and 510 HIV-negative participants. Cognitive performance was assessed using the International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), WAIS-III Digit Symbol, Trail Making A, and Grooved Pegboard (both hands). Psychomotor test scores in the HIV-positive participants were converted to Z-scores using scores of the HIV-negative participants as normative data. Psychomotor impairment was defined as performance on two tests more than 1 standard deviation (SD) from controls or more than 2 SD on one test. Multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses were used to investigate associations between HIV and non-HIV-related covariates and poorer cognitive performance and psychomotor impairment. HIV-positive participants, mean age 45 (SD 7.69) years received cART for a median of 12.1 years (interquartile range [IQR] 9.1-14.4). Median CD4 cell count was 563 cells/mm 3 (IQR 435-725), and 92.77% had plasma HIV RNA performance (tests all P 90% on long-term cART, we found that inferior cognitive performance and psychomotor impairment were primarily associated with non-HIV-related factors.

  9. The Combined Utility of a Brief Functional Measure and Performance-Based Screening Test for Case Finding of Cognitive Impairment in Primary Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Qun Lin; Shaik, Muhammad Amin; Xu, Jing; Xu, Xin; Chen, Christopher Li-Hsian; Dong, YanHong

    2016-04-01

    Use of a total risk score (TRS) based on vascular and sociodemographic risk factors has been recommended to identify patients at risk of cognitive impairment. Moreover, combining screening tests has been reported to improve positive predictive values (PPV) for case finding of cognitive impairment. We investigated the utility of the conjunctive combination of the informant-based AD8 and the performance-based National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke-Canadian Stroke Network (NINDS-CSN) 5-minute protocol for the detection of cognitive impairment, defined by a clinical dementia rating (CDR) score ≥0.5, in patients at risk of cognitive impairment (TRS ≥3). Participants were recruited from 2 primary healthcare centers in Singapore and received the AD8, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, Mini-Mental State Examination, CDR, and a formal neuropsychological test battery. The scores for NINDS-CSN 5-minute protocol were extracted from the Montreal Cognitive Assessment items. Area under the receiver operating characteristics curve analyses were conducted to determine the discriminant indices of the screening instruments, the conjunctive combination (ie, screened positive on both tests), and the compensatory combination (ie, screened positive in either of or both tests). A total of 309 participants were recruited of whom 78.7% (n = 243) had CDR = 0 and 21.3% (n = 66) had CDR ≥0.5. The conjunctive combination of AD8 and NINDS-CSN 5-minute protocol achieved excellent PPV and acceptable sensitivity (PPV 91.7%, sensitivity 73.3%). The conjunctive combination of the AD8 and NINDS-CSN 5-minute protocol is brief and accurate, and hence, suitable for case finding of cognitive impairment (CDR ≥0.5) in patients screened positive on the TRS in primary healthcare centers. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Longitudinal associations between physical and cognitive performance among community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolea, Magdalena I; Morris, John C; Galvin, James E

    2015-01-01

    To assess the directionality of the association between physical and cognitive decline in later life, we compared patterns of decline in performance across groups defined by baseline presence of cognitive and/or physical impairment [none (n = 217); physical only (n = 169); cognitive only (n = 158), or both (n = 220)] in a large sample of participants in a cognitive aging study at the Knight Alzheimer's Disease Research Center at Washington University in St. Louis who were followed for up to 8 years (3,079 observations). Rates of decline reached 20% for physical performance and varied across cognitive tests (global, memory, speed, executive function, and visuospatial skills). We found that physical decline was better predicted by baseline cognitive impairment (slope = -1.22, pphysical impairment not contributing to further decline in physical performance (slope = -0.25, p = 0.294). In turn, baseline physical impairment was only marginally associated with rate of cognitive decline across various cognitive domains. The cognitive-functional association is likely to operate in the direction of cognitive impairment to physical decline although physical impairment may also play a role in cognitive decline/dementia. Interventions to prevent further functional decline and development of disability and complete dependence may benefit if targeted to individuals with cognitive impairment who are at increased risk.

  11. Diet-Induced Ketosis Improves Cognitive Performance in Aged Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kui; Sun, Xiaoyan; Eroku, Bernadette O.; Tsipis, Constantinos P.; Puchowicz, Michelle A.; LaManna, Joseph C.

    2010-01-01

    Aging is associated with increased susceptibility to hypoxic/ischemic insult and declines in behavioral function which may be due to attenuated adaptive/defense responses. We investigated if diet-induced ketosis would improve behavioral performance in the aged rats. Fischer 344 rats (3- and 22-month-old) were fed standard (STD) or ketogenic (KG) diet for 3 weeks and then exposed to hypobaric hypoxia. Cognitive function was measured using the T-maze and object recognition tests. Motor function was measured using the inclined-screen test. Results showed that KG diet significantly increased blood ketone levels in both young and old rats. In the aged rats, the KG diet improved cognitive performance under normoxic and hypoxic conditions; while motor performance remained unchanged. Capillary density and HIF-1α levels were elevated in the aged ketotic group independent of hypoxic challenge. These data suggest that diet-induced ketosis may be beneficial in the treatment of neurodegenerative conditions. PMID:20204773

  12. Cognitive performance of Göttingen minipigs is affected by diet in a spatial hole-board discrimination test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Annika Maria Juul; Klein, Anders Bue; Ettrup, Anders

    2013-01-01

    by both diets relative to a standard minipig diet high in carbohydrate, low in fat and sugar. The different diets did not impact levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in brain tissue and neither did they affect circulatory inflammation measured by concentrations of C-reactive protein and haptoglobin......Consumption of a high energy diet, containing high amounts of saturated fat and refined sugar has been associated with impairment of cognitive function in rodents and humans. We sought to contrast the effect of a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet and a low fat, high carbohydrate....../sucrose diet, relative to a standard low fat, high carbohydrate minipig diet on spatial cognition with regards to working memory and reference memory in 24 male Göttingen minipigs performing in a spatial hole-board discrimination test. We found that both working memory and reference memory were impaired...

  13. The effect of breakfast cereal consumption on adolescents' cognitive performance and mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defeyter, Margaret A; Russo, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of breakfast consumption on cognitive performance and mood in adolescents, and any interaction that breakfast consumption might have with cognitive load. The rationale for this approach was that the beneficial effects of any intervention with regard to cognitive function may be more readily apparent when more demands are placed on the system. Furthermore, as skipping breakfast is particularly prevalent within this age group, thus, we focused on adolescents who habitually skip breakfast. Cognitive load was modulated by varying the level of difficulty of a series of cognitive tasks tapping memory, attention, and executive functions. Mood measured with Bond-Lader scales (1974) as well as measures of thirst, hunger, and satiety were recorded at each test session both at baseline and after the completion of each test battery. Forty adolescents (mean age = 14:2) participated in this within-subjects design study. According to treatment, all participants were tested before and after the intake of a low Glycaemic index breakfast (i.e., a 35 g portion of AllBran and 125 ml semi-skimmed milk) and before and after no breakfast consumption. Assessment time had two levels: 8.00 am (baseline) and 10.45 am. The orders of cognitive load tasks were counterbalanced. Overall it appeared that following breakfast participants felt more alert, satiated, and content. Following breakfast consumption, there was evidence for improved cognitive performance across the school morning compared to breakfast omission in some tasks (e.g., Hard Word Recall, Serial 3's and Serial 7's). However, whilst participants performance on the hard version of each cognitive task was significantly poorer compared to the corresponding easy version, there was limited evidence to support the hypothesis that the effect of breakfast was greater in the more demanding versions of the tasks.

  14. The effect of breakfast cereal consumption on adolescents’ cognitive performance and mood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Anne Defeyter

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of breakfast consumption on cognitive performance and mood in adolescents, and any interaction that breakfast consumption might have with cognitive load. The rationale for this approach was that the beneficial effects of any intervention with regard to cognitive function may be more readily apparent when more demands are placed on the system. Furthermore, as skipping breakfast is particularly prevalent within this age group, thus, we focused on adolescents who habitually skip breakfast. Cognitive load was modulated by varying the level of difficulty of a series of cognitive tasks tapping memory, attention and executive functions. Mood measured with Bond-Lader scales (1974 as well as measures of thirst, hunger and satiety were recorded at each test session both at baseline and after the completion of each test battery. Forty adolescents (mean age = 14:2 participated in this within-subjects design study. According to treatment, all participants were tested before and after the intake of a low Glycaemic index breakfast (i.e. a 35g portion of AllBran and 125ml semi-skimmed milk and before and after no breakfast consumption. Assessment time had two levels: 8.00am (baseline and 10.45am. The orders of cognitive load tasks were counterbalanced. Overall it appeared that following breakfast participants felt more alert, satiated and content. Following breakfast consumption, there was evidence for improved cognitive performance across the school morning compared to breakfast omission in some tasks (e.g. Hard Word Recall, Serial 3’s and Serial 7’s. However, whilst participants performance on the hard version of each cognitive task was significantly poorer compared to the corresponding easy version, there was limited evidence to support the hypothesis that the effect of breakfast was greater in the more demanding versions of the tasks.

  15. Long-term effects of mild traumatic brain injury on cognitive performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip John Ainsley Dean

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Although a proportion of individuals report chronic cognitive difficulties after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI, results from behavioural testing have been inconsistent. In fact, the variability inherent to the mTBI population may be masking subtle cognitive deficits. We hypothesised that this variability could be reduced by accounting for post-concussion syndrome (PCS in the sample. 36 participants with mTBI (>1 year post-injury and 36 non-head injured controls performed information processing speed (Paced Visual Serial Addition Task, PVSAT and working memory (n-Back tasks. Both groups were split by PCS diagnosis (4 groups, all n=18, with categorisation of controls based on symptom report. Participants with mTBI and persistent PCS had significantly greater error rates on both the n-Back and PVSAT, at every difficulty level except 0-Back (used as a test of performance validity. There was no difference between any of the other groups. Therefore, a cognitive deficit can be observed in mTBI participants, even one year after injury. Correlations between cognitive performance and symptoms were only observed for mTBI participants, with worse performance correlating with lower sleep quality, in addition to a medium effect size association (falling short of statistical significance with higher PCS symptoms, PTSD and anxiety. These results suggest that the reduction in cognitive performance is not due to greater symptom report itself, but is associated to some extent with the initial injury. Furthermore, the results validate the utility of our participant grouping, and demonstrate its potential to reduce the variability observed in previous studies.

  16. Academic outcomes and cognitive performance in problematic Internet users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín Vila, María; Carballo Crespo, José Luis; Coloma Carmona, Ainhoa

    2018-04-15

    Only few studies have examined the relationship between problematic Internet use (PIU) and cognitive and academic performance in adolescents. The aim of this study was to analyze the differences in academic and cognitive performance (perception, attention, memory, verbal fluency and abstract reasoning) between adolescents with and without PIU. A total of 575 students from different high schools of the region of Alicante participated. Students were divided into two groups: adolescents with and without PIU (PIU and NPIU, respectively). Several questionnaires were administered to assess problematic Internet use, as well as students' academic performance. Substance use (alcohol / cannabis) was also assessed as exclusion criteria. A battery of neuropsychological tests was used to assess cognitive abilities. On the one hand, PIU users group obtained poorer academic results than NPIU, in terms of lower marks and more failed subjects. On the other hand, PIU group had a better hit ratio in the perception test than NPIU group. However, PIU adolescents got higher error rates for the abstract reasoning test. This greater number of errors, plus a similar number of hits compared to the NPIU group, could indicated a higher response rate for the PIU group, which may might be associated with greater impulsivity. As occurs in other addictive and non-substance-related problems studies, these results could mean difficulties in impulse control and regulation of response inhibition circuits in PIU users group. Future research is needed to analyze in depth the results presented in this paper.

  17. The Memory Alteration Test Discriminates between Cognitively Healthy Status, Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custodio, Nilton; Lira, David; Herrera-Perez, Eder; Nuñez del Prado, Liza; Parodi, José; Guevara-Silva, Erik; Castro-Suarez, Sheila; Montesinos, Rosa; Cortijo, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Dementia is a worldwide public health problem and there are several diagnostic tools for its assessment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the Memory Alteration Test (M@T) to discriminate between patients with early Alzheimer's disease (AD), patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI), and subjects with a cognitively healthy status (CHS). Methods The discriminative validity was assessed in a sample of 90 patients with AD, 45 patients with a-MCI, and 180 subjects with CHS. Clinical, functional, and cognitive studies were independently performed in a blinded fashion and the gold standard diagnosis was established by consensus on the basis of these results. The test performance was assessed by means of a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis as area under the curve (AUC). Results M@T mean scores were 17.7 (SD = 5.7) in AD, 30.8 (SD = 2.3) in a-MCI, and 44.5 (SD = 3.1) in CHS. A cutoff score of 37 points had a sensitivity of 98.3% and a specificity of 97.8% to differentiate a-MCI from CHS (AUC = 0.999). A cutoff score of 27 points had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 98.9% to differentiate mild AD from a-MCI and from CHS (AUC = 1.000). Conclusions The M@T had a high performance in the discrimination between early AD, a-MCI and CHS. PMID:25298775

  18. Depressive Symptom Clusters and Neuropsychological Performance in Mild Alzheimer's and Cognitively Normal Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. Hall

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Determine the relationship between depressive symptom clusters and neuropsychological test performance in an elderly cohort of cognitively normal controls and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD. Design. Cross-sectional analysis. Setting. Four health science centers in Texas. Participants. 628 elderly individuals (272 diagnosed with mild AD and 356 controls from ongoing longitudinal study of Alzheimer's disease. Measurements. Standard battery of neuropsychological tests and the 30-item Geriatric Depression Scale with regressions model generated on GDS-30 subscale scores (dysphoria, apathy, meaninglessness and cognitive impairment as predictors and neuropsychological tests as outcome variables. Follow-up analyses by gender were conducted. Results. For AD, all symptom clusters were related to specific neurocognitive domains; among controls apathy and cognitive impairment were significantly related to neuropsychological functioning. The relationship between performance and symptom clusters was significantly different for males and females in each group. Conclusion. Findings suggest the need to examine disease status and gender when considering the impact of depressive symptoms on cognition.

  19. Familial longevity is marked by better cognitive performance at middle age: the Leiden Longevity Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjon Stijntjes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Decline in cognitive performance is a highly prevalent health condition in elderly. We studied whether offspring of nonagenarian siblings with a familial history of longevity, perform better on cognitive tests compared to their partners as controls. This is relevant since it could provide insights into determinants underlying decline in cognitive performance. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis within the longitudinal cohort of the Leiden Longevity Study consisting of middle-aged offspring of nonagenarian siblings together with their partners (n = 500, mean age (SD 66.3 (6.1 and 65.7 (7.2 years, respectively as controls. Memory function, attention and processing speed were tested using the 15-Picture Learning Test, Stroop test and Digit Symbol Substitution Test. Data were analyzed with regression adjusted for age, gender, years of education and additionally for diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, alcohol use, smoking, inflammatory markers and apolipoprotein E genotype. Robust standard errors were used to account for familial relationships among the offspring. RESULTS: Cognitive performance was worse at higher calendar age (p<0.001, all except Stroop test part 1. The offspring performed better compared to their partners on trial 3 (p = 0.005, the immediate (p = 0.016 and delayed (p = 0.004 recall of the 15-Picture Learning Test as well as on the interference and combined interference score of the Stroop test (p = 0.014 and p = 0.036, respectively in the fully adjusted model. The difference between offspring and partners was estimated to be more than three years according to the observed difference in calendar age. CONCLUSIONS: Offspring of nonagenarian siblings with a familial history of longevity have better cognitive performance compared to the group of their partners of comparable age. This effect is independent of age-related diseases and known possible confounders. Possible explanations might be differences in subclinical

  20. Associations between physical performance and executive function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment: gait speed and the timed "up & go" test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGough, Ellen L; Kelly, Valerie E; Logsdon, Rebecca G; McCurry, Susan M; Cochrane, Barbara B; Engel, Joyce M; Teri, Linda

    2011-08-01

    Older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) are at higher risk for developing Alzheimer disease. Physical performance decline on gait and mobility tasks in conjunction with executive dysfunction has implications for accelerated functional decline, disability, and institutionalization in sedentary older adults with aMCI. The purpose of this study was to examine whether performance on 2 tests commonly used by physical therapists (usual gait speed and Timed "Up & Go" Test [TUG]) are associated with performance on 2 neuropsychological tests of executive function (Trail Making Test, part B [TMT-B], and Stroop-Interference, calculated from the Stroop Word Color Test) in sedentary older adults with aMCI. The study was a cross-sectional analysis of 201 sedentary older adults with memory impairment participating in a longitudinal intervention study of cognitive function, aging, exercise, and health promotion. Physical performance speed on gait and mobility tasks was measured via usual gait speed and the TUG (at fast pace). Executive function was measured with the TMT-B and Stroop-Interference measures. Applying multiple linear regression, usual gait speed was associated with executive function on both the TMT-B (β=-0.215, P=.003) and Stroop-Interference (β=-0.195, P=.01) measures, indicating that slower usual gait speed was associated with lower executive function performance. Timed "Up & Go" Test scores (in logarithmic transformation) also were associated with executive function on both the TMT-B (β=0.256, Pfunction performance. All associations remained statistically significant after adjusting for age, sex, depressive symptoms, medical comorbidity, and body mass index. The cross-sectional nature of this study does not allow for inferences of causation. Physical performance speed was associated with executive function after adjusting for age, sex, and age-related factors in sedentary older adults with aMCI. Further research is needed to determine

  1. Age-related cognitive decline as a function of daytime testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puiu, Andrei Alexandru

    2017-05-01

    The current study investigates the effects of age, cognitive load, optimal time-of-day testing, and irrelevant background noise suppression on mental processing. One hundred and seventy-eight young (M = 22.97 years) and 114 old adults (M = 56.38 years) were assessed for implicit learning and speed of information processing under irrelevant sound interference early during daytime (7AM-2.30PM) or in the afternoons (3PM-midnight). No direct effect of irrelevant speech effect was found on implicit learning. An optimal time of testing per age group was identified according to the ability to suppress irrelevant auditory information. If no semantic meaning was derived from the sound conditions, irrelevant sound was easily inhibited leaving no room for declined cognitive performance. This suggests an intact phonological inhibition in older adults and a further circumvention of the phonological loop. However, when difficulty was increased, a widened performance gap between young and old people could be observed. Education modulated difficult performance irrespective of age. With increasing age, task demand fulfillment becomes a function of a limited time mechanism. If extraneous time is not adapted to cognitive skills and performance, higher order processing cannot be reached, rendering older adults slower than their younger counterparts.

  2. Association between exposure to work stressors and cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuori, Marko; Akila, Ritva; Kalakoski, Virpi; Pentti, Jaana; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi; Härmä, Mikko; Puttonen, Sampsa

    2014-04-01

    To examine the association between work stress and cognitive performance. Cognitive performance of a total of 99 women (mean age = 47.3 years) working in hospital wards at either the top or bottom quartiles of job strain was assessed using validated tests that measured learning, short-term memory, and speed of memory retrieval. The high job strain group (n = 43) had lower performance than the low job strain group (n = 56) in learning (P = 0.025), short-term memory (P = 0.027), and speed of memory retrieval (P = 0.003). After controlling for education level, only the difference in speed of memory retrieval remained statistically significant (P = 0.010). The association found between job strain and speed of memory retrieval might be one important factor explaining the effect of stress on work performance.

  3. Validation of the Cognition Test Battery for Spaceflight in a Sample of Highly Educated Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Tyler M; Basner, Mathias; Nasrini, Jad; Hermosillo, Emanuel; Kabadi, Sushila; Roalf, David R; McGuire, Sarah; Ecker, Adrian J; Ruparel, Kosha; Port, Allison M; Jackson, Chad T; Dinges, David F; Gur, Ruben C

    2017-10-01

    Neuropsychological changes that may occur due to the environmental and psychological stressors of prolonged spaceflight motivated the development of the Cognition Test Battery. The battery was designed to assess multiple domains of neurocognitive functions linked to specific brain systems. Tests included in Cognition have been validated, but not in high-performing samples comparable to astronauts, which is an essential step toward ensuring their usefulness in long-duration space missions. We administered Cognition (on laptop and iPad) and the WinSCAT, counterbalanced for order and version, in a sample of 96 subjects (50% women; ages 25-56 yr) with at least a Master's degree in science, technology, engineering, or mathematics (STEM). We assessed the associations of age, sex, and administration device with neurocognitive performance, and compared the scores on the Cognition battery with those of WinSCAT. Confirmatory factor analysis compared the structure of the iPad and laptop administration methods using Wald tests. Age was associated with longer response times (mean β = 0.12) and less accurate (mean β = -0.12) performance, women had longer response times on psychomotor (β = 0.62), emotion recognition (β = 0.30), and visuo-spatial (β = 0.48) tasks, men outperformed women on matrix reasoning (β = -0.34), and performance on an iPad was generally faster (mean β = -0.55). The WinSCAT appeared heavily loaded with tasks requiring executive control, whereas Cognition assessed a larger variety of neurocognitive domains. Overall results supported the interpretation of Cognition scores as measuring their intended constructs in high performing astronaut analog samples.Moore TM, Basner M, Nasrini J, Hermosillo E, Kabadi S, Roalf DR, McGuire S, Ecker AJ, Ruparel K, Port AM, Jackson CT, Dinges DF, Gur RC. Validation of the Cognition Test Battery for spaceflight in a sample of highly educated adults. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(10):937-946.

  4. The influence of genetic and environmental factors among MDMA users in cognitive performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabet Cuyàs

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to clarify the association between MDMA cumulative use and cognitive dysfunction, and the potential role of candidate genetic polymorphisms in explaining individual differences in the cognitive effects of MDMA. Gene polymorphisms related to reduced serotonin function, poor competency of executive control and memory consolidation systems, and high enzymatic activity linked to bioactivation of MDMA to neurotoxic metabolites may contribute to explain variations in the cognitive impact of MDMA across regular users of this drug. Sixty ecstasy polydrug users, 110 cannabis users and 93 non-drug users were assessed using cognitive measures of Verbal Memory (California Verbal Learning Test, CVLT, Visual Memory (Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, ROCFT, Semantic Fluency, and Perceptual Attention (Symbol Digit Modalities Test, SDMT. Participants were also genotyped for polymorphisms within the 5HTT, 5HTR2A, COMT, CYP2D6, BDNF, and GRIN2B genes using polymerase chain reaction and TaqMan polymerase assays. Lifetime cumulative MDMA use was significantly associated with poorer performance on visuospatial memory and perceptual attention. Heavy MDMA users (>100 tablets lifetime use interacted with candidate gene polymorphisms in explaining individual differences in cognitive performance between MDMA users and controls. MDMA users carrying COMT val/val and SERT s/s had poorer performance than paired controls on visuospatial attention and memory, and MDMA users with CYP2D6 ultra-rapid metabolizers performed worse than controls on semantic fluency. Both MDMA lifetime use and gene-related individual differences influence cognitive dysfunction in ecstasy users.

  5. Cold acclimation and cognitive performance: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Douglas M; Bailey, Stephen P; Roelands, Bart; Buono, Michael J; Meeusen, Romain

    2017-12-01

    Athletes, occupational workers, and military personnel experience cold temperatures through cold air exposure or cold water immersion, both of which impair cognitive performance. Prior work has shown that neurophysiological pathways may be sensitive to the effects of temperature acclimation and, therefore, cold acclimation may be a potential strategy to attenuate cold-induced cognitive impairments for populations that are frequently exposed to cold environments. This review provides an overview of studies that examine repeated cold stress, cold acclimation, and measurements of cognitive performance to determine whether or not cold acclimation provides beneficial protection against cold-induced cognitive performance decrements. Studies included in this review assessed cognitive measures of reaction time, attention, logical reasoning, information processing, and memory. Repeated cold stress, with or without evidence of cold acclimation, appears to offer no added benefit of improving cognitive performance. However, research in this area is greatly lacking and, therefore, it is difficult to draw any definitive conclusions regarding the use of cold acclimation to improve cognitive performance during subsequent cold exposures. Given the current state of minimal knowledge on this topic, athletes, occupational workers, and military commands looking to specifically enhance cognitive performance in cold environments would likely not be advised to spend the time and effort required to become acclimated to cold. However, as more knowledge becomes available in this area, recommendations may change. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. An fMRI study on variation of visuospatial cognitive performance of young male due to highly concentrated oxygen administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Soon Cheol; Kim, Ik Hyeon; Tack, Gye Rae; Sohn, Jin Hun

    2004-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of 30% oxygen administration on the visuospatial cognitive performance using fMRI. Eight college students (right-handed, average age 23.5) were selected as subjects for this study. Oxygen supply equipment which gives 21% and 30% oxygen at a constant rate of 8L/min was developed for this study. To measure the performance of visuospatial cognition, two questionnaires with similar difficulty containing 20 questions each were also developed. Experiment was designed as two runs: run for visuospatial cognition test with normal air (21% of oxygen) and run for visuospatial cognition test with highly concentrated air (30% of oxygen). Run consists of 4 blocks and each block has 8 control problems and 5 visuospatial problems. Functional brain images were taken from 3T MRI using single-shot EPI method. Activities of neural network due to performing visuospatial cognition test were identified using subtraction procedure, and activation areas while performing visuospatial cognition test were extracted using double subtraction procedure. Activities were observed at occipital lobe, parietal lobe, and frontal lobe when performing visuospatial cognition test following both 21% and 30% oxygen administration. But in case of only 30% oxygen administration there were more activities at left precuneus, left cuneus, right postcentral gyrus, bilateral middle frontal gyri, right inferior frontal gyrus, left superior frontal gyrus, bilateral uvula, bilateral pyramis, and nodule compared with 21% oxygen administration. From results of visuospatial cognition test, accuracy rate increased in case of 30% oxygen administration. Thus it could be concluded that highly concentrated oxygen administration has positive effects on the visuospatial cognitive performance.

  7. Cognitive Performance during a 24-Hour Cold Exposure Survival Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Taber

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Survivor of a ship ground in polar regions may have to wait more than five days before being rescued. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore cognitive performance during prolonged cold exposure. Core temperature (Tc and cognitive test battery (CTB performance data were collected from eight participants during 24 hours of cold exposure (7.5°C ambient air temperature. Participants (recruited from those who have regular occupational exposure to cold were instructed that they could freely engage in minimal exercise that was perceived to maintaining a tolerable level of thermal comfort. Despite the active engagement, test conditions were sufficient to significantly decrease Tc after exposure and to eliminate the typical 0.5–1.0°C circadian rise and drop in core temperature throughout a 24 h cycle. Results showed minimal changes in CTB performance regardless of exposure time. Based on the results, it is recommended that survivors who are waiting for rescue should be encouraged to engage in mild physical activity, which could have the benefit of maintaining metabolic heat production, improve motivation, and act as a distractor from cold discomfort. This recommendation should be taken into consideration during future research and when considering guidelines for mandatory survival equipment regarding cognitive performance.

  8. A Systematic Review of the Effect of Cognitive Strategies on Strength Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tod, David; Edwards, Christian; McGuigan, Mike; Lovell, Geoff

    2015-11-01

    Researchers have tested the beliefs of sportspeople and sports medicine specialists that cognitive strategies influence strength performance. Few investigators have synthesised the literature. The specific objectives were to review evidence regarding (a) the cognitive strategy-strength performance relationship; (b) participant skill level as a moderator; and (c) cognitive, motivational, biomechanical/physiological, and emotional mediators. Studies were sourced via electronic databases, reference lists of retrieved articles, and manual searches of relevant journals. Studies had to be randomised or counterbalanced experiments with a control group or condition, repeated measures, and a quality control score above 0.5 (out of 1). Cognitive strategies included goal setting, imagery, self-talk, preparatory arousal, and free choice. Dependent variables included maximal strength, local muscular endurance, or muscular power. Globally, cognitive strategies were reliability associated with increased strength performance (results ranged from 61 to 65 %). Results were mixed when examining the effects of specific strategies on particular dependent variables, although no intervention had an overall negative influence. Indeterminate relationships emerged regarding hypothesised mediators (except cognitive variables) and participant skill level as a moderator. Although cognitive strategies influence strength performance, there are knowledge gaps regarding specific types of strength, especially muscular power. Cognitive variables, such as concentration, show promise as possible mediators.

  9. Residual Negative Symptoms Differentiate Cognitive Performance in Clinically Stable Patients with Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder

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    Rajeev Krishnadas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive deficits in various domains have been shown in patients with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. The purpose of the present study was to examine if residual psychopathology explained the difference in cognitive function between clinically stable patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. We compared the performance on tests of attention, visual and verbal memory, and executive function of 25 patients with schizophrenia in remission and 25 euthymic bipolar disorder patients with that of 25 healthy controls. Mediation analysis was used to see if residual psychopathology could explain the difference in cognitive function between the patient groups. Both patient groups performed significantly worse than healthy controls on most cognitive tests. Patients with bipolar disorder displayed cognitive deficits that were milder but qualitatively similar to those of patients with schizophrenia. Residual negative symptoms mediated the difference in performance on cognitive tests between the two groups. Neither residual general psychotic symptoms nor greater antipsychotic doses explained this relationship. The shared variance explained by the residual negative and cognitive deficits that the difference between patient groups may be explained by greater frontal cortical neurophysiological deficits in patients with schizophrenia, compared to bipolar disorder. Further longitudinal work may provide insight into pathophysiological mechanisms that underlie these deficits.

  10. Investigating gaze-controlled input in a cognitive selection test

    OpenAIRE

    Gayraud, Katja; Hasse, Catrin; Eißfeldt, Hinnerk; Pannasch, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    In the field of aviation, there is a growing interest in developing more natural forms of interaction between operators and systems to enhance safety and efficiency. These efforts also include eye gaze as an input channel for human-machine interaction. The present study investigates the application of gaze-controlled input in a cognitive selection test called Eye Movement Conflict Detection Test. The test enables eye movements to be studied as an indicator for psychological test performance a...

  11. Stress and Cognitive Reserve as independent factors of neuropsychological performance in healthy elderly

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    João Carlos Centurion Cabral

    Full Text Available Abstract Exposure to high levels of cortisol and self-reported stress, as well as cognitive reserve, have been linked to Alzheimer’s disease pathology. However, there are no studies on the interaction of these variables. The present study aims to assess the associations of measures of cortisol, self-reported stress, and cognitive reserve with neuropsychological performance in healthy elderly people; besides, to test the interactions between these variables. Cross-sectional analyzes were conducted using data on stress, cognitive reserve and clinical conditions in 145 healthy elderly adults. A neuropsychological battery was used to assess executive functions, verbal memory and processing speed. Measurement of salivary cortisol at the circadian nadir was taken. A negative association between different stress measures and performance on tasks of memory, executive functions and processing speed was observed. Elderly people with higher cognitive reserve showed superior performance on all neuropsychological measures. No significant interaction between stress and cognitive reserve to neuropsychological performance was observed. These results indicate that older adults with high levels of stress and reduced cognitive reserve may be more susceptible to cognitive impairment.

  12. Influence of schooling and age on cognitive performance in healthy older adults

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    N.V.O. Bento-Torres

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined the influence of a low level of schooling on age-related cognitive decline in countries with wide social and economic inequalities by using the Cambridge Automated Neuropsychological Test Battery (CANTAB. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of schooling on age-related cognitive decline using unbiased cognitive tests. CANTAB allows cognitive assessment across cultures and education levels with reduced interference of the examiner during data acquisition. Using two-way ANOVA, we assessed the influences of age and education on test scores of old adults (61–84 years of age. CANTAB tests included: Visual Sustained Attention, Reaction Time, Spatial Working Memory, Learning and Episodic Memory. All subjects had a minimum visual acuity of 20/30 (Snellen Test, no previous or current history of traumatic brain/head trauma, stroke, language impairment, chronic alcoholism, neurological diseases, memory problems or depressive symptoms, and normal scores on the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE. Subjects were grouped according to education level (1 to 7 and ≥8 years of schooling and age (60–69 and ≥70 years. Low schooling level was associated with significantly lower performance on visual sustained attention, learning and episodic memory, reaction time, and spatial working memory. Although reaction time was influenced by age, no significant results on post hoc analysis were detected. Our findings showed a significantly worse cognitive performance in volunteers with lower levels of schooling and suggested that formal education in early life must be included in the preventive public health agenda. In addition, we suggest that CANTAB may be useful to detect subtle cognitive changes in healthy aging.

  13. Stability of cognitive performance in children with mild intellectual disability.

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    Jenni, Oskar G; Fintelmann, Sylvia; Caflisch, Jon; Latal, Beatrice; Rousson, Valentin; Chaouch, Aziz

    2015-05-01

    Longitudinal studies that have examined cognitive performance in children with intellectual disability more than twice over the course of their development are scarce. We assessed population and individual stability of cognitive performance in a clinical sample of children with borderline to mild non-syndromic intellectual disability. Thirty-six children (28 males, eight females; age range 3-19y) with borderline to mild intellectual disability (Full-scale IQ [FSIQ] 50-85) of unknown origin were examined in a retrospective clinical case series using linear mixed models including at least three assessments with standardized intelligence tests. Average cognitive performance remained remarkably stable over time (high population stability, drop of only 0.38 IQ points per year, standard error=0.39, p=0.325) whereas individual stability was at best moderate (intraclass correlation of 0.58), indicating that about 60% of the residual variation in FSIQ scores can be attributed to between-child variability. Neither sex nor socio-economic status had a statistically significant impact on FSIQ. Although intellectual disability during childhood is a relatively stable phenomenon, individual stability of IQ is only moderate, likely to be caused by test-to-test reliability (e.g. level of child's cooperation, motivation, and attention). Therefore, clinical decisions and predictions should not rely on single IQ assessments, but should also consider adaptive functioning and previous developmental history. © 2014 Mac Keith Press.

  14. Ego depletion in color priming research: self-control strength moderates the detrimental effect of red on cognitive test performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrams, Alex; Baumeister, Roy F; Englert, Chris; Furley, Philip

    2015-03-01

    Colors have been found to affect psychological functioning. Empirical evidence suggests that, in test situations, brief perceptions of the color red or even the word "red" printed in black ink prime implicit anxious responses and consequently impair cognitive performance. However, we propose that this red effect depends on people's momentary capacity to exert control over their prepotent responses (i.e., self-control). In three experiments (Ns = 66, 78, and 130), first participants' self-control strength was manipulated. Participants were then primed with the color or word red versus gray prior to completing an arithmetic test or an intelligence test. As expected, self-control strength moderated the red effect. While red had a detrimental effect on performance of participants with depleted self-control strength (ego depletion), it did not affect performance of participants with intact self-control strength. We discuss implications of the present findings within the current debate on the robustness of priming results. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  15. Motor Skills and Exercise Capacity Are Associated with Objective Measures of Cognitive Functions and Academic Performance in Preadolescent Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geertsen, Svend Sparre; Thomas, Richard; Larsen, Malte Nejst; Dahn, Ida Marie; Andersen, Josefine Needham; Krause-Jensen, Matilde; Korup, Vibeke; Nielsen, Claus Malta; Wienecke, Jacob; Ritz, Christian; Krustrup, Peter; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    To investigate associations between motor skills, exercise capacity and cognitive functions, and evaluate how they correlate to academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension using standardised, objective tests. This cross-sectional study included 423 Danish children (age: 9.29±0.35 years, 209 girls). Fine and gross motor skills were evaluated in a visuomotor accuracy-tracking task, and a whole-body coordination task, respectively. Exercise capacity was estimated from the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 children's test (YYIR1C). Selected tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) were used to assess different domains of cognitive functions, including sustained attention, spatial working memory, episodic and semantic memory, and processing speed. Linear mixed-effects models were used to investigate associations between these measures and the relationship with standard tests of academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension. Both fine and gross motor skills were associated with better performance in all five tested cognitive domains (all Pmotor skills (all Pmotor skills are positively correlated with several aspects of cognitive functions and with academic performance in both mathematics and reading comprehension. Moreover, exercise capacity was associated with academic performance and performance in some cognitive domains. Future interventions should investigate associations between changes in motor skills, exercise capacity, cognitive functions, and academic performance to elucidate the causality of these associations.

  16. Job applicants’ attitudes towards cognitive ability and personality testing

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    Rachelle Visser

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Growing research has shown that not only test validity considerations but also the test-taking attitudes of job applicants are important in the choice of selection instruments as these can contribute to test performance and the perceived fairness of the selection process. Research purpose: The main purpose of this study was to determine the test-taking attitudes of a diverse group of job applicants towards personality and cognitive ability tests administered conjointly online as part of employee selection in a financial services company in South Africa. Motivation for the study: If users understand how job applicants view specific test types, they will know which assessments are perceived more negatively and how this situation can potentially be rectified. Research design, approach and method: A non-experimental and cross-sectional survey design was used. An adapted version of the Test Attitude Survey was used to determine job applicants’ attitudes towards tests administered online as part of an employee selection process. The sample consisted of a group of job applicants (N = 160 who were diverse in terms of ethnicity and age and the educational level applicable for sales and supervisory positions. Main findings: On average, the job applicants responded equally positively to the cognitive ability and personality tests. The African job applicants had a statistically significantly more positive attitude towards the tests than the other groups, and candidates applying for the sales position viewed the cognitive ability tests significantly less positively than the personality test. Practical and managerial implications: The choice of selection tests used in combination as well as the testing conditions that are applicable should be considered carefully as they are the factors that can potentially influence the test-taking motivation and general test-taking attitudes of job applicants. Contribution: This study consolidated the

  17. Cognitive performance patterns in healthy individuals with substantia nigra hyperechogenicity and early Parkinson’s disease

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    Rezzak Yilmaz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hyperechogenicity of the substantia nigra (SN+ is a risk marker for Parkinson’s disease (PD which can be detected before the diagnosis. In healthy individuals, SN+ has been associated with slight deficits in specific cognitive functions, suggesting cognitive impairment as a possible pre-diagnostic marker for PD. However, the pattern of cognitive deficits associated with SN+ has not yet been compared with those present in PD.Methods: Data of 262 healthy individuals with normal echogenicity (SN- and 48 healthy individuals with SN+ were compared with 82 early stage PD patients using the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s disease test battery. First, the test clusters (factors were identified using a principal component analysis (PCA. Mean group performance of cognitive tests belonging to distinct factors, according to the PCA, and single subtest performances were compared using analyses of variance. Second, the number of individuals with abnormal cognitive performances (z-score <-1.0 were compared between groups. Results: Verbal memory, semantic and executive function, and praxis were identified as components of cognitive performances. The SN+ group performed significantly worse than the SN- group in tests assessing semantic and executive function, with a non-significant decrease in verbal memory. On the subtest level, individuals of the SN+ group scored significantly lower than the SN- group on the Boston Naming Test (BNT (p=0.008. In all subtests, the percentages of PD patients with values below the cut-off for abnormal performance were higher than in the SN- group. Moreover, more individuals from the SN+ group scored below the cut-off in the BNT (SN-=8.4%, SN+=20.8%, p=0.01 and TMT-B (SN-=6.9%, SN+=16.7%, p=0.02, compared to the SN- group. Conclusion: This study confirms poorer performance of healthy individuals with SN+ compared to SN- in specific cognitive domains. However, against the SN- group, the cognitive

  18. Old world monkeys compare to apes in the primate cognition test battery.

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    Vanessa Schmitt

    Full Text Available Understanding the evolution of intelligence rests on comparative analyses of brain sizes as well as the assessment of cognitive skills of different species in relation to potential selective pressures such as environmental conditions and social organization. Because of the strong interest in human cognition, much previous work has focused on the comparison of the cognitive skills of human toddlers to those of our closest living relatives, i.e. apes. Such analyses revealed that apes and children have relatively similar competencies in the physical domain, while human children excel in the socio-cognitive domain; in particular in terms of attention sharing, cooperation, and mental state attribution. To develop a full understanding of the evolutionary dynamics of primate intelligence, however, comparative data for monkeys are needed. We tested 18 Old World monkeys (long-tailed macaques and olive baboons in the so-called Primate Cognition Test Battery (PCTB (Herrmann et al. 2007, Science. Surprisingly, our tests revealed largely comparable results between Old World monkeys and the Great apes. Single comparisons showed that chimpanzees performed only better than the macaques in experiments on spatial understanding and tool use, but in none of the socio-cognitive tasks. These results question the clear-cut relationship between cognitive performance and brain size and--prima facie--support the view of an accelerated evolution of social intelligence in humans. One limitation, however, is that the initial experiments were devised to tap into human specific skills in the first place, thus potentially underestimating both true nonhuman primate competencies as well as species differences.

  19. Test Performance Related Dysfunctional Beliefs

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    Recep TÜTÜNCÜ

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Examinations by using tests are very frequently used in educational settings and successful studying before the examinations is a complex matter to deal with. In order to understand the determinants of success in exams better, we need to take into account not only emotional and motivational, but also cognitive aspects of the participants such as dysfunctional beliefs. Our aim is to present the relationship between candidates’ characteristics and distorted beliefs/schemata just before an examination. Method: The subjects of the study were 30 female and 30 male physicians who were about to take the medical specialization exam (MSE in Turkey. Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS and Young Schema Questionnaire Short Form (YSQ-SF were applied to the subjects. The statistical analysis was done using the F test, Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, chi-square test and spearman’s correlation test. Results: It was shown that some of the DAS and YSQ-SF scores were significantly higher in female gender, in the group who could not pass the exam, who had repetitive examinations, who had their first try taking an examination and who were unemployed at the time of the examination. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that candidates seeking help before MSE examination could be referred for cognitive therapy or counseling even they do not have any psychiatric diagnosis due to clinically significant cognitive distortion. Measurement and treatment of cognitive distortions that have negative impact on MSE performance may improve the cost-effectiveness and mental well being of the young doctors.

  20. Mobile Testing of Cognitive Function : A tool for assessment of cognitive abilities in an everyday environment using a handheld device

    OpenAIRE

    Fouchenette, Kim

    2011-01-01

    The unit of Cognitive Developmental Neuroscience at Karolinska Institutet have developed a method for measuring cognitive performance with handheld devices, which resulted in a mobile application for the iPod Touch. The application was previously used in a clinical trial with individuals suffering from chronic stress disorder, but had to be further developed. The application, which consisted of cognitive tests and questionnaires, required improvements that could be divided into three parts: (...

  1. First stages chronic kidney disease have mild effects on cognitive performance. Results of a 15,105 brazilian adult baseline cohort

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    Valéria Maria de Azeredo Passos

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The aging of the population may lead to an increased prevalence of dementia and chronic kidney disease (CKD and their overlap. Objective: We investigated the association between CKD and cognitive performance among Brazilian adults (35-74 years. Methods: Baseline data analysis of the Longitudinal Study of Adults (ELSA-Brasil, a multicenter cohort comprising 15,105 civil servants, was performed. Kidney function was defined by the CKD-Epi-estimated GRF and albumin creatinin ratio (ACR. Cognitive performance was measured across tests that included the word memory tests, verbal fluency tests and Trail Making Test B. Multiple logistic and linear regressions were used to investigate the association between CKD and global as well as test-specific lowered cognitive performance. Results: More than 90% of participants did not present CKD even considering reduced GFR or increased ACR simultaneously. Lowered cognitive performance was detected among 15.8% of the participants and mean values of GFR were slightly higher among those with normal than with lowered cognitive performance (86 ± 15 mL/min/1.73 m2 x 85 ± 16 mL/min/1.73 m2, p < 0.01. Age, education, skin-color, smoking, drinking, hypertension, and diabetes were associated with lowered cognition. After adjustment for these variables, there was no association between CKD and lowered cognitive performance. Negligibly small beta values were observed when analyzing CKD and the scores of all tests. Conclusion: These results suggest that cognitive performance remains preserved until renal function reaches significant worsening. Preventive measures to maintain renal function may contribute to the preservation of cognitive function.

  2. Intraindividual variability in cognitive performance in persons with chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, K; Hunter, M A; Strauss, E; Hultsch, D F

    2001-05-01

    Studies of cognitive performance among persons with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) have yielded inconsistent results. We sought to contribute to findings in this area by examining intraindividual variability as well as level of performance in cognitive functioning. A battery of cognitive measures was administered to 14 CFS patients and 16 healthy individuals on 10 weekly occasions. Analyses comparing the two groups in terms of level of performance defined by latency and accuracy scores revealed that the CFS patients were slower but not less accurate than healthy persons. The CFS group showed greater intraindividual variability (as measured by intraindividual standard deviations and coefficients of variation) than the healthy group, although the results varied by task and time frame. Intraindividual variability was found to be stable across time and correlated across tasks at each testing occasion. Intraindividual variability also uniquely differentiated the groups. The present findings support the proposition that intraindividual variability is a meaningful indicator of cognitive functioning in CFS patients.

  3. Analysis of brief language tests in the detection of cognitive decline and dementia

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    Marcia Radanovic

    Full Text Available Abstract Lexical access difficulties are frequent in normal aging and initial stages of dementia. Verbal fluency tests are valuable to detect cognitive decline, evidencing lexico-semantic and executive dysfunction. Objectives: To establish which language tests can contribute in detecting dementia and to verify schooling influence on subject performance. Method: 74 subjects: 33 controls, 17 Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR 0.5 and 24 (Brief Cognitive Battery - BCB e Boston Naming Test - BNT 1 were compared in tests of semantic verbal fluency (animal and fruit, picture naming (BCB and BNT and the language items of Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE. Results: There were significant differences between the control group and both CDR 0.5 and CDR 1 in all tests. Cut-off scores were: 11 and 10 for animal fluency, 8 for fruit fluency (in both, 8 and 9 for BCB naming. The CDR 0.5 group performed better than the CDR 1 group only in animal fluency. Stepwise multiple regression revealed fruit fluency, animal fluency and BCB naming as the best discriminators between patients and controls (specificity: 93.8%; sensitivity: 91.3%. In controls, comparison between illiterates and literates evidenced schooling influence in all tests, except for fruit fluency and BCB naming. In patients with dementia, only fruit fluency was uninfluenced by schooling. Conclusion: The combination of verbal fluency tests in two semantic categories along with a simple picture naming test is highly sensitive in detecting cognitive decline. Comparison between literate and illiterate subjects shows a lesser degree of influence of schooling on the selected tests, thus improving discrimination between low performance and incipient cognitive decline.

  4. Effects of the Addition of a Dual Task to a Supervised Physical Exercise Program on Older Adults' Cognitive Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansai, Juliana Hotta; de Andrade, Larissa Pires; de Souza Buto, Marcele Stephanie; de Vassimon Barroso, Verena; Farche, Ana Claudia Silva; Rossi, Paulo Giusti; de Medeiros Takahashi, Anielle Cristhine

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the addition of a dual task to multicomponent training on cognition of active older adults. Eighty physically active older adults were divided into an intervention group (IG) and a control group (CG). Both groups performed multicomponent training over 12 weeks. The IG simultaneously performed exercises and cognitive tasks. The Mini-Mental State Examination, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, and the Clock Drawing Test were used for cognitive assessments. The Timed Up and Go Test associated with a cognitive task was used for dual-task assessment. Significant interactions were not observed between groups in terms of the cognitive variables or the dual-task performance. An interaction was observed only for Timed Up and Go Test performance, which was better in the CG than in the IG. Active older adults showed no improvement in cognition following the addition of the dual task to the multicomponent training.

  5. Clinical usefulness of the clock drawing test applying rasch analysis in predicting of cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Doo Han; Lee, Jae Shin

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the clinical usefulness of the clock drawing test applying Rasch analysis for predicting the level of cognitive impairment. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 187 stroke patients with cognitive impairment were enrolled in this study. The 187 patients were evaluated by the clock drawing test developed through Rasch analysis along with the mini-mental state examination of cognitive evaluation tool. An analysis of the variance was performed to examine the significance of the mini-mental state examination and the clock drawing test according to the general characteristics of the subjects. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed to determine the cutoff point for cognitive impairment and to calculate the sensitivity and specificity values. [Results] The results of comparison of the clock drawing test with the mini-mental state showed significant differences in according to gender, age, education, and affected side. A total CDT of 10.5, which was selected as the cutoff point to identify cognitive impairement, showed a sensitivity, specificity, Youden index, positive predictive, and negative predicive values of 86.4%, 91.5%, 0.8, 95%, and 88.2%. [Conclusion] The clock drawing test is believed to be useful in assessments and interventions based on its excellent ability to identify cognitive disorders.

  6. Study of the Efficacy of Cognitive Restructuring Teaching at Student\\'s Attribution Style and Academic Performance

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    Niloofar Mikaeili

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: One of the education ministry’s concerns in high schools is the problem of academic achievement. The researches have mentioned that student’s false attribution and absence of scholastic counseling service are the most important factors affecting student’s low performance and achievements. The main goal of this research was to study the rate of cognitive reconstructive effect on attribution style and girl students’ academic performance at high school in Khalkhal. Methods: Pre-test and post-test experimental designs with control group were used in this study. Thirty high school girl students were chosen randomly in 2 groups including 15 persons in experimental group and 15 persons in control group. Eight sessions of cognitive reconstructive counseling, like communal for experimental group, were held. Subjects were evaluated by attributive style inventory and school year average by per-test and post–test. The general hypothesis was “cognitive reconstructive education influence, students’ attribution style and academic performance”. Manava and independent groups’ t-test for testing hypotheses were used. Results: Analyses showed that cognitive reconstructive education increase internal, permanent and general attributions for positive events and decrease those attributions for negative events. Discussion: Cognitive reconstructive education increase students’ academic performance.

  7. Familial Longevity Is Marked by Better Cognitive Performance at Middle Age: The Leiden Longevity Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stijntjes, M.; Craen, A.J.M.; van Heemst, D.; Meskers, C.G.M.; van Buchem, M.A.; Westendorp, R.G.J.; Slagboom, P.E.; Maier, A.B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Decline in cognitive performance is a highly prevalent health condition in elderly. We studied whether offspring of nonagenarian siblings with a familial history of longevity, perform better on cognitive tests compared to their partners as controls. This is relevant since it could

  8. Reliability of two social cognition tests: The combined stories test and the social knowledge test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibaudeau, Élisabeth; Cellard, Caroline; Legendre, Maxime; Villeneuve, Karèle; Achim, Amélie M

    2018-04-01

    Deficits in social cognition are common in psychiatric disorders. Validated social cognition measures with good psychometric properties are necessary to assess and target social cognitive deficits. Two recent social cognition tests, the Combined Stories Test (COST) and the Social Knowledge Test (SKT), respectively assess theory of mind and social knowledge. Previous studies have shown good psychometric properties for these tests, but the test-retest reliability has never been documented. The aim of this study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability and the inter-rater reliability of the COST and the SKT. The COST and the SKT were administered twice to a group of forty-two healthy adults, with a delay of approximately four weeks between the assessments. Excellent test-retest reliability was observed for the COST, and a good test-retest reliability was observed for the SKT. There was no evidence of practice effect. Furthermore, an excellent inter-rater reliability was observed for both tests. This study shows a good reliability of the COST and the SKT that adds to the good validity previously reported for these two tests. These good psychometrics properties thus support that the COST and the SKT are adequate measures for the assessment of social cognition. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Cross-sex hormone treatment does not change sex-sensitive cognitive performance in gender identity disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraldsen, Ira R; Egeland, Thore; Haug, Egil; Finset, Arnstein; Opjordsmoen, Stein

    2005-12-15

    Cognitive performance in untreated early onset gender identity disorder (GID) patients might correspond to their born sex and not to their perceived gender. As a current mode of intervention, cross-sex hormone treatment causes considerable physical changes in GID patients. We asked, as has been suggested, whether this treatment skews cognitive performance towards that of the acquired sex. Somatically healthy male and female early onset GID patients were neuropsychologically tested before, 3 and 12 months after initiating cross-sex hormone treatment, whereas untreated healthy subjects without GID served as controls (C). Performance was assessed by testing six cognitive abilities (perception, arithmetic, rotation, visualization, logic, and verbalization), and controlled for age, education, born sex, endocrine differences and treatment by means of repeated measures analysis of variance. GID patients and controls showed an identical time-dependent improvement in cognitive performance. The slopes were essentially parallel for males and females. There was no significant three-way interaction of born sex by group by time for the six investigated cognitive abilities. Only education and age significantly influenced this improvement. Despite the substantial somatic cross-sex changes in GID patients, no differential effect on cognition over time was found between C and GID participants. The cognitive performance of cross-sex hormone-treated GID patients was virtually identical to that of the control group. The documented test-retest effect should be taken into consideration when evaluating treatment effects generally in psychiatry.

  10. The Test Your Memory for Mild Cognitive Impairment (TYM-MCI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jeremy M; Lansdall, Claire J; Wiggins, Julie; Dawson, Kate E; Hunter, Kristina; Rowe, James B; Parker, Richard A

    2017-12-01

    To validate a short cognitive test: the Test Your Memory for Mild Cognitive Impairment (TYM-MCI) in the diagnosis of patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment or mild Alzheimer's disease (aMCI/AD). Two hundred and two patients with mild memory problems were recruited. All had 'passed' the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Patients completed the TYM-MCI, the Test Your Memory test (TYM), MMSE and revised Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE-R), had a neurological examination, clinical diagnostics and multidisciplinary team review. As a single test, the TYM-MCI performed as well as the ACE-R in the distinction of patients with aMCI/AD from patients with subjective memory impairment with a sensitivity of 0.79 and specificity of 0.91. Used in combination with the ACE-R, it provided additional value and identified almost all cases of aMCI/AD. The TYM-MCI correctly classified most patients who had equivocal ACE-R scores. Integrated discriminant improvement analysis showed that the TYM-MCI added value to the conventional memory assessment. Patients initially diagnosed as unknown or with subjective memory impairment who were later rediagnosed with aMCI/AD scored poorly on their original TYM-MCI. The TYM-MCI is a powerful short cognitive test that examines verbal and visual recall and is a valuable addition to the assessment of patients with aMCI/AD. It is simple and cheap to administer and requires minimal staff time and training. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Effect of Cognitive Demand on Functional Visual Field Performance in Senior Drivers with Glaucoma

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    Viswa Gangeddula

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the effect of cognitive demand on functional visual field performance in drivers with glaucoma.Method: This study included 20 drivers with open-angle glaucoma and 13 age- and sex-matched controls. Visual field performance was evaluated under different degrees of cognitive demand: a static visual field condition (C1, dynamic visual field condition (C2, and dynamic visual field condition with active driving (C3 using an interactive, desktop driving simulator. The number of correct responses (accuracy and response times on the visual field task were compared between groups and between conditions using Kruskal–Wallis tests. General linear models were employed to compare cognitive workload, recorded in real-time through pupillometry, between groups and conditions.Results: Adding cognitive demand (C2 and C3 to the static visual field test (C1 adversely affected accuracy and response times, in both groups (p < 0.05. However, drivers with glaucoma performed worse than did control drivers when the static condition changed to a dynamic condition [C2 vs. C1 accuracy; glaucoma: median difference (Q1–Q3 3 (2–6.50 vs. controls: 2 (0.50–2.50; p = 0.05] and to a dynamic condition with active driving [C3 vs. C1 accuracy; glaucoma: 2 (2–6 vs. controls: 1 (0.50–2; p = 0.02]. Overall, drivers with glaucoma exhibited greater cognitive workload than controls (p = 0.02.Conclusion: Cognitive demand disproportionately affects functional visual field performance in drivers with glaucoma. Our results may inform the development of a performance-based visual field test for drivers with glaucoma.

  12. Sleep and cognitive performance: Cross-sectional associations from the UK Biobank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Simon D.; Sexton, Claire E.; Feige, Bernd; Luik, Annemarie; Lane, Jacqueline; Saxena, Richa; Anderson, Simon G.; Bechtold, David A.; Dixon, William; Little, Max; Ray, David; Riemann, Dieter; Espie, Colin A.; Rutter, Martin K.; Spiegelhalder, Kai

    2018-01-01

    Objective The relationship between insomnia symptoms and cognitive performance is unclear, particularly at the population level. We conducted the largest examination of this association to date through analysis of the UK Biobank, a large population-based sample of adults aged 40–69 yrs. We also sought to determine associations between cognitive performance and self-reported chronotype, sleep medication use, and sleep duration. Methods This cross-sectional, population-based study involved 477,529 participants, comprising 133,314 with frequent insomnia symptoms (age: 57.4 ± 7.7 yrs; 62.1% female) and 344,215 controls without (age: 56.1 ± 8.2 yrs; 52.0% female). Cognitive performance was assessed through a touchscreen test battery probing reasoning, basic reaction time, numeric memory, visual memory and prospective memory. Adjusted models included relevant demographic, clinical and sleep variables. Results Frequent insomnia symptoms were associated with cognitive impairment in unadjusted models, however these effects were reversed after full adjustment, leaving those with frequent insomnia symptoms showing statistically better cognitive performance over those without. Relative to intermediate chronotype, evening chronotype was associated with superior task performance, while morning chronotype was associated with the poorest performance. Sleep medication use and both long (>9hrs) and short (sleep duration were associated with impaired performance. Conclusions Our results suggest that after adjustment for potential confounding variables, frequent insomnia symptoms may be associated with a small statistical advantage, which is unlikely to be clinically meaningful, on simple neurocognitive tasks. Further work is required to examine mechanistic underpinnings of an apparent evening chronotype advantage in cognitive performance, as well as impairment associated with morning chronotype, sleep medication use, and sleep duration extremes. PMID:29031762

  13. Aging Audiences: Association of Live Performance Attendance and Cognitive Decline in a Biracial Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Kumar B; Rajan, Rekha S; Manning, Lydia K; Evans, Denis A

    2018-03-01

    To examine if attendance in live performances was associated with change in cognition among African Americans (AAs) and European Americans (EAs). The study consisted of 5,567 older adults with at least follow-up interview and analyzed using a linear mixed effects regression model adjusting for demographic and health variables. We found that frequent performance attendance was associated with slower decline in composite cognitive function among older AAs and EAs. Attending 10 or more performances per year was associated with 23% slower cognitive decline among AAs and 31% slower cognitive decline among EAs compared with those who never attend any performance. However, this difference was not significant ( p = .56). Attending live performances was also associated with slower decline in individual tests of perceptual speed, episodic memory, and mini-mental state exam (MMSE). Our findings suggest that live performances form a valuable component of arts engagement and should be encouraged for potential cognitive benefits.

  14. Smoking status and cognitive performance among vocational school students in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Pengjuan; Huang, Lili; Zhou, Shuang; Shi, Qiang; Xiao, Dan; Wang, Chen

    2018-02-01

    In countries where smoking is associated with lower socioeconomic status, smokers tend to perform worse on cognitive tasks than non-smokers. China is now undergoing a similar process with a recent study showing that there is a reduced cognitive performance in middle aged but not in elderly smokers. We examined the links between smoking status and cognitive functioning among vocational school students in Beijing, China. A total of 213 students aged 16-20 (98 smokers and 115 non-smokers) were recruited from three vocational schools in Beijing. Participants completed three subtests of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) (information, arithmetic, digit span) and Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX). Smokers also completed a cigarette smoking questionnaire and Fagerstrom Test of Nicotine Dependence (FTND). Smokers performed worse than non-smokers in tests of arithmetic and digit span forward (t = 4.25, 2.05, both P < .05). Scores on digit span backward did not differentiate smokers and non-smokers, but among smokers, the performance on this subtest was related to the age of starting smoking (r = 0.26, p < .001). Cognitive performance in smokers was not related to tobacco dependence or intensity of smoking. Compared to non-smokers, smokers had a higher total DEX score and higher scores on three of its five subscales (Inhibition, Knowing-doing dissociation and Social regulation, all p < .05). Another subscale, In-resistance, did not differentiate smokers and non-smokers, but differentiated smokers with lower and higher levels of nicotine dependence (t = -2.12, p < .05). Smokers performed worse on some cognitive tasks than non-smokers and scored higher on a questionnaire assessing executive dysfunction. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Motor Skills and Exercise Capacity Are Associated with Objective Measures of Cognitive Functions and Academic Performance in Preadolescent Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Richard; Larsen, Malte Nejst; Dahn, Ida Marie; Andersen, Josefine Needham; Krause-Jensen, Matilde; Korup, Vibeke; Nielsen, Claus Malta; Wienecke, Jacob; Ritz, Christian; Krustrup, Peter; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate associations between motor skills, exercise capacity and cognitive functions, and evaluate how they correlate to academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension using standardised, objective tests. Methods This cross-sectional study included 423 Danish children (age: 9.29±0.35 years, 209 girls). Fine and gross motor skills were evaluated in a visuomotor accuracy-tracking task, and a whole-body coordination task, respectively. Exercise capacity was estimated from the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 children's test (YYIR1C). Selected tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) were used to assess different domains of cognitive functions, including sustained attention, spatial working memory, episodic and semantic memory, and processing speed. Linear mixed-effects models were used to investigate associations between these measures and the relationship with standard tests of academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension. Results Both fine and gross motor skills were associated with better performance in all five tested cognitive domains (all Pperformance in mathematics and reading comprehension. Conclusions The data demonstrate that fine and gross motor skills are positively correlated with several aspects of cognitive functions and with academic performance in both mathematics and reading comprehension. Moreover, exercise capacity was associated with academic performance and performance in some cognitive domains. Future interventions should investigate associations between changes in motor skills, exercise capacity, cognitive functions, and academic performance to elucidate the causality of these associations. PMID:27560512

  16. [Mokken scaling of the Cognitive Screening Test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesfeldt, H F A

    2009-10-01

    The Cognitive Screening Test (CST) is a twenty-item orientation questionnaire in Dutch, that is commonly used to evaluate cognitive impairment. This study applied Mokken Scale Analysis, a non-parametric set of techniques derived from item response theory (IRT), to CST-data of 466 consecutive participants in psychogeriatric day care. The full item set and the standard short version of fourteen items both met the assumptions of the monotone homogeneity model, with scalability coefficient H = 0.39, which is considered weak. In order to select items that would fulfil the assumption of invariant item ordering or the double monotonicity model, the subjects were randomly partitioned into a training set (50% of the sample) and a test set (the remaining half). By means of an automated item selection eleven items were found to measure one latent trait, with H = 0.67 and item H coefficients larger than 0.51. Cross-validation of the item analysis in the remaining half of the subjects gave comparable values (H = 0.66; item H coefficients larger than 0.56). The selected items involve year, place of residence, birth date, the monarch's and prime minister's names, and their predecessors. Applying optimal discriminant analysis (ODA) it was found that the full set of twenty CST items performed best in distinguishing two predefined groups of patients of lower or higher cognitive ability, as established by an independent criterion derived from the Amsterdam Dementia Screening Test. The chance corrected predictive value or prognostic utility was 47.5% for the full item set, 45.2% for the fourteen items of the standard short version of the CST, and 46.1% for the homogeneous, unidimensional set of selected eleven items. The results of the item analysis support the application of the CST in cognitive assessment, and revealed a more reliable 'short' version of the CST than the standard short version (CST14).

  17. Effects of Cognitive Training on Cognitive Performance of Healthy Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golino, Mariana Teles Santos; Flores Mendoza, Carmen; Golino, Hudson Fernandes

    2017-09-20

    The purpose of this study was to determine the immediate effects of cognitive training on healthy older adults and verify the transfer effects of targeted and non-targeted abilities. The design consisted of a semi-randomized clinical controlled trial. The final sample was composed of 80 volunteers recruited from a Brazilian community (mean age = 69.69; SD = 7.44), which were separated into an intervention group (N = 47; mean age = 69.66, SD = 7.51) and a control group (N = 33; mean age = 69.73, SD = 7.45). Intervention was characterized by adaptive cognitive training with 12 individual training sessions of 60 to 90 minutes (once a week). Eight instruments were used to assess effects of cognitive training. Five were used to assess trained abilities (near effects), including: Memorization Tests (List and History), Picture Completion, Digit Span, Digit Symbol-Coding, and Symbol Search (the last four from WAIS-III). Two instruments assessed untrained abilities (far effects): Arithmetic and Matrix Reasoning (WAIS-III). The non-parametric repeated measures ANOVA test revealed a significant interaction between group by time interaction for Picture Completion [F(74) = 14.88, p = .0002, d = 0.90, CLES = 73.69%], Digit Symbol-Coding [F(74) = 5.66, p = .019, d = 0.55, CLES = 65.21%] and Digit Span [F(74) = 5.38, p = .02, d = 0.54, CLES = 64.85%], suggesting an interventional impact on these performance tasks. The results supported near transfer effects, but did not demonstrate a far transfer effects.

  18. Radiation dose, driving performance, and cognitive function in patients with head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuen, Hon K.; Sharma, Anand K.; Logan, William C.; Gillespie, M. Boyd; Day, Terry A.; Brooks, Johnell O.

    2008-01-01

    Seven head and neck cancer patients participated in a driving evaluation in a driving simulator. Radiation dose on the temporal lobes was moderately associated with time to complete a cognitive test and with driving performance. Results indicated that incidental irradiation may contribute to a decrease in cognition and in unsafe driving performance, which seems to be time-dependent

  19. The Effect of Zinc Supplementation on Cognitive Performance in Schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezzat Khodashenas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Zinc is a vital micronutrient in humans and its deficiency in children can thwart their growth and development, compromise their immunity and cognitive function. However, there is a paucity of studies about the effect of zinc supplementation on cognitive functions. This study is an attempt to quantify the impact of zinc supplementation on cognitive performance of schoolchildren. Materials and Methods This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled field trial was carried out in public elementary school in Mashhad- Iran to investigate the effect of Zinc on cognition of 45 healthy children. The cognitive test used in the trial was Raven IQ (Intelligence Quotient test. A total of 45 first grade children aged 6 to 8 years were enrolled and divided into two experiment and control groups. The cases group, received 20 mg of zinc sulfate syrup vs.  the control group  received a placebo each day for 6 months. Raven IQ test was administered under basal conditions before and after the supplementation of zinc or placebo. Results The memory and intellectual development in the experimental group was significantly more than in the control group (P < 0.05. Conclusion The results of the study demonstrate the positive relationship between zinc administration and some aspects of intellectual development and personality features, emphasizing the significance of this element in the normal psychological status of children.

  20. Semivolatile compounds in schools and their influence on cognitive performance of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, Hans-Peter; Haluza, Daniela; Piegler, Kathrin; Hohenblum, Philipp; Fröhlich, Marina; Scharf, Sigrid; Uhl, Maria; Damberger, Bernhard; Tappler, Peter; Kundi, Michael; Wallner, Peter; Moshammer, Hanns

    2013-08-01

    WHO's Children's Environment and Health Action Plan for Europe (CEHAPE) focuses on improvements of indoor environments where children spend most of their time. To investigate the relationship between school indoor air pollutants and cognitive performance in elementary school children, a multidisciplinary study was planned in all-day schools in Austria. In a cross-sectional study (LuKi study: Air and Children) indoor air pollutants were monitored in nine elementary all-day schools in urban and rural regions of Austria. In addition, school dust and suspended particulates (PM10, PM2.5) were measured, focusing on semivolatile compounds (e.g. phthalates, phosphororganic compounds [POC]). Health status and environmental conditions were determined by parents' questionnaire, cognitive function was measured by Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM). Overall, 596 children (6-8 years of age) were eligible for the study. Cognitive tests were performed in 436 children. Analysis showed significant correlations of tris(2-chlorethyl)-phosphate (TCEP) in PM10 and PM2.5 and school dust samples with cognitive performance. Cognitive performance decreased with increasing concentrations of TCEP. Furthermore, cognitive function decreased significantly with increasing CO2 levels. POC are widely used as plasticizers, flame retardants and floor sealing. This is the first report of a correlation between TCEP in indoor air samples and impairment of cognitive performance in school children. As a precautionary measure, it is recommended to prohibit the use of toxic chemicals and those suspected of a toxic potential in children's environments such as schools.

  1. Blood metabolite markers of cognitive performance and brain function in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Brittany N; Kim, Min; Chuang, Yi-Fang; Beason-Held, Lori; Kitner-Triolo, Melissa; Kraut, Michael; Lirette, Seth T; Windham, B Gwen; Griswold, Michael E; Legido-Quigley, Cristina; Thambisetty, Madhav

    2016-07-01

    We recently showed that Alzheimer's disease patients have lower plasma concentrations of the phosphatidylcholines (PC16:0/20:5; PC16:0/22:6; and PC18:0/22:6) relative to healthy controls. We now extend these findings by examining associations between plasma concentrations of these PCs with cognition and brain function (measured by regional resting state cerebral blood flow; rCBF) in non-demented older individuals. Within the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging neuroimaging substudy, participants underwent cognitive assessments and brain (15)O-water positron emission tomography. Plasma phosphatidylcholines concentrations (PC16:0/20:5, PC16:0/22:6, and PC18:0/22:6), cognition (California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT), Trail Making Test A&B, the Mini-Mental State Examination, Benton Visual Retention, Card Rotation, and Fluencies-Category and Letter), and rCBF were assessed. Lower plasma phosphatidylcholine concentrations were associated with lower baseline memory performance (CVLT long delay recall task-PC16:0/20:5: -2.17-1.39-0.60 p = 0.001 (β with 95% confidence interval subscripts)) and lower rCBF in several brain regions including those associated with memory performance and higher order cognitive processes. Our findings suggest that lower plasma concentrations of PC16:0/20:5, PC16:0/22:6, and PC18:0/22:6 are associated with poorer memory performance as well as widespread decreases in brain function during aging. Dysregulation of peripheral phosphatidylcholine metabolism may therefore be a common feature of both Alzheimer's disease and age-associated differences in cognition. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Deconstructing and Reconstructing Cognitive Performance in Sleep Deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Melinda L.; Gunzelmann, Glenn; Whitney, Paul; Hinson, John M.; Belenky, Gregory; Rabat, Arnaud; Van Dongen, Hans P. A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Mitigation of cognitive impairment due to sleep deprivation in operational settings is critical for safety and productivity. Achievements in this area are hampered by limited knowledge about the effects of sleep loss on actual job tasks. Sleep deprivation has different effects on different cognitive performance tasks, but the mechanisms behind this task-specificity are poorly understood. In this context it is important to recognize that cognitive performance is not a unitary process, but involves a number of component processes. There is emerging evidence that these component processes are differentially affected by sleep loss. Experiments have been conducted to decompose sleep-deprived performance into underlying cognitive processes using cognitive-behavioral, neuroimaging and cognitive modeling techniques. Furthermore, computational modeling in cognitive architectures has been employed to simulate sleep-deprived cognitive performance on the basis of the constituent cognitive processes. These efforts are beginning to enable quantitative prediction of the effects of sleep deprivation across different task contexts. This paper reviews a rapidly evolving area of research, and outlines a theoretical framework in which the effects of sleep loss on cognition may be understood from the deficits in the underlying neurobiology to the applied consequences in real-world job tasks. PMID:22884948

  3. Smell test predicts performance on delayed recall memory test in elderly with depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalco, Monica Z; Streiner, David L; Rewilak, Dmytro; Castel, Saulo; Van Reekum, Robert

    2009-04-01

    Elderly with depression are at increased risk for cognitive dysfunction and dementia. Smell tests are correlated with performance on cognitive tests in the elderly and therefore might serve as a screening test for cognitive impairment in depressed elderly. To assess the validity of the CC-SIT (Cross-Cultural Smell Identification Test) as a screening test for cognitive impairment in elderly with depression. Forty-one patients, aged 60 and over, were assessed with the CC-SIT and CVLT (California Verbal Learning Test) after 3 months treatment of a Major Depressive Episode (DSM-IV) at the Day Hospital for Depression, Baycrest. Patients already diagnosed with dementia, or other psychiatric and neurological disorders, were excluded. Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) analysis was applied to assess the CC-SIT's accuracy in identifying individuals with impairment (2 SD below the mean for age and education or less) on CVLT delayed recall trials. Forty-one patients (33 women and eight men) were assessed. Mean age was 76.8 (SD: 6.5), mean HRSD scores before treatment was 22.0 (SD: 5.1). Nine patients had impairment on CVLT delayed recall measures. The area under the ROC curve was 0.776 (95% CI = 0.617-0.936). Our results support the use of the CC-SIT as a screening tool for cognitive impairment among elderly with depression as an indicator for the need of a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation. Replication with larger samples is necessary. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. The influence of shyness on children's test performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, W Ray; Hostettler, Kirsten

    2003-09-01

    Research has shown that shy children differ from their peers not only in their use of language in routine social encounters but also in formal assessments of their language development, including psychometric tests of vocabulary. There has been little examination of factors contributing to these individual differences. To investigate cognitive-competence and social anxiety interpretations of differences in children's performance on tests of vocabulary. To examine the performance of shy and less shy children under different conditions of test administration, individually with an examiner or among their peers within the familiar classroom setting. The sample consisted of 240 Year 5 pupils (122 male, 118 female) from 24 primary schools. Shy and less shy children, identified by teacher nomination and checklist ratings, completed vocabulary and mental arithmetic tests in one of three conditions, in a between-subjects design. The conditions varied individual and group administration, and oral and written responses. The conditions of test administration influenced the vocabulary test performance of shy children. They performed significantly more poorly than their peers in the two face-to-face conditions but not in the group test condition. A comparable trend for the arithmetic test was not statistically significant. Across the sample as a whole, shyness correlated significantly with test scores. Shyness does influence children's cognitive test performance and its impact is larger when children are tested face-to-face rather than in a more anonymous group setting. The results are of significance for theories of shyness and have implications for the assessment of schoolchildren.

  5. Distraction versus Intensity: The Importance of Exercise Classes for Cognitive Performance in School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollseiffen, Petra; Vogt, Tobias; Strüder, Heiko K; Schneider, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the influence of a class of aerobic exercise and an art class on brain cortical activity and possible effects on cognitive performance. Electroencephalography was used to record the electrocortical activity of 16 schoolchildren (8-10 years old) before and after an aerobic exercise class and an art class. Performance in a standardized test of educational attainment (VERA-3) was assessed following both classes. A significant decrease in cortical activity was detected in all 4 lobes after exercise but not after art classes (p < 0.05). No changes in cognitive performance were observed after exercise and art classes. In this study, cortical activity was reduced after an exercise class but no effect on cognitive performance was observed. Hence, the neurophysiological effect of exercise should be further evaluated regarding different kinds of cognitive performance: creativity, knowledge acquisition as well as the outlasting effects of exercise on academic achievement. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Comparison of performance on neuropsychological tests in amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Helena Figueirêdo do Vale

    Full Text Available Abstract Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI can be an intermediate state between normality and dementia in some patients. An early diagnosis, through neuropsychological assessment, could identify individuals at risk of developing dementia. Objective: To verify differences in performance on neuropsychological tests among controls, amnestic MCI (aMCI and Alzheimer’s disease (AD patients. Methods: Sixty-eight AD patients (mean age 73.77±7.24; mean schooling 9.04±4.83; 40 women and 28 men, 34 aMCI patients (mean age 74.44±7.05; mean schooling 12.35±4.01; 20 women and 60 controls (mean age 68.90±7.48; mean schooling 10.72±4.74; 42 women were submitted to a neuropsychological assessment composed of tasks assessing executive functions, language, constructive abilities, reasoning and memory. Results: There were statistically significant differences in performance across all tests among control, aMCI and AD groups, and also between only controls and AD patients. On comparing control and aMCI groups, we found statistically significant differences in memory tasks, except for immediate recall of Visual Reproduction. There were also statistically significant differences between aMCI and AD groups on tasks of constructive and visuoperceptual abilities, attention, language and memory, except for delayed recall of Visual Reproduction. Conclusions: Neuropsychological assessment was able to discriminate aMCI from AD patients in almost all tests except for delayed recall of Visual Reproduction, visual organization (Hooper and executive functions (WCST; and discriminate controls from AD patients in all tests, and controls from aMCI patients in all memory tests except for immediate recall of Visual Reproduction.

  7. Motor Skills and Exercise Capacity Are Associated with Objective Measures of Cognitive Functions and Academic Performance in Preadolescent Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svend Sparre Geertsen

    Full Text Available To investigate associations between motor skills, exercise capacity and cognitive functions, and evaluate how they correlate to academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension using standardised, objective tests.This cross-sectional study included 423 Danish children (age: 9.29±0.35 years, 209 girls. Fine and gross motor skills were evaluated in a visuomotor accuracy-tracking task, and a whole-body coordination task, respectively. Exercise capacity was estimated from the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 children's test (YYIR1C. Selected tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB were used to assess different domains of cognitive functions, including sustained attention, spatial working memory, episodic and semantic memory, and processing speed. Linear mixed-effects models were used to investigate associations between these measures and the relationship with standard tests of academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension.Both fine and gross motor skills were associated with better performance in all five tested cognitive domains (all P<0.001, whereas exercise capacity was only associated with better sustained attention (P<0.046 and spatial working memory (P<0.038. Fine and gross motor skills (all P<0.001, exercise capacity and cognitive functions such as working memory, episodic memory, sustained attention and processing speed were all associated with better performance in mathematics and reading comprehension.The data demonstrate that fine and gross motor skills are positively correlated with several aspects of cognitive functions and with academic performance in both mathematics and reading comprehension. Moreover, exercise capacity was associated with academic performance and performance in some cognitive domains. Future interventions should investigate associations between changes in motor skills, exercise capacity, cognitive functions, and academic performance to elucidate the

  8. [Effect of preventive treatment on cognitive performance in patients with multiple sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorobura, Maria S

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: cognitive, emotional and psychopathological changes play a significant role in the clinical picture of multiple sclerosis and influence the effectiveness of drug therapy, working capacity, quality of life, and the process of rehabilitation of patients with multiple sclerosis. The aim: investigate the changes in cognitive function in patients with multiple sclerosis, such as information processing speed and working memory of patients before and after treatment with immunomodulating drug. Materials and methods:33 patients examined reliably diagnosed with multiple sclerosis who were treated with preventive examinations and treatment from 2012 to 2016. For all patients with multiple sclerosis had clinical-neurological examination (neurological status using the EDSS scale) and the cognitive status was evaluated using the PASAT auditory test. Patient screening was performed before, during and after the therapy. Statistical analysis of the results was performed in the system Statistica 8.0. We used Student's t-test (t), Mann-Whitney test (Z). Person evaluated the correlation coefficients and Spearman (r, R), Wilcoxon criterion (T), Chi-square (X²). Results: The age of patients with multiple sclerosis affects the growth and EDSS scale score decrease PASAT to treatment. Duration of illness affects the EDSS scale score and performance PASAT. Indicators PASAT not significantly decreased throughout the treatment. Conclusions: glatiramer acetate has a positive effect on cognitive function, information processing speed and working memory patients with multiple sclerosis, which is one of the important components of the therapeutic effect of this drug.

  9. Cycling on a Bike Desk Positively Influences Cognitive Performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine Torbeyns

    Full Text Available Cycling desks as a means to reduce sedentary time in the office has gained interest as excessive sitting has been associated with several health risks. However, the question rises if people will still be as efficient in performing their desk-based office work when combining this with stationary cycling. Therefore, the effect of cycling at 30% Wmax on typing, cognitive performance and brain activity was investigated.After two familiarisation sessions, 23 participants performed a test battery [typing test, Rey auditory verbal learning test (RAVLT, Stroop test and Rosvold continuous performance test (RCPT] with electroencephalography recording while cycling and sitting on a conventional chair.Typing performance, performance on the RAVLT and accuracy on the Stroop test and the RCPT did not differ between conditions. Reaction times on the Stroop test and the RCPT were shorter while cycling relative to sitting (p < 0.05. N200, P300, N450 and conflict SP latency and amplitude on the Stroop test and N200 and P300 on the RCPT did not differ between conditions.This study showed that typing performance and short-term memory are not deteriorated when people cycle at 30% Wmax. Furthermore, cycling had a positive effect on response speed across tasks requiring variable amounts of attention and inhibition.

  10. Influence of shift work on cognitive performance in male business process outsourcing employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shwetha, Bijavara; Sudhakar, Honnamachanahalli

    2012-09-01

    India is a front runner in IT industry. Business process outsourcing (BPO) sector is a major part of IT industry with around 4.5 million employees. These employees are subjected to high work stress, odd working hours, and frequent shift changes leading to increased physical and mental health problems. To study the cognitive functions in male BPO employees exposed to regular shifts. Young BPO employees from various BPO companies of Bangalore were tested for cognitive functions. Fifty male BPO employees exposed to regular shifts were assessed for various cognitive functions including tests for speed, attention, learning and memory, and executive function. They were compared with 50 non-BPO employees not working in shifts. Statistical analysis - Data was analysed by t-test and Mann-Whitney test using SPSS V.13.0. BPO employees performed poorly compared to their controls in tests for mental speed, learning and memory, and response inhibition. No changes were seen between groups in tests for attention and working memory. Cognitive functions are impaired in BPO employees exposed to regular shift changes.

  11. Cognitive performance after ischaemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gabriela R. Ferreira

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment after stroke affects the patient recovery process. Therefore, the identification of factors associated with cognitive outcomes is important since it allows risk profiles of stroke survivors to be determined. OBJECTIVE: To assess cognitive outcome of stroke outpatients and investigate associations among clinical and demographic variables, vascular risk factors, depression symptoms and functional ability; and to describe the neuropsychological profile of these patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional design study was conducted. Subjects who suffered a first-ever ischaemic stroke 6 to 10 months prior to data collection underwent neuropsychological assessment and screening for depressive symptoms and functional ability. The outcome "cognitive performance" was analyzed considering two groups: "cognitive impairment" and "no cognitive impairment". RESULTS: There was a statistically significant association between cognitive impairment and female gender, age, stroke severity and functional ability. Regarding neuropsychological profile, the cognitive impairment group exhibited more generalized deficits in attention, visuospatial organization, verbal functions and verbal memory domains compared to the community control group. CONCLUSION: The occurrence of cognitive impairment among patients was high, especially in women, older participants, individuals with more severe stroke, and greater impairment in functional ability. Multiple cognitive domains are affected and this may hamper recovery and negatively impact independence and quality of life after stroke.

  12. Sleep deprivation selectively disrupts top-down adaptation to cognitive conflict in the Stroop test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevers, Wim; Deliens, Gaetane; Hoffmann, Sophie; Notebaert, Wim; Peigneux, Philippe

    2015-12-01

    Sleep deprivation is known to exert detrimental effects on various cognitive domains, including attention, vigilance and working memory. Seemingly at odds with these findings, prior studies repeatedly failed to evidence an impact of prior sleep deprivation on cognitive interference in the Stroop test, a hallmark paradigm in the study of cognitive control abilities. The present study investigated further the effect of sleep deprivation on cognitive control using an adapted version of the Stroop test that allows to segregate top-down (attentional reconfiguration on incongruent items) and bottom-up (facilitated processing after repetitions in responses and/or features of stimuli) components of performance. Participants underwent a regular night of sleep or a night of total sleep deprivation before cognitive testing. Results disclosed that sleep deprivation selectively impairs top-down adaptation mechanisms: cognitive control no longer increased upon detection of response conflict at the preceding trial. In parallel, bottom-up abilities were found unaffected by sleep deprivation: beneficial effects of stimulus and response repetitions persisted. Changes in vigilance states due to sleep deprivation selectively impact on cognitive control in the Stroop test by affecting top-down, but not bottom-up, mechanisms that guide adaptive behaviours. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.

  13. "'Sink or Swim': Buoyancy and Coping in the Cognitive Test Anxiety--Academic Performance Relationship"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putwain, David W.; Daly, Anthony L.; Chamberlain, Suzanne; Sadreddini, Shireen

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between students' self-report levels of cognitive test anxiety (worry), academic buoyancy (withstanding and successfully responding to routine school challenges and setbacks), coping processes and their achieved grades in high-stakes national examinations at the end of compulsory schooling. The sample comprised…

  14. Impact of hypertension severity on arterial stiffness, cerebral vasoreactivity, and cognitive performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muela, Henrique Cotchi Simbo; Costa-Hong, Valeria A.; Yassuda, Monica Sanches; Machado, Michel Ferreira; Nogueira, Ricardo de Carvalho; Moraes, Natalia C.; Memória, Claudia Maia; Macedo, Thiago A.; Bor-Seng-Shu, Edson; Massaro, Ayrton Roberto; Nitrini, Ricardo; Bortolotto, Luiz A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT. Aging, hypertension (HTN), and other cardiovascular risk factors contribute to structural and functional changes of the arterial wall. Objective: To evaluate whether arterial stiffness (AS) is related to cerebral blood flow changes and its association with cognitive function in patients with hypertension. Methods: 211 patients (69 normotensive and 142 hypertensive) were included. Patients with hypertension were divided into 2 stages: HTN stage-1 and HTN stage-2. The mini-mental state examination (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and a battery of neuropsychological (NPE) tests were used to determine cognitive function. Pulse wave velocity was measured using the Complior®. Carotid properties were assessed by radiofrequency ultrasound. Central arterial pressure and augmentation index were obtained using applanation tonometry. Middle cerebral artery flow velocity was measured by transcranial Doppler ultrasonography. Results: Both arterial stiffness parameters and cerebral vasoreactivity worsened in line with HTN severity. There was a negative correlation between breath holding index (BHI) and arterial stiffness parameters. Cognitive performance worsened in line with HTN severity, with statistical difference occurring mainly between the HTN-2 and normotension groups on both the MMSE and MoCA. The same tendency was observed on the NPE tests. Conclusion: Hypertension severity was associated with higher AS, worse BHI, and lower cognitive performance. PMID:29354219

  15. Reciprocal modulation of cognitive and emotional aspects in pianistic performances.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia K Kodama Higuchi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: High level piano performance requires complex integration of perceptual, motor, cognitive and emotive skills. Observations in psychology and neuroscience studies have suggested reciprocal inhibitory modulation of the cognition by emotion and emotion by cognition. However, it is still unclear how cognitive states may influence the pianistic performance. The aim of the present study is to verify the influence of cognitive and affective attention in the piano performances. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Nine pianists were instructed to play the same piece of music, firstly focusing only on cognitive aspects of musical structure (cognitive performances, and secondly, paying attention solely on affective aspects (affective performances. Audio files from pianistic performances were examined using a computational model that retrieves nine specific musical features (descriptors--loudness, articulation, brightness, harmonic complexity, event detection, key clarity, mode detection, pulse clarity and repetition. In addition, the number of volunteers' errors in the recording sessions was counted. Comments from pianists about their thoughts during performances were also evaluated. The analyses of audio files throughout musical descriptors indicated that the affective performances have more: agogics, legatos, pianos phrasing, and less perception of event density when compared to the cognitive ones. Error analysis demonstrated that volunteers misplayed more left hand notes in the cognitive performances than in the affective ones. Volunteers also played more wrong notes in affective than in cognitive performances. These results correspond to the volunteers' comments that in the affective performances, the cognitive aspects of piano execution are inhibited, whereas in the cognitive performances, the expressiveness is inhibited. CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, the present results indicate that attention to the emotional aspects of performance enhances expressiveness

  16. Reciprocal modulation of cognitive and emotional aspects in pianistic performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Marcia K Kodama; Fornari, José; Del Ben, Cristina M; Graeff, Frederico G; Leite, João Pereira

    2011-01-01

    High level piano performance requires complex integration of perceptual, motor, cognitive and emotive skills. Observations in psychology and neuroscience studies have suggested reciprocal inhibitory modulation of the cognition by emotion and emotion by cognition. However, it is still unclear how cognitive states may influence the pianistic performance. The aim of the present study is to verify the influence of cognitive and affective attention in the piano performances. Nine pianists were instructed to play the same piece of music, firstly focusing only on cognitive aspects of musical structure (cognitive performances), and secondly, paying attention solely on affective aspects (affective performances). Audio files from pianistic performances were examined using a computational model that retrieves nine specific musical features (descriptors)--loudness, articulation, brightness, harmonic complexity, event detection, key clarity, mode detection, pulse clarity and repetition. In addition, the number of volunteers' errors in the recording sessions was counted. Comments from pianists about their thoughts during performances were also evaluated. The analyses of audio files throughout musical descriptors indicated that the affective performances have more: agogics, legatos, pianos phrasing, and less perception of event density when compared to the cognitive ones. Error analysis demonstrated that volunteers misplayed more left hand notes in the cognitive performances than in the affective ones. Volunteers also played more wrong notes in affective than in cognitive performances. These results correspond to the volunteers' comments that in the affective performances, the cognitive aspects of piano execution are inhibited, whereas in the cognitive performances, the expressiveness is inhibited. Therefore, the present results indicate that attention to the emotional aspects of performance enhances expressiveness, but constrains cognitive and motor skills in the piano execution

  17. Social cognition and work performance of persons with schizophrenia in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Panmi; Siu, Andrew M H

    2015-01-01

    Social-cognitive deficits have a significant impact on the community and vocational functioning of persons with schizophrenia. This study aimed to explore the relationship between social-cognitive abilities and vocational functioning in a Chinese population. We recruited 30 outpatients with schizophrenia to participate. We administered the Chinese Social Cognition and Screening Questionnaire (C-SCSQ) to assess Theory of Mind (ToM), attributional bias, and neurocognition; the Facial Expression Identification Test (FEIT) to assess emotion perception (EP) ability, and the Chinese Work Personality Profile (CWPP) to assess work performance in a simulated work setting. ToM showed a significant negative correlation with attributional bias. The neurocognitive measure displayed a significant positive correlation with ToM and EP. The structural equation model was a good fit to the data (CFI=0.91, RMSEA=0.12), and showed that social-cognitive abilities had a significant impact (-0.41) on work performance. Of the four social-cognitive domains, ToM and paranoid attributional style (PAS) contributed significantly to variations in work performance. These results support the theory that social-cognitive abilities have an impact on work performance. ToM has a positive impact whereas PAS has an adverse effect. Persons with schizophrenia present specific deficits in their social-cognitive abilities, which have significant impact on their work performance and employability.

  18. Social outcome related to cognitive performance and computed tomographic findings after surgery for a ruptured intracranial aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilkki, J; Holst, P; Ohman, J; Servo, A; Heiskanen, O

    1990-04-01

    A series of 83 patients was examined with a battery of cognitive tests, a clinical interview, and computed tomography 1 year after surgery for a ruptured intracranial aneurysm. Disability on the Glasgow Outcome Scale (33%), failure to return to work (25%), impaired social relations (25%), and subjective or clinical mental impairment (56%) were found to be related to each other and to poor performance on cognitive tests, especially to verbal impairments in patients with left lateral infarctions and to memory deficits and cognitive inflexibility in patients with frontal medial infarctions. Furthermore, cognitive deficits and poor outcome were associated with diffuse brain damage. Depression and anxiety were unrelated to test performances, but were frequently reported by patients with right lateral infarctions.

  19. A comparison of the effects of a secondary task and lorazepam on cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    File, S E

    1992-01-01

    In order to test whether the lorazepam-induced impairments in a variety of cognitive tasks were similar to those of divided attention, the effects of lorazepam (2.5 mg) in healthy volunteers were compared with those requiring subjects to perform an additional task (detecting silences superimposed onto classical music). Neither treatment impaired implicit memory or judgements of frequency. Both treatments impaired performance in tests of speed, lorazepam having the greatest effect on number cancellation and the additional task having the greatest effect on simple reaction time. Both treatments impaired performance in a coding task, in a test of explicit episodic memory and in judgements of recency (indicating impaired coding of contextual information). Lorazepam significantly reduced performance in a word completion task, but this was unimpaired in the group performing the additional task. In general, the pattern of results suggests that there are similarities between the effects of divided attention and lorazepam treatment, and that lorazepam-induced cognitive impairments are not restricted to explicit tests of episodic memory.

  20. An APOA1 promoter polymorphism is associated with cognitive performance in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsis, G; Panas, M; Giogkaraki, E; Karadima, G; Sfagos, C; Vassilopoulos, D

    2009-02-01

    Elevated ApoA1 levels have been associated with decreased dementia risk. The A-allele of the APOA1 -75G/A promoter polymorphism has been associated with elevated ApoA1 levels. We sought to investigate the effect of the APOA1 -75G/A promoter polymorphism on cognitive performance in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). A total of 138 patients with MS and 43 controls were studied and underwent neuropsychological assessment with Rao's Brief Repeatable Battery and the Stroop test. All patients were genotyped for APOA1. APOA1 A-allele carriers displayed superior overall cognitive performance compared with non-carriers (P 0.008) and had a three-fold decrease in the relative risk of overall cognitive impairment (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.11-0.74). Regarding performance on individual cognitive domains, although APOA1 A-allele carriers performed better than non-carriers on all tests, this was significant only for semantic verbal fluency and the Stroop interference task (P 0.036 and 0.018, respectively). We found an association of the APOA1 -75G/A promoter polymorphism with cognitive performance in MS. This effect was most prominent on semantic verbal fluency and the Stroop interference task.

  1. Moderate wine consumption is associated with better cognitive test results: a 7 year follow up of 5033 subjects in the Tromsø Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arntzen, K A; Schirmer, H; Wilsgaard, T; Mathiesen, E B

    2010-01-01

    The impact of moderate alcohol consumption on cognitive function and dementia is unclear. We examined the relationship between consumption of different alcoholic beverages and cognitive function in a large population-based study. Subjects were 5033 stroke-free men and women who participated in a longitudinal population-based study in Tromsø, Norway. Alcohol consumption and other cardiovascular risk factors were measured at baseline and cognitive function was assessed after 7 years follow up with verbal memory test, digit-symbol coding test and tapping test. Moderate wine consumption was independently associated with better performance on all cognitive tests in both men and women. There was no consistent association between consumption of beer and spirits and cognitive test results. Alcohol abstention was associated with lower cognitive performance in women. Light-to-moderate wine consumption was associated with better performance on cognitive tests after 7 years follow up.

  2. Semivolatile compounds in schools and their influence on cognitive performance of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Peter Hutter

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: WHO's Children's Environment and Health Action Plan for Europe (CEHAPE focuses on improvements of indoor environments where children spend most of their time. To investigate the relationship between school indoor air pollutants and cognitive performance in elementary school children, a multidisciplinary study was planned in all-day schools in Austria. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study (LuKi study: Air and Children indoor air pollutants were monitored in nine elementary all-day schools in urban and rural regions of Austria. In addition, school dust and suspended particulates (PM10, PM2.5 were measured, focusing on semivolatile compounds (e.g. phthalates, phosphororganic compounds [POC]. Health status and environmental conditions were determined by parents' questionnaire, cognitive function was measured by Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM. Results: Overall, 596 children (6-8 years of age were eligible for the study. Cognitive tests were performed in 436 children. Analysis showed significant correlations of tris(2-chlorethyl-phosphate (TCEP in PM10 and PM2.5 and school dust samples with cognitive performance. Cognitive performance decreased with increasing concentrations of TCEP. Furthermore, cognitive function decreased significantly with increasing CO2 levels. Conclusions: POC are widely used as plasticizers, flame retardants and floor sealing. This is the first report of a correlation between TCEP in indoor air samples and impairment of cognitive performance in school children. As a precautionary measure, it is recommended to prohibit the use of toxic chemicals and those suspected of a toxic potential in children's environments such as schools.

  3. Associations between aspects of pain and cognitive performance and the contribution of depressive symptoms in mid-life women: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomey, Kristin; Greendale, Gail A; Kravitz, Howard M; Bromberger, Joyce T; Burns, John W; Dugan, Sheila A; de Leon, Carlos F Mendes

    2015-01-01

    Pain has been associated with cognitive problems in pain patients. This study evaluated the extent to which experiences of pain are associated with cognitive performance in a community sample of mid-life women, and the contribution of depressive symptoms to this association. A cross-sectional analysis was used with data from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Associations between aspects of pain and cognitive performance were evaluated using statistical models with and without depressive symptoms. The cognitive performance score was a composite of three cognitive tests, the Digit Span Backward Test, the Symbol Digit Modalities Test and the East Boston Memory Test. Greater pain experiences that interfered with daily work were independently associated with poorer cognitive performance, [β (SE) -0.074 (0.021); p valueperformance was identified without adjusting for depressive symptoms, [β (SE) -0.002 (0.0009); p valuewomen, greater pain is associated with poorer cognitive performance, and depressive symptoms play an important role in this association. Clinicians should be aware of these relationships when evaluating patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cognitive performance in young adulthood and midlife: Relations with age, sex, and education-The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovio, Suvi P; Pahkala, Katja; Nevalainen, Jaakko; Juonala, Markus; Salo, Pia; Kähönen, Mika; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Lehtimäki, Terho; Jokinen, Eero; Laitinen, Tomi; Taittonen, Leena; Tossavainen, Päivi; Viikari, Jorma; Rinne, Juha O; Raitakari, Olli T

    2016-07-01

    Age, education, and sex associate with cognitive performance. We investigated associations between age, sex, education, and cognitive performance in young or middle-aged adults and evaluated data reduction methods to optimally capture cognitive performance in our population-based data. This study is part of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. The 3,596 randomly selected subjects (aged 3-18 years in 1980) have been followed up for 30 years. In 2011, a computer-based cognitive testing battery (the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery [CANTAB]) was used to assess several cognitive domains. Principal component analysis, categorical and standardized classifications were applied to the cognitive data. Among 34- to 49-year-old participants, cognitive performance declined with age, while education associated with better cognitive functions in several cognitive domains. Men had higher performance on all cognitive domains except visual or episodic memory, in which women outperformed men. The results were similar regardless of the data reduction method used. The associations between sex, age, education, and cognitive performance are already apparent in young adulthood or middle age. Principal component analyses, categorical and standardized classifications are useful tools to analyze CANTAB cognitive data. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. A proper metaphysics for cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Orden, Guy C; Moreno, Miguel A; Holden, John G

    2003-01-01

    The general failure to individuate component causes in cognitive performance suggests the need for an alternative metaphysics. The metaphysics of control hierarchy theory accommodates the fact of self-organization in nature and the possibility that intentional actions are self-organized. One key assumption is that interactions among processes dominate their intrinsic dynamics. Scaling relations in response time variability motivate this assumption in cognitive performance.

  6. Testing whether reduced cognitive performance in burnout can be reversed by a motivational intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, A. van; Keijsers, G.P.J.; Eling, P.A.T.M.; Becker, E.S.

    2011-01-01

    It has been suggested that the motivation to spend effort is decreased in burnout patients, resulting in reduced cognitive performance. A question that remains is whether this decreased motivation can be reversed by motivational interventions. We investigated this by examining the effect of a

  7. A limitation of the Cognitive Reflection Test: familiarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Stieger

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT; Frederick, 2005 is a frequently used measure of cognitive vs. intuitive reflection. It is also a frequently found entertaining ‘test’ on the Internet. In a large age-stratified community-based sample (N = 2,272, we analyzed the impact of having already performed the CRT or any similar task in the past. Indeed, we found that 44% of participants had experiences with these tasks, which was reflected in higher CRT scores (Cohen’s d = 0.41. Furthermore, experienced participants were different from naïve participants in regard to their socio-demographics (younger, higher educated, fewer siblings, more likely single or in a relationship than married, having no children. The best predictors of a high CRT score were the highest educational qualification (4.62% explained variance followed by the experience with the task (3.06%. Therefore, we suggest using more recent multi-item CRTs with newer items and a more elaborated test construction.

  8. Characterization of cognitive and motor performance during dual-tasking in healthy older adults and patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Lucia Bartmann; de Lima, Daiane Borba; Balardin, Joana Bisol; Rizzi, Luana; Giacobbo, Bruno Lima; Oliveira, Henrique Bianchi; de Lima Argimon, Irani Iracema; Peyré-Tartaruga, Leonardo Alexandre; Rieder, Carlos R M; Bromberg, Elke

    2013-02-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of dual-tasking on cognitive performance and gait parameters in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) without dementia. The impact of cognitive task complexity on cognition and walking was also examined. Eighteen patients with PD (ages 53-88, 10 women; Hoehn and Yahr stage I-II) and 18 older adults (ages 61-84; 10 women) completed two neuropsychological measures of executive function/attention (the Stroop Test and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test). Cognitive performance and gait parameters related to functional mobility of stride were measured under single (cognitive task only) and dual-task (cognitive task during walking) conditions with different levels of difficulty and different types of stimuli. In addition, dual-task cognitive costs were calculated. Although cognitive performance showed no significant difference between controls and PD patients during single or dual-tasking conditions, only the patients had a decrease in cognitive performance during walking. Gait parameters of patients differed significantly from controls at single and dual-task conditions, indicating that patients gave priority to gait while cognitive performance suffered. Dual-task cognitive costs of patients increased with task complexity, reaching significantly higher values then controls in the arithmetic task, which was correlated with scores on executive function/attention (Stroop Color-Word Page). Baseline motor functioning and task executive/attentional load affect the performance of cognitive tasks of PD patients while walking. These findings provide insight into the functional strategies used by PD patients in the initial phases of the disease to manage dual-task interference.

  9. Cognitive Screening Tests Versus Comprehensive Neuropsychological Test Batteries: A National Academy of Neuropsychology Education Paper†.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebuck-Spencer, Tresa M; Glen, Tannahill; Puente, Antonio E; Denney, Robert L; Ruff, Ronald M; Hostetter, Gayle; Bianchini, Kevin J

    2017-06-01

    The American Medical Association Current Procedural Panel developed a new billing code making behavioral health screening a reimbursable healthcare service. The use of computerized testing as a means for cognitive screening and brief cognitive testing is increasing at a rapid rate. The purpose of this education paper is to provide information to clinicians, healthcare administrators, and policy developers about the purpose, strengths, and limitations of cognitive screening tests versus comprehensive neuropsychological evaluations. Screening tests are generally brief and narrow in scope, they can be administered during a routine clinical visit, and they can be helpful for identifying individuals in need of more comprehensive assessment. Some screening tests can also be helpful for monitoring treatment outcomes. Comprehensive neuropsychological assessments are multidimensional in nature and used for purposes such as identifying primary and secondary diagnoses, determining the nature  and severity of a person's cognitive difficulties, determining functional limitations, and planning treatment and rehabilitation. Cognitive screening tests are expected to play an increasingly important role in identifying individuals with cognitive impairment and in determining which individuals should be referred for further neuropsychological assessment. However, limitations of existing cognitive screening tests are present and cognitive screening tests should not be used as a replacement for comprehensive neuropsychological testing. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Effect of overreaching on cognitive performance and related cardiac autonomic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuy, O; Lussier, M; Fraser, S; Bherer, L; Audiffren, M; Bosquet, L

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the effect of a 2-week overload period immediately followed by a 1-week taper period on different cognitive processes including executive and nonexecutive functions, and related heart rate variability. Eleven male endurance athletes increased their usual training volume by 100% for 2 weeks, and decreased it by 50% for 1 week. A maximal graded test, a constant speed test at 85% of peak treadmill speed, and a Stroop task with the measurement of heart rate variability were performed at each period. All participants were considered as overreached. We found a moderate increase in the overall reaction time to the three conditions of the Stroop task after the overload period (816 ± 83 vs 892 ± 117 ms, P = 0.03) followed by a return to baseline after the taper period (820 ± 119 ms, P = 0.013). We found no association between cognitive performance and cardiac parasympathetic control at baseline, and no association between changes in these measures. Our findings clearly underscore the relevance of cognitive performance in the monitoring of overreaching in endurance athletes. However, contrary to our hypothesis, we did not find any relationship between executive performance and cardiac parasympathetic control. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Neurobiological findings associated with high cognitive performance in older adults: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, Wyllians Vendramini; Schilling, Lucas Porcello; Radaelli, Graciane; Ferreira, Luciana Borges; Pisani, Leonardo; Portuguez, Mirna Wetters; da Costa, Jaderson Costa

    2018-04-18

    ABSTRACTObjectives:to perform a comprehensive literature review of studies on older adults with exceptional cognitive performance. We performed a systematic review using two major databases (MEDLINE and Web of Science) from January 2002 to November 2017. Quantitative analysis included nine of 4,457 studies and revealed that high-performing older adults have global preservation of the cortex, especially the anterior cingulate region, and hippocampal volumes larger than normal agers. Histological analysis of this group also exhibited decreased amyloid burden and neurofibrillary tangles compared to cognitively normal older controls. High performers that maintained memory ability after three years showed reduced amyloid positron emission tomography at baseline compared with high performers that declined. A single study on blood plasma found a set of 12 metabolites predicting memory maintenance of this group. Structural and molecular brain preservation of older adults with high cognitive performance may be associated with brain maintenance. The operationalized definition of high-performing older adults must be carefully addressed using appropriate age cut-off and cognitive evaluation, including memory and non-memory tests. Further studies with a longitudinal approach that include a younger control group are essential.

  12. Study Protocol on Cognitive Performance in Bulgaria, Croatia, and the Netherlands: The Normacog Brief Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea Jakob

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Normacog Brief Battery (NBB provides a comprehensive overview of an individual’s cognitive functioning within a short amount of time. It was originally developed for the Spanish population in Spain. However, there is a considerable need for brief batteries in clinical neuropsychological assessment, especially in eastern European countries. Cultural background and other individual characteristics—such as age, level of education, and sex—are shown to influence both cognition and patients’ performance on neuropsychological tests. Therefore, it is important to develop understanding of how and why culture impacts on cognitive testing and determine which sociodemographic variables affect cognitive performance. The current study aims to translate, adapt, and standardize the NBB in Bulgaria, Croatia, and the Netherlands, and to analyze the effect of sex, age, and education level on cognitive performance between these three countries. This brief battery assesses eleven cognitive domains, including those most currently relevant in cognition such as premorbid intelligence, attention, executive function, processing speed, and memory. The translation and adaptation of the battery for different cultures will be done using the back-translation process. After exclusion criteria, the current study will include a total sample of three hundred participants (≥18 years old. The samples of 100 participants per country will be balanced through the consideration of their age and level of education. Effects of the sociodemographic variables (age, level of education, and sex on cognitive performance are expected. Furthermore, this relationship is expected to differ across countries. A multivariate hierarchical linear regression will be used and exploratory analysis will be carried out to investigate further effects. The results will be particularly valuable for future research and assessment in cognitive performance. The growing demand for accurate and fast

  13. Testing the validity of wireless EEG for cognitive research with auditory and visual paradigms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weed, Ethan; Kratschmer, Alexandra Regina; Pedersen, Michael Nygaard

    and smaller cognitive components. To test the feasibility of these headsets for cognitive research, we compared performance of the Emotiv Epoc wireless headset (EM) with Brain Products ActiCAP (BP) active electrodes on two well-studied components: the auditory mismatch negativity (MMN) and the visual face...

  14. Performance Monitoring Techniques Supporting Cognitive Optical Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caballero Jambrina, Antonio; Borkowski, Robert; Zibar, Darko

    2013-01-01

    High degree of heterogeneity of future optical networks, such as services with different quality-of-transmission requirements, modulation formats and switching techniques, will pose a challenge for the control and optimization of different parameters. Incorporation of cognitive techniques can help...... to solve this issue by realizing a network that can observe, act, learn and optimize its performance, taking into account end-to-end goals. In this letter we present the approach of cognition applied to heterogeneous optical networks developed in the framework of the EU project CHRON: Cognitive...... Heterogeneous Reconfigurable Optical Network. We focus on the approaches developed in the project for optical performance monitoring, which enable the feedback from the physical layer to the cognitive decision system by providing accurate description of the performance of the established lightpaths....

  15. The Influence of E-learning Use to Student Cognitive Performance and Motivation in Digital Simulation Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tigowati Tigowati

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently the technology is growing and sophisticated. Technological advances have also entered the world of education. One of them their is  online learning. Examples of learning that utilizes technology that is using Schoology and Edmodo. By using Schoology and Edmodo is expected to increase student motivation and learning outcomes. This study investigates whether the use of different learning management would affect (1 the student’s cognitive achievement (2 student’s motivation (3 the level motivation. This research method using mixed methods. The data collection technique using the test method to determine the cognitive performance. Questionnaires and interviews to find the motivation. The analysis of quantitative data using normality test, homogeneity test, tests of balance and hypothesis testing using independent t test, while the analysis of qualitative data using interactive models. Based on the results of the study (1 there are differences in the cognitive performance between classes that use e-learning based Schoology and e-learning based Edmodo. The cognitive performance classes that use Schoology better than the class that uses Edmodo, because schoology easiness to acces, the students has a target value, better understand the lesson and more active in study this may have an effect on cognitive performance.(2 there is a difference in motivation between classes that use e-learning based Schoology and e-learning based Edmodo. Motivation class with Schoology based e-learning is better than classes with e-learning based Edmodo, because schoology can interested in simulation course, more passion, make happy, easier to learn anywhere and more motivated to learn. (3 the level of motivation of students using e-learning based Schoology and Edmodo included in the medium category

  16. Cognitive factors contributing to spelling performance in children with prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Leila; Graham, Diana M; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Mattson, Sarah N

    2015-11-01

    Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with impaired school functioning. Spelling performance has not been comprehensively evaluated. We examined whether children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure demonstrate deficits in spelling and related abilities, including reading, and tested whether there are unique underlying mechanisms for observed deficits in this population. Ninety-six school-age children made up 2 groups: children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (AE, n = 49) and control children (CON, n = 47). Children completed select subtests from the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Second Edition and the NEPSY-II. Group differences and relations between spelling and theoretically related cognitive variables were evaluated using multivariate analysis of variance and Pearson correlations. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to assess contributions of group membership and cognitive variables to spelling performance. The specificity of these deficits and underlying mechanisms was tested by examining the relations between reading ability, group membership, and cognitive variables. Groups differed significantly on all variables. Group membership and phonological processing significantly contributed to spelling performance, whereas for reading, group membership and all cognitive variables contributed significantly. For both reading and spelling, group × working memory interactions revealed that working memory contributed independently only for alcohol-exposed children. Alcohol-exposed children demonstrated a unique pattern of spelling deficits. The relation of working memory to spelling and reading was specific to the AE group, suggesting that if prenatal alcohol exposure is known or suspected, working memory ability should be considered in the development and implementation of explicit instruction. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Sex-sensitive cognitive performance in untreated patients with early onset gender identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraldsen, I R; Opjordsmoen, S; Egeland, T; Finset, A

    2003-10-01

    We explored whether the cognitive performance of gender identity disorder patients (GID) was comparable to that of their biological sex or skewed towards that of their gender identity. We tested four potentially sex-sensitive cognitive factors (rotation, visualization, perception, and verbalization) as well as two neutral factors (logic and arithmetic) in GID patients from Norway (GID-N, n = 33) or the USA (GID-US, n = 19) and in a control group (C, n = 29). The testing was undertaken prior to cross sex hormone treatment. Four-way ANOVA was applied in the final analysis of the cognitive performance and its dependency on different predictors (age, biological sex, education, group). In both GID groups as well as in the control group (C) males excelled in visualization and rotation, also when controlling for potential confounders (biological sex, group, age and education). No female advantage was detected. Furthermore, no interaction between biological sex and group assignment was revealed in the samples. In this study the cognitive pattern of GID patients is consistent with that of their biological sex and not that of their gender identity.

  18. The Effects of Item Format and Cognitive Domain on Students' Science Performance in TIMSS 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Pey-Yan; Bulut, Okan

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine eighth-grade students' science performance in terms of two test design components, item format, and cognitive domain. The portion of Taiwanese data came from the 2011 administration of the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), one of the major international large-scale assessments in science. The item difficulty analysis was initially applied to show the proportion of correct items. A regression-based cumulative link mixed modeling (CLMM) approach was further utilized to estimate the impact of item format, cognitive domain, and their interaction on the students' science scores. The results of the proportion-correct statistics showed that constructed-response items were more difficult than multiple-choice items, and that the reasoning cognitive domain items were more difficult compared to the items in the applying and knowing domains. In terms of the CLMM results, students tended to obtain higher scores when answering constructed-response items as well as items in the applying cognitive domain. When the two predictors and the interaction term were included together, the directions and magnitudes of the predictors on student science performance changed substantially. Plausible explanations for the complex nature of the effects of the two test-design predictors on student science performance are discussed. The results provide practical, empirical-based evidence for test developers, teachers, and stakeholders to be aware of the differential function of item format, cognitive domain, and their interaction in students' science performance.

  19. Criteria for validation and selection of cognitive tests for investigating the effects of foods and nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jager, Celeste A; Dye, Louise; de Bruin, Eveline A; Butler, Laurie; Fletcher, John; Lamport, Daniel J; Latulippe, Marie E; Spencer, Jeremy P E; Wesnes, Keith

    2014-03-01

    This review is an output of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) Europe Marker Initiative, which aims to identify evidence-based criteria for selecting adequate measures of nutrient effects on health through comprehensive literature review. Experts in cognitive and nutrition sciences examined the applicability of these proposed criteria to the field of cognition with respect to the various cognitive domains usually assessed to reflect brain or neurological function. This review covers cognitive domains important in the assessment of neuronal integrity and function, commonly used tests and their state of validation, and the application of the measures to studies of nutrition and nutritional intervention trials. The aim is to identify domain-specific cognitive tests that are sensitive to nutrient interventions and from which guidance can be provided to aid the application of selection criteria for choosing the most suitable tests for proposed nutritional intervention studies using cognitive outcomes. The material in this review serves as a background and guidance document for nutritionists, neuropsychologists, psychiatrists, and neurologists interested in assessing mental health in terms of cognitive test performance and for scientists intending to test the effects of food or food components on cognitive function.

  20. Hearing Loss and Cognitive-Communication Test Performance of Long-Term Care Residents With Dementia: Effects of Amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Tammy; Slaughter, Susan E.; Hodgetts, Bill; Ostevik, Amberley; Ickert, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The study aims were (a) to explore the relationship between hearing loss and cognitive-communication performance of individuals with dementia, and (b) to determine if hearing loss is accurately identified by long-term care (LTC) staff. The research questions were (a) What is the effect of amplification on cognitive-communication test…

  1. Performance on cognitive tests, instrumental activities of daily living and depressive symptoms of a community-based sample of elderly adults in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Christina Martins Borges; Alves, Heloisa Veiga Dias; Mograbi, Daniel Correa; Pereira, Flávia Furtado; Fernandez, Jesus Landeira; Charchat-Fichman, Helenice

    2017-01-01

    Objective To describe the performance on basic cognitive tasks, instrumental activities of daily living, and depressive symptoms of a community-based sample of elderly adults in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) who participated in multiple physical, social, and cognitive activities at government-run community centers. Methods A total of 264 educated older adults (> 60 years of age of both genders) were evaluated by the Brief Cognitive Screening Battery (BCSB), Lawton's and Pfeffer's activities of daily living indexes, and the Geriatric Depressive Scale (GDS). Results The mean age of the sample was 75.7 years. The participants had a mean of 9.3 years of formal education. With the exception of the Clock Drawing Test (CDT), mean scores on the cognitive tests were consistent with the values in the literature. Only 6.4% of the sample had some kind of dependence for activities of daily living. The results of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) indicated mild symptoms of depression in 16.8% of the sample Conclusion This study provided important demographic, cognitive, and functional characteristics of a specific community-based sample of elderly adults in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. PMID:29213494

  2. Performance on cognitive tests, instrumental activities of daily living and depressive symptoms of a community-based sample of elderly adults in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Martins Borges Lima

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To describe the performance on basic cognitive tasks, instrumental activities of daily living, and depressive symptoms of a community-based sample of elderly adults in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil who participated in multiple physical, social, and cognitive activities at government-run community centers. Methods: A total of 264 educated older adults (> 60 years of age of both genders were evaluated by the Brief Cognitive Screening Battery (BCSB, Lawton's and Pfeffer's activities of daily living indexes, and the Geriatric Depressive Scale (GDS . Results: The mean age of the sample was 75.7 years. The participants had a mean of 9.3 years of formal education. With the exception of the Clock Drawing Test (CDT, mean scores on the cognitive tests were consistent with the values in the literature. Only 6.4% of the sample had some kind of dependence for activities of daily living. The results of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15 indicated mild symptoms of depression in 16.8% of the sample. Conclusion: This study provided important demographic, cognitive, and functional characteristics of a specific community-based sample of elderly adults in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  3. Senior Dance Experience, Cognitive Performance, and Brain Volume in Older Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Niemann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity is positively related to cognitive functioning and brain volume in older adults. Interestingly, different types of physical activity vary in their effects on cognition and on the brain. For example, dancing has become an interesting topic in aging research, as it is a popular leisure activity among older adults, involving cardiovascular and motor fitness dimensions that can be positively related to cognition. However, studies on brain structure are missing. In this study, we tested the association of long-term senior dance experience with cognitive performance and gray matter brain volume in older women aged 65 to 82 years. We compared nonprofessional senior dancers (n=28 with nonsedentary control group participants without any dancing experience (n=29, who were similar in age, education, IQ score, lifestyle and health factors, and fitness level. Differences neither in the four tested cognitive domains (executive control, perceptual speed, episodic memory, and long-term memory nor in brain volume (VBM whole-brain analysis, region-of-interest analysis of the hippocampus were observed. Results indicate that moderate dancing activity (1-2 times per week, on average has no additional effects on gray matter volume and cognitive functioning when a certain lifestyle or physical activity and fitness level are reached.

  4. Monitoring and predicting cognitive state and performance via physiological correlates of neuronal signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Michael B; Stetz, Melba C; Thomas, Maria L

    2005-07-01

    Judgment, decision making, and situational awareness are higher-order mental abilities critically important to operational cognitive performance. Higher-order mental abilities rely on intact functioning of multiple brain regions, including the prefrontal, thalamus, and parietal areas. Real-time monitoring of individuals for cognitive performance capacity via an approach based on sampling multiple neurophysiologic signals and integrating those signals with performance prediction models potentially provides a method of supporting warfighters' and commanders' decision making and other operationally relevant mental processes and is consistent with the goals of augmented cognition. Cognitive neurophysiological assessments that directly measure brain function and subsequent cognition include positron emission tomography, functional magnetic resonance imaging, mass spectroscopy, near-infrared spectroscopy, magnetoencephalography, and electroencephalography (EEG); however, most direct measures are not practical to use in operational environments. More practical, albeit indirect measures that are generated by, but removed from the actual neural sources, are movement activity, oculometrics, heart rate, and voice stress signals. The goal of the papers in this section is to describe advances in selected direct and indirect cognitive neurophysiologic monitoring techniques as applied for the ultimate purpose of preventing operational performance failures. These papers present data acquired in a wide variety of environments, including laboratory, simulator, and clinical arenas. The papers discuss cognitive neurophysiologic measures such as digital signal processing wrist-mounted actigraphy; oculometrics including blinks, saccadic eye movements, pupillary movements, the pupil light reflex; and high-frequency EEG. These neurophysiological indices are related to cognitive performance as measured through standard test batteries and simulators with conditions including sleep loss

  5. Working memory training shows immediate and long-term effects on cognitive performance in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugin, Fiona; Metz, Andreas J.; Stauffer, Madlaina; Wolf, Martin; Jenni, Oskar G.; Huber, Reto

    2014-01-01

    Working memory is important for mental reasoning and learning processes. Several studies in adults and school-age children have shown performance improvement in cognitive tests after working memory training. Our aim was to examine not only immediate but also long-term effects of intensive working memory training on cognitive performance tests in children. Fourteen healthy male subjects between 10 and 16 years trained a visuospatial n-back task over 3 weeks (30 min daily), while 15 individuals of the same age range served as a passive control group. Significant differences in immediate (after 3 weeks of training) and long-term effects (after 2-6 months) in an auditory n-back task were observed compared to controls (2.5 fold immediate and 4.7 fold long-term increase in the training group compared to the controls). The improvement was more pronounced in subjects who improved their performance during the training. Other cognitive functions (matrices test and Stroop task) did not change when comparing the training group to the control group. We conclude that visuospatial working memory training in children boosts performance in similar memory tasks such as the auditory n-back task. The sustained performance improvement several months after the training supports the effectiveness of the training. PMID:25671082

  6. The effects of self-report cognitive failures and cognitive load on antisaccade performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick eBerggren

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Individuals reporting high levels of distractibility in everyday life show impaired performance in standard laboratory tasks measuring selective attention and inhibitory processes. Similarly, increasing cognitive load leads to more errors/distraction in a variety of cognitive tasks. How these two factors interact is currently unclear; highly distractible individuals may be affected more when their cognitive resources are taxed, or load may linearly affect performance for all individuals. We investigated the relationship between self-reported levels of cognitive failuresin daily life and performance in the antisaccade task, a widely used tool examining attentional control. Levels of concurrent cognitive demand were manipulated using a secondary auditory discrimination task. We found that both levels of self-reported cognitive failures and task load increased antisaccade latencies while having no effect on prosaccade eye-movements. However individuals rating themselves as suffering few daily life distractions showed a comparable load cost to those who experience many. These findings suggest that the likelihood of distraction is governed by the addition of both internal susceptibility and the external current load placed on working memory.

  7. Common Variance Among Three Measures of Nonverbal Cognitive Ability: WISC-R Performance Scale, WJPB-TCA Reasoning Cluster, and Halstead Category Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telzrow, Cathy F.; Harr, Gale A.

    1987-01-01

    Examined the relationships among two psychometric measures of nonverbal cognitive ability - The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) and the Woodcock-Johnson Psychoeducational Battery-Tests of Cognitive Ability (WJPB-TCA) and a neuropsychological test of abstract reasoning and concept formation (Halstead Category Test) in 25…

  8. Associations between physical function, dual-task performance and cognition in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobol, Nanna Aue; Hoffmann, Kristine; Vogel, Asmus Mejling

    2016-01-01

    blinded multicenter RCT 'ADEX' (Alzheimer's disease: the effect of physical exercise) were used. Assessments included tests of physical function: 400-m walk test, 10-m walk test, Timed Up and Go test and 30-s chair stand test; dual-task performance, i.e., 10-m walk while counting backwards from 50...... or naming the months backwards; and cognition, i.e., Mini Mental State Examination, Symbol Digit Modalities Test, the Stroop Color and Word Test, and Lexical verbal fluency test. RESULTS: Results in the 30-s chair stand test correlated significantly with all tests of cognition (r = .208-.242) while...

  9. Serum uric acid and subsequent cognitive performance in patients with pre-existing cardiovascular disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noa Molshatzki

    Full Text Available High serum uric acid (UA levels are associated with numerous vascular risk factors, and vascular disease, that predispose patients to cognitive impairment, yet UA is also a major natural antioxidant and higher levels have been linked to slower progression of several neurodegenerative disease. In-order to test the association between UA and subsequent cognitive performance among patients that carry a high vascular burden, UA levels were determined by calorimetric enzymatic tests in a sub-cohort of patients with chronic cardiovascular disease who previously participating in a secondary prevention trial. After an average of 9.8±1.7 years, we assessed cognitive performance (Neurotrax Computerized Cognitive Battery as well as cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR and common carotid intima-media thickness (IMT. Among 446 men (mean age 62.3±6.4 yrs mean UA levels were 5.8±1.1 mg/dL. Adjusted linear regression models revealed that low UA levels (bottom quintile were associated with poorer cognitive performance. Adjusted differences between the bottom quintile and grouped top UA quintiles were (B coefficient±SE -4.23±1.28 for global cognitive scores (p = 0.001, -4.69±1.81 for memory scores (p = 0.010, -3.32±1.43 for executive scores (p = 0.020 and -3.43±1.97 for visual spatial scores (p = 0.082. Significant difference was also found for attention scores (p = 0.015. Additional adjustment for impaired CVR and high common carotid IMT slightly attenuated the relationship. Stronger UA effect on cognitive performance was found for older (age>65 patients with significant age interaction for global cognitive score (p = 0.016 and for executive (p = 0.018 and attention domains (p<0.001. In conclusion, we demonstrate that low UA levels in patients with preexisting cardiovascular disease are associated with poorer cognitive function a decade later. These findings lend support to the hypothesis that oxidative stress may be involved in the pathogenesis of age

  10. Stunting, selenium deficiency and anemia are associated with poor cognitive performance in preschool children from rural Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gashu, Dawd; Stoecker, Barbara J; Bougma, Karim; Adish, Abdulaziz; Haki, Gulelat D; Marquis, Grace S

    2016-04-12

    Anthropometric characteristics and iron status affect cognitive performance in children. In addition, selenium can influence cognitive outcomes; protection of the brain from oxidative stress and its role in thyroid hormone metabolism are putative mechanisms. To investigate their association with cognitive performance, anthropometric indicators, iron biomarkers, and serum selenium of children (n = 541) of 54-60mo of age from rural Ethiopia were assessed. Cognitive assessment was conducted with the administration of two reasoning subtests of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence and the school readiness test. Stunting was found in 41.4 % of children, 28.7 % were underweight, and 6.3 % were wasted. The mean score of stunted children was lower than that of non-stunted children on non-verbal reasoning (7.0 ± 3.2vs7.9 ± 3.1; p = 0.01) and the school readiness tests (4.3 ± 2.2 vs 3.3 ± 2.1; p 0.05). Selenium deficient children had lower scores on all cognitive tests than normal children (p malnutrition and micronutrient deficiency and address cognitive development in children.

  11. The relationship between IQ and performance on the MATRICS consensus cognitive battery

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    Christine Mohn

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The associations between IQ and individual tests of neurocognitive function are well studied. However, there is a lack of information as to how IQ relates to performance on neuropsychological test batteries as a whole and in the same individuals. In this study, 250 healthy participants aged 20-69 years were tested with the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI and the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB. In correlation analyses, IQ was significantly related to all MCCB scores, except the Social Cognition domain. Hierarchical regression analyses including gender, age, and education confirmed this association. For overall cognitive function, 50% of the variance was explained by IQ and demographic characteristics. For the domains Speed of Processing, Working Memory, Visual and Verbal Learning, IQ explained a larger proportion of the variance than the demographic factors did. The implication is that these domains may provide information of a person’s intelligence level.

  12. Performance pressure and caffeine both affect cognitive performance, but likely through independent mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boere, J.J.; Fellinger, L.; Huizinga, D.J.H.; Wong, S.F.; Bijleveld, E.H.

    2016-01-01

    A prevalent combination in daily life, performance pressure and caffeine intake have both been shown to impact people's cognitive performance. Here, we examined the possibility that pressure and caffeine affect cognitive performance via a shared pathway. In an experiment, participants performed a

  13. Neurocognitive testing and cochlear implantation: insights into performance in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosetti MK

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Maura K Cosetti,1,2 James B Pinkston,3 Jose M Flores,4 David R Friedmann,5 Callie B Jones,3 J Thomas Roland Jr,5,6 Susan B Waltzman5 1Department of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, 2Department of Neurosurgery, 3Department of Neurology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA, 4Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MA, 5Department of Otolaryngology, 6Department of Neurosurgery, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA Objective: The aim of this case series was to assess the impact of auditory rehabilitation with cochlear implantation on the cognitive function of elderly patients over time. Design: This is a longitudinal case series of prospective data assessing neurocognitive function and speech perception in an elderly cohort pre- and post-implantation. Setting: University cochlear implant center. Participants: The patients were post-lingually deafened elderly female (mean, 73.6 years; SD, 5.82; range, 67–81 years cochlear implant recipients (n=7. Measurements: A neurocognitive battery of 20 tests assessing intellectual function, learning, short- and long-term memory, verbal fluency, attention, mental flexibility, and processing speed was performed prior to and 2–4.1 years (mean, 3.7 after cochlear implant (CI. Speech perception testing using Consonant–Nucleus–Consonant words was performed prior to implantation and at regular intervals postoperatively. Individual and aggregate differences in cognitive function pre- and post-CI were estimated. Logistic regression with cluster adjustment was used to estimate the association (%improvement or %decline between speech understanding and years from implantation at 1 year, 2 years, and 3 years post-CI. Results: Improvements after CI were observed in 14 (70% of all subtests administered. Declines occurred in five (25% subtests. In 55 individual tests (43%, post-CI performance improved

  14. Suitability Screening Test for Marine Corps Air Traffic Controllers Phase 3: Non-cognitive Test Validation and Cognitive Test Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    developed, pilot tested, and in its Beta form. Findings or Results The subset of NCAPS traits that demonstrated statistically significant prediction for...development and initial pilot testing of the Prototype Marine ATC Cognitive Test. Method The validation approach chosen for this project was a criterion... multitasking ability, and 5) inductive reasoning ability. A working memory capacity test was developed because working memory has been linked to

  15. Age and individual sleep characteristics affect cognitive performance in anesthesiology residents after a 24-hour shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadinac, Meri; Sekulić, Ante; Hromatko, Ivana; Mazul-Sunko, Branka; Ivancić, Romina

    2014-03-01

    Previous research has shown that both shift work and sleep deprivation have an adverse influence on various aspects of human cognitive performance. The aim of this study was to explore changes in cognitive functioning and subjective sleepiness of anesthesiology residents after a 24-hour shift. Twenty-six anesthesiology residents completed a set of psychological instruments at the beginning and at the end of the shift, as well as a questionnaire regarding information about the shift, Stanford Sleepiness Scale, and Circadian Type Questionnaire. There was a significant decline in cognitive performance measured by the Auditory Verbal Learning Test after the shift. The effect was stronger in older participants and in those with high scores on rigidity of sleep scale and low scores on the ability to overcome sleepiness scale. There were no differences in the digits forward test (a measure of concentration), while digits backward test (a measure of working memory) even showed an improved performance after the shift. Although participants reported being significantly sleepier after the shift, the subjective sleepiness did not correlate with any of the objective measures of cognitive performance. In conclusion, the performance in short tasks involving concentration and working memory was not impaired, while performance in long-term and monotone tasks declined after sleep deprivation, and the magnitude of this decline depended on the specific individual characteristics of sleep and on age Surprisingly, age seemed to have an important impact on cognitive functions after shift work even in the relatively age-homogeneous population of young anesthesiology residents.

  16. Chronic choline supplementation improves cognitive and motor performance via modulating oxidative and neurochemical status in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Saiqa; Haider, Saida; Ahmad, Saara; Madiha, Syeda; Parveen, Tahira

    2017-08-01

    Choline, an essential nutrient, accounts for multiple functions in the body and brain. While its beneficial effects on healthy adults are not clear, choline supplementation is important during pregnancy for brain development, in elderly patients for support of cognitive performance and in patients with neurological disorders to reduce memory deficits. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate whether choline administration in healthy adult rats beneficially impacts cognitive and locomotor performance, and associated oxidative and neurochemical outcomes. Two groups, control and choline, received tap water and choline bitartrate, respectively at the dose equivalent to adequate intake for five weeks. Food intake and body weight were monitored daily. Behavioral analysis comprising assessment of cognitive performance (by novel object recognition, passive avoidance and Morris Water Maze test) and locomotor performance (by Open field, Kondziela's inverted screen and beam walking test) were performed. Following testing, rats were decapitated and brain samples were collected for estimation of acetylcholine, redox profile and monoamine measurements. The results showed that chronic choline administration significantly improves cognitive and locomotor performance accompanied by a reduction in oxidative stress, enhanced cholinergic neurotransmission and monoamine levels in the brain of healthy adult rats. Hence, chronic choline intake was found to improve behavioral, oxidative and neurochemical outcomes in the normal population, so it can be suggested that choline tablets can be used as a safe and effective supplement for improving the neurological health of normal individuals and that they might also be beneficial in preventing cognitive and motor disorders later in life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Quantitative cognitive-test characterization of reconnectable implantable fiber-optic neurointerfaces for optogenetic neurostimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedotov, I V; Ivashkina, O I; Pochechuev, M S; Roshchina, M A; Toropova, K A; Fedotov, A B; Anokhin, K V; Zheltikov, A M

    2017-11-01

    Cognitive tests on representative groups of freely behaving transgenic mice are shown to enable a quantitative characterization of reconnectable implantable fiber-optic neurointerfaces for optogenetic neurostimulation. A systematic analysis of such tests provides a robust quantitative measure for the cognitive effects induced by fiber-optic neurostimulation, validating the performance of fiber-optic neurointerfaces for long-term optogenetic brain stimulations and showing no statistically significant artifacts in the behavior of transgenic mice due to interface implantation. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Validation of Symptom Validity Tests Using a "Child-model" of Adult Cognitive Impairments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rienstra, A.; Spaan, P. E. J.; Schmand, B.

    2010-01-01

    Validation studies of symptom validity tests (SVTs) in children are uncommon. However, since children's cognitive abilities are not yet fully developed, their performance may provide additional support for the validity of these measures in adult populations. Four SVTs, the Test of Memory Malingering

  19. Cognitive load predicts point-of-care ultrasound simulator performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldekhyl, Sara; Cavalcanti, Rodrigo B; Naismith, Laura M

    2018-02-01

    The ability to maintain good performance with low cognitive load is an important marker of expertise. Incorporating cognitive load measurements in the context of simulation training may help to inform judgements of competence. This exploratory study investigated relationships between demographic markers of expertise, cognitive load measures, and simulator performance in the context of point-of-care ultrasonography. Twenty-nine medical trainees and clinicians at the University of Toronto with a range of clinical ultrasound experience were recruited. Participants answered a demographic questionnaire then used an ultrasound simulator to perform targeted scanning tasks based on clinical vignettes. Participants were scored on their ability to both acquire and interpret ultrasound images. Cognitive load measures included participant self-report, eye-based physiological indices, and behavioural measures. Data were analyzed using a multilevel linear modelling approach, wherein observations were clustered by participants. Experienced participants outperformed novice participants on ultrasound image acquisition. Ultrasound image interpretation was comparable between the two groups. Ultrasound image acquisition performance was predicted by level of training, prior ultrasound training, and cognitive load. There was significant convergence between cognitive load measurement techniques. A marginal model of ultrasound image acquisition performance including prior ultrasound training and cognitive load as fixed effects provided the best overall fit for the observed data. In this proof-of-principle study, the combination of demographic and cognitive load measures provided more sensitive metrics to predict ultrasound simulator performance. Performance assessments which include cognitive load can help differentiate between levels of expertise in simulation environments, and may serve as better predictors of skill transfer to clinical practice.

  20. Is It the Cognitive or the Behavioral Component Which Makes Cognitive-Behavior Modification Effective in Test Anxiety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Robert M.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Test-anxious subjects were assigned to condition groups: (1) desensitization only; (2) cognitive only; (3) cognitive plus desensitization; and (4) neither cognitive nor desensitization. On test anxiety and self-rating measures, combined treatment and desensitization were less effective than the cognitive-only treatment. Results are consistent with…

  1. Exposure to organophosphate and cognitive performance in chilean rural school children: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María T. Muñoz Q

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the presence of organophosphate metabolites (OP in the urine of rural schoolchildren and estimate its association with their cognitive performance. Methodology: a cross-sectional exploratory study in which a total of 25 children were assessed. Cognitive functioning was measured using the WISC-III intelligence test. Additionally, the concentration of OP metabolites in their urine was tested. Results: 56% of the children had concentration levels above the detection limit for dimethylphosphate (DMP and dimethyltiophosphate (DMTP. Moreover, 92% of them had the metabolite diethylphosphate (DEP values on this limit. Regarding the WISC-III, the intelligence quotient (IQ values below the average (IQ ˃ 90 correspond to: Total IQ = 60% performance IQ = 64%, verbal IQ = 52%, perceptual organization IQ = 60%, processing speed IQ = 95%, and freedom from distractibility IQ = 64%. An inverse association was found between the processing speed factor and DMTP (rs = -0.44, p = 0.014. Conclusions: results indicate that the rural schoolchildren whose urine was measured with OP metabolite biomarkers had been exposed to OP pesticides. A relationship was observed between the presence of OP metabolites and the cognitive performance factor of the WISC-III test. We believe it is appropriate to evaluate the effects of the presence of OP metabolites on cognitive functioning in a larger sample, while considering other exposure variables.

  2. Social cognition is not associated with cognitive reserve in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrencic, Louise M; Kurylowicz, Lisa; Valenzuela, Michael J; Churches, Owen F; Keage, Hannah A D

    2016-01-01

    Social and general cognitive abilities decline in late life. Those with high cognitive reserve display better general cognitive performance in old age; however, it is unknown whether this is also the case for social cognition. A total of 115 healthy older adults, aged 60-85 years (m = 44, f = 71) were assessed using The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT-R; social cognition), the Lifetime of Experiences Questionnaire (LEQ; cognitive reserve), and the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI-II; general cognitive ability). The LEQ did not predict performance on any TASIT-R subtest: Emotion Evaluation Test (β = -.097, p = .325), Social Inference - Minimal (β = -.004, p = .972), or Social Inference - Enriched (β = -.016, p = .878). Sensitivity analyses using two alternative cognitive reserve measures, years of education and the National Adult Reading Test, supported these effects. Cognitive reserve was strongly related to WASI-II performance. Unlike general cognitive ability, social cognition appears unaffected by cognitive reserve. Findings contribute to the emerging understanding that cognitive reserve differentially affects individual cognitive domains, which has implications for the theoretical understanding of cognitive reserve and its brain correlates. Cognitive measures unbiased by cognitive reserve may serve as best indicators of brain health, free of compensatory mechanisms.

  3. Reciprocal Modulation of Cognitive and Emotional Aspects in Pianistic Performances

    OpenAIRE

    Higuchi, Marcia K. Kodama; Fornari, José; Del Ben, Cristina M.; Graeff, Frederico G.; Leite, João Pereira

    2011-01-01

    Background: High level piano performance requires complex integration of perceptual, motor, cognitive and emotive skills. Observations in psychology and neuroscience studies have suggested reciprocal inhibitory modulation of the cognition by emotion and emotion by cognition. However, it is still unclear how cognitive states may influence the pianistic performance. The aim of the present study is to verify the influence of cognitive and affective attention in the piano performances. Methods an...

  4. Using Transcranial tDCS to test cognitive hypotheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazbanou Nozari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS is used increasingly often for testing cognitive hypotheses. It is, however, often ignored that many assumptions regarding how the neural tissue reacts to stimulation have only been verified in the motor domain. Extrapolating these assumptions to the cognitive domain has a set of unique issues which, if ignored, can lead to incorrect interpretations. In this talk I will review a number of common pitfalls in using tDCS for testing a cognitive hypothesis, and discuss some solutions for better-controlled designs. I will address the following issues: 1- Making an incorrect assumption about the nature of the effect: It is often assumed that anodal stimulation has “excitatory” and cathodal stimulation has “inhibitory” effects. Results are then interpreted in light of this assumption. Obviously, if the assumption is incorrect, the interpretation of the results too will be incorrect. I will discuss how the effects of polarity can change as a function of a number of design parameters, and the dangers of making a priori assumptions about the direction of stimulation effects, especially when employing a new design. 2- Choosing an inappropriate montage: By definition, tDCS requires two electrodes, although we are often only interested in stimulating one brain region. Where the second (reference electrode is placed may not be of theoretical interest to us, but it can have serious consequences for our effects of interest. For one thing the path of the direct current changes as a function of where the reference electrode is placed. This affects the density of the current, as well as the regions that undergo stimulation. Moreover, the region directly under the reference electrode is very likely to be affected by stimulation. Therefore, sometimes the changes in behavior may be due to the unanticipated effects at the reference electrode site, as opposed to the hypothesized effects at the target electrode site

  5. Association between fully automated MRI-based volumetry of different brain regions and neuropsychological test performance in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlt, Sönke; Buchert, Ralph; Spies, Lothar; Eichenlaub, Martin; Lehmbeck, Jan T; Jahn, Holger

    2013-06-01

    Fully automated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based volumetry may serve as biomarker for the diagnosis in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia. We aimed at investigating the relation between fully automated MRI-based volumetric measures and neuropsychological test performance in amnestic MCI and patients with mild dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD) in a cross-sectional and longitudinal study. In order to assess a possible prognostic value of fully automated MRI-based volumetry for future cognitive performance, the rate of change of neuropsychological test performance over time was also tested for its correlation with fully automated MRI-based volumetry at baseline. In 50 subjects, 18 with amnestic MCI, 21 with mild AD, and 11 controls, neuropsychological testing and T1-weighted MRI were performed at baseline and at a mean follow-up interval of 2.1 ± 0.5 years (n = 19). Fully automated MRI volumetry of the grey matter volume (GMV) was performed using a combined stereotactic normalisation and segmentation approach as provided by SPM8 and a set of pre-defined binary lobe masks. Left and right hippocampus masks were derived from probabilistic cytoarchitectonic maps. Volumes of the inner and outer liquor space were also determined automatically from the MRI. Pearson's test was used for the correlation analyses. Left hippocampal GMV was significantly correlated with performance in memory tasks, and left temporal GMV was related to performance in language tasks. Bilateral frontal, parietal and occipital GMVs were correlated to performance in neuropsychological tests comprising multiple domains. Rate of GMV change in the left hippocampus was correlated with decline of performance in the Boston Naming Test (BNT), Mini-Mental Status Examination, and trail making test B (TMT-B). The decrease of BNT and TMT-A performance over time correlated with the loss of grey matter in multiple brain regions. We conclude that fully automated MRI

  6. Validation of symptom validity tests using a "child-model" of adult cognitive impairments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rienstra, A.; Spaan, P.E.J.; Schmand, B.

    2010-01-01

    Validation studies of symptom validity tests (SVTs) in children are uncommon. However, since children’s cognitive abilities are not yet fully developed, their performance may provide additional support for the validity of these measures in adult populations. Four SVTs, the Test of Memory Malingering

  7. Evaluating the relationship between education level and cognitive impairment with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancar Demir, Esra; Özcan, Tuba

    2015-09-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is defined as 'a cognitive decline greater than that expected for an individual's age and education level but that does not interfere notably with activities of daily life'. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is a screening test for MCI. We investigated the performance of the Turkish version of the MoCA in detecting MCI among elderly persons in a rural area, the majority of whom have a low level of education. We evaluated 50 consecutive men referred from an outpatient clinic. Educational level was divided into three categories: group 1, less than primary (5 years). We evaluated the effect of education on MoCA scores and compared subjects' test performance among the different categories of education level. A total of 50 male patients with MCI (mean age: 70.74 ± 7.87) met the inclusion criteria. There were no differences in the total scores based on education or in the subscores for visuospatial/executive function, naming, attention, abstraction and delayed recall. Language was the only domain that showed significant differences between the groups. In post-hoc analysis, differences were found between groups 1 and 3 and between groups 1 and 2. Group 1 had significantly lower scores for language. The repeat subscore for language was significantly lower in group 1 than in group 2. In fluency, there were significant differences between groups 2 and 3 and between group 1 and 3. To our knowledge, this is the first study to analyze the applicability of the Turkish version of MoCA in populations with little education. Our results emphasize the need to adapt the language sections of this test, so it can be easily used in populations with low education levels. © 2014 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2014 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  8. Cognitive performance in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis: A longitudinal study in daily practice using a brief computerized cognitive battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquerye Philippe

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is need for a cognitive test battery that can be easily used in clinical practice to detect or monitor cognitive performance in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. In order to conduct, in this patient group, a preliminary investigation of the validity and utility of a brief computerized battery, the Cognitive Drug Research (CDR battery, we longitudinally assessed cognition in patients with relapsing remitting (RR MS. Methods Forty-three mildly disabled, clinically active RRMS patients were repeatedly assessed with the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST, Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT and five composite scores derived from the CDR computerized cognitive test system (CDR System: Power of Attention, Continuity of Attention, Quality of Working Memory, Quality of Episodic Memory and Speed of Memory. The Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS measured disability. Results The composite scores from the CDR battery generally showed excellent test-retest reliability over the repeated assessments, though was low on occasions for the Quality of Working Memory and Quality of Episodic Memory measures. The CDR measures tended to be highly correlated with other measures of cognition (DSST and PASAT and were also strongly related to disability (EDSS and MSFC. Baseline scores indicated large impairments to visual information processing speed and attention (DSST, Cohen's d 1.1; Power of Attention d 1.4 [reaction time on tasks of focussed and sustained attention], and a moderate impairment both to sustained attention (Continuity of Attention d 0.6 and complex information processing speed (Speed of memory d 0.7 [reaction time on tasks of working and episodic Memory], when compared to normative data derived from healthy volunteers enrolled in a series of separate, prior clinical trials. Working memory (Quality of Working Memory and episodic memory (Quality of Episodic Memory

  9. Improving clinical cognitive testing: report of the AAN Behavioral Neurology Section Workgroup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daffner, Kirk R; Gale, Seth A; Barrett, A M; Boeve, Bradley F; Chatterjee, Anjan; Coslett, H Branch; D'Esposito, Mark; Finney, Glen R; Gitelman, Darren R; Hart, John J; Lerner, Alan J; Meador, Kimford J; Pietras, Alison C; Voeller, Kytja S; Kaufer, Daniel I

    2015-09-08

    To evaluate the evidence basis of single-domain cognitive tests frequently used by behavioral neurologists in an effort to improve the quality of clinical cognitive assessment. Behavioral Neurology Section members of the American Academy of Neurology were surveyed about how they conduct clinical cognitive testing, with a particular focus on the Neurobehavioral Status Exam (NBSE). In contrast to general screening cognitive tests, an NBSE consists of tests of individual cognitive domains (e.g., memory or language) that provide a more comprehensive diagnostic assessment. Workgroups for each of 5 cognitive domains (attention, executive function, memory, language, and spatial cognition) conducted evidence-based reviews of frequently used tests. Reviews focused on suitability for office-based clinical practice, including test administration time, accessibility of normative data, disease populations studied, and availability in the public domain. Demographic and clinical practice data were obtained from 200 respondents who reported using a wide range of cognitive tests. Based on survey data and ancillary information, between 5 and 15 tests in each cognitive domain were reviewed. Within each domain, several tests are highlighted as being well-suited for an NBSE. We identified frequently used single-domain cognitive tests that are suitable for an NBSE to help make informed choices about clinical cognitive assessment. Some frequently used tests have limited normative data or have not been well-studied in common neurologic disorders. Utilizing standardized cognitive tests, particularly those with normative data based on the individual's age and educational level, can enhance the rigor and utility of clinical cognitive assessment. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  10. Correlation among personal, social performance and cognitive impairment in male schizophrenic patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damanik, R.; Effendy, E.; Camellia, V.

    2018-03-01

    Schizophrenia is a dramatic mental illness with tragic manifestation. The consequences of the illness are for the individual, affected his or her family and society. Schizophrenia is one of the twenty illness that causes Years Lost due to Disability. Treating only the symptom is insufficient. The aim of treatment must include the quality of life of aschizophrenic person. This study aims to examine the relationship between cognitive impairment and performance of the person with schizophrenia. Cognitive test is scaled with Indonesian version of Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA-Ina), while personal and social performance isscaled with Personal and Social Performance scale. There are many studies that search the relationship between cognitive impairment and social functioning of schizophrenic patients, but this is the first study that uses PSP and MoCA-Ina. Both PSP and MoCA-Ina are easy to use but still have high sensitivity and specificity, and perhaps can build people’s interest to use it in clinical practice. Twenty-five male schizophrenic patients were assessed in Prof. M. Ildrem Mental Hospital of North Sumatera Province of Indonesia. Positive correlations between MoCA-Ina and PSP score were identified. Clinicians should pay attention to cognitive and might give some early intervention to it.

  11. Understanding Cognitive Performance During Robot-Assisted Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guru, Khurshid A; Shafiei, Somayeh B; Khan, Atif; Hussein, Ahmed A; Sharif, Mohamed; Esfahani, Ehsan T

    2015-10-01

    To understand cognitive function of an expert surgeon in various surgical scenarios while performing robot-assisted surgery. In an Internal Review Board approved study, National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) questionnaire with surgical field notes were simultaneously completed. A wireless electroencephalography (EEG) headset was used to monitor brain activity during all procedures. Three key portions were evaluated: lysis of adhesions, extended lymph node dissection, and urethro-vesical anastomosis (UVA). Cognitive metrics extracted were distraction, mental workload, and mental state. In evaluating lysis of adhesions, mental state (EEG) was associated with better performance (NASA-TLX). Utilizing more mental resources resulted in better performance as self-reported. Outcomes of lysis were highly dependent on cognitive function and decision-making skills. In evaluating extended lymph node dissection, there was a negative correlation between distraction level (EEG) and mental demand, physical demand and effort (NASA-TLX). Similar to lysis of adhesion, utilizing more mental resources resulted in better performance (NASA-TLX). Lastly, with UVA, workload (EEG) negatively correlated with mental and temporal demand and was associated with better performance (NASA-TLX). The EEG recorded workload as seen here was a combination of both cognitive performance (finding solution) and motor workload (execution). Majority of workload was contributed by motor workload of an expert surgeon. During UVA, muscle memory and motor skills of expert are keys to completing the UVA. Cognitive analysis shows that expert surgeons utilized different mental resources based on their need. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Mild Cognitive Impairment Status and Mobility Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mette; Holt, Nicole E; Grande, Laura

    2014-01-01

    : An analysis was conducted on baseline data from the Boston Rehabilitative Impairment Study in the Elderly study, a cohort study of 430 primary care patients aged 65 or older. Neuropsychological tests identified participants with MCI and further subclassified those with impairment in memory domains (a......BACKGROUND: The prevalence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and mobility limitations is high among older adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between MCI status and both performance-based and self-report measures of mobility in community-dwelling older adults. METHODS...

  13. A randomized, rater-blinded, crossover study of the effects of oxymorphone extended release, fed versus fasting, on cognitive performance as tested with CANTAB in opioid-tolerant subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spierings, Egilius L H; Volkerts, Edmund R; Heitland, Ivo; Thomson, Heather

    2014-02-01

    The maximum plasma concentration (Cmax ) of oxymorphone extended release (ER) 20 mg and 40 mg is approximately 50% higher in fed than in fasted subjects, with most of the difference in area-under-the-curve (AUC) occurring in the first 4 hours post-dose. Hence, the US FDA recommends in the approved labeling that oxymorphone ER is taken at least 1 hour before or 2 hours after eating. In order to determine the potential impact on cognitive performance of the increased absorption of oxymorphone ER, fed versus fasting, we conducted a randomized, rater-blinded, crossover study in 30 opioid-tolerant subjects, using tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB). The subjects randomly received 40 mg oxymorphone ER after a high-fat meal of approximately 1,010 kCal or after fasting for 8-12 hours, and were tested 1 hour and 3 hours post-dose. The CANTAB tests, Spatial Recognition Memory (SRM) and Spatial Working Memory (SWM), showed no statistically significant differences between the fed and fasting conditions. However, sustained attention, as measured by the Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVP) CANTAB test, showed a statistically significant interaction of fed versus fasting and post-dose time of testing (F[1,28] = 6.88, P = 0.01), suggesting that 40 mg oxymorphone ER after a high-fat meal versus fasting mitigates the learning effect in this particular cognition domain from 1 hour to 3 hours post-dose. Oxymorphone 40 mg ER affected cognitive performance similarly within 3 hours post-dose, whether given on an empty stomach or after a high-fat meal, suggesting that the effect of food on plasma concentration may not be relevant in the medication's impact on cognition. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Sleep and cognitive performance: cross-sectional associations in the UK Biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Simon D; Sexton, Claire E; Feige, Bernd; Luik, Annemarie I; Lane, Jacqueline; Saxena, Richa; Anderson, Simon G; Bechtold, David A; Dixon, William; Little, Max A; Ray, David; Riemann, Dieter; Espie, Colin A; Rutter, Martin K; Spiegelhalder, Kai

    2017-10-01

    The relationship between insomnia symptoms and cognitive performance is unclear, particularly at the population level. We conducted the largest examination of this association to date through analysis of the UK Biobank, a large population-based sample of adults aged 40-69 years. We also sought to determine associations between cognitive performance and self-reported chronotype, sleep medication use and sleep duration. This cross-sectional, population-based study involved 477,529 participants, comprising 133,314 patients with frequent insomnia symptoms (age: 57.4 ± 7.7 years; 62.1% female) and 344,215 controls without insomnia symptoms (age: 56.1 ± 8.2 years; 52.0% female). Cognitive performance was assessed by a touchscreen test battery probing reasoning, basic reaction time, numeric memory, visual memory, and prospective memory. Adjusted models included relevant demographic, clinical, and sleep variables. Frequent insomnia symptoms were associated with cognitive impairment in unadjusted models; however, these effects were reversed after full adjustment, leaving those with frequent insomnia symptoms showing statistically better cognitive performance over those without. Relative to intermediate chronotype, evening chronotype was associated with superior task performance, while morning chronotype was associated with the poorest performance. Sleep medication use and both long (>9 h) and short (performance. Our results suggest that after adjustment for potential confounding variables, frequent insomnia symptoms may be associated with a small statistical advantage, which is unlikely to be clinically meaningful, on simple neurocognitive tasks. Further work is required to examine the mechanistic underpinnings of an apparent evening chronotype advantage in cognitive performance and the impairment associated with morning chronotype, sleep medication use, and sleep duration extremes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Cognitive performance in both clinical and non-clinical burnout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterholt, B.G.; Maes, J.H.R.; Linden, D. van der; Verbraak, M.J.P.M.; Kompier, M.A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Relatively little is known about cognitive performance in burnout. The aim of the present study was to further our knowledge on this topic by examining, in one study, cognitive performance in both clinical and non-clinical burnout while focusing on three interrelated aspects of cognitive

  16. Diagnosing dementia and normal aging: clinical relevance of brain ratios and cognitive performance in a Brazilian sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaves M.L.F.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic value (clinical application of brain measures and cognitive function. Alzheimer and multiinfarct patients (N = 30 and normal subjects over the age of 50 (N = 40 were submitted to a medical, neurological and cognitive investigation. The cognitive tests applied were Mini-Mental, word span, digit span, logical memory, spatial recognition span, Boston naming test, praxis, and calculation tests. The brain ratios calculated were the ventricle-brain, bifrontal, bicaudate, third ventricle, and suprasellar cistern measures. These data were obtained from a brain computer tomography scan, and the cutoff values from receiver operating characteristic curves. We analyzed the diagnostic parameters provided by these ratios and compared them to those obtained by cognitive evaluation. The sensitivity and specificity of cognitive tests were higher than brain measures, although dementia patients presented higher ratios, showing poorer cognitive performances than normal individuals. Normal controls over the age of 70 presented higher measures than younger groups, but similar cognitive performance. We found diffuse losses of tissue from the central nervous system related to distribution of cerebrospinal fluid in dementia patients. The likelihood of case identification by functional impairment was higher than when changes of the structure of the central nervous system were used. Cognitive evaluation still seems to be the best method to screen individuals from the community, especially for developing countries, where the cost of brain imaging precludes its use for screening and initial assessment of dementia.

  17. Polygenic signal for symptom dimensions and cognitive performance in patients with chronic schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Rose Mary; Dungan, Jennifer R; Keefe, Richard S E; Vorderstrasse, Allison

    2018-06-01

    Genetic etiology of psychopathology symptoms and cognitive performance in schizophrenia is supported by candidate gene and polygenic risk score (PRS) association studies. Such associations are reported to be dependent on several factors - sample characteristics, illness phase, illness severity etc. We aimed to examine if schizophrenia PRS predicted psychopathology symptoms and cognitive performance in patients with chronic schizophrenia. We also examined if schizophrenia associated autosomal loci were associated with specific symptoms or cognitive domains. Case-only analysis using data from the Clinical Antipsychotics Trials of Intervention Effectiveness-Schizophrenia trials ( n  = 730). PRS was constructed using Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) leave one out genome wide association analysis as the discovery data set. For candidate region analysis, we selected 105-schizophrenia associated autosomal loci from the PGC study. We found a significant effect of PRS on positive symptoms at p -threshold ( P T ) of 0.5 ( R 2  = 0.007, p  = 0.029, empirical p  = 0.029) and negative symptoms at P T of 1e-07 ( R 2  = 0.005, p  = 0.047, empirical p  = 0.048). For models that additionally controlled for neurocognition, best fit PRS predicted positive ( p- threshold 0.01, R 2   =  0.007, p =  0.013, empirical p  = 0.167) and negative symptoms ( p- threshold 0.1, R 2   =  0.012, p =  0.004, empirical p  = 0.329). No associations were seen for overall neurocognitive and social cognitive performance tests. Post-hoc analyses revealed that PRS predicted working memory and vigilance performance but did not survive correction. No candidate regions that survived multiple testing corrections were associated with either symptoms or cognitive performance. Our findings point to potentially distinct pathogenic mechanisms for schizophrenia symptoms.

  18. An Exploratory Analysis of the Relationship between Cardiometabolic Risk Factors and Cognitive/Academic Performance among Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Kuang Yeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This exploratory study examines the relationship between cardiometabolic risk factors (blood pressure, waist circumference, BMI, and total cholesterol and cognitive/academic performance. In this study, 1297 Taiwanese tenth-grade volunteers are recruited. Scores from the Basic Competency Test, an annual national competitive entrance examination, are used to evaluate academic performance. Cognitive abilities are accessed via the Multiple Aptitude Test Battery. The results indicate that systolic blood pressure is significantly, negatively associated with academic performance, both in male and female subjects. BMI and waist circumference are associated with verbal reasoning performance with an inverse U-shaped pattern, suggesting that both low and high BMI/waist circumference may be associated with lower verbal reasoning performance.

  19. PERFORMANCE OF A COMPUTER-BASED ASSESSMENT OF COGNITIVE FUNCTION MEASURES IN TWO COHORTS OF SENIORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espeland, Mark A.; Katula, Jeffrey A.; Rushing, Julia; Kramer, Arthur F.; Jennings, Janine M.; Sink, Kaycee M.; Nadkarni, Neelesh K.; Reid, Kieran F.; Castro, Cynthia M.; Church, Timothy; Kerwin, Diana R.; Williamson, Jeff D.; Marottoli, Richard A.; Rushing, Scott; Marsiske, Michael; Rapp, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Computer-administered assessment of cognitive function is being increasingly incorporated in clinical trials, however its performance in these settings has not been systematically evaluated. Design The Seniors Health and Activity Research Program (SHARP) pilot trial (N=73) developed a computer-based tool for assessing memory performance and executive functioning. The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Seniors (LIFE) investigators incorporated this battery in a full scale multicenter clinical trial (N=1635). We describe relationships that test scores have with those from interviewer-administered cognitive function tests and risk factors for cognitive deficits and describe performance measures (completeness, intra-class correlations). Results Computer-based assessments of cognitive function had consistent relationships across the pilot and full scale trial cohorts with interviewer-administered assessments of cognitive function, age, and a measure of physical function. In the LIFE cohort, their external validity was further demonstrated by associations with other risk factors for cognitive dysfunction: education, hypertension, diabetes, and physical function. Acceptable levels of data completeness (>83%) were achieved on all computer-based measures, however rates of missing data were higher among older participants (odds ratio=1.06 for each additional year; p<0.001) and those who reported no current computer use (odds ratio=2.71; p<0.001). Intra-class correlations among clinics were at least as low (ICC≤0.013) as for interviewer measures (ICC≤0.023), reflecting good standardization. All cognitive measures loaded onto the first principal component (global cognitive function), which accounted for 40% of the overall variance. Conclusion Our results support the use of computer-based tools for assessing cognitive function in multicenter clinical trials of older individuals. PMID:23589390

  20. Symptom validity testing in memory clinics: Hippocampal-memory associations and relevance for diagnosing mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienstra, Anne; Groot, Paul F C; Spaan, Pauline E J; Majoie, Charles B L M; Nederveen, Aart J; Walstra, Gerard J M; de Jonghe, Jos F M; van Gool, Willem A; Olabarriaga, Silvia D; Korkhov, Vladimir V; Schmand, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) do not always convert to dementia. In such cases, abnormal neuropsychological test results may not validly reflect cognitive symptoms due to brain disease, and the usual brain-behavior relationships may be absent. This study examined symptom validity in a memory clinic sample and its effect on the associations between hippocampal volume and memory performance. Eleven of 170 consecutive patients (6.5%; 13% of patients younger than 65 years) referred to memory clinics showed noncredible performance on symptom validity tests (SVTs, viz. Word Memory Test and Test of Memory Malingering). They were compared to a demographically matched group (n = 57) selected from the remaining patients. Hippocampal volume, measured by an automated volumetric method (Freesurfer), was correlated with scores on six verbal memory tests. The median correlation was r = .49 in the matched group. However, the relation was absent (median r = -.11) in patients who failed SVTs. Memory clinic samples may include patients who show noncredible performance, which invalidates their MCI diagnosis. This underscores the importance of applying SVTs in evaluating patients with cognitive complaints that may signify a predementia stage, especially when these patients are relatively young.

  1. Observing prioritization effects on cognition and gait: The effect of increased cognitive load on cognitively healthy older adults' dual-task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclean, Linda M; Brown, Laura J E; Khadra, H; Astell, Arlene J

    2017-03-01

    Previous studies exploring the effects of attention-prioritization on cognitively healthy older adults' gait and cognitive dual task (DT) performance have shown DT cost in gait outcomes but inconsistent effects on cognitive performance, which may reflect task difficulty (the cognitive load). This study aimed to identify whether changing the cognitive load during a walking and counting DT improved the challenge/sensitivity of the cognitive task to observe prioritization effects on concurrent gait and cognitive performance outcomes. Seventy-two cognitively healthy older adults (Mean=73years) walked 15m, counted backwards in 3s and 7s as single tasks (ST), and concurrently walked and counted backwards as DTs. Attention-prioritization was examined in Prioritizing Walking (PW) and Prioritizing Counting (PC) DT conditions. Dual-task performance costs (DTC) were calculated for number of correct cognitive responses (CCR) in the counting tasks, and step-time variability and velocity in the gait task. All DT conditions showed a benefit (DTB) for cognitive outcomes with trade-off cost to gait. In the Serial 3s task, the cognitive DTBs increased in PC over the PW condition (p<0.05), with a greater cost to walking velocity (p<0.05). DT effects were more pronounced in the Serial 7s with a lower cognitive DTB when PC than when PW, (p<0.05) with no trade-off increase in cost to gait outcomes (p<0.05). The findings suggest that increased cognitive load during a gait and cognitive DT produces more pronounced gait measures of attention-prioritization in cognitively healthy older adults. A cognitive load effect was also observed in the cognitive outcomes, with unexpected results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Brain iron overload, insulin resistance, and cognitive performance in obese subjects: a preliminary MRI case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco, Gerard; Puig, Josep; Daunis-I-Estadella, Josep; Molina, Xavier; Xifra, Gemma; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Pedraza, Salvador; Ricart, Wifredo; Portero-Otín, Manuel; Fernández-Real, José Manuel

    2014-11-01

    The linkage among the tissue iron stores, insulin resistance (IR), and cognition remains unclear in the obese population. We aimed to identify the factors that contribute to increased hepatic iron concentration (HIC) and brain iron overload (BIO), as evaluated by MRI, and to evaluate their impact on cognitive performance in obese and nonobese subjects. We prospectively recruited 23 middle-aged obese subjects without diabetes (13 women; age 50.4 ± 7.7 years; BMI 43.7 ± 4.48 kg/m2) and 20 healthy nonobese volunteers (10 women; age 48.8 ± 9.5 years; BMI 24.3 ± 3.54 kg/m2) in whom iron load was assessed in white and gray matter and the liver by MRI. IR was measured from HOMA-IR and an oral glucose tolerance test. A battery of neuropsychological tests was used to evaluate the cognitive performance. Multivariate regression analysis was used to identify the independent associations of BIO and cognitive performance. A significant increase in iron load was detected at the caudate nucleus (P cognitive performance. Obesity and IR may contribute to increased HIC and BIO being associated with worse cognitive performance. BIO could be a potentially useful MRI biomarker for IR and obesity-associated cognitive dysfunction. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  3. Sleep and cognitive performance: the role of income and respiratory sinus arrhythmia reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staton, Lori; Hinnant, J Benjamin; Buckhalt, Joseph; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2014-11-01

    A health disparities view suggests that low family income status acts as a risk factor for poor cognitive functioning. A biosystems view suggests that poor sleep and poor stress response system functioning are also risk factors. These views are rarely integrated to test multiplicative risk or protective effects from social-cultural and biological variables. We investigated interactions among familial income, children's sleep and respiratory sinus arrhythmia reactivity (RSA reactivity, indexing parasympathetic nervous system reactivity) in the prediction of cognitive performance of school-aged children. Participants were 282 children (146 boys; 35% African American and 65% European American; M age = 9.42 years, SD = .71). Mothers reported on family income. Children's sleep quality (efficiency) and duration (minutes) were assessed via a week of actigraphy. Children's RSA reactivity to an attention demanding and frustrating star tracing challenge was assessed in the lab. Children completed standardized cognitive assessments examining attention, processing speed, and crystallized cognitive functioning. Findings show that more optimal sleep efficiency and RSA reactivity interact to confer protection against poor cognitive performance, particularly for children from lower income homes. Results build on the literature and suggest that interactions between biological systems and socioeconomic variables are key for understanding children's cognitive performance. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Actigraphic Sleep Duration and Fragmentation in Older Women: Associations With Performance Across Cognitive Domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spira, Adam P; Stone, Katie L; Redline, Susan; Ensrud, Kristine E; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Cauley, Jane A; Yaffe, Kristine

    2017-08-01

    To determine the association of actigraphic sleep duration and fragmentation with cognition in community-dwelling older women. We studied 782 women (mean age = 87.4) of varied cognitive status from the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures who completed wrist actigraphy and the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MS), California Verbal Learning Test-II-Short Form, digit span, verbal fluency tests, and the Trailmaking Test, Part B (Trails B). Total sleep time (TST) and wake after sleep onset (WASO) tertiles were our primary predictors. There were few significant associations in adjusted analyses. Compared to women with intermediate TST (mean = 430.1 minutes), those with the longest (508.7 minutes) had significantly poorer performance on the 3MS and phonemic and semantic fluency. Compared to women with the least WASO (31.5 minutes), those in the middle tertile (61.5 minutes) had significantly poorer delayed recall and those in the middle tertile and highest tertile (126.2 minutes) had poorer total recall and semantic fluency. We observed significant adjusted associations of TST with impaired 3MS performance and of WASO with impaired delayed recall, semantic fluency, and digit span. After excluding participants with adjudicated dementia diagnoses or indeterminate cognitive status, some adjusted associations remained but decreased in magnitude, others became nonsignificant, and a new association emerged. In community-dwelling older women, longer objectively measured sleep duration and greater sleep fragmentation are associated with poorer performance and impairment in only a subset of cognitive domains. Some of these associations may be driven by women with dementia in whom disturbed sleep and cognitive performance share an underlying neuropathological basis. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Sleep Research Society (SRS) 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  5. Investigating the effects of exam length on performance and cognitive fatigue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie L Jensen

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of exam length on student performance and cognitive fatigue in an undergraduate biology classroom. Exams tested higher order thinking skills. To test our hypothesis, we administered standard- and extended-length high-level exams to two populations of non-majors biology students. We gathered exam performance data between conditions as well as performance on the first and second half of exams within conditions. We showed that lengthier exams led to better performance on assessment items shared between conditions, possibly lending support to the spreading activation theory. It also led to greater performance on the final exam, lending support to the testing effect in creative problem solving. Lengthier exams did not result in lower performance due to fatiguing conditions, although students perceived subjective fatigue. Implications of these findings are discussed with respect to assessment practices.

  6. Fuzzy Cognitive Map for Software Testing Using Artificial Intelligence Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Larkman , Deane; Mohammadian , Masoud; Balachandran , Bala; Jentzsch , Ric

    2010-01-01

    International audience; This paper discusses a framework to assist test managers to evaluate the use of AI techniques as a potential tool in software testing. Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCMs) are employed to evaluate the framework and make decision analysis easier. A what-if analysis is presented that explores the general application of the framework. Simulations are performed to show the effectiveness of the proposed method. The framework proposed is innovative and it assists managers in making e...

  7. Effects of sleep deprivation on cognitive and physical performance in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Yusuf; Lee, Alice; Raha, Oishik; Pillai, Kavya; Gupta, Shubham; Sethi, Sonika; Mukeshimana, Felicite; Gerard, Lothaire; Moghal, Mohammad U; Saleh, Sohag N; Smith, Susan F; Morrell, Mary J; Moss, James

    2017-01-01

    Sleep deprivation is common among university students, and has been associated with poor academic performance and physical dysfunction. However, current literature has a narrow focus in regard to domains tested, this study aimed to investigate the effects of a night of sleep deprivation on cognitive and physical performance in students. A randomized controlled crossover study was carried out with 64 participants [58% male ( n  = 37); 22 ± 4 years old (mean ± SD)]. Participants were randomized into two conditions: normal sleep or one night sleep deprivation. Sleep deprivation was monitored using an online time-stamped questionnaire at 45 min intervals, completed in the participants' homes. The outcomes were cognitive: working memory (Simon game© derivative), executive function (Stroop test); and physical: reaction time (ruler drop testing), lung function (spirometry), rate of perceived exertion, heart rate, and blood pressure during submaximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Data were analysed using paired two-tailed T tests and MANOVA. Reaction time and systolic blood pressure post-exercise were significantly increased following sleep deprivation (mean ± SD change: reaction time: 0.15 ± 0.04 s, p  = 0.003; systolic BP: 6 ± 17 mmHg, p  = 0.012). No significant differences were found in other variables. Reaction time and vascular response to exercise were significantly affected by sleep deprivation in university students, whilst other cognitive and cardiopulmonary measures showed no significant changes. These findings indicate that acute sleep deprivation can have an impact on physical but not cognitive ability in young healthy university students. Further research is needed to identify mechanisms of change and the impact of longer term sleep deprivation in this population.

  8. Cognitive performance and informant reports in the diagnosis of cognitive impairment and dementia in African Americans and whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Guy G; Plassman, Brenda L; Burke, James R; Kabeto, Mohammed U; Langa, Kenneth M; Llewellyn, David J; Rogers, Mary A M; Steffens, David C

    2009-11-01

    The diagnosis of cognitive impairment and dementia must reflect an increasingly diverse and aging United States population. This study compared direct testing and informant reports of cognition with clinical diagnoses of cognitive impairment and dementia between African Americans and whites. Participants in the Aging, Demographics, and Memory Study completed in-person dementia evaluations, and were assigned clinical diagnoses (by a consensus panel of dementia experts) of normal; cognitive impairment, not demented (CIND); and dementia. The Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) total score and the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE) were used to assess cognitive performance and reported cognitive decline. A higher CERAD total score was associated with lower odds of CIND and dementia, at comparable ratios between African Americans and whites. Higher IQCODE scores were associated with increased odds of dementia in both African Americans and whites. Higher IQCODE scores were associated with increased odds of CIND among whites, but not among African Americans. Cultural differences may influence informant reports of prevalent CIND and dementia. Our findings also highlight the need for more comparative research to establish the cultural validity of measures used to diagnose these conditions.

  9. Disentangling the Relationship between Hemispheric Asymmetry and Cognitive Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirnstein, Marco; Leask, Stuart; Rose, Jonas; Hausmann, Markus

    2010-01-01

    It is widely believed that advantages of hemispheric asymmetries originated in better cognitive processing, hence it is often implied that the relationship between hemispheric asymmetry and cognitive performance is linearly positive: the higher the degree of lateralization in a specific cognitive domain, the better the performance in a…

  10. The Effect of Two Different Cognitive Tests on Gait Parameters during Dual Tasks in Healthy Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Hagner-Derengowska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The paper aims to evaluate the influence of two different demanding cognitive tasks on gait parameters using BTS SMART system analysis. Patients and Methods. The study comprised 53 postmenopausal women aged 64.5 ± 6.7 years (range: 47–79. For every subject, gait analysis using a BTS SMART system was performed in a dual-task study design under three conditions: (I while walking only (single task, (II walking while performing a simultaneous simple cognitive task (SCT (dual task, and (III walking while performing a simultaneous complex cognitive task (CCT (dual task. Time-space parameters of gait pertaining to the length of a single support phase, double support phase, gait speed, step length, step width, and leg swing speed were analyzed. Results. Performance of cognitive tests during gait resulted in a statistically significant prolongation of the left (by 7% and right (by 7% foot gait cycle, shortening of the length of steps made with the right extremity (by 4%, reduction of speed of swings made with the left (by 11% and right (by 8% extremity, and reduction in gait speed (by 6%. Conclusions. Performance of cognitive tests during gait changes its individual pattern in relation to the level of the difficulty of the task.

  11. Analyses of User Rationality and System Learnability: Performing Task Variants in User Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Effie Lai-Chong; Blazic, Borka Jerman; Pipan, Matic

    2007-01-01

    No systematic empirical study on investigating the effects of performing task variants on user cognitive strategy and behaviour in usability tests and on learnability of the system being tested has been documented in the literature. The current use-inspired basic research work aims to identify the underlying cognitive mechanisms and the practical…

  12. Feasibility and validity of mobile cognitive testing in the investigation of age-related cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, Pierre; Husky, Mathilde; Allard, Michèle; Amieva, Hélène; Pérès, Karine; Foubert-Samier, Alexandra; Dartigues, Jean-François; Swendsen, Joel

    2017-09-01

    Mobile cognitive testing may be used to help characterize subtle deficits at the earliest stages of cognitive decline. Despite growing interest in this approach, comprehensive information concerning its feasibility and validity has been lacking in elderly samples. Over a one-week period, this study applied mobile cognitive tests of semantic memory, episodic memory and executive functioning in a cohort of 114 elderly non-demented community residents. While the study acceptance rate was moderate (66%), the majority of recruited individuals met minimal compliance thresholds and responded to an average of 82% of the repeated daily assessments. Missing data did not increase over the course of the study, but practice effects were observed for several test scores. However, even when controlling for practice effects, traditional neuropsychological tests were significantly associated with mobile cognitive test scores. In particular, the Isaacs Set Test was associated with mobile assessments of semantic memory (γ = 0.084, t = 5.598, p mobile assessments of episodic memory (γ = 0.069, t = 3.156, p mobile assessments of executive functioning (γ = 0.168, t = 4.562, p Mobile cognitive testing in the elderly may provide complementary and potentially more sensitive data relative to traditional neuropsychological assessment. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Trait impulsivity predicts D-KEFS tower test performance in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyvers, Michael; Basch, Vanessa; Duff, Helen; Edwards, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined a widely used self-report index of trait impulsiveness in relation to performance on a well-known neuropsychological executive function test in 70 university undergraduate students (50 women, 20 men) aged 18 to 24 years old. Participants completed the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) and the Frontal Systems Behavior Scale (FrSBe), after which they performed the Tower Test of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System. Hierarchical linear regression showed that after controlling for gender, current alcohol consumption, age at onset of weekly alcohol use, and FrSBe scores, BIS-11 significantly predicted Tower Test Achievement scores, β = -.44, p impulsiveness is associated with poorer executive cognitive performance even in a sample likely to be characterized by relatively high general cognitive functioning (i.e., university students). The results also support the role of inhibition as a key aspect of executive task performance. Elevated scores on the BIS-11 and FrSBe are known to be linked to risky drinking in young adults as confirmed in this sample; however, only BIS-11 predicted Tower Test performance.

  14. Nutritional status and cognitive performance of mother-child pairs in Sidama, Southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogale, Alemtsehay; Stoecker, Barbara J; Kennedy, Tay; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Thomas, David; Abebe, Yewelsew; Hambidge, K Michael

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the nutritional status and cognitive performance of women and their 5-year-old children using a cross-sectional design. Cognitive performance of mothers and children was assessed with Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (CPM) and Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children-II (KABC-II). Demographic characteristics, food consumption patterns and anthropometry were also measured. Four rural districts in Sidama, southern Ethiopia served as the setting for this study. Subjects were one hundred women and their 5-year-old children. Mean ± standard deviation age of the mothers was 29 ± 6 years and family size was 7.0 ± 2.6. Maternal body mass index (BMI) ranged from 15.3 to 29.0 with 14% of the mothers having BMI children revealed 29% to be stunted (height-for-age z-score education significantly contributed to prediction of both mothers' and children's cognitive test scores. There were significant differences in mean cognitive test scores between stunted and non-stunted, and between underweight and normal-weight children. Height-for-age z-scores were correlated with scores for short-term memory (r = 0.42, P children with growth deficits suggesting that efficient and cost effective methods to alleviate malnutrition and food insecurity would impact not only child health but also cognitive function. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. [Relationship between subclinical psychotic symptoms and cognitive performance in the general population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Santiago, Oscar; Suazo, Vanessa; Rodríguez-Lorenzana, Alberto; Ruiz de Azúa, Sonia; Valcárcel, César; Díez, Álvaro; Grau, Adriana; Domínguez, Cristina; Gallardo, Ricardo; Molina, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    Subclinical psychotic symptoms are associated to negative life outcomes in the general population, but their relationship with cognitive performance is still not well understood. Assessing the relationship between performance in cognitive domains and subclinical psychotic symptoms in the general population may also help understand the handicap attributed to clinical psychosis, in which these alterations are present. Subclinical and cognitive assessments were obtained in 203 participants from the general population by means of the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences, the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia, the Wechsler Adults Intelligence Scale and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. The positive and negative subclinical symptoms and their relationship with age and cognition were examined, followed by assessing the influence of subclinical depression scores on the possible relationships between those subclinical psychotic symptoms and cognitive deficits. Inverse relationships were found between frequency in the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences positive dimension and motor speed, and frequency and distress in the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences negative dimension and motor speed. A direct relationship was also found between distress scores of the positive dimension and executive functions. Both positive and negative subclinical symptoms were related to depression scores. Psychotic symptoms, similar to those in the clinical population, may be associated with cognitive deficits in the general population. Copyright © 2015 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  16. The cognitive complexity of concurrent cognitive-motor tasks reveals age-related deficits in motor performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Anderson Souza; Reiche, Mikkel Staall; Vinescu, Cristina Ioana

    2018-01-01

    Aging reduces cognitive functions, and such impairments have implications in mental and motor performance. Cognitive function has been recently linked to the risk of falls in older adults. Physical activities have been used to attenuate the declines in cognitive functions and reduce fall incidence......, but little is known whether a physically active lifestyle can maintain physical performance under cognitively demanding conditions. The aim of this study was to verify whether physically active older adults present similar performance deficits during upper limb response time and precision stepping walking...... tasks when compared to younger adults. Both upper limb and walking tasks involved simple and complex cognitive demands through decision-making. For both tasks, decision-making was assessed by including a distracting factor to the execution. The results showed that older adults were substantially slower...

  17. Comparing Cognitive Models of Domain Mastery and Task Performance in Algebra: Validity Evidence for a State Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Zachary B.

    2013-01-01

    This study compared an expert-based cognitive model of domain mastery with student-based cognitive models of task performance for Integrated Algebra. Interpretations of student test results are limited by experts' hypotheses of how students interact with the items. In reality, the cognitive processes that students use to solve each item may be…

  18. Performance norms for a rhesus monkey neuropsychological testing battery: acquisition and long-term performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed, M R; Taffe, M A; Polis, I; Roberts, A C; Robbins, T W; Koob, G F; Bloom, F E; Gold, L H

    1999-10-25

    A computerized behavioral battery based upon human neuropsychological tests (CANTAB, CeNeS, Cambridge, UK) has been developed to assess cognitive behaviors of rhesus monkeys. Monkeys reliably performed multiple tasks, providing long-term assessment of changes in a number of behaviors for a given animal. The overall goal of the test battery is to characterize changes in cognitive behaviors following central nervous system (CNS) manipulations. The battery addresses memory (delayed non-matching to sample, DNMS; spatial working memory, using a self-ordered spatial search task, SOSS), attention (intra-/extra-dimensional shift, ID/ED), motivation (progressive-ratio, PR), reaction time (RT) and motor coordination (bimanual task). As with human neuropsychological batteries, different tasks are thought to involve different neural substrates, and therefore performance profiles should assess function in particular brain regions. Monkeys were tested in transport cages, and responding on a touch sensitive computer monitor was maintained by food reinforcement. Parametric manipulations of several tasks demonstrated the sensitivity of performance to increases in task difficulty. Furthermore, the factors influencing difficulty for rhesus monkeys were the same as those shown to affect human performance. Data from this study represent performance of a population of healthy normal monkeys that will be used for comparison in subsequent studies of performance following CNS manipulations such as infection with simian immunodeficiency virus (NeuroAIDS) or drug administration.

  19. Effects of age and cognition on a cross-cultural paediatric adaptation of the Sniffin' Sticks Identification Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Laís Orrico Donnabella; Guerreiro, Marilisa Mantovani; Lees, Andrew John; Warner, Thomas T; Silveira-Moriyama, Laura

    2015-01-01

    To study the effects of age and cognition on the performance of children aged 3 to 18 years on a culturally adapted version of the 16 item smell identification test from Sniffin' Sticks (SS16). A series of pilots were conducted on 29 children aged 3 to 18 years old and 23 adults to produce an adapted version of the SS16 suitable for Brazilian children (SS16-Child). A final version was applied to 51 children alongside a picture identification test (PIT-SS16-Child) to access cognitive abilities involved in the smell identification task. In addition 20 adults performed the same tasks as a comparison group. The final adapted SS16-Child was applied to 51 children with a mean age of 9.9 years (range 3-18 years, SD=4.25 years), of which 68.3% were girls. There was an independent effect of age (pPIT-SS16-Child (p<0.001) on the performance on the SS16-Child, and older children reached the ceiling for scoring in the cognitive and olfactory test. Pre-school children had difficulties identifying items of the test. A cross-culturally adapted version of the SS16 can be used to test olfaction in children but interpretation of the results must take age and cognitive abilities into consideration.

  20. Effects of age and cognition on a cross-cultural paediatric adaptation of the Sniffin' Sticks Identification Test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laís Orrico Donnabella Bastos

    Full Text Available To study the effects of age and cognition on the performance of children aged 3 to 18 years on a culturally adapted version of the 16 item smell identification test from Sniffin' Sticks (SS16.A series of pilots were conducted on 29 children aged 3 to 18 years old and 23 adults to produce an adapted version of the SS16 suitable for Brazilian children (SS16-Child. A final version was applied to 51 children alongside a picture identification test (PIT-SS16-Child to access cognitive abilities involved in the smell identification task. In addition 20 adults performed the same tasks as a comparison group.The final adapted SS16-Child was applied to 51 children with a mean age of 9.9 years (range 3-18 years, SD=4.25 years, of which 68.3% were girls. There was an independent effect of age (p<0.05 and PIT-SS16-Child (p<0.001 on the performance on the SS16-Child, and older children reached the ceiling for scoring in the cognitive and olfactory test. Pre-school children had difficulties identifying items of the test.A cross-culturally adapted version of the SS16 can be used to test olfaction in children but interpretation of the results must take age and cognitive abilities into consideration.

  1. The NEWMEDS rodent touchscreen test battery for cognition relevant to schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvoslef-Eide, M; Mar, A C; Nilsson, S R O; Alsiö, J; Heath, C J; Saksida, L M; Robbins, T W; Bussey, T J

    2015-11-01

    The NEWMEDS initiative (Novel Methods leading to New Medications in Depression and Schizophrenia, http://www.newmeds-europe.com ) is a large industrial-academic collaborative project aimed at developing new methods for drug discovery for schizophrenia. As part of this project, Work package 2 (WP02) has developed and validated a comprehensive battery of novel touchscreen tasks for rats and mice for assessing cognitive domains relevant to schizophrenia. This article provides a review of the touchscreen battery of tasks for rats and mice for assessing cognitive domains relevant to schizophrenia and highlights validation data presented in several primary articles in this issue and elsewhere. The battery consists of the five-choice serial reaction time task and a novel rodent continuous performance task for measuring attention, a three-stimulus visual reversal and the serial visual reversal task for measuring cognitive flexibility, novel non-matching to sample-based tasks for measuring spatial working memory and paired-associates learning for measuring long-term memory. The rodent (i.e. both rats and mice) touchscreen operant chamber and battery has high translational value across species due to its emphasis on construct as well as face validity. In addition, it offers cognitive profiling of models of diseases with cognitive symptoms (not limited to schizophrenia) through a battery approach, whereby multiple cognitive constructs can be measured using the same apparatus, enabling comparisons of performance across tasks. This battery of tests constitutes an extensive tool package for both model characterisation and pre-clinical drug discovery.

  2. Testing the Self-Efficacy-Performance Linkage of Social-Cognitive Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Allison W.; Rainer, R. Kelly, Jr.; Hochwarter, Wayne A.; Thompson, Kenneth R.

    1997-01-01

    Briefly reviews Albert Bandura's Self-Efficacy Performance Model (ability to perform a task is influenced by an individual's belief in their capability). Tests this model with a sample of 776 university employees and computer-related knowledge and skills. Results supported Bandura's thesis. Includes statistical tables and a discussion of related…

  3. Addenbrooke's cognitive examination test for brief cognitive assessment of adolescents suffering from migraine with aura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrusic, Igor; Pavlovski, Vera; Savkovic, Zorica; Vucinic, Dragana; Filipovic, Branislav; Jancic, Jasna

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the role of the Addenbrooke's cognitive examination test (ACE-R) in the evaluation of cognitive status in migraineurs interictally. A total of 44 adolescent patients and 44 healthy controls, matched by age and gender, have undergone ACE-R testing. Migraineurs were additionally questioned about migraine aura features and presence of higher cortical dysfunctions (HCD) during an aura. According to the questionnaire results, patients were subsequently divided into HCD and Non-HCD group. ACE-R scores of migraine patients were significantly lower than in healthy controls (93.68 ± 3.64 vs 96.91 ± 2.49; t = 4.852, p cognitive examination score, although Non-HCD subgroup achieved better score (93.13 ± 3.91 vs 94.29 ± 3.30; t = 1.053, p = 0.298). Findings have shown that migraineurs get lower ACE-R test scores, with a tendency to have a poorer outcome in more complex aura. Also, our study has revealed that the ACE-R test is an easily administered test for brief assessment of cognitive status in migraineurs. Future perspectives could be further evaluation of ACE-R test in larger sample size and the impact of migraine with aura on cognitive function in adolescents.

  4. Association of Plasma Neurofilament Light Chain with Neocortical Amyloid-β Load and Cognitive Performance in Cognitively Normal Elderly Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Pratishtha; Goozee, Kathryn; Sohrabi, Hamid R; Shen, Kaikai; Shah, Tejal; Asih, Prita R; Dave, Preeti; ManYan, Candice; Taddei, Kevin; Chung, Roger; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Martins, Ralph N

    2018-01-01

    The disruption of neurofilament, an axonal cytoskeletal protein, in neurodegenerative conditions may result in neuronal damage and its release into the cerebrospinal fluid and blood. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), neurofilament light chain (NFL), a neurofilament subunit, is elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid and blood. Investigate the association of plasma NFL with preclinical-AD features, such as high neocortical amyloid-β load (NAL) and subjective memory complaints, and cognitive performance in cognitively normal older adults. Plasma NFL concentrations were measured employing the single molecule array platform in participants from the Kerr Anglican Retirement Village Initiative in Ageing Health cohort, aged 65- 90 years. Participants underwent a battery of neuropsychological testing to evaluate cognitive performance and were categorized as low NAL (NAL-, n = 65) and high NAL (NAL+, n = 35) assessed via PET, and further stratified into subjective memory complainers (SMC; nNAL- = 51, nNAL+ = 25) and non-SMC (nNAL- = 14, nNAL+ = 10) based on the Memory Assessment Clinic- Questionnaire. Plasma NFL inversely correlated with cognitive performance. No significant difference in NFL was observed between NAL+ and NAL- participants; however, within APOEɛ4 non-carriers, higher NAL was observed in individuals with NFL concentrations within quartiles 3 and 4 (versus quartile 1). Additionally, within the NAL+ participants, SMC had a trend of higher NFL compared to non-SMC. Plasma NFL is inversely associated with cognitive performance in elderly individuals. While plasma NFL may not reflect NAL in individuals with normal global cognition, the current observations indicate that onset of axonal injury, reflected by increased plasma NFL, within the preclinical phase of AD may contribute to the pathogenesis of AD.

  5. Quick screening of cognitive function in Indian multiple sclerosis patients using Montreal cognitive assessment test-short version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darshpreet Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cognitive impairments in multiple sclerosis (MS are now well recognized worldwide, but unfortunately this domain has been less explored in India due to many undermining factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate cognitive impairments in Indian MS patients with visual or upper limb motor problems with the help of short version of Montreal cognitive assessment test (MoCA. Subjects and Methods: Thirty MS patients and 50 matched controls were recruited for the 12 points MoCA task. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC analysis was performed to determine optimal sensitivity and specificity of the 12 points MoCA in differentiating cognitively impaired patients and controls. Results: The mean 12 points MoCA scores of the controls and MS patients were 11.56 ± 0.67 and 8.06 ± 1.99, respectively. In our study, the optimal cut-off value for 12 points MoCA to be able to differentiate patients with cognitive impairments from controls is 10/12. Accordingly, 73.3% patients fell below the cut off value. Both the groups did not have significant statistical differences with regard to age and educational years. Conclusion: The 12 points, short version of MoCA, is a useful brief screening tool for quick and early detection of mild cognitive impairments in subjects with MS. It can be administered to patients having visual and motor problems. It is of potential use by primary care physicians, nurses, and other allied health professionals who need a quick screening test. No formal training for administration is required. Financial and time constraints should not limit the use of the proposed instrument.

  6. Physical Activity, Sleep, and Nutrition Do Not Predict Cognitive Performance in Young and Middle-Aged Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gijselaers, Hieronymus J M; Elena, Barberà; Kirschner, Paul A; de Groot, Renate H M

    2016-01-01

    Biological lifestyle factors (BLFs) such as physical activity, sleep, and nutrition play a role in cognitive functioning. Research concerning the relation between BLFs and cognitive performance is scarce however, especially in young and middle-aged adults. Research has not yet focused on a multidisciplinary approach with respect to this relation in the abovementioned population, where lifestyle habits are more stable. The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of these BLFs to cognitive performance. Path analysis was conducted in an observational study in which 1131 adults were analyzed using a cross-validation approach. Participants provided information on physical activity, sedentary behavior, chronotype, sleep duration, sleep quality, and the consumption of breakfast, fish, and caffeine via a survey. Their cognitive performance was measured using objective digital cognitive tests. Exploration yielded a predictive cohesive model that fitted the data properly, χ(2) /df = 0.8, CFI = 1.00, RMSEA performance measures, except for sedentary behavior. Although sedentary behavior was positively predictive for processing speed its contribution was small and unclear. The results indicate that the variables within the BLFs do not predict cognitive performance in young and middle-aged adults.

  7. Cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) benefits more to patients with schizophrenia with low initial memory performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillet, Benoit; Morvan, Yannick; Todd, Aurelia; Franck, Nicolas; Duboc, Chloé; Grosz, Aimé; Launay, Corinne; Demily, Caroline; Gaillard, Raphaël; Krebs, Marie-Odile; Amado, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia mainly affect memory, attention and executive functions. Cognitive remediation is a technique derived from neuropsychology, which aims to improve or compensate for these deficits. Working memory, verbal learning, and executive functions are crucial factors for functional outcome. Our purpose was to assess the impact of the cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) program on cognitive difficulties in patients with schizophrenia, especially on working memory, verbal memory, and cognitive flexibility. We collected data from clinical and neuropsychological assessments in 24 patients suffering from schizophrenia (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of mental Disorders-Fourth Edition, DSM-IV) who followed a 3-month (CRT) program. Verbal and visuo-spatial working memory, verbal memory, and cognitive flexibility were assessed before and after CRT. The Wilcoxon test showed significant improvements on the backward digit span, on the visual working memory span, on verbal memory and on flexibility. Cognitive improvement was substantial when baseline performance was low, independently from clinical benefit. CRT is effective on crucial cognitive domains and provides a huge benefit for patients having low baseline performance. Such cognitive amelioration appears highly promising for improving the outcome in cognitively impaired patients.

  8. Predicting neuropsychological test performance on the basis of temporal orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joseph J; Glass, Laura A; Bartels, Jared M; Bergner, CariAnn M; Paolo, Anthony M

    2009-05-01

    Temporal orientation is often disrupted in the context of psychiatric or neurological disease; tests assessing this function are included in most mental status examinations. The present study examined the relationship between scores on the Temporal Orientation Scale (TOS) and performance on a battery of tests that assess memory, language, and cognitive functioning in a sample of patients with Alzheimer's disease (N = 55). Pearson-product moment correlations showed that, in all but two instances, the TOS was significantly correlated with each neuropsychological measure, p values < or = .05. Also, severely disoriented (i.e., TOS score < or = -8) patients were consistently 'impaired' on memory tests but not on tests of language and general cognitive functioning.

  9. Effects of caffeine and caffeine withdrawal on mood and cognitive performance degraded by sleep restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Peter J; Heatherley, Susan V; Hayward, Robert C; Seers, Helen E; Hill, Joanne; Kane, Marian

    2005-06-01

    It has been suggested that caffeine is most likely to benefit mood and performance when alertness is low. To measure the effects of caffeine on psychomotor and cognitive performance, mood, blood pressure and heart rate in sleep-restricted participants. To do this in a group of participants who had also been previously deprived of caffeine for 3 weeks, thereby potentially removing the confounding effects of acute caffeine withdrawal. Participants were moderate to moderate-high caffeine consumers who were provided with either decaffeinated tea and/or coffee for 3 weeks (LTW) or regular tea and/or coffee for 3 weeks (overnight caffeine-withdrawn participants, ONW). Then, following overnight caffeine abstinence, they were tested on a battery of tasks assessing mood, cognitive performance, etc. before and after receiving caffeine (1.2 mg/kg) or on another day after receiving placebo. Final analyses were based on 17 long-term caffeine-withdrawn participants (LTW) and 17 ONW participants whose salivary caffeine levels on each test day confirmed probable compliance with the instructions concerning restrictions on consumption of caffeine-containing drinks. Acute caffeine withdrawal (ONW) had a number of negative effects, including impairment of cognitive performance, increased headache, and reduced alertness and clear-headedness. Caffeine (versus placebo) did not significantly improve cognitive performance in LTW participants, although it prevented further deterioration of performance in ONW participants. Caffeine increased tapping speed (but tended to impair hand steadiness), increased blood pressure, and had some effects on mood in both groups. The findings provide strong support for the withdrawal reversal hypothesis. In particular, cognitive performance was found to be affected adversely by acute caffeine withdrawal and, even in the context of alertness lowered by sleep restriction, cognitive performance was not improved by caffeine in the absence of these withdrawal

  10. Effect of response format on cognitive reflection: Validating a two- and four-option multiple choice question version of the Cognitive Reflection Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirota, Miroslav; Juanchich, Marie

    2018-03-27

    The Cognitive Reflection Test, measuring intuition inhibition and cognitive reflection, has become extremely popular because it reliably predicts reasoning performance, decision-making, and beliefs. Across studies, the response format of CRT items sometimes differs, based on the assumed construct equivalence of tests with open-ended versus multiple-choice items (the equivalence hypothesis). Evidence and theoretical reasons, however, suggest that the cognitive processes measured by these response formats and their associated performances might differ (the nonequivalence hypothesis). We tested the two hypotheses experimentally by assessing the performance in tests with different response formats and by comparing their predictive and construct validity. In a between-subjects experiment (n = 452), participants answered stem-equivalent CRT items in an open-ended, a two-option, or a four-option response format and then completed tasks on belief bias, denominator neglect, and paranormal beliefs (benchmark indicators of predictive validity), as well as on actively open-minded thinking and numeracy (benchmark indicators of construct validity). We found no significant differences between the three response formats in the numbers of correct responses, the numbers of intuitive responses (with the exception of the two-option version, which had a higher number than the other tests), and the correlational patterns of the indicators of predictive and construct validity. All three test versions were similarly reliable, but the multiple-choice formats were completed more quickly. We speculate that the specific nature of the CRT items helps build construct equivalence among the different response formats. We recommend using the validated multiple-choice version of the CRT presented here, particularly the four-option CRT, for practical and methodological reasons. Supplementary materials and data are available at https://osf.io/mzhyc/ .

  11. Physical exercise and cognitive performance in the elderly: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk-Sanchez NJ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Neva J Kirk-Sanchez,1 Ellen L McGough21Department of Physical Therapy, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA; 2Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USAAbstract: In an aging population with increasing incidence of dementia and cognitive impairment, strategies are needed to slow age-related decline and reduce disease-related cognitive impairment in older adults. Physical exercise that targets modifiable risk factors and neuroprotective mechanisms may reduce declines in cognitive performance attributed to the normal aging process and protect against changes related to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and other types of dementia. In this review we summarize the role of exercise in neuroprotection and cognitive performance, and provide information related to implementation of physical exercise programs for older adults. Evidence from both animal and human studies supports the role of physical exercise in modifying metabolic, structural, and functional dimensions of the brain and preserving cognitive performance in older adults. The results of observational studies support a dose-dependent neuroprotective relationship between physical exercise and cognitive performance in older adults. Although some clinical trials of exercise interventions demonstrate positive effects of exercise on cognitive performance, other trials show minimal to no effect. Although further research is needed, physical exercise interventions aimed at improving brain health through neuroprotective mechanisms show promise for preserving cognitive performance. Exercise programs that are structured, individualized, higher intensity, longer duration, and multicomponent show promise for preserving cognitive performance in older adults.Keywords: aging, neurodegeneration, dementia, brain, physical activity

  12. Cognitive stimulation in children at social risk: its transference to school performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celina Korzeniowski

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study set out to evaluate the effectiveness of a group cognitive intervention aimed at promoting executive functions in children at social risk. The quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest design included a control group. The sample was made up of 178 children (52% boys, aged 6-10. The children were evaluated by means of a battery of neuropsychological EF tests and a teacher-rated behavioral EF scale. The intervention program included 30 group cognitive stimulation sessions that increased in difficulty and were embedded into school curr´ıcula. Trained children performed better in terms of cognitive flexibility, planning, metacognition and inhibitory control, as compared to their baseline values and to children in the control group. This study provides new evidence of the effectiveness of cognitive interventions for children and of children’s capability to transfer cognitive improvements to daily school activities.

  13. Automated Test Assembly for Cognitive Diagnosis Models Using a Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelman, Matthew; Kim, Wonsuk; Roussos, Louis A.

    2009-01-01

    Much recent psychometric literature has focused on cognitive diagnosis models (CDMs), a promising class of instruments used to measure the strengths and weaknesses of examinees. This article introduces a genetic algorithm to perform automated test assembly alongside CDMs. The algorithm is flexible in that it can be applied whether the goal is to…

  14. Both Reaction Time and Accuracy Measures of Intraindividual Variability Predict Cognitive Performance in Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn U. Christ

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Dementia researchers around the world prioritize the urgent need for sensitive measurement tools that can detect cognitive and functional change at the earliest stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Sensitive indicators of underlying neural pathology assist in the early detection of cognitive change and are thus important for the evaluation of early-intervention clinical trials. One method that may be particularly well-suited to help achieve this goal involves the quantification of intraindividual variability (IIV in cognitive performance. The current study aimed to directly compare two methods of estimating IIV (fluctuations in accuracy-based scores vs. those in latency-based scores to predict cognitive performance in AD. Specifically, we directly compared the relative sensitivity of reaction time (RT—and accuracy-based estimates of IIV to cognitive compromise. The novelty of the present study, however, centered on the patients we tested [a group of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD] and the outcome measures we used (a measure of general cognitive function and a measure of episodic memory function. Hence, we compared intraindividual standard deviations (iSDs from two RT tasks and three accuracy-based memory tasks in patients with possible or probable Alzheimer's dementia (n = 23 and matched healthy controls (n = 25. The main analyses modeled the relative contributions of RT vs. accuracy-based measures of IIV toward the prediction of performance on measures of (a overall cognitive functioning, and (b episodic memory functioning. Results indicated that RT-based IIV measures are superior predictors of neurocognitive impairment (as indexed by overall cognitive and memory performance than accuracy-based IIV measures, even after adjusting for the timescale of measurement. However, one accuracy-based IIV measure (derived from a recognition memory test also differentiated patients with AD from controls, and significantly predicted episodic memory

  15. Social Cognition in Williams Syndrome: Relations Between Performance on the Social Attribution Task and Cognitive and Behavioral Characteristics

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    Faye eVan der Fluit

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Williams syndrome (WS is a developmental disorder of genetic origin, with characteristic cognitive and personality profiles. Studies of WS point to an outgoing and gregarious personality style, often contrasted with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs; however, recent research has uncovered underlying social reciprocity difficulties in people with WS. Participants in the current study included 24 children with WS ages 8 through 15. A lab-based measure of social perception and social cognition was administered (Social Attribution Test, as well as an intellectual functioning measure (KBIT-II and parent reports of communication and reciprocal social skills (Social Communication Questionnaire, Social Responsiveness Scale. Relations between social cognition, cognitive abilities, and social-communication were examined. Results demonstrated relations between parent-reported social reciprocity and the typicality of the responses provided in the lab-based measure, even once variability in intellectual functioning was taken into account. In addition, a significant improvement in performance was seen with the added scaffolding particularly for participants with stronger intellectual functioning.

  16. The Effect of Colour on Children's Cognitive Performance

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    Brooker, Alice; Franklin, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Background: The presence of red appears to hamper adults' cognitive performance relative to other colours (see Elliot & Maier, 2014, "Ann. Rev. Psychol." 65, 95). Aims and sample: Here, we investigate whether colour affects cognitive performance in 8- and 9-year-olds. Method: Children completed a battery of tasks once in the presence…

  17. Subjective memory complaints and cognitive performance in a sample of healthy elderly

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    Paulo Caramelli

    Full Text Available Abstract Memory loss is a major complaint among the elderly population. However, the clinical significance of this symptom is variable and also controversial in the scientific literature. Objective: To compare the cognitive performance of two groups of healthy elderly, one group with and the other without, subjective memory complaints (SMC. Methods: Sixty cognitively intact elderly individuals (39 females and 21 males, aged 69.9±6.3 years and with educational level of 8.5±5.5 years, were included in the study. Participants were submitted to the Mini-Mental State Examination and to the Cornell depression scale in order to rule out global cognitive impairment and depression, respectively. Moreover, they answered the MAC-Q, a questionnaire devised to evaluate subjective impression of memory function. Subsequently, they were submitted to the digit span forward and backward, the Brief Cognitive Screening Battery, and to the Frontal Assessment Battery. Results: Twenty-seven individuals had MAC-Q scores <25 and thus were classified as not having SMC, while 33 had MAC-Q scores ³25 and were considered to have SMC. No differences for age, gender, education and MMSE scores were found between the two groups. The comparison between the performance of the groups of complainers and non-complainers on the different cognitive tests yielded no significant difference, although there was a trend toward non-complainers performing better on incidental memory. Conclusions: The presence of SMC was not associated to objective memory impairment or to other cognitive deficits in this group of elderly individuals.

  18. Five-year retrospective changes in hippocampal atrophy and cognitive screening test performances in very mild Alzheimer's disease: the Tajiri Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, S.; Meguro, K.; Shimada, M.; Ishizaki, J.; Yamadori, A.; Sekita, Y.

    2002-01-01

    The medial temporal lobe, especially the hippocampus, is important for normal cognitive function, especially for memory, and is the region with the earliest and most extensive pathological changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated the atrophic changes of the hippocampus over a 5-year period and its relation to cognitive screening test performances in normal elderly subjects, those with very mild AD, and patients with AD. Fifty-seven elderly subjects without a moderate or greater degree of cerebrovascular disease as shown by MRI were randomly selected from the town of Tajiri. Thirty-three subjects with a clinical dementia rating (CDR) of 0 (normal), 18 CDR-0.5 (very mild AD) subjects, and six CDR-1 and 2 (AD) subjects underwent MRI and the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) twice during the period. Retrospective changes in the hippocampal width and the MMSE scores were evaluated. There were significant CDR group effects for the changes in the mean bilateral hippocampal widths and the MMSE scores. Normal subjects did not show cognitive decline, although there was a slight tendency for hippocampal atrophy. A significant and meaningful Spearman's correlation was noted between left hippocampal atrophy and the MMSE scores over the 5-year period for the CDR-0.5 group. These CDR-0.5 subjects met the MCI (mild cognitive impairment) criteria as proposed by the consensus paper. Findings suggested that normal elderly subjects maintain a high level of cognitive functions for at least 5 years, although hippocampal atrophy might occur. Atrophic change of the left hippocampus might be a good marker of the very early stage of AD. (orig.)

  19. A battery of tests for assessing cognitive function in U.S. Chinese older adults--findings from the PINE Study.

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    Chang, E-Shien; Dong, XinQi

    2014-11-01

    Existing methodological challenges in aging research has dampened our assessment of cognitive function among minority older adults. We aim to report the composite scores of five cognitive function tests among U.S. Chinese older adults, and examine the association between cognitive function and key sociodemographic characteristics. The Population Study of Chinese Elderly in Chicago Study enrolled an epidemiological cohort of 3,159 community-dwelling Chinese older adults. We administered five cognitive function tests, including the Chinese Mini-Mental State Examination, the immediate and delayed recall of the East Boston Memory Test, the Digit Span Backwards assessment, and the Symbol Digit Modalities Test. We used Spearman correlation coefficients to examine the correlation between cognitive function and sociodemographic variables. Linear regression models were used to report the effect of sociodemographic and health variables including age, sex, education on cognitive function. Our multivariate analysis suggested that performance in each domain of cognitive function was inversely associated with age and positively related to education. With respect to sex, after adjusted for age, education and all key variables presented in the model, being male was positively related to global cognitive score and working memory. Being married, having fewer children, having been in the United States for fewer years, having been in the community for fewer years, and better self-reported health were positively correlated with all cognitive function domains. This population-based study of U.S. Chinese older adults is among the first to examine a battery of five cognitive function tests, which in aggregate enables researchers to capture a wide range of cognitive performance. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. The relation of close friends to cognitive performance in old age: the mediating role of leisure activities.

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    Ihle, Andreas; Oris, Michel; Baeriswyl, Marie; Kliegel, Matthias

    2018-06-01

    ABSTRACTBackground:From a conceptual point of view, close friends are an important resource for promoting activity engagement in old age. Leisure activity engagement in turn is a key predictor of cognitive performance. Empirically, it remains unclear so far whether leisure activity engagement mediates between having close friends on the one hand and cognitive performance on the other, which we investigated in a large sample of older adults. We assessed cognitive performance (Mill Hill vocabulary scale and Trail Making Test (TMT) parts A and B) in 2,812 older adults. Participants reported information on leisure activity engagement and close friends. A larger number of leisure activities and a larger number of close friends were significantly related to better cognitive performance in the Mill Hill vocabulary scale and TMT parts A and B. A larger number of close friends were significantly related to a larger number of leisure activities. The number of leisure activities mediated more than half of the relation of the number of close friends to performance in all three cognitive measures. Having close friends may be helpful to stimulate and promote activity participation in old age. By enhancing individuals' cognitive reserve, this may finally preserve their cognitive performance level in old age.

  1. Effects of Sequences of Cognitions on Group Performance Over Time.

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    Molenaar, Inge; Chiu, Ming Ming

    2017-04-01

    Extending past research showing that sequences of low cognitions (low-level processing of information) and high cognitions (high-level processing of information through questions and elaborations) influence the likelihoods of subsequent high and low cognitions, this study examines whether sequences of cognitions are related to group performance over time; 54 primary school students (18 triads) discussed and wrote an essay about living in another country (32,375 turns of talk). Content analysis and statistical discourse analysis showed that within each lesson, groups with more low cognitions or more sequences of low cognition followed by high cognition added more essay words. Groups with more high cognitions, sequences of low cognition followed by low cognition, or sequences of high cognition followed by an action followed by low cognition, showed different words and sequences, suggestive of new ideas. The links between cognition sequences and group performance over time can inform facilitation and assessment of student discussions.

  2. Classification of user performance in the Ruff Figural Fluency Test based on eye-tracking features

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    Borys Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive assessment in neurological diseases represents a relevant topic due to its diagnostic significance in detecting disease, but also in assessing progress of the treatment. Computer-based tests provide objective and accurate cognitive skills and capacity measures. The Ruff Figural Fluency Test (RFFT provides information about non-verbal capacity for initiation, planning, and divergent reasoning. The traditional paper form of the test was transformed into a computer application and examined. The RFFT was applied in an experiment performed among 70 male students to assess their cognitive performance in the laboratory environment. Each student was examined in three sequential series. Besides the students’ performances measured by using in app keylogging, the eye-tracking data obtained by non-invasive video-based oculography were gathered, from which several features were extracted. Eye-tracking features combined with performance measures (a total number of designs and/or error ratio were applied in machine learning classification. Various classification algorithms were applied, and their accuracy, specificity, sensitivity and performance were compared.

  3. Patterns of cognitive performance in healthy ageing in Northern Portugal: a cross-sectional analysis.

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    Ana Cristina Paulo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Minho Integrative Neuroscience Database (MIND-Ageing project aims to identify predictors of healthy cognitive ageing, including socio-demographic factors. In this exploratory analysis we sought to establish baseline cohorts for longitudinal assessment of age-related changes in cognition. METHODS: The population sample (472 individuals was strictly a convenient one, but similar to the Portuguese population in the age profile. Participants older than 55 years of age were included if they did not present defined disabling pathologies or dementia. A standardized clinical interview was conducted to assess medical history and a battery of neuropsychological tests was administered to characterize global cognition (Mini Mental State Examination, memory and executive functions (Selective Reminding Test; Stroop Color and Word Test; and Block Design subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. Cross-sectional analysis of the neuropsychological performance with individual characteristics such as age, gender, educational level and setting (retirement home, senior university, day care center or community, allowed the establishment of baseline clusters for subsequent longitudinal studies. RESULTS: Based on different socio-demographic characteristics, four main clusters that group distinctive patterns of cognitive performance were identified. The type of institution where the elders were sampled from, together with the level of formal education, were the major hierarchal factors for individual distribution in the four clusters. Of notice, education seems to delay the cognitive decline that is associated with age in all clusters. CONCLUSIONS: Social-inclusion/engagement and education seem to have a protective effect on mental ageing, although this effect may not be effective in the eldest elders.

  4. Effects of Aromatherapy on Test Anxiety and Performance in College Students

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    Dunnigan, Jocelyn Marie

    2013-01-01

    Test anxiety is a complex, multidimensional construct composed of cognitive, affective, and behavioral components that have been shown to negatively affect test performance. Furthermore, test anxiety is a pervasive problem in modern society largely related to the evaluative nature of educational programs, therefore meriting study of its nature,…

  5. Neighborhood Integration and Connectivity Predict Cognitive Performance and Decline

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    Amber Watts PhD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Neighborhood characteristics may be important for promoting walking, but little research has focused on older adults, especially those with cognitive impairment. We evaluated the role of neighborhood characteristics on cognitive function and decline over a 2-year period adjusting for measures of walking. Method: In a study of 64 older adults with and without mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD, we evaluated neighborhood integration and connectivity using geographical information systems data and space syntax analysis. In multiple regression analyses, we used these characteristics to predict 2-year declines in factor analytically derived cognitive scores (attention, verbal memory, mental status adjusting for age, sex, education, and self-reported walking. Results : Neighborhood integration and connectivity predicted cognitive performance at baseline, and changes in cognitive performance over 2 years. The relationships between neighborhood characteristics and cognitive performance were not fully explained by self-reported walking. Discussion : Clearer definitions of specific neighborhood characteristics associated with walkability are needed to better understand the mechanisms by which neighborhoods may impact cognitive outcomes. These results have implications for measuring neighborhood characteristics, design and maintenance of living spaces, and interventions to increase walking among older adults. We offer suggestions for future research measuring neighborhood characteristics and cognitive function.

  6. The Test of Infant Motor Performance at 3 months predicts language, cognitive, and motor outcomes in infants born preterm at 2 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyton, Colleen; Schreiber, Michael D; Msall, Michael E

    2018-03-13

    To determine the relationship between the Test of Infant Motor Performance (TIMP) at 3 months and cognitive, language, and motor outcomes on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (Bayley-III) at 2 years of age in high-risk infants born preterm. One hundred and six infants (47 females, 59 males) born at earlier than 31 weeks gestational age were prospectively tested with the TIMP at 10 to 15 weeks after term age and were assessed again with the Bayley-III at 2 years corrected age. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for various cut points of the TIMP z-score and Bayley-III composite scores of no more than 85. The TIMP z-scores at 10 to 15 weeks of age were significantly associated with all three subscales on the Bayley-III at 2 years of age (pcognitive (87%), language (88%), and motor (89%) outcomes, but sensitivity was low (cognitive 41%, language 49%, motor 57%). This study demonstrates that the TIMP is related to cognitive, language, and motor outcomes on the Bayley-III at 2 years of age in high-risk infants born preterm. The Test of Infant Motor Performance (TIMP) predicts Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition outcomes at 2 years of age. The TIMP is relatively good at discriminating between children who will and will not have typical development. © 2018 Mac Keith Press.

  7. Robot services for elderly with cognitive impairment: testing usability of graphical user interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granata, C; Pino, M; Legouverneur, G; Vidal, J-S; Bidaud, P; Rigaud, A-S

    2013-01-01

    Socially assistive robotics for elderly care is a growing field. However, although robotics has the potential to support elderly in daily tasks by offering specific services, the development of usable interfaces is still a challenge. Since several factors such as age or disease-related changes in perceptual or cognitive abilities and familiarity with computer technologies influence technology use they must be considered when designing interfaces for these users. This paper presents findings from usability testing of two different services provided by a social assistive robot intended for elderly with cognitive impairment: a grocery shopping list and an agenda application. The main goal of this study is to identify the usability problems of the robot interface for target end-users as well as to isolate the human factors that affect the use of the technology by elderly. Socio-demographic characteristics and computer experience were examined as factors that could have an influence on task performance. A group of 11 elderly persons with Mild Cognitive Impairment and a group of 11 cognitively healthy elderly individuals took part in this study. Performance measures (task completion time and number of errors) were collected. Cognitive profile, age and computer experience were found to impact task performance. Participants with cognitive impairment achieved the tasks committing more errors than cognitively healthy elderly. Instead younger participants and those with previous computer experience were faster at completing the tasks confirming previous findings in the literature. The overall results suggested that interfaces and contents of the services assessed were usable by older adults with cognitive impairment. However, some usability problems were identified and should be addressed to better meet the needs and capacities of target end-users.

  8. Quality of education and memory test performance in older men: the New York University Paragraph Recall Test normative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Melissa; Abner, Erin; Caban-Holt, Allison; Dennis, Brandon C; Kryscio, Richard; Schmitt, Frederick

    2013-09-01

    Memory evaluation is a key component in the accurate diagnosis of cognitive disorders.One memory procedure that has shown promise in discriminating disease-related cognitive decline from normal cognitive aging is the New York University Paragraph Recall Test; however, the effects of education have been unexamined as they pertain to one's literacy level. The current study provides normative data stratified by estimated quality of education as indexed by irregular word reading skill. Conventional norms were derived from a sample (N = 385) of cognitively intact elderly men who were initially recruited for participation in the PREADViSE clinical trial. A series of multiple linear regression models were constructed to assess the influence of demographic variables on mean NYU Paragraph Immediate and Delayed Recall scores. Test version, assessment site, and estimated quality of education were significant predictors of performance on the NYU Paragraph Recall Test. Findings indicate that estimated quality of education is a better predictor of memory performance than ethnicity and years of total education. Normative data stratified according to estimated quality of education are presented. The current study provides evidence and support for normativedata stratified by quality of education as opposed to years of education.

  9. Effect of Chronic Administration of Resveratrol on Cognitive Performance during Aging Process in Rats

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    A. R. Navarro-Cruz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the elderly population has generated concern to meet health demands. The research efforts to elucidate the mechanisms of damage associated with aging have also been significantly increased, especially in order to avoid the reduction of the cognitive abilities in geriatric patients, resulting from the damage generated mainly at the level of the hippocampus during old age. At present, many studies describe resveratrol as an antiaging component. There are reports that it can activate the Sirt1 gene related to antiaging, emulating the effects obtained by caloric restriction in rodents. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of chronic administration of resveratrol (10 mg/kg on cognitive performance in behavioral tests after 8 months of treatment and on the preservation of cerebral integrity in the cytoarchitecture of regions CA1 and CA2. Results showed that the cytoarchitecture of the CA1 and CA2 regions in the hippocampus retained their integrity over time in rats treated with resveratrol, and the behavioral test performed revealed that chronic resveratrol administration for 8 months showed improvements in cognitive performance. The results indicate that resveratrol may exhibit therapeutic potential for age-related conditions.

  10. Cognitive Performances Are Selectively Enhanced during Chronic Caloric Restriction or Resveratrol Supplementation in a Primate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchal, Julia; Picq, Jean-Luc; Aujard, Fabienne

    2011-01-01

    Effects of an 18-month treatment with a moderate, chronic caloric restriction (CR) or an oral supplementation with resveratrol (RSV), a potential CR mimetic, on cognitive and motor performances were studied in non-human primates, grey mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus). Thirty-three adult male mouse lemurs were assigned to three different groups: a control (CTL) group fed ad libitum, a CR group fed 70% of the CTL caloric intake, and an RSV group (RSV supplementation of 200 mg.kg−1.day−1) fed ad libitum. Three different cognitive tests, two motor tests, one emotional test and an analysis of cortisol level were performed in each group. Compared to CTL animals, CR or RSV animals did not show any change in motor performances evaluated by rotarod and jump tests, but an increase in spontaneous locomotor activity was observed in both groups. Working memory was improved by both treatments in the spontaneous alternation task. Despite a trend for CR group, only RSV supplementation increased spatial memory performances in the circular platform task. Finally, none of these treatments induced additional stress to the animals as reflected by similar results in the open field test and cortisol analyses compared to CTL animals. The present data provided the earliest evidence for a beneficial effect of CR or RSV supplementation on specific cognitive functions in a primate. Taken together, these results suggest that RSV could be a good candidate to mimic long-term CR effects and support the growing evidences that nutritional interventions can have beneficial effects on brain functions even in adults. PMID:21304942

  11. How does emotion influence different creative performances? The mediating role of cognitive flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei-Lun; Tsai, Ping-Hsun; Lin, Hung-Yu; Chen, Hsueh-Chih

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive flexibility is proposed to be one of the factors underlying how positive emotions can improve creativity. However, previous works have seldom set up or empirically measured an independent index to demonstrate its mediating effect, nor have they investigated its mediating role on different types of creative performances, which involve distinct processes. In this study, 120 participants were randomly assigned to positive, neutral or negative affect conditions. Their levels of cognitive flexibility were then measured by a switch task. Finally, their creative performances were calibrated by either an open-ended divergent thinking test or a closed-ended insight problem-solving task. The results showed that positive emotional states could reduce switch costs and enhance both types of creative performances. However, cognitive flexibility exhibited a full mediating effect only on the relationship between positive emotion and insight problem solving, but not between positive emotion and divergent thinking. Divergent thinking was instead more associated with arousal level. These results suggest that emotions might influence different creative performances through distinct mechanisms.

  12. Trait Mindfulness and Cognitive Task Performance

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    Emalee J. W. Quickel

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Mindfulness meditation (MM training has been shown to have positive effects on working memory and focused attention tasks. Clarifying the construct of mindfulness is important so that mindfulness can be studied effectively in individual differences and cognition research. The current study tested whether trait mindfulness alone explains any of the variability on task performance. Five commonly used mindfulness scales, as well as six standardized and experimental attention and working memory tasks were administered to 164 participants with no meditation experience. Confirmatory factor analysis found that the common variance denoted by measures of trait mindfulness is unrelated to the common variance among tasks requiring focused attention. These results indicate that mindfulness scales may not be capturing the attentional aspects of mindfulness. Individuals who score high on mindfulness scales do not perform better on focused attention tasks than those who score lower on mindfulness scales. These results have implications for defining and operationalizing mindfulness.

  13. Short-term effects of exercise and music on cognitive performance among participants in a cardiac rehabilitation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Charles F; Hsiao, Evana T; Hill, Scott M; Frid, David J

    2003-01-01

    Exercise has been associated with improved cognitive performance among patients with coronary artery disease. Music listening has been associated with enhanced cognitive functioning among healthy adults. This study evaluated the combined influence of exercise and music listening on cognitive performance among patients in cardiac rehabilitation (CR). Using a within-subjects repeated measures design, this study was conducted in an outpatient University-based CR facility. Thirty-three men and women (mean age = 62.6 +/- 10.5 years) participated in this study. Participants completed 1 exercise session accompanied by music and a second exercise session without music. Order of conditions was assigned randomly. Before and after each exercise session, participants completed a brief assessment of depression and anxiety, and a cognitive test of verbal fluency. The music condition was associated with significant improvements in verbal fluency, but the no-music control condition was not associated with cognitive change. The study provides preliminary evidence of the combined benefit of exercise and music listening for cognitive performance among patients in CR.

  14. The Assesment of Cognitive Functions With Neuropsychologic and Neurophysiologic Tests in Diabetes Mellitus

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    Sevda Erer

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In our study, we aimed to evaluate cognitive dysfunctions in type II diabetes mellitus (DM regarding duration, prognosis and complications of the disease. We used transcranial doppler (TCD ultrasonography to evaluate cerebral perfusion and hemodynamics and performed mini-mental state examination (MMSE, neuropsychometric tests (NPT, event related evoked potentials (ERP, auditory and visual P300 wave latancies. METHODS: 48 patients (29 females and 19 males with type 2 DM, aged between 40-65 (mean 53 years, and 20 normal (10 males, 10 females cases as control group were involved in the study. Routine biochemical tests, cranial tomography (CT imaging methods and the tests which evaluate cognitive functions, MMSE, NPT, and ERP were performed in subjects. Mean current speed and pulsatility index were measured in 62 patients by using TCD. RESULTS: The scores of MMSE, auditory and visual P300 waves mean latancies were found statistically significant in patients with DM when compared to control group. Although there was no statistical significance in mean cerebral artery velocity values between two groups, there was significant correlation between pulsatility indexes. Especially verbal, visual memory and concentration modalities of NPT was significalty affected when compared to normal control group. CONCLUSION: In previous studies, different results have been reported about effects of DM on cognitive functions. We consider that this study may differ from others, as it was carried out on a group of middle aged diabetes subjects and many modalities associated with cognition were evaluated together. We also meant to draw attention to the possibility that, independent from other risk factors, diabetes mellitus may have a memory and attention related effect on cognition, and that chronic diseases such as diabetes may play a critical role in the development of dementia

  15. Lifetime Occupation and Late-Life Cognitive Performance Among Women.

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    Ribeiro, Pricila Cristina Correa; Lourenço, Roberto Alves

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether women who had regular jobs throughout life performed better cognitively than older adult housewives. Linear regression was used to compare global cognitive performance scores of housewives (G1) and women exposed to work of low (G2) and high (G3) complexity. The sample comprised 477 older adult Brazilian women, 430 (90.4%) of whom had performed lifelong jobs. In work with data, the G2 group's cognitive performance scores were 1.73 points higher (p =.03), and the G3 group scored 1.76 points (p =.02) higher, than the G1. In work with things and with people, the G3 scored, respectively, 2.04 (p performance in women later in life.

  16. The effects of consecutive night shifts and shift length on cognitive performance and sleepiness: a field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidarimoghadam, Rashid; Kazemi, Reza; Motamedzadeh, Majid; Golmohamadi, Rostam; Soltanian, Alireza; Zoghipaydar, Mohamad Reza

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of consecutive night shifts (CNS) and shift length on cognitive performance and sleepiness. This study evaluated the sleepiness and performance of 30 control room operators (CROs) working in 7 nights, 7 days, 7 days off (7N7D7O) and 30 CROs working in 4 nights, 7 days, 3 nights, 7 days off (4N7D3N7O) shift patterns in a petrochemical complex on the last night shift before swinging into the day shift. To assess cognitive performance, the n-back test, continuous performance test and simple reaction time test were employed. To assess sleepiness, the Karolinska sleepiness scale was used. Both schedules indicated that the correct responses and response times of working memory were reduced (p = 0.001), while intentional errors and sleepiness increased during the shift work (p = 0.001). CNS had a significant impact on reaction time and commission errors (p = 0.001). The main duty of CROs at a petrochemical plant is checking hazardous processes which require appropriate alertness and cognitive performance. As a result, planning for appropriate working hours and suitable number of CNS in a rotating shift system is a contribution to improving CRO performance and enhancing safety.

  17. High burden and frailty: association with poor cognitive performance in older caregivers living in rural areas

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    Allan Gustavo Brigola

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Older caregivers living in rural areas may be exposed to three vulnerable conditions, i.e., those related to care, their own aging, and their residence context. Objective: To analyze the association of burden and frailty with cognition performance in older caregivers in rural communities. Method: In this cross-sectional survey, 85 older caregivers who cared for dependent elders were included in this study. Global cognition (Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination – Revised; Mini Mental State Examination, burden (Zarit Burden Interview and frailty (Fried's frailty phenotype were assessed. All ethical principles were observed. Results: Older caregivers were mostly women (76.7%; mean age was 69 years. Cognitive impairment was present in 15.3%, severe burden in 8.2%, frailty in 9.4%, and pre-frailty in 52.9% of the older caregivers. More severely burdened or frail caregivers had worse cognitive performance than those who were not, respectively (ANOVA test. Caregivers presenting a high burden level and some frailty degree (pre-frail or frail simultaneously were more likely to have a reduced global cognition performance. Conclusion: A significant number of older caregivers had low cognitive performance. Actions and resources to decrease burden and physical frailty may provide better cognition and well-being, leading to an improved quality of life and quality of the care provided by the caregivers.

  18. Dietary glycaemic load associated with cognitive performance in elderly subjects.

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    Power, Susan E; O'Connor, Eibhlís M; Ross, R Paul; Stanton, Catherine; O'Toole, Paul W; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Jeffery, Ian B

    2015-06-01

    Ageing is associated with loss of cognitive function and an increased risk of dementia which is expected to place growing demands on health and long-term care providers. Among multiple causative factors, evidence suggests that cognitive impairment in older subjects may be influenced by diet. The objective of this study was to examine the association between dietary patterns, dietary glycaemic load (GL) and cognition in older Irish adults. Community-dwelling subjects (n 208; 94 males and 114 females; aged 64-93 years) were analysed. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Cognitive capacity was tested using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). The data were clustered to derive patterns of dietary intake. Multivariable-adjusted logistic and Poisson regression models were used to examine the relationship between dietary GL and MMSE score. Elderly subjects consuming 'prudent' dietary patterns (high in fruit, vegetables, fish, low-fat dairy and salad dressings and low in red meat and white bread) had higher MMSE scores (better cognitive function) than those consuming 'Western' dietary pattern (high in red meat and white bread and low in fruit and vegetables; P nutritional status, residential property price, cardiovascular medications and energy intake. In this community-dwelling elderly Irish cohort, consumption of a high glycaemic diet is associated with poorer cognitive performance as assessed by the MMSE.

  19. Effect of Short-Term Mobile Phone Base Station Exposure on Cognitive Performance, Body Temperature, Heart Rate and Blood Pressure of Malaysians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, F; Rani, K A; Rahim, H A; Omar, M H

    2015-08-19

    Individuals who report their sensitivity to electromagnetic fields often undergo cognitive impairments that they believe are due to the exposure of mobile phone technology. The aim of this study is to clarify whether short-term exposure at 1 V/m to the typical Global System for Mobile Communication and Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) affects cognitive performance and physiological parameters (body temperature, blood pressure and heart rate). This study applies counterbalanced randomizing single blind tests to determine if sensitive individuals experience more negative health effects when they are exposed to base station signals compared with sham (control) individuals. The sample size is 200 subjects with 50.0% Idiopathic Environmental Intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields (IEI-EMF) also known as sensitive and 50.0% (non-IEI-EMF). The computer-administered Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB eclipse(TM)) is used to examine cognitive performance. Four tests are chosen to evaluate Cognitive performance in CANTAB: Reaction Time (RTI), Rapid Visual Processing (RVP), Paired Associates Learning (PAL) and Spatial Span (SSP). Paired sample t-test on the other hand, is used to examine the physiological parameters. Generally, in both groups, there is no statistical significant difference between the exposure and sham exposure towards cognitive performance and physiological effects (P's > 0.05).

  20. Fail or flourish? Cognitive appraisal moderates the effect of solo status on performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Judith B

    2008-09-01

    When everyone in a group shares a common social identity except one individual, the one who is different from the majority has solo status. Solo status increases one's visibility and performance pressure, which may result in stress. Stress has divergent effects on performance, and individuals' response to stressful situations is predicted by their cognitive appraisal (challenge or threat) of the situation. Two experiments test the hypothesis that cognitive appraisal moderates the effect of solo status on performance. Experiment 1 finds that at relatively high appraisal levels (resources exceed demands), solo status improves men's and women's performance; at relatively low appraisal levels, solo status hurts performance. Experiment 2 replicates this effect for solo status based on minimal group assignment. Results suggest that for individuals who feel challenged and not threatened by their work, it may help to be a solo.

  1. The Influence of Distracting Familiar Vocal Music on Cognitive Performance of Introverts and Extraverts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Christina; Furnham, Adrian; McClelland, Alastair

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of familiar musical distractors on the cognitive performance of introverts and extraverts. Participants completed a verbal, numerical and logic test in three music conditions: vocal music, instrumental music and silence. It was predicted that introverts would perform worse with vocal music, better with…

  2. Socio-demographic aspects and cognitive performance of elderly adults living in rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darlene Mara dos Santos Tavares

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare sociodemographic variables to error rate in categories of Mini-Mental State Examination (mmse among elderly adults both with and without cognitive impairment. Methodology: This is an analytical, cross-sectional study, conducted with 955 elderly adults living in rural areas of Minas Gerais municipality, Brazil. A descriptive analysis was carried out and the chi-square test was applied (p < 0.05. Results: No association was found between sex and cognitive impairment. For its part, cognitive impairment was associated with a wider age range, a lower educational level, and widowhood. With regard to mmse, categories most affected were Attention and Calculation, Visual Capacity Building and Memory Recall. Conclusion: The results from our study put emphasis on the need to carry out health activities in order to prevent cognitive impairment, and to improve functions related to patients’ cognitive performance. Descriptors: Health of the Elderly; Cognition; Rural Population (source: decs, bireme.

  3. Theory of mind performance in Parkinson's disease is associated with motor and cognitive functions, but not with symptom lateralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobis, Lisa; Schindlbeck, Katharina; Ehlen, Felicitas; Tiedt, Hannes; Rewitzer, Charlotte; Duits, Annelien A; Klostermann, Fabian

    2017-09-01

    Next to the typical motor signs, Parkinson's disease (PD) goes along with neuropsychiatric symptoms, amongst others affecting social cognition. Particularly, Theory of Mind (ToM) impairments have mostly been associated with right hemispherical brain dysfunction, so that it might prevail in patients with left dominant PD. Fourty-four PD patients, twenty-four with left and twenty with right dominant motor symptoms, engaged in the Reading the Mind in the Eyes (RME) and the Faux Pas Detection Test (FPD) to assess affective and cognitive ToM. The results were correlated with performance in further cognitive tests, and analyzed with respect to associations with the side of motor symptom dominance and severity of motor symptoms. No association of ToM performance with right hemispheric dysfunction was found. RME results were inversely correlated with motor symptom severity, while FPD performance was found to correlate with the performance in verbal fluency tasks and the overall cognitive evaluation. Affective ToM was found associated with motor symptom severity and cognitive ToM predominantly with executive function, but no effect of PD lateralization on this was identified. The results suggest that deficits in social cognition occur as a sequel of the general corticobasal pathology in PD, rather than as a result of hemisphere-specific dysfunction.

  4. Effect of load carriage and natural terrain conditions on cognitive performance in desert environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Debojyoti; Pal, Madhusudan; Chatterjee, Tirthankar; Majumdar, Dhurjati

    2017-10-01

    Correct decision making is a critical component of cognitive performance of a soldier, which may be influenced by the load carriage and terrain conditions during their deployment in desert environment. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of loads and terrain conditions on the cognitive performance in a group of twelve healthy heat acclimatized infantry soldiers under natural desert environment. The soldiers participated in a 10min walking trial during carrying no load and also carrying 10.7, 21.4 and 30kg at two terrain conditions viz., sandy and hard. We studied attention, memory and executive function, which are having immense functional importance in military operations. Standardized cognitive test battery was applied to the participants after carrying each magnitude of load at each terrain. Baseline cognitive performance was recorded on a separate day and was compared with the performances recorded after the load carriage trials. An attempt was made to reveal the relationship between physiological workload (relative workload) and cognitive performance at the point of completion of load carriage trials. Load, terrains and load×terrain interaction did not produce any significant effect (p>0.05) on the cognitive performance. Attention and relative workload were found significantly correlated at hard terrain under no load, 21.4kg and 30kg. Significant correlation was found between executive function and relative workload at hard terrain under no load. Carrying upto 30kg load for 10min at 3.5-4kmph walking speed resulted in improvement in attention at sandy terrain, decrement in memory at both sandy and hard terrains and improvement in executive function at sandy terrain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Metabolic syndrome and cognitive performance in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Rinaldi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS is a cluster of conditions, each of which represents a risk factor for cardiovascular disease: central obesity, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and hypertension. In different recent studies, MetS has been associated with an accelerate cognitive decline in the elderly. The aim of our research was to investigate the relationship between MetS and cognitive performance in 174 Italian elderly people living in Val Cenischia (Piedmont, Italy. Mini mental state examination (MMSE has been administered to assess the cognitive status of all participants. The prevalence of MetS is 50.3% (51.3 and 49.5% for males and females, respectively. Our results confirm the association between MetS and worse cognitive performance in the elderly: an increased number of MetS components is associated with an increased risk of developing cognitive impairment (odds ratio=1.54; confidence interval 95%:1.04-2.28; P<0.05.

  6. Cognitive performance in long-term abstinent elderly alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fein, George; McGillivray, Shannon

    2007-11-01

    To date, there is a wealth of literature describing the deleterious effects of active alcoholism on cognitive function. There is also a growing body of literature on the extent of cognitive recovery that can occur with abstinence. However, there is still a dearth of published findings on cognitive functioning in very long-term abstinence alcoholics, especially in the elderly population. The current study examines 91 elderly abstinent alcoholics (EAA) (49 men and 42 women) with an average age of 67.3 years, abstinent for an average of 14.8 years (range 0.5 to 45 years), and age and gender comparable light/nondrinking controls. The EAA group was divided into 3 subgroups: individuals that attained abstinence before age 50 years, between the ages 50 and 60 years, and after age 60 years. Attention, verbal fluency, abstraction/cognitive flexibility, psychomotor, immediate memory, delayed memory, reaction time, spatial processing, and auditory working memory were assessed. The AMNART and cranium size were used as estimates of brain reserve capacity, and the association of all variables with alcohol use measures was examined. Overall, the EAA groups performed comparably to controls on the assessments of cognitive function. Only the abstinent in group before 50 years of age performed worse than controls, and this was only in the domain of auditory working memory. EAAs had larger craniums than their controls. This effect was strongest for those who drank the longest and had the shortest abstinence. Such individuals also performed better cognitively. Our data showed that elderly alcoholics that drank late into life, but with at least 6 months abstinence can exhibit normal cognitive functioning. Selective survivorship and selection bias probably play a part in these findings. Cognitively healthier alcoholics, with more brain reserve capacity, may be more likely to live into their 60s, 70s, or 80s of age with relatively intact cognition, and to volunteer for studies such as

  7. Memory Binding Test Predicts Incident Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowrey, Wenzhu B; Lipton, Richard B; Katz, Mindy J; Ramratan, Wendy S; Loewenstein, David A; Zimmerman, Molly E; Buschke, Herman

    2016-07-14

    The Memory Binding Test (MBT), previously known as Memory Capacity Test, has demonstrated discriminative validity for distinguishing persons with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and dementia from cognitively normal elderly. We aimed to assess the predictive validity of the MBT for incident aMCI. In a longitudinal, community-based study of adults aged 70+, we administered the MBT to 246 cognitively normal elderly adults at baseline and followed them annually. Based on previous work, a subtle reduction in memory binding at baseline was defined by a Total Items in the Paired (TIP) condition score of ≤22 on the MBT. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the predictive validity of the MBT for incident aMCI accounting for the effects of covariates. The hazard ratio of incident aMCI was also assessed for different prediction time windows ranging from 4 to 7 years of follow-up, separately. Among 246 controls who were cognitively normal at baseline, 48 developed incident aMCI during follow-up. A baseline MBT reduction was associated with an increased risk for developing incident aMCI (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.44, 95% confidence interval: 1.30-4.56, p = 0.005). When varying the prediction window from 4-7 years, the MBT reduction remained significant for predicting incident aMCI (HR range: 2.33-3.12, p: 0.0007-0.04). Persons with poor performance on the MBT are at significantly greater risk for developing incident aMCI. High hazard ratios up to seven years of follow-up suggest that the MBT is sensitive to early disease.

  8. Exploring social cognition in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbech, R.; Mortensen, E. L.; Nordgaard, J.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare social cognition between groups of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and healthy controls and to replicate two previous studies using tests of social cognition that may be particularly sensitive to social cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Thirty......-eight first-admitted patients with schizophrenia and 38 healthy controls solved 11 “imaginary conversation (i.e., theory of mind)” items, 10 “psychological understanding” items, and 10 “practical understanding” items. Statistical tests were made of unadjusted and adjusted group differences in models adjusting...... for intelligence and neuropsychological test performance. Healthy controls performed better than patients on all types of social cognitive tests, particularly on “psychological understanding.” However, after adjusting for intelligence and neuropsychological test performance, all group differences became...

  9. Age Differences in Perseveration: Cognitive and Neuroanatomical Mediators of Performance on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Denise; Kennedy, Kristen M.; Rodrigue, Karen M.; Raz, Naftali

    2009-01-01

    Aging effects on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) are fairly well established but the mechanisms of the decline are not clearly understood. In this study, we examined the cognitive and neural mechanisms mediating age-related increases in perseveration on the WCST. MRI-based volumetry and measures of selected executive functions in…

  10. Need for cognition and cognitive performance from a cross-cultural perspective: examples of academic success and solving anagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülgöz, S

    2001-01-01

    The cross-cultural validity of the Need for Cognition Scale and its relationship with cognitive performance were investigated in two studies. In the first study, the relationships between the scale and university entrance scores, course grades, study skills, and social desirability were examined. Using the short form of the Turkish version of the Need for Cognition Scale (S. Gülöz & C. J. Sadowski, 1995) no correlation with academic performance was found but there was significant correlation with a study skills scale and a social desirability scale created for this study. When regression analysis was used to predict grade point average, the Need for Cognition Scale was a significant predictor. In the second study, participants low or high in need for cognition solved multiple-solution anagrams. The instructions preceding the task set the participants' expectations regarding task difficulty. An interaction between expectation and need for cognition indicated that participants with low need for cognition performed worse when they expected difficult problems. Results of the two studies showed that need for cognition has cross-cultural validity and that its effect on cognitive performance was mediated by other variables.

  11. Imaging of neuro-cognitive performance in extreme Environments—A (p)review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Stefan; Bubeev, Juri A.; Choukèr, Alexander; Morukov, Boris; Johannes, Bernd; Strüder, Heiko K.

    2012-12-01

    Living in extreme environments is accompanied by a number of stressors, which can be classified either as physiological stressors (e.g. microgravity, missing sunlight) or psychological stressors (e.g. confinement). From earth bound studies a negative impact of stress on mental health and cognitive performance is well known and both factors might impair mission success and mission safety during longer inhabitation of space. Accordingly there is the need to identify adequate countermeasures. Nevertheless causal research of neuro-cognitive impairments in space remains speculative due to missing possibilities of brain imaging. Furthermore the reliability of current psychological tests used to assess and monitor cognitive performance in extreme environments seems to be vulnerable due to a lack of compliance. With on-going plans of international space agencies to send people to moon and/or mars, this manuscript aims to summarize and review research attempts of the past two decades and to identify methodological shortcomings. Finally, following the guideline that research has no legacy for its own but must serve the self-concept and well-being of man, this manuscript presents a number of recommendations to enhance future neuro-cognitive research in extreme environments. A deeper insight into neuro-cognitive coherence is not only desirable to understand the effects of stress on mental health, which seems to be a major issue for our current society, and to develop adequate countermeasures but will also help to maintain and improve mission success and mission safety in manned space flight.

  12. Age differences in cognitive performance: A study of cultural differences in Historical Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, Natalia; Aretouli, Eleni; Peña, Javier; Schretlen, David J

    2016-03-01

    Ethnicity and cultural experience can affect neuropsychological performance, but they are rarely assessed in historical context. Attention measures are considered strongly biologically determined and therefore potentially culture-fair. In this study, we assessed the cross-cultural equivalence of Spanish and English versions of the Trail Making Test (TMT; Reitan, 1958, Perceptual and Motor Skills, 8, 271-276) and the Brief Test of Attention (BTA; Schretlen et al., 1996, The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 10, 80-89) in two large samples of Americans (N = 203) and Spaniards (N = 213), divided into younger and older subgroups. The older Spaniards lived under Franco's political regime (1936-1975), whereas the Americans never experienced such repression. Overall, TMT performance was culture-sensitive, whereas BTA performance was not. However, when both groups were stratified by age, cultural differences in TMT performance were restricted to older participants, suggesting that historical experience across generations might have contributed to the observed differences in cognitive performance. Even such basic cognitive processes as attention, working memory, and resource sharing might be shaped to some degree by historical experiences that contribute to cultural differences. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Neuropsychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Psychological Society.

  13. The effects of strength training on cognitive performance in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolarek, André de Camargo; Ferreira, Luis Henrique Boiko; Mascarenhas, Luis Paulo Gomes; McAnulty, Steven R; Varela, Karla Daniele; Dangui, Mônica C; de Barros, Marcelo Paes; Utter, Alan C; Souza-Junior, Tácito P

    2016-01-01

    Aging is a degenerative process marked by recognized functional, physiological, and metabolic impairments, such as dynapenia and diminished cognitive capacity. Therefore, the search for innovative strategies to prevent/delay these physiological and cognitive disorders is essential to guarantee the independence and life quality of an elderly population. The aim of this work is to verify the effect of a 12-week resistance exercise program on the general physical aptitude and cognitive capacities of elderly and sedentary women. Twenty-nine women (65.87±5.69 years) were divided into two groups. The control group was composed of eight elderly women who met the same inclusion criteria of the study and the strength training group was composed of 29 elderly women who were subjected to a resistance exercise program defined by 12 upper and lower limb exercises combined in 3×10 repetitions with 1-minute interval between repetitions and two resting minutes between exercises (three times/week). Weight loads were fixed between 60% and 75% of the apparent 1 repetition maximum, which was estimated by the test of 10 maximum repetitions. The direct curl was performed for upper body strength evaluation with 2.3 kg dumbbells for 30 seconds, whereas the chair test was used for lower body evaluation (total sit-stand movements in 30 seconds). The cognitive capacities of subjects were evaluated by "The Montreal Cognitive Assessment" questionnaire. After 12 weeks, the elderly group showed significant increases in the average upper body strength (58%), lower body strength (68%), and cognitive capacity (19%). The present study demonstrated that regular resistance exercises could provide significant gains on the upper and lower body strength concomitant to positive improvements on cognitive capacities of elderly women, bringing enhanced life quality.

  14. Mind-wandering, cognition, and performance: a theory-driven meta-analysis of attention regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Jason G; Oswald, Frederick L; Beier, Margaret E

    2014-11-01

    The current meta-analysis accumulates empirical findings on the phenomenon of mind-wandering, integrating and interpreting findings in light of psychological theories of cognitive resource allocation. Cognitive resource theory emphasizes both individual differences in attentional resources and task demands together to predict variance in task performance. This theory motivated our conceptual and meta-analysis framework by introducing moderators indicative of task-demand to predict who is more likely to mind-wander under what conditions, and to predict when mind-wandering and task-related thought are more (or less) predictive of task performance. Predictions were tested via a random-effects meta-analysis of correlations obtained from normal adult samples (k = 88) based on measurement of specified episodes of off-task and/or on-task thought frequency and task performance. Results demonstrated that people with fewer cognitive resources tend to engage in more mind-wandering, whereas those with more cognitive resources are more likely to engage in task-related thought. Addressing predictions of resource theory, we found that greater time-on-task-although not greater task complexity-tended to strengthen the negative relation between cognitive resources and mind-wandering. Additionally, increases in mind-wandering were generally associated with decreases in task performance, whereas increases in task-related thought were associated with increased performance. Further supporting resource theory, the negative relation between mind-wandering and performance was more pronounced for more complex tasks, though not longer tasks. Complementarily, the positive association between task-related thought and performance was stronger for more complex tasks and for longer tasks. We conclude by discussing implications and future research directions for mind-wandering as a construct of interest in psychological research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Methylphenidate decreased the amount of glucose needed by the brain to perform a cognitive task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora D Volkow

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of stimulants (methylphenidate and amphetamine as cognitive enhancers by the general public is increasing and is controversial. It is still unclear how they work or why they improve performance in some individuals but impair it in others. To test the hypothesis that stimulants enhance signal to noise ratio of neuronal activity and thereby reduce cerebral activity by increasing efficiency, we measured the effects of methylphenidate on brain glucose utilization in healthy adults. We measured brain glucose metabolism (using Positron Emission Tomography and 2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose in 23 healthy adults who were tested at baseline and while performing an accuracy-controlled cognitive task (numerical calculations given with and without methylphenidate (20 mg, oral. Sixteen subjects underwent a fourth scan with methylphenidate but without cognitive stimulation. Compared to placebo methylphenidate significantly reduced the amount of glucose utilized by the brain when performing the cognitive task but methylphenidate did not affect brain metabolism when given without cognitive stimulation. Whole brain metabolism when the cognitive task was given with placebo increased 21% whereas with methylphenidate it increased 11% (50% less. This reflected both a decrease in magnitude of activation and in the regions activated by the task. Methylphenidate's reduction of the metabolic increases in regions from the default network (implicated in mind-wandering was associated with improvement in performance only in subjects who activated these regions when the cognitive task was given with placebo. These results corroborate prior findings that stimulant medications reduced the magnitude of regional activation to a task and in addition document a "focusing" of the activation. This effect may be beneficial when neuronal resources are diverted (i.e., mind-wandering or impaired (i.e., attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, but it could be detrimental when

  16. Effect of Caffeine on Attention and Alertness Measured in a Home-Setting, Using Web-Based Cognition Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasman, Wilrike J; Boessen, Ruud; Donner, Yoni; Clabbers, Nard; Boorsma, André

    2017-09-07

    There is an increasing interest among nutritional researchers to perform lifestyle and nutritional intervention studies in a home setting instead of testing subjects in a clinical unit. The term used in other disciplines is 'ecological validity' stressing a realistic situation. This becomes more and more feasible because devices and self-tests that enable such studies are more commonly available. Here, we present such a study in which we reproduced the effect of caffeine on attention and alertness in an at-home setting. The study was aimed to reproduce the effect of caffeine on attention and alertness using a Web-based study environment of subjects, at home, performing different Web-based cognition tests. The study was designed as a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study. Subjects were provided with coffee sachets (2 with and 2 without caffeine). They were also provided with a written instruction of the test days. Healthy volunteers consumed a cup of coffee after an overnight fast. Each intervention was repeated once. Before and 1 hour after coffee consumption subjects performed Web-based cognitive performance tests at home, which measured alertness and attention, established by 3 computerized tests provided by QuantifiedMind. Each test was performed for 5 minutes. Web-based recruitment was fast and efficient. Within 2 weeks, 102 subjects applied, of whom 70 were eligible. Of the 66 subjects who started the study, 53 completed all 4 test sessions (80%), indicating that they were able to perform the do it yourself tests, at home, correctly. The Go-No Go cognition test performed at home showed the same significant improvement in reaction time with caffeine as found in controlled studies in a metabolic ward (P=.02). For coding and N-back the second block was performed approximately 10% faster. No effect was seen on correctness. The study showed that the effects of caffeine consumption on a cognition test in an at-home setting revealed similar

  17. Executive cognitive impairment detected by simple bedside testing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims. Cognitive impairment in people with type 2 diabetes is a barrier to successful disease management. We sought to determine whether impaired executive function as detected by a battery of simple bedside cognitive tests of executive function was associated with inadequate glycaemic control. Methods. People with ...

  18. Disentangling the cognitive components supporting Austin Maze performance in left versus right temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Julia; Thomas, Hannah J; Dzafic, Ilvana; Williams, Rebecca J; Reutens, David C; Spooner, Donna M

    2013-12-01

    Neuropsychological tests requiring patients to find a path through a maze can be used to assess visuospatial memory performance in temporal lobe pathology, particularly in the hippocampus. Alternatively, they have been used as a task sensitive to executive function in patients with frontal lobe damage. We measured performance on the Austin Maze in patients with unilateral left and right temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), with and without hippocampal sclerosis, compared to healthy controls. Performance was correlated with a number of other neuropsychological tests to identify the cognitive components that may be associated with poor Austin Maze performance. Patients with right TLE were significantly impaired on the Austin Maze task relative to patients with left TLE and controls, and error scores correlated with their performance on the Block Design task. The performance of patients with left TLE was also impaired relative to controls; however, errors correlated with performance on tests of executive function and delayed recall. The presence of hippocampal sclerosis did not have an impact on maze performance. A discriminant function analysis indicated that the Austin Maze alone correctly classified 73.5% of patients as having right TLE. In summary, impaired performance on the Austin Maze task is more suggestive of right than left TLE; however, impaired performance on this visuospatial task does not necessarily involve the hippocampus. The relationship of the Austin Maze task with other neuropsychological tests suggests that differential cognitive components may underlie performance decrements in right versus left TLE. © 2013.

  19. Criterion and convergent validity of the Montreal cognitive assessment with screening and standardized neuropsychological testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Benjamin; Middleton, Laura E; Masellis, Mario; Stuss, Donald T; Harry, Robin D; Kiss, Alex; Black, Sandra E

    2013-12-01

    To compare the validity of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) with the criterion standard of standardized neuropsychological testing and to compare the convergent validity of the MoCA with that of existing screening tools and global measures of cognition. Cross-sectional observational study. Tertiary care hospital-based cognitive neurology subspecialty clinic. A convenience sample of 107 individuals with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD, n=75) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI, n=32) from the Sunnybrook Dementia Study. In addition to the MoCA, all participants completed the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale (DRS), and detailed neuropsychological testing. Convergent validity was supported, with MoCA scores correlating well with the MMSE (correlation coefficient (r)=0.66, Pvalidity was supported, with MoCA subscores according to cognitive domain correlating well with analogous neuropsychological tests and, in the case of memory (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC)=0.86), executive (AUC=0.79), and visuospatial function (AUC=0.79), being reasonably sensitive to impairment in those domains. The MoCA is a valid assessment of cognition that shows good agreement with existing screening tools and global measures (convergent validity) and was superior to the MMSE in this regard. The MoCA domain-specific subscores align with performance on more-detailed neuropsychological tests, suggesting not only good criterion validity for the MoCA, but also that it may be useful in guiding further neuropsychological testing. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, The American Geriatrics Society.

  20. The associations between regional gray matter structural changes and changes of cognitive performance in control groups of intervention studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikaru eTakeuchi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In intervention studies of cognitive training, the challenging cognitive tests, which were used as outcome measures, are generally completed in more than a few hours. Here, utilizing the control groups’ data from three 1-week intervention studies in which young healthy adult subjects underwent a wide range of cognitive tests and T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI before and after the intervention period, we investigated how regional gray matter (GM density (rGMD of the subjects changed through voxel-based morphometry (VBM. Statistically significant increases in rGMD were observed in the anatomical cluster that mainly spread around the bilateral dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC and the right superior frontal gyrus (rSFG. Moreover, mean rGMD within this cluster changes were significantly and positively correlated with performance changes in the Stroop task, and tended to positively correlate with performance changes in a divergent thinking task. Affected regions are considered to be associated with performance monitoring (dACC and manipulation of the maintained information including generating associations (rSFG, and both are relevant to the cognitive functions measured in the cognitive tests. Thus, the results suggest that even in the groups of the typical control group in intervention studies including those of the passive one, experimental or non-experimental factors can result in an increase in the regional GM structure and form the association between such neural changes and improvements related to these cognitive tests. These results suggest caution toward the experimental study designs without control groups.

  1. Associations between pathologic tumor features and preadjuvant therapy cognitive performance in women diagnosed with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleck, Theresa A; Bender, Catherine M; Sereika, Susan M; Ryan, Christopher M; Ghotkar, Puja; Brufsky, Adam M; Jankowitz, Rachel C; McAuliffe, Priscilla F; Clark, Beth Z; Conley, Yvette P

    2017-02-01

    Intertumor heterogeneity has been proposed as a potential mechanism to account for variability in cognitive performance in women diagnosed with breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to explore associations between variation in pathologic tumor features (PTFs) and variability in preadjuvant therapy cognitive performance in postmenopausal women newly diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer. Participants (N = 329) completed a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests to evaluate cognitive performance after primary surgery but prior to initiation of adjuvant anastrozole±chemotherapy. PTF data were abstracted from medical records. Robust multiple linear regression models were fit to estimate associations between individual PTFs and the cognitive function composite domain scores. All models controlled for age, estimated intelligence, and levels of depressive symptoms, anxiety, fatigue, and pain. Diagnosis of a HER2-positive tumor contributed to poorer verbal (b = -0.287, P = 0.018), visual (b = -0.270, P = 0.001), and visual working (b = -0.490, P Breast Cancer Assay Recurrence Score ® .) Our results suggest that certain PTFs related to more aggressive tumor phenotypes or inferior breast cancer prognosis may be implicated in poorer preadjuvant therapy cognitive performance. Follow-up studies that include a cognitive assessment before primary surgery should be conducted to further delineate the role of intertumor heterogeneity on cognitive performance. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Physical Activity, Sleep and Nutrition Do Not Predict Cognitive Performance in Young and Middle-Aged Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hieronymus eGijselaers

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Biological lifestyle factors such as physical activity, sleep and nutrition play a role in cognitive functioning. Research concerning the relation between biological lifestyle factors and cognitive performance is scarce however, especially in young and middle aged adults. Research has not yet focused on a multidisciplinary approach with respect to this relation in the abovementioned population, where lifestyle habits are more stable. The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of these biological lifestyle factors to cognitive performance. Path analysis was conducted in an observational study in which 1131 adults were analyzed using a cross-validation approach. Participants provided information on physical activity, sedentary behavior, chronotype, sleep duration, sleep quality, and the consumption of breakfast, fish, and caffeine via a survey. Their cognitive performance was measured using objective digital cognitive tests. Exploration yielded a predictive cohesive model that fitted the data properly, χ2/df=0.8, CFI=1.00, RMSEA<.001, SRMR=.016. Validation of the developed model indicated that the model fitted the data satisfactorily, χ2/df=2.75, CFI=0.95, RMSEA<.056, SRMR=.035. None of the variables within the BLFs were predictive for any of the cognitive performance measures, except for sedentary behavior. Although sedentary behavior was positively predictive for processing speed its contribution was small and unclear. The results indicate that the variables within the BLFs do not predict cognitive performance in young and middle aged adults.

  3. The ability of 'non-cognitive' traits to predict undergraduate performance in medical schools: a national linkage study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Gabrielle M; Mwandigha, Lazaro; Paton, Lewis W; Tiffin, Paul A

    2018-05-03

    In addition to the evaluation of educational attainment and intellectual ability there has been interest in the potential to select medical school applicants on non-academic qualities. Consequently, a battery of self-report measures concerned with assessing 'non-cognitive' traits was piloted as part of the UK Clinical Aptitude Test (UKCAT) administration to evaluate their potential to be used in selection. The four non-cognitive instruments piloted were: 1) the Libertarian-communitarian scale, (2) The NACE (narcissism, aloofness, confidence and empathy, (3) the MEARS (Managing emotions and resilience scale; self-esteem, optimism, control, self-discipline, emotional-nondefensiveness and faking, and (4) an abridged version of instruments (1) and (2) combined. Non-cognitive scores and sociodemographic characteristics were available for 14,387 applicants. A series of univariable and multivariable analyses were conducted in order to assess the ability of the non-cognitive scores to predict knowledge and skills-based performance, as well as the odds of passing each academic year at first attempt. Non-cognitive scores and medical performance were standardised within cohorts. The scores on the non-cognitive scales showed only very small (magnitude of standardised betas< 0.2), though sometimes statistically significant (p < 0.01) univariable associations with subsequent performance on knowledge or skills-based assessments. The only statistically significant association between the non-cognitive scores and the probability of passing an academic year at first attempt was the narcissism score from one the abridged tests (OR 0.84,95% confidence intervals 0.71 to 0.97, p = 0.02). Our findings are consistent with previously published research. The tests had a very limited ability to predict undergraduate academic performance, though further research on identifying narcissism in medical students may be warranted. However, the validity of such self-report tools in high

  4. Subclinical thyroid disorders and cognitive performance among adolescents in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tiejian; Flowers, Joanne W; Tudiver, Fred; Wilson, Jim L; Punyasavatsut, Natavut

    2006-04-19

    Thyroid hormone plays a crucial role in the growth and function of the central nervous system. The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships between the status of subclinical thyroid conditions and cognition among adolescents in the United States. Study sample included 1,327 adolescents 13 to 16 years old who participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Serum thyroxine (T4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were measured and subclinical hypothyroidism, subclinical hyperthyroidism, and euthyroid groups were defined. Cognitive performance was assessed using the subscales of the Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised (WRAT-R) and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R). The age-corrected scaled scores for arithmetic, reading, block design, and digit span were derived from the cognitive assessments. Subclinical hypothyroidism was found in 1.7% and subclinical hyperthyroidism was found in 2.3% of the adolescents. Cognitive assessment scores on average tended to be lower in adolescents with subclinical hyperthyroidism and higher in those with subclinical hypothyroidism than the score for the euthyroid group. Adolescents with subclinical hypothyroidism had significantly better scores in block design and reading than the euthyroid subjects even after adjustment for a number of variables including sex, age, and family income level. Subclinical hypothyroidism was associated with better performance in some areas of cognitive functions while subclinical hyperthyroidism could be a potential risk factor.

  5. Cognition and bimanual performance in children with unilateral cerebral palsy: protocol for a multicentre, cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoare, Brian; Ditchfield, Michael; Thorley, Megan; Wallen, Margaret; Bracken, Jenny; Harvey, Adrienne; Elliott, Catherine; Novak, Iona; Crichton, Ali

    2018-05-08

    Motor outcomes of children with unilateral cerebral palsy are clearly documented and well understood, yet few studies describe the cognitive functioning in this population, and the associations between the two is poorly understood. Using two hands together in daily life involves complex motor and cognitive processes. Impairment in either domain may contribute to difficulties with bimanual performance. Research is yet to derive whether, and how, cognition affects a child's ability to use their two hands to perform bimanual tasks. This study will use a prospective, cross-sectional multi-centre observational design. Children (aged 6-12 years) with unilateral cerebral palsy will be recruited from one of five Australian treatment centres. We will examine associations between cognition, bimanual performance and brain neuropathology (lesion type and severity) in a sample of 131 children. The primary outcomes are: Motor - the Assisting Hand Assessment; Cognitive - Executive Function; and Brain - lesion location on structural MRI. Secondary data collected will include: Motor - Box and Blocks, ABILHAND- Kids, Sword Test; Cognitive - standard neuropsychological measures of intelligence. We will use generalized linear modelling and structural equation modelling techniques to investigate relationships between bimanual performance, executive function and brain lesion location. This large multi-centre study will examine how cognition affects bimanual performance in children with unilateral cerebral palsy. First, it is anticipated that distinct relationships between bimanual performance and cognition (executive function) will be identified. Second, it is anticipated that interrelationships between bimanual performance and cognition will be associated with common underlying neuropathology. Findings have the potential to improve the specificity of existing upper limb interventions by providing more targeted treatments and influence the development of novel methods to improve both

  6. Cognitive performance as a zeitgeber: cognitive oscillators and cholinergic modulation of the SCN entrain circadian rhythms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard J Gritton

    Full Text Available The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN is the primary circadian pacemaker in mammals that can synchronize or entrain to environmental cues. Although light exerts powerful influences on SCN output, other non-photic stimuli can modulate the SCN as well. We recently demonstrated that daily performance of a cognitive task requiring sustained periods of attentional effort that relies upon basal forebrain (BF cholinergic activity dramatically alters circadian rhythms in rats. In particular, normally nocturnal rats adopt a robust diurnal activity pattern that persists for several days in the absence of cognitive training. Although anatomical and pharmacological data from non-performing animals support a relationship between cholinergic signaling and circadian rhythms, little is known about how endogenous cholinergic signaling influences SCN function in behaving animals. Here we report that BF cholinergic projections to the SCN provide the principal signal allowing for the expression of cognitive entrainment in light-phase trained animals. We also reveal that oscillator(s outside of the SCN drive cognitive entrainment as daily timed cognitive training robustly entrains SCN-lesioned arrhythmic animals. Ablation of the SCN, however, resulted in significant impairments in task acquisition, indicating that SCN-mediated timekeeping benefits new learning and cognitive performance. Taken together, we conclude that cognition entrains non-photic oscillators, and cholinergic signaling to the SCN serves as a temporal timestamp attenuating SCN photic-driven rhythms, thereby permitting cognitive demands to modulate behavior.

  7. A performance comparison of two emotion-recognition implementations using OpenCV and Cognitive Services API

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beltrán Prieto Luis Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Emotions represent feelings about people in several situations. Various machine learning algorithms have been developed for emotion detection in a multimedia element, such as an image or a video. These techniques can be measured by comparing their accuracy with a given dataset in order to determine which algorithm can be selected among others. This paper deals with the comparison of two implementations of emotion recognition in faces, each implemented with specific technology. OpenCV is an open-source library of functions and packages mostly used for computer-vision analysis and applications. Cognitive services is a set of APIs containing artificial intelligence algorithms for computer-vision, speech, knowledge, and language processing. Two Android mobile applications were developed in order to test the performance between an OpenCV algorithm for emotion recognition and an implementation of Emotion cognitive service. For this research, one thousand tests were carried out per experiment. Our findings show that the OpenCV implementation got a better performance than the Cognitive services application. In both cases, performance can be improved by increasing the sample size per emotion during the training step.

  8. On the validity of self-report assessment of cognitive abilities: Attentional control scale associations with cognitive performance, emotional adjustment, and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Paula G; Rau, Holly K; Suchy, Yana; Thorgusen, Sommer R; Smith, Timothy W

    2017-05-01

    Individual differences in attentional control involve the ability to voluntarily direct, shift, and sustain attention. In studies of the role of attentional control in emotional adjustment, social relationships, and vulnerability to the effects of stress, self-report questionnaires are commonly used to measure this construct. Yet, convincing evidence of the association between self-report scales and actual cognitive performance has not been demonstrated. Across 2 independent samples, we examined associations between self-reported attentional control (Attentional Control Scale; ACS), self-reported emotional adjustment, Five-Factor Model personality traits (NEO Personality Inventory-Revised) and performance measures of attentional control. Study 1 examined behavioral performance on the Attention Network Test (ANT; Fan, McCandliss, Sommer, Raz, & Posner, 2002) and the Modified Switching Task (MST; Suchy & Kosson, 2006) in a large sample (n = 315) of healthy young adults. Study 2 (n = 78) examined behavioral performance on standardized neuropsychological tests of attention, including Conner's Continuous Performance Test-II and subtests from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales, Third Edition (WAIS-III; Psychological Corporation, 1997) and Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS; Delis, Kaplan, & Kramer, 2001). Results indicated that the ACS was largely unrelated to behavioral performance measures of attentional control but was significantly associated with emotional adjustment, neuroticism, and conscientiousness. These findings suggest that although self-reported attentional control may be a useful construct, researchers using the ACS should exercise caution in interpreting it as a proxy for actual cognitive ability or performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Performance pressure and caffeine both affect cognitive performance, but likely through independent mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boere, Julia J; Fellinger, Lizz; Huizinga, Duncan J H; Wong, Sebastiaan F; Bijleveld, Erik

    2016-02-01

    A prevalent combination in daily life, performance pressure and caffeine intake have both been shown to impact people's cognitive performance. Here, we examined the possibility that pressure and caffeine affect cognitive performance via a shared pathway. In an experiment, participants performed a modular arithmetic task. Performance pressure and caffeine intake were orthogonally manipulated. Findings indicated that pressure and caffeine both negatively impacted performance. However, (a) pressure vs. caffeine affected performance on different trial types, and (b) there was no hint of an interactive effect. So, though the evidence is indirect, findings suggest that pressure and caffeine shape performance via distinct mechanisms, rather than a shared one. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The relation of the number of languages spoken to performance in different cognitive abilities in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihle, Andreas; Oris, Michel; Fagot, Delphine; Kliegel, Matthias

    2016-12-01

    Findings on the association of speaking different languages with cognitive functioning in old age are inconsistent and inconclusive so far. Therefore, the present study set out to investigate the relation of the number of languages spoken to cognitive performance and its interplay with several other markers of cognitive reserve in a large sample of older adults. Two thousand eight hundred and twelve older adults served as sample for the present study. Psychometric tests on verbal abilities, basic processing speed, and cognitive flexibility were administered. In addition, individuals were interviewed on their different languages spoken on a regular basis, educational attainment, occupation, and engaging in different activities throughout adulthood. Higher number of languages regularly spoken was significantly associated with better performance in verbal abilities and processing speed, but unrelated to cognitive flexibility. Regression analyses showed that the number of languages spoken predicted cognitive performance over and above leisure activities/physical demand of job/gainful activity as respective additional predictor, but not over and above educational attainment/cognitive level of job as respective additional predictor. There was no significant moderation of the association of the number of languages spoken with cognitive performance in any model. Present data suggest that speaking different languages on a regular basis may additionally contribute to the build-up of cognitive reserve in old age. Yet, this may not be universal, but linked to verbal abilities and basic cognitive processing speed. Moreover, it may be dependent on other types of cognitive stimulation that individuals also engaged in during their life course.

  11. Effects of sleep deprivation on cognitive and physical performance in university students

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick, Yusuf; Lee, Alice; Raha, Oishik; Pillai, Kavya; Gupta, Shubham; Sethi, Sonika; Mukeshimana, Felicite; Gerard, Lothaire; Moghal, Mohammad U.; Saleh, Sohag N.; Smith, Susan F.; Morrell, Mary J.; Moss, James

    2017-01-01

    Sleep deprivation is common among university students, and has been associated with poor academic performance and physical dysfunction. However, current literature has a narrow focus in regard to domains tested, this study aimed to investigate the effects of a night of sleep deprivation on cognitive and physical performance in students. A randomized controlled crossover study was carried out with 64 participants [58% male (n?=?37); 22???4 years old (mean???SD)]. Participants were randomized i...

  12. EEG INTERFACE MODULE FOR COGNITIVE ASSESSMENT THROUGH NEUROPHYSIOLOGIC TESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kundan Lal Verma

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The cognitive signal processing is one of the important interdisciplinary field came from areas of life sciences, psychology, psychiatry, engi-neering, mathematics, physics, statistics and many other fields of research. Neurophysiologic tests are utilized to assess and treat brain injury, dementia, neurological conditions, and useful to investigate psychological and psychiatric disorders. This paper presents an ongoing research work on development of EEG interface device based on the principles of cognitive assessments and instrumentation. The method proposed engineering and science of cogni-tive signal processing in case of brain computer in-terface based neurophysiologic tests. The future scope of this study is to build a low cost EEG device for various clinical and pre-clinical applications with specific emphasis to measure the effect of cognitive action on human brain.

  13. Prefrontal cognitive ability, intelligence, Big Five personality, and the prediction of advanced academic and workplace performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Daniel M; Peterson, Jordan B; Pihl, Robert O; Lee, Alice G M

    2007-08-01

    Studies 1 and 2 assessed performance on a battery of dorsolateral prefrontal cognitive ability (D-PFCA) tests, personality, psychometric intelligence, and academic performance (AP) in 2 undergraduate samples. In Studies 1 and 2, AP was correlated with D-PFCA (r=.37, ppersonality. Studies 3 and 4 assessed D-PFCA, personality, and workplace performance among (a) managerial-administrative workers and (b) factory floor workers at a manufacturing company. Prefrontal cognitive ability correlated with supervisor ratings of manager performance at values of r ranging from .42 to .57 (ps<.001), depending on experience, and with factory floor performance at pr=.21 (p=.02), after controlling for experience, age, and education. Conscientiousness correlated with factory floor performance at r=.23.

  14. Cognitive bias test as a tool for accessing fish welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Wojtas

    2015-12-01

    Difference in behaviour during the cognitive bias test suggests that fish cognitive bias can be affected by living conditions. Therefore this type of test should be taken to consideration as a tool in further fish welfare studies. It can be especially useful in studies concerning influence of living conditions that cannot be examined in direct way for example by preference test.

  15. [Cognitive performance in schizophrenia (paranoid vs residual subtype)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Carol; Taragano, Fernando; Sarasola, Diego; Iturry, Mónica; Serrano, Cecilia; Raczkowski, Amalia; Allegri, Ricardo

    2007-01-01

    Several studies refer to the relationship between schizophrenia and cognitive dysfunctions. The most frequent disturbances accepted are the deficits in the executive, memory and verbal tests. However, there are few comparative data about the cognitive functioning of the different subtypes of schizophrenia. Analyze and compare the neuropsychological disturbances present in patients with paranoid and residual schizophrenia. Eleven patients with paranoid schizophrenia, eleven patients with residual schizophrenia (DSM-IV criteria), and thirty one normal subjects matched by age, educational level, and general cognitive level (Mini Mental State Examination (Folstein, 1975), were assessed with a semistructured psychiatric examination and an extensive neuropsychological battery. Significant differences were found in memory, language, and executive functions when schizophrenics were compared with normal subjects. Differences in similarities were found between paranoid and residual schizophrenics. Residual schizophrenics had more disturbances in neuropsychological tests in comparison with paranoid schizophrenics. Schizophrenics demonstrated disturbances in memory, language, executive functions and attention. Residual schizophrenics had more impairment in neuropsychological tests than paranoid schizophrenics.

  16. Relationship between anthropometric indicators and cognitive performance in Southeast Asian school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandjaja; Poh, Bee Koon; Rojroonwasinkul, Nipa; Le Nyugen, Bao Khanh; Budiman, Basuki; Ng, Lai Oon; Soonthorndhada, Kusol; Xuyen, Hoang Thi; Deurenberg, Paul; Parikh, Panam

    2013-09-01

    Nutrition is an important factor in mental development and, as a consequence, in cognitive performance. Malnutrition is reflected in children's weight, height and BMI curves. The present cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the association between anthropometric indices and cognitive performance in 6746 school-aged children (aged 6-12 years) of four Southeast Asian countries: Indonesia; Malaysia; Thailand; Vietnam. Cognitive performance (non-verbal intelligence quotient (IQ)) was measured using Raven's Progressive Matrices test or Test of Non-Verbal Intelligence, third edition (TONI-3). Height-for-age z-scores (HAZ), weight-for-age z-scores (WAZ) and BMI-for-age z-scores (BAZ) were used as anthropometric nutritional status indices. Data were weighted using age, sex and urban/rural weight factors to resemble the total primary school-aged population per country. Overall, 21% of the children in the four countries were underweight and 19% were stunted. Children with low WAZ were 3·5 times more likely to have a non-verbal IQ < 89 (OR 3·53 and 95% CI 3·52, 3·54). The chance of having a non-verbal IQ < 89 was also doubled with low BAZ and HAZ. In contrast, except for severe obesity, the relationship between high BAZ and IQ was less clear and differed per country. The odds of having non-verbal IQ levels < 89 also increased with severe obesity. In conclusion, undernourishment and non-verbal IQ are significantly associated in 6-12-year-old children. Effective strategies to improve nutrition in preschoolers and school-aged children can have a pronounced effect on cognition and, in the longer term, help in positively contributing to individual and national development.

  17. Mood As Cumulative Expectation Mismatch: A Test of Theory Based on Data from Non-verbal Cognitive Bias Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille M. C. Raoult

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Affective states are known to influence behavior and cognitive processes. To assess mood (moderately long-term affective states, the cognitive judgment bias test was developed and has been widely used in various animal species. However, little is known about how mood changes, how mood can be experimentally manipulated, and how mood then feeds back into cognitive judgment. A recent theory argues that mood reflects the cumulative impact of differences between obtained outcomes and expectations. Here expectations refer to an established context. Situations in which an established context fails to match an outcome are then perceived as mismatches of expectation and outcome. We take advantage of the large number of studies published on non-verbal cognitive bias tests in recent years (95 studies with a total of 162 independent tests to test whether cumulative mismatch could indeed have led to the observed mood changes. Based on a criteria list, we assessed whether mismatch had occurred with the experimental procedure used to induce mood (mood induction mismatch, or in the context of the non-verbal cognitive bias procedure (testing mismatch. For the mood induction mismatch, we scored the mismatch between the subjects’ potential expectations and the manipulations conducted for inducing mood whereas, for the testing mismatch, we scored mismatches that may have occurred during the actual testing. We then investigated whether these two types of mismatch can predict the actual outcome of the cognitive bias study. The present evaluation shows that mood induction mismatch cannot well predict the success of a cognitive bias test. On the other hand, testing mismatch can modulate or even inverse the expected outcome. We think, cognitive bias studies should more specifically aim at creating expectation mismatch while inducing mood states to test the cumulative mismatch theory more properly. Furthermore, testing mismatch should be avoided as much as possible

  18. AULA virtual reality test as an attention measure: convergent validity with Conners' Continuous Performance Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Orueta, Unai; Garcia-López, Cristina; Crespo-Eguílaz, Nerea; Sánchez-Carpintero, Rocío; Climent, Gema; Narbona, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The majority of neuropsychological tests used to evaluate attention processes in children lack ecological validity. The AULA Nesplora (AULA) is a continuous performance test, developed in a virtual setting, very similar to a school classroom. The aim of the present study is to analyze the convergent validity between the AULA and the Continuous Performance Test (CPT) of Conners. The AULA and CPT were administered correlatively to 57 children, aged 6-16 years (26.3% female) with average cognitive ability (IQ mean = 100.56, SD = 10.38) who had a diagnosis of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) according to DSM-IV-TR criteria. Spearman correlations analyses were conducted among the different variables. Significant correlations were observed between both tests in all the analyzed variables (omissions, commissions, reaction time, and variability of reaction time), including for those measures of the AULA based on different sensorial modalities, presentation of distractors, and task paradigms. Hence, convergent validity between both tests was confirmed. Moreover, the AULA showed differences by gender and correlation to Perceptual Reasoning and Working Memory indexes of the WISC-IV, supporting the relevance of IQ measures in the understanding of cognitive performance in ADHD. In addition, the AULA (but not Conners' CPT) was able to differentiate between ADHD children with and without pharmacological treatment for a wide range of measures related to inattention, impulsivity, processing speed, motor activity, and quality of attention focus. Additional measures and advantages of the AULA versus Conners' CPT are discussed.

  19. Self administered cognitive screening test (TYM) for detection of Alzheimer’s disease: cross sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengas, George; Dawson, Kate; Clatworthy, Philip

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate a cognitive test, the TYM (“test your memory”), in the detection of Alzheimer’s disease. Design Cross sectional study. Setting Outpatient departments in three hospitals, including a memory clinic. Participants 540 control participants aged 18-95 and 139 patients attending a memory clinic with dementia/amnestic mild cognitive impairment. Intervention Cognitive test designed to use minimal operator time and to be suitable for non-specialist use. Main outcome measures Performance of normal controls on the TYM. Performance of patients with Alzheimer’s disease on the TYM compared with age matched controls. Validation of the TYM with two standard tests (the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and the Addenbrooke’s cognitive examination-revised (ACE-R)). Sensitivity and specificity of the TYM in the detection of Alzheimer’s disease. Results Control participants completed the TYM with an average score of 47/50. Patients with Alzheimer’s disease scored an average of 33/50. The TYM score shows excellent correlation with the two standard tests. A score of ≤42/50 had a sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 86% in the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease. The TYM was more sensitive in detection of Alzheimer’s disease than the mini-mental examination, detecting 93% of patients compared with 52% for the mini-mental state exxamination. The negative and positive predictive values of the TYM with the cut off of ≤42 were 99% and 42% with a prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease of 10%. Thirty one patients with non-Alzheimer dementias scored an average of 39/50. Conclusions The TYM can be completed quickly and accurately by normal controls. It is a powerful and valid screening test for the detection of Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:19509424

  20. Listen to the noise: noise is beneficial for cognitive performance in ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderlund, Göran; Sikström, Sverker; Smart, Andrew

    2007-08-01

    Noise is typically conceived of as being detrimental to cognitive performance. However, given the mechanism of stochastic resonance, a certain amount of noise can benefit performance. We investigate cognitive performance in noisy environments in relation to a neurocomputational model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and dopamine. The Moderate Brain Arousal model (MBA; Sikström & Söderlund, 2007) suggests that dopamine levels modulate how much noise is required for optimal cognitive performance. We experimentally examine how ADHD and control children respond to different encoding conditions, providing different levels of environmental stimulation. Participants carried out self-performed mini tasks (SPT), as a high memory performance task, and a verbal task (VT), as a low memory task. These tasks were performed in the presence, or absence, of auditory white noise. Noise exerted a positive effect on cognitive performance for the ADHD group and deteriorated performance for the control group, indicating that ADHD subjects need more noise than controls for optimal cognitive performance. The positive effect of white noise is explained by the phenomenon of stochastic resonance (SR), i.e., the phenomenon that moderate noise facilitates cognitive performance. The MBA model suggests that noise in the environment, introduces internal noise into the neural system through the perceptual system. This noise induces SR in the neurotransmitter systems and makes this noise beneficial for cognitive performance. In particular, the peak of the SR curve depends on the dopamine level, so that participants with low dopamine levels (ADHD) require more noise for optimal cognitive performance compared to controls.

  1. Associations of job demands and intelligence with cognitive performance among men in late life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Guy G; Helms, Michael J; Plassman, Brenda L

    2008-05-06

    To examine the association of job characteristics and intelligence to cognitive status in members of the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council Twins Registry of World War II veterans. Participants (n = 1,036) included individuals with an assessment of intelligence based on Armed Services testing in early adulthood. In late adulthood, these individuals completed the modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS-m) and occupational history as part of an epidemiologic study of aging and dementia. Occupational history was coded to produce a matrix of job characteristics. Based on factor analysis, job characteristics were interpreted as reflecting general intellectual demands (GI), human interaction and communication (HC), physical activity (PA), and visual attention (VA). Based on regression analysis of TICS-m score covarying for age, intelligence, and years of education, higher levels of GI and HC were independently associated with higher TICS-m performance, whereas higher PA was independently associated with lower performance. There was an interaction of GI and intelligence, indicating that individuals at the lower range of intellectual aptitude in early adulthood derived greater cognitive benefit from intellectually demanding work. Intellectually demanding work was associated with greater benefit to cognitive performance in later life independent of related factors like education and intelligence. The fact that individuals with lower intellectual aptitude demonstrated a stronger positive association between work and higher cognitive performance during retirement suggests that behavior may enhance intellectual reserve, perhaps even years after peak intellectual activity.

  2. Modafinil and cognitive enhancement in schizophrenia and healthy volunteers: the effects of test battery in a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, J; Michalopoulou, P G; Lewis, S W; Preston, S; Bamford, C; Collier, T; Kalpakidou, A; Wykes, T; Emsley, R; Pandina, G; Kapur, S; Drake, R J

    2017-10-01

    Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia have major functional impacts. Modafinil is a cognitive enhancer whose effect in healthy volunteers is well-described, but whose effects on the cognitive deficits of schizophrenia appear to be inconsistent. Two possible reasons for this are that cognitive test batteries vary in their sensitivity, or that the phase of illness may be important, with patients early in their illness responding better. A double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled single-dose crossover study of modafinil 200 mg examined this with two cognitive batteries [MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) and Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB)] in 46 participants with under 3 years' duration of DSM-IV schizophrenia, on stable antipsychotic medication. In parallel, the same design was used in 28 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy volunteers. Uncorrected p values were calculated using mixed effects models. In patients, modafinil significantly improved CANTAB Paired Associate Learning, non-significantly improved efficiency and significantly slowed performance of the CANTAB Stockings of Cambridge spatial planning task. There was no significant effect on any MCCB domain. In healthy volunteers, modafinil significantly increased CANTAB Rapid Visual Processing, Intra-Extra Dimensional Set Shifting and verbal recall accuracy, and MCCB social cognition performance. The only significant differences between groups were in MCCB visual learning. As in earlier chronic schizophrenia studies, modafinil failed to produce changes in cognition in early psychosis as measured by MCCB. CANTAB proved more sensitive to the effects of modafinil in participants with early schizophrenia and in healthy volunteers. This confirms the importance of selecting the appropriate test battery in treatment studies of cognition in schizophrenia.

  3. Effects of oxygen-enriched air on cognitive performance during SCUBA-diving - an open-water study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brebeck, Anne-Kathrin; Deussen, Andreas; Schmitz-Peiffer, Henning; Range, Ursula; Balestra, Costantino; Cleveland, Sinclair; Schipke, Jochen D

    2017-01-01

    Backround: Nitrogen narcosis impairs cognitive function, a fact relevant during SCUBA-diving. Oxygen-enriched air (nitrox) became popular in recreational diving, while evidence of its advantages over air is limited. Compare effects of nitrox28 and air on two psychometric tests. In this prospective, double-blind, open-water study, 108 advanced divers (38 females) were randomized to an air or a nitrox-group for a 60-min dive to 24 m salt water. Breathing gas effects on cognitive performance were assessed during the dive using a short- and long-term memory test and a number connection test. Nitrox28 divers made fewer mistakes only on the long-term memory test (p = 0.038). Female divers remembered more items than male divers (p < 0.001). There were no significant differences in the number connection test between the groups. Likely owing to the comparatively low N 2 reduction and the conservative dive, beneficial nitrox28 effects to diver performance were moderate but could contribute to diving safety.

  4. The influence of occupational heat exposure on cognitive performance and blood level of stress hormones: a field study report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazlomi, Adel; Golbabaei, Farideh; Farhang Dehghan, Somayeh; Abbasinia, Marzieh; Mahmoud Khani, Somayeh; Ansari, Mohammad; Hosseini, Mostafa

    2017-09-01

    This article aimed to investigate the effect of heat stress on cognitive performance and the blood concentration of stress hormones among workers of a foundry plant. Seventy workers within the exposed (35 people) and unexposed (35 people) groups were studied. The wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) index was measured for heat stress assessment. The cognitive performance tests were conducted using the Stroop color word test (SCWT) before and during working hours. For the assessment of the serum level of cortisol and the plasma level of adrenaline and noradrenaline, blood samples were taken during working hours from both groups. Only for SCWT III was there a significant relationship between heat stress and test duration, error rate and reaction time. The laboratory test results revealed significantly higher concentrations of cortisol, adrenaline and noradrenaline in the exposed subjects than in the unexposed group. There existed a positive correlation between cortisol, adrenaline, noradrenaline and WBGT index and also test duration and reaction time of SCWT III, and number of errors of SCWT I, SCWT II and SCWT III during work. Heat stress can lead to an increase in the blood level of stress hormones, resulting in cognitive performance impairment.

  5. Effects of low-dose recombinant human erythropoietin treatment on cognitive performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viuff, Søren Lundgaard; Plenge, Ulla; Belhage, Bo

    2017-01-01

    , NUFI or self-reported results between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: In this small study, we found no significant effect of low-dose or micro-dose rhEpo on visual attention, cognitive performance in complex cognitive tasks or self-experienced cognitive performance compared with placebo. FUNDING: The Aase......INTRODUCTION: High-dose recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEpo) has been shown to improve cognitive performance in both healthy volunteers and in patients suffering from diseases affecting the brain. The aim of this study was to examine whether administration of low-dose and even micro-dose rh...

  6. Effects of low-dose recombinant human erythropoietin treatment on cognitive performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viuff, Søren Lundgaard; Plenge, Ulla; Belhage, Bo

    2017-01-01

    -reported results between the groups. Conclusions: In this small study, we found no significant effect of low-dose or micro-dose rhEpo on visual attention, cognitive performance in complex cognitive tasks or self-experienced cognitive performance compared with placebo. Funding: The Aase and Ejnar Danielsen......Introduction: High-dose recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEpo) has been shown to improve cognitive performance in both healthy volunteers and in patients suffering from diseases affecting the brain. The aim of this study was to examine whether administration of low-dose and even micro-dose rh...

  7. Cognitive performance and psychosocial functioning in patients with bipolar disorder, unaffected siblings, and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos-Moreno, Mirela P; Bücker, Joana; Bürke, Kelen P; Czepielewski, Leticia; Santos, Barbara T; Fijtman, Adam; Passos, Ives C; Kunz, Mauricio; Bonnín, Caterina Del Mar; Vieta, Eduard; Kapczinski, Flavio; Rosa, Adriane R; Kauer-Sant'Anna, Marcia

    2016-01-01

    To assess cognitive performance and psychosocial functioning in patients with bipolar disorder (BD), in unaffected siblings, and in healthy controls. Subjects were patients with BD (n=36), unaffected siblings (n=35), and healthy controls (n=44). Psychosocial functioning was accessed using the Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST). A sub-group of patients with BD (n=21), unaffected siblings (n=14), and healthy controls (n=22) also underwent a battery of neuropsychological tests: California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT), Stroop Color and Word Test, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Clinical and sociodemographic characteristics were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance or the chi-square test; multivariate analysis of covariance was used to examine differences in neuropsychological variables. Patients with BD showed higher FAST total scores (23.90±11.35) than healthy controls (5.86±5.47; p siblings (12.60±11.83; p 0.001). Siblings and healthy controls also showed statistically significant differences in FAST total scores (p = 0.008). Patients performed worse than healthy controls on all CVLT sub-tests (p Siblings did not differ from healthy controls in cognitive tests. Unaffected siblings of patients with BD may show poorer functional performance compared to healthy controls. FAST scores may contribute to the development of markers of vulnerability and endophenotypic traits in at-risk populations.

  8. Functional relationship between cognitive representations of movement directions and visuomotor adaptation performance.

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    Lex, Heiko; Weigelt, Matthias; Knoblauch, Andreas; Schack, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    The aim of our study was to explore whether or not different types of learners in a sensorimotor task possess characteristically different cognitive representations. Participants' sensorimotor adaptation performance was measured with a pointing paradigm which used a distortion of the visual feedback in terms of a left-right reversal. The structure of cognitive representations was assessed using a newly established experimental method, the Cognitive Measurement of Represented Directions. A post hoc analysis revealed inter-individual differences in participants' adaptation performance, and three different skill levels (skilled, average, and poor adapters) have been defined. These differences in performance were correlated with the structure of participants' cognitive representations of movement directions. Analysis of these cognitive representations revealed performance advantages for participants possessing a global cognitive representation of movement directions (aligned to cardinal movement axes), rather than a local representation (aligned to each neighboring direction). Our findings are evidence that cognitive representation structures play a functional role in adaptation performance.

  9. The influence of schooling on working memory performance in elderly individuals without cognitive decline

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    Juliana Nery de Souza-Talarico

    Full Text Available Abstract Over recent decades, research on cognition has been developed rapidly toward better understanding the cognitive changes that usually occur during normal aging. There is evidence that elderly individuals have worse working memory performance than young adults. However, the effect of education on this cognitive function remains unclear. Objectives: To analyze the performance of healthy elderly subjects on working memory tasks and to verify the influence of educational level on this performance. Methods: Forty elderly individuals without cognitive impairment and fully independent, were randomly chosen from a group of subjects participating in cultural activities at the university campus. The Digit Span Forward (DSF test was used to evaluate attention performance. The working memory performance was assessed by the Digit Span Backward (DSB and the difference between DSF and DSB. The data were statistically analyzed using the Spearman's correlation coefficient to verify the correlation between the Digit Span (DS scores and the variables age and schooling, while the Multiple Linear Regression Model was used to verify the effect of these variables on the DS scores. Results: A significant positive correlation (r=0.41, p<0.01 as well as a significant association (b=0.506; p=0.001; CI 95%= 0.064/0.237 were found between years of schooling and DSB scores. It was not observed statistical correlation (r= -0.08, p=0.64 or association (b=0.41; p=0.775; CI 95%= -0.049/0.065 between age and DSB scores. Conclusion: In this study, higher levels of schooling were associated with better working memory performance in cognitively healthy elders.

  10. Auditory and cognitive performance in elderly musicians and nonmusicians.

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    Massimo Grassi

    Full Text Available Musicians represent a model for examining brain and behavioral plasticity in terms of cognitive and auditory profile, but few studies have investigated whether elderly musicians have better auditory and cognitive abilities than nonmusicians. The aim of the present study was to examine whether being a professional musician attenuates the normal age-related changes in hearing and cognition. Elderly musicians still active in their profession were compared with nonmusicians on auditory performance (absolute threshold, frequency intensity, duration and spectral shape discrimination, gap and sinusoidal amplitude-modulation detection, and on simple (short-term memory and more complex and higher-order (working memory [WM] and visuospatial abilities cognitive tasks. The sample consisted of adults at least 65 years of age. The results showed that older musicians had similar absolute thresholds but better supra-threshold discrimination abilities than nonmusicians in four of the six auditory tasks administered. They also had a better WM performance, and stronger visuospatial abilities than nonmusicians. No differences were found between the two groups' short-term memory. Frequency discrimination and gap detection for the auditory measures, and WM complex span tasks and one of the visuospatial tasks for the cognitive ones proved to be very good classifiers of the musicians. These findings suggest that life-long music training may be associated with enhanced auditory and cognitive performance, including complex cognitive skills, in advanced age. However, whether this music training represents a protective factor or not needs further investigation.

  11. The Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revised (ACE-R): a brief cognitive test battery for dementia screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mioshi, Eneida; Dawson, Kate; Mitchell, Joanna; Arnold, Robert; Hodges, John R

    2006-11-01

    There is a clear need for brief, but sensitive and specific, cognitive screening instruments as evidenced by the popularity of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE). We aimed to validate an improved revision (the ACE-R) which incorporates five sub-domain scores (orientation/attention, memory, verbal fluency, language and visuo-spatial). Standard tests for evaluating dementia screening tests were applied. A total of 241 subjects participated in this study (Alzheimer's disease=67, frontotemporal dementia=55, dementia of Lewy Bodies=20; mild cognitive impairment-MCI=36; controls=63). Reliability of the ACE-R was very good (alpha coefficient=0.8). Correlation with the Clinical Dementia Scale was significant (r=-0.321, pcognitive dysfunction. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Test anxiety and the validity of cognitive tests: A confirmatory factor analysis perspective and some empirical findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicherts, J.M.; Zand Scholten, A.

    2010-01-01

    The validity of cognitive ability tests is often interpreted solely as a function of the cognitive abilities that these tests are supposed to measure, but other factors may be at play. The effects of test anxiety on the criterion related validity (CRV) of tests was the topic of a recent study by

  13. Test-Taking Strategy as a Mediator between Race and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollinger, Stephen J.; Clark, M. H.

    2012-01-01

    The issue of race differences in standardized test scores and academic achievement continues to be a vexing one for behavioral scientists and society at large. Ellis and Ryan (2003) suggested that a portion of the cognitive-ability test performance differences between White/Caucasian-American and Black/African-American college students could be…

  14. Investigating the Effects of Different Working Postures on Cognitive Performance

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    Sharareh Mohammadi

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion This study demonstrates that cognitive performance is affected by working postures. This study demonstrates that standard sitting posture is the best posture. Therefore, it is recommended that sitting posture can help in increasing cognitive performance in the workplace.

  15. Poor Performance on a Preoperative Cognitive Screening Test Predicts Postoperative Complications in Older Orthopedic Surgical Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culley, Deborah J; Flaherty, Devon; Fahey, Margaret C; Rudolph, James L; Javedan, Houman; Huang, Chuan-Chin; Wright, John; Bader, Angela M; Hyman, Bradley T; Blacker, Deborah; Crosby, Gregory

    2017-11-01

    The American College of Surgeons and the American Geriatrics Society have suggested that preoperative cognitive screening should be performed in older surgical patients. We hypothesized that unrecognized cognitive impairment in patients without a history of dementia is a risk factor for development of postoperative complications. We enrolled 211 patients 65 yr of age or older without a diagnosis of dementia who were scheduled for an elective hip or knee replacement. Patients were cognitively screened preoperatively using the Mini-Cog and demographic, medical, functional, and emotional/social data were gathered using standard instruments or review of the medical record. Outcomes included discharge to place other than home (primary outcome), delirium, in-hospital medical complications, hospital length-of-stay, 30-day emergency room visits, and mortality. Data were analyzed using univariate and multivariate analyses. Fifty of 211 (24%) patients screened positive for probable cognitive impairment (Mini-Cog less than or equal to 2). On age-adjusted multivariate analysis, patients with a Mini-Cog score less than or equal to 2 were more likely to be discharged to a place other than home (67% vs. 34%; odds ratio = 3.88, 95% CI = 1.58 to 9.55), develop postoperative delirium (21% vs. 7%; odds ratio = 4.52, 95% CI = 1.30 to 15.68), and have a longer hospital length of stay (hazard ratio = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.42 to 0.95) compared to those with a Mini-Cog score greater than 2. Many older elective orthopedic surgical patients have probable cognitive impairment preoperatively. Such impairment is associated with development of delirium postoperatively, a longer hospital stay, and lower likelihood of going home upon hospital discharge.

  16. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of different sedentary behaviors with cognitive performance in older adults.

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    Emmanuelle Kesse-Guyot

    Full Text Available The deleterious health effects of sedentary behaviors, independent of physical activity, are increasingly being recognized. However, associations with cognitive performance are not known.To estimate the associations between different sedentary behaviors and cognitive performance in healthy older adults.Computer use, time spent watching television (TV, time spent reading and habitual physical activity levels were self-reported twice (in 2001 and 2007 by participants in the SUpplémentation en Vitamines et MinérauX (SU.VI.MAX and SU.VI.MAX2 study. Cognitive performance was assessed at follow-up (in 2007-2009 via a battery of 6 neuropsychological tests used to derive verbal memory and executive functioning scores. Analyses (ANCOVA were performed among 1425 men and 1154 women aged 65.6 ± 4.5 at the time of the neuropsychological evaluation. We estimated mean differences with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI in cognitive performance across categories of each type of sedentary behavior.In multivariable cross-sectional models, compared to non-users, participants using the computer for >1 h/day displayed better verbal memory (mean difference=1.86; 95%CI: 0.95, 2.77 and executive functioning (mean difference=2.15; 95%CI: 1.22, 3.08. A negative association was also observed between TV viewing and executive functioning. Additionally, participants who increased their computer use by more than 30 min between 2001 and 2007 showed better performance on both verbal memory (mean difference=1.41; 95%CI: 0.55, 2.27 and executive functioning (mean difference=1.41; 95%CI: 0.53, 2.28 compared to those who decreased their computer use during that period.Specific sedentary behaviors are differentially associated with cognitive performance. In contrast to TV viewing, regular computer use may help maintain cognitive function during the aging process.clinicaltrial.gov (number NCT00272428.

  17. Music lessons improve auditory perceptual and cognitive performance in deaf children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochette, Françoise; Moussard, Aline; Bigand, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Despite advanced technologies in auditory rehabilitation of profound deafness, deaf children often exhibit delayed cognitive and linguistic development and auditory training remains a crucial element of their education. In the present cross-sectional study, we assess whether music would be a relevant tool for deaf children rehabilitation. In normal-hearing children, music lessons have been shown to improve cognitive and linguistic-related abilities, such as phonetic discrimination and reading. We compared auditory perception, auditory cognition, and phonetic discrimination between 14 profoundly deaf children who completed weekly music lessons for a period of 1.5-4 years and 14 deaf children who did not receive musical instruction. Children were assessed on perceptual and cognitive auditory tasks using environmental sounds: discrimination, identification, auditory scene analysis, auditory working memory. Transfer to the linguistic domain was tested with a phonetic discrimination task. Musically trained children showed better performance in auditory scene analysis, auditory working memory and phonetic discrimination tasks, and multiple regressions showed that success on these tasks was at least partly driven by music lessons. We propose that musical education contributes to development of general processes such as auditory attention and perception, which, in turn, facilitate auditory-related cognitive and linguistic processes.

  18. Music lessons improve auditory perceptual and cognitive performance in deaf children

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    Françoise eROCHETTE

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite advanced technologies in auditory rehabilitation of profound deafness, deaf children often exhibit delayed cognitive and linguistic development and auditory training remains a crucial element of their education. In the present cross-sectional study, we assess whether music would be a relevant tool for deaf children rehabilitation. In normal-hearing children, music lessons have been shown to improve cognitive and linguistic-related abilities, such as phonetic discrimination and reading. We compared auditory perception, auditory cognition, and phonetic discrimination between 14 profoundly deaf children who completed weekly music lessons for a period of 1.5 to 4 years and 14 deaf children who did not receive musical instruction. Children were assessed on perceptual and cognitive auditory tasks using environmental sounds: discrimination, identification, auditory scene analysis, auditory working memory. Transfer to the linguistic domain was tested with a phonetic discrimination task. Musically-trained children showed better performance in auditory scene analysis, auditory working memory and phonetic discrimination tasks, and multiple regressions showed that success on these tasks was at least partly driven by music lessons. We propose that musical education contributes to development of general processes such as auditory attention and perception, which, in turn, facilitate auditory-related cognitive and linguistic processes.

  19. Subclinical thyroid disorders and cognitive performance among adolescents in the United States

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    Wilson Jim L

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thyroid hormone plays a crucial role in the growth and function of the central nervous system. The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships between the status of subclinical thyroid conditions and cognition among adolescents in the United States. Methods Study sample included 1,327 adolescents 13 to 16 years old who participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III. Serum thyroxine (T4 and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH were measured and subclinical hypothyroidism, subclinical hyperthyroidism, and euthyroid groups were defined. Cognitive performance was assessed using the subscales of the Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised (WRAT-R and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R. The age-corrected scaled scores for arithmetic, reading, block design, and digit span were derived from the cognitive assessments. Results Subclinical hypothyroidism was found in 1.7% and subclinical hyperthyroidism was found in 2.3% of the adolescents. Cognitive assessment scores on average tended to be lower in adolescents with subclinical hyperthyroidism and higher in those with subclinical hypothyroidism than the score for the euthyroid group. Adolescents with subclinical hypothyroidism had significantly better scores in block design and reading than the euthyroid subjects even after adjustment for a number of variables including sex, age, and family income level. Conclusion Subclinical hypothyroidism was associated with better performance in some areas of cognitive functions while subclinical hyperthyroidism could be a potential risk factor.

  20. Comparison of Short and Long Versions of the Prudhoe Cognitive Function Test and the K-BIT in Participants with Intellectual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrer, Stephen P.; Wigham, Ann; Cicchetti, Domenic; Margallo-Lana, Marisa; Moore, P. Brian; Reid, Barbara E.

    2010-01-01

    The Prudhoe Cognitive Function Test (PCFT) directly measures the cognitive abilities of people with intellectual impairment. This study examined the relationship between this instrument and the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (K-BIT) and two shorter versions of the same scale. High correlations between the verbal and performance sections of the…

  1. Cognitive Performance and Locomotor Adaptation in Persons With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Amanda E; Roper, Jaimie A; Herman, Daniel C; Hass, Chris J

    2018-05-01

    Persons with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) show deficits in gait and neuromuscular control following rehabilitation. This altered behavior extends to locomotor adaptation and learning, however the contributing factors to this observed behavior have yet to be investigated. The purpose of this study was to assess differences in locomotor adaptation and learning between ACLR and controls, and identify underlying contributors to motor adaptation in these individuals. Twenty ACLR individuals and 20 healthy controls (CON) agreed to participate in this study. Participants performed four cognitive and dexterity tasks (local version of Trail Making Test, reaction time test, electronic pursuit rotor test, and the Purdue pegboard). Three-dimensional kinematics were also collected while participants walked on a split-belt treadmill. ACLR individuals completed the local versions of Trails A and Trails B significantly faster than CON. During split-belt walking, ACLR individuals demonstrated smaller step length asymmetry during EARLY and LATE adaptation, smaller double support asymmetry during MID adaptation, and larger stance time asymmetry during DE-ADAPT compared with CON. ACLR individuals performed better during tasks that required visual attention and task switching and were less perturbed during split-belt walking compared to controls. Persons with ACLR may use different strategies than controls, cognitive or otherwise, to adapt locomotor patterns.

  2. Effects of Resveratrol on Cognitive Performance, Mood and Cerebrovascular Function in Post-Menopausal Women; A 14-Week Randomised Placebo-Controlled Intervention Trial

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    Hamish M. Evans

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We tested whether chronic supplementation with resveratrol (a phytoestrogen could improve cerebrovascular function, cognition and mood in post-menopausal women. Eighty post-menopausal women aged 45–85 years were randomised to take trans-resveratrol or placebo for 14 weeks and the effects on cognitive performance, cerebral blood flow velocity and pulsatility index (a measure of arterial stiffness in the middle cerebral artery (using transcranial Doppler ultrasound, and cerebrovascular responsiveness (CVR to both cognitive testing and hypercapnia were assessed. Mood questionnaires were also administered. Compared to placebo, resveratrol elicited 17% increases in CVR to both hypercapnic (p = 0.010 and cognitive stimuli (p = 0.002. Significant improvements were observed in the performance of cognitive tasks in the domain of verbal memory (p = 0.041 and in overall cognitive performance (p = 0.020, which correlated with the increase in CVR (r = 0.327; p = 0.048. Mood tended to improve in multiple measures, although not significantly. These results indicate that regular consumption of a modest dose of resveratrol can enhance both cerebrovascular function and cognition in post-menopausal women, potentially reducing their heightened risk of accelerated cognitive decline and offering a promising therapeutic treatment for menopause-related cognitive decline.

  3. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Acceptance-Based Behavior Therapy and Cognitive Therapy for Test Anxiety: A Pilot Study

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    Brown, Lily A.; Forman, Evan M.; Herbert, James D.; Hoffman, Kimberly L.; Yuen, Erica K.; Goetter, Elizabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    Many university students suffer from test anxiety that is severe enough to impair performance. Given mixed efficacy results of previous cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) trials and a theoretically driven rationale, an acceptance-based behavior therapy (ABBT) approach was compared to traditional CBT (i.e., Beckian cognitive therapy; CT) for the…

  4. Five-year retrospective changes in hippocampal atrophy and cognitive screening test performances in very mild Alzheimer's disease: the Tajiri Project

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    Yamaguchi, S.; Meguro, K.; Shimada, M.; Ishizaki, J.; Yamadori, A. [Division of Neuropsychology, Department of Disability Medicine, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Sekita, Y. [Tohoku University Graduate School of Economics, Sendai (Japan)

    2002-01-01

    The medial temporal lobe, especially the hippocampus, is important for normal cognitive function, especially for memory, and is the region with the earliest and most extensive pathological changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated the atrophic changes of the hippocampus over a 5-year period and its relation to cognitive screening test performances in normal elderly subjects, those with very mild AD, and patients with AD. Fifty-seven elderly subjects without a moderate or greater degree of cerebrovascular disease as shown by MRI were randomly selected from the town of Tajiri. Thirty-three subjects with a clinical dementia rating (CDR) of 0 (normal), 18 CDR-0.5 (very mild AD) subjects, and six CDR-1 and 2 (AD) subjects underwent MRI and the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) twice during the period. Retrospective changes in the hippocampal width and the MMSE scores were evaluated. There were significant CDR group effects for the changes in the mean bilateral hippocampal widths and the MMSE scores. Normal subjects did not show cognitive decline, although there was a slight tendency for hippocampal atrophy. A significant and meaningful Spearman's correlation was noted between left hippocampal atrophy and the MMSE scores over the 5-year period for the CDR-0.5 group. These CDR-0.5 subjects met the MCI (mild cognitive impairment) criteria as proposed by the consensus paper. Findings suggested that normal elderly subjects maintain a high level of cognitive functions for at least 5 years, although hippocampal atrophy might occur. Atrophic change of the left hippocampus might be a good marker of the very early stage of AD. (orig.)

  5. An examination of mediators of the transfer of cognitive speed of processing training to everyday functional performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jerri D; Ruva, Christine L; O'Brien, Jennifer L; Haley, Christine B; Lister, Jennifer J

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of these analyses was to examine mediators of the transfer of cognitive speed of processing training to improved everyday functional performance (J. D. Edwards, V. G. Wadley,, D. E. Vance, D. L. Roenker, & K. K. Ball, 2005, The impact of speed of processing training on cognitive and everyday performance. Aging & Mental Health, 9, 262-271). Cognitive speed of processing and visual attention (as measured by the Useful Field of View Test; UFOV) were examined as mediators of training transfer. Secondary data analyses were conducted from the Staying Keen in Later Life (SKILL) study, a randomized cohort study including 126 community dwelling adults 63 to 87 years of age. In the SKILL study, participants were randomized to an active control group or cognitive speed of processing training (SOPT), a nonverbal, computerized intervention involving perceptual practice of visual tasks. Prior analyses found significant effects of training as measured by the UFOV and Timed Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (TIADL) Tests. Results from the present analyses indicate that speed of processing for a divided attention task significantly mediated the effect of SOPT on everyday performance (e.g., TIADL) in a multiple mediation model accounting for 91% of the variance. These findings suggest that everyday functional improvements found from SOPT are directly attributable to improved UFOV performance, speed of processing for divided attention in particular. Targeting divided attention in cognitive interventions may be important to positively affect everyday functioning among older adults. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Redirecting learners' attention during training: effects on cognitive load, transfer test performance and training efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Merriënboer, J.J.G.; Schuurman, Jan Gerrit; de Croock, M.B.M.; Paas, F.G.W.C.

    2002-01-01

    Cognitive load theory provides guidelines for improving the training of complex cognitive skills and their transfer to new situations. One guideline states that extraneous cognitive load that is irrelevant to the construction of cognitive schemata should be minimised. Experiment 1 (N=26) compares

  7. Higher BMI Is Associated with Reduced Cognitive Performance in Division I Athletes

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    Andrew Fedor

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Poor cardiovascular fitness has been implicated as a possible mechanism for obesity-related cognitive decline, though no study has examined whether BMI is associated with poorer cognitive function in persons with excellent fitness levels. The current study examined the relationship between BMI and cognitive function by the Immediate Post Concussion and Cognitive Test (ImPACT in Division I collegiate athletes. Methods: Participants had an average age of 20.14 ± 1.78 years, were 31.3% female, and 53.9% football players. BMI ranged from 19.04 to 41.14 and averaged 26.72 ± 4.62. Results: Regression analyses revealed that BMI incrementally predicted performance on visual memory (R2 change = 0.015, p = 0.026 beyond control variables. Follow-up partial correlation analyses revealed small but significant negative correlations between BMI and verbal memory (r = -0.17, visual memory (r = -0.16, and visual motor speed (r = -0.12. Conclusions: These results suggest that higher BMI is associated with reduced cognitive function, even in a sample expected to have excellent levels of cardiovascular fitness. Further work is needed to better understand mechanisms for these associations.

  8. Higher BMI is associated with reduced cognitive performance in division I athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedor, Andrew; Gunstad, John

    2013-01-01

    Poor cardiovascular fitness has been implicated as a possible mechanism for obesity-related cognitive decline, though no study has examined whether BMI is associated with poorer cognitive function in persons with excellent fitness levels. The current study examined the relationship between BMI and cognitive function by the Immediate Post Concussion and Cognitive Test (ImPACT) in Division I collegiate athletes. Participants had an average age of 20.14 ± 1.78 years, were 31.3% female, and 53.9% football players. BMI ranged from 19.04 to 41.14 and averaged 26.72 ± 4.62. Regression analyses revealed that BMI incrementally predicted performance on visual memory (R(2) change = 0.015, p = 0.026) beyond control variables. Follow-up partial correlation analyses revealed small but significant negative correlations between BMI and verbal memory (r = -0.17), visual memory (r = -0.16), and visual motor speed (r = -0.12). These results suggest that higher BMI is associated with reduced cognitive function, even in a sample expected to have excellent levels of cardiovascular fitness. Further work is needed to better understand mechanisms for these associations. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  9. Cerebral Blood Flow and Amyloid-β Interact to Affect Memory Performance in Cognitively Normal Older Adults

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    Katherine J. Bangen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral blood flow (CBF alterations and amyloid-β (Aβ accumulation have been independently linked to cognitive deficits in older adults at risk for dementia. Less is known about how CBF and Aβ may interact to affect cognition in cognitively normal older adults. Therefore, we examined potential statistical interactions between CBF and Aβ status in regions typically affected in Alzheimer’s disease (AD within a sample of older adults from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI study. Sixty-two cognitively normal participants (mean age = 72 years underwent neuroimaging and memory testing. Arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging was used to quantify CBF and florbetapir PET amyloid imaging was used to measure Aβ deposition. Aβ status (i.e., positivity versus negativity was determined based on established cutoffs (Landau et al., 2013. The Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test was used to assess memory. Linear regression models adjusted for age, education, and sex, demonstrated significant interactions between CBF and Aβ status on memory performance. Among Aβ positive older adults, there were significant negative associations between higher CBF in hippocampus, posterior cingulate, and precuneus and poorer memory performance. In contrast, among Aβ negative older adults, there were no significant associations between CBF and cognition. Our findings extend previous CBF studies of dementia risk by reporting interactions between Aβ status and CBF on memory performance in a sample of well-characterized, cognitively normal older adults. Results suggest that differential CBF-cognition associations can be identified in healthy, asymptomatic Aβ positive older adults relative to Aβ negative individuals. Associations between higherCBF and poorer memory among Aβ positive older adults may reflect a cellular and/or vascular compensatory response to pathologic processes whereby higher CBF is needed to maintain normal memory

  10. Development of a cognitive function test using virtual reality technology: examination in healthy participants.

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    Sakai, Hiromi; Nagano, Akinori; Seki, Keiko; Okahashi, Sayaka; Kojima, Maki; Luo, Zhiwei

    2018-07-01

    We developed a virtual reality test to assess the cognitive function of Japanese people in near-daily-life environment, namely, a virtual shopping test (VST). In this test, participants were asked to execute shopping tasks using touch panel operations in a "virtual shopping mall." We examined differences in VST performances among healthy participants of different ages and correlations between VST and screening tests, such as the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Everyday Memory Checklist (EMC). We included 285 healthy participants between 20 and 86 years of age in seven age groups. Therefore, each VST index tended to decrease with advancing age; differences among age groups were significant. Most VST indices had a significantly negative correlation with MMSE and significantly positive correlation with EMC. VST may be useful for assessing general cognitive decline; effects of age must be considered for proper interpretation of the VST scores.

  11. Work-related stress is associated with impaired neuropsychological test performance: a clinical cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskildsen, Anita; Andersen, Lars Peter; Pedersen, Anders Degn; Vandborg, Sanne Kjær; Andersen, Johan Hviid

    2015-01-01

    Patients on sick leave due to work-related stress often complain about impaired concentration and memory. However, it is undetermined how widespread these impairments are, and which cognitive domains are most long-term stress sensitive. Previous studies show inconsistent results and are difficult to synthesize. The primary aim of this study was to examine whether patients with work-related stress complaints have cognitive impairments compared to a matched control group without stress. Our secondary aim was to examine whether the level of self-reported perceived stress is associated with neuropsychological test performance. We used a broad neuropsychological test battery to assess 59 outpatients with work-related stress complaints (without major depression) and 59 healthy controls. We matched the patients and controls pairwise by sex, age and educational level. Compared to controls, patients generally showed mildly reduced performance across all the measured domains of the neuropsychological test battery. However, only three comparisons reached statistical significance (p working memory. There were no statistical significant associations between self-reported perceived stress level and neuropsychological test performance. In conclusion, we recommend that cognitive functions should be considered when evaluating patients with work-related stress complaints, especially when given advice regarding return to work. Since this study had a cross-sectional design, it is still uncertain whether the impairments are permanent. Further study is required to establish causal links between work-related stress and cognitive deficits.

  12. Cognitive performance is of clinical importance, but is unrelated to pain severity in women with chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ickmans, Kelly; Meeus, Mira; Kos, Daphne; Clarys, Peter; Meersdom, Geert; Lambrecht, Luc; Pattyn, Nathalie; Nijs, Jo

    2013-10-01

    In various chronic pain populations, decreased cognitive performance is known to be related to pain severity. Yet, this relationship has not been investigated in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). This study investigated the relationship between cognitive performance and (1) pain severity, (2) level of fatigue, and (3) self-reported symptoms and health status in women with CFS. Examining the latter relationships is important for clinical practice, since people with CFS are often suspected to exaggerate their symptoms. A sample of 29 female CFS patients and 17 healthy controls aged 18 to 45 years filled out three questionnaires (Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey, Checklist Individual Strength (CIS), and CFS Symptom List) and performed three performance-based cognitive tests (psychomotor vigilance task, Stroop task, and operation span task), respectively. In both groups, pain severity was not associated with cognitive performance. In CFS patients, the level of fatigue measured with the CFS Symptom List, but not with the CIS, was significantly correlated with sustained attention. Self-reported mental health was negatively correlated with all investigated cognitive domains in the CFS group. These results provide evidence for the clinical importance of objectively measured cognitive problems in female CFS patients. Furthermore, a state-like measure (CFS Symptom List) appears to be superior over a trait-like measure (CIS) in representing cognitive fatigue in people with CFS. Finally, the lack of a significant relationship between cognitive performance and self-reported pain severity suggests that pain in CFS might be unique.

  13. The Ups and Downs of Cognitive Function: Neuroticism and Negative Affect Drive Performance Inconsistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Elizabeth; Stawski, Robert S; Sliwinski, Martin J; Smyth, Joshua M; MacDonald, Stuart W S

    2018-03-26

    Response time inconsistency (RTI)-or trial-to-trial variability in speeded performance-is increasingly recognized as an indicator of transient lapses of attention, cognitive health status, and central nervous system integrity, as well as a potential early indicator of normal and pathological cognitive aging (Hultsch, Strauss, Hunter, & MacDonald, 2008; MacDonald, Li, & Bäckman, 2009). Comparatively, little research has examined personality predictors of RTI across adulthood. We evaluated the association between the personality trait neuroticism and RTI in a community-dwelling sample of 317 adults between the ages of 19 to 83 and tested for two indirect pathways through negative affect (NA) and cognitive interference (CI). The personality trait neuroticism predicted greater RTI independent of mean response time performance and demographic covariates; the results were age-invariant. Furthermore, NA (but not CI) accounted for this association and moderated mediation model results indicated that older adults were more vulnerable to the adverse effects of NA. Neuroticism predicts greater response time inconsistency irrespective of mean performance and this effect is driven largely by heightened negative emotionality that may be particularly detrimental for older adults.

  14. Cognitive deficits in post-stroke aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena V. Bonini

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of aphasics’ cognitive performance is challenging and such patients are generally excluded from studies that describe cognitive deficits after stroke. We evaluated aphasics’ performance in cognitive tasks compared to non-aphasic subjects. A sample of 47 patients (21 aphasics, 17 non-aphasics with left hemisphere lesions and 9 non-aphasics with right hemisphere lesions performed cognitive tasks (attention, verbal and visual memory, executive functions, visuospatial skills and praxis. Aphasic patients performed poorer than all non-aphasics in Digit Span (p < 0.001, Clock-Drawing Test (p = 0.006, Verbal memory (p = 0.002, Visual Memory (p < 0.01, Verbal Fluency (p < 0.001, and Gesture Praxis (p < 0.001. Aphasia severity correlated with performance in Trail Making test part B (p = 0.004, Digit Span forward (p < 0.001 and backwards (p = 0.011, and Gesture Praxis (p = 0.002. Aphasia is accompanied by deficits not always easy to be evaluated by cognitive tests due to speech production and motor impairments. Assessment of cognitive functions in aphasics might contribute to optimize therapeutic intervention.

  15. Cognitive performance and electrophysiological indices of cognitive control: a validation study of conflict adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayson, Peter E; Larson, Michael J

    2012-05-01

    Psychiatric and neurologic disorders are associated with deficits in the postconflict recruitment of cognitive control. The primary aim of this study was to validate the relationship between cognitive functioning and indices of conflict adaptation. Event-related potentials were obtained from 89 healthy individuals who completed an Eriksen flanker task. Neuropsychological domains tested included memory, verbal fluency, and attention/executive functioning. Behavioral measures and N2 amplitudes showed significant conflict adaptation (i.e., previous-trial congruencies influenced current-trial measures). Higher scores on the attention/executive functioning and verbal fluency domains were associated with larger incongruent-trial N2 conflict adaptation; measures of cognitive functioning were not related to behavioral indices. This study provides initial validation of N2 conflict adaptation effects as cognitive function-related aspects of cognitive control. Copyright © 2012 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  16. Performance Evaluation of Cognitive Interference Channels Using a Spectrum Overlay Strategy

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    Knoblock, Eric J.

    2018-01-01

    The use of cognitive radios (CR) and cooperative communications techniques may assist in interference mitigation via sensing of the environment and dynamically altering communications parameters through the use of various mechanisms - one of which is the overlay technique. This report provides a performance analysis of an interference channel with a cognitive transceiver operating in an overlay configuration to evaluate the gains from using cognition. As shown in this report, a cognitive transceiver can simultaneously share spectrum while enhancing performance of non-cognitive nodes via knowledge of the communications channel as well as knowledge of neighboring users' modulation and coding schemes.

  17. Potential contribution of the neurodegenerative disorders risk loci to cognitive performance in an elderly male gout population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lin; Jia, Zhaotong; Cao, Chunwei; Liu, Zhen; Liu, Fuqiang; Wang, Lin; Ren, Wei; Sun, Mingxia; Wang, Baoping; Li, Changgui; Chen, Li

    2017-09-01

    Cognitive impairment has been described in elderly subjects with high normal concentrations of serum uric acid. However, it remains unclear if gout confers an increased poorer cognition than those in individuals with asymptomatic hyperuricemia. The present study aimed at evaluating cognitive function in patients suffering from gout in an elderly male population, and further investigating the genetic contributions to the risk of cognitive function.This study examined the cognitive function as assessed by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in 205 male gout patients and 204 controls. The genetic basis of these cognitive measures was evaluated by genome-wide association study (GWAS) data in 102 male gout patients. Furthermore, 7 loci associated with cognition in GWAS were studied for correlation with gout in 1179 male gout patients and 1848 healthy male controls.Compared with controls, gout patients had significantly lower MoCA scores [22.78 ± 3.01 vs 23.42 ± 2.95, P = .023, adjusted by age, body mass index (BMI), education, and emotional disorder]. GWAS revealed 7 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associations with MoCA test at a level of conventional genome-wide significance (P gout in further analysis (all P > .05).Elderly male subjects with gout exhibit accelerated decline in cognition performance. Several neurodegenerative disorders risk loci were identified for genetic contributors to cognitive performance in our Chinese elderly male gout population. Larger prospective studies of the cognitive performance and genetic analysis in gout subjects are recommended.

  18. The impact of motivation on cognitive performance in an animal model of the negative and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia.

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    Ward, Ryan D; Winiger, Vanessa; Higa, Kerin K; Kahn, Julia B; Kandel, Eric R; Balsam, Peter D; Simpson, Eleanor H

    2015-06-01

    Interactions between motivation and cognition are implicated in producing functional impairments and poor quality of life in psychiatric patients. This interaction, however, is not well understood at either the behavioral or neural level. We developed a procedure for mice in which a cognitive measure, sustained attention, is modulated by a motivationally relevant signal that predicts reward probability on a trial-by-trial basis. Using this paradigm, we tested the interaction between motivation and cognition in mice that model the increased striatal D2 receptor activity observed in schizophrenia patients (D2R-OE mice). In control mice, attention was modulated by signaled-reward probability. In D2R-OE mice, however, attention was not modulated by reward-related cues. This impairment was not due to any global deficits in attention or maintenance of the trial-specific information in working memory. Turning off the transgene in D2R-OE mice rescued the motivational modulation of attention. These results indicate that deficits in motivation impair the ability to use reward-related cues to recruit attention and that improving motivation improves functional cognitive performance. These results further suggest that addressing motivational impairments in patients is critical to achieving substantive cognitive and functional gains. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Cerebral blood flow in hypothyroidism: Response to therapy and associated cognitive performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilgin, N.; Akdemir, U.O.; Yetkin, I.; Eroglu, A.

    2002-01-01

    Hypothyroidism is often associated with defective memory, psychomotor slowing and depression. However, the relationship between thyroid status, related cognitive state and associated cerebral circulatory and/or metabolic abnormalities have not been elucidated. Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate pre-and post-therapy brain perfusion patterns in 9 hypothyroid patients presenting with Hashimoto thyroiditis. Method: Patients were referred on the basis of abnormal levels of anti-thyroglobulin and anti-microsomal antibodies, hypothyroidism and symptoms of cognitive dysfunction. Cognitive performance was tested using Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices and Bender Gestalt Test. Functional evaluation of the brain was also performed via the methods of electroencephalography (EEG) and single photon emission tomography (SPECT). An initial SPECT study was carried out after I.V. injection of Tc99m-HMPAO and semiquantitative rCBF analysis was performed by drawing irregular regions of interest (ROIs) in three slices. A total number of 12 sector regions of interest placed on the two hemispheres and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was determined using cortical region/cerebellum ratios obtained in each hemisphere. A repeat SPECT study was undertaken in 5 subjects 3-6 months after the initiation of medical therapy. Results: Pre-therapy perfusion data in four patients showed that the cortical ratios were globally depressed at the levels of 0.65-0.85 where these ratios improved quickly to the near normal-above normal levels (range of rCBF improvement as % difference from baseline 25%-45%) within 3-4 months of therapy. Conclusion: These results indicate that brain activity was globally decreased in severe hypothyroidism of short duration which normalized steadily as the hypothyroid state is corrected

  20. The Cognitive Processing of Candidates during Reading Tests: Evidence from Eye-Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bax, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    The research described in this article investigates test takers' cognitive processing while completing onscreen IELTS (International English Language Testing System) reading test items. The research aims, among other things, to contribute to our ability to evaluate the cognitive validity of reading test items (Glaser, 1991; Field, in press). The…