WorldWideScience

Sample records for coefficient of performance

  1. Coefficient of performance of Stirling refrigerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    E Mungan, Carl

    2017-09-01

    Stirling coolers transfer heat in or out of the working fluid during all four stages of their operation, and their coefficient of performance depends on whether the non-isothermal heat exchanges are performed reversibly or irreversibly. Both of these possibilities can in principle be arranged. Notably, if the working fluid is an ideal gas, the input of energy in the form of heat during one isochoric step is equal in magnitude to the output during the other isochoric step in the cycle. The theoretical performance of the fridge can then attain the reversible Carnot limit if a regenerator is used, which is a high heat capacity material through which the gas flows. Various Stirling refrigerator configurations are analysed in this article at a level of presentation suitable for an introductory undergraduate thermodynamics course.

  2. Compilation of radionuclide sorption coefficients for performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbol, P.; Engkvist, I. [PI Chemical Consulting HB, Landvetter (Sweden)

    1997-09-01

    The report presents four possible site-specific conditions in Sweden. The different sorption mechanisms applicable to the studied elements together with the K{sub d} concept are shortly summarised. The influence of organic substances present in the groundwater on the element`s sorption and mobility is also discussed. Criteria for selection of K{sub d} values are presented together with sensitivity of the values to pH, E{sub h} and salinity. Sorption coefficients are recommended for elements in the repository with half-life above 5.3 years. The elements reviewed are: Cs, Sr, Ra, Ln, Ac, Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, Am, Cm, Co, Ni, Cd, Zr, Nb, Tc, Pd, Ag, Sn, C, I, Cl, Se and Kr. For every element there is a recommendation of a realistic K{sub d} value with an uncertainty limit. The selection is based on experimental investigations or chemical analogues. In some cases few or no K{sub d} data were found, and it is recommended that sorption studies be performed on elements such as Cd, Pa, Cm, Zr, Nb, Pd, Ag and Sn. The recommended K{sub d} values for the different element`s sorption on granitic rock, serve as a guidance of the sorption performance 87 refs, 18 tabs

  3. Compilation of radionuclide sorption coefficients for performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbol, P.; Engkvist, I.

    1997-09-01

    The report presents four possible site-specific conditions in Sweden. The different sorption mechanisms applicable to the studied elements together with the K d concept are shortly summarised. The influence of organic substances present in the groundwater on the element's sorption and mobility is also discussed. Criteria for selection of K d values are presented together with sensitivity of the values to pH, E h and salinity. Sorption coefficients are recommended for elements in the repository with half-life above 5.3 years. The elements reviewed are: Cs, Sr, Ra, Ln, Ac, Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, Am, Cm, Co, Ni, Cd, Zr, Nb, Tc, Pd, Ag, Sn, C, I, Cl, Se and Kr. For every element there is a recommendation of a realistic K d value with an uncertainty limit. The selection is based on experimental investigations or chemical analogues. In some cases few or no K d data were found, and it is recommended that sorption studies be performed on elements such as Cd, Pa, Cm, Zr, Nb, Pd, Ag and Sn. The recommended K d values for the different element's sorption on granitic rock, serve as a guidance of the sorption performance

  4. Model-supported selection of distribution coefficients for performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochs, M.; Lothenbach, B.; Shibata, Hirokazu; Yui, Mikazu

    1999-01-01

    A thermodynamic speciation/sorption model is used to illustrate typical problems encountered in the extrapolation of batch-type K d values to repository conditions. For different bentonite-groundwater systems, the composition of the corresponding equilibrium solutions and the surface speciation of the bentonite is calculated by treating simultaneously solution equilibria of soluble components of the bentonite as well as ion exchange and acid/base reactions at the bentonite surface. K d values for Cs, Ra, and Ni are calculated by implementing the appropriate ion exchange and surface complexation equilibria in the bentonite model. Based on this approach, hypothetical batch experiments are contrasted with expected conditions in compacted backfill. For each of these scenarios, the variation of K d values as a function of groundwater composition is illustrated for Cs, Ra, and Ni. The applicability of measured, batch-type K d values to repository conditions is discussed. (author)

  5. Defining the Ecological Coefficient of Performance for an Aircraft Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şöhret, Yasin

    2018-05-01

    The aircraft industry, along with other industries, is considered responsible these days regarding environmental issues. Therefore, the performance evaluation of aircraft propulsion systems should be conducted with respect to environmental and ecological considerations. The current paper aims to present the ecological coefficient of performance calculation methodology for aircraft propulsion systems. The ecological coefficient performance is a widely-preferred performance indicator of numerous energy conversion systems. On the basis of thermodynamic laws, the methodology used to determine the ecological coefficient of performance for an aircraft propulsion system is parametrically explained and illustrated in this paper for the first time. For a better understanding, to begin with, the exergy analysis of a turbojet engine is described in detail. Following this, the outputs of the analysis are employed to define the ecological coefficient of performance for a turbojet engine. At the end of the study, the ecological coefficient of performance is evaluated parametrically and discussed depending on selected engine design parameters and performance measures. The author asserts the ecological coefficient of performance to be a beneficial indicator for researchers interested in aircraft propulsion system design and related topics.

  6. Experimental studies on improvement of coefficient of performance of window air conditioning unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tharves Mohideen Sheik Ismail

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the performance analysis of a window air conditioner unit incorporated with wick less loop heat pipes (WLHP. The WLHP are located on the evaporator side of the air conditioning unit. The working medium for the WLHP is R134a refrigerant gas, an alternate refrigerant. The supply and return humidity of room air, the heat removal rat, and the coefficient of performance of the unit are analyzed for various ambient and room temperatures before and after incorporation of WLHP. The performance curves are drawn by comparing the power consumption and humidity collection rates for various room and ambient temperatures. The results show that coefficient of performance of the unit is improved by 18% to 20% after incorporation of WLHP due to pre-cooling of return air by WLHP, which reduces the thermal load on compressor. Similarly, the energy consumption is reduced by 20% to 25% due to higher thermostat setting and the humidity collection is improved by 35% due to pre-cooling effect of WLHP. The results are tabulated and conclusion drawn is presented based on the performance.

  7. Thermal performance of the nuclear fuel rods submitted to angular variation of the heat exchanger coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, A.M.M. de.

    1984-01-01

    Generally, LMFBR fuel rods consist of fuel pellets encapsulated in cladding tubes. These tubes are wrapped by a helical wire, working as a spacer. Distortions in the rod temperature distribution and in the external heat flux can be generated by angular variations in the local heat transfer coefficients due to the wire, by excentricity between pellet and clad or by ovalization of the cladding tube. Also, the temperature distributions can be affected by fuel densification, reestructuring and swelling. The present work consists of the development of a computer code in order to analyse the fuel rod performance as function of geometrical and operational effects, in steady state regime. (Author) [pt

  8. Effect of heat and mass transfer coefficients on the performance of automotive catalytic converters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamim, T. [Michigan Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Dearborn, MI (United States)

    2003-06-01

    This paper numerically investigates the role of heat and mass transfer coefficients on the performance of automotive catalytic converters, which are employed to reduce engine exhaust emissions. The pollutant conversion performance of a converter is influenced by a number of physical and chemical processes that take place in gaseous and solid phases as the exhaust gases flow through the catalyst. A quantitative predictive understanding of these complex catalyst processes involving flow dynamics, heterogeneous surface reactions and heat and mass transport mechanisms is important in improving the converter design. The role of convective transport phenomena becomes important at high temperature when the mass transfer becomes rate-limiting to an increasing extent. The objective of the present study is to elucidate the influence of convective heat and mass transfer coefficients (mechanisms). The mathematical model considers the conservation of mass, momentum and energy in both gaseous and solid phases. In addition to the heterogeneous surface reactions, the model also takes into account the adsorption/desorption of oxygen in the catalyst during non-stoichiometric composition of air/fuel mixtures. The governing equations are solved by an implicit scheme using a successive line under a relaxation method. The converter performance under the transient conditions as simulated by the US Federal Test Procedure (US-FTP) is analysed. (Author)

  9. Device and method for measuring the coefficient of performance of a heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, V.R.; Miller, D.R.

    1982-05-18

    A method and instrument is provided which allows quick and accurate measurement of the coefficient of performance of an installed electrically powered heat pump including auxiliary resistane heaters. Temperature-sensitive resistors are placed in the return and supply air ducts to measure the temperature increase of the air across the refrigerant and resistive-heating elements of the system. The voltages across the resistors which are directly proportional to the respective duct tempertures are applied to the inputs of a differential amplifier so that its output voltage is proportional to the temperature difference across the unit. A voltage-to-frequency converter connected to the output of the differential amplifier converts the voltage signal to a proportional-frequency signal. A digital watt meter is used to measure the power to the unit and produces a signal having a frequency proportional to the input power. A digital logic circuit ratios the temperature difference signal and the electric power input signal in a unique manner to produce a single number which is the coefficient of performance of the unit over the test interval. The digital logic and an in-situ calibration procedure enables the instrument to make these measurements in such a way that the ratio of heat flow/power input is obtained without computations. No specialized knowledge of thermodynamics or electrons is required to operate the instrument.

  10. Evaluation of icing drag coefficient correlations applied to iced propeller performance prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Thomas L.; Shaw, R. J.; Korkan, K. D.

    1987-01-01

    Evaluation of three empirical icing drag coefficient correlations is accomplished through application to a set of propeller icing data. The various correlations represent the best means currently available for relating drag rise to various flight and atmospheric conditions for both fixed-wing and rotating airfoils, and the work presented here ilustrates and evaluates one such application of the latter case. The origins of each of the correlations are discussed, and their apparent capabilities and limitations are summarized. These correlations have been made to be an integral part of a computer code, ICEPERF, which has been designed to calculate iced propeller performance. Comparison with experimental propeller icing data shows generally good agreement, with the quality of the predicted results seen to be directly related to the radial icing extent of each case. The code's capability to properly predict thrust coefficient, power coefficient, and propeller efficiency is shown to be strongly dependent on the choice of correlation selected, as well as upon proper specificatioon of radial icing extent.

  11. Cooling load and coefficient of performance optimizations for real air-refrigerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu Youming; Chen Lingen; Sun Fengrui; Wu Chih

    2006-01-01

    Based on a simple irreversible variable-temperature heat reservoir air (Brayton) refrigeration cycle model, a performance analysis and optimization of a real air refrigerator is carried out using finite-time thermodynamics. To maximize the cooling load and the coefficient of performance (COP) of the cycle, the allocation of a fixed total heat-exchanger inventory and thermal-capacity rate matching between the working fluid and heat reservoirs are optimized, respectively. The influences of pressure ratio, the total heat-exchanger inventory, the efficiencies of the compressor and expander, the thermal capacity rate of the working fluid and the ratio of the thermal-capacity rates of the heat reservoirs on the performance of the cycle are shown by numerical examples. The results obtained provide guidances for the design of practical air-refrigeration plants

  12. The performance of random coefficient regression in accounting for residual confounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Paul; Greenland, Sander

    2006-09-01

    Greenland (2000, Biometrics 56, 915-921) describes the use of random coefficient regression to adjust for residual confounding in a particular setting. We examine this setting further, giving theoretical and empirical results concerning the frequentist and Bayesian performance of random coefficient regression. Particularly, we compare estimators based on this adjustment for residual confounding to estimators based on the assumption of no residual confounding. This devolves to comparing an estimator from a nonidentified but more realistic model to an estimator from a less realistic but identified model. The approach described by Gustafson (2005, Statistical Science 20, 111-140) is used to quantify the performance of a Bayesian estimator arising from a nonidentified model. From both theoretical calculations and simulations we find support for the idea that superior performance can be obtained by replacing unrealistic identifying constraints with priors that allow modest departures from those constraints. In terms of point-estimator bias this superiority arises when the extent of residual confounding is substantial, but the advantage is much broader in terms of interval estimation. The benefit from modeling residual confounding is maintained when the prior distributions employed only roughly correspond to reality, for the standard identifying constraints are equivalent to priors that typically correspond much worse.

  13. Coefficient of Performance Optimization of Single-Effect Lithium-Bromide Absorption Cycle Heat Pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Kasper; Just Nielsen, Rene; Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the coefficient of performance (COP) of a LiBr absorption cycle heat pump under different operating conditions. The investigation is carried out using a dynamical model fitted against data recorded from an actual heat pump used for district heating in S......⊘nderborg, Denmark. Since the model is too complex to study analytically, we vary different input variables within the permissible operating range of the heat pump and evaluate COP at the resulting steady-state operating points. It is found that the best set-point for each individual input is located at an extreme......-state operation of the heat pump, while avoiding crystallization issues....

  14. Control of methanol vapours in a biotrickling filter: performance analysis and experimental determination of partition coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avalos Ramirez, Antonio; Peter Jones, J; Heitz, Michéle

    2009-02-01

    Methanol vapours were treated in a biotrickling filter (BTF) packed with inert polypropylene spheres. The effects of the nitrogen concentration in the nutrient solution, the empty bed residence time (EBRT) and the methanol inlet concentration, on the BTF performance, were all examined. The elimination capacity (EC), the biomass and the carbon dioxide production rates were all increased with the rising of the nitrogen concentration and the EBRT. The EC also rose with increasing methanol inlet load (IL) when the methanol inlet concentration and the EBRT were varied, from 0.3 to 37.0 g m(-3), and from 20 to 65 s, respectively. The BTF reached its maximum EC level of 2160 g m(-3) h(-1) when it was operated at an IL level of 3700 g m(-3) h(-1). The input methanol was removed through two mechanisms: biodegradation and absorption in the liquid phase. The partition coefficient for the methanol in the BTF was determined at five EBRTs and along the packed bed. It generally followed the Henry model, having an average value of 2.64 x 10(-4)[mol L(-1)](gas)/[mol L(-1)](liquid).

  15. Low-grade heat and its definitions of Coefficient-of-Performance (COP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lin-Shu; Ma, Peizheng

    2015-01-01

    Use of fire for low grade heat, still widely practiced today, is wasteful because it is based on the principle of heat production – which should have become an outmoded idea post-Carnot for low grade heat application as an exergy analysis will readily conclude. Instead of application of exergy analysis, a new thermodynamic analysis resulting from the unification of Kelvin's energy principle and the entropy principle, formulated recently (called the entropic theory of heat), is applied here to reexamine the problem of building heating. Other than improving envelope heat resistance, conventional building efficiency gain is predominantly obtained by improving HVAC efficiency (i.e., boiler efficiency); our finding shows that there is in fact large room in improving the building heating operation surpassing 100% boiler efficiency, as demonstrated by the large value of the Kelvin limit (the theoretical upper bound of Thermal COP). This theoretical possibility of generous amount of heat from fire suggests additional possibilities of heat from primary energy other than fire, and the disclosure of these possibilities by applying the triad framework in the entropic theory of heat in terms of alternative definitions of Coefficient of Performance (COP). Consideration of such alternative COPs suggests real possibility of efficiently and cost effectively obtaining low grade heat from primary energy. - Highlights: • Importance of thinking heat extraction for high energy efficiency in buildings. • The concept of Thermal COP and the determination of its (maximum) Kelvin limit. • Key to find the sweet spot of using heat pump is thinking general heat extraction. • triadCOP &eThermalCOP are measure of energy transformation in the triad framework

  16. Distribution coefficient of radionuclides on rocks for performance assessment of high-level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibutani, Tomoki; Shibata, Masahiro; Suyama, Tadahiro

    1999-11-01

    Distribution coefficients of radionuclides on rocks are selected for safety assessment in the 'Second Progress Report on Research and Development for the geological disposal of HLW in Japan (H12 Report)'. The categorized types of rock are granitic rocks (crystalline and acidic rocks), basaltic rocks (crystalline and basic rocks), psammitic rocks (neogene sedimentary (soft)), and tuffaceous-pelitic rocks (pre-neogene sedimentary rocks (hard)). The types of groundwater are FRHP (fresh reducing high-pH), FRLP (fresh reducing low-pH), SRHP (saline reducing high-pH), SRLP (saline reducing low-pH), MRNP (mixing reducing neutral-pH) and FOHP (fresh oxidizing high-pH) groundwater. The elements to be surveyed are Ni, Se, Zr, Nb, Tc, Pd, Sn, Cs, Sm, Pb, Ra, Ac, Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, Am and Cm. Distribution coefficients are collected from literatures describing batch sorption experimental results, and are selected under consideration of conservativity. (author)

  17. Influence of the Friction Coefficient on the Trajectory Performance for a Car-Like Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Valero

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A collision-free trajectory planner for a car-like mobile robot moving in complex environments is introduced and the influence of the coefficient of friction on important working parameters is analyzed. The proposed planner takes into account not only the dynamic capabilities of the robot but also the behaviour of the tire. This planner is based on sequential quadratic programming algorithms and the normalized time method. Different values for the coefficient of friction have been taken following a normal Gaussian distribution to see its influence on the working parameters. The algorithm has been applied to several examples and the results show that computation times are compatible with real-time work, so the authors call them efficient generated trajectories as they avoid collisions. Besides, working parameters such as the minimum trajectory time, the maximum vehicle speed, computational time, and consumed energy have been monitored and some conclusions have been reached.

  18. Influence of the convective surface transfer coefficients on the Heat, Air, and Moisture (HAM) building performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steskens, Paul Wilhelmus Maria Hermanus; Janssen, Hans; Rode, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    Current models to predict heat, air and moisture (HAM) conditions in buildings assume constant boundary conditions for the temperature and relative humidity of the neighbouring air and for the surface heat and moisture transfer coefficients. These assumptions may introduce errors in the predicted...... influence on the predicted hygrothermal conditions at the surface of a building component and on the heat and vapour exchange with the indoor environment....

  19. Studies on preparation and adaptive thermal control performance of novel PTC (positive temperature coefficient) materials with controllable Curie temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Wen-long; Yuan, Shuai; Song, Jia-liang

    2014-01-01

    PTC (positive temperature coefficient) material is a kind of thermo-sensitive material. In this study, a series of novel PTC materials adapted to thermal control of electron devices are prepared. By adding different low-melting-point blend matrixes into GP (graphite powder)/LDPE (low density polyethylene) composite, the Curie temperatures are adjusted to 9 °C, 25 °C, 34 °C and 41 °C, and the resistance–temperature coefficients are enhanced to 1.57/°C–2.15/°C. These PTC materials remain solid in the temperature region of PTC effect, which makes it possible to be used as heating element to achieve adaptive temperature control. In addition, the adaptive thermal control performances of this kind of materials are investigated both experimentally and theoretically. The result shows that the adaptive effect becomes more significant while the resistance–temperature coefficient increases. A critical heating power defined as the initial heating power which makes the equilibrium temperature reach terminal temperature is presented. The adaptive temperature control will be effective only if the initial power is below this value. The critical heating power is determined by the Curie temperature and resistance–temperature coefficient of PTC materials, and a higher Curie temperature or resistance–temperature coefficient will lead to a larger critical heating power. - Highlights: • A series of novel PTC (positive temperature coefficient) materials were prepared. • The Curie point of PTC material can be adjusted by choosing different blend matrixes. • The resistance–temperature coefficient of PTC materials is enhanced to 2.15/°C. • The material has good adaptive temperature control ability with no auxiliary method. • A mathematical model is established to analyze the performance and applicability

  20. Transport Coefficients of Fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Eu, Byung Chan

    2006-01-01

    Until recently the formal statistical mechanical approach offered no practicable method for computing the transport coefficients of liquids, and so most practitioners had to resort to empirical fitting formulas. This has now changed, as demonstrated in this innovative monograph. The author presents and applies new methods based on statistical mechanics for calculating the transport coefficients of simple and complex liquids over wide ranges of density and temperature. These molecular theories enable the transport coefficients to be calculated in terms of equilibrium thermodynamic properties, and the results are shown to account satisfactorily for experimental observations, including even the non-Newtonian behavior of fluids far from equilibrium.

  1. Influence of high range of mass transfer coefficient and convection heat transfer on direct contact membrane distillation performance

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Jung Gil

    2017-11-03

    In order to improve water production of membrane distillation (MD), the development of high performance membrane having better mass transfer and enhancement of convection heat transfer in MD module have been continuously investigated. This paper presents the relationship between the heat and mass transfer resistance across the membrane and the performance improvement. Various ranges of mass transfer coefficient (MTC) from normal (0.3×10−6 to 2.1×10−6kg/m2sPa: currently available membranes) to high (>2.1×10−6kg/m2sPa: membranes under development) were simulated using an experimentally validated model at different ranges of convection heat transfer by varying the inlet flow rates and spacer enhancement factor. The effect of mass transfer and convection heat transfer on the MD performance parameters including temperature polarization coefficient (TPC), mean permeate flux, and specific energy consumption were investigated in a direct contact MD (DCMD) configuration. Results showed that improving the MTC at the low ranges is more important than that at the high ranges where the heat transfer resistance becomes dominant and hence the convection heat transfer coefficient must be increased. Therefore, an effort on designing MD modules using feed and permeate spacers and controlling the membrane surface roughness to increase the convection heat transfer and TPC in the channel aiming to enhance the flux is required because the currently developed mass transfer has almost reached the critical point.

  2. Attenuation coefficients of soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martini, E.; Naziry, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    As a prerequisite to the interpretation of gamma-spectrometric in situ measurements of activity concentrations of soil radionuclides the attenuation of 60 to 1332 keV gamma radiation by soil samples varying in water content and density has been investigated. A useful empirical equation could be set up to describe the dependence of the mass attenuation coefficient upon photon energy for soil with a mean water content of 10%, with the results comparing well with data in the literature. The mean density of soil in the GDR was estimated at 1.6 g/cm 3 . This value was used to derive the linear attenuation coefficients, their range of variation being 10%. 7 figs., 5 tabs. (author)

  3. Determining Criteria to Predict Repeatability of Performance in Older Adults: Using Coefficients of Variation for Strength and Functional Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Isaac Selva; Bird, Stephen R; Westfold, Ben A; Shield, Anthony J

    2017-01-01

    Reliable measures of muscle strength and functional capacity in older adults are essential. The aim of this study was to determine whether coefficients of variation (CVs) of individuals obtained at the first session can infer repeatability of performance in a subsequent session. Forty-eight healthy older adults (mean age 68.6 ± 6.1 years; age range 60-80 years) completed two assessment sessions, and on each occasion undertook: dynamometry for isometric and isokinetic quadriceps strength, 6 meter fast walk (6MFWT), timed up and go (TUG), stair climb and descent, and vertical jump. Significant linear relationships were observed between CVs in session 1 and the percentage difference between sessions 1 and 2 for torque at 60, 120, 240 and 360°/s, 6MFWT, TUG, stair climb, and stair descent. The results of this study could be used to establish criteria for determining an acceptably reliable performance in strength and functional tests.

  4. A simple approach to enhance the performance of complex-coefficient filter-based PLL in grid-connected applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramezani, Malek; Golestan, Saeed; Li, Shuhui

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, a large number of three-phase phase-locked loops (PLLs) have been developed. One of the most popular ones is the complex coefficient filterbased PLL (CCF-PLL). The CCFs benefit from a sequence selective filtering ability and, hence, enable the CCF-PLL to selectively reject/extract...... disturbances before the PLL control loop while maintaining an acceptable dynamic behavior. The aim of this paper is presenting a simple yet effective approach to enhance the standard CCF-PLL performance without requiring any additional computational load....

  5. Lithium bromide high-temperature absorption heat pump: coefficient of performance and exergetic efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izquierdo, M [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid (ES). Inst. de Optica; Aroca, S [Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Valladolid (ES). Catedratico de Ingenieria Termica

    1990-04-01

    A theoretical study of a lithium bromide absorption heat pump, used as a machine type I and aimed to produce heat at 120{sup 0}C via waste heat sources at 60{sup 0}C, is given. Real performance conditions are stated for each component of the machine. By means of thermodynamic diagrams (p, t, x) and (h, x), the required data are obtained for calculation of the heat recovered in the evaporator Q{sub e}, the heat delivered to the absorber Q{sub a} and to the condenser Q{sub c}, and the heat supplied to the generator Q{sub g}. The heat delivered by the hot solution to the cold solution in the heat recovered Q{sub r}, and the work W{sub p} done by the solution pump are calculated. The probable COP is calculated as close to 1.4 and the working temperature in the generator ranges from 178 to 200{sup 0}C. The heat produced by the heat pump is 22% cheaper than that obtained from a cogeneration system comprising a natural gas internal combustion engine and high temperature heat pump with mechanical compression. Compared with a high temperature heat pump with mechanical compression, the heat produced by the absorption heat pump is 31% cheaper. From (h, x) and (s, x) diagrams, exergy losses for each component can be determined leading to an exergetic efficiency of 75% which provides the quality index of the absorption cycle. (author).

  6. Determination of the Partition Coefficients of Organophosphorus Compounds Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    have claimed an advantage to deter- mining values of k’ in 100% aqueous mobile phases by extrapolation of linear plots of log k’ vs. percent organic...im parti- cle size chemically bonded octadecylsilane (ODS) packing ( Alltech Econo- sphere). As required, this column was saturated with I-octanol by in

  7. Seasonal coefficient of performance for ground source heat pump and groundwater one in Białystok

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajewski, Andrzej

    2017-11-01

    European Economic Area (EEA) states declare to contain greenhouse gases emissions at 20% by 2020, whereas European Union (EU) does 40% before 2030, which result in encouragement to apply low-carbon technologies. Coefficient of Performance (COP) and Seasonal Coefficient of Performance (SCOPnet) are obtained using temperature measurement done by The Institute of Meteorology and Water Management - National Research Institute (IMGW-PIB) at the weather station in Bialystok for ten-year period. The first variant is ground source heat pump (GSHP) and the second one is groundwater source heat pump (WSHP) which can be equipped with separating heat exchanger (SHE) optionally. In both cases heat is generated for heating system only. Ground temperature is determined from Baggs (1983) formula using Oleśkowicz-Popiel et. al. (2002) adaptation to Polish climate and substituting the local constants achieved by Biernacka (2010). Water temperature in a groundwater basin is obtained from Kowalski (2007) equation. Estimation is done in each hour of heating season. All COP values are higher than 3.5 required by EU (2013). SCOPnet are as follows: 6.12, 5.86, 5.03 for WSHP, WSHP+SHE, GSHP respectively. Insomuch as WSHP needs only two boreholes it is recommended to the areas beneath ones a groundwater basin is located.

  8. Seasonal coefficient of performance for ground source heat pump and groundwater one in Białystok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajewski Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available European Economic Area (EEA states declare to contain greenhouse gases emissions at 20% by 2020, whereas European Union (EU does 40% before 2030, which result in encouragement to apply low-carbon technologies. Coefficient of Performance (COP and Seasonal Coefficient of Performance (SCOPnet are obtained using temperature measurement done by The Institute of Meteorology and Water Management – National Research Institute (IMGW-PIB at the weather station in Bialystok for ten-year period. The first variant is ground source heat pump (GSHP and the second one is groundwater source heat pump (WSHP which can be equipped with separating heat exchanger (SHE optionally. In both cases heat is generated for heating system only. Ground temperature is determined from Baggs (1983 formula using Oleśkowicz-Popiel et. al. (2002 adaptation to Polish climate and substituting the local constants achieved by Biernacka (2010. Water temperature in a groundwater basin is obtained from Kowalski (2007 equation. Estimation is done in each hour of heating season. All COP values are higher than 3.5 required by EU (2013. SCOPnet are as follows: 6.12, 5.86, 5.03 for WSHP, WSHP+SHE, GSHP respectively. Insomuch as WSHP needs only two boreholes it is recommended to the areas beneath ones a groundwater basin is located.

  9. Efficiencies and coefficients of performance of heat engines, refrigerators, and heat pumps with friction: a universal limiting behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizarro, João P S; Rodrigues, Paulo

    2012-11-01

    For work-producing heat engines, or work-consuming refrigerators and heat pumps, the percentage decrease caused by friction in their efficiencies, or coefficients of performance (COP's), is approximately given by the ratio W(fric)/W between the work spent against friction forces and the work performed by, or delivered to, the working fluid. This universal scaling, which applies in the limit of small friction (W(fric)/W heat-engine efficiencies), allows a simple and quick estimate of the impact that friction losses can have on the FOM's of thermal engines and plants, or of the level of those losses from the observed and predicted FOM's. In the case of refrigerators and heat pumps, if W(fric)/W heat engines), the COP percentage decrease due to friction approaches asymptotically (W(fric)/W)/(1+W(fric)/W) instead of W(fric)/W. Estimates for the level of frictional losses using the Carnot (or, for heat engines and power plants only, the Curzon-Ahlborn) predictions and observed FOM's of real power plants, heat engines, refrigerators, and heat pumps show that they usually operate in domains where these behaviors are valid.

  10. Determination of octanol-water partition coefficients of polar polycyclic aromatic compounds (N-PAC) by high performance liquid chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg, C.; Nielsen, T.; Hansen, P.E.

    1997-01-01

    Prediction of 1-octanol water partition coefficients for a range of polar N-PAC from HPLC capacity coefficients has been investigated. Two commercially available columns, an ODS column and a Diol column were tested with water-methanol eluents. The best prediction of log K-ow for N-PAC was achieve...... with size and log K-ow for N-PAC was 1.1-1.3 lower than log K-ow for the equivalent PAH. Shielding of the nitrogen atom in the N-PAC compounds caused an increase in log K-ow. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd....

  11. A Study on the Efficiency Improvement of Multi-Geothermal Heat Pump Systems in Korea Using Coefficient of Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Ju Jung

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Korean government is fostering a renewable energy industry as a means of handling the energy crisis. Among the renewable energy systems available, geothermal energy has been highlighted as highly efficient, safely operable and relatively unaffected by outdoors air conditions. Despite the increasing use of renewable energy, the devices using renewables may not be operating appropriately. This study examined current problems in the operation of a geothermal heat pump (GHP system. The efficiency of a geothermal heat pump system to studied to maximize the operation plan. Our study modelled the target building and analyzed the energy using TRNSYS, which is a dynamic energy simulation tool, to apply the coefficient of performance (COP and evaluate the operation method. As a result, the GHP total energy consumption from the COP control method was reduced by 46% compared to the current operation. The proposed control method was evaluated after applying the system to a building. The results showed that efficient operation of a geothermal heat pump system is possible.

  12. Influence of the processing variables on the performance of MAGCLA(TM): friction coefficient and radius of the particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augusto, Paulo A; Castelo-Grande, Teresa; Barbosa, Domingos; Estevez, A M

    2007-01-01

    This work presents simulation results for the behaviour of different particles in a new magnetic-classifier (MAGCLA(TM)), which is capable of separating and classifying particles according to their magnetic susceptibilities. In a previous article the results for a blank simulation were reported. In this paper the blank simulation is compared with the results obtained for the variation of two of the main processing variables: friction coefficient, μ, and the radius of the particles, r part , in the outcome results

  13. Investigation of Pear Drying Performance by Different Methods and Regression of Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient with Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Das

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an air heated solar collector (AHSC dryer was designed to determine the drying characteristics of the pear. Flat pear slices of 10 mm thickness were used in the experiments. The pears were dried both in the AHSC dryer and under the sun. Panel glass temperature, panel floor temperature, panel inlet temperature, panel outlet temperature, drying cabinet inlet temperature, drying cabinet outlet temperature, drying cabinet temperature, drying cabinet moisture, solar radiation, pear internal temperature, air velocity and mass loss of pear were measured at 30 min intervals. Experiments were carried out during the periods of June 2017 in Elazig, Turkey. The experiments started at 8:00 a.m. and continued till 18:00. The experiments were continued until the weight changes in the pear slices stopped. Wet basis moisture content (MCw, dry basis moisture content (MCd, adjustable moisture ratio (MR, drying rate (DR, and convective heat transfer coefficient (hc were calculated with both in the AHSC dryer and the open sun drying experiment data. It was found that the values of hc in both drying systems with a range 12.4 and 20.8 W/m2 °C. Three different kernel models were used in the support vector machine (SVM regression to construct the predictive model of the calculated hc values for both systems. The mean absolute error (MAE, root mean squared error (RMSE, relative absolute error (RAE and root relative absolute error (RRAE analysis were performed to indicate the predictive model’s accuracy. As a result, the rate of drying of the pear was examined for both systems and it was observed that the pear had dried earlier in the AHSC drying system. A predictive model was obtained using the SVM regression for the calculated hc values for the pear in the AHSC drying system. The normalized polynomial kernel was determined as the best kernel model in SVM for estimating the hc values.

  14. Measuring of heat transfer coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Poul; Lindegren, Maria

    Subtask 3.4 Measuring of heat transfer coefficient Subtask 3.4.1 Design and setting up of tests to measure heat transfer coefficient Objective: Complementary testing methods together with the relevant experimental equipment are to be designed by the two partners involved in order to measure...... the heat transfer coefficient for a wide range of interface conditions in hot and warm forging processes. Subtask 3.4.2 Measurement of heat transfer coefficient The objective of subtask 3.4.2 is to determine heat transfer values for different interface conditions reflecting those typically operating in hot...

  15. Thermodynamic performance analysis and optimization of DMC (Dual Miller Cycle) cogeneration system by considering exergetic performance coefficient and total exergy output criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ust, Yasin; Arslan, Feyyaz; Ozsari, Ibrahim; Cakir, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Miller cycle engines are one of the popular engine concepts that are available for improving performance, reducing fuel consumption and NO x emissions. There are many research studies that investigated the modification of existing conventional engines for operation on a Miller cycle. In this context, a comparative performance analysis and optimization based on exergetic performance criterion, total exergy output and exergy efficiency has been carried out for an irreversible Dual–Miller Cycle cogeneration system having finite-rate of heat transfer, heat leak and internal irreversibilities. The EPC (Exergetic Performance Coefficient) criterion defined as the ratio of total exergy output to the loss rate of availability. Performance analysis has been also extended to the Otto–Miller and Diesel-Miller cogeneration cycles which may be considered as two special cases of the Dual–Miller cycle. The effect of the design parameters such as compression ratio, pressure ratio, cut-off ratio, Miller cycle ratio, heat consumer temperature ratio, allocation ratio and the ratio of power to heat consumed have also been investigated. The results obtained from this paper will provide guidance for the design of Dual–Miller Cycle cogeneration system and can be used for selection of optimal design parameters. - Highlights: • A thermodynamic performance estimation tool for DM cogeneration cycle is presented. • Using the model two special cases OM and dM cogeneration cycles can be analyzed. • The effects of r M , ψ, χ 2 and R have been investigated. • The results evaluate exergy output and environmental aspects together.

  16. Coefficient estimates of negative powers and inverse coefficients for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and the inequality is sharp for the inverse of the Koebe function k(z) = z/(1 − z)2. An alternative approach to the inverse coefficient problem for functions in the class S has been investigated by Schaeffer and Spencer [27] and FitzGerald [6]. Although, the inverse coefficient problem for the class S has been completely solved ...

  17. A classification and ranking system on the H2 gas sensing capabilities of nanomaterials based on proposed coefficients of sensor performance and sensor efficiency equations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mwakikunga, BW

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A coefficient of performance is defined based on the traditional definitions of response, S, of a chemoresistive sensing material to a specific gas from resistance–time data. The new definition not only considers the S(sub response) and S...

  18. Probabilistic optimization of safety coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, M.; Devictor, N.; Magistris, F. de

    1999-01-01

    This article describes a reliability-based method for the optimization of safety coefficients defined and used in design codes. The purpose of the optimization is to determine the partial safety coefficients which minimize an objective function for sets of components and loading situations covered by a design rule. This objective function is a sum of distances between the reliability of the components designed using the safety coefficients and a target reliability. The advantage of this method is shown on the examples of the reactor vessel, a vapour pipe and the safety injection circuit. (authors)

  19. Fuel Temperature Coefficient of Reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewe, W.E.

    2001-07-31

    A method for measuring the fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity in a heterogeneous nuclear reactor is presented. The method, which is used during normal operation, requires that calibrated control rods be oscillated in a special way at a high reactor power level. The value of the fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity is found from the measured flux responses to these oscillations. Application of the method in a Savannah River reactor charged with natural uranium is discussed.

  20. Properties of Traffic Risk Coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tie-Qiao; Huang, Hai-Jun; Shang, Hua-Yan; Xue, Yu

    2009-10-01

    We use the model with the consideration of the traffic interruption probability (Physica A 387(2008)6845) to study the relationship between the traffic risk coefficient and the traffic interruption probability. The analytical and numerical results show that the traffic interruption probability will reduce the traffic risk coefficient and that the reduction is related to the density, which shows that this model can improve traffic security.

  1. Estimation of the simple correlation coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Gwowen

    2010-11-01

    This article investigates some unfamiliar properties of the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient for the estimation of simple correlation coefficient. Although Pearson's r is biased, except for limited situations, and the minimum variance unbiased estimator has been proposed in the literature, researchers routinely employ the sample correlation coefficient in their practical applications, because of its simplicity and popularity. In order to support such practice, this study examines the mean squared errors of r and several prominent formulas. The results reveal specific situations in which the sample correlation coefficient performs better than the unbiased and nearly unbiased estimators, facilitating recommendation of r as an effect size index for the strength of linear association between two variables. In addition, related issues of estimating the squared simple correlation coefficient are also considered.

  2. Analysis of internal conversion coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coursol, N.; Gorozhankin, V.M.; Yakushev, E.A.; Briancon, C.; Vylov, Ts.

    2000-01-01

    An extensive database has been assembled that contains the three most widely used sets of calculated internal conversion coefficients (ICC): [Hager R.S., Seltzer E.C., 1968. Internal conversion tables. K-, L-, M-shell Conversion coefficients for Z=30 to Z=103, Nucl. Data Tables A4, 1-237; Band I.M., Trzhaskovskaya M.B., 1978. Tables of gamma-ray internal conversion coefficients for the K-, L- and M-shells, 10≤Z≤104, Special Report of Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute; Roesel F., Fries H.M., Alder K., Pauli H.C., 1978. Internal conversion coefficients for all atomic shells, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 21, 91-289] and also includes new Dirac-Fock calculations [Band I.M. and Trzhaskovskaya M.B., 1993. Internal conversion coefficients for low-energy nuclear transitions, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 55, 43-61]. This database is linked to a computer program to plot ICCs and their combinations (sums and ratios) as a function of Z and energy, as well as relative deviations of ICC or their combinations for any pair of tabulated data. Examples of these analyses are presented for the K-shell and total ICCs of the gamma-ray standards [Hansen H.H., 1985. Evaluation of K-shell and total internal conversion coefficients for some selected nuclear transitions, Eur. Appl. Res. Rept. Nucl. Sci. Tech. 11.6 (4) 777-816] and for the K-shell and total ICCs of high multipolarity transitions (total, K-, L-, M-shells of E3 and M3 and K-shell of M4). Experimental data sets are also compared with the theoretical values of these specific calculations

  3. Performance of intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) as a reliability index under various distributions in scale reliability studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Shraddha; Bastero-Caballero, Rowena F; Sun, Yijun; Zhu, Ray; Murphy, Diane K; Hardas, Bhushan; Koch, Gary

    2018-04-29

    Many published scale validation studies determine inter-rater reliability using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). However, the use of this statistic must consider its advantages, limitations, and applicability. This paper evaluates how interaction of subject distribution, sample size, and levels of rater disagreement affects ICC and provides an approach for obtaining relevant ICC estimates under suboptimal conditions. Simulation results suggest that for a fixed number of subjects, ICC from the convex distribution is smaller than ICC for the uniform distribution, which in turn is smaller than ICC for the concave distribution. The variance component estimates also show that the dissimilarity of ICC among distributions is attributed to the study design (ie, distribution of subjects) component of subject variability and not the scale quality component of rater error variability. The dependency of ICC on the distribution of subjects makes it difficult to compare results across reliability studies. Hence, it is proposed that reliability studies should be designed using a uniform distribution of subjects because of the standardization it provides for representing objective disagreement. In the absence of uniform distribution, a sampling method is proposed to reduce the non-uniformity. In addition, as expected, high levels of disagreement result in low ICC, and when the type of distribution is fixed, any increase in the number of subjects beyond a moderately large specification such as n = 80 does not have a major impact on ICC. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Integer Solutions of Binomial Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbertson, Nicholas J.

    2016-01-01

    A good formula is like a good story, rich in description, powerful in communication, and eye-opening to readers. The formula presented in this article for determining the coefficients of the binomial expansion of (x + y)n is one such "good read." The beauty of this formula is in its simplicity--both describing a quantitative situation…

  5. Heat transfer coefficient of cryotop during freezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W J; Zhou, X L; Wang, H S; Liu, B L; Dai, J J

    2013-01-01

    Cryotop is an efficient vitrification method for cryopreservation of oocytes. It has been widely used owing to its simple operation and high freezing rate. Recently, the heat transfer performance of cryotop was studied by numerical simulation in several studies. However, the range of heat transfer coefficient in the simulation is uncertain. In this study, the heat transfer coefficient for cryotop during freezing process was analyzed. The cooling rates of 40 percent ethylene glycol (EG) droplet in cryotop during freezing were measured by ultra-fast measurement system and calculated by numerical simulation at different value of heat transfer coefficient. Compared with the results obtained by two methods, the range of the heat transfer coefficient necessary for the numerical simulation of cryotop was determined, which is between 9000 W/(m(2)·K) and 10000 W/(m (2)·K).

  6. Extinction Coefficient of Gold Nanostars

    OpenAIRE

    de Puig, Helena; Tam, Justina O.; Yen, Chun-Wan; Gehrke, Lee; Hamad-Schifferli, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    Gold nanostars (NStars) are highly attractive for biological applications due to their surface chemistry, facile synthesis and optical properties. Here, we synthesize NStars in HEPES buffer at different HEPES/Au ratios, producing NStars of different sizes and shapes, and therefore varying optical properties. We measure the extinction coefficient of the synthesized NStars at their maximum surface plasmon resonances (SPR), which range from 5.7 × 108 to 26.8 × 108 M−1cm−1. Measured values correl...

  7. A strategy for the derivation and use of sorption coefficients in performance assessment calculations for the Yucca Mountain site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meijer, A.

    1990-01-01

    The chemical interactions of dissolved radionuclides with mineral surfaces along flowpaths from the proposed repository to the accessible environment around Yucca Mountain constitute one of the potential barriers to radionuclide migration at the site. Our limited understanding of these interactions suggests their details will be complex and will involve control by numerous chemical and physical parameters. It appears unlikely that we will understand all the details of these reactions or obtain all the site data required to evaluate each of them in the time available for site characterization. Yet, performance assessment calculations will require some form of coupling of chemical interaction models will hydrologic flow models for the site. Clearly, strategies will be needed to bound the problem without compromising the reliability of the performance assessment calculations required for site suitability analysis. The main purpose of this paper is to describe such a strategy. 39 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs

  8. Study of transport coefficients of nanodiamond nanofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryazhnikov, M. I.; Minakov, A. V.; Guzei, D. V.

    2017-09-01

    Experimental data on the thermal conductivity coefficient and viscosity coefficient of nanodiamond nanofluids are presented. Distilled water and ethylene glycol were used as the base fluid. Dependences of transport coefficients on concentration are obtained. It was shown that the thermal conductivity coefficient increases with increasing nanodiamonds concentration. It was shown that base fluids properties and nanodiamonds concentration affect on the rheology of nanofluids.

  9. Pengaruh Struktur Kepemilikan Terhadap Kinerja Dengan Value Added Intellectual Capital Coefficient (VAIC Sebagai Variabel Intervening [The Influence of Ownership Structure on Performance with Value Added Intellectual Capital Coefficient (VAIC as an Intervening Variable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitri Ismiyanti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Development of science, innovation, and economics shifts the view of how to run a labor-based business into a knowledge-based business. Intellectual capital (IC, which is based on the competitive advantage of companies, is considered as one of the hidden assets that contributes to the measurement of companies’ value. Value Added Intellectual Capital Coefficient (VAICTM is a method developed by Pulic, which became the standard to gauge IC on research in various countries. Ownership structure has indicated effects on VAICTM, because shareholder’s governance reflects the control and supervision of company's assets and performance. VAICTM also has indicated impacts on ROE and company’s market performance, which is proxied by Q  Ratio Modification. The purpose of this study is to measure the effect of ownership structure, such as managerial, domestic institutional, foreign institutional, and government ownership on VAICTM, as well as the influence of VAICTM to the ROE and Q  Ratio Modification on 218 observations of listed companies on the Indonesia Stock Exchange in the period of 2009-2011 using the recursive regression analysis method. The results showed a significantly negative effect of government ownership on VAICTM, and VAICTM had a significantly positive effect on ROE and Q  Ratio Modification. BAHASA INDONESIA ABSTRAK: Perkembangan ilmu pengetahuan, inovasi, dan ekonomi menggeser pandangan cara menjalankan bisnis yang berbasis tenaga kerja (labor-based business menjadi bisnis yang berkarakter ilmu pengetahuan (knowledge-based business. Intellectual capital (IC yang bertumpu pada keunggulan bersaing perusahaan dianggap menjadi salah satu hidden assets yang berkontribusi terhadap pengukuran nilai perusahaan. Value Added Intellectual Capital Coefficient (VAICTM adalah metode yang dikembangkan oleh Pulic, yang menjadi standar pengukur IC pada banyak penelitian di berbagai negara. Struktur kepemilikan diindikasikan memiliki efek terhadap

  10. Form of multicomponent Fickian diffusion coefficients matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wambui Mutoru, J.; Firoozabadi, Abbas

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Irreversible thermodynamics establishes form of multicomponent diffusion coefficients. → Phenomenological coefficients and thermodynamic factors affect sign of diffusion coefficients. → Negative diagonal elements of diffusion coefficients matrix can occur in non-ideal mixtures. → Eigenvalues of the matrix of Fickian diffusion coefficients may not be all real. - Abstract: The form of multicomponent Fickian diffusion coefficients matrix in thermodynamically stable mixtures is established based on the form of phenomenological coefficients and thermodynamic factors. While phenomenological coefficients form a symmetric positive definite matrix, the determinant of thermodynamic factors matrix is positive. As a result, the Fickian diffusion coefficients matrix has a positive determinant, but its elements - including diagonal elements - can be negative. Comprehensive survey of reported diffusion coefficients data for ternary and quaternary mixtures, confirms that invariably the determinant of the Fickian diffusion coefficients matrix is positive.

  11. The performance of the INER improved free-air ionization chamber in the comparison of air kerma calibration coefficients for medium-energy X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.-H. E-mail: jhlee@iner.gov.tw; Kotler, L.H.; Bueermann, Ludwig; Hwang, W.-S.; Chiu, J.-H.; Wang, C.-F

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes modifications to an original design, correction factors and uncertainty evaluations for an improved free-air ionization chamber constructed at the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER, Taiwan). In addition, a comparison of secondary standard air kerma calibration coefficients for 100-250 kV medium-energy X-rays was performed to verify the experimental accuracy and measurement consistency of the improved chamber. The comparison results showed a satisfactory agreement in the measurements which were within the combined expanded uncertainties (k=2)

  12. Evaluation of Rock Joint Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audy, Ondřej; Ficker, Tomáš

    2017-10-01

    A computer method for evaluation of rock joint coefficients is described and several applications are presented. The method is based on two absolute numerical indicators that are formed by means of the Fourier replicas of rock joint profiles. The first indicator quantifies the vertical depth of profiles and the second indicator classifies wavy character of profiles. The absolute indicators have replaced the formerly used relative indicators that showed some artificial behavior in some cases. This contribution is focused on practical computations testing the functionality of the newly introduced indicators.

  13. Subsonic Longitudinal Performance Coefficient Extraction from Shuttle Flight Data: an Accuracy Assessment for Determination of Data Base Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, J. T.; Kelly, G. M.; Mcconnell, J. G.; Compton, H. R.

    1983-01-01

    Longitudinal performance comparisons between flight derived and predicted values are presented for the first five NASA Space Shuttle Columbia flights. Though subsonic comparisons are emphasized, comparisons during the transonic and low supersonic regions of flight are included. Computed air data information based on the remotely sensed atmospheric measurements as well as in situ Orbiter Air Data System (ADS) measurements were incorporated. Each air data source provides for comparisons versus the predicted values from the LaRC data base. Principally, L/D, C sub L, and C sub D, comparisons are presented, though some pitching moment results are included. Similarities in flight conditions and spacecraft configuration during the first five flights are discussed. Contributions from the various elements of the data base are presented and the overall differences observed between the flight and predicted values are discussed in terms of expected variations. A discussion on potential data base updates is presented based on the results from the five flights to date.

  14. The effects of NACA 0012 airfoil modification on aerodynamic performance improvement and obtaining high lift coefficient and post-stall airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogukpinar, Haci

    2018-02-01

    In this study, aerodynamic performances of NACA 0012 airfoils with distinct modification are numerically investigated to obtain high lift coefficient and post-stall airfoils. NACA 0012 airfoil is divided into two part thought chord line then suction sides kept fixed and by changing the thickness of the pressure side new types of airfoil are created. Numerical experiments are then conducted by varying thickness of NACA 0012 from lower surface and different relative thicknesses asymmetrical airfoils are modified and NACA 0012-10, 0012-08, 0012-07, 0012-06, 0012-04, 0012-03, 0012-02, 0012-01 are created and simulated by using COMSOL software.

  15. Extinction Coefficient of Gold Nanostars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Puig, Helena; Tam, Justina O; Yen, Chun-Wan; Gehrke, Lee; Hamad-Schifferli, Kimberly

    2015-07-30

    Gold nanostars (NStars) are highly attractive for biological applications due to their surface chemistry, facile synthesis and optical properties. Here, we synthesize NStars in HEPES buffer at different HEPES/Au ratios, producing NStars of different sizes and shapes, and therefore varying optical properties. We measure the extinction coefficient of the synthesized NStars at their maximum surface plasmon resonances (SPR), which range from 5.7 × 10 8 to 26.8 × 10 8 M -1 cm -1 . Measured values correlate with those obtained from theoretical models of the NStars using the discrete dipole approximation (DDA), which we use to simulate the extinction spectra of the nanostars. Finally, because NStars are typically used in biological applications, we conjugate DNA and antibodies to the NStars and calculate the footprint of the bound biomolecules.

  16. Influence of high range of mass transfer coefficient and convection heat transfer on direct contact membrane distillation performance

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Jung Gil; Jeong, Sanghyun; Alsaadi, Ahmad Salem; Ghaffour, NorEddine

    2017-01-01

    (>2.1×10−6kg/m2sPa: membranes under development) were simulated using an experimentally validated model at different ranges of convection heat transfer by varying the inlet flow rates and spacer enhancement factor. The effect of mass transfer

  17. Enhancing Classification Performance of Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy- Brain–Computer Interface Using Adaptive Estimation of General Linear Model Coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nauman Khalid Qureshi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel methodology for enhanced classification of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS signals utilizable in a two-class [motor imagery (MI and rest; mental rotation (MR and rest] brain–computer interface (BCI is presented. First, fNIRS signals corresponding to MI and MR are acquired from the motor and prefrontal cortex, respectively, afterward, filtered to remove physiological noises. Then, the signals are modeled using the general linear model, the coefficients of which are adaptively estimated using the least squares technique. Subsequently, multiple feature combinations of estimated coefficients were used for classification. The best classification accuracies achieved for five subjects, for MI versus rest are 79.5, 83.7, 82.6, 81.4, and 84.1% whereas those for MR versus rest are 85.5, 85.2, 87.8, 83.7, and 84.8%, respectively, using support vector machine. These results are compared with the best classification accuracies obtained using the conventional hemodynamic response. By means of the proposed methodology, the average classification accuracy obtained was significantly higher (p < 0.05. These results serve to demonstrate the feasibility of developing a high-classification-performance fNIRS-BCI.

  18. Axially symmetric reconstruction of plasma emission and absorption coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Lixin; Jia Hui; Yang Jiankun; Li Xiujian; Chen Shaorong; Liu Xishun

    2013-01-01

    A layered structure imaging model is developed in order to reconstruct emission coefficients and absorption coefficients simultaneously, in laser fusion core plasma diagnostics. A novel axially symmetric reconstruction method that utilizes the LM (Levenberg-Marquardt) nonlinear least squares minimization algorithm is proposed based on the layered structure. Numerical simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method is sufficiently accurate to reconstruct emission coefficients and absorption coefficients, and when the standard deviation of noise is 0.01, the errors of emission coefficients and absorption coefficients are 0.17, 0.22, respectively. Furthermore, this method could perform much better on reconstruction effect compared with traditional inverse Abel transform algorithms. (authors)

  19. Factorization of Transport Coefficients in Macroporous Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2000-01-01

    We prove the fundamental theorem about factorization of the phenomenological coefficients for transport in macroporous media. By factorization we mean the representation of the transport coefficients as products of geometric parameters of the porous medium and the parameters characteristic...

  20. Diffusion weighted imaging for differentiating benign from malignant orbital tumors: Diagnostic performance of the apparent diffusion coefficient based on region of interest selection method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Xiao Quan; Hu, Hao Hu; Su, Guo Yi; Liu, Hu; Shi, Hai Bin; Wu, Fei Yun [First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China)

    2016-09-15

    To evaluate the differences in the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements based on three different region of interest (ROI) selection methods, and compare their diagnostic performance in differentiating benign from malignant orbital tumors. Diffusion-weighted imaging data of sixty-four patients with orbital tumors (33 benign and 31 malignant) were retrospectively analyzed. Two readers independently measured the ADC values using three different ROIs selection methods including whole-tumor (WT), single-slice (SS), and reader-defined small sample (RDSS). The differences of ADC values (ADC-ROI{sub WT}, ADC-ROI{sub SS}, and ADC-ROI{sub RDSS}) between benign and malignant group were compared using unpaired t test. Receiver operating characteristic curve was used to determine and compare their diagnostic ability. The ADC measurement time was compared using ANOVA analysis and the measurement reproducibility was assessed using Bland-Altman method and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Malignant group showed significantly lower ADC-ROI{sub WT}, ADC-ROI{sub SS}, and ADC-ROI{sub RDSS} than benign group (all p < 0.05). The areas under the curve showed no significant difference when using ADC-ROI{sub WT}, ADC-ROI{sub SS}, and ADC-ROI{sub RDSS} as differentiating index, respectively (all p > 0.05). The ROI{sub SS} and ROI{sub RDSS} required comparable measurement time (p > 0.05), while significantly shorter than ROI{sub WT} (p < 0.05). The ROI{sub SS} showed the best reproducibility (mean difference ± limits of agreement between two readers were 0.022 [-0.080–0.123] × 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s; ICC, 0.997) among three ROI method. Apparent diffusion coefficient values based on the three different ROI selection methods can help to differentiate benign from malignant orbital tumors. The results of measurement time, reproducibility and diagnostic ability suggest that the ROI{sub SS} method are potentially useful for clinical practice.

  1. Apparatus for measurement of coefficient of friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slifka, A. J.; Siegwarth, J. D.; Sparks, L. L.; Chaudhuri, Dilip K.

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus designed to measure the coefficient of friction in certain controlled atmospheres is described. The coefficient of friction observed during high-load tests was nearly constant, with an average value of 0.56. This value is in general agreement with that found in the literature and also with the initial friction coefficient value of 0.67 measured during self-mated friction of 440C steel in an oxygen environment.

  2. Performance analysis of a continuous serpentine flow reactor for electrochemical oxidation of synthetic and real textile wastewater: Energy consumption, mass transfer coefficient and economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Indu M Sasidharan; Gupta, Ashok K

    2017-05-15

    A continuous flow electrochemical reactor was developed, and its application was tested for the treatment of textile wastewater. A parallel plate configuration with serpentine flow was chosen for the continuous flow reactor. Uniparameter optimization was carried out for electrochemical oxidation of synthetic and real textile wastewater (collected from the inlet of the effluent treatment plant). Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal efficiency of 90% was achieved for synthetic textile wastewater (initial COD - 780 mg L -1 ) at a flow rate of 500 mL h -1 (retention time of 6 h) and a current density of 1.15 mA cm -2 and the energy consumption for the degradation was 9.2 kWh (kg COD) -1 . The complete degradation of real textile wastewater (initial COD of 368 mg L -1 ) was obtained at a current density of 1.15 mA cm -2 , NaCl concentration of 1 g L -1 and retention time of 6 h. Energy consumption and mass transfer coefficient of the reactions were calculated. The continuous flow reactor performed better than batch reactor with reference to energy consumption and economy. The overall treatment cost for complete COD removal of real textile wastewater was 5.83 USD m -3 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Gas-particle partitioning of semi-volatile organics on organic aerosols using a predictive activity coefficient model: analysis of the effects of parameter choices on model performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandramouli, Bharadwaj; Jang, Myoseon; Kamens, Richard M.

    The partitioning of a diverse set of semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs) on a variety of organic aerosols was studied using smog chamber experimental data. Existing data on the partitioning of SOCs on aerosols from wood combustion, diesel combustion, and the α-pinene-O 3 reaction was augmented by carrying out smog chamber partitioning experiments on aerosols from meat cooking, and catalyzed and uncatalyzed gasoline engine exhaust. Model compositions for aerosols from meat cooking and gasoline combustion emissions were used to calculate activity coefficients for the SOCs in the organic aerosols and the Pankow absorptive gas/particle partitioning model was used to calculate the partitioning coefficient Kp and quantitate the predictive improvements of using the activity coefficient. The slope of the log K p vs. log p L0 correlation for partitioning on aerosols from meat cooking improved from -0.81 to -0.94 after incorporation of activity coefficients iγ om. A stepwise regression analysis of the partitioning model revealed that for the data set used in this study, partitioning predictions on α-pinene-O 3 secondary aerosol and wood combustion aerosol showed statistically significant improvement after incorporation of iγ om, which can be attributed to their overall polarity. The partitioning model was sensitive to changes in aerosol composition when updated compositions for α-pinene-O 3 aerosol and wood combustion aerosol were used. The octanol-air partitioning coefficient's ( KOA) effectiveness as a partitioning correlator over a variety of aerosol types was evaluated. The slope of the log K p- log K OA correlation was not constant over the aerosol types and SOCs used in the study and the use of KOA for partitioning correlations can potentially lead to significant deviations, especially for polar aerosols.

  4. Determination of the n-octanol/water partition coefficients of weakly ionizable basic compounds by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with neutral model compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chao; Han, Shu-ying; Qiao, Jun-qin; Lian, Hong-zhen; Ge, Xin

    2014-11-01

    A strategy to utilize neutral model compounds for lipophilicity measurement of ionizable basic compounds by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography is proposed in this paper. The applicability of the novel protocol was justified by theoretical derivation. Meanwhile, the linear relationships between logarithm of apparent n-octanol/water partition coefficients (logKow '') and logarithm of retention factors corresponding to the 100% aqueous fraction of mobile phase (logkw ) were established for a basic training set, a neutral training set and a mixed training set of these two. As proved in theory, the good linearity and external validation results indicated that the logKow ''-logkw relationships obtained from a neutral model training set were always reliable regardless of mobile phase pH. Afterwards, the above relationships were adopted to determine the logKow of harmaline, a weakly dissociable alkaloid. As far as we know, this is the first report on experimental logKow data for harmaline (logKow = 2.28 ± 0.08). Introducing neutral compounds into a basic model training set or using neutral model compounds alone is recommended to measure the lipophilicity of weakly ionizable basic compounds especially those with high hydrophobicity for the advantages of more suitable model compound choices and convenient mobile phase pH control. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Quenching of Einstein-coefficients by photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aumayr, F.; Skinner, C.H.; Suckewer, S.; Princeton Univ., NJ; Lee, W.

    1991-02-01

    Experimental evidence is presented for the change of Einstein's A-coefficients for spontaneous transitions from the upper laser level of an argon ion laser discharge due to the presence of the high-intensity laser flux. To demonstrate that this quenching effect cannot be attributed to a reduction in self-absorption of the strong spontaneous emission line, absorption and line profile measurements have been performed. Computer modelling of the reduction of self absorption due to Rabi splitting also indicated that this effect is too small to explain the observed quenching of spontaneous line emissions. 13 refs., 11 figs

  6. Quenching of Einstein-coefficients by photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aumayr, F.; Lee, W.; Skinner, C.H.; Suckewer, S.

    1991-03-01

    Experimental evidence is presented for the change of Einstein's A- coefficients for spontaneous transitions from the upper laser level of argon ion laser discharge due to the presence of the high- intensity laser flux. To demonstrate that this quenching effect cannot be attributed to a reduction in self-absorption of the strong spontaneous emission line, absorption and line profile measurements have been performed. Computer modelling of the reduction of self absorption due to Rabi splitting also indicated that this effect is too small to explain the observed quenching of spontaneous line emissions. 13 refs., 11 figs

  7. Performance Measurement Of Mel Frequency Ceptral Coefficient (MFCC) Method In Learning System Of Al- Qur’an Based In Nagham Pattern Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrillia, Yesy; Mawengkang, Herman; Ramli, Marwan; Fadlisyah; Putra Fhonna, Rizky

    2017-12-01

    Most of research have used signal and speech processing in order to recognize makhraj pattern and tajwid reading in Al-Quran by exploring the mel frequency ceptral coefficient (MFCC). However, to our knowledge so far there is no research has been conducted to recognize the chanting of Al-Quran verse using MFCC. This term is also well-known as nagham Al-Quran. The characteristics of nagham Al-Quran pattern is much more complex then makhraj and tajwid pattern. In nagham the wave of the sound has more variation which implies the level of noice is much higher and has sound duration longer. The data testing in this research was taken term by real-time recording. The evaluation measurement in the system performance of nagham Al-Quran pattern is based on true and false detection parameter with accuracy 80%. To measure this accuracy it is necessary to modify the MFCC or to give more data learning process with more variation.

  8. Does normalisation improve the diagnostic performance of apparent diffusion coefficient values for prostate cancer assessment? A blinded independent-observer evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenkrantz, A.B.; Khalef, V.; Xu, W.; Babb, J.S.; Taneja, S.S.; Doshi, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the performance of normalised apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values for prostate cancer assessment when performed by independent observers blinded to histopathology findings. Materials and methods: Fifty-eight patients undergoing 3 T phased-array coil magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI; maximal b-value 1000 s/mm 2 ) before prostatectomy were included. Two radiologists independently evaluated the images, unaware of the histopathology findings. Regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn within areas showing visually low ADC within the peripheral zone (PZ) and transition zone (TZ) bilaterally. ROIs were also placed within regions in both lobes not suspicious for tumour, allowing computation of normalised ADC (nADC) ratios between suspicious and non-suspicious regions. The diagnostic performance of ADC and nADC were compared. Results: For PZ tumour detection, ADC achieved significantly higher area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC; p=0.026) and specificity (p=0.021) than nADC for reader 1, and significantly higher AUC (p=0.025) than nADC for reader 2. For TZ tumour detection, nADC achieved significantly higher specificity (p=0.003) and accuracy (p=0.004) than ADC for reader 2. For PZ Gleason score >3+3 tumour detection, ADC achieved significantly higher AUC (p=0.003) and specificity (p=0.005) than nADC for reader 1, and significantly higher AUC (p=0.023) than nADC for reader 2. For TZ Gleason score >3+3 tumour detection, ADC achieved significantly higher specificity (p=0.019) than nADC for reader 1. Conclusion: In contrast to prior studies performing unblinded evaluations, ADC was observed to outperform nADC overall for two independent observers blinded to the histopathology findings. Therefore, although strategies to improve the utility of ADC measurements in prostate cancer assessment merit continued investigation, caution is warranted when applying normalisation to improve diagnostic

  9. Classification of coefficients of variation in experiments with commercial layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DE Faria Filho

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at determining a specific classification of coefficients of variation in experiments with commercial layers. Coefficients of variation were collected from papers published in Brazilian journals between 2000 and 2009 for performance, internal egg quality, and eggshell quality parameters. The coefficients of variation of each parameter were classified as low, intermediate, high, and very high according to the ratio between the median and the pseudo-sigma. It was concluded that the parameters used in experiments with commercial layers have a specific classification of coefficients of variation, and that this must be considered to evaluate experimental accuracy.

  10. New definition of the cell diffusion coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, P.

    1975-01-01

    As was shown in a recent work by Gelbard, the usually applied Benoist definition of the cell diffusion coefficient gives two different values if two different definitions of the cell are made. A new definition is proposed that preserves the neutron balance for the homogenized lattice and that is independent of the cell definition. The resulting diffusion coefficient is identical with the main term of Benoist's diffusion coefficient

  11. Diffusion coefficient of three-dimensional Yukawa liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhumagulova, K. N.; Ramazanov, T. S.; Masheeva, R. U.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this work is an investigation of the diffusion coefficient of the dust component in complex plasma. The computer simulation of the Yukawa liquids was made on the basis of the Langevin equation, which takes into account the influence of buffer plasma on the dust particles dynamics. The Green–Kubo relation was used to calculate the diffusion coefficient. Calculations of the diffusion coefficient for a wide range of the system parameters were performed. Using obtained numerical data, we constructed the interpolation formula for the diffusion coefficient. We also show that the interpolation formula correctly describes experimental data obtained under microgravity conditions

  12. Diffusion coefficients of paracetamol in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Ana C.F.; Barros, Marisa C.F.; Veríssimo, Luís M.P.; Santos, Cecilia I.A.V.; Cabral, Ana M.T.D.P.V.; Gaspar, Gualter D.; Esteso, Miguel A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Mutual diffusion coefficients of paracetamol in aqueous dilute solutions. ► Influence of the thermodynamic factors on the variation of their mutual diffusion coefficients. ► Estimation of the mutual limiting diffusion coefficients of the molecular, D m 0 , and ionized forms, D ± 0 , of this drug. - Abstract: Binary mutual diffusion coefficients measured by the Taylor dispersion method, for aqueous solutions of paracetamol (PA) at concentrations from (0.001 to 0.050) mol·dm −3 at T = 298.15 K, are reported. From the Nernst–Hartley equation and our experimental results, the limiting diffusion coefficient of this drug and its thermodynamic factors are estimated, thereby contributing in this way to a better understanding of the structure of such systems and of their thermodynamic behaviour in aqueous solution at different concentrations.

  13. Determination of the surface drag coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahrt, L.; Vickers, D.; Sun, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    This study examines the dependence of the surface drag coefficient on stability, wind speed, mesoscale modulation of the turbulent flux and method of calculation of the drag coefficient. Data sets over grassland, sparse grass, heather and two forest sites are analyzed. For significantly unstable...... conditions, the drag coefficient does not depend systematically on z/L but decreases with wind speed for fixed intervals of z/L, where L is the Obukhov length. Even though the drag coefficient for weak wind conditions is sensitive to the exact method of calculation and choice of averaging time, the decrease...... of the drag coefficient with wind speed occurs for all of the calculation methods. A classification of flux calculation methods is constructed, which unifies the most common previous approaches. The roughness length corresponding to the usual Monin-Obukhov stability functions decreases with increasing wind...

  14. Meta-Analysis of Coefficient Alpha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Michael C.; Maeda, Yukiko

    2006-01-01

    The meta-analysis of coefficient alpha across many studies is becoming more common in psychology by a methodology labeled reliability generalization. Existing reliability generalization studies have not used the sampling distribution of coefficient alpha for precision weighting and other common meta-analytic procedures. A framework is provided for…

  15. Implications of NGA for NEHRP site coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, Roger D.

    2012-01-01

    Three proposals are provided to update tables 11.4-1 and 11.4-2 of Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures (7-10), by the American Society of Civil Engineers (2010) (ASCE/SEI 7-10), with site coefficients implied directly by NGA (Next Generation Attenuation) ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs). Proposals include a recommendation to use straight-line interpolation to infer site coefficients at intermediate values of ̅vs (average shear velocity). Site coefficients are recommended to ensure consistency with ASCE/SEI 7-10 MCER (Maximum Considered Earthquake) seismic-design maps and simplified site-specific design spectra procedures requiring site classes with associated tabulated site coefficients and a reference site class with unity site coefficients. Recommended site coefficients are confirmed by independent observations of average site amplification coefficients inferred with respect to an average ground condition consistent with that used for the MCER maps. The NGA coefficients recommended for consideration are implied directly by the NGA GMPEs and do not require introduction of additional models.

  16. A Note on Rocket Performance Comparison Through Impulse and Thrust Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, N. V.

    Comparison of rocket motor systems is important when generating data to be used in making design decisions. In order to present meaningful comparisons, non-dimensional numbers related to performance are beneficial, as they remove effects of scale. Traditionally thrust coefficients and C* have been used to quantify the aerodynamic and chemical performance of a system respectively. However, it is argued here that in fact the thrust coefficient does not fully account for aerodynamic performance, as the impact of non-uniform flow at the throat is not accounted for. This discharge coefficient is usually allocated to the chemical efficiency through a correction to C*. However, this causes a coupling between chemical and aerodynamic efficiencies which may lead to poor design decisions. Through the use of a specific impulse coefficient, this risk is avoided, and furthermore comparison of unconventional nozzles becomes more straightforward. It is admitted, however, that this has no actual impact on real motor performance, being more in the way of a tidier `accounting' system.

  17. Confidence bounds for normal and lognormal distribution coefficients of variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve Verrill

    2003-01-01

    This paper compares the so-called exact approach for obtaining confidence intervals on normal distribution coefficients of variation to approximate methods. Approximate approaches were found to perform less well than the exact approach for large coefficients of variation and small sample sizes. Web-based computer programs are described for calculating confidence...

  18. Measurements of diagnostic examination performance using quantitative apparent diffusion coefficient and proton MR spectroscopic imaging in the preoperative evaluation of tumor grade in cerebral gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Server, Andres; Kulle, Bettina; Gadmar, Oystein B.; Josefsen, Roger; Kumar, Theresa; Nakstad, Per H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Tumor grading is very important both in treatment decision and evaluation of prognosis. While tissue samples are obtained as part of most therapeutic approaches, factors that may result in inaccurate grading due to sampling error (namely, heterogeneity in tissue sampling, as well as tumor-grade heterogeneity within the same tumor specimen), have led to a desire to use imaging better to ascertain tumor grade. The purpose in our study was to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), area under the curve (AUC), and accuracy of diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI), proton MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) or both in grading primary cerebral gliomas. Materials and methods: We performed conventional MR imaging (MR), DWI, and MRSI in 74 patients with newly diagnosed brain gliomas: 59 patients had histologically verified high-grade gliomas: 37 glioblastomas multiform (GBM) and 22 anaplastic astrocytomas (AA), and 15 patients had low-grade gliomas. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of tumor and peritumoral edema, and ADC ratios (ADC in tumor or peritumoral edema to ADC of contralateral white matter, as well as ADC in tumor to ADC in peritumoral edema) were determined from three regions of interest. The average of the mean, maximum, and minimum for ADC variables was calculated for each patient. The metabolite ratios of Cho/Cr and Cho/NAA at intermediate TE were assessed from spectral maps in the solid portion of tumor, peritumoral edema and contralateral normal-appearing white matter. Tumor grade determined with the two methods was then compared with that from histopathologic grading. Logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis were performed to determine optimum thresholds for tumor grading. Measures of diagnostic examination performance, such as sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, AUC, and accuracy for identifying high-grade gliomas were also calculated

  19. Prediction of Molar Extinction Coefficients of Proteins and Peptides Using UV Absorption of the Constituent Amino Acids at 214 nm To Enable Quantitative Reverse Phase High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, B.J.H.; Gruppen, H.

    2007-01-01

    The molar extinction coefficients of 20 amino acids and the peptide bond were measured at 214 nm in the presence of acetonitrile and formic acid to enable quantitative comparison of peptides eluting from reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, once identified with mass spectrometry

  20. Development of database on the distribution coefficient. 1. Collection of the distribution coefficient data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takebe, Shinichi; Abe, Masayoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    The distribution coefficient is very important parameter for environmental impact assessment on the disposal of radioactive waste arising from research institutes. The literature survey in the country was mainly carried out for the purpose of selecting the reasonable distribution coefficient value on the utilization of this value in the safety evaluation. This report was arranged much informations on the distribution coefficient for inputting to the database for each literature, and was summarized as a literature information data on the distribution coefficient. (author)

  1. Analysis of flow coefficient in chair manufacture

    OpenAIRE

    Ivković Dragoljub; Živković Slaven

    2005-01-01

    The delivery on time is not possible without the good-quality planning of deadlines, i.e. planning of the manufacturing process duration. The study of flow coefficient enables the realistic forecasting of the manufacturing process duration. This paper points to the significance of the study of flow coefficient on scientific basis so as to determine the terms of the end of the manufacture of chairs made of sawn timber. Chairs are the products of complex construction, often almost completely ma...

  2. Research on friction coefficient of nuclear Reactor Vessel Internals Hold Down Spring: Stress coefficient test analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linjun, Xie; Guohong, Xue; Ming, Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: HDS stress coefficient test apparatus. - Highlights: • This paper performs mathematic deduction to the physical model of Hold Down Spring (HDS), establishes a mathematic model of axial load P and stress, stress coefficient and friction coefficient and designs a set of test apparatuses for simulating the pretightening process of the HDS for the first time according to a model similarity criterion. • The mathematical relation between the load and the strain is obtained about the HDS, and the mathematical model of the stress coefficient and the friction coefficient is established. So, a set of test apparatuses for obtaining the stress coefficient is designed according to the model scaling criterion and the friction coefficient of the K1000 HDS is calculated to be 0.336 through the obtained stress coefficient. • The relation curve between the theoretical load and the friction coefficient is obtained through analysis and indicates that the change of the friction coefficient f would influence the pretightening load under the condition of designed stress. The necessary pretightening load in the design process is calculated to be 5469 kN according to the obtained friction coefficient. Therefore, the friction coefficient and the pretightening load under the design conditions can provide accurate pretightening data for the analysis and design of the reactor HDS according to the operations. - Abstract: This paper performs mathematic deduction to the physical model of Hold Down Spring (HDS), establishes a mathematic model of axial load P and stress, stress coefficient and friction coefficient and designs a set of test apparatuses for simulating the pretightening process of the HDS for the first time according to a model similarity criterion. By carrying out tests and researches through a stress testing technique, P–σ curves in loading and unloading processes of the HDS are obtained and the stress coefficient k f of the HDS is obtained. So, the

  3. Research on friction coefficient of nuclear Reactor Vessel Internals Hold Down Spring: Stress coefficient test analysis method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linjun, Xie, E-mail: linjunx@zjut.edu.cn [College of Mechanical Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China); Guohong, Xue; Ming, Zhang [Shanghai Nuclear Engineering Research & Design Institute, Shanghai 200233 (China)

    2016-08-01

    Graphical abstract: HDS stress coefficient test apparatus. - Highlights: • This paper performs mathematic deduction to the physical model of Hold Down Spring (HDS), establishes a mathematic model of axial load P and stress, stress coefficient and friction coefficient and designs a set of test apparatuses for simulating the pretightening process of the HDS for the first time according to a model similarity criterion. • The mathematical relation between the load and the strain is obtained about the HDS, and the mathematical model of the stress coefficient and the friction coefficient is established. So, a set of test apparatuses for obtaining the stress coefficient is designed according to the model scaling criterion and the friction coefficient of the K1000 HDS is calculated to be 0.336 through the obtained stress coefficient. • The relation curve between the theoretical load and the friction coefficient is obtained through analysis and indicates that the change of the friction coefficient f would influence the pretightening load under the condition of designed stress. The necessary pretightening load in the design process is calculated to be 5469 kN according to the obtained friction coefficient. Therefore, the friction coefficient and the pretightening load under the design conditions can provide accurate pretightening data for the analysis and design of the reactor HDS according to the operations. - Abstract: This paper performs mathematic deduction to the physical model of Hold Down Spring (HDS), establishes a mathematic model of axial load P and stress, stress coefficient and friction coefficient and designs a set of test apparatuses for simulating the pretightening process of the HDS for the first time according to a model similarity criterion. By carrying out tests and researches through a stress testing technique, P–σ curves in loading and unloading processes of the HDS are obtained and the stress coefficient k{sub f} of the HDS is obtained. So, the

  4. Experimental techniques of conversion coefficient measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, J.H.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses briefly the history of conversion electron spectra measurements, and the interpretation of the collected data. Then provides a comprehensive review of techniques presently available to measure the conversion coefficients. (Auth.)

  5. Form coefficient of helical toroidal solenoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amelin, V.Z.; Kunchenko, V.B.

    1982-01-01

    For toroidal solenoids with continuous spiral coil, winded according to the laws of equiinclined and simple cylindrical spirals with homogeneous, linearly increasing to the coil periphery and ''Bitter'' distribution of current density, the analytical expressions for the dependence between capacity consumed and generated magnetic field, expressions for coefficients of form similar to Fabry coefficient for cylindrical solenoids are obtained and dependence of the form coefficient and relative volume of solenoid conductor on the number of revolutions of screw line per one circumvention over the large torus radius is also investigated. Analytical expressions of form coefficients and graphical material permit to select the optimum geometry as to capacity consumed both for spiral (including ''force-free'') and conventional toroidal solenoids of magnetic systems in thermonulear installations

  6. Diffusion Coefficients of Several Aqueous Alkanolamine Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder, Erwin D.; Riele, Marcel J.M. te; Versteeg, Geert F.; Swaaij, W.P.M. van

    1993-01-01

    The Taylor dispersion technique was applied for the determination of diffusion coefficients of various systems. Experiments with the system KCl in water showed that the experimental setup provides accurate data. For the alkanolamines monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), methyldiethanolamine

  7. Definition of global dispersion coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naff, R.L.

    1983-10-01

    For estimation of a global longitudinal dispersivity at the Gorleben site, data available primarily consist of suites of geophysical logs from wells penetrating the Quaternary aquifer. A length scale for the principle aquifer at Gorleben is to be found. Samples are to be taken separately to estimate the variance in hydraulic conductivity (Taylor Analysis, Fickian dispersion process). (DG)

  8. Influence of effective stress coefficient on mechanical failure of chalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alam, Mohammad Monzurul; Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Hjuler, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    The Effective stress coefficient is a measure of how chalk grains are connected with each other. The stiffness of chalk may decrease if the amount of contact cements between the grains decreases, which may lead to an increase of the effective stress coefficient. We performed CO2 injection in chal...... precise failure strength of chalk during changed stress state and under the influence of chemically reactive fluids during production of hydrocarbon and geological storage CO2....

  9. Investigation of photon attenuation coefficients for marble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basyigit, C; Akkurt, I; Kilincarslan, S; Akkurt, A

    2005-01-01

    The total linear attenuation coefficients μ (cm -1 ) have been obtained using the XCOM program at photon energies of 1 keV to 1 GeV for six different natural marbles produced in different places in Turkey. The individual contribution of photon interaction processes to the total linear attenuation coefficients for marble has been investigated. The calculated results were also compared with the measurements. The results obtained for marble were also compared with concrete. (note)

  10. Assessment of satellite derived diffuse attenuation coefficients ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Optical data collected in coastal waters off South Florida and in the Caribbean Sea between January 2009 and December 2010 were used to evaluate products derived with three bio-optical inversion algorithms applied to MOIDS/Aqua, MODIS/Terra, and SeaWiFS satellite observations. The products included the diffuse attenuation coefficient at 490 nm (Kd_490) and for the visible range (Kd_PAR), and euphotic depth (Zeu, corresponding to 1% of the surface incident photosynthetically available radiation or PAR). Above-water hyperspectral reflectance data collected over optically shallow waters of the Florida Keys between June 1997 and August 2011 were used to help understand algorithm performance over optically shallow waters. The in situ data covered a variety of water types in South Florida and the Caribbean Sea, ranging from deep clear waters, turbid coastal waters, and optically shallow waters (Kd_490 range of ~0.03 – 1.29m-1). An algorithm based on Inherent Optical Properties (IOPs) showed the best performance (RMSD turbidity or shallow bottom contamination. Similar results were obtained when only in situ data were used to evaluate algorithm performance. The excellent agreement between satellite-derived remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) and in situ Rrs suggested that

  11. Determination of reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography based octanol-water partition coefficients for neutral and ionizable compounds: Methodology evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chao; Qiao, Jun-Qin; Lian, Hong-Zhen

    2017-12-15

    Reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) based octanol-water partition coefficient (logP) or distribution coefficient (logD) determination methods were revisited and assessed comprehensively. Classic isocratic and some gradient RPLC methods were conducted and evaluated for neutral, weak acid and basic compounds. Different lipophilicity indexes in logP or logD determination were discussed in detail, including the retention factor logk w corresponding to neat water as mobile phase extrapolated via linear solvent strength (LSS) model from isocratic runs and calculated with software from gradient runs, the chromatographic hydrophobicity index (CHI), apparent gradient capacity factor (k g ') and gradient retention time (t g ). Among the lipophilicity indexes discussed, logk w from whether isocratic or gradient elution methods best correlated with logP or logD. Therefore logk w is recommended as the preferred lipophilicity index for logP or logD determination. logk w easily calculated from methanol gradient runs might be the main candidate to replace logk w calculated from classic isocratic run as the ideal lipophilicity index. These revisited RPLC methods were not applicable for strongly ionized compounds that are hardly ion-suppressed. A previously reported imperfect ion-pair RPLC method was attempted and further explored for studying distribution coefficients (logD) of sulfonic acids that totally ionized in the mobile phase. Notably, experimental logD values of sulfonic acids were given for the first time. The IP-RPLC method provided a distinct way to explore logD values of ionized compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Asymmetrical slip propensity: required coefficient of friction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jung-suk; Kim, Sukwon

    2013-07-31

    Most studies in performing slips and falls research reported their results after the ipsilateral leg of subjects (either right foot or left foot) was guided to contact the contaminated floor surface although many studies indicated concerns for asymmetries of legs in kinematic or kinetic variables. Thus, the present study evaluated if dominant leg's slip tendency would be different from non-dominant leg's slip tendency by comparing the Required Coefficient of Friction (RCOF) of the two lower limbs. Forty seven health adults participated in the present study. RCOF was measured when left or right foot of subjects contacted the force platforms respectively. Paired t-test was performed to test if RCOF and heel velocity (HCV) of dominant legs was different from that of non-dominant legs. It was suggested that the asymmetry in RCOFs and HCV between the two lower limbs existed. The RCOFs of non-dominant legs were higher than that of dominant legs. The results indicated that asymmetry in slip propensity, RCOF, was existed in lower extremity. The results from the study suggested that it would be benefit to include a variable, such as asymmetry, in slips and falls research.

  13. Recurrence relations between transformation coefficients of hyperspherical harmonics and their application to Moshinsky coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raynal, J.

    1976-01-01

    Closed formulae and recurrence relations for the transformation of a two-body harmonic oscillator wave function to the hyperspherical formalism are given. With them Moshinsky or Smirnov coefficients are obtained from the transformation coefficients of hyperspheric harmonics. For these coefficients the diagonalization method of Talman and Lande reduces to simple recurrence relations which can be used directly to compute them. New closed formulae for these coefficients are also derived: they are needed to compute the two simplest coefficients which determine the sign for the recurrence relation. (Auth.)

  14. Robust Stabilization of Nonlinear Systems with Uncertain Varying Control Coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaiyue Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the stabilization problem for a class of nonlinear systems, whose control coefficient is uncertain and varies continuously in value and sign. The study emphasizes the development of a robust control that consists of a modified Nussbaum function to tackle the uncertain varying control coefficient. By such a method, the finite-time escape phenomenon has been prevented when the control coefficient is crossing zero and varying its sign. The proposed control guarantees the asymptotic stabilization of the system and boundedness of all closed-loop signals. The control performance is illustrated by a numerical simulation.

  15. Experimental determination of fission gas adsorption coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovell, R.; Underhill, D.W.

    1979-01-01

    Large charcoal beds have been used for a number of years for the holdup and decay of radioactive isotopes of krypton and xenon. Reliable design of these beds depends on an accurate knowledge of the adsorption coefficient of krypton and xenon on the adsorbents used in these beds. It is somewhat surprising that there is no standard procedure of determining the adsorption coefficient for krypton and xenon. Fundamental information needed to establish a standardized reproducible test procedure is given emphasizing the breakthrough curves commonly used to analyze dynamic adsorption data can lead to serious systematic errors and the fact that the adsorption coefficient, if calculated from the arithmetic holding time, is independent of geometric factors such as the shape of the adsorption bed and the irregular shape of the adsorbent

  16. Curvature of Indoor Sensor Network: Clustering Coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the geometric properties of the communication graph in realistic low-power wireless networks. In particular, we explore the concept of the curvature of a wireless network via the clustering coefficient. Clustering coefficient analysis is a computationally simplified, semilocal approach, which nevertheless captures such a large-scale feature as congestion in the underlying network. The clustering coefficient concept is applied to three cases of indoor sensor networks, under varying thresholds on the link packet reception rate (PRR. A transition from positive curvature (“meshed” network to negative curvature (“core concentric” network is observed by increasing the threshold. Even though this paper deals with network curvature per se, we nevertheless expand on the underlying congestion motivation, propose several new concepts (network inertia and centroid, and finally we argue that greedy routing on a virtual positively curved network achieves load balancing on the physical network.

  17. Discharge Coefficient of Rectangular Short-Crested Weir with Varying Slope Coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuejun Chen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Rectangular short-crested weirs are widely used for simple structure and high discharge capacity. As one of the most important and influential factors of discharge capacity, side slope can improve the hydraulic characteristics of weirs at special conditions. In order to systemically study the effects of upstream and downstream slope coefficients S1 and S2 on overflow discharge coefficient in a rectangular short-crested weir the Volume of Fluid (VOF method and the Renormalization Group (RNG κ-ε turbulence model are used. In this study, the slope coefficient ranges from V to 3H:1V and each model corresponds to five total energy heads of H0 ranging from 8.0 to 24.0 cm. Comparisons of discharge coefficients and free surface profiles between simulated and laboratory results display a good agreement. The simulated results show that the difference of discharge coefficients will decrease with upstream slopes and increase with downstream slopes as H0 increases. For a given H0, the discharge coefficient has a convex parabolic relation with S1 and a piecewise linearity relation with S2. The maximum discharge coefficient is always obtained at S2 = 0.8. There exists a difference between upstream and downstream slope coefficients in the influence range of free surface curvatures. Furthermore, a proposed discharge coefficient equation by nonlinear regression is a function of upstream and downstream slope coefficients.

  18. Townsend coefficients of gases in avalanche counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, G.

    1978-01-01

    Though much work has been done by many authors in the last few years in the development and application of avalanche counters for ion radiation, it is based upon values of the Townsend coefficients as the essential gas parameter, which were determined many years ago for much lower reduced field strengths F/p than prevail in such counters. Therefore absolute determinations of α in vapours of methyl alcohol, cyclohexane, acetone, and n-heptene were performed under original conditions of avalanche counters. The values obtained do not differ by more than 30%-50% from the former values indeed, extrapolated over F/p for the first three mentioned substances, but the amounts of A and B in the usual representation α/p=A exp(-B(F/p)) are much greater for the stronger reduced fields. This is of importance for such counter properties as the dependence of pulse heights on pressure, voltage, electrode distance etc., which are governed by other combinations of A and B than α/p itself. A comparison of results for different ionic radiations shows a marked influence of the primary ionization density along the particle tracks which is hard to explain. (Auth.)

  19. Transfer of risk coefficients across populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, L.R.

    1992-01-01

    The variation of lifetime risk projections for a Canadian population caused by the uncertainty in the choice of method for transferring excess relative risk coefficients between populations is assessed. Site-specific projections, varied by factors up to 3.5 when excess risk coefficients of the BEIR V relative risk models were transferred to the Canadian population using an additive and multiplicative method. When the risk from all cancers are combined, differences between transfer methods were no longer significant. The Canadian projections were consistent with the ICRP-60 nominal fatal cancer risk estimates. (author)

  20. Dependence of sputtering coefficient on ion dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colligon, J.S.; Patel, M.H.

    1977-01-01

    The sputtering coefficient of polycrystalline gold bombarded by 10-40 keV Ar + ions had been measured as a function of total ion dose and shown to exhibit oscillations in magnitude between 30 and 100%. Possible experimental errors which would give rise to such an oscillation have been considered, but it is apparent that these factors are unable to explain the measurements. It is proposed that a change in the Sublimation Energy associated with either bulk damage or formation of surface topographical features arising during ion bombardment may be responsible for the observed variations in sputtering coefficient. (author)

  1. Towards a nonperturbative calculation of weak Hamiltonian Wilson coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Mattia; Lehner, Christoph; Soni, Amarjit; Rbc; Ukqcd Collaborations

    2018-04-01

    We propose a method to compute the Wilson coefficients of the weak effective Hamiltonian to all orders in the strong coupling constant using Lattice QCD simulations. We perform our calculations adopting an unphysically light weak boson mass of around 2 GeV. We demonstrate that systematic errors for the Wilson coefficients C1 and C2 , related to the current-current four-quark operators, can be controlled and present a path towards precise determinations in subsequent works.

  2. A Simple Measure of Price Adjustment Coefficients.

    OpenAIRE

    Damodaran, Aswath

    1993-01-01

    One measure of market efficiency is the speed with which prices adjust to new information. The author develops a simple approach to estimating these price adjustment coefficients by using the information in return processes. This approach is used to estimate t he price adjustment coefficients for firms listed on the NYSE and the A MEX as well as for over-the-counter stocks. The author finds evidence of a lagged adjustment to new information in shorter return intervals for firms in all market ...

  3. Modelling of power-reactivity coefficient measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strmensky, C.; Petenyi, V.; Jagrik, J.; Minarcin, M.; Hascik, R.; Toth, L.

    2005-01-01

    Report describes results of modeling of power-reactivity coefficient analysis on power-level. In paper we calculate values of discrepancies arisen during transient process. These discrepancies can be arisen as result of experiment evaluation and can be caused by disregard of 3D effects on neutron distribution. The results are critically discussed (Authors)

  4. The Evolution of Pearson's Correlation Coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kader, Gary D.; Franklin, Christine A.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an activity for developing the notion of association between two quantitative variables. By exploring a collection of scatter plots, the authors propose a nonstandard "intuitive" measure of association; and by examining properties of this measure, they develop the more standard measure, Pearson's Correlation Coefficient. The…

  5. Regularity of the Interband Light Absorption Coefficient

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we consider the interband light absorption coefficient (ILAC), in a symmetric form, in the case of random operators on the -dimensional lattice. We show that the symmetrized version of ILAC is either continuous or has a component which has the same modulus of continuity as the density of states.

  6. Absorption coefficients of silicon: A theoretical treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chin-Yi

    2018-05-01

    A theoretical model with explicit formulas for calculating the optical absorption and gain coefficients of silicon is presented. It incorporates direct and indirect interband transitions and considers the effects of occupied/unoccupied carrier states. The indirect interband transition is calculated from the second-order time-independent perturbation theory of quantum mechanics by incorporating all eight possible routes of absorption or emission of photons and phonons. Absorption coefficients of silicon are calculated from these formulas. The agreements and discrepancies among the calculated results, the Rajkanan-Singh-Shewchun (RSS) formula, and Green's data are investigated and discussed. For example, the RSS formula tends to overestimate the contributions of indirect transitions for cases with high photon energy. The results show that the state occupied/unoccupied effect is almost negligible for silicon absorption coefficients up to the onset of the optical gain condition where the energy separation of Quasi-Femi levels between electrons and holes is larger than the band-gap energy. The usefulness of using the physics-based formulas, rather than semi-empirical fitting ones, for absorption coefficients in theoretical studies of photovoltaic devices is also discussed.

  7. The coefficient of friction, particularly of ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Allan

    2008-01-01

    The static and dynamic coefficients of friction are defined, and values from 0.3 to 0.6 are quoted for common materials. These drop to about 0.15 when oil is added as a lubricant. Water ice at temperatures not far below 0 °C is remarkable for low coefficients of around 0.05 for static friction and 0.04–0.02 for dynamic friction, but these figures increase as the temperature diminishes. Reasons for the slipperiness of ice are summarized, but they are still not entirely clear. One hypothesis suggests that it is related to the transient formation of a lubricating film of liquid water produced by frictional heating. If this is the case, some composition melting a little above ambient temperatures might provide a skating rink that did not require expensive refrigeration. Various compositions have been tested, but an entirely satisfactory material has yet to be found

  8. Experimental investigation of the higher coefficient of thermal performance for water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xinyu; You, Shijun; Xu, Wei; Wang, Min; He, Tao; Zheng, Xuejing

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The energy grades system for solar water heater (SWH) in China was introduced. • Heat loss and capacity of heat collection mainly affected SWH thermal performance. • Optimum ratio of tank volume to collector area for solar water heater is 57 to 72 L/m 2 . • The recommendation polyurethane insulation layer should be around 50 mm thick. • SWH with shorter tube has a better thermal performance. - Abstract: Solar water heaters (SWHs), now widely used in China, represent an environmentally friendly way to heat water. We tested the performance of more than 1000 water-in-glass evacuated tube SWHs according to Chinese standards and found that the heat loss from the storage tank and capacity of the solar collector affected their thermal performance. The optimum parameters to maximize the performance of water-in-glass evacuated tube SWHs included a ratio of tank volume to collector area of 57–72 L/m 2 , which should give a system efficiency of 0.49–0.57, meaning that the temperature of water in the tank will exceed 45 °C after one day of heat collection. In addition, the polyurethane insulation layer should be around 50 mm thick with a free foaming density of about 35 kg/m 3 , and the evacuated tube should be short. The tilt angle did not affect the performance of the SWHs. These results should aid in the design of highly efficient SWHs

  9. Bayesian Meta-Analysis of Coefficient Alpha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannick, Michael T.; Zhang, Nanhua

    2013-01-01

    The current paper describes and illustrates a Bayesian approach to the meta-analysis of coefficient alpha. Alpha is the most commonly used estimate of the reliability or consistency (freedom from measurement error) for educational and psychological measures. The conventional approach to meta-analysis uses inverse variance weights to combine…

  10. Probability based calibration of pressure coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Svend Ole; Pedersen, Marie Louise; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2015-01-01

    Normally, a consistent basis for calculating partial factors focuses on a homogeneous reliability index neither depending on which material the structure is constructed of nor the ratio between the permanent and variable actions acting on the structure. Furthermore, the reliability index should n...... the characteristic shape coefficients are based on mean values as specified in background documents to the Eurocodes. Importance of hidden safeties judging the reliability is discussed for wind actions on low-rise structures....... not depend on the type of variable action. A probability based calibration of pressure coefficients have been carried out using pressure measurements on the standard CAARC building modelled on scale of 1:383. The extreme pressures measured on the CAARC building model in the wind tunnel have been fitted.......3, the Eurocode partial factor of 1.5 for variable actions agrees well with the inherent uncertainties of wind actions when the pressure coefficients are determined using wind tunnel test results. The increased bias and uncertainty when pressure coefficients mainly are based on structural codes lead to a larger...

  11. Computation of Clebsch-Gordan and Gaunt coefficients using binomial coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guseinov, I.I.; Oezmen, A.; Atav, Ue

    1995-01-01

    Using binomial coefficients the Clebsch-Gordan and Gaunt coefficients were calculated for extremely large quantum numbers. The main advantage of this approach is directly calculating these coefficients, instead of using recursion relations. Accuracy of the results is quite high for quantum numbers l 1 , and l 2 up to 100. Despite direct calculation, the CPU times are found comparable with those given in the related literature. 11 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  12. Problems on Divisibility of Binomial Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osler, Thomas J.; Smoak, James

    2004-01-01

    Twelve unusual problems involving divisibility of the binomial coefficients are represented in this article. The problems are listed in "The Problems" section. All twelve problems have short solutions which are listed in "The Solutions" section. These problems could be assigned to students in any course in which the binomial theorem and Pascal's…

  13. Measuring device for the temperature coefficient of reactor moderators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Yuzo.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To rapidly determine by automatic calculation the temperature coefficient for moderators which has been determined so far by a log of manual processings. Constitution: Each of signals from a control rod position indicator, a reactor reactivity, instrument and moderator temperature meter are inputted, and each of the signals and designed valued for the doppler temperature coefficients are stored. Recurling calculation is conducted based on the reactivity and the moderator temperature at an interval where the temperature changes of the moderators are equalized at an identical control rod position, to determine isothermic coefficient. Then, the temperature coefficient for moderator are calculated from the isothermic coefficient and the doppler temperature coefficient. The relationship between the reactivity and the moderator temperature is plotted on a X-Y recorder. The stored signals and the calculated temperature coefficient for moderators are sequentially displayed and the results are printed out when the measurement is completed. According to the present device, since the real time processing is conducted, the processing time can be shortened remarkably. Accordingly, it is possible to save the man power for the test of the nuclear reactor and improve the reactor operation performance. (Kamimura, M.)

  14. Determination of ion diffusion coefficients by the electromigration method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonchev, G.D.; Milanov, M.V.; Bozhikov, G.A.; Ivanov, P.I.; Priemyshev, A.N.; Maslov, O.D.; Dmitriev, S.N.

    2003-01-01

    An electrophoretic method for measuring ion diffusion coefficients in aqueous solutions is developed. The value of the diffusion coefficient can be determined from the linear relationship between the square standard deviation of the electrophoretic zone and the time from the start of the diffusion process. Using the device for horizontal zone electrophoresis in a free electrolyte, a series of diffusion experiments are performed with no-carrier-added radionuclides in microconcentrations (10 -9 - 10 -10 M). Diffusion coefficients of 111 In(III), 175 Hf(IV) and 237 Pu(VI) ions at 25 0 C are determined in nitric acid media. Simultaneous determination of the diffusion coefficient and electrophoretic mobility allows one to calculate the effective charge of the investigated ions in accordance with the Nernst-Einstein law

  15. Study of performance of high speed turning using the volumetric dimension coefficient of resultant cutting force; Estudio del rendimiento del torneado de alta velocidad utilizando el coeficiente de dimension volumetrica de la fuerza de corte resultante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Gonzalez, L. W.; Perez-Rodriguez, R.; Zambrano-Robledo, P. C.; Siller-Carrillo, H. R.; Toscano-Reyes, H.

    2013-07-01

    This work deals with the experimental study of the resultant cutting force evolution of two coating carbide and a cermet inserts, during the dry turning of AISI 1045 steel with 400, 500 and 600 m/min cutting speeds. A new criterion for machinability study, the coefficient of volumetric dimension of cutting force, it is introduced. The investigation showed a better performance of cermet for moderate and intermediate cutting speeds, while at high cutting speed and final machining time, the three layers coated carbide achieved the best result. The factorial analysis of variance demonstrated a significant effect of machining time on the coefficient of volumetric dimension of resultant cutting force, while the material insert factor and their interaction, for intermediate cutting speed was just significant. (Author)

  16. Diagnostic performance of conventional MRI parameters and apparent diffusion coefficient values in differentiating between benign and malignant soft-tissue tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y; Yoon, Y C; Chong, Y; Seo, S W; Choi, Y-L; Sohn, I; Kim, M-J

    2017-08-01

    To compare the abilities of conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in differentiating between benign and malignant soft-tissue tumours (STT). A total of 123 patients with STT who underwent 3 T MRI, including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), were retrospectively analysed using variate conventional MRI parameters, ADC mean and ADC min . For the all-STT group, the correlation between the malignant STT conventional MRI parameters, except deep compartment involvement, compared to those of benign STT were statistically significant with univariate analysis. Maximum diameter of the tumour (p=0.001; odds ratio [OR], 8.97) and ADC mean (p=0.020; OR, 4.30) were independent factors with multivariate analysis. For the non-myxoid non-haemosiderin STT group, signal heterogeneity on axial T1-weighted imaging (T1WI; p=0.017), ADC mean , and ADC min (p=0.001, p=0.001), showed significant differences with univariate analysis between malignancy and benignity. Signal heterogeneity in axial T1WI (p=0.025; OR, 12.64) and ADC mean (p=0.004; OR, 33.15) were independent factors with multivariate analysis. ADC values as well as conventional MRI parameters were useful in differentiating between benign and malignant STT. The ADC mean was the most powerful diagnostic parameter in non-myxoid non-haemosiderin STT. Copyright © 2017 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Transport coefficients of strongly interacting matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckmann, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, we investigate the dissipative transport phenomena of strongly interacting matter. The special interest is in the shear viscosity and its value divided by entropy density. The performed calculations are based on effective models for Quantum Chromodynamics, mostly focused on the 2-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. This allows us to study the hadronic sector as well as the quark sector within one single model. We expand the models up to next-to-leading order in inverse numbers of colors. We present different possibilities of calculating linear transport coefficients and give an overview over qualitative properties as well as over recent ideas concerning ideal fluids. As present methods are not able to calculate the quark two-point function in Minkowski space-time in the self-consistent approximation scheme of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model, a new method for this purpose is developed. This self-energy parametrization method is applied to the expansion scheme, yielding the quark spectral function with meson back-coupling effects. The usage of this spectral function in the transport calculation is only one result of this work. We also test the application of different transport approaches in the NJL model, and find an interesting behavior of the shear viscosity at the critical end point of the phase diagram. We also use the NJL model to calculate the viscosity of a pion gas in the dilute regime. After an analysis of other models for pions and their interaction, we find that the NJL-result leads to an important modification of transport properties in comparison with the calculations which purely rely on pion properties in the vacuum. (orig.)

  18. Analysis of flow coefficient in chair manufacture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivković Dragoljub

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The delivery on time is not possible without the good-quality planning of deadlines, i.e. planning of the manufacturing process duration. The study of flow coefficient enables the realistic forecasting of the manufacturing process duration. This paper points to the significance of the study of flow coefficient on scientific basis so as to determine the terms of the end of the manufacture of chairs made of sawn timber. Chairs are the products of complex construction, often almost completely made of sawn timber as the basic material. They belong to the group of export products, so it is especially significant to analyze the duration of the production cycle, and the type and the degree of stoppages in this type of production. Parallel method of production is applied in chair manufacture. The study shows that the value of flow coefficient is close to one or higher, in most cases. The results indicate that the percentage of interoperational stoppage is unjustifiably high, so it is proposed how to decrease the percentage of stoppages in the manufacturing process.

  19. Activity coefficient of aqueous sodium bicarbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitzer, Kenneth S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Peiper, J. Christopher [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1980-09-01

    The determination of the activity coefficient and related properties of sodium bicarbonate presents special problems because of the appreciable vapor pressure of CO2 above such solutions. With the development of reliable equations for the thermodynamic properties of mixed electrolytes, it is possible to determine the parameters for NaHCO3 from cell measurements or NaCl-NaHCO3 mixtures. Literature data are analyzed to illustrate the method and provide interim values, hoever it is noted that further measurements over a wider range of concentrations would yield more definitive results. Lastly, an estimate is also given for the activity coefficient of KHCO3.

  20. Measurement of Dynamic Friction Coefficient on the Irregular Free Surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeom, S. H.; Seo, K. S.; Lee, J. H.; Lee, K. H.

    2007-01-01

    A spent fuel storage cask must be estimated for a structural integrity when an earthquake occurs because it freely stands on ground surface without a restriction condition. Usually the integrity estimation for a seismic load is performed by a FEM analysis, the friction coefficient for a standing surface is an important parameter in seismic analysis when a sliding happens. When a storage cask is placed on an irregular ground surface, measuring a friction coefficient of an irregular surface is very difficult because the friction coefficient is affected by the surface condition. In this research, dynamic friction coefficients on the irregular surfaces between a concrete cylinder block and a flat concrete slab are measured with two methods by one direction actuator

  1. Relations between coefficients of fractional parentage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamick, L.

    2007-01-01

    For each of the (9/2) (11/2), and (13/2) single j shells we have only one state with J=j v=3 for a five particle system. For four identical particles there can be more than one state of seniority four. We note some 'ratio' relations for the coefficients of fractional parentage for the four and five identical particle systems, which are found in the works of de Shalit and Talmi [Nuclear Shell Theory (Academic Press, New York, 1963)] and Talmi [Simple Models of Complex Nuclei (Harwood Academic, Reading, UK, 1993)] to be useful for explaining the vanishing of a five particle coefficients of fractional parentage (cfp). These relations are used to show that there is a special (g 9/2 ) 4 I=4 v=4 wave function that cannot be admixed with an I=4 v=2 wave function, even with seniority violating interactions

  2. Reproducibility of The Random Incidence Absorption Coefficient Converted From the Sabine Absorption Coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Chang, Ji-ho

    2015-01-01

    largely depending on the test room. Several conversion methods for porous absorbers from the Sabine absorption coefficient to the random incidence absorption coefficient were suggested by considering the finite size of a test specimen and non-uniformly incident energy onto the specimen, which turned out...... resistivity optimization outperforms the surface impedance optimization in terms of the reproducibility....

  3. Heat transfer coefficients during quenching of steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan, H.S.; Jalil, J.M. [University of Technology, Department of Electromechanical Engineering, Baghdad (Iraq); Peet, M.J.; Bhadeshia, H.K.D.H. [University of Cambridge, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-15

    Heat transfer coefficients for quenching in water have been measured as a function of temperature using steel probes for a variety of iron alloys. The coefficients were derived from measured cooling curves combined with calculated heat-capacities. The resulting data were then used to calculate cooling curves using the finite volume method for a large steel sample and these curves have been demonstrated to be consistent with measured values for the large sample. Furthermore, by combining the estimated cooling curves with time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagrams it has been possible to predict the variation of hardness as a function of distance via the quench factor analysis. The work should prove useful in the heat treatment of the steels studied, some of which are in the development stage. (orig.)

  4. Activity coefficients of solutes in binary solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokcen, N.A.

    1982-01-01

    The activity coefficients in dilute ternary systems are discussed in detail by using the Margules equations. Analyses of some relevant data at high temperatures show that the sparingly dissolved solutes in binary solvents follow complex behavior even when the binary solvents are very nearly ideal. It is shown that the activity data on the solute or the binary system cannot permit computation of the remaining activities except for the regular solutions. It is also shown that a fourth-order equation is usually adequate in expressing the activity coefficient of a solute in binary solvents at high temperatures. When the activity data for a binary solvent are difficult to obtain in a certain range of composition, the activity data for a sparingly dissolved solute can be used to supplement determination of the binary activities

  5. Non intrusive measurement of the convective heat transfer coefficient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebay, M.; Mebarki, G.; Padet, J. [Reims Univ., Reims (France). Faculty of Science, GRESPI Thermomechanical Lab; Arfaoui, A. [Reims Univ., Reims (France). Faculty of Science, GRESPI Thermomechanical Lab; Tunis Univ., Tunis (Tunisia). Faculty of Science, EL MANAR, LETTM; Maad, B.R. [Tunis Univ., Tunis (Tunisia). Faculty of Science, EL MANAR, LETTM

    2010-07-01

    The efficiency of cooling methods in thermal systems such as radiators and heat exchangers must be improved in order to enhance performance. The evaluation of the heat transfer coefficients between a solid and a fluid is necessary for the control and the dimensioning of thermal systems. In this study, the pulsed photothermal method was used to measure the convective heat transfer coefficient on a solid-fluid interface, notably between an air flow and a heated slab mounted on a PVC flat plate. This configuration simulated the electronic air-cooling inside enclosures and racks. The influence of the deflector's inclination angle on the enhancement of heat transfer was investigated using 2 newly developed identification models. The first model was based on a constant heat transfer coefficient during the pulsed experiment, while the second, improved model was based on a variable heat transfer coefficient. The heat transfer coefficient was deduced from the evolution of the transient temperature induced by a sudden deposit of a luminous energy on the front face of the slab. Temperature evolutions were derived by infrared thermography, a camera for cartography and a detector for precise measurement in specific locations. The results show the improvement of measurement accuracies when using a model that considers the temporal evolution of the convective heat transfer coefficient. The deflection of air flow on the upper surface of the heated slab demonstrated better cooling of the slab by the deflection of air flow. 11 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  6. Correlation and prediction of gaseous diffusion coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, T. R.; Mason, E. A.

    1973-01-01

    A new correlation method for binary gaseous diffusion coefficients from very low temperatures to 10,000 K is proposed based on an extended principle of corresponding states, and having greater range and accuracy than previous correlations. There are two correlation parameters that are related to other physical quantities and that are predictable in the absence of diffusion measurements. Quantum effects and composition dependence are included, but high-pressure effects are not. The results are directly applicable to multicomponent mixtures.

  7. Increased correlation coefficient between the written test score and tutors’ performance test scores after training of tutors for assessment of medical students during problem-based learning course in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heethal Jaiprakash

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at finding if there was a change of correlation between the written test score and tutors’ performance test scores in the assessment of medical students during a problem-based learning (PBL course in Malaysia. This is a cross-sectional observational study, conducted among 264 medical students in two groups from November 2010 to November 2012. The first group’s tutors did not receive tutor training; while the second group’s tutors were trained in the PBL process. Each group was divided into high, middle and low achievers based on their end-of-semester exam scores. PBL scores were taken which included written test scores and tutors’ performance test scores. Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated between the two kinds of scores in each group. The correlation coefficient between the written scores and tutors’ scores in group 1 was 0.099 (p<0.001 and for group 2 was 0.305 (p<0.001. The higher correlation coefficient in the group where tutors received the PBL training reinforces the importance of tutor training before their participation in the PBL course.

  8. Increased correlation coefficient between the written test score and tutors' performance test scores after training of tutors for assessment of medical students during problem-based learning course in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiprakash, Heethal; Min, Aung Ko Ko; Ghosh, Sarmishtha

    2016-03-01

    This paper is aimed at finding if there was a change of correlation between the written test score and tutors' performance test scores in the assessment of medical students during a problem-based learning (PBL) course in Malaysia. This is a cross-sectional observational study, conducted among 264 medical students in two groups from November 2010 to November 2012. The first group's tutors did not receive tutor training; while the second group's tutors were trained in the PBL process. Each group was divided into high, middle and low achievers based on their end-of-semester exam scores. PBL scores were taken which included written test scores and tutors' performance test scores. Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated between the two kinds of scores in each group. The correlation coefficient between the written scores and tutors' scores in group 1 was 0.099 (pcorrelation coefficient in the group where tutors received the PBL training reinforces the importance of tutor training before their participation in the PBL course.

  9. Investigation of Wear Coefficient of Manganese Phosphate Coated Tool Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ilaiyavel

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the properties of the coating in terms of wear resistance is of paramount importance in order to prevent the formation of severe damages. In this study, Wear coefficient of uncoated, Manganese Phosphate coated, Manganese Phosphate coated with oil lubricant, Heat treated Manganese Phosphate coated with oil lubricant on AISI D2 steels was investigated using Archard’s equation. The wear tests were performed in a pin on disk apparatus as per ASTM G-99 Standard. The volumetric wear loss and wear coefficient were evaluated through pin on disc test using a sliding velocity of 3.0 m/s under normal load of 40 N and controlled condition of temperature and humidity. Based on the results of the wear test, the Heat treated Manganese Phosphate with oil lubricant exhibited the lowest average wear coefficient and the lowest wear loss under 40 N load.

  10. Determination of the diffusion coefficient of hydrogen ion in hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuszter, Gábor; Gehér-Herczegh, Tünde; Szűcs, Árpád; Tóth, Ágota; Horváth, Dezső

    2017-05-17

    The role of diffusion in chemical pattern formation has been widely studied due to the great diversity of patterns emerging in reaction-diffusion systems, particularly in H + -autocatalytic reactions where hydrogels are applied to avoid convection. A custom-made conductometric cell is designed to measure the effective diffusion coefficient of a pair of strong electrolytes containing sodium ions or hydrogen ions with a common anion. This together with the individual diffusion coefficient for sodium ions, obtained from PFGSE-NMR spectroscopy, allows the determination of the diffusion coefficient of hydrogen ions in hydrogels. Numerical calculations are also performed to study the behavior of a diffusion-migration model describing ionic diffusion in our system. The method we present for one particular case may be extended for various hydrogels and diffusing ions (such as hydroxide) which are relevant e.g. for the development of pH-regulated self-healing mechanisms and hydrogels used for drug delivery.

  11. Doubling the annual coefficient of performance of air-conditioning units by taking advantage of small temperature lifts; Verdoppelung der Jahresarbeitszahl von Klimakaelteanlagen durch Ausnuetzung eines kleinen Temperaturhubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellig, B.; Kegel, B.; Meier, M.

    2006-07-01

    The seasonal performance factor (SPF) of chilled water systems (CWS) is closely related to the temperature lift, i.e. the difference between the temperature of the heat source and the heat sink. In many applications in building services engineering, a temperature lift of 10-20 K is in principle sufficient. However, the potential for highly efficient refrigerating systems is not fully exploited as standard chillers are designed for lifts of 30-60 K. The exergy analysis of typical CWS shows that the external exergy losses are greater than the exergy losses of the chiller. The second-law (or exergetic) efficiency is usually far below 10%. It is therefore important to avoid unnecessarily high temperature lifts. Measurements on refrigeration systems in two office buildings have shown that even in state-of-the-art CWS, considerable energy savings (up to 50%) can be achieved by persistent use of small temperature lifts. However, SPF-values around 5-6 can hardly be exceeded in systems with electric driven chillers. SPFs higher than 10 or even above 20 can only be reached with optimized free cooling processes. Basic decisions, which ultimately lead to CWS with unnecessarily high temperature lifts, are taken in the early project stages. Therefore, this study presents guidelines for the design and operation of CWS with small temperature lifts. The implementation of these simple measures will lead to a considerable reduction of energy consumption and operating costs. (author)

  12. Comparison of designing simple steel frame & coaxial brace systems by contrast of blast, using two methods of load & resistance coefficients & performance surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Hassanvand

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, because of the increasing terrorist attacks around the urban areas, designing buildings by contrast of resulted loads of blast came into consideration particularly in some sensitive buildings & vital arteries. When a blast occurs, the resulted emissions in environment leads to appearance of several penalties and endangers to the human life. Steel structures generally are designed on the basis of standard seismic and gravity loads, it is necessary to investigate the implantation of these structures under the impact of the loads originated from blast. This article presents numerical studies of two-dimensional structural models with 2 and 5 stories which are including simple steel frame system in addition to CBF. The models were analyzed by nonlinear dynamic analysis method using the instruction UFC 3-340-02 in two adverse levels of blast loads by SAP 2000 software. In this study structural models are designed and analyzed using two designing methods: the basic performance design, and Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD. Finally, two set of results are compared in detail.

  13. Dynamics analysis of SIR epidemic model with correlation coefficients and clustering coefficient in networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juping; Yang, Chan; Jin, Zhen; Li, Jia

    2018-07-14

    In this paper, the correlation coefficients between nodes in states are used as dynamic variables, and we construct SIR epidemic dynamic models with correlation coefficients by using the pair approximation method in static networks and dynamic networks, respectively. Considering the clustering coefficient of the network, we analytically investigate the existence and the local asymptotic stability of each equilibrium of these models and derive threshold values for the prevalence of diseases. Additionally, we obtain two equivalent epidemic thresholds in dynamic networks, which are compared with the results of the mean field equations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Determination of coefficient matrices for ARMA model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Dinh Tri.

    1990-10-01

    A new recursive algorithm for determining coefficient matrices of ARMA model from measured data is presented. The Yule-Walker equations for the case of ARMA model are derived from the ARMA innovation equation. The recursive algorithm is based on choosing appropriate form of the operator functions and suitable representation of the (n+1)-th order operator functions according to ones with the lower order. Two cases, when the order of the AR part is equal to one of the MA part, and the optimal case, were considered. (author) 5 refs

  15. Study of Temperature Coefficients for Parameters of Photovoltaic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Tudor Cotfas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The temperature is one of the most important factors which affect the performance of the photovoltaic cells and panels along with the irradiance. The current voltage characteristics, I-V, are measured at different temperatures from 25°C to 87°C and at different illumination levels from 400 to 1000 W/m2, because there are locations where the upper limit of the photovoltaic cells working temperature exceeds 80°C. This study reports the influence of the temperature and the irradiance on the important parameters of four commercial photovoltaic cell types: monocrystalline silicon—mSi, polycrystalline silicon—pSi, amorphous silicon—aSi, and multijunction InGaP/InGaAs/Ge (Emcore. The absolute and normalized temperature coefficients are determined and compared with their values from the related literature. The variation of the absolute temperature coefficient function of the irradiance and its significance to accurately determine the important parameters of the photovoltaic cells are also presented. The analysis is made on different types of photovoltaics cells in order to understand the effects of technology on temperature coefficients. The comparison between the open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current was also performed, calculated using the temperature coefficients, determined, and measured, in various conditions. The measurements are realized using the SolarLab system, and the photovoltaic cell parameters are determined and compared using the LabVIEW software created for SolarLab system.

  16. Transport coefficients of a dissociating gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebed', I.V.

    1987-01-01

    The calculation of the transport coefficients of a dissociating gas involves fundamental difficulties which arise when the internal degrees of freedom of the molecules are taken strictly into account. In practical calculations extensive use is made of the approximation in the context of which the dependence of a diffusion velocity of the molecule on its internal state is totally neglected. In this case the expressions for the stress tensor and the diffusion velocities coincide with the corresponding expressions for a mixture of structureless particles; in the expression for the heat flux the diffusion transport of internal energy is taken only approximately into account. Here, analytic expressions for the diffusion velocities, heat flux and stress tensor are obtained without introducing simplifying assumptions. The calculation method is based on an approximate method of calculating the transport coefficients of a multicomponent mixture of structureless particles. The relations obtained are analyzed and compared with the existing results; their accuracy is estimated. A closed system of equations of gas dynamics is presented for a number of cases of practical importance

  17. Predictive performance of the human Cell Line Activation Test (h-CLAT) for lipophilic chemicals with high octanol-water partition coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenouchi, Osamu; Miyazawa, Masaaki; Saito, Kazutoshi; Ashikaga, Takao; Sakaguchi, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    To meet the urgent need for a reliable alternative test for predicting skin sensitizing potential of many chemicals, we have developed a cell-based in vitro test, human Cell Line Activation Test (h-CLAT). However, the predictive performance for lipophilic chemicals in the h-CLAT still remains relatively unknown. Moreover, it's suggested that low water solubility of chemicals might induce false negative outcomes. Thus, in this study, we tested relatively low water soluble 37 chemicals with log Kow values above and below 3.5 in the h-CLAT. The small-scale assessment resulted in nine false negative outcomes for chemicals with log Kow values greater than 3.5. We then created a dataset of 143 chemicals by combining the existing dataset of 106 chemicals and examined the predictive performance of the h-CLAT for chemicals with a log Kow of less than 3.5; a total of 112 chemicals from the 143 chemicals in the dataset. The sensitivity and overall accuracy for the 143 chemicals were 83% and 80%, respectively. In contrast, sensitivity and overall accuracy for the 112 chemicals with log Kow values below 3.5 improved to 94% and 88%, respectively. These data suggested that the h-CLAT could successfully detect sensitizers with log Kow values up to 3.5. When chemicals with log Kow values greater than 3.5 that were deemed positive by h-CLAT were included with the 112 chemicals, the sensitivity and accuracy in terms of the resulting applicable 128 chemicals out of the 143 chemicals became 95% and 88%, respectively. The use of log Kow values gave the h-CLAT a higher predictive performance. Our results demonstrated that the h-CLAT could predict sensitizing potential of various chemicals, which contain lipophilic chemicals using a large-scale chemical dataset.

  18. Sets of Fourier coefficients using numerical quadrature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyness, J. N.

    2001-01-01

    One approach to the calculation of Fourier trigonometric coefficients f(r) of a given function f(x) is to apply the trapezoidal quadrature rule to the integral representation f(r)=(line i ntegral)(sub 0)(sup 1) f(x)e(sup -2(pi)irx)dx. Some of the difficulties in this approach are discussed. A possible way of overcoming many of these is by means of a subtraction function. Thus, one sets f(x)= h(sub p-1)(x)+ g(sub p)(x), where h(sub -1)(x) is an algebraic polynomial of degree p-1, specified in such a way that the Fourier series of g(sub p)(x) converges more rapidly than that of f(x). To obtain the Fourier coefficients of f(x), one uses an analytic expression for those of h(sub p-1)(x) and numerical quadrature to approximately those of g(sub p)(x)

  19. Chondroitin sulfate reduces the friction coefficient of articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basalo, Ines M; Chahine, Nadeen O; Kaplun, Michael; Chen, Faye H; Hung, Clark T; Ateshian, Gerard A

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of chondroitin sulfate (CS)-C on the frictional response of bovine articular cartilage. The main hypothesis is that CS decreases the friction coefficient of articular cartilage. Corollary hypotheses are that viscosity and osmotic pressure are not the mechanisms that mediate the reduction in the friction coefficient by CS. In Experiment 1, bovine articular cartilage samples (n=29) were tested in either phosphate buffered saline (PBS) or in PBS containing 100mg/ml of CS following 48h incubation in PBS or in PBS+100mg/ml CS (control specimens were not subjected to any incubation). In Experiment 2, samples (n=23) were tested in four different solutions: PBS, PBS+100mg/ml CS, and PBS+polyethylene glycol (PEG) (133 or 170mg/ml). In Experiment 3, samples (n=18) were tested in three solutions of CS (0, 10 and 100mg/ml). Frictional tests (cartilage-on-glass) were performed under constant stress (0.5MPa) for 3600s and the time-dependent friction coefficient was measured. Samples incubated or tested in a 100mg/ml CS solution exhibited a significantly lower equilibrium friction coefficient than the respective PBS control. PEG solutions delayed the rise in the friction coefficient relative to the PBS control, but did not reduce the equilibrium value. Testing in PBS+10mg/ml of CS did not cause any significant decrease in the friction coefficient. In conclusion, CS at a concentration of 100mg/ml significantly reduces the friction coefficient of bovine articular cartilage and this mechanism is neither mediated by viscosity nor osmolarity. These results suggest that direct injection of CS into the joint may provide beneficial tribological effects.

  20. Radionuclide adsorption distribution coefficients measured in Hanford sediments for the low level waste performance assessment project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, D.I.; Serne, R.J.; Owen, A.T.

    1996-08-01

    Preliminary modeling efforts for the Hanford Site's Low Level Waste-Performance Assessment (LLW PA) identified 129 I, 237 Np, 79 Se, 99 Tc, and 234 , 235 , 238 U as posing the greatest potential health hazard. It was also determined that the outcome of these simulations was very sensitive to the parameter describing the extent to which radionuclides sorb to the subsurface matrix, i.e., the distribution coefficient (K d ). The distribution coefficient is a ratio of the radionuclide concentration associated with the solid phase to that in the liquid phase. The objectives of this study were to (1) measure iodine, neptunium, technetium, and uranium K d values using laboratory conditions similar to those expected at the LLW PA disposal site, and (2) evaluate the effect of selected environmental parameters, such as pH, ionic strength, moisture concentration, and radio nuclide concentration, on K d values of selected radionuclides. It is the intent of these studies to develop technically defensible K d values for the PA. The approach taken throughout these studies was to measure the key radio nuclide K d values as a function of several environmental parameters likely to affect their values. Such an approach provides technical defensibility by identifying the mechanisms responsible for trends in K d values. Additionally, such studies provide valuable guidance regarding the range of K d values likely to be encountered in the proposed disposal site

  1. Graphical comparison of calculated internal conversion coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewbank, W.B.

    1980-11-01

    Calculated values of the coefficients of internal conversion of gamma rays in the K shell and L 1 , L 2 , L 3 subshells from published tabulations by Band and Trzhaskovskaya and by Roesel et al. at Data Nucl. Data Tables, 21, 92-514(1978) are compared with values obtained by computer interpolation among tabulated values of Hager and Seltzer Nucl. Data, A4, 1-235(1968). In some cases, agreement among the three calculations is remarkably good, and differences are generally less than 5%. In a few cases, there are differences as large as 20 to 50%, corresponding to the threshold effect described by Roesel et al. The Z-dependent resonance minimum described by Roesel et al. is also observed in the comparison of E1-E4 conversion in the L 1 subshell. In several cases (notably M1-M4 conversion in the K shell and L 1 subshell), the Band and Roesel calculations show dramatically different dependence on gamma energy and atomic number. For Z = 100, the Band calculation for E4 conversion in the L 3 subshell shows irregular behavior at energies below the K-shell binding energy. A few high-quality measurements of internal conversion coefficients (+-5%) would help greatly to establish a basis for choice among the theoretical calculations. 32 figures

  2. THE DETERMINATION OF DIFFUSION COEFFICIENT OF INVERT MATERIALS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P. Heller and J. Wright

    2000-01-01

    The Engineered Barrier System (EBS) Testing Department is performing tests in the Department of Energy's Atlas Facility to evaluate the performance of various means for increasing the time for breakthrough of radionuclides from the waste package to the base of the invert. This includes testing various barriers in the invert as a means of increasing breakthrough time through the process of diffusion. A diffusion barrier may serve as an invert material for the emplacement drifts. The invert material may consist of crushed tuff from the repository excavation at Yucca Mountain or silica sand. The objective of this report is to determine the diffusion coefficient of the crushed tuff and silica sand invert materials specified by the EBS Testing Department. The laboratory derived information from the testing was used in the Nernst-Einstein equation (Jurinak et al. 1987, p. 626) to determine the diffusion coefficient of the invert material. This report transmits the results and describes the methodology and interpretation. The scope of this report is to determine the diffusion coefficients of the invert materials mentioned above using the centrifuge at UFA Ventures. Standard laboratory procedures, described in Section 2 of this report, were used. The diffusion coefficients are to be determined over a range of moisture contents. The report contains the diffusion coefficients calculated by the Nernst-Einstein equation (Jurinak et al. 1987, p. 626) that become a part of the Technical Database. Raw data is also included in the report, however this data does not become part of the Technical Database as per Section 3.23 of AP-SIII.3Q ''Submittal and Incorporation of Data to the Technical Data Management System''. A sieve analysis of the samples was not conducted as part of this report, but sieve analysis may be accomplished as part of other reports. Two samples of crushed tuff and two samples of silica sand were tested

  3. Comparison of field-measured radon diffusion coefficients with laboratory-measured coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepel, E.A.; Silker, W.B.; Thomas, V.W.; Kalkwarf, D.R.

    1983-04-01

    Experiments were conducted to compare radon diffusion coefficients determined for 0.1-m depths of soils by a steady-state method in the laboratory and diffusion coefficients evaluated from radon fluxes through several-fold greater depths of the same soils covering uranium-mill tailings. The coefficients referred to diffusion in the total pore volume of the soils and are equivalent to values for the quantity, D/P, in the Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Uranium Milling prepared by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Two soils were tested: a well-graded sand and an inorganic clay of low plasticity. For the flux evaluations, radon was collected by adsorption on charcoal following passive diffusion from the soil surface and also from air recirculating through an aluminum tent over the soil surface. An analysis of variance in the flux evaluations showed no significant difference between these two collection methods. Radon diffusion coefficients evaluated from field data were statistically indistinguishable, at the 95% confidence level, from those measured in the laboratory; however, the low precision of the field data prevented a sensitive validation of the laboratory measurements. From the field data, the coefficients were calculated to be 0.03 +- 0.03 cm 2 /s for the sand cover and 0.0036 +- 0.0004 cm 2 /s for the clay cover. The low precision in the coefficients evaluated from field data was attributed to high variation in radon flux with time and surface location at the field site

  4. Forecast Correlation Coefficient Matrix of Stock Returns in Portfolio Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Feng

    2013-01-01

    In Modern Portfolio Theory, the correlation coefficients decide the risk of a set of stocks in the portfolio. So, to understand the correlation coefficients between returns of stocks, is a challenge but is very important for the portfolio management. Usually, the stocks with small correlation coefficients or even negative correlation coefficients are preferred. One can calculate the correlation coefficients of stock returns based on the historical stock data. However, in order to control the ...

  5. Studies on absorption coefficient near edge of multi elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisa, M.H.; Shen, H.; Yao, H.Y.; Mi, Y.; Zhou, Z.Y.; Hu, T.D.; Xie, Y.N.

    2005-01-01

    X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) was used to study the near edge mass-absorption coefficients of seven elements, such as, Ti, V, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn. It is well known that, on the near edge absorption of element, when incident X-ray a few eV change can make the absorption coefficient an order magnitude alteration. So that, there are only a few points mass-absorption coefficient at the near edge absorption and that always average value in published table. Our results showed a wide range of data, the total measured data of mass-absorption coefficient of the seven elements was about 505. The investigation confirmed that XANES is useful technique for multi-element absorption coefficient measurement. Details of experimental methods and results are given and discussed. The experimental work has been performed at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The measured values were compared with the published data. Good agreement between experimental results and published data is obtained

  6. Studies on absorption coefficient near edge of multi elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisa, M. H.; Shen, H.; Yao, H. Y.; Mi, Y.; Zhou, Z. Y.; Hu, T. D.; Xie, Y. N.

    2005-12-01

    X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) was used to study the near edge mass-absorption coefficients of seven elements, such as, Ti, V, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn. It is well known that, on the near edge absorption of element, when incident X-ray a few eV change can make the absorption coefficient an order magnitude alteration. So that, there are only a few points mass-absorption coefficient at the near edge absorption and that always average value in published table. Our results showed a wide range of data, the total measured data of mass-absorption coefficient of the seven elements was about 505. The investigation confirmed that XANES is useful technique for multi-element absorption coefficient measurement. Details of experimental methods and results are given and discussed. The experimental work has been performed at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The measured values were compared with the published data. Good agreement between experimental results and published data is obtained.

  7. Prediction of friction coefficients for gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M. F.

    1969-01-01

    Empirical relations are used for correlating laminar and turbulent friction coefficients for gases, with large variations in the physical properties, flowing through smooth tubes. These relations have been used to correlate friction coefficients for hydrogen, helium, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and air.

  8. Thermal linear expansion coefficient of structural graphites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virgil'ev, Yu.S.

    1995-01-01

    The data now available on radiation induced changes of linear thermal expansion coefficients (CTE) for native structural carbon materials (SCM) irradiated with high fluences are summarized. For different types of native and foreign SCM dose dependences of CTE changes in the temperature range of 300...1600 K and at fluences up to (2...3)x10 22 n/cm 2 (E>0.18 meV) are compared. On the base of this comparison factors defined the CTE changes under neutron irradiation are revealed and the explanation of observed phenomena is offered. Large number of the factors revealed does not allowed to calculate CTE radiation induced changes. 39 refs.; 16 figs.; 5 tabs

  9. An Investigation of the Sampling Distribution of the Congruence Coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbooks, Wendy J.; Elmore, Patricia B.

    This study developed and investigated an empirical sampling distribution of the congruence coefficient. The effects of sample size, number of variables, and population value of the congruence coefficient on the sampling distribution of the congruence coefficient were examined. Sample data were generated on the basis of the common factor model and…

  10. A comparison of two indices for the intraclass correlation coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Gwowen

    2012-12-01

    In the present study, we examined the behavior of two indices for measuring the intraclass correlation in the one-way random effects model: the prevailing ICC(1) (Fisher, 1938) and the corrected eta-squared (Bliese & Halverson, 1998). These two procedures differ both in their methods of estimating the variance components that define the intraclass correlation coefficient and in their performance of bias and mean squared error in the estimation of the intraclass correlation coefficient. In contrast with the natural unbiased principle used to construct ICC(1), in the present study it was analytically shown that the corrected eta-squared estimator is identical to the maximum likelihood estimator and the pairwise estimator under equal group sizes. Moreover, the empirical results obtained from the present Monte Carlo simulation study across various group structures revealed the mutual dominance relationship between their truncated versions for negative values. The corrected eta-squared estimator performs better than the ICC(1) estimator when the underlying population intraclass correlation coefficient is small. Conversely, ICC(1) has a clear advantage over the corrected eta-squared for medium and large magnitudes of population intraclass correlation coefficient. The conceptual description and numerical investigation provide guidelines to help researchers choose between the two indices for more accurate reliability analysis in multilevel research.

  11. Coefficient of Friction of Human Corneal Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Tawnya; Aeschlimann, Rudolf; Tosatti, Samuele; Toubouti, Youssef; Kakkassery, Joseph; Osborn Lorenz, Katherine

    2015-09-01

    A novel property evaluation methodology was used to determine the elusive value for the human corneal coefficient of friction (CoF). Using a microtribometer on 28 fresh human donor corneas with intact epithelia, the CoF was determined in 4 test solutions (≥5 corneas/solution): tear-mimicking solution (TMS) in borate-buffered saline (TMS-PS), TMS in phosphate-buffered saline (TMS-PBS), TMS with HEPES-buffered saline (TMS-HEPES), and tear-like fluid in PBS (TLF-PBS). Mean (SD) CoF values ranged from 0.006 to 0.015 and were 0.013 (0.010) in TMS-PS, 0.006 (0.003) in TMS-PBS, 0.014 (0.005) in TMS-HEPES, and 0.015 (0.009) in TLF-PBS. Statistically significant differences were shown for TMS-PBS versus TLF (P = 0.0424) and TMS-PBS versus TMS-HEPES (P = 0.0179), but not for TMS-PBS versus TMS-PS (P = 0.2389). Successful measurement of the fresh human corneal tissue CoF was demonstrated, with values differing in the evaluated buffer solutions, within this limited sample size.

  12. Molar extinction coefficients of some fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandhu, G.K.; Singh, K.; Lark, B.S.

    2002-01-01

    ) and stearic acid (C18H36O2), has been measured at the photon energies 81, 356, 511, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV. Experimental values for the molar extinction coefficient, the effective atomic number and the electron density have been derived and compared with theoretical calculations. There is good agreement......The attenuation of gamma rays in some fatty acids, viz. formic acid (CH2O2), acetic acid (C2H4O2), propionic acid (C3H6O2), butyric acid (C4H8O2), n-hexanoic acid (C6H12O2), n-caprylic acid (C8H16O2), lauric acid (C12H24O2), myristic acid (C14H28O2), palmitic acid (C16H32O2), oleic acid (C18H34O2...

  13. Coefficient of friction of a starved lubricated spur gear pair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Huaiju; Zhu, Caichao; Sun, Zhangdong; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Song, Chaosheng

    2016-01-01

    The frictional power loss issue of gear pairs becomes an important concern in both industry and academia due to the requirement of the energy saving and the improvement of power density of gear drives. A thermal starved elastohydrodynamic lubrication model is developed to study the tribological performance of a spur gear pair under starved lubrication conditions. The contact pressure, the film thickness, the temperature rise, the frictional power loss, as well as the coefficient of friction are evaluated by considering the variation of the curvature radius, the sliding/rolling motion, and the load distribution of gear tooth within the meshing period. Effects of lubrication starvation condition, load and speed on the coefficient of friction are studied.

  14. ROVIBRATIONAL QUENCHING RATE COEFFICIENTS OF HD IN COLLISIONS WITH He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolte, J. L.; Stancil, P. C.; Lee, T.-G.; Balakrishnan, N.; Forrey, R. C.

    2012-01-01

    Along with H 2 , HD has been found to play an important role in the cooling of the primordial gas for the formation of the first stars and galaxies. It has also been observed in a variety of cool molecular astrophysical environments. The rate of cooling by HD molecules requires knowledge of collisional rate coefficients with the primary impactors, H, He, and H 2 . To improve knowledge of the collisional properties of HD, we present rate coefficients for the He-HD collision system over a range of collision energies from 10 –5 to 5 × 10 3 cm –1 . Fully quantum mechanical scattering calculations were performed for initial HD rovibrational states of j = 0 and 1 for v = 0-17 which utilized accurate diatom rovibrational wave functions. Rate coefficients of all Δv = 0, –1, and –2 transitions are reported. Significant discrepancies with previous calculations, which adopted a small basis and harmonic HD wave functions for excited vibrational levels, were found for the highest previously considered vibrational state of v = 3. Applications of the He-HD rate coefficients in various astrophysical environments are briefly discussed.

  15. Dielectronic recombination rate coefficients of initially rubidium-like tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Fu, Y.; Dong, C.; Surzhykov, A.; Fritzsche, S.

    2015-01-01

    Dielectric recombination (DR) is a dominant electron recombination process in plasmas. Tungsten ions are expected to be prominent impurities in fusion plasmas so the knowledge of DR rate coefficient of tungsten ions is important to model fusion plasmas. Ab initio calculations of DR rate coefficients of initially rubidium-like W 37+ ions have been performed for the electron temperatures from 1 eV to 5*10 4 eV, by using the Flexible Atomic Code based on the relativistic configuration-interaction method. Special attention has been paid to the partial contributions to total DR rate coefficients as associated with the excitation of individual subshells. A detailed comparison of the calculations shows that the excitation from 4p subshell dominates total DR rate coefficients followed by the excitations from 4s and 4d subshells, while the contribution of excitations from 3l (l = s, p, d) subshells becomes important only at high temperatures. Besides, it is found that the electron excitations associated with Δn = 0, 1 dominate at low-temperature plasmas, however, the excitations associated with Δn ≥ 2 become non-negligible at high-temperature ones

  16. The Attenuation of Correlation Coefficients: A Statistical Literacy Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trafimow, David

    2016-01-01

    Much of the science reported in the media depends on correlation coefficients. But the size of correlation coefficients depends, in part, on the reliability with which the correlated variables are measured. Understanding this is a statistical literacy issue.

  17. Statistical analyses of local transport coefficients in Ohmic ASDEX discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmet, E.; Stroth, U.; Wagner, F.; Fahrbach, H.U.; Herrmann, W.; Kardaun, O.J.W.F.; Mayer, H.M.

    1991-01-01

    Tokamak energy transport is still an unsolved problem. Many theoretical models have been developed, which try to explain the anomalous high energy-transport coefficients. Up to now these models have been applied to global plasma parameters. A comparison of transport coefficients with global confinement time is only conclusive if the transport is dominated by one process across the plasma diameter. This, however, is not the case in most Ohmic confinement regimes, where at least three different transport mechanisms play an important role. Sawtooth activity leads to an increase in energy transport in the plasma centre. In the intermediate region turbulent transport is expected. Candidates here are drift waves and resistive fluid turbulences. At the edge, ballooning modes or rippling modes could dominate the transport. For the intermediate region, one can deduce theoretical scaling laws for τ E from turbulent theories. Predicted scalings reproduce the experimentally found density dependence of τ E in the linear Ohmic confinement regime (LOC) and the saturated regime (SOC), but they do not show the correct dependence on the isotope mass. The relevance of these transport theories can only be tested in comparing them to experimental local transport coefficients. To this purpose we have performed transport calculations on more than a hundred Ohmic ASDEX discharges. By Principal Component Analysis we determine the dimensionless components which dominate the transport coefficients and we compare the results to the predictions of various theories. (author) 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  18. On the Occurrence of Standardized Regression Coefficients Greater than One.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, John, Jr.

    1978-01-01

    It is demonstrated here that standardized regression coefficients greater than one can legitimately occur. Furthermore, the relationship between the occurrence of such coefficients and the extent of multicollinearity present among the set of predictor variables in an equation is examined. Comments on the interpretation of these coefficients are…

  19. Determination of beta attenuation coefficients by means of timing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermis, E.E.; Celiktas, C.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Beta attenuation coefficients of absorber materials were found in this study. ► For this process, a new method (timing method) was suggested. ► The obtained beta attenuation coefficients were compatible with the results from the traditional one. ► The timing method can be used to determine beta attenuation coefficient. - Abstract: Using a counting system with plastic scintillation detector, beta linear and mass attenuation coefficients were determined for bakelite, Al, Fe and plexiglass absorbers by means of timing method. To show the accuracy and reliability of the obtained results through this method, the coefficients were also found via conventional energy method. Obtained beta attenuation coefficients from both methods were compared with each other and the literature values. Beta attenuation coefficients obtained through timing method were found to be compatible with the values obtained from conventional energy method and the literature.

  20. Computing exact Fourier series coefficients of IC rectilinear polygons from low-resolution fast Fourier coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibler, Robin; Hurley, Paul

    2012-03-01

    We present a novel, accurate and fast algorithm to obtain Fourier series coefficients from an IC layer whose description consists of rectilinear polygons on a plane, and how to implement it using off-the-shelf hardware components. Based on properties of Fourier calculus, we derive a relationship between the Discrete Fourier Transforms of the sampled mask transmission function and its continuous Fourier series coefficients. The relationship leads to a straightforward algorithm for computing the continuous Fourier series coefficients where one samples the mask transmission function, compute its discrete Fourier transform and applies a frequency-dependent multiplicative factor. The algorithm is guaranteed to yield the exact continuous Fourier series coefficients for any sampling representing the mask function exactly. Computationally, this leads to significant saving by allowing to choose the maximal such pixel size and reducing the fast Fourier transform size by as much, without compromising accuracy. In addition, the continuous Fourier series is free from aliasing and follows closely the physical model of Fourier optics. We show that in some cases this can make a significant difference, especially in modern very low pitch technology nodes.

  1. Non-Markovian dynamics of quantum systems: formalism, transport coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanokov, Z.; Palchikov, Yu.V.; Antonenko, N.V.; Adamian, G.G.; Kanokov, Z.; Adamian, G.G.; Scheid, W.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The generalized Linbland equations with non-stationary transport coefficients are derived from the Langevin equations for the case of nonlinear non-Markovian noise [1]. The equations of motion for the collective coordinates are consistent with the generalized quantum fluctuation dissipation relations. The microscopic justification of the Linbland axiomatic approach is performed. Explicit expressions for the time-dependent transport coefficients are presented for the case of FC- and RWA-oscillators and a general linear coupling in coordinate and in momentum between the collective subsystem and heat bath. The explicit equations for the correlation functions show that the Onsanger's regression hypothesis does not hold exactly for the non-Markovian equations of motion. However, under some conditions the regression of fluctuations goes to zero in the same manner as the average values. In the low and high temperature regimes we found that the dissipation leads to long-time tails in correlation functions in the RWA-oscillator. In the case of the FC-oscillator a non-exponential power-like decay of the correlation function in coordinate is only obtained only at the low temperature limit. The calculated results depend rather weakly on the memory time in many applications. The found transient times for diffusion coefficients D pp (t), D qp (t) and D qq (t) are quite short. The value of classical diffusion coefficients in momentum underestimates the asymptotic value of quantum one D pp (t), but the asymptotic values of classical σ qq c and quantum σ qq second moments are close due to the negativity of quantum mixed diffusion coefficient D qp (t)

  2. The influence of meat-and-bone meal and exogenous phytase on growth performance, bone mineralisation and digestibility coefficients of protein (N), amino acids and starch in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sonia Y; Cowieson, Aaron J; Selle, Peter H

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the influence of meat-and-bone meal (MBM) and phytase inclusion on growth performance, bone mineralisation and apparent digestibility coefficients of nutrients in broiler chickens offered wheat-based diets. The feeding study comprised 7 dietary treatments: positive control (PC, 9.0% Ca and 4.5% available phosphorous [AvP] in starter, 7.0% Ca and 3.5% AvP in finisher); negative control (NC, 7.2% Ca and 3.0% AvP in starter, 5.2% Ca and 2.0% AvP in finisher) diets incorporating a 3 × 2 factorial array of 3 MBM inclusions (0, 60, 120 g/kg) and 2 levels of phytase supplementation (0 and 1,000 FYT/kg). Each treatment was allocated to 6 replicated pens with 30 birds per pen in an environmentally-controlled deep litter facility. A total of 1,260 one-day-old male Ross 308 chicks were offered starter diets from 1 to 14 days post-hatch and finisher diets from 15 to 36 days post-hatch. There were significant ( P  digestibility coefficients of starch and protein except that diets without MBM had significantly ( P  digestibility and diets with 120 g/kg MBM had significantly ( P  digestibility. No dietary influence on ileal fat digestibility was observed. There were dietary interactions on ileal digestibilities of isoleucine, valine and glycine. Phytase significantly increased glycine digestibility in diets with 60 and 120 g/kg MBM but not in diets without MBM. Including 120 g/kg MBM significantly ( P  digestibility coefficients of 13 ex 16 amino acids in the distal ileum. This study demonstrated the negative impacts of MBM on amino acid digestibility and growth performance. Also, responses to phytase were more pronounced in diets without MBM, which may have been due to their relatively lower available P and higher phytate concentrations in comparison to diets containing MBM.

  3. Measurement of the distribution coefficient between soil and Cesium-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tejada V, S.; Hernandez P, M.

    1996-01-01

    The measurement of the distribution coefficient of Cs-137 is currently performed by batch method between radioisotope solution and which was collected from the Mexican Disposal Site, near the town of Maquixco, in the state of Mexico. The Kd values were obtained in activity concentration of Cs-137 of 100 Bq. The solution is shaken for seven days at 25 o C when the maximum amount of radionuclide is absorbed by the soil. The radionuclide in solution is measured by gamma spectrometry. The results obtained from batch method show that the distribution coefficients were from 144 to 660 ml/g for fine soil particles. This work is currently done as part of the site characterization studies for the disposal of low level rad-waste. (authors). 10 refs., 2 tabs

  4. Coefficient of restitution of model repaired car body parts

    OpenAIRE

    D. Hadryś; M. Miros

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The qualification of influence of model repaired car body parts on the value of coefficient of restitution and evaluation of impact energy absorption of model repaired car body parts.Design/methodology/approach: Investigation of plastic strain and coefficient of restitution of new and repaired model car body parts with using impact test machine for different impact energy.Findings: The results of investigations show that the value of coefficient of restitution changes with speed (ene...

  5. Effect of hypothermic pulmonary artery flushing on capillary filtration coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, R S; Wangensteen, O D; Jo, J K; Tsai, M Y; Bolman, R M

    2000-07-27

    We previously demonstrated that surfactant dilution and inhibition occur immediately after pulmonary artery flushing with hypothermic modified Euro-Collins solution. Consequently, we speculated that increased capillary permeability contributed to these surfactant changes. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the effects of hypothermic pulmonary artery flushing on the pulmonary capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc), and additionally performed a biochemical analysis of surfactant. We used a murine isolated, perfused lung model to measure the pulmonary capillary filtration coefficient and hemodynamic parameters, to determine the wet to dry weight ratio, and to evaluate surfactant by biochemical analysis of lung lavage fluid. We defined three study groups. In group I (controls), we harvested lungs without hypothermic pulmonary artery flushing, and measured Kfc immediately. In group II (in situ flush), we harvested lungs after hypothermic pulmonary artery flushing with modified Euro-Collins solution, and then measured Kfc. Experiments in groups I and II were designed to evaluate persistent changes in Kfc after pulmonary artery flushing. In group III (ex vivo flush), we flushed lungs ex vivo to evaluate transient changes in Kfc during hypothermic pulmonary artery flushing. Groups I and II did not differ significantly in capillary filtration coefficient and hemodynamics. Group II showed significant alterations on biochemical surfactant analysis and a significant increase in wet-to-dry weight ratio, when compared with group I. In group III, we observed a significant transient increase in capillary filtration coefficient during pulmonary artery flushing. Hypothermic pulmonary artery flushing transiently increases the capillary filtration coefficient, leads to an increase in the wet to dry weight ratio, and induces biochemical surfactant changes. These findings could be explained by the effects of hypothermic modified Euro-Collins solution on pulmonary capillary

  6. Radionuclides distribution coefficient of soil to soil-solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    The present book addresses various issues related with the coefficient of radionuclides distribution between soil and soil solution. It consists of six sections and two appendices. The second section, following an introductory one, describes the definition of the coefficient and a procedures of its calculation. The third section deals with the application of the distribution coefficient to the prediction of movements of radionuclides through soil. Various methods for measuring the coefficient are described in the fourth section. The next section discusses a variety of factors (physical and chemical) that can affect the distribution coefficient. Measurements of the coefficient for different types of oils are listed in the sixth section. An appendix is attached to the book to show various models that can be helpful in applying the coefficient of distribution of radionuclides moving from soil into agricultural plants. (N.K.)

  7. Changes in Electrokinetic Coupling Coefficients of Granite under Triaxial Deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osamu Kuwano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrokinetic phenomena are believed to be the most likely origin of electromagnetic signals preceding or accompanying earthquakes. The intensity of the source current due to the electrokinetic phenomena is determined by the fluid flux and the electrokinetic coupling coefficient called streaming current coefficient; therefore, how the coefficient changes before rupture is essential. Here, we show how the electrokinetic coefficients change during the rock deformation experiment up to failure. The streaming current coefficient did not increase before failure, but continued to decrease up to failure, which is explained in terms of the elastic closure of capillary. On the other hand, the streaming potential coefficient, which is the product of the streaming current coefficient and bulk resistivity of the rock, increased at the onset of dilatancy. It may be due to change in bulk resistivity. Our result indicates that the zeta potential of the newly created surface does not change so much from that of the preexisting fluid rock interface.

  8. Static pressure and temperature coefficients of working standard microphones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrera Figueroa, Salvador; Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Torras Rosell, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    be a significant contribution to the uncertainty of the measurement. Determining the environmental coefficients of individual specimens of measurement microphones can be a straightforward though time-consuming procedure provided the appropriate facilities are available. An alternative is to determine them using...... coefficients. For this purpose, the environmental coefficients of some commercially available microphones have been determined experimentally, and whenever possible, compared with the coefficients determined numerically using the Boundary Element Method....... for these coefficients which are used for calibration purposes. Working standard microphones are not exempt of these influences. However, manufacturers usually provide a low frequency value of the environmental coefficient. While in some applications the influence of this coefficient may be negligible, in others it may...

  9. Experimental Investigation of Discharge Coefficient in Mesh Panel Bottom Intakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    keivan bina

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Bottom racks is a hydraulic structure which is placed in the bed of stream through which, part of flow in the main channel is diverted. These structures have very wide application in industry, irrigation, drainage and etc. Of course much attention had been paid to the study of such structures, but characteristics of flow through bottom racks are complex. The present study was directed to estimate the discharge coefficient of a new kind of bottom racks including both transverse and longitudinal bars that named "mesh panel racks" without considering any solids in the fluid. This kind of bottom intake has advantages from structural point of view and has less deformation under static and dynamic loads. Laboratory setup with three mesh panel intakes was built and the effects of various parameters such as racks slope, porosity and geometry were explored. A dimensional analysis using Buckingham theory showed the effective hydraulic and geometric factors that affect the discharge coefficient (Cd of bottom racks. Then, a statistical approach to determine the discharge coefficient of a rack structure was developed with linear and nonlinear regression using SPSS software. The efficiency of the proposed technique is high enough that the associated error is limited to 10%. Finally, hydraulic performance of mesh panel intakes was compared with regular type of bottom intakes, which consist of longitudinal bars. For this purpose, diverted discharge through both type of intakes calculated in same situation

  10. Photon albedo coefficients as functions of μ/Zeff parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubenov Vladan L.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the analyses of photon reflection from planar targets for normal photon incidence and for different shielding materials (water, concrete, aluminum, iron, and copper, in the range of the initial photon energies from 20 keV to 300 keV. Calculations of photon reflection parameters based on the results of Monte Carlo simulations of the photon transport have been performed using MCNP4C code. Integral reflection coefficients, presented as functions of the ratio of total cross-section of photons and effective atomic number of target material, show universal behaviour for all the analyzed shielding materials in the selected energy domain.

  11. Estimation of water absorption coefficient using the TDR method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchorab, Zbigniew; Majerek, Dariusz; Brzyski, Przemysław; Sobczuk, Henryk; Raczkowski, Andrzej

    2017-07-01

    Moisture accumulation and transport in the building barriers is an important feature that influences building performance, causing serious exploitation problems as increased energy use, mold and bacteria growth, decrease of indoor air parameters that may lead to sick building syndrome (SBS). One of the parameters that is used to describe moisture characteristic of the material is water absorption coefficient being the measure of capillary behavior of the material as a function of time and the surface area of the specimen. As usual it is determined using gravimetric methods according to EN 1925:1999 standard. In this article we demonstrate the possibility of determination of water absorption coefficient of autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) using the Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) method. TDR is an electric technique that had been adopted from soil science and can be successfully used for real-time monitoring of moisture transport in building materials and envelopes. Data achieved using TDR readouts show high correlation with standard method of moisture absorptivity coefficient determination.

  12. The influence of numerical models on determining the drag coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobeš Josef

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with numerical modelling of body aerodynamic drag coefficient in the transition from laminar to turbulent flow regimes, where the selection of a suitable numerical model is problematic. On the basic problem of flow around a simple body – sphere selected computational models are tested. The values obtained by numerical simulations of drag coefficients of each model are compared with the graph of dependency of the drag coefficient vs. Reynolds number for a sphere. Next the dependency of Strouhal number vs. Reynolds number is evaluated, where the vortex shedding frequency values for given speed are obtained numerically and experimentally and then the values are compared for each numerical model and experiment. The aim is to specify trends for the selection of appropriate numerical model for flow around bodies problem in which the precise description of the flow field around the obstacle is used to define the acoustic noise source. Numerical modelling is performed by finite volume method using CFD code.

  13. Friction coefficient of skin in real-time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivamani, Raja K; Goodman, Jack; Gitis, Norm V; Maibach, Howard I

    2003-08-01

    Friction studies are useful in quantitatively investigating the skin surface. Previous studies utilized different apparatuses and materials for these investigations but there was no real-time test parameter control or monitoring. Our studies incorporated the commercially available UMT Series Micro-Tribometer, a tribology instrument that permits real-time monitoring and calculation of the important parameters in friction studies, increasing the accuracy over previous tribology and friction measurement devices used on skin. Our friction tests were performed on four healthy volunteers and on abdominal skin samples. A stainless steel ball was pressed on to the skin with at a pre-set load and then moved across the skin at a constant velocity of 5 mm/min. The UMT continuously monitored the friction force of the skin and the normal force of the ball to calculate the friction coefficient in real-time. Tests investigated the applicability of Amonton's law, the impact of increased and decreased hydration, and the effect of the application of moisturizers. The friction coefficient depends on the normal load applied, and Amonton's law does not provide an accurate description for the skin surface. Application of water to the skin increased the friction coefficient and application of isopropyl alcohol decreased it. Fast acting moisturizers immediately increased the friction coefficient, but did not have the prolonged effect of the slow, long lasting moisturizers. The UMT is capable of making real-time measurements on the skin and can be used as an effective tool to study friction properties. Results from the UMT measurements agree closely with theory regarding the skin surface.

  14. Calculation of transport coefficients in an axisymmetric plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shumaker, D.E.

    1976-01-01

    A method of calculating the transport coefficient in an axisymmetric toroidal plasma is presented. This method is useful in calculating the transport coefficients in a Tokamak plasma confinement device. The particle density and temperature are shown to be a constant on a magnetic flux surface. Transport equations are given for the total particle flux and total energy flux crossing a closed toroidal surface. Also transport equations are given for the toroidal magnetic flux. A computer code was written to calculate the transport coefficients for a three species plasma, electrons and two species of ions. This is useful for calculating the transport coefficients of a plasma which contains impurities. It was found that the particle and energy transport coefficients are increased by a large amount, and the transport coefficients for the toroidal magnetic field are reduced by a small amount. For example, a deuterium plasma with 1.3 percent oxygen, one of the particle transport coefficients is increased by a factor of about four. The transport coefficients for the toroidal magnetic flux are reduced by about 20 percent. The increase in the particle transport coefficient is due to the collisional scattering of the deuterons by the heavy oxygen ions which is larger than the deuteron electron scattering, the normal process for particle transport in a two species plasma. The reduction in the toroidal magnetic flux transport coefficients are left unexplained

  15. Experimental Evaluation of the Discharge Coefficient of a Centre-Pivot Roof Window

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iqbal, Ahsan; Afshari, Alireza; Heiselberg, Per

    2013-01-01

    equation. This equation involves a discharge coefficient of the window. The value of the discharge coefficient is the major cause of erroneous estimation of airflow rates. This paper focuses on the experimental study of the discharge coefficient (CD) of a centre-pivot roof window. The measurements were...... performed in the energy flex house of the Technological Institute - Denmark. The discharge coefficient is evaluated for both inflows and outflows. It is concluded that the use of single value of CD for different flap opening angles is one of the cause of erroneous estimation. Likewise, the value of CD...

  16. A study on a characteristic of stem friction coefficient for motor operated flexible wedge gate valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae-Woong; Park, Sung-Geun; Lee, Sang-Guk; Kang, Shin-Cheul

    2009-01-01

    Stem friction coefficient is a coefficient that represents friction between thread leads of the stem and stem nut. It is an important factor to determine output thrust delivered from the actuator to the valve stem in assessing performance of motor operated valves. This study analyzes the effects of changes in differential pressure on stem friction coefficient, and determines the bounding value of stem friction coefficient. A dynamic test was conducted on multiple flexible wedge gate valves in various differential pressure conditions, and the test data was statistically analyzed to determine the bounding value. The results show that stem friction coefficient in middle and high differential pressure is influenced by fluid pressure, while stem friction coefficient in low differential pressure is almost not affected by fluid pressure. In addition, it is found that the bounding value of stem friction coefficient is higher in a closing stroke than in an opening stroke.

  17. DCCO and SCCO: measurements of diffusion coefficients and of thermodiffusion in microgravity; DCCO et SCCO: mesures de coefficients de diffusion et de thermodiffusion en microgravite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legros, J.C.; Van Vaerenbergh, S.; Dubois, F.; Decroly, Y. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium); Montel, F. [ELF-Aquitaine Production, 64 - Pau (France); Goodman, S. [C-CORE, New Foundland, (Canada); Bekaert, G. [SABCA, Bruxelles (Belgium); Van Ransbeek, E. [IASB-BIRA, Bruxelles (Belgium)

    1996-12-31

    Measurements of diffusion coefficients of ternary systems and of thermodiffusion coefficients of multicomponent systems, including crude oils, have been undertaken by MRC and Elf-Aquitaine. The experiments DCCO and SCCO (respectively Diffusion and Soret Coefficients of Crude Oils) will be performed in 1997 and 1998 in GAS containers on the Space Shuttle. The 9 systems of DCCO are analyzed by Mach-Zehnder bicolor interferometry. The samples of the 18 systems of SCCO, among which three at 300 bars and at a mean temperature of 60 deg. C, will be analyzed after recovery on ground by a chromatographic technique. Such measurements performed in microgravity, like the measurements of Soret coefficients of binary solutions performed in the microgravity SCM experiments, are necessary reference measurements. (authors) 12 refs.

  18. On some properties of SU(3 fusion coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Coquereaux

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Three aspects of the SU(3 fusion coefficients are revisited: the generating polynomials of fusion coefficients are written explicitly; some curious identities generalizing the classical Freudenthal–de Vries formula are derived; and the properties of the fusion coefficients under conjugation of one of the factors, previously analyzed in the classical case, are extended to the affine algebra suˆ(3 at finite level.

  19. Micro- and macroscale coefficients of friction of cementitious materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomboy, Gilson; Sundararajan, Sriram; Wang, Kejin

    2013-01-01

    Millions of metric tons of cementitious materials are produced, transported and used in construction each year. The ease or difficulty of handling cementitious materials is greatly influenced by the material friction properties. In the present study, the coefficients of friction of cementitious materials were measured at the microscale and macroscale. The materials tested were commercially-available Portland cement, Class C fly ash, and ground granulated blast furnace slag. At the microscale, the coefficient of friction was determined from the interaction forces between cementitious particles using an Atomic Force Microscope. At the macroscale, the coefficient of friction was determined from stresses on bulk cementitious materials under direct shear. The study indicated that the microscale coefficient of friction ranged from 0.020 to 0.059, and the macroscale coefficient of friction ranged from 0.56 to 0.75. The fly ash studied had the highest microscale coefficient of friction and the lowest macroscale coefficient of friction. -- Highlights: •Microscale (interparticle) coefficient of friction (COF) was determined with AFM. •Macroscale (bulk) COF was measured under direct shear. •Fly ash had the highest microscale COF and the lowest macroscale COF. •Portland cement against GGBFS had the lowest microscale COF. •Portland cement against Portland cement had the highest macroscale COF

  20. Coefficients of viscosity for heavy impurity element in tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sharif, R N; Bekhit, A M [Plasma Physics dept., NRC, Atomic energy Authority, Cairo, (Egypt)

    1997-12-31

    The transport of heavy impurity element in to tokamak was studied theoretically. The viscosity coefficients of chromium impurities has been calculated in 13 and 21 moment approximation, in the limit of strong fields where is the gyrofrequency of species it was found that the off diagonal coefficient approximately tends to zero. This means that the friction force in the off-diagonal direction is very small, for the perpendicular viscosity coefficient the two approximation coincide to each other. 3 figs.

  1. Effect of electrostatic field on dynamic friction coefficient of pistachio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H Aghkhani

    2016-04-01

    25 mm and with wall thickness of 5 mm placed on trolleys. In the bottom of the container a separate aluminum plate was installed as the negative pole of the electric field. The friction plates as a positive pole placed on top of the sample. There were no contact between friction plates and walls of vessel (samples were about 2 to 3 mm higher from the edges of wall. Frictional force changes due to movement of table, measured and recorded by an accurate load cell. From force-displacement curves, the coefficient of dynamic friction and static coefficient of friction calculated. In general, according to the experimental design, 486 tests were performed. Results and Discussion: According to the results of statistical analysis, there is significant interaction affect between pistachios type and electrical field, as well as, the interaction between electrical field and speed, on dynamic coefficient of friction. It means two pistachio types can be separated by electrical charging. Different physical properties of surface of filled non-splits pistachio nuts (such as corners and edges and filled splits ones, caused differences in the distribution of electric charge and as a result, its interaction with the electric field were significant. Changes in dynamic coefficient of friction according to the electric field intensity at different levels of moisture content and speed on the friction surfaces of iron, aluminum and rubber, was drawn in Fig.4, 5 and 6, respectively. These figures reflected the reduction of dynamic coefficient of friction by increasing the movement speed of table. According to Fig.7, increasing the intensity of the electric field increases the dynamic coefficient of friction. Because this leads to build the opposition charge on samples and galvanized iron sheets, and with increase of electrical field, these charges will rise. Fig.9 shows different trends of variation of dynamic coefficient of friction against moisture on rubber surface. This chart shows the

  2. Determination of dispersion coefficients in the River Plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maggio, G.E.; Graino, J.G.; Kopp, U.I.; Tripoli, C.R.

    1987-01-01

    The determination of dispersion coefficients of contaminants through a radioactive tracer was performed as a contribution to the development of a mathematical model for a zone of the River Plate, close to the effluent discharge. During March 1987, six operations of tracer (I-131) injection and follow-up were carried out. The injection was performed by breaking a bulb under water and the follow-up of the 'radioactive spot' was done by means of a boat. Once the 'radioactive spot' was located (approximately 2 hours after the injection) a series of transversal movements over it was effected, measuring the activity concentration by means of a submerged detector. At the same time the coordinates of each point were determined in order to draw a map of the activity distribution. This procedure was repeated for different spot positions. This set of data can be plotted on a map of the zone under study, so as to obtain a set of iso activity curves. However, these curves would be representative provided that corrections are made for the boat speed, the water speed and the half-life of radionuclide. From each set of iso activity curves, the variance and the increase of variance, as well as the dispersion coefficients, can be determined. This procedure was applied to each one of the six above mentioned operations. Presently, different values of dispersion coefficient are available for different river conditions. These values, together with other parameters, such as wind velocity, temperature, salinity, bacterial behaviour, etc., will allow the calibration of the mathematical model. (Author)

  3. An Investigation of the Sampling Distributions of Equating Coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Frank B.

    1996-01-01

    Using the characteristic curve method for dichotomously scored test items, the sampling distributions of equating coefficients were examined. Simulations indicate that for the equating conditions studied, the sampling distributions of the equating coefficients appear to have acceptable characteristics, suggesting confidence in the values obtained…

  4. Analytical scheme calculations of angular momentum coupling and recoupling coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deveikis, A.; Kuznecovas, A.

    2007-03-01

    We investigate the Scheme programming language opportunities to analytically calculate the Clebsch-Gordan coefficients, Wigner 6j and 9j symbols, and general recoupling coefficients that are used in the quantum theory of angular momentum. The considered coefficients are calculated by a direct evaluation of the sum formulas. The calculation results for large values of quantum angular momenta were compared with analogous calculations with FORTRAN and Java programming languages.

  5. Analytical scheme calculations of angular momentum coupling and recoupling coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deveikis, A.; Kuznecovas, A.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the Scheme programming language opportunities to analytically calculate the Clebsch-Gordan coefficients, Wigner 6j and 9j symbols, and general recoupling coefficients that are used in the quantum theory of angular momentum. The considered coefficients are calculated by a direct evaluation of the sum formulas. The calculation results for large values of quantum angular momenta were compared with analogous calculations with FORTRAN and Java programming languages

  6. On the Connection Coefficients of the Chebyshev-Boubaker Polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Barry

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Chebyshev-Boubaker polynomials are the orthogonal polynomials whose coefficient arrays are defined by ordinary Riordan arrays. Examples include the Chebyshev polynomials of the second kind and the Boubaker polynomials. We study the connection coefficients of this class of orthogonal polynomials, indicating how Riordan array techniques can lead to closed-form expressions for these connection coefficients as well as recurrence relations that define them.

  7. Calculation of transport coefficients in an axisymmetric plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shumaker, D.E.

    1977-01-01

    A method of calculating the transport coefficient in an axisymmetric toroidal plasma is presented. This method is useful in calculating the transport coefficients in a Tokamak plasma confinement device. The particle density and temperature are shown to be a constant on a magnetic flux surface. Transport equations are given for the total particle flux and total energy flux crossing a closed toroidal surface. Also transport equations are given for the toroidal magnetic flux. A computer code was written to calculate the transport coefficients for a three species plasma, electrons and two species of ions. This is useful for calculating the transport coefficients of a plasma which contains impurities. It was found that the particle and energy transport coefficients are increased by a large amount, and the transport coefficients for the toroidal magnetic field are reduced by a small amount

  8. Theoretical investigation of the extinction coefficient of magnetic fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang Xiaopeng; Xuan Yimin, E-mail: ymxuan@mail.njust.edu.cn; Li Qiang [Nanjing University of Science and Technology, School of Energy and Power Engineering (China)

    2013-05-15

    A new theoretical approach for calculating the extinction coefficient of magnetic fluid is proposed, which is based on molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and T-matrix method. By means of this approach, the influence of particle diameter, particle volume fraction, and external magnetic filed on the extinction coefficient of magnetic fluid is investigated. The results show that the extinction coefficient of the magnetic fluid linearly increases with increase in the particle volume fraction. For a given particle volume fraction, the extinction coefficient increases with increase in the particle diameter which varies from 5 to 20 nm. When a uniform external magnetic filed is applied to the magnetic fluid, the extinction coefficient of the magnetic fluid presents an anisotropic feature. These results agree well with the reported experimental results. The proposed approach is applicable to investigating the optical properties of magnetic fluids.

  9. Clebsch-Gordan and Racah coefficients of SUpq(2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kachurik, I.I.

    1993-01-01

    Explicit expressions for the Clebsch-Gordan coefficients and for the Racah coefficients of the two-parametric quantum algebra SU pq (2) are derived. They are given as finite sums and as terminating basic hypergeometric functions 3 φ 2 and 4 φ 3 . It is indicated how other expressions for these coefficients can be derived with the help of basic hypergeometric functions. (author). 11 refs

  10. Wavelet Correlation Coefficient of 'strongly correlated' financial time series

    OpenAIRE

    Razdan, Ashok

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we use wavelet concepts to show that correlation coefficient between two financial data's is not constant but varies with scale from high correlation value to strongly anti-correlation value This studies is important because correlation coefficient is used to quantify degree of independence between two variables. In econophysics correlation coefficient forms important input to evolve hierarchial tree and minimum spanning tree of financial data.

  11. Kinetic theory of the interdiffusion coefficient in dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boercker, D.B.

    1986-08-01

    Naive applications of Spitzer's theory to very dense plasmas can lead to negative diffusion coefficients. The interdiffusion coefficients in Binary Ionic Mixtures (two species of point ions in a uniform neutralizing background) have been calculated recently using molecular dynamics techniques. These calculations can provide useful benchmarks for theoretical evaluations of the diffusion coefficient in dense plasma mixtures. This paper gives a brief description of a kinetic theoretic approximation to the diffusion coefficient which generalizes Spitzer to high density and is in excellent agreement with the computer simulations. 15 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  12. Calculation of effective absorption coefficient for aerosols of internal mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Bo; Huang Yinbo; Fan Chengyu; Qiao Chunhong

    2012-01-01

    The effective absorption coefficient with time of strong absorbing aerosol made of carbon dusts and water of internal mixture is analyzed, and the influence of different wavelengths and radius ratios on it is discussed. The shorter the wavelength is, the larger the effective absorption coefficient is , and more quickly it increases during 1-100 μs, and the largest increase if 132.65% during 1-100 μs. Different ratios between inner and outer radius have large influence on the effective absorption coefficient. The larger the ratio is, the larger the effective absorption coefficient is, and more quickly it increases during 1-100 μs. The increase of the effective absorption coefficient during 1-100 μs is larger than that during 100-1000 μs, and the largest increase is 138.66% during 1-100 μs. (authors)

  13. Measurement of reactivity coefficients for code validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuding, Matthias; Loetsch, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    In the year 2003 measurements in the cold reactor state have been performed at the NPP KKI 2 in order to validate the codes that are used for reactor core calculations and especially for the proof of the shutdown margin that is produced by calculations only. For full power states code verification is quite easy because the calculations can be compared with different measured values, e.g. with the activation values determined by the aeroball system. For cold reactor states, however the data base is smaller, especially for reactor cores that are quite 'inhomogeneous' and have rather high Pu-fiss-and 235 U-contents. At the same time the cold reactor state is important regarding the shutdown margin. For these reasons the measurements mentioned above have been performed in order to check the accuracy of the codes that are used by the operator and by our organization for many years. Basically, boron concentrations and control rod worths for different configurations have been measured. The results of the calculation show a very good agreement with the measured values. Therefore, it can be stated that the operator's as well as our code system is suitable for routine use, e.g. during licensing procedures (Authors)

  14. A study of temperature coefficients of reactivity for a Savannah River Site tritium-producing charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, D.L.; Frost, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    Temperature coefficients of reactivity have been calculated for the Mark 22 assembly in the K-14 charge at the Savannah River Site. Temperature coefficients are the most important reactivity feedback mechanism in SRS reactors; they are used in all safety analyses performed in support of the Safety Analysis Report, and in operations to predict reactivity changes with control rod moves. The effects of the radial location of the assembly in the reactor, isotope depletion, and thermal expansion of the metal components on the temperature coefficients have also been investigated. With the exception of the dead space coefficient, all of the regional temperature coefficients were found to be negative or zero. All of the temperature coefficients become more negative with isotopic depletion over the fuel cycle. Coefficients also become more negative with increasing radial distance of the assembly from the center of the core; this is proven from first principles and confirmed by calculations. It was found that axial and radial thermal expansion effects on the metal fuel and target tubes counteract one another, indicating these effects do not need to be considered in future temperature coefficient calculations for the Mark 22 assembly. The moderator coefficient was found to be nonlinear with temperature; thus, the values derived for accidents involving increases in moderator temperature are significantly different than those for decreases in moderator temperature, although the moderator coefficient is always negative

  15. Structural relaxation and thermal conductivity coefficient of liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdurasulov, A.

    1992-01-01

    Present article is devoted to structural relaxation and thermal conductivity coefficient of liquids. The thermoelastic properties of liquids were studied taking into account the contribution of translational and structural relaxation. The results of determination of dynamic coefficient of thermal conductivity of liquids taking into account the contribution of translational and structural relaxation are presented.

  16. Taylor coefficients and coefficient multipliers of Hardy and Bergman-type spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Jevtić, Miroljub; Arsenović, Miloš

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a systematic overview of the theory of Taylor coefficients of functions in some classical spaces of analytic functions and especially of the coefficient multipliers between spaces of Hardy type. Offering a comprehensive reference guide to the subject, it is the first of its kind in this area. After several introductory chapters covering the basic material, a large variety of results obtained over the past 80 years, including the most recent ones, are treated in detail. Several chapters end with discussions of practical applications and related topics that graduate students and experts in other subjects may find useful for their own purposes. Thus, a further aim of the book is to communicate to non-specialists some concrete facts that may be of value in their own work. The book can also be used as a textbook or a supplementary reference for an advanced graduate course. It is primarily intended for specialists in complex and functional analysis, graduate students, and experts in other related...

  17. Diffusion coefficients gases, dissolved in fluid of NPPs circulation contours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piontkovskij, A.I.

    2000-01-01

    In article is brought analysis of diverse gases diffusion coefficients computation methods, dissolved in liquid. On the basis of this analysis and treatment of being equalizations for concrete gases and certain parameters offers universal diffusion coefficients determination dependence for diverse gases in wide range of parameters, circulation contours typical for work NPP

  18. Design of wind turbine airfoils based on maximum power coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Jiangtao; Chen, Jin; Cheng, Jiangtao

    2010-01-01

    Based on the blade element momentum (BEM) theory, the power coefficient of a wind turbine can be expressed in function of local tip speed ratio and lift-drag ratio. By taking the power coefficient in a predefined range of angle of attack as the final design objective and combining with an airfoil...

  19. Testing the Difference of Correlated Agreement Coefficients for Statistical Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwet, Kilem L.

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the problem of testing the difference between two correlated agreement coefficients for statistical significance. A number of authors have proposed methods for testing the difference between two correlated kappa coefficients, which require either the use of resampling methods or the use of advanced statistical modeling…

  20. Modeling diffusion coefficients in binary mixtures of polar and non-polar compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medvedev, Oleg; Shapiro, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    The theory of transport coefficients in liquids, developed previously, is tested on a description of the diffusion coefficients in binary polar/non-polar mixtures, by applying advanced thermodynamic models. Comparison to a large set of experimental data shows good performance of the model. Only f...

  1. Generalization of Clustering Coefficients to Signed Correlation Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Giulio; Perugini, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The recent interest in network analysis applications in personality psychology and psychopathology has put forward new methodological challenges. Personality and psychopathology networks are typically based on correlation matrices and therefore include both positive and negative edge signs. However, some applications of network analysis disregard negative edges, such as computing clustering coefficients. In this contribution, we illustrate the importance of the distinction between positive and negative edges in networks based on correlation matrices. The clustering coefficient is generalized to signed correlation networks: three new indices are introduced that take edge signs into account, each derived from an existing and widely used formula. The performances of the new indices are illustrated and compared with the performances of the unsigned indices, both on a signed simulated network and on a signed network based on actual personality psychology data. The results show that the new indices are more resistant to sample variations in correlation networks and therefore have higher convergence compared with the unsigned indices both in simulated networks and with real data. PMID:24586367

  2. Coefficients of tracer transfer through membranes. Pt. 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorabialska, A; Hawlicka, E; Plonka, A [Politechnika Lodzka (Poland)

    1974-01-01

    The doubled value of the tracer transfer coefficient in the self-diffusion process is equal to the sum of tracer transfer coefficients in the diffusion and interfusion processes. The fundamental phenomenological relation can be deduced for the coefficients of tracer transfer between two phases of electrolyte solutions spearated by a virtual boundary. Indeed, the doubled value of the tracer mobility in the self-diffusion experiment (no concentration gradient of the traced substance) is equal to the sum of the tracer mobilities in the diffusion (tracer movement along with the concentration gradient of the traced substance) and interfusion experiments (tracer movement against the concentration gradient of the traced substance). Thus the doubled value of the tracer transfer coefficient in the self-diffusion process should be equal to the sum of tracer transfer coefficients in the diffusion and interfusion processes. The experimental verification of that fundamental relation is presented.

  3. Permeability dependence of streaming potential coefficient in porous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thanh, L.D.; Sprik, R.

    2015-01-01

    In theory, the streaming potential coefficient depends not only on the zeta potential but also on the permeability of the rocks that partially determines the surface conductivity of the rocks. However, in practice, it is hard to show the permeability dependence of streaming potential coefficients

  4. Graphical Solution of the Monic Quadratic Equation with Complex Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, A. D.

    2015-01-01

    There are many geometrical approaches to the solution of the quadratic equation with real coefficients. In this article it is shown that the monic quadratic equation with complex coefficients can also be solved graphically, by the intersection of two hyperbolas; one hyperbola being derived from the real part of the quadratic equation and one from…

  5. Approximation of the Frame Coefficients using Finite Dimensional Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Casazza, P.

    1997-01-01

    _i \\}_{i=1}^{n}$ of the frame and theorthogonal projection $P_n$ onto its span. For $f \\in \\h ,P_nf$ has a representation as a linear combination of $f_i , i=1,2,..n,$and the corresponding coefficients can be calculated using finite dimensionalmethods. We find conditions implying that those coefficients...

  6. Stochastic Modelling of the Diffusion Coefficient for Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In the paper, a new stochastic modelling of the diffusion coefficient D is presented. The modelling is based on physical understanding of the diffusion process and on some recent experimental results. The diffusion coefficients D is strongly dependent on the w/c ratio and the temperature....

  7. Explicit solutions of two nonlinear dispersive equations with variable coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai Shaoyong; Lv Xiumei; Wu Yonghong

    2008-01-01

    A mathematical technique based on an auxiliary equation and the symbolic computation system Matlab is developed to construct the exact solutions for a generalized Camassa-Holm equation and a nonlinear dispersive equation with variable coefficients. It is shown that the variable coefficients of the derivative terms in the equations cause the qualitative change in the physical structures of the solutions

  8. Effective diffusion coefficient of radon in concrete, theory and method for field measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culot, M.V.J.; Olson, H.G.; Schiager, K.J.

    1976-01-01

    A linear diffusion model serves as the basis for determination of an effective radon diffusion coefficient in concrete. The coefficient was needed to later allow quantitative prediction of radon accumulation within and behind concrete walls after application of an impervious radon barrier. A resolution of certain discrepancies noted in the literature in the use of an effective diffusion coefficient to model diffusion of a radioactive gas through a porous medium is suggested. An outline of factors expected to affect the concrete physical structure and the effective diffusion coefficient of radon through it is also presented. Finally, a field method for evaluating effective radon diffusion coefficients in concrete is proposed and results of measurements performed on a concrete foundation wall are compared with similar published values of gas diffusion coefficients in concrete. (author)

  9. Concepts to increase the seasonal coefficient of performance of an air-water heat pump: Comparison according to costs and benefits; Konzepte zur Erhoehung der saisonalen Leistungszahl einer Luft-Wasser-Waermepumpe. Vergleich hinsichtlich Kosten und Nutzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mader, Gunda [Danfoss A/S, Nordborg (Denmark); Tiedemann, Thomas [Danfoss GmbH, Offenbach (Germany); Palm, Bjoern [KTH, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-07-01

    The regulation EN 14825 defines three climate profiles for the calculation of the seasonal coefficient of performance (SCOP) of an air-water heat pump. Nine key figures for the evaluation of a system result together with three possible profiles of the water intake temperature. In particular, the combination of cold climate profile and enhanced intake temperatures is particularly critical with respect to the achievable SCOP. With the classic system design with two heat exchangers, a compressor and an expansion valve, sufficiently high SCOP values can often no longer be achieved, or the heat pump cannot be operated no longer due to an enhanced outlet temperatures of the refrigerant at the compressor and at low ambient temperatures. Different concepts concerning the system design, component selection and control are known in order to extend the operational area of a heat pump to large differences between the temperature of the heat source and the temperature of the heat sink as well as to achieve simultaneously enhanced SCOP values. The numerical screening method is used in order to compare several concepts of this type by means of the different SCOP values as well as the costs attributable to the plant. For this, the Pareto curves of the optimal combination of the heat transfer surfaces are determined taking into account the condition of a limited refrigerant temperature at the compressor outlet. Different refrigerants also are included in the analysis. The impact of different control parameters and control strategies as well as the different choice of components are investigated by means of a sensitivity analysis.

  10. Minimum wall pressure coefficient of orifice plate energy dissipater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-zheng Ai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Orifice plate energy dissipaters have been successfully used in large-scale hydropower projects due to their simple structure, convenient construction procedure, and high energy dissipation ratio. The minimum wall pressure coefficient of an orifice plate can indirectly reflect its cavitation characteristics: the lower the minimum wall pressure coefficient is, the better the ability of the orifice plate to resist cavitation damage is. Thus, it is important to study the minimum wall pressure coefficient of the orifice plate. In this study, this coefficient and related parameters, such as the contraction ratio, defined as the ratio of the orifice plate diameter to the flood-discharging tunnel diameter; the relative thickness, defined as the ratio of the orifice plate thickness to the tunnel diameter; and the Reynolds number of the flow through the orifice plate, were theoretically analyzed, and their relationships were obtained through physical model experiments. It can be concluded that the minimum wall pressure coefficient is mainly dominated by the contraction ratio and relative thickness. The lower the contraction ratio and relative thickness are, the larger the minimum wall pressure coefficient is. The effects of the Reynolds number on the minimum wall pressure coefficient can be neglected when it is larger than 105. An empirical expression was presented to calculate the minimum wall pressure coefficient in this study.

  11. Riesz frames and approximation of the frame coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casazza, P.; Christensen, Ole

    1998-01-01

    A frame is a fmaily {f i } i=1 ∞ of elements in a Hilbert space with the property that every element in can be written as a (infinite) linear combination of the frame elements. Frame theory describes how one can choose the corresponding coefficients, which are called frame coefficients. From...... the mathematical point of view this is gratifying, but for applications it is a problem that the calculation requires inversion of an operator on . The projection method is introduced in order to avoid this problem. The basic idea is to consider finite subfamilies {f i } i=1 n of the frame and the orthogonal...... projection Pn onto its span. For has a representation as a linear combination of fi, i=1,2,..., n and the corresponding coefficients can be calculated using finite dimensional methods. We find conditions implying that those coefficients converge to the correct frame coefficients as n→∞, in which case we have...

  12. Activity coefficients of electrons and holes in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orazem, M.E.; Newman, J.

    1984-01-01

    Dilute-solution transport equations with constant activity coefficients are commonly used to model semiconductors. These equations are consistent with a Boltzmann distribution and are invalid in regions where the species concentration is close to the respective site concentration. A more rigorous treatment of transport in a semiconductor requires activity coefficients which are functions of concentration. Expressions are presented for activity coefficients of electrons and holes in semiconductors for which conduction- and valence-band energy levels are given by the respective bandedge energy levels. These activity coefficients are functions of concentration and are thermodynamically consistent. The use of activity coefficients in macroscopic transport relationships allows a description of electron transport in a manner consistent with the Fermi-Dirac distribution

  13. Determination of friction coefficient in unconfined compression of brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Badar; Destrade, Michel; Gilchrist, Michael D

    2012-10-01

    Unconfined compression tests are more convenient to perform on cylindrical samples of brain tissue than tensile tests in order to estimate mechanical properties of the brain tissue because they allow homogeneous deformations. The reliability of these tests depends significantly on the amount of friction generated at the specimen/platen interface. Thus, there is a crucial need to find an approximate value of the friction coefficient in order to predict a possible overestimation of stresses during unconfined compression tests. In this study, a combined experimental-computational approach was adopted to estimate the dynamic friction coefficient μ of porcine brain matter against metal platens in compressive tests. Cylindrical samples of porcine brain tissue were tested up to 30% strain at variable strain rates, both under bonded and lubricated conditions in the same controlled environment. It was established that μ was equal to 0.09±0.03, 0.18±0.04, 0.18±0.04 and 0.20±0.02 at strain rates of 1, 30, 60 and 90/s, respectively. Additional tests were also performed to analyze brain tissue under lubricated and bonded conditions, with and without initial contact of the top platen with the brain tissue, with different specimen aspect ratios and with different lubricants (Phosphate Buffer Saline (PBS), Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and Silicone). The test conditions (lubricant used, biological tissue, loading velocity) adopted in this study were similar to the studies conducted by other research groups. This study will help to understand the amount of friction generated during unconfined compression of brain tissue for strain rates of up to 90/s. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Visualising the Roots of Quadratic Equations with Complex Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardell, Nicholas S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a natural extension of the root visualisation techniques first presented by Bardell (2012) for quadratic equations with real coefficients. Consideration is now given to the familiar quadratic equation "y = ax[superscript 2] + bx + c" in which the coefficients "a," "b," "c" are generally…

  15. The κ-Generalizations of Stirling Approximation and Multinominal Coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuaki Wada

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Stirling approximation of the factorials and multinominal coefficients are generalized based on the κ-generalized functions introduced by Kaniadakis. We have related the κ-generalized multinominal coefficients to the κ-entropy by introducing a new κ-product operation, which exists only when κ ≠ 0.

  16. Determination of coefficient of thermal expansion effects on Louisiana's PCC pavement design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    With the development of the Mechanistic Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG) as a new pavement design tool, the : coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) is now considered a more important design parameter in estimating pavement : performance inclu...

  17. Improvement of calculation method for temperature coefficient of HTTR by neutronics calculation code based on diffusion theory. Analysis for temperature coefficient by SRAC code system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Minoru; Takamatsu, Kuniyoshi

    2007-03-01

    The HTTR temperature coefficients required for the core dynamics calculations had been calculated from the HTTR core calculation results by the diffusion code with which the corrections had been performed using the core calculation results by the Monte-Carlo code MVP. This calculation method for the temperature coefficients was considered to have some issues to be improved. Then, the calculation method was improved to obtain the temperature coefficients in which the corrections by the Monte-Carlo code were not required. Specifically, from the point of view of neutron spectrum calculated by lattice calculations, the lattice model was revised which had been used for the calculations of the temperature coefficients. The HTTR core calculations were performed by the diffusion code with the group constants which were generated by the lattice calculations with the improved lattice model. The core calculations and the lattice calculations were performed by the SRAC code system. The HTTR core dynamics calculation was performed with the temperature coefficient obtained from the core calculation results. In consequence, the core dynamics calculation result showed good agreement with the experimental data and the valid temperature coefficient could be calculated only by the diffusion code without the corrections by Monte-Carlo code. (author)

  18. Determination of absolute internal conversion coefficients using the SAGE spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorri, J., E-mail: juha.m.t.sorri@jyu.fi [University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyvaskyla (Finland); Greenlees, P.T.; Papadakis, P.; Konki, J. [University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyvaskyla (Finland); Cox, D.M. [University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyvaskyla (Finland); Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Auranen, K.; Partanen, J.; Sandzelius, M.; Pakarinen, J.; Rahkila, P.; Uusitalo, J. [University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyvaskyla (Finland); Herzberg, R.-D. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Smallcombe, J.; Davies, P.J.; Barton, C.J.; Jenkins, D.G. [Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-11

    A non-reference based method to determine internal conversion coefficients using the SAGE spectrometer is carried out for transitions in the nuclei of {sup 154}Sm, {sup 152}Sm and {sup 166}Yb. The Normalised-Peak-to-Gamma method is in general an efficient tool to extract internal conversion coefficients. However, in many cases the required well-known reference transitions are not available. The data analysis steps required to determine absolute internal conversion coefficients with the SAGE spectrometer are presented. In addition, several background suppression methods are introduced and an example of how ancillary detectors can be used to select specific reaction products is given. The results obtained for ground-state band E2 transitions show that the absolute internal conversion coefficients can be extracted using the methods described with a reasonable accuracy. In some cases of less intense transitions only an upper limit for the internal conversion coefficient could be given.

  19. Determination of absolute internal conversion coefficients using the SAGE spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorri, J.; Greenlees, P.T.; Papadakis, P.; Konki, J.; Cox, D.M.; Auranen, K.; Partanen, J.; Sandzelius, M.; Pakarinen, J.; Rahkila, P.; Uusitalo, J.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Smallcombe, J.; Davies, P.J.; Barton, C.J.; Jenkins, D.G.

    2016-01-01

    A non-reference based method to determine internal conversion coefficients using the SAGE spectrometer is carried out for transitions in the nuclei of "1"5"4Sm, "1"5"2Sm and "1"6"6Yb. The Normalised-Peak-to-Gamma method is in general an efficient tool to extract internal conversion coefficients. However, in many cases the required well-known reference transitions are not available. The data analysis steps required to determine absolute internal conversion coefficients with the SAGE spectrometer are presented. In addition, several background suppression methods are introduced and an example of how ancillary detectors can be used to select specific reaction products is given. The results obtained for ground-state band E2 transitions show that the absolute internal conversion coefficients can be extracted using the methods described with a reasonable accuracy. In some cases of less intense transitions only an upper limit for the internal conversion coefficient could be given.

  20. Use of offensive coefficient to analyse sport performance in indoor soccer UTILIZACIÓN DE COEFICIENTES OFENSIVOS PARA EL ANÁLISIS DEL RENDIMIENTO DEPORTIVO EN EL FÚTBOL SALA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. De Bortoli

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective was the study of the game action of indoor soccer teams through the analysis of offensive coefficients, verifying its relationship with field performance estimated by the final result of games. Competitions by the Federación Gaúcha de Fútbol Sala (Brasil were followed for 9 years. Shots were divided into three different categories: 1 LAN: shots+finish line shots+goals; 2 MET: finish line shots+goals; and 3 GOL: goals. From those data the following indexes were obtained: 1 Offensive Outpout: (PO: ratio LAN of team 'A'/LAN of antagonist {PO = (LAN 'A'*100 / (LAN 'A'+LAN 'B'}; 2 Objectivity Index (IO: percentage of shots that reached the finish line {IO=(MET*100/LAN}; 3 Proficiency Index (IA: percentage of shots transformed into goals {IA=(GOL*100/LAN}; 4 Proficiency/Objectivity Rate (TA/O: percentage of shots reaching the finish line (MET transformed into goals {TA/O=(GOL*100/MET}; and 5 Game Volume (VJ: TA/O+PO+IO. Results obtained show that PO, IA and VJ were higher in winner than in loser teams. Ratio of PO corresponding to winners and losers was higher than those for IA or VJ. This study confirms the validity of the evaluation of performance through shot characterization and allows to conclude that IA is a better predictor of performance than PO; that is, the quality of shots is more important than its quantity.

     

    RESUMEN

    Nuestro objetivo fue el estudio de las acciones de juego de los equipos de fútbol sala a través de la obtención de una serie de coeficientes ofensivos, verificando se existe alguna relación entre éstos y el rendimiento en el campo estimado en función del resultado final de los partidos. Durante un período de nueve años se ha realizado un seguimiento de los lanzamientos en partidos oficiales disputados por equipos de la Federación Gaúcha de Fútbol Sala (Brasil. Los

  1. Effect of applied mechanical stress on absorption coefficient of compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Manoj Kumar, E-mail: mkgupta.sliet@gmail.com [Department of Applied Sciences, Bhai Gurdas Institute of Engineering and Technology, Sangrur (India); Singh, Gurinderjeet; Dhaliwal, A. S.; Kahlon, K. S. [Department of Physics, Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering & Technology Deemed University, Longowal (Sangrur) India-148106 (India)

    2015-08-28

    The absorption coefficient of given materials is the parameter required for the basic information. The measurement of absorption coefficient of compounds Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CaCO{sub 3}, ZnO{sub 2}, SmO{sub 2} and PbO has been taken at different incident photon energies 26, 59.54, 112, 1173, 1332keV. The studies involve the measurements of absorption coefficient of the self supporting samples prepared under different mechanical stress. This mechanical stress is render in terms of pressure up to 0-6 ton by using hydraulic press. Measurements shows that absorption coefficient of a material is directly proportional to applied mechanical stress on it up to some extent then become independent. Experimentally measured results are in fairly good agreement with in theoretical values obtained from WinXCOM.

  2. On separation of exchange term from the coefficient of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Magnetoelectroelastics; exchange coefficient; magnetoelectric effect; piezoelectric effect; piezomagnetic effect. PACS Nos 51.40.+p; 72.55.+s. Magnetoelectroelastics, also known as piezoelectromagnetic smart materials, actually possess magnetoelectric, piezomagnetic, and piezoelectric effects. In this class of mag-.

  3. An experimental approach of decoupling Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammed Sabeer N., A.; Paulson, Anju; Pradyumnan, P. P.

    2018-04-01

    The Thermoelectrics (TE) has drawn increased attention among renewable energy technologies. The performance of a thermoelectric material is quantified by a dimensionless thermoelectric figure of merit, ZT=S2σT/κ, where S and σ vary inversely each other. Thus, improvement in ZT is not an easy task. So, researchers have been trying different parameter variations during thin film processing to improve TE properties. In this work, tin nitride (Sn3N4) thin films were deposited on glass substrates by reactive RF magnetron sputtering and investigated its thermoelectric response. To decouple the covariance nature of Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity for the enhancement of power factor (S2σ), the nitrogen gas pressure during sputtering was reduced. Reduction in nitrogen gas pressure reduced both sputtering pressure and amount of nitrogen available for reaction during sputtering. This experimental approach of combined effect introduced preferred orientation and stoichiometric variations simultaneously in the sputtered Sn3N4 thin films. The scattering mechanism associated with these variations enhanced TE properties by independently drive the Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity parameters.

  4. Measurement and prediction of aromatic solute distribution coefficients for aqueous-organic solvent systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J.R.; Luthy, R.G.

    1984-06-01

    Experimental and modeling activities were performed to assess techniques for measurement and prediction of distribution coefficients for aromatic solutes between water and immiscible organic solvents. Experiments were performed to measure distribution coefficients in both clean water and wastewater systems, and to assess treatment of a wastewater by solvent extraction. The theoretical portions of this investigation were directed towards development of techniques for prediction of solute-solvent/water distribution coefficients. Experiments were performed to assess treatment of a phenolic-laden coal conversion wastewater by solvent extraction. The results showed that solvent extraction for recovery of phenolic material offered several wastewater processing advantages. Distribution coefficients were measured in clean water and wastewater systems for aromatic solutes of varying functionality with different solvent types. It was found that distribution coefficients for these compounds in clean water systems were not statistically different from distribution coefficients determined in a complex coal conversion process wastewater. These and other aromatic solute distribution coefficient data were employed for evaluation of modeling techniques for prediction of solute-solvent/water distribution coefficients. Eight solvents were selected in order to represent various chemical classes: toluene and benzene (aromatics), hexane and heptane (alkanes), n-octanol (alcohols), n-butyl acetate (esters), diisopropyl ether (ethers), and methylisobutyl ketone (ketones). The aromatic solutes included: nonpolar compounds such as benzene, toluene and naphthalene, phenolic compounds such as phenol, cresol and catechol, nitrogenous aromatics such as aniline, pyridine and aminonaphthalene, and other aromatic solutes such as naphthol, quinolinol and halogenated compounds. 100 references, 20 figures, 34 tables.

  5. Determination of rolling resistance coefficient based on normal tyre stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rykov, S. P.; Tarasuyk, V. N.; Koval, V. S.; Ovchinnikova, N. I.; Fedotov, A. I.; Fedotov, K. V.

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of the article is to develop analytical dependence of wheel rolling resistance coefficient based on the mathematical description of normal tyre stiffness. The article uses the methods of non-holonomic mechanics and plane section methods. The article shows that the abscissa of gravity center of tyre stiffness expansion by the length of the contact area is the shift of normal road response. It can be used for determining rolling resistance coefficient. When determining rolling resistance coefficient using ellipsis and power function equations, one can reduce labor costs for testing and increase assessment accuracy.

  6. Questionnaire on the measurement condition of distribution coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takebe, Shinichi; Kimura, Hideo; Matsuzuru, Hideo

    2001-05-01

    The distribution coefficient is used for various transport models to evaluate the migration behavior of radionuclides in the environment and is very important parameter in environmental impact assessment of nuclear facility. The questionnaire was carried out for the purpose of utilizing for the proposal of the standard measuring method of distribution coefficient. This report is summarized the result of questionnairing on the sampling methods and storage condition, the pretreatment methods, the analysis items in the physical/chemical characteristics of the sample, and the distribution coefficient measuring method and the measurement conditions in the research institutes within country. (author)

  7. The static pressure and temperature coefficients of laboratory standard microphones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Knud

    1999-01-01

    , for a given type of microphone, can be described by a single function when the coefficients are normalized by their low-frequency value and the frequency is normalized with respect to the individual resonance frequency of the microphone. The theoretical results are supported by experimentally determined...... on an extended lumped parameter representation of the mechanical and acoustic elements of the microphone. The extension involves the frequency dependency of the dynamic diaphragm mass and stiffness as well as a first-order approximation of resonances in the back cavity. It was found that each coefficient...... coefficients for about twenty samples of microphone types B&K 4160 and B&K 4180....

  8. Validation of moderator-level reactivity coefficient using station data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younis, M.; Martchouk, I., E-mail: mohamed.younis@amecfw.com, E-mail: iouri.martchouk@amecfw.com [Amec Foster Wheeler, Toronto, ON (Canada); Buchan, P.D., E-mail: david.buchan@opg.com [Ontario Power Generation, Pickering, ON (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    The reactivity effect due to variations in the moderator level has been recognized as a reactor physics phenomenon of importance during normal operation and accident analysis. The moderator-level reactivity coefficient is an important parameter in safety analysis of CANDU reactors, e.g., during Loss of Moderator Heat Sink as well as in the simulation of Reactor Regulating System action in CANDU reactors that use moderator level for reactivity control. This paper presents the results of the validation exercise of the reactor-physics toolset using the measurements performed in Pickering Unit 4 in 2003. The capability of the code suite of predicting moderator-level reactivity effect was tested by comparing measured and predicted reactor-physics parameters. (author)

  9. Overview of models allowing calculation of activity coefficients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaussaud, C.; Sorel, C

    2004-07-01

    Activity coefficients must be estimated to accurately quantify the extraction equilibrium involved in spent fuel reprocessing. For these calculations, binary data are required for each electrolyte over a concentration range sometimes exceeding the maximum solubility. The activity coefficients must be extrapolated to model the behavior of binary supersaturated aqueous solution. According to the bibliography, the most suitable models are based on the local composition concept. (authors)

  10. Static pressure and temperature coefficients of laboratory standard microphones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Knud

    1996-01-01

    of the microphone. The static pressure and temperature coefficients were determined experimentally for about twenty samples of type BK 4160 and BK 4180 microphones. The results agree almost perfectly with the predictions for BK 4160, while some modifications of the lumped parameter values are called for to make......-order approximation of resonances in the back cavity. It was found that each of the coefficients, for a given type of microphone, can be expressed by a single function when the coefficients are normalized by their low-frequency value and the frequency axis normalized by the individual resonance frequency...

  11. Friction coefficient and limiter load test analysis by flexibility coefficient model of Hold-Down Spring of nuclear reactor vessel internals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Linjun [Zhejiang Univ. of Technology, Hangzhou (China). College of Mechanical Engineering; Xue, Guohong; Zhang, Ming [Shanghai Nuclear Engineering Research and Design Institute, Shanghai (China)

    2017-11-15

    The friction force between the contact surfaces of a reactor internal hold-down spring (HDS) and core barrel flanges can directly influence the axial stiffness of an HDS. However, friction coefficient cannot be obtained through theoretical analysis. This study performs a mathematical deduction of the physical model of an HDS. Moreover, a mathematical model of axial load P, displacement δ, and flexibility coefficient is established, and a set of test apparatuses is designed to simulate the preloading process of the HDS. According to the experimental research and theoretical analysis, P-δ curves and the flexibility coefficient λ are obtained in the loading processes of the HDS. The friction coefficient f of the M1000 HDS is further calculated as 0.224. The displacement limit load value (4,638 kN) can be obtained through a displacement limit experiment. With the friction coefficient considered, the theoretical load is 4,271 kN, which is relatively close to the experimental result. Thus, the friction coefficient exerts an influence on the displacement limit load P. The friction coefficient should be considered in the design analysis for HDS.

  12. Friction coefficient and limiter load test analysis by flexibility coefficient model of Hold-Down Spring of nuclear reactor vessel internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Linjun

    2017-01-01

    The friction force between the contact surfaces of a reactor internal hold-down spring (HDS) and core barrel flanges can directly influence the axial stiffness of an HDS. However, friction coefficient cannot be obtained through theoretical analysis. This study performs a mathematical deduction of the physical model of an HDS. Moreover, a mathematical model of axial load P, displacement δ, and flexibility coefficient is established, and a set of test apparatuses is designed to simulate the preloading process of the HDS. According to the experimental research and theoretical analysis, P-δ curves and the flexibility coefficient λ are obtained in the loading processes of the HDS. The friction coefficient f of the M1000 HDS is further calculated as 0.224. The displacement limit load value (4,638 kN) can be obtained through a displacement limit experiment. With the friction coefficient considered, the theoretical load is 4,271 kN, which is relatively close to the experimental result. Thus, the friction coefficient exerts an influence on the displacement limit load P. The friction coefficient should be considered in the design analysis for HDS.

  13. Measurement of chemical diffusion coefficients in liquid binary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keita, M.; Steinemann, S.; Kuenzi, H.U.

    1976-01-01

    New measurements of the chemical diffusion coefficient in liquid binary alloys are presented. The wellknown geometry of the 'capillary-reservoir' is used and the concentration is obtained from a resistivity measurement. The method allows to follow continuously the diffusion process in the liquid state. A precision of at least 10% in the diffusion coefficient is obtained with a reproductibility better than 5%. The systems Hg-In, Al-Sn, Al-Si have been studied. Diffusion coefficients are obtained as a function of temperature, concentration, and geometrical factors related to the capillary (diameter, relative orientation of density gradient and gravity). (orig.) [de

  14. Non-linear Bayesian update of PCE coefficients

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander

    2014-01-06

    Given: a physical system modeled by a PDE or ODE with uncertain coefficient q(?), a measurement operator Y (u(q), q), where u(q, ?) uncertain solution. Aim: to identify q(?). The mapping from parameters to observations is usually not invertible, hence this inverse identification problem is generally ill-posed. To identify q(!) we derived non-linear Bayesian update from the variational problem associated with conditional expectation. To reduce cost of the Bayesian update we offer a unctional approximation, e.g. polynomial chaos expansion (PCE). New: We apply Bayesian update to the PCE coefficients of the random coefficient q(?) (not to the probability density function of q).

  15. Non-linear Bayesian update of PCE coefficients

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander; Matthies, Hermann G.; Pojonk, Oliver; Rosic, Bojana V.; Zander, Elmar

    2014-01-01

    Given: a physical system modeled by a PDE or ODE with uncertain coefficient q(?), a measurement operator Y (u(q), q), where u(q, ?) uncertain solution. Aim: to identify q(?). The mapping from parameters to observations is usually not invertible, hence this inverse identification problem is generally ill-posed. To identify q(!) we derived non-linear Bayesian update from the variational problem associated with conditional expectation. To reduce cost of the Bayesian update we offer a unctional approximation, e.g. polynomial chaos expansion (PCE). New: We apply Bayesian update to the PCE coefficients of the random coefficient q(?) (not to the probability density function of q).

  16. Seal assembly for materials with different coefficients of thermal expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minford, Eric [Laurys Station, PA

    2009-09-01

    Seal assembly comprising (a) two or more seal elements, each element having having a coefficient of thermal expansion; and (b) a clamping element having a first segment, a second segment, and a connecting segment between and attached to the first and second segments, wherein the two or more seal elements are disposed between the first and second segments of the clamping element. The connecting segment has a central portion extending between the first segment of the clamping element and the second segment of the clamping element, and the connecting segment is made of a material having a coefficient of thermal expansion. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the material of the connecting segment is intermediate the largest and smallest of the coefficients of thermal expansion of the materials of the two or more seal elements.

  17. Measurements and modeling of gain coefficients for neodymium laser glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linford, G.J.; Saroyan, R.A.; Trenholme, J.B.; Weber, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    Small-signal gain coefficients are reported for neodymium in silicate, phosphate, fluorophosphate, and fluoroberyllate laser glasses. Measurements were made in a disk amplifier under identical conditions. Using spectroscopic data as the input, amplifier gain is calculated as a fucntion of flashlamp energy, pumping pulse duration, disk thickness, and Nd-doping. The agreement between predicted and measured gains is generally with ;plus or minus;10 percent, consistent with experimental uncertainties in the model and the parameters used. The operating conditions which optimize amplifier performance and efficiency for a given laser glass may be found using spectroscopic data alone. This process can be extended to derive the most cost-effective staging of amplifier chains for fusion lasers. A discussion of the model and examples of calculations are presented

  18. Experimental evaluation of the drag coefficient of water rockets by a simple free-fall test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrio-Perotti, R; Blanco-Marigorta, E; Argueelles-Diaz, K; Fernandez-Oro, J [Departamento de Energia, Universidad de Oviedo, Campus de Viesques, 33271 Gijon, Asturias (Spain)], E-mail: barrioraul@uniovi.es

    2009-09-15

    The flight trajectory of a water rocket can be reasonably calculated if the magnitude of the drag coefficient is known. The experimental determination of this coefficient with enough precision is usually quite difficult, but in this paper we propose a simple free-fall experiment for undergraduate students to reasonably estimate the drag coefficient of water rockets made from plastic soft drink bottles. The experiment is performed using relatively small fall distances (only about 14 m) in addition with a simple digital-sound-recording device. The fall time is inferred from the recorded signal with quite good precision, and it is subsequently introduced as an input of a Matlab (registered) program that estimates the magnitude of the drag coefficient. This procedure was tested first with a toy ball, obtaining a result with a deviation from the typical sphere value of only about 3%. For the particular water rocket used in the present investigation, a drag coefficient of 0.345 was estimated.

  19. Pearson's correlation coefficient in the theory of networks: A comment

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Zafar; Kumar, Sachin

    2018-01-01

    In statistics, the Pearson correlation coefficient $r_{x,y}$ determines the degree of linear correlation between two variables and it is known that $-1 \\le r_{x,y} \\le 1$. In the theory of networks, a curious expression proposed in [PRL {\\bf 89} 208701 (2002)] for degree-degree correlation coefficient $r_{j_i,k_i}, i\\in [1,M]$ has been in use. We realize that the suggested form is the conventional Pearson's coefficient for $\\{(j_i,k_i), (k_i,j_i)\\}$ for $2M$ data points and hence it is rightl...

  20. Measurement of reactivity temperature coefficient by noise method in a power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar, O.

    1986-07-01

    The temperature reactivity coefficient was estimated on the basis of noise measurements performed in a PWR. The magnitude of the coefficient was evaluated by relating the values of the APSD and CPSD between ex-core neutron detector signals and fuel assembly outlet thermocouple in the low frequency range. Comparison with δρ/δT measurements performed in PWR by standard methods supports the validity of the results. (author)

  1. Use of appropriate absorption coefficients in gamma-ray dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopinath, D.V.; Natarajan, A.; Subbaiah, K.V.

    1985-01-01

    The current use of the different types of absorption coefficients in the computation of γ-ray energy deposition rates and air dose is critically analyzed. Transport calculations are presented to bring out the errors associated with the use of different absorption coefficients. It is observed that except for source energies in the range of 0.3 to 3.0 MeV the consistent use of the absorption coefficient, μ/sub a/ results in an underestimate of the air dose everywhere and of energy deposition at regions away from source. The underestimate becomes more significant with increased atomic number (Z) of the medium. Based on the computations and analysis it is concluded that the absorption coefficients μ/sub a/ and μ/sub k/ are of very limited use in practical γ-ray dosimetry

  2. Determination of BEACON Coupling Coefficients using data from Xenon transient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozic, M.; Kurincic, B.

    2007-01-01

    NEK uses BEACO TM code (BEACO TM - Westinghouse Best Estimate Analyzer for Core Operating Nuclear) for core monitoring, analysis and core behaviour prediction. Coupling Coefficients determine relationship between core response and excore instrumentation. Measured power distribution using incore moveable detectors during Xenon transient with sufficient power axial offset change is the most important data for further analysis. Classic methodology and BEACO TM Conservative methodology using established Coupling Coefficients are compared on NPP Krsko case. BEACON TM Conservative methodology with predefined Coupling Coefficients is used as a surveillance tool for verification of relationship between core and excore instrumentation during power operation. (author)

  3. Coefficient of electrical transport vacuum arc for metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markov, G.V.; Ehjzner, B.A.

    1998-01-01

    In this article the authors propose formulas for estimation coefficient of electrical transport vacuum arc for metals and alloys. They also represent results of analysis principal physical processes which take place in cathode spot vacuum arc

  4. Determination of optical absorption coefficient with focusing photoacoustic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhifang; Li, Hui; Zeng, Zhiping; Xie, Wenming; Chen, Wei R

    2012-06-01

    Absorption coefficient of biological tissue is an important factor for photothermal therapy and photoacoustic imaging. However, its determination remains a challenge. In this paper, we propose a method using focusing photoacoustic imaging technique to quantify the target optical absorption coefficient. It utilizes the ratio of the amplitude of the peak signal from the top boundary of the target to that from the bottom boundary based on wavelet transform. This method is self-calibrating. Factors, such as absolute optical fluence, ultrasound parameters, and Grüneisen parameter, can be canceled by dividing the amplitudes of the two peaks. To demonstrate this method, we quantified the optical absorption coefficient of a target with various concentrations of an absorbing dye. This method is particularly useful to provide accurate absorption coefficient for predicting the outcomes of photothermal interaction for cancer treatment with absorption enhancement.

  5. Solution of heat equation with variable coefficient using derive

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lebelo, RS

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the method of approximating solutions of partial differential equations with variable coefficients is studied. This is done by considering heat flow through a one-dimensional model with variable cross-sections. Two cases...

  6. Technique for Determining Lock Coefficient of Differential "Quif"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Fominyh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the traction qualities of cars on the black ice and snow-covered roads is a relevant task. There are two ways to solve this task, i.e. optimize distribution of the power stream between the driving wheels of the car; introduce a differential (differentials of the increased friction in transmission.Now, an installation of the increased friction differential in transmission is the most widespread measure to increase traction properties of cars. The differential of design "Quif" is one of such differentials. To estimate the efficiency degree of using such a differential is possible either experimentally or theoretically. In case of theoretically determined usefulness of this differential design, as an estimate indicator of the differential installation in transmission a coefficient of lock is accepted.The article considers an algorithm and a technique to calculate a lock coefficient of the differential design "Quif" allowing us to define numeric values of the lock coefficient of such differential at designing stage. It also considers how the lock coefficient depends on the gearing angle and tilt angle of the gear wheel teeth of differential. The given estimating algorithm of designated parameter of differential has more logical and compact structure with regard to the known ones. The lock coefficient values calculated by the offered technique differ from the experimental data by no more than 12%. Taking into account abovementioned, the presented technique for calculating lock coefficient of differential "Quif" is advisable for practical application.

  7. Simultaneous interferometric measurement of linear coefficient of thermal expansion and temperature-dependent refractive index coefficient of optical materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsetti, James A; Green, William E; Ellis, Jonathan D; Schmidt, Greg R; Moore, Duncan T

    2016-10-10

    Characterizing the thermal properties of optical materials is necessary for understanding how to design an optical system for changing environmental conditions. A method is presented for simultaneously measuring both the linear coefficient of thermal expansion and the temperature-dependent refractive index coefficient of a sample interferometrically in air. Both the design and fabrication of the interferometer is presented as well as a discussion of the results of measuring both a steel and a CaF2 sample.

  8. Relativistic phenomenological equations and transformation laws of relative coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Rogolino

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to derive the phenomenological equations in the context of special relativistic non-equilibrium thermodynamics with internal variables. In particular, after introducing some results developed in our previous paper, by means of classical non-equilibrium thermodynamic procedure and under suitable assumptions on the entropy density production, the phenomenological equations and transformation laws of phenomenological coefficients are derived. Finally, some symmetries of aforementioned coefficients are obtained.

  9. Apparent Coefficient of Friction of Wheat on Denim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Charles V

    2017-07-31

    Calculation of the extraction force for a grain entrapment victim requires a coefficient of friction between the grain and the surface of the victim. Because denim is a common fabric for the work clothes that cover entrapment victims, the coefficient of friction between grain and denim becomes necessary. The purpose of this research was to calculate the apparent coefficient of friction of wheat on denim fabric using a proven procedure. The expectation is to improve the current understanding of conditions that influence extraction forces for victims buried in wheat. The apparent coefficient of friction of wheat on denim fabric was calculated to be 0.167 with a standard deviation of ±0.013. The wheat had a moisture content of 10.7% (w.b.) and bulk density of 778.5 kg m-3. The apparent coefficient of friction of wheat on denim was not significantly affected by pull speeds of 0.004, 0.008, and 0.021 mm s-1 nor normal grain pressures of 3.2, 4.8, 6.3, 7.9, and 11.1 kPa. This is a beginning of understanding the conditions that influence the extraction forces for grain entrapment victims. Copyright© by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers.

  10. Prediction of longitudinal dispersion coefficient using multivariate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    rivers to continuously monitor river water quality. Unfortunately ... tigators have attempted to implement mathematical methods for ... used in some fields of water resource management ...... Bauwens W 2014 Integrated water quality modelling of.

  11. Path coefficient analysis of zinc dynamics in varying soil environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rattan, R.K.; Phung, C.V.; Singhal, S.K.; Deb, D.L.; Singh, A.K.

    1994-01-01

    Influence of soil properties on labile zinc, as measured by diethylene-triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) and zinc-65, and self-diffusion coefficients of zinc was assessed on 22 surface soil samples varying widely in their characteristics following linear regression and path coefficient analysis techniques. DTPA extractable zinc could be predicted from organic carbon status and pH of the soil with a highly significant coefficient of determination (R 2 =0.84 ** ). Ninety seven per cent variation in isotopically exchangeable zinc was explained by pH, clay content and cation exchange capacity (CEC) of soil. The self-diffusion coefficients (DaZn and DpZn) and buffer power of zinc exhibited exponential relationship with soil properties, pH being the most dominant one. Soil properties like organic matter, clay content etc. exhibited indirect effects on zinc diffusion rates via pH only. (author). 13 refs., 6 tabs

  12. Friction coefficients of PTFE bearing liner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, C. M.

    1979-01-01

    Data discusses frictional characteristics of PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) under temperature extremes and in vacuum environment. Tests were also run on reduced scale hardware to determine effects of vacuum. Data is used as reference by designers of aircraft-control system rod-end bearings and for bearings used in polar regions.

  13. Regularity of the interband light absorption coefficient

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. (Math. Sci.) Vol. 120, No. 3, June 2010, pp. 351–362. ... 1. Introduction. In the theory of disordered systems, one of the quantities that is ... integrated density of states, whose continuity properties and its behaviour near ...

  14. Modelling of tandem cell temperature coefficients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, D.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-05-01

    This paper discusses the temperature dependence of the basic solar-cell operating parameters for a GaInP/GaAs series-connected two-terminal tandem cell. The effects of series resistance and of different incident solar spectra are also discussed.

  15. Characterization of the effective electrostriction coefficients in ferroelectric thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholkin, A. L.; Akdogan, E. K.; Safari, A.; Chauvy, P.-F.; Setter, N.

    2001-06-01

    Electromechanical properties of a number of ferroelectric films including PbZrxTi1-xO3(PZT), 0.9PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3-0.1PbTiO3(PMN-PT), and SrBi2Ta2O9(SBT) are investigated using laser interferometry combined with conventional dielectric measurements. Effective electrostriction coefficients of the films, Qeff, are determined using a linearized electrostriction equation that couples longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient, d33, with the polarization and dielectric constant. It is shown that, in PZT films, electrostriction coefficients slightly increase with applied electric field, reflecting the weak contribution of non-180° domains to piezoelectric properties. In contrast, in PMN-PT and SBT films electrostriction coefficients are field independent, indicating the intrinsic nature of the piezoelectric response. The experimental values of Qeff are significantly smaller than those of corresponding bulk materials due to substrate clamping and possible size effects. Electrostriction coefficients of PZT layers are shown to depend strongly on the composition and preferred orientation of the grains. In particular, Qeff of (100) textured rhombohedral films (x=0.7) is significantly greater than that of (111) layers. Thus large anisotropy of the electrostrictive coefficients is responsible for recently observed large piezoelectric coefficients of (100) textured PZT films. Effective electrostriction coefficients obtained by laser interferometry allow evaluation of the electromechanical properties of ferroelectric films based solely on the dielectric parameters and thus are very useful in the design and fabrication of microsensors and microactuators.

  16. Realistic absorption coefficient of ultrathin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesaria, M; Caricato, A P; Martino, M

    2012-01-01

    Both a theoretical algorithm and an experimental procedure are discussed of a new route to determine the absorption/scattering properties of thin films deposited on transparent substrates. Notably, the non-measurable contribution of the film–substrate interface is inherently accounted for. While the experimental procedure exploits only measurable spectra combined according to a very simple algorithm, the theoretical derivation does not require numerical handling of the acquired spectra or any assumption on the film homogeneity and substrate thickness. The film absorption response is estimated by subtracting the measured absorption spectrum of the bare substrate from that of the film on the substrate structure but in a non-straightforward way. In fact, an assumption about the absorption profile of the overall structure is introduced and a corrective factor accounting for the relative film-to-substrate thickness. The method is tested on films of a well known material (ITO) as a function of the film structural quality and influence of the film–substrate interface, both deliberately changed by thickness tuning and doping. Results are found fully consistent with information obtained by standard optical analysis and band gap values reported in the literature. Additionally, comparison with a conventional method demonstrates that our route is generally more accurate even if particularly suited for very thin films. (paper)

  17. Realistic absorption coefficient of ultrathin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaria, M.; Caricato, A. P.; Martino, M.

    2012-10-01

    Both a theoretical algorithm and an experimental procedure are discussed of a new route to determine the absorption/scattering properties of thin films deposited on transparent substrates. Notably, the non-measurable contribution of the film-substrate interface is inherently accounted for. While the experimental procedure exploits only measurable spectra combined according to a very simple algorithm, the theoretical derivation does not require numerical handling of the acquired spectra or any assumption on the film homogeneity and substrate thickness. The film absorption response is estimated by subtracting the measured absorption spectrum of the bare substrate from that of the film on the substrate structure but in a non-straightforward way. In fact, an assumption about the absorption profile of the overall structure is introduced and a corrective factor accounting for the relative film-to-substrate thickness. The method is tested on films of a well known material (ITO) as a function of the film structural quality and influence of the film-substrate interface, both deliberately changed by thickness tuning and doping. Results are found fully consistent with information obtained by standard optical analysis and band gap values reported in the literature. Additionally, comparison with a conventional method demonstrates that our route is generally more accurate even if particularly suited for very thin films.

  18. Evaluation of volume compressibility coefficient variations incement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, 2,4,6,8 and 10% of cement at treatment times of 7,14 and 28 days were used to stabilize the bentonite clay. All samples prepared by wet and dry method hadthe same moisture contents in the mentioned levels equal to the liquid limit moisture of the original soil. The studied soil falls in the group CH with the ...

  19. Clustering coefficient and community structure of bipartite networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Wang, Jinliang; Li, Xiaojia; Li, Menghui; Di, Zengru; Fan, Ying

    2008-12-01

    Many real-world networks display natural bipartite structure, where the basic cycle is a square. In this paper, with the similar consideration of standard clustering coefficient in binary networks, a definition of the clustering coefficient for bipartite networks based on the fraction of squares is proposed. In order to detect community structures in bipartite networks, two different edge clustering coefficients LC4 and LC3 of bipartite networks are defined, which are based on squares and triples respectively. With the algorithm of cutting the edge with the least clustering coefficient, communities in artificial and real world networks are identified. The results reveal that investigating bipartite networks based on the original structure can show the detailed properties that is helpful to get deep understanding about the networks.

  20. Breakdown coefficients and scaling properties of rain fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Harris

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The theory of scale similarity and breakdown coefficients is applied here to intermittent rainfall data consisting of time series and spatial rain fields. The probability distributions (pdf of the logarithm of the breakdown coefficients are the principal descriptor used. Rain fields are distinguished as being either multiscaling or multiaffine depending on whether the pdfs of breakdown coefficients are scale similar or scale dependent, respectively. Parameter  estimation techniques are developed which are applicable to both multiscaling and multiaffine fields. The scale parameter (width, σ, of the pdfs of the log-breakdown coefficients is a measure of the intermittency of a field. For multiaffine fields, this scale parameter is found to increase with scale in a power-law fashion consistent with a bounded-cascade picture of rainfall modelling. The resulting power-law exponent, H, is indicative of the smoothness of the field. Some details of breakdown coefficient analysis are addressed and a theoretical link between this analysis and moment scaling analysis is also presented. Breakdown coefficient properties of cascades are also investigated in the context of parameter estimation for modelling purposes.

  1. measurements of distribution coefficients and lipophilicity values

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    octanol and water, followed by measuring the distribution of the solute in ... Instrumentation and apparatus: HPLC-UV-DAD and HPLC–ESI-MS experiments .... process in the determination of KD and log P values for the HFSLM extracts. ..... Perrin, D.D.; Dempsey, B. Buffers for pH and Metal Ion Control, Chapman and Hall:.

  2. Formulas for activity coefficients of individual ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritsema, C.J.; Bloemer, F.

    1986-01-01

    For chemical calculations with gaseous equilibria and for non-ionic reactions in solution one can calculate in terms of concentrations to a fairly good approximation. However, in dealing with ionic reactions, with certain aspects of kinetics in solution, and with elcetromotive force studies,

  3. Coefficients of productivity for Yellowstone's grizzly bear habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, David John; Barber, Kim; Maw, Ralene; Renkin, Roy

    2004-01-01

    This report describes methods for calculating coefficients used to depict habitat productivity for grizzly bears in the Yellowstone ecosystem. Calculations based on these coefficients are used in the Yellowstone Grizzly Bear Cumulative Effects Model to map the distribution of habitat productivity and account for the impacts of human facilities. The coefficients of habitat productivity incorporate detailed information that was collected over a 20-year period (1977-96) on the foraging behavior of Yellowstone's bears and include records of what bears were feeding on, when and where they fed, the extent of that feeding activity, and relative measures of the quantity consumed. The coefficients also incorporate information, collected primarily from 1986 to 1992, on the nutrient content of foods that were consumed, their digestibility, characteristic bite sizes, and the energy required to extract and handle each food. Coefficients were calculated for different time periods and different habitat types, specific to different parts of the Yellowstone ecosystem. Stratifications included four seasons of bear activity (spring, estrus, early hyperphagia, late hyperphagia), years when ungulate carrion and whitebark pine seed crops were abundant versus not, areas adjacent to (bear activity in each region, habitat type, and time period were incorporated into calculations, controlling for the effects of proximity to human facilities. The coefficients described in this report and associated estimates of grizzly bear habitat productivity are unique among many efforts to model the conditions of bear habitat because calculations include information on energetics derived from the observed behavior of radio-marked bears.

  4. Transport coefficients of black MQGP -branes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhuria, Mansi; Misra, Aalok

    2015-01-01

    The Strominger-Yau-Zaslow (SYZ) mirror, in the `delocalised limit' of Becker et al. (Nucl Phys B 702:207, 2004), of -branes, fractional -branes and flavour -branes wrapping a non-compact four-cycle in the presence of a black hole (BH) resulting in a non-Kähler resolved warped deformed conifold (NKRWDC) in Mia et al. (Nucl Phys B 839:187, 2010), was carried out in Dhuria and Misra (JHEP 1311:001, 2013) and resulted in black -branes. There are two parts in our paper. In the first we show that in the `MQGP' limit discussed in Dhuria and Misra (JHEP 1311:001, 2013) a finite (and hence expected to be more relevant to QGP), finite and very large , and very small , we have the following. (i) The uplift, if valid globally (like Dasgupta et al., Nucl Phys B 755:21, 2006) for fractional branes in conifolds), asymptotically goes to -branes wrapping a two-cycle (homologously a (large) integer sum of two-spheres) in . (ii) Assuming the deformation parameter to be larger than the resolution parameter, by estimating the five structure torsion () classes we verify that in the large- limit, implying the NKRWDC reduces to a warped Kähler deformed conifold. (iii) The local of Dhuria and Misra (JHEP 1311:001, 2013) in the large- limit satisfies the same conditions as the maximal -invariant special Lagrangian three-cycle of of Ionel and Min-OO (J Math 52(3), 2008), partly justifying use of SYZ-mirror symmetry in the `delocalised limit' of Becker et al. (Nucl Phys B 702:207, 2004) in Dhuria and Misra (JHEP 1311:001, 2013). In the second part of the paper, by either integrating out the angular coordinates of the non-compact four-cycle which a -brane wraps around, using the Ouyang embedding, in the DBI action of a -brane evaluated at infinite radial boundary, or by dimensionally reducing the 11-dimensional EH action to five () dimensions and at the infinite radial boundary, we then calculate in particular the (part of the 'MQGP') limit, a variety of gauge and metric

  5. Experimental determination of contraction coefficient and velocity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jailakshmi Menon

    2018-04-16

    Apr 16, 2018 ... Radial gates are widely used to control the flow in irrigation channels and spillways. Radial gates ... upstream water depth for a vertical sluice gate assuming hydrostatic ... energy loss on the discharge characteristics of vertical.

  6. Comparing coefficients of nested nonlinear probability models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohler, Ulrich; Karlson, Kristian Bernt; Holm, Anders

    2011-01-01

    In a series of recent articles, Karlson, Holm and Breen have developed a method for comparing the estimated coeffcients of two nested nonlinear probability models. This article describes this method and the user-written program khb that implements the method. The KHB-method is a general decomposi......In a series of recent articles, Karlson, Holm and Breen have developed a method for comparing the estimated coeffcients of two nested nonlinear probability models. This article describes this method and the user-written program khb that implements the method. The KHB-method is a general...... decomposition method that is unaffected by the rescaling or attenuation bias that arise in cross-model comparisons in nonlinear models. It recovers the degree to which a control variable, Z, mediates or explains the relationship between X and a latent outcome variable, Y*, underlying the nonlinear probability...

  7. Measurement of conversion coefficients in 208Tl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendling, F.

    1976-06-01

    A electron spectrometer composed by a Li drifted Si detector and a uniform magnetic field was constructed. The magnetic field is used to focus the electrons on the detector and to filter the other radiations. After the construction the instrument was calibrated in absolute eficience and was used together with a Ge(Li) spectrometer also calibrated, in the measurement of internal conversion coeficients of the 433 and 453 keV transitions in 208 Tl [pt

  8. The assessment of voce coefficient for WWR-c reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochnov, O.Yu.; Rybkin, N.I.

    2006-01-01

    The air cavity effect in WWR-ts reactor core on the total reactivity is analyzed. The experimental data of void coefficient depending on the air cavity position inside the reactor core are obtained [ru

  9. Analytical computation of reflection and transmission coefficients for love waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanelli, F.; Vaccari, F.

    1995-09-01

    The computation of the transmission and reflection coefficients is an important step in the construction, if modal summation technique is used, of synthetic seismograms for 2-D or 3-D media. These coupling coefficients for Love waves at a vertical discontinuity are computed analytically. Numerical test for realistic structures show how the energy carried by an incoming mode is redistributed on the various modes existing on both sides of the vertical interface. (author). 15 refs, 8 figs

  10. Solutions of the spin coefficient equations with nongeodesic eigenrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kota, J.; Lukacs, B.; Perjes, Z.

    1982-01-01

    Among the many significant results obtained by spin coefficient techniques in general relativity, the exact integrals of gravitational equations have enjoyed particular attention. These integration procedures were first carried out with respect to a congruence of null geodesic curves. The authors show that spin coefficient equations can sometimes be exactly solved when the selected null congruence is nongeodesic. They derive metrics with this property and, among them, a new solution of the coupled Einstein-Maxwell equations. (Auth.)

  11. Effect of Variable Manning Coefficients on Tsunami Inundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberopoulou, A.; Rees, D.

    2017-12-01

    Numerical simulations are commonly used to help estimate tsunami hazard, improve evacuation plans, issue or cancel tsunami warnings, inform forecasting and hazard assessments and have therefore become an integral part of hazard mitigation among the tsunami community. Many numerical codes exist for simulating tsunamis, most of which have undergone extensive benchmarking and testing. Tsunami hazard or risk assessments employ these codes following a deterministic or probabilistic approach. Depending on the scope these studies may or may not consider uncertainty in the numerical simulations, the effects of tides, variable friction or estimate financial losses, none of which are necessarily trivial. Distributed manning coefficients, the roughness coefficients used in hydraulic modeling, are commonly used in simulating both riverine and pluvial flood events however, their use in tsunami hazard assessments is primarily part of limited scope studies and for the most part, not a standard practice. For this work, we investigate variations in manning coefficients and their effects on tsunami inundation extent, pattern and financial loss. To assign manning coefficients we use land use maps that come from the New Zealand Land Cover Database (LCDB) and more recent data from the Ministry of the Environment. More than 40 classes covering different types of land use are combined into major classes such as cropland, grassland and wetland representing common types of land use in New Zealand, each of which is assigned a unique manning coefficient. By utilizing different data sources for variable manning coefficients, we examine the impact of data sources and classification methodology on the accuracy of model outputs.

  12. Riesz Frames and Approximation of the Frame Coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole

    1996-01-01

    A frame is a familyof elements in a Hilbert space with the propertythat every element in the Hilbert space can be written as a (infinite)linear combination of the frame elements. Frame theory describes howone can choose the corresponding coefficients, which are calledframe coefficients. From...... the mathematical point of view this isgratifying, but for applications it is a problem that the calculationrequires inversion of an operator on the Hilbert space.The projection method is introduced in order to avoid this problem.The basic idea is to consider finite subfamiliesof the frame and the orthogonal...... projection onto its span. Forfin QTR H,P_nf has a representation as a linear combinationof f_i,i=1,2,..,n, and the corresponding coefficients can be calculatedusing finite dimensional methods. We find conditions implying that thosecoefficients converge to the correct frame coefficients as n goes...

  13. Kinetic coefficients for the biological treatment of tannery wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haydar, S.

    2008-01-01

    Determination of kinetic coefficients for a particular wastewater is imperative for the rational design of biological treatment-facilities. The present study was undertaken with the objective of finding out kinetic coefficients for tannery wastewater. A bench-scale model of aerated lagoon, consisting of an aeration tank and final clarifier, was use to conduct the studies. The model was operated continuously for 96 days, by varying the detention times from 3 to 9 days. Influent for the aerated lagoon was settled tannery wastewater. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) of the influent and effluent and the mixed-liquor suspended solids (MLSS) of aeration tank were determined at various detention-times so as to generate data for kinetic coefficients. The kinetic coefficients k, Ks, Y and Ed were found to be 3.125 day/sup -1/, 488 mg/L, 0.64 and 0.035 day/sup -1/ respectively. Overall rate-constant of BOD, removal 'K' was also determined and was found to be 1.43 day/sup -1/. Kinetic coefficients were determined, at mean reactor-temperature of 30.2 degree C. These coefficients may be utilized for the design of biological-treatment facilities for tannery wastewater. (author)

  14. Research of fuel temperature control in fuel pipeline of diesel engine using positive temperature coefficient material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolu Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As fuel temperature increases, both its viscosity and surface tension decrease, and this is helpful to improve fuel atomization and then better combustion and emission performances of engine. Based on the self-regulated temperature property of positive temperature coefficient material, this article used a positive temperature coefficient material as electric heating element to heat diesel fuel in fuel pipeline of diesel engine. A kind of BaTiO3-based positive temperature coefficient material, with the Curie temperature of 230°C and rated voltage of 24 V, was developed, and its micrograph and element compositions were also analyzed. By the fuel pipeline wrapped in six positive temperature coefficient ceramics, its resistivity–temperature and heating characteristics were tested on a fuel pump bench. The experiments showed that in this installation, the surface temperature of six positive temperature coefficient ceramics rose to the equilibrium temperature only for 100 s at rated voltage. In rated power supply for six positive temperature coefficient ceramics, the temperature of injection fuel improved for 21°C–27°C within 100 s, and then could keep constant. Using positive temperature coefficient material to heat diesel in fuel pipeline of diesel engine, the injection mass per cycle had little change, approximately 0.3%/°C. This study provides a beneficial reference for improving atomization of high-viscosity liquids by employing positive temperature coefficient material without any control methods.

  15. Limits of the memory coefficient in measuring correlated bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Hang-Hyun; Hiraoka, Takayuki

    2018-03-01

    Temporal inhomogeneities in event sequences of natural and social phenomena have been characterized in terms of interevent times and correlations between interevent times. The inhomogeneities of interevent times have been extensively studied, while the correlations between interevent times, often called correlated bursts, are far from being fully understood. For measuring the correlated bursts, two relevant approaches were suggested, i.e., memory coefficient and burst size distribution. Here a burst size denotes the number of events in a bursty train detected for a given time window. Empirical analyses have revealed that the larger memory coefficient tends to be associated with the heavier tail of the burst size distribution. In particular, empirical findings in human activities appear inconsistent, such that the memory coefficient is close to 0, while burst size distributions follow a power law. In order to comprehend these observations, by assuming the conditional independence between consecutive interevent times, we derive the analytical form of the memory coefficient as a function of parameters describing interevent time and burst size distributions. Our analytical result can explain the general tendency of the larger memory coefficient being associated with the heavier tail of burst size distribution. We also find that the apparently inconsistent observations in human activities are compatible with each other, indicating that the memory coefficient has limits to measure the correlated bursts.

  16. Investigation on Thrust and Moment Coefficients of a Centrifugal Turbomachine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Hu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In radial pumps and turbines, the centrifugal through-flow in both the front and the back chambers is quite common. It strongly impacts the core swirl ratio, pressure distribution, axial thrust and frictional torque. In order to investigate these relationships experimentally, a test rig was designed at the University of Duisburg-Essen and described in this paper. Based on both the experimental and numerical results, correlations are determined to predict the impacts of the centrifugal through-flow on the core swirl ratio, the thrust coefficient and the moment coefficient. Two correlations respectively are determined to associate the core swirl ratio with the local through-flow coefficient for both Batchelor type flow and Stewartson type flow. The correlations describing the thrust coefficient and the moment coefficient in a rotor-stator cavity with centripetal through-flow (Hu et al., 2017 are modified for the case of centrifugal through-flow. The Daily and Nece diagram distinguishing between different flow regimes in rotor-stator cavities is extended with a through-flow coordinate into 3D. The achieved results provide a comprehensive data base which is intended to support the calculation of axial thrust and moment coefficients during the design process of radial pumps and turbines in a more accurate manner.

  17. Numerical study of effects of accommodation coefficients on slip phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Young Jae; Kwon, Oh Joon [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    An unstructured mesh Navier-Stokes solver employing a Maxwell slip boundary condition was developed. The present flow solver was applied to the simulation of flows around an axisymmetric hollow cylinder in a Mach 10.4 free stream, known as Calspan-UB Research Center (CUBRC) Run 14 case, and the velocity slip and the temperature jump on the cylinder surface were investigated. The effect of tangential momentum and thermal accommodation coefficients used in the Maxwell condition was also investigated by adjusting their values. The results show that the reverse flow region is developed on the body surface due to the interaction between the shock and the boundary layer. Also, the shock impingement makes pressure high. The flow properties on the surface agree well with the experimental data, and the velocity slip and the temperature jump vary consistently with the local Knudsen number change. The accommodation coefficients affect the slip phenomena and the size of the flow region. The slip phenomena become larger when both tangential momentum and thermal accommodation coefficients are decreased. However, the range of the reverse flow region decreases when the momentum accommodation coefficient is decreased. The characteristics of the momentum and thermal accommodation coefficients also are overlapped when they are altered together.

  18. Diffusion coefficients of decay products of radon and thoron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghunath, B.; Kotrappa, P.

    1979-01-01

    The diffusion coefficients of the decay products of radon and thoron have relevance in the evaluation of inhalation hazards in uranium and thorium processing industries. A recently developed diffusion sampler, based on Mercer's theory of diffusional deposition between the concentric circular plates, has been used for determining the diffusion coefficients of the unattached decay products of radon and thoron (RaA, RaB, RaC and ThB). Experiments were conducted at different ventilation rates (6 and 60 changes/hr) at different relative humidities (10 and 90%) and both in air and argon atmospheres. Diffusion coefficients were found to increase with increasing ventilation rates and were found to decrease at higher relative humidities, the effect being more marked at lower ventilation rates. Both of these effects were less pronounced in argon than in air. Results are discussed in light of the known properties of these decay products. (author)

  19. Broadband computation of the scattering coefficients of infinite arbitrary cylinders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Cédric; Guizal, Brahim; Felbacq, Didier

    2012-07-01

    We employ a time-domain method to compute the near field on a contour enclosing infinitely long cylinders of arbitrary cross section and constitution. We therefore recover the cylindrical Hankel coefficients of the expansion of the field outside the circumscribed circle of the structure. The recovered coefficients enable the wideband analysis of complex systems, e.g., the determination of the radar cross section becomes straightforward. The prescription for constructing such a numerical tool is provided in great detail. The method is validated by computing the scattering coefficients for a homogeneous circular cylinder illuminated by a plane wave, a problem for which an analytical solution exists. Finally, some radiation properties of an optical antenna are examined by employing the proposed technique.

  20. Energy distribution for Coefficients of Redundant Signal Representations of Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Endelt, Line Ørtoft; la Cour-Harbo, Anders

    2005-01-01

    different time-frequency dictionaries. We have applied these methods to music to examine their ability to express music signals in a sparse manner for a number of dictionaries and window lengths. The evaluation is based on the m-term approximation needed to represent 90 %, 95 %, 99 % and 99......In this paper we investigate how the energy is distributed in the coefficients vector of various redundant signal representations of music signals. The representations are found using Basis Pursuit, Matching Pursuit, Alternating Projections, Best Orthogonal Basis and Method of Frames, with five.......9 % of the energy in the coefficients, also the time consummation for finding the representations are considered. The distribution of energy in the coefficients of the representations found using Basis Pursuit, Matching Pursuit, Alternating Projections and Best Orthogonal Basis depends mainly on the signal...

  1. Producing of Impedance Tube for Measurement of Acoustic Absorption Coefficient of Some Sound Absorber Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Golmohammadi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Noise is one of the most important harmful agents in work environment. In spit of industrial improvements, exposure with over permissible limit of noise is counted as one of the health complication of workers. In Iran, do not exact information of the absorption coefficient of acoustic materials. Iranian manufacturer have not laboratory for measured of sound absorbance of their products, therefore using of sound absorber is limited for noise control in industrial and non industrial constructions. The goal of this study was to design an impedance tube based on pressure method for measurement of the sound absorption coefficient of acoustic materials.Materials & Methods: In this study designing of measuring system and method of calculation of sound absorption based on a available equipment and relatively easy for measurement of the sound absorption coefficient related to ISO10534-1 was performed. Measuring system consist of heavy asbestos tube, a pure tone sound generator, calibrated sound level meter for measuring of some commonly of sound absorber materials was used. Results: In this study sound absorption coefficient of 23 types of available acoustic material in Iran was tested. Reliability of results by three repeat of measurement was tested. Results showed that the standard deviation of sound absorption coefficient of study materials was smaller than .Conclusion: The present study performed a necessary technology of designing and producing of impedance tube for determining of acoustical materials absorption coefficient in Iran.

  2. Measurement and analysis of reactivity temperature coefficient of CEFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yiyu; Hu Yun; Yang Xiaoyan; Fan Zhendong; Zhang Qiang; Zhao Jinkun; Li Zehua

    2013-01-01

    The reactivity temperature coefficient of CEFR was calculated by CITATION program and compared with the results calculated by correlative programs and measured from experiments for temperature effects. It is indicated that the calculation results from CITATION agree well with measured values. The reactivity temperature coefficient of CEFR is about -4 pcm/℃. The deviation of the measured values between the temperature increasing and decreasing processes is about 11%, which satisfies the experiment acceptance criteria. The measured results can validate the calculation ones by program and can provide important reference data for the safety operation of CEFR and the analysis of the reactivity balance in the reactor refueling situation. (authors)

  3. Temperature dependence of Kerr coefficient and quadratic polarized optical coefficient of a paraelectric Mn:Fe:KTN crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qieni Lu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We measure temperature dependence on Kerr coefficient and quadratic polarized optical coefficient of a paraelectric Mn:Fe:KTN crystal simultaneously in this work, based on digital holographic interferometry (DHI. And the spatial distribution of the field-induced refractive index change can also be visualized and estimated by numerically retrieving sequential phase maps of Mn:Fe:KTN crystal from recording digital holograms in different states. The refractive indices decrease with increasing temperature and quadratic polarized optical coefficient is insensitive to temperature. The experimental results suggest that the DHI method presented here is highly applicable in both visualizing the temporal and spatial behavior of the internal electric field and accurately measuring electro-optic coefficient for electrooptical media.

  4. An overview of coefficient alpha and a reliability matrix for estimating adequacy of internal consistency coefficients with psychological research measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponterotto, Joseph G; Ruckdeschel, Daniel E

    2007-12-01

    The present article addresses issues in reliability assessment that are often neglected in psychological research such as acceptable levels of internal consistency for research purposes, factors affecting the magnitude of coefficient alpha (alpha), and considerations for interpreting alpha within the research context. A new reliability matrix anchored in classical test theory is introduced to help researchers judge adequacy of internal consistency coefficients with research measures. Guidelines and cautions in applying the matrix are provided.

  5. Molecular dynamics study of the thermal expansion coefficient of silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nejat Pishkenari, Hossein, E-mail: nejat@sharif.edu; Mohagheghian, Erfan; Rasouli, Ali

    2016-12-16

    Due to the growing applications of silicon in nano-scale systems, a molecular dynamics approach is employed to investigate thermal properties of silicon. Since simulation results rely upon interatomic potentials, thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) and lattice constant of bulk silicon have been obtained using different potentials (SW, Tersoff, MEAM, and EDIP) and results indicate that SW has a better agreement with the experimental observations. To investigate effect of size on TEC of silicon nanowires, further simulations are performed using SW potential. To this end, silicon nanowires of different sizes are examined and their TEC is calculated by averaging in different directions ([100], [110], [111], and [112]) and various temperatures. Results show that as the size increases, due to the decrease of the surface effects, TEC approaches its bulk value. - Highlights: • MD simulations of TEC and lattice constant of bulk silicon. • Effects of four potentials on the results. • Comparison to experimental data. • Investigating size effect on TEC of silicon nanowires.

  6. In-situ measurement of electroosmotic drag coefficient in Nafion membrane for the PEMFC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhe; Morin, Arnaud; Huguet, Patrice; Schott, Pascal; Pauchet, Joël

    2011-11-10

    A new method based on hydrogen pump has been developed to measure the electroosmotic drag coefficient in representative PEMFC operating conditions. It allows eliminating the back-flow of water which leads to some errors in the calculation of this coefficient with previously reported electrochemical methods. Measurements have been performed on 50 μm thick Nafion membranes both extruded and recast. Contrary to what has been described in most of previous published works, the electroosmotic drag coefficient decreases as the membrane water content increases. The same trend is observed for temperatures between 25 and 80 °C. For the same membrane water content, the electroosmotic drag coefficient increases with temperature. In the same condition, there is no difference in drag coefficient for extruded Nafion N112 and recast Nafion NRE212. These results are discussed on the basis of the two commonly accepted proton transport mechanisms, namely, Grotthus and vehicular.

  7. Development of reflectance-based crop coefficients for corn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neale, C.M.U.; Bausch, W.C.; Heermann, D.F.

    1989-01-01

    Concurrent measurements of reflected canopy radiation and the basal crop coefficient (K^b) for corn were conducted throughout a season in order to develop a reflectance-based crop coefficient model. Reflectance was measured in Landsat Thematic Mapper bands TM3 (0.63 - 0.69 um) and TM4 (0.76 - 0.90 um) and used in the calculation of a vegetation index called the normalized difference (ND). A linear transformation of the ND was used as the reflectance-based crop coefficient (Kcr). The transformation equates the ND for dry bare soil and the ND at effective cover, to the basal crop coefficient for dry soil evaporation and at effective cover, respectively. Basal crop coefficient values for com were obtained from daily evapotranspiration measurements of corn and alfalfa, using hydraulic weighing lysimeters. The Richards growth curve function was fitted to both sets of data. The K^b values were determined to be within -2.6% and 4.7% of the K^^ values. The date of effective cover obtained from the K^b data was within four days of the date on which the ND curve reached its maxima according to the Richards function. A comparison of the Kcr with basal crop curves from the literature for several years of data indicated good agreement. Reflectance-based crop coefficients are sensitive to periods of slow and fast growth induced by weather conditions, resulting in a real time coefficient, independent from the traditional time base parameters based on the day of planting and effective cover

  8. Measurement of linear attenuation coefficient of different materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M. M.

    2013-07-01

    In this research we study the linear attenuation coefficient from the materials concrete, brick, mixture concrete and iron. In the secondary standard dosimetry laboratory in Atomic Energy from different distance by use Cs-137 sours, chamber farmer 2675 A-600 cc-S/N 0511, and electrometer 2670 A-S/N 114. Found the value of linear attenuation coefficient of concert in the range 0.167 cm -1 , the brick in the range 0.063 -1 and mixture concrete and iron in the range 0.253cm -1 .(Author)

  9. Genome-scale cluster analysis of replicated microarrays using shrinkage correlation coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jianchao; Chang, Chunqi; Salmi, Mari L; Hung, Yeung Sam; Loraine, Ann; Roux, Stanley J

    2008-06-18

    Currently, clustering with some form of correlation coefficient as the gene similarity metric has become a popular method for profiling genomic data. The Pearson correlation coefficient and the standard deviation (SD)-weighted correlation coefficient are the two most widely-used correlations as the similarity metrics in clustering microarray data. However, these two correlations are not optimal for analyzing replicated microarray data generated by most laboratories. An effective correlation coefficient is needed to provide statistically sufficient analysis of replicated microarray data. In this study, we describe a novel correlation coefficient, shrinkage correlation coefficient (SCC), that fully exploits the similarity between the replicated microarray experimental samples. The methodology considers both the number of replicates and the variance within each experimental group in clustering expression data, and provides a robust statistical estimation of the error of replicated microarray data. The value of SCC is revealed by its comparison with two other correlation coefficients that are currently the most widely-used (Pearson correlation coefficient and SD-weighted correlation coefficient) using statistical measures on both synthetic expression data as well as real gene expression data from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Two leading clustering methods, hierarchical and k-means clustering were applied for the comparison. The comparison indicated that using SCC achieves better clustering performance. Applying SCC-based hierarchical clustering to the replicated microarray data obtained from germinating spores of the fern Ceratopteris richardii, we discovered two clusters of genes with shared expression patterns during spore germination. Functional analysis suggested that some of the genetic mechanisms that control germination in such diverse plant lineages as mosses and angiosperms are also conserved among ferns. This study shows that SCC is an alternative to the Pearson

  10. Measurement of capacity coefficient of inclined liquid phase catalytic exchange column for tritiated water processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamai, Hideki; Konishi, Satoshi; Yamanishi, Toshihiko; Okuno, Kenji

    1994-01-01

    Liquid phase catalytic exchange (LPCE) is effective method for enrichment and removal of tritium from tritiated water. Capacity coefficients of operating LPCE column that are essential to evaluate column performance were measured. Experiments were performed with short catalyst packed columns and effect of inclination was studied. Method for evaluation of capacity coefficients was established from measurement of isotope concentration of liquid, vapor, gas phases at the two ends of the column. The capacity coefficients were measured under various superficial gas velocities. Feasibility study of helical columns with roughened inner surface was performed with short inclined columns. The column performance was not strongly affected by the inclination. The result indicates technological feasibility of helical LPCE column, that is expected to have operation stability and reduced height

  11. Temperature coefficients of reactivity in the fourth loading of ZENITH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caro Manso, R.; Freemantle, R.G.; Rogers, J.D.

    1962-10-01

    Measurements have been made of the temperature coefficients of reactivity associated with the core plus end reflectors and the side reflector of the fourth core loading of ZENITH, which had a carbon/U235 atomic ratio of 7788 and no other absorber. (author)

  12. Temperature coefficients of reactivity in the fourth loading of ZENITH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caro Manso, R; Freemantle, R G; Rogers, J D [Graphite Reactor Physics Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1962-10-15

    Measurements have been made of the temperature coefficients of reactivity associated with the core plus end reflectors and the side reflector of the fourth core loading of ZENITH, which had a carbon/U235 atomic ratio of 7788 and no other absorber. (author)

  13. Determination of gas diffusion coefficients in undisturbed Boom clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacops, E.; Volckaert, G.; Maes, N.; Govaerts, J.; Weetjens, E.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The Belgian agency for radioactive waste and enriched fissile materials Ondraf/Niras presently considers Boom Clay as a potential host formation for the disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive waste. The production of gas is unavoidable within a geological repository. Gas is produced by different mechanisms: anaerobic corrosion of metals in waste and packaging, radiolysis of water and organic materials in the waste and engineered barriers and microbial degradation of various organic wastes. Corrosion and radiolysis yield mainly hydrogen while microbial degradation leads to methane and carbon dioxide. The gas generated in the near field of a geological repository will dissolve in the pore water and is transported away from the repository by diffusion as dissolved species. If the gas generation rate is larger than the diffusive flux, the pore water will become over-saturated and a free gas phase will form. Initially, isolated gas bubbles will accumulate until a continuous gas phase is formed. As gas pressure continues to increase, discrete gas pathways may be formed by tensile fractures within the rock fabric. Consequently, this entire process may locally and at least temporarily alter the hydraulic and mechanical properties of the engineered barriers and the clay and, perhaps, their performance. Therefore it is important to assess whether or not gas production rates might exceed the diffusive gas flux. The currently available gas diffusion parameters (D eff : effective diffusion coefficient) for hydrogen in Boom Clay, obtained from the MEGAS project, and re-evaluated after lead to an estimated D eff between 1.9 10 -12 and 1.5 10 -10 m 2 /s. Sensitivity calculations showed that this uncertainty on the diffusion coefficient, combined with that on the gas source term, made it impossible to exclude the formation of a free gas phase. To reduce the uncertainty, an experimental method was developed to determine

  14. Condensation coefficient of water in a weak condensation state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Kazumichi; Watanabe, Shunsuke; Yamano, Daigo; Yano, Takeru; Fujikawa, Shigeo

    2008-01-01

    The condensation coefficient of water at a vapor-liquid interface is determined by combining shock tube experiments and numerical simulations of the Gaussian-BGK Boltzmann equation. The time evolution in thickness of a liquid film, which is formed on the shock tube endwall behind the shock wave reflected at the endwall, is measured with an optical interferometer consisting of the physical beam and the reference one. The reference beam is utilized to eliminate systematic noises from the physical beam. The growth rate of the film is evaluated from the measured time evolution and it is incorporated into the kinetic boundary condition for the Boltzmann equation. From a numerical simulation using the boundary condition, the condensation coefficient of water is uniquely deduced. The results show that, in a condition of weak condensation near a vapor-liquid equilibrium state, the condensation coefficient of water is almost equal to the evaporation coefficient estimated by molecular dynamics simulations near a vapor-liquid equilibrium state and it decreases as the system becomes a nonequilibrium state. The condensation coefficient of water is nearly identical with that of methanol [Mikami, S., Kobayashi, K., Ota, T., Fujikawa, S., Yano, T., Ichijo, M., 2006. Molecular gas dynamics approaches to interfacial phenomena accompanied with condensation. Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 30, 795-800].

  15. Condensation coefficient of water in a weak condensation state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kazumichi; Watanabe, Shunsuke; Yamano, Daigo; Yano, Takeru; Fujikawa, Shigeo

    2008-07-01

    The condensation coefficient of water at a vapor-liquid interface is determined by combining shock tube experiments and numerical simulations of the Gaussian-BGK Boltzmann equation. The time evolution in thickness of a liquid film, which is formed on the shock tube endwall behind the shock wave reflected at the endwall, is measured with an optical interferometer consisting of the physical beam and the reference one. The reference beam is utilized to eliminate systematic noises from the physical beam. The growth rate of the film is evaluated from the measured time evolution and it is incorporated into the kinetic boundary condition for the Boltzmann equation. From a numerical simulation using the boundary condition, the condensation coefficient of water is uniquely deduced. The results show that, in a condition of weak condensation near a vapor-liquid equilibrium state, the condensation coefficient of water is almost equal to the evaporation coefficient estimated by molecular dynamics simulations near a vapor-liquid equilibrium state and it decreases as the system becomes a nonequilibrium state. The condensation coefficient of water is nearly identical with that of methanol [Mikami, S., Kobayashi, K., Ota, T., Fujikawa, S., Yano, T., Ichijo, M., 2006. Molecular gas dynamics approaches to interfacial phenomena accompanied with condensation. Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 30, 795-800].

  16. The adsorption coefficient (KOC) of chlorpyrifos in clay soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halimah Muhamad; Nashriyah Mat; Tan Yew Ai; Ismail Sahid

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the adsorption coefficient (KOC) of chlorpyrifos in clay soil by measuring the Freundlich adsorption coefficient (Kads(f)) and desorption coefficient (1/n value) of chlorpyrifos. It was found that the Freundlich adsorption coefficient (Kads(f)) and the linear regression (r2) of the Freundlich adsorption isotherm for chlorpyrifos in the clay soil were 52.6 L/kg and 0.5244, respectively. Adsorption equilibrium time was achieved within 24 hours for clay soil. This adsorption equilibrium time was used to determine the effect of concentration on adsorption. The adsorption coefficient (KOC) of clay soil was found to be 2783 L/kg with an initial concentration solution of 1 μg/g, soil-solution ratio (1:5) at 300 C when the equilibrium between the soil matrix and solution was 24 hours. The Kdes decreased over four repetitions of the desorption process. The chlorpyrifos residues may be strongly adsorbed onto the surface of clay. (Author)

  17. Statistical Study of Turbulence: Spectral Functions and Correlation Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkiel, Francois N.

    1958-01-01

    In reading the publications on turbulence of different authors, one often runs the risk of confusing the various correlation coefficients and turbulence spectra. We have made a point of defining, by appropriate concepts, the differences which exist between these functions. Besides, we introduce in the symbols a few new characteristics of turbulence. In the first chapter, we study some relations between the correlation coefficients and the different turbulence spectra. Certain relations are given by means of demonstrations which could be called intuitive rather than mathematical. In this way we demonstrate that the correlation coefficients between the simultaneous turbulent velocities at two points are identical, whether studied in Lagrange's or in Euler's systems. We then consider new spectra of turbulence, obtained by study of the simultaneous velocities along a straight line of given direction. We determine some relations between these spectra and the correlation coefficients. Examining the relation between the spectrum of the turbulence measured at a fixed point and the longitudinal-correlation curve given by G. I. Taylor, we find that this equation is exact only when the coefficient is very small.

  18. Determination of sedimentation rates and absorption coefficient of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. MIKE HORSFALL

    particles have pores that can absorb radiation. Gamma rays have been used to study the absorption coefficients of cobalt(II) insoluble compounds (Essien and Ekpe, 1998), densities of marine sediments. (Gerland and Villinger, 1995) and soil particle-size distribution (Vaz et al., 1992). In this study, sedimentation rates of ...

  19. Determination of the Drag Resistance Coefficients of Different Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahsl, Christoph; Vogt, Patrik

    2018-01-01

    While it has been demonstrated how air resistance could be analyzed by using mobile devices, this paper demonstrates a method of how to determine the drag resistance coefficient "c" of a commercial automobile by using the acceleration sensor of a smartphone or tablet. In an academic context, the drag resistance is often mentioned, but…

  20. Research Note On New Limits of the Coefficient of Gravitation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Research Note. On New Limits of the Coefficient of Gravitation Shielding. Michele Caputo. Physics Department, University La Sapienza, Piazzale A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma, Italy. and. Department of Geology and Geophysics, Texas A&M University, College Station TX, 77843,. USA. e-mail: mcaputo@g24ux.phys.uniroma1.it.

  1. The influence of hydrogen bonding on partition coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Nádia Melo; Kenny, Peter W.; Montanari, Carlos A.; Prokopczyk, Igor M.; Ribeiro, Jean F. R.; Rocha, Josmar R.; Sartori, Geraldo Rodrigues

    2017-02-01

    This Perspective explores how consideration of hydrogen bonding can be used to both predict and better understand partition coefficients. It is shown how polarity of both compounds and substructures can be estimated from measured alkane/water partition coefficients. When polarity is defined in this manner, hydrogen bond donors are typically less polar than hydrogen bond acceptors. Analysis of alkane/water partition coefficients in conjunction with molecular electrostatic potential calculations suggests that aromatic chloro substituents may be less lipophilic than is generally believed and that some of the effect of chloro-substitution stems from making the aromatic π-cloud less available to hydrogen bond donors. Relationships between polarity and calculated hydrogen bond basicity are derived for aromatic nitrogen and carbonyl oxygen. Aligned hydrogen bond acceptors appear to present special challenges for prediction of alkane/water partition coefficients and this may reflect `frustration' of solvation resulting from overlapping hydration spheres. It is also shown how calculated hydrogen bond basicity can be used to model the effect of aromatic aza-substitution on octanol/water partition coefficients.

  2. Determination of corneal elasticity coefficient using the ORA database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avetisov, Sergei E; Novikov, Ivan A; Bubnova, Irina A; Antonov, Alexei A; Siplivyi, Vladimir I

    2010-07-01

    To propose a new approach for the study of corneal biomechanics using the Reichert Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA) database, which is based on changes in velocity retardation in the central cornea at the peak of flattening. The ORA applanation curve was analyzed using a mathematical technique, which allowed calculation of the elasticity coefficient (Ke), which is primarily characteristic of the elastic properties of the cornea. Elasticity coefficient values were obtained in patients with presumably different biomechanical properties of the cornea: "normal" cornea (71 eyes, normal group), keratoconus (34 eyes, keratoconus group), LASIK (36 eyes, LASIK group), and glaucoma with elevated and compensated intraocular pressure (lOP) (38 eyes, glaucoma group). The mean Ke value in the normal group was 11.05 +/- 1.6, and the corneal thickness correlation coefficient r2 was 0.48. In the keratoconus group, the mean Ke value was 4.91 +/- 1.87 and the corneal thickness correlation coefficient r2 was 0.47. In the LASIK group, Ke and r2 were 5.99 +/- 1.18 and 0.39, respectively. In the glaucoma group, the same eyes that experienced a two-fold reduction in lOP developed a statistically significant reduction in the Ke (1.06 times lower), whereas their corneal hysteresis value increased 1.25 times. The elasticity coefficient calculated using the ORA applanation curve can be used in the evaluation of corneal biomechanical properties.

  3. Induration and Biot’s Coefficient of Palaeogene Limestone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Katrine Alling

    2017-01-01

    In engineering geology and classification of rock masses for civil engineering purposes, the degree of induration for a rock serves as a useful classification parameter. Induration is a measure of how well the grains of a sedimentary rock are cemented together - from loosely cemented/soft rock...... to very competent/slightly metamorphic rock. The Biot coefficient links to the degree of cementation in the capacity of how it relates the elastic deformations with the change in pore pressure. A hypothesis is that the degree of induration could be correlated to the magnitude of the Biot coefficient....... This is tested on 11 Copenhagen Limestone specimens of varying porosity and densities obtained from one borehole with a limestone interval of 30 m. Their induration varies from H2 to H5. Elastic wave propagation measurements are used to establish the Biot coefficient and determination of the mineralogy for H5...

  4. Modeling of the substrate and product transfer coefficients for ethanol fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerajic, S.; Grbavcic, Z.; Savkovic-Stevanovic, J.

    2008-01-01

    The transfer phenomena of the substrate and product for ethanol fermentation with immobilized biocatalyst were investigated. Fermentation was carried out with a biocatalyst consisting of Ca-alginate gel in the form of two-layer spherical beads in anaerobic conditions. The determination of kinetic parameters was achieved by fitting bioreaction progress curves to the experimental data. The calculation of the diffusion coefficients was performed by numerical methods for experimental conditions. Finally, the glucose and ethanol transfer coefficients are defined and determined, using the effective diffusion coefficients. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  5. Clebsch-Gordan coefficients of discrete groups in subgroup bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gaoli

    2018-04-01

    We express each Clebsch-Gordan (CG) coefficient of a discrete group as a product of a CG coefficient of its subgroup and a factor, which we call an embedding factor. With an appropriate definition, such factors are fixed up to phase ambiguities. Particularly, they are invariant under basis transformations of irreducible representations of both the group and its subgroup. We then impose on the embedding factors constraints, which relate them to their counterparts under complex conjugate and therefore restrict the phases of embedding factors. In some cases, the phase ambiguities are reduced to sign ambiguities. We describe the procedure of obtaining embedding factors and then calculate CG coefficients of the group 𝒫𝒮ℒ2(7) in terms of embedding factors of its subgroups S4 and 𝒯7.

  6. Influence of roughness parameters on coefficient of friction under ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S¯adhan¯a Vol. 33, Part 3, June 2008, pp. ... Surface texture and thus roughness parameters influence coefficient of friction during sliding. ..... tural irregularities and complexities of the natural system, fractal is widely used to explain the natural ...

  7. Evaluation of coefficient of friction in bulk metal forming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solhjoo, Soheil

    In this study an upper bound analysis for cylindrical "Barrel Compression Test" (BCT) is developed. BCT method is a very simple method which can be utilized in order to evaluate quantitatively the coefficient of friction by means of just one cylindrical specimen in an upsetting test. The method is

  8. Molar extinction coefficients of solutions of some organic compounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    efficients of these compounds have been used to calculate effective atomic numbers and electron densities. The additivity ... Molar extinction coefficients; effective atomic numbers; electron density. PACS Nos 29.30. ... the radiation path and is linearly dependent on the concentration of the absorbing species. This is most ...

  9. Experimental partition determination of octanol-water coefficients of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An electrochemical method based on square wave voltammetry was developed for the measurement of octanol-water partition coefficient, LogP, for ten ferrocene derivatives. Measured LogP values ranged over two orders of magnitude, between 2.18 for 1- ferrocenylethanol and 4.38 for ferrocenyl-2-nitrophenyl.

  10. Molar extinction coefficients of solutions of some organic compounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (C4H8O2), succinimide (C4H5NO2) as estimated from the measured absorbance of. 7 radiations in their ... species in the solution and ε is called the molar absorptivity or extinction coefficient. (l mol-1cm-1 or ... Integration of eq. (4) leads to.

  11. Estimates of the Sampling Distribution of Scalability Coefficient H

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Onna, Marieke J. H.

    2004-01-01

    Coefficient "H" is used as an index of scalability in nonparametric item response theory (NIRT). It indicates the degree to which a set of items rank orders examinees. Theoretical sampling distributions, however, have only been derived asymptotically and only under restrictive conditions. Bootstrap methods offer an alternative possibility to…

  12. Distributing Correlation Coefficients of Linear Structure-Activity/Property Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorana D. BOLBOACA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative structure-activity/property relationships are mathematical relationships linking chemical structure and activity/property in a quantitative manner. These in silico approaches are frequently used to reduce animal testing and risk-assessment, as well as to increase time- and cost-effectiveness in characterization and identification of active compounds. The aim of our study was to investigate the pattern of correlation coefficients distribution associated to simple linear relationships linking the compounds structure with their activities. A set of the most common ordnance compounds found at naval facilities with a limited data set with a range of toxicities on aquatic ecosystem and a set of seven properties was studied. Statistically significant models were selected and investigated. The probability density function of the correlation coefficients was investigated using a series of possible continuous distribution laws. Almost 48% of the correlation coefficients proved fit Beta distribution, 40% fit Generalized Pareto distribution, and 12% fit Pert distribution.

  13. Similarity analysis between chromosomes of Homo sapiens and monkeys with correlation coefficient, rank correlation coefficient and cosine similarity measures

    OpenAIRE

    Someswara Rao, Chinta; Viswanadha Raju, S.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we consider correlation coefficient, rank correlation coefficient and cosine similarity measures for evaluating similarity between Homo sapiens and monkeys. We used DNA chromosomes of genome wide genes to determine the correlation between the chromosomal content and evolutionary relationship. The similarity among the H. sapiens and monkeys is measured for a total of 210 chromosomes related to 10 species. The similarity measures of these different species show the relationship b...

  14. Spatial Variation of Hydrodynamic Mass Coefficients for Tube Bundle in a Cylindrical Shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Keum Hee; Ryu, Ki Wahn [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Park, Chi Yong [KEPCO Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    Wear of the steam generator (SG) tubes affects the performance of nuclear power plants. Generally, the problem is caused by excessive flow-induced vibration (FIV). In analyzing the FIV, many researchers have used a uniform added mass coefficient for all of the SG tubes. However, the outermost SG tubes have more structural problems than inside tubes. The purpose of this study is to find out the added mass coefficients of each tube in a cylindrical shell

  15. 蓄能型太阳能热泵热水器性能系数的分析%Coefficient of performance of solar heat pump water heater with energy storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴薇; 卫梁彦; 程清; 王玲珑

    2011-01-01

    To solve the problem that solar heat pump water heater was prone to be affected by weather, a novel water heater integrated with collection, storage and evaporation was proposed. The principle, characteristics, operating modes and structure of the collector-storage-evaporator system were investigated. Using phase change material of decanoic acid to store solar radiation in sunny days as low-temperature source, hot water was produced at night or in continuous rainy days. Thermal efficiency of heat pump system was increased significantly, and the operating unstableness of the heat pump system caused by interval solar energy was also solved. Experiments under different conditions and operating modes in spring were conducted, and the coefficient of performance ( COP) of the system was analyzed. The results indicate that COP of this novel solar heat pump water heater with energy storage is higher than that of ordinary solar heat pump water heater at the same weather condition. The average COP of this system is 7. 56 with maximum of 8. 9 for average solar radiation of 592 W·m-2. COP can also reach 6.4 even at night, which means that weather has slight influence on COP.%针对太阳能热泵热水器受天气变化影响的问题,提出了一种新型的集热-蓄能-蒸发一体化太阳能热泵热水器,给出了系统的原理、特点、运行模式和集热-蓄能-蒸发器的结构形式,以癸酸为相变材料储存晴天的太阳辐射能,作为热泵在夜间和连续阴雨天时的低温热源制得热水,提高了热泵的制热效率,解决了太阳能间歇性所造成的系统运行不稳定的问题.进行了春季不同工况、不同工作模式的试验,分析了系统的性能系数COP,得出该系统的平均COP为7.56.太阳辐射强度均值为592 W·m-2的天气条件下,COP可达8.9;即使在夜间,COP仍能达到6.4,均高于相同天气条件下普通太阳能热泵热水器的COP,该系统的COP受天气变化影响较小.

  16. Validity of the CT to attenuation coefficient map conversion methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faghihi, R.; Ahangari Shahdehi, R.; Fazilat Moadeli, M.

    2004-01-01

    The most important commercialized methods of attenuation correction in SPECT are based on attenuation coefficient map from a transmission imaging method. The transmission imaging system can be the linear source of radioelement or a X-ray CT system. The image of transmission imaging system is not useful unless to replacement of the attenuation coefficient or CT number with the attenuation coefficient in SPECT energy. In this paper we essay to evaluate the validity and estimate the error of the most used method of this transformation. The final result shows that the methods which use a linear or multi-linear curve accept a error in their estimation. The value of mA is not important but the patient thickness is very important and it can introduce a error more than 10 percent in the final result

  17. Anomalous behavior of the diffusion coefficient in thin active films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, Abhik; Joanny, Jean-Francois; Prost, Jacques; Jülicher, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Inspired by recent experiments in cell biology, we elucidate the visco-elastic properties of an active gel by studying the dynamics of a small tracer particle inside it. In a stochastic hydrodynamic approach for an active gel of finite thickness L, we calculate the mean square displacement of a particle. These particle displacements are governed by fluctuations in the velocity field. We characterize the short-time behavior when the gel is a solid as well as the limit of long times when the gel becomes a fluid and the particle shows simple diffusion. Active stresses together with local polar order give rise to velocity fluctuations that lead to characteristic behaviors of the diffusion coefficient that differ fundamentally from those found in a passive system: the diffusion coefficient can depend on system size and diverges as L approaches an instability threshold. Furthermore, the diffusion coefficient becomes independent of the particle size in this case. (paper)

  18. The Influence of Particle Charge on Heterogeneous Reaction Rate Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikin, A. C.; Pesnell, W. D.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of particle charge on heterogeneous reaction rates are presented. Many atmospheric particles, whether liquid or solid are charged. This surface charge causes a redistribution of charge within a liquid particle and as a consequence a perturbation in the gaseous uptake coefficient. The amount of perturbation is proportional to the external potential and the square of the ratio of debye length in the liquid to the particle radius. Previous modeling has shown how surface charge affects the uptake coefficient of charged aerosols. This effect is now included in the heterogeneous reaction rate of an aerosol ensemble. Extension of this analysis to ice particles will be discussed and examples presented.

  19. Coupling coefficients for tensor product representations of quantum SU(2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenevelt, Wolter

    2014-01-01

    We study tensor products of infinite dimensional irreducible * -representations (not corepresentations) of the SU(2) quantum group. We obtain (generalized) eigenvectors of certain self-adjoint elements using spectral analysis of Jacobi operators associated to well-known q-hypergeometric orthogonal polynomials. We also compute coupling coefficients between different eigenvectors corresponding to the same eigenvalue. Since the continuous spectrum has multiplicity two, the corresponding coupling coefficients can be considered as 2 × 2-matrix-valued orthogonal functions. We compute explicitly the matrix elements of these functions. The coupling coefficients can be considered as q-analogs of Bessel functions. As a results we obtain several q-integral identities involving q-hypergeometric orthogonal polynomials and q-Bessel-type functions

  20. Coupling coefficients for tensor product representations of quantum SU(2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenevelt, Wolter

    2014-10-01

    We study tensor products of infinite dimensional irreducible *-representations (not corepresentations) of the SU(2) quantum group. We obtain (generalized) eigenvectors of certain self-adjoint elements using spectral analysis of Jacobi operators associated to well-known q-hypergeometric orthogonal polynomials. We also compute coupling coefficients between different eigenvectors corresponding to the same eigenvalue. Since the continuous spectrum has multiplicity two, the corresponding coupling coefficients can be considered as 2 × 2-matrix-valued orthogonal functions. We compute explicitly the matrix elements of these functions. The coupling coefficients can be considered as q-analogs of Bessel functions. As a results we obtain several q-integral identities involving q-hypergeometric orthogonal polynomials and q-Bessel-type functions.

  1. Analytical prediction of fuel assembly spacer grid loss coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, J. S.; Nam, K. I.; Park, S. K.; Kwon, J. T.; Park, W. J.

    2002-01-01

    The analytical prediction model of the fuel assembly spacer grid pressure loss coefficient has been studied. The pressure loss of gap between the test section wall and spacer grid was separated from the current model and the different friction drag coefficient on spacer straps from high Reynolds number region were used to low Reynolds number region. The analytical model has been verified based on the hydraulic pressure drop test results for the spacer grids of three types for 5x5, 16x16(or 17x17) arrays. The analytical model predicts the pressure loss coefficients obtained from test results within the maximum errors of 12% and 7% for 5x5 test bundle and full size bundle, respectively, at Reynolds number 500,000 of the core operating condition. This result shows that the analytical model can be used for research and design change of the nuclear fuel assembly

  2. Chemical evolution coefficients for the study of galactic evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallik, D C.V. [Indian Inst. of Astrophysics, Bangalore

    1980-05-01

    A new evaluation of chemical evolution coefficients has been made using recent stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis data. The role of the low and intermediate mass stars in galactic nucleosynthesis has been emphasized. A significant amount of /sup 4/He, /sup 12/C and neutron-rich species is found to be contributed by these stars. Comparison with observed abundances suggests a primary origin of /sup 14/N. The simple model of galactic evolution with the new coefficients has been used to derive the ratio of helium to heavy element enrichment in the Galaxy. The new stellar evolution data do not explain the large value of this ratio that has been determined observationally.

  3. Chemical evolution coefficients for the study of galactic evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallik, D.C.V.

    1980-01-01

    A new evaluation of chemical evolution coefficients has been made using recent stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis data. The role of the low and intermediate mass stars in galactic nuclosynthesis has been emphasized. A significant amount of 4 He, 12 C and neutron-rich species is found to be contributed by these stars. Comparison with observed abundances suggests a primary origin of 14 N. The simple model of galactic evolution with the new coefficients has been used to derive the ratio of helium to heavy element enrichment in the Galaxy. The new stellar evolution data do not explain the large value of this ratio that has been determined observationally. (orig.)

  4. Determination of Dimensionless Attenuation Coefficient in Shaped Resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, C.; Steinetz, B.; Finkbeiner, J.; Raman, G.; Li, X.

    2003-01-01

    The value of dimensionless attenuation coefficient is an important factor when numerically predicting high-amplitude acoustic waves in shaped resonators. Both the magnitude of the pressure waveform and the quality factor rely heavily on this dimensionless parameter. Previous authors have stated the values used, but have not completely explained their methods. This work fully describes the methodology used to determine this important parameter. Over a range of frequencies encompassing the fundamental resonance, the pressure waves were experimentally measured at each end of the shaped resonators. At the corresponding dimensionless acceleration, the numerical code modeled the acoustic waveforms generated in the resonator using various dimensionless attenuation coefficients. The dimensionless attenuation coefficient that most closely matched the pressure amplitudes and quality factors of the experimental and numerical results was determined to be the value to be used in subsequent studies.

  5. Calibration coefficient of the SSNTD and equilibrium factor for radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planinic, J.; Vukovic, B.

    1993-01-01

    Disintegration, ventilation and deposition were considered as removal processes of the radon and its short-lived daughters in air and respective concentration equations were applied. Calibration coefficient (K F ) of the solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) LR-115 for radon and the equilibrium factor (F) were related to track densities of the bare detector (D) and the filtered one (D o ). A useful relationship between K F , F and detector sensitivity coefficient (k) was derived. Using the calibrated value k=3.29 * 10 -3 m, the exposed detectors gave the average values of the equilibrium factor, calibration coefficient and indoor radon concentration of a single house living room in Osijek 0.46, 142.3 m -1 and 37.8 Bq m -3 , respectively. (author) 4 refs.; 1 fig

  6. Distribution of temperature coefficient density for muons in the atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmenko V.S.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To date, several dozens of new muon detectors have been built. When studying cosmic-ray intensity variations with these detectors, located deep in the atmosphere, it is necessary to calculate all characteristics, including the distribution of temperature coefficient density for muons in the atmosphere, taking into account their specific geometry. For this purpose, we calculate the density of temperature coefficients of muon intensity in the atmosphere at various zenith angles of detection at sea level and at various depths underground for different absorption ranges of primary protons and pions in the atmosphere.

  7. Calculation of self-diffusion coefficients in iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baohua Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of available P-V-T equation of state of iron, the temperature and pressure dependence of self-diffusion coefficients in iron polymorphs (α, δ, γ and ɛ phases have been successfully reproduced in terms of the bulk elastic and expansivity data by means of a thermodynamical model that interconnects point defects parameters with bulk properties. The calculated diffusion parameters, such as self-diffusion coefficient, activation energy and activation volume over a broad temperature range (500-2500 K and pressure range (0-100 GPa, compare favorably well with experimental or theoretical ones when the uncertainties are considered.

  8. Identification of MIMO systems with sparse transfer function coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wanzhi; Saleem, Syed Khusro; Skafidas, Efstratios

    2012-12-01

    We study the problem of estimating transfer functions of multivariable (multiple-input multiple-output--MIMO) systems with sparse coefficients. We note that subspace identification methods are powerful and convenient tools in dealing with MIMO systems since they neither require nonlinear optimization nor impose any canonical form on the systems. However, subspace-based methods are inefficient for systems with sparse transfer function coefficients since they work on state space models. We propose a two-step algorithm where the first step identifies the system order using the subspace principle in a state space format, while the second step estimates coefficients of the transfer functions via L1-norm convex optimization. The proposed algorithm retains good features of subspace methods with improved noise-robustness for sparse systems.

  9. Efficient calculation of atomic rate coefficients in dense plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslanyan, Valentin; Tallents, Greg J.

    2017-03-01

    Modelling electron statistics in a cold, dense plasma by the Fermi-Dirac distribution leads to complications in the calculations of atomic rate coefficients. The Pauli exclusion principle slows down the rate of collisions as electrons must find unoccupied quantum states and adds a further computational cost. Methods to calculate these coefficients by direct numerical integration with a high degree of parallelism are presented. This degree of optimization allows the effects of degeneracy to be incorporated into a time-dependent collisional-radiative model. Example results from such a model are presented.

  10. Determination of photon detector coefficient in neutron flux study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jedol Dayou; Azali Muhammad; Abd Aziz Mohamed; Abdul Razak Daud; Elias Saniman

    1995-01-01

    The efficiency of photon detector which is normally used in neutron flux measurement has been studied. The data obtain have been plotted using mathematical models in the form of reciprocal, exponential and semilog equation and subsequently efficiency coefficient of the detector has been determined. Beside that, energy quadratic equation model has also been used. It has been found that equation model selection is very important in the detector efficiency coefficient determination. In the case of energy quadratic equation, it has been found that the selection of energy set influenced the result. It can be concluded that energy quadratic equation is the best model in the neutron flux determination

  11. FITTING OF THE DATA FOR DIFFUSION COEFFICIENTS IN UNSATURATED POROUS MEDIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Bullard

    1999-05-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to evaluate diffusion coefficients in unsaturated porous media for use in the TSPA-VA analyses. Using experimental data, regression techniques were used to curve fit the diffusion coefficient in unsaturated porous media as a function of volumetric water content. This calculation substantiates the model fit used in Total System Performance Assessment-1995 An Evaluation of the Potential Yucca Mountain Repository (TSPA-1995), Section 6.5.4.

  12. FITTING OF THE DATA FOR DIFFUSION COEFFICIENTS IN UNSATURATED POROUS MEDIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B. Bullard

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to evaluate diffusion coefficients in unsaturated porous media for use in the TSPA-VA analyses. Using experimental data, regression techniques were used to curve fit the diffusion coefficient in unsaturated porous media as a function of volumetric water content. This calculation substantiates the model fit used in Total System Performance Assessment-1995 An Evaluation of the Potential Yucca Mountain Repository (TSPA-1995), Section 6.5.4

  13. Modification of Einstein A Coefficient in Dissipative Gas Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Chang-Qi; Cao, Hui; Qin, Ke-Cheng

    1996-01-01

    Spontaneous radiation in dissipative gas medium such as plasmas is investigated by Langevin equations and the modified Weisskopf-Wigner approximation. Since the refractive index of gas medium is expected to be nearly unity, we shall first neglect the medium polarization effect. We show that absorption in plasmas may in certain case modify the Einstein A coefficient significantly and cause a pit in the A coefficient-density curves for relatively low temperature plasmas and also a pit in the A coefficient-temperature curves. In the next, the effect of medium polarization is taken into account in addition. To our surprise, its effect in certain case is quite significant. The dispersive curves show different behaviors in different region of parameters.

  14. Properties of C4F7N–CO2 thermal plasmas: thermodynamic properties, transport coefficients and emission coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi; Wang, Chunlin; Sun, Hao; Murphy, Anthony B.; Rong, Mingzhe; Yang, Fei; Chen, Zhexin; Niu, Chunpin; Wang, Xiaohua

    2018-04-01

    The thermophysical properties, including composition, thermodynamic properties, transport coefficients and net emission coefficients, of thermal plasmas formed from pure iso-C4 perfluoronitrile C4F7N and C4F7N–CO2 mixtures are calculated for temperatures from 300 to 30 000 K and pressures from 0.1 to 20 atm. These gases have received much attention as alternatives to SF6 for use in circuit breakers, due to the low global warming potential and good dielectric properties of C4F7N. Since the parameters of the large molecules formed in the dissociation of C4F7N are unavailable, the partition function and enthalpy of formation were calculated using computational chemistry methods. From the equilibrium composition calculations, it was found that when C4F7N is mixed with CO2, CO2 can capture C atoms from C4F7N, producing CO, since the system consisting of small molecules such as CF4 and CO has lower energy at room temperature. This is in agreement with previous experimental results, which show that CO dominates the decomposition products of C4F7N–CO2 mixtures; it could limit the repeated breaking performance of C4F7N. From the point of view of chemical stability, the mixing ratio of CO2 should therefore be chosen carefully. Through comparison with common arc quenching gases (including SF6, CF3I and C5F10O), it is found that for the temperature range for which electrical conductivity remains low, pure C4F7N has similar ρC p (product of mass density and specific heat) properties to SF6, and higher radiative emission coefficient, properties that are correlated with good arc extinguishing capability. For C4F7N–CO2 mixtures, the electrical conductivity is very close to that of SF6 while the ρC p peak at 7000 K caused by decomposition of CO implies inferior interruption capability to that of SF6. The calculated properties will be useful in arc simulations.

  15. Nitrogen ion implantation effect on friction coefficient of tool steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velichko, N.I.; Udovenko, V.F.; Markus, A.M.; Presnyakova, G.N.; Gamulya, G.D.

    1988-01-01

    Effect of nitrogen molecular ion implantation into KhVSG steel on the friction coefficient in the air and vacuum is investigated. Irradiation is carried out by the N 2 + beam with energy 120 keV and flux density 5 μ/cm 2 at room temperature in vacuum 5x10 -4 Pa. The integral dose of irradiation is 10 17 particle/cm 2 . Nitrogen ion implantation is shown to provide the formation of the modified layer changing friction properties of steel. The friction coefficient can either increase or decrease depending on implantation and test conditions. 4 refs.; 2 figs

  16. The partition coefficients of 133Xe between blood and bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahtinen, T.; Karjalainen, P.; Vaeaenaenen, A.; Lahtinen, R.; Alhava, E.M.

    1981-01-01

    The partition coefficients of 133 Xe between blood and haematopoietic bone marrow and homogenised bone have been determined in vitro. The partition coefficient lambda 1 corresponding to haematopoietic marrow was 0.95 ml g -1 while that corresponding to homogenised bone was a function of age, lambda 2 = 3.11 + 0.049(age)(ml g -1 ). These data can be used for calculating regional blood flow in healthy human femur by means of a simple 133 Xe radionuclide method. (author)

  17. Estimation of octanol/water partition coefficients using LSER parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luehrs, Dean C.; Hickey, James P.; Godbole, Kalpana A.; Rogers, Tony N.

    1998-01-01

    The logarithms of octanol/water partition coefficients, logKow, were regressed against the linear solvation energy relationship (LSER) parameters for a training set of 981 diverse organic chemicals. The standard deviation for logKow was 0.49. The regression equation was then used to estimate logKow for a test of 146 chemicals which included pesticides and other diverse polyfunctional compounds. Thus the octanol/water partition coefficient may be estimated by LSER parameters without elaborate software but only moderate accuracy should be expected.

  18. Calculation results and experimental testing of doppler feedback coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Shunhai

    1989-01-01

    The Doppler feedback coefficients are calculated by the interpolation and group collapsing method from multigroup self-shielding factors and infinite dilution cross sections rather than effective resonance integrals by using resonance data base. Since many updated sets of multigroup data are in existence to be selected, the calculation process can be simplified. The heterogeneous effects are taken into account by equivalence relation. The computer code of Doppler feedback coefficients is created on computer CYBER-825 and PDP-11. The results calculated are in good agreement with the experiments

  19. Heat conduction coefficient and coefficient of linear thermal expansion of electric insulation materials for superconducting magnetic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deev, V.I.; Sobolev, V.P.; Kruglov, A.B.; Pridantsev, A.I.

    1984-01-01

    Results of experimental investigation of heat conduction coefficient and coefficient of linear thermal expansion and thermal shrinkages of the STEF-1 textolite-glass widely used in superconducting magnetic systems as electric insulating and structural material are presented. Samples of two types have been died: sample axisa is perpendicular to a plae of fiberglass layers ad sample axis is parallel to a plane of fiberglass layers. Heat conduction coefficient was decreased almost a five times with temperature decrease from 300 up to 5K and was slightly dependent on a sample type. Temperature variation of linear dimensions in a sample of the first type occurs in twice as fast as compared to the sample of the second type

  20. Methodology update for determination of the erosion coefficient(Z

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tošić Radislav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The research and mapping the intensity of mechanical water erosion that have begun with the empirical methodology of S. Gavrilović during the mid-twentieth century last, by various intensity, until the present time. A many decades work on the research of these issues pointed to some shortcomings of the existing methodology, and thus the need for its innovation. In this sense, R. Lazarević made certain adjustments of the empirical methodology of S. Gavrilović by changing the tables for determination of the coefficients Φ, X and Y, that is, the tables for determining the mean erosion coefficient (Z. The main objective of this paper is to update the existing methodology for determining the erosion coefficient (Z with the empirical methodology of S. Gavrilović and amendments made by R. Lazarević (1985, but also with better adjustments to the information technologies and the needs of modern society. The proposed procedure, that is, the model to determine the erosion coefficient (Z in this paper is the result of ten years of scientific research and project work in mapping the intensity of mechanical water erosion and its modeling using various models of erosion in the Republic of Srpska and Serbia. By analyzing the correlation of results obtained by regression models and results obtained during the mapping of erosion on the territory of the Republic of Srpska, a high degree of correlation (R² = 0.9963 was established, which is essentially a good assessment of the proposed models.

  1. Extracting OPE coefficient of Konishi at four loops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Vasco [ICTP South American Institute for Fundamental Research Instituto de Fisica Teorica,UNESP, Universidad Estadual Paulista, Rua Dr. Bento T. Ferraz 271, 01140-070, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-03-15

    In this short note we compute the OPE coefficient of two 20{sup ′} operators and the Konishi operator. To this end, we use the OPE decomposition of a four point function of four 20{sup ′} operators and the method of asymptotic expansions to compute the leading term, in the OPE limit, of all integrals contributing to the four point function.

  2. A Simple Measurement of the Sliding Friction Coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratton, Luigi M.; Defrancesco, Silvia

    2006-01-01

    We present a simple computer-aided experiment for investigating Coulomb's law of sliding friction in a classroom. It provides a way of testing the possible dependence of the friction coefficient on various parameters, such as types of materials, normal force, apparent area of contact and sliding velocity.

  3. Calculation of generalized secant integral using binomial coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guseinov, I.I.; Mamedov, B.A.

    2004-01-01

    A single series expansion relation is derived for the generalized secant (GS) integral in terms of binomial coefficients, exponential integrals and incomplete gamma functions. The convergence of the series is tested by the concrete cases of parameters. The formulas given in this study for the evaluation of GS integral show good rate of convergence and numerical stability

  4. Heat transfer direction dependence of heat transfer coefficients in annuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinsloo, Francois P. A.; Dirker, Jaco; Meyer, Josua P.

    2018-04-01

    In this experimental study the heat transfer phenomena in concentric annuli in tube-in-tube heat exchangers at different annular Reynolds numbers, annular diameter ratios, and inlet fluid temperatures using water were considered. Turbulent flow with Reynolds numbers ranging from 15,000 to 45,000, based on the average bulk fluid temperature was tested at annular diameter ratios of 0.327, 0.386, 0.409 and 0.483 with hydraulic diameters of 17.00, 22.98, 20.20 and 26.18 mm respectively. Both heated and cooled annuli were investigated by conducting tests at a range of inlet temperatures between 10 °C to 30 °C for heating cases, and 30 °C to 50 °C for cooling cases. Of special interest was the direct measurement of local wall temperatures on the heat transfer surface, which is often difficult to obtain and evasive in data-sets. Continuous verification and re-evaluation of temperatures measurements were performed via in-situ calibration. It is shown that inlet fluid temperature and the heat transfer direction play significant roles on the magnitude of the heat transfer coefficient. A new adjusted Colburn j-factor definition is presented to describe the heating and cooling cases and is used to correlate the 894 test cases considered in this study.

  5. Simultaneous estimation of diet composition and calibration coefficients with fatty acid signature data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromaghin, Jeffrey F.; Budge, Suzanne M.; Thiemann, Gregory W.; Rode, Karyn D.

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge of animal diets provides essential insights into their life history and ecology, although diet estimation is challenging and remains an active area of research. Quantitative fatty acid signature analysis (QFASA) has become a popular method of estimating diet composition, especially for marine species. A primary assumption of QFASA is that constants called calibration coefficients, which account for the differential metabolism of individual fatty acids, are known. In practice, however, calibration coefficients are not known, but rather have been estimated in feeding trials with captive animals of a limited number of model species. The impossibility of verifying the accuracy of feeding trial derived calibration coefficients to estimate the diets of wild animals is a foundational problem with QFASA that has generated considerable criticism. We present a new model that allows simultaneous estimation of diet composition and calibration coefficients based only on fatty acid signature samples from wild predators and potential prey. Our model performed almost flawlessly in four tests with constructed examples, estimating both diet proportions and calibration coefficients with essentially no error. We also applied the model to data from Chukchi Sea polar bears, obtaining diet estimates that were more diverse than estimates conditioned on feeding trial calibration coefficients. Our model avoids bias in diet estimates caused by conditioning on inaccurate calibration coefficients, invalidates the primary criticism of QFASA, eliminates the need to conduct feeding trials solely for diet estimation, and consequently expands the utility of fatty acid data to investigate aspects of ecology linked to animal diets.

  6. Modification of van La ar activity coefficient model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakili-Nezhaad, G. R.; Modarress, H.; Mansoori, G. A.

    2001-01-01

    Based on statistical and mechanical arguments, the original van La ar activity coefficient model has been improved by reasonable assumptions. This modifications has been done by replacing the van der Waals equation of state with the Redlich-K wong equation of state in the formulation of van La ar with consistent mixing rules for the energy and volume parameters of this equation of state (a mix , b mix ). Other equations of state, such as the Soave modification of the Redlich-K wong equation of state, P eng-Robinson and Mohsen-Nia, Modarress and Mansoori equations of state, have been introduced in the formulation of van La ar for the activity coefficients of the components present in the binary liquid mixtures, and their effects on the accuracy of the resultant activity coefficient models have been examined. The results of these revised models have been compared with the experimental data and it was found that the Redlich-K wong equation of state with the van der Waals mixing rules for the volume and energy parameters of this equation, is the best choice among these equations of state. In addition, it can improve the original van La ar activity coefficient model and, therefore a better agreement with the experimental data is obtained

  7. Uncertainty Quantification of Turbulence Model Closure Coefficients for Transonic Wall-Bounded Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, John; West, Thomas; Hosder, Serhat; Rumsey, Christopher; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Kleb, William

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this work was to quantify the uncertainty and sensitivity of commonly used turbulence models in Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes codes due to uncertainty in the values of closure coefficients for transonic, wall-bounded flows and to rank the contribution of each coefficient to uncertainty in various output flow quantities of interest. Specifically, uncertainty quantification of turbulence model closure coefficients was performed for transonic flow over an axisymmetric bump at zero degrees angle of attack and the RAE 2822 transonic airfoil at a lift coefficient of 0.744. Three turbulence models were considered: the Spalart-Allmaras Model, Wilcox (2006) k-w Model, and the Menter Shear-Stress Trans- port Model. The FUN3D code developed by NASA Langley Research Center was used as the flow solver. The uncertainty quantification analysis employed stochastic expansions based on non-intrusive polynomial chaos as an efficient means of uncertainty propagation. Several integrated and point-quantities are considered as uncertain outputs for both CFD problems. All closure coefficients were treated as epistemic uncertain variables represented with intervals. Sobol indices were used to rank the relative contributions of each closure coefficient to the total uncertainty in the output quantities of interest. This study identified a number of closure coefficients for each turbulence model for which more information will reduce the amount of uncertainty in the output significantly for transonic, wall-bounded flows.

  8. Calculation of Transport Coefficients in Dense Plasma Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haxhimali, T.; Cabot, W. H.; Caspersen, K. J.; Greenough, J.; Miller, P. L.; Rudd, R. E.; Schwegler, E. R.

    2011-10-01

    We use classical molecular dynamics (MD) to estimate species diffusivity and viscosity in mixed dense plasmas. The Yukawa potential is used to describe the screened Coulomb interaction between the ions. This potential has been used widely, providing the basis for models of dense stellar materials, inertial confined plasmas, and colloidal particles in electrolytes. We calculate transport coefficients in equilibrium simulations using the Green- Kubo relation over a range of thermodynamic conditions including the viscosity and the self - diffusivity for each component of the mixture. The interdiffusivity (or mutual diffusivity) can then be related to the self-diffusivities by using a generalization of the Darken equation. We have also employed non-equilibrium MD to estimate interdiffusivity during the broadening of the interface between two regions each with a high concentration of either species. Here we present results for an asymmetric mixture between Ar and H. These can easily be extended to other plasma mixtures. A main motivation for this study is to develop accurate transport models that can be incorporated into the hydrodynamic codes to study hydrodynamic instabilities. We use classical molecular dynamics (MD) to estimate species diffusivity and viscosity in mixed dense plasmas. The Yukawa potential is used to describe the screened Coulomb interaction between the ions. This potential has been used widely, providing the basis for models of dense stellar materials, inertial confined plasmas, and colloidal particles in electrolytes. We calculate transport coefficients in equilibrium simulations using the Green- Kubo relation over a range of thermodynamic conditions including the viscosity and the self - diffusivity for each component of the mixture. The interdiffusivity (or mutual diffusivity) can then be related to the self-diffusivities by using a generalization of the Darken equation. We have also employed non-equilibrium MD to estimate interdiffusivity during

  9. Regression Models for Predicting Force Coefficients of Aerofoils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed ABDUL AKBAR

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Renewable sources of energy are attractive and advantageous in a lot of different ways. Among the renewable energy sources, wind energy is the fastest growing type. Among wind energy converters, Vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs have received renewed interest in the past decade due to some of the advantages they possess over their horizontal axis counterparts. VAWTs have evolved into complex 3-D shapes. A key component in predicting the output of VAWTs through analytical studies is obtaining the values of lift and drag coefficients which is a function of shape of the aerofoil, ‘angle of attack’ of wind and Reynolds’s number of flow. Sandia National Laboratories have carried out extensive experiments on aerofoils for the Reynolds number in the range of those experienced by VAWTs. The volume of experimental data thus obtained is huge. The current paper discusses three Regression analysis models developed wherein lift and drag coefficients can be found out using simple formula without having to deal with the bulk of the data. Drag coefficients and Lift coefficients were being successfully estimated by regression models with R2 values as high as 0.98.

  10. Coefficient of restitution of sports balls: A normal drop test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haron, Adli; Ismail, K A

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic behaviour of bodies during impact is investigated through impact experiment, the simplest being a normal drop test. Normally, a drop test impact experiment involves measurement of kinematic data; this includes measurement of incident and rebound velocity in order to calculate a coefficient of restitution (COR). A high speed video camera is employed for measuring the kinematic data where speed is calculated from displacement of the bodies. Alternatively, sensors can be employed to measure speeds, especially for a normal impact where there is no spin of the bodies. This paper compares experimental coefficients of restitution (COR) for various sports balls, namely golf, table tennis, hockey and cricket. The energy loss in term of measured COR and effects of target plate are discussed in relation to the material and construction of these sports balls.

  11. Friction analysis of kinetic schemes : the friction coefficient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lolkema, Juke S.

    1995-01-01

    Friction analysis is proposed as the application of general control analysis to single enzymes to describe the control of elementary kinetic steps on the overall catalytic rate. For each transition, a friction coefficient is defined that measures the sensitivity of the turnover rate to the free

  12. Determination of Water Requirement and Crop Coefficient for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge of crop evapotranspiration (ETc), the combined process of evaporation and plant transpiration, is important in agriculture for scheduling farm operations and designing and managing irrigation and drainage systems. Development of crop coefficient (Kc) can enhance crop evapotranspiration (ETc) estimates in ...

  13. Measurement of atomic number and mass attenuation coefficient in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    literature on the measurement of mass attenuation coefficient in magnesium ferrite. The knowledge of photon ... pure) MgO and Fe2O3. The details of experimental ... and (4 4 0) planes belonging to cubic spinel structure. The XRD pattern ...

  14. Measurement of heat transfer coefficient using termoanemometry methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dančová, P.; Sitek, P.; Vít, T.

    2014-03-01

    This work deals with a measurement of heat transfer from a heated flat plate on which a synthetic jet impacts perpendicularly. Measurement of a heat transfer coefficient (HTC) is carried out using the hot wire anemometry method with glue film probe Dantec 55M47. The paper brings also results of velocity profiles measurements and turbulence intensity calculations.

  15. Measurement of heat transfer coefficient using termoanemometry methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dančová P.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with a measurement of heat transfer from a heated flat plate on which a synthetic jet impacts perpendicularly. Measurement of a heat transfer coefficient (HTC is carried out using the hot wire anemometry method with glue film probe Dantec 55M47. The paper brings also results of velocity profiles measurements and turbulence intensity calculations.

  16. Determination of the Static Friction Coefficient from Circular Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Bolívar, J. A.; Cabrerizo-Vílchez, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a physics laboratory exercise for determining the coefficient of static friction between two surfaces. The circular motion of a coin placed on the surface of a rotating turntable has been studied. For this purpose, the motion is recorded with a high-speed digital video camera recording at 240 frames s[superscript-1], and the…

  17. Molar extinction coefficients of some carbohydrates in aqueous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of plants and animals, both as structural elements and in the maintenance of functional ... In this paper we report the molar extinction coefficient ε, of carbohydrates ... as the area, which has to be hit by the photons in order to cause interaction.

  18. Value of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in evaluating response ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine whether the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value obtained by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) can be used as a reliable detector of response of carcinoma of the cervix treated with chemoradiotherapy, compared with conventional. T2-weighted MRI. Design.

  19. Evaluation of coefficient of friction in bulk metal forming

    OpenAIRE

    Solhjoo, Soheil

    2014-01-01

    In this study an upper bound analysis for cylindrical "Barrel Compression Test" (BCT) is developed. BCT method is a very simple method which can be utilized in order to evaluate quantitatively the coefficient of friction by means of just one cylindrical specimen in an upsetting test. The method is checked by a series of finite element method (FEM) simulations and by means of the results of FEM simulations the method is modified.

  20. Density dependence of the diffusion coefficient of alkali metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adebayo, G.A.; Anusionwu, B.C.; Njah, A.N.; Mathew, B.; Fabamise, O.A.T.

    2004-06-01

    The effect of density on transport coefficients of liquid Li, Na and K at high temperatures using the method of Molecular Dynamics simulation has been studied. Simulation of these liquid alkali metals were carried out with 800 particles in simulation boxes with periodic boundary conditions imposed. In order to test the reliability of the interatomic potential used in the calculations, experimental data on the structural properties were compared with calculated results. The calculations showed a linear relationship between the density and the diffusion coefficient in all the systems investigated except in lithium, where, due to the small size of the atom, standard molecular dynamics simulation method may not be appropriate for calculating the properties of interest. (author)

  1. Modeling the Design Flow Coefficient of a Centrifugal Compressor Impeller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Drozdov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In calculating gas-dynamic characteristics by the universal modeling method it is necessary to determine a non-incidence flow rate through the blades of an impeller because of its relationship with the magnitude of incidence losses. The flow area decreased by the blades of finite thickness and the blades load have impact on the critical streamline direction. The universal modeling method in primary designing uses for this a scheme of replacing the influence of the blade load by the vortex effect with identical circulation. Finally, calculating the inviscid flow around the blades allows selecting a value of the inlet blade angle. For impellers with small design flow coefficients, the condition of the non-incidence inlet for the primary design and for the calculation of the inviscid flow is significantly different. The calculating correctness of the non-incidence regime for the non-viscous flow was checked earlier by measurements of the flow in the impellers. The paper presents CFD calculations of twenty impellers in a tenfold range of design flow coefficients. To provide correct comparison, it takes into account the differences in the value of the loading factor calculated by the programs of inviscid quasi-three-dimensional calculation and CFD programs. Shows the identity of inlet conditions for both methods. To increase primary design accuracy, the calculation model was refined. The formula for calculating vortex-induced velocity involves an empirical coefficient. The analysis of data for 32 impellers with different blade profiling allowed working out formulas for calculating empirical coefficient, depending on the type of an impeller, the blade load and the width of the throat at an impeller inlet. The new scheme-based calculation with the empirical coefficient is accurate enough for the primary design.

  2. Distribution coefficient of plutonium between sediment and seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duursma, E.K.; Parsi, P.

    1974-01-01

    Using plutonium 237 as a tracer, a series of experiments were conducted to determine the distribution coefficient of plutonium onto sediments both under oxic and anoxic conditions, where the plutonium was added to seawater in three different valence states: III, IV and VI

  3. Measurements of gaseous multiplication coefficient in pure isobutane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Iara Batista de

    2010-01-01

    In this work it is presented measurements of gaseous multiplication coefficient (α) in pure isobutane obtained with a parallel plate chamber, protected against discharges by one electrode (anode) of high resistivity glass (ρ = 2 x 10 12 Ω.cm). The method applied was the Pulsed Townsend, where the primary ionization is produced through the incidence of a nitrogen laser beam onto a metallic electrode (cathode). The electric currents measured with the chamber operating in both ionization and avalanche regimes were used to calculate the gaseous multiplication coefficient by the solution of the Townsend equation for uniform electric fields. The validation of the technique was provided by the measurements of gaseous multiplication coefficient in pure nitrogen, a widely studied gas, which has well-established data in literature. The α coefficients in isobutane were measured as a function of the reduced electric field in the range of 139Td up to 208Td. The obtained values were compared with those simulated by Imonte software (version 4.5) and the only experimental results available in the literature, recently obtained in our group. This comparison showed that the results are concordant within the experimental errors. (author)

  4. Thermal lensing measurement from the coefficient of defocus aberration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bell, Teboho

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We measured the thermally induced lens from the coefficient of defocus aberration using a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWFS). As a calibration technique, we infer the focal length of standard lenses probed by a collimated Gaussian beam...

  5. Thermally induced lensing determination from the coefficient of defocus aberration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bell, Teboho

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of a temperature gradient in a laser crystal in an end-pumped configuration in a solid-state laser resonator results in thermally induced aberrations. Of particular interest we measure the thermally induced lens from the coefficient...

  6. The solubility and diffusion coefficient of helium in uranium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Kunihisa; Serizawa, Hiroyuki; Shirasu, Noriko; Haga, Yoshinori; Arai, Yasuo

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► The solubility and diffusivity of He in single-crystal UO 2 were determined. ► The determined He solubility lay within the scatter of the available data. ► The determined He diffusivity was in good agreement with recent experimental data. ► The He behavior was analyzed in terms of a simple interstitial diffusion mechanism. ► The experimental diffusivity was much lower than that analyzed theoretically. - Abstract: The solubility and diffusion coefficient of helium in the single-crystal UO 2 samples were determined by a Knudsen-effusion mass-spectrometric method. The measured helium solubilities were found to lie within the scatter of the available data, but to be much lower than those for the polycrystalline samples. The diffusion analysis was conducted based on a hypothetical equivalent sphere model and the simple Fick’s law. The helium diffusion coefficient was determined by using the pre-exponential factor and activation energy as the fitting parameters for the measured and calculated fractional releases of helium. The optimized diffusion coefficients were in good agreement with those obtained by a nuclear reaction method reported in the past. It was also found that the pre-exponential factors of the determined diffusion coefficients were much lower than those analyzed in terms of a simple interstitial diffusion mechanism.

  7. Coefficient Estimate Problem for a New Subclass of Biunivalent Functions

    OpenAIRE

    N. Magesh; T. Rosy; S. Varma

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a unified subclass of the function class Σ of biunivalent functions defined in the open unit disc. Furthermore, we find estimates on the coefficients |a2| and |a3| for functions in this subclass. In addition, many relevant connections with known or new results are pointed out.

  8. Visualising the Complex Roots of Quadratic Equations with Real Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardell, Nicholas S.

    2012-01-01

    The roots of the general quadratic equation y = ax[superscript 2] + bx + c (real a, b, c) are known to occur in the following sets: (i) real and distinct; (ii) real and coincident; and (iii) a complex conjugate pair. Case (iii), which provides the focus for this investigation, can only occur when the values of the real coefficients a, b, and c are…

  9. Study of distribution coefficients of admixtures in tellurium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchar, L.; Drapala, J.; Kuchar, L. jr.

    1986-01-01

    Limit areas of tellurium-admixture binary systems were studied and the values determined of steady-state distribution coefficients of admixtures. A second order polynomial was used to express equations of solidus and liquidus curves for Te-Se, Te-S, Te-Hg systems; the curves are graphically represented. The most effective method for preparing high-purity tellurium is zonal melting with material removal. (M.D.). 4 figs., 4 tabs., 16 refs

  10. Quenching of Einstein A-Coefficients in plasmas and lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suckewer, S.; Princeton Univ., NJ

    1991-03-01

    The coefficient of spontaneous emission (Einstein A-coefficient) is considered to be one of the basic constants of a given transition in atom or ion. The formula for the Einstein A-coefficient was derived in the pioneering works of Weisskopf and Wigner (WW) based on Dirac's theory of light. More recently, however, it was noted in several papers that the rate of spontaneous radiative decay can deviate significantly from the WW expression in certain conditions, for example in a laser cavity. A different type of change in A- coefficients was inferred from measurements of changes in the intensity branching ratio of spectral lines in a plasma. A change of branching ratio of up to a factor of 10 was observed in CIV for 3p-3s (580.1--581.2nm) and 3p-2s (31.2-nm) transitions when the electron density changed from approximately N e ∼ 1 x 10 18 to 5 x 10 18 cm -3 . This effect was also observed in CIII and NV. An initial theoretical approach to the problem based on the integration of the Schroedinger equation with the ion Coulomb potential modified by the electron cloud within the Debye radius was unsuccessfully in predicting the experimental observations. The effect of quenching of spontaneous emission coefficients was observed also in an Ar-ion laser as a function of the intracavity power density (photon density) for lines originating from the same upper level as the lasing line. Measurements of these line profiles absorption for different lasing conditions and related discussions are also presented. 14 refs., 6 figs

  11. The coefficient of restitution of pressurized balls: a mechanistic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgallas, Alex; Landry, Gaëtan

    2016-01-01

    Pressurized, inflated balls used in professional sports are regulated so that their behaviour upon impact can be anticipated and allow the game to have its distinctive character. However, the dynamics governing the impacts of such balls, even on stationary hard surfaces, can be extremely complex. The energy transformations, which arise from the compression of the gas within the ball and from the shear forces associated with the deformation of the wall, are examined in this paper. We develop a simple mechanistic model of the dependence of the coefficient of restitution, e, upon both the gauge pressure, P_G, of the gas and the shear modulus, G, of the wall. The model is validated using the results from a simple series of experiments using three different sports balls. The fits to the data are extremely good for P_G > 25 kPa and consistent values are obtained for the value of G for the wall material. As far as the authors can tell, this simple, mechanistic model of the pressure dependence of the coefficient of restitution is the first in the literature. *%K Coefficient of Restitution, Dynamics, Inflated Balls, Pressure, Impact Model

  12. Thermal Coefficient of Redox Potential of Alkali Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuzumi, Yuya; Hinuma, Yoyo; Moritomo, Yutaka

    2018-05-01

    The thermal coefficient (α) of redox potential (V) is a significant physical quantity that converts the thermal energy into electric energy. In this short note, we carefully determined α of alkali metals (A = Li and Na) against electrolyte solution. The obtained α is much larger than that expected from the specific heat (CpA) of solid A and depends on electrolyte solution. These observations indicate that the solvent has significant effect on α.

  13. Introduction and application of the multiscale coefficient of variation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abney, Drew H; Kello, Christopher T; Balasubramaniam, Ramesh

    2017-10-01

    Quantifying how patterns of behavior relate across multiple levels of measurement typically requires long time series for reliable parameter estimation. We describe a novel analysis that estimates patterns of variability across multiple scales of analysis suitable for time series of short duration. The multiscale coefficient of variation (MSCV) measures the distance between local coefficient of variation estimates within particular time windows and the overall coefficient of variation across all time samples. We first describe the MSCV analysis and provide an example analytical protocol with corresponding MATLAB implementation and code. Next, we present a simulation study testing the new analysis using time series generated by ARFIMA models that span white noise, short-term and long-term correlations. The MSCV analysis was observed to be sensitive to specific parameters of ARFIMA models varying in the type of temporal structure and time series length. We then apply the MSCV analysis to short time series of speech phrases and musical themes to show commonalities in multiscale structure. The simulation and application studies provide evidence that the MSCV analysis can discriminate between time series varying in multiscale structure and length.

  14. Variability, correlation and path coefficient analysis of seedling traits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-12

    Dec 12, 2011 ... Indirect selection is a useful means for improving yield in cotton crop. The objective of the present study was to determine the genetic variability, broad sense heritability, genetic advance and correlation among the six seedling traits and their direct and indirect effects on cotton yield by using path coefficient ...

  15. Variability, correlation and path coefficient analysis of seedling traits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indirect selection is a useful means for improving yield in cotton crop. The objective of the present study was to determine the genetic variability, broad sense heritability, genetic advance and correlation among the six seedling traits and their direct and indirect effects on cotton yield by using path coefficient analysis.

  16. Quantum elasticity of graphene: Thermal expansion coefficient and specific heat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burmistrov, I.S.; Gornyi, I.V.; Kachorovskii, V.Y.; Katsnelson, M.I.; Mirlin, A.D.

    2016-01-01

    We explore thermodynamics of a quantum membrane, with a particular application to suspended graphene membrane and with a particular focus on the thermal expansion coefficient. We show that an interplay between quantum and classical anharmonicity-controlled fluctuations leads to unusual elastic

  17. Determination of the chloride diffusion coefficient in blended cement mortars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elfmarkova, V.; Spiesz, P.R.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2015-01-01

    The rapid chloride migration test (RCM) is a commonly used accelerated test for the determination of the chloride diffusion coefficient in concrete. Nevertheless, the initial development and further experience with the RCM test concern mainly the ordinary Portland cement system. Therefore, the

  18. On the misinterpretation of the correlation coefficient in pharmaceutical sciences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnergaard, Jørn

    2006-01-01

    The correlation coefficient is often used and more often misused as a universal parameter expressing the quality in linear regression analysis. The popularity of this dimensionless quantity is evident as it is easy to communicate and considered to be unproblematic to comprehend. However, illustra...

  19. Estimation of bulk transfer coefficient for latent heat flux (Ce)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sadhuram, Y.

    The bulk transfer coefficient for latent heat flux (Ce) has been estimated over the Arabian Sea from the moisture budget during the pre-monsoon season of 1988. The computations have been made over two regions (A: 0-8 degrees N: 60-68 degrees E: B: 0...

  20. Estimation of the friction coefficient between wheel and rail surface using traction motor behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Y; Liang, B; Iwnicki, S

    2012-01-01

    The friction coefficient between a railway wheel and rail surface is a crucial factor in maintaining high acceleration and braking performance of railway vehicles thus monitoring this friction coefficient is important. Restricted by the difficulty in directly measuring the friction coefficient, the creep force or creepage, indirect methods using state observers are used more frequently. This paper presents an approach using a Kalman filter to estimate the creep force and creepage between the wheel and rail and then to identify the friction coefficient using the estimated creep force-creepage relationship. A mathematic model including an AC motor, wheel and roller is built to simulate the driving system. The parameters are based on a test rig at Manchester Metropolitan University. The Kalman filter is designed to estimate the friction coefficient based on the measurements of the simulation model. Series of residuals are calculated through the comparison between the estimated creep force and theoretical values of different friction coefficient. Root mean square values of the residuals are used in the friction coefficient identification.

  1. Measurements of the Drag Coefficient of Simulated Micrometeoroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLuca, M.; Munsat, T.; Sternovsky, Z.

    2017-12-01

    The dust accelerator facility operated at the University of Colorado is used to simulate meteoric ablation, including measuring the ionization efficiency over a wide range of velocities (e.g., DeLuca et al., Planet. Space Sci., submitted, 2017). This presentation reports on the most recent experimental measurements of the drag coefficient that determines the particles' slowdown from their frictional interaction with the atmosphere. The measurements indicate that meteors experience considerably more slowdown than usually assumed. The simulated meteors consisted of submicron sized aluminum particles shot into an air chamber held at 200 mTorr pressure at velocities between 1 - 10 km/s using the dust accelerator and meteor ablation facility. The slowdown is calculated from precise timing measurements made using pickup tube detectors placed upstream and near the entrance to the air chamber, and an impact detector inside the air chamber at the downstream end of the chamber. Supporting modeling calculations show that the particles have little or no mass loss during their interaction with air and thus constant radius can be assumed. Preliminary results for the drag coefficient calculated from these timing measurements reveal that the aluminum particles have a drag coefficient of 1.51 ± 0.24 in air, which is higher than typically assumed in meteoric ablation models (usually 0.5 to 1), indicating that meteors may experience more air drag than previously assumed. More detailed measurements over a wider parameter range are underway.

  2. Study of the determination method of the river dispersion coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, M.A.G. de.

    1982-01-01

    An application of the method introduced by 'Fischer, H.B. - 1968 - Dispersion prediction in natural streams Journal of the Sanitary Engineering Division, ACSE, vol. 94 n 5A5. Proc. Paper 6169 pp 927-943.', for the calculation of the dispersion coefficient, based on Taylor's model is made. The aim is to develop a method which avoids the necessity of having an instantaneous impulse at the entrance section (1st section) of the system being measured. The dispersion coefficient is determined by curve fitting the experimental response in the 2nd secton and that obtained with the model by means of the non-linear least-squares method. The same method is applied with the residence time distribution function. The theoretical differences between these two function and their results are discussed. By adjusting the two model parameters in all these calculations, the dispersion coefficient and the mean velocity are determined, simultaneously. A comparison between the moment's method and Fischer's formulation is also done using the same experimental data. (E.G.) [pt

  3. Conformal anomaly c-coefficients of superconformal 6d theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beccaria, Matteo [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica Ennio De Giorgi, Università del Salento & INFN,Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Tseytlin, Arkady A. [The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College,London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-04

    We propose general relations between the conformal anomaly and the chiral (R-symmetry and gravitational) anomaly coefficients in 6d (1,0) superconformal theories. The suggested expressions for the three type B conformal anomaly c{sub i}-coefficients complement the expression for the type A anomaly a-coefficient found in http://arxiv.org/abs/1506.03807. We check them on several examples — the standard (1,0) hyper and tensor multiplets as well as some higher derivative short multiplets containing vector fields that generalize the superconformal 6d vector multiplet discussed in http://arxiv.org/abs/1506.08727. We also consider a family of higher derivative superconformal (2,0) 6d multiplets associated to 7d multiplets in the KK spectrum of 11d supergravity compactified on S{sup 4}. In particular, we prove that (2,0) 6d conformal supergravity coupled to 26 tensor multiplets is free of all chiral and conformal anomalies. We discuss some interacting (1,0) superconformal theories, predicting the c{sub i}-coefficients for the “E-string” theory on multiple M5-branes at E{sub 8} 9-brane and for the theory describing M5-branes at an orbifold singularity ℂ{sup 2}/Γ. Finally, we elaborate on holographic computation of subleading corrections to conformal anomaly coefficients coming from R{sup 2}+R{sup 3} terms in 7d effective action, revisiting, in particular, the (2,0) theory case.

  4. Confidence bounds and hypothesis tests for normal distribution coefficients of variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve Verrill; Richard A. Johnson

    2007-01-01

    For normally distributed populations, we obtain confidence bounds on a ratio of two coefficients of variation, provide a test for the equality of k coefficients of variation, and provide confidence bounds on a coefficient of variation shared by k populations.

  5. Diffusion coefficients in 4-component mixture expressed explicitly in terms of binary diffusion coefficients and mole fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Ichiro

    1996-01-01

    Diffusion coefficients in 4-component mixture D ij (4) were expressed explicitly in terms of binary diffusion coefficients and mole fractions by solving a ratio of determinants defined by Hirschfelder et al. The explicit expressions of D ij (4) were divided into two terms, a term due to the i-j pairs of attention and a term common to all the pairs out of the 4 components. The two terms of D ij (4) had extended structures similar to corresponding those of D ij (3) respectively. (author)

  6. JOYO MK-III performance test. Criticality test, excess reactivity measurement and burn-up coefficient measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Shigetaka; Sekine, Takashi; Kitano, Akihiro; Nagasaki, Hideaki

    2005-03-01

    The MK-III performance test began in June 2003 to fully characterize the upgraded core and heat transfer system of the experimental fast reactor JOYO. This paper describes the results of the approach to criticality, the excess reactivity evaluation and the burn-up coefficient measurement. In the approach to criticality test, the MK-III core achieved initial criticality at the control rod bank position of 412.8 mm on 14:03 July 2nd, 2003. Because the replacement of the outer two rows of reflector subassemblies with shielding subassemblies reduced the source range monitor signals by a factor of 3 at the same reactor power compared with those in the MK-II core, we measured the change of the monitor's response and determined the count rate 2x10 4 cps.' as an appropriate value judging the zero power criticality. In the excess reactivity evaluation, the zero power excess reactivity at 250degC was 2.99±0.10%Δk/kk' based on the measured critical rod bank position and the measured control rod worths. The predicted value by the JOYO core management code system HESTIA was 3.13±0.16%Δk/kk', showing good agreement with the measured value. The measured excess reactivity was within the safety requirement limit. In the burn-up coefficient measurement, the excess reactivity change versus the reactor burn-up was evaluated. The measurement method adopted was to measure the control rod positions during the rated power operation. A value of -2.12x10 -4 Δk/kk'/MWd was obtained as a measured burn-up coefficient. The value calculated by HESTIA was -2.12x10 -4 Δk/kk'/MWd, and it agreed well with the measured value. All technical safety requirements for MK-III core were satisfied and the calculation accuracy of the core management code system HESTIA was confirmed. (author)

  7. Evaluation Technique of Chloride Penetration Using Apparent Diffusion Coefficient and Neural Network Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Yong Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diffusion coefficient from chloride migration test is currently used; however this cannot provide a conventional solution like total chloride contents since it depicts only ion migration velocity in electrical field. This paper proposes a simple analysis technique for chloride behavior using apparent diffusion coefficient from neural network algorithm with time-dependent diffusion phenomena. For this work, thirty mix proportions of high performance concrete are prepared and their diffusion coefficients are obtained after long term-NaCl submerged test. Considering time-dependent diffusion coefficient based on Fick’s 2nd Law and NNA (neural network algorithm, analysis technique for chloride penetration is proposed. The applicability of the proposed technique is verified through the results from accelerated test, long term submerged test, and field investigation results.

  8. Similarity analysis between chromosomes of Homo sapiens and monkeys with correlation coefficient, rank correlation coefficient and cosine similarity measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Someswara Rao, Chinta; Viswanadha Raju, S

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we consider correlation coefficient, rank correlation coefficient and cosine similarity measures for evaluating similarity between Homo sapiens and monkeys. We used DNA chromosomes of genome wide genes to determine the correlation between the chromosomal content and evolutionary relationship. The similarity among the H. sapiens and monkeys is measured for a total of 210 chromosomes related to 10 species. The similarity measures of these different species show the relationship between the H. sapiens and monkey. This similarity will be helpful at theft identification, maternity identification, disease identification, etc.

  9. Imaging and assessment of diffusion coefficients by magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tintera, J.; Dezortova, M.; Hajek, M.; Fitzek, C.

    1999-01-01

    The problem of assessment of molecular diffusion by magnetic resonance is highlighted and some typical applications of diffusion imaging in the diagnosis, e.g., of cerebral ischemia, changes in patients with phenylketonuria or multiple sclerosis are discussed. The images were obtained by using diffusion weighted spin echo Echo-Planar Imaging sequence with subsequent correction of the geometrical distortion of the images and calculation of the Apparent Diffusion Coefficient map

  10. Permeability coefficient of proton irradiated polyethylene terephatalate thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassani, L.C.; Santos, W.M.S.; Marechal, B.

    1983-01-01

    The principle of operation of an apparatus developed to study gas permation through thin films is described and the measurement method is discussed. Use is made of diffusion theory to obtain a expression for the permeability coefficient as a function of the rate of increase of the pressure in the receiving volume. The Gibbs function for permeation of Helium through Polyethylene Terephtalate (P.E.T.) is determined. The permeability coefficient of Helium is found to increase significantly with the range of the implanted protons although the incident charge has been kept constant. The hypothesis of structural modifications of the proton implanted P.E.T. seems to be confirmed by small angles X-rays scattering experiments on the irradiated samples. (Author) [pt

  11. Measurement and modeling of interface heat transfer coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rollett, A.D.; Lewis, H.D.; Dunn, P.S.

    1985-01-01

    The results of preliminary work on the modeling and measurement of the heat transfer coefficients of metal/mold interfaces is reported. The system investigated is the casting of uranium in graphite molds. The motivation for the work is primarily to improve the accuracy of process modeling of prototype mold designs at the Los Alamos Foundry. The evolution in design of a suitable mold for unidirectional solidification is described, illustrating the value of simulating mold designs prior to use. Experiment indicated a heat transfer coefficient of 2 kW/m 2 /K both with and without superheat. It was possible to distinguish between solidification due to the mold and that due to radiative heat loss. This permitted an experimental estimate of the emissivity, epsilon = 0.2, of the solidified metal

  12. Extraction of Dunham coefficients from Murrell-Sorbie parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim Teikcheng

    2008-01-01

    A set of relationships between parameters of the Dunham and Murrell-Sorbie potential energy function is developed. By employing Taylor series expansion and comparison of terms arranged in increasing order of bond length, a set of Dunham coefficients is obtained as functions of Murrell- Sorbie parameters. The conversion functions reveal the importance of factorials in extracting Dunham coefficients from Murrell-Sorbie parameters. Plots of both functions, based on parameters of the latter, reveal good correlation near the equilibrium bond length for a group of diatomic molecules. Potential function relations, such as that shown in this paper, are useful when the preferred/reliable data is based on a potential function different from that adopted in available computational software. (orig.)

  13. Investigation of Drag Coefficient for Rigid Ballute-like Shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnasciali, Maria-Isabel; Mastromarino, Anthony

    2014-11-01

    One common method of decelerating an object during atmospheric entry, descent, and landing is the use of parachutes. Another deceleration technology is the ballute - a combination of balloon and parachute. A CFD study was conducted using commercially available software to investigate the flow-field and the coefficient of drag for various rigid ballute-like shapes at varying Reynolds numbers. The impact of size and placement of the burble-fence as well as number, size, and shape of inlets was considered. Recent experimental measurements conducted during NASA's Low-Density Supersonic Decelerator program revealed a much higher coefficient of drag (Cd) for ballutes than previously encountered. Using atmospheric drag to slow down and land reduces the need for heavy fuel and rocket engines and thus, high values of drag are desired. Funding for this work, in part, provided by the CT Space Grant Consortium.

  14. Accurate on-chip measurement of the Seebeck coefficient of high mobility small molecule organic semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, C. N.; Venkateshvaran, D.; Sirringhaus, H.

    2015-09-01

    We present measurements of the Seebeck coefficient in two high mobility organic small molecules, 2,7-dioctyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (C8-BTBT) and 2,9-didecyl-dinaphtho[2,3-b:2',3'-f]thieno[3,2-b]thiophene (C10-DNTT). The measurements are performed in a field effect transistor structure with high field effect mobilities of approximately 3 cm2/V s. This allows us to observe both the charge concentration and temperature dependence of the Seebeck coefficient. We find a strong logarithmic dependence upon charge concentration and a temperature dependence within the measurement uncertainty. Despite performing the measurements on highly polycrystalline evaporated films, we see an agreement in the Seebeck coefficient with modelled values from Shi et al. [Chem. Mater. 26, 2669 (2014)] at high charge concentrations. We attribute deviations from the model at lower charge concentrations to charge trapping.

  15. Accurate on-chip measurement of the Seebeck coefficient of high mobility small molecule organic semiconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. N. Warwick

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We present measurements of the Seebeck coefficient in two high mobility organic small molecules, 2,7-dioctyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (C8-BTBT and 2,9-didecyl-dinaphtho[2,3-b:2′,3′-f]thieno[3,2-b]thiophene (C10-DNTT. The measurements are performed in a field effect transistor structure with high field effect mobilities of approximately 3 cm2/V s. This allows us to observe both the charge concentration and temperature dependence of the Seebeck coefficient. We find a strong logarithmic dependence upon charge concentration and a temperature dependence within the measurement uncertainty. Despite performing the measurements on highly polycrystalline evaporated films, we see an agreement in the Seebeck coefficient with modelled values from Shi et al. [Chem. Mater. 26, 2669 (2014] at high charge concentrations. We attribute deviations from the model at lower charge concentrations to charge trapping.

  16. Steiner symmetrization and the initial coefficients of univalent functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinin, Vladimir N

    2010-01-01

    We establish the inequality |a 1 | 2 -Rea 1 a -1 ≥|a 1 *| 2 -Rea 1 *a -1 * for the initial coefficients of any function f(z)=a 1 z+a 0 +a -1 /z+? meromorphic and univalent in the domain D={z:|z|>1}, where a 1 * and a -1 * are the corresponding coefficients in the expansion of the function f*(z) that maps the domain D conformally and univalently onto the exterior of the result of the Steiner symmetrization with respect to the real axis of the complement of the set f(D). The Polya-Szego inequality |a 1 |≥|a 1 *| is already known. We describe some applications of our inequality to functions of class Σ.

  17. Estimation of the effective distribution coefficient from the solubility constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yug-Yea; Yu, C.

    1994-01-01

    An updated version of RESRAD has been developed by Argonne National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy to derive site-specific soil guidelines for residual radioactive material. In this updated version, many new features have been added to the, RESRAD code. One of the options is that a user can input a solubility constant to limit the leaching of contaminants. The leaching model used in the code requires the input of an empirical distribution coefficient, K d , which represents the ratio of the solute concentration in soil to that in solution under equilibrium conditions. This paper describes the methodology developed to estimate an effective distribution coefficient, Kd, from the user-input solubility constant and the use of the effective K d for predicting the leaching of contaminants

  18. Effective elasticity coefficients of native rocks and consolidated granular matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, Beatrix M.; Schulz, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The elastic coefficients of binary heterogeneous materials, such as several native rock materials or consolidated granular matter will be determined in terms of a perturbation expansion. Furthermore, in order to check the validity of the obtained results, these are compared with numerical investigations using Boole's model of randomly distributed spheres. Finally, we apply the results on several classes of native rocks and consolidated granular materials

  19. Regional Difference in Specialization Coefficients of Physicians in Nagasaki, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Tanimura, Susumu; Mizota, Tsutomu

    2004-01-01

    In the comparison of municipalities with respect to the medical human resources, not only the number of physicians but also the distribution of their medical practice is important. The objective of the present study was to develop an index appropriate for comparing relatively small municipalities regarding the distribution of physician's medical practice and to apply it to Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan. We modified the specialization coefficient using Bayesian smoothing technique and used it as ...

  20. Adaptive Green-Kubo estimates of transport coefficients from molecular dynamics based on robust error analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Reese E.; Mandadapu, Kranthi K.

    2012-04-01

    We present a rigorous Green-Kubo methodology for calculating transport coefficients based on on-the-fly estimates of: (a) statistical stationarity of the relevant process, and (b) error in the resulting coefficient. The methodology uses time samples efficiently across an ensemble of parallel replicas to yield accurate estimates, which is particularly useful for estimating the thermal conductivity of semi-conductors near their Debye temperatures where the characteristic decay times of the heat flux correlation functions are large. Employing and extending the error analysis of Zwanzig and Ailawadi [Phys. Rev. 182, 280 (1969)], 10.1103/PhysRev.182.280 and Frenkel [in Proceedings of the International School of Physics "Enrico Fermi", Course LXXV (North-Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1980)] to the integral of correlation, we are able to provide tight theoretical bounds for the error in the estimate of the transport coefficient. To demonstrate the performance of the method, four test cases of increasing computational cost and complexity are presented: the viscosity of Ar and water, and the thermal conductivity of Si and GaN. In addition to producing accurate estimates of the transport coefficients for these materials, this work demonstrates precise agreement of the computed variances in the estimates of the correlation and the transport coefficient with the extended theory based on the assumption that fluctuations follow a Gaussian process. The proposed algorithm in conjunction with the extended theory enables the calculation of transport coefficients with the Green-Kubo method accurately and efficiently.

  1. Experimental measurement of compressibility coefficients of synthetic sandstone in hydrostatic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asaei, H; Moosavi, M

    2013-01-01

    For the characterization of the mechanical behavior of porous media in elastic conditions, the theory of poroelasticity is used. The number of poroelastic coefficients is greater in elastic conditions because of the complexity of porous media. The laboratory measurement of poroelastic coefficients needs a system that can control and measure the variables of poroelasticity. In this paper, experimental measurements of these coefficients are presented. Laboratory tests are performed using a system designed by the authors. Laboratory hydrostatic tests are performed on cylindrical samples in drained, pore pressure loading, undrained and dry conditions. Compressibilities (bulk and pore compressibility), effective stress and Skempton coefficients are measured by these tests. Samples are made of a composition (sand and cement) and are made by a compaction process synthetically. Calibration tests are performed for the setup to identify possible errors in the system and to correct the results of the main tests. This is done by performing similar compressibility tests at each stress level on a cylindrical steel sample (5.47 mm in diameter) with a longitudinal hole along it (hollow cylinder). A steel sample is used to assume an incompressible sample. The results of the tests are compared with the theory of poroelasticity and the obtained graphs and their errors are analyzed. This study shows that the results of the drained and pore pressure loading tests are compatible with poroelastic formulation, while the undrained results have errors because of extra fluid volume in the pore pressure system and calibration difficulties. (paper)

  2. On the low-field Hall coefficient of graphite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Esquinazi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We have measured the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the Hall coefficient (RH in three, several micrometer long multigraphene samples of thickness between ∼9 to ∼30 nm in the temperature range 0.1 to 200 K and up to 0.2 T field. The temperature dependence of the longitudinal resistance of two of the samples indicates the contribution from embedded interfaces running parallel to the graphene layers. At low enough temperatures and fields RH is positive in all samples, showing a crossover to negative values at high enough fields and/or temperatures in samples with interfaces contribution. The overall results are compatible with the reported superconducting behavior of embedded interfaces in the graphite structure and indicate that the negative low magnetic field Hall coefficient is not intrinsic of the ideal graphite structure.

  3. Pressure drop coefficient of laminar Newtonian flow in axisymmetric diffusers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, S.; Pinho, F.T.

    2006-01-01

    The laminar flow of Newtonian fluids in axisymmetric diffusers has been numerically investigated to evaluate the pressure-loss coefficient as a function of Reynolds number, diffusion angle and expansion ratio. The numerical simulations were carried out with a finite-volume based code using non-orthogonal collocated grids and second order accurate differencing schemes to discretize all terms of the transport equations. The calculations were carried out for Reynolds numbers between 2 and 200, diffusion angles from 0 deg. to 90 deg. and expansion ratios of 1.5 and 2 and the data are presented in tabular form and as correlations. A simplified 1D theoretical analysis helped explain the various contributions to the loss coefficient and its difference relative to the reversible pressure variation due to differences between the actual and fully developed friction losses, distortions of the velocity profiles and pressure non-uniformity upstream and downstream of the expansion section

  4. Pressure drop coefficient of laminar Newtonian flow in axisymmetric diffusers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, S. [Escola Superior de Tecnologia e Gestao, Instituto Politecnico, Campus de Santa Apolonia, 5301-857 Braganca (Portugal)]. E-mail: srosa@ipb.pt; Pinho, F.T. [Centro de Estudos de Fenomenos de Transporte, DEM, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Azurem, 4800-058 Guimaraes (Portugal)]. E-mail: fpinho@fe.up.pt

    2006-04-15

    The laminar flow of Newtonian fluids in axisymmetric diffusers has been numerically investigated to evaluate the pressure-loss coefficient as a function of Reynolds number, diffusion angle and expansion ratio. The numerical simulations were carried out with a finite-volume based code using non-orthogonal collocated grids and second order accurate differencing schemes to discretize all terms of the transport equations. The calculations were carried out for Reynolds numbers between 2 and 200, diffusion angles from 0 deg. to 90 deg. and expansion ratios of 1.5 and 2 and the data are presented in tabular form and as correlations. A simplified 1D theoretical analysis helped explain the various contributions to the loss coefficient and its difference relative to the reversible pressure variation due to differences between the actual and fully developed friction losses, distortions of the velocity profiles and pressure non-uniformity upstream and downstream of the expansion section.

  5. Determination of quenching coefficients by time resolved emission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gans, T.; Schulz-von der Gathen, V.; Doebele, H.F. [Essen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Inst. fuer Laser- und Plasmaphysik

    2001-07-01

    Capacitively coupled RF discharges (CCRF discharges) at 13.56 MHz in hydrogen exhibit a field reversal phase of about 10 ns during which an intense electron current provides collisional excitation, within the sheath region. After this strongly dominant short pulsed electron impact excitation, it is possible to determine quenching coefficients from the lifetime of the fluorescence at various pressures by time resolved OES even for high energy levels and without any restrictions of optical selection rules. This novel technique allows the measurement of quenching coefficients for atomic and molecular emission lines of hydrogen itself, as well as for emission lines of small admixtures (e.g. noble gases) to the hydrogen discharge, since with a fast gate-able ICCD camera operating at 13.56 MHz it is possible to measure even faint emission lines temporally resolved.

  6. Determination of quenching coefficients by time resolved emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gans, T.; Schulz-von der Gathen, V.; Doebele, H.F.

    2001-01-01

    Capacitively coupled RF discharges (CCRF discharges) at 13.56 MHz in hydrogen exhibit a field reversal phase of about 10 ns during which an intense electron current provides collisional excitation, within the sheath region. After this strongly dominant short pulsed electron impact excitation, it is possible to determine quenching coefficients from the lifetime of the fluorescence at various pressures by time resolved OES even for high energy levels and without any restrictions of optical selection rules. This novel technique allows the measurement of quenching coefficients for atomic and molecular emission lines of hydrogen itself, as well as for emission lines of small admixtures (e.g. noble gases) to the hydrogen discharge, since with a fast gate-able ICCD camera operating at 13.56 MHz it is possible to measure even faint emission lines temporally resolved

  7. The 95% confidence intervals of error rates and discriminant coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichi Shinmura

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fisher proposed a linear discriminant function (Fisher’s LDF. From 1971, we analysed electrocardiogram (ECG data in order to develop the diagnostic logic between normal and abnormal symptoms by Fisher’s LDF and a quadratic discriminant function (QDF. Our four years research was inferior to the decision tree logic developed by the medical doctor. After this experience, we discriminated many data and found four problems of the discriminant analysis. A revised Optimal LDF by Integer Programming (Revised IP-OLDF based on the minimum number of misclassification (minimum NM criterion resolves three problems entirely [13, 18]. In this research, we discuss fourth problem of the discriminant analysis. There are no standard errors (SEs of the error rate and discriminant coefficient. We propose a k-fold crossvalidation method. This method offers a model selection technique and a 95% confidence intervals (C.I. of error rates and discriminant coefficients.

  8. General Influence Coefficient Algorithm in Balancing of Rotating Machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping Yu

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The General Influence Coefficient Algorithm (GICA, developed in this article, is a new calculation method for Influence Coefficients (ICs with a general formula. Compared to the traditional calculation method, GICA can solve the ICs' calculation task when the group of trial weights are installed on the rotor each time, the trial weights are retained on the rotor systems, or there is redundant trial balancing data, when even part of the ICs is known. GICA is also a powerful tool for refining the ICs from redundant balancing data or historical balancing data and serves as a general algorithm. With the general matrix formula, GICA is ready to be applied in a computer-aided balancing system as the key part of calculation software. Examples in industry are also presented to demonstrate the aplication of this new algorithm.

  9. Solubility and diffusion coefficient of oxygen in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Yoshiko; Nozaki, Tadashi

    1985-01-01

    The solubility and diffusion coefficient of oxygen in silicon between 1000 0 C and 1375 0 C were examined by charged particle activation analysis with the 16 O( 3 He,p) 18 F reaction, in which oxygen was activated with an equal probability over the depth of up to 250μm by a specially devised apparatus. Silicon wafers of known histories were heated in oxygen or argon for 12 to 473 hours, and the resultant oxygen depth profiles were determined by the activation, subsequent stepwise etching and 18 F activity measurement. The solubility thus obtained is given as 9.3 x 10 21 exp[-27.6kcal mol -1 /RT] at.cm -3 ; the diffusion coefficient has been found to be approximated as 3.2 exp[-67.1kcal mol -1 /RT] cm 2 s -1 over 1150 0 C, under which the apparent activation energy seems to decrease with decrease of temperature. (author)

  10. Void coefficient of reactivity calculation for AP-600 core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suparlina, L.; Budiono, T.A.; Mardha, A.; Tukiran

    1998-01-01

    Void coefficient of reactivity as one of reactor kinetics parameters has been carried out. The calculation was done into two steps which is cell calculation using WIMSD/4 and core calculation using Batan-2DIFF code programs with the condition of beginning of cycle with all fresh fuels elements and all control rods withdrawn. The one dimension transport program in four neutron energy groups is used to calculate the cell generation of various core materials cell has been calculated in 1/4 fuel element with cluster model and square pitch arrange. Moderator density have been reduced until 20% for the void coefficient of reactivity calculation. Macroscopic cross-section as the out put of WIMSD/4 is being used as the input at the diffusion neutron program for core calculation. The void coefficient of reactivity of the AP-600 core can be determined with regular neutron flux and adjoint in four energy groups and X-Y geometry. The results is shown that the K eff calculation value is different 5.2% from the design data

  11. Lateral dispersion coefficients as functions of averaging time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheih, C.M.

    1980-01-01

    Plume dispersion coefficients are discussed in terms of single-particle and relative diffusion, and are investigated as functions of averaging time. To demonstrate the effects of averaging time on the relative importance of various dispersion processes, and observed lateral wind velocity spectrum is used to compute the lateral dispersion coefficients of total, single-particle and relative diffusion for various averaging times and plume travel times. The results indicate that for a 1 h averaging time the dispersion coefficient of a plume can be approximated by single-particle diffusion alone for travel times <250 s and by relative diffusion for longer travel times. Furthermore, it is shown that the power-law formula suggested by Turner for relating pollutant concentrations for other averaging times to the corresponding 15 min average is applicable to the present example only when the averaging time is less than 200 s and the tral time smaller than about 300 s. Since the turbulence spectrum used in the analysis is an observed one, it is hoped that the results could represent many conditions encountered in the atmosphere. However, as the results depend on the form of turbulence spectrum, the calculations are not for deriving a set of specific criteria but for demonstrating the need in discriminating various processes in studies of plume dispersion

  12. Experimental Study on the Tensile Strength and Linear Expansion Coefficient of Air Tunnel Terrazzo Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boping Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, studies on the surface tension of air tunnel terrazzo under wind load and how regularly it is affected by temperature are relatively less, and the measured results of the thermal expansion coefficient of terrazzo have not yet been given. In this paper, based on the top terrazzo surface structure of the inner wall of the wind tunnel, the tensile performance tests of terrazzo surface layer are conducted, while the thermal expansion coefficient of the six terrazzo test blocks were tested. The tests and analysis show that the construction of terrazzo surface, based on the proposed construction process, can effectively guarantee the reliable cement performance for the binding layer between mortar and concrete base layer, terrazzo surface layer and the cement mortar layer. And the thermal expansion coefficient of terrazzo can be valued at 1.06e-5/ºC.

  13. The Yaws handbook of vapor pressure Antoine coefficients

    CERN Document Server

    Yaws, Carl L

    2015-01-01

    Increased to include over 25,000 organic and inorganic compounds, The Yaws Handbook of Vapor Pressure: Antoine Coefficients, 2nd Edition delivers the most comprehensive and practical database source for today's petrochemical. Understanding antoine coefficients for vapor pressure leads to numerous critical engineering applications such as pure components in storage vessels, pressure relief valve design, flammability limits at the refinery, as well as environmental emissions from exposed liquids, making data to efficiently calculate these daily challenges a fundamental need. Written by the world's leading authority on chemical and petrochemical data, The Yaws Handbook of Vapor Pressure simplifies the guesswork for the engineer and reinforces the credibility of the engineer's calculations with a single trust-worthy source. This data book is a must-have for the engineer's library bookshelf. Increase compound coverage from 8,200 to over 25,000 organic and inorganic compounds, including sulfur and hydrocarbons Sol...

  14. Correlation of heat transfer coefficient in quenching process using ABAQUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davare, Sandeep Kedarnath; Balachandran, G.; Singh, R. K. P.

    2018-04-01

    During the heat treatment by quenching in a liquid medium the convective heat transfer coefficient plays a crucial role in the extraction of heat. The heat extraction ultimately influences the cooling rate and hence the hardness and mechanical properties. A Finite Element analysis of quenching a simple flat copper sample with different orientation of sample and with different quenchant temperatures were carried out to check and verify the results obtained from the experiments. The heat transfer coefficient (HTC) was calculated from temperature history in a simple flat copper disc sample experimentally. This HTC data was further used as input to simulation software and the cooling curves were back calculated. The results obtained from software and using experimentation shows nearly consistent values.

  15. Determination of the drag resistance coefficients of different vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahsl, Christoph; Vogt, Patrik

    2018-05-01

    While it has been demonstrated how air resistance could be analyzed by using mobile devices, this paper demonstrates a method of how to determine the drag resistance coefficient c of a commercial automobile by using the acceleration sensor of a smartphone or tablet. In an academic context, the drag resistance is often mentioned, but little attention is paid to quantitative measurements. This experiment was driven by the fact that this physical value is most certainly neglected because of its difficult measurability. In addition to that, this experiment gives insights on how the aerodynamic factor of an automobile affects the energy dissipation and thus how much power is required by automobile transportation.

  16. The effect of chalk on the finger-hold friction coefficient in rock climbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amca, Arif Mithat; Vigouroux, Laurent; Aritan, Serdar; Berton, Eric

    2012-11-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the effect of chalk on the friction coefficient between climber's fingers and two different rock types (sandstone and limestone). The secondary purpose was to investigate the effects of humidity and temperature on the friction coefficient and on the influence of chalk. Eleven experienced climbers took part in this study and 42 test sessions were performed. Participants hung from holds which were fixed on a specially designed hang board. The inclination of the hang board was progressively increased until the climber's hand slipped from the holds. The angle of the hang board was simultaneously recorded by using a gyroscopic sensor and the friction coefficient was calculated at the moment of slip. The results showed that there was a significant positive effect of chalk on the coefficient of friction (+18.7% on limestone and +21.6% on sandstone). Moreover sandstone had a higher coefficient of friction than limestone (+15.6% without chalk, +18.4% with chalk). These results confirmed climbers' belief that chalk enhances friction. However, no correlation with humidity/temperature and friction coefficient was noted which suggested that additional parameters should be considered in order to understand the effects of climate on finger friction in rock climbing.

  17. The second virial coefficients of some halogenated ethanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Friedrich; van Nhu, Nguyen

    The second virial coefficients of 1,1-difluoroethane, 1,1,1-trifluoroethane, 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane and 1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane have been calculated on the basis of two-centre-Lennard-Jones + superimposed dipole model potentials and compared with experimental results. These can be explained taking into account the reduced dipole moments and the angle between dipole moment and molecular axis.

  18. Transfer coefficients of radionuclides from feed to livestock products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    The accumulation of data on radionuclide transfer are poor in Japan and those are limited to 90 Sr, 137 Cs and 131 I released from the previous atomic bomb experiments. However, in Europe, intensive studies on environment RI level which affects the restriction of the intake for meats and milk products have been made as the measures against the environment radioactivity due to Chernobyl accident. The transfer coefficients of radionuclides to meats and milk products were estimated on a basis of the data published in the Science of the Total Environment vol.85(1989), Oxford University and CEC Radiation Protection, EUR 12608 EN, Luxembourg, 1990 in addition to the data on Exclusion of Radioactivity from foods, Environment Parameter, series No. 4. On the other hand, the transfer coefficients for Japanese were estimated using the concerned data from published reports and the environment radioactivity data reported by national and local government bodies. In this book, many new data of transfer coefficient are presented in tables along with the previous data collected by international nuclear energy agencies and respective national facilities concerned. (M.N.)

  19. Osmotic and activity coefficients of triorganophosphates in n-octane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagert, N.H.; Lau, D.W.P.

    1982-01-01

    Vapour pressure osmometry was used to measure osmotic coefficients for tributylphosphate (TBP), tricresylphosphate (TCP), and triethylhexylphosphate (THEP) in n-octane at 30, 40, 50, and 60 0 C and at molalities up to 0.3 mol/kg. Activity coefficients and excess thermodynamic properties (unsymmetrical definition) were calculated from these osmotic coefficients. At 30 0 C, the excess Gibbs free energies for 0.1 mol of solute in 1.0 kg n-octane were -42 J, -66 J, and -20 J for TBP, TCP, and TEHP, respectively. The more ideal behavior of the TEHP-octane system is attributed to the increasing importance of hydrocarbon-hydrocarbon interactions as the chain length is increased. The excess enthalpies for 0.1 mol of solute in 1.0 kg of solvent were -100 J, and -300 J, and -150 J for TBP, TCP, and TEHP, respectively. Thus, association of these solutes arises primarily from entropic effects. Our data could generally be accommodated adequately by postulating association of monomers into dimmers. The exception was TCP at lower temperatures, where more complex models were required

  20. Correlation of Cadmium Distribution Coefficients to Soil Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Peter Engelund; Rootzen, Helle; Borggaard, Ole K.

    2003-01-01

    on whole soil samples have shown that pH is the main parameter controlling the distribution. To identify further the components that are important for Cd binding in soil we measured Cd distribution coefficients (K-d) at two fixed pH values and at low Cd loadings for 49 soils sampled in Denmark. The Kd...... values for Cd ranged from 5 to 3000 L kg(-1). The soils were described pedologically and characterized in detail (22 parameters) including determination of contents of the various minerals in the clay fraction. Correlating parameters were grouped and step-wise regression analysis revealed...... interlayered clay minerals [HIM], chlorite, quartz, microcline, plagioclase) were significant in explaining the Cd distribution coefficient....

  1. Nuclear data for the calculation of thermal reactor reactivity coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    On its 15th meeting in Vienna, 16-20 June 1986, the International Nuclear Data Committee (INDC) considered it important to review the accuracy with which changes in thermal reactor reactivity resulting from changes in temperature and coolant density can be predicted. It was noted that reactor physicists in several countries had to adjust the thermal neutron cross-section data base in order to reproduce measured reactivity coefficients. Consequently, it appeared to be essential to examine the consistency of the integral and differential cross-section data and to make all the information available which has a bearing on reactivity coefficient prediction. Following the recommendation of the INDC, the Nuclear Data Section of the International Atomic Energy Agency, therefore, convened the Advisory Group Meeting on Nuclear Data for the Calculation of Thermal Reaction Reactivity Coefficients, in Vienna, Austria, 7-10 Dec. 1987. The Conclusions and Recommendations of the meeting together with the papers presented, are submitted in the present document. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these 12 papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  2. DETERMINATION OF QMS PRINCIPLE COEFFICIENTS OF SIGNIFICANCE IN ACHIEVING BUSINESS EXCELLENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Vujovic

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper has been developed as a tendency of researchers in the Center for quality-Faculty of mechanical engineering in Podgorica to establish a model for improvement of business processes performances based on quality management system through comparison with top organizational performances characterized by criteria i.e. particularities of the business excellence model. Correlation of principles of the quality management system with QMS principles has been established to that effect. Weight coefficients have been also determined for each principle individually. Thereby key principles were identified, namely priorities in terms of achieving business excellence i.e. areas (principles were given priorities, that is to say principles that play the biggest part in achieving business excellence. In that way, pre conditions were made to define preventive measures of a certain intensity depending on the weight coefficients, with a goal to improve performances of a certified and process-modulated quality management system in direction of achieving top organizational performances.

  3. Measurement of the temperature coefficient of ratio transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Matthew E.; Gammon, Robert W.; Shaumeyer, J. N.

    1993-01-01

    We have measured the temperature coefficient of the output of several ratio transformers at ratios near 0.500,000 using an ac bridge and a dual-phase, lock-in amplifier. The two orthogonal output components were each resolved to +/- ppb of the bridge drive signal. The results for three commercial ratio transformers between 20 and 50 C range from 0.5 to 100 ppb/K for the signal component in phase with the bridge drive, and from 4 to 300 ppb/K for the quadrature component.

  4. Determination of aerodynamic sensitivity coefficients for wings in transonic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Leland A.; El-Banna, Hesham M.

    1992-01-01

    The quasianalytical approach is applied to the 3-D full potential equation to compute wing aerodynamic sensitivity coefficients in the transonic regime. Symbolic manipulation is used to reduce the effort associated with obtaining the sensitivity equations, and the large sensitivity system is solved using 'state of the art' routines. The quasianalytical approach is believed to be reasonably accurate and computationally efficient for 3-D problems.

  5. Computation of atmospheric dispersion coefficients from measurements of turbulence parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asculai, E.

    1975-04-01

    Some of the spectra of turbulence found in the literature are theoretical and some are experimental. The present work investigates the dependence of the dispersion coefficients (sigma sub(y) especially) on the shape of the spectrum, using the theoretical and the experimental data found in the literature. It seems that, contrary to accepted concepts, the value of P (in the proportion sigma α Tsup(P)) is larger under stable, than under unstable conditions. These values are of order 1, which does not agree with Taylor's asymptotic value of 1/2. The influence of the characteristics of the instrument - especially the time constant - on the estimation of sigma sub(y) is discussed. Inaccurate estimate of sigmasub(y) may result in underestimating concentrations by an order of magnitude (or even more). The results of the computations of sigma sub(y) for various release times given here enable a more accurate estimate of those concentrations. The results of a series of measurements demonstrating the principles discussed are presented, indicating a practical way of estimating the dispersion coefficients. (author)

  6. Determination of the sticking coefficient of low-energy hydrocarbon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tichmann, Klaus Markus

    2011-01-01

    The maximum lifetime of future fusion facilities like ITER will be limited by the retention of radioactive tritium in the vessel walls. The retention is significantly affected by the sticking coefficient of hydrocarbon molecules that form in the machine. Using a particle-beam experiment, this sticking coefficient was determined for multiple species at energies below 200 eV. The equipment for the production of the particle beam was optimised and a new ion source for hydrocarbon ions was developed. Simulations using molecular dynamics were performed in parallel to improve the understanding of the processes at the surface.

  7. Estimation of radon emanation coefficient for soil and flyash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, S.K.; Swarnkar, M.; Ajmal, P.Y.; Pandit, G.G.; Puranik, V.D.

    2012-01-01

    Since terrestrial materials include radium ( 226 Ra) originating from the decay of uranium ( 238 U), all such materials release radon ( 222 Rn) to varying degrees. When a radium atom decays to radon, the energy generated is strong enough to send the radon atom a distance of about 40 nanometers-this is known as alpha recoil. For a radon atom to escape the radium atom must be within the recoil distance from the grain surface of flyash or soil and the direction of recoil must send the radon atom toward the outside of the grain. Therefore, all of the radon atoms generated by the radium contained in flyash or soil grain are actually not released into pore spaces and mobilized. The fraction of radon atoms generated from radium decay that are released from into flyash or soil pore space is defined as the radon emanation coefficient or emanating power, of the material. Grain size and shape are two of the important factors that control the radon emanation coefficient because they determine in part how much uranium and radium is near enough to the surface of the grain to allow the newly-formed radon to escape into a pore space. In a porous medium, where the radon is in radioactive equilibrium with its parent radium, the emanation coefficient is given by the expression: where C 0 is the undiluted radon activity concentration in the pores of the medium, and C Ra is the radium activity concentration of the sample. The 226 Ra activity concentration of the flyash and soil sample were determined by using the g-spectrometry. C 0 was determined by the can experiment using LR-115 for flyash and soil samples. The C 0 values for flyash and soil samples were found to be 245.7 Bq/m 3 and 714.3 Bq/m 3 respectively. The radon emanation coefficient for flyash was found to be 0.0024 while that for soil was 0.0092. Therefore the soil sample was found to be four times higher radon emanation coefficient than flyash which is in line with the results reported in the literatures. This may suggest

  8. All-Coefficient Adaptive Control of Dual-Motor Driving Servo System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Haibo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Backlash nonlinearity and friction nonlinearity exist in dual-motor driving servo system, which reducing system response speed, steady accuracy and anti-interference ability. In order to diminish the adverse effects of backlash and friction nonlinearity to system, we proposed a new all-coefficient adaptive control method. Firstly, we introduced the dynamic model of backlash and friction nonlinearity respectively. Then on this basis, we established the characteristic model when backlash and friction nonlinearity coexist. We used recursive least square method for parameter estimation. Finally we designed the all-coefficient adaptive controller. On the basis of simplex all-coefficient adaptive controller, we designed a feedforward all-coefficient adaptive controller. The simulations of feedforward all-coefficient adaptive control and simplex all-coefficient adaptive control were compared. The results show that the former has quicker response speed, higher steady accuracy, stronger anti-interference performance and better robustness, which validating the efficacy of the proposed control strategy.

  9. Slip Control of Electric Vehicle Based on Tire-Road Friction Coefficient Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaojian Cui

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The real-time change of tire-road friction coefficient is one of the important factors that influence vehicle safety performance. Besides, the vehicle wheels’ locking up has become an important issue. In order to solve these problems, this paper comes up with a novel slip control of electric vehicle (EV based on tire-road friction coefficient estimation. First and foremost, a novel method is proposed to estimate the tire-road friction coefficient, and then the reference slip ratio is determined based on the estimation results. Finally, with the reference slip ratio, a slip control based on model predictive control (MPC is designed to prevent the vehicle wheels from locking up. In this regard, the proposed controller guarantees the optimal braking torque on each wheel by individually controlling the slip ratio of each tire within the stable zone. Theoretical analyses and simulation show that the proposed controller is effective for better braking performance.

  10. Determination of the concentration dependent diffusion coefficient of nitrogen in expanded austenite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2008-01-01

    The concentration dependent diffusion coefficient of nitrogen in expanded austenite was determined from of the rate of retracting nitrogen from thin initially N-saturated coupons. Nitrogen saturated homogeneous foils of expanded austenite were obtained by nitriding AISI 304 and AISI 316 in pure...... in the composition range where nitrogen can be extracted by hydrogen gas at the diffusion temperature. Numerical simulation of the denitriding experiments shows that the thus determined concentration dependent diffusion coefficients are an accurate approximation of the actual diffusivity of nitrogen in expanded...... ammonia at 693 K and 718 K. Denitriding experiments were performed by equilibrating the foils with a successively lower nitrogen activity, as imposed by a gas mixture of ammonia and hydrogen. The concentration dependent diffusion coefficient of nitrogen in expanded austenite was approximated...

  11. Measurements of recombination coefficient of hydrogen atoms on plasma deposited thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drenik, A.; Vesel, A.; Mozetic, M.

    2006-01-01

    We have performed experiments in plasma afterglow in order to determine the recombination coefficients of plasma deposited thin films of tungsten and graphite. Plasma deposited films rather than bulk material were used in order to more closely emulate surface structure of plasma-facing material deposits in fusion reactors. We have also determined the recombination coefficient of 85250 borosilicate glass and Teflon. Plasma was created by means of a radio frequency generator in a mixture of argon and hydrogen at the pressures between 60 Pa and 280 Pa. The degree of dissociation of hydrogen molecules was found to be between 0.1 and 1. The H-atom density was measured by Fiber Optic Catalytic Probe. The recombination coefficient was determined by measuring the axial profile of the H-atom density and using Smith's side arm diffusion model. (author)

  12. Transfer coefficients of radionuclides secreted in milk of dairy cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sam, D.; Williams, W.F.; Rockmann, D.D.; Allen, J.T.

    1980-01-01

    This study simulated experimentally the transfer of radionuclides to milk of dairy cows on a worst-case situation using various radionuclides known to emanate from nuclear power stations and which have been detected on particulates. Two lactating Holstein cows were administered orally one gelatin capsule containing 10 radionuclides in water-soluble form per day for 14 consecutive days. Milk samples were collected and aliquots analyzed in a germanium lithium-drifted detector coupled to a 2048-multichannel gamma-ray analyzer to measure small amounts of complex mixtures of radionuclides. The transfer coefficients of the radionuclides were calculated when their secretion in milk reached or approached a plateau of concentration. The radionuclides and their transfer coefficients to milk were: chromium 51 less than 0.01%; manganese 54 0.033 +- 0.005%; cobalt 60 0.01 +- 0.002%; iron 59 0.0048 +- 0.002%; zinc 65 0.31 +- 0.07%; selenium 75 0.29 +- 0.1%; antimony 125 0.011 +- 0.003%; iodine 131 0.88 +- 0.05%; and cesium 137 0.79 +- 0.08%

  13. An experimental determination of the drag coefficient of a Mens 8+ racing shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckmann, James G; Harris, Samuel D

    2014-01-01

    This study centered around an experimental analysis of a Mens Lightweight Eight racing shell and, specifically, determining an approximation for the drag coefficient. A testing procedure was employed that used a Global Positioning System (GPS) unit in order to determine the acceleration and drag force on the shell, and through calculations yield a drag coefficient. The testing was run over several days in numerous conditions, and a 95% confidence interval was established to capture the results. The results obtained, over these varying trials, maintained a successful level of consistency. The significance of this study transcends the determination an approximation for the drag coefficient of the racing shell; it defined a successful means of quantifying performance of the shell itself. The testing procedures outlined in the study represent a uniform means of evaluating the factors that influence drag on the shell, and thus influence speed.

  14. On the Diffusion Coefficient of Two-step Method for LWR analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Deokjung; Choi, Sooyoung; Smith, Kord S.

    2015-01-01

    The few-group constants including diffusion coefficients are generated from the assembly calculation results. Once the assembly calculation is done, the cross sections (XSs) are spatially homogenized, and a critical spectrum calculation is performed in order to take into account the neutron leakages of the lattice. The diffusion coefficient is also generated through the critical spectrum calculation. Three different methods of the critical spectrum calculation such as B1 method, P1 method, and fundamental mode (FM) calculation method are considered in this paper. The diffusion coefficients can also be affected by transport approximations for the transport XS calculation which is used in the assembly transport lattice calculation in order to account for the anisotropic scattering effects. The outflow transport approximation and the inflow transport approximation are investigated in this paper. The accuracy of the few group data especially the diffusion coefficients has been studied to optimize the combination of the transport correction methods and the critical spectrum calculation methods using the UNIST lattice physics code STREAM. The combination of the inflow transport approximation and the FM method is shown to provide the highest accuracy in the LWR core calculations. The methodologies to calculate the diffusion coefficients have been reviewed, and the performances of them have been investigated with a LWR core problem. The combination of the inflow transport approximation and the fundamental mode critical spectrum calculation shows the smallest errors in terms of assembly power distribution

  15. Experimental determination of the local heat transfer coefficient in a closely packed pin arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, S.V.

    1982-09-01

    The determination of the heat transfer coefficient of the pins of the Spallation Neutron Source is a very important problem for the development of this facility, as data for thermal and structural studies. For this purpose, a test apparatus was built, in scale 1:1, for the simulation of the thermal and hydraulical conditions of the Neutron Source. This apparatus is a pin bank, with one of the pins electrically heated. Performance of measurements gave the values for the heat transfer coefficient, here presented in the Nusselt Number form, and its local distribution. Results show the linear dependence of Nusselt Number on Reynolds Number, for a constant heat production. (orig.) [de

  16. CHARACTERIZATION OF RENAL BLOOD FLOW REGULATION BASED ON WAVELET COEFFICIENTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlov, A.N.; Pavlova, O.N.; Mosekilde, Erik

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the possibility of revealing new characteristic features of renal blood flow autoregulation in healthy and pathological states through the application of discrete wavelet transforms to experimental time series for normotensive and hypertensive rats....... A reduction in the variability of the wavelet coefficients in hypertension is observed at both the microscopic level of the blood flow in efferent arterioles of individual nephrons and at the macroscopic level of the blood pressure in the main arteries. The reduction is manifest in both of the main frequency...

  17. Measurements of the diffusion and reflection coefficients of Cd(1S0) in noble gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudecki, P.; Domyslawska, J.

    2003-01-01

    A new method of simultaneous determining of the diffusion coefficient and the reflection coefficient of atoms from the reservoir walls is presented. The diffusion coefficient of cadmium atoms in the ground state in buffer noble gas atoms such as Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe and reflection coefficient of Cd atoms from the quartz cell wall in the temperature range 350-550 K were determined. Experimental values diffusion coefficient are compared with theoretical ones calculated from a available potentials. (author)

  18. OF CHEZY DISCHARGE COEFFICIENT C AND RELATIVE ROUGHNESS COEFFICIENT n WITHIN THE FRAMWEWORK OF RESEARCH OF FREE-FLOW PIPELINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Vladimir Aleksandrovich

    2012-10-01

    The software is also capable of generating graphs (curves to describe the relations in question. The proposed methodology and the software designated for the calculation of Chezy and roughness coefficients makes it possible for users to identify the hydraulic properties of pipelines made of advanced materials or having advanced coatings. The availability of the above information is to optimize the selection of the pipeline repair material on the basis of the assessment of hydraulic compatibility between the sections of the pipeline in operation and those being repaired.

  19. Coefficient of friction and wear rate effects of different composite nanolubricant concentrations on Aluminium 2024 plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawawi, N. N. M.; Azmi, W. H.; Redhwan, A. A. M.; Sharif, M. Z.

    2017-10-01

    Wear of sliding parts and operational machine consistency enhancement can be avoided with good lubrication. Lubrication reduce wear between two contacting and sliding surfaces and decrease the frictional power losses in compressor. The coefficient of friction and wear rate effects study were carried out to measure the friction and anti-wear abilities of Al2O3-SiO2 composite nanolubricants a new type of compressor lubricant to enhanced the compressor performances. The tribology test rig employing reciprocating test conditions to replicate a piston ring contact in the compressor was used to measure the coefficient of friction and wear rate. Coefficient of friction and wear rate effects of different Al2O3-SiO2/PAG composite nanolubricants of Aluminium 2024 plate for 10-kg load at different speed were investigated. Al2O3 and SiO2 nanoparticles were dispersed in the Polyalkylene Glycol (PAG 46) lubricant using two-steps method of preparation. The result shows that the coefficient friction and wear rate of composite nanolubricants decreased compared to pure lubricant. The maximum reduction achievement for friction of coefficient and wear rate by Al2O3-SiO2 composite nanolubricants by 4.78% and 12.96% with 0.06% volume concentration. Therefore, 0.06% volume concentration is selected as the most enhanced composite nanolubricants with effective coefficient of friction and wear rate reduction compared to other volume concentrations. Thus, it is recommended to be used as the compressor lubrication to enhanced compressor performances.

  20. [Determination of a Friction Coefficient for THA Bearing Couples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrbka, M; Nečas, D; Bartošík, J; Hartl, M; Křupka, I; Galandáková, A; Gallo, J

    2015-01-01

    The wear of articular surfaces is considered one of the most important factors limiting the life of total hip arthroplasty (THA). It is assumed that the particles released from the surface of a softer material induce a complex inflammatory response, which will eventually result in osteolysis and aseptic loosening. Implant wear is related to a friction coefficient which depends on combination of the materials used, roughness of the articulating surfaces, internal clearance, and dimensions of the prosthesis. The selected parameters of the bearing couples tested were studied using an experimental device based on the principle of a pendulum. Bovine serum was used as a lubricant and the load corresponded to a human body mass of 75 kg. The friction coefficient was derived from a curve of slowdown of pendulum oscillations. Roughness was measured with a device working on the principle of interferometry. Clearance was assessed by measuring diameters of the acetabular and femoral heads with a 3D optical scanner. The specimens tested included unused metal-on-highly cross-linked polyethylene, ceramic-on-highly cross-linked polyethylene and ceramic-on-ceramic bearing couples with the diameters of 28 mm and 36 mm. For each measured parameter, an arithmetic mean was calculated from 10 measurements. 1) The roughness of polyethylene surfaces was higher by about one order of magnitude than the roughness of metal and ceramic components. The Protasul metal head had the least rough surface (0.003 μm). 2) The ceramic-on-ceramic couples had the lowest clearance. Bearing couples with polyethylene acetabular liners had markedly higher clearances ranging from 150 μm to 545 μm. A clearance increased with large femoral heads (up to 4-fold in one of the couple tested). 3) The friction coefficient was related to the combination of materials; it was lowest in ceramic-on-ceramic surfaces (0.11 to 0.12) and then in ceramic-on-polyethylene implants (0.13 to 0.14). The friction coefficient is

  1. Laser alteration of accommodation coefficient for isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keck, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    This patent describes a method and an apparatus for separating isotope types by inducing an isotopically selective vibrational excitation of molecules containing at least one atom of the element type whose isotopes are to be separated. Vibrational excitation is induced in the molecules by finely tuned, narrow bandwidth laser radiation applied to a gaseous flow of the molecules. Isotopic separation of the molecules is achieved from the enhanced difference in diffusion rates for the molecules due to an alteration of the accommodation coefficients in the excited molecules. 40 claims, 4 figures

  2. Modified loss coefficients in the determination of optimum generation scheduling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazarika, D.; Bordoloi, P.K. (Assam Engineering Coll. (IN))

    1991-03-01

    A modified method has been evolved to form the loss coefficients of an electrical power system network by decoupling load and generation and thereby creating additional fictitious load buses. The system losses are then calculated and co-ordinated to arrive at an optimum scheduling of generation using the standard co-ordination equation. The method presented is superior to the ones currently available, in that it is applicable to a multimachine system with random variation of load and it accounts for limits in plant generations and line losses. The precise nature of results and the economy in the cost of energy production obtained by this method is quantified and presented. (author).

  3. Combinatorial interpretations of binomial coefficient analogues related to Lucas sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Sagan, Bruce; Savage, Carla

    2009-01-01

    Let s and t be variables. Define polynomials {n} in s, t by {0}=0, {1}=1, and {n}=s{n-1}+t{n-2} for n >= 2. If s, t are integers then the corresponding sequence of integers is called a Lucas sequence. Define an analogue of the binomial coefficients by C{n,k}={n}!/({k}!{n-k}!) where {n}!={1}{2}...{n}. It is easy to see that C{n,k} is a polynomial in s and t. The purpose of this note is to give two combinatorial interpretations for this polynomial in terms of statistics on integer partitions in...

  4. Simulating the market coefficient of relative risk aversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samih Antoine Azar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, expected utility, defined by a Taylor series expansion around expected wealth, is maximized. The coefficient of relative risk aversion (CRRA that is commensurate with a 100% investment in the risky asset is simulated. The following parameters are varied: the riskless return, the market standard deviation, the market stock premium, and the skewness and the kurtosis of the risky return. Both the high extremes and the low extremes are considered. With these figures, the upper bound of the market CRRA is 3.021 and the lower bound is 0.466. Log utility, which corresponds to a CRRA of 1, is not excluded.

  5. Measurements of the gaseous multiplication coefficient in pure isobutane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Iara B.; Vivaldini, Tulio C.; Goncalves, Josemary A.C.; Botelho, Suzana; Tobias, Carmen C.B., E-mail: ccbueno@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ridenti, Marco A.; Pascholati, Paulo R. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Lab. do Acelerador Linear; Fonte, Paulo; Mangiarotti, Alessio [Universidade de Coimbra (Portugal). Dept de Fisica. Lab. de Instrumentacao e Fisica Experimental de Particulas

    2009-07-01

    In this work we present the preliminary studies of the first Townsend coefficient behavior in isobutane for reduced electric fields ranging from 173 Td up to 281 Td by means of signal amplitude analysis. The measurements were based on the Pulsed Townsend technique. The experimental setup consists of two parallel plates housed in a stainless steel chamber at gas flow regime. In our configuration, the primary electrons are produced by irradiating the cathode with a fast nitrogen laser (700 ps pulse duration). In order to validate the technique and to analyze effects of non-uniformity, results for nitrogen are also presented. (author)

  6. Measurements of the gaseous multiplication coefficient in pure isobutane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Iara B.; Vivaldini, Tulio C.; Goncalves, Josemary A.C.; Botelho, Suzana; Tobias, Carmen C.B.; Ridenti, Marco A.; Pascholati, Paulo R.; Fonte, Paulo; Mangiarotti, Alessio

    2009-01-01

    In this work we present the preliminary studies of the first Townsend coefficient behavior in isobutane for reduced electric fields ranging from 173 Td up to 281 Td by means of signal amplitude analysis. The measurements were based on the Pulsed Townsend technique. The experimental setup consists of two parallel plates housed in a stainless steel chamber at gas flow regime. In our configuration, the primary electrons are produced by irradiating the cathode with a fast nitrogen laser (700 ps pulse duration). In order to validate the technique and to analyze effects of non-uniformity, results for nitrogen are also presented. (author)

  7. Measurement of particle transport coefficients on Alcator C-Mod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luke, T.C.T.

    1994-10-01

    The goal of this thesis was to study the behavior of the plasma transport during the divertor detachment in order to explain the central electron density rise. The measurement of particle transport coefficients requires sophisticated diagnostic tools. A two color interferometer system was developed and installed on Alcator C-Mod to measure the electron density with high spatial (∼ 2 cm) and high temporal (≤ 1.0 ms) resolution. The system consists of 10 CO 2 (10.6 μm) and 4 HeNe (.6328 μm) chords that are used to measure the line integrated density to within 0.08 CO 2 degrees or 2.3 x 10 16 m -2 theoretically. Using the two color interferometer, a series of gas puffing experiments were conducted. The density was varied above and below the threshold density for detachment at a constant magnetic field and plasma current. Using a gas modulation technique, the particle diffusion, D, and the convective velocity, V, were determined. Profiles were inverted using a SVD inversion and the transport coefficients were extracted with a time regression analysis and a transport simulation analysis. Results from each analysis were in good agreement. Measured profiles of the coefficients increased with the radius and the values were consistent with measurements from other experiments. The values exceeded neoclassical predictions by a factor of 10. The profiles also exhibited an inverse dependence with plasma density. The scaling of both attached and detached plasmas agreed well with this inverse scaling. This result and the lack of change in the energy and impurity transport indicate that there was no change in the underlying transport processes after detachment

  8. Measurement of particle transport coefficients on Alcator C-Mod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luke, T.C.T.

    1994-10-01

    The goal of this thesis was to study the behavior of the plasma transport during the divertor detachment in order to explain the central electron density rise. The measurement of particle transport coefficients requires sophisticated diagnostic tools. A two color interferometer system was developed and installed on Alcator C-Mod to measure the electron density with high spatial ({approx} 2 cm) and high temporal ({le} 1.0 ms) resolution. The system consists of 10 CO{sub 2} (10.6 {mu}m) and 4 HeNe (.6328 {mu}m) chords that are used to measure the line integrated density to within 0.08 CO{sub 2} degrees or 2.3 {times} 10{sup 16}m{sup {minus}2} theoretically. Using the two color interferometer, a series of gas puffing experiments were conducted. The density was varied above and below the threshold density for detachment at a constant magnetic field and plasma current. Using a gas modulation technique, the particle diffusion, D, and the convective velocity, V, were determined. Profiles were inverted using a SVD inversion and the transport coefficients were extracted with a time regression analysis and a transport simulation analysis. Results from each analysis were in good agreement. Measured profiles of the coefficients increased with the radius and the values were consistent with measurements from other experiments. The values exceeded neoclassical predictions by a factor of 10. The profiles also exhibited an inverse dependence with plasma density. The scaling of both attached and detached plasmas agreed well with this inverse scaling. This result and the lack of change in the energy and impurity transport indicate that there was no change in the underlying transport processes after detachment.

  9. Compartment modelling in nuclear medicine: a new program for the determination of transfer coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallstadius, L.

    1986-01-01

    In many investigations concerning transport/exchange of matter in a natural system, e.g. functional studies in nuclear medicine, it is advantageous to relate experimental results to a model of the system. A new computer program is presented for the determination of linear transfer coefficients in a compartment model from experimentally observed time-compartment content curves. The program performs a least-square fit with the specified precision of the observed values as weight factors. The resulting uncertainty in the calculated transfer coefficients may also be assessed. The application of the program in nuclear medicine is demonstrated and discussed. (author)

  10. Analysis of Satellite Drag Coefficient Based on Wavelet Transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Wang, Ronglan; Liu, Siqing

    Abstract: Drag coefficient sequence was obtained by solving Tiangong1 continuous 55days GPS orbit data with different arc length. The same period solar flux f10.7 and geomagnetic index Ap ap series were high and low frequency multi-wavelet decomposition. Statistical analysis results of the layers sliding correlation between space environmental parameters and decomposition of Cd, showed that the satellite drag coefficient sequence after wavelet decomposition and the corresponding level of f10.7 Ap sequence with good lag correlation. It also verified that the Cd prediction is feasible. Prediction residuals of Cd with different regression models and different sample length were analysed. The results showed that the case was best when setting sample length 20 days and f10.7 regression model were used. It also showed that NRLMSIS-00 model's response in the region of 350km (Tiangong's altitude) and low-middle latitude (Tiangong's inclination) is excessive in ascent stage of geomagnetic activity Ap and is inadequate during fall off segment. Additionally, the low-frequency decomposition components NRLMSIS-00 model's response is appropriate in f10.7 rising segment. High frequency decomposition section, Showed NRLMSIS-00 model's response is small-scale inadequate during f10.7 ascent segment and is reverse in decline of f10.7. Finally, the potential use of a summary and outlook were listed; This method has an important reference value to improve the spacecraft orbit prediction accuracy. Key words: wavelet transform; drag coefficient; lag correlation; Tiangong1;space environment

  11. Determination of first Townsend coefficient in pure isobutane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Iara B.; Vivaldini, Tulio C.; Goncalves, Josemary A.C.; Botelho, Suzana; Tobias, Carmen C.B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ridenti, Marco A.; Pascholati, Paulo R. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Lab. do Acelerador Linear; Fonte, Paulo; Mangiarotti, Alessio [Universidade de Coimbra (Portugal). Dept. de Fisica. Lab. de Instrumentacao e Fisica Experimental de Particulas

    2010-07-01

    Full text. Electron transport parameters in gases play an important role for detector design, discharge modelling and validation of the electron impact cross-sections involved. Recently, the experiments in high energy physics and the development of gaseous detectors operating in high electric fields have motivated the determination of these parameters in gases with complex structure. This work presents measurements of first Townsend coefficient (alpha) in pure isobutane, choosing due to its importance for the development of gaseous detectors. The measurements were obtained with a parallel plate chamber, protected against discharges by the anode made of a high resistivity ({rho} = 2 x 10{sup 10} {Omega}{center_dot}m) glass plate (32.5 x 32.5mm{sup 2}). The experimental method is based on the Pulsed Townsend technique, where the primary ionization is produced through the incidence of a nitrogen laser beam (MNL202-LD LTB) onto the cathode (40mm diameter) made of aluminum. The electrons released drift toward the anode under the electric field applied through a high voltage power supply (225-30R Bertan). This charges movement produces an electric current which is measured by an electrometer (610C Keithley), directly connected to the cathode. Considering the solution of the Townsend equation for uniform electric fields, from the ratio between the current measured in avalanche regime (I) and the primary ionization current (I{sub 0}), the first Townsend coefficient can be determined, since {alpha} = d{sup -1} In(I/I{sub 0}), where d is the gap between the electrodes. The validation of the technique was provided by measurements of first Townsend coefficient in pure nitrogen, a widely studied gas, which has well-established data in literature. The alpha coefficient in isobutane was measured as a function of the reduced electric field in the range of 139Td up to 208Td (1Td = 1 x 10{sup 21} V.m{sup 2}). The obtained values were compared with those simulated by Imonte code

  12. Determination of first Townsend coefficient in pure isobutane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Iara B.; Vivaldini, Tulio C.; Goncalves, Josemary A.C.; Botelho, Suzana; Tobias, Carmen C.B.; Ridenti, Marco A.; Pascholati, Paulo R.; Fonte, Paulo; Mangiarotti, Alessio

    2010-01-01

    Full text. Electron transport parameters in gases play an important role for detector design, discharge modelling and validation of the electron impact cross-sections involved. Recently, the experiments in high energy physics and the development of gaseous detectors operating in high electric fields have motivated the determination of these parameters in gases with complex structure. This work presents measurements of first Townsend coefficient (alpha) in pure isobutane, choosing due to its importance for the development of gaseous detectors. The measurements were obtained with a parallel plate chamber, protected against discharges by the anode made of a high resistivity (ρ = 2 x 10 10 Ω·m) glass plate (32.5 x 32.5mm 2 ). The experimental method is based on the Pulsed Townsend technique, where the primary ionization is produced through the incidence of a nitrogen laser beam (MNL202-LD LTB) onto the cathode (40mm diameter) made of aluminum. The electrons released drift toward the anode under the electric field applied through a high voltage power supply (225-30R Bertan). This charges movement produces an electric current which is measured by an electrometer (610C Keithley), directly connected to the cathode. Considering the solution of the Townsend equation for uniform electric fields, from the ratio between the current measured in avalanche regime (I) and the primary ionization current (I 0 ), the first Townsend coefficient can be determined, since α = d -1 In(I/I 0 ), where d is the gap between the electrodes. The validation of the technique was provided by measurements of first Townsend coefficient in pure nitrogen, a widely studied gas, which has well-established data in literature. The alpha coefficient in isobutane was measured as a function of the reduced electric field in the range of 139Td up to 208Td (1Td = 1 x 10 21 V.m 2 ). The obtained values were compared with those simulated by Imonte code (version 4.5) and the only experimental results available

  13. On the sound absorption coefficient of porous asphalt pavements for oblique incident sound waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer-Krijnen, Marieke; Wijnant, Ysbrand H.; de Boer, Andries; Bekke, Dirk; Davy, J.; Don, Ch.; McMinn, T.; Dowsett, L.; Broner, N.; Burgess, M.

    2014-01-01

    A rolling tyre will radiate noise in all directions. However, conventional measurement techniques for the sound absorption of surfaces only give the absorption coefficient for normal incidence. In this paper, a measurement technique is described with which it is possible to perform in situ sound

  14. Thermographic determination of the sheath heat transmission coefficient in a high density plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den M.A.; Bystrov, K.E.; Pasquet, R.; Zielinski, J.J.; De Temmerman, G.C.

    2013-01-01

    Experiments were performed in the Pilot-PSI linear plasma device, to determine the sheath heat transmission coefficients in a high recycling regime under various conditions of density (1–20 × 1020 m-3) and plasma composition (H2, Ar, N2) relevant for the ITER divertor plasma. The 2D surface

  15. Activity Coefficients of Acetone-Chloroform Solutions: An Undergraduate Experiment. Undergraduate Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozog, J. Z.; Morrison, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    Presents information, laboratory procedures, and results of an undergraduate experiment in which activity coefficients for a two-component liquid-vapor system are determined. Working in pairs, students can perform the experiment with 10 solutions in a given three-hour laboratory period. (Author/JN)

  16. Characteristics of equilibrium and perturbed transport coefficients in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentle, K.W.

    1995-01-01

    Although the evolution of a perturbation to a tokamak equilibrium can generally be described by local transport coefficients modestly enhanced above the equilibrium values, there are some significant cases for which this is inadequate. The density profile evolution in ASDEX-U occurs far more rapidly than is consistent with reasonable particle confinement times, and the evolution of cold pulses in TEXT requires nonlocal behavior in the core and some kind of anomaly near the periphery. The experiments are suggesting effects beyond standard local turbulent transport models. (orig.)

  17. Field measurements of the washout coefficient for gaseous iodine likely to be released on accidental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caput, C.; Camus, H.; Gauthier, D.; Belot, Y.

    1992-01-01

    Field experiments were performed in Brittany to assess the washout coefficient Λ for molecular iodine. During each run, a few grams of nonradioactive iodine were released from a 12 meters telescopic mast, and the rain was sampled at a short distance downwind along complete transversal sections of the plume. The amount of iodine in each sample was determined by ionic chromatography to calculate the washout coefficient. In most cases, the results obtained (a few 10 -5 s -1 ) are not so different as expected from the theoretical values assuming a complete solubility of iodine in rain water. 4 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  18. Interpretation of Nonlinear Well Loss Coefficients for Rorabaugh (1953) Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtulus, B.; Yaylım, T. N.; Avşar

    2016-12-01

    Step drawdown test (SDT) are essential for hydrogeologist to determine aquifer loss and well loss parameters. In a SDT, different series of constant-discharges with incremental rates are conducted to obtain incremental drawdown into the pumping well. Pumping well efficiency (if the well is properly developed and designed), aquifer characteristics (transmissivity, storativity) and discharge-drawdown relationship can be derived from SDT. The well loss parameter directly associate with the well efficiency. The main problem is to determine the correct well loss parameter in order to estimate aquifer characteristics. Walton (1962) stated that the interpretation of the well efficiency is possible to determine the nonlinear head loss coefficient (C) with p equals to 2 and Walton (1962) presented a criteria that suggested the following terms: If C is less than 1800 m2/s5, the is properly developed and designed, If C is ranged from 1800 m2/s5 to 3600 m2/s5, the well has a mild deterioration, If C is greater than 3600 m2/s5, the well has a severe clogging. Until now, several well-known computer techniques such as Aqutesolv, AquiferWin32 , AquifertestPro can be found in the literature to evaluate well efficiency when exponential parameter (p) equals to 2. However, there exist a lack of information to evaluate well efficiency for different number of exponential parameter (p). Strategic Water Storage & Recovery (SWSR) Project in Liwa, Abu Dhabi is the leading and unique hydrogeology project in the world because of its both financial and scientific dimension. A total of 315 recovery wells have been drilled in pursuance of the scope of the SWSR project. A Universal Well Efficiency Criteria (UWEC) is developed using 315 Step Drawdown Test (SDT). UWEC is defined for different number of head loss equation coefficients. The results reveal that there is a strong correlation between non-linear well loss coefficient (C) and exponential parameter (p) up to a coefficient of determination

  19. Note on the coefficient of variations of neuronal spike trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengler, Johannes; Steger, Angelika

    2017-08-01

    It is known that many neurons in the brain show spike trains with a coefficient of variation (CV) of the interspike times of approximately 1, thus resembling the properties of Poisson spike trains. Computational studies have been able to reproduce this phenomenon. However, the underlying models were too complex to be examined analytically. In this paper, we offer a simple model that shows the same effect but is accessible to an analytic treatment. The model is a random walk model with a reflecting barrier; we give explicit formulas for the CV in the regime of excess inhibition. We also analyze the effect of probabilistic synapses in our model and show that it resembles previous findings that were obtained by simulation.

  20. Method for measurement of relative differences in thermal expansion coefficients (LWBR development program)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, J.E.

    1978-06-01

    The report describes a test which was conducted to determine the variation in thermal expansion coefficients of specimens from several material heats of Type 304 stainless steel. The purpose of this document is to identify the procedures, equipment, and analysis used in performing this test. From a review of the data which were used in establishing the values given for mean coefficient of thermal expansion in the 1968 ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, a +-3.3-percent maximum variation was determined for Type 304 CRES in the temperature range of interest. The results of the test reduced this variation to +-0.53 percent based on a 95/99-percent tolerance interval for the material tested. The testing equipment, procedure, and analysis are not complicated and this type of test is recommended for applications in which the variation in thermal expansion coefficients is desired for a limited number of material heats

  1. Reciprocal relations of transport coefficients in simple materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, L.

    1977-01-01

    The cross effects of viscosity and heat conduction in anisotropic simple materials (solids or liquids) are given in the linear regime, using our dissipation function theory introduced recently. Depending on whether the temperature gradient or the heat flux is used in the dissipation function, we show that two different but unambiguous reciprocal relations between the transport coefficients follow. These are compared and contrasted with the confusing predictions from the Onsager theory, and to the results of rational thermodynamics. The uncertain experimental situation in regard to these reciprocal relations is discussed. Experimental tests are strongly urged. (orig.) [de

  2. Experimental Determination of Infrared Extinction Coefficients of Interplanetary Dust Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, J. F., Jr.; Abbas, M. M.

    1998-01-01

    This technique is based on irradiating a single isolated charged dust particle suspended in balance by an electric field, and measuring the scattered radiation as a function of angle. The observed scattered intensity profile at a specific wavelength obtained for a dust particle of known composition is compared with Mie theory calculations, and the variable parameters relating to the particle size and complex refractive index are adjusted for a best fit between the two profiles. This leads to a simultaneous determination of the particle radius, the complex refractive index, and the scattering and extinction coefficients. The results of these experiments can be utilized to examine the IRAS and DIRBE (Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment) infrared data sets in order to determine the dust particle physical characteristics and distributions by using infrared models and inversion techniques. This technique may also be employed for investigation of the rotational bursting phenomena whereby large size cosmic and interplanetary particles are believed to fragment into smaller dust particles.

  3. Optical gain coefficients of silicon: a theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chin-Yi

    2018-05-01

    A theoretical model is presented and an explicit formula is derived for calculating the optical gain coefficients of indirect band-gap semiconductors. This model is based on the second-order time-dependent perturbation theory of quantum mechanics by incorporating all the eight processes of photon/phonon emission and absorption between the band edges of the conduction and valence bands. Numerical calculation results are given for Si. The calculated absorption coefficients agree well with the existing fitting formula of experiment data with two modes of phonons: optical phonons with energy of 57.73 meV and acoustic phonons with energy of 18.27 meV near (but not exactly at) the zone edge of the X-point in the dispersion relation of phonons. These closely match with existing data of 57.5 meV transverse optical (TO) phonons at the X4-point and 18.6 meV transverse acoustic (TA) phonons at the X3-point of the zone edge. The calculated results show that the material optical gain of Si will overcome free-carrier absorption if the energy separation of quasi-Fermi levels between electrons and holes exceeds 1.15 eV.

  4. Determination of trapping parameters and the chemical diffusion coefficient from hydrogen permeation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svoboda, J.; Mori, G.; Prethaler, A.; Fischer, F.D.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A modeling study for diffusion of hydrogen with traps is presented. • Introduction of a new chemical diffusion coefficient. • Density of traps and average depth of traps can be determined. • Lattice diffusion and sub-surface concentration of atomic hydrogen can be determined. - Abstract: An improved diffusion theory accounting for trapping effects is applied to evaluation of hydrogen permeation experiments performed for pure iron and pearlitic and martensitic steels. The trapping parameters as molar volume and depth of traps are determined by fitting experiments by simulations based on the theory. The concentration-dependent chemical diffusion coefficient of hydrogen is extracted indicating that the trapping effect on diffusion in pure iron and pearlitic steel is negligible. However, it is significant for martensitic steel, for which the chemical diffusion coefficient cannot be considered as concentration-independent as it is established in current standards

  5. Determination of kinetic coefficients for some selected wastes (research note)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qaisi, M. K.; Samaneh, T; Zoubi, O.

    1999-01-01

    This study was undertaken to estimate the kinetic constants of different wastes experimentally using laboratory scale reactors. three wastes were close n; domestic, brewery, and whey. The resulting data for the three wastes fit well both sludge growth and oxygen utilization kinetic models with high correlation coefficients, and were found to be within the reported values by others. The study shows that oxygen utilization rate was higher for domestic than those for the two other wastes. Also it shows that suspended growth treating brewery and whey wastes are more sensitive to any increase in BOD 5 than that treating domestic wastewater. (authors). 7 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs

  6. Study on loading coefficient in steam explosion process of corn stalk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Wenjie; Chen, Hongzhang

    2015-03-01

    The object of this work was to evaluate the effect of loading coefficient on steam explosion process and efficacy of corn stalk. Loading coefficient's relation with loading pattern and material property was first revealed, then its effect on transfer process and pretreatment efficacy of steam explosion was assessed by established models and enzymatic hydrolysis tests, respectively, in order to propose its optimization strategy for improving the process economy. Results showed that loading coefficient was mainly determined by loading pattern, moisture content and chip size. Both compact loading pattern and low moisture content improved the energy efficiency of steam explosion pretreatment and overall sugar yield of pretreated materials, indicating that they are desirable to improve the process economy. Pretreatment of small chip size showed opposite effects in pretreatment energy efficiency and enzymatic hydrolysis performance, thus its optimization should be balanced in investigated aspects according to further techno-economical evaluation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Measurement of model coefficients of skin sympathetic vasoconstriction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severens, Natascha M W; Van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D; Frijns, Arjan J H; Kingma, Boris R M; De Mol, Bas A J M; Van Steenhoven, Anton A

    2010-01-01

    Many researchers have already attempted to model vasoconstriction responses, commonly using the mathematical representation proposed by Stolwijk (1971 NASA Contractor Report CR-1855 (Washington, DC: NASA)). Model makers based the parameter values in this formulation either on estimations or by attributing the difference between their passive models and measurement data fully to thermoregulation. These methods are very sensitive to errors. This study aims to present a reliable method for determining physiological values in the vasoconstriction formulation. An experimental protocol was developed that enabled us to derive the local proportional amplification coefficients of the toe, leg and arm and the transient vasoconstrictor tone. Ten subjects participated in a cooling experiment. During the experiment, core temperature, skin temperature, skin perfusion, forearm blood flow and heart rate variability were measured. The contributions to the normalized amplification coefficient for vasoconstriction of the toe, leg and arm were 84%, 11% and 5%, respectively. Comparison with relative values in the literature showed that the estimated values of Stolwijk and the values mentioned by Tanabe et al (2002 Energy Build. 34 637–46) were comparable with our measured values, but the values of Gordon (1974 The response of a human temperature regulatory system model in the cold PhD Thesis University of California, Santa Barbara) and Fiala et al (2001 Int. J. Biometeorol. 45 143159) differed significantly. With the help of regression analysis a relation was formulated between the error signal of the standardized core temperature and the vasoconstrictor tone. This relation was formulated in a general applicable way, which means that it can be used for situations where vasoconstriction thresholds are shifted, like under anesthesia or during motion sickness

  8. Multilevel preconditioners for discontinuous, Galerkin approximations of elliptic problems, with jump coefficients

    KAUST Repository

    Ayuso Dios, Blanca

    2013-10-30

    We introduce and analyze two-level and multilevel preconditioners for a family of Interior Penalty (IP) discontinuous Galerkin (DG) discretizations of second order elliptic problems with large jumps in the diffusion coefficient. Our approach to IPDG-type methods is based on a splitting of the DG space into two components that are orthogonal in the energy inner product naturally induced by the methods. As a result, the methods and their analysis depend in a crucial way on the diffusion coefficient of the problem. The analysis of the proposed preconditioners is presented for both symmetric and non-symmetric IP schemes; dealing simultaneously with the jump in the diffusion coefficient and the non-nested character of the relevant discrete spaces presents additional difficulties in the analysis, which precludes a simple extension of existing results. However, we are able to establish robustness (with respect to the diffusion coefficient) and near-optimality (up to a logarithmic term depending on the mesh size) for both two-level and BPX-type preconditioners, by using a more refined Conjugate Gradient theory. Useful by-products of the analysis are the supporting results on the construction and analysis of simple, efficient and robust two-level and multilevel preconditioners for non-conforming Crouzeix-Raviart discretizations of elliptic problems with jump coefficients. Following the analysis, we present a sequence of detailed numerical results which verify the theory and illustrate the performance of the methods. © 2013 American Mathematical Society.

  9. Multilevel preconditioners for discontinuous, Galerkin approximations of elliptic problems, with jump coefficients

    KAUST Repository

    Ayuso Dios, Blanca; Holst, Michael; Zhu, Yunrong; Zikatanov, Ludmil

    2013-01-01

    We introduce and analyze two-level and multilevel preconditioners for a family of Interior Penalty (IP) discontinuous Galerkin (DG) discretizations of second order elliptic problems with large jumps in the diffusion coefficient. Our approach to IPDG-type methods is based on a splitting of the DG space into two components that are orthogonal in the energy inner product naturally induced by the methods. As a result, the methods and their analysis depend in a crucial way on the diffusion coefficient of the problem. The analysis of the proposed preconditioners is presented for both symmetric and non-symmetric IP schemes; dealing simultaneously with the jump in the diffusion coefficient and the non-nested character of the relevant discrete spaces presents additional difficulties in the analysis, which precludes a simple extension of existing results. However, we are able to establish robustness (with respect to the diffusion coefficient) and near-optimality (up to a logarithmic term depending on the mesh size) for both two-level and BPX-type preconditioners, by using a more refined Conjugate Gradient theory. Useful by-products of the analysis are the supporting results on the construction and analysis of simple, efficient and robust two-level and multilevel preconditioners for non-conforming Crouzeix-Raviart discretizations of elliptic problems with jump coefficients. Following the analysis, we present a sequence of detailed numerical results which verify the theory and illustrate the performance of the methods. © 2013 American Mathematical Society.

  10. Estimation of the heat transfer coefficient in melt spinning process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkatch, V I; Maksimov, V V; Grishin, A M

    2009-01-01

    Effect of the quenching wheel velocity in the range 20.7-26.5 m/s on the cooling rate as well as on the structure and microtopology of the contact surfaces of the glass-forming FeNiPB melt-spun ribbons has been experimentally studied. Both the values of the cooling rate and heat transfer coefficient at the wheel-ribbon interface estimated from the temperature vs. time curves recorded during melt spinning runs are in the ranges (1.6-5.2)x10 6 K/s and (2.8-5.2)x10 5 Wm -2 K -1 , respectively, for ribbon thicknesses of 31.4-22.0 μm. It was found that the density of the air pockets at the underside surface of ribbons decreases while its average depth remains essentially unchanged with the wheel velocity. Using the surface quality parameters the values of the heat transfer coefficient in the areas of direct ribbon-wheel contact were evaluated to be ranging from 5.75 to 6.65x10 5 Wm -2 K -1 .

  11. First Townsend coefficient of organic vapour in avalanche counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sernicki, J.

    1990-01-01

    A new concept is presented in the paper for implementing the proven method of determining the first Townsend coefficient (α) of gases using an avalanche counter. The A and B gas constants, interrelated by the expression α/p=A exp[-B/(K/p)], are analyzed. Parallel-plate avalanche counters (PPAC) with an electrode spacing d from 0.1 to 0.4 cm have been employed for the investigation, arranged to register low-energy alpha particles at n-heptane vapour pressures of p≥5 Torr. An in-depth discussion is given, covering the veracity and the behaviour vs K/p, of the n-heptane A and B constants determined at reduced electric-field intensity values ranging from 173.5 to 940 V/cm Torr; the constants have been found to depend upon d. The results of the investigation are compared to available data of the α coefficient of organic vapours used in avalanche counters. The PPAC method of determining α reveals some imperfections at very low values of the pd product. (orig.)

  12. Molecular Descriptors Family on Structure Activity Relationships 6. Octanol-Water Partition Coefficient of Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorentz JÄNTSCHI

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Octanol-water partition coefficient of two hundred and six polychlorinated biphenyls was model by the use of an original method based on complex information obtained from compounds structure. The regression analysis shows that best results are obtained in four-varied model (r2 = 0.9168. The prediction ability of the model was studied through leave-one-out analysis (r2cv(loo = 0.9093 and in training and test sets analysis. Modeling the octanol-water partition coefficient of polychlorinated biphenyls by integration of complex structural information provide a stable and performing four-varied model, allowing us to make remarks about relationship between structure of polychlorinated biphenyls and associated octanol-water partition coefficients.

  13. Compilation report of VHTRC temperature coefficient benchmark calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuda, Hideshi; Yamane, Tsuyoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1995-11-01

    A calculational benchmark problem has been proposed by JAERI to an IAEA Coordinated Research Program, `Verification of Safety Related Neutronic Calculation for Low-enriched Gas-cooled Reactors` to investigate the accuracy of calculation results obtained by using codes of the participating countries. This benchmark is made on the basis of assembly heating experiments at a pin-in block type critical assembly, VHTRC. Requested calculation items are the cell parameters, effective multiplication factor, temperature coefficient of reactivity, reaction rates, fission rate distribution, etc. Seven institutions from five countries have joined the benchmark works. Calculation results are summarized in this report with some remarks by the authors. Each institute analyzed the problem by applying the calculation code system which was prepared for the HTGR development of individual country. The values of the most important parameter, k{sub eff}, by all institutes showed good agreement with each other and with the experimental ones within 1%. The temperature coefficient agreed within 13%. The values of several cell parameters calculated by several institutes did not agree with the other`s ones. It will be necessary to check the calculation conditions again for getting better agreement. (J.P.N.).

  14. The Effect of a Variable Disc Pad Friction Coefficient for the Mechanical Brake System of a Railway Vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nam-Jin; Kang, Chul-Goo

    2015-01-01

    A brake hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS) system for a railway vehicle is widely applied to estimate and validate braking performance in research studies and field tests. When we develop a simulation model for a full vehicle system, the characteristics of all components are generally properly simplified based on the understanding of each component's purpose and interaction with other components. The friction coefficient between the brake disc and the pad used in simulations has been conventionally considered constant, and the effect of a variable friction coefficient is ignored with the assumption that the variability affects the performance of the vehicle braking very little. However, the friction coefficient of a disc pad changes significantly within a range due to environmental conditions, and thus, the friction coefficient can affect the performance of the brakes considerably, especially on the wheel slide. In this paper, we apply a variable friction coefficient and analyzed the effects of the variable friction coefficient on a mechanical brake system of a railway vehicle. We introduce a mathematical formula for the variable friction coefficient in which the variable friction is represented by two variables and five parameters. The proposed formula is applied to real-time simulations using a brake HILS system, and the effectiveness of the formula is verified experimentally by testing the mechanical braking performance of the brake HILS system.

  15. The Effect of a Variable Disc Pad Friction Coefficient for the Mechanical Brake System of a Railway Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nam-Jin; Kang, Chul-Goo

    2015-01-01

    A brake hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS) system for a railway vehicle is widely applied to estimate and validate braking performance in research studies and field tests. When we develop a simulation model for a full vehicle system, the characteristics of all components are generally properly simplified based on the understanding of each component’s purpose and interaction with other components. The friction coefficient between the brake disc and the pad used in simulations has been conventionally considered constant, and the effect of a variable friction coefficient is ignored with the assumption that the variability affects the performance of the vehicle braking very little. However, the friction coefficient of a disc pad changes significantly within a range due to environmental conditions, and thus, the friction coefficient can affect the performance of the brakes considerably, especially on the wheel slide. In this paper, we apply a variable friction coefficient and analyzed the effects of the variable friction coefficient on a mechanical brake system of a railway vehicle. We introduce a mathematical formula for the variable friction coefficient in which the variable friction is represented by two variables and five parameters. The proposed formula is applied to real-time simulations using a brake HILS system, and the effectiveness of the formula is verified experimentally by testing the mechanical braking performance of the brake HILS system. PMID:26267883

  16. Pendulum mass affects the measurement of articular friction coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akelman, Matthew R; Teeple, Erin; Machan, Jason T; Crisco, Joseph J; Jay, Gregory D; Fleming, Braden C

    2013-02-01

    Friction measurements of articular cartilage are important to determine the relative tribologic contributions made by synovial fluid or cartilage, and to assess the efficacy of therapies for preventing the development of post-traumatic osteoarthritis. Stanton's equation is the most frequently used formula for estimating the whole joint friction coefficient (μ) of an articular pendulum, and assumes pendulum energy loss through a mass-independent mechanism. This study examines if articular pendulum energy loss is indeed mass independent, and compares Stanton's model to an alternative model, which incorporates viscous damping, for calculating μ. Ten loads (25-100% body weight) were applied in a random order to an articular pendulum using the knees of adult male Hartley guinea pigs (n=4) as the fulcrum. Motion of the decaying pendulum was recorded and μ was estimated using two models: Stanton's equation, and an exponential decay function incorporating a viscous damping coefficient. μ estimates decreased as mass increased for both models. Exponential decay model fit error values were 82% less than the Stanton model. These results indicate that μ decreases with increasing mass, and that an exponential decay model provides a better fit for articular pendulum data at all mass values. In conclusion, inter-study comparisons of articular pendulum μ values should not be made without recognizing the loads used, as μ values are mass dependent. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Interpretation of diffusion coefficients in nanostructured materials from random walk numerical simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anta, Juan A; Mora-Seró, Iván; Dittrich, Thomas; Bisquert, Juan

    2008-08-14

    We make use of the numerical simulation random walk (RWNS) method to compute the "jump" diffusion coefficient of electrons in nanostructured materials via mean-square displacement. First, a summary of analytical results is given that relates the diffusion coefficient obtained from RWNS to those in the multiple-trapping (MT) and hopping models. Simulations are performed in a three-dimensional lattice of trap sites with energies distributed according to an exponential distribution and with a step-function distribution centered at the Fermi level. It is observed that once the stationary state is reached, the ensemble of particles follow Fermi-Dirac statistics with a well-defined Fermi level. In this stationary situation the diffusion coefficient obeys the theoretical predictions so that RWNS effectively reproduces the MT model. Mobilities can be also computed when an electrical bias is applied and they are observed to comply with the Einstein relation when compared with steady-state diffusion coefficients. The evolution of the system towards the stationary situation is also studied. When the diffusion coefficients are monitored along simulation time a transition from anomalous to trap-limited transport is observed. The nature of this transition is discussed in terms of the evolution of electron distribution and the Fermi level. All these results will facilitate the use of RW simulation and related methods to interpret steady-state as well as transient experimental techniques.

  18. Quantized correlation coefficient for measuring reproducibility of ChIP-chip data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuroda Mitzi I

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by microarray hybridization (ChIP-chip is used to study protein-DNA interactions and histone modifications on a genome-scale. To ensure data quality, these experiments are usually performed in replicates, and a correlation coefficient between replicates is used often to assess reproducibility. However, the correlation coefficient can be misleading because it is affected not only by the reproducibility of the signal but also by the amount of binding signal present in the data. Results We develop the Quantized correlation coefficient (QCC that is much less dependent on the amount of signal. This involves discretization of data into set of quantiles (quantization, a merging procedure to group the background probes, and recalculation of the Pearson correlation coefficient. This procedure reduces the influence of the background noise on the statistic, which then properly focuses more on the reproducibility of the signal. The performance of this procedure is tested in both simulated and real ChIP-chip data. For replicates with different levels of enrichment over background and coverage, we find that QCC reflects reproducibility more accurately and is more robust than the standard Pearson or Spearman correlation coefficients. The quantization and the merging procedure can also suggest a proper quantile threshold for separating signal from background for further analysis. Conclusions To measure reproducibility of ChIP-chip data correctly, a correlation coefficient that is robust to the amount of signal present should be used. QCC is one such measure. The QCC statistic can also be applied in a variety of other contexts for measuring reproducibility, including analysis of array CGH data for DNA copy number and gene expression data.

  19. Quantized correlation coefficient for measuring reproducibility of ChIP-chip data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shouyong; Kuroda, Mitzi I; Park, Peter J

    2010-07-27

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by microarray hybridization (ChIP-chip) is used to study protein-DNA interactions and histone modifications on a genome-scale. To ensure data quality, these experiments are usually performed in replicates, and a correlation coefficient between replicates is used often to assess reproducibility. However, the correlation coefficient can be misleading because it is affected not only by the reproducibility of the signal but also by the amount of binding signal present in the data. We develop the Quantized correlation coefficient (QCC) that is much less dependent on the amount of signal. This involves discretization of data into set of quantiles (quantization), a merging procedure to group the background probes, and recalculation of the Pearson correlation coefficient. This procedure reduces the influence of the background noise on the statistic, which then properly focuses more on the reproducibility of the signal. The performance of this procedure is tested in both simulated and real ChIP-chip data. For replicates with different levels of enrichment over background and coverage, we find that QCC reflects reproducibility more accurately and is more robust than the standard Pearson or Spearman correlation coefficients. The quantization and the merging procedure can also suggest a proper quantile threshold for separating signal from background for further analysis. To measure reproducibility of ChIP-chip data correctly, a correlation coefficient that is robust to the amount of signal present should be used. QCC is one such measure. The QCC statistic can also be applied in a variety of other contexts for measuring reproducibility, including analysis of array CGH data for DNA copy number and gene expression data.

  20. Estimating the Diffusion Coefficients of Sugars Using Diffusion Experiments in Agar-Gel and Computer Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Shuichi; Atsuyama, Kenji; Ekino, Keisuke; Shin, Takashi

    2018-01-01

    The isolation of useful microbes is one of the traditional approaches for the lead generation in drug discovery. As an effective technique for microbe isolation, we recently developed a multidimensional diffusion-based gradient culture system of microbes. In order to enhance the utility of the system, it is favorable to have diffusion coefficients of nutrients such as sugars in the culture medium beforehand. We have, therefore, built a simple and convenient experimental system that uses agar-gel to observe diffusion. Next, we performed computer simulations-based on random-walk concepts-of the experimental diffusion system and derived correlation formulas that relate observable diffusion data to diffusion coefficients. Finally, we applied these correlation formulas to our experimentally-determined diffusion data to estimate the diffusion coefficients of sugars. Our values for these coefficients agree reasonably well with values published in the literature. The effectiveness of our simple technique, which has elucidated the diffusion coefficients of some molecules which are rarely reported (e.g., galactose, trehalose, and glycerol) is demonstrated by the strong correspondence between the literature values and those obtained in our experiments.

  1. A new method for the coefficients of the characteristic polynomial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, H.E.

    2006-01-01

    In linear algebra, one can associate an equation to each square matrix: its characteristic equation or secular equation. Starting from this equation, the one characteristic polynomial that codes several important properties of the matrix is obtained: its own values, it determinant and it appearance. The first method to calculate those coefficients of this polynomial were proposed by the french astronomer Urbain Jean Joseph Le Verrier (1811-1877), from then on, many methods have intended to calculate these coefficients. In this work the author proposes a new one method and a bibliographical citation is given where the calculations with others methods that know each other for it, taking like reference the matrix used by Le Verrier are explained. It was concluded that it here proposed, besides being the only mexican method that is knew, has the advantage of being very easy of understanding and of calculating well, in the operations that it carries out, it doesn't use the division and it avoids fractions in matrices whose entrances are whole. This has a great importance for their use in the classroom for their great didactic value and in nuclear reactors and Genetic Engineering. (Author)

  2. The prediction of heat transfer coefficient in circulating fluidized bed combustors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamdan, M.A.; Al-qaq, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    In the present work, a theoretical study is performed to modify an existing model that is used to predict the heat transfer coefficient in circulating fluidized bed combustors. In the model, certain parameters were used as being of constant values, which leads to an error in the obtained value of the heat transfer coefficient. In this study and as a first step, the model is thoroughly studied and then the variation of the coefficient with these parameters is presented. Having done that, correlation for these parameters are obtained and then used in the model. Finally the modified model was tested against previously experimental and theoretical data that is available in literature. It was found that the accuracy of the model has been improved after it has been modified

  3. The prediction of heat transfer coefficient in circulating fluidized bed combustors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamdan, M.A.; Al-qaq, A.M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Jordan Amman, Qween Rania Street, Amman, AL Jbeeha 11942 (Jordan)

    2008-11-15

    In the present work, a theoretical study is performed to modify an existing model that is used to predict the heat transfer coefficient in circulating fluidized bed combustors. In the model, certain parameters were used as being of constant values, which leads to an error in the obtained value of the heat transfer coefficient. In this study and as a first step, the model is thoroughly studied and then the variation of the coefficient with these parameters is presented. Having done that, correlation for these parameters are obtained and then used in the model. Finally the modified model was tested against previously experimental and theoretical data that is available in literature. It was found that the accuracy of the model has been improved after it has been modified. (author)

  4. Reflection coefficients of permeant molecules in human red cell suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, J D; Eyring, E M

    1975-08-01

    The Staverman reflection coefficient, sigma for several permeant molecules was determined in human red cell suspensions with a Durrum stopped-flow spectrophotometer. This procedure was first used with dog, cat, and beef red cells and with human red cells. The stopped-flow technique used was similar to the rapid-flow method used by those who originally reported sigma measurements in human red cells for molecules which rapidly penetrate the red cell membrane. The sigma values we obtained agreed with those previously reported for most of the slow penetrants, except malonamide, but disagreed with all the sigma values previously reported for the rapid penetrants. We were unable to calculate an "equivalent pore radius" with our sigma data. The advantages of our equipment and our experimental procedure are discussed. Our sigma data suggest that sigma is indirectly proportional to the log of the nonelectrolyte permeability coefficient, omega. Since a similar trend has been previously shown for log omega and molar volume of the permeant molecules, a correlatioo was shown between sigma and molar volume suggesting the membrane acts as a sieve.

  5. Octanol-air partition coefficients of polybrominated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongxia, Zhao; Jingwen, Chen; Xie, Quan; Baocheng, Qu; Xinmiao, Liang

    2009-03-01

    The octanol-air partition coefficients (K(OA)) for PBB15, PBB26, PBB31, PBB49, PBB103 and PBB153 were determined as a function of temperature using a gas chromatographic retention time technique with 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis (4-chlorophenyl) ethane (p,p'-DDT) as a reference substance. The internal energies of phase change from octanol to air (Delta(OA)U) were calculated for the six compounds and were in the range from 74 to 116 kJ mol(-1). Simple regression equations of log K(OA) versus relative retention times (RRTs) on gas chromatography (GC), and log K(OA) versus molecular connectivity indexes (MCI) were obtained, for which the correlation coefficients (r(2)) were greater than 0.985 at 283.15K and 298.15K. Thus the K(OA) values of the remaining PBBs can be predicted by using their RRTs and MCI according to these relationships.

  6. Development of life cycle water-demand coefficients for coal-based power generation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Babkir; Kumar, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We develop water consumption and withdrawals coefficients for coal power generation. • We develop life cycle water footprints for 36 coal-based electricity generation pathways. • Different coal power generation technologies were assessed. • Sensitivity analysis of plant performance and coal transportation on water demand. - Abstract: This paper aims to develop benchmark coefficients for water consumption and water withdrawals over the full life cycle of coal-based power generation. This study considered not only all of the unit operations involved in the full electricity generation life cycle but also compared different coal-based power generating technologies. Overall this study develops the life cycle water footprint for 36 different coal-based electricity generation pathways. Power generation pathways involving new technologies of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or ultra supercritical technology with coal transportation by conventional means and using dry cooling systems have the least complete life cycle water-demand coefficients of about 1 L/kW h. Sensitivity analysis is conducted to study the impact of power plant performance and coal transportation on the water demand coefficients. The consumption coefficient over life cycle of ultra supercritical or IGCC power plants are 0.12 L/kW h higher when conventional transportation of coal is replaced by coal-log pipeline. Similarly, if the conventional transportation of coal is replaced by its transportation in the form of a slurry through a pipeline, the consumption coefficient of a subcritical power plant increases by 0.52 L/kW h

  7. Hybrid Modeling of Intra-DCT Coefficients for Real-Time Video Encoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The two-dimensional discrete cosine transform (2-D DCT and its subsequent quantization are widely used in standard video encoders. However, since most DCT coefficients become zeros after quantization, a number of redundant computations are performed. This paper proposes a hybrid statistical model used to predict the zeroquantized DCT (ZQDCT coefficients for intratransform and to achieve better real-time performance. First, each pixel block at the input of DCT is decomposed into a series of mean values and a residual block. Subsequently, a statistical model based on Gaussian distribution is used to predict the ZQDCT coefficients of the residual block. Then, a sufficient condition under which each quantized coefficient becomes zero is derived from the mean values. Finally, a hybrid model to speed up the DCT and quantization calculations is proposed. Experimental results show that the proposed model can reduce more redundant computations and achieve better real-time performance than the reference in the literature at the cost of negligible video quality degradation. Experiments also show that the proposed model significantly reduces multiplications for DCT and quantization. This is particularly suitable for processors in portable devices where multiplications consume more power than additions. Computational reduction implies longer battery lifetime and energy economy.

  8. A hierarchical estimator development for estimation of tire-road friction coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xudong; Göhlich, Dietmar

    2017-01-01

    The effect of vehicle active safety systems is subject to the friction force arising from the contact of tires and the road surface. Therefore, an adequate knowledge of the tire-road friction coefficient is of great importance to achieve a good performance of these control systems. This paper presents a tire-road friction coefficient estimation method for an advanced vehicle configuration, four-motorized-wheel electric vehicles, in which the longitudinal tire force is easily obtained. A hierarchical structure is adopted for the proposed estimation design. An upper estimator is developed based on unscented Kalman filter to estimate vehicle state information, while a hybrid estimation method is applied as the lower estimator to identify the tire-road friction coefficient using general regression neural network (GRNN) and Bayes' theorem. GRNN aims at detecting road friction coefficient under small excitations, which are the most common situations in daily driving. GRNN is able to accurately create a mapping from input parameters to the friction coefficient, avoiding storing an entire complex tire model. As for large excitations, the estimation algorithm is based on Bayes' theorem and a simplified "magic formula" tire model. The integrated estimation method is established by the combination of the above-mentioned estimators. Finally, the simulations based on a high-fidelity CarSim vehicle model are carried out on different road surfaces and driving maneuvers to verify the effectiveness of the proposed estimation method.

  9. A hierarchical estimator development for estimation of tire-road friction coefficient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xudong Zhang

    Full Text Available The effect of vehicle active safety systems is subject to the friction force arising from the contact of tires and the road surface. Therefore, an adequate knowledge of the tire-road friction coefficient is of great importance to achieve a good performance of these control systems. This paper presents a tire-road friction coefficient estimation method for an advanced vehicle configuration, four-motorized-wheel electric vehicles, in which the longitudinal tire force is easily obtained. A hierarchical structure is adopted for the proposed estimation design. An upper estimator is developed based on unscented Kalman filter to estimate vehicle state information, while a hybrid estimation method is applied as the lower estimator to identify the tire-road friction coefficient using general regression neural network (GRNN and Bayes' theorem. GRNN aims at detecting road friction coefficient under small excitations, which are the most common situations in daily driving. GRNN is able to accurately create a mapping from input parameters to the friction coefficient, avoiding storing an entire complex tire model. As for large excitations, the estimation algorithm is based on Bayes' theorem and a simplified "magic formula" tire model. The integrated estimation method is established by the combination of the above-mentioned estimators. Finally, the simulations based on a high-fidelity CarSim vehicle model are carried out on different road surfaces and driving maneuvers to verify the effectiveness of the proposed estimation method.

  10. CFD Extraction of Heat Transfer Coefficient in Cryogenic Propellant Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H. Q.; West, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Current reduced-order thermal model for cryogenic propellant tanks is based on correlations built for flat plates collected in the 1950's. The use of these correlations suffers from inaccurate geometry representation; inaccurate gravity orientation; ambiguous length scale; and lack of detailed validation. This study uses first-principles based CFD methodology to compute heat transfer from the tank wall to the cryogenic fluids and extracts and correlates the equivalent heat transfer coefficient to support reduced-order thermal model. The CFD tool was first validated against available experimental data and commonly used correlations for natural convection along a vertically heated wall. Good agreements between the present prediction and experimental data have been found for flows in laminar as well turbulent regimes. The convective heat transfer between the tank wall and cryogenic propellant, and that between the tank wall and ullage gas were then simulated. The results showed that the commonly used heat transfer correlations for either vertical or horizontal plate over-predict heat transfer rate for the cryogenic tank, in some cases by as much as one order of magnitude. A characteristic length scale has been defined that can correlate all heat transfer coefficients for different fill levels into a single curve. This curve can be used for the reduced-order heat transfer model analysis.

  11. Parameterizing Coefficients of a POD-Based Dynamical System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalb, Virginia L.

    2010-01-01

    A method of parameterizing the coefficients of a dynamical system based of a proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) representing the flow dynamics of a viscous fluid has been introduced. (A brief description of POD is presented in the immediately preceding article.) The present parameterization method is intended to enable construction of the dynamical system to accurately represent the temporal evolution of the flow dynamics over a range of Reynolds numbers. The need for this or a similar method arises as follows: A procedure that includes direct numerical simulation followed by POD, followed by Galerkin projection to a dynamical system has been proven to enable representation of flow dynamics by a low-dimensional model at the Reynolds number of the simulation. However, a more difficult task is to obtain models that are valid over a range of Reynolds numbers. Extrapolation of low-dimensional models by use of straightforward Reynolds-number-based parameter continuation has proven to be inadequate for successful prediction of flows. A key part of the problem of constructing a dynamical system to accurately represent the temporal evolution of the flow dynamics over a range of Reynolds numbers is the problem of understanding and providing for the variation of the coefficients of the dynamical system with the Reynolds number. Prior methods do not enable capture of temporal dynamics over ranges of Reynolds numbers in low-dimensional models, and are not even satisfactory when large numbers of modes are used. The basic idea of the present method is to solve the problem through a suitable parameterization of the coefficients of the dynamical system. The parameterization computations involve utilization of the transfer of kinetic energy between modes as a function of Reynolds number. The thus-parameterized dynamical system accurately predicts the flow dynamics and is applicable to a range of flow problems in the dynamical regime around the Hopf bifurcation. Parameter

  12. Study of the influence of surfactants on the activity coefficients and mass transfer coefficients of methanol in aqueous mixtures by reversed-flow gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsalos, Efthimios; Brezovska, Boryana; Sevastos, Dimitrios; Vagena, Artemis; Koliadima, Athanasia; Kapolos, John; Karaiskakis, George

    2017-11-17

    This work focuses on the influences of surfactants on the activity coefficients, γ, of methanol in binary mixtures with water, as well as on the mass transfer coefficients, k c , for the evaporation of methanol, which is a ubiquitous component in the troposphere, from mixtures of methanol with water at various surfactant's and methanol's concentrations. The technique used is the Reversed-Flow Gas Chromatography (R.F.G.C.), a version of Inverse Gas Chromatography, which allows determining both parameters by performing only one experiment for the k c parameter and two experiments for the γ parameter. The k c and γ values decrease in the presence of the three surfactants used (CTAB, SDS, TRITON X-100) at all methanol's and surfactant's concentrations. The decrease in the methanol's molar fraction, at constant number of surfactant films leads to a decrease in the k c and γ values, while the decrease in the surfactant's concentration, at constant methanol's molar fraction leads to an increase in both the k c and γ parameters. Mass transfer coefficients for the evaporation of methanol at the surfactant films, are also calculated which are approximately between 4 and 5 orders of magnitude larger than the corresponding mass transfer coefficients at the liquid films. Finally, thicknesses of the boundary layer of methanol in the mixtures of methanol with water were determined. The quantities found are compared with those given in the literature or calculated theoretically using various empirical equations. The precision of the R.F.G.C. method for measuring γ and k c parameters is approximately high (94.3-98.0%), showing that R.F.G.C. can be used with success not only for the thermodynamic study of solutions, but also for the interphase transport. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Measurement and CFD calculation of spacer loss coefficient for a tight-lattice fuel bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In, Wang Kee; Shin, Chang Hwan; Kwack, Young Kyun; Lee, Chi Young

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Experiment and CFD analysis evaluated the pressure drop in a spacer grid. • The measurement and CFD errors for the spacer loss coefficient were estimated. • The spacer loss coefficient for the dual-cooled annular fuel bundle was determined. • The CFD prediction agrees with the measured spacer loss coefficient within 8%. - Abstract: An experiment and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis were performed to evaluate the pressure drop in a spacer grid for a dual-cooled annular fuel (DCAF) bundle. The DCAF bundle for the Korean optimum power reactor (OPR1000) is a 12 × 12 tight-lattice rod array with a pitch-to-diameter ratio of 1.08 owing to a larger outer diameter of the annular fuel rod. An experiment was conducted to measure the pressure drop in spacer grid for the DCAF bundle. The test bundle is a full-size 12 × 12 rod bundle with 11 spacer grid. The test condition covers a Reynolds number range of 2 × 10 4 –2 × 10 5 by changing the temperature and flow rate of water. A CFD analysis was also performed to predict the pressure drop through a spacer grid using the full-size and partial bundle models. The pressure drop and loss coefficient of a spacer grid were predicted and compared with the experimental results. The CFD predictions of spacer pressure drop and loss coefficient agree with the measured values within 8%. The spacer loss coefficient for the DCAF bundle is estimated to be approximately 1.50 at a nominal operating condition of OPR1000, i.e., Re = 4 × 10 5

  14. A new consistent definition of the homogenized diffusion coefficient of a lattice, limitations of the homogenization concept, and discussion of previously defined coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deniz, V.C.

    1980-01-01

    The problem concerned with the correct definition of the homogenized diffusion coefficient of a lattice, and the concurrent problem of whether or not a homogenized diffusion equation can be formally set up, is studied by a space-energy-angle dependent treatment for a general lattice cell using an operator notation which applies to any eigen-problem. A new definition of the diffusion coefficient is given, which combines within itself the individual merits of the two definitions of Benoist. The relation between the new coefficient and the ''uncorrected'' Benoist coefficient is discussed by considering continuous-spectrum and multi-group diffusion equations. Other definitions existing in the literature are briefly discussed. It is concluded that a diffusion coefficient should represent only leakage effects. A comparison is made between the homogenization approach and the approach via eigen-coefficients, and brief indications are given of a possible scheme for the latter. (author)

  15. Automatic estimation of pressure-dependent rate coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Joshua W; Goldsmith, C Franklin; Green, William H

    2012-01-21

    A general framework is presented for accurately and efficiently estimating the phenomenological pressure-dependent rate coefficients for reaction networks of arbitrary size and complexity using only high-pressure-limit information. Two aspects of this framework are discussed in detail. First, two methods of estimating the density of states of the species in the network are presented, including a new method based on characteristic functional group frequencies. Second, three methods of simplifying the full master equation model of the network to a single set of phenomenological rates are discussed, including a new method based on the reservoir state and pseudo-steady state approximations. Both sets of methods are evaluated in the context of the chemically-activated reaction of acetyl with oxygen. All three simplifications of the master equation are usually accurate, but each fails in certain situations, which are discussed. The new methods usually provide good accuracy at a computational cost appropriate for automated reaction mechanism generation.

  16. Random errors in the magnetic field coefficients of superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera, J.; Hogue, R.; Prodell, A.; Wanderer, P.; Willen, E.

    1985-01-01

    Random errors in the multipole magnetic coefficients of superconducting magnet have been of continuing interest in accelerator research. The Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) with its small magnetic aperture only emphasizes this aspect of magnet design, construction, and measurement. With this in mind, we present a magnet model which mirrors the structure of a typical superconducting magnet. By taking advantage of the basic symmetries of a dipole magnet, we use this model to fit the measured multipole rms widths. The fit parameters allow us then to predict the values of the rms multipole errors expected for the SSC dipole reference design D, SSC-C5. With the aid of first-order perturbation theory, we then give an estimate of the effect of these random errors on the emittance growth of a proton beam stored in an SSC. 10 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Calculating the heat transfer coefficient of frame profiles with internal cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noyé, Peter Anders; Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2004-01-01

    . The heat transfer coefficient is determined by two-dimensional numerical calculations and by measurements. Calculations are performed in Therm (LBNL (2001)), which is developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, USA. The calculations are performed in accordance with the future European standards...... correspondence between measured and calculated values. Hence, when determining the heat transfer coefficient of frame profiles with internal cavities by calculations, it is necessary to apply a more detailed radiation exchange model than described in the prEN ISO 10077-2 standard. The ISO-standard offers......Determining the energy performance of windows requires detailed knowledge of the thermal properties of their different elements. A series of standards and guidelines exist in this area. The thermal properties of the frame can be determined either by detailed two-dimensional numerical methods...

  18. Numerical solution for identification of feedback coefficients in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebizuka, Yoshie; Sakai, Hideo

    1975-01-01

    Quasilinearization technique was studied to determine the Kinetic parameters of nuclear reactors. The method of solution was generalized to the determination of the parameters contained in a nonlinear system with nonlinear boundary conditions. A computer program, SNR-3, was developed to solve the resulting nonlinear two-point boundary value equations with generalized boundary conditions. In this paper, the problem formulation and the method of solution are explained for a general type of time dependent problem. A flow chart shows the procedure of numerical solution. The method was then applied to the determination of the critical factor and the reactivity feedback coefficients of reactors to investigate the accuracy and the applicability of the present method. The results showed that the present method was considerably successful, but that the random observation error effected the results of the identification. (Aoki, K.)

  19. Reassessment of tritium dose coefficients for the general public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melintescu, A.; Galeriu, D.; Takeda, H.

    2007-01-01

    Concerns of increased risk from tritium intake by humans have been claimed in the past. The arguments concerning the radiobiological effectiveness of tritium, its longer retention in the human body and the presence of tritium in the DNA hydration shell are analysed in this paper. A biokinetic model for tritiated water and organically bound tritium retention in the human body is used, based on a common approach for mammals using energy and hydrogen metabolism and tested separately with animal experiments. Extension to this model to humans considers the increased role of the brain, food quality and unique growth patterns of humans. Various ages and genders for Caucasians are considered. For an intake of tritium in organic forms in the diet, the retention for the female is of about a factor 2 compared with ICRP recommendations. Effective dose coefficients are estimated to be about a factor of 2 to 3 higher than those of the ICRP. (authors)

  20. Effects of the friction coefficient on the torque characteristics of a hydraulic cam-rotor vane motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Qiankun; Wang, Xuyong; Yuan, Fan; Chen, Liang Shen; Tao, Jian Feng [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Miao, Zhong Hua [School of Mechatronic Engineering and Automation, Shanghai University, Shanghai (China)

    2016-08-15

    The friction coefficient between the vane and the slot is one of the most critical factors that affects the performance of a continuous rotary hydraulic cam-rotor vane motor. To study the effects of this coefficient on the torque characteristics of the motor, the mathematical model for the normal force and the disturbing torque between the cam rotors and the vanes of the motor was established by analyzing the forces exerted on the vanes. The mathematical model was simulated with MATLAB, and simulation results show that an increase in the friction coefficient would simultaneously decrease the normal force and increase the disturbing torque, which would negatively affect the performance of the motor. Further experimental research indicated that the low-speed performance of the hydraulic cam-rotor motor was significantly improved when the friction coefficient was reduced by controlling the parallelism tolerance, flatness and roughness between the vanes and the slots.