WorldWideScience

Sample records for codes water jet

  1. Improvement on reaction model for sodium-water reaction jet code and application analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itooka, Satoshi; Saito, Yoshinori; Okabe, Ayao; Fujimata, Kazuhiro; Murata, Shuuichi

    2000-03-01

    In selecting the reasonable DBL on steam generator (SG), it is necessary to improve analytical method for estimating the sodium temperature on failure propagation due to overheating. Improvement on sodium-water reaction (SWR) jet code (LEAP-JET ver.1.30) and application analysis to the water injection tests for confirmation of code propriety were performed. On the improvement of the code, a gas-liquid interface area density model was introduced to develop a chemical reaction model with a little dependence on calculation mesh size. The test calculation using the improved code (LEAP-JET ver.1.40) were carried out with conditions of the SWAT-3·Run-19 test and an actual scale SG. It is confirmed that the SWR jet behavior on the results and the influence to analysis result of a model are reasonable. For the application analysis to the water injection tests, water injection behavior and SWR jet behavior analyses on the new SWAT-1 (SWAT-1R) and SWAT-3 (SWAT-3R) tests were performed using the LEAP-BLOW code and the LEAP-JET code. In the application analysis of the LEAP-BLOW code, parameter survey study was performed. As the results, the condition of the injection nozzle diameter needed to simulate the water leak rate was confirmed. In the application analysis of the LEAP-JET code, temperature behavior of the SWR jet was investigated. (author)

  2. The improvement of the heat transfer model for sodium-water reaction jet code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashiguchi, Yoshirou; Yamamoto, Hajime; Kamoshida, Norio; Murata, Shuuichi

    2001-02-01

    For confirming the reasonable DBL (Design Base Leak) on steam generator (SG), it is necessary to evaluate phenomena of sodium-water reaction (SWR) in an actual steam generator realistically. The improvement of a heat transfer model on sodium-water reaction (SWR) jet code (LEAP-JET ver.1.40) and application analysis to the water injection tests for confirmation of propriety for the code were performed. On the improvement of the code, the heat transfer model between a inside fluid and a tube wall was introduced instead of the prior model which was heat capacity model including both heat capacity of the tube wall and inside fluid. And it was considered that the fluid of inside the heat exchange tube was able to treat as water or sodium and typical heat transfer equations used in SG design were also introduced in the new heat transfer model. Further additional work was carried out in order to improve the stability of the calculation for long calculation time. The test calculation using the improved code (LEAP-JET ver.1.50) were carried out with conditions of the SWAT-IR·Run-HT-2 test. It was confirmed that the SWR jet behavior on the result and the influence to the result of the heat transfer model were reasonable. And also on the improved code (LEAP-JET ver.1.50), user's manual was revised with additional I/O manual and explanation of the heat transfer model and new variable name. (author)

  3. Improvement and test calculation on basic code or sodium-water reaction jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Yoshinori; Itooka, Satoshi [Advanced Reactor Engineering Center, Hitachi Works, Hitachi Ltd., Hitachi, Ibaraki (Japan); Okabe, Ayao; Fujimata, Kazuhiro; Sakurai, Tomoo [Consulting Engineering Dept., Hitachi Engineering Co., Ltd., Hitachi, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1999-03-01

    In selecting the reasonable DBL (design basis water leak rate) on steam generator (SG), it is necessary to improve analytical method for estimating the sodium temperature on failure propagation due to overheating. Improvement on the basic code for sodium-water reaction (SWR) jet was performed for an actual scale SG. The improvement points of the code are as follows; (1) introduction of advanced model such as heat transfer between the jet and structure (tube array), cooling effect of the structure, heat transfer between analytic cells, and (2) model improvement for heat transfer between two-phase flow and porous-media. The test calculation using the improved code (LEAP-JET ver.1.30) were carried out with conditions of the SWAT-3{center_dot}Run-19 test and an actual scale SG. It is confirmed that the SWR jet behavior on the results is reasonable and Influence to analysis result of a model. Code integration with the blow down analytic code (LEAP-BLOW) was also studied. It is suitable that LEAP-JET was improved as one of the LEAP-BLOW's models, and it was integrated into this. In addition to above, the improvement for setting of boundary condition and the development of the interface program to transfer the analytical results of LEAP-BLOW have been performed in order to consider the cooling effect of coolant in the tube simply. However, verification of the code by new SWAT-1 and SWAT-3 test data planned in future is necessary because LEAP-JET is under development. And furthermore advancement needs to be planned. (author)

  4. Improvement and test calculation on basic code or sodium-water reaction jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Yoshinori; Itooka, Satoshi; Okabe, Ayao; Fujimata, Kazuhiro; Sakurai, Tomoo

    1999-03-01

    In selecting the reasonable DBL (design basis water leak rate) on steam generator (SG), it is necessary to improve analytical method for estimating the sodium temperature on failure propagation due to overheating. Improvement on the basic code for sodium-water reaction (SWR) jet was performed for an actual scale SG. The improvement points of the code are as follows; (1) introduction of advanced model such as heat transfer between the jet and structure (tube array), cooling effect of the structure, heat transfer between analytic cells, and (2) model improvement for heat transfer between two-phase flow and porous-media. The test calculation using the improved code (LEAP-JET ver.1.30) were carried out with conditions of the SWAT-3·Run-19 test and an actual scale SG. It is confirmed that the SWR jet behavior on the results is reasonable and Influence to analysis result of a model. Code integration with the blow down analytic code (LEAP-BLOW) was also studied. It is suitable that LEAP-JET was improved as one of the LEAP-BLOW's models, and it was integrated into this. In addition to above, the improvement for setting of boundary condition and the development of the interface program to transfer the analytical results of LEAP-BLOW have been performed in order to consider the cooling effect of coolant in the tube simply. However, verification of the code by new SWAT-1 and SWAT-3 test data planned in future is necessary because LEAP-JET is under development. And furthermore advancement needs to be planned. (author)

  5. Development of blow down and sodium-water reaction jet analysis codes-Validation by sodium-water reaction tests (SWAT-1R)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroshi Seino; Akikazu Kurihara; Isao Ono; Koji Jitsu

    2005-01-01

    Blow down analysis code (LEAP-BLOW) and sodium-water reaction jet analysis code (LEAP-JET) have been developed in order to improve the evaluation method on sodium-water reaction event in the steam generator (SG) of a sodium cooled fast breeder reactor (FBR). The validation analyses by these two codes were carried out using the data of Sodium-Water Reaction Test (SWAT-1R). The following main results have been obtained through this validation: (1) The calculational results by LEAP-BLOW such as internal pressure and water flow rate show good agreement with the results of the SWAT- 1R test. (2) The LEAP-JET code can qualitatively simulate the behavior of sodium-water reaction. However, it is found that the code has tendency to overestimate the maximum temperature of the reaction jet. (authors)

  6. Development of LEAP-JET code for sodium-water reaction analysis. Validation by sodium-water reaction tests (SWAT-1R)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seino, Hiroshi; Hamada, Hirotsugu

    2004-03-01

    The sodium-water reaction event in an FBR steam generator (SG) has influence on the safety, economical efficiency, etc. of the plant, so that the selection of design base leak (DBL) of the SG is considered as one of the important matters. The clarification of the sodium-water reaction phenomenon and the development of an analysis model are necessary to estimate the sodium-water reaction event with high accuracy and rationality in selecting the DBL. The reaction jet model is pointed out as a part of the necessary improvements to evaluate the overheating tube rupture of large SGs, since the behavior of overheating tube rupture is largely affected by the reaction jet conditions outside the tube. Therefore, LEAP-JET has been developed as an analysis code for the simulation of sodium-water reactions. This document shows the validation of the LEAP-JET code by the Sodium-Water Reaction Test (SWAT-1R). The following results have been obtained: (1) The reaction rate constant, K, is estimated at between 0.001≤K≤0.1 from the LEAP-JET analysis of the SWAT-1R data. (2) The analytical results on the high-temperature region and the behaviors of reaction consumption (Na, H 2 O) and products (H 2 , NaOH, Na 2 O) are considered to be physically reasonable. (3) The LEAP-JET analysis shows the tendency of overestimation in the maximum temperature and temperature distribution of the reaction jet. (4) In the LEAP-JET analysis, the numerical calculation becomes unstably, especially in the mesh containing quite small sodium mass. Therefore, it is necessary to modify the computational algorism to stabilize it and obtain the optimum value of K in sodium-water reactions. (author)

  7. Abrasive water jet cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leist, K.J.; Funnell, G.J.

    1988-01-01

    In the process of selecting a failed equipment cut-up tool for the process facility modifications (PFM) project, a system using an abrasive water jet (AWJ) was developed and tested for remote disassembly of failed equipment. It is presented in this paper

  8. Enhancement of the SPARC90 code to pool scrubbing events under jet injection regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berna, C., E-mail: ceberes@iie.upv.es [Instituto de Ingeniería Energética, Universitat Politècnica de València (UPV), Camino de Vera 14, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Escrivá, A.; Muñoz-Cobo, J.L. [Instituto de Ingeniería Energética, Universitat Politècnica de València (UPV), Camino de Vera 14, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Herranz, L.E., E-mail: luisen.herranz@ciemat.es [Unit of Nuclear Safety Research Division of Nuclear Fission, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Review of the most recent literature concerning submerged jets. • Emphasize all variables and processes occurring along the jet region. • Highlight the gaps of knowledge still existing related to submerged jets. • Enhancement of SPARC90-Jet to estimate aerosol removal under jet injection regime. • Validation of the SPARC90-Jet results against pool scrubbing experimental data. - Abstract: Submerged gaseous jets may have an outstanding relevance in many industrial processes and may be of particular significance in severe nuclear accident scenarios, like in the Fukushima accident. Even though pool scrubbing has been traditionally associated with low injection velocities, there are a number of potential scenarios in which fission product trapping in aqueous ponds might also occur under jet injection regime (like SGTR meltdown sequences in PWRs and SBO ones in BWRs). The SPARC90 code was developed to determine the fission product trapping in pools during severe accidents. The code assumes that carrier gas arrives at the water ponds at low or moderate velocities and it forms a big bubble that eventually detaches from the injection pipe. However, particle laden gases may enter the water at very high velocities resulting in a submerged gas jet instead. This work presents the fundamentals, major hypotheses and changes introduced into the code in order to estimate particle removal during gas injection in pools under the jet regime (SPARC90-Jet). A simplified and reliable approach to submerged jet hydrodynamics has been implemented on the basis of updated equations for jet hydrodynamics and aerosol removal, so that gas–liquid and droplet-particles interactions are described. The code modifications have been validated as far as possible. However, no suitable hydrodynamic tests have been found in the literature, so that an indirect validation has been conducted through comparisons against data from pool scrubbing experiments. Besides, this validation

  9. Enhancement of the SPARC90 code to pool scrubbing events under jet injection regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berna, C.; Escrivá, A.; Muñoz-Cobo, J.L.; Herranz, L.E.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Review of the most recent literature concerning submerged jets. • Emphasize all variables and processes occurring along the jet region. • Highlight the gaps of knowledge still existing related to submerged jets. • Enhancement of SPARC90-Jet to estimate aerosol removal under jet injection regime. • Validation of the SPARC90-Jet results against pool scrubbing experimental data. - Abstract: Submerged gaseous jets may have an outstanding relevance in many industrial processes and may be of particular significance in severe nuclear accident scenarios, like in the Fukushima accident. Even though pool scrubbing has been traditionally associated with low injection velocities, there are a number of potential scenarios in which fission product trapping in aqueous ponds might also occur under jet injection regime (like SGTR meltdown sequences in PWRs and SBO ones in BWRs). The SPARC90 code was developed to determine the fission product trapping in pools during severe accidents. The code assumes that carrier gas arrives at the water ponds at low or moderate velocities and it forms a big bubble that eventually detaches from the injection pipe. However, particle laden gases may enter the water at very high velocities resulting in a submerged gas jet instead. This work presents the fundamentals, major hypotheses and changes introduced into the code in order to estimate particle removal during gas injection in pools under the jet regime (SPARC90-Jet). A simplified and reliable approach to submerged jet hydrodynamics has been implemented on the basis of updated equations for jet hydrodynamics and aerosol removal, so that gas–liquid and droplet-particles interactions are described. The code modifications have been validated as far as possible. However, no suitable hydrodynamic tests have been found in the literature, so that an indirect validation has been conducted through comparisons against data from pool scrubbing experiments. Besides, this validation

  10. REVIEW OF WATER JET APPLICATIONS IN MANUFACTURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk MENDİ

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Usage of water jets in manufacturing processes, has been known for many decades. A wide range of engineering materials can be cut by water jets with satisfactory results. Enhanced reliability and efficiency of the technique, have yielded the technology greater interest for manufacturing applications. Water jets are used to cut soft materials such as wood, plastics, aluminium and copper. Abrasive water jets are used to cut very hard materials such as titanium, inconel, glass and ceramics. It is impossible to cut these materials with classical cutting technics. A water jet processing system utilises water pressure in the range of 100Mpa-400Mpa, for the different applications. In abrasive water jet milling and abrasive water jet cutting processes, the pressure of the jet is about 400Mpa. In water jet surface penning, the jet pressure is about 100Mpa. The process of abrasives mixing with the water stream is a complex phenomena. Erosion processes involved in cutting not yet fully understood. The lack of understanding the process call for other strategies in finding appropriate ways to obtain a precision depth in cutting operation. In this paper the principles of water jet systems had been explained. Results of experiments that made on cutting process and surface strengthening with water jet had been given.

  11. Laser cutting technology using water jet waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiba, Miyuki; Shiihara, Katsunori; Chida, Itaru

    2013-01-01

    Laser with water jet is examined to cut in-vessel structure. However, it is necessary to increase the break-up length of water jet to cut a thick plate. Therefore, the effects of the water jet parameter (water pressure, assist gas, laser power) on break-up length were investigated. It was found from observation results of water jet that the longest break-up length is about 135mm under condition of water pressure 40 MPa, laser power 30W and helium assist gas 1L/min. (author)

  12. Numerical simulation of sand jet in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azimi, A.H.; Zhu, D.; Rajaratnam, N. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2008-07-01

    A numerical simulation of sand jet in water was presented. The study involved a two-phase flow using two-phase turbulent jets. A literature review was also presented, including an experiment on particle laden air jet using laser doppler velocimetry (LDV); experiments on the effect of particle size and concentration on solid-gas jets; an experimental study of solid-liquid jets using particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique where mean velocity and fluctuations were measured; and an experimental study on solid-liquid jets using the laser doppler anemometry (LDA) technique measuring both water axial and radial velocities. Other literature review results included a photographic study of sand jets in water; a comparison of many two-phase turbulent flow; and direct numerical simulation and large-eddy simulation to study the effect of particle in gas jet flow. The mathematical model and experimental setup were also included in the presentation along with simulation results for sand jets, concentration, and kinetic energy. The presentation concluded with some proposed future studies including numerical simulation of slurry jets in water and numerical simulation of slurry jets in MFT. tabs., figs.

  13. Heated water jet in coflowing turbulent stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirazi, M.A.; McQuivey, R.S.; Keefer, T.N.

    1974-01-01

    Effects of ambient turbulence on temperature and salinity distributions of heated water and neutrally buoyant saltwater jets were studied for a wide range of densimetric jet Froude numbers, jet discharge velocities, and ambient turbulence levels in a 4-ft-wide channel. Estimates of vertical and lateral diffusivity coefficients for heat and for salt were obtained from salinity and temperature distributions taken at several stations downstream of the injection point. Readily usable correlations are presented for plume center-line temperature, plume width, and trajectory. The ambient turbulence affects the gross behavior characteristics of the plume. The effects vary with the initial jet Froude number and the jet to ambient velocity ratio. Heat and salinity are transported similarly and the finite source dimensions and the initial jet characteristics alter the numerical value of the diffusivity

  14. Water Jet 2013 - Research, Development, Applications. Proceedings of the Conference on Water Jetting Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Sitek, Libor

    2013-01-01

    Water Jet 2013 - Research, Development, Applications is the third international meeting of researchers, manufacturers, end-users, and all those interested in the technology of high-speed water jetting organized by the Department of material disintegration of the Institute of Geonics of the ASCR Ostrava. It provides a basis not only for exchange knowledge, ideas, information and experiences in areas of research, development and applications of water jets, as well as stimulating discussio...

  15. Abrasive water jet: a complementary tool

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, J. P.; Peças, P.; Nunes, E.; Gouveia, H.

    1998-01-01

    The abrasive water jet is a powerful cutting tool, whose main advantages lie in the absence of thermal effects and the capability of cutting highly thick materials. Compared with Laser, the abrasive water jet allows the cutting of a larger range of thicknesses and a wider variety of materials such as: ornamental stones, metals, polymers, composites, wood, glass and ceramics. The application of this technology has suffered an extensive growth, with successful applications in varied industrial ...

  16. Study and application of boiling water reactor jet pump characteristic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Lihyih

    1992-01-01

    RELAP5/MOD2 is an advanced thermal-hydraulic computer code used to analyze plant response to postulated transient and loss-of-coolant accidents in light water nuclear reactors. Since this computer code was originally developed for pressurized water reactor transient analysis, some of its capabilities are questioned when the methods are applied to a boiling water reactor. One of the areas which requires careful assessment is the jet pump model. In this paper, the jet pump models of RELAP5/MOD2, RETRAN-02/MOD3, and RELAP4/MOD3 are compared. From an investigation of the momentum equations, it is found that the jet pump models of these codes are not exactly the same. However, the effects of the jet pump models on the M-N characteristic curve are negligible. In this study, it is found that the relationship between the flow ratio, M, and the head ratio, N, is uniquely determined for a given jet pump geometry provided that the wall friction and gravitational head are neglected. In other words, under the given assumptions, the M-N characteristic curve will not change with power, level, recirculation pump speed or loop flow rate. When the effects of wall friction and gravitational head are included, the shape of the M-N curve will change. For certain conditions, the slope of the M-N curve can even change from negative to positive. The changes in the M-N curve caused by the separate effects of the wall friction and gravitational head will be presented. Sensitivity studies on the drive flow nozzle form loss coefficients, K d , the suction flow junction form loss coefficients, K s , the diffuser form loss coefficient, K c , and the ratio of different flow areas in the jet pump are performed. Finally, useful guidelines will be presented for plants without a plant specific M-N curve. (orig.)

  17. Electric arc, water jet cutting of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruening, D.

    1991-01-01

    For thermal dismantling and cutting of metallic components, as electric arc, water jet cutting method was developed that can be used for underwater cutting work up to a depth of 20 m. Short-circuiting of a continuously fed electrode wire in contact with the metal generates an electric arc which induces partial melting of the metal, and the water jet surrounding the wire rinses away the molten material, thus making a continuous kerf in the material. The method was also tested and modified to allow larger area, surface cutting and removal of metallic surface coatings. This is achieved by melting parts of the surface with the electric arc and subsequent rinsing by the water jet. The cutting and melting depth for surface removal can be accurately controlled by the operating parameters chosen. (orig./DG) [de

  18. Abrasive water jet: a complementary tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, J.P.; Pecas, P.; Nunes, E.; Gouveia, H.

    1998-01-01

    The abrasive water jet is a powerful cutting tool, whose main advantages lie in the absence of thermal effects and the capability of cutting highly thick materials. Compared with Laser, the abrasive water jet allows the cutting of a larger range of thicknesses and a wider variety of materials such as: ornamental stones, metals, polymers, composites, wood, glass ceramics. The application of this technology has suffered and extensive growth, with successful applications in varied industrial sectors like the automotive, aerospace, textile, metalworking, ornamental stones, etc. The present communication aims at introducing the abrasive water jet as a complementary tool to laser cutting, presenting its advantages by showing some documented examples of pieces cut for different industries. (Author) 5 refs

  19. High pressure water jet mining machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Clark R.

    1981-05-05

    A high pressure water jet mining machine for the longwall mining of coal is described. The machine is generally in the shape of a plowshare and is advanced in the direction in which the coal is cut. The machine has mounted thereon a plurality of nozzle modules each containing a high pressure water jet nozzle disposed to oscillate in a particular plane. The nozzle modules are oriented to cut in vertical and horizontal planes on the leading edge of the machine and the coal so cut is cleaved off by the wedge-shaped body.

  20. Water Jet Technology Used in Medicine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hreha, P.; Hloch, S.; Magurová, D.; Valíček, Jan; Kozak, D.; Harničárová, M.; Rakin, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 7 (2010), s. 237-240 ISSN 1330-3651 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3086906 Keywords : abrasive water jet * medicine * technology Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 0.083, year: 2010

  1. Turning of wood plastic composites by water jet and abrasive water jet

    OpenAIRE

    Hutyrová, Z.; Ščučka, J. (Jiří); Hloch, S. (Sergej); Hlaváček, P. (Petr); Zeleňák, M. (Michal)

    2015-01-01

    The paper deals with the verification of suitability of water jet and abrasive water jet application for the disintegration of rotating samples of wood plastic composites (WPCs) with diameter d=36 mm. The influence of selected technological factors (traverse speed of cutting head v [mm/ min] and size of abrasive particles [MESH]) on the topography of resulting surfaces has in particular been studied. Surface topography and quality have been assessed using the methods of optical and co...

  2. Description of premixing with the MC3D code including molten jet behavior modeling. Comparison with FARO experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthoud, G.; Crecy, F. de; Meignen, R.; Valette, M. [CEA-G, DRN/DTP/SMTH, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    1998-01-01

    The premixing phase of a molten fuel-coolant interaction is studied by the way of mechanistic multidimensional calculation. Beside water and steam, corium droplet flow and continuous corium jet flow are calculated independent. The 4-field MC3D code and a detailed hot jet fragmentation model are presented. MC3D calculations are compared to the FARO L14 experiment results and are found to give satisfactory results; heat transfer and jet fragmentation models are still to be improved to predict better final debris size values. (author)

  3. Pulsed water jet generated by pulse multiplication

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvorský, R.; Sitek, Libor; Sochor, T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 4 (2016), s. 959-967 ISSN 1330-3651 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1406; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : high- pressure pulses * pulse intensifier * pulsed water jet * water hammer effect Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 0.723, year: 2016 http://hrcak.srce.hr/163752?lang=en

  4. Simulation and interpretation codes for the JET ECE diagnostic. Part 1: physics of the codes' operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, D.V.

    1983-06-01

    The codes which have been developed for the analysis of electron cyclotron emission measurements in JET are described. Their principal function is to interpret the spectra measured by the diagnostic so as to give the spatial distribution of the electron temperature in the poloidal cross-section. Various systematic effects in the data are corrected using look-up tables generated by an elaborate simulation code. The part of this code responsible for the accurate calculation of single-pass emission and refraction has been written at CNR-Milan and is described in a separate report. The present report is divided into two parts. This first part describes the methods used for the simulation and interpretation of spectra, the physical/mathematical basis of the codes written at CEA-Fontenay and presents some illustrative results

  5. Evaluation of free jet and jet impingement tests with hot water and steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marklund, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    Large scale free jet and jet impingement tests with hot water and steam were performed at the Marviken test facility, Sweden in the JIT project 1980-1981. Similar tests, but with smaller scale equipment, were performed in Canada, Italy and Japan. Results from these tests were made available to the JIT project as in-kind contributions. The present report summarizes an evaluation effort over these large and small scale tests, as well as some additional small scale tests. A preliminary assessment of some computer code models and other theoretical models or correlations is also included. The work was financially supported by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, and in phase 1 also by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), USA. Part 1 of the report contains text and tables, while the figures are contained in a separate cover, Part 2. (author)

  6. Steam-water jet analysis. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashiwa, B.A.; Harlow, F.H.; Demuth, R.B.; Ruppel, H.M.

    1984-05-01

    This report presents the results of a theoretical study on the effects of the steam-water jet emitted from a hypothetical rupture in the high-pressure piping pf a nuclear power plant. A set of calculations is presented, incorporating increasingly complex formulations for mass and momentum exchange between the liquid and vapor flow fields. Comparisons between theory and detailed experimental data are given. The study begins with a thorough evaluation of the specification of equilibrium mass and momentum exchange (homogeneous equilibrium) throughout the flow region, a model that generally overpredicts the rate of jet momentum divergence. The study finds that a near-equilibrium momentum exchange rate and a strongly nonequilibrium momentum exchange rate are needed in the region of large vapor-volume fraction to explain the impingement data for fully developed two-phase jets. This leads to the viewpoint that the large-scale jet is characterized by a flow of large liquid entities that travel relatively unaffected by the strongly diverging vapor flow field. The study also finds circumstances in which a persistent core of metastable superheated water can cause much larger impingement pressures than would otherwise be possible. Existing engineering methods are evaluated for jet-loading predictions in plant design. The existing methods appear to be conservative in most possible rupture circumstances with one exception: when the impingement target is about one pipe-diameter away, large enough to capture the full jet, and the rupture flow area is equal to the full pipe flow area, the existing method can produce loadings that are slightly lower than observed for subcooled, flashing discharge. Recommendations have been made to improve the prediction of existing methods under these conditions

  7. Water jet behavior in center water jet type supersonic steam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamoto, Y.; Abe, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Next-generation reactor systems have been under development aiming at simplified system and improvement of safety and credibility. A steam injector has a function of a passive pump without large motor or turbo-machinery, and has been investigated as one of the most important component of the next-generation reactor. Its performance as a pump depends on direct contact condensation phenomena between a supersonic steam and a sub-cooled water jet. As previous studies of the steam injector, there are studies about formulation of operating characteristic of steam injector and analysis of jet structure in steam injector by Narabayashi etc. And as previous studies of the direct contact condensation, there is the study about the direct contact condensation in steam atmosphere. However the study about the turbulent heat transfer under the great shear stress is not enough investigated. Therefore it is necessary to examine in detail about the operating characteristic of the steam injector. The present paper reports the observation results of the water jet behavior in the super sonic steam injector by using the video camera and the high-speed video camera. And the measuring results of the temperature and the pressure distribution in the steam injector are reported. From observation results by video camera, it is cleared that the water jet is established at the center of the steam injector right after steam supplied and the operation of the steam injector depends on the throat diameter. And from observation results by high-speed video camera, it is supposed that the columned water jet surface is established in the mixing nozzle and the water jet surface movement exists. Furthermore and effect of the non-condensable gas on the steam injector is investigated by measuring the radial temperature distributions in the water jet. From measuring results, it is supposed the more the air included in the steam, the more the temperature fluctuation of both steam and discharge water

  8. Abrasive water jet: a complementary tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duarte, J. P.

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The abrasive water jet is a powerful cutting tool, whose main advantages lie in the absence of thermal effects and the capability of cutting highly thick materials. Compared with Laser, the abrasive water jet allows the cutting of a larger range of thicknesses and a wider variety of materials such as: ornamental stones, metals, polymers, composites, wood, glass and ceramics. The application of this technology has suffered an extensive growth, with successful applications in varied industrial sectors like the automotive, aerospace, textile, metalworking, ornamental stones, etc. The present communication aims at introducing the abrasive water jet as a complementary tool to laser cutting, presenting its advantages by showing some documented examples of pieces cut for different industries.

    O jacto de água abrasivo é uma poderosa ferramenta de corte, tendo como principais vantagens a ausência de processo térmico e permitir o corte de elevadas espessuras. Comparativamente com o laser o jacto de água abrasivo permite cortar uma maior gama de espessuras, e uma maior diversidade de materiais: rochas ornamentais, metais, polimeros, compósitos, madeiras, vidro e cerâmicos. A aplicação desta tecnologia tem sofrido um crescimento acentuado, existindo aplicações de sucesso nos mais variados sectores industriáis como a indústria automóvel, aeroespacial, têxtil, metalomecânica e rochas ornamentáis. Esta comunição pretende apresentar o corte por jacto de agua abrasivo como uma ferramenta de corte complementar ao corte por laser, apresentando as suas vantagens documentadas através de alguns exemplos de peças executadas para as diferentes indústrias.

  9. Materials removal by water jets with high relative velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schikorr, W.

    1986-01-01

    By way of introduction approaches to the systematic apprehension of the material removal by water jets up to 1000 bar are made. In drilling experiments the effects of jet dynamic are studied, using the controlled disintegration of the jet. Using model-layer-systems the removal of layers by the 'natural' disintegrating fluid-jet is examined. The mechanisms of material removal and the consequences on the praxis of cleaning are discussed. A concept to measure specially the effects of the dynamic jet components is developed. In conclusion aspects of progress in this methods of material removal are discussed. (orig.) [de

  10. Jet formation and equatorial superrotation in Jupiter's atmosphere: Numerical modelling using a new efficient parallel code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivier, Leonard Gilles

    Using an efficient parallel code solving the primitive equations of atmospheric dynamics, the jet structure of a Jupiter like atmosphere is modeled. In the first part of this thesis, a parallel spectral code solving both the shallow water equations and the multi-level primitive equations of atmospheric dynamics is built. The implementation of this code called BOB is done so that it runs effectively on an inexpensive cluster of workstations. A one dimensional decomposition and transposition method insuring load balancing among processes is used. The Legendre transform is cache-blocked. A "compute on the fly" of the Legendre polynomials used in the spectral method produces a lower memory footprint and enables high resolution runs on relatively small memory machines. Performance studies are done using a cluster of workstations located at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). BOB performances are compared to the parallel benchmark code PSTSWM and the dynamical core of NCAR's CCM3.6.6. In both cases, the comparison favors BOB. In the second part of this thesis, the primitive equation version of the code described in part I is used to study the formation of organized zonal jets and equatorial superrotation in a planetary atmosphere where the parameters are chosen to best model the upper atmosphere of Jupiter. Two levels are used in the vertical and only large scale forcing is present. The model is forced towards a baroclinically unstable flow, so that eddies are generated by baroclinic instability. We consider several types of forcing, acting on either the temperature or the momentum field. We show that only under very specific parametric conditions, zonally elongated structures form and persist resembling the jet structure observed near the cloud level top (1 bar) on Jupiter. We also study the effect of an equatorial heat source, meant to be a crude representation of the effect of the deep convective planetary interior onto the outer atmospheric layer. We

  11. Water Jets from Bottles, Buckets, Barrels, and Vases with Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopac, Vjera

    2015-01-01

    Observation of the water jets flowing from three equidistant holes on the side of a vertical cylindrical bottle is an interesting and widely used didactical experiment illustrating the laws of fluids in motion. In this paper we analyze theoretically and numerically the ranges of the stationary water jets flowing from various rotationally symmetric…

  12. Laser cutting or water-jet cutting. Laser setsudan ka water-jet setsudan ka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, T. (Shibuya Kogyo Co. Ltd., Ishikawa (Japan))

    1991-05-01

    The recent spread of carbon oxide laser cutter is so startlingly fast, but at the same time, water jet cutting using ultra high pressure water stream is drawing attention as it has identical characteristics, and opens the way to cutting materials that have been hitherto difficult to cut. The authors, who are fabricators of cutters of both types, gave the comparisons and explanations on several examples referring to materials that can be cut, cutting accuracy, speed, shape and thermal effects to cut face, and running cost in detail. However, simple comparison is difficult. For instance, cutting 6 mm thick SUS sheet costs a running cost of 65 yen per meter in laser cutting, and 535 yen per meter in water jet cutting, but this situation is often reversed when other material or sheet thickness is selected. The actual situation in the sheet metal processing industry at the present time is that it uses by far more laser processing machines, and uses water jet cutters to supplement for cutting materials more difficult to cut. 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Feasibility Study on Cutting HTPB Propellants with Abrasive Water Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dayong; Bai, Yun

    2018-01-01

    Abrasive water jet is used to carry out the experiment research on cutting HTPB propellants with three components, which will provide technical support for the engineering treatment of waste rocket motor. Based on the reliability theory and related scientific research results, the safety and efficiency of cutting sensitive HTPB propellants by abrasive water jet were experimentally studied. The results show that the safety reliability is not less than 99.52% at 90% confidence level, so the safety is adequately ensured. The cooling and anti-friction effect of high-speed water jet is the decisive factor to suppress the detonation of HTPB propellant. Compared with pure water jet, cutting efficiency was increased by 5% - 87%. The study shows that abrasive water jets meet the practical use for cutting HTPB propellants.

  14. Copper alloys disintegration using pulsating water jet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lehocká, D.; Klich, Jiří; Foldyna, Josef; Hloch, Sergej; Królczyk, J. B.; Cárach, J.; Krolczyk, G.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 82, March 2016 (2016), s. 375-383 ISSN 0263-2241 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1406; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : pulsating water jet * generation of pulses * disintegration * surface morphology * copper alloys Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 2.359, year: 2016 http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0263224116000154/1-s2.0-S0263224116000154-main.pdf?_tid=8f8d1de6-99e9-11e6-afbc-00000aacb362&acdnat=1477314089_59912e52847e91e2030d6a1afd09e7b2

  15. Turning of wood plastic composites by water jet and abrasive water jet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hutyrová, Z.; Ščučka, Jiří; Hloch, Sergej; Hlaváček, Petr; Zeleňák, Michal

    -, September 2015 (2015), s. 1-9 ISSN 0268-3768 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1406 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : wood plastic composite * water jet * size of abrasive particles * surface quality * traverse speed Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 1.568, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00170-015-7831-6

  16. Turning of wood plastic composites by water jet and abrasive water jet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hutyrová, Z.; Ščučka, Jiří; Hloch, Sergej; Hlaváček, Petr; Zeleňák, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 84, 5-8 (2016), s. 1615-1623 ISSN 0268-3768 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1406; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : wood plastic composite * water jet * turning * traverse speed * size of abrasive particles Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 2.209, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00170-015-7831-6

  17. Light-water reactor safety analysis codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, J.F.; Ransom, V.H.; Ybarrondo, L.J.; Liles, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    A brief review of the evolution of light-water reactor safety analysis codes is presented. Included is a summary comparison of the technical capabilities of major system codes. Three recent codes are described in more detail to serve as examples of currently used techniques. Example comparisons between calculated results using these codes and experimental data are given. Finally, a brief evaluation of current code capability and future development trends is presented

  18. Development test procedure High Pressure Water Jet System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crystal, J.B.

    1995-01-01

    Development testing will be performed on the water jet cleaning fixture to determine the most effective arrangement of water jet nozzles to remove contamination from the surfaces of canisters and other debris. The following debris may be stained with dye to simulate surface contaminates: Mark O, Mark I, and Mark II Fuel Storage Canisters (both stainless steel and aluminum), pipe of various size, (steel, stainless, carbon steel and aluminum). Carbon steel and stainless steel plate, channel, angle, I-beam and other surfaces, specifically based on the Scientific Ecology Group (SEG) inventory and observations of debris within the basin. Test procedure for developmental testing of High Pressure Water Jet System

  19. Analysis of a gas stratification break-up by a vertical jet using the GOTHIC code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández-Cosials, Mikel Kevin; Jimenez, Gonzalo; Lopez-Alonso, Emma

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Study of a light gas distribution with the GOTHIC code based on the OECD/NEA IBE-3. • Sensitivity analysis on turbulence model, discretization scheme and heat transfer. • The jet erosion phenomena is captured properly with a relatively coarse mesh. • Development of a tool to evaluate the influence of each parameter on the simulation. • Several recommendation on modeling a stratification break-up are included. - Abstract: During a severe accident in light water reactor (LWR), hydrogen concentration can overpass the flammability limits locally, so the correct simulation of its behavior during a release is critical. The capability assessment of computational fluid dynamics tools to calculate the hydrogen distribution under different conditions has been the focus of intense research worldwide. In this context, the OECD/NEA conducted an international benchmark exercise (IBE-3), which was focused on the break-up of a stratified layer of a light gas by a vertical jet. The participants performed their simulations before the experiment data was released. When the data was released, it was noticed that a combination of several parameters like the mesh, turbulence model or solver controls were responsible for the broad differences between the participants’ results. To obtain information about how each parameter affects the simulation, a post-test sensitivity analysis has been done by the UPM. In this paper, the IBE-3 experiment simulation with GOTHIC 8.0 is presented along with extensive sensitivity analyses of the relevant parameters. The first objective of the work is to test the capability of GOTHIC 8.0 to simulate properly a gas stratification break-up by a vertical jet with a relatively coarse mesh. The second objective of the paper is to relate each sensitivity parameter with each other and with the experiment through the Parameter Influence Chart, a helpful tool specially designed for this purpose.

  20. Analysis of a gas stratification break-up by a vertical jet using the GOTHIC code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández-Cosials, Mikel Kevin; Jimenez, Gonzalo, E-mail: gonzalo.jimenez@upm.es; Lopez-Alonso, Emma

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • Study of a light gas distribution with the GOTHIC code based on the OECD/NEA IBE-3. • Sensitivity analysis on turbulence model, discretization scheme and heat transfer. • The jet erosion phenomena is captured properly with a relatively coarse mesh. • Development of a tool to evaluate the influence of each parameter on the simulation. • Several recommendation on modeling a stratification break-up are included. - Abstract: During a severe accident in light water reactor (LWR), hydrogen concentration can overpass the flammability limits locally, so the correct simulation of its behavior during a release is critical. The capability assessment of computational fluid dynamics tools to calculate the hydrogen distribution under different conditions has been the focus of intense research worldwide. In this context, the OECD/NEA conducted an international benchmark exercise (IBE-3), which was focused on the break-up of a stratified layer of a light gas by a vertical jet. The participants performed their simulations before the experiment data was released. When the data was released, it was noticed that a combination of several parameters like the mesh, turbulence model or solver controls were responsible for the broad differences between the participants’ results. To obtain information about how each parameter affects the simulation, a post-test sensitivity analysis has been done by the UPM. In this paper, the IBE-3 experiment simulation with GOTHIC 8.0 is presented along with extensive sensitivity analyses of the relevant parameters. The first objective of the work is to test the capability of GOTHIC 8.0 to simulate properly a gas stratification break-up by a vertical jet with a relatively coarse mesh. The second objective of the paper is to relate each sensitivity parameter with each other and with the experiment through the Parameter Influence Chart, a helpful tool specially designed for this purpose.

  1. Abrasive water jets for controlled demolition and dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abudaka, M.; Crofton, P.S.J.

    1988-01-01

    Abrasive water jets offer an efficient high speed cutting tool for hard materials such as reinforced concrete, tool steel and armour plate. Cutting by abrasive water jets is often described as a cold cutting operation since no heat is developed and any increase in local temperature is immediately cooled by the water jet. Moreover no sparks are generated to ignite a potentially inflammable atmosphere. Mass flow rates of water and abrasive are small (typically 4 litres/min.water and 1 kg/min abrasive) and hence are easy to collect and to dispose of. For these reasons abrasive water jets offer certain advantages in cutting difficult materials in hazardous environments such as in the nuclear industry, offshore oil rigs and petrochemical plant. Available portable cutting systems are described and the advantages of using abrasive water jets are discussed as well as some of the parameters involved in the cutting operation. Finally a description is presented of some typical applications of abrasive water jet cutting. (author)

  2. Validation Analysis for the Calculation of a Turbulent Free Jet in Water Using CFDS-FLOW 3-D and FLUENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimenna, R.A.; Lee, S.Y.

    1995-05-01

    The application of computational fluid dynamics methods to the analysis of mixing in the high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site requires a demonstration that the computer codes can properly represent the behavior of fluids in the tanks. The motive force for mixing the tanks is a set of jet pumps taking suction from the tank fluid and discharging turbulent jets near the bottom of the tank. The work described here focuses on the free turbulent jet in water as the simplest case of jet behavior for which data could be found in the open literature. Calculations performed with both CFDS-FLOW3D and FLUENT were compared with data as well as classical jet theory. Results showed both codes agreed reasonably well with each other and with the data, but that results were sensitive to the computational mesh and, to a lesser degree, the selection of turbulence models

  3. Validation Analysis for the Calculation of a Turbulent Free Jet in Water Using CFDS-FLOW 3-D and FLUENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimenna, R.A.; Lee, S.Y.

    1995-05-01

    The application of computational fluid dynamics methods to the analysis of mixing in the high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site requires a demonstration that the computer codes can properly represent the behavior of fluids in the tanks. The motive force for mixing the tanks is a set of jet pumps taking suction from the tank fluid and discharging turbulent jets near the bottom of the tank. The work described here focuses on the free turbulent jet in water as the simplest case of jet behavior for which data could be found in the open literature. Calculations performed with both CFDS-FLOW3D and FLUENT were compared with data as well as classical jet theory. Results showed both codes agreed reasonably well with each other and with the data, but that results were sensitive to the computational mesh and, to a lesser degree, the selection of turbulence models.

  4. Monte-Carlo code PARJET to simulate e+e--annihilation events via QCD jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, S.

    1983-01-01

    The Monte-Carlo code PARJET simulates exclusive hadronic final states produced in e + e - -annihilation via a virtual photon by two steps: (i) the fragmentation of the original quark-antiquark pair into further partons using results of perturbative QCD in the leading logarithmic approximation (LLA), and (ii) the transition of these parton jets into hadrons on the basis of a chain decay model. Program summary and code description are given. (author)

  5. A new approach on anti-vortex devices at water intakes including a submerged water jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahershamsi, Ahmad; Rahimzadeh, Hassan; Monshizadeh, Morteza; Sarkardeh, Hamed

    2018-04-01

    A new approach on anti-vortex methods as hydraulic-based anti-vortex was investigated experimentally in the present study. In the investigated method, a submerged water jet is used as the anti-vortex mechanism. The added jet acts as a source of external momentum. This leads to change the intake-induced hydrodynamic pattern in the near-field of the intake structure, which can prevent formation of undesirable intake vortices. The experiments were carried out on a horizontal pipe intake. By performing 570 test cases in two different categories, including the inclined jet with respect to the axis of the intake, and the inclined jet with respect to the water surface, the effects of the jet inclination angle on the anti-vortex performance were investigated. It was found that the inclined jet with respect to the water surface is the best alternative to consider as the water jet injection pattern. Results showed that using the inclined jet with respect to the water surface can simply reduce the amounts of the expected water jet momentum more than 50% compared to that of the similar condition of the horizontal injection pattern. Moreover, it was concluded that the intake critical submergence can easily be minimized using the inclined jet with respect to the water surface.

  6. Effects of pulsating water jet impact on aluminium surface

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Foldyna, Josef; Sitek, Libor; Ščučka, Jiří; Martinec, Petr; Valíček, Jan; Páleníková, K.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 2009, č. 20 (2009), s. 6174-6180 ISSN 0924-0136 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/07/1451; GA ČR GP101/07/P512 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : pulsating water jet * jet impact * material erosion * surface characteristics Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 1.420, year: 2009 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science

  7. Air entrainment by plunging water jets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Sande, E.

    1974-01-01

    Gas entrainment caused by the impact of liquid jets upon liquid pool surfaces is a subject which has received too little attention. This well-known phenomenon,which occurs In nature and in numerous industrial operations, has only recently received interest from scientific workers. The influence on

  8. Submerged cutting of steel by abrasive water jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haferkamp, H.; Louis, H.; Meier, G.

    1990-01-01

    A special cutting head for underwater use was designed and built. Tests were carried out to find out useful parameters for submerged cutting. With regard to the production of secondary waste the abrasive flow rate had to be minimized. This was achieved by using a small water jet nozzle (up to 0.4 mm diameter) and a high pressure (up to 4000 bar) with an optimal abrasive flow rate of about 5 g/s. In the case of a higher ambient pressure a decrease of the cutting performance was measured. But this decrease is not important regarding decommissioning because the ambient pressure is less than 2 bar. An air mantle nozzle was adapted to the cutting head to improve the working distance under water. The air mantle surrounding the abrasive jet lowers the friction between jet and surrounding water and increases the cutting efficiency in the case of greater working distances. (author)

  9. Newly-Developed 3D GRMHD Code and its Application to Jet Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Y.; Nishikawa, K.-I.; Koide, S.; Hardee, P.; Fishman, G. J.

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a new three-dimensional general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic code by using a conservative, high-resolution shock-capturing scheme. The numerical fluxes are calculated using the HLL approximate Riemann solver scheme. The flux-interpolated constrained transport scheme is used to maintain a divergence-free magnetic field. We have performed various 1-dimensional test problems in both special and general relativity by using several reconstruction methods and found that the new 3D GRMHD code shows substantial improvements over our previous model. The . preliminary results show the jet formations from a geometrically thin accretion disk near a non-rotating and a rotating black hole. We will discuss the jet properties depended on the rotation of a black hole and the magnetic field strength.

  10. Calibration of neutron yield activation measurements at JET using MCNP and furnace neutron transport codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillon, M.; Martone, M.; Verschuur, K.A.; Jarvis, O.N.; Kaellne, J.

    1989-01-01

    Neutron transport calculations have been performed using fluence ray tracing (FURNACE code) and Monte Carlo particle trajectory sampling methods (MCNP code) in order to determine the neutron fluence and energy distributions at different locations in the JET tokamak. These calculations were used to calibrate the activation measurements used in the determination of the absolute fusion neutron yields from the JET plasma. We present here the neutron activation response coefficients calculated for three different materials. Comparison of the MCNP and FURNACE results helps identify the sources of error in these neutron transport calculations. The accuracy of these calculations was tested by comparing the total 2.5 MeV neutron yields derived from the activation measurements with those obtained with calibrated fission chambers; agreement at the ±15% level was demonstrate. (orig.)

  11. Safety analysis of water cooled components inside the JET thermonuclear fusion tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ageladarakis, P.; O'Dowd, N.; Papastergiou, S.

    1998-04-01

    The transient thermal behaviour of a number of components, installed in the vessel of the world's largest Fusion Tokamak (JET) has been examined with a theoretical model, which simulated normal operational conditions and abnormal scenarios namely: Loss of Coolant Flow; Loss of Torus Vacuum; and combinations. A number of theoretical results related to water and cryogenically cooled devices have been validated by a comprehensive experimental campaign conducted both inside the JET plasma chamber and in a test rig. The performance of water cooled components which may be subjected to boiling or freeze-up risks in case of a Loss of Water Flow event has also been analysed. Time constants of transient temperature changes were determined by the model while protective actions were prescribed in order to safeguard the equipment against associated risks. A completely automatic safety protection system has been designed on the basis of these analyses and implemented in the routine JET operation. During operation of JET the safety code reacted several times within the specified time limits and protected the relevant components during real off-normal events. (author)

  12. High - velocity water jet impact on concrete samples

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mádr, V.; Uhlář, R.; Hlaváč, L. M.; Sitek, Libor; Foldyna, Josef; Hela, R.; Bodnárová, L.; Kaličinský, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 4 (2009), s. 43-48 ISSN 2067-3809 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : water jet * concrete * depth of penetration * disintegration volume Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering http://acta.fih.upt.ro/pdf/2009-4/ACTA-2009-4-08.pdf

  13. Review of steam jet condensation in a water pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. S.; Song, C. H.; Park, C. K.; Kang, H. S.; Jeon, H. G.; Yoon, Y. J.

    2002-01-01

    In the advanced nuclear power plants including APR1400, the SDVS is adopted to increase the plant safety using the concept of feed-and-bleed operation. In the case of the TLOFW, the POSRV located at the top of the pressurizer is expected to open due to the pressurization of the reactor coolant system and discharges steam and/or water mixture into the water pool, where the mixture is condensed. During the condensation of the mixture, thermal-hydraulic loads such as pressure and temperature variations are induced to the pool structure. For the pool structure design, such thermal-hydraulic aspects should be considered. Understanding the phenomena of the submerged steam jet condensation in a water pool is helpful for system designers to design proper pool structure, sparger, and supports etc. This paper reviews and evaluates the steam jet condensation in a water pool on the physical phenomena of the steam condensation including condensation regime map, heat transfer coefficient, steam plume, steam jet condensation load, and steam jet induced flow

  14. Self-induced free surface oscillations caused by water jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukaya, M.; Madarame, H.; Okamoto, K.; Iida, M.; Someya, S.

    1995-01-01

    The interaction between the high speed flow and the free surfaces could induced surface oscillations. Recently, some kinds of self-induced free surface oscillations caused by water jet were discovered, e.g., a self-induced sloshing, 'Jet-Flutter' and a self-induced manometer oscillation. These oscillations have many different characteristics with each other. In this study, the similarities and differences of these oscillations are examined, and the geometrical effects on the phenomena are experimentally investigated. The self-induced sloshing and the Jet-Flutter have different dimensionless traveling times, which suggests a difference in the energy supply mechanism. When the distance between the inlet and the outlet is small in a vessel, the self-induced manometer oscillation could occur in the multi-free-surface system. (author)

  15. 21 CFR 876.4650 - Water jet renal stone dislodger system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water jet renal stone dislodger system. 876.4650... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4650 Water jet renal stone dislodger system. (a) Identification. A water jet renal stone dislodger system is a device used to...

  16. New potentional of high-speed water jet technology for renovating concrete structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnárová, L.; Sitek, L.; Hela, R.; Foldyna, J.

    2011-06-01

    The paper discusses the background and results of research focused on the action of a high-speed water jet on concrete with different qualities. The sufficient and careful removal of degraded concrete layers is very important for the renovation of concrete structures. High-speed water jet technology is one of the most common methods used for removing degraded concrete layers. Different types of high-speed water jets were tested in the experimental part. The classical technology of a single continuous water jet generated with one nozzle was tested as well as the technology of revolving water jets generated by multiple nozzles (used mainly for the renovation of larger areas). A continuous flat water jet and pulsating flat water jet were tested the first time, because the connection of a water jet with the acoustic generator of a pulsating jet offers new possibilities for the use of a water jet (see [1] and [2]). A water jet with such a modification is capable of efficient action and can even be used for cutting solid concrete with a relatively low consumption of energy. A flat pulsating water jet which can be newly used for renovation seems to be a promising technology.

  17. Hydrochromic molecular switches for water-jet rewritable paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Lan; Li, Minjie; Zhu, Shaoyin; Li, Hao; Xi, Guan; Li, Yong-Gang; Wang, Yi; Li, Quanshun; Liang, Shaojun; Zhong, Ke; Zhang, Sean Xiao-An

    2014-01-01

    The days of rewritable paper are coming, printers of the future will use water-jet paper. Although several kinds of rewritable paper have been reported, practical usage of them is rare. Herein, a new rewritable paper for ink-free printing is proposed and demonstrated successfully by using water as the sole trigger to switch hydrochromic dyes on solid media. Water-jet prints with various colours are achieved with a commercial desktop printer based on these hydrochromic rewritable papers. The prints can be erased and rewritten dozens of times with no significant loss in colour quality. This rewritable paper is promising in that it can serve an eco-friendly information display to meet the increasing global needs for environmental protection.

  18. High pressure water jet cutting and stripping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, David T.; Babai, Majid K.

    1991-01-01

    High pressure water cutting techniques have a wide range of applications to the American space effort. Hydroblasting techniques are commonly used during the refurbishment of the reusable solid rocket motors. The process can be controlled to strip a thermal protective ablator without incurring any damage to the painted surface underneath by using a variation of possible parameters. Hydroblasting is a technique which is easily automated. Automation removes personnel from the hostile environment of the high pressure water. Computer controlled robots can perform the same task in a fraction of the time that would be required by manual operation.

  19. Abrasive water jet cutting technique for biological shield concrete dismantlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konno, T.; Narazaki, T.; Yokota, M.; Yoshida, H.; Miura, M.; Miyazaki, Y.

    1987-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) is developing the abrasive-water jet cutting system to be applied to dismantling the biological shield walls of the JPDR as a part of the reactor dismantling technology development project. This is a total system for dismantling highly activated concrete. The concrete biological shield wall is cut into blocks by driving the abrasive-water jet nozzle, which is operated with a remote, automated control system. In this system, the concrete blocks are removed to a container, while the slurry and dust/mist which are generated during cutting are collected and treated, both automatically. It is a very practical method and will quite probably by used for actual dismantling of commercial power reactors in the future because it can minimize workers' exposure to radioactivity during dismantling, contributes to preventing diffusion of radiation, and reduces the volume of contaminated secondary waste

  20. Experimental Investigation on the Material Removal of the Ultrasonic Vibration Assisted Abrasive Water Jet Machining Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ultrasonic vibration activated in the abrasive water jet nozzle is used to enhance the capability of the abrasive water jet machinery. The experiment devices of the ultrasonic vibration assisted abrasive water jet are established; they are composed of the ultrasonic vibration producing device, the abrasive supplying device, the abrasive water jet nozzle, the water jet intensifier pump, and so on. And the effect of process parameters such as the vibration amplitude, the system working pressure, the stand-off, and the abrasive diameter on the ceramics material removal is studied. The experimental result indicates that the depth and the volume removal are increased when the ultrasonic vibration is added on abrasive water jet. With the increase of vibration amplitude, the depth and the volume of material removal are also increased. The other parameters of the ultrasonic vibration assisted abrasive water jet also have an important role in the improvement of ceramic material erosion efficiency.

  1. Development of a water detritiation facility for JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perevezentsev, A.N.; Bell, A.C.; Brennan, P.D.; Hemmerich, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    A water detritiation facility, based on a world-wide adopted combined electrolysis catalytic exchange (CECE) process, for the JET active gas handling plant is described. A research and development programme is presented. The programme includes the testing of structured inert packing with an incorporated hydrophobic catalyst for increased throughput of a liquid phase catalytic exchange (LPCE) column, a vapour phase catalytic exchange (VPCE) process for reduction of tritium inventory in the alkali electrolyser and a column of high effectiveness for alkali retention

  2. Disintegration of Bone Cement by Continuous and Pulsating Water Jet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hloch, S.; Foldyna, Josef; Sitek, Libor; Zeleňák, Michal; Hlaváček, Petr; Hvizdoš, P.; Kloc, J.; Monka, P.; Monková, K.; Kozak, D.; Magurová, D.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 4 (2013), s. 593-598 ISSN 1330-3651 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : bone cement * disintegration * water jet Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 0.615, year: 2013 http://hrcak.srce.hr/index.php?show=clanak&id_clanak_jezik=157195

  3. Gas stratification break-up by a vertical jet: Simulations using the GOTHIC code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreani, Michele; Kapulla, Ralf; Zboray, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Simulations of experiments addressing helium stratification break-up with GOTHIC are presented. ► In the tests, the initial helium-rich layer in a large vessel is eroded by a vertical jet. ► A 3-D coarse mesh and various finer 2-D meshes have been used for the simulations. ► In general, the 3-D calculations predict too slow mixing in the vessel. ► A reasonable agreement between calculated and measured gas concentrations requires a fine mesh. - Abstract: The capability assessment of three-dimensional computational tools to predict the erosion and the break-up of stratified conditions that can build-up in a containment through the release of hydrogen during an early phase of a hypothetical severe accident is the focus of intense research worldwide. In conjunction with the OECD SETH-2 project, the GOTHIC code is assessed against experiments in which mass and/or heat sources or sinks cause mixing. This paper reports on simulation results of selected experiments where the initial helium stratification in a vessel is eroded by a vertical jet originating from an injection below the initial density interface. A 3-D coarse mesh, as well as various finer 2-D meshes, is used to simulate the evolution of the helium distribution generated by jets having different initial momentum. In general, the 3-D calculations predict too slow mixing in the vessel and a reasonable agreement between calculated and measured gas concentrations can only be achieved with a sufficiently fine mesh. These results can be explained by comparing the calculated velocity field with that measured using the PIV technique, which also provides valuable insight into the mechanisms of the interaction between the jet and the density interface.

  4. Electromagnetic simulations of JET ICRF ITER-like antenna with TOPICA and SSWICH asymptotic codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Křivská Alena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-megawatt Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ICRF heating is routinely used in the JET tokamak. To increase the ICRF heating power available from the A2 antennas, the ICRF ITER-Like Antenna (ILA was reinstalled for the 2015 JET ITER-like wall experimental campaign. The application of high levels of ICRF power typically results in increased plasma wall interaction which leads to the observation of enhanced influx of metallic impurities in the plasma edge. It is assumed that the impurity production is mainly driven by the parallel component of the Radio-Frequency (RF antenna electric near-field, E// (parallel to the confinement magnetic field of the tokamak, that is rectified in a thin boundary layer (RF sheath. Torino Polytechnic Ion Cyclotron Antenna (TOPICA code was used to compute E// field maps in front of the ILA and between its poloidal limiters in the presence of plasma using measured density profiles and various antenna feedings. E// field maps calculated between the poloidal limiters were used to estimate the poloidal distribution of RF-sheath Direct Current (DC potential in this private region of the ILA and make relative comparison of various antenna electrical settings. For this purpose we used the asymptotic version of the Self-consistent Sheaths and Waves for Ion Cyclotron Heating Slow-Wave (SSWICH-SW code. These estimations can help to study the formation of RF sheaths around the antenna and even at distant locations (∼3m away.

  5. A Steam Jet Plume Simulation in a Large Bulk Space with a System Code MARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Sung Won; Chung, Bub Dong

    2006-01-01

    From May 2002, the OECD-SETH group has launched the PANDA Project in order to provide an experimental data base for a multi-dimensional code assessment. OECD-SETH group expects the PANDA Project will meet the increasing needs for adequate experimental data for a 3D distribution of relevant variables like the temperature, velocity and steam-air concentrations that are measured with a sufficient resolution and accuracy. The scope of the PANDA Project is the mixture stratification and mixing phenomena in a large bulk space. Total of 24 test series are still being performed in PSI, Switzerland. The PANDA facility consists of 2 main large vessels and 1 connection pipe Within the large vessels, a steam injection nozzle and outlet vent are arranged for each test case. These tests are categorized into 3 modes, i.e. the high momentum, near wall plume, and free plume tests. KAERI has also participated in the SETH group since 1997 so that the multi-dimensional capability of the MARS code could be assessed and developed. Test 17, the high steam jet injection test, has already been simulated by MARS and shows promising results. Now, the test 9 and 9bis cases which use a low speed horizontal steam jet flow have been simulated and investigated

  6. The entrainment of air by water jet impinging on a free surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soh, Wee King [University of Wollongong, School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronics Engineering, Northfields Ave, NSW (Australia); Khoo, Boo Cheong [National University of Singapore, Department of Mechanical and Production Engineering, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent (Singapore); Yuen, W.Y. Daniel [BlueScope Steel Research, Port Kembla, NSW (Australia)

    2005-09-01

    High-speed cine and video photographs were used to capture the flow patterns of a column of water jet impinging into a pool of water. The impact results in air entrainment into water in the form of a void with no mixing between the water in the jet and the surrounding water. Conservation of fluid momentum shows that the rate of increase of the height of the air void depends on the drag coefficient of the jet front. By neglecting the frictional losses, the application of energy conservation yields an expression that relates the maximum height of the air void with the properties of the water jet. (orig.)

  7. On the influence of water subcooling and melt jet parameters on debris formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manickam, Louis, E-mail: louis@safety.sci.kth.se; Kudinov, Pavel; Ma, Weimin; Bechta, Sevostian; Grishchenko, Dmitry

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • Melt and water configuration effects on debris formation is studied experimentally. • Melt superheat and water subcooling are most influential compared to jet size. • Melt-water configuration and material properties influence particle fracture rate. • Results are compared with large scale experiments to study effect of spatial scales. - Abstract: Breakup of melt jet and formation of a porous debris bed at the base-mat of a flooded reactor cavity is expected during the late stages of a severe accident in light water reactors. Debris bed coolability is determined by the bed properties including particle size, morphology, bed height and shape as well as decay heat. Therefore understanding of the debris formation phenomena is important for assessment of debris bed coolability. A series of experiments was conducted in MISTEE-Jet facility by discharging binary-oxide mixtures of WO{sub 3}–Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} and WO{sub 3}–ZrO{sub 2} into water in order to investigate properties of resulting debris. The effect of water subcooling, nozzle diameter and melt superheat was addressed in the tests. Experimental results reveal significant influence of water subcooling and melt superheat on debris size and morphology. Significant differences in size and morphology of the debris at different melt release conditions is attributed to the competition between hydrodynamic fragmentation of liquid melt and thermal fracture of the solidifying melt droplets. The particle fracture rate increases with increased subcooling. Further the results are compared with the data from larger scale experiments to discern the effects of spatial scales. The present work provides data that can be useful for validation of the codes used for the prediction of debris formation phenomena.

  8. Measurement of the Diffusion Coefficient of Water in RP-3 and RP-5 Jet Fuels Using Digital Holography Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chaoyue; Feng, Shiyu; Shao, Lei; Pan, Jun; Liu, Weihua

    2018-04-01

    The diffusion coefficient of water in jet fuel was measured employing double-exposure digital holographic interferometry to clarify the diffusion process and make the aircraft fuel system safe. The experimental method and apparatus are introduced in detail, and the digital image processing program is coded in MATLAB according to the theory of the Fourier transform. At temperatures ranging from 278.15 K to 333.15 K in intervals of 5 K, the diffusion coefficient of water in RP-3 and RP-5 jet fuels ranges from 2.6967 × 10 -10 m2·s-1 to 8.7332 × 10 -10 m2·s-1 and from 2.3517 × 10 -10 m2·s-1 to 8.0099 × 10-10 m2·s-1, respectively. The relationship between the measured diffusion coefficient and temperature can be well fitted by the Arrhenius law. The diffusion coefficient of water in RP-3 jet fuel is higher than that of water in RP-5 jet fuel at the same temperature. Furthermore, the viscosities of the two jet fuels were measured and found to be expressible in the form of the Arrhenius equation. The relationship among the diffusion coefficient, viscosity and temperature is analyzed according to the classic prediction model, namely the Stokes-Einstein correlation, and this correlation is further revised via experimental data to obtain a more accurate predication result.

  9. Water detritiation processing of JET purified waste water using the TRENTA facility at Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michling, R., E-mail: robert.michling@kit.edu; Bekris, N.; Cristescu, I.; Lohr, N.; Plusczyk, C.; Welte, S.; Wendel, J.

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Operation of a water detritiation facility under optimized conditions for high detritiation performances. • Improvement of operational procedures to process tritiated waste water. • Handling and reduction of tritiated waste water to achieve enriched low volume tritiated water for sufficient storage. • Demonstration of the efficient availability of the TRENTA WDS facility for technical scale operation. -- Abstract: A Water Detritiation System (WDS) is required for any Fusion machine in order to process tritiated waste water, which is accumulated in various subsystems during operation and maintenance. Regarding the European procurement packages for the ITER tritium fuel cycle, the WDS test facility TRENTA applying the Combined Electrolysis Catalytic Exchange (CECE) process was developed, installed and is currently in operation at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK). Besides the on-going R and D work for the design of ITER WDS, the current status of the TRENTA facility provides the option to utilize the WDS for processing tritiated water. Therefore, in the framework of the EFDA JET Fusion Technology Work Programme 2011, the TLK was able to offer the capability on a representative scale to process tritiated water, which was produced during normal operation at JET. The task should demonstrate the availability of the CECE process to handle and detritiate the water in terms of tritium enrichment and volume reduction. The operational program comprised the processing of purified tritiated water from JET, with a total volume of 180 l and an activity of 74 GBq. The paper will give an introduction to the TRENTA WDS facility and an overview of the operational procedure regarding tritiated water reduction. Data concerning required operation time, decontamination and enrichment performances and different operating procedures will be presented as well. Finally, a preliminary study on a technical implementation of processing the entire stock of JET

  10. Water detritiation processing of JET purified waste water using the TRENTA facility at Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michling, R.; Bekris, N.; Cristescu, I.; Lohr, N.; Plusczyk, C.; Welte, S.; Wendel, J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Operation of a water detritiation facility under optimized conditions for high detritiation performances. • Improvement of operational procedures to process tritiated waste water. • Handling and reduction of tritiated waste water to achieve enriched low volume tritiated water for sufficient storage. • Demonstration of the efficient availability of the TRENTA WDS facility for technical scale operation. -- Abstract: A Water Detritiation System (WDS) is required for any Fusion machine in order to process tritiated waste water, which is accumulated in various subsystems during operation and maintenance. Regarding the European procurement packages for the ITER tritium fuel cycle, the WDS test facility TRENTA applying the Combined Electrolysis Catalytic Exchange (CECE) process was developed, installed and is currently in operation at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK). Besides the on-going R and D work for the design of ITER WDS, the current status of the TRENTA facility provides the option to utilize the WDS for processing tritiated water. Therefore, in the framework of the EFDA JET Fusion Technology Work Programme 2011, the TLK was able to offer the capability on a representative scale to process tritiated water, which was produced during normal operation at JET. The task should demonstrate the availability of the CECE process to handle and detritiate the water in terms of tritium enrichment and volume reduction. The operational program comprised the processing of purified tritiated water from JET, with a total volume of 180 l and an activity of 74 GBq. The paper will give an introduction to the TRENTA WDS facility and an overview of the operational procedure regarding tritiated water reduction. Data concerning required operation time, decontamination and enrichment performances and different operating procedures will be presented as well. Finally, a preliminary study on a technical implementation of processing the entire stock of JET

  11. Reuse of waste water from high pressure water jet decontamination for reactor decommissioning scrap metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Junxian; Li Xin; Hou Huijuan

    2011-01-01

    For recycle and reuse of reactor decommissioning scrap metal by high pressure water jet decontamination, large quantity of radioactive waste water will be generated. To save the cost of radioactive waste water treatment and to reduce the cost of the scrap decontamination, this part of radioactive waste water should be reused. Most of the radioactivities in the decontamination waste water come from the solid particle in the water. Thus to reuse the waste water, the solid particle in the waster should be removed. Different possible treatment technologies have been investigated. By cost benefit analysis the centrifugal separation technology is selected. (authors)

  12. Numerical assessment of pulsating water jet in the conical diffusers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanasa, Constantin; Ciocan, Tiberiu; Muntean, Sebastian

    2017-11-01

    The hydraulic fluctuations associated with partial load operating conditions of Francis turbines are often periodic and characterized by the presence of a vortex rope. Two types of pressure fluctuations associated with the draft tube surge are identified in the literature. The first is an asynchronous (rotating) pressure fluctuation due to the precession of the helical vortex around the axis of the draft tube. The second type of fluctuation is a synchronous (plunging) fluctuation. The plunging fluctuations correspond to the flow field oscillations in the whole hydraulic passage, and are generally propagated overall in the hydraulic system. The paper introduced a new control method, which consists in injecting a pulsating axial water jet along to the draft tube axis. Nevertheless, the great calling of this control method is to mitigate the vortex rope effects targeting the vortex sheet and corresponding plunging component. In this paper, is presented our 3D numerical investigations with and without pulsating axial water jet control method in order to evaluate the concept.

  13. Acceptance test procedure for High Pressure Water Jet System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crystal, J.B.

    1995-01-01

    The overall objective of the acceptance test is to demonstrate a combined system. This includes associated tools and equipment necessary to perform cleaning in the 105 K East Basin (KE) for achieving optimum reduction in the level of contamination/dose rate on canisters prior to removal from the KE Basin and subsequent packaging for disposal. Acceptance tests shall include necessary hardware to achieve acceptance of the cleaning phase of canisters. This acceptance test procedure will define the acceptance testing criteria of the high pressure water jet cleaning fixture. The focus of this procedure will be to provide guidelines and instructions to control, evaluate and document the acceptance testing for cleaning effectiveness and method(s) of removing the contaminated surface layer from the canister presently identified in KE Basin. Additionally, the desired result of the acceptance test will be to deliver to K Basins a thoroughly tested and proven system for underwater decontamination and dose reduction. This report discusses the acceptance test procedure for the High Pressure Water Jet

  14. Experiment and simulation study of laser dicing silicon with water-jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Jiading; Long, Yuhong, E-mail: longyuhong@guet.edu.cn; Tong, Youqun; Yang, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Bin; Zhou, Zupeng

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • The explosive melt expulsion could be a dominant process for the laser ablating silicon in liquids with ns-pulsed laser of 1064 nm irradiating. • Self-focusing phenomenon was found and its causes are analyzed. • SPH modeling technique was employed to understand the effect of water and water-jet on debris removal during water-jet laser machining. - Abstract: Water-jet laser processing is an internationally advanced technique, which combines the advantages of laser processing with water jet cutting. In the study, the experiment of water-jet laser dicing are conducted with ns pulsed laser of 1064 nm irradiating, and Smooth Particle Hydrodynamic (SPH) technique by AUTODYN software was modeled to research the fluid dynamics of water and melt when water jet impacting molten material. The silicon surface morphology of the irradiated spots has an appearance as one can see in porous formation. The surface morphology exhibits a large number of cavities which indicates as bubble nucleation sites. The observed surface morphology shows that the explosive melt expulsion could be a dominant process for the laser ablating silicon in liquids with nanosecond pulse laser of 1064 nm irradiating. Self-focusing phenomenon was found and its causes are analyzed. Smooth Particle Hydrodynamic (SPH) modeling technique was employed to understand the effect of water and water-jet on debris removal during water-jet laser machining.

  15. Insights into the radial water jet drilling technology – Application in a quarry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Reinsch

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this context, we applied the radial water jet drilling (RJD technology to drill five horizontal holes into a quarry wall of the Gildehaus quarry close to Bad Bentheim, Germany. For testing the state-of-the-art jetting technology, a jetting experiment was performed to investigate the influence of geological heterogeneity on the jetting performance and the hole geometry, the influence of nozzle geometry and jetting pressure on the rate of penetration, and the possibility of localising the jetting nozzle utilizing acoustic activity. It is observed that the jetted holes can intersect fractures under varying angles, and the jetted holes do not follow a straight path when jetting at ambient surface condition. Cuttings from the jetting process retrieved from the holes can be used to estimate the reservoir rock permeability. Within the quarry, we did not observe a change in the rate of penetration due to jetting pressure variations. Acoustic monitoring was partially successful in estimating the nozzle location. Although the experiments were performed at ambient surface conditions, the results can give recommendations for a downhole application in deep wells. Keywords: Acoustic monitoring, Drilling performance, Trajectory, Permeability, Rock properties, Radial water jet drilling (RJD

  16. Decontamination by water jet, chemical and electrochemical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauchon, J.P.; Mordenti, P.; Bezia, C.; Fuentes, P.; Kervegant, Y.; Munoz, C.; Pierlas, C.

    1986-01-01

    The decontamination tests have been carried out on samples coming from representative specimens from primary circuit of the PWR and on samples coming from the emergency feed water piping of the German BWR (Isar). The oxide found in PWR primary loops can only be removed by a two steps process. The initial embrittling step is particularly effective in hot alkaline permanganate medium. Oxidation by ozone treatment is less effective. The second step involves chemical erosion of the metal in nitrofluoric acid in conjonction with ultrasonic agitation. Among the reagents used, only oxalic acid is suitable for electrolytic decontamination. Among the reagents possible for decontamination of the Isar specimens (ferritic steel lined with hematite) halogenous acid in mixture without or with oxygenated water, sulfuric acid, the formic acid/formaldehyde mixture are chosen. Metal erosion with high pressure jet as well as the decontamination efficiency on parts lined with hematite have made possible to determine the best conditions. 33 figs, 29 refs

  17. Sodium spray and jet fire model development within the CONTAIN-LMR code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholtyssek, W.

    1993-01-01

    An assessment was made of the sodium spray fire model implemented in the CONTAIN code. The original droplet burn model, which was based on the NACOM code, was improved in several aspects, especially concerning evaluation of the droplet burning rate, reaction chemistry and heat balance, spray geometry and droplet motion, and consistency with CONTAIN standards of gas property evaluation. An additional droplet burning model based on a proposal by Krolikowski was made available to include the effect of the chemical equilibrium conditions at the flame temperature. The models were validated against single-droplet burn experiments as well as spray and jet fire experiments. Reasonable agreement was found between the two burn models and experimental data. When the gas temperature in the burning compartment reaches high values, the Krolikowski model seems to be preferable. Critical parameters for spray fire evaluation were found to be the spray characterization, especially the droplet size, which largely determines the burning efficiency, and heat transfer conditions at the interface between the atmosphere and structures, which controls the thermal hydraulic behavior in the burn compartment

  18. The modelling of sodium jet fires in a global computer code - FEUMIX 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigollet-Pichon, L.; Malet, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the FEUMIX3 calculation programme is to study the consequences of an accidental leak of sodium circulating under pressure in a circuit composed of pipes and tanks. It mainly allows the thermal and mechanical consequences of a sodium fire accompanying the leak to be evaluated: evolution of the pressure in the room, evolution of the gas temperature, of the internal structures and walls, nature and quantities of aerosols produced in the room or released outside. FEUMIX3 uses the global approach to the sodium/oxygen reaction interfacial area. The FEUMIX3 calculation programme mainly concerns the sodium jets characterized by a Reynolds number higher than 105 for breaks with a cross section exceeding several mm 2 , a variable sodium flowrate (experimental conditions ranging from 0 to 250 kg/s) and for the time being, a sodium temperature of around 500 deg. C. FEUMIX3 moreover contains ventilation options allowing the parallel simulation of several systems (ventilation, extraction, gas leak, valves, pressure relief valves). The connection of several rooms to one another (100 maximum in the present version) is also predicted. The programme allows the interpretation of analytical experiments and the pre-calculation of demonstration experiments to be carried out. Within the framework of FR facility sizing, it supplies the data necessary to assess the integrity of the structures, of the behavior of systems and materials and the harmful effects on the outside or in the adjoining rooms. The model treats nearly all the scenario linked to a sodium leak, from ignition, including the establishment time of the jet, to the Propagation of fire and up to the extinguishment of the fire. It is even able to take into account the release of water coming from the over-heated concrete walls and to simulate the new chemical reactions of water-sodium and water-aerosols. (author)

  19. Comparisons of Hydraulic Performance in Permanent Maglev Pump for Water-Jet Propulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puyu Cao

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The operation of water-jet propulsion can generate nonuniform inflow that may be detrimental to the performance of the water-jets. To reduce disadvantages of the nonuniform inflow, a rim-driven water-jet propulsion was designed depending on the technology of passive magnetic levitation. Insufficient understanding of large performance deviations between the normal water-jets (shaft and permanent maglev water-jets (shaftless is a major problem in this paper. CFD was directly adopted in the feasibility and superiority of permanent maglev water-jets. Comparison and discussion of the hydraulic performance were carried out. The shaftless duct firstly has a drop in hydraulic losses (K1, since it effectively avoids the formation and evolution of the instability secondary vortex by the normalized helicity analysis. Then, the shaftless intake duct improves the inflow field of the water-jet pump, with consequencing the drop in the backflow and blocking on the blade shroud. So that the shaftless water-jet pump delivers higher flow rate and head to the propulsion than the shaft. Eventually, not only can the shaftless model increase the thrust and efficiency, but it has the ability to extend the working range and broaden the high efficiency region as well.

  20. Emergency cooling system with hot-water jet pumps for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinsch, A.O.W.

    1977-01-01

    The ECCS for a PWR or BWR uses hot-water jet pumps to remove the thermal energy generated in the reactor vessel and stored in the water. The hot water expands in the nozzle part (Laval nozzle) of the jet pump and sucks in coolant (borated water) coming from a storage tank containing subcooled water. This water is mixing with the hot water/steam mixture from the Laval nozzle. The steam is condensed. The kinetic energy of the water is converted into a pressure increase which is sufficient to feed the water into the reactor vessel. The emergency cooling may further be helped by a jet condenser also operating according to the principle of a jet pump and condensing the steam generated in the reactor vessel. (DG) [de

  1. Comparison of continuous and pulsing water jets for repair actions on road and bridge concrete

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlaváč, L. M.; Bodnárová, L.; Janurová, E.; Sitek, Libor

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2012), s. 53-59 ISSN 1822-427X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA103/07/1662 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : high-speed water jet technology * pulsating jet * rotating jets Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 1.478, year: 2012 http://www.bjrbe.vgtu.lt/volumes/en/volume7/number1/08.php

  2. Predictive modelling of the impact of argon injection on H-mode plasmas in JET with the RITM code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unterberg, B; Kalupin, D; Tokar', M Z; Corrigan, G; Dumortier, P; Huber, A; Jachmich, S; Kempenaars, M; Kreter, A; Messiaen, A M; Monier-Garbet, P; Ongena, J; Puiatti, M E; Valisa, M; Hellermann, M von

    2004-01-01

    Self-consistent modelling of energy and particle transport of the plasma background and impurities has been performed with the code RITM for argon seeded high density H-mode plasmas in JET. The code can reproduce both the profiles in the plasma core and the structure of the edge pedestal. The impact of argon on core transport is found to be small; in particular, no significant change in confinement is observed in both experimental and modelling results. The same transport model, which has been used to reproduce density peaking in the radiative improved mode in TEXTOR, reveals a flat density profile in Ar seeded JET H-mode plasmas in agreement with the experimental observations. This behaviour is attributed to the rather flat profile of the safety factor in the bulk of H-mode discharges

  3. Development of Technologies on Innovative-Simplified Nuclear Power Plant Using High-Efficiency Steam Injectors (13) Study on Heat Transfer of Direct Condensation of Steam on Subcooled Water Jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuhki Takahashi; Yasuo Koizumi; Hiroyasu Ohtake; Tohru Miyashita; Michitsugu Mori

    2006-01-01

    Characteristics of thermal-hydraulic phenomena in the steam injector were examined. In experiments, a water jet from a nozzle of 5 mm diameter flowed into the condensing test section pipe concentrically. The inner diameter of the condensing section was 7, 10, or 20 mm and the length was 105 mm. Steam flowed into the peripheral space between the water jet and the inner wall of the test section and condensed on the ware jet surface. The radial and the axial distributions of velocity and temperature of the water jet were measured. Analyses by using the STAR-CD code were also performed. The temperature measured in the central portion of the water jet was higher than the predicted assuming the ordinary turbulent flow in a pipe. The temperature measured in the peripheral region was lower than the predicted. The radial temperature distribution measured was flatter than the predicted. When the steam condensation rate was large, the measured radial velocity distribution in the water jet was flatter than the predicted. In the case that the steam velocity was quite high, the velocity measured in the peripheral region was higher than that in the center portion. These results implied that the steam condensing on the water jet brought momentum in the water jet to result in more effective radial transport of heat and momentum. The STAR-CD code analyses to allow the interface between the wall that simulated the steam flow part and the water flow that stood for the water jet to move, i.e. creating momentum in-flux at the water jet interface, provided better results to support the experimental results. To increase the interfacial friction had a minor effect on the radial velocity distribution in the tested range. (authors)

  4. Experimental investigation of submerged single jet impingement using Cu–water nanofluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qiang; Xuan Yimin; Yu Feng

    2012-01-01

    Jet impingement cooling is a vital technique for thermal management of electronic devices of high-heat-flux by impinging fluid on a heater surface due to its high local heat transfer rates. In this paper, two types of Cu–water nanofluids (Cu particles with 25 nm diameter or 100 nm) are introduced into submerged single jet impingement cooling system as the working fluid. The heat transfer features of the nanofluids were experimentally investigated. The effects of the nanoparticle concentration, Reynolds number, nozzle-to-plate distance, fluid temperature, and nanoparticle diameter on the heat transfer performances of the jet impingement of nanofluids are discussed. The experimental results show that the suspended nanoparticles remarkably increase the convective heat transfer coefficient of the base fluid. The convective heat transfer coefficient of Cu–water nanofluid with the volume fraction of 3.0% has 52% higher than the pure water. The experiments also revealed that the suspended nanoparticles brought almost no extra addition of pressure drop in both submerged single jet impingement. In addition, by considering the effects of the suspended nanoparticles as well as the condition of impinging jet, a new heat transfer correlation of nanofluids for the submerged single jet impingement has been proposed. - Highlights: ► Cu–water nanofluids are introduced into submerged single jet impingement. ► The affecting parameters on the heat transfer performances of nanofluids are discussed. ► New heat transfer correlation of nanofluid for single jet impingement is proposed.

  5. PIV measurements of turbulent jet and pool mixing produced by a steam jet discharge in a subcooled water pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choo, Yeon Jun; Song, Chul-Hwa

    2010-01-01

    This experimental research is on the fluid-dynamic features produced by a steam injection into a subcooled water pool. The relevant phenomena could often be encountered in water cooled nuclear power plants. Two major topics, a turbulent jet and the internal circulation produced by a steam injection, were investigated separately using a particle image velocimetry (PIV) as a non-intrusive optical measurement technique. Physical domains of both experiments have a two-dimensional axi-symmetric geometry of which the boundary and initial conditions can be readily and well defined. The turbulent jet experiments with the upward discharging configuration provide the parametric values for quantitatively describing a turbulent jet such as the self-similar velocity profile, central velocity decay, spreading rate, etc. And in the internal circulation experiments with the downward discharging configuration, typical flow patterns in a whole pool region are measured in detail, which reveals both the local and macroscopic characteristics of the mixing behavior in a pool. This quantitative data on the condensing jet-induced mixing behavior in a pool could be utilized as benchmarking for a CFD simulation of relevant phenomena.

  6. Water experiment of high-speed, free-surface, plane jet along concave wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Hideo; Ida, Mizuho; Kato, Yoshio; Maekawa, Hiroshi; Itoh, Kazuhiro; Kukita, Yutaka

    1997-01-01

    In the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF), an intense 14 MeV neutron beam will be generated in the high-speed liquid lithium (Li) plane jet target flowing along concave wall in vacuum. As part of the conceptual design activity (CDA) of the IFMIF, the stability of the plane liquid jet flow was studied experimentally with water in a well-defined channel geometry for non-heating condition. A two-dimensional double-reducer nozzle being newly proposed for the IFMIF target successfully provided a high-speed (≤ 17 m/s) stable water jet with uniform velocity distribution at the nozzle exit without flow separation in the nozzle. The free surface of the jet was covered by two-dimensional and/or three-dimensional waves, the size of which did not change much over the tested jet length of ∼130 mm. The jet velocity profile changed around the nozzle exit from uniform to that of free-vortex flow where the product of the radius of stream line and local velocity is constant in the jet thickness. The jet thickness increased immediately after exiting the nozzle because of the velocity profile change. The predicted jet thickness by a modified one-dimensional momentum model agreed with the data well. (author)

  7. Nationwide Enviro Jet PCB Decontamination Approval and Notifications under Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Section 761.79(h)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains information about approvals and notifications for Enviro Jet to Decontaminate PCB-contaminated natural gas pipelines under Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Section 761.79(h)

  8. Advanced Modeling in Excel: from Water Jets to Big Bang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatova, Olga; Chyzhyk, D.; Willis, C.; Kazachkov, A.

    2006-12-01

    An international students’ project is presented focused on application of Open Office and Excel spreadsheets for modeling of projectile-motion type dynamical systems. Variation of the parameters of plotted and animated families of jets flowing at different angles out of the holes in the wall of water-filled reservoir [1,2] revealed unexpected peculiarities of the envelopes, vertices, intersections and landing points of virtual trajectories. Comparison with real-life systems and rigorous calculations were performed to prove predictions of computer experiments. By same technique, the kinematics of fireworks was analyzed. On this basis two-dimensional ‘firework’ computer model of Big Bang was designed and studied, its relevance and limitations checked. 1.R.Ehrlich, Turning the World Inside Out, (Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 1990), pp. 98-100. 2.A.Kazachkov, Yu.Bogdan, N.Makarovsky, N.Nedbailo. A Bucketful of Physics, in R.Pinto, S.Surinach (eds), International Conference Physics Teacher Education Beyond 2000. Selected Contributions (Elsevier Editions, Paris, 2001), pp.563-564. Sponsored by Courtney Willis.

  9. The structural and dynamic characteristics of a water-polimer high-speed jet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Андрій Володимирович Погребняк

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to study the structural and dynamic characteristics of the water-polymer jet, what is of decisive importance for understanding the nature of the abnormally high cutting ability. A complex study of the structure and dynamics of a water-polymer high-speed jet has been carried out. Analysis of the photographs of jets of aqueous PEO solution indicates that adding polyethylene oxide (PEO into water results in a significant increase in the initial sections of the water-polymer jet, which characterizes the quality of its formation, and leads to compactness due to a reduction of its diameter. The obtained experimental data made it possible to propose a relationship for determining the dimensionless value of the initial sections of jets of aqueous PEO solutions of different concentration and molecular mass of PEO, taking into account the real parameters of the jet forming head. Investigation of changes in the energy capabilities of water-polymer jets, which were estimated by the force of the jet impact on the steel obstacle, made it possible to establish the features of their dynamics. The obtained experimental data explain the nature of the change in the cutting properties of the water-polymer jet as a function of the distance between the surface of the material that is being cut and the cut of the nozzle. If the distance from the nozzle to the surface of the material is less than the size of the initial sections of the water-polymer jet, an increase in the diameter of the nozzle outlet hole will lead to a reduction in the depth of the cut. If, however, the distance from the nozzle to the surface of the material approaches or exceeds the size of the main part of the water-polymer jet, then the depth of the cut will increase with increasing diameter of the nozzle at a constant pressure. The use of structural and dynamic characteristics of water-polymer jets is substantiated when establishing rational parameters of equipment for water

  10. The Free Jet Microwave Spectrum of 2-PHENYLETHYLAMINE-WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melandri, Sonia; Giuliano, B. Michela; Maris, Assimo; Caminati, Walther

    2009-06-01

    2-Phenylethylamine (PEA) is the parent structure for a variety of important compounds including dopamine, tyrosine, anphetamine and adrenaline. Due to the flexibility of the side chain, the conformational hypersurface of the isolated molecule contains several minima at relatively low energy. The conformational surface was studied by various spectroscopic and theoretical techniques and four of the five stable conformers were detected. The most stable conformers observed in isolated conditions are those in which the methylene side chain is folded into a gauche structure and the amino hydrogen is oriented towards the aromatic ring to form a weakly hydrogen bonded structure, while in the less stable conformers the amino group is in the anti position, thus the energy difference between the gauche and anti conformers (ca 4 kJ mol^{-1}) represents the energy associated with this weak interaction. Since bioactive molecules can be found in different environments including aqueous media and rotational spectroscopy coupled with high level ab initio calculations gives the most detailed structural picture, we studied the free jet microwave spectrum of the adducts formed between PEA and water in the region 60-78 GHz. The dominant spectrum is that of the 1:1 adduct of PEA and water where PEA is in its most stable gauche conformation and the water molecole is bound to the nitrogen lone pair. The orientation of the water molecole is such that the oxygen atom is closest (ca 2.5 Å) and equidistant from the ring and chain hydrogen atoms. The experimental data were complemented by ab initio calculations at the MP2/6311++G** level of theory; several stable conformations of the PEA-W have been characterized and the observed structure corresponds to the global minimum. The bonding of water seems to affect only slightly the structure of isolated PEA and the main structural parameters of the flexible amino side chain remain basically unaltered. Some lines still remain unassigned in the

  11. Drilling Performance of Rock Drill by High-Pressure Water Jet under Different Configuration Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songyong Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the rock drilling progress, the resistant force results in tools failure and the low drilling efficiency; thus, it is necessary to reduce the tools failure and enhance the drilling efficiency. In this paper, different configuration modes of drilling performance assisted with water jet are explored based on the mechanism and experiment analysis of rock drilling assisted with water jet. Moreover, the rotary sealing device with high pressure is designed to achieve the axial and rotation movement simultaneously as well as good sealing effect under high-pressure water jet. The results indicate that the NDB and NFB have better effects on drilling performance compared with that of NSB. Moreover, the high-pressure water jet is helpful not only to reduce the drill rod deflection, but also to reduce the probability of drill rod bending and improve the drill rod service life.

  12. Simulation of the flow obstruction of a jet pump in a BWR reactor with the code RELAP/SCDAPSIM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas V, J.; Filio L, C.

    2016-09-01

    This work simulates the flow obstruction of a jet pump in one of the recirculation loops of a nuclear power plant with a reactor of type BWR at 100% of operating power, in order to analyze the behavior of the total flow of the refrigerant passing through the reactor core, the total flow in each recirculation loop of the reactor, together with the 10 jet pumps of each loop. The behavior of the power and the reactivity insertion due to the change of the refrigerant flow pattern is also analyzed. The simulation was carried out using the RELAP/SCDAPSIM version 3.5 code, using a reactor model with 10 jet pumps in each recirculation loop and a core consisting of 6 radial zones and 25 axial zones. The scenario postulates the flow obstruction in a jet pump in a recirculation loop A when the reactor operates at 100% rated power, causing a change in the total flow of refrigerant in the reactor core, leading to a decrease in power. Once the reactor conditions are established to its new power, the operator tries to recover the nominal power using the flow control valve of the recirculation loop A, opening stepwise as a strategy to safely recover the reactor power. In this analysis is assumed that the intention of the nuclear plant operator is to maintain the operation of the reactor during the established cycle. (Author)

  13. Material Abrasive Water Jet Cutting Investigation by Means Accompanying Physical Phenomena

    OpenAIRE

    Kinik, D.; Gánovská, B.; Hloch, S. (Sergej); Cárach, J.; Lehocká, D.

    2013-01-01

    The paper deals with the indirect ways of on-line monitoring of technological processes of cutting. The objective of the study is a design of on-line monitoring system for the cutting technology through an abrasive water jet. In cutting by the abrasive water jet two parallel phenomena are formed. The phenomena are represented by generated surface and vibrations. For the purpose of proving of the hypothetical assumptions on dependence of generated surface quality on vibrations the ex...

  14. Comparison between the water activation effects by pulsed and sinusoidal helium plasma jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Han; Liu, Dingxin; Xia, Wenjie; Chen, Chen; Wang, Weitao; Liu, Zhijie; Wang, Xiaohua; Kong, Michael G.

    2018-01-01

    Comparisons between pulsed and sinusoidal plasma jets have been extensively reported for the discharge characteristics and gaseous reactive species, but rarely for the aqueous reactive species in water solutions treated by the two types of plasma jets. This motivates us to compare the concentrations of aqueous reactive species induced by a pulsed and a sinusoidal plasma jet, since it is widely reported that these aqueous reactive species play a crucial role in various plasma biomedical applications. Experimental results show that the aqueous H2O2, OH/O2-, and O2-/ONOO- induced by the pulsed plasma jet have higher concentrations, and the proportional difference increases with the discharge power. However, the emission intensities of OH(A) and O(3p5P) are higher for the sinusoidal plasma jet, which may be attributed to its higher gas temperature since more water vapor could participate in the plasma. In addition, the efficiency of bacterial inactivation induced by the pulsed plasma jet is higher than that for the sinusoidal plasma jet, in accordance with the concentration relation of aqueous reactive species for the two types of plasma jets.

  15. Flow structure of conical distributed multiple gas jets injected into a water chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Jiajun; Yu, Yonggang [Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing (China)

    2017-04-15

    Based on an underwater gun firing project, a mock bullet with several holes on the head was designed and experimented to observe the combustion gas injected into a cylindrical water chamber through this mock bullet. The combustion gas jets contain one vertical central jet and 4 to 8 slant lateral jets. A high speed camera system was used to record the expansion of gas jets in the experimental study. In numerical simulations, the Euler two-fluid model and volume of fluid method were adopted to describe the gas-liquid flow. The results show the backflow zone in lateral jet is the main factor influencing the gas-liquid turbulent mixing in downstream. On cross sections, the gas volume fraction increased with time but the growth rate decreased. With a change of nozzle structure, the gas fraction was more affected than the shock structure.

  16. Acceptance Test Report for the high pressure water jet system canister cleaning fixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdin, J.R.

    1995-10-25

    This Acceptance Test confirmed the test results and recommendations, documented in WHC-SD-SNF-DTR-001, Rev. 0 Development Test Report for the High Pressure Water Jet System Nozzles, for decontaminating empty fuel canisters in KE-Basin. Optimum water pressure, water flow rate, nozzle size and overall configuration were tested

  17. Acceptance Test Report for the high pressure water jet system canister cleaning fixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burdin, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    This Acceptance Test confirmed the test results and recommendations, documented in WHC-SD-SNF-DTR-001, Rev. 0 Development Test Report for the High Pressure Water Jet System Nozzles, for decontaminating empty fuel canisters in KE-Basin. Optimum water pressure, water flow rate, nozzle size and overall configuration were tested

  18. 76 FR 16285 - Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan To Update Water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION 18 CFR Part 410 Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan To Update Water Quality Criteria for Toxic Pollutants in the Delaware... or ``Commission'') approved amendments to its Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive...

  19. Internal Corrosion Control of Water Supply Systems Code of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Code of Practice is part of a series of publications by the IWA Specialist Group on Metals and Related Substances in Drinking Water. It complements the following IWA Specialist Group publications: 1. Best Practice Guide on the Control of Lead in Drinking Water 2. Best Prac...

  20. 18 CFR 410.1 - Basin regulations-Water Code and Administrative Manual-Part III Water Quality Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Code and Administrative Manual-Part III Water Quality Regulations. 410.1 Section 410.1 Conservation of... CODE AND ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL-PART III WATER QUALITY REGULATIONS § 410.1 Basin regulations—Water Code and Administrative Manual—Part III Water Quality Regulations. (a) The Water Code of the Delaware River...

  1. Modelling of SOL flows and target asymmetries in JET field reversal experiments with EDGE2D code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chankin, A.; Coad, J.; Corrigan, G.

    1999-11-01

    The EDGE2D code with drifts can reproduce the main trends of target asymmetries observed in field reversal experiments. It also re-produces qualitatively the main feature of recent JET results obtained with double-sided reciprocating Langmuir probes introduced near the top of the torus: the reversal of parallel plasma flow with toroidal field reversal. The code results suggest that the major contributor to the observed target asymmetries is the co-current toroidal momentum generated inside the scrape-off layer (SOL) by j r xB forces due to the presence of large up-down pressure asymmetries. Contrary to previous expectations of the predominant role of ExB drifts in creating target asymmetries, ∇B and centrifugal drifts were found to be mainly responsible for both parallel flows and target asymmetries. (author)

  2. Welding residual stress improvement in internal components by water jet peening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enomoto, K.; Hirano, K.; Hayashi, M.; Hayashi, E.

    1996-01-01

    Cavitations are generated when highly pressurized water is jetted in water. Surface residual stress is improved remarkably due to the peening effect of extremely high pressure caused by the collapse of cavitation bubbles. This technique is called water jet peening (WJP). WJP is expected to be an effective maintenance technique for the prevention of stress corrosion cracking caused by residual stress in various components of power generating plants. Various kinds of specimens were water jet peened to evaluate the fundamental characteristics of WJP and to select the most appropriate conditions for the residual stress improvement. Test results showed that WJP markedly improved the tensile residual stress caused by welding and grinding to the high compressive residual stress and seems to prevent the stress corrosion cracking

  3. Simulation of water hammer phenomena using the system code ATHLET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratfisch, Christoph; Koch, Marco K. [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Reactor Simulation and Safety Group

    2017-07-15

    Water Hammer Phenomena can endanger the integrity of structures leading to a possible failure of pipes in nuclear power plants as well as in many industrial applications. These phenomena can arise in nuclear power plants in the course of transients and accidents induced by the start-up of auxiliary feed water systems or emergency core cooling systems in combination with rapid acting valves and pumps. To contribute to further development and validation of the code ATHLET (Analysis of Thermalhydraulics of Leaks and Transients), an experiment performed in the test facility Pilot Plant Pipework (PPP) at Fraunhofer UMSICHT is simulated using the code version ATHLET 3.0A.

  4. Simulation of water hammer phenomena using the system code ATHLET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratfisch, Christoph; Koch, Marco K.

    2017-01-01

    Water Hammer Phenomena can endanger the integrity of structures leading to a possible failure of pipes in nuclear power plants as well as in many industrial applications. These phenomena can arise in nuclear power plants in the course of transients and accidents induced by the start-up of auxiliary feed water systems or emergency core cooling systems in combination with rapid acting valves and pumps. To contribute to further development and validation of the code ATHLET (Analysis of Thermalhydraulics of Leaks and Transients), an experiment performed in the test facility Pilot Plant Pipework (PPP) at Fraunhofer UMSICHT is simulated using the code version ATHLET 3.0A.

  5. Experimental studies on transient water-steam impinging jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitade, Kozo; Nakatogawa, Tetsundo; Nishikawa, Hideo; Kawanishi, Kohei; Tsuruto, Chuichi.

    1980-01-01

    Blowdown experiments were carried out in order to clarify pipe reaction forces and jet forces at hypothetical pipe break accident in PWR. The experiments were carried out at the initial pressure of about 70 and 150 kg/cm 2 .G with subcooling temperature of 13 -- 41 0 C. The reaction force has a maximum value just after the rupture in such a manner to attain abruptly to a peak and gradually decreases after that time in proportion to the inner pressure of the pipe. A plane board was used as a target, on which two-phase flow jet impinged vertically. A distribution of pressure on the target is most wide just after break. On the other hand, the pressure has a maximum value after a short period of time from the rupture. (author)

  6. Formation of grooves during the breakdown of a coal block by a water jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shavlovskii, S.S.

    1979-02-01

    A description is given of a method of coal excavation which provides for the initial formation of a grooved slit along the width of the opening equal in height to the diameter of the sinkhole. The formation of a groove in the coal block and the excavation of coal by water jets using the grooved crater method are illustrated in diagrams. Data are given on changes in the performance of the hydraulic jet in coal excavation in relation to the distance between the nozzle and the face and at given pressures in front of the nozzle. Functional relationships were mathematically constructed for the performance of the water jet in dimensionless coordinates. Data are also given on the comparative performance of a water jet when coal is excavated by the grooved funnel method and by hydraulic fracturing. The analytical computations indicate that the hydraulic fracturing of a coal block by water jets is economical with respect to the consumption of electric power and the unit rate of coal extraction, in addition to being a safe method. 4 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  7. Water jet intrusion into hot melt concomitant with direct-contact boiling of water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sibamoto, Yasuteru [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai Research Establishment, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2005-08-01

    Boiling of water poured on surface of high-temperature melt (molten metal or metal oxide) provides an efficient means for heat exchange or cooling of melt. The heat transfer surface area can be extended by forcing water into melt. Objectives of the present study are to elucidate key factors of the thermal and hydrodynamic interactions for the water jet injection into melt (Coolant Injection mode). Proposed applications include in in-vessel heat exchangers for liquid metal reactor and emergency measures for cooling of molten core debris in severe accidents of light water reactor. Water penetration into melt may occurs also as a result of fuel-coolant interaction (FCI) in modes other than CI, it is anticipated that the present study contributes to understand the fundamental mechanism of the FCI process. The previous works have been limited on understanding the melt-water interaction phenomena in the water-injection mode because of difficulty in experimental measurement where boiling occurs in opaque invisible hot melt unlike the melt-injection mode. We conducted visualization and measurement of melt-water-vapor multiphase flow phenomena by using a high-frame-rate neutron radiography technique and newly-developed probes. Although limited knowledge, however, has been gained even such an approach, the experimental data were analyzed deeply by comparing with the knowledge obtained from relevant matters. As a result, we succeeded in revealing several key phenomena and validity in the conditions under which stable heat transfer is established. Moreover, a non-intrusive technique for measurement of the velocity and pressure fields adjacent to a moving free surface is developed. The technique is based on the measurement of fluid surface profile, which is useful for elucidation of flow mechanism accompanied by a free surface like the present phenomena. (author)

  8. Effect of Stand-Off Distance on Impact Pressure of High Speed Water Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittiwong, Wuttichai; Seehanam, Wirapan; Pianthong, Kulachate; Matthujak, Anirut

    2010-06-01

    High speed liquid jets may be applied to jet cutting, drilling and cleaning. Recently, in the automotive industries, the spray injection pressure becomes higher and higher to enhance the fuel mixing for the improved combustion efficiency. However, the ultra high injection pressure may cause the damage to the nozzle and also the combustion chamber. In the medical application, the high speed liquid injection might be applied for the drug delivery through the skin where the needle is not required anymore. From the above mentioned application, the investigation on the impact pressure of the high speed liquid jet relative to the stand-off distant is significant. The high speed liquid jets are generated by the projectile impact driven method. The high speed projectile is launched by the horizontal single stage powder gun. The experimental study focuses on the stand-off between 1.5 cm to 6.0 cm, while the nozzle contains approximately 1.5cm3 of water in its cavity. The nozzle conical angles are 30° and 60° with the orifice diameter of 0.7 mm. The jet velocities are measured by laser beam interruptions method. The target material is the Polymethyl Methacrylate (PMMA) which the impact pressure is measured by using a piezoelectric Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) film. From the experiments, the maximum water jet velocity of 2290 m/s can be obtained from the 30° conical angle nozzle. The maximum impact pressures of nozzle conical angle of 30° and 60° are 3.4 GPa and 2.6 GPa respectively, at stand-off distance 3 cm. However, at the stand-off distance more than 3 cm, the impact pressure significantly decreases, because of aerodynamic drag, jets core break-up, and atomization of the water.

  9. Modeling of the Enceladus water vapor jets for interpreting UVIS star and solar occultation observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portyankina, Ganna; Esposito, Larry W.; Aye, Klaus-Michael; Hansen, Candice J.

    2015-11-01

    One of the most spectacular discoveries of the Cassini mission is jets emitting from the southern pole of Saturn’s moon Enceladus. The composition of the jets is water vapor and salty ice grains with traces of organic compounds. Jets, merging into a wide plume at a distance, are observed by multiple instruments on Cassini. Recent observations of the visible dust plume by the Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) identified as many as 98 jet sources located along “tiger stripes” [Porco et al. 2014]. There is a recent controversy on the question if some of these jets are “optical illusion” caused by geometrical overlap of continuous source eruptions along the “tiger stripes” in the field of view of ISS [Spitale et al. 2015]. The Cassini’s Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) observed occultations of several stars and the Sun by the water vapor plume of Enceladus. During the solar occultation separate collimated gas jets were detected inside the background plume [Hansen et al., 2006 and 2011]. These observations directly provide data about water vapor column densities along the line of sight of the UVIS instrument and could help distinguish between the presence of only localized or also continuous sources. We use Monte Carlo simulations and Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) to model the plume of Enceladus with multiple (or continuous) jet sources. The models account for molecular collisions, gravitational and Coriolis forces. The models result in the 3-D distribution of water vapor density and surface deposition patterns. Comparison between the simulation results and column densities derived from UVIS observations provide constraints on the physical characteristics of the plume and jets. The specific geometry of the UVIS observations helps to estimate the production rates and velocity distribution of the water molecules emitted by the individual jets.Hansen, C. J. et al., Science 311:1422-1425 (2006); Hansen, C. J. et al, GRL 38:L11202 (2011

  10. A study on the jet pump characteristic curve in boiling water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, L.Y.

    1990-01-01

    The jet pump models of RELAP5/MOD2, RETRAN-02/MOD3, and RELAP4/MOD3 are compared. From the investigation of the momentum equations, it is found that the normal quadrant jet pump models of these codes are essentially the same. In this paper, it is found that the relationship between the flow ratio, M, and the heat ratio, N, is uniquely determined for a given jet pump geometry provided that the wall friction and gravitational head are neglected. In other words, under the given assumptions the M - N characteristic curve will not change with power level, recirculation pump speed and loop flow rate. The effect of the gravitational head on the M - N curve has been found to be significant for low flow conditions. As a result, a guideline has been given to the definition of the specific energy (or the head ratio). Sensitivity studies on the key parameters have been performed. It is found that the generic M - N curve should not be used for a jet pump which does not have the same nozzle to throat area ratio as that of the generic jet pump

  11. Ultra-high pressure water jetting for coating removal and surface preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Spencer T.

    1995-01-01

    This paper shall examine the basics of water technology with particular attention paid to systems currently in use and some select new applications. By providing an overview of commercially available water jet systems in the context of recent case histories, potential users may evaluate the process for future applications. With the on going introduction of regulations prohibiting the use of chemical paint strippers, manual scrapping and dry abrasive media blasting, the need for an environmentally compliant coating removal process has been mandated. Water jet cleaning has been a traditional part of many industrial processed for year, although it has only been in the last few years that reliable pumping equipment capable of ultra-high pressure operation have become available. With the advent of water jet pumping equipment capable of sustaining pressures in excess of 36,000 psi. there has been shift away from lower pressure, high water volume systems. One of the major factors in driving industry to seek higher pressures is the ability to offer higher productivity rates while lowering the quantity of water used and subsequently reprocessed. Among benefits of the trend toward higher pressure/lower volume systems is the corresponding reduction in water jet reaction forces making hand held water jetting practical and safe. Other unique applications made possible by these new generation pumping systems include the use of alternative fluids including liquid ammonia for specialized and hazardous material removal applications. A review of the equipment used and the required modifications will be presented along with the conclusions reached reached during this test program.

  12. Turbulence production by a steam-driven jet in a water vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wissen, R.J.E. van; Schreel, K.R.A.M.; Geld, C.W.M. van der [Eindhoven Univ. of Technology (Netherlands). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Wieringa, J. [Unilever Research and Development, Vlaardingen (Netherlands)

    2004-04-01

    Direct steam injection is an efficient means of heating a volume of liquid. Usually the steam is injected via a nozzle, yielding a strong jet that condenses rapidly and transforms into a self-similar single phase jet. In the experiments reported in this paper, superheated steam is injected, centrally, at the bottom of a vertical, cylindrical water vessel. The resulting jet is turbulent (Re=7.9 x 10{sup 4}-18.1 x 10{sup 4} with the length scale based on the width of the jet, r{sub 1/2} and the velocity scale based on the centerline velocity, U{sub 0}). Using PIV in a vertical plane through the central axis, instantaneous velocity fields have been measured at a rate of 15 Hz. Near the inlet, the jet is mainly steam that rapidly condenses. Further downstream, the jet is essentially single phase, although some residual air is present as microscopically small bubbles. In the area directly downstream of the steam part, the ratio of r{sub 1/2} to the vessel radius R (32.5 cm) is about 1/14. The production of turbulent kinetic energy has been quantified for the main process conditions. Its dependencies on temperature, nozzle opening and inlet steam pressure have been determined. This production of energy is related to the stresses exerted on small particles in the mixture, and break-up of particles is discussed. (author)

  13. Modelling of Cold Water Hammer with WAHA code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, J.; Tiselj, I.

    2003-01-01

    The Cold Water Hammer experiment described in the present paper is a simple facility where overpressure accelerates a column of liquid water into the steam bubble at the closed vertical end of the pipe. Severe water hammer with high pressure peak occurs when the vapor bubble condenses and the liquid column hits the closed end of the pipe. Experimental data of Forschungszentrum Rossendorf are being used to test the newly developed computer code WAHA and the computer code RELAP5. Results show that a small amount of noncondensable air in the steam bubble significantly affects the magnitude of the calculated pressure peak, while the wall friction and condensation rate only slightly affect the simulated phenomena. (author)

  14. Simulation of Water Chemistry using and Geochemistry Code, PHREEQE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi, J.H. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2001-07-01

    This report introduces principles and procedures of simulation for water chemistry using a geochemistry code, PHREEQE. As and example of the application of this code, we described the simulation procedure for titration of an aquatic sample with strong acid to investigate the state of Carbonates in aquatic solution. Major contents of this report are as follows; Concepts and principles of PHREEQE, Kinds of chemical reactions which may be properly simulated by PHREEQE, The definition and meaning of each input data, An example of simulation using PHREEQE. (author). 2 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Investigations of impurity control in JET using fuelling, and interpretation of experiments using the LIM impurity code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gondhalekar, A.; Stangeby, P.C.; Elder, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    Inhibition of contamination of the plasma core in JET by edge impurities during high power heating of deuterium plasmas in limiter configuration using fuelling is demonstrated. By injecting deuterium gas during heating, in the presence of a much larger recycling deuterium flux, a reduction of more than a factor of 2 was effected in n z (0)/Φ z , the ratio of central impurity density to impurity influx at the plasma edge. The reduction in n z (0) was obtained without much effect on peak electron temperature and density. Reduction of plasma contamination by gas fuelling was observed also when hot spots formed on the limiter, a condition that without simultaneous gas fuelling culminated in runaway plasma contamination. Detailed analysis of the experiments is undertaken with the purpose of identifying the processes by which plasma contamination was inhibited, employing standard limiter plasma contamination modelling. Processes which might produce the observed impurity inhibiting effects of gas injection include: (a) reduction in impurity production at the limiter; (b) increase in impurity screening in the scrape-off layer; (c) increase in radial impurity transport at the plasma edge; (d) increase in average deuteron flow velocity to the limiter along the scrape-off layer. These are examined in detail using the Monte Carlo limiter impurity transport code LIM. Bearing in mind that uncertainties exist both in the choice of appropriate modelling assumptions to be used and in the measurement of required edge plasma parameters, changes in n z (0)/Φ z by a factor of 2 are at the limit of the present modelling capability. However, comparison between LIM code simulations and measurements of plasma impurity content indicate that the standard limiter plasma contamination model may not be adequate and that other processes need to be added in order to be able to describe the experiments in JET. (author). 24 refs, 2 figs, 8 tabs

  16. Small-Scale Morphological Features on a Solid Surface Processed by High-Pressure Abrasive Water Jet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Kang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Being subjected to a high-pressure abrasive water jet, solid samples will experience an essential variation of both internal stress and physical characteristics, which is closely associated with the kinetic energy attached to the abrasive particles involved in the jet stream. Here, experiments were performed, with particular emphasis being placed on the kinetic energy attenuation and turbulent features in the jet stream. At jet pressure of 260 MPa, mean velocity and root-mean-square (RMS velocity on two jet-stream sections were acquired by utilizing the phase Doppler anemometry (PDA technique. A jet-cutting experiment was then carried out with Al-Mg alloy samples being cut by an abrasive water jet. Morphological features and roughness on the cut surface were quantitatively examined through scanning electron microscopy (SEM and optical profiling techniques. The results indicate that the high-pressure water jet is characterized by remarkably high mean flow velocities and distinct velocity fluctuations. Those irregular pits and grooves on the cut surfaces indicate both the energy attenuation and the development of radial velocity components in the jet stream. When the sample is positioned with different distances from the nozzle outlet, the obtained quantitative surface roughness varies accordingly. A descriptive model highlighting the behaviors of abrasive particles in jet-cutting process is established in light of the experimental results and correlation analysis.

  17. Small-Scale Morphological Features on a Solid Surface Processed by High-Pressure Abrasive Water Jet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Can; Liu, Haixia

    2013-08-14

    Being subjected to a high-pressure abrasive water jet, solid samples will experience an essential variation of both internal stress and physical characteristics, which is closely associated with the kinetic energy attached to the abrasive particles involved in the jet stream. Here, experiments were performed, with particular emphasis being placed on the kinetic energy attenuation and turbulent features in the jet stream. At jet pressure of 260 MPa, mean velocity and root-mean-square (RMS) velocity on two jet-stream sections were acquired by utilizing the phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) technique. A jet-cutting experiment was then carried out with Al-Mg alloy samples being cut by an abrasive water jet. Morphological features and roughness on the cut surface were quantitatively examined through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical profiling techniques. The results indicate that the high-pressure water jet is characterized by remarkably high mean flow velocities and distinct velocity fluctuations. Those irregular pits and grooves on the cut surfaces indicate both the energy attenuation and the development of radial velocity components in the jet stream. When the sample is positioned with different distances from the nozzle outlet, the obtained quantitative surface roughness varies accordingly. A descriptive model highlighting the behaviors of abrasive particles in jet-cutting process is established in light of the experimental results and correlation analysis.

  18. Investigation of Sandwich Material Surface Created by Abrasive Water Jet (AWJ) via Vibration Emission

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hreha, P.; Hloch, S.; Monka, P.; Monková, K.; Knapčíková, L.; Hlaváček, Petr; Zeleňák, Michal; Samardžič, I.; Kozak, D.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 1 (2013), s. 29-32 ISSN 0543-5846 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : sandwich material * stainless steel * abrasive water jet cutting Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials Impact factor: 0.755, year: 2013 http://public.carnet.hr/metalurg/Metalurgija/2014_vol_53/No_1/MET_53_1_29-32_Hreha.pdf

  19. Modelling of destructive ability of water-ice-jet while machine processing of machine elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burnashov Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents the classification of the most common contaminants, appearing on the surfaces of machine elements after a long-term service.The existing well-known surface cleaning methods are described and analyzed in the framework of this paper. The article is intended to provide the reader with an understanding of the process of cleaning and removing contamination from machine elements surface by means of water-ice-jet with preprepared beforehand particles, as well as the process of water-ice-jet formation. The paper deals with the description of such advantages of this method as low costs, wastelessness, high quality of the surface, undergoing processing, minimization of harmful impact upon environment and eco-friendliness, which makes it differ radically from formerly known methods. The scheme of interection between the surface and ice particle is represented. A thermo-physical model of destruction of contaminants by means of a water-ice-jet cleaning technology was developed on its basis. The thermo-physical model allows us to make setting of processing mode and the parameters of water-ice-jet scientifically substantiated and well-grounded.

  20. Digital decoration by continuous ink jet system for ceramic products based in water inks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colores Ceramicos, S. A.; Talleres Foro, S. L.

    2010-01-01

    A new continuous ink jet system for digital ceramic decoration using water based dispersed ceramic pigment has been developed, that increases drastically the sustainability of the process. During the development of this work, different equipment for any application and the consumables and design tools have been also developed. (Author)

  1. Abrasive water jet drilling of cooling holes in aeroengines: preliminary experimental study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlaváček, Petr; Zlámal, T.; Sitek, Libor

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2018), s. 2218-2222 ISSN 1803-1269 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1406; GA MPO(CZ) FV10446 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : abrasive water jet * drilling * thermal barrier coating Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools OBOR OECD: Mechanical engineering http://www.mmscience.eu/2018.html

  2. Determination of vibration frequency depending on abrasive mass flow rate during abrasive water jet cutting

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hreha, P.; Radvanská, A.; Hloch, Sergej; Peržel, V.; Krolczyk, G.; Monková, K.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 77, 1-4 (2014), s. 763-774 ISSN 0268-3768 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : Abrasive water jet * Abrasive mass flow rate * Vibration Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 1.458, year: 2014 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00170-014-6497-9#page-1

  3. Adaptation of high pressure water jets with abrasives for nuclear installations dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouviere, R.; Pinault, M.; Gasc, B.; Guiadeur, R.; Pilot, M.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents the work realized for adjust the cutting technology with high pressure water jet with abrasives for nuclear installation dismantling. It has necessited the conception and the adjustement of a remote tool and the realization of cutting tests with waste produce analysis. This technic can be ameliorated with better viewing systems and better fog suction systems

  4. Generation of shockwave and vortex structures at the outflow of a boiling water jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, M. V.; Lezhnin, S. I.; Pribaturin, N. A.; Sorokin, A. L.

    2014-12-01

    Results of numerical simulation for shock waves and generation of vortex structures during unsteady outflow of boiling liquid jet are presented. The features of evolution of shock waves and vortex structures formation during unsteady outflow of boiling water are compared with corresponding structures during unsteady gas outflow.

  5. Prediction of metal wastage produced by sodium-water reaction jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, J.F.B.

    1979-01-01

    When a leak occurs in a sodium heated boiler, a sodium-water reaction jet is formed which causes further damage to the boiler, ie wastage. A correlation is developed which predicts wastage of ferritic steel boiler tubes for the range of leak sizes, sodium temperatures and leak to target spacing for which data available. (author)

  6. Dynamic voltage-current characteristics for a water jet plasma arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jiaxiang; Lan Sheng; Xu Zuoming

    2008-01-01

    A virtual instrument technology is used to measure arc current, arc voltage, dynamic V-I characteristics, and nonlinear conductance for a cone-shaped water jet plasma arc under ac voltage. Experimental results show that ac arc discharge mainly happens in water vapor evaporated from water when heated. However, due to water's cooling effect and its conductance, arc conductance, reignition voltage, extinguish voltage, and current zero time are very different from those for ac arc discharge in gas work fluid. These can be valuable to further studies on mechanism and characteristics of plasma ac discharge in water, and even in gas work fluid

  7. FILM-30: A Heat Transfer Properties Code for Water Coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MARSHALL, THERON D.

    2001-01-01

    A FORTRAN computer code has been written to calculate the heat transfer properties at the wetted perimeter of a coolant channel when provided the bulk water conditions. This computer code is titled FILM-30 and the code calculates its heat transfer properties by using the following correlations: (1) Sieder-Tate: forced convection, (2) Bergles-Rohsenow: onset to nucleate boiling, (3) Bergles-Rohsenow: partially developed nucleate boiling, (4) Araki: fully developed nucleate boiling, (5) Tong-75: critical heat flux (CHF), and (6) Marshall-98: transition boiling. FILM-30 produces output files that provide the heat flux and heat transfer coefficient at the wetted perimeter as a function of temperature. To validate FILM-30, the calculated heat transfer properties were used in finite element analyses to predict internal temperatures for a water-cooled copper mockup under one-sided heating from a rastered electron beam. These predicted temperatures were compared with the measured temperatures from the author's 1994 and 1998 heat transfer experiments. There was excellent agreement between the predicted and experimentally measured temperatures, which confirmed the accuracy of FILM-30 within the experimental range of the tests. FILM-30 can accurately predict the CHF and transition boiling regimes, which is an important advantage over current heat transfer codes. Consequently, FILM-30 is ideal for predicting heat transfer properties for applications that feature high heat fluxes produced by one-sided heating

  8. Heavy water jet target and a beryllium target for production of fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, C.M.; Anderson, J.D.; Barschall, H.H.; Davis, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    A limitation on the neutron flux obtainable from proton or deuteron induced reactions is the heating of the target by the accelerated charged particles. The heat can be removed more easily if the target moves. The possibility of using a rotating Be target and a heavy water jet as a target for bombardment by 35-MeV deuterons was studied. In a thick Be metal target moving at 10 m/sec through such a beam of 1 cm diameter a temperature pulse of about 300 0 C will be produced by the 0.3 MW beam. The Be target should be able to withstand such a temperature pulse. A Be target suitable for 3 MW of power in a 1 cm diameter beam would require internal cooling and a higher velocity. A free jet of heavy water is also a possible target. Laser photographs of water jets in vacuum show small angles of divergence. The effect of heating by a 0.3 MW beam is probably not important because the temperature rise produced by the beam is small compared to the absolute temperature of the unheated jet. (auth)

  9. Complex astrophysical experiments relating to jets, solar loops, and water ice dusty plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellan, P. M.; Zhai, X.; Chai, K. B.; Ha, B. N.

    2015-10-01

    > Recent results of three astrophysically relevant experiments at Caltech are summarized. In the first experiment magnetohydrodynamically driven plasma jets simulate astrophysical jets that undergo a kink instability. Lateral acceleration of the kinking jet spawns a Rayleigh-Taylor instability, which in turn spawns a magnetic reconnection. Particle heating and a burst of waves are observed in association with the reconnection. The second experiment uses a slightly different setup to produce an expanding arched plasma loop which is similar to a solar corona loop. It is shown that the plasma in this loop results from jets originating from the electrodes. The possibility of a transition from slow to fast expansion as a result of the expanding loop breaking free of an externally imposed strapping magnetic field is investigated. The third and completely different experiment creates a weakly ionized plasma with liquid nitrogen cooled electrodes. Water vapour injected into this plasma forms water ice grains that in general are ellipsoidal and not spheroidal. The water ice grains can become quite long (up to several hundred microns) and self-organize so that they are evenly spaced and vertically aligned.

  10. Use of pulsating water jet technology for removal of concrete in repair of concrete structures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sitek, Libor; Foldyna, Josef; Martinec, Petr; Ščučka, Jiří; Bodnárová, L.; Hela, R.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 4 (2011), s. 235-242 ISSN 1822-427X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/07/1662; GA ČR GP101/07/P512; GA AV ČR 1QS300860501; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082 Grant - others:GA MPO(CZ) FR-TI2/390 Program:FR Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : high-speed water jet technology * pulsating jet * rotating jets * removal of concrete layer Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 1.610, year: 2011 http://www.bjrbe.vgtu.lt/volumes/en/volume6/number4/03.php

  11. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in the design of a water-jet-drive system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Roberto

    1994-01-01

    NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has an ongoing effort to transfer to industry the technologies developed at MSFC for rocket propulsion systems. The Technology Utilization (TU) Office at MSFC promotes these efforts and accepts requests for assistance from industry. One such solicitation involves a request from North American Marine Jet, Inc. (NAMJ) for assistance in the design of a water-jet-drive system to fill a gap in NAMJ's product line. NAMJ provided MSFC with a baseline axial flow impeller design as well as the relevant working parameters (rpm, flow rate, etc.). This baseline design was analyzed using CFD, and significant deficiencies identified. Four additional analyses were performed involving MSFC changes to the geometric and operational parameters of the baseline case. Subsequently, the impeller was redesigned by NAMJ and analyzed by MSFC. This new configuration performs significantly better than the baseline design. Similar cooperative activities are planned for the design of the jet-drive inlet.

  12. Preliminary study of sand jets in water-capped artificial and real MFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, J.; Zhu, D.; Rajaratnam, N. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2008-07-01

    A preliminary study of sand jets in water-capped artificial and real MFT was presented. Background information on oil sands tailing reclamation including water capping and sand capping were first discussed, followed by background information to the study, including non-Newtonian fluids and laponite clay, the artificial clay used mainly in small amounts as a rheology modifier in industrial fluids and materials. Although laponite clay is insoluble in water, it hydrates to make a clear and colourless colloidal, which is thixotropic and also behaves as a Bingham plastic fluid. The benefit of using gels made from laponite is the ability to see through to observe the physical processes in it. The objectives of the study were to examine the dynamics of sand jets in water-capped laponite gel and real MFT; improve the understanding of physical processes related to MFT and sand/slurry operations in tailings ponds; and find potential applications in recycling processed water and decommissioning of tailings ponds. It was concluded that it is much more difficult for jets to penetrate water-capped MFT due to larger yield stress in MFT. Future studies will focus on density correction, viscosity adjustment, and sensitivity analysis. tabs., figs.

  13. Reduction of Altitude Diffuser Jet Noise Using Water Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgood, Daniel C.; Saunders, Grady P.; Langford, Lester A.

    2011-01-01

    A feasibility study on the effects of injecting water into the exhaust plume of an altitude rocket diffuser for the purpose of reducing the far-field acoustic noise has been performed. Water injection design parameters such as axial placement, angle of injection, diameter of injectors, and mass flow rate of water have been systematically varied during the operation of a subscale altitude test facility. The changes in acoustic far-field noise were measured with an array of free-field microphones in order to quantify the effects of the water injection on overall sound pressure level spectra and directivity. The results showed significant reductions in noise levels were possible with optimum conditions corresponding to water injection at or just upstream of the exit plane of the diffuser. Increasing the angle and mass flow rate of water injection also showed improvements in noise reduction. However, a limit on the maximum water flow rate existed as too large of flow rate could result in un-starting the supersonic diffuser.

  14. Residual stress improved by water jet peening using cavitation for small-diameter pipe inner surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuo, Nakamura; Toshizo, Ohya; Koji, Okimura

    2001-01-01

    As one of degradation conditions on components used in water, the overlapping effect of environment, material and stress might cause stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Especially, for the tensile residual stress produced by welding, it is particularly effective to reduce the tensile residual stress on the material surface to prevent SCC. In this paper, the residual stress improvement method using cavitation impact generated by a water jet, called Water Jet Peening (WJP), has been developed as the maintenance technology for the inner surfaces of small-diameter Ni-Cr-Fe alloy (Alloy 600) pipes. As the results, by WJP for the inner surface of Alloy 600 pipe (inner diameter; approximately 10-15 mm), we confirmed that the compressive stress generated within the range from the surface to the inner part about 0.5 mm deep and took a maximum value about 350 MPa on the surface. (author)

  15. Thermometric Titration for Rapid Determination of Trace Water in Jet Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Qiang Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Water content in jet fuels is detected by thermometric titration (TMT, and the optimal detected system is 2,2-dimethoxypropane as titrant, cyclohexane and isopropanol as titration solvents, and methanesulfonic acid as catalyst in this method. The amounts of oil, concentration and delivery rate of titrant, volumes, and the reliability and accuracy of thermometric titration were emphasized. The results show that the accuracy, validity, and reliability of TMT are excellent by different indicated spiked water contents. The obtained results between TMT and Karl Fischer titration have been proven to be in accord. But, the duration of titration merely spends 3–5 min in the whole process, greatly shortening the detected time. Therefore, rapid and accurate determination of trace water in a jet fuel can be realized by TMT.

  16. Benchmarking severe accident computer codes for heavy water reactor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, J.H. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2010-07-01

    Consideration of severe accidents at a nuclear power plant (NPP) is an essential component of the defence in depth approach used in nuclear safety. Severe accident analysis involves very complex physical phenomena that occur sequentially during various stages of accident progression. Computer codes are essential tools for understanding how the reactor and its containment might respond under severe accident conditions. International cooperative research programmes are established by the IAEA in areas that are of common interest to a number of Member States. These co-operative efforts are carried out through coordinated research projects (CRPs), typically 3 to 6 years in duration, and often involving experimental activities. Such CRPs allow a sharing of efforts on an international basis, foster team-building and benefit from the experience and expertise of researchers from all participating institutes. The IAEA is organizing a CRP on benchmarking severe accident computer codes for heavy water reactor (HWR) applications. The CRP scope includes defining the severe accident sequence and conducting benchmark analyses for HWRs, evaluating the capabilities of existing computer codes to predict important severe accident phenomena, and suggesting necessary code improvements and/or new experiments to reduce uncertainties. The CRP has been planned on the advice and with the support of the IAEA Nuclear Energy Department's Technical Working Groups on Advanced Technologies for HWRs. (author)

  17. A comparison study of the 1MeV triton burn-up in JET using the HECTOR and SOCRATE codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorini, G.; Kovanen, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    The burn-up of the 1MeV tritons in deuterium plasmas has been measured in JET for various plasma conditions. To interpret these measurements the containment, slowing down and burn-up of fast tritons needs to be modelled with a reasonable accuracy. The numerical code SOCRATE has been written for this specific purpose and a second code, HECTOR, has been adapted to study the triton burn-up problem. In this paper we compare the results from the two codes in order to exclude possible errors in the numerical models, to assess their accuracy and to study the sensitivity of the calculation to various physical effects. (author)

  18. Validation of the THIRMAL-1 melt-water interaction code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, C.C.; Sienicki, J.J.; Spencer, B.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The THIRMAL-1 computer code has been used to calculate nonexplosive LWR melt-water interactions both in-vessel and ex-vessel. To support the application of the code and enhance its acceptability, THIRMAL-1 has been compared with available data from two of the ongoing FARO experiments at Ispra and two of the Corium Coolant Mixing (CCM) experiments performed at Argonne. THIRMAL-1 calculations for the FARO Scoping Test and Quenching Test 2 as well as the CCM-5 and -6 experiments were found to be in excellent agreement with the experiment results. This lends confidence to the modeling that has been incorporated in the code describing melt stream breakup due to the growth of both Kelvin-Helmholtz and large wave instabilities, the sizes of droplets formed, multiphase flow and heat transfer in the mixing zone surrounding and below the melt metallic phase. As part of the analysis of the FARO tests, a mechanistic model was developed to calculate the prefragmentation as it may have occurred when melt relocated from the release vessel to the water surface and the model was compared with the relevant data from FARO.

  19. 75 FR 41106 - Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan to Update Water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ... DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION 18 CFR Part 410 Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan to Update Water Quality Criteria for Toxic Pollutants in the Delaware... hold a public hearing to receive comments on proposed amendments to the Commission's Water Quality...

  20. Water Spray Flow Characteristics Under Synthetic Jet Driven By a Piezoelectric Actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchitto, L.; Valentino, G.; Chiatto, M.; de Luca, L.

    2017-01-01

    Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) have been applied to investigate the droplets size and velocity distribution of a water spray, under the control of a piezo-element driven synthetic jet (SJ). Tests were carried out under atmospheric conditions within a chamber test rig equipped with optical accesses at two injection pressures, namely 5 and 10 MPa, exploring the variation of the main spray parameters caused by the synthetic jet perturbations. The SJ orifice has been placed at 45° with respect to the water spray axis; the nozzle body has been moved on its own axis and three different nozzle quotes were tested. PIV measurements have been averaged on 300 trials whereas about 105 samples have been acquired for the PDA tests. For each operative condition, the influence region of the SJ device on the spray has been computed through a T-Test algorithm. The synthetic jet locally interacts with the spray, energizing the region downstream the impact. The effect of the actuator decreases at higher injection pressures and moving the impact region upwards. Droplets coalescence can be detected along the synthetic jet axis, while no significant variations are observed along a direction orthogonal to it.

  1. TRAWA, a transient analysis code for water reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajamaeki, M.

    1976-06-01

    TRAWA is a transient analysis code for water reactors. It solves the two-group neutron diffusion equations simultaneously with the heat conduction equations and the two-phase hydraulic equations for one or more channels. At most one-dimensional submodels are used. Neither thermal nor hydraulic mixing appear between channels. Doppler, coolant density, coolant temperature, and soluble poison density feedbacks due to the thermohydraulics of the channels are described by using polynomial expansions for the group constants. The hydraulic circuit outside the reactor core consists of by-pass channel and risers with two-phase flow and of pump lines with incompressible flow. Nontrivial implicit methods are employed in the discretization of the equations to allow for sparse spatial mesh and flexible choice of time steps. Various transients can be calculated by applying external disturbances. The code is extensively supplied by input and output capabilities. TRAWA is written in FORTRAN V for UNIVAC 1108 computer. (author)

  2. Influence of water content on the inactivation of P. digitatum spores using an air-water plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youyi, HU; Weidong, ZHU; Kun, LIU; Leng, HAN; Zhenfeng, ZHENG; Huimin, HU

    2018-04-01

    In order to investigate whether an air-water plasma jet is beneficial to improve the efficiency of inactivation, a series of experiments were done using a ring-needle plasma jet. The water content in the working gas (air) was accurately measured based on the Karl Fischer method. The effects of water on the production of OH (A2Σ+-X2Πi) and O (3p5P-3s5S) were also studied by optical emission spectroscopy. The results show that the water content is in the range of 2.53-9.58 mg l-1, depending on the gas/water mixture ratio. The production of OH (A2Σ+-X2Πi) rises with the increase of water content, whereas the O (3p5P-3s5S) shows a declining tendency with higher water content. The sterilization experiments indicate that this air-water plasma jet inactivates the P. digitatum spores very effectively and its efficiency rises with the increase of the water content. It is possible that OH (A2Σ+-X2Πi) is a more effective species in inactivation than O (3p5P-3s5S) and the water content benefit the spore germination inhibition through rising the OH (A2Σ+-X2Πi) production. The maximum of the inactivation efficacy is up to 93% when the applied voltage is -6.75 kV and the water content is 9.58 mg l-1.

  3. Simulation of water hammer experiments using RELAP5 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaliatka, A.; Vaisnoras, M.

    2005-01-01

    The rapid closing or opening of a valve causes pressure transients in pipelines. The fast deceleration of the liquid results in high pressure surges upstream the valve, thus the kinetic energy is transformed into the potential energy, which leads to the temporary pressure increases. This phenomenon is called water hammer. The intensity of water hammer effects will depend upon the rate of change in the velocity or momentum. Generally water hammer can occur in any thermal-hydraulic systems and it is extremely dangerous for the thermal-hydraulic system since, if the pressure induced exceeds the pressure range of a pipe given by the manufacturer, it can lead to the failure of the pipeline integrity. Due to its potential for damage of pipes, water hammer has been a subject of study since the middle of the nineteenth century. Many theoretical and experimental investigations were performed. The experimental investigation of the water hammer tests performed at Fraunhofer Institute for Environmental, Safety and Energy Technology (UMSICHT) [1] and Cold Water Hammer experiment performed by Forschungszentrum Rossendorf (CWHTF) [2] should be mentioned. The UMSICHT facility in Oberhausen was modified in order to simulate a piping system and associated supports that are typical for a nuclear power plant [3]. The Cold water hammer experiment is interesting and instructive because it covers a wide spectrum of particularities. One of them is sub-cooled water interaction with condensing steam at the closed end of the vertical pipe at room temperature and corresponding saturation pressure [4]. In the paper, the capabilities of RELAP5 code to correctly represent the water hammer phenomenon are presented. Paper presents the comparison of RELAP5 calculated and measured at UMSICHT and CWHTF test facilities pressure transient values after the fast closure (opening) of valves. The analyses of rarefaction wave travels inside the pipe and condensation of vapour bubbles in the liquid column

  4. UNSAT-H, an unsaturated soil water flow code for use at the Hanford site: code documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayer, M.J.; Gee, G.W.

    1985-10-01

    The unsaturated soil moisture flow code, UNSAT-H, which was developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory for assessing water movement at waste sites on the Hanford site, is documented in this report. This code is used in simulating the water dynamics of arid sites under consideration for waste disposal. The results of an example simulation of constant infiltration show excellent agreement with an analytical solution and another numerical solution, thus providing some verification of the UNSAT-H code. Areas of the code are identified for future work and include runoff, snowmelt, long-term climate and plant models, and parameter measurement. 29 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Efficacy of water spray protection against propane and butane jet fires impinging on LPG storage tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirvill, L.C. [Shell Global Solutions (UK), Chester (United Kingdom)

    2004-03-01

    Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) storage tanks are often provided with water sprays to protect them in the event of a fire. This protection has been shown to be effective in a hydrocarbon pool fire but uncertainties remained regarding the degree of protection afforded in a jet fire resulting from a liquid or two-phase release of LPG. Two projects, sponsored by the Health and Safety Executive, have been undertaken to study, at full scale, the performance of a water spray system on an empty 13 tonne LPG vessel under conditions of jet fire impingement from nearby releases of liquid propane and butane. The results showed that a typical water deluge system found on an LPG storage vessel cannot be relied upon to maintain a water film over the whole vessel surface in an impinging propane or butane jet fire scenario. The deluge affects the fire itself, reducing the luminosity and smoke, resulting in a lower rate of wall temperature rise at the dry patches, when compared with the undeluged case. The results of these studies will be used by the HSE in assessing the risk of accidental fires on LPG installations leading to boiling liquid expanding vapour explosion (BLEVE) incidents. (Author)

  6. Experimental observations and modelling of thermal history within a steel plate during water jet impingement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Z.D.; Fraser, D.; Samarasekera, I.V.; Lockhart, G.T.

    2002-01-01

    In order to investigate heat transfer of steel plates under a water jet impingement and to further simulate runout table operation in a hot strip mill, a full-scale pilot runout table facility was designed and constructed at the University of British Columbia (UBC). This paper describes the experimental details, data acquisition and data handling techniques for steel plates during water jet impingement by one circular water jet from an industrial header. Recorded visual observations at the impinging surface were obtained. The effects of cooling water temperature and impingement velocity on the heat transfer from a steel plate were studied. A two-dimensional finite element method-based transient inverse heat conduction model was developed. With the help of the model, heat fluxes and heat transfer coefficients along the impinging surface under various cooling conditions were calculated. The microstructural evolution of the steel plate was also investigated for the varying cooling conditions. Samples were obtained from each plate, polished, etched and then photographed. (author)

  7. Ultra-high pressure water jet: Baseline report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The ultra-high pressure waterjet technology was being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU's evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The ultra-high pressure waterjet technology acts as a cutting tool for the removal of surface substrates. The Husky trademark pump feeds water to a lance that directs the high pressure water at the surface to be removed. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure. These were dust and noise. The dust exposure was found to be minimal, which would be expected due to the wet environment inherent in the technology, but noise exposure was at a significant level. Further testing for noise is recommended because of the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, lockout/tagout, fall hazards, slipping hazards, hazards associated with the high pressure water, and hazards associated with air pressure systems

  8. Using of abrasive water jet for measurement of residual stress in railway wheels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlaváček, Petr; Brumek, J.; Horsák, L.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 19 (2012), s. 387-390 ISSN 1330-3651 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : abrasive water jet * railway wheel * residual stress Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 0.601, year: 2012 http://hrcak.srce.hr/index.php?show=clanak&id_clanak_jezik=124848

  9. On-line monitoring of technological process of material abrasive water jet cutting

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kinik, D.; Gánovská, B.; Hloch, Sergej; Monka, P.; Monková, K.; Hutyrová, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 2 (2015), s. 351-357 ISSN 1330-3651 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : abrasive water jet * vibrations * monitoring Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 0.464, year: 2015 http://hrcak.srce.hr/index.php?show=clanak&id_clanak_jezik=203519

  10. Study of the Effect of Material Machinability on Quality of Surface Created by Abrasive Water Jet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klichová, Dagmar; Klich, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 149, č. 149 (2016), s. 177-182 E-ISSN 1877-7058. [International Conference on Manufacturing Engineering and Materials, ICMEM 2016. Nový Smokovec, 06.06.2016-10.06.2016] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1406 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : machinability * surface roughness * abrasive water jet * study of quality * aluminium alloy * optical profilometer Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877705816311614

  11. Tangential turning of Incoloy alloy 925 using abrasive water jet technology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cárach, J.; Hloch, S.; Hlaváček, Petr; Ščučka, Jiří; Martinec, Petr; Petrů, J.; Zlámal, T.; Zeleňák, Michal; Monka, P.; Lehocká, D.; Krolczyk, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 9 (2016), s. 1747-1752 ISSN 0268-3768 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1406 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : incoloy alloy 925 * abrasive water jet turning * traverse speed Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 2.209, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00170-015-7489-0

  12. Thermometric Titration for Rapid Determination of Trace Water in Jet Fuel

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Jian-Qiang; Zhang, Jian-Jian; Yang, Shi-Zhao; Xin, Yong-Liang; Guo, Li; Yao, Ting

    2017-01-01

    Water content in jet fuels is detected by thermometric titration (TMT), and the optimal detected system is 2,2-dimethoxypropane as titrant, cyclohexane and isopropanol as titration solvents, and methanesulfonic acid as catalyst in this method. The amounts of oil, concentration and delivery rate of titrant, volumes, and the reliability and accuracy of thermometric titration were emphasized. The results show that the accuracy, validity, and reliability of TMT are excellent by different indicate...

  13. Experimental in-vitro bone cements disintegration with ultrasonic pulsating water jet for revision arthroplasty

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hloch, Sergej; Foldyna, Josef; Pude, F.; Kloc, J.; Zeleňák, Michal; Hvizdoš, P.; Monka, P.; Smolko, I.; Ščučka, Jiří; Kozak, D.; Sedmak, A.; Mihalčinová, E.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 6 (2015), s. 1609-1616 ISSN 1330-3651 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1406 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : bone cement * revision arthroplasty * ultrasonic pulsating water jet Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 0.464, year: 2015 http://www.tehnicki-vjesnik.com/web/public/archive

  14. The research into the quality of rock surfaces obtained by abrasive water jet cutting

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Młynarczuk, M.; Skiba, M.; Sitek, Libor; Hlaváček, Petr; Kožušníková, Alena

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 4 (2014), s. 925-940 ISSN 0860-7001 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082; GA ČR GAP104/12/1988 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : water jet * rock cutting * surface quality * roughness * variogram Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 0.608, year: 2013 http://mining.archives.pl

  15. Efficacy of a Novel Narrow Knife with Water Jet Function for Colorectal Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Naohisa; Toyonaga, Takashi; Murakami, Takaaki; Hirose, Ryohei; Ogiso, Kiyoshi; Inada, Yutaka; Rani, Rafiz Abdul; Naito, Yuji; Kishimoto, Mitsuo; Ohara, Yoshiko; Azuma, Takeshi; Itoh, Yoshito

    2017-01-01

    With respect to the knife's design in colorectal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), diameter, water jet function, and electric power are important because these relate to efficient dissection. In this study, we analyzed a novel, narrow ball tip-typed ESD knife with water jet function (Flush knife BT-S, diameter: 2.2 mm, length: 2000 mm, Fujifilm Co., Tokyo, Japan) compared to a regular diameter knife (Flush knife BT, diameter: 2.6 mm, length: 1800 mm). In laboratory and clinical research, electric power, knife insertion time, vacuum/suction amount with knife in the endoscopic channel, and water jet function were analyzed. We used a knife 2.0 mm long for BT-S and BT knives. The BT-S showed faster mean knife insertion time (sec) and better vacuum amount (ml/min) compared to the BT (insertion time: 16.7 versus 21.6, p knife insertion. Suction under knife happened 59% (23/39) and suction of fluid could be done in 100%. Our study showed that the narrow knife allows significantly faster knife insertion, better vacuum function, and effective clinical results.

  16. Investigation of Turbulent Tip Leakage Vortex in an Axial Water Jet Pump with Large Eddy Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hah, Chunill; Katz, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Detailed steady and unsteady numerical studies were performed to investigate tip clearance flow in an axial water jet pump. The primary objective is to understand physics of unsteady tip clearance flow, unsteady tip leakage vortex, and cavitation inception in an axial water jet pump. Steady pressure field and resulting steady tip leakage vortex from a steady flow analysis do not seem to explain measured cavitation inception correctly. The measured flow field near the tip is unsteady and measured cavitation inception is highly transient. Flow visualization with cavitation bubbles shows that the leakage vortex is oscillating significantly and many intermittent vortex ropes are present between the suction side of the blade and the tip leakage core vortex. Although the flow field is highly transient, the overall flow structure is stable and a characteristic frequency seems to exist. To capture relevant flow physics as much as possible, a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) calculation and a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) were applied for the current investigation. The present study reveals that several vortices from the tip leakage vortex system cross the tip gap of the adjacent blade periodically. Sudden changes in local pressure field inside tip gap due to these vortices create vortex ropes. The instantaneous pressure filed inside the tip gap is drastically different from that of the steady flow simulation. Unsteady flow simulation which can calculate unsteady vortex motion is necessary to calculate cavitation inception accurately even at design flow condition in such a water jet pump.

  17. Water Footprint and Land Requirement of Solar Thermochemical Jet-Fuel Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falter, Christoph; Pitz-Paal, Robert

    2017-11-07

    The production of alternative fuels via the solar thermochemical pathway has the potential to provide supply security and to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions. H 2 O and CO 2 are converted to liquid hydrocarbon fuels using concentrated solar energy mediated by redox reactions of a metal oxide. Because attractive production locations are in arid regions, the water footprint and the land requirement of this fuel production pathway are analyzed. The water footprint consists of 7.4 liters per liter of jet fuel of direct demand on-site and 42.4 liters per liter of jet fuel of indirect demand, where the dominant contributions are the mining of the rare earth oxide ceria, the manufacturing of the solar concentration infrastructure, and the cleaning of the mirrors. The area-specific productivity is found to be 33 362 liters per hectare per year of jet fuel equivalents, where the land coverage is mainly due to the concentration of solar energy for heat and electricity. The water footprint and the land requirement of the solar thermochemical fuel pathway are larger than the best power-to-liquid pathways but an order of magnitude lower than the best biomass-to-liquid pathways. For the production of solar thermochemical fuels arid regions are best-suited, and for biofuels regions of a moderate and humid climate.

  18. Experimental study on immiscible jet breakup using refractive index matched oil-water pair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xinzhi; Katz, Joseph

    2016-11-01

    A subsea oil well blowout creates an immiscible crude oil jet. This jet fragments shortly after injection, resulting in generation of a droplet cloud. Detailed understanding of the processes involved is crucial for modeling the fragmentation and for predicting the droplet size distribution. High density of opaque droplets near nozzle limits our ability to visualize and quantify the breakup process. To overcome this challenge, two immiscible fluids: silicone oil and sugar water with the same index of refraction (1.4015) are used as surrogates for crude oil and seawater, respectively. Their ratios of kinematic viscosity (5.64), density (0.83) and interfacial tension are closely matched with those of crude oil and seawater. Distribution of the oil phase is visualized by fluorescent tagging. Both phases are also seeded with particles for simultaneous PIV measurements. The measurements are performed within atomization range of Ohnesorge and Reynolds numbers. Index matching facilitates undistorted view of the phase distribution in illuminated section. Ongoing tests show that the jet surface initially rolls up into Kelvin-Helmholtz rings, followed by development of dispersed phase ligaments further downstream, which then break into droplets. Some of these droplets are re-entrained into the high momentum core, resulting in secondary breakup. As the oil layer and ligaments evolve, they often entrain water, resulting in generation of multiple secondary water droplets encapsulated within the oil droplets. This research is made possible by a Grant from Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative.

  19. Input/output manual of light water reactor fuel performance code FEMAXI-7 and its related codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Motoe; Udagawa, Yutaka; Nagase, Fumihisa [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Nuclear Safety Research Center, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Saitou, Hiroaki [ITOCHU Techno-Solutions Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-07-15

    A light water reactor fuel analysis code FEMAXI-7 has been developed for the purpose of analyzing the fuel behavior in normal conditions and in anticipated transient conditions. Numerous functional improvements and extensions have been incorporated in FEMAXI-7, which has been fully disclosed in the code model description published recently as JAEA-Data/Code 2010-035. The present manual, which is the counterpart of this description, gives detailed explanations of operation method of FEMAXI-7 code and its related codes, methods of Input/Output, methods of source code modification, features of subroutine modules, and internal variables in a specific manner in order to facilitate users to perform a fuel analysis with FEMAXI-7. This report includes some descriptions which are modified from the original contents of JAEA-Data/Code 2010-035. A CD-ROM is attached as an appendix. (author)

  20. Input/output manual of light water reactor fuel performance code FEMAXI-7 and its related codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Motoe; Udagawa, Yutaka; Nagase, Fumihisa; Saitou, Hiroaki

    2012-07-01

    A light water reactor fuel analysis code FEMAXI-7 has been developed for the purpose of analyzing the fuel behavior in normal conditions and in anticipated transient conditions. Numerous functional improvements and extensions have been incorporated in FEMAXI-7, which has been fully disclosed in the code model description published recently as JAEA-Data/Code 2010-035. The present manual, which is the counterpart of this description, gives detailed explanations of operation method of FEMAXI-7 code and its related codes, methods of Input/Output, methods of source code modification, features of subroutine modules, and internal variables in a specific manner in order to facilitate users to perform a fuel analysis with FEMAXI-7. This report includes some descriptions which are modified from the original contents of JAEA-Data/Code 2010-035. A CD-ROM is attached as an appendix. (author)

  1. Design of a Cryogenic Distillation Column for JET Water Detritiation System for Tritium Recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parracho, A.I.; Camp, P.; Dalgliesh, P.; Hollingsworth, A.; Lefebvre, X.; Lesnoj, S.; Sacks, R.; Shaw, R.; Smith, R.; Wakeling, B.

    2015-01-01

    A Water Detritiation System (WDS) is currently being designed and manufactured to be installed in the Active Gas Handling System (AGHS) of JET, currently the largest magnetic fusion experiment in the world. JET has been designed and built to study fusion operating conditions with the plasma fuelling done by means of a deuterium-tritium gas mixture. AGHS is a plant designed and built to safely process gas mixtures and impurities containing tritium recovered from the JET torus exhaust gases. Tritium is removed from these gas mixtures and recycled. Tritium depleted gases are sent to Exhaust Detritiation System (EDS) for final tritium removal prior to discharge into the environment. In EDS, tritium and tritiated species are catalytically oxidized into water, this tritiated water is then adsorbed onto molecular sieve beds (MSB). After saturation the MSBs are heated and the water is desorbed and collected for tritium recovery. The WDS facility is designed to recover tritium from water with an average activity of 1.9 GBq/l, and is able to process water with activities of 85 GBq/l and higher. Tritiated water is filtered and supplied to the electrolyser where the water is converted into gaseous oxygen and tritiated hydrogen. The hydrogen stream is first purified by selective diffusion through membranes of palladium alloy and then is fed to two cryogenic distillation columns (CD). These operate in parallel or in series depending on the water activity. In the CD columns, hydrogen isotopes containing tritium are recovered as the bottom product and hydrogen, the top product, is safely discarded to a stack. The CD columns are foreseen to have a throughput between 200 and 300 mole/h of hydrogen isotopes vapour and they operate at approximately ≈21.2K and 105 kPa. The design of the CD columns will be presented in this work. This work has been carried out within the framework of the Contract for the Operation of the JET Facilities and has received funding from the European Union

  2. Uniform and non-uniform inlet temperature of a vertical hot water jet injected into a rectangular tank

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed; Sun, Shuyu

    2010-01-01

    In most of real-world applications, such as the case of heat stores, inlet is not kept at a constant temperature but it may vary with time during charging process. In this paper, a vertical water jet injected into a rectangular storage tank is measured experimentally and simulated numerically. Two cases of study are considered; one is a hot water jet with uniform inlet temperature (UIT) injected into a cold water tank, and the other is a cold water jet with non-uniform inlet temperature (NUIT) injected into a hot water tank. Three different temperature differences and three different flow rates are studied for the hot water jet with UIT which is injected into a cold water tank. Also, three different initial temperatures with constant flow rate as well as three different flow rates with constant initial temperature are considered for the cold jet with NUIT which is injected into a hot water tank. Turbulence intensity at the inlet as well as Reynolds number for the NUIT cases are therefore functions of inlet temperature and time. Both experimental measurements and numerical calculations are carried out for the same measured flow and thermal conditions. The realizable k-ε model is used for modeling the turbulent flow. Numerical solutions are obtained for unsteady flow while pressure, velocity, temperature and turbulence distributions inside the water tank are analyzed. The simulated results are compared to the measured results, and they show a good agreement at low temperatures. © 2010 IEEE.

  3. Uniform and non-uniform inlet temperature of a vertical hot water jet injected into a rectangular tank

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed

    2010-12-01

    In most of real-world applications, such as the case of heat stores, inlet is not kept at a constant temperature but it may vary with time during charging process. In this paper, a vertical water jet injected into a rectangular storage tank is measured experimentally and simulated numerically. Two cases of study are considered; one is a hot water jet with uniform inlet temperature (UIT) injected into a cold water tank, and the other is a cold water jet with non-uniform inlet temperature (NUIT) injected into a hot water tank. Three different temperature differences and three different flow rates are studied for the hot water jet with UIT which is injected into a cold water tank. Also, three different initial temperatures with constant flow rate as well as three different flow rates with constant initial temperature are considered for the cold jet with NUIT which is injected into a hot water tank. Turbulence intensity at the inlet as well as Reynolds number for the NUIT cases are therefore functions of inlet temperature and time. Both experimental measurements and numerical calculations are carried out for the same measured flow and thermal conditions. The realizable k-ε model is used for modeling the turbulent flow. Numerical solutions are obtained for unsteady flow while pressure, velocity, temperature and turbulence distributions inside the water tank are analyzed. The simulated results are compared to the measured results, and they show a good agreement at low temperatures. © 2010 IEEE.

  4. Simulation of the flow obstruction of a jet pump in a BWR reactor with the code RELAP/SCDAPSIM; Simulacion de la obstruccion de flujo de una bomba jet en un reactor BWR con el codigo RELAP/SCDAPSIM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenas V, J.; Filio L, C., E-mail: jaime.cardenas@cnsns.gob.mx [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Jose M. Barragan 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)

    2016-09-15

    This work simulates the flow obstruction of a jet pump in one of the recirculation loops of a nuclear power plant with a reactor of type BWR at 100% of operating power, in order to analyze the behavior of the total flow of the refrigerant passing through the reactor core, the total flow in each recirculation loop of the reactor, together with the 10 jet pumps of each loop. The behavior of the power and the reactivity insertion due to the change of the refrigerant flow pattern is also analyzed. The simulation was carried out using the RELAP/SCDAPSIM version 3.5 code, using a reactor model with 10 jet pumps in each recirculation loop and a core consisting of 6 radial zones and 25 axial zones. The scenario postulates the flow obstruction in a jet pump in a recirculation loop A when the reactor operates at 100% rated power, causing a change in the total flow of refrigerant in the reactor core, leading to a decrease in power. Once the reactor conditions are established to its new power, the operator tries to recover the nominal power using the flow control valve of the recirculation loop A, opening stepwise as a strategy to safely recover the reactor power. In this analysis is assumed that the intention of the nuclear plant operator is to maintain the operation of the reactor during the established cycle. (Author)

  5. Temperature distribution in the reactive jet of water vapor and liquid sodium - contribution to wastage modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roger, F.; Park, K.Y.; Carreau, J.L.; Gbahoue, L.; Hobbes, P.

    1984-08-01

    The possibility of water vapor leaks across the wall of one or more of the heat exchanger tubes in the steam generator constitutes one of the important problems of safety of the Fast Breeder Reactors cooled by sodium. The jet thus formed can, in fact, destroy the neighbouring tubes. The hydrodynamic, chemical and thermal factors play an important role in this phenomenon and only the last-mentionned will be studied here. The use of the integral method of analysis, complemented by an experimental study, shows that the temperature profiles are Gaussian; if the maximum temperature is less than that of the boiling point of sodium, i.e. 1155 K, and for steam flow rates less than 0,5g/s, the temperature profiles can be represented by the error function, and an approximate equation gives the difference in temperature between the jet axis and the radical far-field

  6. Input/output manual of light water reactor fuel analysis code FEMAXI-7 and its related codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Motoe; Udagawa, Yutaka; Nagase, Fumihisa [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Nuclear Safety Research Center, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Saitou, Hiroaki [ITOCHU Techno-Solutions Corporation, Tokyo (Japan)

    2013-10-15

    A light water reactor fuel analysis code FEMAXI-7 has been developed, as an extended version from the former version FEMAXI-6, for the purpose of analyzing the fuel behavior in normal conditions and in anticipated transient conditions. Numerous functional improvements and extensions have been incorporated in FEMAXI-7, which are fully disclosed in the code model description published in the form of another JAEA-Data/Code report. The present manual, which is the very counterpart of this description document, gives detailed explanations of files and operation method of FEMAXI-7 code and its related codes, methods of input/output, sample Input/Output, methods of source code modification, subroutine structure, and internal variables in a specific manner in order to facilitate users to perform fuel analysis by FEMAXI-7. (author)

  7. Input/output manual of light water reactor fuel analysis code FEMAXI-7 and its related codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Motoe; Udagawa, Yutaka; Nagase, Fumihisa; Saitou, Hiroaki

    2013-10-01

    A light water reactor fuel analysis code FEMAXI-7 has been developed, as an extended version from the former version FEMAXI-6, for the purpose of analyzing the fuel behavior in normal conditions and in anticipated transient conditions. Numerous functional improvements and extensions have been incorporated in FEMAXI-7, which are fully disclosed in the code model description published in the form of another JAEA-Data/Code report. The present manual, which is the very counterpart of this description document, gives detailed explanations of files and operation method of FEMAXI-7 code and its related codes, methods of input/output, sample Input/Output, methods of source code modification, subroutine structure, and internal variables in a specific manner in order to facilitate users to perform fuel analysis by FEMAXI-7. (author)

  8. Light-water-reactor coupled neutronic and thermal-hydraulic codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    An overview is presented of computer codes that model light water reactor cores with coupled neutronics and thermal-hydraulics. This includes codes for transient analysis and codes for steady state analysis which include fuel depletion and fission product buildup. Applications in nuclear design, reactor operations and safety analysis are given and the major codes in use in the USA are identified. The neutronic and thermal-hydraulic methodologies and other code features are outlined for three steady state codes (PDQ7, NODE-P/B and SIMULATE) and four dynamic codes (BNL-TWIGL, MEKIN, RAMONA-3B, RETRAN-02). Speculation as to future trends with such codes is also presented

  9. Computer code for simulating pressurized water reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano, A.M.B.

    1978-01-01

    A computer code was developed for the simulation of the steady-state and transient behaviour of the average channel of a Pressurizer Water Reactor core. Point kinetics equations were used with the reactivity calculated for average temperatures in the channel with the fuel and moderator temperature feedbacks. The radial heat conduction equation in the fuel was solved numerically. For calculating the thermodynamic properties of the coolant, the fundamental equations of conservation (mass, energy and momentum) were solved. The gap and clad were treated as a resistance added to the film coefficient. The fuel system equations were decoupled from the coolant equations. The program permitted the changes in the heat transfer correlations and the flow patterns along the coolant channel. Various test were performed to determine the steady-state and transient response employing the PWR core simulator developed, obtaining results with adequate precision. (author)

  10. Code for the core simulation in pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano, M.A.B.

    1978-08-01

    A computer code was developed for the simulation of the steady-state and transient behaviour of the average channel of a Pressurizer Water Reactor core. Point kinetics equations were used with the reactivity calculated for average temperatures in the channel with the fuel and moderator temperature feedbacks. The radial heat conduction equation in the fuel was solved numericaly. For calculating the thermodynamic properties of the coolant, the fundamental equations of conservation (mass, energy and momentum) were solved. The gap and clad were treated as a resistence added to the film coeficient. The fuel system equations were decoupled from the coolant equations. The program permitted the changes in the heat transfer correlations and the flow patterns along the coolant channel. Various test were performed to determine the steady-state and transient response employing the PWR core simulator developed, obtaining results with adequate precision. (Author) [pt

  11. RESUS: A code for low volatile radio-nuclide release from liquids due to vapor bubble burst induced liquid jet formation and disintegration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, M.K.; Starflinger, J.; Linnemann, Th.; Brockmeier, U.; Unger, H.; Schuetz, W.

    1995-01-01

    In the field of nuclear safety, the release of volatile and low volatile radio-nuclides from liquid surfaces into a gas atmosphere is important for aerosol source term considerations particularly in late severe accident sequences. In case of a hypothetical nuclear reactor accident involving a failure of the primary system, primary coolant and radio-nuclides may be released into the containment to frequently form a liquid pool which may be contaminated by suspended or solved fuel particles and fission products. Under this scope, the release code package REVOLS/RENONS was developed for radio-nuclide release from liquid surfaces. Assuming the absence of gas or vapor bubbles in the liquid, the evaporative release of volatile components, calculated by the REVOLS code, is governed by diffusive and convective transport processes, whereas the release of low volatiles, calculated by the RENONS code, may be governed by mechanical processes which leads to droplet entrainment in case of wavy liquid pool surface conditions into the containment atmosphere by means of convection. For many accident sequences, in which gas is injected into a pool or liquid area elsewhere, predominantly when saturation temperatures can be reached, the release of low volatile species from liquid surfaces due to bubble burst is identified as a decisive release mechanism also. Together with the liquid, the particles which are located at the pool surface or suspended in the pool, are released into the atmosphere. Consequently, the code RESUS.MOD1 (RESUSpension) is presently extended to include the calculation of the release of droplets and suspended radio-nuclide particles due to bubble burst induced liquid jet formation and disintegration above liquid surfaces. Experimental investigations indicate the influence of bubble volume and shape at the pool surface as well as bubble stabilization or destabilization, and furthermore the system pressure and temperatures as well as fluid properties, on droplet

  12. Research on axial total pressure distributions of sonic steam jet in subcooled water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xinzhuang; Li Wenjun; Yan Junjie

    2012-01-01

    The axial total pressure distributions of sonic steam jet in subcooled water were experimentally investigated for three different nozzle diameters (6.0 mm, 8.0 mm and 10.0 mm). The inlet steam pressure, and pool subcooling subcooled water temperature were in the range of 0.2-0.6 MPa and 420-860 ℃, respectively. The effect of steam pressure, subcooling water temperature and nozzle size on the axial pressure distributions were obtained, and also the characteristics of the maximum pressure and its position were studied. The results indicated that the characteristics of the maximum pressure were influenced by the nozzle size for low steam pressure, but the influence could be ignored for high steam pressure. Moreover, a correlation was given to correlate the position of the maximum pressure based on steam pressure and subcooling water temperature, and the discrepancies of predictions and experiments are within ±15%. (authors)

  13. 76 FR 6727 - Proposed Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-08

    ... location. Written comments will be accepted through the close of business on March 16, 2011. Locations: The... Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan To Provide for Regulation of Natural Gas Development Projects... proposed rule containing tentative dates and locations for public hearings on proposed amendments to its...

  14. Thermal Investigation of Interaction between High-power CW-laser Radiation and a Water-jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecher, Christian; Janssen, Henning; Eckert, Markus; Schmidt, Florian

    The technology of a water guided laser beam has been industrially established for micro machining. Pulsed laser radiation is guided via a water jet (diameter: 25-250 μm) using total internal reflection. Due to the cylindrical jet shape the depth of field increases to above 50 mm, enabling parallel kerfs compared to conventional laser systems. However higher material thicknesses and macro geometries cannot be machined economically viable due to low average laser powers. Fraunhofer IPT has successfully combined a high-power continuous-wave (CW) fiber laser (6 kW) and water jet technology. The main challenge of guiding high-power laser radiation in water is the energy transferred to the jet by absorption, decreasing its stability. A model of laser water interaction in the water jet has been developed and validated experimentally. Based on the results an upscaling of system technology to 30 kW is discussed, enabling a high potential in cutting challenging materials at high qualities and high speeds.

  15. Measurement of pressure distributions and velocity fields of water jet intake flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Eun Ho; Yoon, Sang Youl; Kwon, Seong Hoon; Chun, Ho Hwan; Kim, Mun Chan; Kim, Kyung Chun

    2002-01-01

    Waterjet propulsion system can avoid cavitation problem which is being arised conventional propeller propulsion system. The main issue of designing waterjet system is the boundary layer separation at ramp and lib of water inlet. The flow characteristics are highly depended on Jet to Velocity Ratio(JVR) as well as the intake geometry. The present study is conducted in a wind tunnel to provide accurate pressure destribution at the inlet wall and velocity field of the inlet and exit planes. Particle image velocimetry technique is used to obtain detail velocity fields. Pressure distributions and velocity field are discussed with accelerating and deaccelerating flow zones and the effect of JVR

  16. On the preparation of precursors and carriers of nanoparticles by water jet technology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sitek, Libor; Foldyna, Josef; Martinec, Petr; Klich, Jiří; Mašláň, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 3 (2012), s. 465-474 ISSN 1330-3651 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082; GA MPO FR-TI3/733 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA205/08/0869; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M6198959201 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : carriers of nano particles * particle disintegration * precursors of nano particles * water jet Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 0.601, year: 2012 http://hrcak.srce.hr/index.php?show=clanak&id_clanak_jezik=129050

  17. Surface integrity analysis of abrasive water jet-cut surfaces of friction stir welded joints

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kumar, R.; Chattopadhyaya, S.; Dixit, A. R.; Bora, B.; Zeleňák, Michal; Foldyna, Josef; Hloch, Sergej; Hlaváček, Petr; Ščučka, Jiří; Klich, Jiří; Sitek, Libor; Vilaca, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 5 (2017), s. 1687-1701 ISSN 0268-3768 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1406; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : friction stir welding (FSW) * abrasive water jet (AWJ) * optical profilometer * topography * surface roughness Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools OBOR OECD: Mechanical engineering Impact factor: 2.209, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00170-016-8776-0

  18. Potential of using water jet peening as a surface treatment process for welded\

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Srivastava, M.; Tripathi, R.; Hloch, Sergej; Chattopadhyaya, S.; Dixit, A. R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 149, č. 149 (2016), s. 472-480 E-ISSN 1877-7058. [International Conference on Manufacturing Engineering and Materials, ICMEM 2016. Nový Smokovec, 06.06.2016-10.06.2016] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1406 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : water jet * peening * residual stress Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877705816312097

  19. WATER-JET CUTTING MACHINE NOW AVAILABLE FROM THE CERN RAW MATERIALS STORES

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The CERN Raw Materials Stores has recently acquired a new water-jet cutting machine. The machine is capable of cutting all types and shapes of materials up to 70 mm in thickness, with an accuracy of +/- 0.1mm/m. For the time being, users requiring materials to be cut should supply drawings in DXF, DWG or IGES (AutoCad) file format. The machine will be operational as of 1st October 2007. The Stores Team Paulo Dos Santos FI-LS-MM 72308

  20. Cutting with laser beams and water jets. Schneiden mit Laserstrahlung und Wasserstrahl; Anwendung, Erfahrungen, Ausblick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engemann, B.K.; Herbrich, H.; Kessler, B.; Langemann, M.

    1993-01-01

    Cutting with laser beams and water jets left the laboratory stage about 20 years ago and has been used commercially in the last few years to an increasing extent. Both techniques offer a fast and low-cost option for producing materials and components that cannot, or only with difficulty, be worked with mechanical separation methods. The book discusses: Equipment and systems for beam generation; control systems and auxiliary systems; process fundamentals and parameters; applications. The book attempts a comprehensive review of the fields of application of both systems as well as a list of the systems now available on the market. (orig./RHM). 131 figs.

  1. Influence of Variously Modified Surface of Aluminium Alloy on the Effect of Pulsating Water Jet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klich, Jiří; Klichová, Dagmar; Foldyna, Vladimír; Hlaváček, Petr; Foldyna, Josef

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 10 (2017), s. 577-582 ISSN 0039-2480 R&D Projects: GA MPO(CZ) FV10446; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1406; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : pulsating water jet * surface topography * material erosion Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools OBOR OECD: Mechanical engineering Impact factor: 0.914, year: 2016 http://ojs.sv-jme.eu/index.php/sv-jme/ article /view/sv-jme.2017.4356

  2. Effects of Continuous and Pulsating Water Jet on CNT/Concrete Composite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Foldyna, Vladimír; Foldyna, Josef; Klichová, Dagmar; Klich, Jiří; Hlaváček, Petr; Bodnárová, L.; Jarolím, T.; Mamulová Kutláková, K.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 10 (2017), s. 583-589 ISSN 0039-2480 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1406; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082; GA ČR GA15-23219S Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : pulsating and continuous water jet * CNT/concrete composite * material removal Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools OBOR OECD: Civil engineering Impact factor: 0.914, year: 2016 http://ojs.sv-jme.eu/index.php/sv-jme/ article /view/sv-jme.2017.4357

  3. Assessment of three turbulence model performances in predicting water jet flow plunging into a liquid pool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zidouni Kendil Faiza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the current study is to numerically investigate, through computational fluid dynamics modeling, a water jet injected vertically downward through a straight circular pipe into a water bath. The study also aims to obtain a better understanding of jet behavior, air entrainment and the dispersion of bubbles in the developing flow region. For these purposes, three dimensional air and water flows were modeled using the volume of fluid technique. The equations in question were formulated using the density and viscosity of a 'gas-liquid mixture', described in terms of the phase volume fraction. Three turbulence models with a high Reynolds number have been considered i. e. the standard k-e model, realizable k-e model, and Reynolds stress model. The predicted flow patterns for the realizable k-e model match well with experimental measurements found in available literature. Nevertheless, some discrepancies regarding velocity relaxation and turbulent momentum distribution in the pool are still observed for both the standard k-e and the Reynolds stress model.

  4. Applicability of water-jet cutting technology to nuclear facility decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Tadashi; Nisizaki, Tadashi; Matumura, Hiroyuki; Ikemoto, Yosikazu; Simizu, Hideki

    1991-01-01

    In nuclear facilities there exist, besides relatively simple components, such as vessels and piping, numerous complex components including the multilayered plate with water layer in between, a bunch of thin tubes and composite lamination of dissimilar materials like metal/non-metal. In conventional development of reactor dismantling technology, the technology development has been made mainly for remote cutting of thick-walled structures like the reactor pressure vessel and the reactor internals. These techniques, however, are not always suitable in cutting the above-mentioned structures. As means of cutting such structures efficiently, these is available the abrasion water-jet cutting technology. This technology is now drawing attention for cutting or shaping new materials like composite material and ceramics in high precision and high efficiency. In the present report by way of its feasibility in nuclear facilities decommissioning the following are described. Principle and features of the water-jet cutting technology, system con-figuration, cutting or shaping performance, and some examples of the cutting and shaping. (author)

  5. IRAS 18113-2503: THE WATER FOUNTAIN WITH THE FASTEST JET?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, Jose F.; Guerrero, MartIn A.; Ricardo Rizzo, J.; Suarez, Olga; Miranda, Luis F.; Ramos-Larios, Gerardo

    2011-01-01

    We present Expanded Very Large Array water maser observations at 22 GHz toward the source IRAS 18113-2503. Maser components span over a very high velocity range of ≅ 500 km s -1 , the second largest found in a Galactic maser, only surpassed by the high-mass star-forming region W49N. Maser components are grouped into a blueshifted and a redshifted cluster, separated by 0.''12. Further mid-IR and radio data suggest that IRAS 18113-2503 is a post-asymptotic giant branch star, thus a new bona fide member of the rare class of 'water fountains' (WFs). It is the evolved object with the largest total velocity spread in its water masers and with the highest velocity dispersion within its redshifted and blueshifted lobes (≅ 170 km s -1 ). The large total velocity range of emission probably indicates that IRAS 18113-2503 has the fastest jet among the known WF stars. On the other hand, the remarkably high velocity dispersion within each lobe may be interpreted in terms of shocks produced by an episode of mass ejection whose velocity increased up to very high values or, alternatively, by projection effects in a jet with a large opening angle and/or precessing motions.

  6. Investigation of a Water-Pond Arresting of a Dynamic Model of a Jet Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, William C.

    1961-01-01

    Brief dynamic-model tests have been made at the request of the Federal Aviation Agency to investigate the use of a shallow pond of water at the end of a runway as a means of arresting jet-transport aircraft when they are forced to abort on take-off or overrun on landing. Such a scheme is of particular interest for civil aircraft because it requires no modifications or attachments to the airplane and no mechanical devices in the arresting system. A modification of this scheme that uses a flexible plastic cover over the water surface has also been tested. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a dynamic model investigation which would aid in determining whether the water-pond arresting system could be used as a means of arresting airplane overrun.

  7. Experimental Study of the Twin Turbulent Water Jets Using Laser Doppler Anemometry for Validating Numerical Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Huhu; Lee Saya; Hassan, Yassin A.; Ruggles, Arthur E.

    2014-01-01

    The design of next generation (Gen. IV) high-temperature nuclear reactors including gas-cooled and sodium-cooled ones involves massive numerical works especially the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. The high cost of large-scale experiments and the inherent uncertainties existing in the turbulent models and wall functions of any CFD codes solving Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations necessitate the high-spacial experimental data sets for benchmarking the simulation results. In Gen. IV conceptual reactors, the high- temperature flows mix in the upper plenum before entering the secondary cooling system. The mixing condition should be accurately estimated and fully understood as it is related to the thermal stresses induced in the upper plenum and the magnitudes of output power oscillations due to any changes of primary coolant temperature. The purpose of this study is to use Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) technique to measure the flow field of two submerged parallel jets issuing from two rectangular channels. The LDA data sets can be used to validate the corresponding simulation results. The jets studied in this work were at room temperature. The turbulent characteristics including the distributions of mean velocities, turbulence intensities, Reynolds stresses were studied. Uncertainty analysis was also performed to study the errors involved in this experiment. The experimental results in this work are valid for benchmarking any steady-state numerical simulations using turbulence models to solve RANS equations. (author)

  8. Rain erosion of wind turbine blade coatings using discrete water jets: Effects of water cushioning, substrate geometry, impact distance, and coating properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shizhong; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Bernad, Pablo L.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid and reliable rain erosion screening of blade coatings for wind turbines is a strong need in the coatings industry. One possibility in this direction is the use of discrete water jets, where so-called jet slugs are impacted on a coating surface. Previous investigations have mapped...... the influence of water jet slug velocity and impact frequency. In the present work, the effects on coating erosion of water cushioning, substrate curvature, and water nozzle-coating distance were explored. The investigations showed that in some cases water cushioning (the presence of a liquid film...... on the coating surface prior to impact) influences the erosion. Contrary to this, substrate curvature and the water nozzle-coating distance (

  9. Tomographic particle image velocimetry of a water-jet for low volume harvesting of fat tissue for regenerative medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drobek Christoph

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV measurements of a water-jet for water-assisted liposuction (WAL are carried out to investigate the distribution of velocity and therefore momentum and acting force on the human sub-cutaneous fat tissue. These results shall validate CFD simulations and force sensor measurements of the water-jet and support the development of a new WAL device that is able to harvest low volumes of fat tissue for regenerative medicine even gentler than regular WAL devices.

  10. Generation of ultra-fast cumulative water jets by sub-microsecond underwater electrical explosion of conical wire arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafer, D.; Gurovich, V. Tz.; Gleizer, S.; Gruzinsky, K.; Krasik, Ya. E. [Physics Department, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2015-12-15

    The results of experiments with underwater electrical explosion of modified conical arrays of copper and aluminum wires are presented. A pulsed generator producing a 550 kA-amplitude current with a 400 ns rise time was used in the explosion of the arrays. The array explosion generates water flows converging at the axis of the cone. This flow generates a fast-moving water jet with a velocity exceeding 1.8 × 10{sup 5 }cm/s, which was observed being ejected from the surface of the water covering the array. The positions of the water jet were measured by multiple-exposure fast framing imaging. In experiments, the apex angle of the array, the thickness of the water layer above the arrays, or the material of the wires was altered, which changed the resulting velocities and shapes of the emitted jets. A model that considers the converging stationary flow of a slightly compressible fluid is suggested. The velocities and shapes of the jets obtained by this model agree well with the experimentally measured jet velocities.

  11. Behavior of water jet horizontally discharged from a small circular hole set on a circular pipe-surface into air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuyuki, Koji; Igarashi, Saburo; Sudo, Seiichi; Yamabe, Masahiro; Kikuchi, Akira; Oba, Risaburo

    2001-01-01

    In order to clarify the behavior of the water jet horizontally discharged from a small circular hole set on a circular pipe surface into air, in this paper, for the first step, we systematically observed the jet aspects, the efflux angle, the discharge coefficient and so on, when the hole diameter d is much smaller than the pipe diameter D. Since the upstream kinetic energy from the hole is somewhat higher than the downstream counterpart, the upstream partial jet with higher efflux angle crashes into the downstream partial jet and drives out the latter into up- and down-side, resulting in a marked pair of vortices, so that resulting in a three-dimensional spiral flow accompanying with marked surface waves. (author)

  12. A study on practical use of underwater abrasive water jet cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Hitoshi; Demura, Kenji

    1993-09-01

    The practicality of underwater abrasive water jet cutting technology was studied in experiments. A study of abrasives in slurried form showed that optimum polymer concentration can be selected to suit underwater conditions. For the long-distance transport of slurry from the ocean surface to the ocean floor, a direct supply system by hose proved to be practical. This system takes advantage of the insolubility of the slurry in water due to a difference in specific gravity. For cutting thick steel plate at great ocean depths, a simulation with a pressurized container revealed the requirements for actual cutting. Confirmation of remote cutting operations will become the most important technology in field applications. Underwater sound vibration characteristics were found to change significantly in direct response to modifications in cutting conditions. This will be important basic data to develop an effective sensoring method.

  13. Feasibility analysis of the modified ATHLET code for supercritical water cooled systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Chong, E-mail: ch.zhou@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Institute of Fusion and Reactor Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Vincenz-Priessnitz-Str. 3, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Yang Yanhua [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Cheng Xu [Institute of Fusion and Reactor Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Vincenz-Priessnitz-Str. 3, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Modification of system code ATHLET for supercritical water application. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Development and assessment of a heat transfer package for supercritical water. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Validation of the modified code at supercritical pressures with the theoretical point-hydraulics model and the SASC code. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Application of the modified code to LOCA analysis of a supercritical water cooled in-pile fuel qualification test loop. - Abstract: Since the existing thermal-hydraulic computer codes for light water reactors are not applicable to supercritical water cooled reactors (SCWRs) owing to the limitation of physical models and numerical treatments, the development of a reliable thermal-hydraulic computer code is very important to design analysis and safety assessment of SCWRs. Based on earlier modification of ATHLET for SCWR, a general interface is implemented to the code, which serves as the platform for information exchange between ATHLET and the external independent physical modules. A heat transfer package containing five correlations for supercritical water is connected to the ATHLET code through the interface. The correlations are assessed with experimental data. To verify the modified ATHLET code, the Edwards-O'Brian blow-down test is simulated. As first validation at supercritical pressures, a simplified supercritical water cooled loop is modeled and its stability behavior is analyzed. Results are compared with that of the theoretical model and SASC code in the reference and show good agreement. To evaluate its feasibility, the modified ATHLET code is applied to a supercritical water cooled in-pile fuel qualification test loop. Loss of coolant accidents (LOCAs) due to break of coolant supply lines are calculated for the loop. Sensitivity analysis of some safety system parameters is performed to get further knowledge about their influence on the function of the

  14. SWAAM-LT: The long-term, sodium/water reaction analysis method computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Y.W.; Chung, H.H.; Wiedermann, A.H.; Tanabe, H.

    1993-01-01

    The SWAAM-LT Code, developed for analysis of long-term effects of sodium/water reactions, is discussed. The theoretical formulation of the code is described, including the introduction of system matrices for ease of computer programming as a general system code. Also, some typical results of the code predictions for available large scale tests are presented. Test data for the steam generator design with the cover-gas feature and without the cover-gas feature are available and analyzed. The capabilities and limitations of the code are then discussed in light of the comparison between the code prediction and the test data

  15. Effects of wind on the dynamics of the central jet during drop impact onto a deep-water surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinan; Wang, An; Wang, Shuang; Dai, Dejun

    2018-05-01

    The cavity and central jet generated by the impact of a single water drop on a deep-water surface in a wind field are experimentally studied. Different experiments are performed by varying the impacting drop diameter and wind speed. The contour profile histories of the cavity (also called crater) and central jet (also called stalk) are measured in detail with a backlit cinematic shadowgraph technique. The results show that shortly after the drop hits the water surface an asymmetrical cavity appears along the wind direction, with a train of capillary waves on the cavity wall. This is followed by the formation of an inclined central jet at the location of the drop impact. It is found that the wind has little effect on the penetration depth of the cavity at the early stage of the cavity expansion, but markedly changes the capillary waves during the retraction of the cavity. The capillary waves in turn shift the position of the central jet formation leeward. The dynamics of the central jet are dominated by two mechanisms: (i) the oblique drop impact produced by the wind and (ii) the wind drag force directly acting on the jet. The maximum height of the central jet, called the stalk height, is drastically affected by the wind, and the nondimensional stalk height H /D decreases with increasing θ Re-1 , where D is the drop diameter, θ is the impingement angle of drop impact, and Re=ρaUwD /μa is the Reynolds number with air density ρa, wind speed Uw, and air viscosity μa.

  16. 78 FR 47241 - Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan To Revise the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION 18 CFR Part 410 Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan To Revise the Human Health Water Quality Criteria for PCBs in Zones 2... hold a public hearing to receive comments on proposed amendments to the Commission's Water Quality...

  17. Development of safety analysis codes for light water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimoto, Masayuki

    1985-01-01

    An overview is presented of currently used major codes for the prediction of thermohydraulic transients in nuclear power plants. The overview centers on the two-phase fluid dynamics of the coolant system and the assessment of the codes. Some of two-phase phenomena such as phase separation are not still predicted with engineering accuracy. MINCS-PIPE are briefly introduced. The MINCS-PIPE code is to assess constitutive relations and to aid development of various experimental correlations for 1V1T model to 2V2T model. (author)

  18. Far-reaching transport of Pearl River plume water by upwelling jet in the northeastern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhaoyun; Pan, Jiayi; Jiang, Yuwu; Lin, Hui

    2017-09-01

    Satellite images from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) show that there was a belt of turbid water appearing along an upwelling front near the Chinese coast of Guangdong, and indicate that the turbid water of the Pearl River plume water could be transported to a far-reaching area east of the Taiwan Bank. Numerical modeling results are consistent with the satellite observations, and reveal that a strong jet exists at the upwelling front with a speed as high as 0.8 m s- 1, which acts as a pathway for transporting the high-turbidity plume water. The dynamical analysis suggests that geostrophic equilibrium dominates in the upwelling front and plume areas, and the baroclinicity of the upwelling front resulting from the horizontal density gradient is responsible for the generation of the strong jet, which enhances the far-reaching transport of the terrigenous nutrient-rich water of the Pearl River plume. Model sensitivity analyses also confirm that this jet persists as long as the upwelling front exists, even when the wind subsides and becomes insignificant. Further idealized numerical model experiments indicate that the formation and persistence of the upwelling front jet depend on the forcing strength of the upwelling-favorable wind. The formation time of the jet varies from 15 to 158 h as the stress of the upwelling-favorable wind changes from 0.2 to 0.01 N m- 2. With the persistent transport of the nutrient-rich plume water, biophysical activities can be promoted significantly in the far-reaching destination area of the oligotrophic water.

  19. Implementation of the chemical PbLi/water reaction in the SIMMER code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eboli, Marica, E-mail: marica.eboli@for.unipi.it [DICI—University of Pisa, Largo Lucio Lazzarino 2, 56122 Pisa (Italy); Forgione, Nicola [DICI—University of Pisa, Largo Lucio Lazzarino 2, 56122 Pisa (Italy); Del Nevo, Alessandro [ENEA FSN-ING-PAN, CR Brasimone, 40032 Camugnano, BO (Italy)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Updated predictive capabilities of SIMMER-III code. • Verification of the implemented PbLi/Water chemical reactions. • Identification of code capabilities in modelling phenomena relevant to safety. • Validation against BLAST Test No. 5 experimental data successfully completed. • Need for new experimental campaign in support of code validation on LIFUS5/Mod3. - Abstract: The availability of a qualified system code for the deterministic safety analysis of the in-box LOCA postulated accident is of primary importance. Considering the renewed interest for the WCLL breeding blanket, such code shall be multi-phase, shall manage the thermodynamic interaction among the fluids, and shall include the exothermic chemical reaction between lithium-lead and water, generating oxides and hydrogen. The paper presents the implementation of the chemical correlations in SIMMER-III code, the verification of the code model in simple geometries and the first validation activity based on BLAST Test N°5 experimental data.

  20. Implantation of organic matter through water onto solid substrates by a laser induced molecular jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pihosh, Y.; Goto, M.; Kasahara, A.; Tosa, M.

    2008-01-01

    Organic molecular dots were successfully produced by means of a nano second pulsed dye laser on glass and indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates, with sizes of several hundred nanometres. The method involves the transfer of organic molecules from the source Coumarin 6 (C6) and poly [2-methoxy, 5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-p-phenylene-venylene] (MEH-PPV) films onto a target material through a water filled space-gap using a laser induced molecular jet (LIMJ). In this way, the organic dots of Coumarin 6 and MEH-PPV molecules were successfully implanted onto the glass and ITO targets. The present results demonstrate the possibility to significantly improve photo electronic or photoelectric devices such as novel photonic crystal and molecular device sensors, and so on

  1. High Pressure Water Jet System Performance Assessment Project A-2A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FARWICK, C.C.

    1999-01-01

    Performance assessment for canister cleaning system in the KE Basin. Information obtained from this assessment will be used to design any additional equipment used to clean canisters. After thorough review of the design, maintenance history and operational characteristics of the 105 K East (KE) canister cleaning system, Bartlett recommends that the high pressure water jet system (HPWJS) be modified as outlined in section 5.0, and retained for future use. Further, it is recommended that Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project consider use of a graded approach for canister cleaning, based on individual canister type and characteristics. This approach would allow a simple method to be used on canisters not needing the more rigorous, high-pressure method. Justification is provided in section 5.0. Although Bartlett has provided some preliminary cost estimates, it is recommended that SNF Project perform a detailed cost-benefit analysis to weigh the alternatives presented

  2. Visualisation and measurement of high-speed pulsating and continuous water jets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zeleňák, Michal; Foldyna, Josef; Ščučka, Jiří; Hloch, Sergej; Říha, Zdeněk

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 72, August 2015 (2015), s. 1-8 ISSN 0263-2241 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1406; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : pulsating water jet * visualisation * shadowgraph technique * PIV * velocity fields Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 1.742, year: 2015 http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0263224115002353/1-s2.0-S0263224115002353-main.pdf?_tid=9dc7546a-038d-11e5-aa7e-00000aacb35f&acdnat=1432634427_ac85457bc49d2f3e26fb280e7d21f687

  3. Application of thermophilic enzymes and water jet system to cassava pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaikaew, Siriporn; Maeno, Yuka; Visessanguan, Wonnop; Ogura, Kota; Sugino, Gaku; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Ishikawa, Kazuhiko

    2012-12-01

    Co-production of fermentable sugars and nanofibrillated cellulose from cassava pulp was achieved by the combination of thermophilic enzymes (endoglucanase, β-glucosidase, and α-amylase) and a new atomization system (Star Burst System; SBS), which employs opposing water jets. The SBS represents a key technology for providing cellulose nanofibers and improving the enzymatic saccharification of cassava pulp. Depending on the enzymes used, the production of glucose from cassava pulp treated with the SBS was 1.2- to 2.5-fold higher than that from pulp not treated with the SBS. Nanofibrillated cellulose with the gel-like property in suspension was produced (yield was over 90%) by α-amylase treatment, which completely released trapped starch granules from the fibrous cell wall structure of cassava pulp pretreated with the SBS. The SBS provides an environmentally low-impact pretreatment system for processing biomass material into value-added products. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Radiant Energy Measurements from a Scaled Jet Engine Axisymmetric Exhaust Nozzle for a Baseline Code Validation Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, Joseph F.

    1994-01-01

    A non-flowing, electrically heated test rig was developed to verify computer codes that calculate radiant energy propagation from nozzle geometries that represent aircraft propulsion nozzle systems. Since there are a variety of analysis tools used to evaluate thermal radiation propagation from partially enclosed nozzle surfaces, an experimental benchmark test case was developed for code comparison. This paper briefly describes the nozzle test rig and the developed analytical nozzle geometry used to compare the experimental and predicted thermal radiation results. A major objective of this effort was to make available the experimental results and the analytical model in a format to facilitate conversion to existing computer code formats. For code validation purposes this nozzle geometry represents one validation case for one set of analysis conditions. Since each computer code has advantages and disadvantages based on scope, requirements, and desired accuracy, the usefulness of this single nozzle baseline validation case can be limited for some code comparisons.

  5. Analysis on oscillating actuator frequency influence of the fluid flow characterization for 2D contractile water jet thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaari, M. F.; Abu Bakar, H.; Nordin, N.; Saw, S. K.; Samad, Z.

    2013-12-01

    Contractile body is an alternative mechanism instead of rotating blade propeller to generate water jet for locomotion. The oscillating motion of the actuator at different frequencies varies the pressure and volume of the pressure chamber in time to draw in and jet out the water at a certain mass flow rate. The aim of this research was to analyze the influence of the actuating frequency of the fluid flow in the pressure chamber of the thruster during this inflation-deflation process. A 70mm × 70mm × 18mm (L × W × T) 2D water jet thruster was fabricated for this purpose. The contractile function was driven using two lateral pneumatic actuators where the fluid flow analysis was focused on the X-Y plane vector. Observation was carried out using a video camera and Matlab image measurement technique to determine the volume of the flowing mass. The result demonstrated that the greater actuating frequency decreases the fluid flow rate and the Reynolds number. This observation shows that the higher frequency would give a higher mass flow rate during water jet generation.

  6. Structure Optimization and Numerical Simulation of Nozzle for High Pressure Water Jetting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuce Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Three kinds of nozzles normally used in industrial production are numerically simulated, and the structure of nozzle with the best jetting performance out of the three nozzles is optimized. The R90 nozzle displays the most optimal jetting properties, including the smooth transition of the nozzle’s inner surface. Simulation results of all sample nozzles in this study show that the helix nozzle ultimately displays the best jetting performance. Jetting velocity magnitude along Y and Z coordinates is not symmetrical for the helix nozzle. Compared to simply changing the jetting angle, revolving the jet issued from the helix nozzle creates a grinding wheel on the cleaning surface, which makes not only an impact effect but also a shearing action on the cleaning object. This particular shearing action improves the cleaning process overall and forms a wider, effective cleaning range, thus obtaining a broader jet width.

  7. RELAP5-3D Code for Supercritical-Pressure Light-Water-Cooled Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riemke, Richard Allan; Davis, Cliff Bybee; Schultz, Richard Raphael

    2003-04-01

    The RELAP5-3D computer program has been improved for analysis of supercritical-pressure, light-water-cooled reactors. Several code modifications were implemented to correct code execution failures. Changes were made to the steam table generation, steam table interpolation, metastable states, interfacial heat transfer coefficients, and transport properties (viscosity and thermal conductivity). The code modifications now allow the code to run slow transients above the critical pressure as well as blowdown transients (modified Edwards pipe and modified existing pressurized water reactor model) that pass near the critical point.

  8. Benchmarking Severe Accident Computer Codes for Heavy Water Reactor Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-12-01

    Requests for severe accident investigations and assurance of mitigation measures have increased for operating nuclear power plants and the design of advanced nuclear power plants. Severe accident analysis investigations necessitate the analysis of the very complex physical phenomena that occur sequentially during various stages of accident progression. Computer codes are essential tools for understanding how the reactor and its containment might respond under severe accident conditions. The IAEA organizes coordinated research projects (CRPs) to facilitate technology development through international collaboration among Member States. The CRP on Benchmarking Severe Accident Computer Codes for HWR Applications was planned on the advice and with the support of the IAEA Nuclear Energy Department's Technical Working Group on Advanced Technologies for HWRs (the TWG-HWR). This publication summarizes the results from the CRP participants. The CRP promoted international collaboration among Member States to improve the phenomenological understanding of severe core damage accidents and the capability to analyse them. The CRP scope included the identification and selection of a severe accident sequence, selection of appropriate geometrical and boundary conditions, conduct of benchmark analyses, comparison of the results of all code outputs, evaluation of the capabilities of computer codes to predict important severe accident phenomena, and the proposal of necessary code improvements and/or new experiments to reduce uncertainties. Seven institutes from five countries with HWRs participated in this CRP

  9. Conceptual design and optimization for JET water detritiation system cryo-distillation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefebvre, X.; Hollingsworth, A.; Parracho, A.; Dalgliesh, P.; Butler, B.; Smith, R.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the Exhaust Detritiation System (EDS) of the JET Active Gas Handling System (AGHS) is to convert all Q-based species (Q 2 , Q-hydrocarbons) into Q 2 O (Q being indifferently H, D or T) which is then trapped on molecular sieve beds (MSB). Regenerating the saturated MSBs leads to the production of tritiated water which is stored in Briggs drums. An alternative disposal solution to offsite shipping, is to process the tritiated water onsite via the implementation of a Water Detritiation System (WDS) based, in part, on the combination of an electrolyser and a cryo-distillation (CD) facility. The CD system will separate a Q 2 mixture into a de-tritiated hydrogen stream for safe release and a tritiated stream for further processing on existing AGHS subsystems. A sensitivity study of the Souers' model using the simulation program ProSimPlus (edited by ProSim S.A.) has then been undertaken in order to perform an optimised dimensioning of the cryo-distillation system in terms of available cooling technologies, cost of investment, cost of operations, process performance and safety. (authors)

  10. Conceptual design and optimization for JET water detritiation system cryo-distillation facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefebvre, X.; Hollingsworth, A.; Parracho, A.; Dalgliesh, P.; Butler, B.; Smith, R. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Center, Abingdon, Oxon (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-15

    The aim of the Exhaust Detritiation System (EDS) of the JET Active Gas Handling System (AGHS) is to convert all Q-based species (Q{sub 2}, Q-hydrocarbons) into Q{sub 2}O (Q being indifferently H, D or T) which is then trapped on molecular sieve beds (MSB). Regenerating the saturated MSBs leads to the production of tritiated water which is stored in Briggs drums. An alternative disposal solution to offsite shipping, is to process the tritiated water onsite via the implementation of a Water Detritiation System (WDS) based, in part, on the combination of an electrolyser and a cryo-distillation (CD) facility. The CD system will separate a Q{sub 2} mixture into a de-tritiated hydrogen stream for safe release and a tritiated stream for further processing on existing AGHS subsystems. A sensitivity study of the Souers' model using the simulation program ProSimPlus (edited by ProSim S.A.) has then been undertaken in order to perform an optimised dimensioning of the cryo-distillation system in terms of available cooling technologies, cost of investment, cost of operations, process performance and safety. (authors)

  11. Experimental study of hydrogen jet ignition and jet extinguishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wierman, R.W.

    1979-04-01

    Two phases are described of an experimental study that investigated: (1) the ignition characteristics of hydrogen--sodium jets, (2) the formation of hydrogen in sodium--humid air atmospheres, and (3) the extinguishment characteristics of burning hydrogen--sodium jets. Test conditions were similar to those postulated for highly-improbable breeder reactor core melt-through accidents and included: jet temperature, jet velocity, jet hydrogen concentration, jet sodium concentration, atmospheric oxygen concentration, and atmospheric water vapor concentration

  12. Code Development in Coupled PARCS/RELAP5 for Supercritical Water Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The new capability is added to the existing coupled code package PARCS/RELAP5, in order to analyze SCWR design under supercritical pressure with the separated water coolant and moderator channels. This expansion is carried out on both codes. In PARCS, modification is focused on extending the water property tables to supercritical pressure, modifying the variable mapping input file and related code module for processing thermal-hydraulic information from separated coolant/moderator channels, and modifying neutronics feedback module to deal with the separated coolant/moderator channels. In RELAP5, modification is focused on incorporating more accurate water properties near SCWR operation/transient pressure and temperature in the code. Confirming tests of the modifications is presented and the major analyzing results from the extended codes package are summarized.

  13. Surface Water Modeling Using an EPA Computer Code for Tritiated Waste Water Discharge from the heavy Water Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.F.

    1998-06-01

    Tritium releases from the D-Area Heavy Water Facilities to the Savannah River have been analyzed. The U.S. EPA WASP5 computer code was used to simulate surface water transport for tritium releases from the D-Area Drum Wash, Rework, and DW facilities. The WASP5 model was qualified with the 1993 tritium measurements at U.S. Highway 301. At the maximum tritiated waste water concentrations, the calculated tritium concentration in the Savannah River at U.S. Highway 301 due to concurrent releases from D-Area Heavy Water Facilities varies from 5.9 to 18.0 pCi/ml as a function of the operation conditions of these facilities. The calculated concentration becomes the lowest when the batch releases method for the Drum Wash Waste Tanks is adopted

  14. LWR-WIMS, a computer code for light water reactor lattice calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsall, M.J.

    1982-06-01

    LMR-WIMS is a comprehensive scheme of computation for studying the reactor physics aspects and burnup behaviour of typical lattices of light water reactors. This report describes the physics methods that have been incorporated in the code, and the modifications that have been made since the code was issued in 1972. (U.K.)

  15. In situ remediation of Jet A in soil and ground water by high vacuum, dual phase extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirshner, M.; Pressly, N.C.; Roth, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes the initial results of subsurface remediation at Terminal 1, Kennedy International Airport, to remediate soil and ground water contaminated with Jet A fuel. The project was driven and constrained by the construction schedule of a major new terminal at the facility. The remediation system used a combination of ground water pumping, air injection, and soil vapor extraction. In the first five months of operation, the combined processes of dewatering, volatilization, and biodegradation removed a total of 36,689 pounds of total volatile and semivolatile organic jet fuel hydrocarbons from subsurface soil and ground water. The results of this case study have shown that 62% of the removal resulted from biodegradation, 27% occurred as a result of liquid removal, and 11% resulted from the extraction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

  16. The Research into the Quality of Rock Surfaces Obtained by Abrasive Water Jet Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Młynarczuk, Mariusz; Skiba, Marta; Sitek, Libor; Hlaváček, Petr; Kožušníková, Alena

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, water jet cutting technology has been being used more and more often, in various domains of human activity. Its numerous applications include cutting different materials - among them, rock materials. The present paper discusses the results of the research that aimed at determining - in a quantitative manner - the way in which the water jet cutting parameters (such as the traverse speed of the head, and the distance between the high-pressure inlet of the water jet and the cut material) influence the quality of the processed surface. Additionally, the impact of these parameters on the surface of various materials was investigated. The materials used were three granites differing with respect to the size of grains. In the course of the research, the standard parameters defined by the ISO norms were analyzed. It was also proposed that variograms be used to analyze the quality of the cut surface. Technologia cięcia strumieniem wodnym staje się w ostatnich latach coraz intensywniej wykorzystywana w różnych dziedzinach działalności człowieka. Jest ona wykorzystywana do obróbki różnorodnych materiałów, również materiałów skalnych. W ramach badań analizowano trzy granity różniące się m.in. wielkościami ziarn, które były przecinane przy różnych prędkościach przesuwu głowicy z wlotem strumienia wodnego. Analizowano standardowe parametry zdefiniowane w normach ISO jak również zaproponowano wykorzystanie wariogramów do analizy jakości wyciętej powierzchni. W pracy opisano w sposób ilościowy zmiany jakości powierzchni skał ciętych strumieniem wodnym ze ścierniwem w zależności od prędkości przesuwu głowicy, jak również w zależności od odległości przecinanego fragmentu powierzchni od wlotu strumienia wodnego do materiału. Wyniki uzyskane w pomiarach wskazują też na wpływ wielkości uziarnienia skały na jakość otrzymanej powierzchni. Jest to szczególnie widoczne dla najmniej optymalnych parametrów ci

  17. Separation and reconstruction of high pressure water-jet reflective sound signal based on ICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongtao; Sun, Yuling; Li, Meng; Zhang, Dongsu; Wu, Tianfeng

    2011-12-01

    The impact of high pressure water-jet on the different materials target will produce different reflective mixed sound. In order to reconstruct the reflective sound signals distribution on the linear detecting line accurately and to separate the environment noise effectively, the mixed sound signals acquired by linear mike array were processed by ICA. The basic principle of ICA and algorithm of FASTICA were described in detail. The emulation experiment was designed. The environment noise signal was simulated by using band-limited white noise and the reflective sound signal was simulated by using pulse signal. The reflective sound signal attenuation produced by the different distance transmission was simulated by weighting the sound signal with different contingencies. The mixed sound signals acquired by linear mike array were synthesized by using the above simulated signals and were whitened and separated by ICA. The final results verified that the environment noise separation and the reconstruction of the detecting-line sound distribution can be realized effectively.

  18. Influence of Water-jet Nozzle Geometry on Cutting Ability of Soft Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwansyah Irwansyah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Hygiene is main reason for food processor to use waterjet cutting system. Traditionally food cutting process is low-quality, unsafe products, procedures and direct contact between product and labor. This paper introduced a low cost waterjet system for cutting soft material as identic food material. The low cost waterjet system has been developed by using a commercial pressure pump for cleaning purposes and modified nozzle. In order to enhance waterjet pressure for cutting products, a modified waterjet nozzle was designed. Paramater design of waterjet system was setup on nozzle orifice diameter 0.5 mm, standoff distance 15 mm, length of nozzle cylindrical tube 2.5 mm. Polycarbonate, polysterene, and polyethelene materials are used as sample product with thickness 2 mm, to represent similar properties with agriculture products. The experimental results indicate good possibilities of waterjet system to cut material in appropriate profile surface. The waterjet also can be used to improve cutting finished surface of food products. Therefore, utilizing a low cost commercial pump and modified nozzle for waterjet system reduces equipment price, operational cost and environmental hazards. It indicates viable technology applied to substitute traditional cutting technology in post harvest agriculture products. Keywords: cutting ability, modified nozzle, polymer material, water-jet system

  19. Hazardous waste retrieval strategies using a high-pressure water jet scarifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatchell, B.K.; Rinker, M.W.; Mullen, O.D.

    1995-08-01

    The Waste Dislodging and Conveyance Program is sponsored by the US Department of Energy Office of Technology Development to investigate waste dislodging and conveyance processes suitable for the retrieval of high-level radioactive waste. This program, represented by industry, national laboratories, and academia, has proposed a baseline technology of high-pressure water jet dislodging and pneumatic conveyance integrated as a scarifier as a means of retrieval of waste inside Hanford single-shell tanks. A testing program has been initiated to investigate system deployment techniques to determine appropriate mining strategies, level of control, sensor requirements, and address integration issues associated with deploying the scarifier by a long robotic manipulator arm. A test facility denoted the Hydraulics Testbed (HTB) is being constructed to achieve these objectives and to allow longer-duration, multiple-pass tests on large waste fields using a versatile gantry-style manipulator. Mining strategy tests with materials simulating salt cake and sludge waste forms will be conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of mining strategies, forces related to scarifier and conveyance line, and retrieval rate. This paper will describe the testbed facility and testing program and present initial test results to date

  20. Laser Doppler vibrometry experiment on a piezo-driven slot synthetic jet in water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broučková Zuzana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with a slot synthetic jet (SJ issuing from an actuator into quiescent surroundings and driven by a piezoceramic transducer. The actuator slot width was 0.36 mm, with a drive frequency proposed near the theoretical natural frequency of the actuator. The working fluid was water at room temperature. The present experiments used flow visualization (a laser-induced fluorescence technique and laser Doppler vibrometry methods. Flow visualization was used to identify SJ formation, to demonstrate its function, and to estimate SJ velocity. Laser Doppler vibrometry was used to quantify diaphragm displacement and refine operating parameters. Phase averaging yielded a spatial and temporal diaphragm deflection during the actuation period. Taking incompressibility and continuity into consideration, the velocity in the actuator slot and the Reynolds number of the SJ were evaluated as 0.21 m/s and 157, respectively. The present results confirmed a SJ actuator function at the resonance frequency of approximately 46 Hz, which corresponds closely with the theoretical evaluation. The laser Doppler vibrometry results corresponded closely with an estimation of SJ velocity by the present flow visualization.

  1. 78 FR 58985 - Proposed Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan To Update...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ..., Water Code and Comprehensive Plan to update stream quality objectives (also called ``water quality..., to Commission Secretary at 609-883-9522; if by U.S. Mail, to Commission Secretary, DRBC, P.O. Box...-7203. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background. The Commission in 1967 assigned stream quality objectives...

  2. Trans-umbilical endoscopic cholecystectomy with a water-jet hybrid-knife: a pilot animal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Sheng-Jun; Shi, Hong; Swar, Gyanendra; Wang, Hai-Xia; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Wang, Yong-Guang

    2013-10-28

    To investigate the feasibility and safety of Natural orifice trans-umbilical endoscopic cholecystectomy with a water-jet hybrid-knife in a non-survival porcine model. Pure natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) cholecystectomy was performed on three non-survival pigs, by transumbilical approach, using a water-jet hybrid-knife. Under general anesthesia, the following steps detailed the procedure: (1) incision of the umbilicus followed by the passage of a double-channel flexible endoscope through an overtube into the peritoneal cavity; (2) establishment of pneumoperitoneum; (3) abdominal exploration; (4) endoscopic cholecystectomy: dissection of the gallbladder performed using water jet equipment, ligation of the cystic artery and duct conducted using nylon loops; and (5) necropsy with macroscopic evaluation. Transumbilical endoscopic cholecystectomy was successfully completed in the first and third pig, with minor bleedings. The dissection times were 137 and 42 min, respectively. The total operation times were 167 and 69 min, respectively. And the lengths of resected specimen were 6.5 and 6.1 cm, respectively. Instillation of the fluid into the gallbladder bed produced edematous, distended tissue making separation safe and easy. Reliable ligation using double nylon loops insured the safety of cutting between the loops. There were no intraoperative complications or hemodynamic instability. Uncontrolled introperative bleeding occurred in the second case, leading to the operation failure. Pure NOTES trans-umbilical cholecystectomy with a water-jet hybrid-knife appears to be feasible and safe. Further investigation of this technique with long-term follow-up in animals is needed to confirm the preliminary observation.

  3. Pseudomonas aeruginosa outbreak in a pediatric oncology care unit caused by an errant water jet into contaminated siphons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Henriette; Geginat, Gernot; Hogardt, Michael; Kramer, Alexandra; Dürken, Matthias; Schroten, Horst; Tenenbaum, Tobias

    2012-06-01

    We analyzed an outbreak of invasive infections with an exotoxin U positive Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain within a pediatric oncology care unit. Environmental sampling and molecular characterization of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains led to identification of the outbreak source. An errant water jet into the sink within patient rooms was observed. Optimized outbreak management resulted in an abundance of further Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections within the pediatric oncology care unit.

  4. Reactor Safety Commission Code of Practice for Pressurized Water Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The Reactor Safety Commission of the Federal German Republic has summarized in the form of Official Guidelines the safety requirements which, in the Commission's view, have to be met in the design, construction and operation of a nuclear power station equipped with a pressurized water reactor. The Third Edition of the RSK Guidelines for pressurized water reactors dated 14.10.81. is a revised and expanded version of the Second Edition dated 24.1.79. The Reactor Safety Commission will with effect from October 1981 use these Guidelines in consultations on the siting of and safety concept for the installation approval of future pressurized water reactors and will assess these nuclear power stations during their erection in the light of these Guidelines. They have not however been immediately conceived for the adaptation of existing nuclear power stations, whether under construction or in operation. The scope of application of these Guidelines to such nuclear power stations will have to be examined for each individual case. The main aim of the Guidelines is to simplify the consultation process within the reactor Safety Commission and to provide early advice on the safety requirements considered necessary by the Commission. (author)

  5. Breakup Behavior of Molten Wood's Metal Jet in Subcooled Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Hyo; Park, Seong Dae; Bang, In Cheol [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Jerng, Dong Wook [Chung-Ang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    There are safety characteristics of the metal fueled sodium fast-cooled reactor (SFR), by identifying the possibility of early termination of severe accidents. If the molten fuel is ejected from the cladding, the ejected molten fuel can interact with the coolant in the reactor vessel. This phenomenon is called as fuel-coolant interaction (FCI). The FCI occurs at the initial phase leading to severe accidents like core disruptive accident (CDA) in the SFR. A part of the corium energy is intensively transferred to the coolant in a very short time during the FCI. The coolant vaporizes at high pressure and expands so results in steam explosion that can threat to the integrity of nuclear reactor. The intensity of steam explosion is determined by jet breakup and the fragmentation behavior. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the jet breakup between the molten fuel jet and the coolant in order to evaluate whether the steam explosion occurs or not. The liquid jet breakup has been studied in various areas, such as aerosols, spray and combustion. In early studies, small diameter jets of low density liquids were studied. The jet breakup for large density liquids has been studied in nuclear reactor field with respect to safety. The existence of vapor film layer between the melt and liquid fluid is only in case of large density breakup. This paper deals with the jet breakup experiment in non-boiling conditions in order to analyze hydraulic effect on the jet behavior. In the present study, the wood's metal was used as the jet material. It has similar properties to the metal fuel. The physical properties of molten materials and coolants are listed in Table I, respectively. It is easy to conduct the experiment due to low melting point of the wood's metal. In order to clarify the dominant factors determining jet breakup and size distribution of the debris, the experiment that the molten wood's metal was injected into the subcooled condition was conducted. The

  6. Light water reactor fuel analysis code FEMAXI-7; model and structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Motoe; Udagawa, Yutaka; Saitou, Hiroaki

    2011-03-01

    A light water reactor fuel analysis code FEMAXI-7 has been developed for the purpose of analyzing the fuel behavior in both normal conditions and anticipated transient conditions. This code is an advanced version which has been produced by incorporating the former version FEMAXI-6 with numerous functional improvements and extensions. In FEMAXI-7, many new models have been added and parameters have been clearly arranged. Also, to facilitate effective maintenance and accessibility of the code, modularization of subroutines and functions have been attained, and quality comment descriptions of variables or physical quantities have been incorporated in the source code. With these advancements, the FEMAXI-7 code has been upgraded to a versatile analytical tool for high burnup fuel behavior analyses. This report describes in detail the design, basic theory and structure, models and numerical method, and improvements and extensions. (author)

  7. Light water reactor fuel analysis code FEMAXI-7. Model and structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Motoe; Udagawa, Yutaka; Nagase, Fumihisa; Saitou, Hiroaki

    2013-07-01

    A light water reactor fuel analysis code FEMAXI-7 has been developed for the purpose of analyzing the fuel behavior in both normal conditions and anticipated transient conditions. This code is an advanced version which has been produced by incorporating the former version FEMAXI-6 with numerous functional improvements and extensions. In FEMAXI-7, many new models have been added and parameters have been clearly arranged. Also, to facilitate effective maintenance and accessibility of the code, modularization of subroutines and functions have been attained, and quality comment descriptions of variables or physical quantities have been incorporated in the source code. With these advancements, the FEMAXI-7 code has been upgraded to a versatile analytical tool for high burnup fuel behavior analyses. This report describes in detail the design, basic theory and structure, models and numerical method of FEMAXI-7, and its improvements and extensions. (author)

  8. Light water reactor fuel analysis code FEMAXI-IV(Ver.2). Detailed structure and user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Motoe; Saitou, Hiroaki.

    1997-11-01

    A light water reactor fuel behavior analysis code FEMAXI-IV(Ver.2) was developed as an improved version of FEMAXI-IV. Development of FEMAXI-IV has been already finished in 1992, though a detailed structure and input manual of the code have not been open to users yet. Here, the basic theories and structure, the models and numerical solutions applied to FEMAXI-IV(Ver.2), and the material properties adopted in the code are described in detail. In FEMAXI-IV(Ver.2), programming bugs in previous FEMAXI-IV were eliminated, renewal of the pellet thermal conductivity was performed, and a model of thermal-stress restraint on FP gas release was incorporated. For facilitation of effective and wide-ranging application of the code, methods of input/output of the code are also described in detail, and sample output is included. (author)

  9. The effect of water jet lancing on furnace wall tubes of high slagged deposit fuel-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliev, V V; Kovalevitch, I A; Maidanik, M N [All-Union Heat Engineering Institute, Siberian Branch, Krasnoyarsk (USSR)

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the results of investigating the effectiveness of water jet lancing on furnace wall tubes of slagged deposits fuels fired boilers type E-500, P-64, P-67 are given. The boilers of these types are designed to burn Jugoslavian lignites are Beresovo lignites of the Kansk-Achinsk deposits. Recommendations for usage of low retractable, long retractable and long-range water blowers, depending on the design, produced in the USSR, the furnace dimension and stability of deposits are given as well.

  10. Simulation of a high-pressure water jet structure as an innovative tool for pulverizing copper ore in KGHM Polska Miedź S.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Józef Borkowski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective comminution of copper ore for further processing during flotation is still a challenge, both as a technological problem as well as for the high energy costs of such processing.A high-pressure water jet is one alternative method of preparing copper ore for final flotation, causing distinct enlargement of the surface of micronized particles, which could be profitable for copper production.As a consequence of such innovative processing, particles of copper ore become micronized, ensuring grain fractions directly useful for flotation at the exit of the pulverizing apparatus (the hydro-jetting mill.The paper presents some results of simulation as well as describing an analysis of the phenomena occurring inside the high-pressure water and abrasive-water jets of specific structures, elaborated in the aspect of developing hybrid jets of maximum erosive efficiency, potentially useful for effective pulverization.

  11. Error analysis of supercritical water correlations using ATHLET system code under DHT conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuel, J., E-mail: jeffrey.samuel@uoit.ca [Univ. of Ontario Inst. of Tech., Oshawa, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    The thermal-hydraulic computer code ATHLET (Analysis of THermal-hydraulics of LEaks and Transients) is used for analysis of anticipated and abnormal plant transients, including safety analysis of Light Water Reactors (LWRs) and Russian Graphite-Moderated High Power Channel-type Reactors (RBMKs). The range of applicability of ATHLET has been extended to supercritical water by updating the fluid-and transport-properties packages, thus enabling the code to the used in analysis of SuperCritical Water-cooled Reactors (SCWRs). Several well-known heat-transfer correlations for supercritical fluids were added to the ATHLET code and a numerical model was created to represent an experimental test section. In this work, the error in the Heat Transfer Coefficient (HTC) calculation by the ATHLET model is studied along with the ability of the various correlations to predict different heat transfer regimes. (author)

  12. Development of computer code on sodium-water reaction products transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arikawa, H.; Yoshioka, N.; Suemori, M.; Nishida, K.

    1988-01-01

    The LMFBR concept eliminating the secondary sodium system has been considered to be one of the most promissing concepts for offering cost reductions. In this reactor concept, the evaluation of effects on reactor core by the sodium-water reaction products (SWRPs) during sodium-water reaction at primary steam generator becomes one of the major safety issues. In this study, the calculation code was developed as the first step of the processes of establishing the evaluation method for SWRP effects. The calculation code, called SPROUT, simulates the SWRPs transport and distribution in primary sodium system using the system geometry, thermal hydraulic data and sodium-water reacting conditions as input. This code principally models SWRPs behavior. The paper contain the modelings for SWRPs behaviors, with solution, precipation, deposition and so on, and the results and discussions of the demonstration calculation for a typical FBR plant eliminating the secondary sodium system

  13. Analyses for experiment on sodium-water reaction temperature by the CHAMPAGNE code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Naoki; Kishida, Masako; Yamada, Yumi

    2000-03-01

    In this work, analyses on sodium-water reaction temperature in the new SWAT-1(SWAT-1R) test were completed by the CHAMPAGNE code in order to understand void and velocity distribution in sodium system, which was difficult to be measured in experiments. The application method of the RELAP5/Mod2 code was investigated to LMFBR steam generator (SG) blow down analysis, too. The following results were obtained. (1) Analyses on sodium-water reaction temperature in the SWAT-1R test. 1) Analyses were carried out for the SWAT-1R test under the condition water leak rate 600 g/s by treating the pressure loss coefficient, the interface friction coefficient and the coefficient related to reaction rate as parameters. The effect and mechanism of each parameter on the shape of reaction zone were well understood by these analyses. 2) The void and velocity distribution in sodium system were estimated by use of the most suitable parameters. These analytical results are expected to be useful for planning of the SWAT-1R test and evaluation of test result. (2) Investigation of the RELAP5/Mod2 code. 1) The items to be improved in the RELAP5/Mod2 code were clarified to apply this code to the FBR SG blow down analysis. 2) One of these items was an addition of the shell-side (sodium-side) model. A sodium-side model was designed and added to the RELAP5/Mod2 code. Test calculations were carried out by this improved code and the basic function of this code was confirmed. (author)

  14. CFD Code Validation against Stratified Air-Water Flow Experimental Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Terzuoli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Pressurized thermal shock (PTS modelling has been identified as one of the most important industrial needs related to nuclear reactor safety. A severe PTS scenario limiting the reactor pressure vessel (RPV lifetime is the cold water emergency core cooling (ECC injection into the cold leg during a loss of coolant accident (LOCA. Since it represents a big challenge for numerical simulations, this scenario was selected within the European Platform for Nuclear Reactor Simulations (NURESIM Integrated Project as a reference two-phase problem for computational fluid dynamics (CFDs code validation. This paper presents a CFD analysis of a stratified air-water flow experimental investigation performed at the Institut de Mécanique des Fluides de Toulouse in 1985, which shares some common physical features with the ECC injection in PWR cold leg. Numerical simulations have been carried out with two commercial codes (Fluent and Ansys CFX, and a research code (NEPTUNE CFD. The aim of this work, carried out at the University of Pisa within the NURESIM IP, is to validate the free surface flow model implemented in the codes against experimental data, and to perform code-to-code benchmarking. Obtained results suggest the relevance of three-dimensional effects and stress the importance of a suitable interface drag modelling.

  15. CFD Code Validation against Stratified Air-Water Flow Experimental Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terzuoli, F.; Galassi, M.C.; Mazzini, D.; D'Auria, F.

    2008-01-01

    Pressurized thermal shock (PTS) modelling has been identified as one of the most important industrial needs related to nuclear reactor safety. A severe PTS scenario limiting the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) lifetime is the cold water emergency core cooling (ECC) injection into the cold leg during a loss of coolant accident (LOCA). Since it represents a big challenge for numerical simulations, this scenario was selected within the European Platform for Nuclear Reactor Simulations (NURESIM) Integrated Project as a reference two-phase problem for computational fluid dynamics (CFDs) code validation. This paper presents a CFD analysis of a stratified air-water flow experimental investigation performed at the Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse in 1985, which shares some common physical features with the ECC injection in PWR cold leg. Numerical simulations have been carried out with two commercial codes (Fluent and Ansys CFX), and a research code (NEPTUNE CFD). The aim of this work, carried out at the University of Pisa within the NURESIM IP, is to validate the free surface flow model implemented in the codes against experimental data, and to perform code-to-code benchmarking. Obtained results suggest the relevance of three-dimensional effects and stress the importance of a suitable interface drag modelling

  16. Verification of the LWRARC code for light-water-reactor afterheat rate calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, B.D.

    1998-02-01

    This report describes verification studies carried out on the LWRARC (Light-Water-Reactor Afterheat Rate Calculations) computer code. The LWRARC code is proposed for automating the implementation of procedures specified in Draft Revision 1 of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guide 3.54, open-quotes Spent-Fuel Heat Generation in an Independent Spent-Fuel Storage Installation,close quotes which gives guidelines on the calculation of decay heat for spent nuclear fuel. Draft Regulatory Guide 3.54 allows one to estimate decay-heat values by means of a table lookup procedure with interpolation performed between table-entry values. The tabulated values of the relevant parameters span ranges that are appropriate for spent fuel from a boiling-water reactor (BWR) or a pressurized-water reactor (PWR), as the case may be, and decay-heat rates are obtained for spent fuel whose properties are within those parameter limits. In some instances, where these limits are either exceeded or where they approach critical regions, adjustments are invoked following table lookup. The LWRARC computer code is intended to replicate the manual process just described. In the code, the table lookup is done by entering a database and carrying out interpolations. The code then determines if adjustments apply, and, if this is the case, adjustment factors are calculated separately. The manual procedures in the Draft Regulatory Guide have been validated (i.e., they produce results that are good estimates of reality). The work reported in this document verifies that the LWRARC code replicates the manual procedures of the Draft Regulatory Guide, and that the code, taken together with the Draft Regulatory Guide, can support both verification and validation processes

  17. A Mixed Methods Approach to Code Stakeholder Beliefs in Urban Water Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, E. V.; Henry, A.; Pivo, G.

    2017-12-01

    What is a reliable way to code policies to represent belief systems? The Advocacy Coalition Framework posits that public policy may be viewed as manifestations of belief systems. Belief systems include both ontological beliefs about cause-and-effect relationships and policy effectiveness, as well as normative beliefs about appropriate policy instruments and the relative value of different outcomes. The idea that belief systems are embodied in public policy is important for urban water governance because it trains our focus on belief conflict; this can help us understand why many water-scarce cities do not adopt innovative technology despite available scientific information. To date, there has been very little research on systematic, rigorous methods to measure the belief system content of public policies. We address this by testing the relationship between beliefs and policy participation to develop an innovative coding framework. With a focus on urban water governance in Tucson, Arizona, we analyze grey literature on local water management. Mentioned policies are coded into a typology of common approaches identified in urban water governance literature, which include regulation, education, price and non-price incentives, green infrastructure and other types of technology. We then survey local water stakeholders about their perceptions of these policies. Urban water governance requires coordination of organizations from multiple sectors, and we cannot assume that belief development and policy participation occur in a vacuum. Thus, we use a generalized exponential random graph model to test the relationship between perceptions and policy participation in the Tucson water governance network. We measure policy perceptions for organizations by averaging across their respective, affiliated respondents and generating a belief distance matrix of coordinating network participants. Similarly, we generate a distance matrix of these actors based on the frequency of their

  18. Water property lookup table (sanwat) for use with the two-phase computational code shaft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherman, M.P.; Eaton, R.R.

    1980-10-01

    A lookup table for water thermodynamic and transport properties (SANWAT) has been constructed for use with the two-phase computational code, SHAFT. The table, which uses density and specific internal energy as independent variables, covers the liquid, two-phase, and vapor regions. The liquid properties of water are contained in a separate subtable in order to obtain high accuracy for this nearly incompressible region that is frequently encountered in studies of the characteristics of nuclear-waste repositories

  19. Summary of ground water and surface water flow and contaminant transport computer codes used at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandy, P.J.; Hall, L.F.

    1993-03-01

    This report presents information on computer codes for numerical and analytical models that have been used at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to model ground water and surface water flow and contaminant transport. Organizations conducting modeling at the INEL include: EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc., US Geological Survey, and Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company. Information concerning computer codes included in this report are: agency responsible for the modeling effort, name of the computer code, proprietor of the code (copyright holder or original author), validation and verification studies, applications of the model at INEL, the prime user of the model, computer code description, computing environment requirements, and documentation and references for the computer code

  20. Emission Spectroscopy of OH Radical in Water-Argon Arc Plasma Jet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mašláni, Alan; Sember, Viktor

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 2014, April (2014), "952138"-"952138" ISSN 2314-4920 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/11/2070 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Emission spectroscopy * OH radical * arc plasma jet Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.538, year: 2014 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jspec/2014/952138/abs/

  1. Experimental study of a water-mist jet issuing normal to a heated flat plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vouros Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A parametric experimental study on the development of a round jet spray impacting a smooth, heated, flat plate has been accomplished. The main objective of this effort was to provide information characterizing the flow structure of a developing mist jet, issuing vertically towards an upward facing, horizontal heated plate, by means of simultaneous droplet size and velocity measurements. Phase Doppler Anemometry was used, providing also information on liquid volume flux. The fine spray of small atomized droplets (0.5-5.0 μm, was generated using a medical nebulizer. Two low Reynolds number jets (Re=2952, 3773 issuing from a cylindrical pipe have been tested. The distance between the jets’ exit and the plate was 50 cm. A stainless steel non-magnetic flat plate of dimensions 1000x500x12mm3 was used as target wall. Constant heat flux boundary conditions were established during measurements. Results indicate that the heat flux from the plate is influencing the evolution of the spray jet, diminishing its velocity and turbulence. Average droplet sizes are affected little by the heat flux, although for the non-heated sprays, droplet sizes increase at locations very close to the plate. A significant effect on droplet volume flow rate is also reported.

  2. Development of plasma properties along thermal plasma jet generated by hybrid water-argon torch

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kavka, Tetyana; Hrabovský, Milan

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 52, supplement D (2002), s. 637-642 ISSN 0011-4626. [Symposium on Plasma Physics and Technology/20th./. Prague, 10.06.2002-13.06.2002] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : thermal plasma, plasma jet, enthalpy probe Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.311, year: 2002

  3. New concept of tunnel boring machine: high performance using water jet and diamond wire as rock cutting technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Pacheco dos Santos

    Full Text Available Abstract Tunnel boring machines are important tools in underground infrastructure projects. Although being well established equipment, these machinesare based on designsof more than 60 years ago and are characterized by big dimensions, enormous weight and high power consumption. Commercial aspects should be noted too. The model adopted by the TBM industry requires constant replacement of cutter discs and specific labor skills, usually offered by the same manufacturingcompany. In some cases the cost of replacement parts and technical assistance can be higher than the acquisition cost of an entire machine. These aspects are no longer compatible with the concept of sustainability that is an important aspect of currentsociety. While the technical characteristics require a large quantity of steel and several inputs, the adoptedmodel is not competitive. One alternative is looking for new technologies that break the old paradigms and allow the development of high performance concepts with lower social and environmental impact. This studydealswith this opportunity by proposing a high performance tunnel boring machine that makes use of high power water jet and diamond wire to compose a double shield cutter head. It works in two stages. In the fristone, an annular cut is executed by hydrodemolition,and in the second one, the diamond wire station slices the rock core. Only with the action of diamond wire is the rock core separated from the rock mass and the removal process is finished. A smart water jet nozzle movement system is described and non circular tunnels can be executed. The new technologies involved requirea different type of backup system, lighter and smaller. The non-existence of mechanical contact between the equipment and the rock mass at theexcavation front allows low power consumption. The advanced rate and primary excavation cost analyses can also be encountered herein. It shows that it is possible to reach an advanced rate of 174 m/day in

  4. A Monte Carlo Code (PHOEL) for generating initial energies of photoelectrons and compton electrons produced by photons in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, J.E.; Modolo, J.T.; Sordi, G.M.A.A.; Hamm, R.N.; Wright, H.A.

    1979-01-01

    PHOEL provides a source term for a Monte Carlo code which calculates the electron transport and energy degradation in liquid water. This code is used to study the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of low-LET radiation at low doses. The basic numerical data used and their mathematical treatment are described as well as the operation of the code [pt

  5. TRANP - a computer code for digital simulation of steady - state and transient behavior of a pressurizer water reactor primary circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalhoub, E.S.

    1980-09-01

    A digital computer code TRANP was developed to simulate the steady-state and transient behavior of a pressurizer water reactor primary circuit. The development of this code was based on the combining of three codes already developed for the simulation of a PWR core, a pressurizer, a steam generator and a main coolant pump, representing the primary circuit components. (Author) [pt

  6. Testing of Alternative Abrasives for Water-Jet Cutting at C Tank Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krogstad, Eirik J.

    2013-08-01

    Legacy waste from defense-related activities at the Hanford Site has predominantly been stored in underground tanks, some of which have leaked; others may be at risk to do so. The U.S. Department of Energy’s goal is to empty the tanks and transform their contents into more stable waste forms. To do so requires breaking up, and creating a slurry from, solid wastes in the bottoms of the tanks. A technology developed for this purpose is the Mobile Arm Retrieval System. This system is being used at some of the older single shell tanks at C tank farm. As originally planned, access ports for the Mobile Arm Retrieval System were to be cut using a high- pressure water-jet cutter. However, water alone was found to be insufficient to allow effective cutting of the steel-reinforced tank lids, especially when cutting the steel reinforcing bar (“rebar”). The abrasive added in cutting the hole in Tank C-107 was garnet, a complex natural aluminosilicate. The hardness of garnet (Mohs hardness ranging from H 6.5 to 7.5) exceeds that of solids currently in the tanks, and was regarded to be a threat to Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant systems. Olivine, an iron-magnesium silicate that is nearly as hard as garnet (H 6.5 to 7), has been proposed as an alternative to garnet. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory proposed to test pyrite (FeS2), whose hardness is slightly less (H 6 to 6.5) for 1) cutting effectiveness, and 2) propensity to dissolve (or disintegrate by chemical reaction) in chemical conditions similar to those of tank waste solutions. Cutting experiments were conducted using an air abrader system and a National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material (SRM 1767 Low Alloy Steel), which was used as a surrogate for rebar. The cutting efficacy of pyrite was compared with that of garnet and olivine in identical size fractions. Garnet was found to be most effective in removing steel from the target; olivine and pyrite were less

  7. 76 FR 295 - Proposed Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... and development of water resources of the Delaware River Basin during the implementation of natural... states and Federal government work together to manage water resources in an integrated manner for the... new Article 7 of DRBC's Water Quality Regulations to protect the water resources of the Basin during...

  8. Light water reactor fuel analysis code FEMAXI-7. Model and structure [Revised edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Motoe; Udagawa, Yutaka; Amaya, Masaki; Saitou, Hiroaki

    2014-03-01

    A light water reactor fuel analysis code FEMAXI-7 has been developed for the purpose of analyzing the fuel behavior in both normal conditions and anticipated transient conditions. This code is an advanced version which has been produced by incorporating the former version FEMAXI-6 with numerous functional improvements and extensions. In FEMAXI-7, many new models have been added and parameters have been clearly arranged. Also, to facilitate effective maintenance and accessibility of the code, modularization of subroutines and functions have been attained, and quality comment descriptions of variables or physical quantities have been incorporated in the source code. With these advancements, the FEMAXI-7 code has been upgraded to a versatile analytical tool for high burnup fuel behavior analyses. This report is the revised edition of the first one which describes in detail the design, basic theory and structure, models and numerical method, and improvements and extensions. The first edition, JAEA-Data/Code 2010-035, was published in 2010. The first edition was extended by orderly addition and disposition of explanations of models and organized as the revised edition after three years interval. (author)

  9. Light water reactor fuel analysis code. FEMAXI-6 (Ver.1). Detailed structure and user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Motoe; Saitou, Hiroaki

    2006-02-01

    A light water reactor fuel analysis code FEMAXI-6 is an advanced version which has been produced by integrating the former version FEMAXI-V with numerous functional improvements and extensions. In particular, the FEMAXI-6 code has attained a complete coupled solution of thermal analysis and mechanical analysis, enabling an accurate prediction of pellet-clad gap size and PCMI in high burnup fuel rods. Also, such new models have been implemented as pellet-clad bonding and fission gas bubble swelling, and linkage function with detailed burning analysis code has been enhanced. Furthermore, a number of new materials properties and parameters have been introduced. With these advancements, the FEMAXI-6 code has been upgraded to a versatile analytical tool for high burnup fuel behavior not only in the normal operation but also in anticipated transient conditions. This report describes in detail the design, basic theory and structure, models and numerical method, improvements and extensions, and method of model modification. In order to facilitate effective and wide-ranging application of the code, formats and methods of input/output of the code are also described, and a sample output in an actual form is included. (author)

  10. Benchmark of the CASMO-3G/MICROBURN-B codes for Commonwealth Edison boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, J.K.; Pallotta, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    The Commonwealth Edison Company has performed an extensive benchmark against measured data from three boiling water reactors using the Studsvik lattice physics code CASMO-3G and the Siemens Nuclear Power three-dimensional simulator code MICROBURN-B. The measured data of interest for this benchmark are the hot and cold reactivity, and the core power distributions as measured by the traversing incore probe system and gamma scan data for fuel pins and assemblies. A total of nineteen unit-cycles were evaluated. The database included fuel product lines manufactured by General Electric and Siemens Nuclear Power, wit assemblies containing 7 x 7 to 9 x 9 pin configurations, several water rod designs, various enrichments and gadolina loadings, and axially varying lattice designs throughout the enriched portion of the bundle. The results of the benchmark present evidence that the CASMO-3G/MICROBURN-B code package can adequately model the range of fuel and core types in the benchmark, and the codes are acceptable for performing neutronic analyses of Commonwealth Edison's boiling water reactors

  11. The effect of water injection on nitric oxide emissions of a gas turbine combustor burning ASTM Jet-A fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchionna, N. R.; Diehl, L. A.; Trout, A. M.

    1973-01-01

    Tests were conducted to determine the effect of water injection on oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions of a full annular, ram induction gas turbine combustor burning ASTM Jet-A fuel. The combustor was operated at conditions simulating sea-level takeoff and cruise conditions. Water at ambient temperature was injected into the combustor primary zone at water-fuel ratios up to 2. At an inlet-air temperature of 589 K (600 F) water injection decreased the NOx emission index at a constant exponential rate: NOx = NOx (o) e to the -15 W/F power (where W/F is the water-fuel ratio and NOx(o) indicates the value with no injection). The effect of increasing combustor inlet-air temperature was to decrease the effect of the water injection. Other operating variables such as pressure and reference Mach number did not appear to significantly affect the percent reduction in NOx. Smoke emissions were found to decrease with increasing water injection.

  12. Tangential turning of Incoloy alloy 925 using abrasive water jet technology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cárach, J.; Hloch, S.; Hlaváček, Petr; Ščučka, Jiří; Martinec, Petr; Petrů, J.; Zlámal, T.; Zeleňák, Michal; Monka, P.

    -, 11 July 2015 (2015), s. 1-6 ISSN 0268-3768 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1406 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : incoloy alloy 925 * abrasivewater jet turning * traverse speed * surface roughness Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 1.568, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00170-015-7489-0

  13. Water synthetic jet driven by a piezoelectric actuator – LIF and PIV experiments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Broučková, Zuzana; Hsu, S.S.; Wang, A. B.; Trávníček, Zdeněk

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 1104, May (2015), s. 45-50 ISSN 1662-8985 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-08888S Grant - others:Ministry of Science and Technology in Taiwan (TW) MOST/14/001 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : synthetic jet * laser induced fluorescence * particle image velocimetry Subject RIV: JU - Aeronautics, Aerodynamics, Aircrafts http://www.scientific.net/AMR.1104.45

  14. SCDAP: a light water reactor computer code for severe core damage analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino, G.P.; Allison, C.M.; Majumdar, D.

    1982-01-01

    Development of the first code version (MODO) of the Severe Core Damage Analysis Package (SCDAP) computer code is described, and calculations made with SCDAP/MODO are presented. The objective of this computer code development program is to develop a capability for analyzing severe disruption of a light water reactor core, including fuel and cladding liquefaction, flow, and freezing; fission product release; hydrogen generation; quenched-induced fragmentation; coolability of the resulting geometry; and ultimately vessel failure due to vessel-melt interaction. SCDAP will be used to identify the phenomena which control core behavior during a severe accident, to help quantify uncertainties in risk assessment analysis, and to support planning and evaluation of severe fuel damage experiments and data. SCDAP/MODO addresses the behavior of a single fuel bundle. Future versions will be developed with capabilities for core-wide and vessel-melt interaction analysis

  15. TRAC-BD1: transient reactor analysis code for boiling-water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spore, J.W.; Weaver, W.L.; Shumway, R.W.; Giles, M.M.; Phillips, R.E.; Mohr, C.M.; Singer, G.L.; Aguilar, F.; Fischer, S.R.

    1981-01-01

    The Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) version of the Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC) is being developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to provide an advanced best-estimate predictive capability for the analysis of postulated accidents in BWRs. The TRAC-BD1 program provides the Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) analysis capability for BWRs and for many BWR related thermal hydraulic experimental facilities. This code features a three-dimensional treatment of the BWR pressure vessel; a detailed model of a BWR fuel bundle including multirod, multibundle, radiation heat transfer, leakage path modeling capability, flow-regime-dependent constitutive equation treatment, reflood tracking capability for both falling films and bottom flood quench fronts, and consistent treatment of the entire accident sequence. The BWR component models in TRAC-BD1 are described and comparisons with data presented. Application of the code to a BWR6 LOCA is also presented

  16. Description and user's manual of light water reactor fuel analysis code FEMAXI-IV (Ver.2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Motoe; Saitou, Hiroaki.

    1997-03-01

    FEMAXI-IV is an advanced version of FEMAXI-III, the analysis code of light water reactor fuel behavior in which various functions and improvements have been incorporated. The present report describes in detail the basic theories and structure, the models and numerical solutions applied, and the material properties adopted in the version 2 which is an improved version of the first version of FEMAXI-IV. In FEMAXI-IV (Ver.2), bugs have been fixed, pellet thermal conductivity properties have been updated, and thermal-stress-induced FP gas release model have been incorporated. In order to facilitate effective and wide-ranging application of the code, types and methods of input/output of the code are also described, and a sample output in an actual form is included. (author)

  17. Simulation of heat and mass transfer in boiling water with the Melodif code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freydier, P.; Chen, O.; Olive, J.; Simonin, O.

    1991-04-01

    The Melodif code is developed at Electricite de France, Research and Development Division. It is an eulerian two dimensional code for the simulation of turbulent two phase flows (a three dimensional code derived from Melodif, ASTRID, is currently being prepared). Melodif is based on the two fluid model, solving the equations of conservation for mass, momentum and energy, for both phases. In such a two fluid model, the description of interfacial transfers between phases is a crucial issue. The model used applies to a dominant continuous phase, and a dispersed phase. A good description of interfacial momentum transfer exists in the standard MELODIF code: the drag force, the apparent mass force... are taken into account. An important factor for interfacial transfers is the interfacial area per volume unit. With the assumption of spherical gas bubbles, an equation has been written for this variable. In the present wok, a model has been tested for interfacial heat and mass transfer in the case of boiling water: it is assumed that mass transfer is controlled by heat transfer through the latent massic energy taken in the phase that vaporizes (or condenses). This heat and mass transfer model has been tested in various configurations: - a cylinder with water flowing inside, is being heated. Boiling takes place near the wall, while bubbles migrating to the core of the flow recondense. This roughly simulates a sub-cooled boiling phenomenon. - a box containing liquid water is depressurized. Boiling takes place in the whole volume of the fluid. The Melodif code can simulate this configuration due to the implicitation of the relation between interphase mass transfer and the pressure variable

  18. Development of the SPIKE code for analysis of the sodium-water reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Sung Tai; Park, Jin Ho; Choi, Jong Hyeun; Kim, Tae Joon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-08-01

    In the secondary loop of liquid metal reactors, including SG, water leak into sodium causes the sudden increase of pressure by the H{sub 2} and heat generated from reaction. At few miliseconds after leak, a sharp and short-lived increase of pressure is generated and its propagation depends on the acoustic constraint characteristics of secondary loop. As increasing leak amount of water, another pressure increase is caused by H{sub 2} and its transients depends on the resistance of pressure opening system, such as rupture disc. For prediction of the transients of initial spike pressure, a code of SPIKE was developed. The code was based on the following simplifications and assumptions: combination of total and half release of H{sub 2} rate, spherical shape of H{sub 2} bubble, compressible and Newtonian fluid for sodium. The program was built in FOTRAN language and consisted of 5 modules. Several sample calculations were performed to test the code and to determine the scale down factor of experimental facilities for experimental verification of the code: parameter study of the variables in chemical reaction model, comparison study with results calculated by superposition methods for simple piping structures, comparison study with results calculated by previous researchers, and calculation for KALIMER models of various size. With these calculation results, the generally predicted phenomena of sodium water reaction can be explained and the calculated ones by SPIKE code were well agreed with the previous study. And the scale down factor can be determined. (author). 88 refs., 99 figs., 39 tabs.

  19. Jet observables without jet algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertolini, Daniele; Chan, Tucker; Thaler, Jesse [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2014-04-02

    We introduce a new class of event shapes to characterize the jet-like structure of an event. Like traditional event shapes, our observables are infrared/collinear safe and involve a sum over all hadrons in an event, but like a jet clustering algorithm, they incorporate a jet radius parameter and a transverse momentum cut. Three of the ubiquitous jet-based observables — jet multiplicity, summed scalar transverse momentum, and missing transverse momentum — have event shape counterparts that are closely correlated with their jet-based cousins. Due to their “local” computational structure, these jet-like event shapes could potentially be used for trigger-level event selection at the LHC. Intriguingly, the jet multiplicity event shape typically takes on non-integer values, highlighting the inherent ambiguity in defining jets. By inverting jet multiplicity, we show how to characterize the transverse momentum of the n-th hardest jet without actually finding the constituents of that jet. Since many physics applications do require knowledge about the jet constituents, we also build a hybrid event shape that incorporates (local) jet clustering information. As a straightforward application of our general technique, we derive an event-shape version of jet trimming, allowing event-wide jet grooming without explicit jet identification. Finally, we briefly mention possible applications of our method for jet substructure studies.

  20. MIF-SCD computer code for thermal hydraulic calculation of supercritical water cooled reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galina P Bogoslovskaia; Alexander A Karpenko; Pavel L Kirillov; Alexander P Sorokin

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Supercritical pressure power plants constitute the basis of heat power engineering in many countries to day. Starting from a long-standing experience of their operation, it is proposed to develop a new type of fast breeder reactor cooled by supercritical water, which enables the economical indices of NPP to be substantially improved. In the Thermophysical Department of SSC RF-IPPE, an attempt is made to provide thermal-hydraulic validation of the reactor under discussion. The paper presents the results of analysis of the thermal-hydraulic characteristics of fuel subassemblies cooled by supercritical water based on subchannel analysis. Modification of subchannel code MIF - MIF-SCD Code - developed in the SSC RF IPPE is designed as block code and permits one to calculate the coolant temperature and velocity distributions in fuel subassembly channels, the temperature of fuel pin claddings and fuel subassembly wrapper under conditions of irregular geometry and non-uniform axial and radial power generation. The thermal hydraulics under supercritical pressure of water exhibits such peculiarities as abrupt variation of the thermal physical properties in the range of pseudo-critical temperature, the absence of such phenomenon as the critical heat flux which can lead to fuel element burnout in WWERs. As compared with subchannel code for light water, in order to take account of the variation of the coolant properties versus temperature in more detail, a block for evaluating the thermal physical properties of supercritical water versus the local coolant temperature in the fuel subassembly channels was added. The peculiarities of the geometry and power generation in the fuel subassembly of the supercritical reactor are considered as well in special blocks. The results of calculations have shown that considerable preheating of supercritical coolant (several hundreds degrees) can occur in the fuel subassembly. The test calculations according to

  1. Advancement of compressible multiphase flows and sodium-water reaction analysis program SERAPHIM. Validation of a numerical method for the simulation of highly underexpanded jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchibori, Akihiro; Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Akira

    2010-01-01

    SERAPHIM is a computer program for the simulation of the compressible multiphase flow involving the sodium-water chemical reaction under a tube failure accident in a steam generator of sodium cooled fast reactors. In this study, the numerical analysis of the highly underexpanded air jets into the air or into the water was performed as a part of validation of the SERAPHIM program. The multi-fluid model, the second-order TVD scheme and the HSMAC method considering a compressibility were used in this analysis. Combining these numerical methods makes it possible to calculate the multiphase flow including supersonic gaseous jets. In the case of the air jet into the air, the calculated pressure, the shape of the jet and the location of a Mach disk agreed with the existing experimental results. The effect of the difference scheme and the mesh resolution on the prediction accuracy was clarified through these analyses. The behavior of the air jet into the water was also reproduced successfully by the proposed numerical method. (author)

  2. Modelling of water sump evaporation in a CFD code for nuclear containment studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malet, J., E-mail: jeanne.malet@irsn.f [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, DSU/SERAC/LEMAC, BP68 - 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France); Bessiron, M., E-mail: matthieu.bessiron@irsn.f [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, DSU/SERAC/LEMAC, BP68 - 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France); Perrotin, C., E-mail: christophe.perrotin@irsn.f [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, DSU/SERAC/LEMAC, BP68 - 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France)

    2011-05-15

    Highlights: We model sump evaporation in the reactor containment for CFD codes. The sump is modelled by an interface temperature and an evaporation mass flow-rate. These two variables are modelled using energy and mass balance. Results are compared with specific experiments in a 7 m3 vessel (Tonus Qualification ANalytique, TOSQAN). A good agreement is observed, for pressure, temperatures, mass flow-rates. - Abstract: During the course of a hypothetical severe accident in a pressurized water reactor (PWR), water can be collected in the sump containment through steam condensation on walls and spray systems activation. This water is generally under evaporation conditions. The objective of this paper is twofold: to present a sump model developed using external user-defined functions for the TONUS-CFD code and to perform a first detailed comparison of the model results with experimental data. The sump model proposed here is based on energy and mass balance and leads to a good agreement between the numerical and the experimental results. Such a model can be rather easily added to any CFD code for which boundary conditions, such as injection temperature and mass flow-rate, can be modified by external user-defined functions, depending on the atmosphere conditions.

  3. Diagnostics of Plasma Jet Generated in Water/Argon DC Arc Torch.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hurba, Oleksiy; Hlína, Michal; Hrabovský, Milan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 1 (2016), s. 5-8 ISSN 2336-2626. [Symposium on Physics of Switching Arc 2015, FSO 2015 /21./. Nové Město na Moravě, 07.09.2015-11.09.2015] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-19444S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : thermal plasma jet * electric probes * schlieren photography * enthalpy probe Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics)

  4. Development of technologies on innovative-simplified nuclear power plant using high-efficiency steam injectors (5) operating characteristics of center water jet type supersonic steam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Y.; Kawamoto, Y.; Iwaki, C.; Narabayashi, T.; Mori, M.; Ohmori, S.

    2005-01-01

    Next-generation reactor systems have been under development aiming at simplified system and improvement of safety and credibility. A steam injector has a function of a passive pump without large motor or turbo-machinery, and has been investigated as one of the most important component of the next-generation reactor. Its performance as a pump depends on direct contact condensation phenomena between a supersonic steam and a sub-cooled water jet. As previous studies of the steam injector, there are studies about formulation of operating characteristic of steam injector and analysis of jet structure in steam injector by Narabayashi etc. And as previous studies of the direct contact condensation, there is the study about the direct contact condensation in steam atmosphere. However the study about the turbulent heat transfer under the great shear stress is not enough investigated. Therefore it is necessary to examine in detail about the operating characteristic of the steam injector. The present paper reports the observation results of the water jet behavior in the super sonic steam injector by using the video camera and the high-speed video camera. And the measuring results of the temperature and the pressure distribution in the steam injector are reported. From observation results by video camera, it is cleared that the water jet is established at the center of the steam injector right after steam supplied and the operation of the steam injector depends on the throat diameter. And from observation results by high-speed video camera, it is supposed that the columned water jet surface is established in the mixing nozzle and the water jet surface movement exists. And from temperature measuring results, it is supposed that the steam temperature at the mixing nozzle is changed between about 80 degree centigrade and about 60 degree centigrade. Then from the pressure measuring results, it is confirmed that the pressure at the diffuser depends on each the throat diameter and

  5. Theoretical Analysis and Experimental Study on the Coating Removal from Passenger-Vehicle Plastics for Recycling by Using Water Jet Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongshen; Chen, Ming

    2015-11-01

    The recovery and utilization of automotive plastics are a global concern because of the increasing number of end-of-life vehicles. In-depth studies on technologies for the removal of coatings from automotive plastics can contribute to the high value-added levels of the recycling and utilization of automotive plastic. The liquid waste generated by removing chemical paint by using traditional methods is difficult to handle and readily produces secondary pollution. Therefore, new, clean, and highly efficient techniques of paint removal must be developed. In this article, a method of coating removal from passenger-vehicle plastics was generated based on high-pressure water jet technology to facilitate the recycling of these plastics. The established technology was theoretically analyzed, numerically simulated, and experimentally studied. The high-pressure water jet equipment for the removal of automotive-plastic coatings was constructed through research and testing, and the detailed experiments on coating removal rate were performed by using this equipment. The results showed that high-pressure water jet technology can effectively remove coatings on the surfaces of passenger-vehicle plastics. The research also revealed that the coating removal rate increased as jet pressure ( P) increased and then decreased when jet moving speed ( Vn) increased. The rate decreased as the distance from nozzle to work piece ( S nw ) and the nozzle angle ( Φ) increased. The mathematical model for the rate of removal of coatings from bumper surfaces by water jet was derived based on the experiment data and can effectively predict coating removal rate under different operating conditions.

  6. Waste Field Characteristics, Ultimate Mixing and Dilution in Surface Discharge of Dense Jets into Stagnant Water Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Direct discharges of municipal and industrial waste waters into water bodies through marine outfalls are considered as a common way to dispose the generated waste in coastal zones. Marine discharge, intensifying flow mixing and entrainment, decrease the concentration of polutant up to accepted concentration and meet the guideline values and to make possible continues discharge of flow into matine environment. During last years due to quick development of coastal desalination plants, surface discharge of preduced salty water into seas and oceans has increased significantly. In this study, releases of dense jets from surface rectangular channel into stagnant bodies are experimentally studied. The location of flow plunge point, impact point and discharge ultimate dilution were drown out by a digital video technology. In addition, using some conductivity probes located in ambient floor, waste filed dilution in flow impact point and discharge ultimate dilution were identified. Finally the obtained results were plotted and explained along with some diagrams to show flow non-dimensional behavior. The results showed that the properties of flow are changing directly with ambient water depth and discharge initial fluxes.

  7. EPRI-LATTICE: a multigroup neutron transport code for light water reactor lattice physics calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.B.

    1986-01-01

    EPRI-LATTICE is a multigroup neutron transport computer code for the analysis of light water reactor fuel assemblies. It can solve the two-dimensional neutron transport problem by two distinct methods: (a) the method of collision probabilities and (b) the method of discrete ordinates. The code was developed by S. Levy Inc. as an account of work sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The collision probabilities calculation in EPRI-LATTICE (L-CP) is based on the same methodology that exists in the lattice codes CPM-2 and EPRI-CPM. Certain extensions have been made to the data representations of the CPM programs to improve the overall accuracy of the calculation. The important extensions include unique representations of scattering matrices and fission fractions (chi) for each composition in the problem. A new capability specifically developed for the EPRI-LATTICE code is a discrete ordinates methodology. The discrete ordinates calculation in EPRI-LATTICE (L-SN) is based on the discrete S/sub n/ methodology that exists in the TWODANT program. In contrast to TWODANT, which utilizes synthetic diffusion acceleration and supports multiple geometries, only the transport equations are solved by L-SN and only the data representations for the two-dimensional geometry are treated

  8. Combination of water-jet dissection and needle-knife as a hybrid knife simplifies endoscopic submucosal dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingenfelder, Tobias; Fischer, Klaus; Sold, Moritz G; Post, Stefan; Enderle, Markus D; Kaehler, Georg F B A

    2009-07-01

    The safety and efficacy of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is very dependent on an effective injection beneath the submucosal lamina and on a controlled cutting technique. After our study group demonstrated the efficacy of the HydroJet in needleless submucosal injections under various physical conditions to create a submucosal fluid cushion (Selective tissue elevation by pressure = STEP technique), the next step was to develop a new instrument to combine the capabilities of an IT-Knife with a high-pressure water-jet in a single instrument. In this experimental study, we compared this new instrument with a standard ESD technique. Twelve gastric ESD were performed in six pigs under endotracheal anesthesia. Square areas measuring 4-cm x 4-cm were marked out on the anterior and posterior wall in the corpus-antrum transition region. The HybridKnife was used as an standard needle knife with insulated tip (i.e., the submucosal injection was performed with an injection needle and only the radiofrequency (RF) part of the HybridKnife was used for cutting (conventional technique)) or the HybridKnife was used in all the individual stages of the ESD, making use of the HybridKnife's combined functions (HybridKnife technique). The size of the resected specimens, the operating time, the frequency with which instruments were changed, the number of bleeding episodes, and the number of injuries to the gastric wall together with the subjective overall assessment of the intervention by the operating physician were recorded. The resected specimens were the same size, with average sizes of 16.96 cm(2) and 15.85 cm(2) resp (p = 0.8125). Bleeding episodes have been less frequent in the HybridKnife group (2.83 vs. 3.5; p = 0.5625). The standard knife caused more injuries to the lamina muscularis propria (0.17 vs. 1.33; p = 0.0313). The operating times had a tendency to be shorter with the HybridKnife technique (47.18 vs. 58.32 minute; p = 0.0313). The combination of a needle

  9. Surface and microstructure modifications of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy cutting by a water jet/high power laser converging coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Laurent; Tazibt, Abdel; Aillerie, Michel; Tidu, Albert

    2018-01-01

    The metallurgical evolution of the Ti-6Al-4V samples is analyzed after an appropriate cutting using a converging water jet/high power laser system. New surface microstructures are obtained on the cutting edge as a result of thermo-mechanical effects of such hybrid fluid-jet-laser tool on the targeted material. The laser beam allows to melt and the water-jet to cool down and to evacuate the material upstream according to a controlled cutting process. The experimental results have shown that a rutile layer can be generated on the surface near the cutting zone. The recorded metallurgical effect is attributed to the chemical reaction between water molecules and titanium, where the laser thermal energy brought onto the surface plays the role of reaction activator. The width of the oxidized zone was found proportional to the cutting speed. During the reaction, hydrogen gas H2 is formed and is absorbed by the metal. The hydrogen atoms trapped into the alloy change the metastable phase formation developing pure β circular grains as a skin at the kerf surface. This result is original so it would lead to innovative converging laser water jet process that could be used to increase the material properties especially for surface treatment, a key value of surface engineering and manufacturing chains.

  10. Applicability evaluation on the conservative metal-water reaction(MWR) model implemented into the SPACE code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Suk Ho; You, Sung Chang; Kim, Han Gon

    2011-01-01

    The SBLOCA (Small Break Loss-of-Coolant Accident) evaluation methodology for the APR1400 (Advanced Power Reactor 1400) is under development using the SPACE code. The goal of the development of this methodology is to set up a conservative evaluation methodology in accordance with Appendix K of 10CFR50 by the end of 2012. In order to develop the Appendix K version of the SPACE code, the code modification is considered through implementation of the code on the required evaluation models. For the conservative models required in the SPACE code, the metal-water reaction (MWR) model, the critical flow model, the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) model and the post-CHF model must be implemented in the code. At present, the integration of the model to generate the Appendix K version of SPACE is in its preliminary stage. Among them, the conservative MWR model and its code applicability are introduced in this paper

  11. Light water reactor fuel analysis code FEMAXI-V (Ver.1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Motoe

    2000-09-01

    A light water fuel analysis code FEMAXI-V is an advanced version which has been produced by integrating FEMAXI-IV(Ver.2), high burn-up fuel code EXBURN-I, and a number of functional improvements and extensions, to predict fuel rod behavior in normal and transient (not accident) conditions. The present report describes in detail the basic theories and structure, models and numerical solutions applied, improvements and extensions, and the material properties adopted in FEMAXI-V(Ver.1). FEMAXI-V deals with a single fuel rod. It predicts thermal and mechanical response of fuel rod to irradiation, including FP gas release. The thermal analysis predicts rod temperature distribution on the basis of pellet heat generation, changes in pellet thermal conductivity and gap thermal conductance, (transient) change in surface heat transfer to coolant, using radial one-dimensional geometry. The heat generation density profile of pellet can be determined by adopting the calculated results of burning analysis code. The mechanical analysis performs elastic/plastic, creep and PCMI calculations by FEM. The FP gas release model calculates diffusion of FP gas atoms and accumulation in bubbles, release and increase in internal pressure of rod. In every analysis, it is possible to allow some materials properties and empirical equations to depend on the local burnup or heat flux, which enables particularly analysis of high burnup fuel behavior and boiling transient of BWR rod. In order to facilitate effective and wide-ranging application of the code, formats and methods of input/output of the code are also described, and a sample output in an actual form is included. (author)

  12. Validation of the TRACR3D code for soil water flow under saturated/unsaturated conditions in three experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, B.; Travis, B.; DePoorter, G.

    1985-01-01

    Validation of the TRACR3D code in a one-dimensional form was obtained for flow of soil water in three experiments. In the first experiment, a pulse of water entered a crushed-tuff soil and initially moved under conditions of saturated flow, quickly followed by unsaturated flow. In the second experiment, steady-state unsaturated flow took place. In the final experiment, two slugs of water entered crushed tuff under field conditions. In all three experiments, experimentally measured data for volumetric water content agreed, within experimental errors, with the volumetric water content predicted by the code simulations. The experiments and simulations indicated the need for accurate knowledge of boundary and initial conditions, amount and duration of moisture input, and relevant material properties as input into the computer code. During the validation experiments, limitations on monitoring of water movement in waste burial sites were also noted. 5 references, 34 figures, 9 tables

  13. Modeling of hydrogen stratification in a pressurized water reactor containment with the contain computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kljenak, I.; Skerlavaj, A.; Parzer, I.

    1999-01-01

    Hydrogen distribution during a severe accident in a nuclear power plant with a two-loop Westinghouse-type pressurized water reactor was simulated with the CONTAIN computer code. The accidents is initiated by a large-break loss-of-coolant accident which is nit successfully mitigated by the action of the emergency core cooling system. Cases with and without successful actuation of spray systems and fan coolers were considered. The simulations predicted hydrogen stratification within the containment main compartment with intensive hydrogen mixing in the containment dome region. Pressure and temperature responses were analyzed as well.(author)

  14. The Norwegian system for implementing the IAEA code of practice based on absorbed dose to water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjerke, H.

    2002-01-01

    The Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA) SSDL recommended in 2000 the use of absorbed dose to water as the quality for calibration and code of practice in radiotherapy. The absorbed dose to water standard traceable to BIPM was established in Norway in 1995. The international code of practice, IAEA TRS 398 was under preparation. As a part of the implementation of the new dosimetry system the SSDL went to radiotherapy departments in Norway in 2001. The aim of the visit was to: Prepare and support the users in the implementation of TRS 398 by teaching, discussions and measurements on-site; Gain experience for NRPA in the practical implementation of TRS 398 and perform comparisons between TRS 277 and TRS 398 for different beam qualities; Report experience from implementation of TRS 398 to IAEA. The NRPA 30x30x30 cm 3 water phantom is equal to the BIPM calibration phantom. This was used for the photon measurements in 16 different beams. NRPA used three chambers: NE 2571, NE 2611 and PR06C for the photon measurements. As a quality control the set-up was compared with the Finnish site-visit equipment at University Hospital of Helsinki, and the measured absorbed dose to water agreed within 0.6%. The Finnish SSDL calibrated the Norwegian chambers and the absorbed dose to water calibration factors given by the two SSDLs for the three chambers agreed within 0.3%. The local clinical dosimetry in Norway was based on TRS 277. For the site-visit the absorbed dose to water was determined by NRPA using own equipment including the three chambers and the hospitals reference chamber. The hospital determined the dose the same evening using their local equipment. For the 16 photon beams the deviations between the two absorbed dose to water determinations for TRS 277 were in the range -1,7% to +4.0%. The uncertainty in the measurements was 1% (k=1). The deviation was explained in local implementation of TRS 277, the use of plastic phantoms, no resent calibration of

  15. A modeling of elementary passes taking into account the firing angle in abrasive water jet machining of titanium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Van-Hung; Gilles, Patrick; Cohen, Guillaume; Rubio, Walter

    2018-05-01

    The use of titanium alloys in the aeronautical and high technology domains is widespread. The high strength and the low mass are two outstanding characteristics of titanium alloys which permit to produce parts for these domains. As other hard materials, it is challenging to generate 3D surfaces (e.g. pockets) when using conventional cutting methods. The development of Abrasive Water Jet Machining (AWJM) technology shows the capability to cut any kind of materials and it seems to be a good solution for such titanium materials with low specific force, low deformation of parts and low thermal shocks. Applying this technology for generating 3D surfaces requires to adopt a modelling approach. However, a general methodology results in complex models due to a lot of parameters of the machining process and based on numerous experiments. This study introduces an extended geometry model of an elementary pass when changing the firing angle during machining Ti-6AL-4V titanium alloy with a given machine configuration. Several experiments are conducted to observe the influence of major kinematic operating parameters, i.e. jet inclination angle (α) (perpendicular to the feed direction) and traverse speed (Vf). The material exposure time and the erosion capability of abrasives particles are affected directly by a variation of the traverse speed (Vf) and firing angle (α). These variations lead to different erosion rates along the kerf profile characterized by the depth and width of cut. A comparison demonstrated an efficiency of the proposed model for depth and width of elementary passes. Based on knowledge of the influence of both firing angle and traverse speed on the elementary pass shape, the proposed model allows to develop the simulation of AWJM process and paves a way for milling flat bottom pockets and 3D complex shapes.

  16. Positron follow-up in liquid water: I. A new Monte Carlo track-structure code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, C; Le Loirec, C

    2006-04-07

    When biological matter is irradiated by charged particles, a wide variety of interactions occur, which lead to a deep modification of the cellular environment. To understand the fine structure of the microscopic distribution of energy deposits, Monte Carlo event-by-event simulations are particularly suitable. However, the development of these track-structure codes needs accurate interaction cross sections for all the electronic processes: ionization, excitation, positronium formation and even elastic scattering. Under these conditions, we have recently developed a Monte Carlo code for positrons in water, the latter being commonly used to simulate the biological medium. All the processes are studied in detail via theoretical differential and total cross-section calculations performed by using partial wave methods. Comparisons with existing theoretical and experimental data in terms of stopping powers, mean energy transfers and ranges show very good agreements. Moreover, thanks to the theoretical description of positronium formation, we have access, for the first time, to the complete kinematics of the electron capture process. Then, the present Monte Carlo code is able to describe the detailed positronium history, which will provide useful information for medical imaging (like positron emission tomography) where improvements are needed to define with the best accuracy the tumoural volumes.

  17. Improvement of a separation method for the reduction of secondary waste from the water-jet abrasive suspension cutting technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandauer, M.; Gentes, S.; Heneka, A.; Krauss, C.O.; Geckeis, H.; Plaschke, M.; Schild, D.; Tobie, W.

    2017-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Disassembling the reactor pressure vessel and its built-in components is a huge challenge in the deconstruction of a nuclear power plant. After being exposed to neutron irradiation for years, the activated components need to be disassembled and packed by remote controlled techniques. Underwater disassembling systems have the advantage of the shielding effect of water against radiation. To avoid the generation of aerosols, cold cutting processes are preferred. A cutting method that meets these requirements is the water-jet abrasive suspension cutting technique (WASS). This method provides high flexibility and is immune towards mechanical stress in the components. During the cutting process, a mixture of abrasive particles and radioactive steel particles from the cut components is generated. Depending on the operational conditions, the amount of this secondary waste increases substantially. Therefore, despite of its intrinsic technical benefits, WASS has a serious disadvantage towards other cutting techniques due to the huge disposal costs of secondary waste. During our previous joint research project between KIT and AREVA GmbH called NENAWAS ('New Disposal Methods for the Secondary Waste Treatment of the Water-jet Abrasive Suspension Cutting Technique', funded by the German ministry for education and research, BMBF), a prototype separation device for WASS secondary waste was developed and tested. Using a magnetic filter, steel particles could be successfully separated from the rest of the secondary waste. The separation process is examined using elemental analysis (ICP-OES) for quantification of the separation grade. Additionally, morphologies of particles and particle aggregates before and after the separation process were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In the abrasive particle fraction after separation of the steel particles a remaining contamination by tiny steel particles could be detected by elemental and

  18. Heat Transfer Behaviour and Thermohydraulics Code Testing for Supercritical Water Cooled Reactors (SCWRs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-08-01

    The supercritical water cooled reactor (SCWR) is an innovative water cooled reactor concept which uses water pressurized above its thermodynamic critical pressure as the reactor coolant. This concept offers high thermal efficiencies and a simplified reactor system, and is hence expected to help to improve economic competitiveness. Various kinds of SCWR concepts have been developed, with varying combinations of reactor type (pressure vessel or pressure tube) and core spectrum (thermal, fast or mixed). There is great interest in both developing and developed countries in the research and development (R&D) and conceptual design of SCWRs. Considering the high interest shown in a number of Member States, the IAEA established in 2008 the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Heat Transfer Behaviour and Thermo-hydraulics Code Testing for SCWRs. The aim was to foster international collaboration in the R&D of SCWRs in support of Member States’ efforts and under the auspices of the IAEA Nuclear Energy Department’s Technical Working Groups on Advanced Technologies for Light Water Reactors (TWG-LWR) and Heavy Water Reactors (TWG-HWR). The two key objectives of the CRP were to establish accurate databases on the thermohydraulics of supercritical pressure fluids and to test analysis methods for SCWR thermohydraulic behaviour to identify code development needs. In total, 16 institutes from nine Member States and two international organizations were involved in the CRP. The thermohydraulics phenomena investigated in the CRP included heat transfer and pressure loss characteristics of supercritical pressure fluids, development of new heat transfer prediction methods, critical flow during depressurization from supercritical conditions, flow stability and natural circulation in supercritical pressure systems. Two code testing benchmark exercises were performed for steady state heat transfer and flow stability in a heated channel. The CRP was completed with the planned outputs in

  19. Heat Transfer Behaviour and Thermohydraulics Code Testing for Supercritical Water Cooled Reactors (SCWRs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-08-15

    The supercritical water cooled reactor (SCWR) is an innovative water cooled reactor concept which uses water pressurized above its thermodynamic critical pressure as the reactor coolant. This concept offers high thermal efficiencies and a simplified reactor system, and is hence expected to help to improve economic competitiveness. Various kinds of SCWR concepts have been developed, with varying combinations of reactor type (pressure vessel or pressure tube) and core spectrum (thermal, fast or mixed). There is great interest in both developing and developed countries in the research and development (R&D) and conceptual design of SCWRs. Considering the high interest shown in a number of Member States, the IAEA established in 2008 the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Heat Transfer Behaviour and Thermo-hydraulics Code Testing for SCWRs. The aim was to foster international collaboration in the R&D of SCWRs in support of Member States’ efforts and under the auspices of the IAEA Nuclear Energy Department’s Technical Working Groups on Advanced Technologies for Light Water Reactors (TWG-LWR) and Heavy Water Reactors (TWG-HWR). The two key objectives of the CRP were to establish accurate databases on the thermohydraulics of supercritical pressure fluids and to test analysis methods for SCWR thermohydraulic behaviour to identify code development needs. In total, 16 institutes from nine Member States and two international organizations were involved in the CRP. The thermohydraulics phenomena investigated in the CRP included heat transfer and pressure loss characteristics of supercritical pressure fluids, development of new heat transfer prediction methods, critical flow during depressurization from supercritical conditions, flow stability and natural circulation in supercritical pressure systems. Two code testing benchmark exercises were performed for steady state heat transfer and flow stability in a heated channel. The CRP was completed with the planned outputs in

  20. Development of sub-channel/system coupled code and its application to a supercritical water-cooled test loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.J.; Yang, T.; Cheng, X.

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the local thermal-hydraulic parameters in the supercritical water reactor-fuel qualification test (SCWR-FQT) fuel bundle with a flow blockage, a coupled sub-channel and system code system is developed in this paper. Both of the sub-channel code and system code are adapted to transient analysis of SCWR. Two codes are coupled by data transfer and data adaptation at the interface. In the coupled code, the whole system behavior including safety system characteristic is analyzed by system code ATHLET-SC, whereas the local thermal-hydraulic parameters are predicted by the sub-channel code COBRA-SC. Sensitivity analysis are carried out respectively in ATHLET-SC and COBRA-SC code, to identify the appropriate models for description of the flow blockage phenomenon in the test loop. Some measures to mitigate the accident consequence are also trialed to demonstrate their effectiveness. The results indicate that the new developed code has good feasibility to transient analysis of supercritical water-cooled test. And the peak cladding temperature caused by blockage in the fuel assembly can be reduced effectively by the safety measures of SCWR-FQT. (author)

  1. Code Cactus; Code Cactus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fajeau, M; Nguyen, L T; Saunier, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1966-09-01

    This code handles the following problems: -1) Analysis of thermal experiments on a water loop at high or low pressure; steady state or transient behavior; -2) Analysis of thermal and hydrodynamic behavior of water-cooled and moderated reactors, at either high or low pressure, with boiling permitted; fuel elements are assumed to be flat plates: - Flowrate in parallel channels coupled or not by conduction across plates, with conditions of pressure drops or flowrate, variable or not with respect to time is given; the power can be coupled to reactor kinetics calculation or supplied by the code user. The code, containing a schematic representation of safety rod behavior, is a one dimensional, multi-channel code, and has as its complement (FLID), a one-channel, two-dimensional code. (authors) [French] Ce code permet de traiter les problemes ci-dessous: 1. Depouillement d'essais thermiques sur boucle a eau, haute ou basse pression, en regime permanent ou transitoire; 2. Etudes thermiques et hydrauliques de reacteurs a eau, a plaques, a haute ou basse pression, ebullition permise: - repartition entre canaux paralleles, couples on non par conduction a travers plaques, pour des conditions de debit ou de pertes de charge imposees, variables ou non dans le temps; - la puissance peut etre couplee a la neutronique et une representation schematique des actions de securite est prevue. Ce code (Cactus) a une dimension d'espace et plusieurs canaux, a pour complement Flid qui traite l'etude d'un seul canal a deux dimensions. (auteurs)

  2. Land use, climate parameters and water quality changes at surroundings of Code River, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muryanto; Suntoro; Gunawan, T.; Setyono, P.

    2018-03-01

    Regional development of an area has the potential of adverse impact on land use, vegetation, or green space. The reduction of green open space is known to contribute to global warming. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), global warming has become a serious and significant phenomenon in human life. It affects not only ecological environment but also social and cultural environment. Global warming is a rise in global annual temperature due to, one of which, greenhouse gases. The purpose of this research is to determine the effects of land use change on water pollution and climate parameters at Code river. The results showed that Code River is experiencing land use conversion. Rice field was the most extensively reduced land use, by 467.496 ha. Meanwhile, the other land uses, namely plantation, grass, and forest, were reduced by 111.475 ha, 31.218 ha, and 1.307 ha, respectively. The least converted land use was bushed, whose decreased 0.403 ha. The land use conversion in the study area deteriorated the water quality of river, as proven by the increasing trend of COD and BOD from 2012 to 2016. The COD from 2012 to 2016 was 14, 16.6, 18.7, 22.5, and 22.8 ppm, respectively. Meanwhile, the BOD from the same observation years was 6, 7.2, 8.9, 9.3, and 10.3 ppm, respectively.

  3. Fabrication of Water Jet Resistant and Thermally Stable Superhydrophobic Surfaces by Spray Coating of Candle Soot Dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qahtan, Talal F; Gondal, Mohammed A; Alade, Ibrahim O; Dastageer, Mohammed A

    2017-08-08

    A facile synthesis method for highly stable carbon nanoparticle (CNP) dispersion in acetone by incomplete combustion of paraffin candle flame is presented. The synthesized CNP dispersion is the mixture of graphitic and amorphous carbon nanoparticles of the size range of 20-50 nm and manifested the mesoporosity with an average pore size of 7 nm and a BET surface area of 366 m 2 g -1 . As an application of this material, the carbon nanoparticle dispersion was spray coated (spray-based coating) on a glass surface to fabricate superhydrophobic (water contact angle > 150° and sliding angle fabricated from direct candle flame soot deposition (candle-based coating). This study proved that water jet resistant and thermally stable superhydrophobic surfaces can be easily fabricated by simple spray coating of CNP dispersion gathered from incomplete combustion of paraffin candle flame and this technique can be used for different applications with the potential for the large scale fabrication.

  4. Jet fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxon, D.H.

    1985-10-01

    The paper reviews studies on jet fragmentation. The subject is discussed under the topic headings: fragmentation models, charged particle multiplicity, bose-einstein correlations, identified hadrons in jets, heavy quark fragmentation, baryon production, gluon and quark jets compared, the string effect, and two successful models. (U.K.)

  5. Oscillating acoustic streaming jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moudjed, Brahim; Botton, Valery; Henry, Daniel; Millet, Severine; Ben Hadid, Hamda; Garandet, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    The present paper provides the first experimental investigation of an oscillating acoustic streaming jet. The observations are performed in the far field of a 2 MHz circular plane ultrasound transducer introduced in a rectangular cavity filled with water. Measurements are made by Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) in horizontal and vertical planes near the end of the cavity. Oscillations of the jet appear in this zone, for a sufficiently high Reynolds number, as an intermittent phenomenon on an otherwise straight jet fluctuating in intensity. The observed perturbation pattern is similar to that of former theoretical studies. This intermittently oscillatory behavior is the first step to the transition to turbulence. (authors)

  6. Advanced methodology to simulate boiling water reactor transient using coupled thermal-hydraulic/neutron-kinetic codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, Christoph Oliver

    2016-06-13

    Coupled Thermal-hydraulic/Neutron-kinetic (TH/NK) simulations of Boiling Water Reactor transients require well validated and accurate simulation tools. The generation of cross-section (XS) libraries, depending on the individual thermal-hydraulic state parameters, is of paramount importance for coupled simulations. Problem-dependent XS-sets for 3D core simulations are being generated mainly by well validated, fast running commercial and user-friendly lattice codes such as CASMO and HELIOS. In this dissertation a computational route, based on the lattice code SCALE6/TRITON, the cross-section interface GenPMAXS, the best-estimate thermal-hydraulic system code TRACE and the core simulator PARCS, for best-estimate simulations of Boiling Water (BWR) transients has been developed and validated. The computational route has been supplemented by a subsequent uncertainty and sensitivity study based on Monte Carlo sampling and propagation of the uncertainties of input parameters to the output (SUSA code). The analysis of a single BWR fuel assembly depletion problem with PARCS using SCALE/TRITON cross-sections has been shown a good agreement with the results obtained with CASMO cross-section sets. However, to compensate the deficiencies of the interface program GenPMAXS, PYTHON scripts had to be developed to incorporate missing data, as the yields of Iodine, Xenon and Promethium, into the cross-section-data sets (PMAXS-format) generated by GenPMAXS from the SCALE/TRITON output. The results of the depletion analysis of a full BWR core with PARCS have indicated the importance of considering history effects, adequate modeling of the reflector region and the control rods, as the PARCS simulations for depleted fuel and all control rods inserted (ARI) differs significantly at the fuel assembly top and bottom. Systematic investigations with the coupled codes TRACE/PARCS have been performed to analyse the core behaviour at different thermal conditions using nuclear data (XS

  7. Experimental and analytical studies of melt jet-coolant interactions: a synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinh, T.N.; Bui, V.A.; Nourgaliev, R.R.; Green, J.A.; Sehgal, B.R. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Nuclear Power Safety

    1998-01-01

    Instability and fragmentation of a core melt jet in water have been actively studied during the past ten years. Several models, and a few computer codes, have been developed. However, there are, still, large uncertainties, both, in interpreting experimental results and in predicting reactor-scale processes. Steam explosion and debris coolability, as reactor safety issues, are related to the jet fragmentation process. A better understanding of the physics of jet instability and fragmentation is crucial for assessments of fuel-coolant interactions (FCIs). This paper presents research, conducted at the Division of Nuclear Power Safety, Royal Institute of Technology (RIT/NPS), Stockholm, concerning molten jet-coolant interactions, as a precursor for premixing. First, observations were obtained from scoping experiments with simulant fluids. Second, the linear perturbation method was extended and applied to analyze the interfacial-instability characteristics. Third, two innovative approachs to CFD modeling of jet fragmentation were developed and employed for analysis. The focus of the studies was placed on (a) identifying potential factors, which may affect the jet instability, (b) determining the scaling laws, and (c) predicting the jet behavior for severe accidents conditions. In particular, the effects of melt physical properties, and the thermal hydraulics of the mixing zone, on jet fragmentation were investigated. Finally, with the insights gained from a synthesis of the experimental results and analysis results, a new phenomenological concept, named `macrointeractions concept of jet fragmentation` is proposed. (author)

  8. Experimental and analytical studies of melt jet-coolant interactions: a synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinh, T.N.; Bui, V.A.; Nourgaliev, R.R.; Green, J.A.; Sehgal, B.R.

    1999-01-01

    Instability and fragmentation of a core melt jet in water have been actively studied during the past 10 years. Several models, and a few computer codes, have been developed. However, there are, still, large uncertainties, both, in interpreting experimental results and in predicting reactor-scale processes. Steam explosion and debris coolability, as reactor safety issues, are related to the jet fragmentation process. A better understanding of the physics of jet instability and fragmentation is crucial for assessments of fuel-coolant interactions (FCIs). This paper presents research, conducted at the Division of Nuclear Power Safety, Royal Institute of Technology (RIT/NPS), Stockholm, concerning molten jet-coolant interactions, as a precursor for premixing. First, observations were obtained from scoping experiments with simulant fluids. Second, the linear perturbation method was extended and applied to analyze the interfacial-instability characteristics. Third, two innovative approaches to computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of jet fragmentation were developed and employed for analysis. The focus of the studies was placed on (a) identifying potential factors, which may affect the jet instability, (b) determining the scaling laws, and (c) predicting the jet behavior for severe accident conditions. In particular, the effects of melt physical properties, and the thermal hydraulics of the mixing zone, on jet fragmentation were investigated. Finally, with the insights gained from a synthesis of the experimental results and analysis results, a new phenomenological concept, named 'macrointeractions concept of jet fragmentation' is proposed. (orig.)

  9. The JET divertor coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Last, J.R.; Froger, C.; Sborchia, C.

    1989-01-01

    The divertor coil is mounted inside the Jet vacuum vessel and is able to carry 1 MA turns. It is of conventional construction - water cooled copper, epoxy glass insulation -and is contained in a thin stainless steel case. The coil has to be assembled, insulated and encased inside the Jet vacuum vessel. A description of the coil is given, together with technical information (including mechanical effects on the vacuum vessel), an outline of the manufacture process and a time schedule. (author)

  10. Analysis of ex-vessel melt jet breakup and coolability. Part 1: Sensitivity on model parameters and accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriyama, Kiyofumi; Park, Hyun Sun, E-mail: hejsunny@postech.ac.kr; Hwang, Byoungcheol; Jung, Woo Hyun

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • Application of JASMINE code to melt jet breakup and coolability in APR1400 condition. • Coolability indexes for quasi steady state breakup and cooling process. • Typical case in complete breakup/solidification, film boiling quench not reached. • Significant impact of water depth and melt jet size; weak impact of model parameters. - Abstract: The breakup of a melt jet falling in a water pool and the coolability of the melt particles produced by such jet breakup are important phenomena in terms of the mitigation of severe accident consequences in light water reactors, because the molten and relocated core material is the primary heat source that governs the accident progression. We applied a modified version of the fuel–coolant interaction simulation code, JASMINE, developed at Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) to a plant scale simulation of melt jet breakup and cooling assuming an ex-vessel condition in the APR1400, a Korean advanced pressurized water reactor. Also, we examined the sensitivity on seven model parameters and five initial/boundary condition variables. The results showed that the melt cooling performance of a 6 m deep water pool in the reactor cavity is enough for removing the initial melt enthalpy for solidification, for a melt jet of 0.2 m initial diameter. The impacts of the model parameters were relatively weak and that of some of the initial/boundary condition variables, namely the water depth and melt jet diameter, were very strong. The present model indicated that a significant fraction of the melt jet is not broken up and forms a continuous melt pool on the containment floor in cases with a large melt jet diameter, 0.5 m, or a shallow water pool depth, ≤3 m.

  11. Experimental investigation of 150-KG-scale corium melt jet quenching in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magallon, D.; Hohmann, H.

    1995-09-01

    This paper compares and discusses the results of two large scale FARO quenching tests known as L-11 and L-14, which involved, respectively, 151 kg of W% 76.7 UO{sub 2} + 19.2 ZrO{sub 2} + 4.1 Zr and 125 kg of W% 80 UO{sub 2} + 20 ZrO{sub 2} melts poured into 600-kg, 2-m-depth water at saturation at 5.0 MPa. The results are further compared with those of two previous tests performed using a pure oxidic melt, respectively 18 and 44 kg of W% 80 UO{sub 2} + 20 ZrO{sub 2} melt quenched in 1-m-depth water at saturation at 5.0 MPa. In all the tests, significant breakup and quenching took place during the melt fall through the water. No steam explosion occurred. In the tests performed with a pure oxide UO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} melt, part of the corium (from 1/6 to 1/3) did not breakup and reached the bottom plate still molten whatever the water depth was. Test L-11 data suggest that full oxidation and complete breakup of the melt occurred during the melt fall through the water. A proportion of 64% of the total energy content of the melt was released to the water during this phase ({approximately}1.5 s), against 44% for L-14. The maximum temperature increase of the bottom plate was 330 K (L-14). The mean particle size of the debris ranged between 2.5 and 4.8mm.

  12. Simultaneous PLIF and PIV measurement of a near field turbulent immiscible buoyant oil jet fragmentation in water using liquid-liquid refractive index matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xinzhi; Katz, Joseph

    2017-11-01

    Very little experimental data exits on the flow structure in the near field of a crude oil jet fragmenting in water because of inability to probe dense droplet cloud. Refractive index-matching is applied to overcome this challenge by using silicone oil and sugar water as a surrogate liquid pair. Their density ratio, viscosity ratio, and interfacial tension are closely matched with those of crude oil and seawater. Simultaneous PLIF and PIV measurements are conducted by fluorescently tagging the oil and seeding both phases with particles. With increasing jet Reynolds and Weber numbers, the oil plume breakup occurs closer to the nozzle, the spreading angle of the jet increases, and the droplet sizes decrease. The varying spread rate is attributed to differences in droplet size distributions. The location of primary oil breakup is consistent with the region of high strain rate fluctuations. What one may perceive as oil droplets in opaque fluids actually consists of multi-layers containing water droplets, which sometimes encapsulate smaller oil droplets, creating a ``Russian Doll'' like phenomenon. This system forms as ligaments of oil and water wrap around each other during entrainment. Results include profiles of mean velocity and turbulence parameters along with energy spectra. Gulf of Mexico Research Inititave.

  13. The generation of absorbed dose profiles of proton beam in water using Geant4 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christovao, Marilia T.; Campos, Tarcisio Passos R. de

    2007-01-01

    The present article approaches simulations on the proton beam radiation therapy, using an application based on the code GEANT4, with Open GL as a visualization drive and JAS3 (Java Analysis Studio) analysis data tools systems, implementing the AIDA interfaces. The proton radiotherapy is adapted to treat cancer or other benign tumors that are close to sensitive structures, since it allows precise irradiation of the target with high doses, while the health tissues adjacent to vital organs and tissues are preserved, due to physical property of dose profile. GEANT4 is a toolkit for simulating the transport of particles through matter, in complex geometries. Taking advantage of the object-oriented project features, the user can adapt or extend the tool in all domain, due to the flexibility of the code, providing a subroutine's group for materials definition, geometries and particles properties in agreement with the user's needs to generate the Monte Carlo simulation. In this paper, the parameters of beam line used in the simulation possess adjustment elements, such as: the range shifter, composition and dimension; the beam line, energy, intensity, length, according with physic processes applied. The simulation result is the depth dose profiles on water, dependent on the various incident beam energy. Starting from those profiles, one can define appropriate conditions for proton radiotherapy in ocular region. (author)

  14. The Reynolds number dependence of the velocity field in the BNL Jet-in-Pool water experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szczepura, R.T.

    1981-02-01

    The water Jet-in-Pool experiment at Berkeley Nuclear Laboratories consists of an axisymmetric sudden expansion. A series of measurements was performed in this rig, using a single-channel Laser/Doppler Anemometer system, over a Reynolds number range of 1.4 x 10 4 - 6.1 x 10 4 to determine any dependence in the flow. The mean axial velocity data showed a slight variation, but the root-mean-square fluctuations of the axial velocity had a far more pronounced dependence. This was attributed to upstream conditions in the rig, specifically the nozzle used for injecting the central portion of the flow. The variations in the mean velocity data are sufficiently small for one set of data to act as a basis for calculations at any Reynolds number when a simple closure scheme such as a prescribed effective viscosity is used. However the variation in turbulence parameters will complicate the use of second-order closure schemes and this will be examined further. (author)

  15. Demonstration of laser processing technique combined with water jet technique for retrieval of fuel debris at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanari, Toshihide; Takebe, Toshihiko; Yamada, Tomonori; Daido, Hiroyuki; Ishizuka, Ippei; Ohmori, Shinya; Kurosawa, Koichi; Sasaki, Go; Nakada, Masahiro; Sakai, Hideaki

    2017-01-01

    In decommissioning of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, a retrieval process of fuel debris in the Primary Containment Vessel by a remote operation is one of the key issues. In this process, prevention of spreading radioactive materials is one of the important considerations. Furthermore, an applicable technique to the process requires keeping of reasonable processing-efficiency. We propose to use the combined technique including a laser light and a water jet as a retrieval technique of the fuel debris. The laser processing technique combined with a repetitive pulsed water jet could perform an efficient retrieval processing. Our experimental result encourages us to promote further development of the technique towards a real application at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. (author)

  16. An Order Coding Genetic Algorithm to Optimize Fuel Reloads in a Nuclear Boiling Water Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, Juan Jose; Requena, Ignacio

    2004-01-01

    A genetic algorithm is used to optimize the nuclear fuel reload for a boiling water reactor, and an order coding is proposed for the chromosomes and appropriate crossover and mutation operators. The fitness function was designed so that the genetic algorithm creates fuel reloads that, on one hand, satisfy the constrictions for the radial power peaking factor, the minimum critical power ratio, and the maximum linear heat generation rate while optimizing the effective multiplication factor at the beginning and end of the cycle. To find the values of these variables, a neural network trained with the behavior of a reactor simulator was used to predict them. The computation time is therefore greatly decreased in the search process. We validated this method with data from five cycles of the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant in Mexico

  17. SACI - O: A code for the analysis of transients in a pressurized water reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resende Lobo, A.A. de; Soares, P.A.

    1979-03-01

    The SACI-O digital computer code consists basically of a pressurized water reactor core model. It is useful in the analysis of fast reactivity transients shorter than the loop transit time. The program can also be used for evaluating the core behaviour, during other transients, when the inlet coolant conditions are known. SACI-O uses point model neutron kinetics taking into account moderator and fuel reactivity effects, and fission products decay. The neutronic and thermal-hydraulic equations are solved for an average fuel pin described by a single axial node. To perform a more detailed calculation, the modeling of another cooling channel, which can be divided into axial segments, is included in the program. The reactor trip system is also partially simulated. (Author) [pt

  18. Light water reactor fuel analysis code FEMAXI-IV(Ver.2). Detailed structure and user`s manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Motoe [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Saitou, Hiroaki

    1997-11-01

    A light water reactor fuel behavior analysis code FEMAXI-IV(Ver.2) was developed as an improved version of FEMAXI-IV. Development of FEMAXI-IV has been already finished in 1992, though a detailed structure and input manual of the code have not been open to users yet. Here, the basic theories and structure, the models and numerical solutions applied to FEMAXI-IV(Ver.2), and the material properties adopted in the code are described in detail. In FEMAXI-IV(Ver.2), programming bugs in previous FEMAXI-IV were eliminated, renewal of the pellet thermal conductivity was performed, and a model of thermal-stress restraint on FP gas release was incorporated. For facilitation of effective and wide-ranging application of the code, methods of input/output of the code are also described in detail, and sample output is included. (author)

  19. Adaptation of fuel code for light water reactor with austenitic steel rod cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Daniel de Souza; Silva, Antonio Teixeira; Giovedi, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Light water reactors were used with steel as nuclear fuel cladding from 1960 to 1980. The high performance proved that the use of low-carbon alloys could substitute the current zirconium alloys. Stainless steel is an alternative that can be used as cladding. The zirconium alloys replaced the steel. However, significant experiences in-pile occurred, in commercial units such as Haddam Neck, Indian Point, and Yankee experiences. Stainless Steel Types 347 and 348 can be used as cladding. An advantage of using Stainless Steel was evident in Fukushima when a large number of hydrogens was produced at high temperatures. The steel cladding does not eliminate the problem of accumulating free hydrogen, which can lead to a risk of explosion. In a boiling water reactor, environments easily exist for the attack of intergranular corrosion. The Stainless Steel alloys, Types 321, 347, and 348, are stabilized against attack by the addition of titanium, niobium, or tantalum. The steel Type 348 is composed of niobium, tantalum, and cobalt. Titanium preserves type 321, and niobium additions stabilize type 347. In recent years, research has increased on studying the effects of irradiation by fast neutrons. The impact of radiation includes changes in flow rate limits, deformation, and ductility. The irradiation can convert crystalline lattices into an amorphous structure. New proposals are emerging that suggest using a silicon carbide-based fuel rod cladding or iron-chromium-aluminum alloys. These materials can substitute the classic zirconium alloys. Once the steel Type 348 was chosen, the thermal and mechanical properties were coded in a library of functions. The fuel performance codes contain all features. A comparative analysis of the steel and zirconium alloys was made. The results demonstrate that the austenitic steel alloys are the viable candidates for substituting the zirconium alloys. (author)

  20. Adaptation of fuel code for light water reactor with austenitic steel rod cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Daniel de Souza; Silva, Antonio Teixeira, E-mail: dsgomes@ipen.br, E-mail: teixeira@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Giovedi, Claudia, E-mail: claudia.giovedi@labrisco.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (POLI/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise, Avaliacao e Gerenciamento de Risco

    2015-07-01

    Light water reactors were used with steel as nuclear fuel cladding from 1960 to 1980. The high performance proved that the use of low-carbon alloys could substitute the current zirconium alloys. Stainless steel is an alternative that can be used as cladding. The zirconium alloys replaced the steel. However, significant experiences in-pile occurred, in commercial units such as Haddam Neck, Indian Point, and Yankee experiences. Stainless Steel Types 347 and 348 can be used as cladding. An advantage of using Stainless Steel was evident in Fukushima when a large number of hydrogens was produced at high temperatures. The steel cladding does not eliminate the problem of accumulating free hydrogen, which can lead to a risk of explosion. In a boiling water reactor, environments easily exist for the attack of intergranular corrosion. The Stainless Steel alloys, Types 321, 347, and 348, are stabilized against attack by the addition of titanium, niobium, or tantalum. The steel Type 348 is composed of niobium, tantalum, and cobalt. Titanium preserves type 321, and niobium additions stabilize type 347. In recent years, research has increased on studying the effects of irradiation by fast neutrons. The impact of radiation includes changes in flow rate limits, deformation, and ductility. The irradiation can convert crystalline lattices into an amorphous structure. New proposals are emerging that suggest using a silicon carbide-based fuel rod cladding or iron-chromium-aluminum alloys. These materials can substitute the classic zirconium alloys. Once the steel Type 348 was chosen, the thermal and mechanical properties were coded in a library of functions. The fuel performance codes contain all features. A comparative analysis of the steel and zirconium alloys was made. The results demonstrate that the austenitic steel alloys are the viable candidates for substituting the zirconium alloys. (author)

  1. Comparative study of Thermal Hydraulic Analysis Codes for Pressurized Water Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yang Hoon; Jang, Mi Suk; Han, Kee Soo [Nuclear Engineering Service and Solution Co. Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Various codes are used for the thermal hydraulic analysis of nuclear reactors. The use of some codes among these is limited by user and some codes are not even open to general person. Thus, the use of alternative code is considered for some analysis. In this study, simple thermal hydraulic behaviors are analyzed using three codes to show that alternative codes are possible for the analysis of nuclear reactors. We established three models of the simple u-tube manometer using three different codes. RELAP5 (Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program), SPACE (Safety and Performance Analysis CodE for nuclear power Plants), GOTHIC (Generation of Thermal Hydraulic Information for Containments) are selected for this analysis. RELAP5 is widely used codes for the analysis of system behavior of PWRs. SPACE has been developed based on RELAP5 for the analysis of system behavior of PWRs and licensing of the code is in progress. And GOTHIC code also has been widely used for the analysis of thermal hydraulic behavior in the containment system. The internal behavior of u-tube manometer was analyzed by RELAP5, SPACE and GOTHIC codes. The general transient behavior was similar among 3 codes. However, the stabilized status of the transient period analyzed by REPAP5 was different from the other codes. It would be resulted from the different physical models used in the other codes, which is specialized for the multi-phase thermal hydraulic behavior analysis.

  2. Verification of vectorized Monte Carlo code MVP using JRR-4 experiment of fast neutrons penetrating through graphite and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odano, N.; Miura, T.; Yamaji, A.

    1996-01-01

    Measurement of activation reaction rates was carried out for fast neutrons penetrating through graphite and water from the core of JRR-4 research reactor of JAERI, with paying attention to the energy above 10 MeV. Analysis of the experiment was made using a vectorized continuous energy Monte Carlo code MVP to verify the code. The analysis shows good agreements between the measurement and calculation and the MVP code has been confirmed its validity for the fast neutron transport calculations above 10 MeV in fission neutron field. (author)

  3. Guidelines for selecting codes for ground-water transport modeling of low-level waste burial sites. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, C.S.; Cole, C.R.

    1985-05-01

    This document was written to provide guidance to managers and site operators on how ground-water transport codes should be selected for assessing burial site performance. There is a need for a formal approach to selecting appropriate codes from the multitude of potentially useful ground-water transport codes that are currently available. Code selection is a problem that requires more than merely considering mathematical equation-solving methods. These guidelines are very general and flexible and are also meant for developing systems simulation models to be used to assess the environmental safety of low-level waste burial facilities. Code selection is only a single aspect of the overall objective of developing a systems simulation model for a burial site. The guidance given here is mainly directed toward applications-oriented users, but managers and site operators need to be familiar with this information to direct the development of scientifically credible and defensible transport assessment models. Some specific advice for managers and site operators on how to direct a modeling exercise is based on the following five steps: identify specific questions and study objectives; establish costs and schedules for achieving answers; enlist the aid of professional model applications group; decide on approach with applications group and guide code selection; and facilitate the availability of site-specific data. These five steps for managers/site operators are discussed in detail following an explanation of the nine systems model development steps, which are presented first to clarify what code selection entails

  4. Code of practice for the release of hydrostatic test water from hydrostatic testing of petroleum liquid and gas pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This booklet describes a series of administrative procedures regarding the code of practice in Alberta for the release of hydrostatic test water from hydrostatic testing of petroleum liquid and gas pipelines. The topics covered include the registration process, the type and quality of water to use during the test, and the analytical methods to be used. Reporting schedule and record keeping information are also covered. Schedule 1 discusses the requirements for the release of hydrostatic test water to land, while Schedule 2 describes the requirements for the release of hydrostatic test water to receiving water. 3 tabs

  5. Pulsed laser ablation of wire-shaped target in a thin water jet: effects of plasma features and bubble dynamics on the PLAL process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dell’Aglio, Marcella; De Giacomo, Alessandro; Kohsakowski, Sebastian; Barcikowski, Stephan; Wagener, Philipp; Santagata, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, emission spectroscopy and fast imaging surveys during pulsed laser ablation in liquid (PLAL) for nanoparticles (NPs) production have been used, in order to provide further details about the process involved and the potentialities offered by a wire-shaped sample ablated in a flowing water jet. This kind of set-up has been explored because the laser ablation efficiency in water increases when a thin water layer and a wire-shaped target are used. In order to understand the physical processes causing the increasing ablation efficiency, both the laser-induced plasma and bubble dynamics generated in a flowing liquid jet have been analysed. The plasma parameters and the bubble behaviour in such a system have been compared with those observed in conventional PLAL experiments, where either a bulk or a wire-shaped target is immersed in bulk water. From the data presented here it is evidenced that the plasma and shockwave induced during the breakdown process can play a direct role in the ablation efficiency variation observed. With regard to the cavitation bubbles evolving near a free surface (the interface between water and air) it should be noted that these have to be treated with caution as a consequence of the strong influence played in these circumstances by the boundary of the water jet during its expansion dynamics. The effects due to the size of the liquid layer, the presence of the water/air interface, the liquid characteristics, the target shape, the plasma evolution and the bubble dynamics together with their outcomes on the NPs’ production, are presented and discussed. (paper)

  6. Experimental and Thermalhydraulic Code Assessment of the Transient Behavior of the Passive Condenser System in an Advanced Boiling Water Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.T. Revankar; W. Zhou; Gavin Henderson

    2008-07-08

    The main goal of the project was to study analytically and experimentally the condensation heat transfer for the passive condenser system such as GE Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (ESBWR). The effect of noncondensable gas in condenser tube and the reduction of secondary pool water level to the condensation heat transfer coefficient was the main focus in this research. The objectives of this research were to : 1) obtain experimental data on the local and tube averaged condensation heat transfer rates for the PCCS with non-condensable and with change in the secondary pool water, 2) assess the RELAP5 and TRACE computer code against the experimental data, and 3) develop mathematical model and ehat transfer correlation for the condensation phenomena for system code application. The project involves experimentation, theoretical model development and verification, and thermal- hydraulic codes assessment.

  7. Experimental and Thermalhydraulic Code Assessment of the Transient Behavior of the Passive Condenser System in an Advanced Boiling Water Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S.T. Revankar; W. Zhou; Gavin Henderson

    2008-01-01

    The main goal of the project was to study analytically and experimentally the condensation heat transfer for the passive condenser system such as GE Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (ESBWR). The effect of noncondensable gas in condenser tube and the reduction of secondary pool water level to the condensation heat transfer coefficient was the main focus in this research. The objectives of this research were to: (1) obtain experimental data on the local and tube averaged condensation heat transfer rates for the PCCS with non-condensable and with change in the secondary pool water, (2) assess the RELAP5 and TRACE computer code against the experimental data, and (3) develop mathematical model and heat transfer correlation for the condensation phenomena for system code application. The project involves experimentation, theoretical model development and verification, and thermal-hydraulic codes assessment

  8. Water evaporation over sump surface in nuclear containment studies: CFD and LP codes validation on TOSQAN tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malet, J., E-mail: jeanne.malet@irsn.fr [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PSN-RES/SCA BP 68, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Degrees du Lou, O. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PSN-RES/SCA BP 68, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Arts et Métiers ParisTech, DynFluid Lab. EA92, 151, boulevard de l’Hôpital, 75013 Paris (France); Gelain, T. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PSN-RES/SCA BP 68, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Simulations of evaporative TOSQAN sump tests are performed. • These tests are under air–steam gas conditions with addition of He, CO{sub 2} and SF{sub 6}. • ASTEC-CPA LP and TONUS-CFD codes with UDF for sump model are used. • Validation of sump models of both codes show good results. • The code–experiment differences are attributed to turbulent gas mixing modeling. -- Abstract: During the course of a severe accident in a Nuclear Power Plant, water can be collected in the sump containment through steam condensation on walls and spray systems activation. The objective of this paper is to present code validation on evaporative sump tests performed on TOSQAN facility. The ASTEC-CPA code is used as a lumped-parameter code and specific user-defined-functions are developed for the TONUS-CFD code. The seven tests are air–steam tests, as well as tests with other non-condensable gases (He, CO{sub 2} and SF{sub 6}) under steady and transient conditions (two depressurization tests). The results show a good agreement between codes and experiments, indicating a good behavior of the sump models in both codes. The sump model developed as User-Defined Functions (UDF) for TONUS is considered as well validated and is ‘ready-to-use’ for all CFD codes in which such UDF can be added. The remaining discrepancies between codes and experiments are caused by turbulent transport and gas mixing, especially in the presence of non-condensable gases other than air, so that code validation on this important topic for hydrogen safety analysis is still recommended.

  9. Determination of the δ13C of dissolved inorganic carbon in water; RSIL lab code 1710

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Glenda L.; Revesz, Kinga; Coplen, Tyler B.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the Reston Stable Isotope Laboratory (RSIL) lab code 1710 is to present a method to determine the δ13C of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) of water. The DIC of water is precipitated using ammoniacal strontium chloride (SrCl2) solution to form strontium carbonate (SrCO3). The δ13C is analyzed by reacting SrCO3 with 100-percent phosphoric acid (H3PO4) to liberate carbon quantitatively as carbon dioxide (CO2), which is collected, purified by vacuum sublimation, and analyzed by dual inlet isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (DI-IRMS). The DI-IRMS is a DuPont double-focusing mass spectrometer. One ion beam passes through a slit in a forward collector and is collected in the rear collector. The other measurable ion beams are collected in the front collector. By changing the ion-accelerating voltage under computer control, the instrument is capable of measuring mass/charge (m/z) 45 or 46 in the rear collector and m/z 44 and 46 or 44 and 45, respectively, in the front collector. The ion beams from these m/z values are as follows: m/z 44 = CO2 = 12C16O16O, m/z 45 = CO2 = 13C16O16O primarily, and m/z 46 = CO2 = 12C16O18O primarily. The data acquisition and control software calculates δ13C values.

  10. An advanced frequency-domain code for boiling water reactor (BWR) stability analysis and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrooz, A.

    2008-01-01

    The two-phase flow instability is of interest for the design and operation of many industrial systems such as boiling water reactors (BWRs), chemical reactors, and steam generators. In case of BWRs, the flow instabilities are coupled to the power instabilities via neutronic-thermal hydraulic feedbacks. Since these instabilities produce also local pressure oscillations, the coolant flashing plays a very important role at low pressure. Many frequency-domain codes have been used for two-phase flow stability analysis of thermal hydraulic industrial systems with particular emphasis to BWRs. Some were ignoring the effect of the local pressure, or the effect of 3D power oscillations, and many were not able to deal with the neutronics-thermal hydraulics problems considering the entire core and all its fuel assemblies. The new frequency domain tool uses the best available nuclear, thermal hydraulic, algebraic and control theory methods for simulating BWRs and analyzing their stability in either off-line or on-line fashion. The novel code takes all necessary information from plant files via an interface, solves and integrates, for all reactor fuel assemblies divided into a number of segments, the thermal-hydraulic non-homogenous non-equilibrium coupled linear differential equations, and solves the 3D, two-energy-group diffusion equations for the entire core (with spatial expansion of the neutron fluxes in Legendre polynomials).It is important to note that the neutronics equations written in terms of flux harmonics for a discretized system (nodal-modal equations) generate a set of large sparse matrices. The eigenvalue problem associated to the discretized core statics equations is solved by the implementation of the implicit restarted Arnoldi method (IRAM) with implicit shifted QR mechanism. The results of the steady state are then used for the calculation of the local transfer functions and system transfer matrices. The later are large-dense and complex matrices, (their size

  11. The Piezo Actuator-Driven Pulsed Water Jet System for Minimizing Renal Damage after Off-Clamp Laparoscopic Partial Nephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiyama, Yoshihiro; Yamashita, Shinichi; Nakagawa, Atsuhiro; Fujii, Shinji; Mitsuzuka, Koji; Kaiho, Yasuhiro; Ito, Akihiro; Abe, Takaaki; Tominaga, Teiji; Arai, Yoichi

    2017-09-01

    In the setting of partial nephrectomy (PN) for renal cell carcinoma, postoperative renal dysfunction might be caused by surgical procedure. The aim of this study was to clarify the technical safety and renal damage after off-clamp laparoscopic PN (LPN) with a piezo actuator-driven pulsed water jet (ADPJ) system. Eight swine underwent off-clamp LPN with this surgical device, while off-clamp open PN was also performed with radio knife or soft coagulation. The length of the removed kidney was 40 mm, and the renal parenchyma was dissected until the renal calyx became clearly visible. The degree of renal degeneration from the resection surface was compared by Hematoxylin-Eosin staining and immunostaining for 1-methyladenosine, a sensitive marker for the ischemic tissue damage. The mRNA levels of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (Ngal), a biomarker for acute kidney injury, were measured by quantitative real-time PCR. Off-clamp LPN with ADPJ system was successfully performed while preserving fine blood vessels and the renal calix with little bleeding. In contrast to other devices, the resection surface obtained with the ADPJ system showed only marginal degree of ischemic changes. Indeed, the expression level of Ngal mRNA was lower in the resection surface obtained with the ADPJ system than that with soft coagulation (p = 0.02). Furthermore, using the excised specimens of renal cell carcinoma, we measured the breaking strength at each site of the human kidney, suggesting the applicability of this ADPJ to clinical trials. In conclusion, off-clamp LPN with the ADPJ system could be safely performed with attenuated renal damage.

  12. PURDU-WINCOF: A computer code for establishing the performance of a fan-compressor unit with water ingestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardo, M.; Tsuchiya, T.; Murthy, S. N. B.

    1982-01-01

    A model for predicting the performance of a multi-spool axial-flow compressor with a fan during operation with water ingestion was developed incorporating several two-phase fluid flow effects as follows: (1) ingestion of water, (2) droplet interaction with blades and resulting changes in blade characteristics, (3) redistribution of water and water vapor due to centrifugal action, (4) heat and mass transfer processes, and (5) droplet size adjustment due to mass transfer and mechanical stability considerations. A computer program, called the PURDU-WINCOF code, was generated based on the model utilizing a one-dimensional formulation. An illustrative case serves to show the manner in which the code can be utilized and the nature of the results obtained.

  13. Analysis of some antecipated transients without scram for a pressurized water cooled reactor (PWR) using coupling of the containment code CORAN to the system model code ALMOD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, F. de A.T. de.

    1985-01-01

    Some antecipated transients without scram (ATWS) for a pressurized water cooled reactor, model KWU 1300 MWe, are studied using coupling of the containment code CORAN to the system model code ALMOD, under severe random conditions. This coupling has the objective of including containment model as part of a unified code system. These severe conditions include failure of reactor scram, following a station black-out and emergency power initiation for the burn-up status at the beginning and end of the cycle. Furthermore, for the burn-up status at the end of the cycle a failure in the closure of the pressurizer relief valve was also investigated. For the beginning of the cycle, the containment participates actively during the transient. It is noted that the effect of the burn-up in the fuel is to reduce the seriousness of these transients. On the other hand, the failure in the closure of the pressurized relief valve makes this transients more severe. Moreover, the containment safety or radiological public safety is not affected in any of the cases. (Author) [pt

  14. Core2D. A code for non-isothermal water flow and reactive solute transport. Users manual version 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samper, J.; Juncosa, R.; Delgado, J.; Montenegro, L.

    2000-01-01

    Understanding natural groundwater quality patterns, quantifying groundwater pollution and assessing the effects of waste disposal, require modeling tools accounting for water flow, and transport of heat and dissolved species as well as their complex interactions with solid and gases phases. This report contains the users manual of CORE ''2D Version V.2.0, a COde for modeling water flow (saturated and unsaturated), heat transport and multicomponent Reactive solute transport under both local chemical equilibrium and kinetic conditions. it is an updated and improved version of CORE-LE-2D V0 (Samper et al., 1988) which in turns is an extended version of TRANQUI, a previous reactive transport code (ENRESA, 1995). All these codes were developed within the context of Research Projects funded by ENRESA and the European Commission. (Author)

  15. Core 2D. A code for non-isothermal water flow and reactive solute transport. Users manual version 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samper, J; Juncosa, R; Delgado, J; Montenegro, L [Universidad de A Coruna (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Understanding natural groundwater quality patterns, quantifying groundwater pollution and assessing the effects of waste disposal, require modeling tools accounting for water flow, and transport of heat and dissolved species as well as their complex interactions with solid and gases phases. This report contains the users manual of CORE ''2D Version V.2.0, a COde for modeling water flow (saturated and unsaturated), heat transport and multicomponent Reactive solute transport under both local chemical equilibrium and kinetic conditions. it is an updated and improved version of CORE-LE-2D V0 (Samper et al., 1988) which in turns is an extended version of TRANQUI, a previous reactive transport code (ENRESA, 1995). All these codes were developed within the context of Research Projects funded by ENRESA and the European Commission. (Author)

  16. Core 2D. A code for non-isothermal water flow and reactive solute transport. Users manual version 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samper, J.; Juncosa, R.; Delgado, J.; Montenegro, L. [Universidad de A Coruna (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Understanding natural groundwater quality patterns, quantifying groundwater pollution and assessing the effects of waste disposal, require modeling tools accounting for water flow, and transport of heat and dissolved species as well as their complex interactions with solid and gases phases. This report contains the users manual of CORE ''2D Version V.2.0, a COde for modeling water flow (saturated and unsaturated), heat transport and multicomponent Reactive solute transport under both local chemical equilibrium and kinetic conditions. it is an updated and improved version of CORE-LE-2D V0 (Samper et al., 1988) which in turns is an extended version of TRANQUI, a previous reactive transport code (ENRESA, 1995). All these codes were developed within the context of Research Projects funded by ENRESA and the European Commission. (Author)

  17. Verification of Dinamika-5 code on experimental data of water level behaviour in PGV-440 under dynamic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beljaev, Y.V.; Zaitsev, S.I.; Tarankov, G.A. [OKB Gidropress (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    Comparison of the results of calculational analysis with experimental data on water level behaviour in horizontal steam generator (PGV-440) under the conditions with cessation of feedwater supply is presented in the report. Calculational analysis is performed using DIMANIKA-5 code, experimental data are obtained at Kola NPP-4. (orig.). 2 refs.

  18. Steady state thermal hydraulic analysis of a boiling water reactor core, for various power distributions, using computer code THABNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkat Raj, V.; Saha, D.

    1976-01-01

    The core of a boiling water reactor may see different power distributions during its operational life. How some of the typical power distributions affect some of the thermal hydraulic parameters such as pressure drop minimum critical heat flux ratio, void distribution etc. has been studied using computer code THABNA. The effect of an increase in the leakage flow has also been analysed. (author)

  19. Verification of Dinamika-5 code on experimental data of water level behaviour in PGV-440 under dynamic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beljaev, Y V; Zaitsev, S I; Tarankov, G A [OKB Gidropress (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-31

    Comparison of the results of calculational analysis with experimental data on water level behaviour in horizontal steam generator (PGV-440) under the conditions with cessation of feedwater supply is presented in the report. Calculational analysis is performed using DIMANIKA-5 code, experimental data are obtained at Kola NPP-4. (orig.). 2 refs.

  20. Analytical and experimental study of the acoustics and the flow field characteristics of cavitating self-resonating water jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chahine, G.L.; Genoux, P.F.; Johnson, V.E. Jr.; Frederick, G.S.

    1984-09-01

    Waterjet nozzles (STRATOJETS) have been developed which achieve passive structuring of cavitating submerged jets into discrete ring vortices, and which possess cavitation incipient numbers six times higher than obtained with conventional cavitating jet nozzles. In this study we developed analytical and numerical techniques and conducted experimental work to gain an understanding of the basic phenomena involved. The achievements are: (1) a thorough analysis of the acoustic dynamics of the feed pipe to the nozzle; (2) a theory for bubble ring growth and collapse; (3) a numerical model for jet simulation; (4) an experimental observation and analysis of candidate second-generation low-sigma STRATOJETS. From this study we can conclude that intensification of bubble ring collapse and design of highly resonant feed tubes can lead to improved drilling rates. The models here described are excellent tools to analyze the various parameters needed for STRATOJET optimizations. Further analysis is needed to introduce such important factors as viscosity, nozzle-jet interaction, and ring-target interaction, and to develop the jet simulation model to describe the important fine details of the flow field at the nozzle exit.

  1. FORTRAN routines for calculating water thermodynamic properties for use in transient thermal-hydraulics codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, C.

    1979-12-01

    A set of FORTRAN subroutines is described for calculating water thermodynamic properties. These were written for use in a transient thermal-hydraulics program, where speed of execution is paramount. The choice of which subroutines to optimise depends on the primary variables in the thermal-hydraulics code. In this particular case the subroutine which has been optimised is the one which calculates pressure and specific enthalpy given the specific volume and the specific internal energy. Another two subroutines are described which complete a self-consistent set. These calculate the specific volume and the temperature given the pressure and the specific enthalpy, and the specific enthalpy and the specific volume given the pressure and the temperature (or the quality). The accuracy is high near the saturation lines, typically less than 1% relative error, and decreases as the fluid becomes more subcooled in the liquid region or more superheated in the steam region. This behaviour is inherent in the method which uses quantities defined on the saturation lines and assumes that certain derivatives are constant for excursions away from these saturation lines. The accuracy and speed of the subroutines are discussed in detail in this report. (author)

  2. Sodium/water pool-deposit bed model of the CONACS code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peak, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    A new Pool-Bed model of the CONACS (Containment Analysis Code System) code represents a major advance over the pool models of other containment analysis code (NABE code of France, CEDAN code of Japan and CACECO and CONTAIN codes of the United States). This new model advances pool-bed modeling because of the number of significant materials and processes which are included with appropriate rigor. This CONACS pool-bed model maintains material balances for eight chemical species (C, H 2 O, Na, NaH, Na 2 O, Na 2 O 2 , Na 2 CO 3 and NaOH) that collect in the stationary liquid pool on the floor and in the desposit bed on the elevated shelf of the standard CONACS analysis cell

  3. Determination of the δ15N of nitrate in water; RSIL lab code 2899

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplen, Tyler B.; Qi, Haiping; Revesz, Kinga; Casciotti, Karen; Hannon, Janet E.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the Reston Stable Isotope Laboratory (RSIL) lab code 2899 is to determine the δ15N of nitrate (NO3-) in water. The δ15N of the dissolved NO3- is analyzed by conversion of the NO3- to nitrous oxide (N2O), which serves as the analyte for mass spectrometry. A culture of denitrifying bacteria is used in the enzymatic conversion of the NO3- to N2O, which follows the pathway shown in equation 1: NO3- → NO2- → NO → 1/2 N2O (1) Because the bacteria Pseudomonas aureofaciens lack N2O reductive activity, the reaction stops at N2O, unlike the typical denitrification reaction that goes to N2. After several hours, the conversion is complete, and the N2O is extracted from the vial, separated from volatile organic vapor and water vapor by an automated -65 °C isopropanol-slush trap, a Nafion drier, a CO2 and water removal unit (Costech #021020 carbon dioxide absorbent with Mg(ClO4)2), and trapped in a small-volume trap immersed in liquid nitrogen with a modified Finnigan MAT (now Thermo Scientific) GasBench 2 introduction system. After the N2O is released, it is further purified by gas chromatography before introduction to the isotope-ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS). The IRMS is a Thermo Scientific Delta V Plus continuous flow IRMS (CF-IRMS). It has a universal triple collector, consisting of two wide cups with a narrow cup in the middle; it is capable of simultaneously measuring mass/charge (m/z) of the N2O molecule 44, 45, and 46. The ion beams from these m/z values are as follows: m/z = 44 = N2O = 14N14N16O; m/z = 45 = N2O = 14N15N16O or 14N14N17O; m/z = 46 = N2O = 14N14N18O. The 17O contributions to the m/z 44 and m/z 45 ion beams are accounted for before δ15N values are reported.

  4. Fuel management and core design code systems for pressurized water reactor neutronic calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahnert, C.; Arayones, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    A package of connected code systems for the neutronic calculations relevant in fuel management and core design has been developed and applied for validation to the startup tests and first operating cycle of a 900MW (electric) PWR. The package includes the MARIA code system for the modeling of the different types of PWR fuel assemblies, the CARMEN code system for detailed few group diffusion calculations for PWR cores at operating and burnup conditions, and the LOLA code system for core simulation using onegroup nodal theory parameters explicitly calculated from the detailed solutions

  5. Microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of differently heat-treated binder jet printed samples from gas- and water-atomized alloy 625 powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostafaei, Amir; Toman, Jakub; Stevens, Erica L.; Hughes, Eamonn T.; Krimer, Yuval L.; Chmielus, Markus

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the effect of powders resulting from different atomization methods on properties of binder jet printed and heat-treated samples. Air-melted gas atomized (GA) and water atomized (WA) nickel-based alloy 625 powders were used to binder jet print samples for a detailed comparative study on microstructural evolution and mechanical properties. GA printed samples achieved higher sintering density (99.2%) than WA samples (95.0%) due to differences in powder morphology and chemistry. Grain sizes of GA and WA samples at their highest density were 89 ± 21 μm and 88 ± 26 μm, respectively. Mechanical tests were conducted on optimally sintered samples and sintered plus aged samples; aging further improved microstructure and mechanical properties. This study shows that microstructural evolution (densification, and carbide, oxide and intermetallic phase formation) is very different for GA and WA binder jet printed and heat-treated samples. This difference in microstructural evolution results in different mechanical properties with the superior sintered and aged GA specimen reaching a hardness of 327 ± 7 HV_0_._1, yield strength of 394 ± 15 MPa, and ultimate tensile strength of 718 ± 14 MPa which are higher than cast alloy 625 values.

  6. ALMA Observations of the Water Fountain Pre-Planetary Nebula IRAS 16342-3814: High-Velocity Bipolar Jets and an Expanding Torus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, R; Vlemmings, W H T; Gledhill, T; Sánchez Contreras, C; Lagadec, E; Nyman, L-Å; Quintana-Lacaci, G

    2017-01-20

    We have mapped 12 CO J=3-2 and other molecular lines from the "water-fountain" bipolar pre-planetary nebula (PPN) IRAS 16342-3814 with [Formula: see text] resolution using ALMA. We find (i) two very high-speed knotty, jet-like molecular outflows, (ii) a central high-density (> few × 10 6 cm -3 ), expanding torus of diameter 1300 AU, and (iii) the circumstellar envelope of the progenitor AGB, generated by a sudden, very large increase in the mass-loss rate to > 3.5 × 10 -4 M ⊙ yr -1 in the past ~455 yr. Strong continuum emission at 0.89 mm from a central source (690 mJy), if due to thermally-emitting dust, implies a substantial mass (0.017 M ⊙ ) of very large (~mm-sized) grains. The measured expansion ages of the above structural components imply that the torus (age~160 yr) and the younger high-velocity outflow (age~110 yr) were formed soon after the sharp increase in the AGB mass-loss rate. Assuming a binary model for the jets in IRAS 16342, the high momentum rate for the dominant jet-outflow in IRAS 16342 implies a high minimum accretion rate, ruling out standard Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton wind accretion and wind Roche lobe overflow (RLOF) models with white-dwarf or main-sequence companions. Most likely, enhanced RLOF from the primary or accretion modes operating within common envelope evolution are needed.

  7. Heat transfer characteristics around a single heated rod immersed in sodium pool with gas jet injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hideto Niikura; Kazuo Soga; Ken-ichiro Sugiyama; Akira Yamaguchi

    2005-01-01

    In a steam generator using liquid sodium, water intensely reacts with sodium when it leaks out from a heat transfer tube. It is important to evaluate the influence of sodium-water reaction to surrounding tubes and the shell. Hence, it has been desired to develop the simulation code for the evaluation of sodium-water reaction. From this viewpoint, the Japan Nuclear Cycle is now developing the SERAPHIM code. We reported a preliminary study to establish an experimental method for a single heated rod immersed in sodium pool with steam jet impingement planned in the near future as well as to obtain a preliminary data to verify the adequacy of SERAPHIM code. We first measured local and mean heat transfer coefficients around a horizontal single heated rod immersed in a water pool and a sodium pool with a limited volume in the experimental apparatus. It was confirmed that the mean heat transfer coefficients fairly agreed with the existing data for natural convection in water and sodium. Secondary we measured local and mean heat transfer coefficients around a horizontal single heated rod with Ar gas jet impingement immersed in the limited water pool and in the limited sodium pool. It was clearly observed that the local heat transfer coefficients in the sodium pool keep almost the same values in every angle regardless of increase in Ar gas jet velocity varied from about 8.7m/s to about 78m/s. On the other hand, it was confirmed in the water pool that local heat transfer coefficients on the forward stagnation side exposed in the Ar gas jet impingement increase with increasing the jet velocity while the local heat transfer coefficients on the opposite surface keep almost same values regardless of increase in the velocity. (authors)

  8. Equatorial jet - a case study

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Muraleedharan, P.M.; PrasannaKumar, S.

    analysis of hydrographic data of 1964 is also carried out to understand the response signature of water column to prevailing westerlies. A jet forms in the Central Indian Ocean which gathers momentum as it advances eastward. Sinking of the thermocline...

  9. Analysis of mixed oxide fuel critical experiments with neutronics analysis codes for boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamitani, Masashi; Maruyama, Hiromi; Ishii, Kazuya; Izutsu, Sadayuki; Yamaguchi, Masao

    2000-01-01

    Critical experiments of UO 2 and full mixed oxide (MOX) fuel cores conducted at the Tank-type Critical Assembly (TCA) were analyzed using BWR design-purpose codes HINES and CERES with ENDF/B files and Monte Carlo fine analysis codes VMONT and MVP with the JENDL-3.2 library. The averaged values of the multiplication factors calculated with HINES/CERES, VMONT and MVP agreed with those of experiments within 0.3%Δk. The values by the design-purpose codes showed a small difference of 0.1%Δk between UO 2 and MOX cores. Monte Carlo code results showed that the JENDL-3.2 library had a tendency to overestimate the multiplication factors of UO 2 cores by about 0.3%Δk compared with those values of MOX cores. The root mean square errors of calculated power distributions were less than 1% for HINES/CERES and VMONT. These results showed that (1) the accuracy of these codes when applied to full MOX cores was almost the same as their accuracy for UO 2 cores, which confirmed the accuracy of present core design codes for full MOX cores; and (2) the accuracy of the 190-energy-group Monte Carlo calculation code VMONT was almost the same as that of the continuous-energy Monte Carlo calculation code MVP. (author)

  10. Spectroscopic study of thermal plasma jet generated by a hybrid water-argon stabilized DC arc torch

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sember, Viktor

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2003), s. 17-22 ISSN 1093-3611 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK2043105; GA ČR GA202/01/1563 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : plasma jet, spectroscopy, mixing Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.116, year: 2003

  11. Boosted jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juknevich, J.

    2014-01-01

    We present a study of the substructure of jets high transverse momentum at hadron colliders. A template method is introduced to distinguish heavy jets by comparing their energy distributions to the distributions of a set of templates which describe the kinematical information from signal or background. As an application, a search for a boosted Higgs boson decaying into bottom quarks in association with a leptonically decaying W boson is presented as well. (author)

  12. Neutronic calculations with transport and diffusion computer codes for light water moderated critical with UO2 enriched at 4,75% as fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabundjian, G.; Nakata, H.

    1983-02-01

    The neutronic calculational procedure in a 4,75% w/O enriched UO 2 fueled light water moderated critical assembly was tested, using the transport codes and diffusin code available at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares. The results of the tested codes, LEOPARD, CITHAMMER, LASER, GELS and CITATION, were found to be satisfatory and only a slight advantage is presented by CITHAMMER code. (Author) [pt

  13. Considerations and calculations on the breakup of jets and drops of melt related to premixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buerger, M.; Berg, E. von; Buck, M. [Inst. fuer Kernenergetik und Energiesysteme (IKE), Univ. of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 31, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    1998-01-01

    Various descriptions of jet and drop breakup are applied in premixing codes, presently. The main task is to check these descriptions over a wide range of conditions in order to assure extrapolation capabilities for the codes. Jet breakup under non-boiling conditions is relatively well described by IKEJET, based on Conte/Miles (CM) instability description and a relatively detailed stripping model, in contrast to using Kelvin/Helmholtz (KH) theory. Remaining open questions are elaborated. Especially, thick jet behavior with dominance of stripping even at small relative velocities must be distinguished from thin jets with coarse breakup. The application of IKEJET to cases with jet breakup under strong film boiling yielded significantly too little fragmentation. As a possible explanation line, multiphase effects on the wave growth and stripping are considered, due to entrainment of melt and water. Parametric checking calculations are performed with a strongly simplified approach for PREMIX and FARO experiments in order to reveal main effects and the possible physical explanation features as a basis for extended modelling. The results indicate that jet breakup may be essentially sufficient to explain the experimental behavior. Rather coalescence than further drop breakup may be expected. This is also indicated by calculations with IKE drop breakup models. (author)

  14. Emerging Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Schwaller, Pedro; Weiler, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we propose a novel search strategy for new physics at the LHC that utilizes calorimeter jets that (i) are composed dominantly of displaced tracks and (ii) have many different vertices within the jet cone. Such emerging jet signatures are smoking guns for models with a composite dark sector where a parton shower in the dark sector is followed by displaced decays of dark pions back to SM jets. No current LHC searches are sensitive to this type of phenomenology. We perform a detailed simulation for a benchmark signal with two regular and two emerging jets, and present and implement strategies to suppress QCD backgrounds by up to six orders of magnitude. At the 14 TeV LHC, this signature can be probed with mediator masses as large as 1.5 TeV for a range of dark pion lifetimes, and the reach is increased further at the high-luminosity LHC. The emerging jet search is also sensitive to a broad class of long-lived phenomena, and we show this for a supersymmetric model with R-parity violation. Possibilit...

  15. Emerging jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwaller, Pedro; Stolarski, Daniel [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland). TH-PH Div.; Weiler, Andreas [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland). TH-PH Div.; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-02-15

    In this work, we propose a novel search strategy for new physics at the LHC that utilizes calorimeter jets that (i) are composed dominantly of displaced tracks and (ii) have many different vertices within the jet cone. Such emerging jet signatures are smoking guns for models with a composite dark sector where a parton shower in the dark sector is followed by displaced decays of dark pions back to SM jets. No current LHC searches are sensitive to this type of phenomenology. We perform a detailed simulation for a benchmark signal with two regular and two emerging jets, and present and implement strategies to suppress QCD backgrounds by up to six orders of magnitude. At the 14 TeV LHC, this signature can be probed with mediator masses as large as 1.5 TeV for a range of dark pion lifetimes, and the reach is increased further at the high-luminosity LHC. The emerging jet search is also sensitive to a broad class of long-lived phenomena, and we show this for a supersymmetric model with R-parity violation. Possibilities for discovery at LHCb are also discussed.

  16. Emerging jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwaller, Pedro; Stolarski, Daniel

    2015-02-01

    In this work, we propose a novel search strategy for new physics at the LHC that utilizes calorimeter jets that (i) are composed dominantly of displaced tracks and (ii) have many different vertices within the jet cone. Such emerging jet signatures are smoking guns for models with a composite dark sector where a parton shower in the dark sector is followed by displaced decays of dark pions back to SM jets. No current LHC searches are sensitive to this type of phenomenology. We perform a detailed simulation for a benchmark signal with two regular and two emerging jets, and present and implement strategies to suppress QCD backgrounds by up to six orders of magnitude. At the 14 TeV LHC, this signature can be probed with mediator masses as large as 1.5 TeV for a range of dark pion lifetimes, and the reach is increased further at the high-luminosity LHC. The emerging jet search is also sensitive to a broad class of long-lived phenomena, and we show this for a supersymmetric model with R-parity violation. Possibilities for discovery at LHCb are also discussed.

  17. Development of an empirical correlation for flow characteristics of turbulent jet by steam jet condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, H. S.; Kim, Y. S.; Youn, Y. J.; Song, C. H.

    2008-01-01

    An experimental research was performed to develop an empirical correlation of the turbulent water jet induced by the steam jet through a single hole in a subcooled water pool. A moveable pitot tube including a thermal couple was used to measure a local velocity and temperature of the turbulent water jet. The experimental results show that the velocity and the temperature distributions agree well with the theory of axially symmetric turbulent jet. The correlation predicting the maximum velocity of the turbulent jet was modified from the previous correlation and a new correlation to predict the characteristic length was developed based on the test results

  18. Analytic solution to verify code predictions of two-phase flow in a boiling water reactor core channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.F.; Olson, C.A.

    1983-01-01

    One reliable method that can be used to verify the solution scheme of a computer code is to compare the code prediction to a simplified problem for which an analytic solution can be derived. An analytic solution for the axial pressure drop as a function of the flow was obtained for the simplified problem of homogeneous equilibrium two-phase flow in a vertical, heated channel with a cosine axial heat flux shape. This analytic solution was then used to verify the predictions of the CONDOR computer code, which is used to evaluate the thermal-hydraulic performance of boiling water reactors. The results show excellent agreement between the analytic solution and CONDOR prediction

  19. The light-water-reactor version of the Uranus integral fuel-rod code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, A.; Lassmann, K.

    1977-01-01

    The LWR of the Uranus code, a digital computer programme for the thermal and mechanical analysis of fuel rods, is presented. Material properties are discussed and their effect on integral fuel rod behaviour elaborated via Uranus results for some carefully selected reference experiments. The numerical results do not represent post-irradiation analysis of in-pile experiments, they illustrate rather typical and diverse Uranus capabilities. The performance test shows that Uranus is reliable and efficient, thus the code is a most valuable tool in fuel fod analysis work. K. Lassmann developed the LWR version of the Uranus code, material properties were reviewed and supplied by A. Moreno. (author)

  20. The numerical comparison of fire combustion model and water-mist suppression with experiments by FDS code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hsuennien; Ferng Yuhming; Shih Chunkuan; Hsu Wensheng

    2007-01-01

    FDS [1] code numerically solves a form of the Navier-Stokes equations appropriate for low-speed, thermally driven flow with an emphasis on smoke and heat transport from fires. FDS uses a mixture fraction combustion model. The mixture fraction is a conserved scalar quantity that is defined as the fraction of fuel gas at a given point in the flow field. The model assumes that combustion is mixing-controlled, and that the reaction of fuel and oxygen is infinitely fast. In FDS, Lagrangian particles are used to simulate smoke movement and sprinkling water-mist discharge. In order to evaluate the combustion model and water-mist suppression function of the code, FDS analyses are conducted to simulate two enclosure fire cases available in the literature. Comparisons with other combustion models are also made. For fires suppression by water-mist in FDS, parametric studies are performed to compare various water-mist injection characteristics for maximum suppression. Numerical results indicate that the flame suppression is closely related to characteristics of the water mist, such as droplet diameter, mist injection velocity, injection density. Our present investigations show that the combustion model and water-mist suppression in FDS can provide simulation results that are comparable with the experiments. (author)

  1. Simulation of total loss of feed water in ATLAS test facility using SPACE code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Minhee; Kim, Seyun [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of). Central Research Inst.

    2017-08-15

    A total loss of feedwater (TLOFW) with additional failures in ATLAS test facility was analyzed using SPACE code, which is an advanced thermal-hydraulic system analysis code developed by the Korea nuclear industry. Partial failure of the safety injection pumps (SIPs) and the pilot-operated safety relief valves (POSRVs) of pressurizer were selected as additional failures. In order to assess the capability of SPACE code, partial failure was modeled, and compared with results of OECD-ATLAS A3.1 results. Reasonably good agreement with major thermal-hydraulic parameters was obtained by analyzing the transient behavior. From the results, this indicated that SPACE code has capabilities to design extension conditions, and feed and bleed operation using POSRVs and SIPs were effective for RCS cooling capability during TLOFW.

  2. A code to study the water flow in a thermal test loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunier, Jean-Pierre; Duffourt, Nicole; Lago, Bernard

    1965-01-01

    A first part reports the theoretical and analytical formulation of a flow within a specific circuit used in a thermal test installation. Equations in the different parts of the circuit are developed, and their resolution for integration into a computation code is described, including boundary conditions, constants and input functions (cell characteristics, fluid characteristics, heat transfer, friction, time slicing). The second part reports an extension of this theoretical and analytical development and code development to a two-branch circuit

  3. Validation of thermal hydraulic computer codes for advanced light water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macek, J.

    2001-01-01

    The Czech Republic operates 4 WWER-440 units, two WWER-1000 units are being finalised (one of them is undergoing commissioning). Thermal-hydraulics Department of the Nuclear Research Institute Rez performs accident analyses for these plants using a number of computer codes. To model the primary and secondary circuits behaviour the system codes ATHLET, CATHARE, RELAP, TRAC are applied. Containment and pressure-suppressure system are modelled with RALOC and MELCOR codes, the reactor power calculations (point and space-neutron kinetics) are made with DYN3D, NESTLE and CDF codes (FLUENT, TRIO) are used for some specific problems. An integral part of the current Czech project 'New Energy Sources' is selection of a new nuclear source. Within this and the preceding projects financed by the Czech Ministry of Industry and Trade and the EU PHARE, the Department carries and has carried out the systematic validation of thermal-hydraulic and reactor physics computer codes applying data obtained on several experimental facilities as well as the real operational data. The paper provides a concise information on these activities of the NRI and its Thermal-hydraulics Department. A detailed example of the system code validation and the consequent utilisation of the results for a real NPP purposes is included. (author)

  4. Accident analysis in the water loop of the nuclear engineering department of IPEN using the RELAP4 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes Filho, T.L.

    1980-06-01

    A thermal-hydraulic analysis to describe the transient behavior in the water loop of the Nuclear Engineering Department of the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Sao Paulo, Brazil, was performed. Postulated accidents such as those resulting from (1) loss of coolant, (2) main pump failure and (3) power excursions, were studied. The computer code RELAP4/Mod.3 was employed as the principal tool of analysis. (Author) [pt

  5. Analysis of neutronics benchmarks for the utilization of mixed oxide fuel in light water reactor using DRAGON code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nithyadevi, Rajan; Thilagam, L.; Karthikeyan, R.; Pal, Usha

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Use of advanced computational code – DRAGON-5 using advanced self shielding model USS. • Testing the capability of DRAGON-5 code for the analysis of light water reactor system. • Wide variety of fuels LEU, MOX and spent fuel have been analyzed. • Parameters such as k ∞ , one, few and multi-group macroscopic cross-sections and fluxes were calculated. • Suitability of deterministic methodology employed in DRAGON-5 code is demonstrated for LWR. - Abstract: Advances in reactor physics have led to the development of new computational technologies and upgraded cross-section libraries so as to produce an accurate approximation to the true solution for the problem. Thus it is necessary to revisit the benchmark problems with the advanced computational code system and upgraded cross-section libraries to see how far they are in agreement with the earlier reported values. Present study is one such analysis with the DRAGON code employing advanced self shielding models like USS and 172 energy group ‘JEFF3.1’ cross-section library in DRAGLIB format. Although DRAGON code has already demonstrated its capability for heavy water moderator systems, it is now tested for light water reactor (LWR) and fast reactor systems. As a part of validation of DRAGON for LWR, a VVER computational benchmark titled “Neutronics Benchmarks for the Utilization of Mixed-Oxide Fuel-Volume 3” submitted by the Russian Federation has been taken up. Presently, pincell and assembly calculations are carried out considering variation in fuel temperature (both fresh and spent), moderator temperatures and boron content in the moderator. Various parameters such as infinite neutron multiplication (k ∞ ) factor, one group integrated flux, few group homogenized cross-sections (absorption, nu-fission) and reaction rates (absorption, nu-fission) of individual isotopic nuclides are calculated for different reactor states. Comparisons of results are made with the reported Monte Carlo

  6. A computer code (MONA) for pH and chemistry evaluation in the secondary system water of PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordmann, F.

    1983-01-01

    Many corrosion phenomena of the PWR secondary system materials, strongly depend on the pH of the fluid. On operating plants, only room temperature pH of the bulk water can be measured. The knowledge of the pH at the operating temperature and its relationship with the measured value is therefore particularly interesting. In addition, an evaluation of the local chemistry in flow-restricted areas of the steam generator (SG) where drastic corrosion generally occurs, is of utmost concern. The MONA code has been developed to compute the secondary water pH in the following cases: at temperatures ranging from 0 to 320 deg C; at any concentration of ammonia; at any amount of pollutants such as sea water, river water (from condenser leak), and/or sodium, chloride, sulfate (from demineralization resins); with possible addition of calcium hydroxide or boric acid in order to inhibit denting or intergranular attack. (author)

  7. NASA Jet Noise Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    The presentation highlights NASA's jet noise research for 2016. Jet-noise modeling efforts, jet-surface interactions results, acoustic characteristics of multi-stream jets, and N+2 Supersonic Aircraft system studies are presented.

  8. Development of technologies on innovative-simplified nuclear power plant using high-efficiency steam injectors. (6) Operating characteristics of center water jet type supersonic steam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamoto, Yujiro; Abe, Yutaka; Iwaki, Chikako; Narabayashi, Tadashi; Mori, Michitsugu; Ohmori, Shuichi

    2004-01-01

    One of the most interesting devices for next generation reactor systems aiming at simplified system and improvement of safety and credibility is the steam injector which is a passive pump without large motor or turbo-machinery. One of the applications of the steam injector is the passive water injection system to inject the coolant water into the core. The system can be started up merely by injecting the steam without any outer power supply. Since the steam injector is a simple, compact and passive device for water injection, if the steam injector is applied to the actual reactor, it is expected to make the system simple and to reduce the construction cost. Although non-condensable gases are well known for reducing heat transfer between water and steam, the effect of the non-condensable gas on the condensation of supersonic steam on high-speed water jet has not been cleared. The present paper reports about the experimental apparatus, measurement instrument and experimental results of observing the phenomenon inside the test section supplying water and steam to the test by using both the high-speed camera and the video camera and measuring the temperature and the pressure distribution n the test section. (author)

  9. Crust behavior and erosion rate prediction of EPR sacrificial material impinged by core melt jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Gen; Liu, Ming, E-mail: ming.liu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Wang, Jinshi; Chong, Daotong; Yan, Junjie

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • A numerical code was developed to analyze melt jet-concrete interaction in the frame of MPS method. • Crust and ablated concrete layer at UO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} melt and concrete interface periodically developed and collapsed. • Concrete surface temperature fluctuated around a low temperature and ablation temperature. • Concrete erosion by Fe-Zr melt jet was significantly faster than that by UO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} melt jet. - Abstract: Sacrificial material is a special ferro-siliceous concrete, designed in the ex-vessel core melt stabilization system of European Pressurized water Reactor (EPR). Given a localized break of RPV lower head, the melt directly impinges onto the dry concrete in form of compact jet. The concrete erosion behavior influences the failure of melt plug, and further affects melt spreading. In this study, a numerical code was developed in the frame of Moving Particle Semi-implicit (MPS) method, to analyze the crust behavior and erosion rate of sacrificial concrete, impinged by prototypic melt jet. In validation of numerical modeling, the time-dependent erosion depth and erosion configuration matched well with the experimental data. Sensitivity study of sacrificial concrete erosion indicates that the crust and ablated concrete layer presented at UO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} melt and concrete interface, whereas no crust could be found in the interaction of Fe-Zr melt with concrete. The crust went through stabilization-fracture-reformation periodic process, accompanied with accumulating and collapsing of molten concrete layer. The concrete surface temperature fluctuated around a low temperature and ablation temperature. It increased as the concrete surface layer was heated to melting, and dropped down when the cold concrete was revealed. The erosion progression was fast in the conditions of small jet diameter and large concrete inclination angle, and it was significantly faster in the erosion by metallic melt jet than by oxidic melt jet.

  10. The Light-Water-Reactor Version of the URANUS Integral fuel-rod code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labmann, K; Moreno, A

    1977-07-01

    The LWR version of the URANUS code, a digital computer programme for the thermal and mechanical analysis of fuel rods, is presented. Material properties are discussed and their effect on integral fuel rod behaviour elaborated via URANUS results for some carefully selected reference experiments. The numerical results do not represent post-irradiation analyses of in-pile experiments, they illustrate rather typical and diverse URANUS capabilities. The performance test shows that URANUS is reliable and efficient, thus the code is a most valuable tool in fuel rod analysis work. K. LaBmann developed the LWR version of the URANUS code, material properties were reviewed and supplied by A. Moreno. (Author) 41 refs.

  11. Neutron streaming studies along JET shielding penetrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatelatos, Ion E.; Vasilopoulou, Theodora; Batistoni, Paola; Obryk, Barbara; Popovichev, Sergey; Naish, Jonathan

    2017-09-01

    Neutronic benchmark experiments are carried out at JET aiming to assess the neutronic codes and data used in ITER analysis. Among other activities, experiments are performed in order to validate neutron streaming simulations along long penetrations in the JET shielding configuration. In this work, neutron streaming calculations along the JET personnel entrance maze are presented. Simulations were performed using the MCNP code for Deuterium-Deuterium and Deuterium- Tritium plasma sources. The results of the simulations were compared against experimental data obtained using thermoluminescence detectors and activation foils.

  12. Large leak sodium-water reaction code SWACS and its validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, O.; Shindo, Y.; Hiroi, H.; Tanabe, H.; Sato, M.

    1982-01-01

    A computer code SWACS for analyzing the large leak accident of an LMFBR steam generators has been developed and validated. Five tests data obtained by SWAT-3 test facility were compared with code results. In each of SWAT-3 tests, a double-ended guillotine rupture of one tube was simulated in a helical coil steam generator model with 1/2.5 scaled test vessel to the prototype SG. The analytical results, including an initial pressure spike, a propagated pressure in a secondary system, and a quasi-steady pressure, indicate that the overall large-leak event could be predicted in reasonably good agreement

  13. SSDA code to apply data assimilation in soil water flow modeling: Documentation and user manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil water flow models are based on simplified assumptions about the mechanisms, processes, and parameters of water retention and flow. That causes errors in soil water flow model predictions. Data assimilation (DA) with the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) corrects modeling results based on measured s...

  14. Intercomparison and validation of computer codes for thermalhydraulic safety analysis of heavy water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-08-01

    Activities within the frame of the IAEA's Technical Working Group on Advanced Technologies for HWRs (TWG-HWR) are conducted in a project within the IAEA's subprogramme on nuclear power reactor technology development. The objective of the activities on HWRs is to foster, within the frame of the TWG-HWR, information exchange and co-operative research on technology development for current and future HWRs, with an emphasis on safety, economics and fuel resource sustainability. One of the activities recommended by the TWG-HWR was an international standard problem exercise entitled: Intercomparison and validation of computer codes for thermalhydraulics safety analyses. Intercomparison and validation of computer codes used in different countries for thermalhydraulics safety analyses will enhance the confidence in the predictions made by these codes. However, the intercomparison and validation exercise needs a set of reliable experimental data. The RD-14M Large-Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA) test B9401 simulating HWR LOCA behaviour that was conducted by Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd (AECL) was selected for this validation project. This report provides a comparison of the results obtained from six participating countries, utilizing four different computer codes. General conclusions are reached and recommendations made

  15. Comparison of Heavy Water Reactor Thermalhydraulic Code Predictions with Small Break LOCA Experimental Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-08-01

    Activities within the frame of the IAEA's Technical Working Group on Advanced Technologies for HWRs (TWG-HWR) are conducted in a project within the IAEA's subprogramme on nuclear power reactor technology development. The objective of the activities on HWRs is to foster, within the frame of the TWG-HWR, information exchange and cooperative research on technology development for current and future HWRs, with an emphasis on safety, economics and fuel resource sustainability. One of the activities recommended by the TWG-HWR was an international standard problem exercise entitled Intercomparison and Validation of Computer Codes for Thermalhydraulics Safety Analyses. Intercomparison and validation of computer codes used in different countries for thermalhydraulics safety analyses will enhance the confidence in the predictions made by these codes. However, the intercomparison and validation exercise needs a set of reliable experimental data. Two RD-14M small break loss of coolant accident (SBLOCA) tests, simulating HWR LOCA behaviour, conducted by Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd (AECL), were selected for this validation project. This report provides a comparison of the results obtained from eight participating organizations from six countries (Argentina, Canada, China, India, Republic of Korea, and Romania), utilizing four different computer codes (ATMIKA, CATHENA, MARS-KS, and RELAP5). General conclusions are reached and recommendations made.

  16. Assessment of heat transfer correlations for supercritical water in the frame of best-estimate code validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, Wadim; Espinoza, Victor H. Sanchez; Schneider, Niko; Hurtado, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Within the frame of the Generation IV international forum six innovative reactor concepts are the subject of comprehensive investigations. In some projects supercritical water will be considered as coolant, moderator (as for the High Performance Light Water Reactor) or secondary working fluid (one possible option for Liquid Metal-cooled Fast Reactors). Supercritical water is characterized by a pronounced change of the thermo-physical properties when crossing the pseudo-critical line, which goes hand in hand with a change in the heat transfer (HT) behavior. Hence, it is essential to estimate, in a proper way, the heat-transfer coefficient and subsequently the wall temperature. The scope of this paper is to present and discuss the activities at the Institute for Reactor Safety (IRS) related to the implementation of correlations for wall-to-fluid HT at supercritical conditions in Best-Estimate codes like TRACE as well as its validation. It is important to validate TRACE before applying it to safety analyses of HPLWR or of other reactor systems. In the past 3 decades various experiments have been performed all over the world to reveal the peculiarities of wall-to-fluid HT at supercritical conditions. Several different heat transfer phenomena such as HT enhancement (due to higher Prandtl numbers in the vicinity of the pseudo-critical point) or HT deterioration (due to strong property variations) were observed. Since TRACE is a component based system code with a finite volume method the resolution capabilities are limited and not all physical phenomena can be modeled properly. But Best -Estimate system codes are nowadays the preferred option for safety related investigations of full plants or other integral systems. Thus, the increase of the confidence in such codes is of high priority. In this paper, the post-test analysis of experiments with supercritical parameters will be presented. For that reason various correlations for the HT, which considers the characteristics

  17. User manual of Visual Balan V. 1.0 Interactive code for water balances and refueling estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samper, J.; Huguet, L.; Ares, J.; Garcia, M. A.

    1999-01-01

    This document contains the Users Manual of Visual Balan V1.0, an updated version of Visual Balan V0.0 (Samper et al., 1997). Visual Balan V1.0 performs daily water balances in the soil, the unsaturated zone and the aquifer in a user-friendly environment which facilitates both the input data process and the postprocessing of results. The main inputs of the balance are rainfall and irrigation while the outputs are surface runoff, evapotranspiration, interception, inter flow and groundwater flow. The code evaluates all these components in a sequential manner by starting with rainfall and irrigation, which must be provided by the user, and continuing with interception, surface runoff, evapotranspiration, and potential recharge (water flux crossing the bottom of the soil). This potential recharge is the input to the unsaturated zone where water can flow horizontally as subsurface flow (inter flow) or vertically as percolation into the aquifer. (Author)

  18. Data on the densification during sintering of binder jet printed samples made from water- and gas-atomized alloy 625 powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Mostafaei

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Binder jet printing (BJP is a metal additive manufacturing method that manufactures parts with complex geometry by depositing powder layer-by-layer, selectively joining particles in each layer with a polymeric binder and finally curing the binder. After the printing process, the parts still in the powder bed must be sintered to achieve full densification (A. Mostafaei, Y. Behnamian, Y.L. Krimer, E.L. Stevens, J.L. Luo, M. Chmielus, 2016; A. Mostafaei, E. Stevens, E. Hughes, S. Biery, C. Hilla, M. Chmielus, 2016; A. Mostafaei, Y. Behnamian, Y.L. Krimer, E.L. Stevens, J.L. Luo, M. Chmielus, 2016 [1–3]. The collected data presents the characterization of the as-received gas- and water-atomized alloy 625 powders, BJP processing parameters and density of the sintered samples. The effect of sintering temperatures on the microstructure and the relative density of binder jet printed parts made from differently atomized nickel-based superalloy 625 powders are briefly compared in this paper. Detailed data can be found in the original published papers by authors in (A. Mostafaei, J. Toman, E.L. Stevens, E.T. Hughes, Y.L. Krimer, M. Chmielus, 2017 [4].

  19. Mean droplet size and local velocity in horizontal isothermal free jets of air and water, respectively, viscous liquid in quiescent ambient air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Rabadi, S.; Friedel, L. [Fluid Mechanics Institute, Technical University of Hamburg-Harburg (Germany); Al Salaymeh, A. [Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Jordan (Jordan)

    2007-01-15

    Measurements using two-dimensional Phase Doppler Anemometry as well as high speed cinematography in free jets at several nozzle exit pressures and mass flow rates, show that the Sauter mean droplet diameter decreases with increasing air and liquid-phase mass flow ratio due to the increase of the air stream impact on the liquid phase. This leads to substantial liquid fragmentation, respectively primary droplet breakup, and hence, satellite droplet formation with small sizes. This trend is also significant in the case of a liquid viscosity higher than that of water. The increased liquid viscosity stabilizes the droplet formation and breakup by reducing the rate of surface perturbations and consequently droplet distortions, ultimately also leading, in total, to the formation of smaller droplets. The droplet velocity decreases with the nozzle downstream distance, basically due to the continual air entrainment and due to the collisions between the droplets. The droplet collisions may induce further liquid fragmentation and, hence, formation of a number of relatively smaller droplets respectively secondary breakup, or may induce agglomeration to comparatively larger liquid fragments that may rain out of the free jet. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  20. Upgrade of the JET gamma-ray cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soare, S.; Curuia, M.; Anghel, M.; Constantin, M.; David, E.; Craciunescu, T.; Falie, D.; Pantea, A.; Tiseanu, I.; Kiptily, V.; Prior, P.; Edlington, T.; Griph, S.; Krivchenkov, Y.; Loughlin, M.; Popovichev, S.; Riccardo, V; Syme, B.; Thompson, V.; Lengar, I.; Murari, A.; Bonheure, G.; Le Guern, F.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The JET gamma-ray camera diagnostics have already provided valuable information on the gamma-ray imaging of fast ion in JET plasmas. The applicability of gamma-ray imaging to high performance deuterium and deuterium-tritium JET discharges is strongly dependent on the fulfilment of rather strict requirements for the characterisation of the neutron and gamma-ray radiation fields. These requirements have to be satisfied within very stringent boundary conditions for the design, such as the requirement of minimum impact on the co-existing neutron camera diagnostics. The JET Gamma-Ray Cameras (GRC) upgrade project deals with these issues with particular emphasis on the design of appropriate neutron/gamma-ray filters ('neutron attenuators'). Several design versions have been developed and evaluated for the JET GRC neutron attenuators at the conceptual design level. The main design parameter was the neutron attenuation factor. The two design solutions, that have been finally chosen and developed at the level of scheme design, consist of: a) one quasi-crescent shaped neutron attenuator (for the horizontal camera) and b) two quasi-trapezoid shaped neutron attenuators (for the vertical one). The second design solution has different attenuation lengths: a short version, to be used together with the horizontal attenuator for deuterium discharges, and a long version to be used for high performance deuterium and DT discharges. Various neutron-attenuating materials have been considered (lithium hydride with natural isotopic composition and 6 Li enriched, light and heavy water, polyethylene). Pure light water was finally chosen as the attenuating material for the JET gamma-ray cameras. The neutron attenuators will be steered in and out of the detector line-of-sight by means of an electro-pneumatic steering and control system. The MCNP code was used for neutron and gamma ray transport in order to evaluate the effect of the neutron attenuators on the neutron field of the

  1. Model polymer etching and surface modification by a time modulated RF plasma jet: role of atomic oxygen and water vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luan, P; Knoll, A J; Wang, H; Oehrlein, G S; Kondeti, V S S K; Bruggeman, P J

    2017-01-01

    The surface interaction of a well-characterized time modulated radio frequency (RF) plasma jet with polystyrene, poly(methyl methacrylate) and poly(vinyl alcohol) as model polymers is investigated. The RF plasma jet shows fast polymer etching but mild chemical modification with a characteristic carbonate ester and NO formation on the etched surface. By varying the plasma treatment conditions including feed gas composition, environment gaseous composition, and treatment distance, we find that short lived species, especially atomic O for Ar/1% O 2 and 1% air plasma and OH for Ar/1% H 2 O plasma, play an essential role for polymer etching. For O 2 containing plasma, we find that atomic O initiates polymer etching and the etching depth mirrors the measured decay of O atoms in the gas phase as the nozzle-surface distance increases. The etching reaction probability of an O atom ranging from 10 −4 to 10 −3 is consistent with low pressure plasma research. We also find that adding O 2 and H 2 O simultaneously into Ar feed gas quenches polymer etching compared to adding them separately which suggests the reduction of O and OH density in Ar/O 2 /H 2 O plasma. (letter)

  2. Model polymer etching and surface modification by a time modulated RF plasma jet: role of atomic oxygen and water vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, P.; Knoll, A. J.; Wang, H.; Kondeti, V. S. S. K.; Bruggeman, P. J.; Oehrlein, G. S.

    2017-01-01

    The surface interaction of a well-characterized time modulated radio frequency (RF) plasma jet with polystyrene, poly(methyl methacrylate) and poly(vinyl alcohol) as model polymers is investigated. The RF plasma jet shows fast polymer etching but mild chemical modification with a characteristic carbonate ester and NO formation on the etched surface. By varying the plasma treatment conditions including feed gas composition, environment gaseous composition, and treatment distance, we find that short lived species, especially atomic O for Ar/1% O2 and 1% air plasma and OH for Ar/1% H2O plasma, play an essential role for polymer etching. For O2 containing plasma, we find that atomic O initiates polymer etching and the etching depth mirrors the measured decay of O atoms in the gas phase as the nozzle-surface distance increases. The etching reaction probability of an O atom ranging from 10-4 to 10-3 is consistent with low pressure plasma research. We also find that adding O2 and H2O simultaneously into Ar feed gas quenches polymer etching compared to adding them separately which suggests the reduction of O and OH density in Ar/O2/H2O plasma.

  3. Removal of volatile iodine from gas bubbles rising in water pools: review and assessment of pool scrubbing codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polo, J; Herranz, L E; Peyres, V; Escudero, M [CIEMAT, Nuclear Technology Institute, Madrid (Spain)

    1996-12-01

    During a hypothetical nuclear reactor accident with core damage the fission products released from the degrading fuel bundles often pass through aqueous beds before entering the containment, mitigating in part the source term. Several computer codes have been developed for predicting the fission product and aerosols removal in pool scrubbing scenarios. In addition to particle removal, these codes simulate the retention of some volatile iodine compounds. In this work a review of volatile iodine removal models included in SPARC and BUSCA codes is presented. Besides, the results and discussions of a validation of both codes against the available experimental data are summarized. SPARC and BUSCA codes model the diffusion of iodine toward the bubble interface by using the film penetration theory, which assumes a double layer gas-liquid at the interface. However, there are some differences between the two models, mainly related to the boundary conditions in the aqueous volume for the diffusion of molecular iodine. In SPARC, a set of fast reactions in the liquid phase control both the molecular iodine concentration in the pool and the partition coefficient of iodine at the interface. Thus, the aqueous chemistry plays an important role in the boundary conditions for the diffusion process. On the contrary, the BUSCA model has no chemical considerations at all, and assumes a null iodine concentration in the water bulk. Several sensitivity studies have been made in order to weight the effect of these differences. The variables examined in these studies were the pool temperature and the incoming iodine concentration in the pool. Additionally, sensitivity studies focused on the steam mass fraction of the injected gas were performed to study the effect of the different approach of both models for the condensation process. The results showed a different sensitivity of SPARC and BUSCA to the incoming concentration. (author) 5 tabs., 26 refs.

  4. Removal of volatile iodine from gas bubbles rising in water pools: review and assessment of pool scrubbing codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polo, J.; Herranz, L.E.; Peyres, V.; Escudero, M.

    1996-01-01

    During a hypothetical nuclear reactor accident with core damage the fission products released from the degrading fuel bundles often pass through aqueous beds before entering the containment, mitigating in part the source term. Several computer codes have been developed for predicting the fission product and aerosols removal in pool scrubbing scenarios. In addition to particle removal, these codes simulate the retention of some volatile iodine compounds. Nonetheless, experimental data on the matter are rather scarce and further validation remains to be done. In this work a review of volatile iodine removal models included in SPARC and BUSCA codes is presented. Besides, the results and discussions of a validation of both codes against the available experimental data are summarized. SPARC and BUSCA codes model the diffusion of iodine toward the bubble interface by using the film penetration theory, which assumes a double layer gas-liquid at the interface. However, there are some differences between the two models, mainly related to the boundary conditions in the aqueous volume for the diffusion of molecular iodine. In SPARC, a set of fast reactions in the liquid phase control both the molecular iodine concentration in the pool and the partition coefficient of iodine at the interface. Thus, the aqueous chemistry plays an important role in the boundary conditions for the diffusion process. On the contrary, the BUSCA model has no chemical considerations at all, and assumes a null iodine concentration in the water bulk. Several sensitivity studies have been made in order to weight the effect of these differences. The variables examined in these studies were the pool temperature and the incoming iodine concentration in the pool. Additionally, sensitivity studies focused on the steam mass fraction of the injected gas were performed to study the effect of the different approach of both models for the condensation process. The results showed a different sensitivity of SPARC

  5. Investigation on convective mixing of triple-jet. Evaluation of turbulent quantities using particle image velocimetry and direct numerical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Nobuyuki; Igarashi, Minoru; Kamide, Hideki

    2002-01-01

    We performed a water experiment on parallel triple-jet and a calculation using a direct numerical simulation (DNS) for a quantification of thermal striping. The local temperatures and velocities were measured by using thermocouples and the particle image velocimetry (PIV), respectively. The calculation was carried out using the quasi-DNS code, DINUS-3, which was based on the finite difference method. The oscillation of the jets obtained from the flow visualization was related to the movements of the twin vortices between the jets by using the PIV. The experimental temperatures/velocities results were close to the numerical results. The heat transportation among the jets was evaluated by using the turbulent heat fluxes obtained from the quasi-DNS. (author)

  6. A study on properties of water substitute solid phantom using EGS code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitoh, H.; Myojoyama, A.; Tomaru, T.; Fukuda, K.; Fujisaki, T.; Abe, S.

    2003-01-01

    To reduce the uncertainty in the calibration of radiation beams, absorbed dose to water for high energy electrons is recommended as the standards and reference absorbed dose by AAPM Report no.51, IAEA Technical Reports no.398 and JSMP Standard dosimetry for radiotherapy 2001. In these recommendations, water is defined as the reference medium, however, the water substitute solid phantoms are discouraged. Nevertheless, when accurate chamber positioning in water is not possible, or when no waterproof chamber is available, their use is permitted at beam qualities R 50 2 (E 0 pl and fluence-scaling factors h pl of several commercially available water substitute solid phantoms were determined using EGS Monte Carlo simulation. Furthermore, the electron dosimetry using these scaling method was evaluated. As a result, it is obviously that dose-distribution in solid phantom can be converted to appropriate dose-distribution in water by means of IAEA depth-scaling. (author)

  7. Analytical model for bottom reflooding heat transfer in light water reactors (the UCFLOOD code)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrieta, L.; Yadigaroglu, G.

    1978-08-01

    The UCFLOOD code is based on mechanistic models developed to analyze bottom reflooding of a single flow channel and its associated fuel rod, or a tubular test section with internal flow. From the hydrodynamic point of view the flow channel is divided into a single-phase liquid region, a continuous-liquid two-phase region, and a dispersed-liquid region. The void fraction is obtained from drift flux models. For heat transfer calculations, the channel is divided into regions of single-phase-liquid heat transfer, nucleate boiling and forced-convection vaporization, inverted-annular film boiling, and dispersed-flow film boiling. The heat transfer coefficients are functions of the local flow conditions. Good agreement of calculated and experimental results has been obtained. A code user's manual is appended

  8. Verification of WIMSD-5A code on light water reactor benchmarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravnik, M.; Trkov, A.; Zefran, B.; Persic, A.

    1996-01-01

    Testing of a newly released version of WIMS code, WIMSD-5A, is presented. It is compared to the previous version, WIMS-D/4. The cross-section libraries of WIMSD-5A, denoted '1986', and of WIMS-D/4, denoted '1981', are compared as well. No significant differences in performance between WIMS-D/4 and WIMSD-5A are observed, provided the same data library is used. Significant differences in results are observed if '1981' and '1986' libraries are used with the same version of the code, WIMSD-5A. It is not clearly evident that the new library '1986' is any better than the old '1981' library. Additional tests and more detailed analysis is required. (author)

  9. Differential absorption lidar measurements of atmospheric water vapor using a pseudonoise code modulated AlGaAs laser. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rall, Jonathan A. R.

    1994-01-01

    Lidar measurements using pseudonoise code modulated AlGaAs lasers are reported. Horizontal path lidar measurements were made at night to terrestrial targets at ranges of 5 and 13 km with 35 mW of average power and integration times of one second. Cloud and aerosol lidar measurements were made to thin cirrus clouds at 13 km altitude with Rayleigh (molecular) backscatter evident up to 9 km. Average transmitter power was 35 mW and measurement integration time was 20 minutes. An AlGaAs laser was used to characterize spectral properties of water vapor absorption lines at 811.617, 816.024, and 815.769 nm in a multipass absorption cell using derivative spectroscopy techniques. Frequency locking of an AlGaAs laser to a water vapor absorption line was achieved with a laser center frequency stability measured to better than one-fifth of the water vapor Doppler linewidth over several minutes. Differential absorption lidar measurements of atmospheric water vapor were made in both integrated path and range-resolved modes using an externally modulated AlGaAs laser. Mean water vapor number density was estimated from both integrated path and range-resolved DIAL measurements and agreed with measured humidity values to within 6.5 percent and 20 percent, respectively. Error sources were identified and their effects on estimates of water vapor number density calculated.

  10. The use of CFD code for numerical simulation study on the air/water countercurrent flow limitation in nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morghi, Youssef; Mesquita, Amir Zacarias; Santos, Andre Augusto Campagnole dos; Vasconcelos, Victor, E-mail: ymo@cdtn.br, E-mail: amir@cdtn.br, E-mail: aacs@cdtn.br, E-mail: vitors@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    For the experimental study on the air/water countercurrent flow limitation in Nuclear Reactors, were built at CDTN an acrylic test sections with the same geometric shape of 'hot leg' of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). The hydraulic circuit is designed to be used with air and water at pressures near to atmospheric and ambient temperature. Due to the complexity of the CCFL experimental, the numerical simulation has been used. The aim of the numerical simulations is the validation of experimental data. It is a global trend, the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and prediction of physical phenomena related to heat transfer in nuclear reactors. The most used CFD codes are: FLUENT®, STAR- CD®, Open Foam® and CFX®. In CFD, closure models are required that must be validated, especially if they are to be applied to nuclear reactor safety. The Thermal- Hydraulics Laboratory of CDTN offers computing infrastructure and license to use commercial code CFX®. This article describes a review about CCFL and the use of CFD for numerical simulation of this phenomenal for Nuclear Rector. (author)

  11. The use of CFD code for numerical simulation study on the air/water countercurrent flow limitation in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morghi, Youssef; Mesquita, Amir Zacarias; Santos, Andre Augusto Campagnole dos; Vasconcelos, Victor

    2015-01-01

    For the experimental study on the air/water countercurrent flow limitation in Nuclear Reactors, were built at CDTN an acrylic test sections with the same geometric shape of 'hot leg' of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). The hydraulic circuit is designed to be used with air and water at pressures near to atmospheric and ambient temperature. Due to the complexity of the CCFL experimental, the numerical simulation has been used. The aim of the numerical simulations is the validation of experimental data. It is a global trend, the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and prediction of physical phenomena related to heat transfer in nuclear reactors. The most used CFD codes are: FLUENT®, STAR- CD®, Open Foam® and CFX®. In CFD, closure models are required that must be validated, especially if they are to be applied to nuclear reactor safety. The Thermal- Hydraulics Laboratory of CDTN offers computing infrastructure and license to use commercial code CFX®. This article describes a review about CCFL and the use of CFD for numerical simulation of this phenomenal for Nuclear Rector. (author)

  12. Determination of the δ2H and δ18O of soil water and water in plant matter; RSIL lab code 1700

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revesz, Kinga M.; Buck, Bryan; Coplen, Tyler B.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the Reston Stable Isotope Laboratory lab code 1700 is to determine the δ2H/1H), abbreviated as δ2H, and the δ18O/16O), abbreviated as δ18O, of soil water and water in plant matter. This method is based on the observation that water and toluene form an azeotropic mixture at 84.1 °C. This temperature is substantially lower than the boiling points of water (100 °C) and toluene (110 °C), but water and toluene are immiscible at ambient temperature. The water content of a soil or plant is determined by weighing, drying, and reweighing a small amount of sample. Sufficient sample to collect 3 to 5 milliliters of water after distillation is loaded into a distillation flask. Sufficient toluene is added so that the sample is immersed throughout the entire distillation to minimize evaporation of water, which would affect the δ2H and δ18O values. The mixture of sample and toluene is heated in a flask to its boiling point (84.1 °C) so that water from the sample and toluene can distill together into a specially designed collection funnel. The temperature of 84.1 °C is maintained until the water has been quantitatively transferred to the collection funnel, at which time the temperature is raised to the boiling point of the remaining component (toluene, 110 °C). The collection funnel is maintained at ambient temperature so that the sample water and toluene can be separated physically. After separation, the sample water is purified by addition of paraffin wax to the container with the sample water, capping the container, and heating to approximately 60 °C to melt the wax. Trace amounts of toluene will dissolve in the wax, purifying the sample water for isotopic analysis. The isotopic composition of the purified water is then determined by equilibration with gaseous hydrogen or carbon dioxide, followed by dual-inlet isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. Because laser-absorption spectrometry is sensitive to organic compounds, such as trace toluene remaining in

  13. RAPK-7. code for calculating mass transfer and corrosion products activation in the circulation loops of water-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhaylov, A.V.; Moryakov, A.V.; Nikitin, A.V.

    2012-09-01

    The RAPK-7 code was developed to simulate formation of non-irradiated and activated corrosion products, their transport and deposition on inner surfaces of primary components and in primary coolant of water-cooled reactors during their operation on power and after shutdown. The key feature of this code is its particular emphasis on the contamination of circulation loops by radioactive corrosion products of reactor which operates on variable modes. Such reactors typically are: research reactors and their experimental loops, naval nuclear power systems, etc. It's typical for such reactors to have repeated (over the campaign) and frequent variations in power (activating neutron fluxes), thermal-physical, hydrodynamic and other parameters of coolant, intensive water mass exchange between the circulation loop and the pressuriser, etc. The processes of mass-transfer are described by the RAPK-7 code with the use of models similar to those employed by the COTRAN and PACTOLE codes. The circulation circuit is broken down into computation areas. The user will then set the concentrations of water chemistry adjusting additives (alkali, boric acid, ammonia, hydrogen), as well as parameters in each area, such as wall temperature, coolant flow core temperature, pressure, flow rate, velocity, the radial component of coolant flowrate and activating neutron flux density. All the above parameters can be set as time-dependent step functions (bar charts), with independent time steps for each of them. The number of computation areas, the number of time dependencies and the level of detail in their description are limited by computer capabilities only. A 'brake' mode with a single-step change of the required set of parameters is provided to allow for jump-type events, such as replacement of contaminated components with clean ones during core refueling or repairs, emergency injection of boric acid, water mass exchange between the circulation circuit and the pressuriser, etc

  14. Preliminary evaluation of SACI-O code for the analysis of transients in a pressurized water reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, P.A.; Sirimarco, L.F.; Veloso, M.A.F.

    1979-03-01

    SACI-O is a computer code which deals with the dynamics of the core of pressurized light water reactors (PWR). Its applicability is determined by the evaluation of the models used in the simulation of the several phenomena and processes which occur in the core during transients. This report presents a comparison between the results obtained with SACI-O and those presented in the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) of Angra dos Reis Nuclear Station, Unit 1. Although some data used in the calculations done by Westinghouse are not known, there was a good agreement between the mentioned results. (Author) [pt

  15. Comparison of the influence of acoustically enhanced pulsating water jet on selected surface integrity characteristics of CW004A copper and CW614N brass

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lehocká, D.; Klichová, Dagmar; Foldyna, Josef; Hloch, Sergej; Hvizdoš, P.; Fides, M.; Botko, F.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 110, November 2017 (2017), s. 230-238 ISSN 0263-2241 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1406; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : pulsating water jet * surface integrity * mass material removal * copper * nanoindentation Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools OBOR OECD: Mechanical engineering Impact factor: 2.359, year: 2016 http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0263224117304396/1-s2.0-S0263224117304396-main.pdf?_tid=783a1e88-7d09-11e7-9063-00000aacb362&acdnat=1502286708_794e233dee7c309f6d1566e4775d6ff0

  16. Digital decoration by continuous ink jet system for ceramic products based in water inks; Decoracion digital sostenible de productos ceramicos mediante chorro de tinta continuo y tintas en base agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colores Ceramicos, S A; Talleres Foro, S L

    2010-07-01

    A new continuous ink jet system for digital ceramic decoration using water based dispersed ceramic pigment has been developed, that increases drastically the sustainability of the process. During the development of this work, different equipment for any application and the consumables and design tools have been also developed. (Author)

  17. Analysis of eventual accidents in a water experimental loop, using the Relap 4 computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes Filho, T.L.

    1981-01-01

    Transients caused by accidents as (1) loss of coolant, (2) failure in the principal pump and (3) power excursions were analysed. In the accident simulation, the Relap 4/Mod 3 computer code was used. The results obtained with the steady state model showed to be consistent with the project-and operation data of the experimental loop. For all the accidents analysed that considered the performance of safety systems, the highest temperature of the heating rods in the testing section did not exceed the permissible temperature. (E.G.) [pt

  18. An analysis of water reactor burnup data with the METHUSELAH II code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floyd, M.; Hicks, D.

    1964-10-01

    The METHUSELAH II code has been used to predict long term reactivity and isotopic changes in the YANKEE, Dresden and NRX reactors. In general it is shown that there is a satisfactory measure of agreement and the first core lives of YANKEE and Dresden appear well predicted. However there are discrepancies in the isotopic composition of the plutonium formed which appear to be correlated with the degree of hardness of the reactor spectrum. It is demonstrated that plausible changes in nuclear data could reduce the discrepancies. (author)

  19. Shielding analysis of high level waste water storage facilities using MCNP code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yabuta, Naohiro [Mitsubishi Research Inst., Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-01-01

    The neutron and gamma-ray transport analysis for the facility as a reprocessing facility with large buildings having thick shielding was made. Radiation shielding analysis consists of a deep transmission calculation for the concrete wall and a skyshine calculation for the space out of the buildings. An efficient analysis with a short running time and high accuracy needs a variance reduction technique suitable for all the calculation regions and structures. In this report, the shielding analysis using MCNP and a discrete ordinate transport code is explained and the idea and procedure of decision of variance reduction parameter is completed. (J.P.N.)

  20. A modular simulation code applied to pressurized water nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnoux, D.

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of the overall operation of an installation requires taking into account all couplings between the various components and integrating all the automatic actions initiated by control and instrumentation. The tool used for this analysis must be a high performing simulation model, flexible enough to be able to be quickly adapted to varying configurations. In order to study the behaviour of PWR nuclear power stations during normal or incidental operating transients, EDF-SEPTEN has developed the ERABLE code (Etudes Reacteurs a Base LEGO), based on the LEGO software package. (author)

  1. Calculation of releases of radioactive materials in gaseous and liquid effluents from boiling water reactors (BWR-GALE Code)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangart, R.L.; Bell, L.G.; Boegli, J.S.; Burke, W.C.; Lee, J.Y.; Minns, J.L.; Stoddart, P.G.; Weller, R.A.; Collins, J.T.

    1978-12-01

    The calculational procedures described in the report reflect current NRC staff practice. The methods described will be used in the evaluation of applications for construction permits and operating licenses docketed after January 1, 1979, until this NUREG is revised as a result of additional staff review. The BWR-GALE (Boiling Water Reactor Gaseous and Liquid Effluents) Code is a computerized mathematical model for calculating the release of radioactive material in gaseous and liquid effluents from boiling water reactors (BWRs). The calculations are based on data generated from operating reactors, field tests, laboratory tests, and plant-specific design considerations incorporated to reduce the quantity of radioactive materials that may be released to the environment

  2. Numerical analysis on the calandria tubes in the moderator of a heavy water reactor using OpenFOAM and other codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, S.M.; Kim, H.T.

    2013-01-01

    CANDU, a prototype of heavy water reactor is modeled for the moderator system with porous media buoyancy-effect heat-transfer turbulence model. OpenFOAM, a set of C++ classes and libraries developed under the object-oriented concept, is selected as the tool of numerical analysis. The result from this computational code is compared with experiments and other commercial code data through ANSYS-CFX and COMSOL Multi-physics. The three-dimensional code concerning buoyancy force, turbulence, and heat transfer is tested and shown to be successful for the analysis of thermo-hydraulic system of heavy water reactors. (authors)

  3. The preliminary thermal–hydraulic analysis of a water cooled blanket concept design based on RELAP5 code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guanghuai; Peng, Changhong; Guo, Yun, E-mail: guoyun79@ustc.edu.cn

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The superheated steam and PWR schemes are analyzed by RELAP5 code. • The influence of non-uniform heating sources is include. • A supposed slow flow decrease case is discussed and the PWR scheme is better. - Abstract: Water cooled blanket (WCB) is very important in the conceptual design and energy transfer in future fusion power plant. One conceptual design of WCB is under computational testing. RELAP5 code, which is mature and often used in transient analysis in Pressurizer water reactor (PWR), is selected as the simulation tool. The complex inner flow channels and heat sources are simplified according to its thermal–hydraulic characteristics. Then the nodal model for REALP5 is built for approximating the conceptual design. Two typical operating plans, superheated steam scheme and PWR scheme, are analyzed. After some adjustments of the inlet flow resistance coefficients of some flow channels, the reasonable stable conditions of both operation plans can be obtained. The stable fluid and wall temperature distributions and pressure drops are studied. At last, a supposed slow flow decreasing is discussed under two operating conditions separately. According to present results, the superheated steam scheme still needs to be further optimized. The PWR scheme shows a very good safety feature.

  4. The preliminary thermal–hydraulic analysis of a water cooled blanket concept design based on RELAP5 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Guanghuai; Peng, Changhong; Guo, Yun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The superheated steam and PWR schemes are analyzed by RELAP5 code. • The influence of non-uniform heating sources is include. • A supposed slow flow decrease case is discussed and the PWR scheme is better. - Abstract: Water cooled blanket (WCB) is very important in the conceptual design and energy transfer in future fusion power plant. One conceptual design of WCB is under computational testing. RELAP5 code, which is mature and often used in transient analysis in Pressurizer water reactor (PWR), is selected as the simulation tool. The complex inner flow channels and heat sources are simplified according to its thermal–hydraulic characteristics. Then the nodal model for REALP5 is built for approximating the conceptual design. Two typical operating plans, superheated steam scheme and PWR scheme, are analyzed. After some adjustments of the inlet flow resistance coefficients of some flow channels, the reasonable stable conditions of both operation plans can be obtained. The stable fluid and wall temperature distributions and pressure drops are studied. At last, a supposed slow flow decreasing is discussed under two operating conditions separately. According to present results, the superheated steam scheme still needs to be further optimized. The PWR scheme shows a very good safety feature.

  5. Experimental study on breakup and fragmentation behavior of molten material jet in complicated structure of BWR lower plenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Ryusuke; Abe, Yutaka; Yoshida, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    To estimate the state of reactor pressure vessel of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, it is important to clarify the breakup and fragmentation of molten material jet in the lower plenum of boiling water reactor (BWR) by a numerical simulation. To clarify the effects of complicated structures on the jet behavior experimentally and validate the simulation code, we conduct the visualized experiments simulating the severe accident in the BWR lower plenum. In this study, jet breakup, fragmentation and surrounding velocity profiles of the jet were observed by the backlight method and the particle image velocimetry (PIV) method. From experimental results using the backlight method, it was clarified that jet tip velocity depends on the conditions whether complicated structures exist or not and also clarified that the structures prevent the core of the jet from expanding. From measurements by the PIV method, the surrounding velocity profiles of the jet in the complicated structures were relatively larger than the condition without structure. Finally, fragment diameters measured in the present study well agree with the theory suggested by Kataoka and Ishii by changing the coefficient term. Thus, it was suggested that the fragmentation mechanism was mainly controlled by shearing stress. (author)

  6. Significant issues and changes for ANSI/ASME OM-1 1981, part 1, ASME OMc code-1994, and ASME OM Code-1995, Appendix I, inservice testing of pressure relief devices in light water reactor power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seniuk, P.J.

    1996-12-01

    This paper identifies significant changes to the ANSI/ASME OM-1 1981, Part 1, and ASME Omc Code-1994 and ASME OM Code-1995, Appendix I, {open_quotes}Inservice Testing of Pressure Relief Devices in Light-Water Reactor Power Plants{close_quotes}. The paper describes changes to different Code editions and presents insights into the direction of the code committee and selected topics to be considered by the ASME O&M Working Group on pressure relief devices. These topics include scope issues, thermal relief valve issues, as-found and as-left set-pressure determinations, exclusions from testing, and cold setpoint bench testing. The purpose of this paper is to describe some significant issues being addressed by the O&M Working Group on Pressure Relief Devices (OM-1). The writer is currently the chair of OM-1 and the statements expressed herein represents his personal opinion.

  7. Significant issues and changes for ANSI/ASME OM-1 1981, part 1, ASME OMc code-1994, and ASME OM Code-1995, Appendix I, inservice testing of pressure relief devices in light water reactor power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seniuk, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper identifies significant changes to the ANSI/ASME OM-1 1981, Part 1, and ASME Omc Code-1994 and ASME OM Code-1995, Appendix I, open-quotes Inservice Testing of Pressure Relief Devices in Light-Water Reactor Power Plantsclose quotes. The paper describes changes to different Code editions and presents insights into the direction of the code committee and selected topics to be considered by the ASME O ampersand M Working Group on pressure relief devices. These topics include scope issues, thermal relief valve issues, as-found and as-left set-pressure determinations, exclusions from testing, and cold setpoint bench testing. The purpose of this paper is to describe some significant issues being addressed by the O ampersand M Working Group on Pressure Relief Devices (OM-1). The writer is currently the chair of OM-1 and the statements expressed herein represents his personal opinion

  8. Developing Optimal Procedure of Emergency Outside Cooling Water Injection for APR1400 Extended SBO Scenario Using MARS Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Jong Rok; Oh, Seung Jong [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In this study, we examined optimum operator actions to mitigate extended SBO using MARS code. Particularly, this paper focuses on analyzing outside core cooling water injection scenario, and aimed to develop optimal extended SBO procedure. Supplying outside emergency cooling water is the key feature of flexible strategy in extended SBO situation. An optimum strategy to maintain core cooling is developed for typical extended SBO. MARS APR1400 best estimate model was used to find optimal procedure. Also RCP seal leakage effect was considered importantly. Recent Fukushima accident shows the importance of mitigation capability against extended SBO scenarios. In Korea, all nuclear power plants incorporated various measures against Fukushima-like events. For APR1400 NPP, outside connectors are installed to inject cooling water using fire trucks or portable pumps. Using these connectors, outside cooling water can be provided to reactor, steam generators (SG), containment spray system, and spent fuel pool. In U. S., similar approach is chosen to provide a diverse and flexible means to prevent fuel damage (core and SFP) in external event conditions resulting in extended loss of AC power and loss of ultimate heat sink. Hence, hardware necessary to cope with extended SBO is already available for APR1400. However, considering the complex and stressful condition encountered by operators during extended SBO, it is important to develop guidelines/procedures to best cope with the event.

  9. Jet Car Track Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located in Lakehurst, New Jersey, the Jet Car Track Site supports jet cars with J57 engines and has a maximum jet car thrust of 42,000 pounds with a maximum speed of...

  10. Jet Crackle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-23

    crackle is correlated to signals with intermittent periods of steepened shock-like waves followed by weaker, longer, rounded rarefaction regions, but to...turbulence is concentrated in a weakly curved (for a typical round jet) shear layer between the high-speed potential core flow and the surrounding co-flow...decreases into the acoustic field. The effect of varying dc between −0.1 and −0.003δm(t)/∆U causes the Nδm/Lx curves to shift downward as fewer waves

  11. Sensitivity analysis of CFD code FLUENT-12 for supercritical water in vertical bare tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farah, A.; Haines, P.; Harvel, G.; Pioro, I., E-mail: amjad.farah@yahoo.com, E-mail: patrickjhaines@gmail.com, E-mail: glenn.harvel@uoit.ca, E-mail: igor.pioro@uoit.ca [Univ. of Ontario Inst. of Technology, Faculty of Energy Systems and Nuclear Science,Oshawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    The ability to use FLUENT 12 or other CFD software to accurately model supercritical water flow through various geometries in diabatic conditions is integral to research involving coal-fired power plants as well as Supercritical Water-cooled Reactors (SCWR). The cost and risk associated with constructing supercritical water test loops are far too great to use in a university setting. Previous work has shown that FLUENT 12, specifically realizable k-ε model, can reasonably predict the bulk and wall temperature distributions of externally heated vertical bare tubes for cases with relatively low heat and mass fluxes. However, sizeable errors were observed for other cases, often those which involved large heat fluxes that produce deteriorated heat transfer (DHT) regimes. The goal of this research is to gain a more complete understanding of how FLUENT 12 models supercritical water cases and where errors can be expected to occur. One control case is selected where expected changes in bulk and wall temperatures occur and they match empirical correlations' predictions, and the operating parameters are varied individually to gauge their effect on FLUENT's solution. The model used is the realizable k-ε, and the parameters altered are inlet pressure, mass flux, heat flux, and inlet temperature. (author)

  12. Quantitative analysis of toxic metals lead and cadmium in water jet by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheri, M. Sadegh; Tavassoli, S. H.

    2011-03-20

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been applied to the analysis of toxic metals Pb and Cd in Pb(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} and Cd(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}.4H{sub 2}O aqueous solutions, respectively. The plasma is generated by focusing a nanosecond Nd:YAG ({lambda}=1064 nm) laser on the surface of liquid in the homemade liquid jet configuration. With an assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE), calibration curves of Pb and Cd were obtained at different delay times between 1 to 5 {mu}s. The temporal behavior of limit of detections (LOD) was investigated and it is shown that the minimum LODs for Pb and Cd are 4 and 68 parts in 10{sup 6} (ppm), respectively. In order to demonstrate the correctness of the LTE assumption, plasma parameters including plasma temperature and electron density are evaluated, and it is shown that the LTE condition is satisfied at all delay times.

  13. Jet pumps hydrdynamics for application on BWRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girardi, G.; Pitimada, D.

    1979-01-01

    An analysis of single-phase jet-pump hydrodynamics is carried out by this paper with special regard to the applications on cooling water recirculation in the boiling water reactors (BWR). Firstly, in order to asses on efficiency of jet pumps, several theories regarding the hydrodynamic of these machines are also investigated. The results of the above theories are critically analysed and compared regarding to water-jet-pump design, to operational performance curves and to section limits. Some general criteria in jet-pump design are introduced and values of geometric and kinematic parameters are suggested together with losses coefficients which are all concerned with the ''high ratio'' type jet pump of this typical application. Finally, the experimental test program following the sim of this research is briefly described

  14. Does Thermal Granulation Drive Tephra Jets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J. D.; Zimanowski, B.; Buettner, R.; Sonder, I.; Dellino, P.

    2011-12-01

    Surtseyan tephra jets, also called cypressoid or cock's tail plumes, comprise a characteristic mixture of ash with bombs travelling roughly ballistic paths that tip the individual fingers of the projecting jet. Jets of similar form but smaller scale are generated by littoral magma-water interactions, confirming the general inference that surtseyan tephra jets are a characteristic product of explosive magma-water interaction, and suggesting that magmatic volatiles play a subsidiary role, if any, in their formation. Surtseyan jets have been inferred to result from both intense fuel-coolant interactions, and from simple boiling of water entrained into rising magma, and little new information has become available to test these two positions since they were clearly developed in the 1980s. Recent experiments in which magma is poured into standing water have produced vigorous jetting of hot water as melt solidifies and undergoes extensive thermal granulation. We present high-resolution hi-speed video of these jets, which we see as having the following origin. As thermal granulation takes place, a fracture network advances into the melt/glass body, and water invading the cracks at the rate of propagation is heated nearly instantaneously. Vapor produced at the contact expands and drives outward through cooled cracks, condensing as it moves to the exterior of the magma body where it is emitted as a jet of hot water. In ocean ridge hydrothermal systems a diffuse crack network inducts cold water, which is heated and expelled in focused jets. Focusing of hot outflow in experiments is inferred to result, as suggested for ridge hydrothermal systems, from thermoelastic closure of cracks near the one(s) feeding the jet. From the cooled products of our experimental runs, we know that thermal contraction produces a network of curved cracks with modal spacing of 1-2 mm, which separate domains of unbroken glass. It is during growth of this crack network that cold water enters, is

  15. NSURE code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rattan, D.S.

    1993-11-01

    NSURE stands for Near-Surface Repository code. NSURE is a performance assessment code. developed for the safety assessment of near-surface disposal facilities for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW). Part one of this report documents the NSURE model, governing equations and formulation of the mathematical models, and their implementation under the SYVAC3 executive. The NSURE model simulates the release of nuclides from an engineered vault, their subsequent transport via the groundwater and surface water pathways tot he biosphere, and predicts the resulting dose rate to a critical individual. Part two of this report consists of a User's manual, describing simulation procedures, input data preparation, output and example test cases

  16. TITAN: an advanced three-dimensional coupled neutronic/thermal-hydraulics code for light water nuclear reactor core analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griggs, D.P.; Kazimi, M.S.; Henry, A.F.

    1984-06-01

    The three-dimensional nodal neutronics code QUANDRY and the three-dimensional two-fluid thermal-hydraulics code THERMIT are combined into TITAN. Steady-state and transient coupling methodologies based upon a tandem structure were devised and implemented. Additional models for nuclear feedback, equilibrium xenon and direct moderator heating were added. TITAN was tested using a boiling water two channel problem and the coupling methodologies were shown to be effective. Simulated turbine trip transients and several control rod withdrawal transients were analyzed with good results. Sensitivity studies indicated that the time-step size can affect transient results significantly. TITAN was also applied to a quarter core PWR problem based on a real reactor geometry. The steady-state results were compared to a solution produced by MEKIN-B and poor agreement between the horizontal power shapes was found. Calculations with various mesh spacings showed that the mesh spacings in the MEKIN-B analysis were too large to produce accurate results with a finite difference method. The TITAN results were shown to be reasonable. A pair of control rod ejection accidents were also analyzed with TITAN. A comparison of the TITAN PWR control rod ejection results with results from coupled point kinetics/thermal-hydraulics analyses showed that the point kinetics method used (adiabatic method for control rod reactivities, steady-state flux shape for core-averaged reactivity feedback) underpredicted the power excursion in one case and overpredicted it in the other. It was therefore concluded that point kinetics methods should be used with caution and that three-dimensional codes like TITAN are superior for analyzing PWR control rod ejection transients

  17. Two-dimensional, two-phase jet loading on containment structures during blowdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadian, S.; Slegers, L.

    1983-01-01

    Pressure profiles of impinging jets are calculated using the computer code BEACON/MOD3. The code is used in post - as well as precalculations of experiments to demonstrate its applicability in 2-phase jet load calculation. Comparisons between measurements and predictions show that the code predicts pressure profiles within 15% accuracy. (orig./RW)

  18. Development of plant dynamic analysis code for integrated self-pressurized water reactor (ISPDYN), and comparative study of pressure control methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusunoki, Tsuyoshi; Yokomura, Takeyoshi; Nabeshima, Kunihiko; Shimazaki, Junya; Shinohara, Yoshikuni.

    1988-01-01

    This report describes the development of plant dynamic analysis code (ISPDYN) for integrated self-pressurized water reactor, and comparative study of pressure control methods with this code. ISPDYN is developed for integrated self-pressurized water reactor, one of the trial design by JAERI. In the transient responses, the calculated results by ISPDYN are in good agreement with the DRUCK calculations. In addition, this report presents some sensitivity studies for selected cases. Computing time of this code is very short so as about one fifth of real time. The comparative study of self-pressurized system with forced-pressurized system by this code, for rapid load decrease and increase cases, has provided useful informations. (author)

  19. Linking of FRAP-T, FRAPCON and RELAP-4 codes for transient analysis and accidents of light water reactors fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marra Neto, A.; Silva, A.T. e; Sabundjian, G.; Freitas, R.L.; Neves Conti, T. das.

    1991-09-01

    The computer codes FRAP-T, FRAPCON and RELAP-4 have been linked for the fuel rod behavior analysis under transients and hypothetical accidents in light water reactors. The results calculated by thermal hydraulic code RELAP-4 give input in file format into the transient fuel analysis code FRAP-T. If the effect of fuel burnup is taken into account, the fuel performance code FRAPCON should provide the initial steady state data for thhe transient analysis. With the thermal hydraulic boundary conditions provided by RELAP-4 (MOD3), FRAP-T6 is used to analyse pressurized water reactor fuel rod behavior during the blowdown phase under large break loss of coolant accident conditions. Two cases have been analysed: without and with initialization from FRAPCON-2 steady state data. (author)

  20. ZOCO VI - a computer code to calculate the time- and space-dependent pressure distribution in full pressure containments of water-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansfeld, G.

    1974-12-01

    ZOCO VI is a computer code to investigate the time and space dependent pressure distribution in full pressure containment of water cooled nuclear power reactors following a loss-of-coolant accident, which is caused by the rupture of a main coolant or steam line. ZOCO VI is an improved version of the computer code ZOCO V with enlarged description of condensing events. (orig.) [de

  1. Method of neutronic calculations for a spherical cell equivalent to cylindrical one for using computer codes in light water reactors in the fluidized bed nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, V.; Sefidvash, F.; Rastogi, E.P.; Huria, H.C.; Krishnani, P.D.

    1989-01-01

    In order to use the existing light water reactor cell calculation codes for fluidized bed nuclear reactor having spherical fuel cells, an equivalence method has been developed. This method is shown to be adequate in calculation of the Dancoff factor. This method also was applicable in LEOPARD code and the results obtained in calculation of K ∞ was compared with the obtained using the DTF IV code, the results showed that the method is adequate for the calculations neutronics of the fluidized bed nuclear reactor. (author) [pt

  2. Consolidating NASA's Arc Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balboni, John A.; Gokcen, Tahir; Hui, Frank C. L.; Graube, Peter; Morrissey, Patricia; Lewis, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    The paper describes the consolidation of NASA's high powered arc-jet testing at a single location. The existing plasma arc-jet wind tunnels located at the Johnson Space Center were relocated to Ames Research Center while maintaining NASA's technical capability to ground-test thermal protection system materials under simulated atmospheric entry convective heating. The testing conditions at JSC were reproduced and successfully demonstrated at ARC through close collaboration between the two centers. New equipment was installed at Ames to provide test gases of pure nitrogen mixed with pure oxygen, and for future nitrogen-carbon dioxide mixtures. A new control system was custom designed, installed and tested. Tests demonstrated the capability of the 10 MW constricted-segmented arc heater at Ames meets the requirements of the major customer, NASA's Orion program. Solutions from an advanced computational fluid dynamics code were used to aid in characterizing the properties of the plasma stream and the surface environment on the calorimeters in the supersonic flow stream produced by the arc heater.

  3. Jet inclusive cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Duca, V.

    1992-11-01

    Minijet production in jet inclusive cross sections at hadron colliders, with large rapidity intervals between the tagged jets, is evaluated by using the BFKL pomeron. We describe the jet inclusive cross section for an arbitrary number of tagged jets, and show that it behaves like a system of coupled pomerons

  4. Study of two-phase underexpanded jets by gas jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Mitsunori; Someya, Satoshi; Okamoto, Koji

    2008-01-01

    When a heat exchange in a Fast Breeder Reactor cracks, a sodium-water reaction occurs. When a tube cracks, highly pressurized water or steam escapes into the surrounding liquid sodium and a sodium-water reaction occurs forming the disodium oxide. The disodium oxide caught in the steam jet strikes other tubes in the reactor. The struck disodium oxide can then cause these tubes to crack. The release of steam into the liquid sodium media is a two-phase flow involving underexpansion. In this paper qualitative measurement of the underexpanded gas jet which injected into water was carried our for the purpose of analyzing the behavior of the two-phase flow. (author)

  5. THYDE-B1/MOD1: a computer code for analysis of small-break loss-of-coolant accident of boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatsu, Ken; Akimoto, Masayuki

    1982-08-01

    THYDE-B1/MOD1 is a computer code to analyze thermo-hydraulic transients of the reactor cooling system of a BWR, mainly during a small-break loss-of-coolant accidnet (SB-LOCA) with a special emphasis on the behavior of pressure and mixture level in the pressure vessel. The coolant behavior is simulated with a volume-and-junction method based on assumptions of thermal equilibrium and homogeneous conditions for two-phase flow. A characteristic feature of this code is a three-region representation of the state of the coolant in a control volume, in which three regions, i.e., subcooled liquid, saturated mixture and saturated steam regions are allowed to exist. The regions are separated by moving boundaries, tracked by mass and energy balances for each region. The interior of the pressure vessel is represented by two volumes with three regions: one for inside of the shroud and the other for outside, while other portions of the system are treated with homogeneous model. This method, although it seems to be very simple, has been verified to be adequate for cases of BWR SB-LOCAs in which the hydraulic transient is relatively slow and the cooling of the core strongly depends on the mixture level behavior in the vessel. In order to simulate the system behavior, THYDE-B1 is provided with analytical models for reactor kinetics, heat generation and conduction in fuel rods and structures, heat transfer between coolant and solid surfaces, coolant injection systems, breaks and discharge systems, jet pumps, recirculation pumps, and so on. The verification of the code has been conducted. A good predictability of the code has been indicated through the comparison of calculated results with experimental data provided by ROSA-III small-break tests. This report presents the analytical models, solution method, and input data requirements of the THYDE-B1/MOD1 code. (author)

  6. Liquid jets for experiments on complex fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinke, Ingo

    2015-02-01

    The ability of modern storage rings and free-electron lasers to produce intense X-ray beams that can be focused down to μm and nm sizes offers the possibility to study soft condensed matter systems on small length and short time scales. Gas dynamic virtual nozzles (GDVN) offer the unique possibility to investigate complex fluids spatially confined in a μm sized liquid jet with high flow rates, high pressures and shear stress distributions. In this thesis two different applications of liquid jet injection systems have been studied. The influence of the shear flow present in a liquid jet on colloidal dispersions was investigated via small angle X-ray scattering and a coherent wide angle X-ray scattering experiment on a liquid water jet was performed. For these purposes, liquid jet setups that are capable for X-ray scattering experiments have been developed and the manufacturing of gas dynamic virtual nozzles was realized. The flow properties of a liquid jet and their influences on the liquid were studied with two different colloidal dispersions at beamline P10 at the storage ring PETRA III. The results show that high shear flows present in a liquid jet lead to compressions and expansions of the particle structure and to particle alignments. The shear rate in the used liquid jet could be estimated to γ ≥ 5.4 . 10 4 Hz. The feasibility of rheology studies with a liquid jet injection system and the combined advantages is discussed. The coherent X-ray scattering experiment on a water jet was performed at the XCS instrument at the free-electron laser LCLS. First coherent single shot diffraction patterns from water were taken to investigate the feasibility of measuring speckle patterns from water.

  7. An Electrosurgical Endoknife with a Water-Jet Function (Flushknife Proves Its Merits in Colorectal Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection Especially for the Cases Which Should Be Removed En Bloc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoji Takeuchi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Previously, we reported that the Flushknife (electrosurgical endoknife with a water-jet function could reduce the operation time of colorectal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD however, suitable situation for the Flushknife was obscure. This subgroup analysis of a prospective randomized controlled trial was aimed to investigate the suitable situation for the Flushknife. Methods. A total of 48 superficial colorectal neoplasms that underwent ESD using either the Flexknife or the Flushknife in a referral center were enrolled. The differences of operation time between the Flexknife and the Flushknife groups in each subgroup (tumor size, location, and macroscopic type were analyzed. Results. Median (95% CI operation time calculated using survival curves was significantly shorter in the Flushknife group than in the Flexknife group (55.5 min [41, 78] versus 74.0 [57, 90] min; , Hazard Ratio HR: 0.53; 95% CI (0.29–0.97. In particular, the HR in patients with laterally spreading tumors-nongranular type (LST-NG in the Flushknife group was significantly smaller than in the Flexknife group (HR: 0.1650.17; 95% CI (0.04–0.66. There was a trend of decreasing HRs according to larger lesion size. Conclusions. The Flushknife proved its merits in colorectal ESD especially for the lesions which should be removed en bloc (LST-NG and large lesion.

  8. Jet Joint Undertaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keen, B.E.; O'Hara, G.W.; Pollard, I.E.

    1988-07-01

    The paper presents the Jet Joint Undertaking annual report 1987. A description is given of the JET and Euratom and International Fusion Programmes. The technical status of JET is outlined, including the development and improvements made to the system in 1987. The results of JET Operation in 1987 are described within the areas of: density effects, temperature improvements, energy confinement studies and other material effects. The contents also contain a summary of the future programme of JET. (U.K.)

  9. Structure of strongly underexpanded gas jets submerged in liquids – Application to the wastage of tubes by aggressive jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roger, Francis, E-mail: roger@ensma.fr [Institut PPRIME, Département Fluides, Thermique, Combustion CNRS ENSMA Université de Poitiers UPR 3346, ENSMA BP 109, 86960 Futuroscope Cedex (France); Carreau, Jean-Louis; Gbahoué, Laurent; Hobbes, Philippe [Institut PPRIME, Département Fluides, Thermique, Combustion CNRS ENSMA Université de Poitiers UPR 3346, ENSMA BP 109, 86960 Futuroscope Cedex (France); Allou, Alexandre; Beauchamp, François [CEA, DEN, Cadarache, DTN/STPA/LTRS, 13108 Saint-Paul lez, Durance Cedex (France)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • Underexpanded gas jets submerged in liquids behave similarly to homogeneous gas jets. • The counter rotating vortex pairs of jet produce discrete imprints on the targets. • The shape of hollows made on the targets is explained by the jet structure. • The erosion–corrosion phenomenon well explains the wastage of exchange tubes. - Abstract: Strongly underexpanded gas jets submerged in a liquid at rest behave similarly to underexpanded homogeneous gas jets. The existence of the Taylor-Görtler vortices around the inner zone of the gas jets is demonstrated in free gas jets submerged in water by means of optical probe. In the near field, the same phenomenon produces discrete imprints, approximately distributed in a circle, when underexpanded nitrogen jet submerged in liquid sodium hydroxide and underexpanded water vapour jet submerged in liquid sodium impact onto AU{sub 4}G-T{sub 4} and Incoloy 800{sup ®} alloy targets respectively. For a jet-target couple, the volume of the hollow is satisfactorily related to the strain energy density of the material and the kinetic energy of the gas jet. However, the comparison between volumes of hollows produced by both jets also indicates strong corrosive action of the medium on targets. This allows better understanding of the mechanism of wastage of tubes employed in steam generators integrated in liquid metal fast breeder reactors.

  10. Verification of RELAP5-3D code in natural circulation loop as function of the initial water inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertani, C.; Falcone, N.; Bersano, A.; Caramello, M.; Matsushita, T.; De Salve, M.; Panella, B.

    2017-11-01

    High safety and reliability of advanced nuclear reactors, Generation IV and Small Modular Reactors (SMR), have a crucial role in the acceptance of these new plants design. Among all the possible safety systems, particular efforts are dedicated to the study of passive systems because they rely on simple physical principles like natural circulation, without the need of external energy source to operate. Taking inspiration from the second Decay Heat Removal system (DHR2) of ALFRED, the European Generation IV demonstrator of the fast lead cooled reactor, an experimental facility has been built at the Energy Department of Politecnico di Torino (PROPHET facility) to study single and two-phase flow natural circulation. The facility behavior is simulated using the thermal-hydraulic system code RELAP5-3D, which is widely used in nuclear applications. In this paper, the effect of the initial water inventory on natural circulation is analyzed. The experimental time behaviors of temperatures and pressures are analyzed. The experimental matrix ranges between 69 % and 93%; the influence of the opposite effects related to the increase of the volume available for the expansion and the pressure raise due to phase change is discussed. Simulations of the experimental tests are carried out by using a 1D model at constant heat power and fixed liquid and air mass; the code predictions are compared with experimental results. Two typical responses are observed: subcooled or two phase saturated circulation. The steady state pressure is a strong function of liquid and air mass inventory. The numerical results show that, at low initial liquid mass inventory, the natural circulation is not stable but pulsated.

  11. Characteristics of steam jet impingement on annulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sang H.; Kim, Won J.; Suh, Kune Y.; Song, Chul H.

    2004-01-01

    The steam jet impingement occurs when the steam through the cold leg from the steam generator strikes the inner reactor barrel during the reflood phase of a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA), which is a characteristic behavior for the APR1400 (Advanced Power Reactor 1400 MWe). In the cold leg break LOCA, the steam and water flows in the downcomer are truly multidimensional. The azimuthal velocity distribution of the steam flow has an important bearing on the thermal hydraulic phenomena such as the emergency coolant water direct bypass, sweepout, steam condensation, and so forth. The investigation of jet flow is required to determine the steam path and momentum reduction rate after the impingement. For the observation of the steam behavior near the break, the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis has been carried out using CFX5.6. The flow visualization and analysis demonstrate the velocity profiles of the steam flow in the annulus region for the same boundary conditions. Pursuant to the CFD results, the micro-Pitot tubes were positioned at varying angles, and corrected for their sensitivity. The experiments were carried out to directly measure the pressure differential and to visualize the flow utilizing a smoke injection method. Results from this study are slated to be applied to MARS, which is a thermal hydraulic system code for the best-estimate analysis. The current one- or two-dimensional analysis in MARS was known to distort the local flow behavior. To enhance prediction capability of MARS, it is necessary to inspect the steam path in the break flow and mechanically simulate the momentum variation. The present experimental and analytical results can locally be applied to developing the engineering models of specific and essential phenomena. (author)

  12. Test for Jet Flow Induced by Steam Jet Condensation Using the GIRLS Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yeon Sik; Yoon, Y. J.; Song, C. H.

    2007-03-01

    To investigate the characteristics of the turbulent jet induced by steam jet condensation in a water tank through a single-hole sparger an experimental investigation was performed using the GIRLS facility. The experiments were conducted with respect to two cases, e.g. horizontal and vertical upward injections. For the measurements, pitot tube and thermocouples were used for turbulent flow velocity and temperatures, respectively. Overall flow shapes of the turbulent jet by the steam jet condensation are similar to those of axially symmetric turbulent jet flows. The angular coefficients of turbulent rays are quantitatively comparable between the traditional turbulent jet flows and the turbulent jet flows induced by the steam jet condensation in this work. Although the turbulent flows were induced by the horizontally injected steam jet condensation, general theory of turbulent jets was found to be applicable to the turbulent flows of this work. But for the vertically upward injection case, experimental data were quite deviated from the theoretical ones, which is considered due to the buoyancy effect

  13. Guidelines for selecting codes for ground-water transport modeling of low-level waste burial sites. Volume 2. Special test cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, C.S.; Cole, C.R.

    1985-08-01

    This document was written for the National Low-Level Waste Management Program to provide guidance for managers and site operators who need to select ground-water transport codes for assessing shallow-land burial site performance. The guidance given in this report also serves the needs of applications-oriented users who work under the direction of a manager or site operator. The guidelines are published in two volumes designed to support the needs of users having different technical backgrounds. An executive summary, published separately, gives managers and site operators an overview of the main guideline report. Volume 1, titled ''Guideline Approach,'' consists of Chapters 1 through 5 and a glossary. Chapters 2 through 5 provide the more detailed discussions about the code selection approach. This volume, Volume 2, consists of four appendices reporting on the technical evaluation test cases designed to help verify the accuracy of ground-water transport codes. 20 refs

  14. Verification of IVA5 computer code for melt-water interaction analysis. Pt. 2. Three-phase flows with melt fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolev, N.I.

    1999-01-01

    In order to qualify IVA5 for applications in the field of the melt-water interactions in nuclear reactor safety, we analyzed the achievable accuracy by predicting phenomena that are within this class. Comparison with FARO and PREMIX experiments characterized with dynamic fragmentation of the participating materials together With the comparison with the variety of experiments documented in part 1 of this work qualified IVA5 as a code representing the state-of-the-art in the field of the multiphase flows. The code is capable of predicting multi-phase flow behavior in complicated 3D geometries and industrial networks. The code is able to predict melt-water interaction in well quantified uncertainty region. Reducing the uncertainty band needs future sophistication in the directions specified in this work. (author)

  15. Vector boson tagged jets and jet substructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitev Ivan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In these proceedings, we report on recent results related to vector boson-tagged jet production in heavy ion collisions and the related modification of jet substructure, such as jet shapes and jet momentum sharing distributions. Z0-tagging and γ-tagging of jets provides new opportunities to study parton shower formation and propagation in the quark-gluon plasma and has been argued to provide tight constrains on the energy loss of reconstructed jets. We present theoretical predictions for isolated photon-tagged and electroweak boson-tagged jet production in Pb+Pb collisions at √sNN = 5.02 TeV at the LHC, addressing the modification of their transverse momentum and transverse momentum imbalance distributions. Comparison to recent ATLAS and CMS experimental measurements is performed that can shed light on the medium-induced radiative corrections and energy dissipation due to collisional processes of predominantly quark-initiated jets. The modification of parton splitting functions in the QGP further implies that the substructure of jets in heavy ion collisions may differ significantly from the corresponding substructure in proton-proton collisions. Two such observables and the implication of tagging on their evaluation is also discussed.

  16. Understanding jet noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabasov, S A

    2010-08-13

    Jets are one of the most fascinating topics in fluid mechanics. For aeronautics, turbulent jet-noise modelling is particularly challenging, not only because of the poor understanding of high Reynolds number turbulence, but also because of the extremely low acoustic efficiency of high-speed jets. Turbulent jet-noise models starting from the classical Lighthill acoustic analogy to state-of-the art models were considered. No attempt was made to present any complete overview of jet-noise theories. Instead, the aim was to emphasize the importance of sound generation and mean-flow propagation effects, as well as their interference, for the understanding and prediction of jet noise.

  17. Very forward jet, Mueller Navelet jets and jet gap jet measurements in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Cerci, Salim

    2018-01-01

    The measurements of very forward jet, Mueller-Navelet jets and jet-gap-jet events are presented for different collision energies. The analyses are based on data collected with the CMS detector at the LHC. Jets are defined through the anti-$k_\\mathrm{t}$ clustering algorithm for different cone sizes. Jet production studies provide stringent tests of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and contribute to tune Monte Carlo (MC) simulations and phenomenological models. The measurements are compared to predictions from various Monte Carlo event generators.

  18. Study of counter current flow limitation model of MARS-KS and SPACE codes under Dukler's air/water flooding test conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Won Woong; Kim, Min Gil; Lee, Jeong Ik; Bang, Young Seok

    2015-01-01

    In particular, CCFL(the counter current flow limitation) occurs in components such as hot leg, downcomer annulus and steam generator inlet plenum during LOCA which is possible to have flows in two opposite directions. Therefore, CCFL is one of the thermal-hydraulic models which has significant effect on the reactor safety analysis code performance. In this study, the CCFL model will be evaluated with MARS-KS based on two-phase two-field governing equations and SPACE code based on two-phase three-field governing equations. This study will be conducted by comparing MARS-KS code which is being used for evaluating the safety of a Korean Nuclear Power Plant and SPACE code which is currently under assessment for evaluating the safety of the designed nuclear power plant. In this study, comparison of the results of liquid upflow and liquid downflow rate for different gas flow rate from two code to the famous Dukler's CCFL experimental data are presented. This study will be helpful to understand the difference between system analysis codes with different governing equations, models and correlations, and further improving the accuracy of system analysis codes. In the nuclear reactor system, CCFL is an important phenomenon for evaluating the safety of nuclear reactors. This is because CCFL phenomenon can limit injection of ECCS water when CCFL occurs in components such as hot leg, downcomer annulus or steam generator inlet plenum during LOCA which is possible to flow in two opposite directions. Therefore, CCFL is one of the thermal-hydraulic models which has significant effect on the reactor safety analysis code performance. In this study, the CCFL model was evaluated with MARS-KS and SPACE codes for studying the difference between system analysis codes with different governing equations, models and correlations. This study was conducted by comparing MARS-KS and SPACE code results of liquid upflow and liquid downflow rate for different gas flow rate to the famous Dukler

  19. Code of practice for the temporary diversion of water from hydrostatic testing of pipelines: Water Act - Water (Ministerial) Regulation No. 205

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    A series of administrative procedures are described in this regulation regarding the temporary diversion of water for hydrostatic testing of pipelines in Alberta. These include the notification and timing of the release of water, where the test will occur and the possible effect of water release on the environment. The requirements of a hydrostatic test plan are described in point form. In accordance with the regulation, a person responsible for the testing must ensure that the testing does not cause a significant adverse effect on the aquatic environment or on any household user. Should this occur, all adverse effects on the aquatic environment should be fully mitigated. The reporting schedule and record keeping information are also covered. 2 tabs., 1 figs

  20. Study on the Impact Characteristics of Coherent Supersonic Jet and Conventional Supersonic Jet in EAF Steelmaking Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Guangsheng; Zhu, Rong; Cheng, Ting; Dong, Kai; Yang, Lingzhi; Wu, Xuetao

    2018-02-01

    Supersonic oxygen-supplying technologies, including the coherent supersonic jet and the conventional supersonic jet, are now widely applied in electric arc furnace steelmaking processes to increase the bath stirring, reaction rates, and energy efficiency. However, there has been limited research on the impact characteristics of the two supersonic jets. In the present study, by integrating theoretical modeling and numerical simulations, a hybrid model was developed and modified to calculate the penetration depth and impact zone volume of the coherent and conventional supersonic jets. The computational fluid dynamics results were validated against water model experiments. The results show that the lance height has significant influence on the jet penetration depth and jet impact zone volume. The penetration depth decreases with increasing lance height, whereas the jet impact zone volume initially increases and then decreases with increasing lance height. In addition, the penetration depth and impact zone volume of the coherent supersonic jet are larger than those of the conventional supersonic jet at the same lance height, which illustrates the advantages of the coherent supersonic jet in delivering great amounts of oxygen to liquid melt with a better stirring effect compared to the conventional supersonic jet. A newly defined parameter, the k value, reflects the velocity attenuation and the potential core length of the main supersonic jet. Finally, a hybrid model and its modifications can well predict the penetration depth and impact zone volume of the coherent and conventional supersonic jets.

  1. Application of actuator-driven pulsed water jet in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage surgery: its effectiveness for dissection around ruptured aneurysmal walls and subarachnoid clot removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Hidenori; Endo, Toshiki; Nakagawa, Atsuhiro; Fujimura, Miki; Tominaga, Teiji

    2017-07-01

    In clipping surgery for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), critical steps include clot removal and dissection of aneurysms without premature rupture or brain injuries. To pursue this goal, a piezo actuator-driven pulsed water jet (ADPJ) system was introduced in this study. This study included 42 patients, who suffered aSAH and underwent clipping surgery. Eleven patients underwent surgery with the assistance of the ADPJ system (ADPJ group). In the other 31 patients, surgery was performed without the ADPJ system (Control group). The ADPJ system was used for clot removal and aneurysmal dissection. The clinical impact of the ADPJ system was judged by comparing the rate of premature rupture, degree of clot removal, and clinical outcomes. Intraoperatively, a premature rupture was encountered in 18.2 and 25.8% of cases in the ADPJ and control groups, respectively. Although the differences were not statistically significant, intraoperative observation suggested that the ADPJ system was effective in clot removal and dissection of aneurysms in a safe manner. Computed tomography scans indicated the achievement of higher degrees of clot removal, especially when the ADPJ system was used for cases with preoperative clot volumes of more than 25 ml (p = 0.047, Mann-Whitney U test). Clinical outcomes, including incidence of postoperative brain injury or symptomatic vasospasm, were similar in both groups. We described our preliminary surgical results using the ADPJ system for aSAH. Although further study is needed, the ADPJ system was considered a safe and effective tool for clot removal and dissection of aneurysms.

  2. Analyses and computer code developments for accident-induced thermohydraulic transients in water-cooled nuclear reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wulff, W.

    1977-01-01

    A review is presented on the development of analyses and computer codes for the prediction of thermohydraulic transients in nuclear reactor systems. Models for the dynamics of two-phase mixtures are summarized. Principles of process, reactor component and reactor system modeling are presented, as well as the verification of these models by comparing predicted results with experimental data. Codes of major importance are described, which have recently been developed or are presently under development. The characteristics of these codes are presented in terms of governing equations, solution techniques and code structure. Current efforts and problems of code verification are discussed. A summary is presented of advances which are necessary for reducing the conservatism currently implied in reactor hydraulics codes for safety assessment

  3. Determination of the δ15N and δ18O of nitrate in water; RSIL lab code 2900

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplen, Tyler B.; Qi, Haiping; Revesz, Kinga; Casciotti, Karen; Hannon, Janet E.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the Reston Stable Isotope Laboratory (RSIL) lab code 2900 is to determine the δ15N and δ18O of nitrate (NO3-) in water. The δ15N and δ18O of the dissolved NO3- are analyzed by converting the NO3- to nitrous oxide (N2O), which serves as the analyte for mass spectrometry. A culture of denitrifying bacteria is used in the enzymatic conversion of the NO3- to N2O, which follows the pathway shown in equation 1: NO3- → NO2- → NO → 1/2 N2O (1) Because the bacteria Pseudomonas aureofaciens lack N2O reductive activity, the reaction stops at N2O, unlike the typical denitrification reaction that goes to N2. After several hours, the conversion is complete, and the N2O is extracted from the vial, separated from volatile organic vapor and water vapor by an automated -65 °C isopropanol-slush trap, a Nafion drier, a CO2 and water removal unit (Costech #021020 carbon dioxide absorbent with Mg(ClO4)2), and trapped in a small-volume trap immersed in liquid nitrogen with a modified Finnigan MAT (now Thermo Scientific) GasBench 2 introduction system. After the N2O is released, it is further purified by gas chromatography before introduction to the isotope-ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS). The IRMS is a Thermo Scientific Delta V Plus continuous flow IRMS (CF-IRMS). It has a universal triple collector, consisting of two wide cups with a narrow cup in the middle; it is capable of simultaneously measuring mass/charge (m/z) of the N2O molecule 44, 45, and 46. The ion beams from these m/z values are as follows: m/z = 44 = N2O = 14N14N16O; m/z = 45 = N2O = 14N15N16O or 14N14N17O; m/z = 46 = N2O = 14N14N18O. The 17O contributions to the m/z 44 and m/z 45 ion beams are accounted for before δ15N values are reported.

  4. GRASP [GRound-Water Adjunct Sensitivity Program]: A computer code to perform post-SWENT [simulator for water, energy, and nuclide transport] adjoint sensitivity analysis of steady-state ground-water flow: Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.L.; RamaRao, B.S.; McNeish, J.A.

    1986-11-01

    GRASP (GRound-Water Adjunct Senstivity Program) computes measures of the behavior of a ground-water system and the system's performance for waste isolation, and estimates the sensitivities of these measures to system parameters. The computed measures are referred to as ''performance measures'' and include weighted squared deviations of computed and observed pressures or heads, local Darcy velocity components and magnitudes, boundary fluxes, and travel distance and time along travel paths. The sensitivities are computed by the adjoint method and are exact derivatives of the performance measures with respect to the parameters for the modeled system, taken about the assumed parameter values. GRASP presumes steady-state, saturated grondwater flow, and post-processes the results of a multidimensional (1-D, 2-D, 3-D) finite-difference flow code. This document describes the mathematical basis for the model, the algorithms and solution techniques used, and the computer code design. The implementation of GRASP is verified with simple one- and two-dimensional flow problems, for which analytical expressions of performance measures and sensitivities are derived. The linkage between GRASP and multidimensional finite-difference flow codes is described. This document also contains a detailed user's manual. The use of GRASP to evaluate nuclear waste disposal issues has been emphasized throughout the report. The performance measures and their sensitivities can be employed to assist in directing data collection programs, expedite model calibration, and objectively determine the sensitivity of projected system performance to parameters

  5. Jet Vertex Charge Reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Nektarijevic, Snezana; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    A newly developed algorithm called the jet vertex charge tagger, aimed at identifying the sign of the charge of jets containing $b$-hadrons, referred to as $b$-jets, is presented. In addition to the well established track-based jet charge determination, this algorithm introduces the so-called \\emph{jet vertex charge} reconstruction, which exploits the charge information associated to the displaced vertices within the jet. Furthermore, the charge of a soft muon contained in the jet is taken into account when available. All available information is combined into a multivariate discriminator. The algorithm has been developed on jets matched to generator level $b$-hadrons provided by $t\\bar{t}$ events simulated at $\\sqrt{s}$=13~TeV using the full ATLAS detector simulation and reconstruction.

  6. Experimental perforation of tubing with a hydraulic sand jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semenov, Yu V

    1970-01-01

    A series of field tests has shown that perforation with a hydraulic sand jet improves the quality of well completion. The sand jet does not crack the cement sheath or the casing, and the perforations are larger and deeper than perforations formed by explosive charges. Fluid circulation during sand jet perforation can safely be stopped for at least 10 min. Water containing a surfactant can be used as a sand carrier. Sand jet perforation allows successful completion of wells cased by 2 tubing strings. Sand jet perforation can be used to clean the borehole well and to remove foreign objects from the well.

  7. Design and research on nuclear power plant EAS jet pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xingjiang; Fang Xiquan; Xie Jian; Yang Bin; Wang Xueling; Qi Yanli

    2014-01-01

    The jet pump is an important part of the PWR containment spray system. It will be performed the security functions under the accident conditions, which the containment spray system adds the right amount of sodium hydroxide through the jet pump to spray water. This paper describes the principle of jet pump. And the optimum structure dimensions were calculated according to the performance parameter and requirement of the jet pump. On the basis of foreign EAS jet pump design experience, the structure dimensions were modified according to the CFD analysis and performance test. Finally, the results of CFD analysis and performance test were provided. (authors)

  8. Delving into QCD jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, K.

    1980-01-01

    The author discusses, in an introductory fashion, the latest developments in the study of hadronic jets produced in hard processes, based on perturbative QCD. Emphasis is on jet calculus (and its applications and generalizations), and on the appearance of a parton-like consistent, over-all picture of jet evolution in momentum, colour, and real space-time. (Auth.)

  9. Radial velocity asymmetries from jets with variable velocity profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerqueira, A. H.; Vasconcelos, M. J.; Velazquez, P. F.; Raga, A. C.; De Colle, F.

    2006-01-01

    We have computed a set of 3-D numerical simulations of radiatively cooling jets including variabilities in both the ejection direction (precession) and the jet velocity (intermittence), using the Yguazu-a code. In order to investigate the effects of jet rotation on the shape of the line profiles, we also introduce an initial toroidal rotation velocity profile. Since the Yguazu-a code includes an atomic/ionic network, we are able to compute the emission coefficients for several emission lines, and we generate line profiles for the Hα, [O I]λ6300, [S II]λ6716 and [N II]λ6548 lines. Using initial parameters that are suitable for the DG Tau microjet, we show that the computed radial velocity shift for the medium-velocity component of the line profile as a function of distance from the jet axis is strikingly similar for rotating and non-rotating jet models

  10. Physical modeling of the impingement of an air jet on a water surface; Modelado fisico de la incidencia de un chorro de aire sobre una superficie de agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solorzano-Lopez, J.; Ramirez-Argaez, M.A.; Zenit, R.

    2010-07-01

    The use of gas jets (oxygen) plays a key role in several steelmaking processes as in the Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF) or in the Electric Arc Furnace (EAF). Those jets improve heat, mass and momentum transfer in the liquid metal, mixing of chemical species enhancing and govern the formation of foaming slag. In this work experimental measurements were performed to determine the dimensions of the cavity formed at the liquid free surface caused by a gas jet impinging on it; also velocities vectors were measured in the zone affected by the gas jet. avities were measured from images from high speed camera and the vector maps were obtained with a Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique. Both velocities and cavities were determined as a function of the main process variables: gas flow rate, distance of the nozzle from the free surface and lance angle. Cavity dimensions were statistically processed treated as a function of the process variables and also as a function of the proper dimensionless numbers that govern these phenomena. It was found that Weber and Froude numbers govern the cavity geometry. Liquid flow driven by the jet is mainly affected by the air flow rate, lance height and angle. (Author).

  11. Bifurcation in a buoyant horizontal laminar jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakeri, Jaywant H.; Das, Debopam; Srinivasan, J.

    2000-06-01

    The trajectory of a laminar buoyant jet discharged horizontally has been studied. The experimental observations were based on the injection of pure water into a brine solution. Under certain conditions the jet has been found to undergo bifurcation. The bifurcation of the jet occurs in a limited domain of Grashof number and Reynolds number. The regions in which the bifurcation occurs has been mapped in the Reynolds number Grashof number plane. There are three regions where bifurcation does not occur. The various mechanisms that prevent bifurcation have been proposed.

  12. TISKTH-3: a couple neutronics/thermal-hydraulics code for the transient analysis of light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Muzhang; Zhang Quan; Wang Guoli; Zhang Yuman

    1988-01-01

    TISKTH-3 is a coupled neutronics/thermal-hydraulics code for the transient analysis. A 3-dimensional neutron kinetics equation solved by the Nodal Green's Function Method is used for the neutronics model of the code. A homogeneous equilibrium model with a complete boiling curve and two numerical solutions of the implicit and explicit scheme is used for the thermal-hydraulics model of the code. A 2-dimensional heat conduction equation with variable conductivity solved by the method of weighted residuals is used for the fuel rod heat transfer model of the code. TISKTH-3 is able to analyze the fast transient process and complicate accident situations in the core. The initative applications have shown that the stability and convergency in the calculations with the code are satisfactory

  13. TISKTH-3: a couple neutronics/thermal-hydraulics code for the transient analysis of light water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muzhang, Peng; Quan, Zhang; Guoli, Wang; Yuman, Zhang

    1988-03-01

    TISKTH-3 is a coupled neutronics/thermal-hydraulics code for the transient analysis. A 3-dimensional neutron kinetics equation solved by the Nodal Green's Function Method is used for the neutronics model of the code. A homogeneous equilibrium model with a complete boiling curve and two numerical solutions of the implicit and explicit scheme is used for the thermal-hydraulics model of the code. A 2-dimensional heat conduction equation with variable conductivity solved by the method of weighted residuals is used for the fuel rod heat transfer model of the code. TISKTH-3 is able to analyze the fast transient process and complicate accident situations in the core. The initative applications have shown that the stability and convergency in the calculations with the code are satisfactory.

  14. Absorbed dose determination in external beam radiotherapy. An international code of practice for dosimetry based on standards of absorbed dose to water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency published in 1987 an International Code of Practice entitled 'Absorbed Dose Determination in Photon and Electron Beams' (IAEA Technical Reports Series No. 277 (TRS-277)), recommending procedures to obtain the absorbed dose in water from measurements made with an ionization chamber in external beam radiotherapy. A second edition of TRS-277 was published in 1997 updating the dosimetry of photon beams, mainly kilovoltage X rays. Another International Code of Practice for radiotherapy dosimetry entitled 'The Use of Plane-Parallel Ionization Chambers in High Energy Electron and Photon Beams' (IAEA Technical Reports Series No. 381 (TRS-381)) was published in 1997 to further update TRS-277 and complement it with respect to the area of parallel-plate ionization chambers. Both codes have proven extremely valuable for users involved in the dosimetry of the radiation beams used in radiotherapy. In TRS-277 the calibration of the ionization chambers was based on primary standards of air kerma; this procedure was also used in TRS-381, but the new trend of calibrating ionization chambers directly in a water phantom in terms of absorbed dose to water was introduced. The development of primary standards of absorbed dose to water for high energy photon and electron beams, and improvements in radiation dosimetry concepts, offer the possibility of reducing the uncertainty in the dosimetry of radiotherapy beams. The dosimetry of kilovoltage X rays, as well as that of proton and heavy ion beams, interest in which has grown considerably in recent years, can also be based on these standards. Thus a coherent dosimetry system based on standards of absorbed dose to water is possible for practically all radiotherapy beams. Many Primary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (PSDLs) already provide calibrations in terms of absorbed dose to water at the radiation quality of 60 Co gamma rays. Some laboratories have extended calibrations to high energy photon and

  15. JET pump limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnenberg, K.; Deksnis, E.; Shaw, R.; Reiter, D.

    1988-01-01

    JET plans to install two pump limiter modules which can be used for belt-limiter, inner-wall and X-point discharges and, also, for 1-2s as the main limiter. A design is presented which is compatible with two diagnostic systems, and which allows partial removal of the pump limiter to provide access for remote-handling operations. The high heat-flux components are initially cooled during a pulse. Heat is removed between discharges by radiation and pressure contacts to a water-cooled support structure. The pumping edge will be made of annealed pyrolytic graphite. Exhaust efficiency has been estimated, for a 1-d edge model, using a Monte-Carlo calculation of neutral gas transport. When the pump limiter is operated together with other wall components we expect an efficiency of ≅ 5% (2.5 x 10 21 part/s). As a main limiter the efficiency increases to about 10%. (author)

  16. Turbulence Statistics of a Buoyant Jet in a Stratified Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleney, Amy Brooke

    Using non-intrusive optical diagnostics, turbulence statistics for a round, incompressible, buoyant, and vertical jet discharging freely into a stably linear stratified environment is studied and compared to a reference case of a neutrally buoyant jet in a uniform environment. This is part of a validation campaign for computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Buoyancy forces are known to significantly affect the jet evolution in a stratified environment. Despite their ubiquity in numerous natural and man-made flows, available data in these jets are limited, which constrain our understanding of the underlying physical processes. In particular, there is a dearth of velocity field data, which makes it challenging to validate numerical codes, currently used for modeling these important flows. Herein, jet near- and far-field behaviors are obtained with a combination of planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) and multi-scale time-resolved particle image velocimetry (TR-PIV) for Reynolds number up to 20,000. Deploying non-intrusive optical diagnostics in a variable density environment is challenging in liquids. The refractive index is strongly affected by the density, which introduces optical aberrations and occlusions that prevent the resolution of the flow. One solution consists of using index matched fluids with different densities. Here a pair of water solutions - isopropanol and NaCl - are identified that satisfy these requirements. In fact, they provide a density difference up to 5%, which is the largest reported for such fluid pairs. Additionally, by design, the kinematic viscosities of the solutions are identical. This greatly simplifies the analysis and subsequent simulations of the data. The spectral and temperature dependence of the solutions are fully characterized. In the near-field, shear layer roll-up is analyzed and characterized as a function of initial velocity profile. In the far-field, turbulence statistics are reported for two different scales, one

  17. The preliminary thermal-hydraulic design of one superheated steam water cooled blanket concept based on RELAP5 and MELCOR codes - 15147

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Y.; Wang, G.; Cheng, Y.; Peng, C.

    2015-01-01

    Water Cooled Blanket (WCB) is very important in the concept design and energy transfer in future fusion power plant. One concept design of WCB is under computational testing. RELAP5 and MELCOR codes, which are mature and often used in nuclear engineering, are selected as simulation tools. The complex inner flow channels and heat sources are simplified according to its thermal-hydraulic characteristics. Then the nodal models for RELAP5 and MELCOR are built for approximating the concept design. The superheated steam scheme is analyzed by two codes separately under different power levels. After some adjustments of the inlet flow resistance coefficients of some flow channels, the reasonable stable conditions can be obtained. The stable fluid and wall temperature distributions and pressure drops are studied. The results of two codes are compared and some advices are given. (authors)

  18. JET Joint Undertaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keen, B.E.; Lallia, P.; O'Hara, G.W.; Pollard, I.E.

    1987-06-01

    The paper presents the annual report of the Joint European Torus (JET) Joint Undertaking, 1986. The report is divided into two parts: a part on the scientific and technical programme of the project, and a part setting out the administration and organisation of the Project. The first part includes: a summary of the main features of the JET apparatus, the JET experimental programme, the position of the Project in the overall Euratom programme, and how JET relates to other large fusion devices throughout the world. In addition, the technical status of JET is described, as well as the results of the JET operations in 1986. The final section of the first part outlines the proposed future programme of JET. (U.K.)

  19. Jet substructure in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, David W

    2011-01-01

    Measurements are presented of the jet invariant mass and substructure in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 7$ TeV with the ATLAS detector using an integrated luminosity of 37 pb$^{-1}$. These results exercise the tools for distinguishing the signatures of new boosted massive particles in the hadronic final state. Two "fat" jet algorithms are used, along with the filtering jet grooming technique that was pioneered in ATLAS. New jet substructure observables are compared for the first time to data at the LHC. Finally, a sample of candidate boosted top quark events collected in the 2010 data is analyzed in detail for the jet substructure properties of hadronic "top-jets" in the final state. These measurements demonstrate not only our excellent understanding of QCD in a new energy regime but open the path to using complex jet substructure observables in the search for new physics.

  20. Towards numerical simulations of supersonic liquid jets using ghost fluid method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majidi, Sahand; Afshari, Asghar

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A ghost fluid method based solver is developed for numerical simulation of compressible multiphase flows. • The performance of the numerical tool is validated via several benchmark problems. • Emergence of supersonic liquid jets in quiescent gaseous environment is simulated using ghost fluid method for the first time. • Bow-shock formation ahead of the liquid jet is clearly observed in the obtained numerical results. • Radiation of mach waves from the phase-interface witnessed experimentally is evidently captured in our numerical simulations. - Abstract: A computational tool based on the ghost fluid method (GFM) is developed to study supersonic liquid jets involving strong shocks and contact discontinuities with high density ratios. The solver utilizes constrained reinitialization method and is capable of switching between the exact and approximate Riemann solvers to increase the robustness. The numerical methodology is validated through several benchmark test problems; these include one-dimensional multiphase shock tube problem, shock–bubble interaction, air cavity collapse in water, and underwater-explosion. A comparison between our results and numerical and experimental observations indicate that the developed solver performs well investigating these problems. The code is then used to simulate the emergence of a supersonic liquid jet into a quiescent gaseous medium, which is the very first time to be studied by a ghost fluid method. The results of simulations are in good agreement with the experimental investigations. Also some of the famous flow characteristics, like the propagation of pressure-waves from the liquid jet interface and dependence of the Mach cone structure on the inlet Mach number, are reproduced numerically. The numerical simulations conducted here suggest that the ghost fluid method is an affordable and reliable scheme to study complicated interfacial evolutions in complex multiphase systems such as supersonic liquid

  1. THYDE-B1/MOD2: a computer code for analysis of small-break loss-of-coolant accidents of boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Hideo; Muramatsu, Ken; Kukita, Yutaka; Tasaka, Kanji

    1988-04-01

    THYDE-B1/MOD2 is a fast-running best estimate (BE) computer code to analyze thermal-hydraulic behaviors of the reactor cooling system of a boiling water reactor (BWR), mainly, during a small-break loss-of-coolant accident (SBLOCA) with a special emphasis on the behavior of pressure and mixture level in the pressure vessel. The coolant behavior is simulated with a volume-and-junction method based on assumptions of thermal equilibrium and homogeneous conditions for two-phase flow. A characteristic feature of this code is a three-region representation of the state of the coolant in a control volume, in which three regions consist of subcooled liquid, saturated mixture and saturated steam regions from the volume bottom. The regions are separated by two horizontal moving boundaries which are tracked by mass and energy balances for each region. With this three region node model, the interior of the pressure vessel can be represented by only two volumes: one for inside of the shroud and the other for outside, while other portions of the system are treated with homogeneous node model. This method, although it seems to be very simple, has been verified to be adequate for cases of BWR SBLOCAs in which the thermal-hydraulic behavior is relatively slow and gravity controlled. The code has been improved and modified from the last version of the code, THYDE-B1/MOD1, especially in the phase separation model which is used in the mixture level calculation in the three region node model. Then, a good predictability of the code has been indicated through the comparison of calculated results with various SBLOCA test data including ROSA-III of JAERI and FIST of the General Electric Co. This report presents the code modifications and input data requirements of the THYDE-B1/MOD2 code. (author)

  2. Turbulent buoyant jets and plumes

    CERN Document Server

    Rodi, Wolfgang

    The Science & Applications of Heat and Mass Transfer: Reports, Reviews, & Computer Programs, Volume 6: Turbulent Buoyant Jets and Plumes focuses on the formation, properties, characteristics, and reactions of turbulent jets and plumes. The selection first offers information on the mechanics of turbulent buoyant jets and plumes and turbulent buoyant jets in shallow fluid layers. Discussions focus on submerged buoyant jets into shallow fluid, horizontal surface or interface jets into shallow layers, fundamental considerations, and turbulent buoyant jets (forced plumes). The manuscript then exami

  3. On jet substructure methods for signal jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasgupta, Mrinal [Consortium for Fundamental Physics, School of Physics & Astronomy, University of Manchester,Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Powling, Alexander [School of Physics & Astronomy, University of Manchester,Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Siodmok, Andrzej [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences,ul. Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Kraków (Poland); CERN, PH-TH,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2015-08-17

    We carry out simple analytical calculations and Monte Carlo studies to better understand the impact of QCD radiation on some well-known jet substructure methods for jets arising from the decay of boosted Higgs bosons. Understanding differences between taggers for these signal jets assumes particular significance in situations where they perform similarly on QCD background jets. As an explicit example of this we compare the Y-splitter method to the more recently proposed Y-pruning technique. We demonstrate how the insight we gain can be used to significantly improve the performance of Y-splitter by combining it with trimming and show that this combination outperforms the other taggers studied here, at high p{sub T}. We also make analytical estimates for optimal parameter values, for a range of methods and compare to results from Monte Carlo studies.

  4. XSOR codes users manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jow, Hong-Nian; Murfin, W.B.; Johnson, J.D.

    1993-11-01

    This report describes the source term estimation codes, XSORs. The codes are written for three pressurized water reactors (Surry, Sequoyah, and Zion) and two boiling water reactors (Peach Bottom and Grand Gulf). The ensemble of codes has been named ''XSOR''. The purpose of XSOR codes is to estimate the source terms which would be released to the atmosphere in severe accidents. A source term includes the release fractions of several radionuclide groups, the timing and duration of releases, the rates of energy release, and the elevation of releases. The codes have been developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in support of the NUREG-1150 program. The XSOR codes are fast running parametric codes and are used as surrogates for detailed mechanistic codes. The XSOR codes also provide the capability to explore the phenomena and their uncertainty which are not currently modeled by the mechanistic codes. The uncertainty distributions of input parameters may be used by an. XSOR code to estimate the uncertainty of source terms

  5. Transient Model of a 10 MW Supercritical CO{sub 2} Brayton Cycle for Light Water Reactors by using MARS Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Joo-Hyun; Park, Hyun Sun; Kim, Moo Hwan [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Sung Won; Cha, Jae-Eun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In this study, recuperation cycle was chosen as a reference loop design and the MARS code was chosen as the transient cycle analysis code. Cycle design condition is focus on operation point of the light-water reactor. Development of a transient model was performed for 10MW-electron SCO{sub 2} coupled with light water reactors. In order to perform transient analysis, cycle transient model was developed and steady-state run was performed and presented in the paper. In this study, the transient model of SCO{sub 2} recuperation Brayton cycle was developed and implemented in MARS to study the steady-state simulation. We performed nodalization of the transient model using MARS code and obtained steady-state results. This study is shown that the supercritical CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle can be used as a power conversion system for light water reactors. Future work will include transient analysis such as partial road operation, power swing, start-up, and shutdown. Cycle control strategy will be considered for various control method.

  6. Bouncing and Merging of Liquid Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Abhishek; Li, Minglei; Law, Chung K.

    2014-11-01

    Collision of two fluid jets is a technique that is utilized in many industrial applications, such as in rocket engines, to achieve controlled mixing, atomization and sometimes liquid phase reactions. Thus, the dynamics of colliding jets have direct impact on the performance, efficiency and reliability of such applications. In analogy with the dynamics of droplet-droplet collision, in this work we have experimentally demonstrated, for n-alkane hydrocarbons as well as water, that with increasing impact inertia obliquely colliding jets also exhibit the same nonmonotonic responses of merging, bouncing, merging again, and merging followed by disintegration; and that the continuous entrainment of the boundary layer air over the jet surface into the colliding interfacial region leads to two distinguishing features of jet collision, namely: there exists a maximum impact angle beyond which merging is always possible, and that merging is inhibited and then promoted with increasing pressure. These distinct response regimes were mapped and explained on the bases of impact inertia, deformation of the jet surface, viscous loss within the jet interior, and the thickness and pressure build-up within the interfacial region in order to activate the attractive surface van der Waals force to effect merging.

  7. Jet Substructure Without Trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jankowiak, Martin; Larkoski, Andrew J.; /SLAC /Stanford U., ITP

    2011-08-19

    We present an alternative approach to identifying and characterizing jet substructure. An angular correlation function is introduced that can be used to extract angular and mass scales within a jet without reference to a clustering algorithm. This procedure gives rise to a number of useful jet observables. As an application, we construct a top quark tagging algorithm that is competitive with existing methods. In preparation for the LHC, the past several years have seen extensive work on various aspects of collider searches. With the excellent resolution of the ATLAS and CMS detectors as a catalyst, one area that has undergone significant development is jet substructure physics. The use of jet substructure techniques, which probe the fine-grained details of how energy is distributed in jets, has two broad goals. First, measuring more than just the bulk properties of jets allows for additional probes of QCD. For example, jet substructure measurements can be compared against precision perturbative QCD calculations or used to tune Monte Carlo event generators. Second, jet substructure allows for additional handles in event discrimination. These handles could play an important role at the LHC in discriminating between signal and background events in a wide variety of particle searches. For example, Monte Carlo studies indicate that jet substructure techniques allow for efficient reconstruction of boosted heavy objects such as the W{sup {+-}} and Z{sup 0} gauge bosons, the top quark, and the Higgs boson.

  8. Jet quenching at ALICE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, Nicola

    2007-01-01

    RHIC results on leading hadron suppression indicate that the jets produced in hard processes are strongly quenched by the dense medium created in heavy ion collisions. Most of the energy lost by the leading parton remains within the jet cone, but several questions on the medium modification of the jet structure have not been addressed. These include the longitudinal and transverse structures of the quenched jet, the associated radiation observables, and the dependence on the parton flavor. These topics will be studied by ALICE thanks to both the robustness of its tracking and the charged particle identification system. Large medium effects are expected in both the low pt and in the high pt regions. To make ALICE better suited for jet physics, the performances on high p t particles and jets can be significantly improved by completing the present set-up with a large Electromagnetic Calorimeter (EmCal). This will significantly improve the resolution on the jet energy and on the particle composition (with the detection of both charged and neutral particles). It will also allow to calibrate the jet energy by measuring the high energy photon emitted in the opposite direction. EmCal will be used to trigger on the jet energy itself, thus allowing a significant improvement of the statistics achievable for jets of high energy. Finally, due too both the γ/π 0 and the electron/hadron discrimination, EmCal will enhance the ALICE capabilities at high p t for direct photons and heavy quarks measurements

  9. Study on models for jet breakup for CANDU 6 containment analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, J.S.; Lee, N.H.; Huh, J.Y.; Choi, J.H.; Hwang, S.T.

    1996-01-01

    When high enthalpy liquid is discharged into a containment, thermal fragmentation is a dominant mechanism for the dispersion of liquid into droplets. The current method for aerosol size estimation used in SMART code for CANDU containment analysis results in too small aerosol diameter because it considers only aerodynamic atomization with very fast discharging velocity. The smaller the aerosol diameter, the less is the effect of aerosol removal mechanisms. Therefore, the amounts of aerosol released into environment for some containment isolation failure cases are quite large and the resulting dose values are very conservative. Among several models to predict the drop diameter for a high enthalpy liquid jet, an appropriate model (Koestel, Gido and Lamkin model) has been selected for aerosol size calculation and incorporated into SMART code. WALE (Water Aerosol Leakage Experiments) has been assessed by using this updated SMART code for the code verification. The calculated aerosol amount released into environment is still higher than the experimental value but much lower compared to those predicted by non-updated (original) SMART code. Some of CANDU DBAs (Design Basis Accidents) have been analyzed by using updated and original SMART codes. The comparison of the result shows that the amount of each radionuclide isotope released into outer atmosphere is significantly reduced with the updated SMART code

  10. Effects of the input polarization on JET polarimeter horizontal channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudio, P.; Gelfusa, M.; Murari, A.; Orsitto, F.; Boboc, A.

    2013-01-01

    In the past, the analysis of JET polarimetry measurements were carried out only for the vertical channels using a polarimetry propagation code based on the Stokes vector formalism [1,2]. A new propagation code has been developed therefore for the horizontal chords to simulate and interpret the measurements of the Faraday rotation and Cotton–Mouton phase shift in JET. The code has been used to develop a theoretical study to the effect of the input polarization on the eventual quality of the measurements. The results allow choosing the best polarization to optimize the polarimetric measurements for the various experiments

  11. Jets in Planetary Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Tim

    2018-05-01

    Jet streams, "jets" for short, are remarkably coherent streams of air found in every major atmosphere. They have a profound effect on a planet's global circulation, and have been an enigma since the belts and zones of Jupiter were discovered in the 1600s. The study of jets, including what processes affect their size, strength, direction, shear stability, and predictability, are active areas of research in geophysical fluid dynamics. Jet research is multidisciplinary and global, involving collaborations between observers, experimentalists, numerical modelers, and applied mathematicians. Jets in atmospheres have strong analogies with shear instability in nonneutral plasmas, and these connections are highlighted throughout the article. The article begins with a description of four major challenges that jet researchers face: nonlinearity, non-intuitive wave physics, non-constant-coefficients, and copious nondimensional numbers. Then, two general fluid-dynamical tenets, the practice of rendering expressions dimensionally homogeneous (nondimensional), and the universal properties of shocks are applied to the open question of what controls the on-off switch of shear instability. The discussion progresses to how the physics of jets varies in equatorial, midlatitude, and polar regions, and how jets are observed to behave in each of these settings. The all-in-one conservation law of potential vorticity (PV), which combines the conservation laws of mass, momentum, and thermal energy into a single expression, is the common language of jet research. Earth and Uranus have weak retrograde equatorial jets, but most planets exhibit super-rotating equatorial jets, which require eddies to transport momentum up gradient in a non-intuitive manner. Jupiter and Saturn exhibit multiple alternating jets in their midlatitudes. The theory for why jets are invariably zonal (east-west orientated) is reviewed, and the particular challenges that Jupiter's sharp westward jets present to existing

  12. Phenomenology of jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, T.F.

    1980-05-01

    The basic idea of these lectures is very simple. Quarks and gluons - the elementary quanta of quantum chromodynamics or QCD - are produced with perturbarively calculable rates in short distance processes. This is because of asymptotic freedom. These quanta produced at short distances are, in a sense, 'visible' as jets of hadrons. (The jets do not contain the colored QCD quanta if - as we will assume - color is confined. The jets contain only colorless hadrons.) The distribution of these jets is the distribution of the original quanta, apart from fluctuations generated in the (long distance) jet formation process. The distribution of the jets can thus thest QCD in a particularly clear way at the parton level, at distance of order 5 x 10 -16 cm (PETRA/PEP energies). (orig.)

  13. A turbulent radio jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, F.D.

    1983-01-01

    A relativistic plasma flow can explain many of the observations on the one-sided jets, which are associated with radio sources that show superluminal motions in their cores. The pressure from the ambient medium will communicate across the jet in a relatively short distance, typically 30 kpc. The friction between the jet and the external medium then makes the flow go turbulent. As a result the jet dissipates energy and will be brought to rest within a few hundred kpc, if it does not strike an obstacle before. The mean flow in the jet is strongly sheared and stretches the lines of force of any magnetic field frozen into the plasma. The dominant field direction, as seen from the rest frame of the plasma, is therefore parallel to the length of the jet. Polarization measurements have shown that this is in fact the case. (author)

  14. TITAN: an advanced three-dimensional neutronics/thermal-hydraulics code for light water reactor safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griggs, D.P.; Kazimi, M.S.; Henry, A.F.

    1982-01-01

    The initial development of TITAN, a three-dimensional coupled neutronics/thermal-hydraulics code for LWR safety analysis, has been completed. The transient neutronics code QUANDRY has been joined to the two-fluid thermal-hydraulics code THERMIT with the appropriate feedback mechanisms modeled. A detailed steady-state and transient coupling scheme based on the tandem technique was implemented in accordance with the important structural and operational characteristics of QUANDRY and THERMIT. A two channel sample problem formed the basis for steady-state and transient analyses performed with TITAN. TITAN steady-state results were compared with those obtained with MEKIN and showed good agreement. Null transients, simulated turbine trip transients, and a rod withdrawal transient were analyzed with TITAN and reasonable results were obtained

  15. Interpretation of Ersec tests on the backup cooling of pressurized water reactors, by using the FLIRA code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reviglio, Christiane

    1977-01-01

    This research thesis addresses the study of the most severe accident, or reference accident, which might occur in nuclear reactors, a clean break of a cold branch of the primary circuit, which may put the integrity of barriers against radioactive products dispersion outside of the reactor into question again. More particularly, the thesis addresses the study of the backup cooling system, and the fact that fluid flow during re-flooding must be predicted, and that heat exchange coefficients must be known in order to assess the evolution of sheath temperatures. The research comprised an experimental part which aimed at reproducing as faithfully as possible the re-flooding sequence on a tube with internal flow or on a cluster for a better core simulation. These are the ERSEC tests which are to be interpreted. It also comprised a theoretical part based on the use of computational codes which simulate the different phases of the accident and of backup fluid injection. These codes are based on physical models which describe two-phase flows and heat exchanges, and are adjusted to experimental results. The FLIRA code is used which simulates the re-flooding of a reactor duct, and determines the evolution of different values (pressure, temperatures, flow rate, and so on) during the re-flooding process. Thus, the author presents the reference accident, reports studies performed in the USA and in France (ERSEC tests), indicates the various flow regimes and describes heat exchange mechanisms during re-flooding, presents ERSEC test results, presents the FLIRA code, reports the elaboration of governing equations, indicates the various models introduced in the FLIRA code, and describes the numerical processing of equations. He finally gives a first interpretation of ERSEC tests based on the use of the FLIRA code

  16. Hadronic jets an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Banfi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Jet physics is an incredibly rich subject detailing the narrow cone of hadrons and other particles produced by the hadronization of a quark or gluon in a particle physics or heavy ion experiment. This book is a general overview of jet physics for scientists not directly involved in the field. It presents the basic experimental and theoretical problems arising when dealing with jets, and describing the solutions proposed in recent years.

  17. JET Joint Undertaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keen, B.E.

    1988-03-01

    The paper is a JET progress report 1987, and covers the fourth full year of JET's operation. The report contains an overview summary of the scientific and technical advances during the year, and is supplemented by appendices of detailed contributions of the more important JET articles published during 1987. The document is aimed at specialists and experts engaged in nuclear fusion and plasma physics, as well as the general scientific community. (U.K.)

  18. Validation study of the reactor physics lattice transport code WIMSD-5B by TRX and BAPL critical experiments of light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.J.H.; Alam, A.B.M.K.; Ahsan, M.H.; Mamun, K.A.A.; Islam, S.M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • To validate the reactor physics lattice code WIMSD-5B by this analysis. • To model TRX and BAPL critical experiments using WIMSD-5B. • To compare the calculated results with experiment and MCNP results. • To rely on WIMSD-5B code for TRIGA calculations. - Abstract: The aim of this analysis is to validate the reactor physics lattice transport code WIMSD-5B by TRX (thermal reactor-one region lattice) and BAPL (Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory-one region lattice) critical experiments of light water reactors for neutronics analysis of 3 MW TRIGA Mark-II research reactor at AERE, Dhaka, Bangladesh. This analysis is achieved through the analysis of integral parameters of five light water reactor critical experiments TRX-1, TRX-2, BAPL-UO 2 -1, BAPL-UO 2 -2 and BAPL-UO 2 -3 based on evaluated nuclear data libraries JEFF-3.1 and ENDF/B-VII.1. In integral measurements, these experiments are considered as standard benchmark lattices for validating the reactor physics lattice transport code WIMSD-5B as well as evaluated nuclear data libraries. The integral parameters of the said critical experiments are calculated using the reactor physics lattice transport code WIMSD-5B. The calculated integral parameters are compared to the measured values as well as the earlier published MCNP results based on the Chinese evaluated nuclear data library CENDL-3.0 for assessment of deterministic calculation. It was found that the calculated integral parameters give mostly reasonable and globally consistent results with the experiment and the MCNP results. Besides, the group constants in WIMS format for the isotopes U-235 and U-238 between two data files have been compared using WIMS library utility code WILLIE and it was found that the group constants are well consistent with each other. Therefore, this analysis reveals the validation study of the reactor physics lattice transport code WIMSD-5B based on JEFF-3.1 and ENDF/B-VII.1 libraries and can also be essential to

  19. Durability of ink jet prints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobric, E; Mirkovic, I Bolanca; Bolanca, Z

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is the result presentation of some optical properties research for ink jet prints after: exposing the prints to the mixed daylight and artificial light, exposing of prints to the sun-light through the glass window, and exposing of prints to outdoor conditions during the summer months. The prints obtained by piezoelectric and thermal ink jet technologies were used in the researches. The dye-based inks and the pigmented inks based on water and the low solvent inks were used. The results of these researches, except the scientific contribution in the domain of understanding and explaining the environmental conditions on the gamut size, i.e. the range of color tonality, colorimetric stability and print quality, can be used by the ink and paper manufacturers in new formulations, offer data for the printer producers for further production and evaluation of the position of their products.

  20. The hydrogen laminar jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Sanz, M. [Departamento de Motopropulsion y Termofluidomecanica, ETSI Aeronauticos, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Rosales, M. [Department Ingenieria Termica y de Fluidos, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911, Leganes (Spain); Instituto de Innovacion en Mineria y Metalurgia, Avenida del Valle 738, Santiago (Chile); Sanchez, A.L. [Department Ingenieria Termica y de Fluidos, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911, Leganes (Spain)

    2010-04-15

    Numerical and asymptotic methods are used to investigate the structure of the hydrogen jet discharging into a quiescent air atmosphere. The analysis accounts in particular for the variation of the density and transport properties with composition. The Reynolds number of the flow R{sub j}, based on the initial jet radius a, the density {rho}{sub j} and viscosity {mu}{sub j} of the jet and the characteristic jet velocity u{sub j}, is assumed to take moderately large values, so that the jet remains slender and stable, and can be correspondingly described by numerical integration of the continuity, momentum and species conservation equations written in the boundary-layer approximation. The solution for the velocity and composition in the jet development region of planar and round jets, corresponding to streamwise distances of order R{sub j}a, is computed numerically, along with the solutions that emerge both in the near field and in the far field. The small value of the hydrogen-to-air molecular weight ratio is used to simplify the solution by considering the asymptotic limit of vanishing jet density. The development provides at leading-order explicit analytical expressions for the far-field velocity and hydrogen mass fraction that describe accurately the hydrogen jet near the axis. The information provided can be useful in particular to characterize hydrogen discharge processes from holes and cracks. (author)

  1. Properties of gluon jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugano, K.

    1987-01-01

    The properties of gluon jets are reviewed, and the measured characteristics are compared to the theoretical expectations. Although neither data nor models for the gluon jets are in the mature stage, in general the agreement between experiment and theory is remarkable. There are some intriguing differences. Since the properties of gluon jets are deeply rooted in the basic structure of non-Abelian gauge theory, the study of gluon jets casts further light on our understanding of QCD. Finally, the future prospects are discussed

  2. Properties of gluon jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugano, K.

    1988-01-01

    The properties of gluon jets are reviewed from an experimental point of view. The measured characteristics are compared to theoretical expectations. Although neither data nor models for the gluon jets are in the mature stage, there are remarkable agreements and also intriguing disagreements between experiment and theory. Since much interesting data have begun to emerge from various experiments and the properties of gluon jets are deeply rooted in the basic structure of non-Abelian gauge theory, the study of gluon jets casts further light on understanding of QCD. The future prospects are discussed

  3. Are jets really there

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lillethun, E.

    1976-09-01

    Based on the results of high energy proton-proton collisions obtained at the CERN ISR in 1972-73, the production of 'jets' is discussed. Jets in e + e - collisions are also discussed and the parameters 'sphericity' and 'rapidity' are used in analysis of the data. The jets studied have been defined as having at least one particle of high transverse momentum. It is not clear whether the jets represent new physics or are another way of stating that resonances (rho,K*, Δ, N* etc.) are produced with high p(sub T), and that in such production the high transverse momentum must be balanced essentially locally in the collision. (JIW)

  4. An implicit Smooth Particle Hydrodynamic code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, Charles E. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2000-05-01

    An implicit version of the Smooth Particle Hydrodynamic (SPH) code SPHINX has been written and is working. In conjunction with the SPHINX code the new implicit code models fluids and solids under a wide range of conditions. SPH codes are Lagrangian, meshless and use particles to model the fluids and solids. The implicit code makes use of the Krylov iterative techniques for solving large linear-systems and a Newton-Raphson method for non-linear corrections. It uses numerical derivatives to construct the Jacobian matrix. It uses sparse techniques to save on memory storage and to reduce the amount of computation. It is believed that this is the first implicit SPH code to use Newton-Krylov techniques, and is also the first implicit SPH code to model solids. A description of SPH and the techniques used in the implicit code are presented. Then, the results of a number of tests cases are discussed, which include a shock tube problem, a Rayleigh-Taylor problem, a breaking dam problem, and a single jet of gas problem. The results are shown to be in very good agreement with analytic solutions, experimental results, and the explicit SPHINX code. In the case of the single jet of gas case it has been demonstrated that the implicit code can do a problem in much shorter time than the explicit code. The problem was, however, very unphysical, but it does demonstrate the potential of the implicit code. It is a first step toward a useful implicit SPH code.

  5. ePLAS Development for Jet Modeling and Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, Rodney J.

    2011-01-01

    Plasma jets provide an alternate approach to the creation of high energy density laboratory plasmas (HEDLP). For the Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX), typically 30 partially ionized argon jets, produced with mini-rail guns, will be focused into a central volume for subsequent magnetic compression into high density plasma liners that can reach high (0.1 Mbar) peak pressures upon stagnation. The jets are typically 2.5 cm in radius traveling at Mach number 30. Ultimate success will require optimized tuning of the rail configurations, the nozzles injecting the gases, and the careful implementation of pre-ionization. The modeling of plasma jet transport is particularly challenging, due the large space (100 sq cm) and time scales (microseconds) involved. Even traditional implicit methods are insufficient, due to the usual need to track electrons explicitly on the mesh. Wall emission and chemistry must be managed, as must ionization of the jet plasma. Ions in the jets are best followed as particles to account properly for collisions upon jet merger. This Phase I Project developed the code ePLAS to attack and successfully surmount many of these challenges. It invented a new 'super implicit' electromagnetic scheme, using implicit electron moment currents that allowed for modeling of jets over multi-cm and multi-picoseconds on standard, single processor 2 GHz PCs. It enabled merger studies of two jets, in preparation for the multi-jet merger problem. The Project explored particle modeling for the ions, and prepared for the future addition of a grid-base jet ion collision model. Access was added to tabular equations of state for the study of ionization effects in merging jets. The improved code was discussed at the primary plasma meetings (IEEE and APS) during the Project period. Collaborations with National Laboratory and industrial partners were nurtured. Code improvements were made to facilitate code use. See: http://www.researchapplicationscorp.com. The ePLAS code enjoys EAR

  6. Runaway beam studies during disruptions at JET-ILW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reux, C.; Plyusnin, V.; Alper, B.; Alves, D.; Bazylev, B.; Belonohy, E.; Brezinsek, S.; Decker, J.; Devaux, S.; Vries, P. de; Fil, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Runaway electrons (RE) have been obtained at JET-ILW using massive argon injection. • The runaway electron domain entry points are similar between JET-C and JET-ILW. • Inside the runaway electron domain, higher RE currents are observed with JET-ILW. • RE impact has been observed without material melting up to 100 kA RE current. • Heat deposition of 2 ± 1 mm is confirmed by measurements and simulations. - Abstract: Runaway electrons (RE) during disruptions are a concern for future tokamaks including ITER with its metallic wall. Although RE are rare in spontaneous disruptions with the JET ITER-like Wall (JET-ILW), RE beams up to 380 kA were obtained using massive injection (MGI) of argon in JET-ILW divertor discharges. Entry points into the RE domain defined by operational parameters (toroidal field, argon fraction in MGI) are unchanged but higher RE currents have been obtained inside the JET-ILW MGI-generated RE domain when compared to JET-C. This might be due to the influence of the metallic wall on the current quench plasma. Temperatures of 900 °C have been observed following RE impacts on beryllium tiles. Heat deposition depth of ∼2 mm has to be assumed to match the tile cooling time. 3D simulations of the RE energy deposition using the ENDEP/MEMOS codes show that material melting is unlikely with 100 kA RE beams

  7. Runaway beam studies during disruptions at JET-ILW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reux, C., E-mail: cedric.reux@cea.fr [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Plyusnin, V. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Instituto de Plasmas e Fuso Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tcnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); Alper, B. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Alves, D. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Instituto de Plasmas e Fuso Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tcnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); Bazylev, B. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Institut für Hochleistungsimpuls und Mikrowellentechnik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Campus Nord, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Belonohy, E. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); EFDA-CSU, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Brezinsek, S. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institut für Energie-und Klimaforschung-Plasmaphysik, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Decker, J. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Devaux, S. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Vries, P. de [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul Lez Durance (France); Fil, A. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); and others

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Runaway electrons (RE) have been obtained at JET-ILW using massive argon injection. • The runaway electron domain entry points are similar between JET-C and JET-ILW. • Inside the runaway electron domain, higher RE currents are observed with JET-ILW. • RE impact has been observed without material melting up to 100 kA RE current. • Heat deposition of 2 ± 1 mm is confirmed by measurements and simulations. - Abstract: Runaway electrons (RE) during disruptions are a concern for future tokamaks including ITER with its metallic wall. Although RE are rare in spontaneous disruptions with the JET ITER-like Wall (JET-ILW), RE beams up to 380 kA were obtained using massive injection (MGI) of argon in JET-ILW divertor discharges. Entry points into the RE domain defined by operational parameters (toroidal field, argon fraction in MGI) are unchanged but higher RE currents have been obtained inside the JET-ILW MGI-generated RE domain when compared to JET-C. This might be due to the influence of the metallic wall on the current quench plasma. Temperatures of 900 °C have been observed following RE impacts on beryllium tiles. Heat deposition depth of ∼2 mm has to be assumed to match the tile cooling time. 3D simulations of the RE energy deposition using the ENDEP/MEMOS codes show that material melting is unlikely with 100 kA RE beams.

  8. Neutronic analysis of JET external neutron monitor response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snoj, Luka, E-mail: luka.snoj@ijs.si [Reactor Physics Division, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Lengar, Igor; Čufar, Aljaž [Reactor Physics Division, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Syme, Brian; Popovichev, Sergey [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB, United Kingdom (United Kingdom); Batistoni, Paola [ENEA C. R. Frascati, via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Conroy, Sean [VR Association, Uppsala University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, PO Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • We model JET tokamak containing JET remote handling system. • We investigate effect of remote handling system on external neutron monitor response. • Remote handling system correction factors are calculated. • Integral correction factors are relatively small, i.e up to 8%. - Abstract: The power output of fusion devices is measured in terms of the neutron yield which relates directly to the fusion yield. JET made a transition from Carbon wall to ITER-Like Wall (Beryllium/Tungsten/Carbon) during 2010–11. Absolutely calibrated measurement of the neutron yield by JET neutron monitors was ensured by direct measurements using a calibrated {sup 252}Cf neutron source (NS) deployed by the in-vessel remote handling system (RHS) inside the JET vacuum vessel. Neutronic calculations were required in order to understand the neutron transport from the source in the vacuum vessel to the fission chamber detectors mounted outside the vessel on the transformer limbs of the tokamak. We developed a simplified computational model of JET and the JET RHS in Monte Carlo neutron transport code MCNP and analyzed the paths and structures through which neutrons reach the detectors and the effect of the JET RHS on the neutron monitor response. In addition we performed several sensitivity studies of the effect of substantial massive structures blocking the ports on the external neutron monitor response. As the simplified model provided a qualitative picture of the process only, some calculations were repeated using a more detailed full 3D model of the JET tokamak.

  9. CFD calculations on the IFMIF Li-jet fluid dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casal, N.

    2007-01-01

    IFMIF is an accelerator-based neutron source to test fusion candidate materials, in which two deuteron beams will strike a target of liquid lithium. The deuteron-lithium stripping reactions will produce the required energy neutron flux to simulate the fusion reactor irradiation. The lithium jet must remove up to 10 MW of beam power deposited on it, so a lithium velocity as high as 20 m/s is required in the target. In addition, in the beam power deposition area, the lithium flows over a concave backwall so that the centrifugal forces avoid lithium boiling. A stable liquid free surface is a very critical requirement of the target system, otherwise the neutron field could be altered. In this line, 1mm of amplitude has been established as the limit of lithium free surface perturbations in IFMIF present design. The experimental results of a number of water and lithium facilities together with previous fluiddynamics calculations show that the lithium free surface stability can hardly fulfill or even will exceed this design requirement. Other effects, like lithium jet thickness variation, have also been observed and predicted by calculations. Therefore, hydrodynamical stability of the lithium jet is a major issue and the possible occurrences that could affect it must be examined. To look into these problems, a simulation of the target area has been carried out by means of a CFX 5.7 code calculation. RANS (Reynolds-Averaged Navier Stokes) CFD codes are a very useful tool to supply information of main flow parameters, but there is the necessity to validate the models supporting the results by experimental data. In addition, owing to the uncertainties associated with modelling the free surface of liquid metal with the available turbulent approaches, efforts have been devoted to support the results by means of model assessment. The behaviour of the free surface and lithium jet thickness has been studied considering the liquid fraction volume as a first rough indicator of the

  10. Improvement of the MSG code for the MONJU evaporators. Additional function of reverse flow calculation on water/steam model and animation for post processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toda, Shin-ichi; Yoshikawa, Shinji; Oketani, Kazuhiro

    2003-05-01

    The improved version of the MSG code (Multi-dimensional Thermal-hydraulic Analysis Code for Steam Generators) has been released. It has been carried out to improve based on the original version in order to calculate reverse flow on water/steam side, and to animate the post-processing data. To calculate reverse flow locally, modification to set pressure at each divided node point of water/steam region in the helical-coil heat transfer tubes has been carried out. And the matrix solver has been also improved to treat a problem within practical calculation time against increasing the pressure points. In this case pressure and enthalpy have to be calculated simultaneously, however, it was found out that using the block-Jacobean method make a diagonal-dominant matrix, and solve the matrix efficiently with a relaxation method. As the result of calculations of a steady-state condition and a transient of SG blow down with manual trip operation, the improvement on calculation function of the MSG code was confirmed. And an animation function of temperature contour in the sodium shell side as a post processing has been added. Since the animation is very effective to understand thermal-hydraulic behavior on the sodium shell side of the SG, especially in case of transient condition, the analysis and evaluation of the calculation results will be enabled to be more quickly and effectively. (author)

  11. Thermal-hydraulic analysis of water cooled breeding blanket of K-DEMO using MARS-KS code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong-Hun; Park, Il Woong; Kim, Geon-Woo; Park, Goon-Cherl [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Hyoung-Kyu, E-mail: chohk@snu.ac.kr [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Im, Kihak [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The thermal design of breeding blanket for the K-DEMO is evaluated using MARS-KS. • To confirm the prediction capability of MARS, the results were compared with the CFD. • The results of MARS-KS calculation and CFD prediction are in good agreement. • A transient simulation was carried out so as to show the applicability of MARS-KS. • A methodology to simulate the entire blanket system is proposed. - Abstract: The thermal design of a breeding blanket for the Korean Fusion DEMOnstration reactor (K-DEMO) is evaluated using the Multidimensional Analysis of Reactor Safety (MARS-KS) code in this study. The MARS-KS code has advantages in simulating transient two-phase flow over computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes. In order to confirm the prediction capability of the code for the present blanket system, the calculation results were compared with the CFD prediction. The results of MARS-KS calculation and CFD prediction are in good agreement. Afterwards, a transient simulation for a conceptual problem was carried out so as to show the applicability of MARS-KS for a transient or accident condition. Finally, a methodology to simulate the multiple blanket modules is proposed.

  12. Jet mass spectra in Higgs+one jet at NNLL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouttenus, Teppo T.; Stewart, Iain W.; Waalewijn, Wouter J.

    2013-02-01

    The invariant mass of a jet is a benchmark variable describing the structure of jets at the LHC. We calculate the jet mass spectrum for Higgs plus one jet at the LHC at next-to-next-to-leading logarithmic (NNLL) order using a factorization formula. At this order, the cross section becomes sensitive to perturbation theory at the soft m 2 jet /p jet T scale. Our calculation is exclusive and uses the 1-jettiness global event shape to implement a veto on additional jets. The dominant dependence on the jet veto is removed by normalizing the spectrum, leaving residual dependence from non-global logarithms depending on the ratio of the jet mass and jet veto variables. For our exclusive jet cross section these non-global logarithms are parametrically smaller than in the inclusive case, allowing us to obtain a complete NNLL result. Results for the dependence of the jet mass spectrum on the kinematics, jet algorithm, and jet size R are given. Using individual partonic channels we illustrate the difference between the jet mass spectra for quark and gluon jets. We also study the effect of hadronization and underlying event on the jet mass in Pythia. To highlight the similarity of inclusive and exclusive jet mass spectra, a comparison to LHC data is presented.

  13. Jet mass spectra in Higgs+one jet at NNLL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jouttenus, Teppo T.; Stewart, Iain W. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Center for Theoretical Physics; Tackmann, Frank J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Waalewijn, Wouter J. [California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2013-02-15

    The invariant mass of a jet is a benchmark variable describing the structure of jets at the LHC. We calculate the jet mass spectrum for Higgs plus one jet at the LHC at next-to-next-to-leading logarithmic (NNLL) order using a factorization formula. At this order, the cross section becomes sensitive to perturbation theory at the soft m{sup 2}{sub jet}/p{sup jet}{sub T} scale. Our calculation is exclusive and uses the 1-jettiness global event shape to implement a veto on additional jets. The dominant dependence on the jet veto is removed by normalizing the spectrum, leaving residual dependence from non-global logarithms depending on the ratio of the jet mass and jet veto variables. For our exclusive jet cross section these non-global logarithms are parametrically smaller than in the inclusive case, allowing us to obtain a complete NNLL result. Results for the dependence of the jet mass spectrum on the kinematics, jet algorithm, and jet size R are given. Using individual partonic channels we illustrate the difference between the jet mass spectra for quark and gluon jets. We also study the effect of hadronization and underlying event on the jet mass in Pythia. To highlight the similarity of inclusive and exclusive jet mass spectra, a comparison to LHC data is presented.

  14. Jet physics in ALICE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loizides, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    The ALICE experiment is one of the experiments currently prepared for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, Geneva, starting operation end of 2007. ALICE is dedicated to the research on nucleus-nucleus collisions at ultra-relativistic energies, which addresses the properties of strongly interacting matter under varying conditions of high density and temperature. The conditions provided at the LHC allow significant qualitative improvement with respect to previous studies. In particular, energetic probes, light quarks and gluons, will be abundantly produced. These probes might be identified by their fragmentation into correlated particles, so called jets, of high enough energy to allow full reconstruction of jet properties; even in the underlying heavy-ion environment. Understanding the dependence of high-energy jet production and fragmentation influenced by the dense medium created in the collision region is an open field of active research. Generally, one expects energy loss of the probes due to medium-induced gluon radiation. It is suggested that hadronization products of these, rather soft gluons may be contained within the jet emission cone, resulting in a modification of the characteristic jet fragmentation, as observed via longitudinal and transverse momentum distributions with respect to the direction of the initial parton, as well as of the multiplicity distributions arising from the jet fragmentation. Particle momenta parallel to the jet axis are softened (jet quenching), while transverse to it increased (transverse heating). The present thesis studies the capabilities of the ALICE detectors to measure these jets and quantifies obtainable rates and the quality of jet reconstruction, in both proton-proton and lead-lead collisions at the LHC. In particular, it is addressed whether modification of the jet fragmentation can be detected within the high-particle-multiplicity environment of central lead-lead collisions. (orig.)

  15. Deformations of free jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paruchuri, Srinivas

    This thesis studies three different problems. First we demonstrate that a flowing liquid jet can be controllably split into two separate subfilaments through the applications of a sufficiently strong tangential stress to the surface of the jet. In contrast, normal stresses can never split a liquid jet. We apply these results to observations of uncontrolled splitting of jets in electric fields. The experimental realization of controllable jet splitting would provide an entirely novel route for producing small polymeric fibers. In the second chapter we present an analytical model for the bending of liquid jets and sheets from temperature gradients, as recently observed by Chwalek et al. [Phys. Fluids, 14, L37 (2002)]. The bending arises from a local couple caused by Marangoni forces. The dependence of the bending angle on experimental parameters is presented, in qualitative agreement with reported experiments. The methodology gives a simple framework for understanding the mechanisms for jet and sheet bending. In chapter 4 we address the discrepancy between hydrodynamic theory of liquid jets, and the snap-off of narrow liquid jets observed in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations [23]. This has been previously attributed to the significant role of thermal fluctuations in nanofluidic systems. We argue that hydrodynamic description of such systems should include corrections to the Laplace pressure which result from the failure of the sharp interface assumption when the jet diameter becomes small enough. We show that this effect can in principle give rise to jet shapes similar to those observed in MD simulations, even when thermal fluctuations are completely neglected. Finally we summarize an algorithm developed to simulate droplet impact on a smooth surface.

  16. Guidelines for selecting codes for ground-water transport modeling of low-level waste burial sites. Volume 1. Guideline approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, C.S.; Cole, C.R.

    1985-05-01

    This document was written for the National Low-Level Waste Management Program to provide guidance for managers and site operators who need to select ground-water transport codes for assessing shallow-land burial site performance. The guidance given in this report also serves the needs of applications-oriented users who work under the direction of a manager or site operator. The guidelines are published in two volumes designed to support the needs of users having different technical backgrounds. An executive summary, published separately, gives managers and site operators an overview of the main guideline report. This volume includes specific recommendations for decision-making managers and site operators on how to use these guidelines. The more detailed discussions about the code selection approach are provided. 242 refs., 6 figs.

  17. A study on the application of CRUDTRAN code in primary systems of domestic pressurized heavy-water reactors for prediction of radiation source term

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jong Soon; Cho, Hoon Jo; Jung, Min Young; Lee, Sang Heon [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    The importance of developing a source-term assessment technology has been emphasized owing to the decommissioning of Kori nuclear power plant (NPP) Unit 1 and the increase of deteriorated NPPs. We analyzed the behavioral mechanism of corrosion products in the primary system of a pressurized heavy-water reactor-type NPP. In addition, to check the possibility of applying the CRUDTRAN code to a Canadian Deuterium Uranium Reactor (CANDU)-type NPP, the type was assessed using collected domestic onsite data. With the assessment results, it was possible to predict trends according to operating cycles. Values estimated using the code were similar to the measured values. The results of this study are expected to be used to manage the radiation exposures of operators in high-radiation areas and to predict decommissioning processes in the primary system.

  18. Guidelines for selecting codes for ground-water transport modeling of low-level waste burial sites. Volume 1. Guideline approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, C.S.; Cole, C.R.

    1985-05-01

    This document was written for the National Low-Level Waste Management Program to provide guidance for managers and site operators who need to select ground-water transport codes for assessing shallow-land burial site performance. The guidance given in this report also serves the needs of applications-oriented users who work under the direction of a manager or site operator. The guidelines are published in two volumes designed to support the needs of users having different technical backgrounds. An executive summary, published separately, gives managers and site operators an overview of the main guideline report. This volume includes specific recommendations for decision-making managers and site operators on how to use these guidelines. The more detailed discussions about the code selection approach are provided. 242 refs., 6 figs

  19. A computational study of highly viscous impinging jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, M.W.

    1998-11-01

    Two commercially-available computational fluid dynamics codes, FIDAP (Fluent, Inc., Lebanon, NH) and FLOW-3D (Flow Science, Inc., Los Alamos, NM), were used to simulate the landing region of jets of highly viscous fluids impinging on flat surfaces. The volume-of-fluid method was combined with finite difference and finite element approaches to predict the jet behavior. Several computational models with varying degrees of physical realism were developed, and the results were compared with experimental observations. In experiments, the jet exhibited several complex behaviors. As soon as it exited the nozzle, the jet began to neck down and become narrower. When it impacted the solid surface, the jet developed an instability near the impact point and buckled to the side. This buckling became a spiraling motion, and the jet spiraled about the impact point. As the jet spiraled around, a cone-shaped pile was build up which eventually became unstable and slumped to the side. While all of these behaviors were occurring, air bubbles, or voids, were being entrapped in the fluid pool. The results obtained from the FLOW-3D models more closely matched the behavior of real jets than the results obtained from /the FIDAP models. Most of the FLOW-3D models predicted all of the significant jet behaviors observed in experiments: necking, buckling, spiraling, slumping, and void entrapment. All of the FIDAP models predicted that the jet would buckle relatively far from the point of impact, whereas the experimentally observed jet behavior indicates that the jets buckle much nearer the impact point. Furthermore, it was shown that FIDAP is incapable of incorporating heat transfer effects into the model, making it unsuitable for this work

  20. A computational study of highly viscous impinging jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, M.W. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1998-11-01

    Two commercially-available computational fluid dynamics codes, FIDAP (Fluent, Inc., Lebanon, NH) and FLOW-3D (Flow Science, Inc., Los Alamos, NM), were used to simulate the landing region of jets of highly viscous fluids impinging on flat surfaces. The volume-of-fluid method was combined with finite difference and finite element approaches to predict the jet behavior. Several computational models with varying degrees of physical realism were developed, and the results were compared with experimental observations. In experiments, the jet exhibited several complex behaviors. As soon as it exited the nozzle, the jet began to neck down and become narrower. When it impacted the solid surface, the jet developed an instability near the impact point and buckled to the side. This buckling became a spiraling motion, and the jet spiraled about the impact point. As the jet spiraled around, a cone-shaped pile was build up which eventually became unstable and slumped to the side. While all of these behaviors were occurring, air bubbles, or voids, were being entrapped in the fluid pool. The results obtained from the FLOW-3D models more closely matched the behavior of real jets than the results obtained from /the FIDAP models. Most of the FLOW-3D models predicted all of the significant jet behaviors observed in experiments: necking, buckling, spiraling, slumping, and void entrapment. All of the FIDAP models predicted that the jet would buckle relatively far from the point of impact, whereas the experimentally observed jet behavior indicates that the jets buckle much nearer the impact point. Furthermore, it was shown that FIDAP is incapable of incorporating heat transfer effects into the model, making it unsuitable for this work.

  1. Numerical calculation of two-phase turbulent jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saif, A.A.

    1995-05-01

    Two-phase turbulent round jets were numerically simulated using a multidimensional two-phase CFD code based on the two-fluid model. The turbulence phenomena were treated with the standard k-{epsilon} model. It was modified to take into account the additional dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy by the dispersed phase. Within the context of the two-fluid model it is more appropriate and physically justified to treat the diffusion by an interfacial force in the momentum equation. In this work, the diffusion force and the additional dissipation effect by the dispersed phase were modeled starting from the classical turbulent energy spectrum analysis. A cut-off frequency was proposed to decrease the dissipation effect by the dispersed phase when large size particles are introduced in the flow. The cut-off frequency combined with the bubble-induced turbulence effect allows for an increase in turbulence for large particles. Additional care was taken in choosing the right kind of experimental data from the literature so that a good separate effect test was possible for their models. The models predicted the experimental data very closely and they were general enough to predict extreme limit cases: water-bubble and air-droplet jets.

  2. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Simulations of Jet Mixing in Tanks of Different Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breisacher, Kevin; Moder, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    For long-duration in-space storage of cryogenic propellants, an axial jet mixer is one concept for controlling tank pressure and reducing thermal stratification. Extensive ground-test data from the 1960s to the present exist for tank diameters of 10 ft or less. The design of axial jet mixers for tanks on the order of 30 ft diameter, such as those planned for the Ares V Earth Departure Stage (EDS) LH2 tank, will require scaling of available experimental data from much smaller tanks, as well designing for microgravity effects. This study will assess the ability for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to handle a change of scale of this magnitude by performing simulations of existing ground-based axial jet mixing experiments at two tank sizes differing by a factor of ten. Simulations of several axial jet configurations for an Ares V scale EDS LH2 tank during low Earth orbit (LEO) coast are evaluated and selected results are also presented. Data from jet mixing experiments performed in the 1960s by General Dynamics with water at two tank sizes (1 and 10 ft diameter) are used to evaluate CFD accuracy. Jet nozzle diameters ranged from 0.032 to 0.25 in. for the 1 ft diameter tank experiments and from 0.625 to 0.875 in. for the 10 ft diameter tank experiments. Thermally stratified layers were created in both tanks prior to turning on the jet mixer. Jet mixer efficiency was determined by monitoring the temperatures on thermocouple rakes in the tanks to time when the stratified layer was mixed out. Dye was frequently injected into the stratified tank and its penetration recorded. There were no velocities or turbulence quantities available in the experimental data. A commercially available, time accurate, multi-dimensional CFD code with free surface tracking (FLOW-3D from Flow Science, Inc.) is used for the simulations presented. Comparisons are made between computed temperatures at various axial locations in the tank at different times and those observed experimentally. The

  3. Numerical and experimental study of two turbulent opposed plane jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besbes, Sonia; Mhiri, Hatem [Laboratoire de Mecanique des Fluides et Thermique, Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Monastir, Route de Ouardanine, Monastir (Tunisia); Le Palec, Georges; Bournot, Philippe [Institut de Mecanique de Marseille, UNIMECA, Technopole de Chateau-Gombert, 60 rue Joliot-Curie, 13453 Marseille (France)

    2003-09-01

    The turbulent interaction between two opposed plane jets separated by a distance H is experimentally studied by using a PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) method and numerically investigated by means of a finite volume code. Two turbulence models have been tested: the standard k-{epsilon} model and a second-order model. The validation of the numerical study was performed by comparing the results with experimental data obtained for the case of two interacting opposed jets at ambient temperature (isothermal case). The effect of the angle of inclination of the jets is studied. Conclusions of the validation are then used to study the interaction between two jets, one being maintained at ambient temperature whereas the other is heated. Results show that the stagnation point moves towards the heated jet. It is shown that the heating induces a stabilizing effect on the flow. (orig.)

  4. arXiv Generalized Fragmentation Functions for Fractal Jet Observables

    CERN Document Server

    Elder, Benjamin T.; Thaler, Jesse; Waalewijn, Wouter J.; Zhou, Kevin

    2017-06-15

    We introduce a broad class of fractal jet observables that recursively probe the collective properties of hadrons produced in jet fragmentation. To describe these collinear-unsafe observables, we generalize the formalism of fragmentation functions, which are important objects in QCD for calculating cross sections involving identified final-state hadrons. Fragmentation functions are fundamentally nonperturbative, but have a calculable renormalization group evolution. Unlike ordinary fragmentation functions, generalized fragmentation functions exhibit nonlinear evolution, since fractal observables involve correlated subsets of hadrons within a jet. Some special cases of generalized fragmentation functions are reviewed, including jet charge and track functions. We then consider fractal jet observables that are based on hierarchical clustering trees, where the nonlinear evolution equations also exhibit tree-like structure at leading order. We develop a numeric code for performing this evolution and study its phen...

  5. Effects of Secondary Circuit Modeling on Results of Pressurized Water Reactor Main Steam Line Break Benchmark Calculations with New Coupled Code TRAB-3D/SMABRE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daavittila, Antti; Haemaelaeinen, Anitta; Kyrki-Rajamaeki, Riitta

    2003-01-01

    All of the three exercises of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Regulatory Commission pressurized water reactor main steam line break (PWR MSLB) benchmark were calculated at VTT, the Technical Research Centre of Finland. For the first exercise, the plant simulation with point-kinetic neutronics, the thermal-hydraulics code SMABRE was used. The second exercise was calculated with the three-dimensional reactor dynamics code TRAB-3D, and the third exercise with the combination TRAB-3D/SMABRE. VTT has over ten years' experience of coupling neutronic and thermal-hydraulic codes, but this benchmark was the first time these two codes, both developed at VTT, were coupled together. The coupled code system is fast and efficient; the total computation time of the 100-s transient in the third exercise was 16 min on a modern UNIX workstation. The results of all the exercises are similar to those of the other participants. In order to demonstrate the effect of secondary circuit modeling on the results, three different cases were calculated. In case 1 there is no phase separation in the steam lines and no flow reversal in the aspirator. In case 2 the flow reversal in the aspirator is allowed, but there is no phase separation in the steam lines. Finally, in case 3 the drift-flux model is used for the phase separation in the steam lines, but the aspirator flow reversal is not allowed. With these two modeling variations, it is possible to cover a remarkably broad range of results. The maximum power level reached after the reactor trip varies from 534 to 904 MW, the range of the time of the power maximum being close to 30 s. Compared to the total calculated transient time of 100 s, the effect of the secondary side modeling is extremely important

  6. Quark jets, gluon jets and the three-gluon vertex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fodor, Z.

    1989-11-01

    Using hadronic jets in electron-positron annihilation, we suggest a simple and model-independent method to see the differences between quark and gluon jets. We define and analyse special energy dependent moments of jets and choose those which are the most characteristic to the jet type. The method handles the energy of a jet in an adequate way. We discuss new methods using jet flavor tagging, ordinary flavor tagging of a definite quark jet or discrimination between quark and gluon jets, to test the triple-gluon vertex in electron-positron annihilation. An enriched sample of gluon jets, jets with the smallest energy in four-jet events, as well as a continuous tagging variable are also studied. 21 refs., 6 figs. (Author)

  7. JET Joint Undertaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keen, B.E.

    1987-03-01

    The paper presents the progress report of the Joint European Torus (JET) Joint Undertaking, 1986. The report contains a survey of the scientific and technical achievements on JET during 1986; the more important articles referred to in this survey are reproduced as appendices to this Report. The last section discusses developments which might improve the overall performance of the machine. (U.K.)

  8. Holographic Jet Quenching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficnar, Andrej

    In this dissertation we study the phenomenon of jet quenching in quark-gluon plasma using the AdS/CFT correspondence. We start with a weakly coupled, perturbative QCD approach to energy loss, and present a Monte Carlo code for computation of the DGLV radiative energy loss of quarks and gluons at an arbitrary order in opacity. We use the code to compute the radiated gluon distribution up to n=9 order in opacity, and compare it to the thin plasma (n=1) and the multiple soft scattering (n=infinity) approximations. We furthermore show that the gluon distribution at finite opacity depends in detail on the screening mass mu and the mean free path lambda. In the next part, we turn to the studies of how heavy quarks, represented as "trailing strings" in AdS/CFT, lose energy in a strongly coupled plasma. We study how the heavy quark energy loss gets modified in a "bottom-up" non-conformal holographic model, constructed to reproduce some properties of QCD at finite temperature and constrained by fitting the lattice gauge theory results. The energy loss of heavy quarks is found to be strongly sensitive to the medium properties. We use this model to compute the nuclear modification factor RAA of charm and bottom quarks in an expanding plasma with Glauber initial conditions, and comment on the range of validity of the model. The central part of this thesis is the energy loss of light quarks in a strongly coupled plasma. Using the standard model of "falling strings", we present an analytic derivation of the stopping distance of light quarks, previously available only through numerical simulations, and also apply it to the case of Gauss-Bonnet higher derivative gravity. We then present a general formula for computing the instantaneous energy loss in non-stationary string configurations. Application of this formula to the case of falling strings reveals interesting phenomenology, including a modified Bragg-like peak at late times and an approximately linear path dependence. Based

  9. Simulation of the fault transitory of the feedwater controller in a Boiling water reactor with the Ramona-3B code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez M, J.L.; Ortiz V, J.

    2005-01-01

    The obtained results when carrying out the simulation of the fault transitory of the feedwater controller (FCAA) with the Ramona-3B code, happened in the Unit 2 of the Laguna Verde power plant (CNLV), in September of the year 2000 are presented. The transitory originates as consequence of the controller's fault of speed of a turbo pump of feedwater. The work includes a short description of the event, the suppositions considered for the simulation and the obtained results. Also, a discussion of the impact of the transitory event is presented on aspects of reactor safety. Although the carried out simulation is limited by the capacities of the code and for the lack of available information, it was found that even in a conservative situation, the power was incremented only in 12% above the nominal value, while that the thermal limit determined by the minimum reason of the critical power, MCPR, always stayed above the limit values of operation and safety. (Author)

  10. Aerodynamic and acoustic environment of a highly supersonic hot jet; Environnement aerodynamique et acoustique d'un jet chaud et fortement supersonique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varnier, J.; Gely, D. [Office National d' Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), Dept. DSNA, 92 - Chatillon (France); Foulon, H. [CEAT, 86 - Poitiers (France)

    2001-07-01

    In the context of the spatial launchers, the prediction of noise radiated by highly supersonic hot jets is generally made from empirical methods. More recently, simulation methods based on computational fluid dynamics have been developed. In the two cases, in order to specify the parameters of the computer codes, it is necessary to know the actual aerodynamic and acoustic data of the flow. In the MARTEL facilities of CNES, ONERA has carried out tests with a 1200 m/s hot jet, free or impinging on a large plate. Acoustic near field and aerodynamic configuration of the free jet and of the wall jet have been characterized by measurements. Particularly, the supersonic core length and the location of the sound power peak on the jet axis have been determined. Other measurements, made with anemometers and wind cocks in the vicinity of the jet and of the plate, have allowed to characterize the drive of the ambient air by the jet. (authors)

  11. Jet physics at CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melese, P.

    1997-05-01

    We present high E T jet measurements from CDF at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. The incfilusive jet cross section at √s = 1800 GeV with ∼ 5 times more data is compared to the published CDF results, preliminary D0 results, and next-to-leading order QCD predictions. The summation E T cross section is also compared to QCD predictions and the dijet angular distribution is used to place a limit on quark compositeness. The inclusive jet cross section at √s = 630 GeV is compared with that at 1800 GeV to test the QCD predictions for the scaling of jet cross sections with √s. Finally, we present momentum distributions of charged particles in jets and compare them to Modified Leading Log Approximation predictions

  12. Jet physics in ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    Measurements of hadronic jets provide tests of strong interactions which are interesting both in their own right and as backgrounds to many New Physics searches. It is also through tests of Quantum Chromodynamics that new physics may be discovered. The extensive dataset recorded with the ATLAS detector throughout the 7 TeV centre-of-mass LHC operation period allows QCD to be probed at distances never reached before. We present a review of selected ATLAS jet performance and physics measurements, together with results from new physics searches using the 2011 dataset. They include studies of the underlying event and fragmentation models, measurements of the inclusive jet, dijet and multijet cross sections, parton density functions, heavy flavours, jet shape, mass and substructure. Searches for new physics in monojet, dijet and photon-jet final states are also presented.

  13. The Adsorption Langmuir Model of Transfer Metal Ti, V and Mn on System Water-Sediment in Along Side Code River, Yogyakarta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rini Jati Wardani; Muzakky; Agus Taftazani

    2007-01-01

    The adsorption langmuir model of transfer metal Ti, V and Mn on system water-sediment in along side Code river, Yogyakarta has been studied. For that purpose, the study is to make prediction about adsorption langmuir model of identified metal Ti, V and Mn from upstream until downstream samples water and sediment in along side Code river. The factor influenced of langmuir adsorption on transfer metal Ti, V and Mn in system water-sediment is Total Suspended Solid (TSS). The analysis showed that between TSS with metal concentration in sediment have linear correlation. The result of calculation from curve of langmuir isotherm, showed for Ti has R 2 = 0.8006 with capacities of adsorption = 0.5 mol/l and energy of adsorption = 13.286 J/mol, V has R 2 = 0.9883 with capacities of adsorption = 0.0137 mol/l and energy of adsorption = 16.64 J/mol, Mn has R 2 = 0.9624 with capacities of adsorption 0.152 mol/l and energy of adsorption = 10.51 J/mol. The conclusion from this topic about adsorption langmuir for metal Ti, V and Mn according to energy of langmuir adsorption by chemisorption process above 10 J/mo. (author)

  14. Improvement of Severe Accident Analysis Computer Code and Development of Accident Management Guidance for Heavy Water Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Soo Yong; Kim, Ko Ryu; Kim, Dong Ha; Kim, See Darl; Song, Yong Mann; Choi, Young; Jin, Young Ho

    2005-03-01

    The objective of the project is to develop a generic severe accident management guidance(SAMG) applicable to Korean PHWR and the objective of this 3 year continued phase is to construct a base of the generic SAMG. Another objective is to improve a domestic computer code, ISAAC (Integrated Severe Accident Analysis code for CANDU), which still has many deficiencies to be improved in order to apply for the SAMG development. The scope and contents performed in this Phase-2 are as follows: The characteristics of major design and operation for the domestic Wolsong NPP are analyzed from the severe accident aspects. On the basis, preliminary strategies for SAM of PHWR are selected. The information needed for SAM and the methods to get that information are analyzed. Both the individual strategies applicable for accident mitigation under PHWR severe accident conditions and the technical background for those strategies are developed. A new version of ISAAC 2.0 has been developed after analyzing and modifying the existing models of ISAAC 1.0. The general SAMG applicable for PHWRs confirms severe accident management techniques for emergencies, provides the base technique to develop the plant specific SAMG by utility company and finally contributes to the public safety enhancement as a NPP safety assuring step. The ISAAC code will be used inevitably for the PSA, living PSA, severe accident analysis, SAM program development and operator training in PHWR

  15. Improvement of Severe Accident Analysis Computer Code and Development of Accident Management Guidance for Heavy Water Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soo Yong; Kim, Ko Ryu; Kim, Dong Ha; Kim, See Darl; Song, Yong Mann; Choi, Young; Jin, Young Ho

    2005-03-15

    The objective of the project is to develop a generic severe accident management guidance(SAMG) applicable to Korean PHWR and the objective of this 3 year continued phase is to construct a base of the generic SAMG. Another objective is to improve a domestic computer code, ISAAC (Integrated Severe Accident Analysis code for CANDU), which still has many deficiencies to be improved in order to apply for the SAMG development. The scope and contents performed in this Phase-2 are as follows: The characteristics of major design and operation for the domestic Wolsong NPP are analyzed from the severe accident aspects. On the basis, preliminary strategies for SAM of PHWR are selected. The information needed for SAM and the methods to get that information are analyzed. Both the individual strategies applicable for accident mitigation under PHWR severe accident conditions and the technical background for those strategies are developed. A new version of ISAAC 2.0 has been developed after analyzing and modifying the existing models of ISAAC 1.0. The general SAMG applicable for PHWRs confirms severe accident management techniques for emergencies, provides the base technique to develop the plant specific SAMG by utility company and finally contributes to the public safety enhancement as a NPP safety assuring step. The ISAAC code will be used inevitably for the PSA, living PSA, severe accident analysis, SAM program development and operator training in PHWR.

  16. Coding Partitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Burderi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the study of decipherability conditions for codes weaker than Unique Decipherability (UD, we introduce the notion of coding partition. Such a notion generalizes that of UD code and, for codes that are not UD, allows to recover the ``unique decipherability" at the level of the classes of the partition. By tacking into account the natural order between the partitions, we define the characteristic partition of a code X as the finest coding partition of X. This leads to introduce the canonical decomposition of a code in at most one unambiguouscomponent and other (if any totally ambiguouscomponents. In the case the code is finite, we give an algorithm for computing its canonical partition. This, in particular, allows to decide whether a given partition of a finite code X is a coding partition. This last problem is then approached in the case the code is a rational set. We prove its decidability under the hypothesis that the partition contains a finite number of classes and each class is a rational set. Moreover we conjecture that the canonical partition satisfies such a hypothesis. Finally we consider also some relationships between coding partitions and varieties of codes.

  17. Thermal-hydraulic analysis under partial loss of flow accident hypothesis of a plate-type fuel surrounded by two water channels using RELAP5 code

    OpenAIRE

    Itamar Iliuk; José Manoel Balthazar; Ângelo Marcelo Tusset; José Roberto Castilho Piqueira

    2016-01-01

    Thermal-hydraulic analysis of plate-type fuel has great importance to the establishment of safety criteria, also to the licensing of the future nuclear reactor with the objective of propelling the Brazilian nuclear submarine. In this work, an analysis of a single plate-type fuel surrounding by two water channels was performed using the RELAP5 thermal-hydraulic code. To realize the simulations, a plate-type fuel with the meat of uranium dioxide sandwiched between two Zircaloy-4 plates was prop...

  18. Detritiation studies for JET decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perevezentsev, A.N.; Bell, A.C.; Williams, J.; Brennan, P.D. [EURATOM/UKAEA Fussion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-01

    JET is the world largest tokamak and has the capacity of operating with a tritium plasma. Three experimental campaigns, the Preliminary Tritium Experiment (0.1g T{sub 2}) in 1991, the Trace Tritium Experiment (5g T{sub 2}) in 2005, and the large experiment, the Deuterium-Tritium Experiment (DTE1) (100g T{sub 2}) in 1997, were carried out at JET with tritium plasmas. In DTE1 about 35 grams of tritium were fed directly into the vacuum vessel, with about 30% of this tritium being retained inside the vessel. In several years time JET will cease experimental operations and enter a decommissioning phase. In preparation for this the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, the JET Operator, has been carrying out studies of various detritiation techniques. The materials which have been the subject of these studies include solid materials, such as various metals (Inconel 600 and 625, stainless steel 316L, beryllium, 'oxygen-free' copper, aluminium bronze), carbon fibre composite tiles, 'carbon' flakes and dust present in the vacuum vessel and also soft housekeeping materials. Liquid materials include organic liquids, such as vacuum oils and scintillation cocktails, and water. Detritiation of gas streams was also investigated. The purpose of the studies was to select and experimentally prove primary and auxiliary technologies for in-situ detritiation of in-vessel components and ex-situ detritiation of components removed from the vessel. The targets of ex-vessel detritiation were a reduction of the tritium inventory in and the rate of tritium out-gassing from the materials, and conversion, if possible, of intermediate level waste to low level waste and a reduction in volume of waste for disposal. The results of experimental trials and their potential application are presented. (orig.)

  19. Three-dimensional vortex analysis and aeroacoustic source characterization of jet core breakdown

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Violato, D.; Scarano, F.

    2013-01-01

    The three-dimensional behavior of jet core breakdown is investigated with experiments conducted on a free water jet at Re = 5000 by time-resolved tomographic particle image velocimetry (TR-TOMO PIV). The investigated domain encompasses the range between 0 and 10 jet diameters. The characteristic

  20. Jets and QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.; Kramer, G.

    2010-12-01

    The observation of quark and gluon jets has played a crucial role in establishing Quantum Chromodynamics [QCD] as the theory of the strong interactions within the Standard Model of particle physics. The jets, narrowly collimated bundles of hadrons, reflect configurations of quarks and gluons at short distances. Thus, by analysing energy and angular distributions of the jets experimentally, the properties of the basic constituents of matter and the strong forces acting between them can be explored. In this review we summarise the properties of quark and gluon jets and the impact of their observation on Quantum Chromodynamics, primarily the discovery of the gluons as the carriers of the strong force. Focusing on these basic points, jets in e + e - collisions will be in the foreground of the discussion. In addition we will delineate the role of jets as tools for exploring other particle aspects in ep and pp/p anti p collisions - quark and gluon densities in protons, measurements of the QCD coupling, fundamental 2-2 quark/gluon scattering processes, but also the impact of jet decays of top quarks, and W ± ,Z bosons on the electroweak sector. The presentation to a large extent is formulated in a non-technical language with the intent to recall the significant steps historically and convey the significance of this field also to communities beyond high energy physics. (orig.)