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Sample records for coasts maternal transfer

  1. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and organochlorines in melon-headed whales, Peponocephala electra, mass stranded along the Japanese coasts: Maternal transfer and temporal trend

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    Kajiwara, Natsuko; Kamikawa, Satoko [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, 2-5 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Amano, Masao [Department of Animal Sciences, Teikyo University of Science and Technology, 2525 Yatsusawa, Uenohara, Yamanashi 409-0193 (Japan); Hayano, Azusa [Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Yamada, Tadasu K. [National Museum of Nature and Science, 3-23-1 Hyakunin-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-0073 (Japan); Miyazaki, Nobuyuki [Center for International Cooperation, Ocean Research Institute, University of Tokyo, Minamidai 1-15-1, Nakano-ku, Tokyo 164-8639 (Japan); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, 2-5 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)], E-mail: shinsuke@agr.ehime-u.ac.jp

    2008-11-15

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and organochlorine compounds (OCs) were determined in the blubber of 55 melon-headed whales (Peponocephala electra) mass stranded along the Japanese coasts since 1982. DDTs and PCBs were predominant in all the specimens investigated. In whales that died during the latest event in 2006, concentrations of PBDEs (190-510 ng/g lipid wt) were approximately two orders of magnitude lower than DDTs and PCBs, but comparable with HCHs and HCB. Maternal transfer of PBDEs to offspring through the whole reproductive process was estimated to be 85% of the mother's body burden, while that occurring during gestation was much lower (2.6-3.5%). Concentrations of PCBs, DDTs, and HCB were lower in melon-headed whales stranded after the year 2000 than those stranded in 1982, whereas PBDE and CHL levels showed a temporal increase during the past 20 years, suggesting that the peak of their usage and contamination occurred after the year 1982. - PBDE levels in melon-headed whales increased during the past two decades.

  2. Maternal transfer of mercury to songbird eggs

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    Ackerman, Josh; Hartman, C. Alex; Herzog, Mark

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the maternal transfer of mercury to eggs in songbirds, determined whether this relationship differed between songbird species, and developed equations for predicting mercury concentrations in eggs from maternal blood. We sampled blood and feathers from 44 house wren (Troglodytes aedon) and 34 tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) mothers and collected their full clutches (n = 476 eggs) within 3 days of clutch completion. Additionally, we sampled blood and feathers from 53 tree swallow mothers and randomly collected one egg from their clutches (n = 53 eggs) during mid to late incubation (6–10 days incubated) to evaluate whether the relationship varied with the timing of sampling the mother's blood. Mercury concentrations in eggs were positively correlated with mercury concentrations in maternal blood sampled at (1) the time of clutch completion for both house wrens (R2 = 0.97) and tree swallows (R2 = 0.97) and (2) during mid to late incubation for tree swallows (R2 = 0.71). The relationship between mercury concentrations in eggs and maternal blood did not differ with the stage of incubation when maternal blood was sampled. Importantly, the proportion of mercury transferred from mothers to their eggs decreased substantially with increasing blood mercury concentrations in tree swallows, but increased slightly with increasing blood mercury concentrations in house wrens. Additionally, the proportion of mercury transferred to eggs at the same maternal blood mercury concentration differed between species. Specifically, tree swallow mothers transferred 17%–107% more mercury to their eggs than house wren mothers over the observed mercury concentrations in maternal blood (0.15–1.92 μg/g ww). In contrast, mercury concentrations in eggs were not correlated with those in maternal feathers and, likewise, mercury concentrations in maternal blood were not correlated with those in feathers (all R2 mercury concentrations from maternal blood to eggs (and

  3. Transfer of maternal psychosocial stress to the fetus.

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    Rakers, Florian; Rupprecht, Sven; Dreiling, Michelle; Bergmeier, Christoph; Witte, Otto W; Schwab, Matthias

    2017-02-22

    Psychosocial maternal stress experienced during different vulnerable periods throughout gestation is thought to increase the individual's risk to develop neuropsychiatric, cardiovascular and metabolic disease in later life. Cortisol has generally been identified as the major mediator of maternal stress transfer to the fetus. Its lipophilic nature allows a trans-placental passage and thus excessive maternal cortisol could persistently impair the development of the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA). However, cortisol alone cannot fully explain all effects of maternal stress especially during early to mid pregnancy before maturation of the fetal HPAA has even begun and expression of fetal glucocorticoid receptors is limited. This review focuses on mediators of maternal fetal stress transfer that in addition to cortisol have been proposed as transmitters of maternal stress: catecholamines, cytokines, serotonin/tryptophan, reactive-oxygen-species and the maternal microbiota. We propose that the effects of psychosocial maternal stress on fetal development and health and disease in later life are not a consequence of a single pathway but are mediated by multiple stress-transfer mechanisms acting together in a synergistic manner.

  4. Food availability and maternal immunization affect transfer and persistence of maternal antibodies in nestling pigeons.

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    Ahmad Ismail

    Full Text Available The ability of mothers to transfer antibodies (Abs to their young and the temporal persistence of maternal Abs in offspring constitute important life-history traits that can impact the evolution of host-parasite interactions. Here, we examined the effects of food availability and parental immunization on the transfer and persistence of maternal antibodies in nestling pigeons (Columba livia. This species can transmit maternal Abs to offspring before hatching through the egg yolk and potentially after hatching through crop milk. However, the role of this postnatal substance in immunity remains elusive. We used a full cross-fostering design to disentangle the effects of food limitation and parental immunization both before and after hatching on the levels and persistence of maternal Abs in chicks. Parents were immunized via injection with keyhole limpet hemocyanin antigens. Using an immunoassay that specifically detected the IgY antibodies that are known to be transmitted via the yolk, we found that the levels of anti-KLH Abs in newly hatched chicks were positively correlated with the levels of anti-KLH Abs in the blood of their biological mothers. However, this correlation was not present between chicks and their foster parents, suggesting limited IgY transfer via crop milk to the chick's bloodstream. Interestingly, biological mothers subjected to food limitation during egg laying transferred significantly fewer specific maternal Abs, which suggests that the transfer of antibodies might be costly for them. In addition, the persistence of maternal Abs in a chick's bloodstream was not affected by food limitation or the foster parents' anti-KLH Ab levels; it was only affected by the initial level of maternal anti-KLH Abs that were present in newly hatched chicks. These results suggest that the maternal transfer of Abs could be costly but that their persistence in an offspring's bloodstream may not necessarily be affected by environmental conditions.

  5. Toxic heritage: Maternal transfer of pyrethroid insecticides and sunscreen agents in dolphins from Brazil.

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    Alonso, Mariana B; Feo, Maria Luisa; Corcellas, Cayo; Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Bertozzi, Carolina P; Marigo, Juliana; Flach, Leonardo; Meirelles, Ana Carolina O; Carvalho, Vitor L; Azevedo, Alexandre F; Torres, João Paulo M; Lailson-Brito, José; Malm, Olaf; Diaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Eljarrat, Ethel; Barceló, Damià

    2015-12-01

    Pyrethroids (PYR) and UV filters (UVF) were investigated in tissues of paired mother-fetus dolphins from Brazilian coast in order to investigate the possibility of maternal transfer of these emerging contaminants. Comparison of PYR and UVF concentrations in maternal and fetal blubber revealed Franciscana transferred efficiently both contaminants to fetuses (F/M > 1) and Guiana dolphin transferred efficiently PYR to fetuses (F/M > 1) different than UVF (F/M < 1). PYR and UVF concentrations in fetuses were the highest-ever reported in biota (up to 6640 and 11,530 ng/g lw, respectively). Muscle was the organ with the highest PYR and UVF concentrations (p < 0.001), suggesting that these two classes of emerging contaminants may have more affinity for proteins than for lipids. The high PYR and UVF concentrations found in fetuses demonstrate these compounds are efficiently transferred through placenta. This study is the first to report maternal transfer of pyrethroids and UV filters in marine mammals.

  6. Transfer of Maternal Immunity to Newborns of Diabetic Mothers

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out with hyperglycemic pregnant women to investigate the transfer of antibody classes to newborns across the placenta or by colostrum and the functional activity of phagocytes in maternal blood, cord blood, and colostrum from diabetes mothers. Samples from maternal blood, cord blood, and colostrum were collected from 20 normoglycemic and 20 hyperglycemic pregnant women. We determined antibodies levels, superoxide release, phagocytosis and bactericidal activity of phagoc...

  7. Organisation of emergency transfer in maternity care in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegers, T.A.; Borst, J. de

    2013-01-01

    Objective: to gain more insight in the perceptions and experiences of care providers and clients with the organisation of emergency transfer in maternity care, with regard to transportation, responsibilities and communication between caregivers. Background: in the Netherlands a woman with an

  8. Bioaccumulation and maternal transfer of mercury and selenium in amphibians.

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    Bergeron, Christine M; Bodinof, Catherine M; Unrine, Jason M; Hopkins, William A

    2010-04-01

    Amphibian population declines have been documented worldwide and environmental contaminants are believed to contribute to some declines. Maternal transfer of bioaccumulated contaminants to offspring may be an important and overlooked mechanism of impaired reproductive success that affects amphibian populations. Mercury (Hg) is of particular concern due to its ubiquity in the environment, known toxicity to other wildlife, and complex relationships with other elements, such as selenium (Se). The objectives of the present study were to describe the relationships between total Hg (THg), methlymercury (MMHg), and Se in three amphibian species (Plethodon cinereus, Eurycea bislineata cirrigera, and Bufo americanus) along a Hg-polluted river and floodplain, and to determine if B. americanus maternally transfers Hg and Se to its eggs in a tissue residue-dependent manner. Total Hg and MMHg concentrations in all species spanned two orders of magnitude between the reference and contaminated areas, while Se concentrations were generally low in all species at both sites. Strong positive relationships between THg and MMHg in tissues of all species were observed throughout. Both Hg and Se were maternally transferred from females to eggs in B. americanus, but the percentage of the females' Hg body burden transferred to eggs was low compared with Se. In addition, Hg concentrations appeared to positively influence the amount of Se transferred from female to eggs. The present study is the first to confirm a correlation between Hg concentrations in female carcass and eggs in amphibians and among the first to describe co-transference of Se and Hg in an anamniotic vertebrate. The results suggest future work is needed to determine whether maternal transfer of Hg has transgenerational implications for amphibian progeny.

  9. Transfer of Maternal Immunity to Newborns of Diabetic Mothers

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    Eduardo Luzía França

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out with hyperglycemic pregnant women to investigate the transfer of antibody classes to newborns across the placenta or by colostrum and the functional activity of phagocytes in maternal blood, cord blood, and colostrum from diabetes mothers. Samples from maternal blood, cord blood, and colostrum were collected from 20 normoglycemic and 20 hyperglycemic pregnant women. We determined antibodies levels, superoxide release, phagocytosis and bactericidal activity of phagocytes. We demonstrated that IgG levels in cord blood were higher in the hyperglycemic group. IgA and IgM levels were higher in maternal than in cord blood samples. Plasma antibody levels were lower in hyper- than in normoglycemic women. The colostrum of diabetic mothers had lower IgA and IgG levels. Colostrum and maternal blood phagocytes when exposed to EPEC increased the superoxide release. Cord blood phagocytes of hyperglycemic group, independently of bacteria, had higher superoxide release. Colostrum and blood phagocytes from diabetic group exhibited some phagocytic and microbicidal activity in response to EPEC. Mononuclear phagocytes from cord blood had the lowest phagocytosis, and bactericidal activity for EPEC, regardless of glycemic status. These data showed that hyperglycemia altered IgG transfer across the placenta and decreases immunoglobulin levels in maternal blood and colostrum.

  10. Embryotoxicity of maternally transferred methylmercury to fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas).

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    Bridges, Kristin N; Soulen, Brianne K; Overturf, Carmen L; Drevnick, Paul E; Roberts, Aaron P

    2016-06-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant and potent neurotoxin. In aquatic environments, Hg can be transformed into methylmercury (MeHg), which bioaccumulates in aquatic food webs, including fish. Methylmercury has been shown to transfer from female fish to developing eggs; however, relatively little is known regarding the effects of maternally transferred MeHg on fish embryos. The present study evaluated the effects of maternally transferred MeHg on fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) embryos. Embryos were collected from adult fatheads exposed for 30 d to 1 of 3 diets spiked with MeHg: a control diet (0.02 ppm Hg dry wt), a low diet (0.87 ppm Hg dry wt), or a high diet (5.5 ppm Hg dry wt). No effects on spawning frequency, clutch size, or total egg output were observed. In embryos, Hg concentration was a function of female diet and the duration (number of days) of female exposure. Compared with controls, embryos from the low-diet treatment displayed altered embryonic movement patterns (hyperactivity) and decreased time to hatch. Embryos from the high-diet treatment had delayed hatching and increased mortality compared with the other treatments. Collectively, these results suggest that maternally transferred Hg may impact survival, behavior, and developmental milestones of the embryo-larval stages of fish. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1436-1441. © 2015 SETAC.

  11. Eggshell spottiness reflects maternally transferred antibodies in blue tits.

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    Marie-Jeanne Holveck

    Full Text Available Blue-green and brown-spotted eggshells in birds have been proposed as sexual signals of female physiological condition and egg quality, reflecting maternal investment in the egg. Testing this hypothesis requires linking eggshell coloration to egg content, which is lacking for brown protoporphyrin-based pigmentation. As protoporphyrins can induce oxidative stress, and a large amount in eggshells should indicate either high female and egg quality if it reflects the female's high oxidative tolerance, or conversely poor quality if it reflects female physiological stress. Different studies supported either predictions but are difficult to compare given the methodological differences in eggshell-spottiness measurements. Using the blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus as a model species, we aimed at disentangling both predictions in testing if brown-spotted eggshell could reflect the quality of maternal investment in antibodies and carotenoids in the egg, and at improving between-study comparisons in correlating several common measurements of eggshell coloration (spectral and digital measures, spotted surface, pigmentation indices. We found that these color variables were weakly correlated highlighting the need for comparable quantitative measurements between studies and for multivariate regressions incorporating several eggshell-color characteristics. When evaluating the potential signaling function of brown-spotted eggshells, we thus searched for the brown eggshell-color variables that best predicted the maternal transfer of antibodies and carotenoids to egg yolks. We also tested the effects of several parental traits and breeding parameters potentially affecting this transfer. While eggshell coloration did not relate to yolk carotenoids, the eggs with larger and less evenly-distributed spots had higher antibody concentrations, suggesting that both the quantity and distribution of brown pigments reflected the transfer of maternal immune compounds in egg yolks

  12. Transfer entropy analysis of maternal and fetal heart rate coupling.

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    Marzbanrad, Faezeh; Kimura, Yoshitaka; Endo, Miyuki; Palaniswami, Marimuthu; Khandoker, Ahsan H

    2015-01-01

    Although evidence of the short term relationship between maternal and fetal heart rates has been found in previous model-based studies, knowledge about the mechanism and patterns of the coupling during gestation is still limited. In this study, a model-free method based on Transfer Entropy (TE) was applied to quantify the maternal-fetal heart rate couplings in both directions. Furthermore, analysis of the lag at which TE was maximum and its changes throughout gestation, provided more information about the mechanism of coupling and its latency. Experimental results based on fetal electrocardiograms (fECGs) and maternal ECG showed the evidence of coupling for 62 out of 65 healthy mothers and fetuses in each direction, by statistically validating against the surrogate pairs. The fetuses were divided into three gestational age groups: early (16-25 weeks), mid (26-31 weeks) and late (32-41 weeks) gestation. The maximum TE from maternal to fetal heart rate significantly increased from early to mid gestation, while the coupling delay on both directions decreased significantly from mid to late gestation. These changes occur concomitant with the maturation of the fetal sensory and autonomic nervous systems with advancing gestational age. In conclusion, the application of TE with delays revealed detailed information about the changes in fetal-maternal heart rate coupling strength and latency throughout gestation, which could provide novel clinical markers of fetal development and well-being.

  13. Income Transfers and Maternal Health: Evidence from a National Randomized Social Cash Transfer Program in Zambia.

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    Handa, Sudhanshu; Peterman, Amber; Seidenfeld, David; Tembo, Gelson

    2016-02-01

    There is promising recent evidence that poverty-targeted social cash transfers have potential to improve maternal health outcomes; however, questions remain surrounding design features responsible for impacts. In addition, virtually no evidence exists from the African region. This study explores the impact of Zambia's Child Grant Program on a range of maternal health utilization outcomes using a randomized design and difference-in-differences multivariate regression from data collected over 24 months from 2010 to 2012. Results indicate that while there are no measurable program impacts among the main sample, there are heterogeneous impacts on skilled attendance at birth among a sample of women residing in households having better access to maternal health services. The latter result is particularly interesting because of the overall low level of health care availability in program areas suggesting that dedicated program design or matching supply-side interventions may be necessary to leverage unconditional cash transfers in similar settings to impact maternal health.

  14. Maternal transfer of organohalogenated compounds in sharks and stingrays.

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    Weijs, Liesbeth; Briels, Nathalie; Adams, Douglas H; Lepoint, Gilles; Das, Krishna; Blust, Ronny; Covaci, Adrian

    2015-03-15

    Elasmobranchs can bioaccumulate considerable amounts of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and utilize several reproductive strategies thereby influencing maternal transfer of contaminants. This study provides preliminary data on the POP transfer from pregnant females to offspring of three species (Atlantic stingrays, bonnethead, blacktip sharks) with different reproduction modes (aplacental, placental viviparity). Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels were generally higher than any other POPs. Stingrays and blacktip shark embryos contained the lowest POP concentrations while bonnetheads and the blacktip adult female had the highest concentrations. Results suggest that POPs are more readily transferred from the mother to the embryo compared to what is transferred to ova in stingrays. Statistically significant differences in levels of selected POPs were found between embryos from the left and right uterus within the same litter as well as between female and male embryos within the same litter for bonnetheads, but not for the blacktip sharks.

  15. Early transfer of mated females into the maternity unit reduces stress and increases maternal care in farm mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens; Palme, Rupert

    2015-01-01

    Mated mammals on farms are typically transferred to another housing environment prior to delivery. We investigated whether the timing of this transfer – EARLY (Day −36), INTERMEDIATE (Day −18), or LATE (Day −3) relative to the expected day of birth (Day 0) – affects maternal stress, maternal care...... vitality from early moved females. In conclusion, transfer into the maternity unit early after mating, rather than later during the pregnancy period, reduces stress and increases maternal care in farm mink.......Mated mammals on farms are typically transferred to another housing environment prior to delivery. We investigated whether the timing of this transfer – EARLY (Day −36), INTERMEDIATE (Day −18), or LATE (Day −3) relative to the expected day of birth (Day 0) – affects maternal stress, maternal care...... sized groups (n = 60): (i) ‘EARLY’, transfer to maternity unit immediately after the end of the mating period, March 23; (ii) ‘INTERMEDIATE’, transfer in the middle of the period, April 10; (iii) ‘LATE’, transfer late in the pregnancy period, April 25. Data collection included weekly determination...

  16. Maternal transfer of perfluoroalkyl substances in hooded seals.

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    Grønnestad, Randi; Villanger, Gro D; Polder, Anuschka; Kovacs, Kit M; Lydersen, Christian; Jenssen, Bjørn M; Borgå, Katrine

    2017-03-01

    The role of milk in the transfer of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) to offspring is not well known in wildlife. Eight PFASs were quantified in plasma and milk in mother-pup pairs of hooded seals (Cystophora cristata) during the nursing period, and the role of milk in the transfer process was analyzed. Hooded seal was chosen because of its short lactation period (3-4 d), during which the pup feeds only on milk. Placental or lactation transfer would thus be the only source of PFAS in the pup. Of the 8 PFASs analyzed (Σ8 PFAS), 7 were found in all samples; therefore, milk is a source to PFASs in pups. Perfluorooctane sulfonate was the dominant PFAS in all samples. Mean Σ8 PFAS concentrations were 6.0 ng/g protein (36 ng/g wet wt) in maternal plasma, 0.77 ng/g protein (3.2 ng/g wet wt) in milk, and 12 ng/g protein (66 ng/g wet wt) in pup plasma. Measured concentrations in plasma were within ranges previously reported from other seal species, below known toxicity thresholds for experimental rodents. Individual PFASs differed in transfer efficiency from mother to pup, depending on carbon chain lengths, with the lowest relative transfer for the intermediate-chained PFASs (C9 -C10 ). The results show maternal transfer of PFASs via both milk and the placenta, of which placental transfer is the dominant pathway. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:763-770. © 2016 SETAC.

  17. Access to Maternal Health Care Services in the Cape Coast Metropolitan Area, Ghana

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    D. Adei

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Maternal mortality can be prevented if mothers had routine obstetric care and access to emergency obstetric services. However, in accessing healthcare most expecting mothers will have to struggle with distance and financial problems. The study sought to; assess the barriers that discourage women from accessing antenatal, delivery and postnatal services in the Cape coast Metropolis and give recommendations to inform policy. Questionnaire was administered to 150 pregnant women and nursing mothers with babies less than one year from ten communities in the Cape Coast Metropolis. An institutional questionnaire was administered at the University of Cape Coast Hospital which provides health care services to the communities. The study revealed that challenges such as money (16.7%, distance (15.4%, and the behaviour of health personnel (20% were the dominant barriers to accessing antenatal, delivery and post natal services in the Cape Cost Metropolis. These barriers lead to the inability of 14% of pregnant women and nursing mothers with babies less than one year to adhere to the minimum antenatal visitation number of 5 recommended by the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Again 15.3% of these respondents were delivered by Traditional Birth Attendants and family members, whiles 5.8% were unable to adhere to the minimum postnatal visitation of two times. NGO’s and government organizations for women should organize training programmes aimed at improving the livelihood or employment for women in these communities.

  18. Early transfer of mated females into the maternity unit reduces stress and increases maternal care in farm mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens; Palme, Rupert

    2015-01-01

    Mated mammals on farms are typically transferred to another housing environment prior to delivery. We investigated whether the timing of this transfer – EARLY (Day −36), INTERMEDIATE (Day −18), or LATE (Day −3) relative to the expected day of birth (Day 0) – affects maternal stress, maternal care...... (P = 0.002). Additionally, the mortality in group LATE tended to be higher (P = 0.085) in affected litters (N = 92). Kits from early transferred females displayed less vocalization (17% vs. 40–41% in the two other groups, P = 0.015), when tested away from the nest. This indicates enhanced offspring...

  19. Early transfer of mated females into the maternity unit reduces stress and increases maternal care in farm mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens; Palme, Rupert

    2015-01-01

    sized groups (n = 60): (i) ‘EARLY’, transfer to maternity unit immediately after the end of the mating period, March 23; (ii) ‘INTERMEDIATE’, transfer in the middle of the period, April 10; (iii) ‘LATE’, transfer late in the pregnancy period, April 25. Data collection included weekly determination...... to an environment with free access to nest building material. During the weeks before delivery, INTERMEDIATE females had 50% higher FCM concentrations than the other two groups (P = 0.002), indicative of stress. After delivery, late moved females had, in average, 2.7 °C colder nests compared to early moved females...... vitality from early moved females. In conclusion, transfer into the maternity unit early after mating, rather than later during the pregnancy period, reduces stress and increases maternal care in farm mink....

  20. Transfer and Decline of Maternal Antibody to Feline Calicivirus

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, R. P.; Povey, R C

    1983-01-01

    Twelve kittens born to four queens immune to feline calicivirus acquired maternal serum neutralizing antibody to feline calicivirus primarily via the colostrum. At one week of age, their titres approached or equalled those of their dams. In the absence of feline calicivirus infection, titres of maternal antibody declined to undetected levels between ten and 14 weeks of age. The half-life of maternal antibody was approximately 15 days.

  1. Experimental Evidence for Genetic Heritability of Maternal Hormone Transfer to Offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okuliarova, Monika; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Skrobanek, Peter; Zeman, Michal; Škrobánek, Peter; Ketterson, Ellen D.; McPeek, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    In many animal species, embryos are exposed to maternal hormones that affect their development. Maternal hormone transfer varies with environmental conditions of the mother and is often interpreted as being shaped by natural selection to adjust the offspring to prevailing environmental conditions. S

  2. Transfer of maternal antibodies against avian influenza virus in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos.

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    Jacintha G B van Dijk

    Full Text Available Maternal antibodies protect chicks from infection with pathogens early in life and may impact pathogen dynamics due to the alteration of the proportion of susceptible individuals in a population. We investigated the transfer of maternal antibodies against avian influenza virus (AIV in a key AIV host species, the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos. Combining observations in both the field and in mallards kept in captivity, we connected maternal AIV antibody concentrations in eggs to (i female body condition, (ii female AIV antibody concentration, (iii egg laying order, (iv egg size and (v embryo sex. We applied maternity analysis to the eggs collected in the field to account for intraspecific nest parasitism, which is reportedly high in Anseriformes, detecting parasitic eggs in one out of eight clutches. AIV antibody prevalence in free-living and captive females was respectively 48% and 56%, with 43% and 24% of the eggs receiving these antibodies maternally. In both field and captive study, maternal AIV antibody concentrations in egg yolk correlated positively with circulating AIV antibody concentrations in females. In the captive study, yolk AIV antibody concentrations correlated positively with egg laying order. Female body mass and egg size from the field and captive study, and embryos sex from the field study were not associated with maternal AIV antibody concentrations in eggs. Our study indicates that maternal AIV antibody transfer may potentially play an important role in shaping AIV infection dynamics in mallards.

  3. Transfer of maternal antibodies against avian influenza virus in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Jacintha G B; Mateman, A Christa; Klaassen, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Maternal antibodies protect chicks from infection with pathogens early in life and may impact pathogen dynamics due to the alteration of the proportion of susceptible individuals in a population. We investigated the transfer of maternal antibodies against avian influenza virus (AIV) in a key AIV host species, the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). Combining observations in both the field and in mallards kept in captivity, we connected maternal AIV antibody concentrations in eggs to (i) female body condition, (ii) female AIV antibody concentration, (iii) egg laying order, (iv) egg size and (v) embryo sex. We applied maternity analysis to the eggs collected in the field to account for intraspecific nest parasitism, which is reportedly high in Anseriformes, detecting parasitic eggs in one out of eight clutches. AIV antibody prevalence in free-living and captive females was respectively 48% and 56%, with 43% and 24% of the eggs receiving these antibodies maternally. In both field and captive study, maternal AIV antibody concentrations in egg yolk correlated positively with circulating AIV antibody concentrations in females. In the captive study, yolk AIV antibody concentrations correlated positively with egg laying order. Female body mass and egg size from the field and captive study, and embryos sex from the field study were not associated with maternal AIV antibody concentrations in eggs. Our study indicates that maternal AIV antibody transfer may potentially play an important role in shaping AIV infection dynamics in mallards.

  4. Maternal antibody transfer can lead to suppression of humoral immunity in developing zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Loren; Grindstaff, Jennifer L

    2014-01-01

    Maternally transferred antibodies have been documented in a wide range of taxa and are thought to adaptively provide protection against parasites and pathogens while the offspring immune system is developing. In most birds, transfer occurs when females deposit immunoglobulin Y into the egg yolk, and it is proportional to the amount in the female's plasma. Maternal antibodies can provide short-term passive protection as well as specific and nonspecific immunological priming, but high levels of maternal antibody can result in suppression of the offspring's humoral immune response. We injected adult female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) with one of two antigens (lipopolysaccharide [LPS] or keyhole limpet hemocyanin [KLH]) or a control and then injected offspring with LPS, KLH, or a control on days 5 and 28 posthatch to examine the impact of maternally transferred antibodies on the ontogeny of the offspring's humoral immune system. We found that offspring of females exposed to KLH had elevated levels of KLH-reactive antibody over the first 17-28 days posthatch but reduced KLH-specific antibody production between days 28 and 36. We also found that offspring exposed to either LPS or KLH exhibited reduced total antibody levels, compared to offspring that received a control injection. These results indicate that high levels of maternal antibodies or antigen exposure during development can have negative repercussions on short-term antibody production and may have long-term fitness repercussions for the offspring.

  5. Quantifying the Interactions between Maternal and Fetal Heart Rates by Transfer Entropy.

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    Marzbanrad, Faezeh; Kimura, Yoshitaka; Palaniswami, Marimuthu; Khandoker, Ahsan H

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of the short term relationship between maternal and fetal heart rates has been found in previous studies. However there is still limited knowledge about underlying mechanisms and patterns of the coupling throughout gestation. In this study, Transfer Entropy (TE) was used to quantify directed interactions between maternal and fetal heart rates at various time delays and gestational ages. Experimental results using maternal and fetal electrocardiograms showed significant coupling for 63 out of 65 fetuses, by statistically validating against surrogate pairs. Analysis of TE showed a decrease in transfer of information from fetus to the mother with gestational age, alongside the maturation of the fetus. On the other hand, maternal to fetal TE was significantly greater in mid (26-31 weeks) and late (32-41 weeks) gestation compared to early (16-25 weeks) gestation (Mann Whitney Wilcoxon (MWW) pheart rate being larger than 4 msec in the late gestation. This difference was not observed for the fetuses with smaller RMSSD, which could be associated with the quiet sleep state. Delay in the information transfer from mother to fetus significantly decreased (p = 0.03) from mid to late gestation, implying a decrease in fetal response time. These changes occur concomitant with the maturation of the fetal sensory and autonomic nervous systems with advancing gestational age. The effect of maternal respiratory rate derived from maternal ECG was also investigated and no significant relationship was found between breathing rate and TE at any lag. In conclusion, the application of TE with delays revealed detailed information on the fetal-maternal heart rate coupling strength and latency throughout gestation, which could provide novel clinical markers of fetal development and well-being.

  6. Time-to-delivery after maternal transfer to a tertiary perinatal centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Fiona H; Davies, Mark W

    2014-01-01

    To determine, in women transferred antenatally for acute admission with high risk pregnancies, the numbers who deliver, the average time from transfer to delivery, and whether the reason for transfer influences the time-to-delivery. A retrospective analysis of time-to-delivery was performed in a population of women transferred to the Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, QLD. Data were obtained from the hospital obstetric, neonatal, and admission databases. A total of 941 women were transferred antenatally with high risk pregnancies where delivery was deemed potentially imminent. Of these 821 (87%) delivered at RBWH. The remaining 120 women (13%) were discharged prior to delivery and then delivered elsewhere. Of the 821 maternal transfers that delivered, the median time to delivery was 24.4 hrs. There were 43% who delivered within 24 hours of admission and 29% who either delivered after 7 days or delivered elsewhere. Most transfers for fetal abnormality delivered in the first 24 hours while most transfers for antepartum haemorrhage and preterm prelabour membrane rupture delivered beyond 24 hours. There are significant differences in time-to-delivery following transfer depending on the reason for transfer and many infants transferred in utero will not deliver imminently.

  7. Time-to-Delivery after Maternal Transfer to a Tertiary Perinatal Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona H. Hutchinson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To determine, in women transferred antenatally for acute admission with high risk pregnancies, the numbers who deliver, the average time from transfer to delivery, and whether the reason for transfer influences the time-to-delivery. Methods. A retrospective analysis of time-to-delivery was performed in a population of women transferred to the Royal Brisbane and Women’s Hospital, QLD. Data were obtained from the hospital obstetric, neonatal, and admission databases. Results. A total of 941 women were transferred antenatally with high risk pregnancies where delivery was deemed potentially imminent. Of these 821 (87% delivered at RBWH. The remaining 120 women (13% were discharged prior to delivery and then delivered elsewhere. Of the 821 maternal transfers that delivered, the median time to delivery was 24.4 hrs. There were 43% who delivered within 24 hours of admission and 29% who either delivered after 7 days or delivered elsewhere. Most transfers for fetal abnormality delivered in the first 24 hours while most transfers for antepartum haemorrhage and preterm prelabour membrane rupture delivered beyond 24 hours. Conclusion. There are significant differences in time-to-delivery following transfer depending on the reason for transfer and many infants transferred in utero will not deliver imminently.

  8. Maternal-infant transfer of polybrominated diphenyl ethers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirai, T.; Fujimine, Y.; Watanabe, S. [Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Tokushima (Japan); Nakamura, Y. [SRL Nishinihon, Fukuoka (Japan); Shimomura, H. [Shimomura OBGY Clinic, Fukuoka (Japan); Nagayama, J. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in plastics of automobiles, textile industry, television, personal computer, electronic appliances etc. The amount of production world-wide has reached 40,000 tons in 1992. In 1992 world-wide production of PBDEs reached 40,000 tons raising serious concern over the dangers of environmental pollution by BFRs. The toxicity of PBDEs was reported to be an antagonist of thyroid-hormone (T4) and inhibition to aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor. Since PBDEs are structurally similar to PCBs and therefore they work as an antagonist. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) demonstrate biological stability and high lipophilicity. As a result, PCBs used in the past and released into the environment, have been transmitted through the food chain and accumlated in the human body over time. In Japan, approximately 58,000 tons of PCBs were produced with the grade name of Kanechlor in between 1954 and 1971. In this study, all PCB congeners and 25 PBDE congeners (17, 25, 28, 30, 32, 33, 35, 37, 47, 49, 66, 71, 75, 77, 85, 99, 100, 116, 119, 126, 138, 153, 154, 155, 166) were analyzed by the method that combines high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether congener-specific PCBs and PBDEs were transferred from pregnant women to their infants.

  9. High levels of maternally transferred mercury do not affect reproductive output or embryonic survival of northern watersnakes (Nerodia sipedon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Stephanie Y; Willson, John D; Cristol, Daniel A; Drewett, David V V; Hopkins, William A

    2013-03-01

    Maternal transfer is an important exposure pathway for contaminants because it can directly influence offspring development. Few studies have examined maternal transfer of contaminants, such as mercury (Hg), in snakes, despite their abundance and high trophic position in many ecosystems where Hg is prevalent. The objectives of the present study were to determine if Hg is maternally transferred in northern watersnakes (Nerodia sipedon) and to evaluate the effects of maternal Hg on reproduction. The authors captured gravid female watersnakes (n = 31) along the South River in Waynesboro, Virginia, USA, where an extensive Hg-contamination gradient exists. The authors measured maternal tissue and litter Hg concentrations and, following birth, assessed (1) reproductive parameters (i.e., litter size and mass, neonate mass); (2) rates of infertility, death during development, stillbirths, malformations, and runts; and (3) the overall viability of offspring. Mercury concentrations in females were strongly and positively correlated with concentrations in litters, suggesting that N. sipedon maternally transfer Hg in proportion to their tissue residues. Maternal transfer resulted in high concentrations (up to 10.10 mg/kg dry wt total Hg) of Hg in offspring. The authors found little evidence of adverse effects of Hg on these measures of reproductive output and embryonic survival, suggesting that N. sipedon may be more tolerant of Hg than other vertebrate species. Given that this is the first study to examine the effects of maternally transferred contaminants in snakes and that the authors did not measure all reproductive endpoints, further research is needed to better understand factors that influence maternal transfer and associated sublethal effects on offspring.

  10. Environmental effects shape the maternal transfer of carotenoids and vitamin E to the yolk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Wendt

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Maternal effects occur when the phenotype of the offspring is influenced by the phenotype of the mother, which in turn depends on her heritable state as well as on influences from the current and past environmental conditions. All of these pathways may, therefore, form significant sources of variation in maternal effects. Here, we focused on the maternal transfer of carotenoids and vitamin E to the egg yolk, using canaries as a model species. Maternal yolk carotenoids and vitamin E are known to generate significant phenotypic variation in offspring, representing examples of maternal effects. We studied the intra-individual consistency in deposition patterns across two years and the mother-daughter resemblance across two generations in order to estimate the level of heritable variation. The effects of the current environmental conditions were studied via a food supplementation experiment, while the consequences of past environmental conditions were estimated on the basis of the early growth trajectories. Results There was a significant effect of the current environmental conditions on the yolk carotenoid and vitamin E deposition, but this effect varied between antioxidant components. The deposition of yolk carotenoids and vitamin E were linked to the process of yolk formation. Past environmental conditions did not contribute to the variation in yolk carotenoid and vitamin E levels nor did we find significant heritable variation. Conclusions The transfer of carotenoids or vitamin E may be an example where current environmental variation is largely passed from the mother to the offspring, despite the numerous intermediate physiological steps that are involved. Differences in the effect of the environmental conditions as experienced by the mother during laying may be due to differences in availability as well as physiological processes such as competitive exclusion or selective absorption.

  11. Passive transfer of maternal antibodies to West Nile virus in flamingo chicks (Phoenicopterus chilensis and Phoenicopterus ruber ruber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baitchman, Eric J; Tlusty, Michael F; Murphy, Hayley W

    2007-06-01

    Passive transfer of maternal antibodies against West Nile virus (WNV) was studied in a captive population of Chilean (Phoenicopterus chilensis) and Caribbean flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber ruber). Transfer of WNV antibodies from hens to chicks was documented and measured by plaque-reduction neutralization test. Hen titers were significantly correlated to chick titers. Mean half-life of maternal WNV antibodies was 13.4 days in chicks for which half-life was measurable.

  12. Maternal-foetal transfer of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax antibodies in a low transmission setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnaud, Sarah C.; McGready, Rose; Herten-Crabb, Asha; Powell, Rosanna; Guy, Andrew; Langer, Christine; Richards, Jack S.; Gilson, Paul R.; Chotivanich, Kesinee; Tsuboi, Takafumi; Narum, David L.; Pimanpanarak, Mupawjay; Simpson, Julie A.; Beeson, James G.; Nosten, François; Fowkes, Freya J. I.

    2016-01-01

    During pregnancy immunolglobulin G (IgG) antibodies are transferred from mother to neonate across the placenta. Studies in high transmission areas have shown transfer of P. falciparum-specific IgG, but the extent and factors influencing maternal-foetal transfer in low transmission areas co-endemic for both P. falciparum and P. vivax are unknown. Pregnant women were screened weekly for Plasmodium infection. Mother-neonate paired serum samples at delivery were tested for IgG to antigens from P. falciparum, P. vivax and other infectious diseases. Antibodies to malarial and non-malarial antigens were highly correlated between maternal and neonatal samples (median [range] spearman ρ = 0.78 [0.57–0.93]), although Plasmodium spp. antibodies tended to be lower in neonates than mothers. Estimated gestational age at last P. falciparum infection, but not P. vivax infection, was positively associated with antibody levels in the neonate (P. falciparum merozoite, spearman ρ median [range] 0.42 [0.33–0.66], PfVAR2CSA 0.69; P. vivax ρ = 0.19 [0.09–0.3]). Maternal-foetal transfer of anti-malarial IgG to Plasmodium spp. antigens occurs in low transmission settings. P. vivax IgG acquisition is not associated with recent exposure unlike P. falciparum IgG, suggesting a difference in acquisition of antibodies. IgG transfer is greatest in the final weeks of pregnancy which has implications for the timing of future malaria vaccination strategies in pregnant women. PMID:26861682

  13. Reproduction, embryonic development, and maternal transfer of contaminants in the amphibian Gastrophryne carolinensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, W.A.; DuRant, S.E.; Staub, B.P.; Rowe, C.L.; Jackson, B.P. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University, Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Fisheries & Wildlife Science

    2006-05-15

    Although many amphibian populations around the world are declining at alarming rates, the cause of most declines remains unknown. Environmental contamination is one of several factors implicated in declines and may have particularly important effects on sensitive developmental stages. We examined maternal transfer of contaminants in eastern narrow-mouth toads (Gastrophryne carolinensis) collected from a reference site and near a coal-burning power plant. Adult toads inhabiting the industrial area transferred significant quantities of selenium and strontium to their eggs, but Se concentrations were most notable (up to 100 {mu} g/g dry mass). Compared with the reference site, hatching success was reduced by 11% in clutches from the contaminated site. In surviving larvae, the frequency of developmental abnormalities and abnormal swimming was 55-58% higher in the contaminated site relative to the reference site. Craniofacial abnormalities were nearly an order of magnitude more prevalent in hatchlings from the contaminated site. When all developmental criteria were considered collectively, offspring from the contaminated site experienced 19% lower viability. Although there was no statistical relationship between the concentration of Se or Sr transferred to eggs and any measure of offspring viability, our study demonstrates that maternal transfer may be an important route of contaminant exposure in amphibians that has been overlooked.

  14. Maternal transfer of contaminants in birds: Mercury and selenium concentrations in parents and their eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Herzog, Mark P; Hartman, C Alex

    2016-03-01

    We conducted a detailed assessment of the maternal transfer of mercury and selenium to eggs in three bird species (n = 107 parents and n = 339 eggs), and developed predictive equations linking contaminant concentrations in eggs to those in six tissues of the mother (blood, muscle, liver, kidney, breast feathers, and head feathers). Mercury concentrations in eggs were positively correlated with mercury concentrations in each of the mother's internal tissues (R(2) ≥ 0.95), but generally not with feathers. For each species, the proportion of mercury transferred to eggs decreased as mercury concentrations in the mother increased. At the same maternal mercury concentration, the proportion of mercury transferred to eggs differed among species, such that Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri) and black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus) females transferred more methylmercury to their eggs than American avocet (Recurvirostra americana) females. Selenium concentrations in eggs also were correlated with selenium concentrations in the mother's liver (R(2) = 0.87). Furthermore, mercury and selenium concentrations in tern eggs were positively correlated with those in the father (R(2) = 0.84). Incubating male terns had 21% higher mercury concentrations in blood compared to incubating females at the same egg mercury concentration. We provide equations to predict contaminant concentrations in eggs from each of the commonly sampled bird tissues.

  15. Maternal transfer of contaminants in birds: Mercury and selenium concentrations in parents and their eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herzog, Mark P.; Hartman, C. Alex

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a detailed assessment of the maternal transfer of mercury and selenium to eggs in three bird species (n = 107 parents and n = 339 eggs), and developed predictive equations linking contaminant concentrations in eggs to those in six tissues of the mother (blood, muscle, liver, kidney, breast feathers, and head feathers). Mercury concentrations in eggs were positively correlated with mercury concentrations in each of the mother's internal tissues (R2 ≥ 0.95), but generally not with feathers. For each species, the proportion of mercury transferred to eggs decreased as mercury concentrations in the mother increased. At the same maternal mercury concentration, the proportion of mercury transferred to eggs differed among species, such that Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri) and black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus) females transferred more methylmercury to their eggs than American avocet (Recurvirostra americana) females. Selenium concentrations in eggs also were correlated with selenium concentrations in the mother's liver (R2 = 0.87). Furthermore, mercury and selenium concentrations in tern eggs were positively correlated with those in the father (R2 = 0.84). Incubating male terns had 21% higher mercury concentrations in blood compared to incubating females at the same egg mercury concentration. We provide equations to predict contaminant concentrations in eggs from each of the commonly sampled bird tissues.

  16. Bioaccumulation, maternal transfer and elimination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in wild frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng-Yan; Du, Guo-Dong; Zhao, Ya-Xian; Mu, Yun-Song; Zhang, Ai-Qian; Qin, Zhan-Fen; Zhang, Xiao-You; Yan, Shi-Shuai; Li, Yan; Wei, Rong-Guo; Qin, Xiao-Fei; Yang, Yong-Jian

    2011-08-01

    To investigate bioaccumulation, maternal transfer and elimination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in amphibians, we collected adult frogs (Rana limnocharis) from a rice field in an e-waste recycling site in China. We found that ∑PBDEs in the whole frogs and various tissues (brain, liver, testis and egg) ranged from 17.10 to 141.11 ng g(-1) wet weight. Various tissues exhibited a similar PBDE congener profile, which was characterized by intermediate brominated congeners (BDE-99 and BDE-153) as the largest contributors, with less lower brominated congeners (BDE-28 and BDE-47) and higher brominated congeners (BDE-209). The maternal transfer capacity of PBDEs declined with the increase in bromine numbers of PBDE congeners. We suggest that the bromine atom number (the molecular size, to some degree) might be a determining factor for the maternal transport of a PBDE congener rather than K(ow) (Octanol-Water partition coefficient), which expresses a compound's lipophilicity. ∑PBDEs concentrations in frogs decreased over time during a depuration period of 54 days when these wild frogs were brought to the lab from the e-waste recycling site. The half-life of ∑PBDEs was 35 days, with about 14 days for BDE-47, and 36 and 81 days for BDE-99 and BDE-153, respectively. The data shows that the elimination of PBDEs has no essential difference from aquatic and terrestrial species.

  17. Transverse Schottky and beam transfer function measurements in space charge affected coasting ion beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Paret

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Transverse Schottky spectra and beam transfer functions (BTFs of coasting ion beams were measured in the heavy ion synchrotron SIS-18 in order to study the impact of space charge on the transverse beam dynamics. The particle number in the beam was varied to investigate the intensity dependence of the space-charge effect. No cooling was applied to the beams throughout the experiment. The expected deformation of the Schottky spectra and BTFs is observed. An analytic model with linear space charge is employed to describe the deformed Schottky and BTF signals. In this model, the incoherent space-charge force and the coherent forces due to impedances are treated separately. Using the model, the space-charge induced tune shift is evaluated both from the position and the form of the signals. The data are well described by the model, only in the high-intensity BTFs deviations are observed. The stability diagrams are shifted according to the space-charge parameter obtained from the BTFs. In addition, the tune shift is estimated by virtue of measured beam profiles and particle numbers. The estimated tune shift is of the same order of magnitude but smaller than the measured one. Possible explanations for deviations between the measurements, the model, and the estimation are discussed.

  18. Transverse Schottky spectra and beam transfer functions of coasting ion beams with space charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paret, Stefan

    2010-02-22

    A study of the transverse dynamics of coasting ion beams with moderate space charge is presented in this work. From the dispersion relation with linear space charge, an analytic model describing the impact of space charge on transverse beam transfer functions (BTFs) and the stability limits of a beam is derived. The dielectric function obtained in this way is employed to describe the transverse Schottky spectra with linear space charge as well. The difference between the action of space charge and impedances is highlighted. The setup and the results of an experiment performed in the heavy ion synchrotron SIS-18 at GSI to detect space-charge effects at different beam intensities are explicated. The measured transverse Schottky spectra and BTFs are compared with the linear space-charge model. The stability diagrams constructed from the BTFs are presented. The space-charge parameters evaluated from the Schottky and BTF measurements are compared with estimations based on measured beam parameters. The impact of collective effects on the Schottky and BTF diagnostics is also investigated through numerical simulations. For this purpose the self-field of beams with linear and non-linear transverse density-distributions is computed on a twodimensional grid. The noise of the random particle distribution causes fluctuations of the dipole moment of the beam which produce the Schottky spectrum. BTFs are simulated by exciting the beam with transverse kicks. The simulation results are used to verify the space-charge model. (orig.)

  19. Prenatal passive transfer of maternal immunity in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nofs, Sally A; Atmar, Robert L; Keitel, Wendy A; Hanlon, Cathleen; Stanton, Jeffrey J; Tan, Jie; Flanagan, Joseph P; Howard, Lauren; Ling, Paul D

    2013-06-15

    Asian (Elephas maximus) and African (Loxodonta africana) elephants exhibit characteristics of endotheliochorial placentation, which is common in carnivore species and is associated with modest maternal to fetal transplacental antibody transfer. However, it remains unknown whether the bulk of passive immune transfer in elephants is achieved prenatally or postnatally through ingestion of colostrum, as has been documented for horses, a species whose medical knowledgebase is often extrapolated for elephants. To address this issue, we took advantage of the fact that many zoo elephants are immunized with tetanus toxoid and/or rabies vaccines as part of their routine health care, allowing a comparison of serum antibody levels against these antigens between dams and neonates. Serum samples were collected from 3 newborn Asian elephant calves at birth (before ingestion of colostrum); 2-4 days after birth; and 2-3 months of age. The findings indicate that the newborns had anti-tetanus toxoid and anti-rabies titers that were equivalent to or higher than the titers of their dams from birth to approximately 3 months of age, suggesting that the majority of maternal-to-fetal transfer is transplacental and higher than expected based on the architecture of the Asian elephant placenta.

  20. Transfer of radionuclides from maternal food to the fetus and nursing infants of minipigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timmermans, R.; Van Hees, M.; Vandecasteele, C.H.; Vankerkom, J.; Gerber, G.B. (Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire, Mol (Belgium))

    1992-01-01

    Transfer of {sup 110m}Ag, {sup 58}Co, {sup 59}Fe, {sup 141}Ce, {sup 103}Ru, {sup 88}Y, {sup 85}Sr, {sup 51}Mn, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 152}Eu, {sup 95m}Tc, {sup 75}Se, {sup 65}Zn and {sup 133}Gd was investigated in utero and during lactation in minipigs given the radioactive material added to food from day 50 of pregnancy until the end of lactation. The paper presents selected results on Ag, Co, Fe, Sr, Mn, Cs, Ru and Y and Tc. Transfer was highest for Cs and, in haemopoietic tissues, for Fe. Lower transfer was found for Ag, Fe, Mn with some preference for certain tissues (Ag in brain and liver, Mn in pancreas). Sr accumulated almost exclusively in bone and Tc in thyroid with higher concentrations in fetal and infant tissues than in maternal tissues. Lanthanides, Ru and Y were all close to detection limits or below in most maternal or fetal or infant tissues and could be found in bone and, less consistently, in kidney and liver. (author).

  1. Transplacental transfer of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in paired samples of maternal serum, umbilical cord serum, and placenta in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolan; Li, Xiaojing; Jing, Ye; Fang, Xiangming; Zhang, Xinyu; Lei, Bingli; Yu, Yingxin

    2017-03-01

    Prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is a high-priority public health concern. However, maternal to fetal transplacental transfer of PAHs has not been systematically studied. To investigate the transplacental transfer of PAHs from mother to fetus and determine the influence of lipophilicity (octanol-water partition coefficient, KOW) on transfer process, in the present study, we measured the concentrations of 15 PAHs in 95 paired maternal and umbilical cord serum, and placenta samples (in total 285 samples) collected in Shanghai, China. The average concentration of total PAHs was the highest in maternal serums (1290 ng g(-1) lipid), followed by umbilical cord serums (1150 ng g(-1) lipid). The value was the lowest in placenta samples (673 ng g(-1) lipid). Low molecular weight PAHs were the predominant compounds in the three matrices. Increases in fish and meat consumption did not lead to increases in maternal PAH levels, and no obvious gender differences in umbilical cord serums were observed. The widespread presence of PAHs in umbilical cord serums indicated the occurrence of transplacental transfer. The ratios of PAH concentrations in umbilical cord serum to those in maternal serum (F/M) and the concentrations in placenta to those in maternal serum (P/M) of paired samples were analyzed to characterize the transfer process of individual PAHs. Most F/M ratios on lipid basis were close to one (range: 0.79 to 1.36), which suggested that passive diffusion may control the transplacental transfer of PAHs from maternal serum to the fetal circulation. The P/M and F/M values calculated on lipid basis showed that PAHs with lower KOW were more likely to transfer from mother to fetus via the placenta. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Can cash transfers improve determinants of maternal mortality? Evidence from the household and community programs in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuma, Dian; Cohen, Jessica; McConnell, Margaret; Berman, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Despite global efforts in maternal health, 303,000 maternal deaths still occurred globally in 2015. One explanation is a considerable inequality in maternal mortality and the sources such as nutritional status and health utilization. One strategy to fight health inequality due to poverty is conditional cash transfer (CCT). Taking advantage of two large clustered-randomized trials in Indonesia from 2007 to 2009, this paper provides evidence on the effects of household cash transfers (PKH) and community cash transfers (Generasi) on determinants of maternal mortality. The sample sizes are 14,000 households for PKH and 12,000 households for Generasi. After two years of implementation, difference-in-differences (DID) analyses show that the two programs can improve determinants of maternal mortality with Generasi provides positive impact in some aspects of determinants, but PKH does not. Generasi improves maternal health knowledge, reduces financial barriers to accessing health services and improves utilization of health services, increases utilization among higher-risk women, improves posyandu equipment, and increases nutritional intake. As for PKH, evidence shows its strongest effects only on utilization of health services. Both programs, however, are unlikely to have a large effect on maternal mortality due to design and implementation issues that might significantly reduce program effectiveness. While the programs improved utilization, they did so at community-based facilities not equipped with emergency obstetric care. In the midst of popularity of household cash transfer, our results show that community cash transfer offers a viable policy alternative to improve the determinants of maternal mortality by allowing more flexibility in activities and at lower cost by monitoring at community level.

  3. First experiments on the maternal transfer of metals in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacoue-Labarthe, Thomas [Littoral, Environnement et Societes (LIENSs), UMR 6250, CNRS-Universite de La Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, F-17000 La Rochelle (France); Warnau, Michel [Marine Environment Laboratories, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA-MEL), 4 Quai Antoine Ier, MC 98000, Principality of Monaco (Monaco)], E-mail: warnaumichel@yahoo.com; Oberhaensli, Francois; Teyssie, Jean-Louis; Jeffree, Ross [Marine Environment Laboratories, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA-MEL), 4 Quai Antoine Ier, MC 98000, Principality of Monaco (Monaco); Bustamante, Paco [Littoral, Environnement et Societes (LIENSs), UMR 6250, CNRS-Universite de La Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, F-17000 La Rochelle (France)

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to provide a first insight on the incorporation of eight metals in the eggs of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis via maternal transfer, using radiotracer techniques ({sup 110m}Ag, {sup 241}Am, {sup 109}Cd, {sup 60}Co, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 54}Mn, {sup 75}Se and {sup 65}Zn). The cuttlefish was fed daily with radiolabelled crabs for two weeks; it then started to spawn every three days. Among the eight tracers, only {sup 110m}Ag, {sup 75}Se and {sup 65}Zn were significantly transferred to the eggs. The radiotracer distribution among the egg compartments showed that {sup 75}Se and {sup 65}Zn were accumulated mainly in the vitellus whereas {sup 110m}Ag was found in similar proportion in the vitellus and the eggshell. During the embryonic development, {sup 75}Se and {sup 65}Zn contained in the vitellus were progressively transferred to the embryo, likely to supply its metabolic needs in these essential elements. Although it has no known biological functions, Ag contained in both vitellus and eggshell was also transferred to the embryo. Overall, our results showed that transfer of Ag, Se, and Zn does actually occur from a female cuttlefish to its eggs, at least during the last two weeks before spawning.

  4. High Maternal HIV-1 Viral Load During Pregnancy Is Associated With Reduced Placental Transfer of Measles IgG Antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquhar, Carey; Nduati, Ruth; Haigwood, Nancy; Sutton, William; Mbori-Ngacha, Dorothy; Richardson, Barbra; John-Stewart, Grace

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies among HIV-1–infected women have demonstrated reduced placental transfer of IgG antibodies against measles and other pathogens. As a result, infants born to women with HIV-1 infection may not acquire adequate passive immunity in utero and this could contribute to high infant morbidity and mortality in this vulnerable population. Methods To determine factors associated with decreased placental transfer of measles IgG, 55 HIV-1–infected pregnant women who were enrolled in a Nairobi perinatal HIV-1 transmission study were followed. Maternal CD4 count, HIV-1 viral load, and HIV-1–specific gp41 antibody concentrations were measured antenatally and at delivery. Measles IgG concentrations were assayed in maternal blood and infant cord blood obtained during delivery to calculate placental antibody transfer. Results Among 40 women (73%) with positive measles titers, 30 (75%) were found to have abnormally low levels of maternofetal IgG transfer (<95%). High maternal HIV-1 viral load at 32 weeks’ gestation and at delivery was associated with reductions in placental transfer (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.0056, respectively) and infant measles IgG concentrations in cord blood (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.0073, respectively). High maternal HIV-1–specific gp41 antibody titer was also highly correlated with both decreased placental transfer (P = 0.0080) and decreased infant IgG (P < 0.0001). Conclusions This is the first study to evaluate the relationship between maternal HIV-1 viremia, maternal HIV-1 antibody concentrations, and passive immunity among HIV-1–exposed infants. These data support the hypothesis that high HIV-1 viral load during the last trimester may impair maternofetal transfer of IgG and increases risk of measles and other serious infections among HIV-1–exposed infants. PMID:16280707

  5. Maternal transfer and sublethal immune system effects of brevetoxin exposure in nesting loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) from western Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrault, Justin R; Bauman, Katherine D; Greenan, Taylor M; Blum, Patricia C; Henry, Michael S; Walsh, Catherine J

    2016-11-01

    Blooms of Karenia brevis (also called red tides) occur almost annually in the Gulf of Mexico. The health effects of the neurotoxins (i.e., brevetoxins) produced by this toxic dinoflagellate on marine turtles are poorly understood. Florida's Gulf Coast represents an important foraging and nesting area for a number of marine turtle species. Most studies investigating brevetoxin exposure in marine turtles thus far focus on dead and/or stranded individuals and rarely examine the effects in apparently "healthy" free-ranging individuals. From May-July 2014, one year after the last red tide bloom, we collected blood from nesting loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) on Casey Key, Florida USA. These organisms show both strong nesting and foraging site fidelity. The plasma was analyzed for brevetoxin concentrations in addition to a number of health and immune-related parameters in an effort to establish sublethal effects of this toxin. Lastly, from July-September 2014, we collected unhatched eggs and liver and yolk sacs from dead-in-nest hatchlings from nests laid by the sampled females and tested these samples for brevetoxin concentrations to determine maternal transfer and effects on reproductive success. Using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), all plasma samples from nesting females tested positive for brevetoxin (reported as ng brevetoxin-3[PbTx-3] equivalents [eq]/mL) exposure (2.1-26.7ng PbTx-3eq/mL). Additionally, 100% of livers (1.4-13.3ng PbTx-3eq/mL) and yolk sacs (1.7-6.6ng PbTx-3eq/mL) from dead-in-nest hatchlings and 70% of eggs (turtles.

  6. Coast Guard Aircraft: Transfer of Fixed-Wing C-27J Aircraft Is Complex and Further Fleet Purchases Should Coincide with Study Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    propellers to be serviced by the original manufacturer and these items are now properly stored. In October 2014, we observed the aircraft at L-3...COAST GUARD AIRCRAFT Transfer of Fixed- Wing C-27J Aircraft Is Complex and Further Fleet Purchases Should Coincide...00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Coast Guard Aircraft : Transfer of Fixed-Wing C-27J Aircraft Is Complex and Further Fleet Purchases

  7. Transfer of maternal IgE can be a common cause of increased IgE levels in cord blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønnelykke, Klaus; Pipper, Christian Bressen; Bisgaard, Hans

    2010-01-01

    IgE in cord blood is thought to be a product of the fetus. A high level of total IgE is therefore used as a measure of atopic propensity in the newborn. We recently found strong evidence that allergen-specific IgE in cord blood was the result of transfer of maternal IgE to fetal blood or cord blood...... (maternofetal transfer) rather than fetal production. This also suggests that total IgE in cord blood might primarily be a maternal product....

  8. Maternal transfer of emerging brominated and chlorinated flame retardants in European eels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sühring, Roxana, E-mail: roxana.suehring@hzg.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Centre for Materials and Coastal Research, Institute of Coastal Research, Department for Environmental Chemistry, Max-Planck-Strasse 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Leuphana University Lüneburg, Institute of Sustainable and Environmental Chemistry, Scharnhorststraße 1, 21335 Lüneburg (Germany); Freese, Marko [Thünen Institute of Fisheries Ecology, Palmaille 9, 22767 Hamburg (Germany); Schneider, Mandy [Leuphana University Lüneburg, Institute of Sustainable and Environmental Chemistry, Scharnhorststraße 1, 21335 Lüneburg (Germany); Schubert, Sophia; Pohlmann, Jan-Dag [Thünen Institute of Fisheries Ecology, Palmaille 9, 22767 Hamburg (Germany); Alaee, Mehran [Water Science and Technology Directorate, Environment Canada, Burlington, Ontario, L7R4A6 Canada (Canada); Wolschke, Hendrik [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Centre for Materials and Coastal Research, Institute of Coastal Research, Department for Environmental Chemistry, Max-Planck-Strasse 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Leuphana University Lüneburg, Institute of Sustainable and Environmental Chemistry, Scharnhorststraße 1, 21335 Lüneburg (Germany); Hanel, Reinhold [Thünen Institute of Fisheries Ecology, Palmaille 9, 22767 Hamburg (Germany); Ebinghaus, Ralf [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Centre for Materials and Coastal Research, Institute of Coastal Research, Department for Environmental Chemistry, Max-Planck-Strasse 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Marohn, Lasse [Thünen Institute of Fisheries Ecology, Palmaille 9, 22767 Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    The European eel (Anguilla anguilla) is regarded as a critically endangered species. Scientists are in agreement that the “quality of spawners” is a vital factor for the survival of the species. This quality can be impaired by parasites, disease and pollution. Especially endocrine disrupting organic chemicals pose a potential threat to reproduction and development of offspring. To our knowledge, the findings in this publication for the first time describe maternal transfer of contaminants in eels. We analysed the concentrations of in total 53 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and their halogenated substitutes in muscle, gonads and eggs of artificially matured European eels and in muscle and gonads of untreated European eels that were used for comparison. We found evidence that persistent organic pollutants such as PBDEs, as well as their brominated and chlorinated substitutes are redistributed from muscle tissue to gonads and eggs. Concentrations ranged from 0.001 ng g{sup −1} ww for sum Dechlorane metabolites (DPMA, aCL{sub 10}DP, aCl{sub 11}DP) to 2.1 ng g{sup −1} ww for TBA in eggs, 0.001 ng g{sup −1} ww for Dechlorane metabolites to 9.4 ng g{sup −1} ww for TBA in gonads and 0.002 ng g{sup −1} ww for Dechlorane metabolites to 54 ng g{sup −1} ww for TBA in muscle tissue. Average egg muscle ratios (EMRs) for compounds detectable in artificially matured eels from both Schlei Fjord and Ems River ranged from 0.01 for Dechlorane 602 (DDC-DBF) to 10.4 for PBEB. Strong correlations were found between flame retardant concentrations and lipid content in the analysed tissue types, as well as transfer rates and octanol–water partitioning coefficient, indicating that these parameters were the driving factors for the observed maternal transfer. Furthermore, indications were found, that TBP-DBPE, TBP-AE, BATE and TBA have a significant uptake from the surrounding water, rather than just food and might additionally be formed by metabolism or

  9. On the comparability of knowledge transfer activities - a case study at the German Baltic Sea Coast focusing regional climate services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinke, Insa

    2017-06-01

    In this article the comparability of knowledge transfer activities is discussed by accounting for external impacts. It is shown that factors which are neither part of the knowledge transfer activity nor part of the participating institution may have significant impact on the potential usefulness of knowledge transfer activities. Differences in the potential usefulness are leading to different initial conditions of the knowledge transfer activities. This needs to be taken into account when comparing different knowledge transfer activities, e.g., in program evaluations. This study is focusing on regional climate services at the German Baltic Sea coast. It is based on two surveys and experiences with two identical web tools applied on two regions with different spatial coverage. The results show that comparability among science based knowledge transfer activities is strongly limited through several external impacts. The potential usefulness and thus the initial condition of a particular knowledge transfer activity strongly depends on (1) the perceived priority of the focused topic, (2) the used information channels, (3) the conformity between the research agenda of service providing institutions and information demands in the public, as well as (4) on the spatial coverage of a service. It is suggested to account for the described external impacts for evaluations of knowledge transfer activities. The results show that the comparability of knowledge transfer activities is limited and challenge the adequacy of quantitative measures in this context. Moreover, as shown in this case study, in particular regional climate services should be individually evaluated on a long term perspective, by potential user groups and/or by its real users. It is further suggested that evaluation criteria should be co-developed with these stakeholder groups.

  10. Completeness and accuracy of data transfer of routine maternal health services data in the greater Accra region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amoakoh-Coleman, Mary; Kayode, Gbenga A.; Brown-Davies, Charles; Agyepong, Irene Akua; Grobbee, DE; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Ansah, Evelyn K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: High quality routine health system data is essential for tracking progress towards attainment of the Millennium Development Goals 4 & 5. This study aimed to determine the completeness and accuracy of transfer of routine maternal health service data at health facility, district and region

  11. The effects of cash transfers and vouchers on the use and quality of maternity care services: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Benjamin M.; Harrison, Sean; Portela, Anayda; Bick, Debra

    2017-01-01

    Background Cash transfers and vouchers are forms of ‘demand-side financing’ that have been widely used to promote maternal and newborn health in low- and middle-income countries during the last 15 years. Methods This systematic review consolidates evidence from seven published systematic reviews on the effects of different types of cash transfers and vouchers on the use and quality of maternity care services, and updates the systematic searches to June 2015 using the Joanna Briggs Institute approach for systematic reviewing. The review protocol for this update was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42015020637). Results Data from 51 studies (15 more than previous reviews) and 22 cash transfer and voucher programmes suggest that approaches tied to service use (either via payment conditionalities or vouchers for selected services) can increase use of antenatal care, use of a skilled attendant at birth and in the case of vouchers, postnatal care too. The strongest evidence of positive effect was for conditional cash transfers and uptake of antenatal care, and for vouchers for maternity care services and birth with a skilled birth attendant. However, effects appear to be shaped by a complex set of social and healthcare system barriers and facilitators. Studies have typically focused on an initial programme period, usually two or three years after initiation, and many lack a counterfactual comparison with supply-side investment. There are few studies to indicate that programmes have led to improvements in quality of maternity care or maternal and newborn health outcomes. Conclusion Future research should use multiple intervention arms to compare cost-effectiveness with similar investment in public services, and should look beyond short- to medium-term service utilisation by examining programme costs, longer-term effects on service utilisation and health outcomes, and the equity of those effects. PMID:28328940

  12. Maternal transfer of organochlorines and brominated flame retardants in blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Steen, Evi; Jaspers, Veerle L B; Covaci, Adrian; Neels, Hugo; Eens, Marcel; Pinxten, Rianne

    2009-01-01

    Although eggs have frequently been used as a biomonitoring tool for contamination with organohalogenated pollutants (OHPs), few studies have investigated the processes of maternal transfer in birds. Here, maternal transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) was investigated through comparison of the concentrations and profiles between whole homogenised female blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) and their eggs. In addition, we examined if there was an effect of laying order on the concentrations of PCBs, OCPs and PBDEs. PCBs were the most abundant contaminants in female blue tits and their eggs, followed by OCPs and PBDEs. Among the OCPs, p,p'-DDE was the most dominant compound and accounted for more than 80% of the sum OCPs. Egg concentrations decreased significantly in relation to the laying order from 1623+/-148 ng/g lipid weight (lw) to 1040+/-47 ng/g lw for the sum PCBs, from 342+/-24 ng/g lw to 235+/-17 ng/g lw for the sum OCPs and from 49+/-5 ng/g lw to 27+/-5 ng/g lw for the sum PBDEs. When reviewing all studies investigating laying order effects of OHPs in birds, no clear patterns emerged, which may be due to differences in study species and methodology among studies. Despite the fact that there were laying order effects in blue tit clutches, the variance in concentrations of PCBs and PBDEs was larger among clutches than within clutches. Variance in OCP concentrations among clutches was similar to the variance within clutches. These results suggest that one randomly collected blue tit egg from a clutch is useful as biomonitoring tool for PCBs and PBDEs, while for OCPs it is recommended to consistently use the same egg from the laying sequence as a biomonitoring tool. Lipid-normalized concentrations of sum PCBs, sum OCPs and sum PBDEs in female blue tits after clutch completion were comparable to the concentrations in the first-laid eggs. The egg/female lipid concentration ratios for

  13. Maternal transfer of trace elements in leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) of French Guiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guirlet, Elodie [Laboratoire d' Ecologie, Systematique et Evolution, Batiment 362, Universite Paris Sud, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France)], E-mail: elodie.guirlet@u-psud.fr; Das, Krishna [Centre de recherche MARE, Laboratoire d' Oceanologie, Universite de Liege, B6, B-4000 Liege (Belgium)], E-mail: krishna.das@ulg.ac.be; Girondot, Marc [Laboratoire d' Ecologie, Systematique et Evolution, Batiment 362, Universite Paris Sud, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Departement Evolution et Systematique, Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle de Paris, 25 rue Cuvier, 75005 Paris (France)], E-mail: marc.girondot@u-psud.fr

    2008-07-30

    In sea turtles, parental investment is limited to the nutrients and energy invested in eggs that will support embryonic development. Leatherback females have the largest clutches with the biggest eggs of the sea turtles and the highest reproductive output in reptiles. The migration between foraging sites and nesting beaches also represents high energy expenditure. The toxicokinetic of pollutants in the tissues is thus expected to vary during those periods but there is a lack of information in reptiles. Concentrations of essential (Copper, Zinc, Selenium) and non-essentials elements (Cadmium, Lead, Mercury) were determined in blood (n = 78) and eggs (n = 76) of 46 free-ranging leatherback females collected in French Guiana. Maternal transfer to eggs and relationships between blood and eggs concentrations during the nesting season were investigated. All trace elements were detectable in both tissues. Levels of toxic metals were lower than essential elements likely due to the high pelagic nature of leatherbacks that seems to limit exposure to toxic elements. Significant relationships between blood and egg concentrations were observed for Se and Cd. Se could have an important role in embryonic development of leatherback turtles and Cd transfer could be linked to similar carrier proteins as Se. Finally, as multiple clutches were sampled from each female, trends in trace elements were investigated along the nesting season. No change was observed in eggs but changes were recorded in blood concentrations of Cu. Cu level decreased while blood Pb levels increased through the nesting season. The high demand on the body during the breeding season seems to affect blood Cu concentrations. Calcium requirement for egg production with concomitant Pb mobilization could explain the increase in blood Pb concentrations along the nesting season.

  14. Maternally transferred dioxin-like compounds can affect the reproductive success of European eel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foekema, Edwin M; Kotterman, Michiel; de Vries, Pepijn; Murk, Albertinka J

    2016-01-01

    Reported concentrations of dioxin-like compounds accumulated in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) were used to perform a risk assessment for eel larval survival, taking into account a modeled amplification of tissue concentrations with a factor of 1.33 during spawning migration. The calculated concentrations of dioxin-like compounds finally deposited in the eggs were compared with the internal effect concentrations for survival of early life stages of the European eel; these concentrations, by lack of experimental data, were estimated from a sensitivity distribution based on literature data by assuming that eel larvae are among the 10% most sensitive teleost fish species. Given concentrations of dioxin-like contaminants and assuming a relatively high sensitivity, it can be expected that larvae from eggs produced by eel from highly contaminated locations in Europe will experience increased mortality as a result of maternally transferred dioxin-like contaminants. As historical persistent organic pollutant concentrations in eel tissue were higher, this impact must have been stronger in the past. Potential effects of other compounds or effects on the migration, condition, and fertility of the parental animals were not taken into account. It is important to further study the overall impact of contaminants on the reproductive success of the European eel as this may have been underestimated until now.

  15. Cash transfers, maternal depression and emotional well-being: Quasi-experimental evidence from India's Janani Suraksha Yojana programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell-Jackson, Timothy; Pereira, Shreya K; Dutt, Varun; Tougher, Sarah; Haldar, Kaveri; Kumar, Paresh

    2016-08-01

    Maternal depression is an important public health concern. We investigated whether a national-scale initiative that provides cash transfers to women giving birth in government health facilities, the Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY), reduced maternal depression in India's largest state, Uttar Pradesh. Using primary data on 1695 women collected in early 2015, our quasi-experimental design exploited the fact that some women did not receive the JSY cash due to administrative problems in its disbursement - reasons that are unlikely to be correlated with determinants of maternal depression. We found that receipt of the cash was associated with an 8.5% reduction in the continuous measure of maternal depression and a 36% reduction in moderate depression. There was no evidence of an association with measures of emotional well-being, namely happiness and worry. The results suggest that the JSY had a clinically meaningful effect in reducing the burden of maternal depression, possibly by lessening the financial strain of delivery care. They contribute to the evidence that financial incentive schemes may have public health benefits beyond improving uptake of targeted health services.

  16. Correlation between human maternal-fetal placental transfer and molecular weight of PCB and dioxin congeners/isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Chisato; Nakamura, Noriko; Todaka, Emiko; Fujisaki, Takeyoshi; Matsuno, Yoshiharu; Nakaoka, Hiroko; Hanazato, Masamichi

    2014-11-01

    Establishing methods for the assessment of fetal exposure to chemicals is important for the prevention or prediction of the child's future disease risk. In the present study, we aimed to determine the influence of molecular weight on the likelihood of chemical transfer from mother to fetus via the placenta. The correlation between molecular weight and placental transfer rates of congeners/isomers of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins was examined. Twenty-nine sample sets of maternal blood, umbilical cord, and umbilical cord blood were used to measure PCB concentration, and 41 sample sets were used to analyze dioxins. Placental transfer rates were calculated using the concentrations of PCBs, dioxins, and their congeners/isomers within these sample sets. Transfer rate correlated negatively with molecular weight for PCB congeners, normalized using wet and lipid weights. The transfer rates of PCB or dioxin congeners differed from those of total PCBs or dioxins. The transfer rate for dioxin congeners did not always correlate significantly with molecular weight, perhaps because of the small sample size or other factors. Further improvement of the analytical methods for dioxin congeners is required. The findings of the present study suggested that PCBs, dioxins, or their congeners with lower molecular weights are more likely to be transferred from mother to fetus via the placenta. Consideration of chemical molecular weight and transfer rate could therefore contribute to the assessment of fetal exposure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Ocean wave-radar modulation transfer functions from the West Coast experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J. W.; Plant, W. J.; Keller, W. C.; Jones, W. L.

    1980-01-01

    Short gravity-capillary waves, the equilibrium, or the steady state excitations of the ocean surface are modulated by longer ocean waves. These short waves are the predominant microwave scatterers on the ocean surface under many viewing conditions so that the modulation is readily measured with CW Doppler radar used as a two-scale wave probe. Modulation transfer functions (the ratio of the cross spectrum of the line-of-sight orbital speed and backscattered microwave power to the autospectrum of the line-of-sight orbital speed) were measured at 9.375 and 1.5 GHz (Bragg wavelengths of 2.3 and 13 cm) for winds up to 10 m/s and ocean wave periods from 2-18 s. The measurements were compared with the relaxation-time model; the principal result is that a source of modulation other than straining by the horizontal component of orbital speed, possibly the wave-induced airflow, is responsible for most of the modulation by waves of typical ocean wave period (10 s). The modulations are large; for unit coherence, spectra of radar images of deep-water waves should be proportional to the quotient of the slope spectra of the ocean waves by the ocean wave frequency.

  18. Freshwater wrack along Great Lakes coasts harbors Escherichia coli: Potential for bacterial transfer between watershed environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevers, Meredith; Przybyla-Kelly, Kasia; Spoljaric, Ashley; Shively, Dawn A.; Whitman, Richard L.; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the occurrence, persistence, and growth potential of Escherichia coli associated with freshwater organic debris (i.e., wrack) frequently deposited along shorelines (shoreline wrack), inputs from rivers (river CPOM), and parking lot runoffs (urban litter). Samples were collected from 9 Great Lakes beaches, 3 creeks, and 4 beach parking lots. Shoreline wrack samples were mainly composed of wood chips, straw, sticks, leaf litter, seeds, feathers, and mussel shells; creek and parking lot samples included dry grass, straw, seeds, wood chips, leaf/pine needle litter; soil particles were present in parking lot samples only. E. coli concentrations (most probable number, MPN) were highly variable in all sample types: shoreline wrack frequently reached 105/g dry weight (dw), river CPOM ranged from 81 to 7,916/g dw, and urban litter ranged from 0.5 to 24,952/g dw. Sequential rinsing studies showed that 61–87% of E. coli concentrations were detected in the first wash of shoreline wrack, with declining concentrations associated with 4–8 subsequent washings; viable counts were still detected even after 8 washes. E. coli grew readily in shoreline wrack and river CPOM incubated at 35 °C. At 30°C, growth was only detected in river CPOM and not in shoreline wrack or urban litter, but the bacteria persisted for at least 16 days. In summary, freshwater wrack is an understudied component of the beach ecosystem that harbors E. coli and thus likely influences estimations of water quality and the microbial community in the nearshore as a result of transfer between environments.

  19. Transplacental Transfer of Hepatitis B Neutralizing Antibody during Pregnancy in an Animal Model: Implications for Newborn and Maternal Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the success of postexposure prophylaxis (PEP of the newborn in preventing mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B virus, in non-US clinical trials, administering hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG to mothers at the end of pregnancy (in addition to passive-active PEP of the newborn only partially improved outcomes. That is, a significant percentage of newborns became infected during their first year of life. We used a relevant animal model for human IgG transplacental transfer to study dose, time and subclass dependence of HBV neutralizing antibody (nAb maternal, and fetal levels at the end of pregnancy. Pregnant guinea pigs received 50 or 100 IU/kg HBIGIV 2–5 days before delivery. Human total IgG, IgG subclasses, and nAb in mothers and their litters were measured. In vitro analyses of guinea pig Fc neonatal receptor binding to HBIGIV, as well as to all human IgG subclasses, were also performed. Our study showed that nAb transferred transplacentally from the pregnant guinea pigs to their litters; no transfer occurred during parturition. The amount of the transferred nAb was dose and time dependent. Thus, selection of an efficacious dose in the clinic is important: microdosing may be underdosing, particularly in cases of high viraemia.

  20. Embryo transfer day does not affect the initial maternal serum β-hCG levels: A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahiya, Mona; Rupani, Karishma; Yu, Su Ling; Fook-Chong, Stephanie M C; Siew Fui, Diana Chia; Rajesh, Hemashree

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the serum β-hCG values post transfer of a cleavage stage embryo versus a blastocyst stage embryo at equal time intervals post oocyte retrieval (OR) in clinically pregnant patients, and to ascertain a β-hCG value to predict pregnancy outcomes. This is a retrospective cohort study of 560 women with clinical pregnancy who underwent an embryo transfer performed at either the cleavage stage or the blastocyst stage of embryo development between January 2003 and June 2014 at the Center for Assisted Reproduction (CARE), Singapore General Hospital. The serum β-hCG level was measured on day 17 post OR. The β-hCG values were not significantly different in the cleavage stage versus the blastocyst stage embryos (mean±SD: 387±486IU/L D3 vs. 352±268IU/L D5, p=0.96, median value 297 in both groups). Our study suggests that the initial maternal serum β-hCG values were not affected by the day of transfer of the embryos since assessing the β-hCG at equivalent points after transfer should not lead to a significant difference assuming the progress and development of the embryos occurred as expected. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Passive transfer of maternal immunity in the dromedary (Camelus dromedarius), involvement of heavy chain antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salhi, Imed; Bessalah, Salma; Mbarek, Sonia Ben; Chniter, Mohamed; Seddik, Mabrouk-Mouldi; Khorchani, Touhami; Hammadi, Mohamed

    2015-03-01

    In many mammalian species, newborns are agammaglobulinemic; thus, colostrum and milk are the main sources of early protective antibodies. These antibodies are produced in the mother's serum and transferred to mammalian glands a few days before parturition. Here, we have studied the transfer of immunity from a she-camel immunized with human serum albumin (HSA) to her calf via colostrum and milk. Our results show that HSA-specific antibodies are produced in the mother's serum and are subsequently transferred to her colostrum. These specific antibodies are then transferred by suckling to the calf. The calf serum did not contain HSA-reactive antibodies at parturition and before the first feed, after suckling, a rise in reactivity was observed peaking at 24 h postpartum. The involvement of heavy chain antibodies (HCAbs) in the process of immunity transfer was also examined, and it was found that they were also transferred from the colostrum to the calf serum like conventional antibodies.

  2. Do downward private transfers enhance maternal labor supply? Evidence from around Europe

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Drawing on a theoretical model of downward private transfers with endogenous labor supply and recursive econometric models based on 2317 mother-daughter pairs from the 2003 SHARE data on 10 European countries, we investigate the impact of private transfers on the career choices of transfer-receiving young mothers. For Europe as a whole, we find a strong positive impact of grandchild care on the labor force participation decision of the mother, but no clear impact of either grandchild care or ...

  3. Neonatal and maternal body burdens of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in mice: gestational exposure and lactational transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtney, K.D.; Andrews, J.E.

    1985-04-01

    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB), a ubiquitous lipophilic pollutant, was readily transferred in the milk of lactating dams to their suckling neonates. Pregnant CD-1 mice were treated during gestation, and the body burdens of HCB in the neonates and the dams were determined during lactation. Also, neonates from dams treated with HCB during gestation were cross-fostered at birth to dams treated with corn oil during gestation. The body burdens of HCB were greater in the neonates exposed to HCB by lactational transfer than the neonates exposed only by gestational transfer. In many tissues, the concentration of HCB in the pups from full litter was similar to that in pups from litters reduced to two pups per litter. Lactational transfer of HCB from the dams to the pups was a major route of excretion in that 95% of HCB was depleted during 20 days of lactation. HCB depletion was similar in dams with whole litters, and those with litters reduced to two pups.

  4. Mitochondrial replacement techniques and Mexico's rule of law: on the legality of the first maternal spindle transfer case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Arellano, María de Jesús

    2017-01-01

    Abstract News about the first baby born after a mitochondrial replacement technique (MRT; specifically maternal spindle transfer) broke on September 27, 2016 and, in a matter of hours, went global. Of special interest was the fact that the mitochondrial replacement procedure happened in Mexico. One of the scientists behind this world first was quoted as having said that he and his team went to Mexico to carry out the procedure because, in Mexico, there are no rules. In this paper, we explore Mexico's rule of law in relation to mitochondrial replacement techniques and show that, in fact, certain instances of MRTs are prohibited at the federal level and others are prohibited at the state level. According to our interpretation of the law, the scientists behind this first successful MRT procedure broke federal regulations regarding assisted fertilization research. PMID:28852557

  5. The man who could not cry and the psychoanalyst who could: mutual healing in the maternal transference/countertransference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafka, Helene

    2008-06-01

    This is a clinical/theoretical study of mutual healing in the maternal transference/countertransference. Therapist and patient began their work when each was in extreme mourning. I detail sensory, affective transactions between them that proved transformative. I deem these basic to the healing that was unusually rapid. It broke through the patient's dissociation, and the therapist's sorrow. I note that the treatment modalities were similar to those essential to mother/infant bonding. I connect the treatment's transformative effects with those discovered through infant research and studies with the functioning magnetic resonance imagery test (fMRI). All three of these modes of interpersonal study-psychotherapy, infant, and fMRI research-exhibit mind/body imprinting of the mother/infant deeply connected experience.

  6. India's JSY cash transfer program for maternal health: Who participates and who doesn't - a report from Ujjain district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Kristi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background India launched a national conditional cash transfer program, Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY, aimed at reducing maternal mortality by promoting institutional delivery in 2005. It provides a cash incentive to women who give birth in public health facilities. This paper studies the extent of program uptake, reasons for participation/non participation, factors associated with non uptake of the program, and the role played by a program volunteer, accredited social health activist (ASHA, among mothers in Ujjain district in Madhya Pradesh, India. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from January to May 2011 among women giving birth in 30 villages in Ujjain district. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to 418 women who delivered in 2009. Socio-demographic and pregnancy related characteristics, role of the ASHA during delivery, receipt of the incentive, and reasons for place of delivery were collected. Multinomial regression analysis was used to identify predictors for the outcome variables; program delivery, private facility delivery, or a home delivery. Results The majority of deliveries (318/418; 76% took place within the JSY program; 81% of all mothers below poverty line delivered in the program. Ninety percent of the women had prior knowledge of the program. Most program mothers reported receiving the cash incentive within two weeks of delivery. The ASHA's influence on the mother's decision on where to deliver appeared limited. Women who were uneducated, multiparious or lacked prior knowledge of the JSY program were significantly more likely to deliver at home. Conclusion In this study, a large proportion of women delivered under the program. Most mothers reporting timely receipt of the cash transfer. Nevertheless, there is still a subset of mothers delivering at home, who do not or cannot access emergency obstetric care under the program and remain at risk of maternal death.

  7. How equitable is the uptake of conditional cash transfers for maternity care in India? Evidence from the Janani Suraksha Yojana scheme in Odisha and Jharkhand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thongkong, N. (Nattawut); E. Van de Poel (Ellen); S.S. Roy (Swati Sarbani); S. Rath (Santosh); A.J. Houweling (Tanja)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: In 2005, the Indian Government introduced the Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) scheme - a conditional cash transfer program that incentivizes women to deliver in a health facility - in order to reduce maternal and neonatal mortality. Our study aimed to measure and explain

  8. Ivory Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-01

    Since the Ivory Coast's independence (1960), the population has increased from 3.7 million to 9.7 million, representing a growth rate of up to 4.2%. The country's 5th 5-Year Plan (1981-85) has 4 priorities: 1) agricultural modernization, 2) traditional industry and crafts modernization, 3) human resources enhancement, and 4) continued economic growth. Population objectives include 1) increasing peasant aid, 2) making education more development oriented, 3) making health care more accessible, and 4) finding solutions to employment and unemployment problems. The government wants to increase population size because it needs labor for economic development. Programs 1) develop areas with high out-migration, 2) reduce maternal and child mortality, and 3) support family planning only to benefit family well being. Although the Ivory Coast's population will reach 15 million by the year 2000, and population density has tripled since 1950, the country is still thinly populated. The current population policy strives to 1) reduce infant mortality, 2) maintain fertility, and 3) diminish immigration and emigration. Life expectancy is 47 years, infant mortality is 122/1000, and most rural people have no health services. The government considers the total fertility rate of 6.7 satisfactory. Abortion for contraceptive purposes and sterilization are illegal; access to contraception is limited. The Ivory Coast, because of rapid economic growth, attracts immigrants from neighboring countries; at present 1/3 of the population is foreign-born. The government is trying to integrate natives more fully into the labor force. There is little emigration, but internal migration involves almost half of the population. The government attempts to 1) slow down and redirect rural to urban migration to small and medium sized towns and 2) slow rural to rural migration from the savannah to the forest zone.

  9. Birth setting, transfer and maternal sense of control: results from the DELIVER study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerts, C.C.; Klomp, T.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Dillen, J. van; Jonge, A. de

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the Netherlands, low risk women receive midwife-led care and can choose to give birth at home or in hospital. There is concern that transfer of care during labour from midwife-led care to an obstetrician-led unit leads to negative birth experiences, in particular among those with

  10. Birth setting, transfer and maternal sense of control: results from the DELIVER study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerts, C.C.; Klomp, T.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Dillen, J. van; Jonge, A. de

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the Netherlands, low risk women receive midwife-led care and can choose to give birth at home or in hospital. There is concern that transfer of care during labour from midwife-led care to an obstetrician-led unit leads to negative birth experiences, in particular among those with plan

  11. Immune response in mice to ingested soya protein: antibody production, oral tolerance and maternal transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hanne Risager; Pedersen, Susanne Brix; Frøkiær, Hanne

    2004-01-01

    While allergic reactions to soya are increasingly investigated, the normal immune response to ingested soya is scarcely described. In the present study, we wanted to characterise the soya-specific immune response in healthy mice ingesting soya protein. Mice fed a soya-containing diet (F0) and mice...... of the first (F1) and second (F2) offspring generation bred on a soya protein-free diet were used either directly or were transferred between the soya-containing and soya protein-free diet during pregnancy or neonatal life. The mice were compared as to levels of naturally occurring specific antibodies analysed...... by ELISA, and to the presence of oral tolerance detected as a suppressed antibody and cell-proliferation response upon immunisation with soya protein. F0 mice generated soya-specific antibodies, while oral tolerance to the same soya proteins was also clearly induced. When F0 dams were transferred to soya...

  12. High levels of maternally transferred mercury disrupt magnetic responses of snapping turtle hatchlings (Chelydra serpentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landler, Lukas; Painter, Michael S; Coe, Brittney Hopkins; Youmans, Paul W; Hopkins, William A; Phillips, John B

    2017-09-01

    The Earth's magnetic field is involved in spatial behaviours ranging from long-distance migration to non-goal directed behaviours, such as spontaneous magnetic alignment (SMA). Mercury is a harmful pollutant most often generated from anthropogenic sources that can bio-accumulate in animal tissue over a lifetime. We compared SMA of hatchling snapping turtles from mothers captured at reference (i.e., low mercury) and mercury contaminated sites. Reference turtles showed radio frequency-dependent SMA along the north-south axis, consistent with previous studies of SMA, while turtles with high levels of maternally inherited mercury failed to show consistent magnetic alignment. In contrast, there was no difference between reference and mercury exposed turtles on standard performance measures. The magnetic field plays an important role in animal orientation behaviour and may also help to integrate spatial information from a variety of sensory modalities. As a consequence, mercury may compromise the performance of turtles in a wide variety of spatial tasks. Future research is needed to determine the threshold for mercury effects on snapping turtles, whether mercury exposure compromises spatial behaviour of adult turtles, and whether mercury has a direct effect on the magnetoreception mechanism(s) that mediate SMA or a more general effect on the nervous system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Tissue distribution and maternal transfer of persistent organic pollutants in Kentish Plovers (Charadrius alexandrines) from Cangzhou Wetland, Bohai Bay, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shucheng; Wang, Pu; Sun, Huizhong; Matsiko, Julius; Hao, Yanfen; Meng, Derong; Li, Yingming; Zhang, Guogang; Zhang, Qinghua; Jiang, Guibin

    2017-09-07

    Several persistent organic pollutants, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), were comprehensively investigated in the egg, muscle and liver samples of Kentish Plover (Charadrius alexandrines) collected from Cangzhou Wetland in western Bohai Bay, China. DDTs were the most abundant contaminants (35.4-9853ngg(-1) lipid weight, lw), followed by HCHs, PCBs, PBDEs and HCB. PCDD/Fs exhibited the lowest concentrations in all tissues (8.74-4763pgg(-1) lw). PCBs and PCDD/Fs were dominated by penta- and hexa-homologs, and PBDEs mostly consisted of the signature congeners of BDE formulations, such as BDE-209, -47, -153 and -99. Significant correlations were found between the lipid-normalized concentrations in muscle and liver (r: 0.37-0.90, p<0.05) and no significant differences (p<0.05), indicating the homogenous distribution of POPs in tissue lipids at steady state. The ratios of concentrations in muscle and liver (M/L) ranged from 0.20 to 1.51, and higher ratios of M/L were found for those compounds with log Kow in the range of 6.5-7.0, suggesting the preferential accumulation of mid-halogenated compounds in muscle. Significant correlations were generally observed between the concentrations in egg and the maternal tissue (p<0.05). The concentration ratios of egg to liver (E/L) were in the range of 0.10-1.24 except for p,p'-DDT (12.7), and compounds with log Kow of 6.5-7.0 exhibited higher E/L ratios, suggesting the selective maternal transfer of mid-halogenated compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Human lactation: oxidation and maternal transfer of dietary (13)C-labelled α-linolenic acid into human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demmelmair, Hans; Kuhn, Angelika; Dokoupil, Katharina; Hegele, Verena; Sauerwald, Thorsten; Koletzko, Berthold

    2016-06-01

    The origin of fatty acids in milk has not been elucidated in detail. We investigated the contribution of dietary α-linolenic acid (ALA) to human milk fat, its oxidation and endogenous conversion to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Ten lactating women were given (13)C-ALA orally, and breath and milk samples were collected for a five-day period, while dietary intakes were assessed. 37.5 ± 2.7 % (M ± SE) of the tracer was recovered in breath-CO2, and 7.3 ± 1.1 % was directly transferred into milk. About 0.25 % of the tracer was found in milk long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Combining intake and milk data, we estimate that about 65 % of milk ALA is directly derived from maternal diet. Thus, the major portion of milk ALA is directly derived from the diet, but dietary ALA does not seem to contribute much as a precursor to milk n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids within the studied time period.

  15. Embryo transfers between C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice: Examination of a maternal effect on ethanol teratogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliam, David

    2014-01-01

    Genetic factors influence fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) in both humans and animals. Experiments using inbred and selectively bred mouse stocks that controlled for (1) ethanol dose, (2) maternal and fetal blood ethanol levels, and (3) fetal developmental exposure stage, show genotype can affect teratogenic outcome. Other experiments distinguish the teratogenic effects mediated by maternal genotype from those mediated by fetal genotype. One technique to distinguish maternal versus fetal genotype effect is to utilize embryo transfers. This study is the first to examine ethanol teratogenesis - fetal weight deficits and mortality, and digit, kidney, and vertebral malformations - in C57BL/6J (B6) and DBA/2J (D2) fetuses that were transferred as blastocysts into B6 and D2 dams. We hypothesized that, following maternal alcohol exposure, B6 and D2 fetuses gestating within B6 mothers, as compared to D2 mothers, will exhibit a higher frequency of malformations. On day 9 of pregnancy, females were intubated (IG) with either 5.8 g/kg ethanol (E) or maltose-dextrin (MD). Other females were mated within strain and treated with either ethanol or maltose, or were not exposed to either treatment. Implantation rates were affected by genotype. Results show more B6 embryos implanted into D2 females than B6 females (p teratogenesis for B6 fetuses. One of the questions remaining is the how the B6 uterine environment affects D2 teratogenesis. No definitive conclusions can be drawn because too few viable D2 litters were produced.

  16. Effects of supplemental β-carotene with whey on IgA transfer from maternal milk and mucosal IgA induction in neonatal mice and calves

    OpenAIRE

    Nishiyama, Y.; Yasumatsuya, K.; Kasai, K; Sakase, M.; Nishino, O.; Akaike, M; Nagase, T; Sugimoto, M; Ikeda, S.; Kume, S.

    2011-01-01

    Data from 17 pregnant mice and 33 Japanese Black calves were collected to clarify the effect of supplemental β-carotene with whey on IgA transfer from maternal milk and mucosal IgA induction in neonatal mice and calves. Dietary treatments in milk replacers were 1) 26% CP as in skim milk (control), 2) 26% CP as whey and 3) 26% CP as whey and 30 mg/kg β-carotene. Diets were offered from 6.5 days postcoitus to 14 days postpartum in pregnant mice and from 3 to 63 days postpartum in calves. Supple...

  17. Embryo transfers between C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice: Examination of a maternal effect on ethanol teratogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eGilliam

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetic factors influence Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD in both humans and animals. Experiments using inbred and selectively bred mouse stocks that controlled for 1 ethanol dose, 2 maternal and fetal blood ethanol levels, and 3 fetal developmental exposure stage, show genotype can affect teratogenic outcome. Other experiments distinguish the teratogenic effects mediated by maternal genotype from those mediated by fetal genotype. One technique to distinguish maternal versus fetal genotype effect is to utilize embryo transfers. This study is the first to examine ethanol teratogenesis - fetal weight deficits and mortality, and digit, kidney, and vertebral malformations - in C57BL/6J (B6 and DBA/2J (D2 fetuses that were transferred as blastocysts into B6 and D2 dams. We hypothesized that, following maternal alcohol exposure, B6 and D2 fetuses gestating within B6 mothers, as compared to D2 mothers, will exhibit a higher frequency of malformations. On day 9 of pregnancy, females were intubated (IG with either 5.8 g/kg ethanol (E or maltose dextrin (MD. Other females were mated within strain and treated with either ethanol or maltose, or were not exposed to either treatment. Implantation rates were affected by genotype. Results show more B6 embryos implanted into D2 females than B6 females (p<.05; 47% vs 23%, respectively. There was no difference in the percentage of D2 embryos implanting into B6 and D2 females (14% and 16%, respectfully. Litter mortality averaged 24% across all experimental groups. Overall, in utero ethanol exposure reduced mean litter weight compared to maltose treatment (E=1.01 g; MD=1.19 g; p<.05; but maltose exposed litters with transferred embryos weighed more than similarly treated natural litters (1.30 g vs 1.11 g; p<.05. Approximately 50% of all ethanol exposed B6 fetuses exhibited some malformation (digit, vertebral, and/or kidney regardless of whether they were transferred into a B6 or D2 female, or were naturally

  18. Maternal Effects of Japanese Shorthorn Cows on the Growth of Embryo-transferred Japanese Black Calves in a Cow-calf Grazing System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Manabu; Ikeda, Kentaro; Takenouchi, Naoki; Higashiyama, Masakazu; Watanabe, Akira

    2013-07-01

    The growth performance of embryo-transferred Japanese Black calves that were born from, and suckled by, Japanese Shorthorn cows in a cow-calf grazing system (BS-group, n = 5) was compared to that of Japanese Black calves from Japanese Black cows in a cowshed (BB-group, n = 5). The daily weight gain from birth to 1 month was higher in the BS-group than in the BB-group (p0.05) was observed between the groups. These results suggest that the maternal effect of Japanese Shorthorn cows was positive for embryo-transferred Japanese Black calf growth during the early suckling stage. As Japanese Black calves are traded at a high price on the Japanese market, we conclude that this proposed production system is likely to improve the profitability of herd management in upland Japan.

  19. Time trends and transplacental transfer of perfluorinated compounds in melon-headed whales stranded along the Japanese coast in 1982, 2001/2002, and 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Kimberly; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Isobe, Tomohiko; Takahashi, Shin; Yamada, Tadasu K; Miyazaki, Nobuyuki; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2008-10-01

    As a result of the phase-out of production of perfluorooctanesulfonyl-based compounds by a major producer, concentrations of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) in marine mammals from North American and European coastal waters have been declining since the early 2000s. Nevertheless, temporal trends in perfluorochemical (PFC) concentrations in marine mammals from Asian coastal waters have not been examined. In this study, PFCs were determined in livers of melon-headed whales (Peponocephala electra) collected along the coast of Japan, from three mass strandings that occurred during the past 25 years. Concentrations of nine PFCs were determined in livers of 48 melon-headed whales that were collected during strandings in 1982, 2001/2002, and 2006. In addition, concentrations in liver tissues obtained from two pregnant females and their fetuses were compared for determination of transplacental transfer rates of PFCs during gestation. PFOS and perfluorooctanesulfonamide (PFOSA) were the predominant PFCs found in livers of melon-headed whales collected in 1982 (n = 22). PFOS, PFOSA, perfluoroundecanoate (PFUnDA), perfluorododecanoate (PFDoDA), perfluorodecanoate (PFDA), and perfluorononanoate (PFNA) were found in whales collected in 2001/2002 (n = 21) and in 2006 (n = 5). Concentrations of PFOS and PFOSA were approximately 10-fold higher in 2001/2002 than in 1982. Whereas concentrations of PFOSA then declined by 2-fold from 2001/ 2002 to 2006, concentrations of PFOS and perfluorocarboxylates did not decline after 2001/2002. Conversely, concentrations of PFNA and PFDA increased significantly from 2001/2002 to 2006. The proportion of perfluoroalkylsulfonates in total PFC concentrations decreased from 75% in 1982 to 51% in 2006. Conversely, the contribution of perfluorocarboxylates to total PFC concentrations increased from 25% in 1982 to 49% in 2006. PFUnDA was the major perfluorocarboxylate found in whale livers collected after 2000. Analysis of paired samples of mother

  20. Absorbing and transferring risk: assessing the impact of a statewide high-risk-pregnancy telemedical program on VLBW maternal transports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norton Jonathan D

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prior research has shown that resources have an impact on birth outcomes. In this paper we ask how combinations of telemedical and hospital-level resources impact transports of mothers expecting very low birth weight (VLBW babies in Arkansas. Methods Using de-identified birth certificate data from the Arkansas Department of Health, data were gathered on transports of women carrying VLBW babies for two six-month periods: a period just before the start of ANGELS (12/02-05/03, a telemedical outreach program for high-risk pregnancies, and a period after the program had been running for six months (12/03-05/04. For each maternal transport, the following information was recorded: maternal race-ethnicity, maternal age, and the birth weight of the infant. Logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between the predictors (telemedicine, hospital level, maternal characteristics and the probability of a transport. Results Having a telemedical site available increases the probability of a mother carrying a VLBW baby being transported to a level III facility either before or during birth. Having at least a level II nursery also increases the chance of a maternal transport. Where both level II nurseries and telemedical access are available, the odds of VLBW maternal transports are only modestly increased in comparison to the case where neither is present. At the individual level, Hispanic mothers were less likely to be transported than other mothers, and teenaged mothers were more likely to be transported than those 18 and over. A mother's being Black or being over 35 did not have an impact on the odds of being transported to a level III facility. Conclusion Combinations of resources have an impact on physician decisions regarding VLBW transports and are interpretable in terms of the capacity to diagnose and absorb risk. We suggest a collegial review of transport patterns and birth outcomes from areas with different levels of

  1. An assessment of the impact of the JSY cash transfer program on maternal mortality reduction in Madhya Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Ng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Indian Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY program is a demand-side program in which the state pays women a cash incentive to deliver in an institution, with the aim of reducing maternal mortality. The JSY has had 54 million beneficiaries since inception 7 years ago. Although a number of studies have demonstrated the effect of JSY on coverage, few have examined the direct impact of the program on maternal mortality. Objective: To study the impact of JSY on maternal mortality in Madhya Pradesh (MP, one of India's largest provinces. Design: By synthesizing data from various sources, district-level maternal mortality ratios (MMR from 2005 to 2010 were estimated using a Bayesian spatio-temporal model. Based on these, a mixed effects multilevel regression model was applied to assess the impact of JSY. Specifically, the association between JSY intensity, as reflected by 1 proportion of JSY-supported institutional deliveries, 2 total annual JSY expenditure, and 3 MMR, was examined. Results: The proportion of all institutional deliveries increased from 23.9% in 2005 to 55.9% in 2010 province-wide. The proportion of JSY-supported institutional deliveries rose from 14% (2005 to 80% (2010. MMR declines in the districts varied from 2 to 35% over this period. Despite the marked increase in JSY-supported delivery, our multilevel models did not detect a significant association between JSY-supported delivery proportions and changes in MMR in the districts. The results from the analysis examining the association between MMR and JSY expenditure are similar. Conclusions: Our analysis was unable to detect an association between maternal mortality reduction and the JSY in MP. The high proportion of institutional delivery under the program does not seem to have converted to lower mortality outcomes. The lack of significant impact could be related to supply-side constraints. Demand-side programs like JSY will have a limited effect if the supply side is unable

  2. Can maternally inherited endosymbionts adapt to a novel host? Direct costs of Spiroplasma infection, but not vertical transmission efficiency, evolve rapidly after horizontal transfer into D. melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, S; Parratt, S R; Hutchence, K J; Lewis, Z; Price, T A R; Hurst, G D D

    2015-06-01

    Maternally inherited symbionts are common in arthropods and many have important roles in host adaptation. The observation that specific symbiont lineages infect distantly related host species implies new interactions are commonly established by lateral transfer events. However, studies have shown that symbionts often perform poorly in novel hosts. We hypothesized selection on the symbiont may be sufficiently rapid that poor performance in a novel host environment is rapidly ameliorated, permitting symbiont maintenance. Here, we test this prediction for a Spiroplasma strain transinfected into the novel host Drosophila melanogaster. In the generations immediately following transinfection, the symbiont had low transmission efficiency to offspring and imposed severe fitness costs on its host. We observed that effects on host fitness evolved rapidly, being undetectable after 17 generations in the novel host, whereas vertical transmission efficiency was poorly responsive over this period. Our results suggest that long-term symbiosis may more readily be established in cases where symbionts perform poorly in just one aspect of symbiosis.

  3. Demand-side financing for maternal and newborn health: what do we know about factors that affect implementation of cash transfers and voucher programmes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Benjamin M; Murray, Susan F

    2017-08-31

    Demand-side financing (DSF) interventions, including cash transfers and vouchers, have been introduced to promote maternal and newborn health in a range of low- and middle-income countries. These interventions vary in design but have typically been used to increase health service utilisation by offsetting some financial costs for users, or increasing household income and incentivising 'healthy behaviours'. This article documents experiences and implementation factors associated with use of DSF in maternal and newborn health. A secondary analysis (using an adapted Supporting the Use of Research Evidence framework - SURE) was performed on studies that had previously been identified in a systematic review of evidence on DSF interventions in maternal and newborn health. The article draws on findings from 49 quantitative and 49 qualitative studies. The studies give insights on difficulties with exclusion of migrants, young and multiparous women, with demands for informal fees at facilities, and with challenges maintaining quality of care under increasing demand. Schemes experienced difficulties if communities faced long distances to reach participating facilities and poor access to transport, and where there was inadequate health infrastructure and human resources, shortages of medicines and problems with corruption. Studies that documented improved care-seeking indicated the importance of adequate programme scope (in terms of programme eligibility, size and timing of payments and voucher entitlements) to address the issue of concern, concurrent investments in supply-side capacity to sustain and/or improve quality of care, and awareness generation using community-based workers, leaders and women's groups. Evaluations spanning more than 15 years of implementation of DSF programmes reveal a complex picture of experiences that reflect the importance of financial and other social, geographical and health systems factors as barriers to accessing care. Careful design of DSF

  4. Revisiting mobilisation of skeletal lead during pregnancy based on monthly sampling and cord/maternal blood lead relationships confirm placental transfer of lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulson, Brian; Mizon, Karen; Korsch, Michael; Taylor, Alan

    2016-04-01

    Lead (Pb) can be released from the maternal skeleton during pregnancy and lactation and transferred to the infant. Most support for this hypothesis comes from blood Pb (PbB) studies involving limited sampling during pregnancy, the maximum usually being five samplings, including at delivery. We provide longitudinal data for PbB concentrations and Pb isotopic ratios for three cohorts of pregnant females (n = 31), two of which are based on monthly sampling and the other on quarterly sampling. We also provide data for samples collected post-partum. The data are compared with changes observed in a matched, by country and age, non-pregnant control cohort (n = 5). The monthly data illustrate the variability between subjects, which is also apparent when the data are compared on a trimester basis. Mixed model analyses showed that, in the third trimester, the mean PbB level was significantly lower for women (n = 10) who took a calcium (Ca) supplement (PbB 1.6 µg/dL) than those whose Ca intake was low (low-Ca cohort; n = 15; PbB 2.5 µg/dL) because low Ca means more mobilisation is required for homoeostasis so that more Pb was mobilised from the skeleton. For women who took the supplement, post-partum PbB levels were significantly higher than those in the other periods (2.7 vs 1.4-1.6 µg/dL). For women in the low-Ca cohort, PbB levels were higher at post-partum than in pre-pregnancy and in the first and second trimesters (3.1 vs 1.8 µg/dL), while the levels in the third trimester were higher than those in the first and second trimesters. Importantly, the increase in PbB during gestation was delayed until the third trimester in the Ca-supplemented cohort compared with the low-Ca cohort. Regression analysis showed that the changes over trimester were very similar for PbB and the (206)Pb/(204)Pb ratio providing convincing evidence for extra mobilisation of Pb from the maternal skeleton during pregnancy and lactation. Isotopic ratios in the cord blood samples were similar to

  5. Transfer of Anti-Rotavirus Antibodies during Pregnancy and in Milk Following Maternal Vaccination with a Herpes Simplex Virus Type-1 Amplicon Vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Anita F; Suter, Mark; Schraner, Elisabeth M; Humbel, Bruno M; Tobler, Kurt; Ackermann, Mathias; Laimbacher, Andrea S

    2017-02-16

    Rotaviruses (RVs) are important enteric pathogens of newborn humans and animals, causing diarrhea and in rare cases death, especially in very young individuals. Rotavirus vaccines presently used are modified live vaccines that lack complete biological safety. Previous work from our laboratory suggested that vaccines based on in situ produced, non-infectious rotavirus-like particles (RVLPs) are efficient while being entirely safe. However, using either vaccine, active mucosal immunization cannot induce protective immunity in newborns due to their immature immune system. We therefore hypothesized that offspring from vaccinated dams are passively immunized either by transfer of maternal antibodies during pregnancy or by taking up antibodies from milk. Using a codon optimized polycistronic gene expression cassette packaged into herpesvirus particles, the simultaneous expression of the RV capsid genes led to the intracellular formation of RVLPs in various cell lines. Vaccinated dams developed a strong RV specific IgG antibody response determined in sera and milk of both mother and pups. Moreover, sera of naïve pups nursed by vaccinated dams also had RV specific antibodies suggesting a lactogenic transfer of antibodies. Although full protection of pups was not achieved in this mouse model, our observations are important for the development of improved vaccines against RV in humans as well as in various animal species.

  6. Transfer of Anti-Rotavirus Antibodies during Pregnancy and in Milk Following Maternal Vaccination with a Herpes Simplex Virus Type-1 Amplicon Vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Anita F.; Suter, Mark; Schraner, Elisabeth M.; Humbel, Bruno M.; Tobler, Kurt; Ackermann, Mathias; Laimbacher, Andrea S.

    2017-01-01

    Rotaviruses (RVs) are important enteric pathogens of newborn humans and animals, causing diarrhea and in rare cases death, especially in very young individuals. Rotavirus vaccines presently used are modified live vaccines that lack complete biological safety. Previous work from our laboratory suggested that vaccines based on in situ produced, non-infectious rotavirus-like particles (RVLPs) are efficient while being entirely safe. However, using either vaccine, active mucosal immunization cannot induce protective immunity in newborns due to their immature immune system. We therefore hypothesized that offspring from vaccinated dams are passively immunized either by transfer of maternal antibodies during pregnancy or by taking up antibodies from milk. Using a codon optimized polycistronic gene expression cassette packaged into herpesvirus particles, the simultaneous expression of the RV capsid genes led to the intracellular formation of RVLPs in various cell lines. Vaccinated dams developed a strong RV specific IgG antibody response determined in sera and milk of both mother and pups. Moreover, sera of naïve pups nursed by vaccinated dams also had RV specific antibodies suggesting a lactogenic transfer of antibodies. Although full protection of pups was not achieved in this mouse model, our observations are important for the development of improved vaccines against RV in humans as well as in various animal species. PMID:28212334

  7. Residues of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in frogs (Rana limnocharis) from a contaminated site, South China: tissue distribution, biomagnification, and maternal transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiang-Ping; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Ying; Chen, She-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian; Guan, Yun-Tao; Yang, Zhong-Yi

    2009-07-15

    Environmental pollutants are suspected to be a cause of global declines in amphibian populations, but few data are available on the bioaccumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in amphibians. To examine the tissue distribution, biomagnification potential, and maternal transfer of PBDEs in frogs, eighteen PBDE congeners were measured in the muscle, liver, and egg tissues of rice frogs (Rana limnocharis) and insects collected from an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling site in South China. PBDE levels in the frogs ranged from 0.63 to 11.6, 4.57 to 56.2, and 10.7 to 125 ng/g wet wt in the muscles, livers, and eggs, respectively. The frogs exhibited a unique congener profile, compared to those in aquatic and terrestrial species, with BDEs 99, 153, 183, 209, and 47 as the dominant congeners, intermediating between aquatic and terrestrial species. Most of the PBDE congeners in general showed higher affinity to liver than to muscle tissue. Except for BDEs 28, 47, 66, 138, and 206, the average biomagnification factors (BMFs) for all PBDE congeners were greater than 1.0, providing clear evidence of their biomagnification from insects to frogs. A parabolic relationship between log BMFs and bromine atom numbers or log Kow of PBDEs was observed, with the maximum BMF values for PBDEs with 6 bromine atoms (or at a log K(ow) of approximately 8.0). Relatively higher levels of 3-MeO-BDE 47 were found in male frogs, suggesting that male frogs in the present study might have higher metabolic capacity for PBDEs compared to female frogs. The ratio of levels in egg/female liver, indicating mother-to-egg transfer capacity, increased with increasing bromine atom numbers up to 7 and then declined as the bromine atom numbers rose. This indicated that the physicochemical properties of the congeners (e.g., K(ow), molecular sizes, and structures), resulting in different affinities to transport proteins, might impact their maternal transfer in frogs.

  8. An ELISA for quantifying quail IgY and characterizing maternal IgY transfer to egg yolk in several quail strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, Atsushi; Kakiuchi, Misako; Hamano, Takahito; Kobayashi, Misato; Tsudzuki, Masaoki; Nakano, Mikiharu; Matsuda, Yoichi; Horio, Fumihiko

    2016-07-01

    In avian species, maternal blood immunoglobulin Y (IgY) is transferred to the egg yolks of maturing oocytes, but the mechanism underlying this transfer is unknown. To gain insight into the mechanism of maternal IgY transfer in quail, we established an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the quantitation of quail IgY. We characterized strain differences in blood and egg yolk IgY concentrations and exogenously injected IgY-Fc uptakes into egg yolks. A specific rabbit polyclonal antibody to quail IgY was raised for the ELISA. Blood and egg yolk IgY concentrations were determined in six quail strains (one inbred strain, L; four closed population strains, AWE, DB, PS, WE; one commercial strain, Commercial). The birds were also injected with digoxigenin-labeled quail IgY-Fc, and its uptakes into laid eggs were compared. The strain difference in blood and egg yolk IgY concentrations was at most 2.5-fold, between PS and AWE. The rank order of IgY concentrations was AWE, Commercial, DB, L≥WE≥PS. A significant positive correlation (|R|=0.786) between individual blood IgY and egg yolk IgY and the concentrated egg yolk IgY (1.5-2-fold) against blood IgY was observed. Interestingly, there was a significant inverse correlation (|R|=0.452) between injected IgY-Fc uptakes and the blood IgY concentration, implying competition of the injected IgY-Fc and blood IgY in the process of IgY uptake into egg yolks. In conclusion, we successfully determined blood and egg yolk IgY concentrations in various quail strains by a quail IgY-specific ELISA. The concentrated egg yolk IgY against the blood IgY and the inverse relationship of exogenous IgY-Fc uptake against the blood IgY supports the existence of a selective IgY transport mechanism in avian maturing oocytes.

  9. India's Conditional Cash Transfer Programme (the JSY to Promote Institutional Birth: Is There an Association between Institutional Birth Proportion and Maternal Mortality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat Randive

    Full Text Available India accounts for 19% of global maternal deaths, three-quarters of which come from nine states. In 2005, India launched a conditional cash transfer (CCT programme, Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY, to reduce maternal mortality ratio (MMR through promotion of institutional births. JSY is the largest CCT in the world. In the nine states with relatively lower socioeconomic levels, JSY provides a cash incentive to all women on birthing in health institution. The cash incentive is intended to reduce financial barriers to accessing institutional care for delivery. Increased institutional births are expected to reduce MMR. Thus, JSY is expected to (a increase institutional births and (b reduce MMR in states with high proportions of institutional births. We examine the association between (a service uptake, i.e., institutional birth proportions and (b health outcome, i.e., MMR.Data from Sample Registration Survey of India were analysed to describe trends in proportion of institutional births before (2005 and during (2006-2010 the implementation of the JSY. Data from Annual Health Survey (2010-2011 for all 284 districts in above- mentioned nine states were analysed to assess relationship between MMR and institutional births.Proportion of institutional births increased from a pre-programme average of 20% to 49% in 5 years (p<0.05. In bivariate analysis, proportion of institutional births had a small negative correlation with district MMR (r = -0.11.The multivariate regression model did not establish significant association between institutional birth proportions and MMR [CI: -0.10, 0.68].Our analysis confirmed that JSY succeeded in raising institutional births significantly. However, we were unable to detect a significant association between institutional birth proportion and MMR. This indicates that high institutional birth proportions that JSY has achieved are of themselves inadequate to reduce MMR. Other factors including improved quality of care at

  10. Contributions of the maternal uterine environment and piglet genotype on weaning survivability potential: I. Development of neonatal piglets after reciprocal embryo transfers between Meishan and White crossbred gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, J R; Vallet, J L; Ford, J J; Freking, B A; Cushman, R A; Oliver, W T; Rempel, L A

    2012-07-01

    In commercial pigs, the greatest susceptibility for pre-weaning mortality occurs in low birth-weight piglets. Despite their overall decreased birth weight, Meishan (MS) piglets have decreased pre-weaning mortality rates compared with contemporary Western breeds. The objective of the current study was to determine the contributions of the maternal uterine environment, piglet genotype, and their interaction on the development of neonatal piglets pertaining to pre-weaning survivability using reciprocal embryo transfer between MS and White crossbred (WC) pigs. Twenty-five successful pregnancies were produced from 2 farrowing seasons, generating litters of maternal uterine environment (MUE) by piglet genotype (PigG) combinations; MS × MS (n = 4 litters), MS × WC (n = 7 litters), WC × MS (n = 7 litters), and WC × WC (n = 7 litters). At approximately 24 h of age (Day 1), piglets (n = 173) were weighed and a blood sample was taken. Hematocrit, hemoglobin, glucose, plasma urea nitrogen, albumin, NEFA, lactate, and cortisol were measured in all blood samples. Representative piglets (n = 46) from each litter were harvested and body measurements (i.e., organ weights, tissue glycogen content, and body composition) were determined. Piglet data were analyzed by ANOVA using MIXED model procedures. Both MUE (P piglet BW, illustrating that piglets gestated in WC gilts were heavier than piglets gestated in MS gilts, and WC piglets were heavier than MS piglets. Serum albumin concentrations were increased (P piglets compared with WC piglets, indicating greater liver maturity. Significant MUE × PigG interactions were observed for hematocrit and hemoglobin, in which the greatest concentrations were observed in MS piglets gestated in MS and WC gilts, and the lowest concentrations were observed in WC piglets gestated in WC gilts, demonstrating increased oxygen-carrying capability. The percentage of fat and nitrogen, as well as the GE of the body, were greater (P piglets, indicating

  11. The new diatom training set from the Polish Baltic coast and diatom-based transfer functions as a tool for understanding past changes in the southern Baltic coastal lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutyńska, Monika; Szpikowska, Grażyna; Woszczyk, Michał; Suchińska, Anita; Burchardt, Lubomira; Messyasz, Beata

    2014-05-01

    The transfer function method has been developed as a useful tool for reconstruction of the past environmental changes. It is based on the assumption that the modern species, which ecological requirements are known, can be used to quantitative reconstructions of the past changes. The aim of the study was to gather test sets and to build diatom-based transfer function, which can be used to reconstruct changes in the trophic state and salinity in the coastal lakes on the Polish Baltic coast. In the previous years there were several attempts made to reconstruct these parameters in lagoonal waters on the Baltic coasts in Germany, Denmark, Finland, Netherland, Sweden and Norway. But so far there is no diatom test set and transfer function was built for the Polish coastal lakes. We sample diatoms form 12 lakes located along the polish Baltic coast. At the same time we monitor the physical-chemical conditions in the lakes, which includes lake water chemical composition (chlorides, phosphorous and sulphur), pH, salinity, conductivity, temperature, dissolved oxygen. We collect samples form the lakes as well as from the Baltic Sea and we analyse the whole phytoplankton composition, however the special focus in put on diatoms. The results of the analysis show seasonal changes in the chemical and physical water properties. The diatom assemblage composition and species frequency also changed significantly. This study is a contribution to the projects: NN 306 064 640 financed by National Science Centre, Poland and Virtual Institute ICLEA (Integrated Climate and Landscape Evolution Analysis) funded by the Helmholtz Association.

  12. Maternal autism-associated IgG antibodies delay development and produce anxiety in a mouse gestational transfer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunschweig, Daniel; Golub, Mari S; Koenig, Claire M; Qi, Lihong; Pessah, Isaac N; Van de Water, Judy; Berman, Robert F

    2012-11-15

    A murine passive transfer model system was employed to ascertain the effects of gestational exposure to a single, intravenous dose of purified, brain-reactive IgG antibodies from individual mothers of children with autism (MAU) or mothers with typically developing children (MTD). Growth and behavioral outcomes in offspring were measured from postnatal days 8 to 65 in each group. Comparisons revealed alterations in early growth trajectories, significantly impaired motor and sensory development, and increased anxiety. This report demonstrates for the first time the effects of a single, low dose gestational exposure of IgG derived from individual MAU on their offspring's physical and social development.

  13. Maternal immunisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, Marcel; Lambach, Philipp; Ortiz, Justin R.; Reis, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    There has been increased interest in the potential of maternal immunisation to protect maternal, fetal, and infant health. Maternal tetanus vaccination is part of routine antenatal care and immunisation campaigns in many countries, and it has played an important part in the reduction of maternal and

  14. TRANSFER

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    “Chemistry Department, Kenyatta University, P. 0. Box 43844 ... harvester (X) [L 2] in a manner consistent with the following Forster equation for long range energy transfer [3-7]. .... sensitive foods, chemical reactors and essences. Recently we ...

  15. Embryo transfers between C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice: Examination of a maternal effect on ethanol teratogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Gilliam, David

    2014-01-01

    Genetic factors influence fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) in both humans and animals. Experiments using inbred and selectively bred mouse stocks that controlled for (1) ethanol dose, (2) maternal and fetal blood ethanol levels, and (3) fetal developmental exposure stage, show genotype can affect teratogenic outcome. Other experiments distinguish the teratogenic effects mediated by maternal genotype from those mediated by fetal genotype. One technique to distinguish maternal versus fe...

  16. Influence of metal(loid) bioaccumulation and maternal transfer on embryo-larval development in fish exposed to a major coal ash spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeley, Mark S; Adams, S Marshall; Elmore, Logan R; McCracken, Mary K

    2016-04-01

    In December 2008, an earthen retaining wall at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Kingston Fossil Fuel Plant failed and released 4.1 millionm(3) of coal ash to rivers flowing into Watts Bar Reservoir in east Tennessee, United States (U.S.). As part of a comprehensive effort to evaluate the risks to aquatic resources from this spill - the largest in U.S. history - we compared bioaccumulation and maternal transfer of selenium (Se), arsenic (As), and mercury (Hg) in adult redear sunfish (Lepomis macrolophus), collected two years after the spill from both coal-ash exposed and non-exposed areas of the Emory and Clinch Rivers, with the success of embryo-larval development in their offspring. Whole body and ovary concentrations of Se in female sunfish at three study sites downstream of the spill were significantly elevated (site means=4.9-5.3 and 6.7-9.0mg/kg d.w. whole body and ovary concentrations, respectively) compared with concentrations in fish from reference sites upstream of the spill site (2.2-3.2mg/kg d.w. for whole bodies and 3.6-4.8mg/kg d.w. for ovaries). However, Se concentrations in coal ash-exposed areas remain below proposed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) criteria for the protection of aquatic life. Site-to-site variation in fish concentrations of As and Hg were not well-correlated with ash-exposure, reflecting the multiple sources of these metal(loid)s in the affected watersheds. In 7-day laboratory tests of embryos and larvae derived from in vitro crosses of eggs and sperm from these field-collected sunfish, fertilization success, hatching success, embryo-larval survival, and incidences of developmental abnormalities did not differ significantly between ash-exposed and non-exposed fish. Furthermore, these developmental endpoints were not correlated with whole body or ovary concentrations of Se, As, or Hg in the maternal fish, or with fish size, ovary weight, or gonadal-somatic indices. Results from this and related studies associated

  17. Investigation on the level of maternal transferred measles antibody in neonates and relative factors%新生儿母传麻疹抗体水平与相关因素调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘方; 王珊; 王晨; 李书明; 张国辉; 黄平

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To understand the levels of measles antibody in neonates and their mothers, explore the relationship between antibody level of neonates and antibody level of their mothers, and the possible influencing factors of neonatal antibody level, provide effective measures for controlling the onset of measles in infants. Methods; A total of 156 sample pairs of maternal venous blood before delivery and neonatal umbilical cord blood were obtained, ELISA was used to detect the level of measles IgG antibody. Results; The geometric mean concentration of maternal measles antibody was 546. 48 mlU/ml, while the geometric mean concentration of neonatal measles antibody was 746. 64 mlU/ml, which was 1. 37 times more than the geometric mean concentration of maternal measles antibody; there was a positive correlation between logarithmic concentration of maternal measles antibody and logarithmic concentration of neonatal measles antibody, the coefficient of correlation was 0. 883 (P = 0. 000) ; for the mothers, there was a significant correlation between maternal measles antibody level and maternal age, household registration, and birth place; the geometric mean concentration of maternal measles antibody in ≥30 -year - old group was statistically significantly higher than that in < 30 - year - old group (t = -2. 078 , P = 0. 039) , the geometric mean concentration of maternal measles antibody in migrant mothers was statistically significantly higher than that in resident mothers (t = - 2. 073 , P = 0. 040) , the geometric mean concentration of maternal measles antibody in mothers born in rural areas was statistically significantly higher than that in mothers born in urban areas (LSD method: P = 0. 005) ; the ability of maternal transferred measles antibody was significantly correlated with fetal age and maternal age, the ability of maternal transferred measles antibody in neonates of 38 -40 weeks was higher than that in neonates less than 38 weeks (LSD method; P = 0. 014

  18. Effects of trophic ecology and habitat use on maternal transfer of contaminants in four species of young of the year lamniform sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Kady; Carlisle, Aaron; Preti, Antonella; Mull, Christopher; Blasius, Mary; O'Sullivan, John; Winkler, Chuck; Lowe, Christopher G

    2013-09-01

    Organic contaminant and total mercury concentrations were compared in four species of lamniform sharks over several age classes to examine bioaccumulation patterns and gain insights into trophic ecology. Contaminants found in young of the year (YOY) sharks were assumed to be derived from maternal sources and used as a proxy to investigate factors that influence maternal offloading processes. YOY white (Carcharodon carcharias) and mako (Isurus oxyrinchus) sharks had comparable and significantly higher concentrations of PCBs, DDTs, pesticides, and mercury than YOY thresher (Alopias vulpinus) or salmon (Lamna ditropis) sharks. A significant positive relationship was found between YOY contaminant loads and maternal trophic position, suggesting that trophic ecology is one factor that plays an important role in maternal offloading. Differences in organic contaminant signatures and contaminant concentration magnitudes among species corroborated what is known about species habitat use and may be used to provide insights into the feeding ecology of these animals.

  19. Silent memory induction in maternal immune young animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, W.J.A.; Rooij, van E.M.A.; Scholten, J.W.; Zwart, R.J.; Kimman, T.G.; Bianchi, A.

    1998-01-01

    Maternal immunity was shown to be an effector mechanism which does not include transfer of memory. 'Boosting' of maternal immunity by vaccination was not effective. Transferred maternal immunity negatively interfered with the induction of optimal protection by vaccination. Antibody formation was not

  20. Current status, between-year comparisons and maternal transfer of organohalogenated compounds (OHCs) in Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) from Bjørnøya, Svalbard (Norway)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bytingsvik, J., E-mail: jenny.bytingsvik@akvaplan.niva.no [Akvaplan-niva AS, The Fram Centre, N-9296 Tromsø Norway (Norway); Frantzen, M. [Akvaplan-niva AS, The Fram Centre, N-9296 Tromsø Norway (Norway); Götsch, A.; Heimstad, E.S. [NILU (Norwegian Institute for Air Research), The Fram Centre, N-9296 Tromsø Norway (Norway); Christensen, G. [Akvaplan-niva AS, The Fram Centre, N-9296 Tromsø Norway (Norway); Evenset, A. [Akvaplan-niva AS, The Fram Centre, N-9296 Tromsø Norway (Norway); University of Tromsø, The Arctic University of Norway, Pb 6050 Langnes, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway)

    2015-07-15

    , profile, time-trends and maternal transfer of OHCs in Arctic char • Char from Lake Ellasjøen (Bjørnøya, Norway) are known to be highly contaminated. • PCB-levels (2012): 36 times higher in char from Ellasjøen than in Laksvatn (ref.) • Higher HCB levels in female char from Ellasjøen in 2009/2012 than in 1999/2001 • OHC-levels were up to six times higher in ovaries than in muscle tissue.

  1. How equitable is the uptake of conditional cash transfers for maternity care in India? Evidence from the Janani Suraksha Yojana scheme in Odisha and Jharkhand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongkong, Nattawut; van de Poel, Ellen; Roy, Swati Sarbani; Rath, Shibanand; Houweling, Tanja A J

    2017-03-10

    In 2005, the Indian Government introduced the Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) scheme - a conditional cash transfer program that incentivizes women to deliver in a health facility - in order to reduce maternal and neonatal mortality. Our study aimed to measure and explain socioeconomic inequality in the receipt of JSY benefits. We used prospectively collected data on 3,682 births (in 2009-2010) from a demographic surveillance system in five districts in Jharkhand and Odisha state, India. Linear probability models were used to identify the determinants of receipt of JSY benefits. Poor-rich inequality in the receipt of JSY benefits was measured by a corrected concentration index (CI), and the most important drivers of this inequality were identified using decomposition techniques. While the majority of women had heard of the scheme (94% in Odisha, 85% in Jharkhand), receipt of JSY benefits was comparatively low (62% in Odisha, 20% in Jharkhand). Receipt of the benefits was highly variable by district, especially in Jharkhand, where 5% of women in Godda district received the benefits, compared with 40% of women in Ranchi district. There were substantial pro-rich inequalities in JSY receipt (CI 0.10, standard deviation (SD) 0.03 in Odisha; CI 0.18, SD 0.02 in Jharkhand) and in the institutional delivery rate (CI 0.16, SD 0.03 in Odisha; CI 0.30, SD 0.02 in Jharkhand). Delivery in a public facility was an important determinant of receipt of JSY benefits and explained a substantial part of the observed poor-rich inequalities in receipt of the benefits. Yet, even among public facility births in Jharkhand, pro-rich inequality in JSY receipt was substantial (CI 0.14, SD 0.05). This was largely explained by district-level differences in wealth and JSY receipt. Conversely, in Odisha, poorer women delivering in a government institution were at least as likely to receive JSY benefits as richer women (CI -0.05, SD 0.03). JSY benefits were not equally distributed, favouring wealthier

  2. Sex-specific changes in thyroid gland function and circulating thyroid hormones in nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius) following embryonic exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers by maternal transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernie, Kim J; Marteinson, Sarah C

    2016-08-01

    High concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) accumulate in predatory birds. Several PBDE congeners are considered thyroid disruptors; however, avian studies are limited. The authors examined circulating thyroid hormones and thyroid gland function of nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius) at 17 d to 20 d of age, following embryonic exposure by maternal transfer only to environmentally relevant levels of PBDEs (DE-71 technical mixture). Nestlings were exposed to in ovo sum (Σ) PBDE concentrations of 11 301 ± 95 ng/g wet weight (high exposure), 289 ± 33 ng/g wet weight (low exposure), or 3.0 ± 0.5 ng/g wet weight (controls, background exposure). Statistical comparisons are made to controls of the respective sexes and account for the relatedness of siblings within broods. Circulating concentrations of plasma total thyroxine (TT4 ) and total triiodothyronine (TT3 ) in female nestlings were significantly influenced overall by the exposure to DE-71. Following intramuscular administration of thyroid-stimulating hormone, the temporal response of the thyroid gland in producing and/or releasing TT4 was also significantly affected by the females' exposure to DE-71. The altered availability of T4 for conversion to T3 outside of the gland and/or changes in thyroid-related enzymatic activity may explain the lower TT3 concentrations (baseline, overall) and moderately altered temporal TT3 patterns (p = 0.06) of the treatment females. Controlling for the significant effect on TT3 levels of the delayed hatching of treatment females, baseline TT3 levels were significantly and positively correlated with body mass (10 d, 15 d, 20 d), with PBDE-exposed females generally being smaller and having lower TT3 concentrations. Given that exposure concentrations were environmentally relevant, similar thyroidal changes and associated thyroid-mediated processes relating to growth may also occur in wild female nestlings. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016

  3. Transferência trófica de mercúrio e selênio na costa norte do Rio de Janeiro Trophic transference of mercury and selenium in the northern coast of Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena A. Kehrig

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Trophic transfer of trace elements along marine food chains has been recognized as an important process influencing metal and metalloid bioaccumulation. The trophic transfer of mercury was observed between trophic levels from prey (considering fish with different feeding habits and squid to top predator (dolphin in a Northern coastal food chain of Rio de Janeiro. Selenium showed some evidence of trophic transfer between lower trophic levels. Dolphin presented the highest mercury concentrations whereas the benthic carnivorous fish showed the highest selenium concentrations. Mercury is biomagnified through the food chain while selenium does not present the same behavior.

  4. Transfer of Uranium and Radium-226 from soil to tubers and roots culture on the northern coast of Pernambuco State, Brazil; Transferencia do uranio e radio-226 do solo para tuberculos e raizes cultivados na costa norte de Pernambuco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaral, Romilton dos Santos [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Mazzilli, Barbara Pace [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1996-07-01

    Tubers and roots are the most produced foodstuffs along the northern coast of Pernambuco State, Brazil. This region presents uranium anomalies in subsoil, with a radionuclide concentration mean of 150 ppm, due to phosphate mines. The phosphatic ore extraction activities, have produced a soil movement, so that more rich materials containing uranium and radium-226 have been transferred from subsoil to cultivation layers of the soil.These facts associated with intensive agricultural production of the region, has determined the performance of this study, which has the objective to measure uranium and radium-226 concentrations in soil, tubers and roots, cultivated in this area, as well as its partition in soil-to-plant system. The results found show that exchangeable fraction of uranium and radium-226 concentrations in soil ranged between 0.12 to 7.67+- 0.57 Bq/Kg of dry soil and 3.7 to 30.3+-1.4 Bq/Kg of dry soil, respectively. Otherwise, these radionuclide concentrations in tubers and roots ranged from 12.9 to 78.8+-8.0 Bq/Kg wet weight and 120 to 1607+-80 Bq/Kg wet weight, respectively. The transfer factor is defined as concentration of the nuclide in a plant organ at harvest divided by concentration of the nuclide in dry soil, and the mean values found to uranium and radium-226 transfer factors (8.5 and 3.2) have demonstrated that uranium, in spite of its lower soil concentration, is more absorbed by cultivars than radium-226.

  5. Maternal Guilt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rotkirch

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent emphasis on humans as cooperative breeders invites new research on human family dynamics. In this paper we look at maternal guilt as a consequence of conditional maternal investment. Solicited texts written by Finnish mothers with under school-aged children in 2007 (n = 63 described maternal emotions perceived as difficult and forbidden. Content analysis of guilt-inducing situations showed that guilt arose from diverging interest and negotiations between the mother and child (i.e., classic parent-offspring conflict. Also cultural expectations of extensive and perpetual high-quality maternal investment or the “motherhood myth” induced guilt in mothers. We argue that guilt plays an important role in maternal-investment regulation. Maternal guilt is predicted to vary with social and cultural context but also to show universal characteristics due to parent-offspring conflict and allomaternal manipulation. Results are preliminary and intended to stimulate research into the mechanisms, gender differences and cultural variations of guilt and other social emotions in human parenting.

  6. Initial maternal serum human chorionic gonadotropin levels in pregnancies achieved after assisted reproductive technology are higher after preimplantation genetic screening and after frozen embryo transfer: a retrospective cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobeika, Elie; Singh, Sonali; Malik, Shaveta; Knochenhauer, Eric S; Traub, Michael L

    2017-06-21

    Few published articles have compared initial hCG values across all different types of ART cycles, including cycles with fresh or frozen embryo transfer. No articles have compared initial hCG values in cycles utilizing preimplantation genetic screening (PGS). The purpose of this study is to compare initial hCG values after fresh embryo transfer, frozen embryo transfer, and after PGS. This was a single-center retrospective cohort study at an academically affiliated private IVF center. All fresh and frozen embryo transfers between January 2013 and December 31, 2015 were included. We compared mean initial serum hCG values 14 days after oocyte retrieval for fresh cycles and 9 days after frozen embryo transfer. We examined cycles of single embryo transfer (SET) and double embryo transfer (DET). Two hundred elven IVF (fresh embryo transfer), 128 FET (frozen embryo transfer cycles, no PGS), and 111 PGS cycles (ovarian stimulation with embryo cryopreservation, PGS, and frozen transfer in a subsequent estrogen-primed cycle) with initial positive hCG values were analyzed. In patients achieving a positive hCG after SET, initial hCG values were higher after PGS compared to FET (182.4 versus 124.0 mIU/mL, p = 0.02) and IVF (182.4 versus 87.1 mIU/mL, p transfer of a frozen embryo compared to a fresh embryo. This suggests that initial hCG values relate to the chromosomal status of embryos. Initial hCG values may help determine intervention and monitoring later in pregnancy.

  7. Contributions of the maternal uterine environment and piglet genotype on weaning survivability potential: II. Piglet growth, lactation performance, milk composition, and piglet blood profiles during lactation following reciprocal embryo transfers between Meishan and White crossbred gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, J R; Vallet, J L; Ford, J J; Freking, B A; Oliver, W T; Rempel, L A

    2015-04-01

    Crossbreeding studies between Meishan (MS) and Large White (LW) pigs have illustrated that increased piglet growth before weaning is attributed to the maternal genotype of LW dams. The objective of this study was to determine the contributions of the maternal uterine environment (MUE), piglet genotype (PigG), piglet age (PA), and their interactions on piglet growth, lactation performance, milk composition, and piglet blood profiles during lactation following reciprocal embryo transfers between MS and White crossbred (WC) gilts. Twenty-five successful pregnancies were generated by embryo transfer in 2 farrowing years representing all MUE × PigG combinations: MS × MS (n = 4 litters), MS × WC (n = 7 litters), WC × MS (n = 7 litters), and WC × WC (n = 7 litters). At d 1 and 10 and at weaning, piglets (n = 147, n = 96, and n = 94, respectively) were weighed and blood samples were collected and measured for hematocrit, hemoglobin, glucose, nitrogen, NEFA, albumin, lactate, and cortisol. In addition, sows were manually milked from a medial mammary gland to determine milk composition. All data were analyzed by ANOVA using MIXED model procedures with the fixed effects of MUE, PigG, PA, and their interactions. Piglet weight was greater (P piglets from WC dams compared to MS dams at d 10 and weaning but not at d 1. In addition, ADG were greater (P piglets from WC dams compared to MS dams throughout lactation. However, milk composition was greater (P piglets, irrespective of MUE, at d 1 of lactation and in MS piglets from MS dams at d 10 of lactation. Blood glucose was greater (P = 0.01) at d 1 in piglets from WC dams regardless of PigG but, at weaning, glucose was greater (P = 0.01) in WC piglets regardless of MUE. Serum NEFA levels were greater (P = 0.02) in piglets from MS dams throughout the lactation period. This study demonstrated that WC dams were superior to MS dams for piglet growth during lactation, in agreement with previous crossbreeding studies. However

  8. Maternal phenylketonuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Štuikienė

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Phenylketonuria is a hereditary metabolic disorder inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. Elevated phenylalanine levels in a pregnant woman with phenylketonuria result in phenylalanine embryopathy. Failure to follow special diets during gestation results in neonatal dysplasia. More favorable outcomes are observed when phenylalanine levels remain within normal ranges prior to conception, or at least when they reach normal levels by the 4th-10th weeks of gestation. We report the case of a newborn with maternal phenylketonuria.

  9. Monozygotic twinning after in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment is not related to advanced maternal age, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, assisted hatching, or blastocyst transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Wu

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: Until definite conclusions are drawn from larger trials, patients receiving IVF should not be overly concerned about the increase in MZT risk when proceeding to various assisted reproductive procedures (i.e., ICSI, AH, and blastocyst transfer. However, there is some evidence that the incidence of monochorionic–monoamniotic twins may be significantly increased after IVF/ICSI cycles. Patients should be informed about the possible obstetric complications regarding this rare type of MZT.

  10. Measuring transfer of {sup 14}C-PCB from maternal diet to milk in a goat model using an accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janle, E. [Purdue University, Department of Foods and Nutrition, 700 West State Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2059 (United States)]. E-mail: janle@purdue.edu; Sojka, J. [Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Jackson, G.S. [Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Lachcik, P. [Purdue University, Department of Foods and Nutrition, 700 West State Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2059 (United States); Einstien, J.A. [Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Santerre, C.R. [Purdue University, Department of Foods and Nutrition, 700 West State Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2059 (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Environmental pollutants pose a substantial risk to nursing infants. Many of these toxicants (i.e. PCBs, PBDEs, mercury) are passed from the maternal diet to the nursing infant in breast milk. Determining the toxicokinetics has been difficult to measure due to ethical limitations. Since extremely small amounts of {sup 14}C can be measured using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS), a goat model was used to establish a minimum oral dose of {sup 14}C-labeled PCB (2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl-UL-{sup 14}C) that could be given to a lactating animal and traced into the milk. An oral dose of 66 nCi/kg body weight (1.84 {mu}g PCB/kg bw) was administered. Plasma and milk samples were collected for 2 months after dosing. The concentration of {sup 14}C label reached a peak value of 1.71 ng/ml PCB equivalents in the milk on day 2 and then declined to about 135 pg/ml PCB equivalents in the milk at 3 weeks. A second goat was administered a smaller dose (22 nCi/kg bw; 616 ng PCB/kg bw). A peak concentration of 485 pg PCB equivalents/ml milk occurred at 3 days and declined to 77.6 pg PCB equivalents/ml milk by 3 weeks. Our results indicated that an even lower dosage of labeled-PCB could be used due to the extreme sensitivity of AMS measurement. Extrapolating from current data it is estimated that the dose could be reduced by a factor of 20 (31 ng PCB/kg bw; 1.1 nCi/kg bw) and still be detectable after 2 months. Thus, the potential exists for developing protocols for studying toxicokinetics in humans using radiologically- and toxicologically-benign doses of labeled environmental toxicants.

  11. Radionuclide transfer. Radionuklid Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, G.B.

    1993-01-01

    The research project described here had the aim to obtain further information on the transfer of nuclides during pregnancy and lactation. The tests were carried out in mini-pigs and rats receiving unchanging doses of radionuclides with the food. The following findings were revealed for the elements examined: Fe, Se, Cs and Zn were characterized by very high transfer levels in the mother, infant and foetus. A substantial uptake by the mother alone was observed for Co, Ag and Mn. The uptake by the foetus and infant here was 1 to 10 times lower. A preferential concentration in certain tissues was seen for Sr and Tc; the thyroid levels of Tc were about equally high in mothers and infants, while Sr showed less accumulation in the maternal bone. The lanthanide group of substances (Ce, Eu and Gd as well as Y and Ru) were only taken up to a very limited extent. The uptake of the examined radionuclides (Fe, Co, Ag, Ce) with the food ingested was found here to be ten times greater in rats as compared to mini-pigs. This showed that great caution must be observed, if the behaviour of radionuclides in man is extrapolated from relevant data obtained in rodents. (orig./MG)

  12. US west coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aerial surveys are conducted along the US west coast to determine distribution and abundance of endangered leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea), loggerhead...

  13. Chlamydia trachomatis infection and maternal outcomes in Southern Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite the fact that Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection in pregnancy is known to have grave impact on maternal and neonatal health, routine CT screening in pregnancy is not available in Ghana The main aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and adverse maternal outcomes of CT infection among pregnant women attending antennal clinic at the Cape Coast Teaching Hospital. Methods: Two hundred and thirty two (232) pregnant women screened for CT infection by PCR were pur...

  14. Honduras: Caribbean Coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harborne, Alastair R.; Afzal, Daniel C.; Andrews, Mark J. [Coral Cay Conservation, London (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    The coast of Honduras, Central America, represents the southern end of the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System, although its marine resources are less extensive and studied than nearby Belize and Mexico. However, the coastal zone contains mainland reef formations, mangroves, wetlands, seagrass beds and extensive fringing reefs around its offshore islands, and has a key role in the economy of the country. Like most tropical areas, this complex of benthic habitats experiences limited annual variation in climatic and oceanographic conditions but seasonal and occasional conditions, particularly coral bleaching and hurricanes, are important influences. The effects of stochastic factors on the country's coral reefs were clearly demonstrated during 1998 when Honduras experienced a major hurricane and bleaching event. Any natural or anthropogenic impacts on reef health will inevitably affect other countries in Latin America, and vice versa, since the marine resources are linked via currents and the functioning of the system transcends political boundaries. Much further work on, for example, movement of larvae and transfer of pollutants is required to delineate the full extent of these links. Anthropogenic impacts, largely driven by the increasing population and proportion of people living in coastal areas, are numerous and include key factors such as agricultural run-off, over-fishing, urban and industrial pollution (particularly sewage) and infrastructure development. Many of these threats act synergistically and, for example, poor watershed management via shifting cultivation, increases sedimentation and pesticide run-off onto coral reefs, which increases stress to corals already affected by decreasing water quality and coral bleaching. Threats from agriculture and fishing are particularly significant because of the size of both industries. The desire to generate urgently required revenue within Honduras has also led to increased tourism which provides an over

  15. Honduras: Caribbean Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harborne, A R; Afzal, D C; Andrews, M J

    2001-12-01

    The coast of Honduras, Central America, represents the southern end of the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System, although its marine resources are less extensive and studied than nearby Belize and Mexico. However, the coastal zone contains mainland reef formations, mangroves, wetlands, seagrass beds and extensive fringing reefs around its offshore islands, and has a key role in the economy of the country. Like most tropical areas, this complex of benthic habitats experiences limited annual variation in climatic and oceanographic conditions but seasonal and occasional conditions, particularly coral bleaching and hurricanes, are important influences. The effects of stochastic factors on the country's coral reefs were clearly demonstrated during 1998 when Honduras experienced a major hurricane and bleaching event. Any natural or anthropogenic impacts on reef health will inevitably affect other countries in Latin America, and vice versa, since the marine resources are linked via currents and the functioning of the system transcends political boundaries. Much further work on, for example, movement of larvae and transfer of pollutants is required to delineate the full extent of these links. Anthropogenic impacts, largely driven by the increasing population and proportion of people living in coastal areas, are numerous and include key factors such as agricultural run-off, over-fishing, urban and industrial pollution (particularly sewage) and infrastructure development. Many of these threats act synergistically and, for example, poor watershed management via shifting cultivation, increases sedimentation and pesticide run-off onto coral reefs, which increases stress to corals already affected by decreasing water quality and coral bleaching. Threats from agriculture and fishing are particularly significant because of the size of both industries. The desire to generate urgently required revenue within Honduras has also led to increased tourism which provides an overarching stress

  16. South Oregon Coast Reinforcement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1998-05-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration is proposing to build a transmission line to reinforce electrical service to the southern coast of Oregon. This FYI outlines the proposal, tells how one can learn more, and how one can share ideas and opinions. The project will reinforce Oregon`s south coast area and provide the necessary transmission for Nucor Corporation to build a new steel mill in the Coos Bay/North Bend area. The proposed plant, which would use mostly recycled scrap metal, would produce rolled steel products. The plant would require a large amount of electrical power to run the furnace used in its steel-making process. In addition to the potential steel mill, electrical loads in the south Oregon coast area are expected to continue to grow.

  17. Partos domiciliares planejados assistidos por enfermeiras obstétricas: transferências maternas e neonatais Partos domiciliarios planificados atendidos por enfermeras obstétricas: traslados maternales y neonatales Planned home births assisted by nurse midwives: maternal and neonatal transfers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Green Koettker

    2013-02-01

    intensiva neonatal. Según el estudio, el parto domiciliario planificado atendido por enfermeras obstétricas según protocolo de atención, exhibió buenos resultados maternales y neonatales, inclusive cuando fue necesario efectuar traslados hospitalarios.The objective of this explorative and descriptive study was to describe the rates and reasons for intrapartum transfers from home to hospital among women assisted by nurse midwives, and the outcomes of those deliveries. The sample consisted of eleven women giving birth and their newborns, from January 2005 to December 2009. Data was collected from the maternal and neonatal records and was analyzed using descriptive statistics. The transfer rate was 11%, most of the women were nulliparous (63.6%, and all of them were transferred during the first stage of labor. The most common reasons for transfer were arrested cervical dilation, arrested progress of the fetal head and cephalopelvic disproportion. Apgar scores were >7 for 81.8% of the newborns; and there were no admissions to the neonatal intensive care unit. The results show that planned home births assisted by nurse midwives following a clinical protocol, had good outcomes even when a transfer to the hospital was needed.

  18. Northwest Coast Indian Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Thomas; Knecht, Elizabeth

    The visual art forms of the Northwest Coast Indian Tribes of Alaska (Haida, Tlingit, and Tsimshian) share common distinctive design elements (formline, ovoid, U-form, and curvilinear shapes) which are referred to as the "Northern Style." Designs represent events or characters taken from the oral tradition of song and legend.…

  19. Manado: A Developing Coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tenthof van Noorden, C.; Vermeij, D.; Van Zuijlen, J.; Zeelenberg, W.

    2013-01-01

    Manado, the capital city of North Sulawesi in Indonesia, is rapidly developing. The last years Manado has been extending into the sea, which changed the hydraulics and morphology of Manado Bay. This had negative effects on the currents, inducing erosion along the coast. Also Manado has problems with

  20. Coast guard STD calibration procedures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Freeman, R.H; Krug, W.S

    1973-01-01

    This manual describes the procedures used by the Coast Guard Oceanographic UNIT (CGOU) to calibrate several Model 9040 STD systems, manufactured by Plessey Environmental Systems, currently in use within the Coast Guard...

  1. Goodbye, Mandatory Maternity Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation's Schools, 1972

    1972-01-01

    In precedent-setting decrees, courts and federal and State authorities have branded compulsory maternity leaves either unconstitutional or illegal. School administrators are urged to prod boards of education to adopt more lenient maternity leave policies -- now. (Author)

  2. Maternal androgens in egg yolks : Relation with sex, incubation time and embryonic growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eising, C.M; Müller, W; Dijkstra, C.; Groothuis, A.G.G.

    2003-01-01

    Hormones of maternal origin are known to be transferred to the egg yolks of oviparous species. Several studies have shown that within and between clutch variation of maternal androgens may be adaptively tuned. Moreover, it has recently been hypothesized that sex steroids of maternal origin may play

  3. Maternal anxiety, maternal sensitivity, and attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevenson-Hinde, J.; Chicot, R.; Schouldice, A.; Hinde, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has related maternal anxiety to insecurity of attachment. Here we ask whether different aspects of maternal sensitivity mediate this link. From a community sample of intact families with 1-3 children, mothers with 4.5-year-olds were selected for low, medium, or high anxiety levels

  4. Maternal anxiety, maternal sensitivity, and attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevenson-Hinde, J.; Chicot, R.; Schouldice, A.; Hinde, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has related maternal anxiety to insecurity of attachment. Here we ask whether different aspects of maternal sensitivity mediate this link. From a community sample of intact families with 1-3 children, mothers with 4.5-year-olds were selected for low, medium, or high anxiety levels

  5. Healthy Maternal Ambivalence

    OpenAIRE

    Raphael-Leff, Joan

    2010-01-01

    This paper critically reviews the psychoanalytic omission in theorizing maternal subjectivity and the subsequent idealisation of the early mother-baby bond that excludes negative maternal feelings. It suggests that painful maternal experiences of resentment, persecution and hatred remain under-explored. Perhaps, even more alarming, this exclusion compels mothers to hide conflictual and shameful feelings from professionals – and from themselves. The paper suggests that healthy maternal ambival...

  6. Maine coast winds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avery, Richard

    2000-01-28

    The Maine Coast Winds Project was proposed for four possible turbine locations. Significant progress has been made at the prime location, with a lease-power purchase contract for ten years for the installation of turbine equipment having been obtained. Most of the site planning and permitting have been completed. It is expect that the turbine will be installed in early May. The other three locations are less suitable for the project, and new locations are being considered.

  7. Coast Guard SOF

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-01

    fire as they approached the coast of Vietnam.” 45 The first elements of Task Force 115, Operation Market Time, had arrived for combat duty. Task...inter- diction missions of Operation Market Time—and were generally the only maritime interdiction forces underway offshore in monsoon sea- son—these...Embassy. ITD members serve as advisers to the Panamanian Servicio Maritima Nacional (National Maritime Service), an agency modeled after the US

  8. What is Maternal Labour?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Sandford

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available What happens when we attempt to draw together the concepts of 'the maternal' and of 'labour' in the category of 'maternal labour'? What is the specificity of maternal labour as 'labour' and what is its specificity as 'maternal'? This paper argues that there is a peculiar difficulty in the category of 'maternal labour', even a fundamental contradiction, but that this is not a reason to reject it. Beginning with a brief discussion of Marx's comments, in the Introduction to the 'Grundrisse', on the category of labour, the paper then considers some classic Marxist feminist literature from the 1970s and 1980s on the relation between Marxism and feminism and on the domestic labour debates in order to try to explain the nature of the contradiction in the category of 'maternal labour' and its significance for thinking the possibility of a non-capitalist maternal subject.

  9. Neonatal thyrotoxicosis caused by maternal autoimmune hyperthyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Miguel Fragata; Maria, Ana Teresa; Prado, Sara; Limbert, Catarina

    2015-01-01

    Neonatal immune hyperthyroidism is a rare but potentially fatal condition. It occurs in 1–5% of infants born to women with Graves’ disease (GD). In most of the cases it is due to maternal antibodies transferred from the mother into the fetal compartment, stimulating the fetal thyroid by binding thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone, TSH) receptor. We present a case of neonatal thyrotoxicosis due to maternal GD detected at 25 days of age and discuss the potential pitfalls in the diagnosis. PMID:25750228

  10. The effects of maternal depression and maternal selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor exposure on the offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelien DA Olivier

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available It has been estimated that 20% of pregnant women suffer from depression and it is well documented that maternal depression can have long-lasting effects on the child. Currently, common treatment for maternal depression has been the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications (SSRIs which are used by 2-3% of pregnant women in the Nordic countries and by up to 10% of pregnant women in the United States. Antidepressants cross the placenta and are transferred to the fetus, thus, the question arises as to whether children of women taking antidepressants are at risk for altered neurodevelopmental outcomes and, if so, whether the risks are due to SSRI medication exposure or to the underlying maternal depression. This review considers the effects of maternal depression and SSRI exposure on offspring development in both clinical and preclinical populations. As it is impossible in humans to study the effects of SSRIs without taking into account the possible underlying effects of maternal depression (healthy pregnant women do not take SSRIs, animal models are of great value. For example, rodents can be used to determine the effects of maternal depression and/or perinatal SSRI exposure on offspring outcomes. Unraveling the joint (or separate effects of maternal depression and SSRI exposure will provide more insights into the risks or benefits of SSRI exposure during gestation and will help women make informed decisions about using SSRIs during pregnancy.

  11. HIV and maternal mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, Eva; Jamieson, Denise J; Danel, Isabella

    2014-11-01

    The majority of the 17 million women globally that are estimated to be infected with HIV live in Sub-Saharan Africa. Worldwide, HIV-related causes contributed to 19 000-56 000 maternal deaths in 2011 (6%-20% of maternal deaths). HIV-infected pregnant women have two to 10 times the risk of dying during pregnancy and the postpartum period compared with uninfected pregnant women. Many of these deaths can be prevented with the implementation of high-quality obstetric care, prevention and treatment of common co-infections, and treatment of HIV with ART. The paper summarizes what is known about HIV disease progression in pregnancy, specific causes of HIV-related maternal deaths, and the potential impact of treatment with antiretroviral therapy on maternal mortality. Recommendations are proposed for improving maternal health and decreasing maternal mortality among HIV-infected women based on existing evidence.

  12. Cash Transfers to Increase Antenatal Care Utilization in Kisoro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Cash Transfers Antenatal Care, Uganda. African Journal of ... We examined whether modest cash transfers for participation in antenatal ... maternal mortality rates has been debated, it is ..... Outcome effectiveness of community health workers: ...

  13. Matrilineal inheritance of a key mediator of prenatal maternal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschirren, Barbara; Ziegler, Ann-Kathrin; Pick, Joel L; Okuliarová, Monika; Zeman, Michal; Giraudeau, Mathieu

    2016-09-14

    Sex-linkage is predicted to evolve in response to sex-specific or sexually antagonistic selection. In line with this prediction, most sex-linked genes are associated with reproduction in the respective sex. In addition to traits directly involved in fertility and fecundity, mediators of maternal effects may be predisposed to evolve sex-linkage, because they indirectly affect female fitness through their effect on offspring phenotype. Here, we test for sex-linked inheritance of a key mediator of prenatal maternal effects in oviparous species, the transfer of maternally derived testosterone to the eggs. Consistent with maternal inheritance, we found that in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) granddaughters resemble their maternal (but not their paternal) grandmother in yolk testosterone deposition. This pattern of resemblance was not due to non-genetic priming effects of testosterone exposure during prenatal development, as an experimental manipulation of yolk testosterone levels did not affect the females' testosterone transfer to their own eggs later in life. Instead, W chromosome and/or mitochondrial variation may underlie the observed matrilineal inheritance pattern. Ultimately, the inheritance of mediators of maternal effects along the maternal line will allow for a fast and direct response to female-specific selection, thereby affecting the dynamics of evolutionary processes mediated by maternal effects.

  14. Maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity surveillance in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Victoria M; Campbell, Melanie; Carson, George; Fraser, William; Liston, Robert M; Walker, Mark; Barrett, Jon

    2010-12-01

    The Canadian Perinatal Surveillance System has provided a comprehensive review of maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity in Canada, and has identified several important limitations to existing national maternal data collection systems, including variability in the detail and quality of mortality data. The Canadian Perinatal Surveillance System report recommended the establishment of an ongoing national review and reporting system, as well as consistency in definitions and classifications of maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity, in order to enhance surveillance of maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity. Using review articles and studies that examined maternal mortality in general as opposed to maternal mortality associated with particular management strategies or conditions, maternal mortality and severe morbidity classifications, terminology, and comparative statistics were reviewed and employed to evaluate deficiencies in past and current methods of data collection and to seek solutions to address the need for enhanced and consistent national surveillance of maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity in Canada.

  15. Indian Ocean coasts, coastal ecology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.

    stream_size 9 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Encycl_Coast_Sci_2005_546.pdf.txt stream_source_info Encycl_Coast_Sci_2005_546.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  16. Creating a collaborative culture in maternity care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downe, Soo; Finlayson, Kenny; Fleming, Anita

    2010-01-01

    Effective collaboration between professional groups is increasingly seen as an essential element in good quality and safe health care. This is especially important in the context of maternity care, where most women have straightforward labour and birth experiences, but some require rapid transfer between care providers and settings. This article presents current accounts of collaboration--or lack of it--in maternity care in the United Kingdom, United States, and Australia. It then examines tools designed to measure collaboration and teamwork within general health care contexts. Finally, a set of characteristics are proposed for effective collaboration in maternity care, as a basis for further empirical work in this area. Copyright (c) 2010 American College of Nurse-Midwives. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. West Coast Regional Office Permits

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Fisheries implemented a license limitation program for the trawl and fixed gear sectors of Pacific Coast commercial groundfish fishery on January 1, 1993. The...

  18. Maternal mortality from hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeri, Sina; Dildy, Gary A

    2012-02-01

    Hemorrhage remains as one of the top 3 obstetrics related causes of maternal mortality, with most deaths occurring within 24-48 hours of delivery. Although hemorrhage related maternal mortality has declined globally, it continues to be a vexing problem. More specifically, the developing world continue to shoulder a disproportionate share of hemorrhage related deaths (99%) compared with industrialized nations (1%). Given the often preventable nature of death from hemorrhage, the cornerstone of effective mortality reduction involves risk factor identification, quick diagnosis, and timely management. In this monograph we will review the epidemiology, etiology, and preventative measures related to maternal mortality from hemorrhage.

  19. 27 CFR 9.75 - Central Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Central Coast. 9.75... Central Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Central Coast.” (b) Approved maps. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Central Coast...

  20. 27 CFR 9.30 - North Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false North Coast. 9.30 Section... Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “North Coast.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the North Coast viticultural area...

  1. 27 CFR 9.104 - South Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false South Coast. 9.104 Section... Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “South Coast.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of South Coast viticultural area...

  2. Maternal synchronization of gestational length and lung maturation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Besnard

    Full Text Available Among all mammals, fetal growth and organ maturation must be precisely synchronized with gestational length to optimize survival at birth. Lack of pulmonary maturation is the major cause of infant mortality in preterm birth. Whether fetal or maternal genotypes influence the close relationship between the length of gestation and lung function at birth is unknown. Structural and biochemical indicators of pulmonary maturity were measured in two mouse strains whose gestational length differed by one day. Shorter gestation in C57BL/6J mice was associated with advanced morphological and biochemical pulmonary development and better perinatal survival when compared to A/J pups born prematurely. After ovarian transplantation, A/J pups were born early in C57BL/6J dams and survived after birth, consistent with maternal control gestational length. Expression of genes critical for perinatal lung function was assessed in A/J pups born after ovarian transfer. A subset of mRNAs important for perinatal respiratory adaptation was selectively induced in the A/J pups born after ovarian transfer. mRNAs precociously induced after ovarian transfer indicated an important role for the transcription factors C/EBPα and CREB in maternally induced lung maturation. We conclude that fetal lung maturation is determined by both fetal and maternal genotypes. Ovarian transfer experiments demonstrated that maternal genotype determines the timing of birth and can influence fetal lung growth and maturation to ensure perinatal survival.

  3. Rural maternity care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Katherine J; Couchie, Carol; Ehman, William; Graves, Lisa; Grzybowski, Stefan; Medves, Jennifer

    2012-10-01

    To provide an overview of current information on issues in maternity care relevant to rural populations. Medline was searched for articles published in English from 1995 to 2012 about rural maternity care. Relevant publications and position papers from appropriate organizations were also reviewed. This information will help obstetrical care providers in rural areas to continue providing quality care for women in their communities. Recommendations 1. Women who reside in rural and remote communities in Canada should receive high-quality maternity care as close to home as possible. 2. The provision of rural maternity care must be collaborative, woman- and family-centred, culturally sensitive, and respectful. 3. Rural maternity care services should be supported through active policies aligned with these recommendations. 4. While local access to surgical and anaesthetic services is desirable, there is evidence that good outcomes can be sustained within an integrated perinatal care system without local access to operative delivery. There is evidence that the outcomes are better when women do not have to travel far from their communities. Access to an integrated perinatal care system should be provided for all women. 5. The social and emotional needs of rural women must be considered in service planning. Women who are required to leave their communities to give birth should be supported both financially and emotionally. 6. Innovative interprofessional models should be implemented as part of the solution for high-quality, collaborative, and integrated care for rural and remote women. 7. Registered nurses are essential to the provision of high-quality rural maternity care throughout pregnancy, birth, and the postpartum period. Maternity nursing skills should be recognized as a fundamental part of generalist rural nursing skills. 8. Remuneration for maternity care providers should reflect the unique challenges and increased professional responsibility faced by providers in

  4. The maternal to zygotic transition in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Lu, Xukun; Dean, Jurrien

    2013-10-01

    Prior to activation of the embryonic genome, the initiating events of mammalian development are under maternal control and include fertilization, the block to polyspermy and processing sperm DNA. Following gamete union, the transcriptionally inert sperm DNA is repackaged into the male pronucleus which fuses with the female pronucleus to form a 1-cell zygote. Embryonic transcription begins during the maternal to zygotic transfer of control in directing development. This transition occurs at species-specific times after one or several rounds of blastomere cleavage and is essential for normal development. However, even after activation of the embryonic genome, successful development relies on stored maternal components without which embryos fail to progress beyond initial cell divisions. Better understanding of the molecular basis of maternal to zygotic transition including fertilization, the activation of the embryonic genome and cleavage-stage development will provide insight into early human development that should translate into clinical applications for regenerative medicine and assisted reproductive technologies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Nearshore currents along the Karnataka coast, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Dora, G.U.; Philip, C.S.; Pednekar, P.S.; Singh, J.

    Measured current data at 7 locations and tide data at 3 locations during the pre-summer monsoon period along the west coast of India is used in the study. The surface currents during March showed a predominant northward trend and during April...

  6. Maternal and neonatal tetanus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thwaites, C Louise; Beeching, Nicholas J; Newton, Charles R

    2017-01-01

    Maternal and neonatal tetanus is still a substantial but preventable cause of mortality in many developing countries. Case fatality from these diseases remains high and treatment is limited by scarcity of resources and effective drug treatments. The Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus Elimination Initiative, launched by WHO and its partners, has made substantial progress in eliminating maternal and neonatal tetanus. Sustained emphasis on improvement of vaccination coverage, birth hygiene, and surveillance, with specific approaches in high-risk areas, has meant that the incidence of the disease continues to fall. Despite this progress, an estimated 58 000 neonates and an unknown number of mothers die every year from tetanus. As of June, 2014, 24 countries are still to eliminate the disease. Maintenance of elimination needs ongoing vaccination programmes and improved public health infrastructure. PMID:25149223

  7. Maternal Competition in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linney, Catherine; Korologou-Linden, Laurel; Campbell, Anne

    2017-03-01

    We examined maternal competition, an unexplored form of competition between women. Given women's high investment in offspring and mothers' key role in shaping their reproductive, social, and cultural success as adults, we might expect to see maternal competition between women as well as mate competition. Predictions about the effect of maternal characteristics (age, relationship status, educational background, number of children, investment in the mothering role) and child variables (age, sex) were drawn from evolutionary theory and sociological research. Mothers of primary school children (in two samples: N = 210 and 169) completed a series of questionnaires. A novel nine-item measure of maternal competitive behavior (MCQ) and two subscales assessing Covert (MCQ-C) and Face-to-Face (MCQ-FF) forms of competition were developed using confirmatory factor analysis. Competitiveness (MCQ score) was predicted by maternal investment, single motherhood, fewer children, and (marginally) child's older age. The effect of single motherhood (but not other predictors) was partially mediated by greater maternal investment. In response to a scenario of their child underperforming relative to their peers, a mother's competitive distress was a positive function of the importance she ascribed to their success and her estimation of her child's ability. Her competitive distress was highly correlated with the distress she attributed to a female friend, hinting at bidirectional dyadic effects. Qualitative responses indicated that nonspecific bragging and boasting about academic achievements were the most common irritants. Although 40% of women were angered or annoyed by such comments, less than 5% endorsed a direct hostile response. Instead, competitive mothers were conversationally shunned and rejected as friends. We suggest that the interdependence of mothers based on reciprocal childcare has supported a culture of egalitarianism that is violated by explicit competitiveness.

  8. Submarine canyons off Madras Coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Setty, M.G.A.P.

    Submarine canyons off the coast of Madras, Tamil Nadu, India were studied during cruise of @iINS Kistna@@ as part of the IIOE programme They consist of hill-like projections and V-shaped valleys Their other features are also reported...

  9. French in the Ivory Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djite, Paulin G.

    1989-01-01

    Overviews the Ivory Coast's sociolinguistic situation. Standard French, restricted to the elite, is threatened by the local lingua franca. The spread and functional allocations of Dyula and Popular French support the point that the pervasive use of a language does not always lead to its adoption as a national language. (CB)

  10. Ivory Coast: Country Status Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, Thea C.

    A survey of the status of language usage in the Ivory Coast begins with an overview of the usage patterns of French, the official language, and the five most commonly used native languages: Jula, Anyi-Baoule, Senoufo, Bete, and Dan. Recent Ivorian efforts at language planning, development, and research are also highlighted. A matrix follows that…

  11. Ivory Coast: Country Status Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, Thea C.

    A survey of the status of language usage in the Ivory Coast begins with an overview of the usage patterns of French, the official language, and the five most commonly used native languages: Jula, Anyi-Baoule, Senoufo, Bete, and Dan. Recent Ivorian efforts at language planning, development, and research are also highlighted. A matrix follows that…

  12. French in the Ivory Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djite, Paulin G.

    1989-01-01

    Overviews the Ivory Coast's sociolinguistic situation. Standard French, restricted to the elite, is threatened by the local lingua franca. The spread and functional allocations of Dyula and Popular French support the point that the pervasive use of a language does not always lead to its adoption as a national language. (CB)

  13. Second Trimester Maternal Serum Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: AFP Maternal; Maternal Serum AFP; MSAFP; msAFP; Triple Screen; Triple Test; Quad Screen; ... Free Fetal DNA Were you looking instead for AFP tumor markers , used to help diagnose and monitor ...

  14. Neuroendocrine control of maternal behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Caughey, Sarah Dawn

    2011-01-01

    Maternal behaviour during the peri-partum period, albeit in differing forms, can be observed in all mammals, thus it must serve an important evolutionary purpose in enabling the successful raising of offspring. Maternal behaviour is comprised of a large suite of behaviours; in rodents these are generally defined as lactation, pup retrieval, maternal aggression and pup grooming. The maternal behaviour circuitry involves many brain regions including the hypothalamus and the limbi...

  15. 46 CFR 153.977 - Supervision of cargo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supervision of cargo transfer. 153.977 Section 153.977 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS... Procedures § 153.977 Supervision of cargo transfer. The person in charge of cargo transfer shall:...

  16. Upwelling along the east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, C.S.; Varadachari, V.V.R.

    the premonsoon and monsoon periods. Waters from deeper layers of the shelf appear to reach the surface causing considerable fall of surface temperature near the coast. The probable causes for these differences in upwelling along the coast are discussed...

  17. Coastal vulnerability assessment for Egypt's Mediterranean coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed E. Hereher

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Egyptian Mediterranean coast was examined for the vulnerability to sea-level rise using the coastal vulnerability index (CVI, which was derived from the geologic and physical characteristics of the coast. This paper is the first to apply the CVI along the Egyptian coasts. The coast has different geomorphologic aspects ranging from steep-slope-rocky cliffs to gentle sloping deltaic sediments. Although the coast is under low tidal effect and low height waves, results showed that more than one-third of the 1000 km long coast is severely vulnerable to sea-level rise. Unfortunately, the area under high vulnerability to sea-level rise comprises the densely populated Nile Delta coast. National actions should be implemented to safeguard the entire coast at the threatened locations.

  18. Surfzone dynamics of the Konkan coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; Anand, N.M.; Nayak, B.U.

    The Konkan Coast has the distinct morphological features than the rest of the Indian Coast. Field studies on beach variation, littoral environmental observation and longshore sediment transport were carried out for a period of one year, between...

  19. Zooplankton along the Tamil Nadu coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Santhakumari, V.; Saraswathy, M.

    Zooplankton abundance along two sectors at Cape Comorin and Tuticorin of Tamil Nadu Coast, southeast coast of India was studied. High biomass contributed by Ostracods, Salps, Chaetognaths etc., were observed along Tuticorin transect. In the Cape...

  20. Bivalve aquaculture transfers in Atlantic Europe. Part A: Transfer activities and legal framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muehlbauer, F.; Fraser, D.; Brenner, M.

    2014-01-01

    Intentional transfers of numerous bivalve species have had a long tradition and are commonly conducted along the European Atlantic coast. However numerous studies have concluded that intentional transfer of species for aquaculture purposes is one of the most principal vectors for the introduction...

  1. Maternity Leave in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Joyce Yen; Han, Wen-Jui

    2010-01-01

    Using the first nationally representative birth cohort study in Taiwan, this paper examines the role that maternity leave policy in Taiwan plays in the timing of mothers returning to work after giving birth, as well as the extent to which this timing is linked to the amount of time mothers spend with their children and their use of breast milk…

  2. Maternity Leave Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Lucy; Broeks, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Over recent years many European Union countries have made changes to the design of the maternity leave provision. These policy developments reflect calls for greater gender equality in the workforce and more equal share of childcare responsibilities. However, while research shows that long period of leave can have negative effects on women's labour market attachment and career advancements, early return to work can be seen as a factor preventing exclusive breastfeeding, and therefore, potentially having negative health impacts for babies. Indeed, the World Health Organisation recommends exclusive breastfeeding up to 6 months of age to provide babies with the nutrition for healthy growth and brain development, protection from life-threatening ailments, obesity and non-communicable diseases such as asthma and diabetes. Therefore, labour market demands on women may be at odds with the health benefits for children gained by longer periods of maternity leave. The aim of this article is to examine the relationship between leave provision and health benefits for children. We examine maternity and parental leave provision across European countries and its potential impact on the breastfeeding of very young babies (up to 6-months of age). We also consider economic factors of potential extension of maternity leave provision to 6 months, such as costs to businesses, effects on the female labour market attachment, and wider consequences (benefits and costs) for individuals, families, employers and the wider society. PMID:28983432

  3. maternal mortality in Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malawi; however there has been a lack of effective imple- mentation. ... the SWAp Programme of Work. 3”. Methods ... the current maternal mortality strategy may be implement- ... point of delivery. ... include the cost of a new chitenje (sarong) necessary for child- ..... nomic status and access to care for TB in urban Lilongwe.

  4. Maternal temperature during labour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, F. D.; Wolf, H.; Smjt, B. J.; Bekedam, D. J.; de Vos, R.; Wahlen, I.

    2008-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to describe the variation of normal maternal temperature during labour. Design A prospective cohort study. Setting Two hospitals in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Population All women with a live singleton pregnancy and a gestational age of 36 weeks or more admitted

  5. Maternal Sexuality and Breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Alison

    2005-01-01

    In this paper I consider the ways in which lactation has been discussed as a form of maternal sexuality, and the implications this carries for our understanding of breastfeeding practices and sexuality. Drawing on knowledge constructed in the western world during the last half of the twentieth century, the paper identifies a shift between the…

  6. Spatial Reconnaissance: Technical Report ComCoast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahlhorn, F.

    2005-01-01

    ComCoast (Combined Functions in Coastal Defence Zones) is an INTERREG IIIB project funded by the EU. ComCoast aims to develop and demonstrate innovative solutions for flood protection in coastal areas. In ComCoast, five countries from the North Sea Region are involved: Belgium, Denmark, The

  7. 27 CFR 9.116 - Sonoma Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sonoma Coast. 9.116... Sonoma Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sonoma Coast”. (b) Approved map. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Sonoma Coast viticultural area are...

  8. 75 FR 60867 - Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Amendments 20...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... catch accounting. Response. Appendix H to the EIS for Amendment 20, the ``Regulatory Impact Review and... Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Amendments 20 and 21; Trawl... Part 902 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-AY68 Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

  9. [Social inequalities in maternal health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azria, E; Stewart, Z; Gonthier, C; Estellat, C; Deneux-Tharaux, C

    2015-10-01

    Although medical literature on social inequalities in perinatal health is qualitatively heterogeneous, it is quantitatively important and reveals the existence of a social gradient in terms of perinatal risk. However, published data regarding maternal health, if also qualitatively heterogeneous, are relatively less numerous. Nevertheless, it appears that social inequalities also exist concerning severe maternal morbidity as well as maternal mortality. Analyses are still insufficient to understand the mechanisms involved and explain how the various dimensions of the women social condition interact with maternal health indicators. Inadequate prenatal care and suboptimal obstetric care may be intermediary factors, as they are related to both social status and maternal outcomes, in terms of maternal morbidity, its worsening or progression, and maternal mortality.

  10. Red Tide off Texas Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Red tides (algae) bloomed late this summer along a 300-mile stretch of Texas' Gulf Coast, killing millions of fish and shellfish as well as making some people sick. State officials are calling this the worst red tide bloom in 14 years. The algae produces a poison that paralyzes fish and prevents them from breathing. There is concern that the deadly algae could impact or even wipe out this year's oyster harvest in Texas, which usually peaks during the Thanksgiving and Christmas holidays. The red tides were first observed off the Texas coast in mid-August and have been growing steadily in size ever since. Red tides tend to bloom and subside rapidly, depending upon changes in wind speed and direction, water temperature, salinity, and rainfall patterns (as the algae doesn't do as well in fresher water). This true-color image of the Texas Gulf Coast was acquired on September 29, 2000, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The red tide can be seen as the dark reddish discoloration in the ocean running southwest to northeast along the coast. In this scene, the bloom appears to be concentrated north and east of Corpus Christi, just off Matagorda Island. The image was made at 500-meter resolution using a combination of MODIS' visible bands 1 (red), 4 (green), and 3 (blue). The city of Houston can be seen clearly as the large, greyish cluster of pixels to the north and west of Galveston Bay, which is about mid-way up the coastline in this image. Also visible in this image are plumes of smoke, perhaps wildfires, both to the north and northeast of Houston. For more information about red tides, refer to the Texas Red Tide Web site. Image courtesy Andrey Savtchenko, MODIS Data Support Team, and the MODIS Ocean Team, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

  11. Traditional West Coast Native Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Deagle, George

    1988-01-01

    An important part of the complex culture of the Native people of Canada's Pacific coast is the traditional system of medicine each culture has developed. Population loss from epidemics and the influence of dominant European cultures has resulted in loss of many aspects of traditional medicine. Although some Native practices are potentially hazardous, continuation of traditional approaches to illness remains an important part of health care for many Native people. The use of “devil's club” pla...

  12. Maternal BMI Associations with Maternal and Cord Blood Vitamin D Levels in a North American Subset of Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO Study Participants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jami L Josefson

    Full Text Available Obesity in pregnancy may be associated with reduced placental transfer of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD. The objective of this study was to examine associations between maternal BMI and maternal and cord blood levels of 25-OHD in full term neonates born to a single racial cohort residing at similar latitude. Secondary objectives were to examine associations between maternal glucose tolerance with maternal levels of 25-OHD and the relationship between cord blood 25-OHD levels and neonatal size.This study was conducted among participants of the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes (HAPO Study meeting the following criteria: residing at latitudes 41-43°, maternal white race, and gestational age 39-41 weeks. Healthy pregnant women underwent measures of height, weight, and a 75-g fasting oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT at approximately 28 weeks gestation. Maternal and cord blood sera were analyzed for total 25-OHD by HPLC tandem mass spectrometry. Statistical analyses included ANOVA and linear regression models.Maternal and cord blood (N = 360 mean levels (sd of 25-OHD were 37.2 (11.2 and 23.4 (9.2 ng/ml, respectively, and these levels were significantly different among the 3 field centers (ANOVA p< 0.001. Maternal serum 25-OHD was lower by 0.40 ng/ml for BMI higher by 1 kg/m2 (p<0.001 in an adjusted model. Maternal fasting plasma glucose, insulin sensitivity, and presence of GDM were not associated with maternal serum 25-OHD level when adjusted for maternal BMI. Cord blood 25-OHD was lower by 0.26 ng/ml for maternal BMI higher by 1 kg/m2 (p<0.004. With adjustment for maternal age, field center, birth season and maternal serum 25-OHD, the association of cord blood 25-OHD with maternal BMI was attenuated. Neither birth weight nor neonatal adiposity was significantly associated with cord blood 25-OHD levels.These results suggest that maternal levels of 25-OHD are associated with maternal BMI. The results also suggest that interpretation of

  13. Maternal near miss: an indicator for maternal health and maternal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Pragti

    2014-07-01

    Maternal mortality is one of the important indicators used for the measurement of maternal health. Although maternal mortality ratio remains high, maternal deaths in absolute numbers are rare in a community. To overcome this challenge, maternal near miss has been suggested as a compliment to maternal death. It is defined as pregnant or recently delivered woman who survived a complication during pregnancy, childbirth or 42 days after termination of pregnancy. So far various nomenclature and criteria have been used to identify maternal near-miss cases and there is lack of uniform criteria for identification of near miss. The World Health Organization recently published criteria based on markers of management and organ dysfunction, which would enable systematic data collection on near miss and development of summary estimates. The prevalence of near miss is higher in developing countries and causes are similar to those of maternal mortality namely hemorrhage, hypertensive disorders, sepsis and obstructed labor. Reviewing near miss cases provide significant information about the three delays in health seeking so that appropriate action is taken. It is useful in identifying health system failures and assessment of quality of maternal health-care. Certain maternal near miss indicators have been suggested to evaluate the quality of care. The near miss approach will be an important tool in evaluation and assessment of the newer strategies for improving maternal health.

  14. Maternal near miss: An indicator for maternal health and maternal care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragti Chhabra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal mortality is one of the important indicators used for the measurement of maternal health. Although maternal mortality ratio remains high, maternal deaths in absolute numbers are rare in a community. To overcome this challenge, maternal near miss has been suggested as a compliment to maternal death. It is defined as pregnant or recently delivered woman who survived a complication during pregnancy, childbirth or 42 days after termination of pregnancy. So far various nomenclature and criteria have been used to identify maternal near-miss cases and there is lack of uniform criteria for identification of near miss. The World Health Organization recently published criteria based on markers of management and organ dysfunction, which would enable systematic data collection on near miss and development of summary estimates. The prevalence of near miss is higher in developing countries and causes are similar to those of maternal mortality namely hemorrhage, hypertensive disorders, sepsis and obstructed labor. Reviewing near miss cases provide significant information about the three delays in health seeking so that appropriate action is taken. It is useful in identifying health system failures and assessment of quality of maternal health-care. Certain maternal near miss indicators have been suggested to evaluate the quality of care. The near miss approach will be an important tool in evaluation and assessment of the newer strategies for improving maternal health.

  15. Reconfiguring Maternity Care?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Nis

    were not obstacles which the proposed changes should overcome, but are on the contrary necessary, as it is the alliances between the particular interests and the proposed changes that motor the initiatives. The interests were not invented through the initiatives but are formed through history. Although...... at a hospital and a group of researchers which included me. Both initiatives involved numerous seemingly different interests that were held together and related to reconfiguring maternity care. None of the initiatives can unequivocally be labelled a success, as neither managed to change maternity care, at least...... not in the intended manner. It was, however, an achievement to relate the different interests for a period. In this dissertation I will elucidate the proposed changes in the initiatives as well as expound on the manner in which they were proposed. It is argued that the different interests involved in the initiatives...

  16. Good maternal nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breda, Joao; Robertson, Aileen

    This publication has three parts: •a summary of the results of a systematic review of the most recent evidence on maternal nutrition, the prevention of obesity and noncommunicable diseases; •a review of existing recommendations for nutrition, physical activity and weight gain during pregnancy...... in European countries; and •lists of possible opportunities for action in European countries. The overview and exploration of the national recommendations for nutrition, physical activity and weight gain during pregnancy are based on the results of a survey in which 51 of the 53 Member States in the WHO....... These are opportunities to promote nutrition and health throughout the life-course, ensure optimal diet-related fetal development and reduce the impact of morbidity and risk factors for noncommunicable diseases by improving maternal nutrition....

  17. Maternal obesity and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S R; Kolberg, B H; Varner, M W; Railsback, L D

    1987-05-01

    We examined the risk of maternal obesity in 588 pregnant women weighing at least 113.6 kilograms (250 pounds) during pregnancy. Compared with a control group matched for age and parity, we found a significantly increased risk in the obese patient for gestational diabetes, hypertension, therapeutic induction, prolonged second stage of labor, oxytocin stimulation of labor, shoulder dystocia, infants weighing more than 4,000 grams and delivery after 42 weeks gestation. Certain operative complications were also more common in obese women undergoing cesarean section including estimated blood loss of more than 1,000 milliliters, operating time of more than two hours and wound infection postoperatively. These differences remained significant after controlling for appropriate confounding variables. We conclude that maternal obesity should be considered a high risk factor.

  18. Maternal obesity in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devlieger, Roland; Benhalima, Katrien; Damm, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Paralleling the global epidemic of obesity figures in the general population, the incidence of maternal obesity (BMI >30 kg/m2 at the start of pregnancy) has been rising over the last world. While most European countries do not systematically report obesity figures in their pregnant population......, the prevalence of maternal obesity varies from 7 to 25% and seems strongly related to social and educational inequalities. Obesity during pregnancy represents an important preventable risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes and is associated with negative long-term health outcomes for both mothers...... and offspring. These effects are often aggravated by the high incidence of abnormal glucose tolerance and excessive gestational weight gain found in this group. The main controversies around the management of the obese pregnant women are related to (1) the value of repeated weighing during pregnancy, (2...

  19. Maternal Hartnup disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, B E; Levy, H L

    1986-07-01

    We describe childbearing in two unrelated women with Hartnup disorder, an inborn error of neutral amino acid transport. Two living, unaffected offspring born after untreated and uneventful pregnancies, one from each woman, have had normal growth and development. The older one had an IQ of 92 at 4 years while the younger one at 4 months had a Development Quotient of 107 on the Mental Scale and 102 on the Motor Scale. A third offspring had a neural tube defect complicated by hydrocephalus and died at 3 months. This mother had a family history of major congenital anomalies. We think that this experience supports the view that Hartnup disorder in the mother, unlike phenylketonuria, does not have an adverse effect on the fetus. The presence of normal ratios of the amino acid concentrations between maternal and umbilical veins in one mother also suggests that placental transport of free amino acids, unlike renal transport, may not be reduced in maternal Hartnup disorder.

  20. Good maternal nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breda, Joao; Robertson, Aileen

    This publication has three parts: •a summary of the results of a systematic review of the most recent evidence on maternal nutrition, the prevention of obesity and noncommunicable diseases; •a review of existing recommendations for nutrition, physical activity and weight gain during pregnancy...... in European countries; and •lists of possible opportunities for action in European countries. The overview and exploration of the national recommendations for nutrition, physical activity and weight gain during pregnancy are based on the results of a survey in which 51 of the 53 Member States in the WHO....... These are opportunities to promote nutrition and health throughout the life-course, ensure optimal diet-related fetal development and reduce the impact of morbidity and risk factors for noncommunicable diseases by improving maternal nutrition....

  1. Embryo-maternal communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østrup, Esben; Hyttel, Poul; Østrup, Olga

    2011-01-01

    Communication during early pregnancy is essential for successful reproduction. In this review we address the beginning of the communication between mother and developing embryo; including morphological and transcriptional changes in the endometrium as well as epigenetic regulation mechanisms...... directing the placentation. An increasing knowledge of the embryo-maternal communication might not only help to improve the fertility of our farm animals but also our understanding of human health and reproduction....

  2. The Maternal Heroine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Messer

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available There is a Chinese curse quoted in glib desk calendars that have a phrase for each day: ‘May you live in interesting times’. In fiction, maternity has not often been seen as terribly interesting, and in the real world having babies often stops a mother from writing, off and on and even for years. The story of mothers and babies seems elusive, not fit for the imagination, for where’s the story? The ‘maternal heroine’, a protagonist and main character whose actions and identity are closely bound up with her work and experience of herself as a mother of young and dependent children, is rare. How could she not be? She’s busy giving off strong whiffs of routine. Where’s the drama in that? And what are babies? They’re not thinking, arguing agents for change—hardly protagonists—even if antagonistic at the cocktail hour. At least, that is one way of opening up the question of the maternal heroine.

  3. Selenoproteins and maternal nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, A C; Zoidis, E; Surai, P F; Zervas, G

    2008-12-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element of fundamental importance to health due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive properties attributed to its presence within at least 25 selenoproteins (Sel). Sel include but not limited to glutathione peroxidases (GPx1-GPx6), thioredoxin reductases (TrxR1-TrxR3), iodothyronine deiodinases (ID1-ID3), selenophosphate synthetase 2 (SPS2), 15-kDa Sel (Sel15), SelH, SelI, SelK, SelM, SelN, SelO, SelP, SelR, SelS, SelT, SelV, SelW, as well as the 15-kDa Sel (Fep15), SelJ and SelU found in fish. In this review, we describe some of the recent progress in our understanding of the mechanisms of Sel synthesis. The impact of maternal Se intake on offspring is also discussed. The key regulatory point of Sel synthesis is Se itself, which acts predominantly at post-transcriptional levels, although recent findings indicate transcriptional and redox regulation. Maternal nutrition affects the performance and health of the progeny. Both maternal and offspring Se supplementations are essential for the antioxidant protection of the offspring. Prenatal Se supplementation provides an effective antioxidant system that is already in place at the time of birth while, postnatal Se supplementation becomes the main determinant of progeny Se status after the first few days of progeny life.

  4. AN AUDIT OF MATERNAL DEATHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavana Gowda

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: A study of maternal death conducted to evaluate various factors responsible for maternal deaths. To identify complications in pregnancy, a childbirth which result in maternal death, and to identify opportunities for preventive intervention and understand the events leading to death; so that improving maternal health and reducing maternal mortality rate significantly. To analyze the causes and epidemiological amounts maternal mortality e.g. age parity, socioeconomic status and literacy. In order to reduce maternal mortality and to implement safe motherhood program and complications of pregnancy and to find out safe motherhood program. METHODS: The data collected was a retrograde by a proforma containing particulars of the diseased, detailed history and relatives were interviewed for additional information. The data collected was analysed. RESULTS: Maternal mortality rate in our own institution is 200/ 100,000 live births. Among 30 maternal deaths, 56% deaths (17 were among low socio - economic status, groups 60% deaths among unbooked 53.5% deaths more along illiterates evidenced by direct and indirect deaths about 25% of deaths were preventable. CONCLUSION: Maternal death is a great tragedy in the family life. It is crusade to know not just the medical cause of the death but the circumstances what makes these continued tragic death even more unacceptable is that deaths are largely preventable

  5. Maternal mortality in Bijapur district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya A. Thobbi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objectives of this study is to evaluate the incidence of maternal deaths, causes responsible for maternal mortality, direct and indirect factors, and various preventable methods to reduce maternal mortality rate. Background: 95% of maternal deaths occur in Asia and Africa. The need for undertaking this study is to know the maternal mortality rate, analyze the causes and preventable factors of death occurring in the district of Bijapur, Karnataka, India. Methodology: It is a study of 2years from the Records of District Health Office and Institutions on maternal mortality from June 2011 to May 2013 in Bijapur. Results: In two years there were fifty eight maternal deaths and seventy nine thousand five hundred and sixty six live births, hence maternal mortality ratio was seventy three per lakh live births. Eighty two percent of maternal deaths occurred in families who belonged to Below Poverty Line. Prevalence of anemia in pregnancy was 79.3%. Severe anemia (Hemoglobin <7g% seen in 5.1% was the most common indirect cause of death. Forty three percent of the deaths occurred at private setups. Hemorrhage, Septicemia and Preeclampsia & Eclampsia were responsible for 44.82%, 15.51% and 6.89% respectively. Conclusion: Majority of the maternal deaths are preventable if these four delays are avoided: a Delay in identifying the problem. b Delay in seeking care. c Delay in reaching the referral institute. d Delay in getting treatment on reaching the referral institute.

  6. Investigating financial incentives for maternal health: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Mary Ellen; Higgs, Elizabeth S; Koblinsky, Marge

    2013-12-01

    Projection of current trends in maternal and neonatal mortality reduction shows that many countries will fall short of the UN Millennium Development Goal 4 and 5. Underutilization of maternal health services contributes to this poor progress toward reducing maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Moreover, the quality of services continues to lag in many countries, with a negative effect on the health of women and their babies, including deterring women from seeking care. To enhance the use and provision of quality maternal care, countries and donors are increasingly using financial incentives. This paper introduces the JHPN Supplement, in which each paper reviews the evidence of the effectiveness of a specific financial incentive instrument with the aim of improving the use and quality of maternal healthcare and impact. The US Agency for International Development and the US National Institutes of Health convened a US Government Evidence Summit on Enhancing Provision and Use of Maternal Health Services through Financial Incentives on 24-25 April 2012 in Washington, DC. The Summit brought together leading global experts in finance, maternal health, and health systems from governments, academia, development organizations, and foundations to assess the evidence on whether financial incentives significantly and substantially increase provision, use and quality of maternal health services, and the contextual factors that impact the effectiveness of these incentives. Evidence review teams evaluated the multidisciplinary evidence of various financial mechanisms, including supply-side incentives (e.g. performance-based financing, user fees, and various insurance mechanisms) and demand-side incentives (e.g. conditional cash transfers, vouchers, user fee exemptions, and subsidies for care-seeking). At the Summit, the teams presented a synthesis of evidence and initial recommendations on practice, policy, and research for discussion. The Summit enabled structured

  7. Maternally acquired runt disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, A E; Billingham, R E

    1973-01-19

    Without altering the structural integrity of the placenta by irradiation or drugs, we have shown that it is possible to immunize females both adoptively and actively against the paternally inherited transplantation antigens of their fetuses. Such immunization causes a high incidence of runt disease among the litters. Although the putative chimeric status of the affected offspring has yet to be confirmed, the results of our experiments support the thesis that runt disease is caused by the activities of "unwanted" immigrant lymphocytes from the maternal circulation. Our results suggest that immunologically activated cells are more likely to cross the placenta than normal cells and that this greater mobility may not be related to the immunologic specificity of the activated cells. Two factors may have contributed to the apparent failure of numerous previous attempts to demonstrate the capacity of transplantation immunity to affect the well-being of a fetus or, more correctly, its placenta, in the way that might be expected of a homograft. (i) Investigators were preoccupied with obtaining a classic type of rejection, in utero, analogous to the rejection of an orthotopic skin homograft. The birth of consistently healthy-looking litters, interpreted as a failure of the experiment, convinced the investigators of the efficacy of nature's solution of the homograft problem and there was no reason for them to suspect its possible limitations. Observation of the litters for several weeks might have uncovered the phenomenon of maternally induced runt disease. (ii) Most investigators resorted to hyperimmunization of the mothers. This would have facilitated the synthesis of protective isoantibodies capable of interfering with the expression of the potentially harmful cellular immune response (6). Ever since the abnormalities of runt disease were first described they have repeatedly been compared to those observed in patients with certain lymphomas (17). Various theories have been

  8. Maternal mortality due to trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Vivian Carolina; Pearlman, Mark

    2012-02-01

    Maternal mortality is an important indicator of adequacy of health care in our society. Improvements in the obstetric care system as well as advances in technology have contributed to reduction in maternal mortality rates. Trauma complicates up to 7% of all pregnancies and has emerged as the leading cause of maternal mortality, becoming a significant concern for the public health system. Maternal mortality secondary to trauma can often be prevented by coordinated medical care, but it is essential that caregivers recognize the unique situation of providing simultaneous care to 2 patients who have a complex physiologic relationship. Optimal management of the pregnant trauma victim requires a multidisciplinary team, where the obstetrician plays a central role. This review focuses on the incidence of maternal mortality due to trauma, the mechanisms involved in traumatic injury, the important anatomic and physiologic changes that may predispose to mortality due to trauma, and finally, preventive strategies that may decrease the incidence of traumatic maternal death.

  9. [Precautionary maternity leave in Tirol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludescher, K; Baumgartner, E; Roner, A; Brezinka, C

    1998-01-01

    Under Austrian law, precautionary maternity leave is a decree issued by the district public health physician. It forbids a pregnant woman to work and mandates immediate maternity leave. Regular maternity leave for all women employed in all jobs begins at 32 weeks of gestation. Women who work in workplaces deemed dangerous and women with a history of obstetric problems such as premature or growth-retarded babies from previous pregnancies are regularly 'sent' into precautionary maternity leave. The public health physicians of Tirol's nine administrative districts were interviewed and supplied data on precautionary maternity leave from their districts. In 100 women who attended the clinic for pregnancies at risk of the Obstetrics/Gynecology Department of Innsbruck University Hospital and who had already obtained precautionary maternity leave, the medical/administrative procedure was studied in each case and correlated with pregnancy outcome. The town district of Innsbruck and the district that comprises the suburbs of the provincial capital had the highest rates of precautionary maternity leave. The town district of Innsbruck had a rate of 24.3% of all pregnant women (employed and not employed) in precautionary maternity leave in 1997, whereas the whole province of Tirol had 13.4%. More than 80% of decrees for precautionary maternity leave are issued by district public health physicians on the basis of written recommendations from gynecologists. One third of women who are sent into precautionary maternity leave are issued the decree prior to 12 weeks of gestation - mostly cases of multiple pregnancies and women with previous miscarriages. The present system of precautionary maternity leave appears to work in the sense that most working pregnant women with risk factors are correctly identified - with most errors on the side of caution. As the system also helps employers - the employee's pay is paid from the federal family support fund and state insurance once she is in

  10. Qingdao - Pearl onthe Shandong coast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BRUCE CONNOLLY

    2004-01-01

    <正> Qingdao, its name is synonymous with beer. Tsingtao Beer, one of the country’s finest, has put the city firmly onto the international scene. However, there is so much more to this pearl on the coast of Shandong Province. As China goes forward to the 2008 Olympics the city will become even better known for it has been chosen as the venue for the ocean sailing events.Qingdao occupies a peninsula jutting into the Yellow Sea. It is hilly, with a coastline of rocky headlands connected by fine curving sandy beaches. Its natural

  11. US Coast Guard Corrosion Program Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-19

    2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE US Coast Guard Corrosion Program Office 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) US Coast Guard ,North Carolina Sector...have two purposes. Coatings on Coast Guard Aircraft Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited. U S

  12. [Epidemiology and maternal thrombosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosson, Jean-Luc

    2003-01-01

    The monthly incidence of deep vein thrombosis during pregnancy varies from 0.1 to 0.8 per 1000 pregnancies, depending on the study. These figures are undoubtedly an underestimation because they were determined from clinical events with no estimation of asymptomatic forms which, in general, increase the prevalence about 3-fold. Although the absolute figures are reliable, the consequences in terms of maternal mortality and post-phlebitis sequelae warrant the careful attention paid to this condition. Moreover, it should be recalled that the prevalence of superficial venous thrombosis is similar and may be associated with a risk of pulmonary embolism.

  13. Child Health, Maternal Marital and Socioeconomic Factors, and Maternal Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbarski, Dana; Witt, Whitney P.

    2013-01-01

    Although maternal socioeconomic status and health predict in part children's future health and socioeconomic prospects, it is possible that the intergenerational association flows in the other direction such that child health affects maternal outcomes. Previous research demonstrates that poor child health increases the risk of adverse maternal…

  14. Child Health, Maternal Marital and Socioeconomic Factors, and Maternal Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbarski, Dana; Witt, Whitney P.

    2013-01-01

    Although maternal socioeconomic status and health predict in part children's future health and socioeconomic prospects, it is possible that the intergenerational association flows in the other direction such that child health affects maternal outcomes. Previous research demonstrates that poor child health increases the risk of adverse maternal…

  15. Marine archaeological investigations along the Saurashtra coast, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Tripati, S.

    . Foreign travellers have mentioned the names of active ports on the Saurashtra coast since the early historical period. During the medieval period this coast has witnessed hectic maritime activities and international trade and commerce. Marine...

  16. Surf zone dynamics along the south Karnataka Coast between Bhatkal and Ullal, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; SanilKumar, V.; Nayak, B.U.; Raju, N.S.N.

    stronger in June, and relatively low and steady during the rest of the year. Coast between Padubidri and Ullal experienced relatively stronger longshore currents than the coast between Maravanthe and Malpe. Longshore sediment transport rate was relatively...

  17. 78 FR 43125 - Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Commercial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    ... States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Commercial, Limited Entry Pacific Coast... Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP). This action proposes to implement trailing actions for the program... time, the Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council) and NMFS have been addressing...

  18. Occurrence and transport of synthetic musks in paired maternal blood, umbilical cord blood, and breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolan; Jing, Ye; Ma, Li; Zhou, Jing; Fang, Xiangming; Zhang, Xinyu; Yu, Yingxin

    2015-01-01

    Although early exposure to environmental pollutants may have important toxicological consequences, the mechanisms of transplacental transfer of synthetic musks are still not well understood. The objective of the present study was to learn the musk contaminations in three matrices, including maternal blood, umbilical cord blood, and breast milk; and investigate their placental transfer mechanisms. The concentrations of eight commonly used synthetic musks were measured in 42 paired samples (126 individual samples in total) of maternal serum, umbilical cord serum, and breast milk from Chinese women living in Shanghai. Musks were ubiquitously detected, especially galaxolide (HHCB) and musk xylene (MX). The total lipid-based concentrations were higher in umbilical cord sera (87.3ng/g), but lower in breast milk (35.2ng/g), compared with maternal serum concentrations (71.2ng/g). There were significant correlations between maternal serum concentrations of HHCBs (HHCB and HHCB-lactone) and umbilical cord serum concentrations, and between maternal serum concentrations and breast milk concentrations (Spearman's rho=0.338-0.597, pumbilical cord sera were >1. And the HHCB-lactone/HHCB ratio in maternal sera was higher compared with umbilical cord sera. Contamination levels were low compared with other regions and HHCBs were found to be the predominant constituents. No regional differences or age-related accumulations were observed. Our study suggests that prenatal exposure to HHCBs occurs and that transplacental transfer is the main route of exposure. Preferential accumulation in umbilical cord blood was observed. The results showed that transplacental transfer of HHCB did not correspond to passive diffusion since the transfer ratios were significantly different from 1. The transfer ratio for HHCB was also larger than that of HHCB-lactone, although HHCB has higher lipid solubility. Low fetal metabolism of HHCB was suggested by the HHCB-lactone/HHCB ratio in maternal and

  19. 78 FR 68764 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Commercial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Commercial, Limited Entry Pacific Coast... fixed gear sectors managed under the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP). This action... catcher/processor trawl fleets (whiting only). Since that time, the Pacific Fishery Management...

  20. Maternal Talk About Disappearance Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfield, Beverly A.

    1995-01-01

    Examined maternal talk about events regarding hidden, missing, or absent persons or objects, and the relationship of maternal language to children's acquisition of words for disappearance, among 12 mother-infant pairs. Results found that infants who had acquired "gone" and similar terms experienced more disappearance events than children…

  1. Evolution of maternal effect senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorad, Jacob A; Nussey, Daniel H

    2016-01-12

    Increased maternal age at reproduction is often associated with decreased offspring performance in numerous species of plants and animals (including humans). Current evolutionary theory considers such maternal effect senescence as part of a unified process of reproductive senescence, which is under identical age-specific selective pressures to fertility. We offer a novel theoretical perspective by combining William Hamilton's evolutionary model for aging with a quantitative genetic model of indirect genetic effects. We demonstrate that fertility and maternal effect senescence are likely to experience different patterns of age-specific selection and thus can evolve to take divergent forms. Applied to neonatal survival, we find that selection for maternal effects is the product of age-specific fertility and Hamilton's age-specific force of selection for fertility. Population genetic models show that senescence for these maternal effects can evolve in the absence of reproductive or actuarial senescence; this implies that maternal effect aging is a fundamentally distinct demographic manifestation of the evolution of aging. However, brief periods of increasingly beneficial maternal effects can evolve when fertility increases with age faster than cumulative survival declines. This is most likely to occur early in life. Our integration of theory provides a general framework with which to model, measure, and compare the evolutionary determinants of the social manifestations of aging. Extension of our maternal effects model to other ecological and social contexts could provide important insights into the drivers of the astonishing diversity of lifespans and aging patterns observed among species.

  2. National level maternal health decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koduah, A.

    2016-01-01

    Maternal and neonatal deaths and morbidity still pose an enormous challenge for health authorities in Ghana, a lower middle income country. Despite massive investments in maternal and neonatal health and special attention through Millennium Development Goals (MDG) 4 a

  3. 75 FR 79956 - Protection for Whistleblowers in the Coast Guard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-21

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 53 RIN 1625-AB33 Protection for Whistleblowers in the Coast Guard AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Direct final rule; request for comments. SUMMARY: By this direct final rule, the Coast Guard is amending its ``Coast Guard Whistleblower Protection'' regulations to conform...

  4. 76 FR 17782 - Protection for Whistleblowers in the Coast Guard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 53 RIN 1625-AB33 Protection for Whistleblowers in the Coast Guard AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Direct final rule; confirmation of effective date. SUMMARY: On December 21, 2010, the Coast Guard published a direct final rule that notified the public of the Coast...

  5. Appraisal of geomorphology of the Goa coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wagle, B.G.; Kunte, P.D.

    stream_size 7 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Proc_Workshop_Coast_Mar_Area_Manage_Plan_Goa_1999_194.pdf.txt stream_source_info Proc_Workshop_Coast_Mar_Area_Manage_Plan_Goa_1999_194.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859...

  6. Systems Engineering of Coast Guard Aviator Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Eugene R.; Caro, Paul W.

    This paper describes a total-program application of the systems engineering concept of the U.S. Coast Guard aviation training programs. The systems approach used treats all aspects of the training to produce the most cost-effective integration of academic, synthetic, and flight training for the production of graduate Coast Guard aviators. The…

  7. Towards elimination of maternal deaths: maternal deaths surveillance and response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hounton Sennen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Current methods for estimating maternal mortality lack precision, and are not suitable for monitoring progress in the short run. In addition, national maternal mortality ratios (MMRs alone do not provide useful information on where the greatest burden of mortality is located, who is concerned, what are the causes, and more importantly what sub-national variations occur. This paper discusses a maternal death surveillance and response (MDSR system. MDSR systems are not yet established in most countries and have potential added value for policy making and accountability and can build on existing efforts to conduct maternal death reviews, verbal autopsies and confidential enquiries. Accountability at national and sub-national levels cannot rely on global, regional and national retrospective estimates periodically generated from academia or United Nations organizations but on routine counting, investigation, sub national data analysis, long term investments in vital registration and national health information systems. Establishing effective maternal death surveillance and response will help achieve MDG 5, improve quality of maternity care and eliminate maternal mortality (MMR ≤ 30 per 100,000 by 2030.

  8. 46 CFR 154.1745 - Vinyl chloride: Transferring operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vinyl chloride: Transferring operations. 154.1745 Section 154.1745 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Operating Requirements § 154.1745 Vinyl chloride: Transferring operations. A vessel carrying vinyl...

  9. 46 CFR 153.953 - Signals during cargo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Signals during cargo transfer. 153.953 Section 153.953 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS... Procedures § 153.953 Signals during cargo transfer. The master shall ensure that: (a) The tankship displays a...

  10. Ctenophores from the Oaxaca coast, including a checklist of species from the Pacific coast of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Escobar, Fernando; Valadez-Vargas, Diana K; Oliveira, Otto M P

    2015-03-20

    Ctenophores are poorly known in the tropical eastern Pacific, including the southern coast of Mexico. Previous records of ctenophores along the Pacific coast have been provided mainly from northern waters. For the coast of Oaxaca state, their occurrence has only been mentioned before at phylum level. In this paper, we provide the first three records of ctenophores for the Oaxacan coast, which represent new records of Beroe forskalii and Bolinopsis vitrea as well as the first record of Ocyropsis maculata in the tropical eastern Pacific. Descriptions of these three species, as well as a checklist of the ctenophores from the west coast of Mexico are provided.

  11. Maternal employment, breastfeeding, and health: evidence from maternity leave mandates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael; Milligan, Kevin

    2008-07-01

    Public health agencies around the world have renewed efforts to increase the incidence and duration of breastfeeding. Maternity leave mandates present an economic policy that could help achieve these goals. We study their efficacy, focusing on a significant increase in maternity leave mandates in Canada. We find very large increases in mothers' time away from work post-birth and in the attainment of critical breastfeeding duration thresholds. We also look for impacts of the reform on self-reported indicators of maternal and child health captured in our data. For most indicators we find no effect.

  12. Transfer Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2014-01-01

    Against a background of rather mixed evidence about transfer pricing practices in multinational enterprises (MNEs) and varying attitudes on the part of tax authorities, this paper explores how multiple aims in transfer pricing can be pursued across four different transfer pricing regimes. A MNE h...

  13. Pragmatic Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Gabriele

    1992-01-01

    Attempting to clarify the concept of pragmatic transfer, this article proposes as a basic distinction Leech/Thomas' dichotomy of sociopragmatics versus pragmalinguistics, presenting evidence for transfer at both levels. Issues discussed include pragmatic universals in speech act realization, conditions for pragmatic transfer, communicative…

  14. Maternal and perinatal outcomes in critically ill obstetric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arati Appinabhavi

    2014-02-01

    Conclusions: Pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders and hemorrhage were the major risk factors apart from pneumonia and hepatitis that continue to take toll in obstetric patients. Adequate antenatal care, increased vigilance of women during pregnancy for subtle signs and symptoms, early transfer to tertiary centre and aggressive management to prevent complications can bring about the desired reduction in maternal-perinatal morbidity and mortality. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(1.000: 189-194

  15. Hyperammonemia: A Report of Maternal Biliary Cirrhosis and Neonatal Outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Hussamy, Deana J.; Nelson, David B.; Shivvers, Stephan A.

    2013-01-01

    Although uncommon during pregnancy, cirrhosis results in multiple medical complications impacting both mother and fetus. Previous reports suggest liver dysfunction in pregnancy causes accumulation of neurotoxins within the maternal compartment that increases neonatal morbidity through placental transfer. We present a case of a 36-year-old G2P1 female with history of biliary cirrhosis presenting at 32-weeks' gestation with hepatic congestion progressing to hepatic encephalopathy prompting del...

  16. Fortification of maternal milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Di Natale

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The beneficial effects of human milk (HM, well recognized for the term infant, extend to the feeding of premature infants, because their nutrition support must be designed to compensate for metabolic and gastrointestinal immaturity, immunologic compromise, and maternal psycosocial conditions. Studies show that preterm milk contains higher protein levels and more fat than term human milk. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommended that preterm neonates should receive sufficient nutrients to enable them to grow at a rate similar to that of fetuses of the same gestational age. There are no doubts about the fact that maternal milk is the best food for all neonates, but unfortified human breast milk may not meet the recommended nutritional needs of growing preterm infants. Human milk must therefore be supplemented (fortified with the nutrients in short supply. The objective of fortification is to increase the concentration of nutrients to such levels that at the customary feeding volumes infants receive amounts of all nutrients that meet the requirements. The are two different forms of fortification of human milk: standard and individualized. The new concepts and recommendations for optimization of human milk fortification is the “individualized fortification”. Actually, two methods have been proposed for individualization: the “targeted/tailored fortification” and the “adjustable fortification”. In summary, the use of fortified human milk produces adequate growth in premature infants and satisfies the specific nutritional requirements of these infants. The use of individualized fortification is recommended. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  17. Marine fishery possibilities of the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Panikkar, N.K.

    Marine fishery activity of the west coast of India is discussed. Sea fish production from the west coast of India makes three fourths of total fish production from Indian coasts. Kerala accounts for the largest production of fish in India...

  18. Muddy Coast Dynamics and Resource Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjerfve, Björn

    Muddy coasts are land-sea transitional environments common along low-energy shorelines around the world. They exist in climatic settings and tidal regimes ranging from microtidal to macro-tidal. Climatic warming and relative sea level rise are likely to have a greater impact on low-lying muddy coasts and deltas than most other coastal environments. This was the working hypothesis of the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR) Working Group 106, “Relative Sea Level and Muddy Coasts of the World,” which concluded its deliberations in the late 1990s.

  19. Maternity leave in normal pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Dean

    2011-08-01

    To assist maternity care providers in recognizing and discussing health- and illness-related issues in pregnancy and their relationship to maternity benefits. Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed or Medline, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library in 2009 using appropriate controlled vocabulary (e.g., maternity benefits) and key words (e.g., maternity, benefits, pregnancy). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. There were no date or language restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to December 2009. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the web sites of health technology assessment and health technology assessment-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies.

  20. Fetal-maternal erythrocyte distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003407.htm Fetal-maternal erythrocyte distribution To use the sharing features ... unborn baby is leaking into the mother's blood circulation. The more of the baby's cells there are, ...

  1. Maternal Mortality Trend in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjorn

    it generally indicates the urgent need of improving the quality of maternal health services; scaling up evidence based interventions ... inadequate care, inefficient management of delivery, and ... There are many factors that affect the outcome of.

  2. Proving the Efficiency of Placental Transfer of Maternal Measles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [1] Small molecules. <600 Da are known to transit the human placenta to the fetus, while the passage of ... macromolecules in mother-infant pairs at birth in the University of Maiduguri .... the basis of these recommendations, protective titers for MMA ... newborn infants would start out with rather low MMA relative to that of their ...

  3. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  4. Pharmacokinetic studies on fenoterol in maternal and cord blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Mandach, U; Huch, A; Huch, R

    1989-04-01

    Fenoterol plasma concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay in 38 pregnant women at different stages of preterm labor and in cord blood. Eight women were treated intravenously until delivery with 1.0 to 4 micrograms/min of fenoterol for periods ranging from 27 hours to 27 days; blood samples were taken at the same time as cord blood. In these women the fenoterol concentrations in cord blood ranged from 18 to 53% of the maternal concentrations. In eight women treated intravenously with 1.2 to 4.0 micrograms/min for 2 to 15 days, the infusion was stopped 1.3 to 38 hours before delivery. In these instances the concentrations in cord blood reached as much as 90% of the maternal, meaning that the rate of elimination from fetal plasma is lower than that from maternal plasma. Five women were treated daily with 20 to 30 mg per os for 3 to 17 days (three of these women had also had intravenous treatment before). The ratio of cord to maternal blood concentrations was higher than in women receiving the drug intravenously, the relative times of sampling being the same. The findings suggest that: (1) the placental transfer of fenoterol is higher than that found in previous studies in humans and animals with tritium-labeled substances; (2) the rate of fenoterol elimination from fetal plasma after intravenous and oral long-term therapy is lower than that from maternal plasma; (3) after oral administration, the ratios of fetal to maternal fenoterol concentrations are higher than after intravenous infusion.

  5. Maternal obesity and preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azar Aghamohammadi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is a modern day epidemic. The incidence appears to be rapidly increasing in bothdeveloped and developing countries and has become much more obvious in the last decade.Aim& Objective: The present research was done with the aim of studying the effects of obesity definedas a first trimester maternal body mass index >30 on the preeclampsia.Methods: This study was a descriptive-comparative study two hundred fifty singleton pregnancies ofwomen with first trimester BMI >30 who delivered at Emam Hospital, Sari Iran during 2008–2009 werestudied A control group with two hundred fifty nine women of normal body mass index matched for ageand parity were selected and incidence of preeclampsia were compared between groups. χ2 and Oddsratioand 95% confidence were used to analyze the data. Statistical significance was defined as P < 0.05.Results: There was a significant relation between obesity and preeclampsia (20.8 vs. 5.8%, P<0.0001compared to non-obese women.Conclusion: Obesity in pregnant women appears to be a risk factor for adverse perinatal outcomes.

  6. Great Lakes CoastWatch Node

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CoastWatch is a nationwide National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) program within which the Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (GLERL)...

  7. West Coast Rockfish Conservation Areas, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data delineate Rockfish Conservation Areas (RCA) off the West Coast of the United States for 2015. There are three types of areas closures depicted in this...

  8. West Coast Observing System (WCOS) Temperature Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The West Coast Observing System (WCOS) project provides access to temperature and currents data collected at four of the five National Marine Sanctuary sites,...

  9. Education by Television in the Ivory Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerien, Jean

    1981-01-01

    The management, administration, production, and broadcasting of educational television are discussed and evaluated with respect to its use in elementary education, training of teachers, and out-of-school education in the Ivory Coast during the 1970s. (CHC)

  10. Gulf Coast Vulnerability Assessment and Conservation Framework

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The proposed partnership to support a Gulf Coast Landscape Conservation Liaison will provide much needed coordination across multiple programs and partnerships to...

  11. Geological and geophysical surveys of Visakhapatnam coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, T.C.S.; Rao, K.M.; Lakshminarayana, S.

    Continuous records of the total earth's magnetic field and the surface sediment samples from the ocean bottom have been collected off Ramakrishna Beach and Lawsons Bay along the Visakhapatnam Coast. The magnetic data has recorded significant...

  12. Distribution of seagrasses along the Indian coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jagtap, T.G.

    Seagrass environments, from the main coast of India, Lakshadweep and Andaman Islands, were surveyed for seagrass and marine algal composition. Extensive seagrass meadows and the maximum number of species (seven genera and 12 species) occurred along...

  13. Education by Television in the Ivory Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerien, Jean

    1981-01-01

    The management, administration, production, and broadcasting of educational television are discussed and evaluated with respect to its use in elementary education, training of teachers, and out-of-school education in the Ivory Coast during the 1970s. (CHC)

  14. Beryllium-10 in Ivory Coast Tektites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serefiddin, F.; Herzog, G. F.; Koeberl, C.

    2005-03-01

    10Be concentrations in Ivory Coast tektites are consistent with formation from near surface terrestrial soils. Concentrations 77% lower than in Australasian tektites reflect differences in source materials, longer decay and environmental factors.

  15. Pacific Coast Groundfish Individual Fishing Quota Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — On January 11, 2011, NOAA Fisheries implemented a new fishery management system for the West Coast Groundfish Trawl Catch Share Program as specified in the...

  16. Nearshore processes along north Karnataka coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Raju, N.S.N.; Pathak, K.C.; Anand, N.M.

    had undergone the seasonal erosion and were stable during the annual processes along this stretch of the coastline. The relatively stronger longshore currents in April along the entire study region infer that the waves approach the coast with more...

  17. CoastWatch Regions in HDF Format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The mapped data derived from AVHRR is divided into files for CoastWatch regions of interest. Each file contains multiple data variables stored using the HDF-4...

  18. Gulf Coast Basins and Uplifts [gcstructsg

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data provide generalized outlines of major basins and uplifts in the Gulf Coast region modified after Plate 2, Principal structural features, Gulf of Mexico...

  19. Eighteenth annual West Coast theoretical chemistry conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    Abstracts are presented from the eighteenth annual west coast theoretical chemistry conference. Topics include molecular simulations; quasiclassical simulations of reactions; photodissociation reactions; molecular dynamics;interface studies; electronic structure; and semiclassical methods of reactive systems.

  20. Maternal corticosterone regulates nutrient allocation to fetal growth in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Owen R; Sferruzzi-Perri, Amanda N; Fowden, Abigail L

    2012-11-01

    Stresses during pregnancy that increase maternal glucocorticoids reduce birth weight in several species. However, the role of natural glucocorticoids in the mother in fetal acquisition of nutrients for growth remains unknown. This study aimed to determine whether fetal growth was reduced as a consequence of altered amino acid supply when mice were given corticosterone in their drinking water for 5 day periods in mid to late pregnancy (day, D, 11-16 or D14-19). Compared to controls drinking tap water, fetal weight was always reduced by corticosterone. At D16, corticosterone had no effect on materno-fetal transfer of [(14)C]methylaminoisobutyric acid (MeAIB), although placental MeAIB accumulation and expression of the Slc38a1 and Slc38a2 transporters were increased. However, at D19, 3 days after treatment ended, materno-fetal transfer of MeAIB was increased by 37% (P < 0.04). During treatment at D19, placental accumulation and materno-fetal transfer of MeAIB were reduced by 40% (P < 0.01), although expression of Slc38a1 was again elevated. Permanent reductions in placental vascularity occurred during the earlier but not the later period of treatment. Placental Hsd11b2 expression, which regulates feto-placental glucocorticoid bioavailability, was also affected by treatment at D19 only. Maternal corticosterone concentrations inversely correlated with materno-fetal MeAIB clearance and fetal weight at D19 but not D16. On D19, weight gain of the maternal carcass was normal during corticosterone treatment but reduced in those mice treated from D11 to D16, in which corticosterone levels were lowest. Maternal corticosterone is, therefore, a physiological regulator of the amino acid supply for fetal growth via actions on placental phenotype.

  1. The Effect of Coasting on Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection Outcome in Antagonist and Agonist Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İltemir Duvan Z.Candan,

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Coasting can reduce the ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS risk in ovulation induction cycles before intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI. This study aimed to investigate the effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH agonist and GnRH antagonist protocols to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH cycles with coasting on the parameters of ICSI cycles and the outcome. Materials and Methods In a retrospective cohort study, 117 ICSI cycles were per- formed and coasting was applied due to hyperresponse, between 2006 and 2011. The ICSI outcomes after coasting were then compared between the GnRH agonist group (n=91 and the GnRH antagonist group (n=26. Results The duration of induction and the total consumption of gonadotropins were found to be similar. Estradiol (E2 levels on human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG day were found higher in the agonist group. Coasting days were similar when the two groups were compared. The number of mature oocytes and the fertilization rates were similar in both groups; however, the number of grade 1 (G1 embryos and the number of transferred embryos were higher in the agonist group. Implantation rates were significantly higher in the antagonist group compared to the agonist group. Pregnancy rates/embryo transfer rates were higher in the antagonist group; however, this difference was not statistically significant (32.8% for agonist group vs. 39.1% for antagonist group, P>0.05. Conclusion The present study showed that applying GnRH-agonist and GnRH-antago- nist protocols to coasted cycles did not result in any differences in cycle parameters and clinical pregnancy rates.

  2. Maternal scaffolding behavior: links with parenting style and maternal education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Amanda; Pike, Alison

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to specify the relationship between positive and harsh parenting and maternal scaffolding behavior. A 2nd aim was to disentangle the effects of maternal education and parenting quality, and a 3rd aim was to test whether parenting quality mediated the association between maternal education and scaffolding practices. We examined associations between positive and harsh parenting practices and contingent and noncontingent tutoring strategies. Ninety-six mother-child dyads (49 boys, 47 girls) from working- and middle-class English families participated. Mothers reported on parenting quality at Time 1 when children were 5 years old and again approximately 5 years later at Time 2. Mother-child pairs were observed working together on a block design task at Time 2, and interactions were coded for contingent (contingent shifting) and noncontingent (fixed failure feedback) dimensions of maternal scaffolding behavior. Positive and harsh parenting accounted for variance in contingent behavior over and above maternal education, whereas only harsh parenting accounted for unique variance in noncontingent scaffolding practices. Our findings provide new evidence for a more differentiated model of the relation between general parenting quality and specific scaffolding behaviors. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Transfer Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Carsten; Rossing, Christian Plesner

    trade internally as the units have to decide what prices should be paid for such inter-unit transfers. One important challenge is to uncover the consequences that different transfer prices have on the willingness in the organizational units to coordinate activities and trade internally. At the same time...

  4. [Anesthesia for cesarean section: drug transfer to fetus during anesthesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, T; Kamo, N; Naitou, H; Tada, K

    1996-01-01

    One case of prenatally diagnosed congenital diaphragmatic hernia was reviewed in terms of the anesthetic managements. Concentrations of diazepam, pancuronium and fentanyl were measured in maternal, fetal and umbilical serum. As expectedly, the transition of diazepam through the placenta was large and the concentration of diazepam in the fetal serum was equal to that of maternal serum, but only a small amount of pancuronium was transferred.

  5. 33 CFR 52.42 - Views of the Coast Guard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Views of the Coast Guard. 52.42 Section 52.42 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PERSONNEL BOARD FOR CORRECTION OF MILITARY RECORDS OF THE COAST GUARD Submissions by the Coast Guard and Other...

  6. Maternal-fetal resource allocation: co-operation and conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowden, A L; Moore, T

    2012-11-01

    Pregnancy is generally a co-operative interaction between mother and fetus in which the evolutionary genetic interests of both benefit from production of healthy offspring. While this view is largely supported by empirical data, Kinship Theory predicts that mother and fetus will disagree over the optimum level of maternal investment that maximises their respective fitnesses. This conflict will be more evident with polyandrous than monogamous mating systems, when resources are scarce and in late gestation when the fetus is growing maximally, particularly if conceptus mass is large relative to maternal mass. As the site of nutrient transfer, the placenta is pivotal in the tug-of-war between mother and fetus over resource allocation. It responds to both fetal signals of nutrient demand and maternal signals of nutrient availability and, by adapting its phenotype, regulates the distribution of available resources. These adaptations involve changes in placental size, morphology, transport characteristics, metabolism and hormone bioavailability. They are mediated by key growth regulatory, endocrine and nutrient supply genes responsive to mismatches between nutrient availability and the fetal genetic drive for growth. Indeed, evolution of genomic imprinting and placental secretion of hormones are believed to have been driven by maternal-fetal conflict over resource allocation. Although many of the specific mechanisms involved still have to be identified, the placenta confers optimal fitness on the offspring for its developmental environment by balancing conflict and cooperation in the allocation of resources through generation of nutrient transport phenotypes specific to the prevailing nutritional conditions and/or fetal genotype.

  7. Maternal cortisol stimulates neurogenesis and affects larval behaviour in zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Carol; Kurrasch, Deborah M.; Vijayan, Mathilakath M.

    2017-01-01

    Excess glucocorticoid transferred from stressed mother to the embryo affects developing vertebrate offspring, but the underlying programming events are unclear. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that increased zygotic glucocorticoid deposition, mimicking a maternal stress scenario, modifies early brain development and larval behaviour in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Cortisol was microinjected into the yolk at one cell-stage, to mimic maternal transfer, and the larvae [96 hours post-fertilization (hpf)] displayed increased activity in light and a reduction in thigmotaxis, a behavioural model for anxiety, suggesting an increased propensity for boldness. This cortisol-mediated behavioural phenotype corresponded with an increase in primary neurogenesis, as measured by incorporation of EdU at 24 hpf, in a region-specific manner in the preoptic region and the pallium, the teleostean homolog of the hippocampus. Also, cortisol increased the expression of the proneural gene neurod4, a marker of neurogenesis, in a region- and development-specific manner in the embryos. Altogether, excess zygotic cortisol, mimicking maternal stress, affects early brain development and behavioural phenotype in larval zebrafish. We propose a key role for cortisol in altering brain development leading to enhanced boldness, which may be beneficial in preparing the offspring to a stressful environment and enhancing fitness. PMID:28098234

  8. Maternal cortisol stimulates neurogenesis and affects larval behaviour in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Carol; Kurrasch, Deborah M; Vijayan, Mathilakath M

    2017-01-18

    Excess glucocorticoid transferred from stressed mother to the embryo affects developing vertebrate offspring, but the underlying programming events are unclear. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that increased zygotic glucocorticoid deposition, mimicking a maternal stress scenario, modifies early brain development and larval behaviour in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Cortisol was microinjected into the yolk at one cell-stage, to mimic maternal transfer, and the larvae [96 hours post-fertilization (hpf)] displayed increased activity in light and a reduction in thigmotaxis, a behavioural model for anxiety, suggesting an increased propensity for boldness. This cortisol-mediated behavioural phenotype corresponded with an increase in primary neurogenesis, as measured by incorporation of EdU at 24 hpf, in a region-specific manner in the preoptic region and the pallium, the teleostean homolog of the hippocampus. Also, cortisol increased the expression of the proneural gene neurod4, a marker of neurogenesis, in a region- and development-specific manner in the embryos. Altogether, excess zygotic cortisol, mimicking maternal stress, affects early brain development and behavioural phenotype in larval zebrafish. We propose a key role for cortisol in altering brain development leading to enhanced boldness, which may be beneficial in preparing the offspring to a stressful environment and enhancing fitness.

  9. Severe maternal outcome: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparna Grover

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Maternal mortality ratio (MMR is considered an indicator of obstetric care available in a society and reduction in MMR has been one of the important millennium development goals defined by World Health Organization (WHO but it has always been recognized that maternal mortality is just the tip of iceberg. WHO has now defined maternal near-miss cases thus broadening the focus on life threatening conditions encountered by pregnant women. A study was started at our obstetric unit based on near-miss maternal mortality concept in March 2015 and is currently underway. We analyzed the initial data of the first few months and recognized four of such special cases which find mention in this review. We decided to review the literature with special reference to these cases as every such case is a lesson in itself for the health care provider, highlighting the acts of omission or interventions that may make the difference between a high risk pregnancy terminating without complication or ending as a near-miss or mortality. We reviewed the literature about various causes of maternal mortality and morbidity. In addition to the sincere efforts done by the doctors from different specialities, a good blood bank facility, ICU care as well as government provided transport facility played important roles in these cases. A long term analysis of this data can certainly guide the policy makers about the areas that need more stress and financial support. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(3.000: 596-602

  10. [Epidemiology of maternal mortality by infectious cause in France, 2007-2009, using data from confidential maternal mortality report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghesquière, L; Deruelle, P; Charbonneau, P; Puech, F

    2015-01-01

    Although deaths caused by infection during pregnancy and the postpartum period are rare in France, mortality rates have increased in several countries of the European community. In France, the rate of maternal mortality by infectious cause has decreased over the last 12 years. Infectious causes are currently in fifth place of maternal deaths. Over the period 2007-2009, 18 deaths occurred, eight by direct infectious causes and 10 by indirect infectious causes. Among the 18 deaths, 17 were examined by the National Expert Committee on Maternal Mortality (CNEMM) with the objectives to determine the direct or indirect link with pregnancy, the adequacy of care and the preventability of death. Among 8 deaths from direct infectious causes, four deaths were deemed "preventable" or "possibly preventable" because of inadequate care. Among nine deaths from indirect infectious causes, preventability could not be established in two deaths, five were non-preventable and two were preventable due to non-optimal care. These cases of puerperal septicemia show that when sepsis is clinically manifest, infection is already well established and widespread deterioration is therefore often irreversible. Maternal mortality is preventable in most cases if several points are observed: early diagnosis, probabilistic antibiotics targeting most frequently involved bacteria including Escherichia coli and Streptococcus A, early transfer to ICU, control septic portal entry, simple preventive measures, influenza vaccination. A "microbiological clinical diagnosis" approach must be initiated at the first clinical signs.

  11. FutureCoast: "Listen to your futures"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfirman, S. L.; Eklund, K.; Thacher, S.; Orlove, B. S.; Diane Stovall-Soto, G.; Brunacini, J.; Hernandez, T.

    2014-12-01

    Two science-arts approaches are emerging as effective means to convey "futurethinking" to learners: systems gaming and experiential futures. FutureCoast exemplifies the latter: by engaging participants with voicemails supposedly leaking from the cloud of possible futures, the storymaking game frames the complexities of climate science in relatable contexts. Because participants make the voicemails themselves, FutureCoast opens up creative ways for people to think about possibly climate-changed futures and personal ways to talk about them. FutureCoast is a project of the PoLAR Partnership with a target audience of informal adult learners primarily reached via mobile devices and online platforms. Scientists increasingly use scenarios and storylines as ways to explore the implications of environmental change and societal choices. Stories help people make connections across experiences and disciplines and link large-scale events to personal consequences. By making the future seem real today, FutureCoast's framework helps people visualize and plan for future climate changes. The voicemails contributed to FutureCoast are spread through the game's intended timeframe (2020 through 2065). Based on initial content analysis of voicemail text, common themes include ecosystems and landscapes, weather, technology, societal issues, governance and policy. Other issues somewhat less frequently discussed include security, food, industry and business, health, energy, infrastructure, water, economy, and migration. Further voicemail analysis is examining: temporal dimensions (salient time frames, short vs. long term issues, intergenerational, etc.), content (adaptation vs. mitigation, challenges vs. opportunities, etc.), and emotion (hopeful, resigned, etc. and overall emotional context). FutureCoast also engaged audiences through facilitated in-person experiences, geocaching events, and social media (Tumblr, Twitter, Facebook, YouTube). Analysis of the project suggests story

  12. "Transfer Shock" or "Transfer Ecstasy?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickens, John M.

    The alleged characteristic drop in grade point average (GPA) of transfer students and the subsequent rise in GPA was investigated in this study. No statistically significant difference was found in first term junior year GPA between junior college transfers and native Florida State University students after the variance accounted for by the…

  13. 78 FR 56641 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Commercial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Commercial Groundfish Fishery Management... Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP) by liberalizing RCA boundaries in order to improve... specifications and management measures in a proposed and final rule, 77 FR 67974, November 14, 2012 and 78 FR...

  14. An Archeological Reconnaissance and Historic Structures Assessment at Seven U.S. Coast Guard Installations in Florida,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    was transferred to the U.S. Coast Guard from the U.S. Air Force in 1958, after which time it was used as a Loran station until it was decommissioned in...Register Nomination Form-- Hillsboro Inlet Light Station L qC req’bqe 73 ENTRIES IN THE NATIONAL REGISTER STATE TORIDA Date Entered PFR I Name

  15. [Maternal malnutrition. The nursing task].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotestán Liverpool, G; Grant, W A; Ibáñez Peña, E

    1990-01-01

    A retrospective study of 577 patients from urban and periurban areas of Las Tunas municipality is made. These patients were delivered in "Dr. Ernesto Guevara de la Serna" Hospital between January and April 1986, both inclusive; their characteristics included being single pregnancies and not having suffered maternal diseases that influenced fetal growth. The following variables were studied: state of maternal nutrition at implantation, initial weight and weight gain, newborn weight, as well as maternal age and place of residence; these variables were interrelated with the view to know their influence or lack of influence on fetal weight. A survey of 89 of these women is made; they had been classified as malnourished and the purpose of the survey is to analyze their knowledge and views on malnutrition, as well as the instructions received during pregnancy and after delivery. Conclusions are derived and nursing recommendations are made.

  16. Maternal employment and birth outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wüst, Miriam

    I use Danish survey and administrative data to examine the impact of maternal employment during pregnancy on birth outcomes. As healthier mothers are more likely to work and health shocks to mothers may impact employment and birth outcomes, I combine two strategies: First, I control extensively...... for time-varying factors that may correlate with employment and birth outcomes, such as pre-pregnancy family income and maternal occupation, pregnancy-related health shocks, maternal sick listing, and health behaviors (smoking and alcohol consumption). Second, to account for remaining time......-invariant heterogeneity between mothers, I compare outcomes of mothers' consecutive children. Mothers who work during the first pregnancy trimester have a lower risk of preterm birth. I fi nd no eff ect on the probability of having a baby of small size for gestational age (SGA). To rule out the possibility that health...

  17. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... objective reports of various anthropometric and other measures of fatness from the IDEFICS study of children aged 2-9 in 16 regions of eight European countries. Based on such data as accelerometer measures and information from nutritional diaries, we also investigate the effects of maternal employment...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  18. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... objective reports of various anthropometric and other measures of fatness from the IDEFICS study of children aged 2-9 in 16 regions of eight European countries. Based on such data as accelerometer measures and information from nutritional diaries, we also investigate the effects of maternal employment...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  19. Classification differences and maternal mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salanave, B; Bouvier-Colle, M H; Varnoux, N

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the ways maternal deaths are classified in national statistical offices in Europe and to evaluate the ways classification affects published rates. METHODS: Data on pregnancy-associated deaths were collected in 13 European countries. Cases were classified by a European panel....... This change was substantial in three countries (P deaths to obstetric causes. In the other countries, no differences were detected. According to official published data, the aggregated maternal mortality rate for participating countries was 7.7 per...... 100,000 live births, but it increased to 8.7 after classification by the European panel (P deaths differs between European countries. These differences in coding contribute to variations in the reported numbers of maternal deaths...

  20. Partition of Environmental Chemicals between Maternal and Fetal Blood and Tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Needham, Larry L; Grandjean, Philippe; Heinzow, Birger

    2011-01-01

    .7 times those of cord serum, 2.8 times those of cord tissue and placenta, and 0.7 those of milk. For organohalogen compounds detectable in all matrices, a high degree of correlation between concentrations in maternal serum and the other tissues investigated was generally observed (r(2) > 0.5). Greater...... degree of chlorination resulted in lower transfer from maternal serum into milk. Concentrations of pentachlorbenzene, γ-hexachlorocyclohexane, and several polychlorinated biphenyl congeners with low chlorination were higher in fetal samples and showed poor correlation with maternal levels. Perfluorinated......Passage of environmental chemicals across the placenta has important toxicological consequences, as well as for choosing samples for analysis and for interpreting the results. To obtain systematic data, we collected in 2000 maternal and cord blood, cord tissue, placenta, and milk in connection...

  1. Can nutritional modulation of maternal intestinal microbiota influence the development of the infant gastrointestinal tract?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thum, Caroline; Cookson, Adrian L; Otter, Don E; McNabb, Warren C; Hodgkinson, Alison J; Dyer, Jolon; Roy, Nicole C

    2012-11-01

    The gastrointestinal microbiota plays an important role in maintaining host health by preventing the colonization of pathogens, fermenting dietary compounds, and maintaining normal mucosal immunity. Particularly in early life, the composition of the microbiota profoundly influences the development and maturation of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) mucosa, which may affect health in later life. Therefore, strategies to manipulate the microbiota during infancy may prevent the development of some diseases later in adult life. Earlier research suggested that term fetuses are sterile and that the initial bacterial colonization of the newborn GIT occurs only after the baby transits through the birth canal. However, recent studies have demonstrated that the colonization and/or contact of the fetus with the maternal GIT microbiota may start in utero. After vaginal birth, the colonization of the neonate GIT continues through contact with maternal feces and vaginal bacteria, leading to a relatively simple microbial community that is influenced by feeding type (breast vs. formula feeding). Maternal GIT microbiota, vaginal microbiota, and breast milk composition are influenced by maternal diet. Alterations of the maternal GIT microbiota composition via supplementation with probiotics and prebiotics have been shown; however, transfer of these benefits to the offspring remains to be demonstrated. This review focuses on the influence of maternal GIT microbiota during the pre- and postpartum periods on the colonization of the infant GIT. In particular, it examines the manipulation of the maternal GIT microbiota composition through the use of probiotics and/or prebiotics and subsequent consequences for the health of the offspring.

  2. Financial incentives and maternal health: where do we go from here?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Lindsay; Stanton, Mary Ellen; Higgs, Elizabeth S; Balster, Robert L; Bellows, Ben W; Brandes, Neal; Comfort, Alison B; Eichler, Rena; Glassman, Amanda; Hatt, Laurel E; Conlon, Claudia M; Koblinsky, Marge

    2013-12-01

    Health financing strategies that incorporate financial incentives are being applied in many low- and middle-income countries, and improving maternal and neonatal health is often a central goal. As yet, there have been few reviews of such programmes and their impact on maternal health. The US Government Evidence Summit on Enhancing Provision and use of Maternal Health Services through Financial Incentives was convened on 24-25 April 2012 to address this gap. This article, the final in a series assessing the effects of financial incentives--performance-based incentives (PBIs), insurance, user fee exemption programmes, conditional cash transfers, and vouchers--summarizes the evidence and discusses issues of context, programme design and implementation, cost-effectiveness, and sustainability. We suggest key areas to consider when designing and implementing financial incentive programmes for enhancing maternal health and highlight gaps in evidence that could benefit from additional research. Although the methodological rigor of studies varies, the evidence, overall, suggests that financial incentives can enhance demand for and improve the supply of maternal health services. Definitive evidence demonstrating a link between incentives and improved health outcomes is lacking; however, the evidence suggests that financial incentives can increase the quantity and quality of maternal health services and address health systems and financial barriers that prevent women from accessing and providers from delivering quality, lifesaving maternal healthcare.

  3. Maternal Antiviral Immunoglobulin Accumulates in Neural Tissue of Neonates To Prevent HSV Neurological Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yike Jiang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available While antibody responses to neurovirulent pathogens are critical for clearance, the extent to which antibodies access the nervous system to ameliorate infection is poorly understood. In this study on herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1, we demonstrate that HSV-specific antibodies are present during HSV-1 latency in the nervous systems of both mice and humans. We show that antibody-secreting cells entered the trigeminal ganglion (TG, a key site of HSV infection, and persisted long after the establishment of latent infection. We also demonstrate the ability of passively administered IgG to enter the TG independently of infection, showing that the naive TG is accessible to antibodies. The translational implication of this finding is that human fetal neural tissue could contain HSV-specific maternally derived antibodies. Exploring this possibility, we observed HSV-specific IgG in HSV DNA-negative human fetal TG, suggesting passive transfer of maternal immunity into the prenatal nervous system. To further investigate the role of maternal antibodies in the neonatal nervous system, we established a murine model to demonstrate that maternal IgG can access and persist in neonatal TG. This maternal antibody not only prevented disseminated infection but also completely protected the neonate from neurological disease and death following HSV challenge. Maternal antibodies therefore have a potent protective role in the neonatal nervous system against HSV infection. These findings strongly support the concept that prevention of prenatal and neonatal neurotropic infections can be achieved through maternal immunization.

  4. Fuel Efficiency by Coasting in the Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payman Shakouri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the possibility of improving the fuel efficiency by decreasing the engine speed during the coasting phase of the vehicle. The proposed approach is stimulated by the fact that the engine losses increase with the engine speed. If the engine speed is retained low, the engine losses will be reduced and subsequently the tractive torque will be increased, enabling the vehicle to remain moving for longer duration while coasting. By increasing the time period of the coasting the fuel efficiency can be increased, especially travelling downhill, since it can benefit from the kinematic energy stored in the vehicle to continue coasting for a longer duration. It is already industry standard practice to cut fuel during coasting and refuel at low engine speed. The substantial difference proposed in this paper is the controlled reduction of engine speed during this phase and thus reduction in the engine losses, resulting in improved fuel economy. The simulation model is tested and the results illustrating an improvement to the fuel efficiency through the proposed method are presented. Some results of the experimental tests with a real vehicle through the proposed strategy are also presented in the paper.

  5. Hyperammonemia: A Report of Maternal Biliary Cirrhosis and Neonatal Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deana J. Hussamy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although uncommon during pregnancy, cirrhosis results in multiple medical complications impacting both mother and fetus. Previous reports suggest liver dysfunction in pregnancy causes accumulation of neurotoxins within the maternal compartment that increases neonatal morbidity through placental transfer. We present a case of a 36-year-old G2P1 female with history of biliary cirrhosis presenting at 32-weeks' gestation with hepatic congestion progressing to hepatic encephalopathy prompting delivery. Umbilical cord sampling and postnatal infant testing demonstrated elevated ammonia levels which resolved by 12 hours of life without intervention. At discharge, the infant did not demonstrate evidence of neurologic deficit. We conclude that acute maternal hepatic encephalopathy and hyperammonemia due to chronic liver disease do not portend adverse neonatal outcomes, notably encephalopathy.

  6. Hyperammonemia: a report of maternal biliary cirrhosis and neonatal outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussamy, Deana J; Nelson, David B; Shivvers, Stephan A

    2013-01-01

    Although uncommon during pregnancy, cirrhosis results in multiple medical complications impacting both mother and fetus. Previous reports suggest liver dysfunction in pregnancy causes accumulation of neurotoxins within the maternal compartment that increases neonatal morbidity through placental transfer. We present a case of a 36-year-old G2P1 female with history of biliary cirrhosis presenting at 32-weeks' gestation with hepatic congestion progressing to hepatic encephalopathy prompting delivery. Umbilical cord sampling and postnatal infant testing demonstrated elevated ammonia levels which resolved by 12 hours of life without intervention. At discharge, the infant did not demonstrate evidence of neurologic deficit. We conclude that acute maternal hepatic encephalopathy and hyperammonemia due to chronic liver disease do not portend adverse neonatal outcomes, notably encephalopathy.

  7. Maternal age and child morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Malene Meisner; Skovlund, Charlotte Wessel; Mørch, Lina Steinrud

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The mean age at delivery has increased over the latest half of a century. Women of advanced maternal age have increased obstetrical risks and increased risk of chromosomal abnormalities and some other specified diagnoses in the offspring. The aim of this study was to assess the asso......INTRODUCTION: The mean age at delivery has increased over the latest half of a century. Women of advanced maternal age have increased obstetrical risks and increased risk of chromosomal abnormalities and some other specified diagnoses in the offspring. The aim of this study was to assess...

  8. National data system on near miss and maternal death: shifting from maternal risk to public health impact in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladapo Olufemi T

    2009-06-01

    potentially fatal maternal complications. For every woman enrolled, the health service events (care pathways within the facility will be evaluated to identify areas of substandard care/avoidable factors through clinical audit by the local research team. A summary estimate of the frequencies of MNM and maternal deaths will be determined at intervals and indicators of quality of care (case fatality rate, both total and cause-specific and mortality index will be evaluated at facility, regional and country levels. Management Overall project management will be from the Centre for Research in Reproductive Health (CRRH, Sagamu, Nigeria. There will be at least two meetings and site visits for efficient coordination of the project by regional coordinators and central coordinating staff. Data will be transferred electronically by hospital and regional coordinators and managed at the Data Management Unit of CRRH, Sagamu, Nigeria. Expected outcomes The outcome of the study would provide useful information to the health practitioners, policy-makers and international partners on the strengths and weaknesses of the infrastructures provided for comprehensive emergency obstetric care in Nigeria. The successful implementation of this project will pave way for the long-awaited Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths that would guide the formulation and or revision of obstetric policies and practices in Nigeria. Lessons learnt from the establishment of this data system can also be used to set up similar structures at lower levels of healthcare delivery in Nigeria.

  9. The effects of maternal haemoglobin as an indicator of maternal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    nutritional status on, maternal measles antibodies of mother-infant pairs at birth ... The (mean ± SD) MMA of mother-infant pairs at birth were. 134.66 ± 93.31 (95% CI, ..... be of public health benefit because policy makers can use this work as a.

  10. MATERNAL MORTALITY IN A TERTIARY CARE CENTRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpreet

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Maternal Mortality in A Tertiary Care Centre. OBJECTIVE: To study maternal mortality and the complications leading to maternal death. METHODS: A retrospective study of hospital record to study maternal mortality and its causes over 3 years from January 2010 to December 2012. RESULTS: There were a total of 58 maternal deaths out of 2823 live births giving a maternal mortality ratio of 2054.55 per one lakh live births. Unbooked and late referrals account for 77.58% of maternal deaths. The majority of deaths around 75.86% were in 20-30 years age group. Haemorrhage was the commonest causes of death (24.12% followed by sepsis (18.96% and pregnancy induced hypertension 15.51% Anemia contributed to the most common indirect cause of maternal morality. CONCLUSION: Haemorrhage, sepsis and pregnancy induced hypertension including eclampsia were the direct major causes of death. Anaemia and cardiac diseases were other indirect causes of death.

  11. Pregnancy outcomes according to increasing maternal age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jin Koo

    2012-03-01

    Conclusion: Increasing maternal age is an independent and substantial risk factor for adverse perinatal and obstetric outcomes. These adverse outcomes become more common as increasing maternal age without a clear cutoff age.

  12. Maternal postpartum distress and childhood overweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ajslev, Teresa A; Andersen, Camilla S; Ingstrup, Katja G;

    2010-01-01

    We investigated associations between maternal postpartum distress covering anxiety, depression and stress and childhood overweight.......We investigated associations between maternal postpartum distress covering anxiety, depression and stress and childhood overweight....

  13. Large baby syndrome in singletons born after frozen embryo transfer (FET)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinborg, Anja; Henningsen, AA; Loft, A

    2013-01-01

    Are singletons born after frozen embryo transfer (FET) at increased risk of being born large for gestational age (LGA) and if so, is this caused by intrinsic maternal factors or related to the freezing/thawing procedures?......Are singletons born after frozen embryo transfer (FET) at increased risk of being born large for gestational age (LGA) and if so, is this caused by intrinsic maternal factors or related to the freezing/thawing procedures?...

  14. Maternal Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Maternal Language: Implications for Infant Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryski, Katie R.; Mash, Eric J.; Ninowski, Jerilyn E.; Semple, Deborah L.

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between maternal ADHD symptoms and maternal language was examined in a community sample of 50 mothers of infants age 3-12 months. It was hypothesized that higher maternal symptoms of ADHD would be related to lower quality of maternal language use. Recordings of mothers' speech were coded for complexity and elaboration of speech…

  15. Maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity from acute fatty liver of pregnancy in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Ruth R.; Schutte, Joke M.; Stekelenburg, Jelle; Zwart, Joost J.; van Roosmalen, Jos

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess maternal death and severe maternal morbidity from acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP) in the Netherlands. Study design: A retrospective study of all cases of maternal mortality in the Netherlands between 1983 and 2006 and all cases of severe maternal morbidity in the Netherlan

  16. Maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity from acute fatty liver of pregnancy in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Ruth R.; Schutte, Joke M.; Stekelenburg, Jelle; Zwart, Joost J.; van Roosmalen, Jos

    Objective: To assess maternal death and severe maternal morbidity from acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP) in the Netherlands. Study design: A retrospective study of all cases of maternal mortality in the Netherlands between 1983 and 2006 and all cases of severe maternal morbidity in the

  17. [Maternal and perinatal health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    After a year-long diagnosis of Chile's health situation, the Ministry of Health in 1991 formulated a new maternal-child health program designed to assure that all pregnancies would be desired and would occur under optimal conditions. Orientation for responsible parenthood will be an important part of the process. Other objectives include reducing the incidence of adolescent pregnancy and of sexually transmitted diseases. The pregnancy rate for young women 15-19 changed very little in Chile between 1952-82, because of the lack of sex education and family planning services. Family planning programs designed especially for adolescents would help to combat unwanted pregnancies and could offer the methods most suitable for young women. The well-known longitudinal study in Czechoslovakia which followed the development of children whose mothers were denied legal abortions in the 1960s showed the children to be at increased risk of unsatisfactory social adjustment in later life and suggested some consequences of unwanted pregnancy. A study of unwanted pregnancy in Chile was initiated in 4 prenatal care centers in a working class area of Santiago in 1984. 2485 women in the 6th or 7th month of pregnancy were classified according to their existing family sizes. Only 33.1% of the women desired the pregnancy at that time and 38.4% desired it but at a later time. 28.5% did not desire it at all. Women who did not desire the pregnancy waited significantly longer to obtain prenatal care than women who desired it. Age, economic problems, being single, family conflicts, already having the desired number of children, and short intervals since the most recent birth were associated with not desiring the current pregnancy. Of the 1663 women who did not desire the pregnancy, only 13.1% of those single, 35.8% of those in union, and 44.0% of those married used a contraceptive method. 2133 of the mothers were interviewed 6 months and 1977 12 months after delivery. Birth weights did not vary

  18. Studies on Wild House Mice. VII. Prenatal Maternal Environment and Aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluyter, F; van der Vlugt, J; van Oortmerssen, G.A; Koolhaas, J.M.; de Boer, S.F.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of the maternal environment on intermale aggression was studied by means of embryo transfer of genetically selected aggressive (SAL) and nonaggressive wild house mice (LAL), and their reciprocal F1's, to standard (NMRI) females. No effect was found on the attack latency scores (ALS), i.e.

  19. Studies on wild house mice .7. Prenatal maternal environment and aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluyter, F; vanderVlugt, JJ; vanOortmerssen, GA; Koolhaas, JM; vanderHoeven, F; deBoer, P

    1996-01-01

    The effect of the maternal environment on intermale aggression was studied by means of embryo transfer of genetically selected aggressive (SAL) and nonaggressive wild house mice (LAL), and their reciprocal F-1's, to standard (NMRI) females. No effect was found on the attack latency scores (ALS), i.e

  20. Prenatal Maternal Stress Programs Infant Stress Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M.; Waffarn, Feizal; Sandman, Curt A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Prenatal exposure to inappropriate levels of glucocorticoids (GCs) and maternal stress are putative mechanisms for the fetal programming of later health outcomes. The current investigation examined the influence of prenatal maternal cortisol and maternal psychosocial stress on infant physiological and behavioral responses to stress.…

  1. Maternal inflammation during pregnancy and childhood adiposity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Gaillard (Romy); S.L. Rifas-Shiman (Sheryl); Perng, W. (Wei); E. Oken (Emily); M.W. Gillman (Matthew W.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity is associated with offspring obesity. Underlying mechanisms may involve a maternal obesity-mediated proinflammatory state during pregnancy. Maternal C-reactive protein (CRP) level during pregnancy is a biomarker of low-grade systemic inflammation

  2. Maternal inflammation during pregnancy and childhood adiposity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Gaillard (Romy); S.L. Rifas-Shiman (Sheryl); W. Perng (Wei); E. Oken (Emily); M.W. Gillman (Matthew W.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity is associated with offspring obesity. Underlying mechanisms may involve a maternal obesity-mediated proinflammatory state during pregnancy. Maternal C-reactive protein (CRP) level during pregnancy is a biomarker of low-grade systemic

  3. Rise in maternal mortality in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Schutte; E.A.P. Steegers; N.W.E. Schuitemaker; J.G. Santema; K. de Boer; M. Pel; G. Vermeulen; W. Visser; J. van Roosmalen

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess causes, trends and substandard care factors in maternal mortality in the Netherlands. Design Confidential enquiry into the causes of maternal mortality. Setting Nationwide in the Netherlands. Population 2,557,208 live births. Methods Data analysis of all maternal deaths in the pe

  4. Prenatal Maternal Stress Programs Infant Stress Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M.; Waffarn, Feizal; Sandman, Curt A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Prenatal exposure to inappropriate levels of glucocorticoids (GCs) and maternal stress are putative mechanisms for the fetal programming of later health outcomes. The current investigation examined the influence of prenatal maternal cortisol and maternal psychosocial stress on infant physiological and behavioral responses to stress.…

  5. Project Coast: eugenics in apartheid South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jerome Amir

    2008-03-01

    It is a decade since the exposure of Project Coast, apartheid South Africa's covert chemical and biological warfare program. In that time, attention has been focused on several aspects of the program, particularly the production of narcotics and poisons for use against anti-apartheid activists and the proliferation of both chemical and biological weapons. The eugenic dimension of Project Coast has, by contrast, received scant attention. It is time to revisit the testimony that brought the suggestion of eugenic motives to light, reflect on some of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission's findings and search for lessons that can be taken from this troubled chapter in South Africa's history.

  6. Gulf Coast Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillingham, Gavin

    2013-09-30

    The Gulf Coast Clean Energy Application Center was initiated to significantly improve market and regulatory conditions for the implementation of combined heat and power technologies. The GC CEAC was responsible for the development of CHP in Texas, Louisiana and Oklahoma. Through this program we employed a variety of outreach and education techniques, developed and deployed assessment tools and conducted market assessments. These efforts resulted in the growth of the combined heat and power market in the Gulf Coast region with a realization of more efficient energy generation, reduced emissions and a more resilient infrastructure. Specific t research, we did not formally investigate any techniques with any formal research design or methodology.

  7. Maternal and Child Health Bureau

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Topics Programs & Initiatives Funding Opportunities Data, Research & Epidemiology About MCHB Maternal and Child Health Bureau  News & Announcements HHS Awards more than $742,000 to Health Centers in American Samoa and the Virgin Islands to Fight Zika (6/23/16) Approved on June 6, 2016 -- ...

  8. Multigenerational effects of maternal undernutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, Francine H.

    2014-01-01

    Intrauterine exposure to reduced nutrient availability can have major effects in determining susceptibility to chronic disease later in life. Martínez et al. (2014) demonstrate multigenerational effects of poor maternal nutrition and evidence of germ-line transmission through alterations in DNA methylation. PMID:24896533

  9. Oxytocin and Maternal Brain Plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sohye; Strathearn, Lane

    2016-01-01

    Although dramatic postnatal changes in maternal behavior have long been noted, we are only now beginning to understand the neurobiological mechanisms that support this transition. The present paper synthesizes growing insights from both animal and human research to provide an overview of the plasticity of the mother's brain, with a particular…

  10. Altered placental development in undernourished rats: role of maternal glucocorticoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chun-Hung

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Maternal undernutrition (MUN during pregnancy may lead to fetal intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR, which itself predisposes to adult risk of obesity, hypertension, and diabetes. IUGR may stem from insufficient maternal nutrient supply or reduced placental nutrient transfer. In addition, a critical role for maternal stress-induced glucocorticoids (GCs has been suggested to contribute to both IUGR and the ensuing risk of adult metabolic syndrome. While GC-induced fetal organ defects have been examined, there have been few studies on placental responses to MUN-induced maternal stress. Therefore, we hypothesize that 50% MUN associates with increased maternal GC levels and decreased placental HSD11B. This in turn leads to decreased placental and fetal growth, hence the need to investigate nutrient transporters. We measured maternal serum levels of corticosterone, and the placental basal and labyrinth zone expression of glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1, 11-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase B 1 (HSD11B-1 predominantly activates cortisone to cortisol and 11-dehydrocorticosterone (11-DHC to corticosterone, although can sometimes drive the opposing (inactivating reaction, and HSD11B-2 (only inactivates and converts corticosterone to 11-DHC in rodents in control and MUN rats at embryonic day 20 (E20. Moreover, we evaluated the expression of nutrient transporters for glucose (SLC2A1, SLC2A3 and amino acids (SLC38A1, 2, and 4. Our results show that MUN dams displayed significantly increased plasma corticosterone levels compared to control dams. Further, a reduction in fetal and placental weights was observed in both the mid-horn and proximal-horn positions. Notably, the placental labyrinth zone, the site of feto-maternal exchange, showed decreased expression of HSD11B1-2 in both horns, and increased HSD11B-1 in proximal-horn placentas, but no change in NR3C1. The reduced placental GCs catabolic capacity was accompanied by downregulation of SLC2A3, SLC

  11. Maternal 'near miss' at Royal Darwin Hospital: An analysis of severe maternal morbidity at an Australian regional tertiary maternity unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaratnam, Skandarupan; Burton, Alice; Connan, Kirsten Fiona; de Costa, Caroline

    2016-08-01

    Assessment of severe maternal morbidity using World Health Organization (WHO) 'near-miss' criteria is gaining in importance as a valuable tool in the assessment of maternity care of women. Identification of cases allows an understanding of aetiology of severe morbidity and factors contributing to poor maternal outcomes. The aim of this study is to determine the rate of maternal 'near miss' at Royal Darwin Hospital (RDH) and the utility of the WHO near-miss criteria as a tool for data collection in a regional Australian context. Cases of maternal 'near miss' and deaths were prospectively identified over a period of 12 months using the WHO criteria. During the audit period, there were 2080 live births at Royal Darwin Hospital (RDH): 10 women presented with a 'near miss' and there was one maternal death. The maternal mortality ratio for the hospital was 48/100 000 live births, the maternal 'near-miss' index ratio was 4.8/1000 live births, and the combination of maternal deaths and near misses gave a severe maternal outcome (SMO) ratio of 5.3/1000 live births. The main cause of obstetric 'near miss' was obstetric haemorrhage. Indigenous women and women from remote areas comprised a significant portion of 'near-miss' cases. The rates of maternal 'near miss' at RDH are consistent with other studies in the developed world. The WHO maternal 'near-miss' audit tool helps health professionals understand and anticipate severe maternal morbidities, with the aim of improving maternal and perinatal outcomes. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  12. Technology Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nanette R.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this summer's work was to attempt to enhance Technology Application Group (TAG) ability to measure the outcomes of its efforts to transfer NASA technology. By reviewing existing literature, by explaining the economic principles involved in evaluating the economic impact of technology transfer, and by investigating the LaRC processes our William & Mary team has been able to lead this important discussion. In reviewing the existing literature, we identified many of the metrics that are currently being used in the area of technology transfer. Learning about the LaRC technology transfer processes and the metrics currently used to track the transfer process enabled us to compare other R&D facilities to LaRC. We discuss and diagram impacts of technology transfer in the short run and the long run. Significantly, it serves as the basis for analysis and provides guidance in thinking about what the measurement objectives ought to be. By focusing on the SBIR Program, valuable information regarding the strengths and weaknesses of this LaRC program are to be gained. A survey was developed to ask probing questions regarding SBIR contractors' experience with the program. Specifically we are interested in finding out whether the SBIR Program is accomplishing its mission, if the SBIR companies are providing the needed innovations specified by NASA and to what extent those innovations have led to commercial success. We also developed a survey to ask COTR's, who are NASA employees acting as technical advisors to the SBIR contractors, the same type of questions, evaluating the successes and problems with the SBIR Program as they see it. This survey was developed to be implemented interactively on computer. It is our hope that the statistical and econometric studies that can be done on the data collected from all of these sources will provide insight regarding the direction to take in developing systematic evaluations of programs like the SBIR Program so that they can

  13. Blastocyst Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    ### Method: Blastocyst transfer is usually performed 24 hours after aggregation when the morulae have become expanded blastocysts and on the same day as injection. A little time is given between injection and transfer to allow blastocysts to re-expand. **The Recipient** Careful selection of the recipient is most important as the pups are the end result of a lot of hard work. Two strains of mice are used:RB Swiss and (CBA*C57BL6/J)f1. RB Swiss are quiet and make excellent mothers ...

  14. Heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Holman, J P

    2010-01-01

    As one of the most popular heat transfer texts, Jack Holman's "Heat Transfer" is noted for its clarity, accessible approach, and inclusion of many examples and problem sets. The new tenth edition retains the straight-forward, to-the-point writing style while covering both analytical and empirical approaches to the subject. Throughout the book, emphasis is placed on physical understanding while, at the same time, relying on meaningful experimental data in those situations that do not permit a simple analytical solution. New examples and templates provide students with updated resources for computer-numerical solutions.

  15. Emergency Referral Transport for Maternal Complication: Lessons from the Community Based Maternal Death Audits in Unnao District, Uttar Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Saksena Raj

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background An effective emergency referral transport system is the link between the home of the pregnant woman and a health facility providing basic or comprehensive emergency obstetric care. This study attempts to explore the role of emergency transport associated with maternal deaths in Unnao district, Uttar Pradesh (UP. Methods A descriptive study was carried out to assess the causes of and factors leading to maternal deaths in Unnao district, UP, through community based Maternal Death Review (MDR using verbal autopsy, in a sample of 57 maternal deaths conducted between June 1, 2009, and May 31, 2010. A facility review was also conducted in 15 of the 16 block level and district health facilities to collect information on preparedness of the facilities for treating obstetric complications including referral transportation. A descriptive analysis was carried out using ratios and percentages to analyze the availability of basic facilities which may lead to maternal deaths. Results It was found that there were only 10 ambulances available at 15 facilities against 19 required as per Indian Public Health Standards (IPHS. About 47% of the deaths took place in a facility, 30% enroute to a health facility and 23% at home. Twenty five percent of women were taken to one facility, 32% were taken to two facilities, and 25% were taken to three facilities while 19% were not taken to any facility before their death. Sixteen percent of the pregnant women could not arrange transportation to reach any facility. The mean time to make arrangements for travel from home to facility-1 and facility-2 to facility-3 was 3.1 hours; whereas from facility-1 to facility-2 was 9.9 hours. The mean travel time from home to facility-1 was 1 hour, from facility-1 to facility-2 was 1.4 hours and facility-2 to facility-3 was 1.6 hours. Conclusion The public health facility review and MDR, clearly indicates that the inter-facility transfers appropriateness and timeliness of

  16. Maternal responsiveness and maternal selectivity in domestic sheep and goats: the two facets of maternal attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poindron, Pascal; Lévy, Frédéric; Keller, Matthieu

    2007-01-01

    Sheep and goats rapidly establish an exclusive relationship with their neonate following contact with it during a sensitive period of maternal responsiveness induced by the physiological events occurring at parturition. The data concerning the sensory, physiological, and neurobiological factors involved in the activation of both maternal responsiveness and the establishment of selective nursing indicates that these processes are activated simultaneously by the combined action of two main factors, the prepartum rise in circulating estrogen and the vaginocervical stimulation (VCS) caused by fetus expulsion. On the one hand, these two factors act on a neural network including the main olfactory system (MOB), the medial preoptic area (MPOA), and the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) to induce maternal responsiveness towards any neonate. The intracerebral release of oxytocin (OT) from the PVN, and the triggering of olfactory attraction for amniotic fluid (AF) are key elements in this process. On the other hand, VCS at birth also sets the MOB ready to memorize the individual odor of the neonate, through the release of peptides and neurotransmitters (noradrenaline and acetylcholine). In addition to the MOB, the network involved in recognition mainly includes the medial and cortical amygdala. Across consolidation processes, reorganization occurs in the network engaged in lamb recognition. Whether this memorization may be potentiated by other sensory cues is not known. The identification of the chemosensory compounds involved in the attraction for AF and in the recognition of the neonate is important for understanding the mechanisms of maternal attachment.

  17. Synthetic tsunamis along the Israeli coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Joshua; Stiassnie, Michael

    2012-04-13

    The new mathematical model for tsunami evolution by Tobias & Stiassnie (Tobias & Stiassnie 2011 J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 116, C06026) is used to derive a synthetic tsunami database for the southern part of the Eastern Mediterranean coast. Information about coastal tsunami amplitudes, half-periods, currents and inundation levels is presented.

  18. ETV Program Production in the Ivory Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Stella; Klees, Steven

    The efficiency of educational broadcasting in the Ivory Coast is assessed from the standpoint of what and how physical and human resources are utilized. Information was obtained by reviewing the large volume of documents that have been published about the project and through interviewing personnel involved in its management and operation. The…

  19. The Kenya Coast in national perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meilink, H.A.; Hoorweg, J.; Foeken, D.W.J.; Obudho, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    This chapter provides a concise review of the process of regional development and the concomitant growing regional inequalities in Kenya. By focusing on Coast Province, it aims to verify statements which stress that the province has gradually moved to a marginal position in Kenyan society. Examining

  20. Seasons and nutrition at the Kenya coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorweg, J.; Foeken, D.W.J.; Klaver, W.

    1995-01-01

    This monograph reports on the seasonal fluctuations in food and nutrition that occur in Coast Province, Kenya, on the basis of data gathered during five survey rounds held in selected locations in Kwale and Kilifi districts between mid 1985 and late 1986. The study population seems to have developed

  1. Pilot Project Sand Groynes Delfland Coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, R.; Walstra, D.J.R.; Swinkels, C.S.

    2012-01-01

    In October and November 2009 a pilot project has been executed at the Delfland Coast in the Netherlands, constructing three small sandy headlands called Sand Groynes. Sand Groynes are nourished from the shore in seaward direction and anticipated to redistribute in the alongshore due to the impact of

  2. Pilot Project Sand Groynes Delfland Coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, R.; Walstra, D.J.R.; Swinkels, C.S.

    2012-01-01

    In October and November 2009 a pilot project has been executed at the Delfland Coast in the Netherlands, constructing three small sandy headlands called Sand Groynes. Sand Groynes are nourished from the shore in seaward direction and anticipated to redistribute in the alongshore due to the impact of

  3. ETV Program Production in the Ivory Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Stella; Klees, Steven

    The efficiency of educational broadcasting in the Ivory Coast is assessed from the standpoint of what and how physical and human resources are utilized. Information was obtained by reviewing the large volume of documents that have been published about the project and through interviewing personnel involved in its management and operation. The…

  4. The Kenya coast : A regional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorweg, J.; Foeken, D.W.J.; Obudho, R.A.; Hoorweg, J.; Foeken, D.W.J.; Obudho, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    Despite its economic and cultural potential, the Kenya Coast finds itself in a marginal position. This collective volume traces the causes behind this situation and analyses it from different angles: political, economic and social. Most of the papers included in this volume were first presented at a

  5. The Kenya Coast in national perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meilink, H.A.; Hoorweg, J.; Foeken, D.W.J.; Obudho, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    Despite its economic and cultural potential, the Kenya Coast finds itself in a marginal position. This collective volume traces the causes behind this situation and analyses it from different angles: political, economic and social. Most of the papers included in this volume were first presented at a

  6. Submarine canyons off the Coromandel coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varadachari, V.V.R.; Nair, R.R.; Murty, P.S.N.

    During the 26th Cruise of I.N.S. `KISTNA', a bathymetric survey was carried out in some detail off the Pondicherry coast. This survey has revealed the existence of three sets of distinctly separate canyons between Cuddalore and Palar River...

  7. 1971 : left coast removed from oil hunt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2008-06-15

    In 1971, oil and gas exploration efforts were focused on the Far North and on the east coast offshore. Concerns of ecological damage closed the west coast offshore to exploration efforts. A ban on offshore oil operations was imposed in the Straits of Juan de Fuca, between Vancouver and Victoria. The move prompted Gulf Oil and Canadian Pacific Oil and Gas to give back to Ottawa federal oil and gas permits covering 675,000 acres. The following year, the federal government imposed a moratorium on all exploration activity for the west coast offshore. The provincial government imposed its own 5-year moratorium in 1989. In 2007, the province recommitted itself to offshore exploration and requested that the federal moratorium be lifted. However, to date, the federal moratorium remains in place. 1971 also marked the drilling of the first Sable Island natural gas well by Mobil Oil Canada. The well tested at 14 million cubic feet per day and offered an optimistic future for east coast offshore activities. In 1971, the Energy Resources Conservation Board recommended approval of Syncrude Canada's 125,000 barrel per day oilsands project. 1 tab., 1 fig.

  8. The Kenya coast : A regional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorweg, J.; Foeken, D.W.J.; Obudho, R.A.; Hoorweg, J.; Foeken, D.W.J.; Obudho, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    Despite its economic and cultural potential, the Kenya Coast finds itself in a marginal position. This collective volume traces the causes behind this situation and analyses it from different angles: political, economic and social. Most of the papers included in this volume were first presented at a

  9. The Kenya Coast in national perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meilink, H.A.; Hoorweg, J.; Foeken, D.W.J.; Obudho, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    Despite its economic and cultural potential, the Kenya Coast finds itself in a marginal position. This collective volume traces the causes behind this situation and analyses it from different angles: political, economic and social. Most of the papers included in this volume were first presented at a

  10. Salt Diapirs in the Gulf Coast [gcdiapirg

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Locations and shapes of salt diapirs were modified after the New Orleans Geological Society map, Salt tectonism of the U.S. Gulf Coast Basin (compiled by J.A. Lopez,...

  11. 46 CFR 153.957 - Persons in charge of transferring liquid cargo in bulk or cleaning cargo tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... safely transfer liquid cargo in bulk or to safely clean cargo tanks; (2) Each transfer of liquid cargo in... or cleaning cargo tanks. 153.957 Section 153.957 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... transferring liquid cargo in bulk or cleaning cargo tanks. (a) The owner and operator of the vessel, and his...

  12. Maternal phobic anxiety and child anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Gail A; Layne, Ann E; Egan, Elizabeth A; Nelson, Lara P

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined the relation between maternal anxiety symptoms and child anxiety symptoms and evaluated whether a reporting bias is associated with maternal anxiety. Fifty-seven mother-child pairs participated. All children had features or diagnoses of separation anxiety disorder (SAD), generalized anxiety disorder, and/or social phobia. Measures of maternal symptomatology and child anxiety were administered. Higher levels of maternal phobic anxiety on the Brief Symptom Inventory were significantly associated with higher levels of separation anxiety in children. After controlling for clinician rating of SAD severity, maternal phobic anxiety emerged as a significant predictor of maternal ratings of child separation anxiety, accounting for 19% of the variance. Phobic mothers endorsed levels of separation anxiety in their children that exceeded levels endorsed by clinicians, suggesting maternal overreporting.

  13. Prenatal maternal anxiety and early childhood temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Megan M; Glynn, Laura M; Sandman, Curt A; Davis, Elysia Poggi

    2011-11-01

    The consequences of exposure to prenatal maternal anxiety for the development of child temperament were examined in a sample of 120 healthy, 2-year-old children. Prenatal maternal state and pregnancy-specific anxiety (PSA) were measured five times during pregnancy, and maternal state anxiety was measured again at 2 years post partum. Child temperament was measured at 2 years using the Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire. The relationship between the trajectory of maternal anxiety across gestation and negative affectivity was evaluated using hierarchical linear growth curve modeling. Higher maternal PSA between 13 and 17 weeks of gestation was associated with increased negative temperament in the children. This association could not be explained by postnatal maternal anxiety, demographic, or obstetric factors. Prenatal maternal state anxiety was not associated with child temperament. These findings demonstrate that PSA early in gestation has a distinctive influence on the developing fetus.

  14. Studies on sediment transport along Kerala Coast, south west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sajeev, R.; Chandramohan, P.; Josanto, V.; Sanakaranarayanan, V.N.

    Longshore sediment transport characteristics of the Kerala Coast have been examined to delineate various physical processes affecting the different coastal environments. Monthly averages of the daily LEO (Littoral Environmental Observation) data...

  15. Small protohistoric sites (fishing villages?) on the saurashtra coast, West Coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh

    the remains of late Harappan phase and provide the insight into the settlement pattern of this period along the coast of saurashtra. Majority of the sites are under cultivation thus original cultural deposition cannot be determined correctly, however, present...

  16. California coast sablefish - Reproductive Life History Analysis of Sablefish Populations off the Washington and California Coasts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria) have a wide distribution along the Pacific coast, extending from Baja California to Alaska, the Bering Sea and through to the eastern...

  17. Washington coast sablefish - Reproductive Life History Analysis of Sablefish Populations off the Washington and California Coasts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria) have a wide distribution along the Pacific coast, extending from Baja California to Alaska, the Bering Sea and through to the eastern...

  18. West Coast DA Event data - West Coast Toxic Pseudo-nitzschia bloom

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Beginning in the spring of 2015 the US West Coast began to experience the most wide-spread toxic Pseudo-nitzschia bloom to date, after approximately eight years...

  19. US Coast Guard Stations in Louisiana, Geographic NAD83, USCG [coast_guard_stations_USCG_1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is is a point dataset for the locations and attributes of eight US Coast Guard stations in Louisiana. The attributes include name, address, latitude (NAD27),...

  20. Transfer Timing

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    sim present Simulation Presentation Interactive Media Element This IME is used in the Computer Communications and Networks class offered in the Graduate School of Operations and Information Sciences. This introductory computer networking course provides the theory and principles of networking and communications protocols. This IME is used to help students understand data transfer options. CS3502 Computer Communications and Networks

  1. Sophisticated transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhart, T.

    2006-01-01

    On the eve of the Iraq war, fears were expressed in different circles that under the cover of war, Israel may attempt a transfer of Palestinians in the “seam line” area of the northern West Bank (Kalkilya, Tulkarem). Last week, the army produced a scene from this scenario. On April 2 at 3 AM, a larg

  2. The evolution of multivariate maternal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijper, Bram; Johnstone, Rufus A; Townley, Stuart

    2014-04-01

    There is a growing interest in predicting the social and ecological contexts that favor the evolution of maternal effects. Most predictions focus, however, on maternal effects that affect only a single character, whereas the evolution of maternal effects is poorly understood in the presence of suites of interacting traits. To overcome this, we simulate the evolution of multivariate maternal effects (captured by the matrix M) in a fluctuating environment. We find that the rate of environmental fluctuations has a substantial effect on the properties of M: in slowly changing environments, offspring are selected to have a multivariate phenotype roughly similar to the maternal phenotype, so that M is characterized by positive dominant eigenvalues; by contrast, rapidly changing environments favor Ms with dominant eigenvalues that are negative, as offspring favor a phenotype which substantially differs from the maternal phenotype. Moreover, when fluctuating selection on one maternal character is temporally delayed relative to selection on other traits, we find a striking pattern of cross-trait maternal effects in which maternal characters influence not only the same character in offspring, but also other offspring characters. Additionally, when selection on one character contains more stochastic noise relative to selection on other traits, large cross-trait maternal effects evolve from those maternal traits that experience the smallest amounts of noise. The presence of these cross-trait maternal effects shows that individual maternal effects cannot be studied in isolation, and that their study in a multivariate context may provide important insights about the nature of past selection. Our results call for more studies that measure multivariate maternal effects in wild populations.

  3. The evolution of multivariate maternal effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram Kuijper

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in predicting the social and ecological contexts that favor the evolution of maternal effects. Most predictions focus, however, on maternal effects that affect only a single character, whereas the evolution of maternal effects is poorly understood in the presence of suites of interacting traits. To overcome this, we simulate the evolution of multivariate maternal effects (captured by the matrix M in a fluctuating environment. We find that the rate of environmental fluctuations has a substantial effect on the properties of M: in slowly changing environments, offspring are selected to have a multivariate phenotype roughly similar to the maternal phenotype, so that M is characterized by positive dominant eigenvalues; by contrast, rapidly changing environments favor Ms with dominant eigenvalues that are negative, as offspring favor a phenotype which substantially differs from the maternal phenotype. Moreover, when fluctuating selection on one maternal character is temporally delayed relative to selection on other traits, we find a striking pattern of cross-trait maternal effects in which maternal characters influence not only the same character in offspring, but also other offspring characters. Additionally, when selection on one character contains more stochastic noise relative to selection on other traits, large cross-trait maternal effects evolve from those maternal traits that experience the smallest amounts of noise. The presence of these cross-trait maternal effects shows that individual maternal effects cannot be studied in isolation, and that their study in a multivariate context may provide important insights about the nature of past selection. Our results call for more studies that measure multivariate maternal effects in wild populations.

  4. Current Concepts of Maternal Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowensohn, Richard I.; Stadler, Diane D.; Naze, Christie

    2016-01-01

    Background A nutrient-rich maternal diet before and during pregnancy is associated with improved fetal health, more appropriate birth weight, and increased rates of maternal and infant survival. Physicians need a better understanding of the role of diet in shaping fetal outcomes. Given this background, we reviewed and summarized articles on maternal nutrition found in MEDLINE since 1981, written in English, and limited to human subjects. For the Offspring Maternal diets high in sugar and fat lead to an increased incidence of metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease later in life. Folic acid should be supplemented prior to conception and continued through at least the first 28 days of fetal life to prevent neural tube defects, and vitamin C should be given to women who smoke to lower the incidence of asthma and wheezing in the children. Iodine deficiency is increasing, and iodine should be included in prenatal supplements. If the maternal hemoglobin is 7 g/dL or more, there is no evidence that iron supplementation is needed. Fish intake during pregnancy is protective against atopic outcomes, whereas high-meat diets contribute to elevated adult blood pressure and hypersecretion of cortisol. For the Mother Calcium supplementation lowers the risk of preeclampsia and hypertensive disease in pregnancy. Conclusions Given the limits of our current knowledge, a diet rich in whole grains, fruits, vegetables, and selected fish is desirable for the best outcomes. Diets high in sugar and fat lead to higher rates of diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. Folic acid, iodine, and calcium in all pregnant women and vitamin C in smokers are the only supplements so far shown to be of value for routine use. The physician treating a pregnant woman should be ready to advise a healthy diet for the benefit of the fetus. Target Audience Obstetricians and gynecologists, family physicians Learning Objectives After participating in this activity, the

  5. Occurrence of Porphyra vietnamensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) along the Goa coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhargalkar, V.K.; Agadi, V.V.; Untawale, A.G.

    The occurrence of a red alga, Porphyra vietnamensis has been studied along the Goa Coast (west coast of India). The growth period was observed during the monsoon (July-October) and optimum growth was recorded during August, when temperature...

  6. Hydrological modelling of the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suprit, K.

    A hydrological modelling framework was assembled for simulating discharges of the west-coast rivers of India. The framework is applied to the Mandovi river, Goa, a typical west-coast river. The modelling framework consisted of a digital elevation...

  7. Tidal propagation off the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Unnikrishnan, A.S.

    Present study reviews the characteristics of tidal propagation on the continental shelf off the central west coast of India. Available observations from tide gauges are used to describe the variations of tidal ranges along the west coast. Amplitudes...

  8. Benthic fauna of southwest and southeast coasts of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devi, K.S.; Sheba, P.; Balasubramanian, T.; Venugopal, P.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    Benthos, sediments characteristics and organic matter content were studied along southwest and southeast coasts of India. Number of groups/species varied with the stations and also with the depths. Population density was very low in southeast coast...

  9. Maternal and cord blood levels of aldrin and dieldrin in Delhi population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Md; Pathak, Rahul; Tripathi, A K; Ahmed, Rafat S; Guleria, Kiran; Banerjee, B D

    2010-12-01

    Aldrin and dieldrin, structurally similar organochlorine pesticides belong to cyclodiene family and were widely used for agriculture and public health program in India. Although the manufacturing, use and import of aldrin and dieldrin have been banned in India since 2003, these pesticides are still persistent in environment and may be associated with adverse neurological and reproductive effects. The aim of this study is to assess the recent exposure level of aldrin and dieldrin and their placental transfer to fetus in normal healthy full-term pregnant women belonging to north Indian population undergoing normal delivery at Obstetrics and Gynecology department of UCMS and GTB hospital, Delhi. Quantitative analysis of aldrin and dieldrin residues in maternal and cord blood samples were carried out by gas chromatography system equipped with electron capture detector. The results of our study clearly revealed that maternal and cord blood levels of aldrin and dieldrin of pregnant women are age and dietary habit dependent. The aldrin level in maternal blood and dieldrin level in cord blood are higher in women in the age group 25-30 years than in women in age group of 19-24 years. Similarly, aldrin level in maternal blood is significantly higher in women with non-vegetarian dietary habit than in women with vegetarian dietary habit. No significant association is found for maternal and cord blood level. The results of the present study clearly demonstrate prenatal uptake of aldrin and dieldrin and provide recent information on the subsequent transplacental transfer.

  10. Tsunami impacts on morphology of beaches along south Kerala coast, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rasheed, K.A.A.; Das, V.K.; Revichandran, C.; Vijayan, P.R.; Thottam, T.J.

    TSUNAMI IMPACTS ON MORPHOLOGY OF BEACHES ALONG SOUTH KERALA COAST, WEST COAST OF INDIA K. A. Abdul Rasheed *, V. Kesava Das, C. Revichandran, P. R. Vijayan and Tony. J. Thottam National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), Regional Centre (RC... large waves of height 11 to 11.5m in Kutch region (Pendse 1945). Most of the tsunamis are generated by the earthquake-initiated seabed displacements. Landslides (including underwater landslides), volcanic eruptions, impact of large objects (such...

  11. Maternal Emotional Availability and Its Association with Maternal Psychopathology, Attachment Style Insecurity and Theory of Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licata, Maria; Zietlow, Anna-Lena; Träuble, Birgit; Sodian, Beate; Reck, Corinna

    High maternal emotional availability (EA) positively affects various domains of child development. However, the question of which factors promote or hinder maternal EA has not been investigated systematically. The present study investigated several maternal characteristics, namely maternal psychopathology, maternal attachment style insecurity, and theory of mind (ToM) as possible factors that influence maternal EA. The sample was comprised of 56 mothers and their preschool-aged children. Half of the mothers were diagnosed with postpartum depression and or anxiety disorders according to DSM-IV, and the other half were healthy controls. The results showed that both low maternal attachment style insecurity and high ToM skills significantly predicted maternal EA sensitivity, independently from maternal postpartum and concurrent psychopathology and education. Moreover, maternal attachment style insecurity fully mediated the link between maternal postpartum psychopathology and sensitivity. The findings suggest that maternal attachment style security can buffer negative effects of maternal psychopathology on maternal sensitivity in the mother-child interaction. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Pollen irradiation and possible gene transfer in Nicotiana species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen

    1985-01-01

    Progeny from crosses of Nicotiana langsdorffii with gamma irradiated pollen of Nicotiana alata ‘Crimson Bedder’ showed skewed segregation in the F2 favoring the maternal parent. This is probably not gene transfer in a strict sense, rather just an extreme case of reduced transmission of irradiated...... chromosomes, leading to massive overrepresentation of maternal genes. Gene transfer or mutational loss may explain some anomalous F1 plants. Segregation in the F2 progeny showed the presence of several genes from the irradiated pollen. Crosses of Nicotiana sylvestris, N. plumbaginifolia N. paniculata......, and Petunia parodii with irradiated pollen from N. alata and Petunia hybrida showed no evidence of gene transfer, nor did experiments with irradiated mentor pollen. This indicates that gene transfer with irradiated pollen between non-crossing species or between species giving sterile hybrids is probably...

  13. Factors associated with maternal mortality in rural Guinea-Bissau. A longitudinal population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høj, L; da Silva, D; Hedegaard, K; Sandström, A; Aaby, P

    2002-07-01

    To assess demographic and obstetric risk factors for pregnancy-related death in a multiethnic rural population in a developing country. A prospective survey of women in the fertile age-range. Rural Guinea-Bissau. More than 15,000 women living in 100 clusters were visited at six-monthly intervals over a period of more than six years. A total of 10,931 pregnancies were registered prospectively; 85 of these pregnancies resulted in maternal or late maternal death. Maternal mortality ratio. In the rural areas of Guinea-Bissau, we conducted a prospective survey of women in the fertile age range. More than 15,000 women living in 100 clusters were visited at 6-monthly intervals over a period of more than six years. An analysis of demographic, environmental and obstetric risk factors for maternal death was performed based on 10,931 prospectively registered pregnancies; 85 of these pregnancies resulted in maternal or late maternal death. In the adjusted model maternal mortality ratio increased with increasing distance from the regional hospital (OR>25 km = 7.4 [95% CI: 1.6-132]). Multiple pregnancy was found to increase the risk of maternal death (OR = 3.4 [95% CI: 1.3-7.5]). The risk of subsequent maternal death was increased if the fetus was stillborn (OR = 5.3 [95% CI: 2.8-9.4]). Women living in the region of Gabu had higher mortality than those living in Biombo (OR = 2.5 [95% CI: 1.3-5.1]). No category of age or parity were associated with an increased risk of maternal mortality. Predictive values did not exceed 3% for any of the significant risk factors. For the purpose of reducing maternal mortality, the screening approach of antenatal care is of limited value. Age and parity should not be used routinely as selection criteria for transfer of otherwise healthy pregnant women to higher-level health institutions. Twin pregnancy seems to be the only operational risk factor identified in this study. Stillbirth is associated with an increased risk of maternal death. Regional

  14. Maternal obesity and prenatal programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshenawy, Summer; Simmons, Rebecca

    2016-11-05

    Obesity is a significant and increasing public health concern in the United States and worldwide. Clinical and epidemiological evidence clearly shows that genetic and environmental factors contribute to the increased susceptibility of humans to obesity and its associated comorbidities; the interplay of these factors is explained by the concept of epigenetics. The impact of maternal obesity goes beyond the newborn period; fetal programming during the critical window of pregnancy, can have long term detrimental effects on the offspring as well as future generations. Emerging evidence is uncovering a link between the clinical and molecular findings in the offspring with epigenetic changes in the setting of maternal obesity. Research targeted towards reducing the transgenerational propagation and developmental programming of obesity is vital in reducing the increasing rates of disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Maternal allergic contact dermatitis causes increased asthma risk in offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobzik Lester

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Offspring of asthmatic mothers have increased risk of developing asthma, based on human epidemiologic data and experimental animal models. The objective of this study was to determine whether maternal allergy at non-pulmonary sites can increase asthma risk in offspring. Methods BALB/c female mice received 2 topical applications of vehicle, dinitrochlorobenzene, or toluene diisocyanate before mating with untreated males. Dinitrochlorobenzene is a skin-sensitizer only and known to induce a Th1 response, while toluene diisocyanate is both a skin and respiratory sensitizer that causes a Th2 response. Both cause allergic contact dermatitis. Offspring underwent an intentionally suboptimal protocol of allergen sensitization and aerosol challenge, followed by evaluation of airway hyperresponsiveness, allergic airway inflammation, and cytokine production. Mothers were tested for allergic airway disease, evidence of dermatitis, cellularity of the draining lymph nodes, and systemic cytokine levels. The role of interleukin-4 was also explored using interleukin-4 deficient mice. Results Offspring of toluene diisocyanate but not dinitrochlorobenzene-treated mothers developed an asthmatic phenotype following allergen sensitization and challenge, seen as increased Penh values, airway inflammation, bronchoalveolar lavage total cell counts and eosinophilia, and Th2 cytokine imbalance in the lung. Toluene diisocyanate treated interleukin-4 deficient mothers were able to transfer asthma risk to offspring. Mothers in both experimental groups developed allergic contact dermatitis, but not allergic airway disease. Conclusion Maternal non-respiratory allergy (Th2-skewed dermatitis caused by toluene diisocyanate can result in the maternal transmission of asthma risk in mice.

  16. Development and validation of a questionnaire to identify severe maternal morbidity in epidemiological surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parpinelli Mary A

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective to develop and validate a questionnaire on severe maternal morbidity and to evaluate the maternal recall of complications related to pregnancy and childbirth. Design: validity of a questionnaire as diagnostic instrument. Setting: a third level referral maternity in Campinas, Brazil. Population: 386 survivors of severe maternal complications and 123 women that delivered without major complications between 2002 and 2007. Methods eligible women were traced and interviewed by telephone on the occurrence of obstetric complications and events related to their treatment. Their answers were compared with their medical records as gold standard. Sensitivity, specificity and likelihood ratios plus their correspondent 95% confidence intervals were used as main estimators of accuracy. Main outcomes: diagnosis of severe maternal morbidity associated with past pregnancies, including hemorrhage, eclampsia, infections, jaundice and related procedures (hysterectomy, admission to ICU, blood transfusion, laparotomy, inter-hospital transfer, mechanical ventilation and post partum stay above seven days. Results Women did not recall accurately the occurrence of obstetric complications, especially hemorrhage and infection. The likelihood ratios were Conclusion Process indicators are better recalled by women than obstetric complication and should be considered when applying a questionnaire on severe maternal morbidity.

  17. Enriched Environment-induced Maternal Weight Loss Reprograms Metabolic Gene Expression in Mouse Offspring*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yanchang; Yang, Cai-Rong; Wei, Yan-Ping; Ge, Zhao-Jia; Zhao, Zhen-Ao; Zhang, Bing; Hou, Yi; Schatten, Heide; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The global prevalence of weight loss is increasing, especially in young women. However, the extent and mechanisms by which maternal weight loss affects the offspring is still poorly understood. Here, using an enriched environment (EE)-induced weight loss model, we show that maternal weight loss improves general health and reprograms metabolic gene expression in mouse offspring, and the epigenetic alterations can be inherited for at least two generations. EE in mothers induced weight loss and its associated physiological and metabolic changes such as decreased adiposity and improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Relative to controls, their offspring exhibited improved general health such as reduced fat accumulation, decreased plasma and hepatic lipid levels, and improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Maternal weight loss altered gene expression patterns in the liver of offspring with coherent down-regulation of genes involved in lipid and cholesterol biosynthesis. Epigenomic profiling of offspring livers revealed numerous changes in cytosine methylation depending on maternal weight loss, including reproducible changes in promoter methylation over several key lipid biosynthesis genes, correlated with their expression patterns. Embryo transfer studies indicated that oocyte alteration in response to maternal metabolic conditions is a strong factor in determining metabolic and epigenetic changes in offspring. Several important lipid metabolism-related genes have been identified to partially inherit methylated alleles from oocytes. Our study reveals a molecular and mechanistic basis of how maternal lifestyle modification affects metabolic changes in the offspring. PMID:25555918

  18. 76 FR 66965 - Treasure Coast Specialty Pharmacy Decision and Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ... Enforcement Administration Treasure Coast Specialty Pharmacy Decision and Order On September 14, 2011... Registration, BT9856002, issued to Treasure Coast Specialty Pharmacy, be, and it hereby is, revoked. I further order that any pending application of Treasure Coast Specialty Pharmacy, to renew or modify his...

  19. 33 CFR 166.500 - Areas along the Atlantic Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas along the Atlantic Coast. 166.500 Section 166.500 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Anchorages § 166.500 Areas along the Atlantic Coast. (a) Purpose. Fairways, as described in this section...

  20. 46 CFR 14.103 - Addresses of Coast Guard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Addresses of Coast Guard. 14.103 Section 14.103 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN SHIPMENT AND DISCHARGE OF MERCHANT MARINERS General § 14.103 Addresses of Coast Guard. (a) U.S. postal mail: U.S....

  1. 33 CFR 66.01-15 - Action by Coast Guard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Action by Coast Guard. 66.01-15 Section 66.01-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO... Coast Guard. (a) The District Commander receiving the application will review it for completeness...

  2. 33 CFR 64.33 - Marking by the Coast Guard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marking by the Coast Guard. 64.33 Section 64.33 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO... Marking by the Coast Guard. (a) The District Commander may mark for the protection of maritime...

  3. 33 CFR 118.30 - Action by Coast Guard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Action by Coast Guard. 118.30 Section 118.30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.30 Action by Coast Guard. (a) The District Commander receiving...

  4. The application of hyperspectral remote sensing to coast environment investigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Liang; ZHANG bing; CHEN Zhengchao; ZHENG Lanfen; TONG Qingxi

    2009-01-01

    Requirements for monitoring the coastal zone environment are first summarized. Then the application of hyperspectral remote sensing to coast environment investigation is introduced, such as the classification of coast beaches and bottom matter, target recognition, mine detection, oil spill identification and ocean color remote sensing. Finally, what is needed to follow on in application of hyperspectral remote sensing to coast environment is recommended.

  5. 47 CFR 80.72 - Antenna requirements for coast stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna requirements for coast stations. 80.72 Section 80.72 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO... Stations § 80.72 Antenna requirements for coast stations. All emissions of a coast station a...

  6. Hepatitis E and Maternal Deaths

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-11-06

    Dr. Alain Labrique, assistant professor in the Department of International Health and Department of Epidemiology at the Bloomberg School of Public Health, gives us his perspective on hepatitis E and maternal deaths.  Created: 11/6/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID); National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 11/7/2012.

  7. The measurement of maternal adiposity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fattah, C

    2012-02-01

    The issue of maternal obesity has become a major public health problem. Internationally, the diagnosis of obesity is based on body mass index (BMI) that is, weight in kg\\/height in m2. While epidemiological associations have been shown between different BMI categories and adverse clinical outcomes, there is also a growing realisation that BMI has significant limitations. In this review, we assess current methods to measure body fat and, in particular, their application in pregnant women.

  8. Maternal feeding controls fetal biological clock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidenobu Ohta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is widely accepted that circadian physiological rhythms of the fetus are affected by oscillators in the maternal brain that are coupled to the environmental light-dark (LD cycle. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To study the link between fetal and maternal biological clocks, we investigated the effects of cycles of maternal food availability on the rhythms of Per1 gene expression in the fetal suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN and liver using a transgenic rat model whose tissues express luciferase in vitro. Although the maternal SCN remained phase-locked to the LD cycle, maternal restricted feeding phase-advanced the fetal SCN and liver by 5 and 7 hours respectively within the 22-day pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that maternal feeding entrains the fetal SCN and liver independently of both the maternal SCN and the LD cycle. This indicates that maternal-feeding signals can be more influential for the fetal SCN and particular organ oscillators than hormonal signals controlled by the maternal SCN, suggesting the importance of a regular maternal feeding schedule for appropriate fetal molecular clockwork during pregnancy.

  9. Maternally-derived passive immunity to enterotropic mouse hepatitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homberger, F R

    1992-01-01

    Maternally-derived antibody to enterotropic mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) strain Y was transferred to pups by both intrauterine (IgG) and lactogenic (IgA and IgG) routes. Antibody present in the gastric whey of pups suckling immune dams dropped to undetectable levels by weaning age (21 days post partum). MHV-specific IgG was found in the serum of passively immune pups up to 10 weeks of age. Immune dams transferred equal levels of antibody to 3 consecutive litters of pups, without evidence of decline. Immunoblots showed that IgA and IgG in whey and serum were directed against nucleoprotein N and glycoprotein S. MHV-specific IgM was not detected in any sample.

  10. Transfer functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taback, I.

    1979-01-01

    The vulnerability of electronic equipment to carbon fibers is studied. The effectiveness of interfaces, such as filters, doors, window screens, and cabinets, which affect the concentration, exposure, or deposition of carbon fibers on both (internal and external) sides of the interface is examined. The transfer function of multilayer aluminum mesh, wet and dry, polyurethane foam, and window screen are determined as a function of air velocity. FIlters installed in typical traffic control boxes and air conditioners are also considered.

  11. Maternal antibodies: clinical significance, mechanism of interference with immune responses, and possible vaccination strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan eNiewiesk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Neonates have an immature immune system which cannot adequately protect against infectious diseases. Early in life, immune protection is accomplished by maternal antibodies transferred from mother to offspring. However, decaying maternal antibodies inhibit vaccination as is examplified by the inhibition of seroconversion after measles vaccination. This phenomenon has been described in both human and veterinary medicine and is independent of the type of vaccine being used. This review will discuss the use of animal models for vaccine research. I will review clinical solutions for inhibition of vaccination by maternal antibodies, and the testing and development of potentially effective vaccines. These are based on new mechanistic insight about the inhibitory mechanism of maternal antibodies. Maternal antibodies inhibit the generation of antibodies whereas the T cell response is usually unaffected. B cell inhibition is mediated through a cross-link between B-cell receptor (BCR with the Fcg receptor IIB (FcgRIIB by a vaccine-antibody complex. In animal experiments, this inhibition can be partially overcome by injection of a vaccine-specific monoclonal IgM antibody. IgM stimulates the B-cell directly through cross-linking the BCR via complement protein C3d and antigen to the complement receptor 2 (CR2 signaling complex. In addition, it was shown that interferon alpha binds to the CD21 chain of CR2 as well as the interferon receptor and that this dual receptor usage drives B cell responses in the presence of maternal antibodies. In lieu of immunizing the infant the concept of maternal immunization as a strategy to protect neonates has been proposed. This approach would still not solve the question of how to immunize in the presence of maternal antibodies but would defer the time of infection to an age where infection might not have such a detrimental outcome as in neonates. I will review successful examples and potential challenges of implementing

  12. 33 CFR 127.703 - Access to the marine transfer area for LNG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... area for LNG. 127.703 Section 127.703 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Access to the marine transfer area for LNG. The operator shall ensure that— (a) Access to the marine transfer area for LNG from the shoreside and the waterside is limited to— (1) Personnel who work at...

  13. 33 CFR 127.105 - Layout and spacing of marine transfer area for LNG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... transfer area for LNG. 127.105 Section 127.105 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... spacing of marine transfer area for LNG. (a) LNG impounding spaces must be located so that the heat flux from a fire over the impounding spaces does not cause structural damage to an LNG vessel moored...

  14. 33 CFR 127.1105 - Layout and spacing of marine transfer area for LHG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Layout and spacing of marine transfer area for LHG. 127.1105 Section 127.1105 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Construction § 127.1105 Layout and spacing of marine transfer area for LHG. Each new waterfront...

  15. Enhancing U.S. Coast Guard Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Enhancing U.S. Coast Guard Metrics Scott Savitz, Henry H. Willis , Aaron C. Davenport, Martina Melliand, William Sasser, Elizabeth Tencza, Dulani...evaluate their utility in other contexts. 6 See Stephanie Young, Henry H. Willis , Melinda Moore, and Jeffrey Engstrom, Measuring Cooperative...front cost of the USS Gerald R. Ford aircraft carrier . U.S. Air Force, “United States Air Force Fiscal Year 2015 Budget Overview,” Washington, D.C

  16. Coast Guard Spectrum Management (CG-652)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Deepwater Horizon Response, Gulf of Mexico , BP Oil Platform (Greatly Reduced Foot Print)  USCG Deployment Basra, Iraq, Port Advisory Coordination...652 (HQ/FT MEADE) Dan Freedman ENGINEER Coast Guard Spectrum Management Flow Chart for Proposals USCG SPECTRUM INBOX USCG FAO LANT...USCG FAO LANT 01 USCG FAO D5 CG HQ LANT (RESCUE 21) CG HQ (NAIS) USCG FAO D14 USCG FAO D8 USCG FAO D9 USCG

  17. WEST COAST REGIONAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Myer; Terry Surles; Kelly Birkinshaw

    2004-01-01

    The West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership is one of seven partnerships which have been established by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate carbon dioxide capture, transport and sequestration (CT&S) technologies best suited for different regions of the country. The West Coast Region comprises Arizona, California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, and the North Slope of Alaska. Led by the California Energy Commission, the West Coast Partnership is a consortium of over thirty five organizations, including state natural resource and environmental protection agencies; national labs and universities; private companies working on CO{sub 2} capture, transportation, and storage technologies; utilities; oil and gas companies; nonprofit organizations; and policy/governance coordinating organizations. In an eighteen month Phase I project, the Partnership will evaluate both terrestrial and geologic sequestration options. Work will focus on five major objectives: (1) Collect data to characterize major CO{sub 2} point sources, the transportation options, and the terrestrial and geologic sinks in the region, and compile and organize this data via a geographic information system (GIS) database; (2) Address key issues affecting deployment of CT&S technologies, including storage site permitting and monitoring, injection regulations, and health and environmental risks (3) Conduct public outreach and maintain an open dialogue with stakeholders in CT&S technologies through public meetings, joint research, and education work (4) Integrate and analyze data and information from the above tasks in order to develop supply curves and cost effective, environmentally acceptable sequestration options, both near- and long-term (5) Identify appropriate terrestrial and geologic demonstration projects consistent with the options defined above, and create action plans for their safe and effective implementation A kickoff meeting for the West Coast Partnership was held on Sept 30-Oct

  18. Coasting cosmologies with time dependent cosmological constant

    CERN Document Server

    Pimentel, L O; Pimentel, Luis O.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of a time dependent cosmological constant is considered in a family of scalar tensor theories. Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmological models for vacumm and perfect fluid matter are found. They have a linear expansion factor, the so called coasting cosmology, the gravitational "constant" decreace inversely with time; this model satisfy the Dirac hipotesis. The cosmological "constant" decreace inversely with the square of time, therefore we can have a very small value for it at present time.

  19. West Coast, United States and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    This view shows the west coast of the United States and Mexico (32.5N, 118.0W) and gives an indication of the range of view from orbital altitude. The visual range of this particular scene is from Skammon's Lagoon on Baja to the northern tip of California's Central Valley and Sierra Nevada, a range of over 15 degrees of latitude. Coastal fog drapes over southern California and northern Baja California. White Sands, New Mexico is at far right center.

  20. Technetium-99 and Caesium-137 time series at the Norwegian Coast monitored by the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlgaard, H. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Bergan, T.D.S.; Christensen, G.C. [Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller (Norway)

    1997-12-31

    A series of seaweed (Fucus vesiculosus) samples taken at 3 locations along the Norwegian coast since 1980 shows the development in coastal anthropogenic radionuclide concentrations. The concentrations of {sup 99}Tc and {sup 137}Cs are strongly influenced by the controlled liquid waste discharges from the two European nuclear fuel reprocessing plants Sellafield (UK) and La Hague (France). From 1986, the {sup 137}Cs concentration is dominated by the Chernobyl release. Comparisons with the discharge reports from the two plants yields transfer factors for dissolved, conservative substances discharged to the Irish Sea and to the English Channel. Such transfer factors may be utilised to estimate the magnitude of the transfer of current and future discharges - not only nuclear waste but also of other coastal pollutants. It is thus estimated, that an annual discharge of one ton of a conservative substance in the English Channel results in concentrations around 55 ng m-3 off the SW coast of Norway with a time lapse of 15-18 months. A continuation of the present time series will yield interesting new results in the future as a very distinct pulse of {sup 99}Tc is now under way from Sellafield to the Norwegian Coast. The present data gives an important contribution to the understanding of long-distance transfer of European coastal pollution to Norwegian waters and further on to the Arctic. (author) 24 refs.

  1. [Maternal mortality among black women in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Alaerte Leandro

    2006-11-01

    Every minute a woman dies in the world due to labor or complications of pregnancy. Maternal mortality is a public health problem in Brazil and affects the country's various regions unequally. Researchers agree that maternal death occurs mainly in women with lower income and less schooling. The racial issue emerges in the midst of socioeconomic issues. The analysis is hampered by the difficulty in understanding Brazil's official classification of race/color, which often impedes recording this information. Various Maternal Mortality Committees are applying the color item and reviewing their data. The current article analyzes various Maternal Mortality Committee reports, showing that the risk of maternal mortality is greater among black women (which encompasses two census categories, negra, or black, and parda, or brown), thus representing a major expression of social inequality. The article concludes with a review of political and technical recommendations to decrease maternal mortality.

  2. [Maternal and foetal prognostic during severe toxemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachdi, Radhouane; Kaabi, Mehdi; Zayene, Houssine; Basly, Mohamed; Messaoudi, Fathi; Messaoudi, Lotfi; Chibani, Mounir

    2005-02-01

    Severe gravidic toxemia gives heavy maternal and foetal morbidity and mortality. The purpose of our study is to loosen the factors of bad maternal and foetal prognostic. It's a retrospective study about 100 cases of severe and complicated gravidic toxemia repertorieted in the maternity of Military Hospital of Tunis. Maternal morbidity is dominated by the complications of hypertension and a blood disorders. We raised 4 cases of eclampsia, 9 cases of retro placental hematome and 5 cases of HELLP syndrome. We don't deplore any maternal death. Perinatal mortality is 28.8%. The rate of delay intra-uterine growth was 43.8% and the prematurity 65.9%. More toxemia appears early during pregnancy more maternal and foetal prognostic is compromised.

  3. Alien species on the coasts of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. CINAR

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The compilation of data on alien species reported from the Turkish coasts yielded a total of 263 species belonging to 11 systematic groups, of which Mollusca had the highest number of species (85 species, followed by Crustacea (51, fishes (43 and phytobenthos (39. The Black Sea is represented by a total of 20 alien species, the Sea of Marmara by 48 species, the Aegean Sea by 98 species and the Levantine Sea by 202 species. The majority of aliens found in the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara were transported via shipping, whereas the Levantine coast is extensively subjected to Lessepsian migration. Benthic habitats (soft and hard substrata comprise 76% of the total alien species and the pelagic environment is inhabited by thirty-nine species. Almost 50% of aliens collected from the Turkish coasts were found only at 0-10 m depth. Eight species occur at depths deeper than 100 m. The impacts of aliens on the benthic and pelagic ecosystems are presented.

  4. [Implementation of palliative care in Ivory Coast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulibaly, J Didi-Kouko; Datie, A-M; Binlin-Dadie, R; Kouame, I; N'guessan, Zc; Barouan, M-C; Koffi, E; Coulibaly, I; Mensah, J; Yenou, H Memain; Dedomey, E; Echimane, Ka; Plo, Kj; Kouassi, B

    2009-05-01

    Ivory Coast adhered to the strategy of the primary cares of health whose leading principles served basis to the definition of the National politics of sanitary development, exposed in the National plan of sanitary development 1996-2005. The improvement of the quality of the cares is the main objective of this plan. The attack of this objective cannot make itself without the hold in account of the palliative cares that are a component of the cares for the patients affected by chronic and incurable affections, since the diagnosis until the death and even after the death. Conscious of the necessity to develop the palliative cares to improve the quality of life of the patients and their families, the ministry in charge of health, in collaboration with the partners to the development, initiated a project of development of the palliative care in Ivory Coast. It is about an innovating gait in Ivory Coast concerning politics of health. This work has for goal to present the big lines and the setting in which this politics has been put in place.

  5. Tritium level along Romanian Black Sea Coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varlam, C.; Stefanescu, I.; Popescu, I.; Faurescu, I. [National Inst. for Cryogenic and Isotopic Technologies, PO Box 10, Rm. Valcea, 24050 (Romania)

    2008-07-15

    Establishing the tritium level along the Romanian Black Sea Coast, after 10 years of exploitation of the nuclear power plant from Cernavoda, is a first step in evaluating its impact on the Black Sea ecosystem. The monitoring program consists of tritium activity concentration measurement in sea water and precipitation from Black Sea Coast between April 2005 and April 2006. The sampling points were spread over the Danube-Black Sea Canal - before the locks Agigea and Navodari, and Black Sea along the coast to the Bulgarian border. The average tritium concentration in sea water collected from the sampling locations had the value of 11.1 {+-} 2.1 TU, close to tritium concentration in precipitation. Although an operating nuclear power plant exists in the monitored area, the values of tritium concentration in two locations are slightly higher than those recorded elsewhere. To conclude, it could be emphasized that until now, Cernavoda NPP did not had any influence on the tritium concentration of the Black Sea Shore. (authors)

  6. Alien species on the coasts of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. CINAR

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The compilation of data on alien species reported from the Turkish coasts yielded a total of 263 species belonging to 11 systematic groups, of which Mollusca had the highest number of species (85 species, followed by Crustacea (51, fishes (43 and phytobenthos (39. The Black Sea is represented by a total of 20 alien species, the Sea of Marmara by 48 species, the Aegean Sea by 98 species and the Levantine Sea by 202 species. The majority of aliens found in the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara were transported via shipping, whereas the Levantine coast is extensively subjected to Lessepsian migration. Benthic habitats (soft and hard substrata comprise 76% of the total alien species and the pelagic environment is inhabited by thirty-nine species. Almost 50% of aliens collected from the Turkish coasts were found only at 0-10 m depth. Eight species occur at depths deeper than 100 m. The impacts of aliens on the benthic and pelagic ecosystems are presented.

  7. Public health approach to address maternal mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Sanjay K; Anand, K; Misra, Puneet; Kant, Shashi; Upadhyay, Ravi Prakash

    2012-01-01

    Reducing maternal mortality is one of the major challenges to health systems worldwide, more so in developing countries that account for nearly 99% of these maternal deaths. Lack of a standard method for reporting of maternal death poses a major hurdle in making global comparisons. Currently much of the focus is on documenting the "number" of maternal deaths and delineating the "medical causes" behind these deaths. There is a need to acknowledge the social correlates of maternal deaths as well. Investigating and in-depth understanding of each maternal death can provide indications on practical ways of addressing the problem. Death of a mother has serious implications for the child as well as other family members and to prevent the same, a comprehensive approach is required. This could include providing essential maternal care, early management of complications and good quality intrapartum care through the involvement of skilled birth attendants. Ensuring the availability, affordability, and accessibility of quality maternal health services, including emergency obstetric care (EmOC) would prove pivotal in reducing the maternal deaths. To increase perceived seriousness of the community regarding maternal health, a well-structured awareness campaign is needed with importance be given to avoid adolescent pregnancy as well. Initiatives like Janani Surakhsha Yojna (JSY) that have the potential to improve maternal health needs to be strengthened. Quality assessments should form an essential part of all services that are directed toward improving maternal health. Further, emphasis needs to be given on research by involving multiple allied partners, with the aim to develop a prioritized, coordinated, and innovative research agenda for women's health.

  8. Public health approach to address maternal mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay K Rai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reducing maternal mortality is one of the major challenges to health systems worldwide, more so in developing countries that account for nearly 99% of these maternal deaths. Lack of a standard method for reporting of maternal death poses a major hurdle in making global comparisons. Currently much of the focus is on documenting the "number" of maternal deaths and delineating the "medical causes" behind these deaths. There is a need to acknowledge the social correlates of maternal deaths as well. Investigating and in-depth understanding of each maternal death can provide indications on practical ways of addressing the problem. Death of a mother has serious implications for the child as well as other family members and to prevent the same, a comprehensive approach is required. This could include providing essential maternal care, early management of complications and good quality intrapartum care through the involvement of skilled birth attendants. Ensuring the availability, affordability, and accessibility of quality maternal health services, including emergency obstetric care (EmOC would prove pivotal in reducing the maternal deaths. To increase perceived seriousness of the community regarding maternal health, a well-structured awareness campaign is needed with importance be given to avoid adolescent pregnancy as well. Initiatives like Janani Surakhsha Yojna (JSY that have the potential to improve maternal health needs to be strengthened. Quality assessments should form an essential part of all services that are directed toward improving maternal health. Further, emphasis needs to be given on research by involving multiple allied partners, with the aim to develop a prioritized, coordinated, and innovative research agenda for women′s health.

  9. 33 CFR 8.3 - Organization of the Coast Guard Reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Organization of the Coast Guard... GENERAL UNITED STATES COAST GUARD RESERVE § 8.3 Organization of the Coast Guard Reserve. (a) The Coast...) Most Coast Guard Reservists are fully integrated into active duty Coast Guard units. There, Reservists...

  10. On the summer coast parallel winds off the west coast of Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijo, Nádia; Lima, Daniela C. A.; Semedo, Alvaro; Soares, Pedro M. M.; Cardoso, Rita M.; Miranda, Pedro M. A.

    2016-04-01

    During summer the west coast of the Iberian Peninsula is under the effect of persistent coast parallel northerly winds, called Nortada (northerly wind in Portuguese). The synoptic forcing behind the Nortada is caused by the semi-permanent Azores High and the thermal low pressure system in-land central Iberia. The associated pressure gradient gives rise to coastal parallel winds as the result of the geostrophically adjusted response to this synoptic pattern. In turn the persistence of the Nortada induces the development of upwelling systems from the Galicia to Algarve, off the west coast of Iberia, bringing deep cold nutrient-rich water to the shelf and to the surface. This cold water sharpens the temperature and pressure gradients at the coast, leading to a further increase of the wind speed at the coast. The summer regional climate of the coastal western Iberian area is modulated by the Nortada. The structure and climatology characterization of the summer Nortada is investigated through analyses of close to surface wind data produced by a regional 9km horizontal resolution atmospheric hindcast. This regional data was produced using the WRF model, forced by the ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) ERA-Interim reanalysis, and covers the period 1989-2007. The link between the Nortada and the Iberian coastal low level jet is also studied.

  11. STUDI PROSPEKTIF KEMATIAN MATERNAL DI SUKABUMI

    OpenAIRE

    L. Ratna Budiarso

    2012-01-01

    A sample survey to assess maternal mortality was conducted in two subdistricts of Sukabumi regency, West Jawa comprising 65.000 people in 15 villages. Data were collected from 1 September 1982 throught 31 agustus 1983. In one year period 2407 deliveries were recorded, with 9 deaths during deliveries and 2 deaths during pregnancies. The maternal mortality ratio was 468.1 per 100,000 live births (LB). Age specific maternal mortality ratio increased at the age of 30 years and over. The maternal ...

  12. Pre-validation of the WHO organ dysfunction based criteria for identification of maternal near miss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parpinelli Mary A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the performance of the WHO criteria for defining maternal near miss and identifying deaths among cases of severe maternal morbidity (SMM admitted for intensive care. Method Between October 2002 and September 2007, 673 women with SMM were admitted, and among them 18 died. Variables used for the definition of maternal near miss according to WHO criteria and for the SOFA score were retrospectively evaluated. The identification of at least one of the WHO criteria in women who did not die defined the case as a near miss. Organ failure was evaluated through the maximum SOFA score above 2 for each one of the six components of the score, being considered the gold standard for the diagnosis of maternal near miss. The aggregated score (Total Maximum SOFA score was calculated using the worst result of the maximum SOFA score. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of these WHO criteria for predicting maternal death and also for identifying cases of organ failure were estimated. Results The WHO criteria identified 194 cases of maternal near miss and all the 18 deaths. The most prevalent criteria among cases of maternal deaths were the use of vasoactive drug and the use of mechanical ventilation (≥1 h. For the prediction of maternal deaths, sensitivity was 100% and specificity 70.4%. These criteria identified 119 of the 120 cases of organ failure by the maximum SOFA score (Sensitivity 99.2% among 194 case of maternal near miss (61.34%. There was disagreement in 76 cases, one organ failure without any WHO criteria and 75 cases with no failure but with WHO criteria. The Total Maximum SOFA score had a good performance (area under the curve of 0.897 for prediction of cases of maternal near miss according to the WHO criteria. Conclusions The WHO criteria for maternal near miss showed to be able to identify all cases of death and almost all cases of organ failure. Therefore they allow evaluation of the

  13. Heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Jorge, Kubie; Thomas, Grassie

    2012-01-01

    A core task of engineers is to analyse energy related problems. The analytical treatment is usually based on principles of thermodynamics, fluid mechanics and heat transfer, but is increasingly being handled computationally.This unique resource presents a practical textbook, written for both undergraduates and professionals, with a series of over 60 computer workbooks on an accompanying CD.The book emphasizes how complex problems can be deconstructed into a series of simple steps. All thermophysical property computations are illustrated using diagrams within text and on the compani

  14. moisture transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don Kulasiri

    2005-01-01

    model drying porous materials. Coupled partial differential equations governing the moisture and heat transfer can be solved using numerical techniques, and in this paper we solve them analytically in a setting suitable for industrial drying situations. We discuss the nature of the solutions using the physical properties of Pinus radiata. It is shown that the temperature gradients play a significant role in deciding the moisture profiles within the material when thickness is large and that models based only on moisture potential gradients may not be sufficient to explain the drying phenomena in moist porous materials.

  15. Evidence from Maternity Leave Expansions of the Impact of Maternal Care on Early Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael; Milligan, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    We study the impact of maternal care on early child development using an expansion in Canadian maternity leave entitlements. Following the leave expansion, mothers who took leave spent 48-58 percent more time not working in their children's first year of life. This extra maternal care primarily crowded out home-based care by unlicensed…

  16. The perinatal and maternal outcome in pregnancy with advanced maternal age 35 years and >35 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi S. Kalewad

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: Pregnancies in women of advanced maternal age are considered high risk for Perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. A proper preconception consultation and intensive antenatal care assessment can individualize and potentially reduce the risks for women with advanced maternal age. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(6.000: 1929-1935

  17. Maternal adjustment and maternal attitudes in adolescent and adult pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Bárbara; Tendais, Iva; Dias, Cláudia C

    2014-08-01

    This study analyzes differences between adolescent and adult pregnant women and the contribution of maternal age to maternal adjustment and maternal attitudes during pregnancy. A sample of 398 Portuguese pregnant women (111 younger than 19 years) was recruited in a Portuguese Maternity Hospital and completed the Maternal Adjustment and Maternal Attitudes Questionnaire between the 24(th) and 36(th) weeks of gestation. Maternal Adjustment and Maternal Attitudes Questionnaire(1) RESULTS: Adolescent pregnant women show lower maternal adjustment (poorer body image and worse marital relationship) and poorer maternal attitudes (more negative attitudes to sex) than adult pregnant women. When controlling for socio-demographics, age at pregnancy predicts poorer body image and more negative attitudes to sex, but not a worse marital relationship, more somatic symptoms or negative attitudes to pregnancy and the baby. A worse marital relationship was better predicted by living without the partner, and more somatic symptoms and negative attitudes to pregnancy and the baby was predicted by higher education. Adolescent pregnant women show lower maternal adjustment and poorer maternal attitudes than adult pregnant women according to socio-demographics and unfavorable developmental circumstances. Copyright © 2014 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Evidence from Maternity Leave Expansions of the Impact of Maternal Care on Early Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael; Milligan, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    We study the impact of maternal care on early child development using an expansion in Canadian maternity leave entitlements. Following the leave expansion, mothers who took leave spent 48-58 percent more time not working in their children's first year of life. This extra maternal care primarily crowded out home-based care by unlicensed…

  19. Maternal hemochromatosis gene H63D single-nucleotide polymorphism and lead levels of placental tissue, maternal and umbilical cord blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayaalti, Zeliha, E-mail: kayaalti@ankara.edu.tr [Ankara University, Institute of Forensic Sciences, Ankara (Turkey); Kaya-Akyüzlü, Dilek [Ankara University, Institute of Forensic Sciences, Ankara (Turkey); Söylemez, Esma [Ankara University, Institute of Forensic Sciences, Ankara (Turkey); Middle Black Sea Passage Generation of Agricultural Research Station Director, Tokat (Turkey); Söylemezoğlu, Tülin [Ankara University, Institute of Forensic Sciences, Ankara (Turkey)

    2015-07-15

    Human hemochromatosis protein (HFE), a major histocompatibility complex class I-like integral membrane protein, participates in the down regulation of intestinal iron absorption by binding to transferrin receptor (TR). HFE competes with transferrin-bound iron for the TR and thus reduces uptake of iron into cells. On the other hand, a lack of HFE increases the intestinal absorption of iron similarly to iron deficiency associated with increasing in absorption and deposition of lead. During pregnancy, placenta cannot prevent transfer lead to the fetus; even low-level lead poisoning causes neurodevelopmental toxicity in children. The aim of this study was to determine the association between the maternal HFE H63D single-nucleotide polymorphism and lead levels in placental tissue, maternal blood and umbilical cord bloods. The study population comprised 93 mother–placenta pairs. Venous blood from mother was collected to investigate lead levels and HFE polymorphism that was detected by standard PCR–RFLP technique. Cord bloods and placentas were collected for lead levels which were analyzed by dual atomic absorption spectrometer system. The HFE H63D genotype frequencies of mothers were found as 75.3% homozygote typical (HH), 23.6% heterozygote (HD) and 1.1% homozygote atypical (DD). Our study results showed that the placental tissue, umbilical cord and maternal blood lead levels of mothers with HD+DD genotypes were significantly higher than those with HH genotype (p<0.05). The present study indicated for the first time that mothers with H63D gene variants have higher lead levels of their newborn's placentas and umbilical cord bloods. - Highlights: • Mothers with H63D gene variants have higher lead levels of their newborn's umbilical cord blood. • Unborn child of women with HD+DD genotypes may be at increased risk of internal exposure to lead. • Maternal HFE status may have an effect on increased placenta, maternal and cord blood lead levels.

  20. Transplacental transfer of monomethyl phthalate and mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in a human placenta perfusion system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, Tina; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Hedegaard, Morten;

    2007-01-01

    and after perfusion were also analyzed. Placentas were obtained immediately after elective cesarean section and dually perfused in a recirculation system. mMP or mEHP was added to maternal perfusion medium to obtain concentrations at 10 and 25 microg/L, respectively. The placental transfer was followed...... plasma samples. mMP and possibly other short-chained phthalate monoesters in maternal blood can cross the placenta by slow transfer, whereas the results indicate no placental transfer of mEHP. Further studies are recommended....

  1. Cesarean section by maternal request

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAPHAEL CÂMARA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cesarean section by maternal request is the one performed on a pregnant woman without medical indication and without contraindication to vaginal delivery. There is great controversy over requested cesarean section. Potential risks include complications in subsequent pregnancies, such as uterine rupture, placenta previa and accreta. Potential benefits of requested cesareans include a lower risk of postpartum hemorrhage in the first cesarean and fewer surgical complications compared with vaginal delivery. Cesarean section by request should never be performed before 39 weeks.

  2. Educación maternal

    OpenAIRE

    Carnicer Fuentes, Inmaculada Concepción

    2010-01-01

    Definir y/o describir los objetivos, metodología y contenidos de la educación maternal como componente del proceso asistencial integrado de atención al “Embarazo, Parto y Puerperio” de la Consejería de Salud de la Junta de Andalucía. Definir y/o describir los aspectos básicos del crecimiento y desarrollo ovular Definir y/o describir los aspectos básicos de la educación sanitaria durante el embarazo, incluyendo aspectos como nutrición, fármacos, vacunas, atención prenatal y prevención ...

  3. An Arthrobacter spp. bacteremia leading to fetal death and maternal disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeta, Naoya; Ozaki, Kimiaki; Hori, Kensuke; Ito, Kimihiko; Nakayama, Masahiro; Nakahira, Kumiko; Yanagihara, Itaru

    2013-02-01

    A 34-year-old parous woman developed high fever and threatened preterm labor after a 1-day trip, for which she was receiving prenatal care at a hospital. Three days after onset, at 24 4/7 weeks of gestation, she was transferred to our hospital in an emergency. Soon after the woman's arrival at our hospital, the infant was spontaneously stillborn via a transvaginal delivery. Laboratory tests revealed severe maternal disseminated intravascular coagulation with renal and liver insufficiency. Histopathologic examination of the placenta revealed vast fibrin deposition and remarkable neutrophilic infiltration in the intervillous space, suggesting a rare bacterial infection caused by Arthrobacter spp. The bacteria were predominantly detected in the placenta and maternal blood serum by common bacterial 16S rRNA sequencing after polymerase chain reaction amplification. We report the first case, to our knowledge, of bacteremia with Arthrobacter spp., which may lead to maternal disseminated intravascular coagulation and intrauterine fetal death.

  4. The contribution of the maternal immune system to the establishment of pregnancy in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fair, Trudee

    2015-01-01

    Immune cells play an integral role in affecting successful reproductive function. Indeed, disturbed or aberrant immune function has been identified as primary mechanisms behind infertility. In contrast to the extensive body of literature that exists for human and mouse, studies detailing the immunological interaction between the embryo and the maternal endometrium are quite few in cattle. Nevertheless, by reviewing the existing studies and extrapolating from sheep, pig, mouse, and human data, we can draw a reasonably comprehensive picture. Key contributions of immune cell populations include granulocyte involvement in follicle differentiation and gamete transfer, monocyte invasion of the peri-ovulatory follicle and their subsequent role in corpus luteum formation and the pivotal roles of maternal macrophage and dendritic cells in key steps of the establishment of pregnancy, particularly, the maternal immune response to the embryo. These contributions are reviewed in detail below and key findings are discussed.

  5. [Maternal mortality: levels, trends, and differentials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, A; Lozano, R; Hernandez, B

    1993-01-01

    Maternal mortality in Mexico has declined significantly over the past half century. The maternal mortality rate was 53/10,000 live births in 1940 and 5.1 in 1990. The greatest and most rapid decline occurred in the 1940s. The maternal mortality rate is still too high, and in addition the differential between Mexican rates and those of the developed countries has increased. The average age at maternal death is 29 years, a full 40 years less than potential life expectancy. The risk of death from causes related to reproduction varies substantially by educational level. Of all maternal deaths between 1986 and 1991, 26% were in illiterate women, 33% in women with incomplete primary, and 24% in those with complete primary. In 1990, the average female school attainment was complete primary. The maternal mortality rate was eight times higher among illiterate women and five times higher in those not completing primary than in those finishing preparatory. Geographically, states with low maternal mortality rates of under 3.1 are mainly located in the north and those with high maternal mortality of over 6.0 are in the south. The central zone is an intermediate area. The 1991 maternal mortality rates of Oaxaca, Puebla, Tlaxcala, Veracruz, and the state of Mexico are similar to those of Nuevo Leon 30 years ago or Aguascalientes, Sonora, and Baja California 20 years ago. 72% of maternal deaths in the 1980s occurred in rural areas. The rates were 6.5/10,000 in rural areas and 4.1/10,000 in urban areas. The maternal mortality rate also increases with marginalization. An index of marginalization constructed with census data using multivariate techniques showed that fertile aged women in very marginalized municipios had maternal mortality rates of 11.5/10,000, or a risk of death three times greater than women in municipios scoring low for marginalization. Maternal mortality continues to be a priority public health problem in Mexico. Because so many maternal deaths are preventable

  6. The effect of maternal Inflammation on foetal programming of metabolic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingvorsen, C; Brix, S; Ozanne, S E; Hellgren, L I

    2015-08-01

    Maternal obesity during pregnancy increases the child's risk of developing obesity and obesity-related diseases later in life. Key components in foetal programming of metabolic risk remain to be identified; however, chronic low-grade inflammation associated with obesity might be responsible for metabolic imprinting in the offspring. We have therefore surveyed the literature to evaluate the role of maternal obesity-induced inflammation in foetal programming of obesity and related diseases. The literature on this topic is limited, so this review also includes animal models where maternal inflammation is mimicked by single injections with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). An LPS challenge results in an immunological response that resembles the obesity-induced immune profile, although LPS injections provoke a stronger response than the subclinical obesity-associated response. Maternal LPS or cytokine exposures result in increased adiposity and impaired metabolic homeostasis in the offspring, similar to the phenotype observed after exposure to maternal obesity. The cytokine levels might be specifically important for the metabolic imprinting, as cytokines are both transferable from maternal to foetal circulation and have the capability to modulate placental nutrient transfer. However, the immune response associated with obesity is moderate and therefore potentially weakened by the pregnancy-driven immune modulation, dominated by anti-inflammatory Treg and Th2 cells. We know from other low-grade inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, that pregnancy can improve disease state. If pregnancy is also capable of suppressing the obesity-associated inflammation, the immunological markers might be less likely to affect metabolic programming in the developing foetus than otherwise implied.

  7. Nature, nurture or nutrition? Impact of maternal nutrition on maternal care, offspring development and reproductive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, K L; Vickers, M H; Beltrand, J; Meaney, M J; Sloboda, D M

    2012-05-01

    We have previously reported that offspring of mothers fed a high fat (HF) diet during pregnancy and lactation enter puberty early and are hyperleptinaemic, hyperinsulinaemic and obese as adults. Poor maternal care and bonding can also impact offspring development and disease risk.We therefore hypothesized that prenatal nutrition would affect maternal care and that an interaction may exist between a maternal HF diet and maternal care, subsequently impacting on offspring phenotype.Wistar rats were mated and randomized to control dams fed a control diet (CON) or dams fed a HF diet from conception until the end of lactation (HF). Maternal care was assessed by observing maternal licking and grooming of pups between postnatal day (P)3 and P8. Postweaning (P22), offspring were fed a control (–con) or HF (–hf) diet. From P27, pubertal onset was assessed. At ∼P105 oestrous cyclicity was investigated. Maternal HF diet reduced maternal care; HF-fed mothers licked and groomed pups less than CON dams.Maternal fat:lean ratio was higher in HF dams at weaning and was associated with higher maternal plasma leptin and insulin concentrations, but there was no effect of maternal care on fat:lean ratio or maternal hormone levels. Both female and male offspring of HF dams were lighter from birth to P11 than offspring of CON dams, but by P19, HF offspring were heavier than controls. Prepubertal retroperitoneal fat mass was greater in pups from HF-fed dams compared to CON and was associated with elevated circulating leptin concentrations in females only, but there was neither an effect of maternal care, nor an interaction between maternal diet and care on prepubertal fat mass. Pups from HF-fed dams went into puberty early and this effect was exacerbated by a postweaning HF diet.Maternal and postweaning HF diets independently altered oestrous cyclicity in females: female offspring of HF-fed mothers were more likely to have prolonged or persistent oestrus, whilst female offspring fed

  8. The UV Index on the Spanish Mediterranean coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, M J; Sola, Y; Tena, F; Utrillas, M P; Campmany, E; de Cabo, X; Lorente, J; Martínez-Lozano, J A

    2005-01-01

    An analysis is made of measured ultraviolet erythemal solar radiation (UVER) data recorded during the year 2003 by the networks of the Catalan Weather Service and the Environment Department of Valencia (both on the Spanish Mediterranean coast). Results show a latitudinal variation at sea level, of 3-4% per degree and an increase with altitude of 10% per km. Based on these data the UV Index has been evaluated for the measuring stations. The maximum experimental value of the UV Index was around 9 during the summer, although higher values were recorded at two stations, one at the highest elevation and the other at the lowest latitude. The annual accumulated doses of irradiation on a horizontal plane have been presented as well as the evolution through the year in units of energy, Standard Erythemal Doses and Minimum Erythemal Doses according to different phototypes. Lastly, the UV Index forecast, determined with a multiple scattering radiative transfer model, has been analyzed. Total agreement or only one unit of difference between measured and modelled values was found in 94% of cloud-free cases.

  9. [The migration policy of the Ivory Coast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brou, K; Charbit, Y

    1994-01-01

    Migration policies adopted by the Ivory Coast at independence were essentially a continuation of colonial policies aimed at providing manpower for the coffee and cacao plantations of the south, whose exports were to form the basis of the national development strategy. Instead of forced labor, the government facilitated installation of migrants in agricultural areas by means of laws assuring their access to lands not currently in use. Massive immigration of workers resulted in an age and sex distribution favorable to the needs of the plantation economy. The concentration of development efforts in the forest zone of the south, including Abidjan, encouraged thousands of workers from the savannah to migrate south in search of higher incomes and better living conditions. Bilateral accords with the former Upper Volta and with France and multilateral accords with the Economic Community of the West African states regulated the migratory movement. The Ivory Coast's migration policy succeeded in populating the forest zone and permitted the Ivory Coast to construct a powerful economy. But the policy produced sometimes violent opposition among natives overwhelmed by foreigners in search of lands. The loss of labor force in the savannah threatened the nation's food supply and demographic balance. In the forest zone itself, many of the immigrant workers left the plantations to seek greater success in the cities, swelling the ranks of the urban unemployed and leaving much of the rural area short of labor. In prosperous times, when prices for southern goods were high, the system worked reasonably well. When economic conditions worsened, the inefficiency of the policy became clear. At those times the international conventions failed to control the influx because of the conflicting interests of the countries. Ethnic and regional tensions mounted, the rural exodus continued despite attempts to encourage regional development, and conflicts over land tenure intensified.

  10. New data on selected Ivory Coast tektites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuttitta, F.; Carron, M.K.; Annell, C.S.

    1972-01-01

    Fourteen Ivory Coast tektites exhibit a range of bulk indices of refraction of 1.5156 to 1.5217 ?? 0.0004 and of bulk specific gravities of 2.428 to 2.502 ??0.005. Seven of these Ivory Coast (IVC) tektites were analyzed for major and minor element content. Compared to tektites from other strewn fields, their SiO2 content is low (67.2-69.1 %), A12O3 relatively high (15.8-16.8 %), and total iron relatively high but with a more restricted range (6.3-6.8 % as FeO). Their lime content is low (0.71-1.35%) compared to Australasian tektites but their MgO CaO ratio (about 3.1) is unusually high. All other tektite groups have Na2O K2O ratios less than unity, but the Na2O K2O ratio of the IVC tektites is slightly greater than unity. Their K Rb ratios range from 200 to 256 and average 227, which is higher than those determined for Australasian tektites, but similar to some obtained for moldavites. The Li content (41-48 ppm) is about the same as that of the Australasian tektites, but the Cs and Rb are lower, being 1.9 to 2.9 and 57 to 86 ppm, respectively. The IVC tektites are high in Cr (260-375 ppm), Co (19-25 ppm) and Ni (101-167 ppm), and particularly in Pb (Ivory Coast tektites. ?? 1972.

  11. Cryptorchidism and maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Ida N; Jensen, Tina Kold; Petersen, Jørgen H;

    2007-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can adversely affect the fetus. We investigated the association between maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and cryptorchidism (undescended testis) among newborn boys.......Prenatal exposure to alcohol can adversely affect the fetus. We investigated the association between maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and cryptorchidism (undescended testis) among newborn boys....

  12. Trisomy 21 mosaicism and maternal age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Joan K

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the maternal age-specific risk for trisomy 21 mosaicism. Data were obtained on 322 trisomy 21 diagnoses with mosaicism and 27,943 simple trisomy 21 diagnoses recorded in the National Down Syndrome Cytogenetic Register from 1989 to 2009 in England and Wales. Trisomy 21 cases with mosaicism have a mean maternal age of 33.1 years compared to 35.0 years for free trisomy 21 cases. Sixty-seven percent of trisomy 21 diagnoses with mosaicism are maternal age dependent, with a risk 0.8% that of the corresponding maternal age specific risk for simple trisomy 21. However 33% (0.8 per 100,000 births) are not maternal age dependent, indicating that maternal age is not the only risk factor for mosaicism. Trisomy 21 diagnoses with mosaicism are more likely to be female than free trisomy 21 diagnoses, however there was no association of fetal sex with maternal age which indicates that there is another factor involved in the presence of mosaicism not associated with maternal age, but associated with fetal sex.

  13. Maternal Inattention and Impulsivity and Parenting Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mandy; Johnston, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    This study extends previous research by examining whether maternal inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity are associated with different parenting behaviors. Ninety-six mother-son dyads participated in the study, and the boys ranged between 4 and 8 years of age. Maternal inattention was uniquely and positively associated with mothers' use of…

  14. Regional differences in Dutch maternal mortality.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, J. de; Schutte, J.; Poeran, J.; Roosmalen, J. van; Bonsel, G.; Steegers, E.

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: de Graaf J, Schutte J, Poeran J, van Roosmalen J, Bonsel G, Steegers E. Regional differences in Dutch maternal mortality. BJOG 2012;119:582-588. Objective To study regional differences in maternal mortality in the Netherlands. Design Confidential inquiry into the causes of

  15. Maternal Depression and Developmental Disability: Research Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Donald B., Jr.; Golden, Robert N.; Roberts, Jane; Ford, Amy

    2007-01-01

    Maternal depression in families having a child with a disability has been the subject of considerable research over the past 25 years. This review was designed to describe the literature on maternal depression, critique its research methodology, identify consensus findings across studies, and make recommendations for future research. A particular…

  16. Infant Communicative Behaviors and Maternal Responsiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCarlo, Cynthia F.; Onwujuba, Chinwe; Baumgartner, Jennifer I.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study applies attachment and transactional theories in evaluating the dyadic interactions observed between a mother and her infant. Infant communication and maternal responsivity are highlighted as the medium for positive interaction. Objective: The impact of individualized maternal training on mother infant communicative…

  17. STUDI PROSPEKTIF KEMATIAN MATERNAL DI SUKABUMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ratna Budiarso

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A sample survey to assess maternal mortality was conducted in two subdistricts of Sukabumi regency, West Jawa comprising 65.000 people in 15 villages. Data were collected from 1 September 1982 throught 31 agustus 1983. In one year period 2407 deliveries were recorded, with 9 deaths during deliveries and 2 deaths during pregnancies. The maternal mortality ratio was 468.1 per 100,000 live births (LB. Age specific maternal mortality ratio increased at the age of 30 years and over. The maternal mortality rate was 73.7 per 100,000 women aged 15-49 years. Specific maternal mor­tality rate was high among women aged 30—39 years, which was partly associated with the high fertility rate among the group besides the increasing risk of maternal deaths. Direct obstetric causes were reported in 383.0 maternal deaths per 100,000 LB, which were frequently due to hemorrhage and obstructed labour. Indirect obstetric causes were reported in 85.1 maternal deaths per 100,000 LB.

  18. Developing a successful alternative maternity unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C

    1987-07-01

    The users of maternity services are becoming increasingly interested in alternative delivery options, as a result hospitals are developing customer oriented, competitive maternity services. In this article, the author describes one hospital's efforts at developing a customer oriented family birthing center: the rationale, the benefits, the marketing and the satisfying results.

  19. First trimester bleeding and maternal cardiovascular morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Jacob A; Langhoff-Roos, Jens

    2012-01-01

    First trimester bleeding without miscarriage is a risk factor for complications later in the pregnancy, such as preterm delivery. Also, first trimester miscarriage has been linked to subsequent maternal ischemic heart disease. We investigated the link between maternal cardiovascular disease prior...... to and subsequent to first trimester bleeding without miscarriage....

  20. Dune management challenges on developed coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elko, Nicole A.; Brodie, Kate; Stockdon, Hilary F.; Nordstrom, Karl F.; Houser, Chris; McKenna, Kim; Moore, Laura; Rosati, Julie D.; Ruggiero, Peter; Thuman, Roberta; Walker, Ian J.

    2015-01-01

    From October 26-28, 2015, nearly 100 members of the coastal management and research communities met in Kitty Hawk, NC, USA to bridge the apparent gap between the coastal dune research of scientists and engineers and the needs of coastal management practitioners. The workshop aimed to identify the challenges involved in building and managing dunes on developed coasts, assess the extent to which scientific knowledge can be applied to the management community, and identify approaches to provide means to bridge the gap between needs and potential solutions.

  1. Putting the "M" back in the Maternal and Child Health Bureau: reducing maternal mortality and morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Michael C; Highsmith, Keisher; de la Cruz, David; Atrash, Hani K

    2015-07-01

    Maternal mortality and severe morbidity are on the rise in the United States. A significant proportion of these events are preventable. The Maternal Health Initiative (MHI), coordinated by the Maternal and Child Health Bureau at the Health Resources and Services Administration, is intensifying efforts to reduce maternal mortality and severe morbidity in the U.S. Through a public-private partnership, MHI is taking a comprehensive approach to improving maternal health focusing on five priority areas: improving women's health before, during and beyond pregnancy; improving the quality and safety of maternity care; improving systems of maternity care including both clinical and public health systems; improving public awareness and education; and improving surveillance and research.

  2. Are maternal antibodies really that important? Patterns in the immunologic development of altricial passerine house sparrows (Passer domesticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa O King

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Maternal antibodies are believed to play an integral role in protecting immunologically immature wild-passerines from environmental antigens. This study comprehensively examines the early development of the adaptive immune system in an altricial-developing wild passerine species, the house sparrow (Passer domestics, by characterizing the half-life of maternal antibodies in nestling plasma, the onset of de novo synthesis of endogenous antibodies by nestlings, and the timing of immunological independence, where nestlings rely entirely on their own antibodies for immunologic protection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In an aviary study we vaccinated females against a novel antigen that these birds would not otherwise encounter in their natural environment, and measured both antigen-specific and total antibody concentration in the plasma of females, yolks, and nestlings. We traced the transfer of maternal antibodies from females to nestlings through the yolk and measured catabolisation of maternal antigen-specific antibodies in nestlings during early development. By utilizing measurements of non-specific and specific antibody levels in nestling plasma we were able to calculate the half-life of maternal antibodies in nestling plasma and the time point at which nestling were capable of synthesizing antibodies themselves. Based on the short half-life of maternal antibodies, the rapid production of endogenous antibodies by nestlings and the relatively low transfer of maternal antibodies to nestlings, our findings suggest that altricial-developing sparrows achieve immunologic independence much earlier than precocial birds. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge, this is the first in depth analyses performed on the adaptive immune system of a wild-passerine species. Our results suggest that maternal antibodies may not confer the immunologic protection or immune priming previously proposed in other passerine studies. Further research needs

  3. Predictors of maternal mortality in institutional deliveries in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    7. Hospital Services Management Board, Katsina, Nigeria. 8. Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, ... Key words: maternal mortality; maternal death; predictors .... instrumental delivery, symphysiotomy, or assisted ..... For this reason,.

  4. [Beneficial effect of maternity leave on delivery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qian; Séguin, Louise; Goulet, Lise

    2002-01-01

    To identify the contribution of the duration of the prenatal maternity leave on term delivery. Characteristics of the prenatal maternity leave and delivery among 363 working women who had delivered a full-term infant at 1 of 4 hospitals in Montreal during 1996 were studied. The presence of an intervention or complication during delivery was observed in 68.9% of the participants. The average duration of the prenatal maternity leave was about 8 weeks (SD = 7). The adjusted risk of a difficult delivery decreased significantly with the duration of the prenatal maternity leave (OR = 0.96; 95% CI: 0.93-0.99). The duration of the maternity leave before delivery is associated with an easier term delivery for working women.

  5. Determinants of Maternal Mortality in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahida Abbasi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Maternal mortality refers to the death of a woman who dies during pregnancy or within six weeks after delivery. A number of factors contribute to the high maternal mortality ratio around the globe, particularly, in underdeveloped countries. Pakistan has the highest mortality ratio (260 per 100,000 live births in the region and is one of the developing countries which have committed to decrease maternal mortality by 2015, according to the millennium developing goals (MDG 5. However, there are number of factors which made Pakistan unable to achieve the MDG 5 by 2015. In Pakistan there are many factors such as biological, socio-economic, cultural and poor quality of Reproductive Health Services (RHS, which contribute to the alarming figure of Maternal Mortality.. This paper aimed to do an in-depth analysis of the determinants of maternal mortality in Pakistan.

  6. Striving for Respectful Maternity Care Everywhere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Rose L; Patel, Suha J; Scott, Jennifer; Schantz-Dunn, Julianna; Nour, Nawal M

    2016-09-01

    Purpose The mistreatment of women during childbirth in health facilities is a growing area of research and public attention. Description In many countries, disrespect and abuse from maternal health providers discourage women from seeking childbirth with a skilled birth attendant, which can lead to poor maternal and neonatal outcomes. This commentary highlights examples from three countries-Kenya, Mexico and the United States-and presents different forms of mistreatment during childbirth, which range from physical abuse to non-consented care to discriminatory practices. Assessment Building on the momentum from the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals, the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics, and the Global and Maternal Neonatal Health Conference, the global community has placed respectful maternity care at the forefront of the maternal and neonatal health agenda. Conclusion Research efforts must focus on context-specific patient satisfaction during childbirth to identify areas for quality improvement.

  7. Maternal deaths in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangen, Siri; Bødker, Birgit; Ellingsen, Liv

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Despite the seriousness of the event, maternal deaths are substantially underreported. There is often a missed opportunity to learn from such tragedies. The aim of the study was to identify maternal deaths in the five Nordic countries, to classify causes of death based...... on internationally acknowledged criteria, and to identify areas that would benefit from further teaching, training or research to possibly reduce the number of maternal deaths. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We present data for the years 2005-2013. National audit groups collected data by linkage of registers and direct...... reporting from hospitals. Each case was then assessed to determine the cause of death, and level of care provided. Potential improvements to care were evaluated. RESULTS: We registered 168 maternal deaths, 90 direct and 78 indirect cases. The maternal mortality ratio was 7.2/100 000 live births ranging from...

  8. Maternal death and the Millennium Development Goals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke

    2007-01-01

    Maternal health is one of the main global health challenges and reduction of the maternal mortality ratio, from the present 0.6 mio. per year, by three-quarters by 2015 is the target for the fifth Millennium Development Goal (MDG 5). However this goal is the one towards which the least progress has...... been made. There is not a simple and straight-forward intervention, which by itself will bring maternal mortality significantly down; and it is commonly agreed on that the high maternal mortality can only be addressed if the health system is strengthened. There is a common consensus about...... the importance of skilled attendance at delivery to address the high, maternal mortality. This consensus is also reflected in the MDG 5, where the proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel is considered a key indicator. But even if countries invest massive efforts to increase skilled care...

  9. THE MATERNAL-FETAL MEDICINE: AN UPDATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Berghella

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of Maternal-Fetal Medicine is contributing to an improvement of maternal well-being and of neonatal health, introducing a number of new and useful technologies. Advances in genomics in the field of prenatal screening and diagnosis allowed the discovery of fragments of cell-free fetal DNA in the maternal circulation and the use of chromosomal microarrays, which can test for microdeletions and microduplications in addition to aneuploidies. Color Doppler applications during pregnancy are expanding exponentially and Doppler flow velocity waveforms indices have provided important information from maternal, placental and fetal circulation with clinical implications. Ultrasound monitoring of fetal growth represents a fundamental tool to evaluate fetal wellbeing and several methods have been developed to improve fetal weight estimation accuracy. The combination of new biophysical and biochemical markers is enriching Maternal-Fetal Medicine and more research will allow to improve pregnancy outcome.

  10. Maternal coping styles and adjustment in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlas, J G; Rickel, A U

    1988-06-01

    A comprehensive examination of children's social-emotional adjustment as related to maternal coping styles was performed. Subjects were 186 black mothers from lower-income families, and their children who were enrolled in the Detroit Public Schools Area F, Title I Preschool Program. Maternal nurturant and restrictive child rearing practices, life stress, locus of control and marital status were evaluated with respect to each of the child variables of school adjustment, self-concept and social problem solving skills. Maternal life stress was significantly related to children's lower self-concept, higher aggression, use of finagling and nondirective problem-solving strategies. Significant negative relationships were found between maternal nurturance and child moodiness and learning problems in school, further validating the Modified Child Rearing Practices Report. These findings provide support for expanding the current child developmental focus of preventive parenting programs to include maternal coping strategies such as improved communication and assertiveness training.

  11. Surface position, not signaling from surrounding maternal tissues, specifies aleurone epidermal cell fate in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruis, Darren Fred; Guo, Hena; Selinger, David; Tian, Qing; Olsen, Odd-Arne

    2006-07-01

    Maize (Zea mays) endosperm consists of an epidermal-like surface layer of aleurone cells, an underlying body of starchy endosperm cells, and a basal layer of transfer cells. To determine whether surrounding maternal tissues perform a role in specifying endosperm cell fates, a maize endosperm organ culture technique was established whereby the developing endosperm is completely removed from surrounding maternal tissues. Using cell type-specific fluorescence markers, we show that aleurone cell fate specification occurs exclusively in response to surface position and does not require specific, continued maternal signal input. The starchy endosperm and aleurone cell fates are freely interchangeable throughout the lifespan of the endosperm, with internalized aleurone cells converting to starchy endosperm cells and with starchy endosperm cells that become positioned at the surface converting to aleurone cells. In contrast to aleurone and starchy endosperm cells, transfer cells fail to develop in in vitro-grown endosperm, supporting earlier indications that maternal tissue interaction is required to fully differentiate this cell type. Several parameters confirm that the maize endosperm organ cultures described herein retain the main developmental features of in planta endosperm, including fidelity of aleurone mutant phenotypes, temporal and spatial control of cell type-specific fluorescent markers, specificity of cell type transcripts, and control of mitotic cell divisions.

  12. Independent Maternal and Fetal Genetic Effects on Midgestational Circulating Levels of Environmental Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traglia, Michela; Croen, Lisa A.; Lyall, Kristen; Windham, Gayle C.; Kharrazi, Marty; DeLorenze, Gerald N.; Torres, Anthony R.; Weiss, Lauren A.

    2017-01-01

    Maternal exposure to environmental pollutants could affect fetal brain development and increase autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk in conjunction with differential genetic susceptibility. Organohalogen congeners measured in maternal midpregnancy blood samples have recently shown significant, but negative associations with offspring ASD outcome. We report the first large-scale maternal and fetal genetic study of the midpregnancy serum levels of a set of 21 organohalogens in a subset of 790 genotyped women and 764 children collected in California by the Early Markers for Autism (EMA) Project. Levels of PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl) and PBDE (polybrominated diphenyl ether) congeners showed high maternal and fetal estimated SNP-based heritability (h2g) accounting for 39–99% of the total variance. Genome-wide association analyses identified significant maternal loci for p,p′-DDE (P = 7.8 × 10−11) in the CYP2B6 gene and for BDE-28 (P = 3.2 × 10−8) near the SH3GL2 gene, both involved in xenobiotic and lipid metabolism. Fetal genetic loci contributed to the levels of BDE-100 (P = 4.6 × 10−8) and PCB187 (P = 2.8 × 10−8), near the potential metabolic genes LOXHD1 and PTPRD, previously implicated in neurodevelopment. Negative associations were observed for BDE-100, BDE153, and the sum of PBDEs with ASD, partly explained by genome-wide additive genetic effects that predicted PBDE levels. Our results support genetic control of midgestational biomarkers for environmental exposures by nonoverlapping maternal and fetal genetic determinants, suggesting that future studies of environmental risk factors should take genetic variation into consideration. The independent influence of fetal genetics supports previous hypotheses that fetal genotypes expressed in placenta can influence maternal physiology and the transplacental transfer of organohalogens. PMID:28235828

  13. Maternal outcome in HELLP syndrome requiring intensive care management in a Turkish hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Armagan Osmanagaoglu

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Despite the development of tertiary care facilities, intensive care and advanced blood banking techniques, pregnancy-related hypertensive disorders are the main cause of maternal mortality in most countries. Our purpose was to determine maternal outcome in pregnancies complicated by HELLP syndrome (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet count that required intensive care management. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective study at Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, and Department of Anesthesiology and Reanimation, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon, Turkey. METHODS: 37 patients with HELLP syndrome admitted to the obstetric intensive care unit were analyzed retrospectively from 1992 to 2004. RESULTS: All patients were hypertensive, with mean Glasgow coma score (GCS of 11 ± 3.96. Mean gestational age at delivery was 32 ± 4.09 weeks. Delivery was vaginally in nine and by cesarean section in 27 patients. General anesthesia was used in 12 and spinal anesthesia in 25 patients. Maternal morbidity included acute renal failure (11%, disseminated intravascular coagulation (5%, acute lung edema (3%, severe ascites (11%, pleural effusion (3%, adult respiratory distress syndrome (11%, abruptio placenta (11%, cerebral edema (8% and cerebral hemorrhage (40%. All patients required transfusions using blood products. There were 11 maternal deaths (30%. CONCLUSION: Because of high maternal mortality and morbidity found among patients with HELLP syndrome, standard antenatal follow-up protocols should be applied, so as to obtain early diagnosis and improve the speed of transfer to obstetric departments with expertise in this field.

  14. Occurrences of major polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in maternal and fetal cord blood sera in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Gyuyeon; Kim, Sungjoo; Kim, Sunmi; Kim, Sungkyoon; Choi, Youngeun; Kim, Hai-Joong; Lee, Jeong Jae; Kim, Su Young; Lee, Sunggyu; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Choi, Sooran; Choi, Kyungho; Park, Jeongim

    2014-09-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are of growing public health concern because of their potential toxicities which range from endocrine disruption to neurodevelopment. However, information on their exposure among sensitive human populations is limited. The objectives of this study were to determine the levels of major PBDEs in blood sera of pregnant women and their matching newborn infants. For this purpose, a total of 198 maternal blood samples and 118 matching umbilical cord blood samples were collected from four regions of South Korea in 2011, and were determined for 19 PBDE congeners. Various demographic, dietary, and behavioral characteristics were asked in a questionnaire survey. Average concentration of total PBDEs in maternal blood serum was 3.34 ± 8.42 ng/g lipid weight (lw) at delivery and 3.14 ± 7.46 ng/g lw at 6 months of pregnancy, respectively. In cord blood serum, an average of 9.37 ± 12.60 ng/g lw was detected. Among the measured PBDE congeners, BDE-47, BDE-99 and BDE-153 were most dominant in both maternal and cord blood sera. Relatively higher levels of BDE-99 were detected in cord blood serum. Strong positive correlations were detected between maternal and cord blood serum samples, indicating the importance of maternal transfer. Health consequences of transplacental exposure to PBDEs among fetuses and newborn infants warrant further investigation.

  15. Seasonal variations of gonadotropins and prolactin in the laboratory rat. Role of maternal pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, N; Díaz, E; Fernández, C; Jiménez, V; Esquifino, A; Díaz, B

    2007-01-01

    The laboratory rat, a non-photoperiodic rodent, exhibits seasonal fluctuations of melatonin. Melatonin has been found to be readily transferred from the maternal to the fetal circulation. No data exist on the possible influence of maternal pineal gland upon seasonal variations of the offspring. The aim of the present study was to asses the influence of the maternal melatonin rhythm on the offspring postnatal development of the reproductive hormones LH, FSH and prolactin. Male offspring from control, pinealectomized (PIN-X) and PIN-X + melatonin (PIN-X+MEL) mother Wistar rats were studied at 21, 31, and 60 days of age. Seasonal age-dependent variations were found for all hormones studied in control offspring but PIN-X offspring showed a tendency to have reduced duration or altered seasonal variations. Maternal melatonin treatment to PIN-X mothers partially restored the effect of pinealectomy. The chronological study of LH, FSH, and prolactin in PIN-X offspring also showed an altered pattern as compared to control-offspring. Melatonin treatment to the mothers partially restored the developmental pattern of reproductive hormones. Results of this study indicate that maternal pineal gland of the laboratory rat is involved in the seasonal postnatal development variations of reproductive hormones of the offspring.

  16. Iodine excess exposure during pregnancy and lactation impairs maternal thyroid function in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgueiro, Rafael Barrera; Vitzel, Kaio Fernando; Pantaleão, Thiago; Corrêa da Costa, Vânia Maria

    2017-01-01

    Adequate maternal iodine consumption during pregnancy and lactation guarantees normal thyroid hormones (TH) production, which is crucial to the development of the fetus. Indeed, iodine deficiency is clearly related to maternal hypothyroidism and deleterious effects in the fetal development. Conversely, the effects of iodine excess (IE) consumption on maternal thyroid function are still controversial. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the impact of IE exposure during pregnancy and lactation periods on maternal hypothalamus–pituitary–thyroid axis. IE-exposed dams presented reduced serum TH concentration and increased serum thyrotropin (TSH) levels. Moreover, maternal IE exposure increased the hypothalamic expression of Trh and the pituitary expression of Trhr, Dio2, Tsha and Tshb mRNA, while reduced the Gh mRNA content. Additionally, IE-exposed dams presented thyroid morphological alterations, increased thyroid oxidative stress and decreased expression of thyroid genes/proteins involved in TH synthesis, secretion and metabolism. Furthermore, Dio1 mRNA expression and D1 activity were reduced in the liver and the kidney of IE-treated animals. Finally, the mRNA expression of Slc5a5 and Slc26a4 were reduced in the mammary gland of IE-exposed rats. The latter results are in accordance with the reduction of prolactin expression and serum levels in IE-treated dams. In summary, our study indicates that the exposure to IE during pregnancy and lactation induces primary hypothyroidism in rat dams and impairs iodide transfer to the milk. PMID:28814477

  17. Finance and faith at the Catholic Maternity Institute, Santa Fe, New Mexico, 1944-1969.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockerham, Anne Z; Keeling, Arlene W

    2010-01-01

    In 1944, the Medical Mission Sisters opened the Catholic Maternity Institute in Santa Fe, New Mexico, primarily to serve patients of Spanish American descent. The Maternity Institute offered nurse-midwifery care and functioned as a school to train nurse-midwifery students. Originally planned as a home birth service, the Catholic Maternity Institute soon evolved into a service in which patients chose whether to deliver in their own homes or in a small freestanding building called La Casita. In fact, despite their idealism about home birth and strong feelings that home birth was best, the sisters experienced significant ambivalence concerning La Casita. Births there met many of the institute's pragmatic needs for a larger number of student experiences, quick and safe transfers to a nearby hospital, and more efficient use of the midwives' time. Importantly, as the sisters realized that many of their patients preferred to deliver at La Casita, they came to see that this option permitted these impoverished patients an opportunity to exercise some choice. However, the choice of many patients to deliver at La Casita--which was significantly more expensive for the Maternity Institute than home birth--eventually led to the demise of the Maternity Institute.

  18. Maternal control of nutrient allocation in plant seeds by genomic imprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Liliana M; Yuan, Jing; Rouster, Jacques; Paul, Wyatt; Dickinson, Hugh; Gutierrez-Marcos, Jose F

    2012-01-24

    Imprinted genes are commonly expressed in mammalian placentas and in plant seed endosperms, where they exhibit preferential uniparental allelic expression. In mammals, imprinted genes directly regulate placental function and nutrient distribution from mother to fetus; however, none of the >60 imprinted genes thus far reported in plants have been demonstrated to play an equivalent role in regulating the flow of resources to the embryo. Here we show that imprinted Maternally expressed gene1 (Meg1) in maize is both necessary and sufficient for the establishment and differentiation of the endosperm nutrient transfer cells located at the mother:seed interface. Consistent with these findings, Meg1 also regulates maternal nutrient uptake, sucrose partitioning, and seed biomass yield. In addition, we generated an imprinted and nonimprinted synthetic Meg1 ((syn)Meg1) dosage series whereby increased dosage and absence of imprinting both resulted in an unequal investment of maternal resources into the endosperm. These findings highlight dosage regulation by genomic imprinting as being critical for maintaining a balanced distribution of maternal nutrients to filial tissues in plants, as in mammals. However, unlike in mammals, Meg1 is a maternally expressed imprinted gene that surprisingly acts to promote rather than restrict nutrient allocation to the offspring.

  19. Influence of maternity leave on exclusive breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Fernanda R; Buccini, Gabriela Dos S; Venâncio, Sônia I; da Costa, Teresa H M

    To describe the profile of women with children aged under 4 months living in the Brazilian state capitals and in the Federal District according to their working status and to analyze the influence of maternity leave on exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) among working women. This was a cross-sectional study with data extracted from the II National Maternal Breastfeeding Prevalence Survey carried out in 2008. Initially, a descriptive analysis of the profile of 12,794 women was performed, according to their working status and maternity leave and the frequency of maternity leave in the Brazilian regions and capitals. The study used a multiple model to identify the influence of maternity leave on EBF interruption, including 3766 women who declared they were working and were on maternity leave at the time of the interview. The outcome assessed in the study was the interruption of the EBF, classified by the WHO. Regarding the working status of the mothers, 63.4% did not work outside of their homes and among those who worked, 69.8% were on maternity leave. The largest prevalence among workers was of women older than 35 years of age, with more than 12 years of schooling, primiparous and from the Southeast and South regions. The lack of maternity leave increased by 23% the chance of EBF interruption. Maternity leave contributed to increase the prevalence of EBF in the Brazilian states capitals, supporting the importance of increasing the maternity leave period from four to six months. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. 77 FR 10466 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... Pacific Coast groundfish FMP fisheries on Chinook salmon (Puget Sound, Snake River spring/summer, Snake... (Snake River, Ozette Lake), and steelhead (upper, middle and lower Columbia River, Snake River Basin... non-salmonid listed species (marine mammals, sea birds, and turtles). NMFS will be completing a...

  1. Biodiversity and Distribution of Horseshoe Crabs in Northern Coast of Java and Southern Coast of Madura

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashar, A.; Butet, NA; Juliandi, B.; Qonita, Y.; Hakim, AA; Wardiatno, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Horseshoe crab is an important component of macro-benthos communities in the fine sand or mud substrate in coastal waters, both in the tropical and temperate region. This primitive animal consists of four species in the world, and three species can be found di Asian region, including Indonesia, namely Tachypleus tridentatus, T. gigas, and Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda. Scientific information about species distribution of three Asian horseshoe crab in Indonesia is limited, also about morphometric characters. This study aims to determine the morphometric characters and species distribution of three Asian horseshoe crab in north coast of Java and south coast of Madura Island. This study was conducted on July-August 2016. The total number of three Asian horseshoe crab obtained in this study was 260 individuals, distributed along north coast of Java and south coast of Madura Island, respectively 176 individuals of C. rotundicauda, 35 individuals of T. tridentatus, and 49 individuals of T. gigas. Tachypleus gigas has the largest size and widest class interval among three Asian horseshoe crab species. Morphometric characters is differences among three Asian horseshoe crab species. Carapace width and telson length were not significantly different among sampling locations only in T. tridentatus.

  2. A physiological increase in maternal cortisol alters uteroplacental metabolism in the pregnant ewe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, O R; Davies, K L; Ward, J W; de Blasio, M J; Fowden, A L

    2016-11-01

    Fetal nutrient supply is dependent, in part, upon the transport capacity and metabolism of the placenta. The stress hormone, cortisol, alters metabolism in the adult and fetus but it is not known whether cortisol in the pregnant mother affects metabolism of the placenta. In this study, when cortisol concentrations were raised in pregnant sheep by infusion, proportionately more of the glucose taken up by the uterus was consumed by the uteroplacental tissues while less was transferred to the fetus, despite an increased placental glucose transport capacity. Concomitantly, the uteroplacental tissues produced lactate at a greater rate. The results show that maternal cortisol concentrations regulate uteroplacental glycolytic metabolism, producing lactate for use in utero. Prolonged increases in placental lactate production induced by cortisol overexposure may contribute to the adverse effects of maternal stress on fetal wellbeing. Fetal nutrition is determined by maternal availability, placental transport and uteroplacental metabolism of carbohydrates. Cortisol affects maternal and fetal metabolism, but whether maternal cortisol concentrations within the physiological range regulate uteroplacental carbohydrate metabolism remains unknown. This study determined the effect of maternal cortisol infusion (1.2 mg kg(-1)  day(-1) i.v. for 5 days, n = 20) on fetal glucose, lactate and oxygen supplies in pregnant ewes on day ∼130 of pregnancy (term = 145 days). Compared to saline infusion (n = 21), cortisol infusion increased maternal, but not fetal, plasma cortisol (P Cortisol infusion also raised maternal insulin, glucose and lactate concentrations, and blood pH, PCO2 and HCO3(-) concentration. Although total uterine glucose uptake determined by Fick's principle was unaffected, a greater proportion was consumed by the uteroplacental tissues, so net fetal glucose uptake was 29% lower in cortisol-infused than control ewes (P  2-fold greater in cortisol- than

  3. Resolution of Neonatal Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Presumed Secondary to Acquired Maternal Ribonucleoprotein and Smith Autoantibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shah

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Severe asymmetrical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy without heart block accompanied by neuromuscular hypotonia and feeding difficulties was evident shortly after birth in the second child of a mother with systemic lupus erythematosus who had no indication of gestational diabetes. High-level anti-ribonucleoprotein (RNP and Smoth (Sm antibodies arising from transplacental transfer of maternal antibodies were detected in the child's serum. The cardiac abnormalities improved with a commensurate decline in antibody titers. Previously reported cases of neonatal cardiomyopathy with endocardial fibroelastosis have been ascribed to the transplacental transfer of maternal Sjogrens Syndrome (SS A (Ro and Sjogrens Syndrome (SS B (La antibodies and have been more severe and persistent compared with our patient. We advocate close monitoring of all babies of mothers with systemic autoimmunity for changes in heart rate during pregnancy and signs of heart failure and neuromuscular weakness after delivery.

  4. Revision of the tsunami catalogue affecting Turkish coasts and surrounding regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Altinok

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The coasts of Turkey have been hit by tsunamis in the past. The first national earthquake-tsunami catalogues were compiled in the early 1980s while the most up-to-date tsunami catalogues are mainly the products of recent European projects. The EU projects GITEC and GITEC-TWO (Genesis and Impact of Tsunamis on the European Coasts and TRANSFER (Tsunami Risk ANd Strategies For the European Region have added important contributions in establishing and developing unified criteria for tsunami parameterisation, standards for the quality of the data, the data format and the database general architecture. On the basis of these new aspects and based on recent marine geophysical data, tsunamigenic earthquakes, tsunami intensities and their reliability have been revised. The current version of the database contains 134 events, most of which have affected the Turkish coasts seriously during the last 3500 years. The reliability index of 76 events was "probable" and "definite", so that they could be used for assessment of the risk along the Turkish coastal region and for implementation of prevention policies.

  5. Layout of the artificial coast in Lianyungang and its implementation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金镠; 虞志英

    2001-01-01

    The "artificial coast" refers to a coast section, with considerable spatial dimension, reformed by human activities. The purposes of coastal reform may be diversified. It should be consistent with the economic principles and must lay emphasis on the improvement of coastal ecosystems, and the affinity of man to marine environment. One of the basic studies in the artificial coast planning is to construct the dynamic model of coastal erosion and accretion. From such understandings, the West Great Seawall in Lianyungang can be considered as a successful project in artificial coast engineering.

  6. Propofol Pharmacokinetics and Estimation of Fetal Propofol Exposure during Mid-Gestational Fetal Surgery: A Maternal-Fetal Sheep Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Jing; Venkatasubramanian, Raja; Vinks, Alexander A.; Sadhasivam, Senthilkumar

    2016-01-01

    that maternal heart rate has an important influence on the pharmacokinetics of propofol during pregnancy. Much lower propofol concentration in the fetus compared to maternal concentrations explain limited placental transfer in in-vivo paired model, and less direct fetal cardiac depression we observed earlier with propofol supplemented inhalational anesthesia compared to higher dose inhalational anesthesia in humans and sheep. PMID:26752560

  7. Propofol Pharmacokinetics and Estimation of Fetal Propofol Exposure during Mid-Gestational Fetal Surgery: A Maternal-Fetal Sheep Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornswan Ngamprasertwong

    rate has an important influence on the pharmacokinetics of propofol during pregnancy. Much lower propofol concentration in the fetus compared to maternal concentrations explain limited placental transfer in in-vivo paired model, and less direct fetal cardiac depression we observed earlier with propofol supplemented inhalational anesthesia compared to higher dose inhalational anesthesia in humans and sheep.

  8. Maternal and infant sleep postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Elizabeth

    2013-07-01

    New parents should be aware that infants' sleep is unlike that of adults and that meeting their infant's needs is likely to disrupt their own sleep. They will need to adjust their routine to manage their own sleep needs. Parental sleep patterns in the postpartum period are tied to the infant's development of a circadian sleep-wake rhythm, and the infant's feeds. Close contact with the mother and exposure to light/dark cues appear to assist in the development of the infant's circadian rhythm. The composition of breastmilk varies over the course of 24 hours and some components produced at night are likely to contribute to the infant's day/night entrainment. There is no clear evidence that using artificial feeds improves maternal sleep. Most infants need night feeds but requirements for nighttime feeds vary with the individual.

  9. Maternal Preeclampsia and Neonatal Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl H. Backes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is a multiorgan, heterogeneous disorder of pregnancy associated with significant maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Optimal strategies in the care of the women with preeclampsia have not been fully elucidated, leaving physicians with incomplete data to guide their clinical decision making. Because preeclampsia is a progressive disorder, in some circumstances, delivery is needed to halt the progression to the benefit of the mother and fetus. However, the need for premature delivery has adverse effects on important neonatal outcomes not limited to the most premature infants. Late-preterm infants account for approximately two thirds of all preterm deliveries and are at significant risk for morbidity and mortality. Reviewed is the current literature in the diagnosis and obstetrical management of preeclampsia, the outcomes of late-preterm infants, and potential strategies to optimize fetal outcomes in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia.

  10. Controversial issues of maternity substitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Pușcă

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Substitute maternity consists in a woman carrying a pregnancy (the implant of an embryo, at therequest of a sterile couple, most of the times in exchange of a sum of money, with her commitment tounconditionally give away the newborn after birth to the couple she concluded the agreement with. Manycontroversies emerged in what concerns the contract between the sterile couple and the carrying mother,especially when this contract is by onerous title, which happens in most of the cases. In that a civil contract? Is ita sales contract for the child? Is it a contract to provide services? Is it body marketing? Between total prohibitionand excessive liberalism, the middle way, which is the regulation according to ethical religious, cultural andsocial norms of each community, represents a realistic solution.

  11. Cortisol in mother’s milk across lactation reflects maternal life history and predicts infant temperament

    OpenAIRE

    Hinde, Katie; Skibiel, Amy L.; Foster, Alison B.; Del Rosso, Laura; Mendoza, Sally P.; Capitanio, John P.

    2014-01-01

    The maternal environment exerts important influences on offspring mass/growth, metabolism, reproduction, neurobiology, immune function, and behavior among birds, insects, reptiles, fish, and mammals. For mammals, mother’s milk is an important physiological pathway for nutrient transfer and glucocorticoid signaling that potentially influences offspring growth and behavioral phenotype. Glucocorticoids in mother’s milk have been associated with offspring behavioral phenotype in several mammals, ...

  12. Genetic Regulation of Maternal Oxytocin Response and Its Influences on Maternal Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Mehta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We interrogated the genetic modulation of maternal oxytocin response and its association with maternal behavior using genetic risk scores within the oxytocin receptor (OXTR gene. We identified a novel SNP, rs968389, to be significantly associated with maternal oxytocin response after a challenging mother-infant interaction task (Still Face Paradigm and maternal separation anxiety from the infant. Performing a multiallelic analysis across OXTR by calculating a cumulative genetic risk score revealed a significant gene-by-environment (G×E interaction, with OXTR genetic risk score interacting with adult separation anxiety to modulate levels of maternal sensitivity. Mothers with higher OXTR genetic risk score and adult separation anxiety showed significantly reduced levels of maternal sensitivity during free play with the infant. The same G×E interaction was also observed for the extended OXTR cumulative genetic risk score that included rs968389. Moreover, the extended cumulative OXTR genetic risk score itself was found to be significantly associated with maternal separation anxiety as it specifically relates to the infant. Our results suggest a complex montage of individual and synergistic genetic mediators of maternal behavior. These findings add to specific knowledge about genetic regulation of maternal oxytocin response in relation to maternal adjustment and infant bonding through the first few months of life.

  13. Severe maternal morbidity for 2004-2005 in the three Dublin maternity hospitals.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Cliona M

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence and causes of severe maternal morbidity in Dublin over a two year period from 2004 to 2005. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective cohort study from January 2004 to December 2005 was undertaken in the three large maternity hospitals in Dublin, which serve a population of 1.5 million people. All are tertiary referral centres for obstetrics and neonatology and have an annual combined delivery rate of circa 23,000 births. Cases of severe maternal morbidity were identified. A systems based classification was used. The primary cause of maternal morbidity and the number of events experienced per patient was recorded. RESULTS: We identified 158 women who fulfilled the definition for severe maternal morbidity, giving a rate of 3.2 per 1000 maternities. There were two maternal deaths during the time period giving mortality to morbidity ratio of 1:79. The commonest cause of severe morbidity was vascular dysfunction related to obstetric haemorrhage. Eclampsia comprised 15.4% of cases. Intensive care or coronary care admission occurred in 12% of cases. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of severe maternal morbidity in this population is 3.2\\/1000 maternities. Obstetric haemorrhage was the main cause of severe maternal morbidity.

  14. Genetic Regulation of Maternal Oxytocin Response and Its Influences on Maternal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eapen, Valsamma; Kohlhoff, Jane; Mendoza Diaz, Antonio; Barnett, Bryanne; Silove, Derrick; Dadds, Mark R.

    2016-01-01

    We interrogated the genetic modulation of maternal oxytocin response and its association with maternal behavior using genetic risk scores within the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene. We identified a novel SNP, rs968389, to be significantly associated with maternal oxytocin response after a challenging mother-infant interaction task (Still Face Paradigm) and maternal separation anxiety from the infant. Performing a multiallelic analysis across OXTR by calculating a cumulative genetic risk score revealed a significant gene-by-environment (G × E) interaction, with OXTR genetic risk score interacting with adult separation anxiety to modulate levels of maternal sensitivity. Mothers with higher OXTR genetic risk score and adult separation anxiety showed significantly reduced levels of maternal sensitivity during free play with the infant. The same G × E interaction was also observed for the extended OXTR cumulative genetic risk score that included rs968389. Moreover, the extended cumulative OXTR genetic risk score itself was found to be significantly associated with maternal separation anxiety as it specifically relates to the infant. Our results suggest a complex montage of individual and synergistic genetic mediators of maternal behavior. These findings add to specific knowledge about genetic regulation of maternal oxytocin response in relation to maternal adjustment and infant bonding through the first few months of life. PMID:27872764

  15. The maternal health outcomes of paid maternity leave: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Zoe; Garrett, Cameryn C; Hewitt, Belinda; Keogh, Louise; Hocking, Jane S; Kavanagh, Anne M

    2015-04-01

    Paid maternity leave has become a standard benefit in many countries throughout the world. Although maternal health has been central to the rationale for paid maternity leave, no review has specifically examined the effect of paid maternity leave on maternal health. The aim of this paper is to provide a systematic review of studies that examine the association between paid maternity leave and maternal health. We conducted a comprehensive search of electronic databases (Medline, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Sociological Abstracts) and Google Scholar. We searched websites of relevant organisations, reference lists of key papers and journals, and citation indices for additional studies including those not in refereed journals. There were no language restrictions. Studies were included if they compared paid maternity leave versus no paid maternity leave, or different lengths of paid leave. Data were extracted and an assessment of bias was performed independently by authors. Seven studies were identified, with participants from Australia, Sweden, Norway, USA, Canada, and Lebanon. All studies used quantitative methodologies, including cohort, cross-sectional, and repeated cross-sectional designs. Outcomes included mental health and wellbeing, general health, physical wellbeing, and intimate partner violence. The four studies that examined leave at an individual level showed evidence of maternal health benefits, whereas the three studies conducting policy-level comparisons reported either no association or evidence of a negative association. The synthesis of the results suggested that paid maternity leave provided maternal health benefits, although this varied depending on the length of leave. This has important implications for public health and social policy. However, all studies were subject to confounding bias and many to reverse causation. Given the small number of studies and the methodological limitations of the evidence, longitudinal studies are

  16. The impact of maternal characteristics, infant temperament and contextual factors on maternal responsiveness to infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tester-Jones, Michelle; O'Mahen, Heather; Watkins, Edward; Karl, Anke

    2015-08-01

    Postnatal maternal depressive symptoms are consistently associated with impairments in maternal attunement (i.e., maternal responsiveness and bonding). There is a growing body of literature examining the impact of maternal cognitive factors (e.g., rumination) on maternal attunement and mood. However, little research has examined the role of infant temperament and maternal social support in this relationship. This study investigated the hypothesis that rumination would mediate (1) the relationship between depressive symptoms and attunement and (2) the relationship between social support and attunement. We further predicted that infant temperament would moderate these relationships, such that rumination would demonstrate mediating effects on attunement when infant difficult temperament was high, but not low. Two hundred and three mothers completed measures on rumination, depressive symptoms, attunement, perceived social support and infant temperament. Rumination mediated the effect of postnatal maternal depressive mood on maternal self-reported responsiveness to the infant when infants were low, but not high, in negative temperament. When infants had higher negative temperament, there were direct relationships between maternal depressive symptoms, social support and maternal self-reported responsiveness to the infant. This study is limited by its cross-sectional and correlational nature and the use of self-report measures to assess a mother's awareness of her infant needs and behaviours, rather than observational measures of maternal sensitivity. These findings suggest potentially different pathways to poor maternal responsiveness than those expected and provide new evidence about the contexts in which maternal cognitive factors, such as rumination, may impact on the mother-infant relationship.

  17. Elevated maternal cortisol leads to relative maternal hyperglycemia and increased stillbirth in ovine pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaodi; Wood, Charles E.; Richards, Elaine; Anthony, Russell V.; Dahl, Geoffrey E.; Tao, Sha

    2014-01-01

    In normal pregnancy, cortisol increases; however, further pathological increases in cortisol are associated with maternal and fetal morbidities. These experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that increased maternal cortisol would increase maternal glucose concentrations, suppress fetal growth, and impair neonatal glucose homeostasis. Ewes were infused with cortisol (1 mg·kg−1·day−1) from day 115 of gestation to term; maternal glucose, insulin, ovine placental lactogen, estrone, progesterone, nonesterified free fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), and electrolytes were measured. Infusion of cortisol increased maternal glucose concentration and slowed the glucose disappearance after injection of glucose; maternal infusion of cortisol also increased the incidence of fetal death at or near parturition. The design of the study was altered to terminate the study prior to delivery, and post hoc analysis of the data was performed to test the hypothesis that maternal metabolic factors predict the fetal outcome. In cortisol-infused ewes that had stillborn lambs, plasma insulin was increased relative to control ewes or cortisol-infused ewes with live lambs. Maternal cortisol infusion did not alter maternal food intake or plasma NEFA, BHB, estrone, progesterone or placental lactogen concentrations, and it did not alter fetal body weight, ponderal index, or fetal organ weights. Our study suggests that the adverse effect of elevated maternal cortisol on pregnancy outcome may be related to the effects of cortisol on maternal glucose homeostasis, and that chronic maternal stress or adrenal hypersecretion of cortisol may create fetal pathophysiology paralleling some aspects of maternal gestational diabetes. PMID:24920731

  18. Maternal age at Holocaust exposure and maternal PTSD independently influence urinary cortisol levels in adult offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather N Bader

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal PTSD appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal age of exposure and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Method: 95 Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects received diagnostic and psychological evaluations, and 24 hour urinary cortisol was assayed by RIA. Offspring completed the Parental PTSD Questionnaire to assess maternal PTSD status. Maternal Holocaust exposure was identified as having occurred in childhood, adolescence or adulthood and examined in relation to offspring psychobiology. Results: Urinary cortisol levels did not differ for Holocaust offspring and comparison subjects but differed significantly in offspring based on maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD status. Increased maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were each associated with lower urinary cortisol in offspring, but did not exhibit a significant interaction. In addition, offspring PTSD-associated symptom severity increased with maternal age at exposure and PTSD diagnosis. A regression analysis of correlates of offspring cortisol indicated that both maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were significant predictors of lower offspring urinary cortisol, whereas childhood adversity and offspring PTSD symptoms were not. Conclusions: Offspring low cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression are related to maternal age of exposure, with the greatest effects associated with increased age at exposure. These effects are relatively independent of the negative consequences of being raised by a trauma survivor. These observations highlight the importance of maternal age of exposure in determining a psychobiology in offspring that is consistent with increased risk for stress

  19. Placenta previa and maternal hemorrhagic morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbins, Karen J; Einerson, Brett D; Varner, Michael W; Silver, Robert M

    2017-02-21

    Placenta previa is associated with maternal hemorrhage, but most literature focuses on morbidity in the setting of placenta accreta. We aim to characterize maternal morbidity associated with previa and to define risk factors for hemorrhage. This is a secondary cohort analysis of the NICHD Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network Cesarean Section Registry. This analysis included all women undergoing primary Cesarean delivery without placenta accreta. About 496 women with previa were compared with 24,201 women without previa. Primary outcome was composite maternal hemorrhagic morbidity. Non-hemorrhagic morbidities and risk factors for hemorrhage were also evaluated. Maternal hemorrhagic morbidity was more common in women with previa (19 versus 7%, aRR 2.6, 95% CI 1.9-3.5). Atony requiring uterotonics (aRR 3.1, 95% CI 2.0-4.9), red blood cell transfusion (aRR 3.8, 95% CI 2.5-5.7), and hysterectomy (aRR 5.1, 95% CI 1.5-17.3) were also more common with previa. For women with previa, factors associated with maternal hemorrhage were pre-delivery anemia, thrombocytopenia, diabetes, magnesium use, and general anesthesia. Placenta previa is an independent risk factor for maternal hemorrhagic morbidity. Some risk factors are modifiable, but many are intrinsic to the clinical scenario.

  20. KEMATIAN MATERNAL DI NUSA TENGGARA TIMUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliana Tjitra

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A prospective study was carried out in villages around health centers, which were distributed over 10 regencies in Timor island of East Nusa Tenggara province. All deaths occurring in 1986 were recorded and reported to the health centers. Each case was investigated by the health center doctor to identify the multiple causes of death as well as its related factors. Pregnancy and delivery histories of maternal deaths were analysed. In the study area, the maternal mortality ratio was found to be 1346 per 100,000 live births, and the maternal mortality rate was 101 per 100,000 women aged 15-49 years. The maternal mortality ratio, among women under 20 years of age, was 3390 per 100,000 live births; and 4545 per 100,000 live births among women aged 40 years and over. The predominant factor as a risk of maternal deaths was attributable to delivery assistance by non medical personnel, which was 71%. Maternal deaths attributable to the first parities was 40%, and to pregnancies without antenatal care was 20.1%}. The most prevalent disease causing maternal deaths were haemorrhage 46.2%}, postpartum infections 30.8% and retained placenta 30.8%. To reduce maternal mortality, the most important intervention is to provide qualified delivery assistants especially for the first parities, and the provision of accessible delivery centers for emergency cases in addition to provision of appropriate antenatal care for early detection of high risk pregnancies. Family planning programs will have to be more specified towards high risk groups, i.e women aged under 20 years or 35 years and over, as well as women of high parity. A similar study is recommended to be conducted throughout the other parts of East Nusa Tenggara islands in order to evaluate the general maternal health status of the province.

  1. KEMATIAN MATERNAL DI NUSA TENGGARA TIMUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliana Tjitra

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A prospective study was carried out in villages around health centers, which were distributed over 10 regencies in Timor island of East Nusa Tenggara province. All deaths occurring in 1986 were recorded and reported to the health centers. Each case was investigated by the health center doctor to identify the multiple causes of death as well as its related factors. Pregnancy and delivery histories of maternal deaths were analysed. In the study area, the maternal mortality ratio was found to be 1346 per 100,000 live births, and the maternal mortality rate was 101 per 100,000 women aged 15-49 years. The maternal mortality ratio, among women under 20 years of age, was 3390 per 100,000 live births; and 4545 per 100,000 live births among women aged 40 years and over. The predominant factor as a risk of maternal deaths was attributable to delivery assistance by non medical personnel, which was 71%. Maternal deaths attributable to the first parities was 40%, and to pregnancies without antenatal care was 20.1%}. The most prevalent disease causing maternal deaths were haemorrhage 46.2%}, postpartum infections 30.8% and retained placenta 30.8%. To reduce maternal mortality, the most important intervention is to provide qualified delivery assistants especially for the first parities, and the provision of accessible delivery centers for emergency cases in addition to provision of appropriate antenatal care for early detection of high risk pregnancies. Family planning programs will have to be more specified towards high risk groups, i.e women aged under 20 years or 35 years and over, as well as women of high parity. A similar study is recommended to be conducted throughout the other parts of East Nusa Tenggara islands in order to evaluate the general maternal health status of the province.

  2. Collapsing permafrost coasts in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Michael; Lantuit, Hugues

    2017-04-01

    Arctic warming is exposing permafrost coastlines, which account for 34% of the Earth's coasts, to rapid thaw and erosion. Coastal erosion rates as high as 25 m yr-1 together with the large amount of organic matter frozen in permafrost are resulting in an annual release of 14.0 Tg (1012 gram) particulate organic carbon into the nearshore zone. The nearshore zone is the primary recipient of higher fluxes of carbon and nutrients from thawing permafrost. We highlight the crucial role the nearshore zone plays in Arctic biogeochemical cycling, as here the fate of the released material is determined to: (1) degrade into greenhouse gases, (2) fuel marine primary production, (3) be buried in nearshore sediments or (4) be transported offshore. With Arctic warming, coastal erosion fluxes have the potential to increase by an order of magnitude until 2100. Such increases would result in drastic impacts on global carbon fluxes and their climate feedbacks, on nearshore food webs and on local communities, whose survival still relies on marine biological resources. Quantifying the potential impacts of increasing erosion on coastal ecosystems is crucial for food security of northern residents living in Arctic coastal communities. We need to know how the traditional hunting and fishing grounds might be impacted by high loads of sediment and nutrients released from eroding coasts, and to what extent coastal retreat will lead to a loss of natural habitat. Quantifying fluxes of organic carbon and nutrients is required, both in nearshore deposits and in the water column by sediment coring and systematic oceanographic monitoring. Ultimately, this will allow us to assess the transport and degradation pathways of sediment and organic matter derived from erosion. We need to follow the complete pathway, which is multi-directional including atmospheric release, lateral transport, transitional retention in the food web, and ultimate burial in seafloor sediments. We present numbers of multi

  3. Doubts and Concerns about Isolated Maternal Hypothyroxinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariacarla Moleti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that isolated maternal hypothyroxinemia may have detrimental effects on both mother and foetus. Nonetheless, this condition is still far from being universally accepted as a separate thyroid disease, and a standard definition of this state of mild thyroid underfunction is still lacking. We will review the biochemical criteria used to define isolated maternal hypothyroxinemia, together with current methodological issues related to FT4 assays. We will also discuss its epidemiological impact in both iodine-deficient and-sufficient areas, and the effectiveness of iodine prophylaxis on maternal thyroid function and neuropsychomotor development in offspring.

  4. The WHO maternal near-miss approach and the maternal severity index model (MSI: tools for assessing the management of severe maternal morbidity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao Paulo Souza

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To validate the WHO maternal near-miss criteria and develop a benchmark tool for severe maternal morbidity assessments. METHODS: In a multicenter cross-sectional study implemented in 27 referral maternity hospitals in Brazil, a one-year prospective surveillance on severe maternal morbidity and data collection was carried out. Diagnostic accuracy tests were used to assess the validity of the WHO maternal near-miss criteria. Binary logistic regression was used to model the death probability among women with severe maternal complications and benchmark the management of severe maternal morbidity. RESULTS: Of the 82,388 women having deliveries in the participating health facilities, 9,555 women presented pregnancy-related complications, including 140 maternal deaths and 770 maternal near misses. The WHO maternal near-miss criteria were found to be accurate and highly associated with maternal deaths (Positive likelihood ratio 106.8 (95% CI 99.56-114.6. The maternal severity index (MSI model was developed and found to able to describe the relationship between life-threatening conditions and mortality (Area under the ROC curve: 0.951 (95% CI 0.909-0.993. CONCLUSION: The identification of maternal near-miss cases using the WHO list of pregnancy-related life-threatening conditions was validated. The MSI model can be used as a tool for benchmarking the performance of health services managing women with severe maternal complications and provide case-mix adjustment.

  5. Development of endosperm transfer cells in barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes eThiel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Endosperm transfer cells (ETCs are positioned at the intersection of maternal and filial tissues in seeds of cereals and represent a bottleneck for apoplasmic transport of assimilates into the endosperm. Endosperm cellularization starts at the maternal-filial boundary and generates the highly specialized ETCs. During differentiation barley ETCs develop characteristic flange-like wall ingrowths to facilitate effective nutrient transfer. A comprehensive morphological analysis depicted distinct developmental time points in establishment of transfer cell morphology and revealed intracellular changes possibly associated with cell wall metabolism. Embedded inside the grain, ETCs are barely accessible by manual preparation. To get tissue-specific information about ETC specification and differentiation, laser microdissection(LM-based methods were used for transcript and metabolite profiling. Transcriptome analysis of ETCs at different developmental stages by microarrays indicated activated gene expression programs related to control of cell proliferation and cell shape, cell wall and carbohydrate metabolism reflecting the morphological changes during early ETC development. Transporter genes reveal distinct expression patterns suggesting a switch from active to passive modes of nutrient uptake with the onset of grain filling. Tissue-specific RNA-seq of the differentiating ETC region from the syncytial stage until functionality in nutrient transfer identified a high number of novel transcripts putatively involved in ETC differentiation. An essential role for two-component signaling (TCS pathways in transfer cell development of barley emerged from this analysis. Correlative data provide evidence for ABA and ethylene influences on ETC differentiation and hint at a crosstalk between hormone signal transduction and TCS phosphorelays. Collectively, the data expose a comprehensive view on ETC development, associated pathways and identified candidate genes for

  6. 32 CFR 700.602 - The Commandant of the Coast Guard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The Commandant of the Coast Guard. 700.602... States Coast Guard (When Operating as a Service in the Navy) § 700.602 The Commandant of the Coast Guard. (a) The Commandant of the Coast Guard is the senior officer of the United States Coast Guard....

  7. Severe maternal morbidity associated with maternal birthplace in three high-immigration settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urquia, Marcelo L; Glazier, Richard H; Mortensen, Laust;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Maternal mortality and morbidity vary substantially worldwide. It is unknown if these geographic differences translate into disparities in severe maternal morbidity among immigrants from various world regions. We assessed disparities in severe maternal morbidity between immigrant women...... provided aggregate data according to standardized definitions of the outcome, maternal regions of birth and covariates for pooled analyses. We used random effects and stratified logistic regression to obtain odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs), adjusted for maternal age, parity...... and comparability scores. RESULTS: We retrieved 2,322,907 deliveries in all three receiving countries, of which 479,986 (21%) were to immigrant women. Compared with non-immigrants, only Sub-Saharan African women were consistently at higher risk of severe maternal morbidity in all three receiving countries (pooled...

  8. Anaesthetic related maternal deaths in Malaysia--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalina, A M; Inbasegaran, K

    1996-03-01

    The anaesthetic hazards for the obstetric patient are well known. Based on results of the first two reports on the confidential enquiry into maternal deaths in Malaysia for 1991 and 1992, ten cases of anaesthetic related deaths were analysed. There were 3 in 1991 and 7 in 1992 accounting for 1.34% and 2.8% of maternal deaths respectively. It was estimated that the crude mortality rate for the obstetric patient was 11.4 per 100,000 operative deliveries or a four-fold risk compared to the general surgical patient. One case resulted from administration of intravenous sedation while the rest involved general anaesthesia, seven of which were done under emergency conditions. Inadequate airway management and ventilation in the perioperative period, including during interhospital transfer was the single most important factor causing the majority of these deaths. The use of regional anaesthesia for Caesarean sections is strongly advocated. Substandard care was also present in all cases. Other issues pertinent to improvement of obstetric anaesthetic services are also discussed which include the quality of anaesthetic manpower, upgrading of infrastructure, facilities and staffing of operating and recovery areas, the use of regional anaesthesia, expanding the role of the anaesthetist and the quality of the anaesthetic services in general.

  9. [Maternal-fetal transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rissio, Ana María; Scollo, Karenina; Cardoni, Rita L

    2009-01-01

    In the neonates born to T. cruzi infected mothers, the diagnosis of the congenital transmission relays on the detection of the parasites and/or the specific antibodies non-transferred by their mothers, in the absence of blood transfusion and vectorial transmission. In the early stage, approximately until the 7th month of life, when maternal immunoglobulins could be present, the diagnosis depends on the detection of the parasite. Then, in the late stage, from the 8th month, the detection of specific antibodies by at least 2 of 3 serological tests confirms the infection in the neonates. The diagnostic follow up of the children born to a group of sero-reactive pregnant women was carried out in the INP. The 11% of the mothers (29 out of 267) transmitted the infection to their children. The neonates of 20 of these mothers were diagnosed in the early stage, 14 and 6 in one or two controls, respectively. In the 9 remaining mothers the children were diagnosed in the late stage of the infection, mainly serologicaly. Our analisis of previously published reports stressed that the maternal-fetal transmission rate depends on the time of diagnostic follow up of the child. In this reports, mean values of mother to child transmission reported was 2% and 9% when the diagnosis of the neonates born to sero-reactive mothers was carried out only in the early stage or in the early and also the late stage, respectively.

  10. Telomere length is longer in women with late maternal age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagan, Erin; Sun, Fangui; Bae, Harold

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: Maternal age at birth of last child has been associated with maternal longevity. The aim of this study was to determine whether older women with a history of late maternal age at last childbirth had a longer leukocyte telomere length than those with maternal age at last childbirth of ...

  11. Realistic coasting cosmology from the Milne model

    CERN Document Server

    John, Moncy V

    2016-01-01

    In the context of the recent synchronicity problem in $\\Lambda$CDM cosmology, coasting models such as the classic Milne model and the $R_h=ct$ model have attracted much attention. Also, a very recent analysis of supernovae Ia data is reported to favour models with constant expansion rates. We point out that the nonempty $R_h=ct$ model has some known antecedents in the literature. Some of these are published even before the discovery of the accelerated expansion and were shown to have none of the cosmological problems and also that $H_0t_0=1$ and $\\Omega_m/\\Omega_{dark \\; energy}$ = some constant of the order of unity. In this paper, we also derive such a model by a complex extension of scale factor in the Milne model.

  12. Marine West Coast Forests, Chapter 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perakis, Steven S.; Geiser, Linda H.; Lilleskov, Erik A.; Pardo, Linda H.; Robin-Abbott, Molly J.; Driscoll, Charles T.

    2011-01-01

    Human activities have greatly increased nitrogen emissions and deposition across large areas of Earth. Although nitrogen is an essential nutrient for plant growth, too much nitrogen in excess of critical loads leads to losses of biodiversity, soil and stream acidification, nutrient imbalances, and other deleterious effects. In a new report quantifying critical loads of nitrogen deposition across the United States, USGS scientist Steve Perakis and co-authors provided a chapter about responses of marine west coast forests. Much of this region is understudied with respect to nitrogen deposition, and in this chapter the authors identify known adverse effects and estimate critical loads of nitrogen deposition for western Oregon and Washington and southeast Alaska forests. Perakis also contributed to the synthesis chapter, which includes background, objectives, advantages and uncertainties of critical loads, an overview of critical loads across U.S. ecoregions, and other topics.

  13. Main Coast Winds - Final Scientific Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason Huckaby; Harley Lee

    2006-03-15

    The Maine Coast Wind Project was developed to investigate the cost-effectiveness of small, distributed wind systems on coastal sites in Maine. The restructuring of Maine's electric grid to support net metering allowed for the installation of small wind installations across the state (up to 100kW). The study performed adds insight to the difficulties of developing cost-effective distributed systems in coastal environments. The technical hurdles encountered with the chosen wind turbine, combined with the lower than expected wind speeds, did not provide a cost-effective return to make a distributed wind program economically feasible. While the turbine was accepted within the community, the low availability has been a negative.

  14. Geothermal structure of Australia's east coast basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danis, C. R.; O'Neill, C.

    2010-12-01

    The east coast sedimentary basins of Australia formed on an active margin of eastern Gondwana, and constitute an important hydrocarbon resource. The 1600km long Sydney-Gunnedah-Bowen Basin (SGBB) is largest east coast basin system, with thick Permian to Jurassic sedimentary successions overlying Palaeozoic basement rocks. The SGBB has been the focus of renewed geothermal exploration interest, however, the thermal state and geothermal potential of the system is largely unconstrained. Geothermal exploration programs require an accurate estimate of subsurface temperature information, in addition to favourable geology, to make informed decisions on potential targe developments. Primarily temperature information comes from downhole measurements, generally non-equilibrated, which are traditionally extrapolated to depth, however such extrapolation does not take into account variations in geological structure or thermal conductivity. Here we import deep 3D geological models into finite element conduction simulations, using the code Underworld, to calculate the deep thermal structure of the basin system. Underworld allows us to incorporate complex, detailed geological architecture models, incorporating different material properties for different layers, with variable temperature and depth-dependent properties. We adopt a fixed top boundary temperature on a variable topographic surface, and vary the bottom surface boundary condition, to converge of models which satisfy equilibrated downhole temperature measurement constraints. We find coal plays an important role in insulating sedimentary basins. Heat refracts around the coal interval and produces elevated temperatures beneath thick sediments, especially where thick coal intervals are present. This workflow has been formalized into an Underworld geothermal model library, enabling model centric computational workflows. Using the imported model architecture from the geology, data can be continuously updated and added to the

  15. Maternal effects and maternal selection arising from variation in allocation of free amino acid to eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcombe, Devi; Hunt, John; Mitchell, Christopher; Moore, Allen J

    2015-01-01

    Maternal provisioning can have profound effects on offspring phenotypes, or maternal effects, especially early in life. One ubiquitous form of provisioning is in the makeup of egg. However, only a few studies examine the role of specific egg constituents in maternal effects, especially as they relate to maternal selection (a standardized selection gradient reflecting the covariance between maternal traits and offspring fitness). Here, we report on the evolutionary consequences of differences in maternal acquisition and allocation of amino acids to eggs. We manipulated acquisition by varying maternal diet (milkweed or sunflower) in the large milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus. Variation in allocation was detected by examining two source populations with different evolutionary histories and life-history response to sunflower as food. We measured amino acids composition in eggs in this 2 × 2 design and found significant effects of source population and maternal diet on egg and nymph mass and of source population, maternal diet, and their interaction on amino acid composition of eggs. We measured significant linear and quadratic maternal selection on offspring mass associated with variation in amino acid allocation. Visualizing the performance surface along the major axes of nonlinear selection and plotting the mean amino acid profile of eggs from each treatment onto the surface revealed a saddle-shaped fitness surface. While maternal selection appears to have influenced how females allocate amino acids, this maternal effect did not evolve equally in the two populations. Furthermore, none of the population means coincided with peak performance. Thus, we found that the composition of free amino acids in eggs was due to variation in both acquisition and allocation, which had significant fitness effects and created selection. However, although there can be an evolutionary response to novel food resources, females may be constrained from reaching phenotypic optima with

  16. Maternal drug abuse versus maternal depression: Vulnerability and resilience among school-age and adolescent offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Luthar, Suniya S.; Sexton, Chris C.

    2007-01-01

    In this study of 360 low-income mother-child dyads, our primary goal was to disentangle risks linked with commonly co-occurring maternal diagnoses: substance abuse and affective/anxiety disorders. Variable- and person-based analyses suggest that, at least through children’s early adolescence, maternal drug use is no more inimical for them than is maternal depression. A second goal was to illuminate vulnerability and protective processes linked with mothers’ everyday functioning, and results s...

  17. Reproduction at an advanced maternal age and maternal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Mark V

    2015-05-01

    Advanced age is a risk factor for female infertility, pregnancy loss, fetal anomalies, stillbirth, and obstetric complications. These concerns are based on centuries-old observations, yet women are delaying childbearing to pursue educational and career goals in greater numbers than ever before. As a result, reproductive medicine specialists are treating more patients with age-related infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss, while obstetricians are faced with managing pregnancies often complicated by both age and comorbidities. The media portrayal of a youthful but older woman, able to schedule her reproductive needs and balance family and job, has fueled the myth that "you can have it all," rarely characterizing the perils inherent to advanced-age reproduction. Reproductive medicine specialists and obstetrician/gynecologists should promote more realistic views of the evidence-based realities of advanced maternal age pregnancy, including its high-risk nature and often compromised outcomes. Doctors should also actively educate both patients and the public that there is a real danger of childlessness if individuals choose to delay reproduction. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Coast Guard Polar Icebreaker Modernization: Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-27

    Congressional Research Service Summary The Coast Guard’s proposed FY2017 budget requests $150 million in acquisition funding for a new polar icebreaker that...acquisition funding requested for the ship, and would fund planning design activities required to begin production of the ship in FY2020. Coast Guard polar

  19. 50 CFR 660.324 - Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries. 660.324 Section 660.324 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West...

  20. 50 CFR 660.50 - Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries. 660.50 Section 660.50 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West...

  1. Intertidal barnacles are not uniformly abundant around the coast of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    coast communities is the population sizes of these species. .... alga that is common in the Balanoid Zone on the coasts of South Africa ... the highest elevation where there was a barnacle within 5 m of the ..... had reached the initial density of barnacles when the clearings .... tems in the world – the Benguela system. The near-.

  2. [Nursing perspective on psychiatric care in Ivory Coast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecocq, Dan

    2017-05-01

    Michaël Bilson is a nurse at the psychiatric hospital of Bingerville, in Ivory Coast. Here, he describes his mission supporting the National Health Worker Training Institute. It is the only nurse training school in Ivory Coast. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. United States Coast Guard: Officer Corps Military Professional Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    captain relieved of command after viewing porn on computer,‖ 10 July 2010, http://www.thenewstribune.com/2010/07/ 10/1259108/portland-coast-guard...Coast Guard captain relieved of command after viewing porn on computer,‖ 10 July 2010. http://www.thenewstribune.com/2010/07/ 10/1259108/portland

  4. Near-coast tsunami waveguiding: phenomenon and simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Groesen, Embrecht W.C.; Adytia, D.; Adytia, D.; Andonowati, A.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we show that shallow, elongated parts in a sloping bottom toward the coast will act as a waveguide and lead to large enhanced wave amplification for tsunami waves. Since this is even the case for narrow shallow regions, near-coast tsunami waveguiding may contribute to an explanation

  5. Bloom syndrome and maternal uniparental disomy for chromosome 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodage, T.; Prasad, M.; Trent, R.J.; Smith, A. (Children' s Hospital, Camperdown, New South Wales (New Zealand)); Dixon, J.W.; Romain, D.R.; Columbano-Green, L.M.; Selby, R.E. (Wellington Hospital (New Zealand)); Graham, D. (Waikato Hospital, Hamilton (New Zealand)); Rogan, P.K. (Pennsylvania State Univ., Hershey, PA (United States)) (and others)

    1994-07-01

    Bloom syndrome (BS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by increases in the frequency of sister-chromatid exchange and in the incidence of malignancy. Chromosome-transfer studies have shown the BS locus to map to chromosome 15q. This report describes a subject with features of both BS and Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). Molecular analysis showed maternal uniparental disomy for chromosome 15. Meiotic recombination between the two disomic chromosomes 15 has resulted in heterodisomy for proximal 15q and isodisomy for distal 15q. In this individual BS is probably due to homozygosity for a gene that is telomeric to D15S95 (15q25), rather than to genetic imprinting, the mechanism responsible for the development of PWS. This report represents the first application of disomy analysis to the regional localization of a disease gene. This strategy promises to be useful in the genetic mapping of other uncommon autosomal recessive conditions. 37 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. The threat of male-to-female erotic transference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celenza, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    Vignettes from an ongoing psychoanalysis with a patient, Michael, are presented to illustrate the various dimensions of the erotic transference at different phases of the treatment. The relation to power, the experience and expression of aggression, how these may be organized by gender, and the female analyst's countertransference are discussed as potentially fostering or inhibitory in the development of an erotic transference. Traditional sociocultural gender stereotypes kept alive in fantasy can cause female analysts to subtly foreclose the impending threat of an intense erotic transference with male analysands due to a fear of outwardly directed male aggression. It is suggested that the maternal/containing transference can be unconsciously fostered by both analyst and analysand to defensively avoid expression of the aggressivized erotic transference in its full intensity. Similarities and differences in cases of sexual boundary violations with opposite-gender pairings are discussed.

  7. From the African Coast, the invention of two territories: Equatorial Guinea and Ivory Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adjoa Nathalie Chiyé Kessé

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available From the African coast starts Latin American history and part of Europe’s. This article includes a comprehensive analysis on the cultural influence of Africa especially Equatorial Guinea and Côte d’Ivoire in Latin America. From the first European incursions into African coast (xvi century and throughout the colonial era, the paper highlights interethnic relations that occurred following the meeting and coexistence between cultures of both continents, an analysis that is essential to study the survival of traditions, beliefs and African customs that survive today in many regions of Latin America. Considering the importance now given to the recovery of identity traits of the past for studies of multi-ethnicity and re-construction of identities, this article can be used by researchers at Afro-descendance, notable in Latin America, whose research is related to African identity traits in their respective nations. Equatorial Guinea was a Spanish colony along with the Protectorate of Morocco and Western Sahara. The duration of this colony ran from 1885 to 1968. In 1926, it became the Spanish Guinea, and in 1968 it acquired its independance from Spain while retaining the Spanish cultural architecture. Furthermore, the French presence in this first stage of the conquest in Côte d’Ivoire, is provided by the army. The colonial authorities in Paris were not yet sufficiently organized to move their representatives to what was then known as the Poor or Bad People Coast or Coast of teeth. It was the military from Senegal, as base of the French colonial army who assumed the conquest and organization of the Ivorian territory for immediate exploitation of economic resources. It is this improvised framework without legal planning, which led to the idea of the invention of Africa supported by Valentin Mudimbe (1988 and Achille Mbembe (2000.

  8. Associations between child weight and maternal feeding styles are mediated by maternal perceptions and concerns

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Webber, L; Hill, C; Cooke, L; Carnell, S; Wardle, J

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether controlling parental feeding practices are associated with children's adiposity and test the hypothesis that any associations are mediated by maternal perception of their child's weight...

  9. Epidemiology of Maternal Mortality in Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maternal Mortality Programme Assessment), based at the University of Aberdeen, ...... observed in districts with higher female literacy rates. Number of years of .... urine sampling to detect protein and diabetes blood sampling for syphilis.

  10. No. 263-Maternity Leave in Normal Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Dean

    2017-10-01

    To assist maternity care providers in recognizing and discussing health- and illness-related issues in pregnancy and their relationship to maternity benefits. Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed or Medline, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library in 2009 using appropriate controlled vocabulary (e.g., maternity benefits) and key words (e.g., maternity, benefits, pregnancy). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. There were no date or language restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to December 2009. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the web sites of health technology assessment and health technology assessment-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Service Availability and Readiness Assessment of Maternal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    availability and the readiness of maternal, newborn and child health facilities to provide basic health care interventions for ... tetanus, syphilis, HIV, malaria, anemia and ... child mortality and morbidity in Madagascar, the .... Data analysis.

  12. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring IQ

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Breslau, Naomi; Paneth, Nigel; Lucia, Victoria C; Paneth-Pollak, Rachel

    2005-01-01

    Maternal smoking in pregnancy lowers birthweight. It is unclear, however, whether smoking during pregnancy lowers offspring IQ, and, if it does, whether it is through the smoking effect on fetal growth...

  13. Maternal Insomnia and Children's Family Socialization Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Alice M.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Ambler, Antony; Arseneault, Louise; Houts, Renate M.; Caspi, Avshalom

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine concurrent associations between maternal insomnia and different aspects of the family socialization environment. Design: Mothers reported on their symptoms of insomnia in a private standardized interview and interviewers evaluated the family socialization environment using the Coder's Inventory. Setting: Assessments were conducted in participants' homes within the U.K. Patients or Participants: One thousand one hundred sixteen mothers of British children enrolled in the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) study were invited to participate when their children were aged 12 years. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: After controlling for family socioeconomic status (SES), mothers' relationship status, and maternal depression, maternal insomnia was associated with a poorer family socialization environment (β = −0.10, [95% confidence intervals (CI) = −0.16, −0.04], P Moffitt TE; Ambler A; Arseneault L; Houts RM; Caspi A. Maternal insomnia and children's family socialization environments. SLEEP 2012;35(4):579-582. PMID:22467996

  14. Maternal health and the baby boom

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Albanesi, Stefania; Olivetti, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    .... Our hypothesis is that the improvements in maternal health contributed to the mid‐twentieth century baby boom and generated a rise in women's human capital, ultimately leading to a decline in desired fertility for subsequent cohorts...

  15. Reducing Maternal Mortality from Unsafe Abortion among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reducing Maternal Mortality from Unsafe Abortion among Adolescents in Africa. ... including the provision of appropriate sexuality education and information as well as supportive services to allow adolescents to prevent unwanted pregnancy.

  16. Maternal health care utilisation in Teso District

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    antenatal clinic visits, the level of utilisation of maternal health care, to identify the main service .... number of antenatal care visits which have impact .... to or experience with modern health services may ..... diet/nutrition ..... Human Fertility.

  17. Maternal bereavement and cryptorchidism in offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingstrup, Katja Glejsted; Olsen, Jørn; Wu, Chunsen

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cryptorchidism (undescended testis) is a common anomaly with largely unexplained etiology. Animal studies have suggested maternal emotional stress as a potential risk factor, but this has not been studied in humans. We aimed to investigate whether maternal bereavement due to the death...... of a close relative in the antenatal period increases the occurrence of cryptorchidism in the offspring. METHODS: In a population-based cohort, we studied death of a close relative as the exposure and cryptorchidism entries in nationwide medical registries as the outcome. Danish national registries included...... interval = 0.92-1.14]). Results were similar when the diagnosis was verified with surgery. We adjusted for maternal and paternal age, birth year, and family history of cryptorchidism. CONCLUSION: We observed no association between maternal bereavement before and during pregnancy and the occurrence...

  18. Maternal outcomes in critically ill obstetrics patients: A unique challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Bhadade

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A pregnant woman is usually young and in good health until she suffers from some acute injury. Her prognosis will hopefully be better if she receives timely intensive care. Materials and Methods: The aims of this study were to study the indications of medical intensive care unit (MICU transfers for critically ill pregnant and postpartum females, biochemical and hematological profile, organ failure, ICU interventions, outcome of mother/fetus, APACHE II score and its correlation with mortality. Study Design and Setting: It is a prospective observational study, carried out in the MICU of a tertiary care teaching hospital over a period of 18 months. One hundred and twenty-two pregnant and postpartum females (up to 42 days after delivery were studied. Results and Conclusion: Maternal age >30 years was associated with high mortality (68.2%. Majority of the females were admitted in the third trimester (50 patients and postpartum period (41 patients, and mortality was highest in the postpartum period (39%. Increasing parity and gravida was associated with significantly high mortality (59.5%. Acute viral hepatitis E (45 patients was most common indication for MICU transfer, followed by malaria and pregnancy-induced hypertension. The mortality rate was 30.3%. The most common cause of death was acute viral hepatitis E (24 patients, with hepatic failure (53 patients being the most common organ failure. Majority of the females (88 patients were ANC registered. Low Glasgow coma score and high APACHE II score on admission were associated with significantly high mortality (85.2%. Prompt treatment with oseltamivir in H1N1 infection was associated with good maternal and fetal outcomes.

  19. TSUNAMI IMPACTS ON MORPHOLOGY OF BEACHES ALONG SOUTH KERALA COAST, WEST COAST OF INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Abdul Rasheed

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is based on the post tsunami survey conducted in January 2005 along the southwest coast of India. Although tsunami affected the whole coastline of Kerala, it devastated the low- lying coastal areas of Kollam, Alleppey and Ernakulam districts leading to the loss of life and property. This paper illustrates the variation of tsunami intensity along the coasts of these districts and the consequent morphological changes occurred in the coastal area during tsunami. Topographic survey data showed that the coastal inundation was rampant along the worst affected regions where the coastal areas are like a narrow strip of land of width 100-400m, lying between the Arabian Sea and the backwaters and the down slope of the coastal area increases towards the backwater side. The data on run-up height showed a variation of 1.9 – 5 m along the study area. Post tsunami beach profiles showed erosion of the foreshore and backshore and landward transport of beach material during the run-up of waves at Puthu- Vypeen. The erosion of the backshore (berm in several places along the coast was quite evident in the study. This has caused reduction in the elevation which may make these areas more vulnerable to breaching by the high waves, particularly during the monsoon and also during certain spring tides which is a matter of serious concern.

  20. Maternal inflammation during pregnancy and childhood adiposity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Romy; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Perng, Wei; Oken, Emily; Gillman, Matthew W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Maternal prepregnancy obesity is associated with offspring obesity. Underlying mechanisms may involve a maternal-obesity-mediated pro-inflammatory state during pregnancy. Maternal C-reactive protein (CRP)-level during pregnancy is a biomarker of low-grade systemic inflammation. Methods Among 1116 mother-child pairs, we examined associations of maternal second trimester CRP-plasma-level, measured by high-sensitivity-CRP-arrays, with mid-childhood DXA fat-mass-index (FMI), trunk-fat-mass-index (trunkFMI), fat-free-mass-index (FFMI), and early- and mid-childhood BMI-z and waist circumference (WC). Main analyses were adjusted for maternal socio-demographic and lifestyle-related characteristics, gestational age at blood draw, child’s age, sex. Results Higher maternal CRP-level was associated with higher mid-childhood FMI and trunkFMI (adjusted difference: 0.15 kg/m2 [95%CI: 0.01, 0.29] [p-value=0.04] and 0.06 kg/m2 [95%CI: 0.00, 0.12] [p-value=0.06], per SD increment in maternal CRP, respectively), but not FFMI. Higher maternal CRP-level was associated with higher early- and mid-childhood BMI-z and WC in the basic models [p-value<0.05], but these associations attenuated after adjustment for maternal characteristics (adjusted difference in early- and mid-childhood BMI-z and WC: 0.05 [95%CI: −0.03, 0.13] [p-value=0.20], 0.10 cm [95%CI: −0.17, 0.37] [p-value=0.46], 0.07 [95%CI:−0.01, 0.14] [p-value=0.09], 0.34 cm [95%CI: −0.25, 0.94] [p-value=0.26], per SD increment in maternal CRP, respectively). Conclusions Higher second trimester maternal CRP-level was associated with higher mid-childhood overall and central adiposity. PMID:27094573

  1. Maternal Lineage of Warmblood Mares Contributes to Variation of Gestation Length and Bias of Foal Sex Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhl, J; Stock, K F; Wulf, M; Aurich, C

    2015-01-01

    Maternal lineage influences performance traits in horses. This is probably caused by differences in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) transferred to the offspring via the oocyte. In the present study, we investigated if reproductive traits with high variability-gestation length and fetal sex ratio-are influenced by maternal lineage. Data from 142 Warmblood mares from the Brandenburg State Stud at Neustadt (Dosse), Germany, were available for the study. Mares were grouped according to their maternal lineage. Influences on the reproduction parameters gestation length and sex ratio of offspring were analyzed by simple and multiple analyses of variance. A total of 786 cases were included. From the 142 mares, 119 were assigned to six maternal lineages with n≥10 mares per lineage, and 23 mares belonged to smaller maternal lineages. The mean number of live foals produced per mare was 4.6±3.6 (±SD). Live foal rate was 83.5%. Mean gestation length was 338.5±8.9 days (±SD) with a range of 313 to 370 days. Gestation length was affected by maternal lineage (pGestation length was also significantly influenced by the individual mare, age of the mare, year of breeding, month of breeding and sex of the foal (pgestation length and foal sex ratio in horses. In young primiparous and aged mares, the percentage of female offspring is higher than the expected 1:1 ratio.

  2. Association between maternal lifestyle and preschool nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Érica Bezerra Nobre; Alexandra Valéria Maria Brentani; Alexandre Archanjo Ferraro

    2016-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Many of the health behaviors involved in the emergence of chronic non-communicable diseases (CNCD) are originated in childhood under parental influence. Mothers are the ones most involved in the education and health care of children. Lifestyle (LS) is a social determinant of health. Very few studies tried to understand the influence of maternal LS on child nutrition. Objective: To verify the association between maternal behavioral and non-behavioral LS and nutritional ...

  3. [Proximity and breastfeeding at the maternity hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradin-Charrier, Anne-Claire

    2015-01-01

    The establishment of breastfeeding, as well as its duration, are facilitated through the proximity of the mother with her new baby. However, in maternity hospitals, breastfeeding mothers very often leave their baby in the nursery at night time. A study carried out in 2014 in several maternity hospitals put forward suggestions and highlighted areas to improve in everyday practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Significance of maternal periodontal health in preeclampsia

    OpenAIRE

    Desai, Khushboo; Desai, Parth; Duseja, Shilpa; Kumar, Santosh; Mahendra, Jaideep; Duseja, Sareen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present case–control study was to evaluate the association between maternal periodontitis and preeclampsia. Association studies between maternal periodontitis and elevated risk for preeclampsia have shown conflicting results. Periodontal maintenance is necessary to reduce the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes like preeclampsia. Materials and Methods: Periodontal parameters [bleeding on probing, probing depth (PD), and clinical attachment level (CAL)] of 1320 women w...

  5. Maternal death and the Millennium Development Goals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke

    2007-01-01

    Maternal health is one of the main global health challenges and reduction of the maternal mortality ratio, from the present 0.6 mio. per year, by three-quarters by 2015 is the target for the fifth Millennium Development Goal (MDG 5). However this goal is the one towards which the least progress h...... be developed. Finally, political leadership, openness to discuss women's rights, including abortion, and involving the community i.e. MDG 3 is essential to attain MDG 5....

  6. Jaundice during pregnancy: maternal and fetal outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Jayanthi Krishnamoorthy; Anuradha Murugesan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Jaundice affects a small percentage of pregnant women, yet it takes a major toll on health of both mother and fetus especially in developing countries like India. Jaundice in pregnancy carries a grave prognosis for both the fetus and the mother, and is responsible for 10% of maternal deaths. The aim of the study was to find out the effect of jaundice during pregnancy on maternal and fetal outcome. Methods: 51 pregnant women with jaundice during pregnancy attending the Institute...

  7. Maternal mortality in Denmark, 1985-1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Betina Ristorp; Westergaard, Hanne Brix; Bødker, Birgit; Weber, Tom; Møller, Margrete; Sørensen, Jette Led

    2009-02-01

    In Denmark, maternal mortality has been reported over the last century, both locally through hospital reports and in national registries. The purpose of this study was to analyze data from national medical registries of pregnancy-related deaths in Denmark 1985-1994 and to classify them according to the UK Confidential Enquiry into Maternal Deaths (CEMD). All deaths of women with a registered pregnancy within 12 months prior to the death were identified by comparing the Danish medical registries, death certificates, and relevant codes according to International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). All cases were classified using the UK CEMD classification. Cases of maternal death were further evaluated by an audit group. 311 cases were classified. 92 deaths (29.6%) occurred 42 days), 1 woman died from a direct obstetric cause, 46 from indirect causes, and 172 from fortuitous causes. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were the major cause of direct maternal deaths. The rate of maternal deaths constituted 9.8/100,000 maternities (i.e. the number of women delivering registrable live births at any gestation or stillbirths at 24 weeks of gestation or later). This is the first systematic report on deaths in Denmark based on data from national registries. The maternal mortality rate in Denmark is comparable to the rates in other developed countries. Fortunately, statistics are low, but each case represents potential learning. Obstetric care has changed and classification methods differ between countries. Prospective registration and registry linkage seem to be a way to ensure completion. This retrospective study has provided the background for a prospective study on registration and evaluation of maternal mortality in Denmark.

  8. Julia Kristeva’s Maternal Passions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Oliver

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article critically engages Julia Kristeva’s latest work on maternal passion as an antidote to what she calls “feminine fatigue.”  Oliver elaborates, criticizes, and expands Kristeva’s view that maternity can be a model for thinking about passion and its relation to creativity and even to ethics.  She relates Kristeva’s thinking about feminine fatigue to contemporary feminism in the United States. 

  9. Technology transfer by multinationals

    OpenAIRE

    Kostyantyn Zuzik

    2003-01-01

    The paper analyses the issue of technology transfer by multinational corporations. The following questions are explored: (a) world market of technologies, the role of MNCs (b) Choice of the technology transfer mode, Dunning's OLI-theory as a factor of the choice of the mode of transfer (c) measurement and profitability of technology transfer (d) transfer of technology through partnerships, JVs, alliances and through M&As (e) aspects of technology transfer by services multinationals. Paper uti...

  10. Technology transfer by multinationals

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The paper analyses the issue of technology transfer by multinational corporations. The following questions are explored: (a) world market of technologies, the role of MNCs (b) Choice of the technology transfer mode, Dunning's OLI-theory as a factor of the choice of the mode of transfer (c) measurement and profitability of technology transfer (d) transfer of technology through partnerships, JVs, alliances and through M&As (e) aspects of technology transfer by services multinationals. Paper uti...

  11. Seismotectonics and fault structure of the California Central Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardebeck, Jeanne L.

    2010-01-01

    I present and interpret new earthquake relocations and focal mechanisms for the California Central Coast. The relocations improve upon catalog locations by using 3D seismic velocity models to account for lateral variations in structure and by using relative arrival times from waveform cross-correlation and double-difference methods to image seismicity features more sharply. Focal mechanisms are computed using ray tracing in the 3D velocity models. Seismicity alignments on the Hosgri fault confirm that it is vertical down to at least 12 km depth, and the focal mechanisms are consistent with right-lateral strike-slip motion on a vertical fault. A prominent, newly observed feature is an ~25 km long linear trend of seismicity running just offshore and parallel to the coastline in the region of Point Buchon, informally named the Shoreline fault. This seismicity trend is accompanied by a linear magnetic anomaly, and both the seismicity and the magnetic anomaly end where they obliquely meet the Hosgri fault. Focal mechanisms indicate that the Shoreline fault is a vertical strike-slip fault. Several seismicity lineations with vertical strike-slip mechanisms are observed in Estero Bay. Events greater than about 10 km depth in Estero Bay, however, exhibit reverse-faulting mechanisms, perhaps reflecting slip at the top of the remnant subducted slab. Strike-slip mechanisms are observed offshore along the Hosgri–San Simeon fault system and onshore along the West Huasna and Rinconada faults, while reverse mechanisms are generally confined to the region between these two systems. This suggests a model in which the reverse faulting is primarily due to restraining left-transfer of right-lateral slip.

  12. Emotions, stress, and maternal motivation in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestripieri, Dario

    2011-06-01

    Recent research conducted with nonhuman primates confirms that adaptive emotional processes, such as maternal attraction arousability and maternal anxiety arousability, enhance and sustain female motivation to interact with infants, invest in them, and protect them during the postpartum period. Changes in these emotional processes, and concomitant changes in maternal motivation, facilitate the reduction and eventual termination of maternal investment associated with infant weaning. Although laboratory studies of rodents and socially deprived rhesus monkeys have suggested that nulliparous females are neophobic and find infant stimuli aversive, recent primate research indicates that neophobia or aversion to infant stimuli do not occur in females with normal developmental experience. Furthermore, although some rodent and human studies have shown that lactation is accompanied by physiological hyporesponsiveness to stress, other studies of rodents, nonhuman primates, and humans indicate that mothers are highly vulnerable to stress and that stress-induced dysregulation of emotions can interfere with maternal motivation and parenting behavior. It is possible that some aspects of the emotional and experiential regulation of maternal motivation and parental behavior are different in different mammalian species. However, variation in the environments in which subjects are tested and in their developmental experience may also be responsible for the some discrepancies between the results of different studies.

  13. Men in maternal care: evidence from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Aparajita

    2012-03-01

    Men's supportive stance is an essential component for making women's world better. There are growing debates among policymakers and researchers on the role of males in maternal health programmes, which is a big challenge in India where society is male driven. This study aims to look into the variations and determinants of maternal health care utilization in India and in three demographically and socioeconomically disparate states, namely Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal and Maharashtra, by husband's knowledge, attitude, behaviour towards maternal health care and gender violence, using data from the National Family Health Survey III 2005-06 (equivalent to the Demographic and Health Survey in India). Women's antenatal care visits, institutional delivery and freedom in health care decisions are looked into, by applying descriptive statistics and multivariate models. Men's knowledge about pregnancy-related care and a positive gender attitude enhances maternal health care utilization and women's decision-making about their health care, while their presence during antenatal care visits markedly increases the chances of women's delivery in institutions. From a policy perspective, proper dissemination of knowledge about maternal health care among husbands and making the husband's presence obligatory during antenatal care visits will help primary health care units secure better male involvement in maternal health care.

  14. Enhanced surveillance of maternal mortality in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Larissa J; Lloyd, Linda E; Selwyn, Beatrice J

    2012-12-01

    Maternal mortality is often used to measure health and well-being for women. Improved surveillance efforts can improve maternal mortality estimates and inform the development of strategies to address the needs of maternal and child health populations. The purpose of this study was to provide better estimates of maternal mortality in Texas by using enhanced surveillance methods. Results from our analyses of fetal death and live birth records in Texas from 2000 through 2006 were then linked to pregnancy-related death records and death records of women of childbearing age (15-44 years) in Texas from 2001 through 2006. Enhanced surveillance identified almost 3.5 times as many deaths that might be associated with pregnancy than do current methods and confirmed a persistent race/ethnicity trend in maternal mortality. The leading cause of these 2001-2006 pregnancy-associated deaths was accidents. Enhanced surveillance allows the identification of additional deaths possibly associated with pregnancy and provides a stable foundation to investigate trends further and to review maternal mortality cases systematically.

  15. Noninvasive prenatal molecular karyotyping from maternal plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie C Y Yu

    Full Text Available Fetal DNA is present in the plasma of pregnant women. Massively parallel sequencing of maternal plasma DNA has been used to detect fetal trisomies 21, 18, 13 and selected sex chromosomal aneuploidies noninvasively. Case reports describing the detection of fetal microdeletions from maternal plasma using massively parallel sequencing have been reported. However, these previous reports were either polymorphism-dependent or used statistical analyses which were confined to one or a small number of selected parts of the genome. In this report, we reported a procedure for performing noninvasive prenatal karyotyping at 3 Mb resolution across the whole genome through the massively parallel sequencing of maternal plasma DNA. This method has been used to analyze the plasma obtained from 6 cases. In three cases, fetal microdeletions have been detected successfully from maternal plasma. In two cases, fetal microduplications have been detected successfully from maternal plasma. In the remaining case, the plasma DNA sequencing result was consistent with the pregnant mother being a carrier of a microduplication. Simulation analyses were performed for determining the number of plasma DNA molecules that would need to be sequenced and aligned for enhancing the diagnostic resolution of noninvasive prenatal karyotyping to 2 Mb and 1 Mb. In conclusion, noninvasive prenatal molecular karyotyping from maternal plasma by massively parallel sequencing is feasible and would enhance the diagnostic spectrum of noninvasive prenatal testing.

  16. [Maternal breastfeeding: health factor. Historical memory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriuso, L; de Miguel, M; Sánchez, M

    2007-01-01

    Maternal breastfeeding is a habit that has been closely linked to the survival of the human species since time immemorial. Following a stage when it was massively abandoned in the mid-XX century, we are now witnessing a recovery of this habit, especially in the so-called "developed" world, promoted by the health institutions in light of the scientific evidence. The superiority of maternal breastfeeding over artificial feeding is beyond dispute as the scientific evidence makes clear. Maternal breastfeeding is a positive factor for the health of the mother and for the child. Hence the promotion and recovery of this habit is more than just a fashion or tendency: it is an incontrovertible factor in maternal-child health. Through the Foral Order of January 28th 2004, the government of Navarre has brought together the numerous administrative initiatives that are emerging in our province for the promotion of maternal breastfeeding by promoting a Technical Advisory Commission for the Promotion of Maternal Breastfeeding in Navarre.

  17. It takes more than one for parenting: How do maternal temperament and child's conduct problems relate to maternal parenting behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atzaba-Poria, Naama; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Bell, Martha Ann

    2014-10-01

    The current study examined how individual differences in maternal temperament and child problem behaviors correlate with observed maternal positivity and negativity toward the child. The sample consisted of 153 mothers of 3-to-7 year old children. Mothers reported their own temperament (surgency, orienting sensitivity, effortful control and negative affect) and their children's problem behaviors. Maternal behavior was videotaped in a set of structured interaction tasks with the child during a lab visit. Results indicated that children's problem behaviors were related to less maternal positivity and more negativity. In addition, observed maternal negativity was associated with less maternal effortful control and more negative affect. In contrast, maternal temperament was unrelated to observed maternal positivity toward the child. Furthermore, maternal temperament was related to mothers' positivity and negativity but only for children high in problem behaviors. The findings implicate that child problem behaviors may interact with maternal temperament in explaining variance in caregiving positivity and negativity.

  18. Maternal and child health in Brazil: progress and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victora, Cesar G; Aquino, Estela M L; do Carmo Leal, Maria; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto; Barros, Fernando C; Szwarcwald, Celia L

    2011-05-28

    In the past three decades, Brazil has undergone rapid changes in major social determinants of health and in the organisation of health services. In this report, we examine how these changes have affected indicators of maternal health, child health, and child nutrition. We use data from vital statistics, population censuses, demographic and health surveys, and published reports. In the past three decades, infant mortality rates have reduced substantially, decreasing by 5·5% a year in the 1980s and 1990s, and by 4·4% a year since 2000 to reach 20 deaths per 1000 livebirths in 2008. Neonatal deaths account for 68% of infant deaths. Stunting prevalence among children younger than 5 years decreased from 37% in 1974-75 to 7% in 2006-07. Regional differences in stunting and child mortality also decreased. Access to most maternal-health and child-health interventions increased sharply to almost universal coverage, and regional and socioeconomic inequalities in access to such interventions were notably reduced. The median duration of breastfeeding increased from 2·5 months in the 1970s to 14 months by 2006-07. Official statistics show stable maternal mortality ratios during the past 10 years, but modelled data indicate a yearly decrease of 4%, a trend which might not have been noticeable in official reports because of improvements in death registration and the increased number of investigations into deaths of women of reproductive age. The reasons behind Brazil's progress include: socioeconomic and demographic changes (economic growth, reduction in income disparities between the poorest and wealthiest populations, urbanisation, improved education of women, and decreased fertility rates), interventions outside the health sector (a conditional cash transfer programme and improvements in water and sanitation), vertical health programmes in the 1980s (promotion of breastfeeding, oral rehydration, and immunisations), creation of a tax-funded national health service in 1988

  19. Prevalence, antigenic specificity, and bactericidal activity of poultry anti-Campylobacter maternal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, O; Zhang, Q; Meitzler, J C; Harr, B S; Morishita, T Y; Mohan, R

    2001-09-01

    Poultry are considered the major reservoir for Campylobacter jejuni, a leading bacterial cause of human food-borne diarrhea. To understand the ecology of C. jejuni and develop strategies to control C. jejuni infection in the animal reservoir, we initiated studies to examine the potential role of anti-Campylobacter maternal antibodies in protecting young broiler chickens from infection by C. jejuni. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the prevalence of anti-C. jejuni antibodies in breeder chickens, egg yolks, and broilers from multiple flocks of different farms were examined. High levels of antibodies to the organism were detected in serum samples of breeder chickens and in egg yolk contents. To determine the dynamics of anti-Campylobacter maternal antibody transferred from yolks to hatchlings, serum samples collected from five broiler flocks at weekly intervals from 1 to 28 or 42 days of age were also examined by ELISA. Sera from the 1-day and 7-day-old chicks showed high titers of antibodies to C. jejuni. Thereafter, antibody titers decreased substantially and were not detected during the third and fourth weeks of age. The disappearance of anti-Campylobacter maternal antibodies during 3 to 4 weeks of age coincides with the appearance of C. jejuni infections observed in many broiler chicken flocks. As shown by immunoblotting, the maternally derived antibodies recognized multiple membrane proteins of C. jejuni ranging from 19 to 107 kDa. Moreover, in vitro serum bactericidal assays showed that anti-Campylobacter maternal antibodies were active in antibody-dependent complement-mediated killing of C. jejuni. Together, these results highlight the widespread presence of functional anti-Campylobacter antibodies in the poultry production system and provide a strong rationale for further investigation of the potential role of anti-C. jejuni maternal antibodies in protecting young chickens from infection by C. jejuni.

  20. Maternal Obesity and Neck Circumference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglim, B; O'Higgins, A; Daly, N; Farren, M; Turner, M J

    2015-06-01

    Obese women are more likely to require general anaesthesia for an obstetric intervention than non-obese. Difficult tracheal intubation and oxygen desaturation is more common in pregnancy. Failed tracheal intubation has been associated with an increase in neck circumference (NC). We studied the relationship between maternal obesity and NC as pregnancy advanced in women attending a standard antenatal clinic. Of the 96 women recruited, 13.5% were obese. The mean NC was 36.8cm (SD 1.9) in the obese women compared with 31.5cm (SD 1.6) in women with a normal BMI (p < 0.001) at 18-22 weeks gestation. In the obese women it increased on average by 1.5cm by 36-40 weeks compared with an increase of 1.6 cm in women with a normal BMI. The antenatal measurement of NC is a simple, inexpensive tool that is potentially useful for screening obese women who may benefit from an antenatal anaesthetic assessment.