WorldWideScience

Sample records for coastal waters due

  1. Increase in dimethylsulfide (DMS emissions due to eutrophication of coastal waters offsets their reduction due to ocean acidification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie eGypens

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Available information from manipulative experiments suggested that the emission of dimethylsulfide (DMS would decrease in response to the accumulation of anthropogenic CO2 in the ocean (ocean acidification. However, in coastal environments, the carbonate chemistry of surface waters was also strongly modified by eutrophication and related changes in biological activity (increased primary production and change in phytoplankton dominance during the last 50 years. Here, we tested the hypothesis that DMS emissions in marine coastal environments also strongly responded to eutrophication in addition to ocean acidification at decadal timescales. We used the R-MIRO-BIOGAS model in the eutrophied Southern Bight of the North Sea characterized by intense blooms of Phaeocystis that are high producers of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP, the precursor of DMS. We showed that, for the period from 1951 to 2007, eutrophication actually led to an increase of DMS emissions much stronger than the response of DMS emissions to ocean acidification.

  2. Hydrodynamic changes due to large seabed installations in coastal waters off west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ilangovan, D.; Naik, K.A.; Anil, A.C.

    % in the region where the tanks are placed compared to currents without placement of tanks. However, up to 85% increase in current speeds is observed in regions beyond the tanks. In this manuscript results of the effects on the hydrodynamics of a region due...

  3. The effect of sea-water intrusion due to the large scale construction in a coastal region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, S.; Jin, S.; Woo, N. C.; Lee, J.; Lee, H.; Kim, Y.

    2010-12-01

    This study was carried out for estimating the seawater intrusion at the disturbed aquifer by a large scale construction when building a power plant in a coastal region, located in southeastern part of the Korean peninsula. Groundwater sampling and vertical profiling of electrical conductivity(EC) for 8 monitoring wells were carried. EC profiling results shows that maximum EC for PW-5, 6 and 7 is over 40 mS/cm, for PZ-1, 3, 4 and 8 is 18.76, 4.46, 26.16, 21.42 mS/cm and for PZ-2 is 0.79 mS/cm,respectively. Chemical composition of water samples shows that water types of Na-Cl for PZ-5, 6, and 7 (excavated and backfilled area), Na-Cl-SO4 for PZ-4 and PZ-8, Na-Ca-Mg-Cl for PZ-1, Ca-Na-SO4-Cl for PZ-2, and Mg-Ca-Na-SO4 for PZ-3. In addition, the bivariate plot of SO4/Cl(meq ratios) and SO4(mmol/L) indicates that PZ-4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 appear to be seawater, PZ-1 is located at mixing zone between freshwater and seawater, and PZ-2 is freshwater. However, based on the high SO42- level and (HCO3-/Sum anions} ratio less than 0.8, groundwater at PZ-3 seems to show the gypsum dissolution. The gypsum dissolution was attributed to the effect of sea-water intrusion on ageing of lean concrete that was used for backfill around the PZ-3. Key words : large scale construction, EC profiling, hydrochemistry, sea-water intrusion, concrete ageing Acknowledgement This study has been carried out under the Nuclear R&D Program [No. 2010-0001070] supported by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, Republic of Korea.

  4. Coastal Hazard due to Tropical Cyclones in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Casarin, R.; Mendoza-Baldwin, E.; Marino-Tapia, I.; Enriquez, C.; Ruiz, G.; Escalante-MAncera, E.; Ruíz-Rentería, F.

    2013-05-01

    The Mexican coast is hit every year by at least 3 cyclones and it is affected for nearly 59 hours a year on average; this induces undesirable consequences, such as coastal erosion and flooding. To evaluate the hazard to which the coastal zone is exposes, a historical characterization of atmospheric conditions (surface winds and pressure conditions of the storms), waves (wave heights and their associated wave periods) and flooding levels due to tropical storms for more than 60 years is presented. The atmospheric and wave conditions were evaluated using a modification of the original parametric Hydromet-Rankin Vortex Model by Bretschneider (1990) and Holland (1980) as presented by Silva, et al. (2002). The flooding levels caused by hurricanes were estimated using a two-dimensional, vertically averaged finite volume model to evaluate the storm surge, Posada et al. (2008). The cyclone model was compared to the data series of 29 cyclones recorded by buoys of the National Data Buoy Center-NOAA and some data recorded in shallow waters near Cancun, Mexico and the flooding model was compared with observed data from Cancun, Mexico; both models gave good results. For the extreme analyses of wind, wave heights and maximum flooding levels on the Mexican coasts, maps of the scale and location parameters used in the Weibull cumulative distribution function and numerical results for different return periods are provided. The historical occurrence of tropical storms is also revised as some studies indicate that the average intensity of tropical cyclones is increasing; no definite trends pointing to an increase in storm frequency or intensity were found. What was in fact found is that although there are more cyclones in the Pacific Ocean and these persist longer, the intensity of the cyclones in the Atlantic Ocean is greater affecting. In any case, the strong necessity of avoiding storm induced coastal damage (erosion and flooding) is reflected in numerous works, such as this one

  5. Study on water quality around mangrove ecosystem for coastal rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guntur, G.; Sambah, A. B.; Arisandi, D. M.; Jauhari, A.; Jaziri, A. A.

    2018-01-01

    Coastal ecosystems are vulnerable to environmental degradation including the declining water quality in the coastal environment due to the influence of human activities where the river becomes one of the input channels. Some areas in the coastal regions of East Java directly facing the Madura Strait indicate having experienced the environmental degradation, especially regarding the water quality. This research was conducted in the coastal area of Probolinggo Regency, East Java, aiming to analyze the water quality as the basis for coastal rehabilitation planning. This study was carried out using survey and observation methods. Water quality measurement results were analyzed conforming to predetermined quality standards. The coastal area rehabilitation planning as a means to restore the degraded water quality parameters is presumably implemented through mangrove planting. Thus, the mangrove mapping was also devised in this research. Based on 40 sampling points, the results illustrate that according to the quality standard, the water quality in the study area is likely to be deteriorated. On account of the mapping analysis of mangrove distribution in the study area, the rehabilitation of the coastal zone can be done through planning the mangrove forest plantation. The recommended coastal area maintenance is a periodic water quality observation planning in the river region which is divided into three zones to monitor the impact of fluctuating changes in land use or human activities on the coastal water quality.

  6. Coastal Flooding Hazards due to storm surges and subsidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Carlo; Knudsen, Per; Andersen, Ole B.

    Flooding hazard and risk mapping are major topics in low-lying coastal areas before even considering the adverse effects of sea level rise (SLR) due to climate change. While permanent inundation may be a prevalent issue, more often floods related to extreme events (storm surges) have the largest...... damage potential.Challenges are amplified in some areas due to subsidence from natural and/or anthropogenic causes. Subsidence of even a few mm/y may over time greatly impair the safety against flooding of coastal communities and must be accounted for in order to accomplish the economically most viable...

  7. Doubling of coastal flooding frequency within decades due to sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitousek, Sean; Barnard, Patrick L.; Fletcher, Charles H.; Frazer, Neil; Erikson, Li; Storlazzi, Curt D.

    2017-01-01

    Global climate change drives sea-level rise, increasing the frequency of coastal flooding. In most coastal regions, the amount of sea-level rise occurring over years to decades is significantly smaller than normal ocean-level fluctuations caused by tides, waves, and storm surge. However, even gradual sea-level rise can rapidly increase the frequency and severity of coastal flooding. So far, global-scale estimates of increased coastal flooding due to sea-level rise have not considered elevated water levels due to waves, and thus underestimate the potential impact. Here we use extreme value theory to combine sea-level projections with wave, tide, and storm surge models to estimate increases in coastal flooding on a continuous global scale. We find that regions with limited water-level variability, i.e., short-tailed flood-level distributions, located mainly in the Tropics, will experience the largest increases in flooding frequency. The 10 to 20 cm of sea-level rise expected no later than 2050 will more than double the frequency of extreme water-level events in the Tropics, impairing the developing economies of equatorial coastal cities and the habitability of low-lying Pacific island nations.

  8. Coastal pollution due to increasing nutrient flux in aquaculture sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, C. P. C.; Sta. Maria, Y. Y.; Siringan, F. P.; Reotita, J. M.; Zamora, P. B.; Villanoy, C. L.; Sombrito, E. Z.; Azanza, R. V.

    2009-07-01

    The supply of nitrogen and phosphorus in coastal zones through time is reflected in the nutrients’ concentration in the sediment record. Five aquaculture sites in the Philippines were investigated in an effort to establish how long-term changes in land and coastal water use could have led to biogeochemical modifications affecting the coastal ecosystem. Samples from study sites show a narrow concentration range for nitrogen and did not reveal any significant trend through time. In contrast, phosphorus concentrations in most sites start at less than 20 ppm in sediments 30 years and older. The phosphorus value continuously increase in younger sediments, with each site having a different magnitude change as well as timing of when the major increase happened. The uppermost 10 cm, representing the last 15 years in sites with age control, typically show a 2- to 3-fold increase in P load values. Historical increase in nutrient load also coincides with harmful algal bloom events in each area; when effective P input exceeded 130 kg/km2 per year. Lastly, the observed increase may be attributed to several factors including physical attributes of the area, urbanization of coastal zones, but most importantly in the proliferation of aquaculture activities.

  9. Optical classification of contrasted coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vantrepotte, V.; Loisel, H.; Dessailly, D.; Mériaux, X.

    2012-04-01

    The high optical complexity of the coastal ocean prevents the development of general open ocean-like inversion algorithms needed to derive in-water bio-optical and biogeochemical parameters from satellite information. To overcome this issue, regional algorithms are generally used in order to focus on the range of optical variability specific to a defined coastal region. This regional approach presents however various limitations including its high dependency on the data set used for its development as well as its limited applicability for large scale applications. Another and more universal approach consists in classifying coastal waters according to their optical properties (independently of their location) and then in applying a class-specific algorithm (empirical or semi-analytical). The framework associated with the development of such classification-based approach is detailed from an in situ data set collected in contrasted coastal waters of the eastern English Channel, north Sea and French Guyana. The advantages of defining an optical typology of the coastal domain for monitoring coastal water masses optical quality and improving the performance of the inversion procedure is emphasized. Further, the representativeness of optical classes defined in the latter training areas for global scale applications is also illustrated.

  10. The inorganic carbon distribution in Irish coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Triona; Cave, Rachel; McGovern, Evin; Kivimae, Caroline

    2014-05-01

    Despite their relatively small surface area, coastal and shelf waters play a crucial role in the global climate through their influence on major biogeochemical cycles. Due to growing concern about ocean acidification as a result of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations, measurements of inorganic carbon parameters (dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), total alkalinity (TA), pH and pCO2) have been made with increasing regularity over the past two decades. While it is clear that open ocean surface waters are acidifying at a fairly uniform rate ( -0.02 pH units per decade), less is known about changes in coastal waters due to the high complexity and spatial variability in these regions. Large spatial and temporal variability in coastal CO2 parameters is mainly due to nutrient inputs, biological activity, upwelling and riverine inputs of alkalinity and inorganic and organic carbon. The inorganic carbon system in Irish coastal waters is presented here, gathered from 9 surveys around the Irish coastline between 2009 and 2013. There are striking contrasts in the CO2 system between different areas, largely attributed to the bedrock composition of the nearby rivers. Freshwater end-member concentrations of TA, calculated from TA-salinity relationships in outer estuarine and nearshore coastal water, were supported by riverine TA data from the Irish Environmental Protection Agency. A large portion of Ireland is covered with limestone bedrock and as a result, many of the rivers have extremely high TA (>5000μmol/kg) due to the carbonate mineral content of the underlying bedrock. While such high TA has resulted in elevated pH and calcium carbonate saturation states in some coastal waters, (e.g. Galway Bay and Dublin Bay), the high TA in other areas was accompanied by particularly high DIC (e.g. River Shannon on the west coast), resulting in lower pH and aragonite/calcite saturation states and even CO2 degassing in the Shannon estuary. Due to non-limestone lithology in many parts

  11. Carbon dioxide in European coastal waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borges, A.V.; Schiettecatte, L.-S.; Abril, G.; Delille, B.; Gazeau, F.P.H.

    2006-01-01

    We compiled from literature annually integrated air–water fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2) computed from field measurements, in 20 coastal European environments that were gathered into 3 main ecosystems: inner estuaries, upwelling continental shelves and non-upwelling continental shelves. The

  12. Modeling of coastal water contamination in Fortaleza (Northeastern Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, S P; Rosman, P.C.C.; Álvarez Díaz, César; Schetini, C.A.F.; Souza,R. O. de; R.H.S.F. Vieira

    2015-01-01

    An important tool in environmental management projects and studies due to the complexity of environmental systems, environmental modeling makes it possible to integrate many variables and processes, thereby providing a dynamic view of systems. In this study the bacteriological quality of the coastal waters of Fortaleza (Brazil) was modeled considering multiple contamination sources. Using the software SisBaHiA, the dispersion of thermotolerant coliforms and Escherichia coli from three sources...

  13. An optical method to assess water clarity in coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulshreshtha, Anuj; Shanmugam, Palanisamy

    2015-12-01

    Accurate estimation of water clarity in coastal regions is highly desired by various activities such as search and recovery operations, dredging and water quality monitoring. This study intends to develop a practical method for estimating water clarity based on a larger in situ dataset, which includes Secchi depth (Z sd ), turbidity, chlorophyll and optical properties from several field campaigns in turbid coastal waters. The Secchi depth parameter is found to closely vary with the concentration of suspended sediments, vertical diffuse attenuation coefficient K d (m(-1)) and beam attenuation coefficient c (m(-1)). The optical relationships obtained for the selected wavelengths (i.e. 520, 530 and 540 nm) exhibit an inverse relationship between Secchi depth and the length attenuation coefficient (1/(c + K d )). The variation in Secchi depth is expressed in terms of undetermined coupling coefficient which is composed of light penetration factor (expressed by z(1%)K d (λ)) and a correction factor (ξ) (essentially governed by turbidity of the water column). This method of estimating water clarity was validated using independent in situ data from turbid coastal waters, and its results were compared with those obtained from the existing methods. The statistical analysis of the measured and the estimated Z sd showed that the present method yields lower error when compared to the existing methods. The spatial structures of the measured and predicted Z sd are also highly consistent with in situ data, which indicates the potential of the present method for estimating the water clarity in turbid coastal and associated lagoon waters.

  14. Extending electromagnetic methods to map coastal pore water salinities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Wm. J.; Kruse, S.; Swarzenski, P.

    2006-01-01

    The feasibility of mapping pore water salinity based on surface electromagnetic (EM) methods over land and shallow marine water is examined in a coastal wetland on Tampa Bay, Florida. Forward models predict that useful information on seabed conductivity can be obtained through saline water, using floating EM-31 and EM-34 instruments from Geonics Ltd. The EM-31 functioned as predicted when compared against resistivity soundings and pore water samples and proved valuable for profiling in otherwise inaccessible terrain due to its relatively small size. Experiments with the EM-34 in marine water, however, did not reproduce the theoretical instrument response. The most effective technique for predicting pore water conductivities based on EM data entailed (1) computing formation factors from resistivity surveys and pore water samples at representative sites and (2) combining these formation factors with onshore and offshore EM-31 readings for broader spatial coverage. This method proved successful for imaging zones of elevated pore water conductivities/ salinities associated with mangrove forests, presumably caused by salt water exclusion by mangrove roots. These zones extend 5 to 10 m seaward from mangrove trunks fringing Tampa Bay. Modeling indicates that EM-31 measurements lack the resolution necessary to image the subtle pore water conductivity variations expected in association with diffuse submarine ground water discharge of fresher water in the marine water of Tampa Bay. The technique has potential for locating high-contrast zones and other pore water salinity anomalies in areas not accessible to conventional marine- or land-based resistivity arrays and hence may be useful for studies of coastal-wetland ecosystems. Copyright ?? 2005 National Ground Water Association.

  15. Can Humic Water Discharge Counteract Eutrophication in Coastal Waters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Agneta; Jurgensone, Iveta; Rowe, Owen F.; Simonelli, Paolo; Bignert, Anders; Lundberg, Erik; Karlsson, Jan

    2013-01-01

    A common and established view is that increased inputs of nutrients to the sea, for example via river flooding, will cause eutrophication and phytoplankton blooms in coastal areas. We here show that this concept may be questioned in certain scenarios. Climate change has been predicted to cause increased inflow of freshwater to coastal areas in northern Europe. River waters in these areas are often brown from the presence of high concentrations of allochthonous dissolved organic carbon (humic carbon), in addition to nitrogen and phosphorus. In this study we investigated whether increased inputs of humic carbon can change the structure and production of the pelagic food web in the recipient seawater. In a mesocosm experiment unfiltered seawater from the northern Baltic Sea was fertilized with inorganic nutrients and humic carbon (CNP), and only with inorganic nutrients (NP). The system responded differently to the humic carbon addition. In NP treatments bacterial, phytoplankton and zooplankton production increased and the systems turned net autotrophic, whereas the CNP-treatment only bacterial and zooplankton production increased driving the system to net heterotrophy. The size-structure of the food web showed large variations in the different treatments. In the enriched NP treatments the phytoplankton community was dominated by filamentous >20 µm algae, while in the CNP treatments the phytoplankton was dominated by picocyanobacteria eutrophication in coastal waters, leading to a promotion of the microbial food web and other heterotrophic organisms, driving the recipient coastal waters to net-heterotrophy. PMID:23637807

  16. Development of a coastal information system for the management of Jeddah coastal waters in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayerle, R.; Al-Subhi, A.; Fernández Jaramillo, J.; Salama, A.; Bruss, G.; Zubier, K.; Runte, K.; Turki, A.; Hesse, K.; Jastania, H.; Ladwig, N.; Mudarris, M.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents results of the development and application of a web-based information system, Jeddah CIS, for assisting decision makers in the management of Jeddah coastal waters, in Saudi Arabia. The system will support coastal planning, management of navigation and tackle pollution due to accidents. The system was developed primarily to nowcast in quasi-real time and to deliver short-term forecasts of water levels, current velocities and waves with high spatial and temporal resolution for the area near Jeddah. Therefor it will hasten response when adverse weather conditions prevail. The Jeddah-CIS integrates sensors transmitting in real time, meteorological, oceanographic and water quality parameters and operational models for flow and waves. It also provides interactive tools using advanced visualization techniques to facilitate dissemination of information. The system relies on open source software and has been designed to facilitate the integration of additional components for enhanced information processing, data evaluation and generation of higher water level, current velocity and wave for the general public. Jeddah-CIS has been operational since 2013. Extensions of the system to speed operations and improving the accuracy of the predictions to the public are currently underway.

  17. Water Quality Modeling System for Coastal Archipelagos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomi, L.; Miettunen, E.; Lukkari, K.; Puttonen, I.; Ropponen, J.; Tikka, K.; Piiparinen, J.; Lignell, R.

    2016-02-01

    Coastal seas are encountering pressures from eutrophication, fishing, ship emissions and coastal construction. Sustainable development and use of these areas require science-based guidance with high quality data and efficient tools. Our study area, the Archipelago Sea, is located in the northern part of the semi-enclosed and brackish water Baltic Sea. It is a shallow, topographically heterogeneous and eutrophic sub-basin, covered with thousands of small islands and islets. The catchment area is 8950 km2and has ca. 500 000 inhabitants. We are developing a modeling system that can be used by local authorities and in ministry level decision making to evaluate the environmental impacts that may result from decisions and changes made both in the watershed and in the coastal areas. The modeling system consists of 3D hydrodynamic model COHERENS and water quality model FICOS, both applied to the area with high spatial resolution. Models use river discharge and nutrient loading data supplied by watershed model VEMALA and include loading from multiple point sources located in the Archipelago Sea. An easy-to-use interface made specifically to answer the end-user needs, includes possibility to modify the nutrient loadings and perform model simulations to selected areas and time periods. To ensure the quality and performance of the modeling system, comprehensive measurement dataset including hydrographic, nutrient, chlorophyll-a and bottom sediment data, was gathered based on monitoring and research campaigns previously carried out in the Archipelago Sea. Verification showed that hydrodynamic model was able to simulate surface temperature and salinity fields and their seasonal variation with good accuracy in this complex area. However, the dynamics of the deeper layers need to be improved, especially in areas that have sharp bathymetric gradients. The preliminary analysis of the water quality model results showed that the model was able to reproduce the basic characteristics of

  18. Bioassays for coastal water quality: an assessment using the larval ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although these methods are used globally, the potential of such toxicity tests has not been adequately explored for South African coastal waters. This study serves to describe a simple, cost-effective and relatively quick testing procedure using the development of Haliotis midae larvae as a bioassay of coastal water quality.

  19. MODIS Retrieval of Aerosol Optical Depth over Turbid Coastal Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a new approach to retrieve Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS over the turbid coastal water. This approach supplements the operational Dark Target (DT aerosol retrieval algorithm that currently does not conduct AOD retrieval in shallow waters that have visible sediments or sea-floor (i.e., Class 2 waters. Over the global coastal water regions in cloud-free conditions, coastal screening leads to ~20% unavailability of AOD retrievals. Here, we refine the MODIS DT algorithm by considering that water-leaving radiance at 2.1 μm to be negligible regardless of water turbidity, and therefore the 2.1 μm reflectance at the top of the atmosphere is sensitive to both change of fine-mode and coarse-mode AODs. By assuming that the aerosol single scattering properties over coastal turbid water are similar to those over the adjacent open-ocean pixels, the new algorithm can derive AOD over these shallow waters. The test algorithm yields ~18% more MODIS-AERONET collocated pairs for six AERONET stations in the coastal water regions. Furthermore, comparison of the new retrieval with these AERONET observations show that the new AOD retrievals have equivalent or better accuracy than those retrieved by the MODIS operational algorithm’s over coastal land and non-turbid coastal water product. Combining the new retrievals with the existing MODIS operational retrievals yields an overall improvement of AOD over those coastal water regions. Most importantly, this refinement extends the spatial and temporal coverage of MODIS AOD retrievals over the coastal regions where 60% of human population resides. This expanded coverage is crucial for better understanding of impact of anthropogenic aerosol particles on coastal air quality and climate.

  20. Modeling of coastal water contamination in Fortaleza (Northeastern Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, S P; Rosman, P C C; Alvarez, C; Schetini, C A F; Souza, R O; Vieira, R H S F

    2015-01-01

    An important tool in environmental management projects and studies due to the complexity of environmental systems, environmental modeling makes it possible to integrate many variables and processes, thereby providing a dynamic view of systems. In this study the bacteriological quality of the coastal waters of Fortaleza (a state capital in Northeastern Brazil) was modeled considering multiple contamination sources. Using the software SisBaHiA, the dispersion of thermotolerant coliforms and Escherichia coli from three sources of contamination (local rivers, storm drains and submarine outfall) was analyzed. The models took into account variations in bacterial decay due to solar radiation and other environmental factors. Fecal pollution discharged from rivers and storm drains is transported westward by coastal currents, contaminating strips of beach water to the left of each storm drain or river. Exception to this condition only occurs on beaches protected by the breakwater of the harbor, where counterclockwise vortexes reverse this behavior. The results of the models were consistent with field measurements taken during the dry and the rainy season. Our results show that the submarine outfall plume was over 2 km from the nearest beach. The storm drains and the Maceió stream are the main factors responsible for the poor water quality on the waterfront of Fortaleza. The depollution of these sources would generate considerable social, health and economic gains for the region.

  1. Sele coastal plain flood risk due to wave storm and river flow interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benassai, Guido; Aucelli, Pietro; Di Paola, Gianluigi; Della Morte, Renata; Cozzolino, Luca; Rizzo, Angela

    2016-04-01

    Wind waves, elevated water levels and river discharge can cause flooding in low-lying coastal areas, where the water level is the interaction between wave storm elevated water levels and river flow interaction. The factors driving the potential flood risk include weather conditions, river water stage and storm surge. These data are required to obtain inputs to run the hydrological model used to evaluate the water surface level during ordinary and extreme events regarding both the fluvial overflow and storm surge at the river mouth. In this paper we studied the interaction between the sea level variation and the river hydraulics in order to assess the location of the river floods in the Sele coastal plain. The wave data were acquired from the wave buoy of Ponza, while the water level data needed to assess the sea level variation were recorded by the tide gauge of Salerno. The water stages, river discharges and rating curves for Sele river were provided by Italian Hydrographic Service (Servizio Idrografico e Mareografico Nazionale, SIMN).We used the dataset of Albanella station (40°29'34.30"N, 15°00'44.30"E), located around 7 km from the river mouth. The extreme river discharges were evaluated through the Weibull equation, which were associated with their return period (TR). The steady state river water levels were evaluated through HEC-RAS 4.0 model, developed by Hydrologic Engineering Center (HEC) of the United States Army Corps of Engineers Hydrologic Engineering Center (USACE,2006). It is a well-known 1D model that computes water surface elevation (WSE) and velocity at discrete cross-sections by solving continuity, energy and flow resistance (e.g., Manning) equation. Data requirements for HEC-RAS include topographic information in the form of a series of cross-sections, friction parameter in the form of Manning's n values across each cross-section, and flow data including flow rates, flow change locations, and boundary conditions. For a steady state sub

  2. Coastal circulation off Bombay in relation to waste water disposal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Josanto, V.; Sarma, R.V.

    Flow patterns in the coastal waters of Bombay were studied using recording current meters, direct reading current meters, floats and dye in relation to the proposed waste water disposal project of the Municipal Corporation of Greater Bombay from...

  3. Can humic water discharge counteract eutrophication in coastal waters?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agneta Andersson

    Full Text Available A common and established view is that increased inputs of nutrients to the sea, for example via river flooding, will cause eutrophication and phytoplankton blooms in coastal areas. We here show that this concept may be questioned in certain scenarios. Climate change has been predicted to cause increased inflow of freshwater to coastal areas in northern Europe. River waters in these areas are often brown from the presence of high concentrations of allochthonous dissolved organic carbon (humic carbon, in addition to nitrogen and phosphorus. In this study we investigated whether increased inputs of humic carbon can change the structure and production of the pelagic food web in the recipient seawater. In a mesocosm experiment unfiltered seawater from the northern Baltic Sea was fertilized with inorganic nutrients and humic carbon (CNP, and only with inorganic nutrients (NP. The system responded differently to the humic carbon addition. In NP treatments bacterial, phytoplankton and zooplankton production increased and the systems turned net autotrophic, whereas the CNP-treatment only bacterial and zooplankton production increased driving the system to net heterotrophy. The size-structure of the food web showed large variations in the different treatments. In the enriched NP treatments the phytoplankton community was dominated by filamentous >20 µm algae, while in the CNP treatments the phytoplankton was dominated by picocyanobacteria <5 µm. Our results suggest that climate change scenarios, resulting in increased humic-rich river inflow, may counteract eutrophication in coastal waters, leading to a promotion of the microbial food web and other heterotrophic organisms, driving the recipient coastal waters to net-heterotrophy.

  4. Can humic water discharge counteract eutrophication in coastal waters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Agneta; Jurgensone, Iveta; Rowe, Owen F; Simonelli, Paolo; Bignert, Anders; Lundberg, Erik; Karlsson, Jan

    2013-01-01

    A common and established view is that increased inputs of nutrients to the sea, for example via river flooding, will cause eutrophication and phytoplankton blooms in coastal areas. We here show that this concept may be questioned in certain scenarios. Climate change has been predicted to cause increased inflow of freshwater to coastal areas in northern Europe. River waters in these areas are often brown from the presence of high concentrations of allochthonous dissolved organic carbon (humic carbon), in addition to nitrogen and phosphorus. In this study we investigated whether increased inputs of humic carbon can change the structure and production of the pelagic food web in the recipient seawater. In a mesocosm experiment unfiltered seawater from the northern Baltic Sea was fertilized with inorganic nutrients and humic carbon (CNP), and only with inorganic nutrients (NP). The system responded differently to the humic carbon addition. In NP treatments bacterial, phytoplankton and zooplankton production increased and the systems turned net autotrophic, whereas the CNP-treatment only bacterial and zooplankton production increased driving the system to net heterotrophy. The size-structure of the food web showed large variations in the different treatments. In the enriched NP treatments the phytoplankton community was dominated by filamentous >20 µm algae, while in the CNP treatments the phytoplankton was dominated by picocyanobacteria <5 µm. Our results suggest that climate change scenarios, resulting in increased humic-rich river inflow, may counteract eutrophication in coastal waters, leading to a promotion of the microbial food web and other heterotrophic organisms, driving the recipient coastal waters to net-heterotrophy.

  5. Sediment budget variation at watershed scale due to anthropogenic pressures, and its relationship to coastal erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Antonello; Adamo, Maria; Canora, Filomena

    2014-05-01

    The transfer of sediments from hydrographic basins towards the coast is a significant pathway of material transfer on Earth. In sedimentary environment, the main portion of sediment that enters the coastal areas is derived originally from erosion in the coastal watersheds. Extensive anthropogenic pressures carried out within coastal basins have long shown negative impacts on littoral environments. In fluvial systems, sediments trapped behind dams and in-stream gravel mining cause the reduction in sediment supply to the coast. Along the Jonian littoral of the Basilicata Region (southern Italy), natural coastal processes have been severely disrupted since the second half of the 20th century as a result of riverbed sand and gravel mining and dam construction, when economic advantages were measured in terms of the development of infrastructure, water storage, and hydropower production for the agricultural, industrial and socio-economic development of the area. Particularly, the large numbers of dams and impoundments that have been built in the hydrographic basins have led a signi?cant reduction on river sediment loads. As a result, the Jonian littoral is experiencing a catalysed erosion phenomenon. In order to increase understanding of the morpho-dynamics of the Jonian littoral environment and more fully appreciate the amount of coastal erosion, an evaluation of the sediment budget change due to dam construction within the hydrographic basins of the Basilicata Region needs to be explored. Since quantitative data on decadal trends in river sediment supply before and after dam construction are lacking, as well as updated dam silting values, river basin assessment of the spatial patterns and estimated amount of sediment erosion and deposition are important in evaluating changes in the sediment budget. As coastal areas are being affected by an increasing number of population and socio-economic activities, the amount of sediment deficit at the littoral can permit to

  6. Estimating total alkalinity for coastal ocean acidification monitoring at regional to continental scales in Australian coastal waters

    KAUST Repository

    Baldry, Kimberlee

    2017-06-01

    Owing to a lack of resources, tools, and knowledge, the natural variability and distribution of Total Alkalinity (TA) has been poorly characterised in coastal waters globally, yet variability is known to be high in coastal regions due to the complex interactions of oceanographic, biotic, and terrestrially-influenced processes. This is a particularly challenging task for the vast Australian coastline, however, it is also this vastness that demands attention in the face of ocean acidification (OA). Australian coastal waters have high biodiversity and endemism, and are home to large areas of coral reef, including the Great Barrier Reef, the largest coral reef system in the world. Ocean acidification threatens calcifying marine organisms by hindering calcification rates, threatening the structural integrity of coral reefs and other ecosystems. Tracking the progression of OA in different coastal regions requires accurate knowledge of the variability in TA. Thus, estimation methods that can capture this variability at synoptic scales are needed. Multiple linear regression is a promising approach in this regard. Here, we compare a range of both simple and multiple linear regression models to the estimation of coastal TA from a range of variables, including salinity, temperature, chlorophyll-a concentration and nitrate concentration. We find that regionally parameterised models capture local variability better than more general coastal or open ocean parameterised models. The strongest contribution to model improvement came through incorporating temperature as an input variable as well as salinity. Further improvements were achieved through the incorporation of either nitrate or chlorophyll-a, with the combination of temperature, salinity, and nitrate constituting the minimum model in most cases. These results provide an approach that can be applied to satellite Earth observation and autonomous in situ platforms to improve synoptic scale estimation of TA in coastal waters.

  7. A Citizen's Guide to Coastal Water Resource Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Jim; Miller, Todd

    More people than ever are using coastal waters for recreation and business activities and living along the shores. This puts more pressure on natural resources and creates more conflicts between the people using the resources. This guidebook is designed to help citizens develop an understanding of how coastal management works. Four chapters in…

  8. Reducing the Risk of Water Pollution in Vulnerable Coastal ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Reducing the Risk of Water Pollution in Vulnerable Coastal Communities of Cartagena, Colombia: Responding to Climate Change. The coastal area of Cartagena, an important tourist destination in Colombia, is home to several poor communities that rely on artisanal fishing (small-scale, traditional fishing techniques) and ...

  9. Reducing the Risk of Water Pollution in Vulnerable Coastal ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Reducing the Risk of Water Pollution in Vulnerable Coastal Communities of Cartagena, Colombia: Responding to Climate Change. The coastal area of ... Amélioration de la capacité d'adaptation sociale et écologique aux changements climatiques dans le bassin versant du fleuve Orotoy, en Colombie. En Colombie, les ...

  10. Deterioration of concrete structures in coastal environment due to carbonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, K V G D; Gopalaraju, S S S V; Trilochan, Jena

    2010-07-01

    Failure of existing concrete structures takes place due to lack of durability, and not due to less structural strength. One of the important aspects of durability is carbonation depth. The rate of carbonation in concrete is influenced by both its physical properties and exposure conditions. Rebar corrodes when carbonation reaches to a depth of concrete cover provided. In the present work, various concrete structures with different life periods and exposed to different weather conditions have been considered to study the carbonation effect. It is observed that the effect of carbonation is more in the structures located near to the sea coast and on windward face of the structure.

  11. Analysis and parameterization of absorption properties of northern Norwegian coastal water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nima, Ciren; Frette, Øyvind; Hamre, Børge; Erga, Svein Rune; Chen, Yi-Chun; Zhao, Lu; Sørensen, Kai; Norli, Marit; Stamnes, Knut; Muyimbwa, Dennis; Ssenyonga, Taddeo; Ssebiyonga, Nicolausi; Stamnes, Jakob J.

    2017-02-01

    Coastal water bodies are generally classified as Case 2 water, in which non-algal particles (NAP) and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) contribute significantly to the optical properties in addition to phytoplankton. These three constituents vary independently in Case 2 water and tend to be highly variable in space and time. We present data from measurements and analyses of the spectral absorption due to CDOM, total suspended matter (TSM), phytoplankton, and NAP in high-latitude northern Norwegian coastal water based on samples taken in spring, summer, and autumn.

  12. Bacterial growth efficiency in the tropical estuarine and coastal waters of Goa, southwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ram, A.; Nair, S.; Chandramohan, D.

    the southwest coast of India. The BGE values for estuarine and coastal waters were 18 (plus or minus 7.84%) and 11 (plus or minus 4.19%), respectively. BGE in these waters were at the lower end of what is usually found in productive systems. This may be due...

  13. Water quality criteria for the South African coastal zone

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lusher, JA

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Water quality criteria reflecting the needs of the South African coastal zone are presented for beneficial uses encompassing maintenance of ecosystems, recreation, ocean migration, edible and non-edible resources, desalination, mineral exploitation...

  14. Hydrochemical studies along the coastal waters off Mangalore

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, T.; Balachandran, K.K.; Nair, M.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    Environmental parameters such as temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, BOD pH, nutrients suspended load and chlorophyll 'a' were estimated in the coastal waters of Mangalore. Four transects, each consisting of four stations extending from old...

  15. Bromide in some coastal and oceanic waters of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSouza, F.P.; Dalal, V.N.K.

    Bromide concentration and bromide/chlorinity ratio are estimated in coastal waters of Goa, Minicoy Lagoon, Western Arabian Sea and Western Bay of Bengal. The influence of precipitation and river runoff on bromide and bromide/chlorinity ratio...

  16. Petroleum hydrocarbons in northwest coastal waters of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kadam, A.N.; Bhangale, V.P.

    Impact of domestic and industrial wastewaters on coastal waters was studiEd. by monitoring petroleum hydrocarbon concentration (PHC) up to 25 km distance from shore, along Okha-Ratnagiri Coast, Maharashtra, India during 1989-92. Average PHC levels...

  17. Acidification of lake water due to drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosley, L. M.; Zammit, B.; Jolley, A. M.; Barnett, L.

    2014-04-01

    Droughts are predicted to increase in many river systems due to increased demand on water resources and climate variability. A severe drought in the Murray-Darling Basin of Australia from 2007 to 2009 resulted in unprecedented declines in water levels in the Lower Lakes (Ramsar-listed ecosystem of international importance) at the end of the river system. The receding water exposed large areas (>200 km2) of sediments on the lake margins. The pyrite (FeS2) in these sediments oxidised and generated high concentrations of acidity. Upon rewetting of the exposed sediments, by rainfall or lake refill, surface water acidification (pH 2-3) occurred in several locations (total area of 21.7 km2). High concentrations of dissolved metals (Al, As, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn), which greatly exceeded aquatic ecosystem protection guidelines, were mobilised in the acidic conditions. In many areas neutralisation of the surface water acidity occurred naturally during lake refill, but aerial limestone dosing was required in two areas to assist in restoring alkalinity. However acidity persists in the submerged lake sediment and groundwater several years after surface water neutralisation. The surface water acidification proved costly to manage and improved water management in the Murray-Darling Basin is required to prevent similar events occurring in the future.

  18. Coastal Maintained Channels in US waters

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This layer shows coastal channels and waterways that are maintained and surveyed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). These channels are necessary...

  19. A framework for assessing risk to coastal ecosystems in Taiwan due to climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chih Chiu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Coastal ecosystems are rich with biodiversity and ecological functions that provide valuable ecosystem services. They are also vulnerable to the impacts of climate change and anthropogenic activities. Assessing the impacts of climate change on coastal ecosystems is crucial if we are to develop and implement strategies that minimize and mitigate these impacts. This study uses a theoretical framework that includes climatic hazards, ecosystem vulnerability, and exposure to damaging climatic events, to estimate the risks due to climate change on coastal ecosystems in Taiwan. We found that seagrass beds, algal reefs, and coral reefs in Taiwan are at high ecological risk to the future effects of sea level rise, elevated sea temperature, and ocean acidification. The responses of these highly threatened ecosystems to the effects of climate change is uncertain and depend, in part, on the type of ecosystem, its location in Taiwan, the rate at which these effects occur, and whether these impacts occur at the same time or sequentially. The coastal ecosystem risk to the adverse effects of climate change is high because they are especially vulnerable. The resistance of coastal ecosystems is linked to their complexity and maturity. Their low adaptive capacity is linked to the exploitation of their natural resources and inadequate biodiversity conservation. To minimize and mitigate the effects of climate change on high-risk areas and ecosystems ongoing monitoring programs and dynamic management will be needed. Our study is a first step toward building a framework for climate change risk assessment for the coastal ecosystems in Taiwan.

  20. Impact of wet season river flood discharge on phytoplankton absorption properties in the southern Great Barrier Reef region coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherukuru, Nagur; Brando, Vittorio E.; Blondeau-Patissier, David; Ford, Phillip W.; Clementson, Lesley A.; Robson, Barbara J.

    2017-09-01

    Light absorption due to particulate and dissolved material plays an important role in controlling the underwater light environment and the above water reflectance signature. Thorough understanding of absorption properties and their variability is important to estimate light propagation in the water column. However, knowledge of light absorption properties in flood impacted coastal waters is limited. To address this knowledge gap we investigated a bio-optical dataset collected during a flood (2008) in the southern Great Barrier Reef (GBR) region coastal waters. Results presented here show strong impact of river flood discharges on water column stratification, distribution of suspended substances and light absorption properties in the study area. Bio-optical analysis showed phytoplankton absorption efficiency to reduce in response to increased coloured dissolved organic matter presence in flood impacted coastal waters. Biogeophysical property ranges, relationships and parametrisation presented here will help model realistic underwater light environment and optical signature in flood impacted coastal waters.

  1. Multiple Stressors: Lessons from Louisiana Coastal Waters (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabalais, N. N.

    2013-12-01

    Coastal Louisiana is a Mississippi River-dominated landscape driven by the long-term (millennia) and short-term (decades to hundreds of years) changes in materials flux, nature and human activities. The results are a highly productive coastal landscape and nearshore coastal waters that support rich natural and non-renewable resources. The ecosystem and socio-economic systems are intimately linked. Several factors have led to the demise of many of the healthy features of this coastal system, including long-term changes in the landscape of the Mississippi River basin watershed, alterations to the structure and flow of the Mississippi River and its tributaries, coastal landscape alterations leading to loss of productive marshes and protective barrier islands, increases in nitrogen and phosphorus loads to the coastal ocean and their detrimental effects, and reduction in the sediments delivered by the river. Increases in population and extraction of living resources and oil and gas reserves continue to drive many actions taken in the coastal landscape and waters. As a result, Louisiana is in a state of major disrepair (to be charitable) and needs thoughtful consideration of restoration actions taken in the river basin and within the coastal landscape. The first thought is to cause no further harm. The second is to proceed acknowledging that human and natural forces (particularly climate change, rising sea level and changing global economies) must be taken into account. Thirdly, a broader consideration of the river basin and coastal landscapes, their interconnectivity, and ecosystem health and social welfare must be taken into account.

  2. An assessment of subsurface contamination of an urban coastal aquifer due to oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambi, Indumathi M; Rajasekhar, Bokam; Loganathan, Vijay; RaviKrishna, R

    2017-04-01

    Incidences of leakages of chemicals from underground oil storage tanks or oil-carrying pipelines have posed huge threat to the coastal aquifers around the world. One such leak was recently identified and notified by the people of Tondiarpet, Chennai, India. The assessment of the contamination level was done by obtaining electrical resistivity maps of the subsurface, drilling of 20 new borewells for soil and water analysis, and testing the water quality of 30 existing borewells. Samples were collected from the borewells, and observations were made that included parameters such as odor, moisture, contamination characteristics, lithology, groundwater level, thickness of the free product that are used to demarcate the extent of soil, and water contamination. Furthermore, a multigas detector was used to detect hydrocarbon presence as soil vapor. Moreover, to capture the transport of dissolved hydrocarbons, 10 samples were collected in the periphery of the study area and were analyzed for the presence of petroleum hydrocarbon and polyaromatic hydrocarbon. Analysis of the data indicated the presence of free-phase hydrocarbon in soil and groundwater close to the junction of Thiruvottiyur high (TH) road (TH) and Varadaja Perumal Koil (VPK) street. Although the contaminant plume is confined to a limited area, it has spread more to the southern and eastern side of the pipeline possibly due to continuous abstraction of groundwater by residential apartments. After cutting a trench along the VPK street and plotting of the plume delineation map, observations indicated that the source of the hydrocarbon leak is present in VPK street close to TH road. A multipronged strategy was suggested targeting the remediation of oil in various phases.

  3. Review of coastal currents in Southern African waters

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Harris, TFW

    1978-08-01

    Full Text Available A review has been made of existing knowledge of the coastal currents in Southern African waters between Pretoria to Oudtshoorn on the northeast border, and the Orange River on the west coast. These waters have been divided into five sectors...

  4. Hydrobiological constraints of trace metals in surface water, coastal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-10-18

    Oct 18, 2007 ... Trace metals concentrations in surface water, sediment and water lily (Nymphaea lotus) samples from the banks of Calabar River, ... Key words: Trace metals, coastal sediment, Nymphaea lotus, Calabar River Estuary. INTRODUCTION ..... The linear correlation coefficients calculated for heavy metal in the ...

  5. Detoxification of chromium (VI) in coastal water using lignocellulosic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, attempts have been made to harness lignocellulosic agricultural waste material (bagasse) for the removal of chromium (VI) from highly saline coastal water used for aquacultural practices using brackish water. Five different products prepared from bagasse were evaluated for the detoxification of Cr(VI) ...

  6. Imbalance in Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions and its Relationship to the Coastal Zone Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontar, Y. A.; Ozorovich, Y. R.; Salokhiddinov, A. T.

    2011-12-01

    We report here some efforts and results in studying the imbalance in groundwater-surface water interactions and processes of groundwater-surface water interactions and groundwater flooding creating hazards in the coastal zones. Hazards, hydrological and geophysical risk analysis related to imbalance in groundwater-surface water interactions and groundwater flooding have been to a large extent under-emphasized for coastal zone applications either due to economical limitations or underestimation of significance of imbalance in groundwater-surface water interactions. This is particularly true for tsunamis creating salt water intrusion to coastal aquifers, even though most tsunami hazard assessments have in the past relied on scenario or deterministic type models, and to increasing mineralization of potable water because of intensive water diversions and also the abundance of highly toxic pollutants (mainly pesticides) in water, air and food, which contribute to the deterioration of the coastal population's health. In the wake of pressing environmental and economic issues, it is of prime importance for the scientific community to shed light onto the great efforts by hydrologists and geophysicists to quantify conceptual uncertainties and to provide quality assurances of potential coastal zone hazard evaluation and prediction under conditions of imbalance in groundwater-surface water interactions. This paper proposes consideration of two case studies which are important and significant for future understanding of a concept of imbalance in groundwater-surface water interactions and development and essential for feasibility studies of hazards in the coastal zone. The territory of the Aral Sea Region in Central Asia is known as an ecological disaster coastal zone. It is now obvious that, in order to provide reasonable living conditions to the coastal zone population, it is first of all necessary to drastically improve the quality of the water dedicated to human needs. Due

  7. Experimental data from coastal diffusion tests. [Smoke diffusion over coastal waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raynor, G S; Brown, R M; SethuRaman, S

    1976-10-01

    Data are reported from a series of seven experiments on the diffusion of smoke plumes over northeast Atlantic Ocean coastal waters in response to wind fluctuations and other meteorological variables. A qualitative description of smoke behavior during each experiment is included and photographs of the smoke are included to illustrate the type of diffusion observed. (CH)

  8. Coastal vertebrate exposure to predicted habitat changes due to sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Elizabeth A.; Nibbelink, Nathan P.; Alexander, Clark R.; Barrett, Kyle; Mengak, Lara F.; Guy, Rachel; Moore, Clinton; Cooper, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Sea level rise (SLR) may degrade habitat for coastal vertebrates in the Southeastern United States, but it is unclear which groups or species will be most exposed to habitat changes. We assessed 28 coastal Georgia vertebrate species for their exposure to potential habitat changes due to SLR using output from the Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model and information on the species’ fundamental niches. We assessed forecasted habitat change up to the year 2100 using three structural habitat metrics: total area, patch size, and habitat permanence. Almost all of the species (n = 24) experienced negative habitat changes due to SLR as measured by at least one of the metrics. Salt marsh and ocean beach habitats experienced the most change (out of 16 categorical land cover types) across the three metrics and species that used salt marsh extensively (rails and marsh sparrows) were ranked highest for exposure to habitat changes. Species that nested on ocean beaches (Diamondback Terrapins, shorebirds, and terns) were also ranked highly, but their use of other foraging habitats reduced their overall exposure. Future studies on potential effects of SLR on vertebrates in southeastern coastal ecosystems should focus on the relative importance of different habitat types to these species’ foraging and nesting requirements. Our straightforward prioritization approach is applicable to other coastal systems and can provide insight to managers on which species to focus resources, what components of their habitats need to be protected, and which locations in the study area will provide habitat refuges in the face of SLR.

  9. Dissolved oxygen levels in estuarine and coastal waters around Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Boyle, Shane; McDermott, Georgina; Wilkes, Robert

    2009-11-01

    This paper presents the status of summer oxygen conditions in estuarine and coastal waters around Ireland between 2003 and 2007. Of the 95 water bodies surveyed, 85 had oxygen levels sufficient to support aquatic life. This corresponds to a surface area of 3125 km(2) or 99.4% of the total area assessed. Ten water bodies, representing a surface area of 20.2 km(2), were deficient in oxygen but still capable of supporting most aquatic life. No evidence of hypoxia (Nitrates and Urban Waste Water Treatment Directives, together with those of the Water Framework Directive, should ensure areas of oxygen deficiency are eliminated from Irish waters.

  10. Waste assimilative capacity of coastal waters along Mumbai mega city, west coast of India using MIKE-21 and WASP simulation models.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Renjith, V.; Vethamony, P.; Zainudin, Z.; VinodKumar, K.

    Coastal waters are the ultimate receivers of the organic waste materials generated by upstream cities and towns. This waste can cause dissolved oxygen depletion due to increased oxygen demand, affecting the natural ability of water bodies...

  11. Alkyllead species in the coastal waters of Alexandria, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Moati, M A

    1996-01-01

    Fourteen locations were sampled along the Alexandria coast to assess the occurrence and fate of alkyllead compounds in water, sediments and biota. Tetraalkyllead was not observed in any of the samples analyzed. PbMe(3)(+) dominated the methyllead species in water (constituting 62-64% of total alkyllead) reaching 1506 ng kg(-1) opposite the alkyllead production plant. PbEt(3)(+) dominated the ethyllead species constituting 18-20% of total alkyllead species with a maximum concentration of 902 ng kg(-1) PbEt(2)(+2) > PbMe(2)(+2) > PbMe(2)Et(+) > PbMeEt(2)(+) appeared mostly in nearshore stations with maximum levels being reached opposite to the alkyllead production plant and traffic light locations on the highway running parallel to the seashore, especially during summer. Seasonal variations were mainly related to traffic activity. The average concentration ratio of PbMe(3)(+) : PbEt(3)(+) is 3.2 +/- 2.4 reflecting the use of PbMe(4) as a petrol additive. Alkyllead compounds behaved nonconservatively on reaching seawater due to their removal from solution by uptake onto suspended particles. The PbMe(3)(+) :PbMe(2)(+2) concentration ratio in sediments fluctuated between 30:1 for nearshore to 5:1 for offshore samples while that for PbEt(3)(+) :PbEt(2)(+) was 1.6:1 and 2.9:1 for the same areas. Methylethyllead species were not detected in offshore sediments. Low triand dialkyllead levels were observed for anaerobic sediments. Alkyllead species concentration in biota inhabiting the coastal waters of Alexandria increased in the following order: Mixed plankton Ulva rigida (algae) < Neptunus pelagicus (crab) indicating higher levels in demersal rather than pelagic organisms. The maximum concentration factors for crabs are: 2850, 4985, 12970 and 6690 for PbMe(3)(+), PbEt(3)(+), PbMe(2)(+2) and PbEt(2)(+2), respectively, during summer. Alkyllead concentrations in some individuals reached high levels. These levels are considered hazardous with respect to the future discharge

  12. Microplastics in coastal sediments from Southern Portuguese shelf waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frias, J P G L; Gago, J; Otero, V; Sobral, P

    2016-03-01

    Microplastics are well-documented pollutants in the marine environment that result from fragmentation of larger plastic items. Due to their long chemical chains, they can remain in the environment for long periods of time. It is estimated that the vast majority (80%) of marine litter derives from land sources and that 70% will sink and remain at the bottom of the ocean. Microplastics that result from fragmentation of larger pieces of plastic are common to be found in beaches and in the water surface. The most common microplastics are pellets, fragments and fibres. This work provides original data of the presence of microplastics in coastal sediments from Southern Portuguese shelf waters, reporting on microplastic concentration and polymer types. Microplastic particles were found in nearly 56% of sediment samples, accounting a total of 31 particles in 27 samples. The vast majority were microfibers (25), identified as rayon fibres, and fragments (6) identified as polypropylene, through infrared spectroscopy (μ-FTIR). The concentration and polymer type data is consistent with other relevant studies and reports worldwide. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Factors Affecting Nitrate Delivery to Streams from Shallow Ground Water in the North Carolina Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Stephen L.; Spruill, Timothy B.

    2008-01-01

    that reflect base flow and the general hydrologic dynamics of a stream are important in understanding nutrient transport from a watershed and may be useful indicators of watersheds that are likely to have higher yields of nutrients and water. Combining streamflow statistics with information on such factors as land use, soil drainage, extent of riparian vegetation, geochemical conditions, and subsurface tile drainage in the Coastal Plain can be useful in identifying watersheds that are most likely to export excessive nitrogen due to nonpoint-source loadings and watersheds that are effective in processing nitrogen.

  14. Excess nitrate loads to coastal waters reduces nitrate removal efficiency: mechanism and implications for coastal eutrophication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunau, Mirko; Voss, Maren; Erickson, Matthew; Dziallas, Claudia; Casciotti, Karen; Ducklow, Hugh

    2013-05-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems are becoming increasingly nitrogen-saturated due to anthropogenic activities, such as agricultural loading with artificial fertilizer. Thus, more and more reactive nitrogen is entering streams and rivers, primarily as nitrate, where it is eventually transported towards the coastal zone. The assimilation of nitrate by coastal phytoplankton and its conversion into organic matter is an important feature of the aquatic nitrogen cycle. Dissolved reactive nitrogen is converted into a particulate form, which eventually undergoes nitrogen removal via microbial denitrification. High and unbalanced nitrate loads to the coastal zone may alter planktonic nitrate assimilation efficiency, due to the narrow stochiometric requirements for nutrients typically shown by these organisms. This implies a cascade of changes for the cycling of other elements, such as carbon, with unknown consequences at the ecosystem level. Here, we report that the nitrate removal efficiency (NRE) of a natural phytoplankton community decreased under high, unbalanced nitrate loads, due to the enhanced recycling of organic nitrogen and subsequent production and microbial transformation of excess ammonium. NRE was inversely correlated with the amount of nitrate present, and mechanistically controlled by dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), and organic carbon (Corg) availability. These findings have important implications for the management of nutrient runoff to coastal zones. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Noctiluca Scintillans (Dinophyceae) in Central Coastal Waters of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Noctiluca Scintillans (Dinophyceae) in Central Coastal Waters of Tanzania: A New Phytoplankton Record for the Area. ... It demonstrated a clear temporal distribution with high biomass (up to 30 cells/l) during the northern monsoon period and showed significant negative correlation with temperature and salinity. Noctiluca ...

  16. Bioassays for coastal water quality: An assessment using the larval ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drinie

    2002-10-04

    Oct 4, 2002 ... species as bioassay organisms to test industrial and domestic effluent as well as coastal waters for potential toxicity. Although these ... in that it provides only an indication of the short-term, acutely toxic effects of the effluent, .... To investigate the relationship between the success with which the test end-point ...

  17. Hydrographic features of the coastal waters of Kakinada

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, B.P.; RamaRaju, V.S.

    The physical characteristics of coastal waters - temperature, salinity and currents at the surface and subsurface levels - off Kakinada in the Bay of Bengal at 4 stations (bottom depth 5, 12, 22 and 42 m) along 17 degrees N latitude during January...

  18. in cross River Estuary and Adjacent Coastal waters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on the length distribution of bonga, Ethmalosa fimbriata, in the Cross River estuary and adjacent coastal waters were conducted from October 1999 to December 2000. A total of 15,182 specimens of bonga from gill nets, purse seine and boat seine fisheries were measured. Post-larvae measuring between 2 cm and ...

  19. Coastal Zone Hazards Related to Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions and Groundwater Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontar, Y. A.; Ozorovich, Y. R.; Salokhiddinov, A. T.

    2009-12-01

    Worldwide, as many as half a million people have died in natural and man-made disasters since the turn of the 21st century (Wirtz, 2008). Further, natural and man-made hazards can lead to extreme financial losses (Elsner et al, 2009). Hazards, hydrological and geophysical risk analysis related to groundwater-surface water interactions and groundwater flooding have been to a large extent under-emphasized for coastal zone applications either due to economical limitations or underestimation of its significance. This is particularly true for tsunamis creating salt water intrusion to coastal aquifers, even though most tsunami hazard assessments have in the past relied on scenario or deterministic type models (Geist and Parsons, 2006), and to increasing mineralization of potable water because of intensive water diversions and also the abundance of highly toxic pollutants (mainly pesticides) in water, air and food, which contribute to the deterioration of the coastal population's health (Glantz, 2007). In the wake of pressing environmental and economic issues, it is of prime importance for the scientific community to shed light onto the great efforts by hydrologists and geophysicists to quantify conceptual uncertainties and to provide quality assurances of potential coastal zone hazard evaluation and prediction. This paper proposes consideration of two case studies which are important and significant for future development and essential for feasibility studies of hazards in the coastal zone. The territory of the Aral Sea Region in Central Asia is known as an ecological disaster coastal zone (Zavialov, 2005). It is now obvious that, in order to provide reasonable living conditions to the coastal zone population, it is first of all necessary to drastically improve the quality of the water dedicated to human needs. Due to their intensive pollution by industrial wastes and by drainage waters from irrigated fields, the Syr Darya and Amu Darya rivers can no longer be considered

  20. Bathing water profile in the coastal belt of the province of Pescara (Italy, Central Adriatic Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberatore, Lolita; Murmura, Federica; Scarano, Antonio

    2015-06-15

    The quality of bathing water is fundamental, not only from an environmental point of view but also due to the economic importance of tourism. This paper examines the water profile in the coastal belt of the province of Pescara (Italy, Central Adriatic Sea) with reference to the microbiological parameters Escherichia coli and intestinal enterococci required by Directive 2006/07 of European Commission. The water quality of 15 coastal beaches was surveyed; data were produced from monitoring and controls made available by the Abruzzo Regional Environmental Prevention and Protection Agency (ARTA) and extracted and elaborated for the period of interest (2010-2013). Statistical analysis was used to confirm the aspects deduced from mean values of monitoring and control data for each stretch. The data highlight critical situations in various parts of the coast; these problems can be attributed to river pollution, mainly due to the malfunctioning of the treatment plants for urban wastewater. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Groundwater quality degradation due to salt water intrusion in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Saltwater intrusion problems are widespread where there are over pumping of groundwater from coastal aquifers. Water samples were collected from production boreholes in Zanzibar municipality and analyzed for salinity indication parameters comprising of chloride, electrical conductivity, total dissolved salts and ...

  2. Quality Management of Lontar Village Coastal Waters, Banten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Rahmawati

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The coastal waters of Lontar Village is located in Tirtayasa District, Banten. The coastal waters of Lontar Village is also used for fishing activities that become the livelihood of the surrounding community. Communities around the coast of Lontar village dispose of household waste directly into the waters so that the waters become dirty. The existence of these activities can cause the condition of the waters to decrease even can lead to contamination. Decrease in water conditions will affect the living biota inside. Waters quality can be determined by measuring physical, chemical, biological and heavy metal parameters. Physical parameters include brightness, turbidity, and temperature. Chemical parameters are salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, nitrate, phosphate, BOD, TSS. The biological parameter is total coliform. The parameters of heavy metals are lead and copper. The purpose of this study is to analyze the quality of coastal waters of Lontar Village based on physical, chemical, biological and heavy metal parameters. The results showed that most of the parameters of water quality (physics, chemistry, biology and heavy metals are still in accordance with the value of water quality standards (Decree of the Minister of Environment No. 51 of 2004 only the value of lead metals exceeding the standard quality. It must be overcome so as not to disrupt the life of biota in the waters. Management that can be done is utilize aquatic biota that can absorb heavy metal content such as green shell (shell should not be consumed, reducing oil spilled from the activity of motor boats (giving box shelter under motor boat engines so that oil does not directly spill into the waters.

  3. Maui Citizen Science Coastal Water Quality Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A network of citizen science volunteers periodically monitors water quality at several beaches across the island of Maui in the State of Hawaii. This community-based...

  4. Recent distribution of Echinodermata species in Spitsbergen coastal waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deja Kajetan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-two species of echinoderms from epibenthic sledges, dredges, scuba diving, and other samples (in total: 467 samples and c. 20 000 specimens from fjords and coastal waters off Spitsbergen were analysed between 1996 and 2014. The most numerous group of echinoderms in the coastal waters off Spitsbergen is brittle stars (78% of the total individuals. The echinoderms do not form any clear assemblages according to depth or distance from glacial sedimentation and substrate. Some species prefer hard bottom (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis or water free from glacial suspensions (Ophiopholis aculeata. In contrast to the species listed above, we also found opportunistic species such as the starfish Urasterias lincki and the brittle star Ophiocten sericeum. These two species are distributed quite uniformly, regardless of the environmental factors. The majority of the species prefer a soft bottom below 200 m.

  5. Occurrence and concentration of caffeine in Oregon coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez del Rey, Zoe; Granek, Elise F; Sylvester, Steve

    2012-07-01

    Caffeine, a biologically active drug, is recognized as a contaminant of freshwater and marine systems. We quantified caffeine concentrations in Oregon's coastal ocean to determine whether levels correlated with proximity to caffeine pollution sources. Caffeine was analyzed at 14 coastal locations, stratified between populated areas with sources of caffeine pollution and sparsely populated areas with no major caffeine pollution sources. Caffeine concentrations were measured in major water bodies discharging near sampling locations. Caffeine in seawater ranged from below the reporting limit (8.5 ng/L) to 44.7 ng/L. Caffeine occurrence and concentrations in seawater did not correspond with pollution threats from population density and point and non-point sources, but did correspond with storm event occurrence. Caffeine concentrations in rivers and estuaries draining to the coast ranged from below the reporting limit to 152.2 ng/L. This study establishes the occurrence of caffeine in Oregon's coastal waters, yet relative importance of sources, seasonal variability, and processes affecting caffeine transport into the coastal ocean require further research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ecology of coliphages in southern California coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, V C; Jiang, S C

    2010-08-01

    This study aims to investigate the ecology of coliphages, an important microbial pollution indicator. Specifically, our experiments address (i) the ability of environmental Escherichia coli (E. coli) to serve as hosts for coliphage replication, and (ii) the temporal and spatial distribution of coliphages in coastal waters. Water samples from three locations in California's Newport Bay watershed were tested for the presence of coliphages every 2 weeks for an entire year. A total of nine E. coli strains isolated from various sources served as hosts for coliphage detection. Coliphage occurrence was significantly different between freshwater, estuarine and coastal locations and correlated with water temperature, salinity and rainfall in the watershed. The coliphages isolated on the environmental hosts had a broad host-range relative to the coliphages isolated on an E. coli strain from sewage and a US EPA recommended strain for coliphage detection. Coliphage occurrence was related to the temperature, rainfall and salinity within the bay. The adaptation to a broad host-range may enable the proliferation of coliphages in the aquatic environment. Understanding the seasonal variation of phages is useful for establishing a background level of coliphage presence in coastal waters. The broad host-range of coliphages isolated on the environmental E. coli host calls for investigation of coliphage replication in the aquatic environment.

  7. Pathogenic human viruses in coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Dale W.; Donaldson, Kim A.; Paul, J.H.; Rose, Joan B.

    2003-01-01

    This review addresses both historical and recent investigations into viral contamination of marine waters. With the relatively recent emergence of molecular biology-based assays, a number of investigations have shown that pathogenic viruses are prevalent in marine waters being impacted by sewage. Research has shown that this group of fecal-oral viral pathogens (enteroviruses, hepatitis A viruses, Norwalk viruses, reoviruses, adenoviruses, rotaviruses, etc.) can cause a broad range of asymptomatic to severe gastrointestinal, respiratory, and eye, nose, ear, and skin infections in people exposed through recreational use of the water. The viruses and the nucleic acid signature survive for an extended period in the marine environment. One of the primary concerns of public health officials is the relationship between the presence of pathogens and the recreational risk to human health in polluted marine environments. While a number of studies have attempted to address this issue, the relationship is still poorly understood. A contributing factor to our lack of progress in the field has been the lack of sensitive methods to detect the broad range of both bacterial and viral pathogens. The application of new and advanced molecular methods will continue to contribute to our current state of knowledge in this emerging and

  8. The status and characteristics of eutrophication in tropical coastal water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyman, Nooshin; Tavakoly Sany, Seyedeh Belin; Tajfard, Mohammad; Hashim, Rosli; Rezayi, Majid; Karlen, David J

    2017-08-16

    A set of methodological tools was tested to assess the sensitivity of several ecological and biological indices to eutrophication while at the same time attempting to explore a linkage among pressures, classification assessment and drivers. Industrial discharges, harbor activities, natural interactions and river discharges are the pressures most related to the eutrophication process in tropical coastal water bodies. Among the eutrophication indices used, TRIX and operational indicators overestimated the eutrophication status in the study area, but EI and chl-a seems to be a rather responsive index to reflect the first stage of eutrophication. It is noteworthy that EI and chl-a showed better overall agreement with the ecological quality status (EcoQ) showing that probably it reflects the indirect relation of macrobenthic with water eutrophication in a better way. An ecological boundary of EI and chl-a from moderate to poor may be needed in order to explain the poor status of relatively eutrophic Klang Strait coastal sites.

  9. Hydrology and water budget for a forested atlantic coastal plain watershed, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott V. Harder; Devendra M Amatya; Callahan Timothy J.; Carl C. Trettin; Hakkila Jon

    2007-01-01

    Increases in timber demand and urban development in the Atlantic Coastal Plain over the past decade have motivated studies on the hydrology, water quality, and sustainable management of coastal plain watersheds. However, studies on baseline water budgets are limited for the low-lying, forested watersheds of the Atlantic Coastal Plain. The purpose of this study was to...

  10. Decline in biodiversity of copepods in coastal waters of Mumbai

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Stephen, R.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Nair, V.R.

    on ICM: Lessons Learned to Address New Challenges 30 Oct - 03 Nov 2013, Marmaris, Turkey, E. Ozhan (Editor) Decline in Biodiversity of Copepods in Coastal Waters of Mumbai Rosamma Stephen'<', K.V. Jayalakshmy'<' and Vij ayalakshmi R. Nair(3) (1) National... contributed significantly. The species encountered in the marine zone are Canthocalanus pauper, Eucalanus subcrassus, Candacia discaudata and Labodocera spp. The percentage of Pseudodiaptomus spp increased towards the polluted interior stations in both sectors...

  11. Echolocation by the harbour porpoise: Life in coastal waters

    OpenAIRE

    Lee Anton Miller; Magnus eWahlberg

    2013-01-01

    The harbor porpoise is one of the smallest and most widely spread of all toothed whales. They are found abundantly in coastal waters all around the northern hemisphere. They are among the 11 species known to use high frequency sonar of relative narrow bandwidth. Their narrow biosonar beam helps isolate echoes from prey among those from unwanted items and noise. Obtaining echoes from small objects like net mesh, net floats, and small prey is facilitated by the very high peak frequency around 1...

  12. Seasonal fluctuation of bacterial indicators in coastal waters

    OpenAIRE

    Maipa, Vasiliki; Alamanos, Yannis; Bezirtzoglou, Eugenia

    2011-01-01

    The relationships between number of coliforms, fecal coliforms, E. coli, fecal streptococci, location, time and seasonal factors in marine environments of northwest Greece were investigated over a period of 4 years. Research focused on measuring and comparing bacteria in coastal marine waters undergoing heavy bacterial charge during the tourist season. Microbiological pollution was increased during the summer period. Seasonal fluctuation of the fecal indicator bacteria was noted and concerned...

  13. Water Mongoose Atilax Paludinosus in the Tsitsikamma Coastal National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. M Crawford

    1982-11-01

    Full Text Available In a catalogue of 38 mammals recorded from the Tsitsikamma Coastal and Forest National Parks, Robinson (1976, Koedoe 19: 145-152 mentions only one type of mongoose, the Cape grey mongoose Herpestes pulverulentus. However, Stuart (1981, Bontebok 1: 1-58 also includes the water mongoose Atila-x paludinosus. His list of mammalian carnivores occurring in the Tsitsikamma National Parks other- wise agrees with that of Robinson.

  14. Wireless Sensor Networks Buoy For Coastal Waters Observation

    OpenAIRE

    Hidayat, Rizqi Rizaldi; Jaya, Indra; Hestirianoto, Totok

    2016-01-01

    The availability of data in real time and continuous is important to monitor in environmental change as early as possible. Wireless sensor networks (WSN) offer a new paradigm in the field of oceanography that can measure the parameters of complex marine environment using a moored buoy. This paper described design of a data transmission system with a moored buoy and tested the performance of WSN instrument based on ZigBee protocol radio module for monitoring coastal water environment in real t...

  15. Development of a Coupled Ocean-Hydrologic Model to Simulate Pollutant Transport in Singapore Coastal Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, V. P.

    2015-12-01

    Intensive agricultural, economic and industrial activities in Singapore and Malaysia have made our coastal areas under high risk of water pollution. A coupled ocean-hydrologic model is employed to perform three-dimensional simulations of flow and pollutant transport in Singapore coastal waters. The hydrologic SWAT model is coupled with the coastal ocean SUNTANS model by outputting streamflow and pollutant concentrations from the SWAT model and using them as inputs for the SUNTANS model at common boundary points. The coupled model is calibrated with observed sea surface elevations and velocities, and high correlation coefficients that exceed 0.97 and 0.91 are found for sea surface elevations and velocities, respectively. The pollutants are modeled as Gaussian passive tracers, and are released at five upstream locations in Singapore coastal waters. During the Northeast monsoon, pollutants released in Source 1 (Johor River), Source 2 (Tiram River), Source 3 (Layang River) and Source 4 (Layau River) enter the Singapore Strait after 4 days of release and reach Sentosa Island within 9 days. Meanwhile, pollutants released in Source 5 (Kallang River) reach Sentosa Island after 4 days. During the Southwest monsoon, the dispersion time is roughly doubled, with pollutants from Sources 1 - 4 entering the Singapore Strait only after 12 days of release due to weak currents.

  16. Toward a better guard of coastal water safety-Microbial distribution in coastal water and their facile detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yunxuan; Qiu, Ning; Wang, Guangyi

    2017-05-15

    Prosperous development in marine-based tourism has raised increasing concerns over the sanitary quality of coastal waters with potential microbial contamination. The World Health Organization has set stringent standards over a list of pathogenic microorganisms posing potential threats to people with frequent coastal water exposure and has asked for efficient detection procedures for pathogen facile identification. Inspection of survey events regarding the occurrence of marine pathogens in recreational beaches in recent years has reinforced the need for the development of a rapid identification procedure. In this review, we examine the possibility of recruiting uniform molecular assays to identify different marine pathogens and the feasibility of appropriate biomarkers, including enterochelin biosynthetic genes, for general toxicity assays. The focus is not only on bacterial pathogens but also on other groups of infectious pathogens. The ultimate goal is the development of a handy method to more efficiently and rapidly detect marine pathogens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Pesticides in Ground Water of the Maryland Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denver, Judith M.; Ator, Scott W.

    2006-01-01

    Selected pesticides are detectable at low levels (generally less than 0.1 microgram per liter) in unconfined ground water in many parts of the Maryland Coastal Plain. Samples were recently collected (2001-04) from 47 wells in the Coastal Plain and analyzed for selected pesticides and degradate compounds (products of pesticide degradation). Most pesticide degradation occurs in the soil zone before infiltration to the water table, and degradates of selected pesticides were commonly detected in ground water, often at higher concentrations than their respective parent compounds. Pesticides and their degradates often occur in ground water in mixtures of multiple compounds, reflecting similar patterns in usage. All measured concentrations in ground water were below established standards for drinking water, and nearly all were below other health-based guidelines. Although drinking-water standards and guidelines are typically much higher than observed concentrations in ground water, they do not exist for many detected compounds (particularly degradates), or for mixtures of multiple compounds. The distribution of observed pesticide compounds reflects known usage patterns, as well as chemical properties and environmental factors that affect the fate and transport of these compounds in the environment. Many commonly used pesticides, such as glyphosate, pendimethalin, and 2,4-D were not detected in ground water, likely because they were sorbed onto organic matter or degraded in the soil zone. Others that are more soluble and (or) persistent, like atrazine, metolachlor, and several of their degradates, were commonly detected in ground water where they have been used. Atrazine, for example, an herbicide used primarily on corn, was most commonly detected in ground water on the Eastern Shore (where agriculture is common), particularly where soils are well drained. Conversely, dieldrin, an insecticide previously used heavily for termite control, was detected only on the Western

  18. Integrated River and Coastal Flow, Sediment and Escherichia coli Modelling for Bathing Water Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoxian Huang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing economic and cultural value of bathing waters and the shellfish industry in the UK and worldwide, water quality in estuarine and coastal waters has attracted considerable public attention in recent years. To obtain accurate predictions of the concentration distributions of faecal indicator organisms (FIOs in coastal waters for better management of bathing water compliance, it is necessary to build an integrated modelling system to predict the complete diffuse and point source inputs from river and catchment basins. In the present paper, details are given of the development of such an integrated modelling system for simulating the transport and decay processes of FIOs, from catchment areas upstream from the coastal region, in which a distributed catchment module, a 1D river network module and a 2D estuarine and coastal module are linked dynamically by boundary inputs and outputs. Extensive measured data from the catchments, river networks and estuaries have been collated to determine the model parameters. Verification results of the distribution of water levels, flows and velocities, and suspended sediment and Escherichia coli concentrations, at controlled monitoring sites are presented, which show that the integrated model predictions generally agree well with the measurements, although locally appreciable errors can occur. The model results also highlight the importance of including the flux of FIOs via sediments being an important factor in terms of assessing the quality of bathing waters. The main factors influencing the relatively high concentration values in the bathing region are analysed, based on the model predictions and measured data, with four categories of FIO concentration levels being reviewed.

  19. Health status of the coastal waters of Mumbai and regions around

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.; Govindan, K.

    in the drainage zones also contribute to pollution loads. These inputs have affected the water quality, sediment quality and biological characteristics of receiving waters to varying degrees. BOD in coastal water is often high and water is enriched in dissolved...

  20. Anthropogenic marine debris in the coastal environment: a multi-year comparison between coastal waters and local shores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, M; Hinojosa, I A; Miranda, L; Pantoja, J F; Rivadeneira, M M; Vásquez, N

    2013-06-15

    Anthropogenic marine debris (AMD) is frequently studied on sandy beaches and occasionally in coastal waters, but links between these two environments have rarely been studied. High densities of AMD were found in coastal waters and on local shores of a large bay system in northern-central Chile. No seasonal pattern in AMD densities was found, but there was a trend of increasing densities over the entire study period. While plastics and Styrofoam were the most common types of AMD both on shores and in coastal waters, AMD composition differed slightly between the two environments. The results suggest that AMD from coastal waters are deposited on local shores, which over time accumulate all types of AMD. The types and the very low percentages of AMD with epibionts point to mostly local sources. Based on these results, it can be concluded that a reduction of AMD will require local solutions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Behaviour of Radium in coastal marine water of India - Behaviour of Radium in coastal marine environment of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, S.K.; Sartandel, S.; Tripathi, R.M. [Environmental Radioactivity measurement Section, Health Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India)

    2014-07-01

    Kanyakumari which comprises the high natural background region reflects different ratio varying from 3.5 to 6.9. The Higher concentration ratio of {sup 228}Ra to {sup 226}Ra in coastal water of Rameswaram and Kanyakumari reflecting {sup 232}Th rich sources of terrigenous material in regions. The findings supported the fact that the area also comes under natural high radiation background at the south west of Indian peninsula due to the presence of heavy mineral containing monazite in the beach sand. In Arabian sea, {sup 226}Ra activity concentration were observed to be in the range of 1.5-2.9 Bq m{sup -3} with a mean of 2.2 Bq m{sup -3} while {sup 228}Ra was in the range of 2.5-8.6 Bq m{sup -3} with mean of 4.9 Bq m{sup -3}. The observed ratio at locations in Arabian sea indicates restricted circulation pattern of sea water. The activity concentrations for radium isotopes were found within the reported range of values from other coastal area. The radioactive database can be used as tracer for understanding processes and for assessing radioactivity inventory in the coastal marine environment in India. (authors)

  2. Echolocation by the harbour porpoise: Life in coastal waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Anton Miller

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The harbour porpoise is one of the smallest and most widely spread of all toothed whales. They are found abundantly in coastal waters all around the northern hemisphere. They are among the 11 species known to use high frequency sonar of relative narrow bandwidth. Their narrow biosonar beam helps isolate echoes from prey among those from unwanted items and noise. Obtaining echoes from small objects like net mesh, net floats and small prey is facilitated by the very high peak frequency around 130 kHz with a wavelength of about 12 mm. We argue that such echolocation signals and narrow band auditory filters give the harbour porpoise a selective advantage in a coastal environment. Predation by killer whales and a minimum noise region in the ocean around 130 kHz may have provided selection pressures for using this frequency band for biosonar signals.

  3. Physico-chemical analysis of ground water samples of coastal areas of south Chennai in the post-Tsunami scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, A; Mansiya, C

    2015-11-01

    The study of changes in ground water quality on the east coast of chennai due to the December 26, 2004 tsunami and other subsequent disturbances is a matter of great concern. The post-Tsunami has caused considerable plant, animal, material and ecological changes in the entire stretch of chennai coastal area. Being very close to sea and frequently subjected to coastal erosion, water quality has been a concern in this coastal strip, and especially after the recent tsunami this strip seems to be more vulnerable. In the present investigation, ten ground water samples were collected from various parts of south chennai coastal area. Physico-chemical parameters such as pH, temperature, Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), Dissolved oxygen (DO), total solids; turbidity and fecal coliform were analyzed. The overall Water quality index (WQI) values for all the samples were found to be in the range of 68.81-74.38 which reveals a fact that the quality of all the samples is only medium to good and could be used for drinking and other domestic uses only after proper treatment. The long term adverse impacts of tsunami on ground water quality of coastal areas and the relationships that exist and among various parameters are carefully analyzed. Local residents and corporation authorities have been made aware of the quality of their drinking water and the methods to conserve the water bodies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of coastal land reclamation on ground water level and the sea water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Haipeng; Jiao, Jiu Jimmy

    2007-01-01

    Land reclamation in coastal areas may have a significant effect on local ground water systems. Steady-state analytic solutions based on Dupuit and Ghyben-Herzberg assumptions are derived to evaluate this effect. Two situations are considered, both with ground water flow resulting from precipitation recharge: the coastal aquifer of an extensive landmass and an island. The results show that after reclamation, the water table rises and the salt water-fresh water interface moves seaward. The degree of these changes depends on the extent of reclamation and the hydraulic conductivity of the fill material. For the island situation, the reclamation displaces the ground water divide and changes the ground water conditions in the entire island. An unintended advantage of the reclamation is an increase of fresh ground water resource because the reclaimed land can be an additional aquifer and rain recharge takes place over a larger area.

  5. Using Lagrangian Coherent Structures to understand coastal water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentino, L. A.; Olascoaga, M. J.; Reniers, A.; Feng, Z.; Beron-Vera, F. J.; MacMahan, J. H.

    2012-09-01

    The accumulation of pollutants near the shoreline can result in low quality coastal water with negative effects on human health. To understand the role of mixing by tidal flows in coastal water quality we study the nearshore Lagrangian circulation. Specifically, we reveal Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCSs), i.e., distinguished material curves which shape global mixing patterns and thus act as skeletons of the Lagrangian circulation. This is done using the recently developed geodesic theory of transport barriers. Particular focus is placed on Hobie Beach, a recreational subtropical marine beach located in Virginia Key, Miami, Florida. According to studies of water quality, Hobie Beach is characterized by high microbial levels. Possible sources of pollution in Hobie Beach include human bather shedding, dog fecal matter, runoff, and sand efflux at high tides. Consistent with the patterns formed by satellite-tracked drifter trajectories, the LCSs extracted from simulated currents reveal a Lagrangian circulation favoring the retention near the shoreline of pollutants released along the shoreline, which can help explain the low quality water registered at Hobie Beach.

  6. Wading through Perceptions: Understanding Human Perceptions of Water Quality in Coastal Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water quality perceptions influence people’s preferences for visiting coastal areas and willingness to participate in activities on or near the water. They also influence people’s social values for a waterbody, sense of place, support for protection of a waterbody, an...

  7. Quantitative hyperspectral analysis for characterization of the coastal water from Damietta to Port Said, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Abou El-Magd

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The coastal zone of the Nile Delta is wealthy of natural resources that currently accommodate and support not less than one third of the population. However, it is still a promising area for energy resources and industrial activities that initiated the country to develop new action plans for industrial estates and services; it is under extreme environmental pressure. The newly developed techniques of remote sensing offer effective tool to monitor such environment on a near-real time basis at minimum in situ sampling. Detection of water quality conditions and parameters is one of the major advantages of hyperspectral remote sensing technologies; which has been widely used to assess water quality conditions of many open water mass and aquatic ecosystems. This research looked at characterization of the water quality using the different functions of in situ measurements of hyperspectral sensors in conjunction with water quality multi-probe sensor. The spectral behaviour of the water at the outlets is quite different from the other sampling sites of the coastal water. Turbidity was recorded at high level of 65 (NTU and chlorophyll was up to 147 mg/l at the outlets, which were positively correlated with the hyperspectral curve of the spectroradiometer and Hyperion data. The archived Hyperion data showed some similarities and differences with the in situ data that were mostly due to the timing differences between both datasets; it, however, enabled for understanding of the hyperspectral application in water quality.

  8. How climate change threats water resource: the case of the Thau coastal lagoon (Mediterranean Sea, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Jeunesse, Isabelle; Sellami, Haykel; Cirelli, Claudia

    2014-05-01

    The latest reports of the intergovernmental panel on climate change explained that the Mediterranean regions are especially vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. These latest are expected to have strong impacts on the management of water resources and on regional economies. The aim of this paper is to discuss impacts of climate changes on the Thau case study in relation to the evolution of water balance, water uses and adaptation to climate change. The Thau coastal lagoon is located in the Mediterranean coast in south of France in the Languedoc-Roussillon Region. Economic activities are diverse from shellfish farming, fertilizers industries to agriculture and tourism. However, tourism and shellfish farming are of major importance for local economy. If tourism is mainly turned to the Sea coast, shellfishes grow within the lagoon and rely on water quality. Previous studies have demonstrated the link between the coastal lagoon water quality and inputs of freshwater from the catchment. Thus, changes in rainfalls, runoff and water balance would not only affect water uses but also water quality. Climate changes projections are presented following the implementation of 4 downscaled climatic models. Impacts on water balance are modelled with SWAT (Soil Water Assessment Tool) for 2041-2070 compared to the 1971-2000 reference period. The decrease of precipitations and water balance will impact discharges and thus decrease the freshwater inputs to the coastal lagoon. A study of water uses conducted in interactions with stakeholders within the Thau area has permitted to assess both current and evolution of water uses. It has revealed local water resources are depleting while water demand is increasing and is planned to continue to increase in the really near future. To prevent water scarcity events, mainly due to the climate change context, the Regional authorities have connected the catchment to the Rhône river to import water. The conclusion of this study is while

  9. A review on toxic and harmful algae in Greek coastal waters (E. Mediterranean Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatiades, Lydia; Gotsis-Skretas, Olympia

    2010-05-01

    The Greek coastal waters are subjected to harmful algal bloom (HAB) phenomena due to the occurrence of species characterized as toxic (TX), potentially toxic (PT), and non-toxic, high biomass (HB) producers causing harm at multiple levels. The total number of (TX), (PT) and (HB) algae reported in this work are 61, but only 16 species have been associated with the occurrence of important HABs causing damage in the marine biota and the water quality. These phenomena are sporadic in time, space and recurrence of the causative species, and are related to the anthropogenically-induced eutrophication conditions prevailing in the investigated areas.

  10. Scaling analysis of biogeochemical parameters in coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zongo, Sylvie; Schmitt, François

    2010-05-01

    Monitoring data are very useful for rapidly providing quality controlled measurements of many environmental aquatic, and thus understanding the spatio-temporal structure which governs the dynamics. We consider here the long time biogeochemical time series from automatic continuous monitoring. These biogeochemical time series from in Eastern English Channel: coastal waters, estuarine waters and river waters. In the first analysis, we consider data from the MAREL system (Automatic monitoring network): MAREL Carnot buoy that is situated in the coastal waters of Boulogne-sur-mer with data from the Honfleur MAREL buoy (an estuarine station in the bay of Seine). Marel system is based on the deployment of data buoys having marine water analysis capabilities on an automated mode. It is equipped with high performance technologies for water analysis and real time data transmission and record many parameters at fixed locations: temperature, dissolved Oxygen (DO), pH, chlorophyll a (Chla), salinity with high frequency resolution (10 or 20 minutes). We consider also the data from Wimereux river off Boulogne-sur mer. Two sets of data were recorded in the river Wimereux in downstream and upstream using a temperature, dissolved oxygen, turbidity and salinity sensors. This monitoring provided an approach of spatial temporal functional dynamism, with these two zones: the first is represented by downstream related to hydrodynamic marine; the second is related to the upstream flow waters. All these time series reveal large fluctuations at many time scales. The large number of data provided by the sensors enables the estimation of Fourier spectral analysis, in order to consider the dominant frequencies associated to the dynamics. This shows the impact of turbulence and of the tidal cycle on the high variability of these parameters. These spectra show quite nice scaling regimes which are compared to the one of temperature, as a reference turbulent passive scalar.

  11. Contamination of diuron in coastal waters around Malaysian Peninsular.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Hassan Rashid; Arifin, Marinah Mohd; Sheikh, Mohammed Ali; Shazili, Noor Azhar Mohamed; Bakari, Said Suleiman; Bachok, Zainudin

    2014-08-15

    The use of antifouling paints to the boats and ships is one among the threats facing coastal resources including coral reefs in recent decades. This study reports the current contamination status of diuron and its behaviour in the coastal waters of Malaysia. The maximum concentration of diuron was 285 ng/L detected at Johor port. All samples from Redang and Bidong coral reef islands were contaminated with diuron. Temporal variation showed relatively high concentrations but no significant difference (P>0.05) during November and January (North-East monsoon) in Klang ports (North, South and West), while higher levels of diuron were detected during April, 2012 (Inter monsoon) in Kemaman, and Johor port. Although no site has shown concentration above maximum permissible concentration (430 ng/L) as restricted by the Dutch Authorities, however, long term exposure studies for environmental relevance levels of diuron around coastal areas should be given a priority in the future. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Remote Sensing of Selected Water-Quality Indicators with the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO) Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO) offers the coastal environmental monitoring community an unprecedented opportunity to observe changes in coastal and estuarine water quality across a range of spatial scales not feasible with traditional field-based monitoring...

  13. Use of seaweeds for monitoring trace elements in coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasekera, R; Rossbach, M

    1996-06-01

    Concentrations of a wide range of trace elements: arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, hafnium, nickel, thorium, uranium, zinc and the rare earth elements, cerium, europium, samarium, terbium and ytterbium were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis in the brown alga,Fucus vesiculosus from Eckwarder Hörne, North Sea and from Rügen, Baltic Sea. Another brown alga,Sargassum filipendula from Sri Lanka, Indian ocean (representing an unpolluted control station) was similarly investigated. Cobalt, chromium and nickel concentrations were highest inF. vesiculosus from the North Sea while zinc was highest in samples from the Baltic Sea, reflecting high levels of these elements in coastal waters of the North and the Baltic sea. Cadmium, cobalt, nickel and zinc levels were lowest inS. filipendula from Sri Lanka, probably demonstrating lower levels of those elements in coastal waters. Concentration levels of hafnium, thorium, uranium, and the rare earth elements were highest inS. filipendula. Two years later in 1994,S. filipendula along withUlva sp. (green alga) was resampled from the same sampling site, and in addition to the above elements, six other trace elements (Ag, Ba, Br, Rb, Se and Sr) were determined.Sargassium filipendula showed a particular affinity for Ag, As, Br and Sr. For the other elements, marginal concentration differences were observed betweenS. filipendula andUlva sp., probably reflecting the regional background levels. Substantially higher concentrations of Hf, Th, U, and the rare earths were found again in the 1994Sargassum andUlva samples, reflecting the effect of a substrate rich in rare earth elements. The brown algae used in this study may be used to monitor trace elements in coastal waters.

  14. Sunscreen products as emerging pollutants to coastal waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Tovar-Sánchez

    Full Text Available A growing awareness of the risks associated with skin exposure to ultraviolet (UV radiation over the past decades has led to increased use of sunscreen cosmetic products leading the introduction of new chemical compounds in the marine environment. Although coastal tourism and recreation are the largest and most rapidly growing activities in the world, the evaluation of sunscreen as source of chemicals to the coastal marine system has not been addressed. Concentrations of chemical UV filters included in the formulation of sunscreens, such as benzophehone 3 (BZ-3, 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC, TiO₂ and ZnO, are detected in nearshore waters with variable concentrations along the day and mainly concentrated in the surface microlayer (i.e. 53.6-577.5 ng L⁻¹ BZ-3; 51.4-113.4 ng L⁻¹ 4-MBC; 6.9-37.6 µg L⁻¹ Ti; 1.0-3.3 µg L⁻¹ Zn. The presence of these compounds in seawater suggests relevant effects on phytoplankton. Indeed, we provide evidences of the negative effect of sunblocks on the growth of the commonly found marine diatom Chaetoceros gracilis (mean EC₅₀ = 125±71 mg L⁻¹. Dissolution of sunscreens in seawater also releases inorganic nutrients (N, P and Si forms that can fuel algal growth. In particular, PO₄³⁻ is released by these products in notable amounts (up to 17 µmol PO₄³⁻g⁻¹. We conservatively estimate an increase of up to 100% background PO₄³⁻ concentrations (0.12 µmol L⁻¹ over a background level of 0.06 µmol L⁻¹ in nearshore waters during low water renewal conditions in a populated beach in Majorca island. Our results show that sunscreen products are a significant source of organic and inorganic chemicals that reach the sea with potential ecological consequences on the coastal marine ecosystem.

  15. Sunscreen products as emerging pollutants to coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar-Sánchez, Antonio; Sánchez-Quiles, David; Basterretxea, Gotzon; Benedé, Juan L; Chisvert, Alberto; Salvador, Amparo; Moreno-Garrido, Ignacio; Blasco, Julián

    2013-01-01

    A growing awareness of the risks associated with skin exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation over the past decades has led to increased use of sunscreen cosmetic products leading the introduction of new chemical compounds in the marine environment. Although coastal tourism and recreation are the largest and most rapidly growing activities in the world, the evaluation of sunscreen as source of chemicals to the coastal marine system has not been addressed. Concentrations of chemical UV filters included in the formulation of sunscreens, such as benzophehone 3 (BZ-3), 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC), TiO₂ and ZnO, are detected in nearshore waters with variable concentrations along the day and mainly concentrated in the surface microlayer (i.e. 53.6-577.5 ng L⁻¹ BZ-3; 51.4-113.4 ng L⁻¹ 4-MBC; 6.9-37.6 µg L⁻¹ Ti; 1.0-3.3 µg L⁻¹ Zn). The presence of these compounds in seawater suggests relevant effects on phytoplankton. Indeed, we provide evidences of the negative effect of sunblocks on the growth of the commonly found marine diatom Chaetoceros gracilis (mean EC₅₀ = 125±71 mg L⁻¹). Dissolution of sunscreens in seawater also releases inorganic nutrients (N, P and Si forms) that can fuel algal growth. In particular, PO₄³⁻ is released by these products in notable amounts (up to 17 µmol PO₄³⁻g⁻¹). We conservatively estimate an increase of up to 100% background PO₄³⁻ concentrations (0.12 µmol L⁻¹ over a background level of 0.06 µmol L⁻¹) in nearshore waters during low water renewal conditions in a populated beach in Majorca island. Our results show that sunscreen products are a significant source of organic and inorganic chemicals that reach the sea with potential ecological consequences on the coastal marine ecosystem.

  16. The effects of precipitation, river discharge, land use and coastal circulation on water quality in coastal Maine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilburg, Charles E; Jordan, Linda M; Carlson, Amy E; Zeeman, Stephan I; Yund, Philip O

    2015-07-01

    Faecal pollution in stormwater, wastewater and direct run-off can carry zoonotic pathogens to streams, rivers and the ocean, reduce water quality, and affect both recreational and commercial fishing areas of the coastal ocean. Typically, the closure of beaches and commercial fishing areas is governed by the testing for the presence of faecal bacteria, which requires an 18-24 h period for sample incubation. As water quality can change during this testing period, the need for accurate and timely predictions of coastal water quality has become acute. In this study, we: (i) examine the relationship between water quality, precipitation and river discharge at several locations within the Gulf of Maine, and (ii) use multiple linear regression models based on readily obtainable hydrometeorological measurements to predict water quality events at five coastal locations. Analysis of a 12 year dataset revealed that high river discharge and/or precipitation events can lead to reduced water quality; however, the use of only these two parameters to predict water quality can result in a number of errors. Analysis of a higher frequency, 2 year study using multiple linear regression models revealed that precipitation, salinity, river discharge, winds, seasonality and coastal circulation correlate with variations in water quality. Although there has been extensive development of regression models for freshwater, this is one of the first attempts to create a mechanistic model to predict water quality in coastal marine waters. Model performance is similar to that of efforts in other regions, which have incorporated models into water resource managers' decisions, indicating that the use of a mechanistic model in coastal Maine is feasible.

  17. Empirical orthogonal function analysis of cloud-containing coastal zone color scanner images of northeastern North American coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslinger, David L.; O'Brien, James J.; Iverson, Richard L.

    1989-01-01

    Empirical-orthogonal-function (EOF) analyses were carried out on 36 images of the Mid-Atlantic Bight and the Gulf of Maine, obtained by the CZCS aboard Nimbus 7 for the time period from February 28 through July 9, 1979, with the purpose of determining pigment concentrations in coastal waters. The EOF procedure was modified so as to include images with significant portions of data missing due to cloud obstruction, making it possible to estimate pigment values in areas beneath clouds. The results of image analyses explained observed variances in pigment concentrations and showed a south-to-north pattern corresponding to an April Mid-Atlantic Bight bloom and a June bloom over Nantucket Shoals and Platts Bank.

  18. Harmful Algal in Banyuasin Coastal Waters, South Sumatera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riris Aryawati

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton have important as food-chain major component and primary production of marine environment. However, high abundance of phytoplankton could give harmful effects toward water ecosystem. Moreover, they could produce toxic substances that will be accumulated within their consumer. This accumulation could be dangerous for human or animals.This research were aimed to determine and calculatespecies of harmful algae in Banyuasin coastal waters. The study was conducted on April, June, August, October and December of 2013, and in February 2014, at ten stations. Phytoplankton samples were taken vertically using plankton nets. In the form of cone-shaped with a diameter of 30 cm, length 100 cm and mesh size 30 μm.The result showed that there are 35 genera of phytoplankton. That have been found and consisted of four groups; Bacillariophyceae, Dinophyceae, Cyanophyceae and Chlorophyceae. 13 species were identified as Harmful Algal (Chaetoceros, Coscinodiscus, Nitzschia, Skeletonema, Thalassiosira, Alexandrium, Ceratium, Dinophysis, Noctiluca, Protoperidinium, Prorocentrum, Anabaena dan Oscillatoria, with seven of them were known for having toxin (Nitzschia, Alexandrium, Dinophysis, Protoperidinium Prorocentrum, Anabaena and Oscillatoria. Monitoring result showed that the highest number of species of potential harmful algal blooms (HABs occured in June and the highest abundance occured in August, especially Chaetoceros and Skeletonema.How to CiteAryawati, R., Bengen, D. G., Prartono, T., & Zulkifli, H. (2016. Harmful Algal in Banyuasin Coastal Waters, South Sumatera. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(2, 231-239.

  19. Barnacles as biomonitors of metal contamination in coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Pedro A.; Salgado, Maria Antónia; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2011-07-01

    The use of barnacles as biomonitors of metal contamination in coastal waters worldwide is reviewed as a critique compilation of the reported studies and presents resume-tables of available data for future reference. The barnacle body reflects both short and long-term metal level environmental variations and the metal bioaccumulation occurs mainly in their granules (relatively inactive pools). The barnacle body is considered as good biomonitoring material and different barnacle species could bioaccumulate metal concentration ranges of 40-153,000 μg/g of Zn, 20-22,230 μg/g de Fe, 1.5-21,800 μg/g of Cu, 5.9-4742 μg/g of Mn, 0.1-1000 μg/g of Pb, 0.7-330 μg/g of Cd, 0.4-99 μg/g of Ni and 0.2-49 μg/g of Cr. However, as the plates ('shells') of barnacle exoskeletons can be affected by metal levels in coastal waters, mainly in their composition and morphology, they are not considered good biomonitoring material. Despite this, the use of a specific barnacle species or group of species in a specific region must firstly be carefully validated and the interpretation of the contaminant bioaccumulation levels should involve specific environmental variations of the region, physiological parameters of the barnacle species and the relationship between the potential toxicity of the contaminant for the environment and their significance for the barnacle species. Barnacles, particularly a widespread cosmopolitan species such as Amphibalanus amphitrite, have a great potential as biomonitors of anthropogenic contamination in coastal waters and have been used worldwide, including Europe (United Kingdom, Turkey, Poland, Croatia, Spain and Portugal), Asia (India and China), Oceania (Australia), North America (Florida, Massachusetts and Mexico) and South America (Brazil). The use of barnacle species as biomonitors of metal contamination in coastal waters is considered an important and valuable tool to evaluate and predict the ecological quality of an ecosystem.

  20. Dispersal of fine sediment in nearshore coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrick, Jonathan A.

    2013-01-01

    Fine sediment (silt and clay) plays an important role in the physical, ecological, and environmental conditions of coastal systems, yet little is known about the dispersal and fate of fine sediment across coastal margin settings outside of river mouths. Here I provide simple physical scaling and detailed monitoring of a beach nourishment project near Imperial Beach, California, with a high portion of fines (40% silt and clay by weight). These results provide insights into the pathways and residence times of fine sediment transport across a wave-dominated coastal margin. Monitoring of the project used physical, optical, acoustic, and remote sensing techniques to track the fine portion of the nourishment sediment. The initial transport of fine sediment from the beach was influenced strongly by longshore currents of the surf zone that were established in response to the approach angles of the waves. The mean residence time of fine sediment in the surf zone—once it was suspended—was approximately 1 hour, and rapid decreases in surf zone fine sediment concentrations along the beach resulted from mixing and offshore transport in turbid rip heads. For example, during a day with oblique wave directions and surf zone longshore currents of approximately 25 cm/s, the offshore losses of fine sediment in rips resulted in a 95% reduction in alongshore surf zone fine sediment flux within 1 km of the nourishment site. However, because of the direct placement of nourishment sediment on the beach, fine suspended-sediment concentrations in the swash zone remained elevated for several days after nourishment, while fine sediment was winnowed from the beach. Once offshore of the surf zone, fine sediment settled downward in the water column and was observed to transport along and across the inner shelf. Vertically sheared currents influenced the directions and rates of fine sediment transport on the shelf. Sedimentation of fine sediment was greatest on the seafloor directly offshore

  1. Water quality assessment using water quality index and geographical information system methods in the coastal waters of Andaman Sea, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Dilip Kumar; Devi, Marimuthu Prashanthi; Vidyalakshmi, Rajendran; Brindha, Balan; Vinithkumar, Nambali Valsalan; Kirubagaran, Ramalingam

    2015-11-15

    Seawater samples at 54 stations in the year 2011-2012 from Chidiyatappu, Port Blair, Rangat and Aerial Bays of Andaman Sea, have been investigated in the present study. Datasets obtained have been converted into simple maps using coastal water quality index (CWQI) and Geographical Information System (GIS) based overlay mapping technique to demarcate healthy and polluted areas. Analysis of multiple parameters revealed poor water quality in Port Blair and Rangat Bays. The anthropogenic activities may be the likely cause for poor water quality. Whereas, good water quality was witnessed at Chidiyatappu Bay. Higher CWQI scores were perceived in the open sea. However, less exploitation of coastal resources owing to minimal anthropogenic activity indicated good water quality index at Chidiyatappu Bay. This study is an attempt to integrate CWQI and GIS based mapping technique to derive a reliable, simple and useful output for water quality monitoring in coastal environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Atmospheric nitrogen deposition in estuarine and coastal waters: Biogeochemical and water quality impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paerl, H.W.; Peierls, B.L. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States). Inst. of Marine Sciences; Fogel, M.L. [Carnegie Institution of Washington, DC (United States). Geophysical Lab.; Aguilar, C. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States). Inst. of Marine Sciences]|[Carnegie Institution of Washington, DC (United States). Geophysical Lab.

    1994-12-31

    Atmospheric deposition (AD) is a significant source of biologically-available ``new`` nitrogen in N-limited estuarine and coastal ocean waters. From 10 to over 50% of ``new`` N inputs are attributable to AD in waters ``downwind`` of emissions. In situ microcosm and mesocosm bioassays indicate that this ``new`` N source can enhance microalgal primary production and may alter community composition. Relative to terrestrial and regenerated N inputs, the dominant AD-N sources, NO{sub 3}k{sup {minus}}, NH{sub 4}{sup {plus}}, and dissolves organic nitrogen (DON) reveal stable N isotope ratios ({delta}{sup 15}N) generally deplete in {sup 15}N. The relatively low {delta}{sup 15}N ratio of AD-N has been used as a tracer of the incorporation and fate of this ``new`` N source in receiving water. Diagnostic biomarker molecules, including proteins and pigments (chlorophylls), indicate rapid algal utilization and transformation of AD-N. Seasonal production and N isotope studies in mixed and stratified North Carolina Atlantic coastal and offshore (i.e. Gulf Stream) waters indicate a marked impact of AD-N on microbial production. AD-N is an important and thus far poorly recognized source of ``new`` N in N-limited waters; these waters characterized a large proportion of the world`s estuarine and coastal zones. AD-N may additionally play a role in recently-noted coastal eutrophication and algal nuisance bloom dynamics.

  3. DNA barcoding of mudskippers (Boleophthalmus dussumeri, Periophthalmus waltoni and Scartelaos teneus) from Bushehr coastal waters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seyed Ahmad Ghasemi; Abdolali Movahedinia; Negin Salamat; Bahram Kazemi

    2015-01-01

    Mudskippers are important in many biological and ecotoxicological studies and recognized as potentioal Biomarker in environmental monitoring and assessments of coastal waters in tropical and subtropical ecosystem...

  4. Modeling and water quality assessment during realisation of the coastal projects in Sochi region (Black sea coast of Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokhoda-Shumskikh, L.

    2012-04-01

    Sochi region is the unique subtropical resort on the Black Sea coast of Russia. Nowadays due to Sochi is the capital of the Olympic game 2014, the government of the Russian Federation accepts the special federal program of Black Sea coast development. Program foresees the existing and creation of new coastal recreational and touristic complexes along the Russian Black Sea coast, such as complex of yacht harbors, water centers (aqua-centers), network of port localities and etc. These coastal projects are different, but the main problems of the environmental impact assessment are the same. The environmental impact and the relative damage should be assessed at the stage of construction as well as at the stage of operation. The key problem for the recreation coastal zone is water quality management. The port localities network as example is considered. To increase the accuracy and informative of forecasts for the coastal zone conditions the system-dynamic model has been developed, what allows to estimate the quality of the sea water, including that in the semi-enclosed coastal water areas with the limited water exchange. The model of water quality in the coastal zone includes the equations of deposit concentration changes and chemical substances evolution in the studied areas. The model incorporates joint description of cycles of two biogenic elements - nitrogen and phosphorus. The system is completely defined by the biogeochemical reactions. The sizes of such water areas allow the applying the full mixing and zero-dimensional models of water quality. The circulation of water inside the area is taken into account additionally. Water exchange in the semi-enclosed coastal water areas is defined by the discharge through the open parts of area border. The novelty of the offered model is its adaptation to the specific conditions of semi-enclosed coastal water areas. At the same time, the model contains details of the biogeochemical processes to complete modelling of the

  5. Spatio-temporal representativeness of euphotic depth in situ sampling in transitional coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhtala, Hanna; Tolvanen, Harri

    2016-06-01

    In dynamic coastal waters, the representativeness of spot sampling is limited to the measurement time and place due to local heterogeneity and irregular water property fluctuations. We assessed the representativeness of in situ sampling by analysing spot-sampled depth profiles of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) in dynamic coastal archipelago waters in the south-western Finnish coast of the Baltic Sea. First, we assessed the role of spatio-temporality within the underwater light dynamics. As a part of this approach, an anomaly detection procedure was tested on a dataset including a large archipelago area and extensive temporal coverage throughout the ice-free season. The results suggest that euphotic depth variability should be treated as a spatio-temporal process rather than considering spatial and temporal dimensions separately. Second, we assessed the representativeness of spot sampling through statistical analysis of comparative data from spatially denser sampling on three test sites on two optically different occasions. The datasets revealed variability in different dimensions and scales. The suitability of a dataset to reveal wanted phenomena can usually be improved by careful planning and by clearly defining the data sampling objectives beforehand. Nonetheless, conducting a sufficient in situ sampling in dynamic coastal area is still challenging: detecting the general patterns at all the relevant dimensions is complicated by the randomness effect, which reduces the reliability of spot samples on a more detailed scale. Our results indicate that good representativeness of a euphotic depth sampling location is not a stable feature in a highly dynamic environment.

  6. Anthropogenic Impacts on Biological Carbon Sequestration in the Coastal Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, N.

    2016-02-01

    be considered in management, especially in the coastal waters where eutrophication and hypoxia are severe. Currently, farm over-fertilization is found world widely to be responsible for coastal water eutrophication. Therefore nutrients input must be under control for optimum outputs of the sum of BP and MCP towards sustainable coastal ecosystems.

  7. Mathematical modelling of surface water-groundwater flow and salinity interactions in the coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanoudaki, Katerina; Kampanis, Nikolaos A.

    2014-05-01

    Coastal areas are the most densely-populated areas in the world. Consequently water demand is high, posing great pressure on fresh water resources. Climatic change and its direct impacts on meteorological variables (e.g. precipitation) and indirect impact on sea level rise, as well as anthropogenic pressures (e.g. groundwater abstraction), are strong drivers causing groundwater salinisation and subsequently affecting coastal wetlands salinity with adverse effects on the corresponding ecosystems. Coastal zones are a difficult hydrologic environment to represent with a mathematical model due to the large number of contributing hydrologic processes and variable-density flow conditions. Simulation of sea level rise and tidal effects on aquifer salinisation and accurate prediction of interactions between coastal waters, groundwater and neighbouring wetlands requires the use of integrated surface water-groundwater models. In the past few decades several computer codes have been developed to simulate coupled surface and groundwater flow. In these numerical models surface water flow is usually described by the 1-D Saint Venant equations (e.g. Swain and Wexler, 1996) or the 2D shallow water equations (e.g. Liang et al., 2007). Further simplified equations, such as the diffusion and kinematic wave approximations to the Saint Venant equations, are also employed for the description of 2D overland flow and 1D stream flow (e.g. Gunduz and Aral, 2005). However, for coastal bays, estuaries and wetlands it is often desirable to solve the 3D shallow water equations to simulate surface water flow. This is the case e.g. for wind-driven flows or density-stratified flows. Furthermore, most integrated models are based on the assumption of constant fluid density and therefore their applicability to coastal regions is questionable. Thus, most of the existing codes are not well-suited to represent surface water-groundwater interactions in coastal areas. To this end, the 3D integrated

  8. Albemarle Sound demonstration study of the national monitoring network for US coastal waters and their tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle Moorman; Sharon Fitzgerald; Keith Loftin; Elizabeth Fensin

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) is implementing a demonstration project in the Albemarle Sound for the National Monitoring Network for U.S. coastal waters and their tributaries. The goal of the National Monitoring Network is to provide information about the health of our oceans and coastal ecosystems and inland influences on coastal waters for improved resource...

  9. Drinking Water Salinity and Raised Blood Pressure: Evidence from a Cohort Study in Coastal Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Muhammad A.H.; Haines, Andy; Alam, Dewan S.; Hoque, Mohammad A.; Butler, Adrian P.; Khan, Aneire E.; Mojumder, Sontosh K.; Blangiardo, Marta A.G.; Elliott, Paul; Vineis, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Background: Millions of coastal inhabitants in Southeast Asia have been experiencing increasing sodium concentrations in their drinking-water sources, likely partially due to climate change. High (dietary) sodium intake has convincingly been proven to increase risk of hypertension; it remains unknown, however, whether consumption of sodium in drinking water could have similar effects on health. Objectives: We present the results of a cohort study in which we assessed the effects of drinking-water sodium (DWS) on blood pressure (BP) in coastal populations in Bangladesh. Methods: DWS, BP, and information on personal, lifestyle, and environmental factors were collected from 581 participants. We used generalized linear latent and mixed methods to model the effects of DWS on BP and assessed the associations between changes in DWS and BP when participants experienced changing sodium levels in water, switched from “conventional” ponds or tube wells to alternatives [managed aquifer recharge (MAR) and rainwater harvesting] that aimed to reduce sodium levels, or experienced a combination of these changes. Results: DWS concentrations were highly associated with BP after adjustments for confounding factors. Furthermore, for each 100mg/L reduction in sodium in drinking water, systolic/diastolic BP was lower on average by 0.95/0.57mmHg, and odds of hypertension were lower by 14%. However, MAR did not consistently lower sodium levels. Conclusions: DWS is an important source of daily sodium intake in salinity-affected areas and is a risk factor for hypertension. Considering the likely increasing trend in coastal salinity, prompt action is required. Because MAR showed variable effects, alternative technologies for providing reliable, safe, low-sodium fresh water should be developed alongside improvements in MAR and evaluated in “real-life” salinity-affected settings. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP659 PMID:28599268

  10. Drinking Water Salinity and Raised Blood Pressure: Evidence from a Cohort Study in Coastal Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheelbeek, Pauline FD; Chowdhury, Muhammad A H; Haines, Andy; Alam, Dewan S; Hoque, Mohammad A; Butler, Adrian P; Khan, Aneire E; Mojumder, Sontosh K; Blangiardo, Marta A G; Elliott, Paul; Vineis, Paolo

    2017-05-30

    Millions of coastal inhabitants in Southeast Asia have been experiencing increasing sodium concentrations in their drinking-water sources, likely partially due to climate change. High (dietary) sodium intake has convincingly been proven to increase risk of hypertension; it remains unknown, however, whether consumption of sodium in drinking water could have similar effects on health. We present the results of a cohort study in which we assessed the effects of drinking-water sodium (DWS) on blood pressure (BP) in coastal populations in Bangladesh. DWS, BP, and information on personal, lifestyle, and environmental factors were collected from 581 participants. We used generalized linear latent and mixed methods to model the effects of DWS on BP and assessed the associations between changes in DWS and BP when participants experienced changing sodium levels in water, switched from "conventional" ponds or tube wells to alternatives [managed aquifer recharge (MAR) and rainwater harvesting] that aimed to reduce sodium levels, or experienced a combination of these changes. DWS concentrations were highly associated with BP after adjustments for confounding factors. Furthermore, for each 100 mg/L reduction in sodium in drinking water, systolic/diastolic BP was lower on average by 0.95/0.57 mmHg, and odds of hypertension were lower by 14%. However, MAR did not consistently lower sodium levels. DWS is an important source of daily sodium intake in salinity-affected areas and is a risk factor for hypertension. Considering the likely increasing trend in coastal salinity, prompt action is required. Because MAR showed variable effects, alternative technologies for providing reliable, safe, low-sodium fresh water should be developed alongside improvements in MAR and evaluated in "real-life" salinity-affected settings. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP659.

  11. Variation of optical properties at Lucinda Jetty Coastal Observatory and its input into an optical model of coastal waters in Great Barrier Reef region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, Monika; Baird, Mark; Schroeder, Thomas; Clementson, Lesley; Jones, Emlyn

    2017-04-01

    The water column optical properties from an observation station located at the end of a 5.8 km long jetty in the coastal waters of the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area (18.52 S, 146.39 E) were studied. Due to the location of the Lucinda Jetty Coastal Observatory (LJCO), at the interface of large riverine nutrient and sediment sources and clear open ocean waters, it is an optically variable and interesting region. LJCO is the only Southern Hemisphere ocean colour validation site integrated into NASA's AERONET-OC global network of ground-based radiometers. LJCO has a 3 years long time series (2014-2016) of continuous in-water optical measurements of absorption (AC-S), scattering (AC-S) and backscattering (BB-9) spectra together with water-leaving radiance spectra (SeaPRISM) acquired above the water surface and concentration of water components (WQM). Further HPLC and spectrophotometrically-retrieved absorption and scattering were determined fortnightly. These detailed bio-optical observations are rarely available as a time-series for model assessment. We use these data to quantify the relationship between optical properties and water constituents and to developing a more accurate optical model for coastal, optically complex water like GBR model. Pigment analysis show that studied area is dominated by alternatively freshwater and oceanic phytoplankton species depending on weather condition, tides and season. Absorption spectra at 440 nm and 550 nm are dominated by detritus but also have a significant CDOM contribution, which influences reflectance values in that range of spectrum and negatively affects wavebands used in satellite and remote algorithms for water constituents. These emergent features are compared to the model outputs, demonstrating when the model produces accurate optical signals with realistic process representation.

  12. Applications of remote sensing for water quality and biological measurements in coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. W.; Harriss, R. C.

    1979-01-01

    Potential applications of remote sensing technology to the study of coastal marine environments are reviewed, emphasizing water quality and biological measurements. Parameters measurable by airborne or spaceborne remote sensors include particulates, measured by visual or multispectral photography, chlorophyll a, measured by the Ocean Color Scanner or Coastal Zone Color Scanner, temperature distributions, by IR or microwave sensors, and salinity, by means of microwave radiometers. Research projects in which wide area synoptic or repetitive remote sensing can make a major contribution include the study of estuarine and continental shelf sediment transport dynamics, marine pollutant transport, marine phytoplankton dynamics and ocean fronts.

  13. The utilization of ERTS-1 data for the study of the French Atlantic Littoral. [coastal water and geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demathieu, P. G.; Verger, F. H.

    1974-01-01

    The French Atlantic Littoral (FRALIT) program uses ERTS-1 data to study coastal geomorphology and waters. ERTS-1 gives an overall picture of the phenomena for the first time due mainly to channel 4 data, but the other channels also contribute valuable complementary data on superficial waters. These studies have already resulted in accurate maps of the mud transported south-westwards from the mouth of the River Loire.

  14. Environmental indicators of oyster norovirus outbreaks in coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamkhali Chenar, Shima; Deng, Zhiqiang

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents an artificial intelligence-based approach to identifying environmental indicators of oyster norovirus outbreaks in coastal waters. It was found that oyster norovirus outbreaks are generally linked to the extreme combination of antecedent environmental conditions characterized by low water temperature, low solar radiation, low gage height, low salinity, strong wind, and heavy precipitation. Among the six environmental indicators, the most important three indicators, including water temperature, solar radiation and gage height, are capable of explaining 77.7% of model-predicted oyster norovirus outbreaks while the extremely low temperature alone may explain 37.2% of oyster norovirus outbreaks. It is, therefore, recommended that water temperature in oyster harvesting areas be monitored in the cold season and particularly the extremely low temperature during a low gage height be used as the primary indicator of oyster norovirus outbreaks. The findings are of profound significance to reducing the public health risk of norovirus outbreaks associated with consumption of oysters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Monitoring Environmental Recovery at Terminated Produced Water Discharge Sites in Coastal Louisiana Waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Continental Shelf Associates, Inc.

    1999-08-16

    This report presents the results of a study of terminated produced water discharge sites in the coastal waters of Louisiana. Environmental recovery at the sites is documented by comparing pre-termination and post-termination (six months and one year) data. Produced water, sediments, and sediment interstitial water samples were analyzed for radionuclides, metals, and hydrocarbons. Benthic infauna were identified from samples collected in the vicinity of the discharge and reference sites. Radium isotope activities were determined in fish and crustacean samples. In addition, an environmental risk assessment is made on the basis of the concentrations of metals and hydrocarbons determined in the samples.

  16. Uncertainty Analysis of Phytoplankton Dynamics in Coastal Waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niu, L.

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing concern about the interactions between phytoplankton and coastal ecosystems, especially on the negative effects from coastal eutrophication and phytoplankton blooms. As the key indicator of the coastal ecosystem, phytoplankton plays an important role in the whole impact-effect

  17. Water NOT wanted - Coastal Floods and Flooding Protection in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Carlo Sass

    2016-01-01

    vulnerability towards coastal flooding, the country has experienced severe storm surges throughout history, and hitherto safe areas will become increasingly at risk this century as the climate changes. Historically a seafarers’ nation, Denmark has always been connected with the sea. From medieval time ports...... acceptance of floods has decreased from a “this is a natural consequence of living by the sea” to an explicit: Water Not Wanted! This paper provides a brief overview of floods and flooding protection issues in Denmark (Ch. 2 & Ch. 3), the current legislation (Ch. 4), and discusses challenges in relation...... to climate change adaptation, risk reduction, and to potential ways of rethinking flooding protection in strategies that also incorporate other uses (Ch. 5)....

  18. Evaluation of Empirical and Machine Learning Algorithms for Estimation of Coastal Water Quality Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Nazeer

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Coastal waters are one of the most vulnerable resources that require effective monitoring programs. One of the key factors for effective coastal monitoring is the use of remote sensing technologies that significantly capture the spatiotemporal variability of coastal waters. Optical properties of coastal waters are strongly linked to components, such as colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM, chlorophyll-a (Chl-a, and suspended solids (SS concentrations, which are essential for the survival of a coastal ecosystem and usually independent of each other. Thus, developing effective remote sensing models to estimate these important water components based on optical properties of coastal waters is mandatory for a successful coastal monitoring program. This study attempted to evaluate the performance of empirical predictive models (EPM and neural networks (NN-based algorithms to estimate Chl-a and SS concentrations, in the coastal area of Hong Kong. Remotely-sensed data over a 13-year period was used to develop regional and local models to estimate Chl-a and SS over the entire Hong Kong waters and for each water class within the study area, respectively. The accuracy of regional models derived from EPM and NN in estimating Chl-a and SS was 83%, 93%, 78%, and 97%, respectively, whereas the accuracy of local models in estimating Chl-a and SS ranged from 60–94% and 81–94%, respectively. Both the regional and local NN models exhibited a higher performance than those models derived from empirical analysis. Thus, this study suggests using machine learning methods (i.e., NN for the more accurate and efficient routine monitoring of coastal water quality parameters (i.e., Chl-a and SS concentrations over the complex coastal area of Hong Kong and other similar coastal environments.

  19. Benthic and tissue toxin data from stations in U.S. coastal waters from 19840101 to 19891231 (NODC Accession 9300199)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The accession contains Benthic and Tissue toxin data from stations in U.S. coastal waters (Coastal Waters of Western U.S. and North American Coastline-North)...

  20. A resilience framework for chronic exposures: water quality and ecosystem services in coastal social-ecological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    We outline a tailored resilience framework that applies ecosystem service concepts to coastal social-ecological systems (SES) affected by water quality degradation. Unlike acute coastal disturbances such as hurricanes or oil spills, water quality issues, particularly those relate...

  1. Water-poverty relationships in the coastal town of Mbour (Senegal): Relevance of GIS for decision support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toure, Néné Makoya; Kane, Alioune; Noel, Jean François; Turmine, Vincent; Nedeff, Valentin; Lazar, Gabriel

    2012-02-01

    Coastal area is always a zone with complex problems. Due to the attraction they exert, are facing many social problems. Therefore, a coastal city is usually a city with problems. Its extension, caused by the influx of people from different backgrounds, creates an increased demand for services. One of the problems frequently encountered, especially in Senegal, is access to water. The problem of access to water is poorly treated, without being correlated with the urban evolution, i.e. with increasing population and demand growth. The water resource is facing numerous complications such as the lack of integrated management, integration issues at the governance level, where the local factor is often forgotten. The town of Mbour, object of our study, does not come out of that lot, being an attractive coastal city, from an African country. This indicates the need for an integrated management oriented from local to a global basis and not vice versa. The study presented in this paper indicates that a large proportion of the population has not access to a verified drinking water system and uses water from wells or standpipes. Half of the surveyed population (50%) has no access to a water supply system. The water poverty map of the town overlaps with that of the general poverty excepting few neighborhoods. This means that even areas that are not affected by poverty have a very low or poor access to water, which so far remains the perverse effect of the reform of the Senegalese water sector in 1995.

  2. Temporal changes of {sup 210}Po in temperate coastal waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wildgust, M.A.; White, K.N. [School of Biological Sciences, The University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); McDonald, P. [Westlakes Research Limited, Westlakes Science and Technology Park, Cumbria (United Kingdom)

    1998-06-18

    The temporal variation of Polonium-210 ({sup 210}Po) was examined in coastal sea water, the mussel Mytilus edulis, the winkle Littorina littorea and green algae Ulva lactuca in order to investigate the entry of {sup 210}Po into the marine food chain. More than 99% of {sup 210}Po in the water column occurred in the particulate phase. Dissolved {sup 210}Po concentrations peaked during the spring phytoplankton bloom and it is suggested this is related to preferential scavenging of {sup 210}Po by the increased numbers of bacteria, viruses and small dissolved particulates. Changes in L. Littorea {sup 210}Po specific activity are thought not to be related to food, but to a drop in body weight following spawning. Much of the {sup 210}Po accumulated by M. edulis was located in the digestive gland. The specific activity of {sup 210}Po in the digestive gland of M. edulis was shown to be strongly correlated with changes in sea water suspended particulate specific activity. Examination of other trace metal (Ag, Al, As, Ca, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni Sb, Se, Sn and Zn) variations in the digestive gland revealed that class B and borderline metals had a strong positive correlation with {sup 210}Po. On-going work is investigating whether the accumulation and loss of {sup 210}Po is affected by the presence of metallothioneins

  3. The potential use of mussel farms in German coastal waters as an option to improve water quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedland, René; Maar, Marie

    Many German coastal waters like Szczecin (Oder) Lagoon or Bay of Greifswald are strongly used, heavily polluted by nutrients and at the same time a crucial supplier of ecosystem services. Although, nutrient loads have been decreased over the last decade, water quality of most coastal waters...... remained bad characterized by low macrophytes coverage and secchi depth caused by high phytoplankton densities and strong resuspension of sediments. Hence the Good Environmental Status claimed by EU`s Water Framework Directive will not be achieved in most coastal waters. Introducing mussel farming...... techniques is seen as an option to reduce the phytoplankton densities and to improve water transparency, e.g. in Kiel Bay a first farm using Mytilus edulis is running. Unfortunately, most German coastal waters have only low salinities causing a limited growth of Mytilus spp. or make it even impossible – like...

  4. Penetration of coastal waters into the Eastern Mediterranean Sea using the SeaWiFS data

    OpenAIRE

    Karabashev, G; Evdoshenko, M; Sheberstov, S

    2002-01-01

    Offward transport of surface coastal waters was studied in the Eastern Mediterranean from 31degrees to 37degrees N between 31degrees to 36degrees E using cluster analysis of water-leaving radiance spectra from SeaWiFS color scanner imagery for spring-summer period of 1998. Some types of spectra were found to be characteristic of products of mixing of coastal and offshore waters and served as a quasiconservative tracer of water transport. Three sectors of the eastern coastal zone supplied colo...

  5. Spatio-temporal variability of hydro-chemical characteristics of coastal waters of Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve (GoMMBR), South India

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kathiravan, K; Natesan, Usha; Vishnunath, R

    ... and phosphorus strongly determine the discrimination of coastal water quality. Results highlight the important role of monsoonal variations to determine the coastal water quality around Rameswaram Island.

  6. Combining urbanization and hydrodynamics data to evaluate sea level rise impacts on coastal water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, C. R.; Martin, J. B.

    2016-02-01

    Assessments of the potential for salt water intrusion due to sea level rise require consideration of both coastal hydrodynamic and human activity thresholds. In siliciclastic systems, sea level rise may cause salt intrusion to coastal aquifers at annual or decadal scales, whereas in karst systems salt intrudes at the tidal scalse. In both cases, human activity impacts the freshwater portion of the system by altering the water demand on the aquifer. We combine physicochemical and human activity data to evaluate impact of sea level rise on salt intrusion to siliclastic (Indian River Lagoon, Fl, USA) and karst (Puerto Morelos, Yucatan, Mexico) systems under different sea level rise rate scenarios. Two hydrodynamic modeling scenarios are considered; flux controlled and head controlled. Under a flux controlled system hydraulic head gradients remain constant during sea level rise while under a head controlled system hydraulic graidents diminish, allowing saltwater intrusion. Our model contains three key terms; aquifer recharge, groundwater discharge and hydraulic conductivity. Groundwater discharge and hydraulic conductivity were calculated based on high frequency (karst system) and decadal (siliciclastic system) field measurements. Aquifer recharge is defined as precipitation less evapotranspiration and water demand was evaluated based on urban planning data that provided the regional water demand. Water demand includes agricultural area, toursim, traffic patterns, garbage collection and total population. Water demand was initially estimated using a partial leaset squares regression based on these variables. Our model indicates that water demand depends most on agricultural area, which has changed significantly over the last 30 years. In both systems, additional water demand creates a head controlled scenario, thus increaseing the protential fo salt intrusion with projected sea level rise.

  7. 77 FR 74923 - Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Estuaries, Coastal Waters, and South Florida...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-18

    ... December 18, 2012 Part II Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR Part 131 Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Estuaries, Coastal Waters, and South Florida Inland Flowing Waters; Water Quality...; ] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 131 RIN 2040-AF21 Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's...

  8. Coastal Morphology and Coastal Protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Graaff, J.

    2009-01-01

    Lecture notes ct5309. Tides, currents and water; coastal problems; sediment transport processes; coastal transport modes; longshore transport; cross-shore transport; fundamentals of mud; channels and trenches; coastal protection; application of structures; application of nourishments.

  9. Self-similar distribution of oil spills in European coastal waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redondo, Jose M; Platonov, Alexei K [Departament de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Catalunya C/ J G Salgado s/n, Campus Nord, Modul B-4, E-08034, Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: redondo@fa.upc.es

    2009-01-15

    Marine pollution has been highlighted thanks to the advances in detection techniques as well as increasing coverage of catastrophes (e.g. the oil tankers Amoco Cadiz, Exxon Valdez, Erika, and Prestige) and of smaller oil spills from ships. The new satellite based sensors SAR and ASAR and new methods of oil spill detection and analysis coupled with self-similar statistical techniques allow surveys of environmental pollution monitoring large areas of the ocean. We present a statistical analysis of more than 700 SAR images obtained during 1996-2000, also comparing the detected small pollution events with the historical databases of great marine accidents during 1966-2004 in European coastal waters. We show that the statistical distribution of the number of oil spills as a function of their size corresponds to Zipf's law, and that the common small spills are comparable to the large accidents due to the high frequency of the smaller pollution events. Marine pollution from tankers and ships, which has been detected as oil spills between 0.01 and 100 km{sup 2}, follows the marine transit routes. Multi-fractal methods are used to distinguish between natural slicks and spills, in order to estimate the oil spill index in European coastal waters, and in particular, the north-western Mediterranean Sea, which, due to the influence of local winds, shows optimal conditions for oil spill detection.

  10. Respiratory Problems Associated with Surfing in Coastal Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Halloran, Chris; Silver, Mary W; Lahiff, Maureen; Colford, John

    2017-03-01

    A pilot project was conducted to examine the health status and possible adverse health effects associated with seawater exposure (microbial water-quality indicators and phytoplankton abundance and their toxins) of surfers in Monterey Bay, Central California coastal waters. Forty-eight surfers enrolled in the study and completed an initial health background survey and weekly health surveys online using Survey Monkey. Descriptive statistics and generalized estimating equation, a regression technique, were used to identify longitudinal and correlated results. The surfers were predominately Caucasian, male, and physically active. They surfed approximately 4 h a week. Their average age was 34 years. The data indicated that the surfers were generally "healthy," with a low prevalence of diabetes, high cholesterol, and hypertension. Their most common health problems were allergies and asthma. During the study, 10% of the surfers reported gastrointestinal symptoms and 29% reported upper respiratory symptoms. This study suggests surfers were significantly more likely to report upper respiratory symptoms when they had a history of allergies, housemates with upper respiratory symptoms, and/or a history of previous adverse health symptoms while surfing during a "red tide" (an event often associated with the presence of phytoplankton toxins). Additionally, female surfers reported upper respiratory symptoms more than males.

  11. The effects of precipitation, river discharge, land use and coastal circulation on water quality in coastal Maine

    OpenAIRE

    Charles E Tilburg; Jordan, Linda M.; Carlson, Amy E.; Zeeman, Stephan I.; Yund, Philip O.

    2015-01-01

    Faecal pollution in stormwater, wastewater and direct run-off can carry zoonotic pathogens to streams, rivers and the ocean, reduce water quality, and affect both recreational and commercial fishing areas of the coastal ocean. Typically, the closure of beaches and commercial fishing areas is governed by the testing for the presence of faecal bacteria, which requires an 18?24?h period for sample incubation. As water quality can change during this testing period, the need for accurate and timel...

  12. Water quality of a coastal Louisiana swamp and how dredging is undermining restoration efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Robert R.; Huang, Haosheng; Day, John W.; Justic, Dubravko; DeLaune, Ronald D.

    2015-01-01

    The Bayou Boeuf Basin (BBB), a sub-basin of the Barataria Basin estuary in coastal Louisiana, consists of forested and floating wetlands receiving drainage from surrounding agricultural fields and urban watersheds. We characterized surface water quality in the BBB, and determined through hydrologic modeling if a series of levee breaks along major drainage channels would significantly improve water quality by allowing flow into surrounding wetlands. Surface water monitoring found surrounding sugarcane farm fields to be major sources of nutrient and sediment loading. Hydrological modeling indicated that levee breaks would increase N reduction from the current 21.4% to only 29.2%, which is much lower than the anticipated 90-100% removal rate. This was due to several factors, one them being dredging of main drainage channels to such a degree that water levels do not rise much above the surrounding wetland elevation even during severe storms, so only a very small fraction of the stormwater carried in the channel is exposed to wetlands. These unexpected results provide insight into an undoubtedly pervasive problem in human dominated wetland systems; that of decreased flooding during storm events due to channel deepening by dredging activities. Additional water quality management practices should be implemented at the farm field level, prior to water entering major drainage canals.

  13. Impact of anthropogenic development on coastal ground-water hydrology in southeastern Florida, 1900-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renken, Robert A.; Dixon, Joann; Koehmstedt, John A.; Ishman, Scott; Lietz, A.C.; Marella, Richard L.; Telis, Pamela A.; Rodgers, Jeff; Memberg, Steven

    2005-01-01

    agricultural industry by urban growth. Present-day agricultural supplies are obtained largely from surface-water sources in Palm Beach County and ground-water sources in Miami-Dade County, whereas Broward County agricultural growers have been largely displaced. The construction of a complex canal drainage system and large well fields has substantially altered the surface- and ground-water hydrologic systems. The drainage system constructed between 1910 and 1928 mostly failed to transport flood flows, however, and exacerbated periods of low rainfall and drought by overdraining the surficial aquifer system. Following completion of the 1930s Hoover Dike levee system that was designed to reduce Lake Okeechobee flood flows, the Central and Southern Florida Flood Control Project initiated the restructure of the existing conveyance system in 1948 through canal expansion, construction of protective levees and control structures, and greater management of ground-water levels in the surficial aquifer system. Gated canal control structures discharge excess surface water during the wet season and remain closed during the dry season to induce recharge by canal seepage and well withdrawals. Management of surface water through canal systems has successfully maintained lower ground-water levels inland to curb urban and agricultural flooding, and has been used to increase ground-water levels near the coast to impede saltwater intrusion. Coastal discharge, however, appears to have declined, due in part to water being rerouted to secondary canals, and to induced recharge to the surficial aquifer system by large municipal withdrawals. Southeastern Florida is underlain by Holocene- to Tertiary-age karstic limestone deposits that form (in descending order): a highly prolific surficial aquifer system, a poorly permeable intermediate confining system, and a permeable Floridan aquifer system. Prior to construction of a complex drainage netwo

  14. Reconstruction of Redox Conditions and Productivity in Coastal Waters of the Bothnian Sea during the Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, N.; Quintana Krupinski, N. B.; Slomp, C. P.

    2014-12-01

    Hypoxia is a growing problem in coastal waters worldwide, and is a well-known cause of benthic mortality. The semi-enclosed Baltic Sea is currently the world's largest human-induced dead zone. During the early Holocene, it experienced several periods of natural hypoxia following the intrusion of seawater into the previous freshwater lake. Recent studies suggest that at that time, the hypoxia expanded north to include the deep basin of the Bothnian Sea. In this study, we assess whether the coastal zone of the Bothnian Sea was also hypoxic during the early Holocene. We analysed a unique sediment record (0 - 30 mbsf) from the Ångermanälven estuary, which was retrieved during the International Ocean Discovery Programme (IODP) Baltic Sea Paleoenvironment Expedition 347 in 2013. Using geochemical proxies and foraminifera abundances, we reconstruct the changes in redox conditions, salinity and productivity in the estuary. Our preliminary results suggest that bottom waters in this coastal basin became anoxic upon the intrusion of brackish seawater in the early Holocene and that the productivity was elevated. The presence of benthic foraminifera in this estuary during the mid-Holocene suggests more saline conditions in the Bothnian Sea than today. Due to isostatic uplift, the estuary likely gradually became more isolated from the Bothnian Sea, which itself became more isolated from the Baltic Sea. Both factors likely explain the subsequent re-oxygenation of bottom waters and gradual refreshening of the estuary as recorded in the sediments. Interestingly, the upper meters of sediment are enriched in minerals that contain iron, phosphorus and manganese. We postulate that the refreshening of the estuary triggered the formation of these minerals, thereby increasing the phosphorus retention in these sediments and further reducing primary productivity. This enhanced retention linked to refreshening may contribute to the current oligotrophic conditions in the Bothnian Sea.

  15. Global land-ocean linkage: direct inputs of nitrogen to coastal waters via submarine groundwater discharge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beusen, A.H.W.; Slomp, C.P.; Bouwman, A.F.

    2013-01-01

    The role of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD), the leakage of groundwater from aquifers into coastal waters, in coastal eutrophication has been demonstrated mostly for the North American and European coastlines, but poorly quantified in other regions. Here, we present the first spatially

  16. Toward N Criteria in Coastal Waters: Normalizing N Loading for Estuarine Volume and Local Residence Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    One approach to developing criteria for nitrogen (N) in coastal waters has been to determine quantitative relationships between N loading and ecological effects (e.g., hypoxia) in coastal estuaries. Although this approach has met with some success, data obtained from field sites ...

  17. Reducing future river export of nutrients to coastal waters of China in optimistic scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strokal, Maryna; Kroeze, Carolien; Wang, Mengru; Ma, Lin

    2017-01-01

    Coastal waters of China are rich in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) and thus often eutrophied. This is because rivers export increasing amounts of nutrients to coastal seas. Animal production and urbanization are important sources of nutrients in Chinese rivers. In this study we explored the

  18. ASSESSING COASTAL WATERS OF AMERICAN SAMOA: TERRITORY-WIDE WATER QUALITY DATA PROVIDE A CRITICAL 'BIG-PICTURE' VIEW FOR THIS TROPICAL ARCHIPELAGO

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coastal waters of American Samoa’s 5 high islands (Tutuila, Aunu’u, Ofu, Olosega,and Ta’u) were surveyed in 2004 using a probabilistic design. Water quality data were collected from the near-shore coastal habitat, defined as all near-shore coastal waters including embayments,...

  19. Seasonal dynamic of a shallow freshwater lens due to irrigation in the coastal plain of Ravenna, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbohede, Alexander; Mollema, Pauline N.; Greggio, Nicolas; Antonellini, Marco

    2014-06-01

    Irrigation in low-lying coastal plains may enhance the formation of fresh groundwater lenses, which counteract salinization of groundwater and soil. This study presents seasonal dynamics of such a freshwater lens and discusses its influence on the salinity distribution of the unconfined aquifer in the coastal plain of Ravenna, Italy, combining field observations with numerical modeling (SEAWAT). The lens originates from an irrigation ditch used as a water reservoir for spray irrigation. The geometry of the freshwater lens shows seasonal differences because of freshwater infiltration during the irrigation season and upconing of deeper saltwater for the remainder of the year. The extent of the freshwater lens is controlled by the presence of nearby drainage ditches. Irrigation also results in a temperature anomaly in the aquifer because of the infiltration of warm water during the irrigation season. The surficial zone in the vicinity of the irrigation ditch is increased considerably in thickness. Finally, different irrigation alternatives and the influence of sea-level rise are simulated. This shows that it is necessary to integrate irrigation planning into the water management strategy of the coastal zone to have maximum benefits for freshening of the aquifer and to make optimal use of the existing infrastructure.

  20. Spatial distribution of dinoflagellates from the tropical coastal waters of the South Andaman, India: Implications for coastal pollution monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narale, Dhiraj Dhondiram; Anil, Arga Chandrashekar

    2017-02-15

    Dinoflagellate community structure from two semi-enclosed areas along the South Andaman region, India, was investigated to assess the anthropogenic impact on coastal water quality. At the densely inhabited Port Blair Bay, the dominance of mixotrophs in water and Protoperidinoids in sediments was attributed to anthropogenic nutrient enrichment and prey availability. A significant decrease in dinoflagellate abundance from inner to outer bay emphasize the variation in nutrient availability. The dominance of autotrophs and Gonyaulacoid cysts at the North Bay highlight low nutrient conditions with less anthropogenic pressure. The occurrence of oceanic Ornithocercus steinii and Diplopsalis sp. could evince the oceanic water intrusion into the North Bay. Nine potentially harmful and red-tide-forming species including Alexandrium tamarense complex, A. minutum were identified in this study. Although there are no harmful algal bloom (HABs) incidences in this region so far, increasing coastal pollution could support their candidature towards the future HABs initiation and development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Contamination of Uppanar River and coastal waters off Cuddalore, Southeast coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan, M. P.; Srinivasalu, S.; Thangadurai, N.; Ayyamperumal, T.; Armstrong-Altrin, J. S.; Ram-Mohan, V.

    2008-02-01

    The study is based on physicochemical parameters (pH, DO, and salinity) and dissolved trace elements (Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, Ni, Co, Pb, Zn, and Cd) of Uppanar River water (RW) and surface and bottom coastal waters (CW) off Cuddalore, southeast coast of India in 56 samples collected during 2001. High concentration of Fe and Mn in RW and CW indicates enrichment above the normal level. Physicochemical parameters do not exhibit significant relationship with trace metals. Enrichment of Pb is due to external input and excess level of Cu, Pb, Zn in RW and Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb in CW is identified. Fe-Mn oxides are the chief scavengers of trace elements in both the aquatic environments and it is supported by geochemical, statistical and comparative studies. The results signify that industrial growth has affected the aquatic environments and regular monitoring will help to adopt stringent pollution control measures for better management of the aquatic region.

  2. Revisiting short-wave-infrared (SWIR) bands for atmospheric correction in coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlevan, Nima; Roger, Jean-Claude; Ahmad, Ziauddin

    2017-03-20

    The shortwave infrared (SWIR) bands on the existing Earth Observing missions like MODIS have been designed to meet land and atmospheric science requirements. The future geostationary and polar-orbiting ocean color missions, however, require highly sensitive SWIR bands (> 1550nm) to allow for a precise removal of aerosol contributions. This will allow for reasonable retrievals of the remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) using standard NASA atmospheric corrections over turbid coastal waters. Design, fabrication, and maintaining high-performance SWIR bands at very low signal levels bear significant costs on dedicated ocean color missions. This study aims at providing a full analysis of the utility of alternative SWIR bands within the 1600nm atmospheric window if the bands within the 2200nm window were to be excluded due to engineering/cost constraints. Following a series of sensitivity analyses for various spectral band configurations as a function of water vapor amount, we chose spectral bands centered at 1565 and 1675nm as suitable alternative bands within the 1600nm window for a future geostationary imager. The sensitivity of this band combination to different aerosol conditions, calibration uncertainties, and extreme water turbidity were studied and compared with that of all band combinations available on existing polar-orbiting missions. The combination of the alternative channels was shown to be as sensitive to test aerosol models as existing near-infrared (NIR) band combinations (e.g., 748 and 869nm) over clear open ocean waters. It was further demonstrated that while in extremely turbid waters the 1565/1675 band pair yields Rrs retrievals as good as those derived from all other existing SWIR band pairs (> 1550nm), their total calibration uncertainties must be rs (443) polar-orbiting missions) can be very sensitive to calibration uncertainties. This requires the need for monitoring the calibration of these bands to ensure consistent multi-mission ocean color

  3. Sunlight inactivation of human viruses and bacteriophages in coastal waters containing natural photosensitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Andrea I; Peterson, Britt M; Boehm, Alexandria B; McNeill, Kristopher; Nelson, Kara L

    2013-02-19

    Sunlight inactivation of poliovirus type 3 (PV3), adenovirus type 2 (HAdV2), and two bacteriophage (MS2 and PRD1) was investigated in an array of coastal waters to better understand solar inactivation mechanisms and the effect of natural water constituents on observed inactivation rates (k(obs)). Reactor scale inactivation experiments were conducted using a solar simulator, and k(obs) for each virus was measured in a sensitizer-free control and five unfiltered surface water samples collected from different sources. k(obs) values varied between viruses in the same water matrix, and for each virus in different matrices, with PV3 having the fastest and MS2 the slowest k(obs) in all waters. When exposed to full-spectrum sunlight, the presence of photosensitizers increased k(obs) of HAdV2, PRD1 and MS2, but not PV3, which provides evidence that the exogenous sunlight inactivation mechanism, involving damage by exogenously produced reactive intermediates, played a greater role for these viruses. While PV3 inactivation was observed to be dominated by endogenous mechanisms, this may be due to a masking of exogenous k(obs) by significantly faster endogenous k(obs). Results illustrate that differences in water composition can shift absolute and relative inactivation rates of viruses, which has important implications for natural wastewater treatment systems, solar disinfection (SODIS), and the use of indicator organisms for monitoring water quality.

  4. Coastal aggregations of the jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca (Scyphozoa) in Maltese coastal waters during 1980-1986

    OpenAIRE

    Schembri, Patrick J.; Axiak, Victor; Galea, C.; II Workshop on Jellyfish in the Mediterranean Sea

    1987-01-01

    The temporal and spatial distributions of coastal aggregations of the scyphomedusa Pelagia noctiluca around the Maltese Islands during the period 1980 to 1986 were investigated by means of sighting reports from volunteers as well as by periodic monitoring at fixed stations both offshore and onshore. The available data indicate that the outbreaks of coastal aggregations of this species started in 1980 and reached maximum densities during 1981-1983. During the period 1984 to 1985, these occurre...

  5. Impact of river basin management on coastal water quality and ecosystem services: A southern Baltic estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schernewski, Gerald; Hürdler, Jens; Neumann, Thomas; Stybel, Nardine; Venohr, Markus

    2010-05-01

    Eutrophication management is still a major challenge in the Baltic Sea region. Estuaries or coastal waters linked to large rivers cannot be managed independently. Nutrient loads into these coastal ecosystems depend on processes, utilisation, structure and management in the river basin. In practise this means that we need a large scale approach and integrated models and tools to analyse, assess and evaluate the effects of nutrient loads on coastal water quality as well as the efficiency of river basin management measures on surface waters and especially lagoons and estuaries. The Odra river basin, the Szczecin Lagoon and its coastal waters cover an area of about 150,000 km² and are an eutrophication hot-spot in the Baltic region. To be able to carry out large scale, spatially integrative analyses, we linked the river basin nutrient flux model MONERIS to the coastal 3D-hydrodynamic and ecosystem model ERGOM. Objectives were a) to analyse the eutrophication history in the river basin and the resulting functional changes in the coastal waters between early 1960's and today and b) to analyse the effects of an optimal nitrogen and phosphorus management scenario in the Oder/Odra river basin on coastal water quality. The models show that an optimal river basin management with reduced nutrient loads (e.g. N-load reduction of 35 %) would have positive effects on coastal water quality and algae biomass. The availability of nutrients, N/P ratios and processes like denitrification and nitrogen-fixation would show spatial and temporal changes. It would have positive consequences for ecosystems functions, like the nutrient retention capacity, as well. However, this optimal scenario is by far not sufficient to ensure a good coastal water quality according to the European Water Framework Directive. A "good" water quality in the river will not be sufficient to ensure a "good" water quality in the coastal waters. Further, nitrogen load reductions bear the risk of increased

  6. EPA Releases Scientific Report Showing U.S. Coastal Waters a Mix of Good and Fair Health/Contaminants Post Threat to Fish, Birds, and Wildlife in Most Coastal Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    WASHINGTON - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) today released the 2010 National Coastal Condition Assessment showing that more than half of the nation's coastal and Great Lakes nearshore waters are rated good for biological and sediment

  7. Mathematical model of nutrient distribution in coastal waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, E.E.; Pietrafesa, L.J.; Atkinson, L.P.; Paffenhoefer, G.A.; Dunstan, W.M.

    1977-02-01

    An approach to biological modelling involving the use of separation transformation theory has been developed. By use of the theory, it is possible to reduce the number of independent variables in the system. The original four dimensional system (x, y, z, t) can be reduced to a vertical plane conceptual model by assuming along isobath homogeneity in the flow field as a partial function of the baroclinic flow field. Both temporally dependent and independent nitrate concentration equations are then obtained and solved by conventional approximation methods. This technique has applicability to ecological modelling and results obtained by its use show good agreement with field data. Parameterization of the physical processes shows horizontal diffusion and advection to be the important forces in the system. Scaling of biological dynamics show nutrient uptake by phytoplankton and detrital decomposition to be the most important biological factors in the system. This technique permits the testing of various hypotheses with a minimum amount of computer time. Applications in studies on the continental shelf processes affecting the oceanography of the South Atlantic Bight, with emphasis on nitrogen cycling in coastal waters of Onslow Bay, North Carolina, are described.

  8. Towards environmental management of water turbidity within open coastal waters of the Great Barrier Reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Rachael K; Ridd, Peter V; Whinney, James C; Larcombe, Piers; Neil, David T

    2013-09-15

    Water turbidity and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) are commonly used as part of marine monitoring and water quality plans. Current management plans utilise threshold SSC values derived from mean-annual turbidity concentrations. Little published work documents typical ranges of turbidity for reefs within open coastal waters. Here, time-series turbidity measurements from 61 sites in the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) and Moreton Bay, Australia, are presented as turbidity exceedance curves and derivatives. This contributes to the understanding of turbidity and SSC in the context of environmental management in open-coastal reef environments. Exceedance results indicate strong spatial and temporal variability in water turbidity across inter/intraregional scales. The highest turbidity across 61 sites, at 50% exceedance (T50) is 15.3 NTU and at 90% exceedance (T90) 4.1 NTU. Mean/median turbidity comparisons show strong differences between the two, consistent with a strongly skewed turbidity regime. Results may contribute towards promoting refinement of water quality management protocols. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Non-energy resources, Connecticut and Rhode Island coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, N.F.; Lewis, R.S.

    1989-01-01

    Cores collected from Long Island Sound, Connecticut, were used to establish control on the geologic framework of the area. Lithologic and stratigraphic analyses verified the presence of the following units: (1) Cretaceous coastal plain, (2) Pleistocene glacial till, (3) late Pleistocene glacial lake, (4) late Pleistocene glacial outwash, and (5) Holocene fluvial, estuarine and marine deposits. Cores collected in Block Island Sound, Rhode Island, were obtained from inferred, relict shoreline features and were analyzed for heavy mineral content. Concentrations ranged from 0.3 to 3.4%; no significant downcore changes were found. The results indicated that surficial sediments in areas of high-velocity tidal flow yield greater amounts of heavy minerals than do inferred placer deposits. During the second phase of the program of study, Connecticut and Rhode Island pooled resources to develop a study plan for the comprehensive quantification of all non-energy resources in the adjacent waters of the states. A literature and data survey was conducted to assess the occurrence, extent, and accessibility of these resources. Sand and gravel and heavy minerals were found in concentrations offering potential for resource exploitation. Constraints on exploitation include (1) water depth restrictions for the protection of shellfish beds and public beaches, (2) fishing activities, (3) military, commercial, and fishing vessel traffic, (4) seafloor cable routes and (5) dump sites. Deposits composed of Pleistocene glacial sediments and/or Holocene marine sediments in regions of little or no user conflict were identified as sites potentially suitable for resource exploitation. The study plan stated additional data needs (geophysical profiling and vibracore sampling) at these sites. Subsequent to these recommendations, high-resolution seismic profiles and sidescan sonographs were obtained from these sites. Seismic stratigraphic analyses confirm the presence of extensive deposits of

  10. VIIRS Ocean Color Products over Turbid Coastal and Inland Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M.; Jiang, L.; Liu, X.; Son, S.; Sun, J.; Shi, W.; Tan, L.; Mikelsons, K.; Wang, X.; Lance, V. P.

    2016-02-01

    The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) onboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP), which has 22 spectral bands similar to the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), is a multi-disciplinary sensor providing observations for the Earth's atmosphere, land, and ocean properties. In this presentation, we provide some extensive evaluations and assessments of VIIRS ocean color data products, including normalized water-leaving radiance spectra nLw(l) at VIIRS five spectral bands, chlorophyll-a concentration, and diffuse attenuation coefficient at 490 nm Kd(490) (and at the photosynthetically available radiation (PAR), Kd(PAR)), over global open oceans and particularly turbid coastal and inland waters. Specifically, VIIRS ocean color products derived from the NOAA Multi-Sensor Level-1 to Level-2 (MSL12) ocean color data processing system, which is the NOAA official data processing system, are evaluated and compared with those from in situ measurements, as well as ocean color data derived from MODIS-Aqua. Specifically, we show evaluation results using the near-infrared (NIR)-based, shortwave infrared (SWIR)-based, and NIR-SWIR combined ocean color data processing approaches. Furthermore, to meet requirements from broad users (e.g., operational, research, modeling, etc.), we propose to routinely produce two VIIRS ocean color data streams, i.e., the near-real-time and science quality ocean color product data. The implementation details for the two data streams will be discussed. Our results show that VIIRS is capable of providing high-quality global ocean color products in support of the science researches and operational applications. Our efforts on instrument calibration using both solar and lunar calibration approaches for VIIRS Level-1B data, as well as the system vicarious calibration for improving ocean color products will also be discussed.

  11. Fluvial fluxes of water, suspended particulate matter, and nutrients and potential impacts on tropical coastal water Biogeochemistry: Oahu, Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, D.J.; MacKenzie, F.T.

    2009-01-01

    Baseflow and storm runoff fluxes of water, suspended particulate matter (SPM), and nutrients (N and P) were assessed in conservation, urban, and agricultural streams discharging to coastal waters around the tropical island of Oahu, Hawai'i. Despite unusually low storm frequency and intensity during the study, storms accounted for 8-77% (median 30%) of discharge, 57-99% (median 93%) of SPM fluxes, 11-79% (median 36%) of dissolved nutrient fluxes and 52-99% (median 85%) of particulate nutrient fluxes to coastal waters. Fluvial nutrient concentrations varied with hydrologic conditions and land use; land use also affected water and particulate fluxes at some sites. Reactive dissolved N:P ratios typically were ???16 (the 'Redfield ratio' for marine phytoplankton), indicating that inputs could support new production by coastal phytoplankton, but uptake of dissolved nutrients is probably inefficient due to rapid dilution and export of fluvial dissolved inputs. Particulate N and P fluxes were similar to or larger than dissolved fluxes at all sites (median 49% of total nitrogen, range 22-82%; median 69% of total phosphorus, range 49-93%). Impacts of particulate nutrients on coastal ecosystems will depend on how efficiently SPM is retained in nearshore areas, and on the timing and degree of transformation to reactive dissolved forms. Nevertheless, the magnitude of particulate nutrient fluxes suggests that they represent a significant nutrient source for many coastal ecosystems over relatively long time scales (weeks-years), and that reductions in particulate nutrient loading actually may have negative impacts on some coastal ecosystems.

  12. Assessment of ecological quality of coastal lagoons with a combination of phytobenthic and water quality indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christia, Chrysoula; Giordani, Gianmarco; Papastergiadou, Eva

    2014-09-15

    Coastal lagoons are ecotones between continents and the sea. Coastal lagoons of Western Greece, subjected to different human pressures, were classified into four different types based on their hydromorphological characteristics and monitored over a three year period for their biotic and abiotic features. Six ecological indices based on water quality parameters (TSI-Chl-a, TSI-TP, TRIX), benthic macrophytes (E-MaQI, EEI-c) and an integrated index TWQI, were applied to assess the ecological status of studied lagoons under real conditions. The trophic status ranged from oligotrophic to hypertrophic according to the index applied. The ecological quality of transitional water ecosystems can be better assessed by using indices based on benthic macrophytes as changes in abundance and diversity of sensitive and tolerant species are the first evidence of incoming eutrophication. The multi-parametric index TWQI can be considered appropriate for the ecological assessment of these ecosystems due to its robustness and the simple application procedure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Dissolved organic nutrients and phytoplankton production in the Mandovi estuary and coastal waters of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verlecar, X.N.

    months, when the production remained high. A large portion of TON and DON in the coastal and estuarine waters of Goa might serve as an efficient nutrient supplement for the phytoplankton at times of nitrate deficiency...

  14. Pollutant dispersion studies - An update on the problems in Indian coastal waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Swamy, G.N.

    Pollutant dispersion problems along the Indian coastal waters are characterisEd. by site-specificity, as a result of seasonal and physiographic variabilities. Presence of large rivers, estuaries and backwaters add to the problems of waste disposal...

  15. Seasonal and diurnal variability of thermal structure in the coastal waters off Visakhapatnam

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, B.P.; RameshBabu, V.; Chandramohan, P.

    Seasonal and diurnal variability of thermal structure in the coastal waters off Visakhapatnam has been examined in relation to the flow field and surface winds utilizing the hourly data of temperature and currents taken at a fixed location over a...

  16. Propeleda platessa (Dall, 1890), a Nut Clam new for the coastal waters of Surinam (Pelecypoda, Nuculanidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijssen-Meyer, J.

    1972-01-01

    A species of the family Nuculanidae, Propeleda platessa (Dall, 1890), from the coastal waters of Surinam is described and figured. It is compared with related species. The status of the genus Propeleda is discussed briefly.

  17. Indicators of Coastal Water Quality: Change in Chlorophyll-a Concentration 1998-2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Change in Chlorophyll-a Concentrations 1998-2007 component of the Indicators of Coastal Water Quality Collection represents a tabular time series of the...

  18. Dispersion processes in coastal waters - Some outstanding practical issues for monitoring and modelling

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Swamy, G.N.

    This paper highlights on the issues of dispersion processes in coastal waters like space-time description of field parameters, limitation of physical models, limitations of numerical formulations, Eulerian-Lagrangian transformations, shear...

  19. Distribution of penaeid prawn larvae in the coastal waters of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Larval and postlarval distribution of 4 commercially important penaeid prawns was studied in the coastal waters of Goa extending up to 40 m depth zone during Jan. - Dec. 1981. Larval stages of Metapenaeus dobsoni and Metapenaeus affinis were mostly...

  20. Indicators of Coastal Water Quality: Annual Chlorophyll-a Concentration 1998-2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Annual Chlorophyll-a Concentrations component of the Indicators of Coastal Water Quality Collection consists of gridded satellite measurements of chlorophyll-a...

  1. Cladocera in the estuarine and coastal waters of south-west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Madhupratap, M.

    Occurrence and abundance of marine Cladocera in several estuaries along the south-west coast of India is presented and compared with their distribution in the coastal waters. One peculiar feature observed was their absence in the estuaries during...

  2. Plankton composition in the coastal waters between Jaigarh and Rajapur along west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, S.R.S.; Achuthankutty, C.T.; Nair, V.R.; Devassy, V.P.

    , Mollusca, Decapoda, Chaetognatha, Tunicata and fish eggs and larvae were the major groups in the zooplankton population. The highest secondary production values were obtained off Ratnagiri and the average production for the Konkan coastal waters was found...

  3. Physical, Nutrient, and Biological Measurements of Coastal Waters off Central California in November 2007

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rago, Thomas A; Michisaki, Reiko; Marinovic, Baldo; Blum, Marguerite; Whitaker, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    The results of analyses of hydrographic, nutrient, and biological data collected in coastal ocean waters off Central California in November 2007 aboard the NOAA Ship David Starr Jordan are presented...

  4. Distribution of charophyte species in Estonian coastal water (NE Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaire Torn

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Charophytes constitute a group of macrophytes that usually inhabit soft bottoms with shallow water. They occur mostly in fresh-water environments but can also be found in brackish waters. Due to their requirement for clear water they are considered sensitive to eutrophication and therefore often used as an indicator for good water quality. The diverse structure of the Estonian coastline with its numerous sheltered bays and shallow, soft-bottom archipelago areas coupled with low salinity conditions provides an excellent habitat for charophytes. To date, seven species have been described in Estonian coastal waters, NE Baltic Sea. Last systematic investigations on charophyte distribution date back 20-30 years. During the summer of 2001 the locations where charophytes have previously been found were revisited and new sites sampled, to describe the present distribution of quantitative and qualitative parameters of charophyte species. Sampling was performed mainly by SCUBA diving; occurrence, abundance and wet weight biomass were estimated for each location. Six species of charophytes were identified. Compared to previously recorded material, no significant changes in the distribution pattern of charophytes were found. The dependence of charophyte distribution on environmental settings was tested, with depth and substrate quality explaining most of the variability in distribution. Salinity within observed range had minor influence on charophytes.

  5. A Multivariate Model for Coastal Water Quality Mapping Using Satellite Remote Sensing Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yuan-Fong; Liou, Jun-Jih; Hou, Ju-Chen; Hung, Wei-Chun; Hsu, Shu-Mei; Lien, Yi-Ting; Su, Ming-Daw; Cheng, Ke-Sheng; Wang, Yeng-Fung

    2008-10-10

    his study demonstrates the feasibility of coastal water quality mapping using satellite remote sensing images. Water quality sampling campaigns were conducted over a coastal area in northern Taiwan for measurements of three water quality variables including Secchi disk depth, turbidity, and total suspended solids. SPOT satellite images nearly concurrent with the water quality sampling campaigns were also acquired. A spectral reflectance estimation scheme proposed in this study was applied to SPOT multispectral images for estimation of the sea surface reflectance. Two models, univariate and multivariate, for water quality estimation using the sea surface reflectance derived from SPOT images were established. The multivariate model takes into consideration the wavelength-dependent combined effect of individual seawater constituents on the sea surface reflectance and is superior over the univariate model. Finally, quantitative coastal water quality mapping was accomplished by substituting the pixel-specific spectral reflectance into the multivariate water quality estimation model.

  6. Eutrophication and macroalgal blooms in temperate and tropical coastal waters: nutrient enrichment experiments with Ulva spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Teichberg, Mirta; Fox, Sophia E; Olsen, Ylva S.; Valiela, Ivan; Martinetto, Paulina; Iribarne, Oscar; Muto, Elizabeti Yuriko; PETTI, MONICA A.V.; Corbisier, Tha?s N; Soto-Jim?nez, Mart?n; P?ez-Osuna, Federico; Castro, Paula; Freitas, Helena; Zitelli, Andreina; Cardinaletti, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    Receiving coastal waters and estuaries are among the most nutrient-enriched environments on earth, and one of the symptoms of the resulting eutrophication is the proliferation of opportunistic, fast-growing marine seaweeds. Here, we used a widespread macroalga often involved in blooms, Ulva spp., to investigate how supply of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), the two main potential growth-limiting nutrients, influence macroalgal growth in temperate and tropical coastal waters ranging from low- ...

  7. DNA barcoding of mudskippers (Boleophthalmus dussumeri, Periophthalmus waltoni and Scartelaos teneus) from Bushehr coastal waters

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Ahmad Ghasemi; Abdolali Movahedinia; Negin Salamat; Bahram Kazemi

    2015-01-01

    Mudskippers are important in many biological and ecotoxicological studies and recognized as potentioal Biomarker in environmental monitoring and assessments of coastal waters in tropical and subtropical ecosystems. DNA Barcoding technique was used to identify the exact species of mudskippers in the Persian Gulf from Coastal waters of Bushehr province. This technique may provide faster detecting and giving a lot of information about the taxonomy of species. Samples were collected from four are...

  8. Condition and biochemical profile of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) cultured at different depths in a cold water coastal environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardi, Daria; Mills, Terry; Donnet, Sebastien; Parrish, Christopher C.; Murray, Harry M.

    2017-08-01

    The growth and health of cultured blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) are affected by environmental conditions. Typically, culture sites are situated in sheltered areas near shore (i.e., conflicts and environmental impact in coastal areas are concerns and interest in developing deep water (> 20 m depth) mussel culture has been growing. This study evaluated the effect of culture depth on blue mussels in a cold water coastal environment (Newfoundland, Canada). Culture depth was examined over two years from September 2012 to September 2014; mussels from three shallow water (5 m) and three deep water (15 m) sites were compared for growth and biochemical composition; culture depths were compared for temperature and chlorophyll a. Differences between the two years examined were noted, possibly due to harsh winter conditions in the second year of the experiment. In both years shallow and deep water mussels presented similar condition; in year 2 deep water mussels had a significantly better biochemical profile. Lipid and glycogen analyses showed seasonal variations, but no significant differences between shallow and deep water were noted. Fatty acid profiles showed a significantly higher content of omega-3 s (20:5ω3; EPA) and lower content of bacterial fatty acids in deep water sites in year 2. Everything considered, deep water appeared to provide a more favorable environment for mussel growth than shallow water under harsher weather conditions.

  9. Forecasting Ocean Acidification in the coastal waters of the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedlecki, S. A.; Alin, S. R.; Feely, R. A.; Hermann, A. J.; Bednarsek, N.; Nguyen, T.; Officer, S.; Kaplan, I.; Bond, N.; Newton, J.; Fisher, J. L.; Morgan, C.; Saenger, C.

    2016-12-01

    Acidification of coastal waters is of increasing concern to local fisheries. Many economically or ecologically important species (oysters, crabs, phytoplankton, zooplankton) in the Pacific Northwest are expected to feel direct effects of ocean acidification. Direct effects have been observed on the $100 million shellfish industry, and additional indirect economic impacts are possible on the finfish industry due to a loss of prey species. The ability to predict the degree of acidification as well as relevant indices of impact for species of interest could be of considerable benefit to managers. An experimental seasonal ocean prediction system, JISAO's Seasonal Coastal Ocean Prediction of the Ecosystem (J-SCOPE), has recently been developed and assessed for the coastal waters of the Pacific Northwest (Siedlecki et al. 2016; Kaplan et al. 2016). The goal has been to provide seasonal (six month) predictions of ocean conditions that are testable and relevant to management decisions for fisheries, protected species, and ecosystem health components. The output from this model (http://www.nanoos.org/products/j-scope/home.php/) include products relevant to the Integrated Ecosystem Assessment (e.g. forecasts of ecological indicators) for the California Current System. In this work, we have expanded the scope of our seasonal oceanographic forecasts from J-SCOPE to explicitly include acidification, and developed new acidification indices from model output, relevant to biological impacts (e.g. severity index for shellfish and pteropods, and a habitat map for crab megalopae). The model is able to reproduce and forecast the seasonal change in corrosive water observed in the region, over the simulated time periods. The volume of undersaturated water increases over the upwelling season, occupying more of the water column later in the upwelling season. This results in increasingly stressful conditions over most of the water column for biota on the shelf as the upwelling season

  10. A study on the characteristics of nutrient input from rivers to coastal waters of Spermonde Archipelago, South Sulawesi, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Lukman, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Coastal eutrophication is a serious environmental problem in many parts of Indonesia coastal areas, including in coastal water of western coast of South Sulawesi (Spermonde Archipelago), where hundreds of hectare of coral reefs are situated. The nutrient enrichment of coastal waters off the Spermonde has mostly resulted from various activities that are related to the development of agriculture, aquaculture, and human settlement along the western coast. Rivers along the wes...

  11. Saline groundwater - surface water interaction in coastal lowlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delsman, J.R.

    2015-01-01

    Coastal zones are among the world's most densely populated and economically important areas, but these factors put pressure on the often limited available freshwater resources. Global change will undoubtedly increase this pressure through the combined effects of increased population, economic

  12. Drinking water insecurity: water quality and access in coastal south-western Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benneyworth, Laura; Gilligan, Jonathan; Ayers, John C; Goodbred, Steven; George, Gregory; Carrico, Amanda; Karim, Md Rezaul; Akter, Farjana; Fry, David; Donato, Katherine; Piya, Bhumika

    2016-01-01

    National drinking water assessments for Bangladesh do not reflect local variability, or temporal differences. This paper reports on the findings of an interdisciplinary investigation of drinking water insecurity in a rural coastal south-western Bangladesh. Drinking water quality is assessed by comparison of locally measured concentrations to national levels and water quality criteria; resident's access to potable water and their perceptions are based on local social surveys. Residents in the study area use groundwater far less than the national average; salinity and local rainwater scarcity necessitates the use of multiple water sources throughout the year. Groundwater concentrations of arsenic and specific conductivity (SpC) were greater than surface water (pond) concentrations; there was no statistically significant seasonal difference in mean concentrations in groundwater, but there was for ponds, with arsenic higher in the dry season. Average arsenic concentrations in local water drinking were 2-4 times times the national average. All of the local groundwater samples exceeded the Bangladesh guidance for SpC, although the majority of residents surveyed did not perceive their water as having a 'bad' or 'salty' taste.

  13. Coastal upwelling linked to toxic Pseudo-nitzschia australis blooms in Los Angeles coastal waters, 2005-2007

    KAUST Repository

    Schnetzer, Astrid

    2013-06-10

    Harmful algal blooms dominated by the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia spp. have become a perennial but variable event within surface waters near the greater Los Angeles area. Toxic blooms during spring seasons from 2005 to 2007 varied strongly in their overall toxicity and duration. Differences in bloom dynamics were linked to differences in storm-induced river discharge following episodic rain events and coastal upwelling, both major coastal processes that led to the injection of nutrients into coastal surface waters. Heavy river runoff during early 2005, a record-rainfall year, favored a phytoplankton community mainly comprised of algal taxa other than Pseudo-nitzschia. The spring bloom during 2005 was associated with low domoic acid surface concentrations and minor contributions of (mainly) P. delicatissima to the diatom assemblage. In contrast, highly toxic P. australis-dominated blooms during spring seasons of 2006 and 2007 were linked to strong upwelling events. River discharge quotas in 2006 and 2007, in contrast to 2005, fell well below annual averages for the region. Surface toxin levels were linked to colder, more saline (i.e. upwelled) water over the 3-year study, but no such consistent relationship between domoic acid levels and other physiochemical parameters, such as macronutrient concentrations or nutrient ratios, was observed. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  14. Drinking water vulnerability to climate change and alternatives for adaptation in coastal South and South East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, M A; Scheelbeek, P F D; Vineis, P; Khan, A E; Ahmed, K M; Butler, A P

    Drinking water in much of Asia, particularly in coastal and rural settings, is provided by a variety of sources, which are widely distributed and frequently managed at an individual or local community level. Coastal and near-inland drinking water sources in South and South East (SSE) Asia are vulnerable to contamination by seawater, most dramatically from tropical cyclone induced storm surges. This paper assesses spatial vulnerabilities to salinisation of drinking water sources due to meteorological variability and climate change along the (ca. 6000 km) coastline of SSE Asia. The risks of increasing climatic stresses are first considered, and then maps of relative vulnerability along the entire coastline are developed, using data from global scale land surface models, along with an overall vulnerability index. The results show that surface and near-surface drinking water in the coastal areas of the mega-deltas in Vietnam and Bangladesh-India are most vulnerable, putting more than 25 million people at risk of drinking 'saline' water. Climate change is likely to exacerbate this problem, with adverse consequences for health, such as prevalence of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. There is a need for identifying locations that are most at risk of salinisation in order for policy makers and local officials to implement strategies for reducing these health impacts. To counter the risks associated with these vulnerabilities, possible adaptation measures are also outlined. We conclude that detailed and fine scale vulnerability assessments may become crucial for planning targeted adaptation programmes along these coasts.

  15. Discriminating sediment and clear water over coastal water using GD technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Abd Rahman Mat

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently two algorithms are being used routinely by the MODIS Atmosphere and Ocean Team in order to distinguish sediment influence and clear water pixels over turbid water area. These two algorithms require complicated computational analyses. In this paper, a simple algorithm based on empirical technique to detect the sediment-influenced pixels over coastal waters is proposed as an alternative to these two algorithms. This study used apparent reflectance acquired from MODIS L1B product. This algorithm is based on the gradient difference of the line connecting the 0.47- and 1.24-μm channels and 0.47- and 0.66-μm channels of a log-log graph of the apparent reflectance values against MODIS wavelengths. Over clear-water areas (deep blue sea, the 0.47-, 0.66- and 1.24-μm channels fitted very well in line with correlation R > 0.99. Over turbid waters, a substantial increase of 0.66 μm in the reflectance leads to a low correlation value. By computing the difference between the gradient of the line connecting 0.47 and 0.66 μm and the gradient of the line connecting 0.47 and 1.24 μm, the threshold to discriminate turbid and shallow coastal waters from clear-water pixels can be obtained. If the gradient difference is greater than 0, the pixels were then marked as sediment-influenced pixels. This proposed algorithm works well for MODIS Terra and Aqua sensor. The comparison of this algorithm with an established algorithm also showed a good agreement.

  16. Microplastics in mussels along the coastal waters of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiana; Qu, Xiaoyun; Su, Lei; Zhang, Weiwei; Yang, Dongqi; Kolandhasamy, Prabhu; Li, Daoji; Shi, Huahong

    2016-07-01

    Microplastic has been confirmed as an emerging pollutant in marine environments. One of the primary environmental risks of microplastics is their bioavailability for aquatic organisms. Bivalves are of particular interest because their extensive filter-feeding activity exposes them directly to microplastics present in the water column. In the present study, we investigated microplastic pollution in mussels (Mytilus edulis) from 22 sites along 12,400 mile coastlines of China in 2015. The number of total microplastics varied from 0.9 to 4.6 items/g and from 1.5 to 7.6 items/individual. M. edulis contained more microplastics (2.7 items/g) in wild groups than that (1.6 items/g) in farmed groups. The abundance of microplastics was 3.3 items/g in mussels from the areas with intensive human activities and significantly higher than that (1.6 items/g) with less human activities. The most common microplastics were fibers, followed by fragments. The proportion of microplastics less than 250 μm in size arranged from 17% to 79% of the total microplastics. Diatom was distinguished from microplastics in mussels for the first time using Scanning Electron Microscope. Our results suggested that the numbers of microplastic kept within a relatively narrow range in mussels and were closely related to the contamination of the environments. We proposed that mussels could be used as a potential bioindicator of microplastic pollution of the coastal environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Costs of water treatment due to diminished water quality: A case study in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearmont, David; McCarl, Bruce A.; Tolman, Deborah A.

    1998-04-01

    The cost of municipal water treatment due to diminished water quality represents an important component of the societal costs of water pollution. Here the chemical costs of municipal water treatment are expressed as a function of raw surface water quality. Data are used for a 3-year period for 12 water treatment plants in Texas. Results show that when regional raw water contamination is present, the chemical cost of water treatment is increased by 95 per million gallons (per 3785 m3) from a base of 75. A 1% increase in turbidity is shown to increase chemical costs by 0.25%.

  18. Effects of 50-years unmanaged water resource in Southern Tuscany coastal plains (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetto, R.; Debolini, M.; Galli, M. A.; Bonari, E.

    2012-04-01

    Southern Tuscany coastal plains show favorable conditions from the agro-pedoclimatic point of view and are characterized by a relevant touristic flux, being one of the most popular seaside resort. In such conditions, water resource is one of the main assets: disregarded water management may then lead to severe consequences for the development and growth of the socio-economic system and agro-ecosystem maintenance. During the 1960 decade, ante-II World War projects for hydropower production (i.e. the Farma-Merse scheme) were rearranged in favor of irrigation and the enhancement of crop production. Storage of about 110 Mm3 was thought to provide water for about 35000 Ha. At the end of the 70's, mass tourism began to take place in coastal areas giving rise to water access conflicts between agriculture and the touristic infrastructure. Being none of these projects realized, the increasing demand for drinking water was satisfied by tapping the Mount Amiata aquifer for 70% of the annual demand, and the remaining 30% coming from local aquifers. Due to the absence of rainfall and then of surface water flow in streams at the end of the spring and during the summer period, irrigation requirements were also satisfied by means of groundwater withdrawals. As a consequence of overdraft, aquifer salinisation started in most of the coastal areas (Regione Toscana, 1995; Bianchi et al., 2011; Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, 2011). All this happened in the completely absence of controls on groundwater abstractions. In the early 90's, the Commissione Leon (Regione Toscana, 1991) re-analyzed the largest dam projects and presented as feasible a conjunctive use of surface water stored in artificial basins (to be built) and by planned and controlled local aquifers. Anyway, political issues and environmental concerns halted any kind of realization, so that today the largest basin in the area is private, it dates back to 1930, and it shows a reduced capacity of about 1.8 Mm3, instead than the

  19. Coastal inundation risk assessment due to subsidence and sea level rise in a Mediterranean alluvial plain (Volturno coastal plain - southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciro Aucelli, Pietro Patrizio; Di Paola, Gianluigi; Incontri, Pietro; Rizzo, Angela; Vilardo, Giuseppe; Benassai, Guido; Buonocore, Berardino; Pappone, Gerardo

    2017-11-01

    Interdisciplinary studies of the last years highlight that the Italian coasts are significantly subject to retreat and to inundation by sea ingression due to natural and anthropic causes. In this study, the effects of future relative sea level have been evaluated for the Volturno River Plain, one of the widest coastal plain in southern Italy. The plain is characterized by high economical and ecological value, for the presence of farm activities, tourist structures and wetland protected zones. The study area is potentially prone to coastal flooding due to its very low topography and because it is affected by a severe subsidence, which emphasize the local effect of sea level rise due to the ongoing climate changes. In accordance with the guidelines of the MEDFLOOD project, the areas prone to inundation in the years 2065 and 2100 have been evaluated by comparing the future topographical information and expected relative sea level scenarios. The local Vertical Ground Displacements have been derived by PS-InSAR processing data whilst the mean values of the scenarios RCP 2.6 and RCP 8.5 provided by the IPCC (2014) have been used as future sea level projections in 2065 and 2100. The PS-InSar data elaboration shows that the area affected by subsidence corresponds to 35% of the Volturno plain and that the annual rate of the phenomenon ranges between -1 and -25 mm/yr. The inundation analysis, based on the classification of the areas in four hazard classes, indicates that in 2065 the zones located below the sea level will increase approximately of 50% respect to the present conditions, while between 2065 and 2100 the increase can be at least of 60% (IPCC, RCP 8.5 scenarios). Considering the socio-economical and ecological exposure, evaluated following the EUROSION project guidelines, the coastal flooding risk maps have been produced. Almost 8.2 km2 and 14.4 km2 of the investigated area has to be considered subject to very high marine inundation risk in 2065 and 2100

  20. Impact of saline water sources on hypertension and cardiovascular disease risk in coastal Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Adrian; Hoque, Mohammad; Mathewson, Eleanor; Ahmed, Kazi; Rahman, Moshuir; Vineis, Paolo; Scheelbeek, Pauline

    2016-04-01

    harvesting, localised solar distillation, as well as the long-term risks from traditional water sources due to climate change. Preliminary results from the model will be presented showing the relative impacts from these interventions. These highlight the need for an integrated approach to salinity management in such coastal deltas in order to improve the long-term health of local communities living in these areas.

  1. Development of MODIS data-based algorithm for retrieving sea surface temperature in coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiao; Deng, Zhiqiang

    2017-06-01

    A new algorithm was developed for retrieving sea surface temperature (SST) in coastal waters using satellite remote sensing data from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard Aqua platform. The new SST algorithm was trained using the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) method and tested using 8 years of remote sensing data from MODIS Aqua sensor and in situ sensing data from the US coastal waters in Louisiana, Texas, Florida, California, and New Jersey. The ANN algorithm could be utilized to map SST in both deep offshore and particularly shallow nearshore waters at the high spatial resolution of 1 km, greatly expanding the coverage of remote sensing-based SST data from offshore waters to nearshore waters. Applications of the ANN algorithm require only the remotely sensed reflectance values from the two MODIS Aqua thermal bands 31 and 32 as input data. Application results indicated that the ANN algorithm was able to explaining 82-90% variations in observed SST in US coastal waters. While the algorithm is generally applicable to the retrieval of SST, it works best for nearshore waters where important coastal resources are located and existing algorithms are either not applicable or do not work well, making the new ANN-based SST algorithm unique and particularly useful to coastal resource management.

  2. Global assessment of coastal aquifer state and its vulnerability respect to Sea Water Intrusion. Application to several Mediterranean Coastal Aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baena, Leticia; Pulido-Velazquez, David; Renau-Pruñonosa, Arianna; Morell, Ignacio

    2017-04-01

    In this research we propose a method for a global assessment of coastal aquifer state and its vulnerability to Sea Water Intrusion (SWI). It is based on two indices, the MART index, which summarize the global significance of the SWI phenomenon, and the L_GALDIT for a lumped assessment of the vulnerability to SWI. Both of them can be useful as a tool to assess coastal groundwater bodies in risk of not achieving good status in accordance with the Water Framework Directive (WFD, 2000) and to identify possible management alternative to reduce existing impacts. They can be obtained even from a reduced number of data (in the MART case only depend on the geometry and available aquifer state data) with simple calculations, which have been implemented in a general GIS tool that can be easily applied to other case studies. The MART index in an aquifer is related with the total mass of chloride in the aquifer due to sea water intrusion and can be obtained by simple linear operations of volume and concentrations that can be deduced from a schematic conceptual cross-section approach (orthogonal to the shore line) defined to summarize the intrusion volume in the aquifer. At a certain historical time, this representative aquifer cross-section can be defined in a systhematic way from the aquifer geometry, the specific yield, and the hydraulic head and chloride concentration fields that can be deduced from the available information by using appropriate interpolation methods. Following the proposed procedure we will finally obtain a summary of the historical significance of the SWI in an aquifer at different spatial resolution: 3D salinity concentration maps, 2D representative conceptual cross-section of intrusion and the MART lumped significance index. The historical evolution of the MART can be employed to perform a global assessment of the resilience and trends of global significance of the SWI in an aquifer. It can be useful to compare the significance of intrusion problems in

  3. The significant inputs of trace elements and rare earth elements from melting glaciers in Antarctic coastal waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intae Kim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the impact of modern glacier melting on the chemical enrichment of Antarctic coastal waters, we measured trace elements, including dissolved iron (Fe and rare earth elements (REEs, together with dissolved inorganic nitrogen, phosphorous, silicate and dissolved organic carbon (DOC in ice, snow and coastal seawater of Marian Cove in the northernmost part of Antarctica (62°S. There was an increase in the concentrations of Fe and other trace elements (Al, Mn, Cr, Ni, Co, Pb and REEs between the bay mouth and the glacier valleys. Good correlations between salinity and these chemical elements indicate that the trend was mainly due to the influence of glacier meltwater (GMW. When the effect of GMW was quantified based on plots of its presence (average 5.7% in the surface water of the cove, the concentrations of trace elements in seawater increased 18-fold for Fe, eight- to 10-fold for Al and Mn and up to four-fold for Cr, Ni, Co, Pb and REEs by GMW. However, the contribution of GMW to inorganic nutrients and DOC was negligible. The significance of GMW-borne REE contribution in this cove was further evidenced by middle REE enrichment in cove water. Our results suggest that the currently increasing glacier melting in Antarctica has a significant influence on the level of trace elements, particularly Fe, in cove water, which in turn may have a significant impact on the biogeochemistry of coastal seawater in Antarctica.

  4. [Analysis on characteristics of red tide in Fujian coastal waters during the last 10 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue-Ding

    2012-07-01

    There were 161 red tide events collected during the last 10 years from 2001 to 2010 in Fujian coastal waters. Comprehensive analysis was performed using statistical methods and the results indicated the following characteristics of the temporal and spatial distribution of red tide in Fujian coastal waters: (1) Outbreaks of red tide often occurred between April and September, and the peak period was in May and June. Most red tide events lasted for 2 to 4 days, and the affected area was below 50 square kilometers. The first outbreak of red tide tended to occur earlier in recent years, and the lasting time became longer. (2) There were 20 species of organisms causing the red tides in Fujian coastal waters, among which 10 species were Bacillariophyta, 9 species were Dinophyta and 1 species was Protozoa. Prorocentrum donghaiense was the most frequent cause of red tides, followed by Noctiluca scintillans, Skeletonema costatum and Chaetoceros sp.. The species caused red tides obeyed the succession law and there were always new species involved. (2) In terms of spatial distribution, outbreaks of red tides mainly occurred in the coastal waters of Ningde, Fuzhou and Xiamen. The species causing red tides were Prorocentrum donghaiense and Noctiluca in the coastal waters in the north of Pingtan, Fujian Province, Skeletonema costatum and Chaetoceros in the coastal waters in the south of Pingtan, Fujian Province. The comprehensive analysis of the characteristics of red tides during the last 10 years is expected to provide scientific and reasonable basis for the prevention, reduction and forecast of red tides in Fujian coastal waters.

  5. Occurrence and distribution of bacteria indicators, chemical tracers and pathogenic vibrios in Singapore coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Shin Giek; Bayen, Stéphane; Burger, David; Kelly, Barry C; Han, Ping; Babovic, Vladan; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong

    2017-01-15

    Water quality in Singapore's coastal area was evaluated with microbial indicators, pathogenic vibrios, chemical tracers and physico-chemical parameters. Sampling sites were grouped into two clusters (coastal sites at (i) northern and (ii) southern part of Singapore). The coastal sites located at northern part of Singapore along the Johor Straits exhibited greater pollution. Principal component analysis revealed that sampling sites at Johor Straits have greater loading on carbamazepine, while turbidity poses greater influence on sampling sites at Singapore Straits. Detection of pathogenic vibrios was also more prominent at Johor Straits than the Singapore Straits. This study examined the spatial variations in Singapore's coastal water quality and provided the baseline information for health risk assessment and future pollution management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Coastal groundwater/surface-water interactions: a Great Lakes case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Brian P.; Haack, Sheridan K.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; Savino, Jacqueline F.; Lundstrom, Scott C.

    2006-01-01

    Key similarities exist between marine and Great Lakes coastal environments. Water and nutrient fluxes across lakebeds in the Great Lakes are influenced by seiche and wind set-up and set-down, analogous to tidal influence in marine settings. Groundwater/surface-water interactions also commonly involve a saline-fresh water interface, although in the Great-Lakes cases, it is groundwater that is commonly saline and surface water that is fresh. Evapotranspiration also affects nearshore hydrology in both settings. Interactions between groundwater and surface water have recently been identified as an important component of ecological processes in the Great Lakes. Water withdrawals and the reversal of the groundwater/surface water seepage gradient are also common to many coastal areas around the Great Lakes. As compared to surface water, regional groundwater that discharges to western Lake Erie from Michigan is highly mineralized. Studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey at Erie State Game Area in southeastern Michigan, describe groundwater flow dynamics and chemistry, shallow lake-water chemistry, and fish and invertebrate communities. Results presented here provide an overview of recent progress of ongoing interdisciplinary studies of Great Lakes nearshore systems and describe a conceptual model that identifies relations among geologic, hydrologic, chemical, and biological processes in the coastal habitats of Lake Erie. This conceptual model is based on analysis of hydraulic head in piezometers at the study site and chemical analysis of deep and shallow coastal groundwater.

  7. Remote sensing for water quality and biological measurements in coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. W.; Harriss, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    Recent remote sensing experiments in the United States' coastal waters indicate that certain biological and water quality parameters have distinctive spectral characteristics. Data outputs from remote sensors, to date, include: (1) high resolution measurements to determine concentrations and distributions of total suspended particulates, temperature, salinity, chlorophyll a, and phytoplankton color group associations from airborne and/or satellite platforms, and (2) low resolution measurements of total suspended solids, temperature, ocean color, and possibly chlorophyll from satellite platforms. A summary of platforms, sensors and parameters measured is given. Remote sensing, especially when combined with conventional oceanographic research methods, can be useful in such high priority research areas as estuarine and continental shelf sediment transport dynamics, transport and fate of marine pollutants, marine phytoplankton dynamics, and ocean fronts.

  8. In situ spectral response of the Arabian Gulf and Sea of Oman coastal waters to bio-optical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Shehhi, Maryam R; Gherboudj, Imen; Ghedira, Hosni

    2017-10-01

    Mapping of Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) over the coastal waters of the Arabian Gulf and the Sea of Oman using the satellite-based observations, such as MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer), has shown inferior performance (Chl-a overestimation) than that of deep waters. Studies in the region have shown that this poor performance is due to three reasons: (i) water turbidity (sediments re-suspension), and the presence of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), (ii) bottom reflectance and (iii) incapability of the existing atmospheric correction models to reduce the effect of the aerosols from the water leaving radiance. Therefore, this work focuses on investigating the sensitivity of the in situ spectral signatures of these coastal waters to the algal (chlorophyll: Chl-a), non-algal (sediments and CDOM) and the bottom reflectance properties, in absence of contributions from the atmosphere. Consequently, the collected in situ spectral signatures will improve our understanding of Arabian Gulf and Sea of Oman water properties. For this purpose, comprehensive field measurements were carried out between 2013 and 2016, over Abu-Dhabi (Arabian Gulf) and Fujairah (Sea of Oman) where unique water quality data were collected. Based on the in situ water spectral analysis, the bottom reflectance (water depth<20m) are found to degrade the performance of the conventional ocean color algorithms more than the sediment-laden waters where these waters increase the Rrsat the blue and red ranges. The increasing presence of CDOM markedly decreases the Rrsin the blue range, which is conflicting with the effect of Chl-a. Given the inadequate performance of the widely used ocean-color algorithms (OC3: ocean color 3, OC2: ocean color 2) in retrieving Chl-a in these very shallow coastal waters, therefore, a new algorithm is proposed here based on a 3-bands ratio approach using [Rrs (656) -1-Rrs (506) -1]×Rrs (661). The selected optimum bands (656nm, 506nm, and 661nm) from this

  9. USGS ground-water flow model : an essential tool for managing the water supply of the Virginia Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Martha L.; McFarland, Randolph E.; Scott, Bruce T.

    1999-01-01

    Virginia needs a reliable water supply to sustain its growing population and expanding economy. In 1990, the aquifers in the Coastal Plain supplied about 100 million gallons per day (mgd) to the citizens, businesses, and industries of Virginia. It is estimated that by the year 2000, demand will increase by another 10 mgd and likely will continue to increase in future years.Ground water is the only source of usable water in rural areas of the Coastal Plain and increasingly is being used to support a growing urban population. Current withdrawals have led to declining water levels in most Coastal Plain aquifers. Further declines are likely to occur, posing a threat that saltwater will move into parts of these freshwater aquifers.

  10. Modeling nitrogen cycling in a coastal fresh water sediment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canavan, R.W.; Laverman, A.M.; Slomp, C.P.

    2007-01-01

    Increased nitrogen (N) loading to coastal marine and freshwater systems is occurring worldwide as a result of human activities. Diagenetic processes in sediments can change the N availability in these systems, by supporting removal through denitrification and burial of organic N (Norg) or by

  11. Toxicity of coastal waters: use of a quick algal bioassay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjollema, S.B.; Booij, P; van der Geest, H.; Laane, R.; Leonards, P.; Lamoree, M..; Admiraal, W.; Vethaak, D.; de Voogt, P.

    2011-01-01

    Primary production by microalgae embodies the carrying capacity of marine ecosystems and is primarily linked to nutrient availability and light. However, recent studies indicate that certain industrial chemicals may have a direct impact on coastal plankton communities and hence on the carrying

  12. Organic micropollutants in coastal waters from NW Mediterranean Sea: sources distribution and potential risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Avila, Juan; Tauler, Romà; Lacorte, Silvia

    2012-10-01

    This study provides a first estimation on the sources, distribution and risk of organic micropollutants (OMPs) in coastal waters from NW Mediterranean Sea. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorinated pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, phthalates and alkylphenols were analyzed by solid phase extraction and gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-GC-EI-MS/MS). River waters and wastewater treatment plant effluents discharging to the sea were identified as the main sources of OMPs to coastal waters, with an estimated input amount of around of 25,800 g d(-1). The concentration of ΣOMPs in coastal areas ranged from 17.4 to 8442 ng L(-1), and was the highest in port waters, followed by coastal and river mouth seawaters. A summarized overview of the patterns and sources of OMP contamination on the investigated coastal sea waters of NW Mediterranean Sea, as well as of their geographical distribution was obtained by Principal Component Analysis of the complete data set after its adequate pretreatment. Alkylphenols, bisphenol A and phthalates were the main contributors to ΣOMPs and produced an estimated significant pollution risk for fish, algae and the sensitive mysid shrimp organisms in seawater samples. The combination of GC-MS/MS, chemometrics and risk analysis is proven to be useful for a better control and management of OMP discharges. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Quest for water in coastal Georgia: assessment of alternative water sources at Hunter Army Airfield, Chatham County, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, John S.

    2011-01-01

    To meet growing demands for water in the coastal Georgia area, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of the Army, conducted detailed site investigations and modeling studies at Hunter Army Airfield to assess the water-bearing potential of ponds and wells completed in the Lower Floridan aquifer.

  14. Modeling the Monthly Water Balance of a First Order Coastal Forested Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. V. Harder; Devendra M. Amatya; T. J. Callahan; Carl C. Trettin

    2006-01-01

    A study has been conducted to evaluate a spreadsheet-based conceptual Thornthwaite monthly water balance model and the process-based DRAINMOD model for their reliability in predicting monthly water budgets of a poorly drained, first order forested watershed at the Santee Experimental Forest located along the Lower Coastal Plain of South Carolina. Measured precipitation...

  15. Application of the Benthic Ecosystem Quality Index 2 to benthos in Dutch transitional and coastal waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, van W.M.G.M.; Boon, A.R.; Gittenberger, A.; Walvoort, D.J.J.; Lavaleye, M.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; Verschoor, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    The Benthic Ecosystem Quality Index 2 (BEQI2) is the Dutch multi-metric index (MMI) for assessing the status and trend of benthic invertebrates in transitional and coastal waters for the Water Framework Directive (WFD). It contains the same indicators, i.e. species richness, Shannon index and

  16. Application of the Benthic Ecosystem Quality Index 2 to benthos in Dutch transitional and coastal waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Loon, W.M.G.M.; Boon, A.R.; Gittenberger, A.; Walvoort, D.J.J.; Lavaleye, M.S.S.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; Verschoor, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    The Benthic Ecosystem Quality Index 2 (BEQI2) is the Dutch multi-metric index (MMI) for assessing the status and trend of benthic invertebrates in transitional and coastal waters for the Water Framework Directive (WFD). It contains the same indicators, i.e. species richness, Shannon index and AMBI,

  17. The Pacific coastal waters off Washington are in- fluenced by an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    The Pacific coastal waters off Washington are in- fluenced by an eastern boundary current, the California. Current. It is a broad, shallow, slow-moving current that flows southwards and brings cold, low-salinity, highly oxygenated, nutrient-rich subarctic water to the region. Prevailing winds and currents show marked seasonal ...

  18. Nutrients Export by Rivers to the Coastal Waters of Africa: Past and Future trends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yasin, J.A.; Kroeze, C.; Mayorga, E.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze past and future trends in nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and carbon (C) export by rivers to the coastal waters of Africa as calculated by the Global Nutrient Export to WaterShed (NEWS) models for the period 1970–2050. Between 1970 and 2000 the total nutrient export by African rivers

  19. Water depth selection, daily feeding routines and diets of waterbirds in coastal lagoons in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ntiamoa-Baidu, Y; Piersma, T; Wiersma, P; Poot, M; Battley, P; Gordon, C

    Water depth requirements, diet, feeding styles and diurnal activity patterns are described for waterbirds using two brackish water lagoon systems in coastal Ghana, the Songor and Keta Lagoons, We project the habitat and activity data on a guild structure defined on the basis of individual feeding

  20. Past and future trends in nutrients export by rivers to the coastal waters of China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qu, H.J.; Kroeze, C.

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed the past and future trends in river export of dissolved and particulate nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and carbon (C) to the coastal waters of China, for sixteen rivers, as calculated by the Global NEWS models (Nutrient Export from WaterSheds). Between 1970 and 2000, the dissolved N and P

  1. Using National Coastal Assessment Data to Model Estuarine Water Quality at Large Spatial Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/MethodThe water quality of the Nation’s estuaries is attracting increasing scrutiny in light of burgeoning coastal population growth and enhanced delivery of nutrients via riverine flux. The USEPA has evaluated water quality in US estuaries in the Nation...

  2. Monitoring Dissolved Oxygen in New Jersey Coastal Waters Using Autonomous Gliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coastal ocean is a highly variable system with processes that have significant implications on the hydrographic and oxygen characteristics of the water column. The spatial and temporal variability of these fields can cause dramatic changes to water quality and in turn the h...

  3. Spatial and Temporal Monitoring of Dissolved Oxygen (DO) in New Jersey Coastal Waters Using Autonomous Gliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coastal ocean is a highly variable system with processes that have significant implications on the hydrographic and oxygen characteristics of the water column. The spatial and temporal variability of these fields can cause dramatic changes to water quality and in turn the h...

  4. Bark water uptake promotes localized hydraulic recovery in coastal redwood crown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coastal redwood (Sequoia sempervirens), the world’s tallest tree species, rehydrates leaves via foliar water uptake during fog/rain events. Here we examine if bark also permits water uptake in redwood branches, along with potential flow mechanisms and biological significance. Using isotopic labeling...

  5. Transit time of water discharges from catchments in coastal mountain of Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante-Ortega, Ramon; Morgenstern, Uwe; Ramirez de Arellano, Pablo

    2015-04-01

    Water quantity and quality response of forest catchments to climate and land-use change are difficult to understand and predict due to complexities of subsurface water flow paths. The main focus of forest hydrology in Chile has been the effect of canopy and soil together with rain in water availability. Groundwater, as a factor in water availability especially during dry season, has not been studied. Only a few studies have been carried out in northern Chile in a non-forestry area using the stable isotopes of the water to characterize recharge and depletion of the aquifer. We use tritium for understanding the dynamics of groundwater through small watersheds over a latitudinal gradient in the coastal range of Central Chile. The zone constitutes rapid growth plantations and a large population that depend on surface water and groundwater for drinking, agriculture, pasture and industry. The study areas have metamorphic bedrock with a Mediterranean weather, and precipitation ranging from 700-800 mm year-1 in the North (Constitución area) to 2300-2500 mm year-1 in the South (Valdivia area). The watersheds have been forested with Pinus radiata in 2003 and 1990 respectively, and flow stations were installed in 2008 by Forestal Arauco S.A. to identify the forest management impact on the water cycle. Tritium is present in meteoric water and decays through radioactive decay. In groundwater, which is separated from the tritium production source in the atmosphere, the tritium concentration decreases over time and therefore allows for determination of the residence time of the water in the groundwater system, and the lag time between recharge of the water, and discharge into the streams. Preliminary results of rain samples collected in 2014 in Constitución confirm the tritium input estimate that we made using the New Zealand input data from similar latitude, and the IAEA data (http://www-naweb.iaea.org/napc/ih/IHS_resources_gnip.html). The mean residence time of the water in

  6. Territorial Vulnerability Assessment Supporting Risk Managing Coastal Areas Due to Tsunami Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Leandro Barros

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Portugal’s coastline extends 1187 km. It is characterized by social, economic and physical conditions that differentiate it from the rest of the territory, including population density, location of infrastructure and support of tourism activities. Therefore, it has a significant exposure if a tsunami occurs. Six coastal study sites with varying characteristics were selected for evaluation in this paper, including two core beach-use areas, two residential areas and two industrial areas. These sites are located in the municipalities of Figueira da Foz, Setúbal and Vila do Bispo. The analysis began with the calculation of the potential tsunami inundation area for each site using the 1755 Lisbon tsunami. Next, a methodology distinguished by its multidimensional character was applied to assess local vulnerability to tsunamis. This methodology assesses vulnerabilities associated with morphological, structural, social and tax factors. These four vulnerability components were combined to obtain a Composite Vulnerability Index (CVI, which enabled us to identify the most vulnerable areas and to determine the distinguishing characteristics of each area.

  7. Combined impact of ocean acidification and corrosive waters in a river-influenced coastal upwelling area off Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, C.; De La Hoz, M.; San Martin, V.; Contreras, P.; Navarro, J. M.; Lagos, N. A.; Lardies, M.; Manríquez, P. H.; Torres, R.

    2012-12-01

    organic matter due to natural or anthropogenically stimulated respiration processes within river basin may impact the coastal ocean. Furthermore, the upwelling of corrosive subsurface waters might also undersaturate coastal waters with respect to aragonite. In addition, by using a mesocosm system to simulate different pH and CO2 levels we have evaluate under controlled conditions the effect of ocean acidification on the larval stage of an economically-important gastropod species (Concholepas concholepas). In this presentation, we show some preliminary results using multi-source data from different research projects dealing with the carbon cycle and OA processes along Chilean coast. Funded by Project RIVOM (Fondecyt 1095069), Project TOA-SPACE (Fondecyt 1090624), and Project Anillo ACT132 (CONICYT).

  8. Revisiting Short-Wave-Infrared (SWIR) Bands for Atmospheric Correction in Coastal Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlevan, Nima; Roger, Jean-Claude; Ahmad, Ziauddin

    2017-01-01

    The shortwave infrared (SWIR) bands on the existing Earth Observing missions like MODIS have been designed to meet land and atmospheric science requirements. The future geostationary and polar-orbiting ocean color missions, however, require highly sensitive SWIR bands (greater than 1550nm) to allow for a precise removal of aerosol contributions. This will allow for reasonable retrievals of the remote sensing reflectance (R(sub rs)) using standard NASA atmospheric corrections over turbid coastal waters. Design, fabrication, and maintaining high-performance SWIR bands at very low signal levels bear significant costs on dedicated ocean color missions. This study aims at providing a full analysis of the utility of alternative SWIR bands within the 1600nm atmospheric window if the bands within the 2200nm window were to be excluded due to engineering/cost constraints. Following a series of sensitivity analyses for various spectral band configurations as a function of water vapor amount, we chose spectral bands centered at 1565 and 1675nm as suitable alternative bands within the 1600nm window for a future geostationary imager. The sensitivity of this band combination to different aerosol conditions, calibration uncertainties, and extreme water turbidity were studied and compared with that of all band combinations available on existing polar-orbiting missions. The combination of the alternative channels was shown to be as sensitive to test aerosol models as existing near-infrared (NIR) band combinations (e.g., 748 and 869nm) over clear open ocean waters. It was further demonstrated that while in extremely turbid waters the 1565/1675 band pair yields R(sub rs) retrievals as good as those derived from all other existing SWIR band pairs (greater than 1550nm), their total calibration uncertainties must be less than 1% to meet current science requirements for ocean color retrievals (i.e., delta R(sub rs) (443) less than 5%). We further show that the aerosol removal using the

  9. Wastewater discharge degrades coastal waters and reef communities in southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reopanichkul, Pasinee; Carter, R W; Worachananant, Suchai; Crossland, C J

    2010-06-01

    Runoff and sewage discharge from land developments can cause significant changes in water quality of coastal waters, resulting in coral degradation. Coastal waters around Phuket, Thailand are influenced by numerous sewage outfalls associated with rapid tourism development. Water quality and biological monitoring around the Phuket region was undertaken to quantify water quality and biotic characteristics at various distances from sewage outfalls. The surveys revealed strong gradients in water quality and biotic characteristics associated with tourism concentration levels as well as seasonal variability. Water and reef quality tended to decrease with increasing tourist intensity, but improved with increasing distance from sewage discharge within each of the three study locations. In addition, the effect of wastewater discharge was not localised around the source of pollution, but appeared to be transported to non-developed sites by currents, and exacerbated in the wet season.

  10. Epiphytic invertebrate patterns in coastal lakes along a gradient of salinity and water exchange with the sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obolewski, Krystian; Bąkowska, Martyna

    2017-10-01

    The species composition and abundance of epiphytic fauna inhabiting common reed (Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud.) was performed in five coastal lakes in Słowiński National Park (southern Baltic coast in northern Poland). The lakes represent a salinity gradient (from freshwater to β-oligohaline waters) and four types of coastal lakes: (1) lagoon, L (Lake Łebsko, seawater enters it permanently); (2) coastal lake with periodically brackish water, CLB (Lake Gardno); (3) freshwater costal lake, CLF (Lake Smołdzińskie); and (4) coastal dune lakes, CLD (Dołgie Wielkie and Dołgie Małe). Using statistical ordination techniques, we found that the structure of epiphytic fauna (microinvertebrates and macroinvertebrates) is determined primarily by hydrological connectivity (water exchange) with the sea. Canonical Correspondence Analysis, coupled with variance partitioning, showed that hydrological connectivity accounted for 24% of the variation in the invertebrate community, followed by physico-chemical (19%) and trophic (8%) factors. Our results indicate that the assemblages of Ciliata-libera and Cnidaria are characteristic for L (β-oligohaline), Rotifera, Suctoria, Chaetogaster sp., Gastropoda and Trichoptera are characteristic for CLB (limnetic/β-oligohaline), but no taxonomic groups are characteristic for CLF and CLD (both limnetic). The index of multivariate dispersion showed a decreasing trend with the increasing lake isolation from the open sea, except for CLD. However, in terms of the structure of epiphytic fauna, Multi-Response Permutation Procedures showed that CLD significantly differed only from CLB. Our results suggest that the identified characteristic taxonomic groups of plant-associated macroinvertebrates have a high potential to be used as bioindicators of salinity and water exchange with the sea, due to their sensitivity to environmental stress.

  11. Assessment of anthropogenic inputs in the surface waters of the southern coastal area of Sfax during spring (Tunisia, Southern Mediterranean Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drira, Zaher; Kmiha-Megdiche, Salma; Sahnoun, Houda; Hammami, Ahmed; Allouche, Noureddine; Tedetti, Marc; Ayadi, Habib

    2016-03-15

    The coastal marine area of Sfax (Tunisia), which is well-known for its high productivity and fisheries, is also subjected to anthropogenic inputs from diverse industrial, urban and agriculture activities. We investigated the spatial distribution of physical, chemical and biogeochemical parameters in the surface waters of the southern coastal area of Sfax. Pertinent tracers of anthropogenic inputs were identified. Twenty stations were sampled during March 2013 in the vicinity of the coastal areas reserved for waste discharge. Phosphogypsum wastes dumped close to the beaches were the main source of PO4(3-), Cl(-) and SO4(2-) in seawater. The high content in total polyphenolic compounds was due to the olive oil treatment waste water released from margins. These inorganic and organic inputs in the surface waters were associated with elevated COD. The BOD5/COD (3) ratios highlighted a chemical pollution with organic load of a low biodegradability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Image object-based water body types identification in coastal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Hu, Yongyue; Chen, Jianyu; Chen, Peng; Hao, Zengzhou

    2017-10-01

    Water body is one of the most important natural elements in coastal zone. Water bodies in coast are subdivided into offshore sea, aquaculture ponds, inland water bodies, river and so on. Remote sensing is an effective tool to obtain coastal typical objects with high spatial resolution imageries. This paper aims at existing problems of object-based image analysis application to monitor resources and environment in coastal area. For object-based recognition for water body types, relevant works have been carried out by adding spatial semantic features to the extraction process. Through analyzing the spectral, spatial and texture features of water body, the rule set for extracting water body type is established based on the topological and contextual relationship between segments. The recognition method of water body types proposed in this paper gets rid of the traditional object-based classifications based on statistical law. Using prior knowledge to construct knowledge rules with spatial semantic information makes spatial distribution characteristics in coastal zone effective in improving the accuracy of type identification.

  13. Effects of a coastal golf complex on water quality, periphyton, and seagrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, M.A.; Boustany, R.G.; Dantin, D.D.; Quarles, R.L.; Moore, J.C.; Stanley, R.S.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide baseline information on the effects of a golf course complex on water quality, colonized periphyton, and seagrass meadows in adjacent freshwater, near-coastal, and wetland areas. The chemical and biological impacts of the recreational facility, which uses reclaimed municipal wastewater for irrigation, were limited usually to near-field areas and decreased seaward during the 2-year study. Concentrations of chromium, copper, and organochlorine pesticides were below detection in surface water, whereas mercury, lead, arsenic, and atrazine commonly occurred at all locations. Only mercury and lead exceeded water quality criteria. Concentrations of nutrients and chlorophyll a were greater in fairway ponds and some adjacent coastal areas relative to reference locations and Florida estuaries. Periphyton ash free dry weight and pigment concentrations statistically differed but not between reference and non-reference coastal areas. Biomass of Thalassia testudinum (turtle grass) was approximately 43% less in a meadow located adjacent to the golf complex (P < 0.05). The results of the study suggest that the effects of coastal golf courses on water quality may be primarily localized and limited to peripheral near-coastal areas. However, this preliminary conclusion needs additional supporting data. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  14. Assessment of a Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Correction of Above-Water and Satellite Water-Leaving Radiance in Coastal Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlaing, Soe; Gilerson, Alexander; Harmal, Tristan; Tonizzo, Alberto; Weidemann, Alan; Arnone, Robert; Ahmed, Samir

    2012-01-01

    Water-leaving radiances, retrieved from in situ or satellite measurements, need to be corrected for the bidirectional properties of the measured light in order to standardize the data and make them comparable with each other. The current operational algorithm for the correction of bidirectional effects from the satellite ocean color data is optimized for typical oceanic waters. However, versions of bidirectional reflectance correction algorithms specifically tuned for typical coastal waters and other case 2 conditions are particularly needed to improve the overall quality of those data. In order to analyze the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of case 2 waters, a dataset of typical remote sensing reflectances was generated through radiative transfer simulations for a large range of viewing and illumination geometries. Based on this simulated dataset, a case 2 water focused remote sensing reflectance model is proposed to correct above-water and satellite water-leaving radiance data for bidirectional effects. The proposed model is first validated with a one year time series of in situ above-water measurements acquired by collocated multispectral and hyperspectral radiometers, which have different viewing geometries installed at the Long Island Sound Coastal Observatory (LISCO). Match-ups and intercomparisons performed on these concurrent measurements show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the algorithm currently in use at all wavelengths, with average improvement of 2.4% over the spectral range. LISCO's time series data have also been used to evaluate improvements in match-up comparisons of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer satellite data when the proposed BRDF correction is used in lieu of the current algorithm. It is shown that the discrepancies between coincident in-situ sea-based and satellite data decreased by 3.15% with the use of the proposed algorithm.

  15. Applicability of market-based instruments for safeguarding water quality in coastal waterways: Case study for Darwin Harbour, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Romy

    2014-02-01

    Water pollution of coastal waterways is a complex problem due to the cocktail of pollutants and multiplicity of polluters involved and pollution characteristics. Pollution control therefore requires a combination of policy instruments. This paper examines the applicability of market-based instruments to achieve effective and efficient water quality management in Darwin Harbour, Northern Territory, Australia. Potential applicability of instruments is examined in the context of biophysical and economic pollution characteristics, and experience with instruments elsewhere. The paper concludes that there is potential for inclusion of market-based instruments as part of an instrument mix to safeguard water quality in Darwin Harbour. It recommends, in particular, expanding the existing licencing system to include quantitative pollution limits for all significant point polluters; comprehensive and independent pollution monitoring across Darwin Harbour; public disclosure of water quality and emissions data; positive incentives for landholders in the Darwin Harbour catchment to improve land management practices; a stormwater offset program for greenfield urban developments; adoption of performance bonds for developments and operations which pose a substantial risk to water quality, including port expansion and dredging; and detailed consideration of a bubble licensing scheme for nutrient pollution. The paper offers an analytical framework for policy makers and resource managers tasked with water quality management in coastal waterways elsewhere in Australia and globally, and helps to scan for MBIs suitable in any given environmental management situation.

  16. OCTS And Seawifs Bio-Optical Algorithm and Product Vaildattion and Intercomparison in US Coastal Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brow, Chirstopher; Subramaniam, Ajit; Culver, Mary; Brock, John C.

    2000-01-01

    Monitoring the health of U.S. coastal waters is an important goal of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Satellite sensors are capable of providing daily synoptic data of large expanses of the U.S. coast. Ocean color sensor, in particular, can be used to monitor the water quality of coastal waters on an operational basis. To appraise the validity of satellite-derived measurements, such as chlorophyll concentration, the bio-optical algorithms used to derive them must be evaluated in coastal environments. Towards this purpose, over 21 cruises in diverse U.S. coastal waters have been conducted. Of these 21 cruises, 12 have been performed in conjunction with and under the auspices of the NASA/SIMBIOS Project. The primary goal of these cruises has been to obtain in-situ measurements of downwelling irradiance, upwelling radiance, and chlorophyll concentrations in order to evaluate bio-optical algorithms that estimate chlorophyll concentration. In this Technical Memorandum, we evaluate the ability of five bio-optical algorithms, including the current SeaWiFS algorithm, to estimate chlorophyll concentration in surface waters of the South Atlantic Bight (SAB). The SAB consists of a variety of environments including coastal and continental shelf regimes, Gulf Stream waters, and the Sargasso Sea. The biological and optical characteristics of the region is complicated by temporal and spatial variability in phytoplankton composition, primary productivity, and the concentrations of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and suspended sediment. As such, the SAB is an ideal location to test the robustness of algorithms for coastal use.

  17. Human recreational exposure to antibiotic resistant bacteria in coastal bathing waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Anne F C; Zhang, Lihong; Balfour, Andrew J; Garside, Ruth; Gaze, William H

    2015-09-01

    Infections caused by antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) are associated with poor health outcomes and are recognised globally as a serious health problem. Much research has been conducted on the transmission of ARB to humans. Yet the role the natural environment plays in the spread of ARB and antibiotic resistance genes is not well understood. Antibiotic resistant bacteria have been detected in natural aquatic environments, and ingestion of seawater during water sports is one route by which many people could be directly exposed. The aim was to estimate the prevalence of resistance to one clinically important class of antibiotics (third-generation cephalosporins (3GCs)) amongst Escherichia coli in coastal surface waters in England and Wales. Prevalence data was used to quantify ingestion of 3GC-resistant E. coli (3GCREC) by people participating in water sports in designated coastal bathing waters. A further aim was to use this value to derive a population-level estimate of exposure to these bacteria during recreational use of coastal waters in 2012. The prevalence of 3GC-resistance amongst E. coli isolated from coastal surface waters was estimated using culture-based methods. This was combined with the density of E. coli reported in designated coastal bathing waters along with estimations of the volumes of water ingested during various water sports reported in the literature to calculate the mean number of 3GCREC ingested during different water sports. 0.12% of E. coli isolated from surface waters were resistant to 3GCs. This value was used to estimate that in England and Wales over 6.3 million water sport sessions occurred in 2012 that resulted in the ingestion of at least one 3GCREC. Despite the low prevalence of resistance to 3GCs amongst E. coli in surface waters, there is an identifiable human exposure risk for water users, which varies with the type of water sport undertaken. The relative importance of this exposure is likely to be greater in areas where a

  18. Factors shaping bacterial phylogenetic and functional diversity in coastal waters of the NW Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boras, Julia A.; Vaqué, Dolors; Maynou, Francesc; Sà, Elisabet L.; Weinbauer, Markus G.; Sala, Maria Montserrat

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the main factors shaping bacterioplankton phylogenetic and functional diversity in marine coastal waters, we carried out a two-year study based on a monthly sampling in Blanes Bay (NW Mediterranean). We expected the key factors driving bacterial diversity to be (1) temperature and nutrient concentration, together with chlorophyll a concentration as an indicator of phytoplankton biomass and, hence, a carbon source for bacteria (here called bottom-up factors), and (2) top-down pressure (virus- and protist-mediated mortality of bacteria). Phylogenetic diversity was analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rRNA. Functional diversity was assessed by using monomeric carbon sources in Biolog EcoPlates and by determining the activity of six extracellular enzymes. Our results indicate that the bacterial phylogenetic and functional diversity in this coastal system is shaped mainly by bottom-up factors. A dendrogram analysis of the DGGE banding patterns revealed three main sample clusters. Two clusters differed significantly in temperature, nitrate and chlorophyll a concentration, and the third was characterized by the highest losses of bacterial production due to viral lysis detected over the whole study period. Protistan grazing had no effect on bacterial functional diversity, since there were no correlations between protist-mediated mortality (PMM) and extracellular enzyme activities, and utilization of only two out of the 31 carbon sources (N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and α-cyclodextrin) was correlated with PMM. In contrast, virus-mediated mortality correlated with changes in the percentage of use of four carbon sources, and also with specific leu-aminopeptidase and β-glucosidase activity. This suggests that viral lysate provides a pool of labile carbon sources, presumably including amino acids and glucose, which may inhibit proteolytic and glucosidic activity. Our results indicate that bottom-up factors play a more important role than

  19. Water management sustainability in reclaimed coastal areas. The case of the Massaciuccoli lake basin (Tuscany, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetto, Rudy; Baneschi, Ilaria; Basile, Paolo; Guidi, Massimo; Pistocchi, Chiara; Sabbatini, Tiziana; Silvestri, Nicola; Bonari, Enrico

    2010-05-01

    land sub-systems, the first one showing an average 4.2 mm net daily water loss during the summer season (about 0.975 m3/s) for the years 2000-2009. Lake inflow is constituted of two main terms: an anthropogenic one related to the drainage of the reclaimed land of about 1.1 m3/s (ranging 75-81% of the total inflow); a natural one defined by recharge through rainfall, the western coastal aquifer and the eastern reliefs, accounting for 0.25 m3/s (varying 19-25% of the total inflow). On the other hand, lake water loss is mainly due to evaporation from water surface and evapotranspiration from the palustrine vegetation for around 56-61% (1.31 m3/s on average), while 13 to 15% (0.325 m3/s) is due to inefficient irrigation schemes using lake water and, being the lake perched, recharge to the reclaimed land aquifer (26 to 29%) by means of water infiltrating along the embankments (0.64 m3/s on average). Since several springs on the eastern margin, which would flow to the lacustrine system for about 0.160 m3/s (Autorità di Bacino del Fiume Serchio, 2007), are tapped (for residential, tourism and industrial users), the anthropogenic impact on the water deficit constitutes about 50% of the total, being 34% due to irrigation and 16% to other users. This demonstrates the naturally induced water deficit, already known by historical sources, is heavily altered by anthropogenic pressure defining a not sustainable balance between the socio-economic system and the natural one. It is then clear, that in order to reduce the water stress, a new water management strategy in the whole basin must be devised by revising and enhancing the irrigation schemes and the residential, industrial and tourism water distribution. Reference Autorità di Bacino del Fiume Serchio, 2007. Piano di Bacino 'Bilancio idrico del bacino del lago di Massaciuccoli' Relazione di piano. Lucca, Italy.

  20. Climatic variability and trends in the surface waters of coastal British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Patrick F.; Masson, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Multi-decadal records of monthly sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface salinity (SSS) collected at a set of lighthouse stations are used to examine climatic variability and trends in the coastal waters of British Columbia. Particular attention is given to relations between the water property anomalies and variability in coastal freshwater discharge and alongshore wind stress. Within the Strait of Georgia, SSS anomalies are closely related to Fraser River discharge anomalies. Along the Pacific coast, anomalies in alongshore wind stress and freshwater runoff have the characteristics of white noise processes. A cross-correlation analysis demonstrates that SST and SSS variability along the open west coast is consistent with the response of a first-order autoregressive process driven by anomalous alongshore wind stress and coastal freshwater discharge, respectively. Thus climatic variability of SST and SSS along the Pacific coast of British Columbia occurs, in part, through the integration of noisy atmospheric forcing and coastal precipitation. Seasonal correlations show that SST is strongly related to wind stress during winter and fall. Conversely, SSS is relatively weakly related to the alongshore wind during spring, suggesting that variability in upwelling makes only a modest contribution to variability of SSS in the nearshore environment. Consistent with previous studies, secular trends indicate long-term warming and freshening of the coastal ocean at most stations. It is shown that long-term SST trends can be obscured by the pronounced climatic variability of these waters, requiring that time series extend for several decades to be reliably detected.

  1. Nutrient removal from Chinese coastal waters by large-scale seaweed aquaculture

    KAUST Repository

    Xiao, Xi

    2017-04-21

    China is facing intense coastal eutrophication. Large-scale seaweed aquaculture in China is popular, now accounting for over 2/3\\'s of global production. Here, we estimate the nutrient removal capability of large-scale Chinese seaweed farms to determine its significance in mitigating eutrophication. We combined estimates of yield and nutrient concentration of Chinese seaweed aquaculture to quantify that one hectare of seaweed aquaculture removes the equivalent nutrient inputs entering 17.8 ha for nitrogen and 126.7 ha for phosphorus of Chinese coastal waters, respectively. Chinese seaweed aquaculture annually removes approximately 75,000 t nitrogen and 9,500 t phosphorus. Whereas removal of the total N inputs to Chinese coastal waters requires a seaweed farming area 17 times larger than the extant area, one and a half times more of the seaweed area would be able to remove close to 100% of the P inputs. With the current growth rate of seaweed aquaculture, we project this industry will remove 100% of the current phosphorus inputs to Chinese coastal waters by 2026. Hence, seaweed aquaculture already plays a hitherto unrealized role in mitigating coastal eutrophication, a role that may be greatly expanded with future growth of seaweed aquaculture.

  2. Nutrient removal from Chinese coastal waters by large-scale seaweed aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xi; Agusti, Susana; Lin, Fang; Li, Ke; Pan, Yaoru; Yu, Yan; Zheng, Yuhan; Wu, Jiaping; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2017-04-01

    China is facing intense coastal eutrophication. Large-scale seaweed aquaculture in China is popular, now accounting for over 2/3’s of global production. Here, we estimate the nutrient removal capability of large-scale Chinese seaweed farms to determine its significance in mitigating eutrophication. We combined estimates of yield and nutrient concentration of Chinese seaweed aquaculture to quantify that one hectare of seaweed aquaculture removes the equivalent nutrient inputs entering 17.8 ha for nitrogen and 126.7 ha for phosphorus of Chinese coastal waters, respectively. Chinese seaweed aquaculture annually removes approximately 75,000 t nitrogen and 9,500 t phosphorus. Whereas removal of the total N inputs to Chinese coastal waters requires a seaweed farming area 17 times larger than the extant area, one and a half times more of the seaweed area would be able to remove close to 100% of the P inputs. With the current growth rate of seaweed aquaculture, we project this industry will remove 100% of the current phosphorus inputs to Chinese coastal waters by 2026. Hence, seaweed aquaculture already plays a hitherto unrealized role in mitigating coastal eutrophication, a role that may be greatly expanded with future growth of seaweed aquaculture.

  3. Estimating the impact of seawater on the production of soil water-extractable organic carbon during coastal erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Fugen; Ping, Chien-Lu; Guo, Laodong; Jorgenson, Torre

    2008-01-01

    The production of water-extractable organic carbon (WEOC) during arctic coastal erosion and permafrost degradation may contribute significantly to C fluxes under warming conditions, but it remains difficult to quantify. A tundra soil collected near Barrow, AK, was selected to evaluate the effects of soil pretreatments (oven drying vs. freeze drying) as well as extraction solutions (pure water vs. seawater) on WEOC yields. Both oven drying and freeze drying significantly increased WEOC release compared with the original moist soil samples; dried samples released, on average, 18% more WEOC than did original moist samples. Similar results were observed for the production of low-molecular-weight dissolved organic C. However, extractable OC released from different soil horizons exhibited differences in specific UV absorption, suggesting differences in WEOC quality. Furthermore, extractable OC yields were significantly less in samples extracted with seawater compared with those extracted with pure water, likely due to the effects of major ions on extractable OC flocculation. Compared with samples from the active horizons, upper permafrost samples released more WEOC, suggesting that continuously frozen samples were more sensitive than samples that had experienced more drying-wetting cycles in nature. Specific UV absorption of seawater-extracted OC was significantly lower than that of OC extracted using pure water, suggesting more aromatic or humic substances were flocculated during seawater extraction. Our results suggest that overestimation of total terrestrial WEOC input to the Arctic Ocean during coastal erosion could occur if estimations were based on WEOC extracted from dried soil samples using pure water.

  4. Environmental setting and factors that affect water quality in the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, M.P.; Oaksford, E.T.; Darst, M.R.; Marella, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    The Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit covers an area of nearly 62,000 square miles in the southeastern United States, mostly in the Coastal Plain physiographic province. Land resource provinces have been designated based on generalized soil classifications. Land resource provinces in the study area include: the Coastal Flatwoods, the Southern Coastal Plain, the Central Florida Ridge, the Sand Hills, and the Southern Piedmont. The study area includes all or parts of seven hydrologic subregions: the Ogeechee-Savannah, the Altamaha- St.Marys, the Suwannee, the Ochlockonee, the St. Johns, the Peace-Tampa Bay, and the Southern Florida. The primary source of water for public supply in the study area is ground water from the Upper Floridan aquifer. In 1990, more than 90 percent of the 2,888 million gallons per day of ground water used came from this aquifer. The population of the study area was 9.3 million in 1990. The cities of Jacksonville, Orlando, St. Petersburg, Tallahassee, and Tampa, Florida, and parts of Atlanta and Savannah, Georgia, are located in the study area. Forest and agricultural areas are the most common land uses in the study area, accounting for 48 percent and 25 percent of the study area, respectively. Climatic conditions range from temperate in Atlanta, Georgia, where mean annual temperature is about 61.3 degrees Fahrenheit, to subtropical in Tampa, Florida, where mean annual temperature is about 72.4 degrees Fahrenheit. Long-term average precipitation (1961-90) ranges from 43.9 inches per year in Tampa, Florida, and 44.6 in Macon, Georgia, to 65.7 inches per year in Tallahassee, Florida. Floods in the study area result from frontal systems, hurricanes, tropical storms, or severe thunderstorms. Droughts are not common in the study area,especially in the Florida part of the study area due to extensive maritime exposure. The primary physical and cultural characteristics in the study area include physiography, soils and land resource provinces

  5. 33 CFR 165.1310 - Strait of Juan de Fuca and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting-Regulated Navigation Area. 165.1310... and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting—Regulated Navigation Area. (a.... Datum: NAD 1983. (b) During a whale hunt, while the international numeral pennant five (5) is flown by a...

  6. NASA Airborne Missions in Support of Coastal Ecosystems and Water Quality Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guild, L. S.; Hooker, S. B.; Kudela, R. M.; Russell, P. B.; Morrow, J. H.; Palacios, S. L.; Myers, J. S.; Livingston, J. M.; Kacenelenbogen, M. S.; Knobelspiesse, K. D.; Redemann, J.; Clinton, N. E.; Torres-Perez, J. L.; Negrey, K.

    2016-02-01

    Worldwide, coastal marine ecosystems are exposed to land-based sources of pollution and sedimentation from anthropogenic activities including agriculture and coastal development. Ocean color products from satellite sensors provide information on chlorophyll (phytoplankton pigment), sediments, and colored dissolved organic material. Further, ship-based in-water measurements and emerging airborne measurements provide in situ data for the vicarious calibration of current and next generation satellite ocean color sensors and to validate the algorithms that use the remotely sensed observations. Recent NASA airborne missions over Monterey Bay, CA, have demonstrated novel above- and in-water measurement capabilities supporting a combined airborne sensor approach (imaging spectrometer, microradiometers, and a sun photometer). The results characterize coastal atmospheric and aquatic properties of seasonal algal blooms through an end-to-end assessment of image acquisition, atmospheric correction, algorithm application, plus sea-truth observations from state-of-the-art instrument systems.

  7. Phytoplankton mucilage production in coastal waters. A dispersal mechanism in a front dominated system?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, D.C.O. [Essex Univ., Colchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Biological Sciences

    1999-06-01

    The author hypothesises that mucilage production by phytoplankton blooms in coastal waters serves as a dispersal mechanism allowing the transport of cells between different patches of the coastal sea. Cells trapped in mucilaginous foams floating on the sea surface are lofted into the air, resulting in lateral dispersal by winds. Mucilage production by phytoplankton is associated with nutrient limitation and monospecific blooms. Under conditions of nutrient limitation, wind dispersal provides a mechanism to carry the genes of a clonal bloom to areas where growth and replication may continue. In coastal seas, frontal systems form a barrier to lateral movement through the water column; however, the accumulation of mucilage on the surface at fronts provides a functional explanation for mucilaginous blooms and describes an elaboration of a dispersal mechanism proposed by Hamilton and Lenton (1998).

  8. Baseline metals pollution profile of tropical estuaries and coastal waters of the Straits of Malacca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looi, Ley Juen; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Wan Johari, Wan Lutfi; Md Yusoff, Fatimah; Hashim, Zailina

    2013-09-15

    The status report on metal pollution in tropical estuaries and coastal waters is important to understand potential environmental health hazards. Detailed baseline measurements were made on physicochemical parameters (pH, temperature, redox potential, electrical conductivity, salinity, dissolved oxygen, total dissolved solid), major ions (Na, Ca, Mg, K, HCO3, Cl, SO4 and NO3) and metals concentrations ((27)Al, (75)As, (138)Ba, (9)Be, (111)Cd, (59)Co, (63)Cu, (52)Cr, (57)Fe, (55)Mn, (60)Ni, (208)Pb, (80)Se, (66)Zn) at estuaries and coastal waters along the Straits of Malacca. Principal component analysis (PCA) was employed to reveal potential pollution sources. Seven principal components were extracted with relation to pollution contribution from minerals-related parameters, natural and anthropogenic sources. The output from this study will generate a profound understanding on the metal pollution status and pollution risk of the estuaries and coastal system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Diversity and distribution of heterotrophic dinoflagellates from the coastal waters of Port Blair, South Andaman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai Elangovan, S; Padmavati, G

    2017-11-06

    The interaction between the environment and heterotrophic dinoflagellates inhabiting coastal waters of South Andaman was studied based on year round collections made during September 2012-August 2013 in the bay, eastern, and western region of South Andaman. The distribution pattern of microzooplankton in South Andaman showed high abundance in eutrophic waters (bay region) and gradually decreased towards the off shore region. Microzooplankton community comprised of six different taxa, viz. tintinnids, heterotrophic dinoflagellates, non-loricate ciliates, Foraminifera, Rotifera, and Copepoda (nauplii). Tintinnids were the major component of the microzooplankton (43.8 ± 7%) followed by heterotrophic dinoflagellates (34 ± 12%) and copepod nauplii (18.8 ± 4.0%). This study focused on heterotrophic dinoflagellates which ranked next to tintinnids in overall abundance and contributed 38-42% in the bay, 22-37% in the eastern, and 15-29% in the western region to the microzooplankton community. Dinoflagellates showed a positive correlation with salinity and a negative correlation with dissolved oxygen and chlorophyll a (r = - 0.3). Abundance of heterotrophic dinoflagellates in this area may be due to their diverse and advantageous mode of nutrition. A total of 35 species belonging to 8 genera of heterotrophic dinoflagellates were recorded during the study period. Heterotrophic dinoflagellates showed a great potential to thrive in low oxygenated and low productive area (p population was found in the bay region (avg. H' = 3.46).

  10. Towards the development of a combined Norovirus and sediment transport model for coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, K.; O'Kane, J. P. J.

    2009-04-01

    Sewage effluent in coastal waters used for oyster culture poses a risk to human health. The primary pathogen in outbreaks of gastroenteritis following consumption of raw oysters is the Norovirus or "winter vomiting bug". The Norovirus is a highly infectious RNA virus of the Caliciviridae taxonomic family. It has a long survival time in coastal waters (T90 = 30 days in winter). Oysters selectively concentrate Norovirus in their digestive ducts. The virus cannot be removed by conventional depuration. The primary goal of the research is to quantify the risk of Norovirus infection in coastal waters through physically-based high-resolution numerical modelling. Cork Harbour and Clew Bay in Ireland provide case studies for the research. The models simulate a number of complex physical, chemical and biological processes which influence the transport and decay of the virus as well as its bioaccumulation in oyster tissue. The current phase of the research is concerned with the adsorption of the virus to suspended sediment in the water column. Adsorbed viruses may be taken out of the water column when sedimentation occurs and, subsequently, be added to it with resuspension of the bed sediment. Preliminary simulations of the Norovirus-sediment model indicate that suspended sediment can influence the transport of the virus in coastal waters when a high sediment-water partitioning coefficient is used and the model is run under calm environmental conditions. In this instance a certain fraction of the adsorbed viruses are taken out of the water column by sedimentation and end up locked in the bed sediment. Subsequently, under storm conditions, a large number of viruses in the bed are released into the water column by erosion of the bed and a risk of contamination occurs at a time different to when the viruses were initially released into the body of water.

  11. Variability of Rain Water Quality due to Roof Characteristics | Utsev ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... varying effects on the characteristics of rainwater. From the experimental result, the roof drainage water quality in Gboko can be used as grey water for domestic purposes but requires treatment to be used as drinking water. KEYWORDS: Rainwater quality, Water availability, Rainwater harvesting, Variability, Roof drainage ...

  12. WAVE DIRECTION and Other Data from FIXED STATIONS From Coastal Waters of California from 19750313 to 19750525 (NODC Accession 9400044)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The accession contains Wave Surface Data collected in Coastal Waters of California between March 13, 1975 and May 25, 1975. Water surface elevation data was...

  13. Physical characteristics of the coastal waters between Navapur and Umbharat, West coast of India. Part 3. Stability and dispersion

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Swamy, G.N.; Vijayakumar, C.V.

    Vertical profiles of currents of the coastal waters between Navapur and Umbharat were analysed. Dynamic stability as well as the diffusion capacity of the water columns were estimated from the vertical distribution of temperature, salinity...

  14. NOAA Water Level (Tidal) Data of 205 Stations for the Coastal United States and Other Non-U.S. Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Ocean Service (NOS) maintains a long-term database containing water level measurements and derived tidal data for coastal waters of the United States...

  15. Immediate effect of simulated sand mining on the variation of bacterial parameters in coastal waters of Kalbadevi Bay, Ratnagiri

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, C.E.G.; Das, A.; Naik, S.S.; Sharma, R.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    The variation in bacterial parameters of coastal waters and sediments of Kalbadevi Bay, Ratnagiri, Maharashtra, India was examined for immediate response after simulated mining. Sampling was carried out at suction and disturbance points in the water...

  16. NOAA Water Level Predictions Stations for the Coastal United States and Other Non-U.S. Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Ocean Service (NOS) maintains a long-term database containing water level measurements and derived tidal data for coastal waters of the United States...

  17. Reducing future river export of nutrients to coastal waters of China in optimistic scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strokal, Maryna; Kroeze, Carolien; Wang, Mengru; Ma, Lin

    2017-02-01

    Coastal waters of China are rich in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) and thus often eutrophied. This is because rivers export increasing amounts of nutrients to coastal seas. Animal production and urbanization are important sources of nutrients in Chinese rivers. In this study we explored the future from an optimistic perspective. We present two optimistic scenarios for 2050 (OPT-1 and OPT-2) for China. Maximized recycling of manure on land in OPT-1 and OPT-2, and strict sewage control in OPT-2 (e.g., all sewage is collected and treated efficiently) are essential nutrient strategies in these scenarios. We also analyzed the effect of the current policy plans aiming at "Zero Growth in Synthetic Fertilizers after 2020" (the CP scenario). We used the MARINA (a Model to Assess River Inputs of Nutrients to seAs) model to quantify dissolved N and P export by Chinese rivers to the Bohai Gulf, Yellow Sea and South China Sea and the associated coastal eutrophication potential (ICEP). The Global Orchestration (GO) scenario of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment was used as a basis. GO projects increases in river export of dissolved N and P (up to 90%) between 2000 and 2050 and thus a high potential for coastal eutrophication (ICEP>0). In contrast, the potential for coastal eutrophication is low in optimistic scenarios (ICEPseas are around their levels of 1970. Maximizing manure recycling can reduce nutrient pollution of Chinese seas considerably. Sewage control is effective in reducing P export by rivers from urbanized areas. The CP scenario, on the other hand, shows that current policy plans may not be sufficient to avoid coastal eutrophication in the future. Our study may help policy makers in formulating strategies to ensure clean coastal waters in China in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Integrated modelling of nitrate loads to coastal waters and land rent applied to catchment scale water management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacosen, T.; Refsgaard, A.; Jacobsen, Brian H.

    agricultural production and leakage of nitrate constitute a major pollution problem with respect groundwater aquifers (drinking water), fresh surface water systems (water quality of lakes) and coastal receiving waters (eutrophication). The case study presented illustrates an advanced modelling approach applied...... in river basin management. Point sources (e.g. sewage treatment plant discharges) and distributed diffuse sources (nitrate leakage) are included to provide a modelling tool capable of simulating pollution transport from source to recipient to analyse effects of specific, localized basin water management...

  19. Land-based sources of marine pollution: Pesticides, PAHs and phthalates in coastal stream water, and heavy metals in coastal stream sediments in American Samoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polidoro, Beth A; Comeros-Raynal, Mia T; Cahill, Thomas; Clement, Cassandra

    2017-03-15

    The island nations and territories of the South Pacific are facing a number of pressing environmental concerns, including solid waste management and coastal pollution. Here we provide baseline information on the presence and concentration of heavy metals and selected organic contaminants (pesticides, PAHs, phthalates) in 7 coastal streams and in surface waters adjacent to the Futiga landfill in American Samoa. All sampled stream sediments contained high concentrations of lead, and some of mercury. Several coastal stream waters showed relatively high concentrations of diethyl phthalate and of organophosphate pesticides, above chronic toxicity values for fish and other aquatic organisms. Parathion, which has been banned by the US Environmental Protection Agency since 2006, was detected in several stream sites. Increased monitoring and initiatives to limit non-point source land-based pollution will greatly improve the state of freshwater and coastal resources, as well as reduce risks to human health in American Samoa. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 projections of coastal cliff retreat due to 21st century sea-level rise

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Summary: This dataset contains projections of coastal cliff-retreat rates and positions for future scenarios of sea-level rise (SLR). Projections were made using...

  1. Nitrates in Groundwater Discharges from the Azores Archipelago: Occurrence and Fluxes to Coastal Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Virgílio Cruz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater discharge is an important vector of chemical fluxes to the ocean environment, and as the concentration of nutrients is often higher in discharging groundwater, the deterioration of water quality in the receiving environment can be the result. The main objective of the present paper is to estimate the total NO3 flux to coastal water bodies due to groundwater discharge in the volcanic Azores archipelago (Portugal. Therefore, 78 springs discharging from perched-water bodies have been monitored since 2003, corresponding to cold (mean = 14.9 °C and low mineralized (47.2–583 µS/cm groundwater from the sodium-bicarbonate to sodium-chloride water types. A set of 36 wells was also monitored, presenting groundwater with a higher mineralization. The nitrate content in springs range between 0.02 and 37.4 mg/L, and the most enriched samples are associated to the impact of agricultural activities. The total groundwater NO3 flux to the ocean is estimated in the range of 5.23 × 103 to 190.6 × 103 mol/km2/a (∑ = ~523 × 103 mol/km2/a, exceeding the total flux associated to surface runoff (∑ = ~281 × 103 mol/km2/a. In the majority of the islands, the estimated fluxes are higher than runoff fluxes, with the exception of Pico (47.2%, Corvo (46% and Faial (7.2%. The total N-NO3 flux estimated in the Azores (~118.9 × 103 mol/km2/a is in the lower range of estimates made in other volcanic islands.

  2. Variations in the Alkalinity of Seawater in Coastal Waters of Oahu, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S. L.; De Carlo, E. H.; Drupp, P. S.; Terlouw, G.; Guidry, M.; Mackenzie, F. T.; Thompson, R.

    2014-12-01

    Total alkalinity (AT) is an important component of the marine inorganic carbon system that, together with one of the other measurable parameters (i.e., pH, dissolved inorganic carbon-CT , pCO2) allows us to calculate the entire CO2-carbonic acid system. By measuring AT continuously at several coastal locations on coral reefs of Oahu, we can calculate a current rate of change in surface water conditions with respect to biogeochemical processes as well as the globally important issue of ocean acidification (OA). Previous work by Drupp et al (2011, 2013) has shown that parameters of the CO2-carbonic acid system display seasonal fluctuations as well as respond to short term rainfall events. This work expands the period of study through July 2014. The three sampling locations are vastly different in geographic and geochemical conditions. Kaneohe Bay is a protected embayment, with large freshwater inputs and long water residence time compared to the nearshore exposed waters at Kilo Nalu and Ala Wai. Variation in coral reef environments affect AT, thus making it crucial to sample multiple environments over an extended period of time to reveal changes in biogeochemistry. A typical sample from Kaneohe Bay (CRIMP-2) can be expected to have a AT value between 2134 umol/kg and 2279 umol/kg, Kilo Nalu: between 2263 umol/kg and 2350 umol/kg, Ala Wai: between 2263 umol/kg and 2335 umol/kg. In general, total alkalinity values from CRIMP-2 are lower than at Kilo Nalu or Ala Wai due to differences in coral reef environments. Our long-term record allows us to compare the behavior of Hawaiian reef waters to those of other tropical marine ecosystems. Furthermore, monitoring of AT over extended multiple years and multiple locations is essential to develop the time-series data necessary for continued evaluation of the impact of OA on coral reefs of the Hawaiian Islands.

  3. A study of brackish water membrane with ultrafiltration pretreatment in Indonesia’s coastal area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elis Hastuti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Water pollution and sea water intrusion to water sources in coastal areas result lack of provision safe drinking water by the drinking water regional company or coastal community. The existing water treatment plant that operated on brackish surface water or groundwater feed requires improving process. Membrane process could be a choice to treat the quality of brackish water to the level of potable water that designed to lower cost with high stabil flux and longer lifetime. This research focus on application of pilot plant of brackish water treatment using Ultrafiltration (UF membrane-air lift system as pretreatment of Reverse Osmosis (RO membrane-low pressure. Brackish water sources contain high colloidal and suspended solids that can cause fouling load of RO membranes and impair its performance. UF pretreatment operation tested by addition of compressed air into the feed (air lift system, resulted stable flux, reduces membrane fouling and low feed pressure. A flux of RO with UF pretreatment can produce drinking water of 30–61 L/m2∙hour. It was observed, the good quality of RO permeate resulted by using a pretreatment of UF–PS (Polysulfone-UF with total dissolved solid rejection about 96–98% and color rejection about 99–100% at 5 or 8 bars of operation pressure. This paper concludes that performance of membrane technology with UF–air lift system pretreatment and RO membrane-low pressure could be accepted as condition of brackish water source in Indonesia coastal areas in producing drinking water.

  4. A STUDY OF BRACKISH WATER MEMBRANE WITH ULTRAFILTRATION PRETREATMENT IN INDONESIA´S COASTAL AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elis Hastuti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Water pollution and sea water intrusion to water sources in coastal areas result lack of provision safe drinking water by the drinking water regional company or coastal community. The existing water treatment plant that operated on brackish surface water or groundwater feed requires improving process. Membrane process could be a choice to treat the quality of brackish water to the level of potable water that designed to lower cost with high stabil flux and longer lifetime. This research focus on application of pilot plant of brackish water treatment using Ultrafiltration (UF membrane-air lift system as pretreatment of Reverse Osmosis (RO membrane-low pressure. Brackish water sources contain high colloidal and suspended solids that can cause fouling load of RO membranes and impair its performance. UF pretreatment operation tested by addition of compressed air into the feed (air lift system, resulted stable flux, reduces membrane fouling and low feed pressure. A flux of RO with UF pretreatment can produce drinking water of 30--61 L/m2·hour. It was observed, the good quality of RO permeate resulted by using a pretreatment of UF--PS (Polysulfone-UF with total dissolved solid rejection about 96--98% and color rejection about 99--100% at 5 or 8 bars of operation pressure. This paper concludes that performance of membrane technology with UF--air lift system pretreatment and RO membrane-low pressure could be accepted as condition of brackish water source in Indonesia coastal areas in producing drinking water.

  5. Aerosol optical thickness and spatial variability along coastal and offshore waters of the eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Menon, H.B.; Sangekar, N.; Lotliker, A.; Moorthy, K.K.; Vethamony, P.

    Data from the ocean-colour monitor (OCM) on board the Indian Remote Sensing Satellite P4 were used to analyse the spatial and temporal distribution of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) over the coastal and offshore waters of the eastern Arabian Sea...

  6. [Assessment of resource situation of Collichthys lucidus in coastal waters of the Yangtze estuary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yan; Zhang, Tao; Yang, Gang; Zhao, Feng; Hou, Jun-li; Zhang, Long-zhen; Zhuang, Ping

    2015-09-01

    In order to assess the resource status of Collichthys lucidus in coastal waters of Yangtze estuary, the growth and population parameters were studied by the length frequency distribution method based on the bottom trawl investigation data from 2012 to 2013. Von Bertalanffy growth parameters were calculated by using the ELEFAN module in FiSAT II software while the natural mortality rate (M) was estimated via Pauly's empirical equation. Besides, the Beverton-Holt dynamic model was developed to predict the variation trend of C. lucidus resource in coastal waters of Yangtze estuary. The results showed that in 2012-2013, a total of 4201 samples of C. lucidus with body lengths ranging from 18 to 155 mm were collected from the coastal waters of Yangtze estuary. The growth parameter (K) and limit length (L.) were 1.1 and 162.75 mm while the total mortality rate (Z), the natural mortality rate (M) and the fishing mortality rate (F) were 4.040, 1.683 and 2.357, respectively. Moreover, the current exploitation (E) of C. lucidus in coastal waters of Yangtze estuary was 0.583 per year, which was larger than Fopt (0.5). Corresponding to the average stock of 576.02 t, the resource amount of C. lucidus reached up to 1.33 x 10(8) individuals. These indicated that C. lucidus has been overfished in Yangtze estuary area.

  7. Future trends in urbanization and coastal water pollution in the Bay of Bengal: the lived experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zinia, N.J.; Kroeze, C.

    2015-01-01

    The Bay of Bengal includes coastal seas of several countries, including Bangladesh, India, and Myanmar. We present scenarios for future river export of eutrophying nutrients into the Bay of Bengal, and the role of urbanization therein. We used NEWS (Nutrient Export from WaterSheds) model to analyze

  8. Assemblage characteristics and diet of fish in the shallow coastal waters of James Ross Island, Antarctica

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurajda, Pavel; Roche, Kevin Francis; Sedláček, I.; Všetičková, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 12 (2016), s. 2299-2309 ISSN 0722-4060 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Antarctic Peninsula * Fish assemblage structure * Notothenioidei * Shallow coastal waters * Ice pack * Czech Antarctic Station Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.949, year: 2016

  9. Developing Data-driven models for quantifying Cochlodinium polykrikoides in Coastal Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yongsung; Jang, Eunna; Im, Jungho; Baek, Seungho; Park, Yongeun; Cho, Kyunghwa

    2017-04-01

    Harmful algal blooms have been worldwide problems because it leads to serious dangers to human health and aquatic ecosystems. Especially, fish killing red tide blooms by one of dinoflagellate, Cochlodinium polykrikoides (C. polykrikoides), have caused critical damage to mariculture in the Korean coastal waters. In this work, multiple linear regression (MLR), regression tree (RT), and random forest (RF) models were constructed and applied to estimate C. polykrikoides blooms in coastal waters. Five different types of input dataset were carried out to test the performance of three models. To train and validate the three models, observed number of C. polykrikoides cells from National institute of fisheries science (NIFS) and remote sensing reflectance data from Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) images for 3 years from 2013 to 2015 were used. The RT model showed the best prediction performance when using 4 bands and 3 band ratios data were used as input data simultaneously. Results obtained from iterative model development with randomly chosen input data indicated that the recognition of patterns in training data caused a variation in prediction performance. This work provided useful tools for reliably estimate the number of C. polykrikoides cells by using reasonable input reflectance dataset in coastal waters. It is expected that the RT model is easily accessed and manipulated by administrators and decision-makers working with coastal waters.

  10. Distribution of nutrients in the coastal and estuarine waters of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verlecar, X.N.

    values were noticed in the Mandovi estuary and the adjoining coastal waters. The NO3 -: PO4 -3 concentration ratio remained low during post and premonsoon periods when the primary productivity was high. The ratio of change for nitrate and phosphate (Delta...

  11. Swarming of Creseis acicula Rang (Pteropoda) in the coastal waters of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Goswami, S.C.

    Swarms of Creseis acicula Rang (Pteropoda) were observed in the coastal waters of Goa regularly in October, from 1976 to 1980. The highest biomass value obtained for this species was 494 ml/100 m@u3@@, forming 96% of zooplankton population...

  12. Carbapenemase VCC-1-Producing Vibrio cholerae in Coastal Waters of Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammerl, Jens A.; Jaeckel, Claudia; Bortolaia, Valeria

    2017-01-01

    During antimicrobial drug resistance testing for Vibrio spp. from coastal waters of Germany, we identified 4 nontoxigenic, carbapenem-resistant V. cholerae isolates. We used whole-genome sequencing to identify the carbapenemase gene bla(VCC-1). In addition, a molecular survey showed that more bla...

  13. Sediment Quality in Near Coastal Waters of the Gulf of Mexico: Influence of Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    The results from this study represent a synoptic analysis of sediment quality in coastal waters of Lake Pontchartrain and Mississippi Sound two months after the landfall of Hurricane Katrina. Post-hurricane conditions were compared to pre-hurricane (2000-2004) conditions, for se...

  14. Preliminary study on pisionids (Annelida: Polychaeta Pisionidae) from Hainan Island coastal waters, South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bao-Ling; Ding, Zhi-Hu; Huang, Feng-Peng

    1998-06-01

    Of the four species of Pisione Grube (1856) collected from the coastal waters of Hainan Island, the South China Sea, and described in this paper, Pisione hainanensis n. sp. is new to science; Pisione oerstedii Grube, 1857; Pisione complexa Alikunhi, 1947, and Pisione levisetosa Zhao, Westheide & Wu, 1991 are reported for the first time from this area.

  15. CDOM PRODUCTION BY MANGROVE LEAF LITTER AND SARGASSUM COLONIES IN FLORIDA KEYS COASTAL WATERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have investigated the importance of leaf litter from red mangroves (Rhizophora mangle) and living Sargassum plants as sources of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) to the coastal ocean waters and coral reef system of the Florida Keys. The magnitude of UVB exposure t...

  16. Assessment of satellite derived diffuse attenuation coefficients and euphotic depths in south Florida coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Optical data collected in coastal waters off South Florida and in the Caribbean Sea between January 2009 and December 2010 were used to evaluate products derived with three bio-optical inversion algorithms applied to MOIDS/Aqua, MODIS/Terra, and SeaWiFS satellite observations. Th...

  17. Emerging organic contaminants in coastal waters: anthropogenic impact, environmental release and ecological risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jheng-Jie; Lee, Chon-Lin; Fang, Meng-Der

    2014-08-30

    This study provides a first estimate of the sources, distribution, and risk presented by emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) in coastal waters off southwestern Taiwan. Ten illicit drugs, seven nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), five antibiotics, two blood lipid regulators, two antiepileptic drugs, two UV filters, caffeine, atenolol, and omeprazole were analyzed by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS/MS). Thirteen EOCs were detected in coastal waters, including four NSAIDs (acetaminophen, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, and codeine), three antibiotics (ampicillin, erythromycin, and cefalexin), three illicit drugs (ketamine, pseudoephedrine, and MDMA), caffeine, carbamazepine, and gemfibrozil. The median concentrations for the 13 EOCs ranged from 1.47 ng/L to 156 ng/L. Spatial variation in concentration of the 13 EOCs suggests discharge into coastal waters via ocean outfall pipes and rivers. Codeine and ampicillin have significant pollution risk quotients (RQ>1), indicating potentially high risk to aquatic organisms in coastal waters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Application and Usefulness of Economic Analyses for Water Quality Management in Coastal Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economic studies are increasingly sought as tools to contribute to water quality management in estuaries and coastal communities, yet little is known about how the results from existing studies have been received and utilized by the organizations who solicited them. We interviewe...

  19. Enrichment of omnivorous cercozoan nanoflagellates from coastal Baltic Sea waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasia Piwosz

    Full Text Available Free-living nano-sized flagellates are important bacterivores in aquatic habitats. However, some slightly larger forms can also be omnivorous, i.e., forage upon both bacterial and eukaryotic resources. This hitherto largely ignored feeding mode may have pronounced implications for the interpretation of experiments about protistan bacterivory. We followed the response of an uncultured group of omnivorous cercozoan nanoflagellates from the Novel Clade 2 (Cerc_BAL02 to experimental food web manipulation in samples from the Gulf of Gdańsk (Southern Baltic Sea. Seawater was either prefiltered through 5 µm filters to exclude larger predators of nanoflagellates (F-treatment, or prefiltered and subsequently 1∶10 diluted with sterile seawater (F+D-treatment to stimulate the growth of both, flagellates and bacteria. Initially, Cerc_BAL02 were rapidly enriched under both conditions. They foraged on both, eukaryotic prey and bacteria, and were highly competitive at low concentrations of food. However, these omnivores were later only successful in the F+D treatment, where they eventually represented almost one fifth of all aplastidic nanoflagellates. By contrast, their numbers stagnated in the F-treatment, possibly due to top-down control by a concomitant bloom of other, unidentified flagellates. In analogy with observations about the enrichment of opportunistically growing bacteria in comparable experimental setups we suggest that the low numbers of omnivorous Cerc_Bal02 flagellates in waters of the Gulf of Gdańsk might also be related to their vulnerability to grazing pressure.

  20. CO2 induced growth response in a diatom dominated phytoplankton community from SW Bay of Bengal coastal water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Haimanti; Shaik, Aziz Ur Rahman; Bandyopadhyay, Debasmita; Chowdhury, Neha

    2017-11-01

    The ongoing increase in surface seawater CO2 level could potentially impact phytoplankton primary production in coastal waters; however, CO2 sensitivity studies on tropical coastal phytoplankton assemblages are rare. The present study investigated the interactive impacts of variable CO2 level, light and zinc (Zn) addition on the diatom dominated phytoplankton assemblages from the western coastal Bay of Bengal. Increased CO2 supply enhanced particulate organic matter (POC) production; a concomitant depletion in δ13CPOM values at elevated CO2 suggested increased CO2 diffusive influx inside the cell. Trace amount of Zn added under low CO2 level accelerated growth probably by accelerating Zn-Carbonic Anhydrase activity which helps in converting bicarbonate ion to CO2. Almost identical values of δ13CPOM in the low CO2 treated cells grown with and without Zn indicated a low discrimination between 13C and 12C probably due to bicarbonate uptake. These evidences collectively indicated the existence of the carbon concentration mechanisms (CCMs) at low CO2. A minimum growth rate was observed at low CO2 and light limited condition indicating light dependence of CCMs activity. Upon the increase of light and CO2 level, growth response was maximum. The cells grown in the low CO2 levels showed higher light stress (higher values of both diatoxanthin index and the ratio of photo-protective to light-harvesting pigments) that was alleviated by both increasing CO2 supply and Zn addition (probably by efficient light energy utilization in presence of adequate CO2). This is likely that the diatom dominated phytoplankton communities benefited from the increasing CO2 supply and thus may enhance primary production in response to any further increase in coastal water CO2 levels and can have large biogeochemical consequences in the study area.

  1. Coupled human-water system dynamics of saltwater intrusion in the low coastal plain of the Po River, Ravenna, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauriola, Ilaria; Ciriello, Valentina; Antonellini, Marco; Pande, Saket

    2017-04-01

    Human activities affect the whole hydrological cycle with possible severe consequences on ecosystem services. Human-water interaction follows complex dynamics that can't be addressed only through the analysis of water withdrawals and contamination processes. As such, comprehensive analysis strategies based on a socio-hydrology approach may allow to deeply understand the co-evolution of human and water systems. Here, we focus on the low coastal plain of the Po river in the south of Ravenna (Italy), which is adjacent to the North Adriatic sea. In particular, our study regards a basin characterized by a land reclamation drainage system, given the low topography which reaches in some places 1 m below sea level. In this area, the thin phreatic coastal aquifer is affected by a relevant salinization process and characterized by the presence of valuable water-dependent ecosystems such as pine forests and wetlands. Groundwater salinization is mainly caused by seawater intrusion due to the hydraulic gradient landwards that is enhanced by land subsidence, land use and drainage allowing for agriculture and settlements. Such a complex scenario involves environmental, social and economic interests. We study the intricate system of relationships occurring between a set of socio-hydrological state variables of interest based on the dynamic analysis of land use changes in the study area that mainly affect groundwater recharge and the availability of freshwater for ecosystem and agriculture activities.

  2. NASA COAST and OCEANIA Airborne Missions Support Ecosystem and Water Quality Research in the Coastal Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guild, Liane; Kudela, Raphael; Hooker, Stanford; Morrow, John; Russell, Philip; Palacios, Sherry; Livingston, John M.; Negrey, Kendra; Torres-Perez, Juan; Broughton, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    NASA has a continuing requirement to collect high-quality in situ data for the vicarious calibration of current and next generation ocean color satellite sensors and to validate the algorithms that use the remotely sensed observations. Recent NASA airborne missions over Monterey Bay, CA, have demonstrated novel above- and in-water measurement capabilities supporting a combined airborne sensor approach (imaging spectrometer, microradiometers, and a sun photometer). The results characterize coastal atmospheric and aquatic properties through an end-to-end assessment of image acquisition, atmospheric correction, algorithm application, plus sea-truth observations from state-of-the-art instrument systems. The primary goal is to demonstrate the following in support of calibration and validation exercises for satellite coastal ocean color products: 1) the utility of a multi-sensor airborne instrument suite to assess the bio-optical properties of coastal California, including water quality; and 2) the importance of contemporaneous atmospheric measurements to improve atmospheric correction in the coastal zone. The imaging spectrometer (Headwall) is optimized in the blue spectral domain to emphasize remote sensing of marine and freshwater ecosystems. The novel airborne instrument, Coastal Airborne In-situ Radiometers (C-AIR) provides measurements of apparent optical properties with high dynamic range and fidelity for deriving exact water leaving radiances at the land-ocean boundary, including radiometrically shallow aquatic ecosystems. Simultaneous measurements supporting empirical atmospheric correction of image data are accomplished using the Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14). Flight operations are presented for the instrument payloads using the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) Twin Otter flown over Monterey Bay during the seasonal fall algal bloom in 2011 (COAST) and 2013 (OCEANIA) to support bio-optical measurements of

  3. NASA COAST and OCEANIA Airborne Missions Support Ecosystem and Water Quality Research in the Coastal Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guild, L. S.; Kudela, R. M.; Hooker, S. B.; Morrow, J. H.; Russell, P. B.; Palacios, S. L.; Livingston, J. M.; Negrey, K.; Torres-Perez, J. L.; Broughton, J.

    2014-12-01

    NASA has a continuing requirement to collect high-quality in situ data for the vicarious calibration of current and next generation ocean color satellite sensors and to validate the algorithms that use the remotely sensed observations. Recent NASA airborne missions over Monterey Bay, CA, have demonstrated novel above- and in-water measurement capabilities supporting a combined airborne sensor approach (imaging spectrometer, microradiometers, and a sun photometer). The results characterize coastal atmospheric and aquatic properties through an end-to-end assessment of image acquisition, atmospheric correction, algorithm application, plus sea-truth observations from state-of-the-art instrument systems. The primary goal is to demonstrate the following in support of calibration and validation exercises for satellite coastal ocean color products: 1) the utility of a multi-sensor airborne instrument suite to assess the bio-optical properties of coastal California, including water quality; and 2) the importance of contemporaneous atmospheric measurements to improve atmospheric correction in the coastal zone. The imaging spectrometer (Headwall) is optimized in the blue spectral domain to emphasize remote sensing of marine and freshwater ecosystems. The novel airborne instrument, Coastal Airborne In-situ Radiometers (C-AIR) provides measurements of apparent optical properties with high dynamic range and fidelity for deriving exact water leaving radiances at the land-ocean boundary, including radiometrically shallow aquatic ecosystems. Simultaneous measurements supporting empirical atmospheric correction of image data are accomplished using the Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14). Flight operations are presented for the instrument payloads using the CIRPAS Twin Otter flown over Monterey Bay during the seasonal fall algal bloom in 2011 (COAST) and 2013 (OCEANIA) to support bio-optical measurements of phytoplankton for coastal zone research.

  4. Assessment of the ecological status of Maltese coastal waters using the Ecological Evaluation Index (EEI)

    OpenAIRE

    Azzopardi, Marthese; Schembri, Patrick J.; 44th European Marine Biology Symposium

    2009-01-01

    Benthic macroalgae are a reliable indicator of the trophic status of coastal waters. Macroalgae are also one of the Biological Quality Elements for the evaluation of ecological quality required by the European Water Framework Directive (WFD, 2000/60/EE). The Ecological Evaluation Index (EEI) described by Orfanidis et al. (2001), a specific biological index for the implementation of the WFD in the Mediterranean, was applied to seven sites around Malta with different degrees of anthropogenic st...

  5. [The marine coastal water monitoring program of the Italian Ministry of the Environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Girolamo, Irene

    2003-01-01

    The Ministry of the Environment carries out marine and coastal monitoring programs with the collaboration of the coastal Regions. The program in progress (2001-2003), on the basis of results of the previous one, has identified 73 particulary significant areas (57 critical areas and 16 control areas). The program investigates several parameters on water, plancton, sediments, mollusks and benthos with analyses fortnightly, six-monthly and annual. The main aim of these three year monitoring programs is to assess the quality of national marine ecosystem.

  6. Potable water scarcity: options and issues in the coastal areas of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Atikul; Sakakibara, Hiroyuki; Karim, Rezaul; Sekine, Masahiko

    2013-09-01

    In the coastal areas of Bangladesh, scarcity of drinking water is acute as freshwater aquifers are not available at suitable depths and surface water is highly saline. Households are mainly dependent on rainwater harvesting, pond sand filters and pond water for drinking purposes. Thus, individuals in these areas often suffer from waterborne diseases. In this paper, water consumption behaviour in two southwestern coastal districts of Bangladesh has been investigated. The data for this study were collected through a survey conducted on 750 rural households in 39 villages of the study area. The sample was selected using a random sampling technique. Households' choice of water source is complex and seasonally dependent. Water sourcing patterns, households' preference of water sourcing options and economic feasibility of options suggest that a combination of household and community-based options could be suitable for year-round water supply. Distance and time required for water collection were found to be difficult for water collection from community-based options. Both household and community-based options need regular maintenance. In addition to installation of water supply facilities, it is necessary to make the residents aware of proper operation and maintenance of the facilities.

  7. Monitoring bacterial contamination of piped water supply in rural coastal Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan, Md Sabbir; Akber, Md Ali; Islam, Md Atikul; Kabir, Md Pervez; Hoque, Md Ikramul

    2017-10-31

    Safe drinking water is scarce in southwest coastal Bangladesh because of unavailability of fresh water. Given the high salinity of both groundwater and surface water in this area, harvested rainwater and rain-fed pond water became the main sources of drinking water. Both the government and non-government organizations have recently introduced pipe water supply in the rural coastal areas to ensure safe drinking water. We assessed the bacteriological quality of water at different points along the piped water distribution system (i.e., the source, treatment plant, household taps, street hydrants, and household storage containers) of Mongla municipality under Mongla Upazila in Bagerhat district. Water samples were collected at 2-month interval from May 2014 to March 2015. Median E. coli and total coliform counts at source, treatment plant, household taps, street hydrants, and household storage containers were respectively 225, 4, 7, 7, and 15 cfu/100 ml and 42,000, 545, 5000, 6150, and 18,800 cfu/100 ml. Concentrations of both of the indicator bacteria reduced after treatment, although it did not satisfy the WHO drinking water standards. However, re-contamination in distribution systems and household storage containers indicate improper maintenance of distribution system and lack of personal hygiene.

  8. Periodic fluctuations in deep water formation due to sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, R.

    2012-12-01

    During the last ice age, several abrupt warming events took place, known as Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O) events. Their effects were felt globally, although the North Atlantic experienced the largest temperature increase. The leading hypothesis to explain their occurrence postulates that the warming was caused by abrupt disruptions of the North Atlantic Current due to meltwater discharge from destabilized ice sheets (Heinrich events). However, the number of warming events outnumber the those of ice-sheet collapse. Thus, the majority of D-O events are not attributed to surface freshwater anomalies, and the underlying mechanism behind their occurrence remain unexplained. Using a simple dynamical model of sea ice and an overturning circulation, I show the existence of self-sustained relaxation oscillations in the overturning circulation. The insulating effect of sea ice is shown to paradoxically lead to a net loss of heat from the top layer of the polar ocean when sea ice retreats. Repeated heat loss results in a denser top layer and a destabilized water column, which triggers convection. The convective state pulls the system out of its preferred mode of circulation, setting up relaxation oscillations. The period of oscillations in this case is linked to the geometry of the ocean basin, if solar forcing is assumed to remain constant. If appropriate glacial freshwater forcing is applied to the model, a pattern of oscillation is produced that bears remarkable similarity to the observed fluctuations in North Atlantic climate between 50,000 and 30,000 years before present.; Comparison of NGRIP δ 18-O (proxy for near surface air temperature) between 50,000 and 30,000 years before present, showing Bond cycles (left) with the model output when forced with appropriate glacial freshwater forcing (right).

  9. Solute transport in coupled inland-coastal water systems. General conceptualisation and application to Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarsjoe, Jerker; Destouni, Georgia; Persson, Klas; Prieto, Carmen (Dept. of Physical Geography, Quaternary Geology, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2007-12-15

    diffuse and occurring through SGD, small transient streams and/or coastal wetlands. Regarding transport quantifications, hydrogeochemical characteristics and pollution source loads may generally differ between larger, monitored catchments and smaller unmonitored coastal catchments. Since national hydrological monitoring data systematically exclude smaller, coastal catchments, they may not be representative for conditions in Forsmark (or Laxemar-Simpevarp). This emphasises the importance of extending in time the recently started hydrological and hydrogeochemical data series in the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp coastal catchment areas, since they are in effect unmonitored from a hydrological viewpoint, due to the lack of extended discharge time series. In the performed initial demonstration analysis of solute transport pathways from deep groundwater to recipients at the surface, we considered the main scenarios: (I) transport in the Quaternary deposits-bedrock interface zone only, and (II) transport in the coupled groundwater-surface water system. Considering mean travel times from each model cell to the coast, and disregarding travel times in the deep bedrock domain itself (which may be added to the here presented values), results show that travel times in scenario (II) were less than 4 years in 90% of the considered model area. Travel times were longer in scenario (I) with values higher than 10 years in 40% of the catchment area. These results are based on the assumption that the pathways do not go through zones of near-stagnant groundwater. If they would do so (and the above assumption is violated), results show that travel times can be considerably longer, for instance exceeding 400 years in half of the model area in scenario (I). Considering possible solute attenuation (caused by e.g. biogeochemical reactions or decay) along the hydrological transport pathways to inland surface waters and to the coast, we estimate solute mass delivery factors, representing the

  10. Cold-water refuges for climate resilience in Oregon coastal ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many rivers and streams in the Pacific Northwest are currently listed as impaired under the Clean Water Act as a result of high summer water temperatures. Adverse effects of warm waters include impacts to salmon and steelhead populations that may already be stressed by habitat alteration, disease, predation, and fishing pressures. Thermal refuges may help mitigate the effects of increasing temperatures. In this presentation, we define cold-water refuges as areas buffered from regional climate effects by groundwater, physical habitat heterogeneity, or other watershed attributes. Processes forming these features include groundwater-surface water interactions, and hyporheic exchange at a range of spatial and temporal scales. Patterns associated with these processes may provide useful indicators for mapping and predicting the locations and extent of these features. Fish may congregate at high densities within cold-water refuges during critical periods of thermal stress, but there may be trade-offs associated with refuge use including predation, disease risk, and reduced foraging opportunities. These factors all contribute to determining refuge effectiveness. Watershed management and restoration strategies could consider these features and their potential utility to cold-water fish, and we conclude with examples of types of watershed restoration actions that might help foster cold-water refuge creation and maintenance.M Many rivers and streams in the Pacific Nort

  11. Integrated modelling of nitrate loads to coastal waters and land rent applied to catchment-scale water management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsgaard, A.; Jacobsen, T.; Jacobsen, Brian H.

    2007-01-01

    by intensive agricultural production and leakage of nitrate constitute a major pollution problem with respect groundwater aquifers (drinking water), fresh surface water systems (water quality of lakes) and coastal receiving waters (eutrophication). The case study presented illustrates an advanced modelling...... approach applied in river basin management. Point sources (e.g. sewage treatment plant discharges) and distributed diffuse sources (nitrate leakage) are included to provide a modelling tool capable of simulating pollution transport from source to recipient to analyse the effects of specific, localized...

  12. Need For Coastal Water Management Tool For Oil Spill Simulation In Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uba

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ghanaian water bodies have been under threats recently ranging from illegal mining sand winning reclamation of water bodies for the purposes of human settlement pollution etc. Civil and mechanical installations on the coastal waters have increase due to the discovery of oil recently and such situations are not spared by oil spills. Oil spills are an inevitable consequence of the need to produce store and transport oil. The commercialization of oil production has placed Ghana among High-Risk Zones which are characterised by high traffic density and the presence of navigational hazards. Despite Ghanas awareness about oil spill accidents in both preparedness and response it is likely it will be compromised when any accident occurs as it has more pressing demands on finite funds and resources. This situation might place Ghana among ill-prepared countries against oil spill combat. An important part of contingency plan is the prediction of locations that are susceptible to oil after spillage. This can be done by the use of satellite information reviewing and comparing previous incidents laboratory work or by fine tuning models which as of now the country is not having despite all the precautions to prevent oil spills. When spill models are used properly they provide ecological economic and social benefits. Hence the need for such decision-making tool for Ghana to create an environment for the contingency plans to be tested validated and upgraded. Such exercises not only maintain and increase the skills of the response personnel but also lead to improvements and fine tuning of the plan as weaknesses and gaps are identified.

  13. Salinity and water temperature data from the Coastal Waters of Washington/Oregon from 01 March 2001 to 31 December 2001 (NODC Accession 0001142)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Salinity and water temperature data were collected using conductivity sensor and temperature probe in the Coastal Waters of Washington/Orgen from March 1, 2001 to...

  14. Speciation of heavy metals in coastal water of Qeshm Island in the Persian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Karbassi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fuel storage tanks are one of the main sources of water pollution as well as loss of crude oil and oil products in refineries.  In the process of utilization of these tanks, considerable amounts of hydrocarbons may find their way into the coastal water, which eventually lead to loss of valuable hydrocarbons. Oil type, climatic condition and characteristics of oil tanks are among the main variables in computing evaporative losses. The present study brings out the results of a project that was carried out to investigate the adverse effects of oil terminal on coastal waters of Qeshm Island and aims to elaborate on speciation of metals in coastal waters. For this purpose, 12 stations were sampled. Water chemistry software was used to draw Eh-pH diagrams. Along with the speciation of heavy metals, cluster analysis was carried out by MVSP software. According to the results, HSC diagrams showed that Cu and Cd were present as free ions. Lead, manganese, cobalt, zinc and nickel were respectively present as PbOH, MnOH, ZnOH, CoOH and NiOH in the Persian Gulf. Speciation of Cu and Ni was in the form of Cu2O and NiO. Vanadium was also present in combination with hydroxide. Since all the studied elements were within the water stability range, they were stable, and there were no environmental risks of contamination and toxicity. The results of cluster analysis did not show any relation between Eh and pH. This clearly showed that Eh-pH was governed by different mechanisms in coastal waters of Qeshm Island. Vanadium and Ni concentration was governed by pH, while Cu and Cd concentration was controlled by Eh.

  15. Temporal and spatial diversity of bacterial communities in coastal waters of the South china sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jikun; Xiao, Kai; Li, Li; Ding, Xian; Liu, Helu; Lu, Yongjun; Zhou, Shining

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria are recognized as important drivers of biogeochemical processes in all aquatic ecosystems. Temporal and geographical patterns in ocean bacterial communities have been observed in many studies, but the temporal and spatial patterns in the bacterial communities from the South China Sea remained unexplored. To determine the spatiotemporal patterns, we generated 16S rRNA datasets for 15 samples collected from the five regularly distributed sites of the South China Sea in three seasons (spring, summer, winter). A total of 491 representative sequences were analyzed by MOTHUR, yielding 282 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) grouped at 97% stringency. Significant temporal variations of bacterial diversity were observed. Richness and diversity indices indicated that summer samples were the most diverse. The main bacterial group in spring and summer samples was Alphaproteobacteria, followed by Cyanobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, whereas Cyanobacteria dominated the winter samples. Spatial patterns in the samples were observed that samples collected from the coastal (D151, D221) waters and offshore (D157, D1512, D224) waters clustered separately, the coastal samples harbored more diverse bacterial communities. However, the temporal pattern of the coastal site D151 was contrary to that of the coastal site D221. The LIBSHUFF statistics revealed noticeable differences among the spring, summer and winter libraries collected at five sites. The UPGMA tree showed there were temporal and spatial heterogeneity of bacterial community composition in coastal waters of the South China Sea. The water salinity (P=0.001) contributed significantly to the bacteria-environment relationship. Our results revealed that bacterial community structures were influenced by environmental factors and community-level changes in 16S-based diversity were better explained by spatial patterns than by temporal patterns.

  16. Comparing Stable Water Isotope Variation in Atmospheric Moisture Observed over Coastal Water and Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, C. T.; Rambo, J. P.; Welp, L. R.; Bible, K.; Hollinger, D. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Stable oxygen (δ18O) and hydrogen (δD) isotopologues of atmospheric moisture are strongly influenced by large-scale synoptic weather cycles, surface evapotranspiration and boundary layer mixing. Atmospheric water isotope variation has been shown to empirically relate to relative humidity (Rh) of near surface moisture, and to a less degree, air temperature. Continuous δ18O and δD measurements are becoming more available, providing new opportunities to investigate processes that control isotope variability. This study shows the comparison of δ18O and δD measured at a continental location and over coastal waters for 3 seasons (spring to fall, 2014). The surface moisture isotope measurements were made using two LGR spectroscopy water vapor isotope analyzers (Los Gatos Research Inc.), one operated in an old-growth coniferous forest at Wind River field station, WA (45.8205°N, 121.9519°W), and another sampling marine air over seawater at the Scripps Pier in San Diego, CA (32.8654°N, 117.2536°W), USA. Isotope variations were measured at 1Hz and data were reported as hourly averages with an overall accuracy of ±0.1‰ for δ18O, ±0.5‰ for δ2H. Day-to-day variations in δ18O and δD are shown strongly influenced by synoptic weather events at both locations. Boundary layer mixing between surface moisture and the dry air entrained from the free troposphere exerts a midday maximum and a consistent diel pattern in deuterium excess (dx). At the forest site, surface moisture also interacts with leaf water through transpiration during the day and re-equilibration at night. The latter occurs by retro-diffusion of atmospheric H2O molecules into leaf intercellular space, which becomes intensified as Rh increaes after nightfall, and continues until sunrise, to counter-balance the evaporative isotopic enrichment in leaf water on a daily basis. These vegetation effects lead to negative dx values consistently observed at nighttime in this continental location that were not

  17. Grey mullet (Mugilidae) as possible indicators of global warming in South African estuaries and coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Nicola C; Whitfield, Alan K; Harrison, Trevor D

    2016-12-01

    The grey mullet usually occur in large numbers and biomass in the estuaries of all three South African biogeographic regions, thus making it an ideal family to use in terms of possibly acting as an environmental indicator of global warming. In this analysis the relative estuarine abundance of the dominant three groups of mugilids, namely tropical, warm-water and cool-water endemics, were related to sea surface coastal temperatures. The study suggests a strong link between temperature and the distribution and abundance of the three mullet groups within estuaries and indicates the potential of this family to act as an indicator for future climate change within these systems and adjacent coastal waters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Monitoring of ocean surface algal blooms in coastal and oceanic waters around India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tholkapiyan, Muniyandi; Shanmugam, Palanisamy; Suresh, T

    2014-07-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) sensor MODIS-Aqua provides an important tool for reliable observations of the changing ocean surface algal bloom paradigms in coastal and oceanic waters around India. A time series of the MODIS-Aqua-derived OSABI (ocean surface algal bloom index) and its seasonal composite images report new information and comprehensive pictures of these blooms and their evolution stages in a wide variety of events occurred at different times of the years from 2003 to 2011, providing the first large area survey of such phenomena around India. For most of the years, the results show a strong seasonal pattern of surface algal blooms elucidated by certain physical and meteorological conditions. The extent of these blooms reaches a maximum in winter (November-February) and a minimum in summer (June-September), especially in the northern Arabian Sea. Their spatial distribution and retention period are also significantly increased in the recent years. The increased spatial distribution and intensity of these blooms in the northern Arabian Sea in winter are likely caused by enhanced cooling, increased convective mixing, favorable winds, and atmospheric deposition of the mineral aerosols (from surrounding deserts) of the post-southwest monsoon period. The southward Oman coastal current and southwestward winds become apparently responsible for their extension up to the central Arabian Sea. Strong upwelling along this coast further triggers their initiation and growth. Though there is a warming condition associated with increased sea surface height anomalies along the coasts of India and Sri Lanka in winter, surface algal bloom patches are still persistent along these coasts due to northeast monsoonal winds, enhanced precipitation, and subsequent nutrient enrichment in these areas. The occurrence of the surface algal blooms in the northern Bay of Bengal coincides with a region of the well-known Ganges-Brahmaputra Estuarine Frontal

  19. Mitigation of Disasters Due to Severe Climate Events: from Policy to Practice,the West African Coastal Region Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediang, Okuku

    2016-07-01

    The distributive pattern of disaster due to severe climate events over the coast of West Africa especially Nigeria was examined using yearly mean disaster due to severe climatic events for the period of 30 years (1981-2010) from the marine stations in the coastal region of Nigeria. Graphical and isohyetal analyses were used to look into the patter of severe weather events over the area considered and to see if the severe weather events is increasing or not in the coast of West Africa especially the Nigerian coast and how to mitigate ,were policy relating to severe weather events are discussed. The paper conclude that due to the nature of coast of West Africa and Nigeria in particular, it enjoys longer severe weather events season than dry during the wet season, it is common to observe periods of enhanced or suppressed convective activity to persist over the wide areas for somedays. This paper also contributes to the wealth of knowledge already existing on Indigenous people play major roles in preserving the ecosystem especially during severe weather events . This has resulted in the recent calls for the integration of indigenous knowledge systems into global knowledge system strategies. Until now, integrating local knowledge systems into severe weather events and climate change concerns is not a completely new idea. A comprehensive review of literature using electronic and non-electronic databases formed the methodology. The paper conclude also by drawing the attention that by targeting Promoting indigenous people's participation in severe weather events and climate change issues is an important initiative towards adaptation and sustainable development in Africa and around the world. It is increasingly realized that the global knowledge system has dominated research, policies and programmes that address current severe weather events and climate change's challenges,mitigation and adaptation strategies.

  20. OCTS and SeaWiFS Bio-Optical Algorithm and Product Validation and Intercomparison in US Coastal Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christopher W.; Brock, John C.

    1998-01-01

    The successful launch of the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) Ocean Color and Temperature Sensor (OCTS) in August 1996, and the launch of Orbital Science Corporation's (OSC) Sea-viewing Wide-Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) in August 1997 signaled the beginning of a new era for ocean color research and application. These data may be used to remotely evaluate 1) water quality, 2) transport of sediments and adhered pollutants, 3) primary production, upon which commercial shellfish and finfish populations depend for food, and 4) harmful algal blooms which pose a threat to public health and economies of affected areas. Several US government agencies have recently expressed interest in monitoring U.S. coastal waters using optical remote sensing. This renewed interest is broadly driven by 1) resource management concerns over the impact of coastward shifts in population and land use on the ecosystems of estuaries, wetlands, nearshore benthic environments and fisheries, 2) recognition of the need to understand short time scale global change due to urbanization of sensitive land-margin ecosystems, and 3) national security issues. Satellite ocean color sensors have the potential to furnish data at the appropriate time and space scales to evaluate and resolve these concerns and problems. In this draft technical memorandum, we outline our progress during the first year of our SIMBIOS project to evaluate ocean color bio-optical algorithms and products generated using OCTS and SeaWiFS data in coastal US waters.

  1. Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in Drinking Water Due to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akorede

    water sources. The toxicity of these heavy metals from the mining, milling and smelting companies can cause harmful and even lethal effects on the human health. The objective of this study was to investigate the level of As, Cr, Zn,. Mg, Fe, Pb, Cd, Cu, Ag and Mn in well and tap water and assess the degree of pollution in ...

  2. Drinking Water Contamination Due To Lead-based Solder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, N.; Bartelt, E.; Cuff, K. E.

    2004-12-01

    The presence of lead in drinking water creates many health hazards. Exposure to lead-contaminated water can affect the brain, the central nervous system, blood cells, and kidneys, causing such problems as mental retardation, kidney disease, heart disease, stroke, and death. One way in which lead can contaminate our water supply is through the use of lead solder to join pipes. Lead solder was widely used in the past because of its ease of application as well as its low cost. Lead contamination in residential areas has previously been found to be a particularly serious problem in first-draw samples, of water that has sat stagnant in pipes overnight. To investigate the time-dependence of drinking water lead contamination, we analyzed samples taken hourly of water exposed to lead solder. While our preliminary data was insufficient to show more than a rough correlation between time of exposure and lead concentration over short periods (1-3 hours), we were able to confirm that overnight exposure of water to lead-based solder results in the presence high levels of lead. We also investigated other, external factors that previous research has indicated contribute to increased concentrations of lead. Our analysis of samples of lead-exposed water at various pH and temperatures suggests that these factors can be equally significant in terms of their contribution to elevated lead concentration levels. In particular, water that is slightly corrosive appears to severely impact the solubility of lead. As this type of water is common in much of the Northeast United States, the presence of lead-based solder in residential areas there is especially problematic. Although lead-based solder has been banned since the 1980s, it remains a serious concern, and a practical solution still requires further research.

  3. Studies on water quality and pathogenic bacteria in coastal water Langkawi, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalal, K C A; Faizul, H N Noor; Naim, M Azrul; John, B Akbar; Kamaruzzaman, B Y

    2012-07-01

    A study on physico-chemical parameters and pathogenic bacterial community was carried out at the coastal waters of Pulau Tuba island, Langkawi. The physico-chemical parameters such as temperature (27.43-28.88 degrees C), dissolved oxygen (3.79-6.49 mg l(-1)), pH (7.72-8.20), salinity (33.10-33.96 ppt), total dissolved solids (32.27-32.77 g l(-1)) and specific conductivity (49.83-51.63 mS cm(-1)) were observed. Station 3 and station 4 showed highest amount of nitrates (26.93 and 14.61 microg at N l(-1)) than station 1 (2.04 microg at N l(-1)) and station 2 (4.18 microg at N l(-1)). The highest concentration (12.4 +/- microg l(-1)) of chlorophyll a was observed in station 4 in October 2005. High phosphorus content (561 microg P l(-1)) was found in the station 2. Thirteen bacterial isolates were successfully identified using API 20E system. The highest amount of bacteria was observed at Station 4 (3400 CFU ml(-1)) and the lowest numberwas at Station 2 (890 CFU ml(-1)). Out of identified 13 Gram-negative bacterial isolates dominant species were Aeromonas hydrophila, Klebsiella oxytoca, Pseudomonas baumannii, Vibrio vulnificus, Proteus mirabilis, Providencia alcalifaciens and Serratia liquefaciens. Apart from this, oil biodegrading Pseudomonas putida were also identified. The study reveals the existing status of water quality is still conducive and the reasonably diverse with Gram-negative bacteria along the Pulau Tuba Langkawi.

  4. Microbial water quality of coastal recreational water in the Gaza Strip, Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAZEN T. ABUALTAYEF

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Abualtayef MT, Abd Rabou AN, Abu Foul AA, Ghabayen SM, Elsinwar HM. 2014. Microbial water quality of coastal recreational water in the Gaza Strip, Palestine. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 26-32. Wastewater disposal into the Mediterranean coast of the Gaza Strip has many negative effects, whether on the environment or on human health, thus microbiological analysis of seawater samples was carried out. The microbial analysis was confined on two types of fecal indicators (fecal coliform and fecal streptococci, in addition to a single type of bacteria (pseudomonas. This study was conducted between the beginning of July 2012 to the mid of October 2012 over an area extended from the proposed Khan Younis fishing port to Gaza fishing port, with a length of about 23 km. The study area was divided into five zones. The samples were collected in two rounds: the first round included 75 samples that collected along the study area during the summer season. The second round included 19 samples that collected in the autumn season to compare it with their counterparts that have been collected in the summer season. Laboratory analysis showed the presence of contamination in many of these samples. The results also showed that the pollution was concentrated in and surrounding the mouths of wastewater outfalls. Depending on the microbial analyses, which have been collected in the first round, the fecal coliform appeared in 61% of the samples, while fecal streptococci appeared in all samples and pseudomonas appeared in 33% of the samples. The pollutants were widespread along the study area, which are the result mainly from wastewater discharge into the sea. A risk analysis was done for season variations using the second moment method; in general, it was found that risk in both seasons was high especially in summer.

  5. Impact of lengthening open water season on food security in Alaska coastal communities: Global impacts may outweigh local "frontline" effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolph, R.; Mahoney, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Using ice concentration data from the Alaska Sea Ice Atlas from 1953-2013 for selected communities in Alaska, we find a consistent trend toward later freeze up and earlier breakup, leading a lengthened open water period. Such changes are often considered to bring a variety of "frontline" local impacts to Arctic coastal communities such as increased rates of coastal erosion. However, direct consequences of these changes to local food security (e.g. through impacts on subsistence activities and marine transport of goods) may be outweighed at least in the short term by the effects of large scale Arctic sea ice change coupled with global oil markets. For example, a later freeze-up might delay local hunters' transition from boats to snow-machines, but whether this trend will affect hunting success, especially in the next few years, is uncertain. Likewise, the magnitude of change in open water season length is unlikely to be sufficient to increase the frequency with which communities are served by barges. However, an expanding open water season throughout the Arctic has implications for the global economy, which can have indirect effects on local communities. In the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas, where rapid sea ice change has been accompanied by increased interest in oil and gas development, the U.S. Bureau of Ocean Energy Management currently requires drilling operations to cease 38 days prior to freeze up. Taking this into account, the lengthening open water season has effectively extended the drilling season for oil companies by 184% since the 1950s. If oil development goes ahead, local communities will likely experience a range of indirect impacts on food security due to increased vessel traffic and demand on infrastructure coupled with changes in local economies and employment opportunities. Increased likelihood of an oil spill in coastal waters also poses a significant threat to local food security. Thus, while Arctic coastal communities are already experiencing

  6. Assessing the performance of formulations for nonlinear feedback of surface gravity waves on ocean currents over coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengcheng; Sheng, Jinyu; Hannah, Charles

    2017-08-01

    This study presents applications of a two-way coupled wave-circulation modelling system over coastal waters, with a special emphasis of performance assessments of two different methods for nonlinear feedback of ocean surface gravity waves on three-dimensional (3D) ocean currents. These two methods are the vortex force (VF) formulation suggested by Bennis et al. (2011) and the latest version of radiation stress (RS) formulation suggested by Mellor (2015). The coupled modelling system is first applied to two idealized test cases of surf-zone scales to validate implementations of these two methods in the coupled wave-circulation system. Model results show that the latest version of RS has difficulties in producing the undertow over the surf zone. The coupled system is then applied to Lunenburg Bay (LB) of Nova Scotia during Hurricane Juan in 2003. The coupled system using both the VF and RS formulations generates much stronger and more realistic 3D circulation in the Bay during Hurricane Juan than the circulation-only model, demonstrating the importance of surface wave forces to the 3D ocean circulation over coastal waters. However, the RS formulation generates some weak unphysical currents outside the wave breaking zone due to a less reasonable representation for the vertical distribution of the RS gradients over a slopping bottom. These weak unphysical currents are significantly magnified in a two-way coupled system when interacting with large surface waves, degrading the model performance in simulating currents at one observation site. Our results demonstrate that the VF formulation with an appropriate parameterization of wave breaking effects is able to produce reasonable results for applications over coastal waters during extreme weather events. The RS formulation requires a complex wave theory rather than the linear wave theory for the approximation of a vertical RS term to improve its performance under both breaking and non-breaking wave conditions.

  7. Relationship between organic pollution and the occurrence of toxic Phytoplankton species in the Lebanese coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Rahman Hassoun, Abed

    2017-04-01

    Aiming to evaluate the effects of organic pollution, environmental parameters and phytoplankton community were monitored during a two-year period (from April 2010 till March 2012) in the central coast of Lebanon in the Levantine Sub-basin. Data were collected for hydrological (temperature and salinity), chemical (nitrites, nitrates and phosphates), and biological (chlorophyll-a and phytoplankton populations) parameters. Our results show that temperature follows its normal seasonal and annual cycles, usually noted in the Lebanese coastal waters. Salinity presents spatial and temporal variations with low values (19.07 - 39.6) in the areas affected by continental inputs. Significant fluctuations (P phytoplanktonic cells were observed between the sites and through the years. Moreover, a perturbation of the natural phytoplanktonic succession and an occurrence of toxic or potentially harmful algae were noticed in the polluted sites, reflecting the influence of wastewater effluents on the coastal seawater equilibrium and thus on the Lebanese marine biodiversity. This study sheds the light on the current environmental condition of few coastal areas which could facilitate the management of their pollution sources. Keywords: Organic pollution, phytoplankton community, toxic algae, coastal water quality, Lebanon, Mediterranean Sea.

  8. Spatio-temporal distribution patterns of the epibenthic community in the coastal waters of Suriname

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Tomas; De Backer, Annelies; Wan Tong You, Kenneth; Vincx, Magda; Hostens, Kris

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to characterize the spatio-temporal patterns of the epibenthic community in the coastal waters of Suriname. Data were collected on a (bi)monthly basis in 2012-2013 at 15 locations in the shallow (Ophioderma brevispina and Ophiolepis elegans) and a variety of crabs, sea stars and hermit crabs. In between both zones, a transition assemblage was noted, with epibenthic species typically found in either the coastal or offshore assemblages, but mainly characterized by the absence of X. kroyeri. Although the epibenthic community was primarily structured in an on-offshore gradient related to depth, sediment grain size and sediment total organic carbon content, a longitudinal (west-east) gradient was apparent as well. The zones in the eastern part of the Suriname coastal shelf seemed to be more widely stretched along the on-offshore gradient. Although clear seasonal differences were noted in the environmental characteristics (e.g. dry vs. rainy season), this was not reflected in the epibenthic community structure. X. kroyeri reached very high densities (up to 1383 ind 1000 m-²) in the shallow coastal waters of Suriname. As X. kroyeri is increasingly exploited throughout its range, the current study provides the ecological context for its presence and abundance, which is crucial for an ecosystem approach and the sustainable management of this commercially important species and its habitat.

  9. Unsafe Practice of Extracting Potable Water From Aquifers in the Southwestern Coastal Region of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, S. H.; Ahmed, A. U.; Iqbal, M. Z.

    2009-05-01

    The groundwater resource is of paramount importance to the lives and livelihoods of the millions of people in Bangladesh. Unfortunately, high levels of arsenic have been found in groundwater in many parts of Bangladesh. Besides, the salinity in water systems in the coastal areas has increased as a consequence of the flow diversion from the upper reaches of Ganges River by the neighboring country India. Since hand- pumped groundwater (tube) wells are the only viable sources of drinking water, maintaining drinking water security for over 6 million people in the south-west (SW) region has been a major challenge for the Bangladesh Government. Due to rapid exploitation of groundwater resources in excess of recharge capacity, non-saline water sources in the SW region have already been depleted and the hand tube wells have mostly been abandoned. Meanwhile, shrimp farming has resulted in saline water infiltration into the perched aquifer system in many areas. A recent survey covering123 wells out of 184, extending to a depth of 330 m, showed high salinity in water. Combined factors of rapid exploitation of shallow groundwater, depletion of the deep aquifers and the subsequent saline water intrusion into these aquifers have put long-term sustainability of the remaining fresh groundwater resource into jeopardy. Very high concentrations of nitrite are found in this study in many tube wells in the area where samples have been drawn from aquifer systems up to 244 m deep. Nitrite concentrations in 35 wells randomly sampled in this study range from 16.98 to 43.11 mg/L, averaging 27.55 mg/L. This is much higher than the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 1 mg/L set by the U.S. EPA for human consumption. Simultaneously, dissolved oxygen (DO) is found to be very low (0.1 to 2 mg/L). There are numerous reports and anecdotal evidences of "Blue Baby Syndrome" (methemoglobinemia) in the region, which is generally due to gradual suffocation caused by poor transport of oxygen from the

  10. Carbon and Water Fluxes in a Drained Coastal Clearcut and a Pine Plantation in Eastern North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. L. Deforest; Ge Sun; A. Noormets; J. Chen; Steve McNulty; M. Gavazzi; Devendra M. Amatya; R. W. Skaggs

    2006-01-01

    The effects of clear-cutting and cultivating for timber on ecosystem carbon and water fluxes were evaluated by comparative measurements of two drained coastal wetland systems in the North Carolina coastal plain. Measurements were conducted from January through September, 2005 in a recent clearcut (CC) of native hardwoods and a loblolly pine (Pinus tacda...

  11. The links between global carbon, water and nutrient cycles in an urbanizing world — the case of coastal eutrophication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroeze, C.; Hofstra, N.; Ivens, W.; Löhr, A.; Strokal, M.; Wijnen, van J.

    2013-01-01

    The natural cycles of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and water have been disturbed substantially by human activities. Urbanizing coastal drainage basins and large river deltas are located at the interface of freshwater and coastal components of the larger earth system and the process of

  12. Mixture risk assessment due to ingestion of arsenic, copper, and zinc from milkfish farmed in contaminated coastal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Jun; Ling, Min-Pei; Chen, Szu-Chieh; Chen, Wei-Yu; Hsieh, Nan-Hung; Cheng, Yi-Hsien; You, Shu-Han; Chou, Wei-Chun; Lin, Ming-Chao; Liao, Chung-Min

    2017-06-01

    Human health risks associated with the consumption of metal-contaminated fish over extended periods have become a concern particularly in Taiwan, where fish is consumed on a large scale. This study applied the interaction-based hazard index (HI) to assess the mixture health risks for fishers and non-fishers who consume the arsenic (As), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) contaminated milkfish from As-contaminated coastal areas in Taiwan, taking into account joint toxic actions and potential toxic interactions. We showed that the interactions of As-Zn and Cu-Zn were antagonistic, whereas As-Cu interaction was additive. We found that HI estimates without interactions considered were 1.3-1.6 times higher than interactive HIs. Probability distributions of HI estimates for non-fishers were less than 1, whereas all 97.5%-tile HI estimates for fishers were >1. Analytical results revealed that the level of inorganic As in milkfish was the main contributor to HIs, indicating a health risk posed to consumers of fish farmed in As-contaminated areas. However, we found that Zn supplementation could significantly decrease As-induced risk of hematological effect by activating a Zn-dependent enzyme. In order to improve the accuracy of health risk due to exposure to multiple metals, further toxicological data, regular environmental monitoring, dietary survey, and refinement approaches for interactive risk assessment are warranted.

  13. Western Mediterranean coastal waters--monitoring PCBs and pesticides accumulation in Mytilus galloprovincialis by active mussel watching: the Mytilos project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpato, Alfonso; Romanelli, Giulia; Galgani, Francois; Andral, Bruno; Amici, Marina; Giordano, Pierpaolo; Caixach, Josep; Calvo, Monica; Campillo, Juan Antonio; Albadalejo, José Benedicto; Cento, Alessandro; BenBrahim, Samir; Sammari, Cherif; Deudero, Salud; Boulahdid, Mostefa; Giovanardi, Franco

    2010-04-01

    In order to evaluate the contamination levels in the Western Mediterranean basin, the active mussel watch methodology has been applied. This methodology consists of mussel transplantation (Mytilus galloprovincialis) from non impacted areas to selected coastal areas, characterised by potential impact from the continent due to contaminating sources. The areas of interest were selected along the entire coastal development of the Western Mediterranean sea, 122 sites in total. The time of mussel caging exposure was 12 weeks. The project was co-financed in the frame of the Interreg IIIB Meddoc Programme, aimed at determining the overall chemical quality of the Mediterranean sea, consistent with the Water Framework Directive 2000/60. Several partners representative of the coastal Mediterranean Countries were involved in the Project, with the purpose of building up a common surveillance network, adopting shared methodologies. In this paper we present the results of three yearly monitoring campaigns (2004, 2005, 2006) carried out along the coasts of Italy, France, Spain, Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia, including the coastal environment of Baleares, Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica. The contamination levels of Pesticides (DDT and its metabolites, Hexachlorocyclohexane isomers alpha and gamma) and Polychlorinated biphenyls, are reported and discussed. Statistical elaborations performed on the original data set were mainly aimed at validating the raw sample distributions, by means of the Johnson method. Both DD and PCB species frequency distributions have been approximated to appropriate theoretical distributions, belonging to the Log-normal and Bounded families. By integrating the related Probability Density Functions (p.d.f.), different accumulation values for DDT, DDD and DDE and PCB species have been estimated, corresponding to fixed percentage points of the area under the respective curves. By choosing appropriate probability level boundaries (33rd and 66th percentile

  14. A phosphorus budget for Northern Ireland: inputs to inland and coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. V.; Jordan, C.; Annett, J. A.

    2005-03-01

    The European Union (EU) Water Framework Directive (200/60/EC) requires Member States to restore all surface waters to 'good ecological status' by 2015. There is growing recognition that phosphorus (P) is the key nutrient in controlling the degree of eutrophication of inland waters. Recent increases in the diffuse P enrichment of surface waters from Northern Ireland agriculture, operating at a P surplus of 14.8 kg ha -1 year -1 have nullified the impacts of programmes to reduce P from point sources. The aim of the present study was to identify an overall P budget for the inland and coastal waters of Northern Ireland and to apportion the total to diffuse and point sources. To calculate the diffuse agricultural contribution, export coefficients were used. These had been derived for total P previously by multiple regression analysis for a number of CORINE land cover classes. A GIS was employed to estimate total P losses for these land use types for the whole land cover of Northern Ireland. By this method it was determined that 1130 tonnes of total P are exported from agricultural land to inland and coastal waters. In addition there are other diffuse contributions from urban streets and surfaces, moorland, forests and peat bogs, which total 165 tonnes of total P. The human contribution to the overall P budget was divided into mains-sewered households (945 tonnes), households connected to septic tanks (118 tonnes) and industrial discharges (40 tonnes). Overall agriculture contributes some 48% of all P exports to inland and coastal waters. As a disproportionate amount of the effluent from waste water treatment works discharges directly to sea or estuary, the agricultural contribution to inland waters is increased to 58%.

  15. Gradients in microbial methanol uptake: productive coastal upwelling waters to oligotrophic gyres in the Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Joanna L; Sargeant, Stephanie; Nightingale, Philip D; Colin Murrell, J

    2013-01-01

    Methanol biogeochemistry and its importance as a carbon source in seawater is relatively unexplored. We report the first microbial methanol carbon assimilation rates (k) in productive coastal upwelling waters of up to 0.117±0.002 d−1 (∼10 nmol l−1 d−1). On average, coastal upwelling waters were 11 times greater than open ocean northern temperate (NT) waters, eight times greater than gyre waters and four times greater than equatorial upwelling (EU) waters; suggesting that all upwelling waters upon reaching the surface (⩽20 m), contain a microbial population that uses a relatively high amount of carbon (0.3–10 nmol l−1 d−1), derived from methanol, to support their growth. In open ocean Atlantic regions, microbial uptake of methanol into biomass was significantly lower, ranging between 0.04–0.68 nmol l−1 d−1. Microbes in the Mauritanian coastal upwelling used up to 57% of the total methanol for assimilation of the carbon into cells, compared with an average of 12% in the EU, and 1% in NT and gyre waters. Several methylotrophic bacterial species were identified from open ocean Atlantic waters using PCR amplification of mxaF encoding methanol dehydrogenase, the key enzyme in bacterial methanol oxidation. These included Methylophaga sp., Burkholderiales sp., Methylococcaceae sp., Ancylobacter aquaticus, Paracoccus denitrificans, Methylophilus methylotrophus, Methylobacterium oryzae, Hyphomicrobium sp. and Methylosulfonomonas methylovora. Statistically significant correlations for upwelling waters between methanol uptake into cells and both chlorophyll a concentrations and methanol oxidation rates suggest that remotely sensed chlorophyll a images, in these productive areas, could be used to derive total methanol biological loss rates, a useful tool for atmospheric and marine climatically active gas modellers, and air–sea exchange scientists. PMID:23178665

  16. Attacks of Asthma due to Chlorinized Water: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Eyup Berdan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The presence of a high prevalence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness and asthma-like symptoms in swimmers has been reported. But, attacks of asthma which is related to chlorinized water is rare. Chlorine, a strong oxidizing agent, is an important toxic gas that the swimmer can breath during swimming and a worker can exposed to chlorine while he or she was using water with chlorine at home. We describe a persistent increase in nonspecific bronchial hyperresponsiveness following chronic exposure to strong respiratory irritant with chlorinized water in two subjects with no past history of asthma or atopy. We conclude that airway hyperresponsiveness can develop or increase after chronic inhalation of high concentrations of irritants such as chlorinized water an indoor irritant factor and that these changes may be prolonged. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(1.000: 87-90

  17. Assessment Of Physico-Chemical Property Of Water Samples From Port Harcourt Bonny And Opobo Coastal Areas For Sustainable Coastal Tourism Development In Rivers State Nigeria.

    OpenAIRE

    Obinwanne; Cletus Okechukwu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The study evaluated some physico-chemical properties of water samples from Port Harcourt Bonny and Opobo to determine the safety of water from the areas for sustainable coastal tourism development in Rivers State Nigeria. Three water samples were collected with three sterilized plastic containers with a capacity of 25cl which were subjected to laboratory tests to know their constituents. The parameters tested were appearance temperature colour turbidity conductivity PH alkalinity lea...

  18. Optical teledetection of chlorophyll a in estuarine and coastal waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gons, H.J.; Rijkeboer, M.; Bagheri, S.; Ruddick, K.G.

    2000-01-01

    A hand-held spectroradiometer was used for above-water determination of subsurface spectral irradiance reflectance in the Scheldt Estuary (Belgium/The Netherlands), the North Sea off the Belgian coast, and the Hudson/Raritan Estuary (New York/New Jersey). On the North Sea the measurement conditions

  19. Nutrient and Bacteria Concentrations in the Coastal Waters off ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ammonium, nitrate, nitrite, soluble reactive phosphorous) and bacteria (total and faecal coliforms) in the waters off Zanzibar Town. The study covered both the SE and NE monsoon and the two transition periods for a total of one year. Nutrient ...

  20. Distribution of petroleum hydrocarbons in Goa coastal waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fondekar, S.P.; Topgi, R.S.; Noronha, R.J.

    Average hydrocarbon concentrations in water, plankton and sediment samples collected from the central west coast of India between 14 degrees 40'N and 15 degrees 50'N were 30.9 mu g/litre, 46.9 mu g/g dry wt and 7.1 degrees kg/g dry wt respectively...

  1. Spatiotemporal variability in archaeal communities of tropical coastal waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Singh, S.K.

    total of 36 water samples were collected during pre-monsoon, post-monsoon and monsoon seasons from three depths (surface, mid-depth , and close to bottom ?20 m). The community DNA extracts from these samples were subjected to DGGE analysis. The results...

  2. Coupling bacterioplankton populations and environment to community function in coastal temperate waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traving, S. J.; Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel; Knudsen-Leerbeck, H.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterioplankton play a key role in marine waters facilitating processes important for carbon cycling. However, the influence of specific bacterial populations and environmental conditions on bacterioplankton community performance remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to identify...... surface waters over a full year indicated that specific bacterial populations were linked to measured functions. Namely, Synechococcus (Cyanobacteria) was strongly correlated with protease activity. Both function and community composition showed seasonal variation. However, the pattern of substrate...... of common drivers of bacterioplankton community functions in two different systems indicates that the drivers may be of broader relevance in coastal temperate waters....

  3. Fluorescence and DOC contents of pore waters from coastal and deep-sea sediments in the Gulf of Biscay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra, M.M.D. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis-SC (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Donard, O.F.X. [Pau Univ. (France). Lab. de Chimie Bio-Inorganique et Environnement; Etcheber, H. [Universite de Bordeaux I, Talence (France). Dept. de Geologie et Oceanographie; Soriano-Sierra, E.J. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis-SC (Brazil). Nucleo de Estudos do Mar; Ewald, M. [Universite de Bordeaux I, Talence (France). Lab. de Physico Toxico-Chimie des Systemes Naturels

    2001-07-01

    Fluorescence of waters from the Gulf of Biscay was investigated. Pore waters fluoresced more intensely and exhibited red-shifted spectra relative to overlying seawaters. Also, a blue-shift was observed going from coastal to open sea sites. Results indicate that continental inputs of fluorescent material reach the sea bed at all sites studied. Organic matter (OM) modifications within sediments were also observed. In the uppermost layer (6 cm), fluorescence intensity and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations decrease, followed by a red-shift in emission spectra with increasing depth. This may reflect the increase in OM molar mass due to humification. The reverse of these trends in the deepest sub-oxic sediments might be related to the degradation of OM released from the solid phase, resulting in dissolved fluorescent material with a relative paucity of oxygen-containing functional groups. A very good correlation of DOC with fluorescence was observed in all cores. (author)

  4. Water quality assessment of Lebanese coastal rivers during dry season and pollution load into the Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houri, Ahmad; El Jeblawi, Saadieh W

    2007-12-01

    The chemical and microbiological properties of Lebanese perennial coastal rivers were studied during the dry season extending from July to September 2004. The results indicate significant levels of pollution in all eight rivers. Although many physical and chemical variables were within WHO guidelines for drinking water, coliform levels were unacceptably high indicating pollution from untreated sewage. The most polluted rivers in most categories were the Abu Ali and Antelias. With the exception of bacterial and phosphate loadings, Awali River provides the highest amount of pollution to the Mediterranean mainly due to its high water flow, although it is one of the least polluted rivers. The urgent need for controlling wastewater dumping into river streams is emphasized. The data obtained should serve as a reference point to assess the efficiency of planned wastewater treatment plants.

  5. Simulation of the fate of faecal bacteria in estuarine and coastal waters based on a fractionated sediment transport model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chen; Liu, Ying

    2017-08-01

    A two-dimensional depth-integrated numerical model is refined in this paper to simulate the hydrodynamics, graded sediment transport process and the fate of faecal bacteria in estuarine and coastal waters. The sediment mixture is divided into several fractions according to the grain size. A bed evolution model is adopted to simulate the processes of the bed elevation change and sediment grain size sorting. The faecal bacteria transport equation includes enhanced source and sink terms to represent bacterial kinetic transformation and disappearance or reappearance due to sediment deposition or re-suspension. A novel partition ratio and dynamic decay rates of faecal bacteria are adopted in the numerical model. The model has been applied to the turbid water environment in the Bristol Channel and Severn estuary, UK. The predictions by the present model are compared with field data and those by non-fractionated model.

  6. Interacting coastal based ecosystem services: recreation and water quality in Puget Sound, WA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitler, Jason; Papenfus, Michael; Byrd, Kristin; Labiosa, William

    2013-01-01

    Coastal recreation and water quality are major contributors to human well-being in coastal regions. They can also interact, creating opportunities for ecosystem based management, ecological restoration, and water quality improvement that can positively affect people and the environment. Yet the effect of environmental quality on human behavior is often poorly quantified, but commonly assumed in coastal ecosystem service studies. To clarify this effect we investigate a water quality dataset for evidence that environmental condition partially explains variation in recreational visitation, our indicator of human behavior. In Puget Sound, WA, we investigate variation in visitation in both visitation rate and fixed effects (FE) models. The visitation rate model relates the differences in annual recreational visitation among parks to environmental conditions, park characteristics, travel cost, and recreational demand. In our FE model we control for all time-invariant unobserved variables and compare monthly variation at the park level to determine how water quality affects visitation during the summer season. The results of our first model illustrate how visitation relates to various amenities and costs. In the FE analysis, monthly visitation was negatively related to water quality while controlling for monthly visitation trends. This indicates people are responding to changes in water quality, and an improvement would yield an increase in the value of recreation. Together, these results could help in prioritizing water quality improvements, could assist the creation of new parks or the modification of existing recreational infrastructure, and provide quantitative estimates for the expected benefits from potential changes in recreational visitation and water quality improvements. Our results also provide an example of how recreational visitation can be quantified and used in ecosystem service assessments.

  7. Interacting coastal based ecosystem services: recreation and water quality in Puget Sound, WA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Kreitler

    Full Text Available Coastal recreation and water quality are major contributors to human well-being in coastal regions. They can also interact, creating opportunities for ecosystem based management, ecological restoration, and water quality improvement that can positively affect people and the environment. Yet the effect of environmental quality on human behavior is often poorly quantified, but commonly assumed in coastal ecosystem service studies. To clarify this effect we investigate a water quality dataset for evidence that environmental condition partially explains variation in recreational visitation, our indicator of human behavior. In Puget Sound, WA, we investigate variation in visitation in both visitation rate and fixed effects (FE models. The visitation rate model relates the differences in annual recreational visitation among parks to environmental conditions, park characteristics, travel cost, and recreational demand. In our FE model we control for all time-invariant unobserved variables and compare monthly variation at the park level to determine how water quality affects visitation during the summer season. The results of our first model illustrate how visitation relates to various amenities and costs. In the FE analysis, monthly visitation was negatively related to water quality while controlling for monthly visitation trends. This indicates people are responding to changes in water quality, and an improvement would yield an increase in the value of recreation. Together, these results could help in prioritizing water quality improvements, could assist the creation of new parks or the modification of existing recreational infrastructure, and provide quantitative estimates for the expected benefits from potential changes in recreational visitation and water quality improvements. Our results also provide an example of how recreational visitation can be quantified and used in ecosystem service assessments.

  8. Water Levels In Major Artesian Aquifers Of The New Jersey Coastal Plain, 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosman, Robert; Lacombe, Pierre J.; Storck, Donald A.

    1995-01-01

    Water levels in 1,251 wells in the New Jersey Coastal Plain, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, and Kent and New Castle Counties, Delaware, were measured from October 1988 to February 1989 and compared with 1,071 water levels measured from September 1983 to May 1984. Water levels in 916 of the wells measured in the 1983 study were remeasured in the 1988 study. Alternate wells were selected to replace wells used in 1983 that were inaccessible at the time of the water-level measurements in 1988 or had been destroyed. New well sites were added in strategic locations to increase coverage where possible. Large cones of depression have formed or expanded in the nine major artesian aquifers that underlie the New Jersey Coastal Plain. Water levels are shown on nine potentiometric-surface maps. Hydrographs for observation wells typically show water-level declines for 1983, through 1989. In the confined Cohansey aquifer, the lowest water level, 20 feet below sea level, was measured in a well located at Cape May City Water Department, Cape May County. Water levels in the Atlantic City 800-foot sand declined as much as 21 feet at Ventnor, Atlantic County, over the 6-year period from the 1983 study to this study for 1988. Water levels in the Piney Point aquifer were as low as 56 feet below sea level at Seaside Park, Ocean County; 45 feet below sea level in southern Cumberland County; and 28 feet below sea level at Margate, Atlantic County. Water levels in the Vincentown aquifer did not change over the 6-year period. The lowest water levels in the Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer and the Englishtown aquifer system were 218 feet and 256 feet below sea level, respectively. Large cones of depression in the Potomac- Raritan-Magothy aquifer system are centered in the Camden County area and the Middlesex and Monmouth County area. Water levels declined as much as 46 feet in these areas over the 6-year period.

  9. Storms do not alter long-term watershed development influences on coastal water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yushun; Cebrian, Just; Lehrter, John; Christiaen, Bart; Stutes, Jason; Goff, Josh

    2017-09-15

    A twelve year (2000-2011) study of three coastal lagoons in the Gulf of Mexico was conducted to assess the impacts of local watershed development and tropical storms on water quality. The lagoons have similar physical and hydrological characteristics, but differ substantially in the degree of watershed urban development and nutrient loading rates. In total the lagoons experienced 22 storm events during the period studied. Specifically, we examine (1) whether there are influences on water quality in the lagoons from watershed development, (2) whether there are influences on water quality in the lagoons from storm activity, and (3) whether water quality is affected to a greater degree by watershed development versus storm activity. The two urbanized lagoons typically showed higher water-column nitrate, dissolved organic nitrogen, and phosphate compared with the non-urbanized lagoon. One of the urbanized lagoons had higher water-column chlorophyll a concentrations than the other two lagoons on most sampling dates, and higher light extinction coefficients on some sampling dates. The non-urbanized lagoon had higher water-column dissolved oxygen concentrations than other lagoons on many sampling dates. Our results suggest long-term influences of watershed development on coastal water quality. We also found some evidence of significant storm effects on water quality, such as increased nitrate, phosphate, and dissolved oxygen, and decreased salinity and water temperature. However, the influences of watershed development on water quality were greater. These results suggest that changes in water quality induced by human watershed development pervade despite the storm effects. These findings may be useful for environmental management since they suggest that storms do not profoundly alter long-term changes in water quality that resulted from human development of watersheds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Extreme oceanographic forcing and coastal response due to the 2015-2016 El Niño.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Patrick L; Hoover, Daniel; Hubbard, David M; Snyder, Alex; Ludka, Bonnie C; Allan, Jonathan; Kaminsky, George M; Ruggiero, Peter; Gallien, Timu W; Gabel, Laura; McCandless, Diana; Weiner, Heather M; Cohn, Nicholas; Anderson, Dylan L; Serafin, Katherine A

    2017-02-14

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation is the dominant mode of interannual climate variability across the Pacific Ocean basin, with influence on the global climate. The two end members of the cycle, El Niño and La Niña, force anomalous oceanographic conditions and coastal response along the Pacific margin, exposing many heavily populated regions to increased coastal flooding and erosion hazards. However, a quantitative record of coastal impacts is spatially limited and temporally restricted to only the most recent events. Here we report on the oceanographic forcing and coastal response of the 2015-2016 El Niño, one of the strongest of the last 145 years. We show that winter wave energy equalled or exceeded measured historical maxima across the US West Coast, corresponding to anomalously large beach erosion across the region. Shorelines in many areas retreated beyond previously measured landward extremes, particularly along the sediment-starved California coast.

  11. Extreme oceanographic forcing and coastal response due to the 2015–2016 El Niño

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Patrick; Hoover, Daniel J.; Hubbard, David M.; Snyder, Alexander; Ludka, Bonnie C.; Allan, Jonathan; Kaminsky, George M.; Ruggiero,; Gallien, Timu W.; Gabel, Laura; McCandless, Diana; Weiner, Heather M.; Cohn, Nicholas; Anderson, Dylan L.; Serafin, Katherine A.

    2017-01-01

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation is the dominant mode of interannual climate variability across the Pacific Ocean basin, with influence on the global climate. The two end members of the cycle, El Niño and La Niña, force anomalous oceanographic conditions and coastal response along the Pacific margin, exposing many heavily populated regions to increased coastal flooding and erosion hazards. However, a quantitative record of coastal impacts is spatially limited and temporally restricted to only the most recent events. Here we report on the oceanographic forcing and coastal response of the 2015–2016 El Niño, one of the strongest of the last 145 years. We show that winter wave energy equalled or exceeded measured historical maxima across the US West Coast, corresponding to anomalously large beach erosion across the region. Shorelines in many areas retreated beyond previously measured landward extremes, particularly along the sediment-starved California coast.

  12. Multiscales analysis of biogeochemical time series in the coastal waters of the English Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zongo, S. B.; Schmitt, F.

    2009-04-01

    Coastal waters can be considered as a complex system with many components interacting nonlinearly on many different scales. In order to install and develop integrated coastal zone managements, a better understanding of this complex system in needed. We consider here data from SOMLIT monitoring program (Service d'Observation en Milieu Littoral). This monitoring program regroups 7 marine stations distributed along French coast. The sampling strategy is the same for all stations and all preparations are made according to a protocol implemented by SOMLIT. The data analysed in this study from two coastal sites (Wimereux and Roscoff). This program propose measurements of temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, nitrogen, chlorophyll a, particulate organic carbon (POC), salinity, particulate organic nitrogen (PON), phosphorus and silicates. The measurements were made once every two weeks on a fixed station, the fist sampling point is coastal and second is offshore. We apply to these data several analyses techniques in order to characterize the dynamics of their fluctuations on a wide range of scales. We consider first the covariation between some parameters couples ((pH, DO), (DO, Chla), (Chla, N)) using some regression using a kernel estimator [Wand and Jones, 1995] in order to consider conditional averages. This method provides quantitative graphical interpretations and the regression function reveals concentrations values showing dependence levels and phytoplankton species succession. We also consider the probability density function of some ratios (N:P, Si:N, Si:P, COP:Chla, COP:NOP) that reveal in all cases a "wild" behaviour with an hyperbolic tail. Roscoff and Wimereux waters have been compared using this methodology. With these results we wish to show some examples of applications of new methodology, which can be applied on long-term monitoring and high resolution time series in order to provide quantitative and qualitative information on the state of coastal

  13. Microbial water quality before and after the repair of a failing onsite wastewater treatment system adjacent to coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, K E; Habteselassie, M Y; Denene Blackwood, A; Noble, R T

    2012-01-01

    The objective was to assess the impacts of repairing a failing onsite wastewater treatment system (OWTS, i.e., septic system) as related to coastal microbial water quality. Wastewater, groundwater and surface water were monitored for environmental parameters, faecal indicator bacteria (total coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci) and the viral tracer MS2 before and after repairing a failing OWTS. MS2 results using plaque enumeration and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) often agreed, but inhibition limited the qRT-PCR assay sensitivity. Prerepair, MS2 persisted in groundwater and was detected in the nearby creek; postrepair, it was not detected. In groundwater, total coliform concentrations were lower and E. coli was not detected, while enterococci concentrations were similar to prerepair levels. E. coli and enterococci surface water concentrations were elevated both before and after the repair. Repairing the failing OWTS improved groundwater microbial water quality, although persistence of bacteria in surface water suggests that the OWTS was not the singular faecal contributor to adjacent coastal waters. A suite of tracers is needed to fully assess OWTS performance in treating microbial contaminants and related impacts on receiving waters. Molecular methods like qRT-PCR have potential but require optimization. This is the first before and after study of a failing OWTS and provides guidance on selection of microbial tracers and methods. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Water quality assessment by pollution-index method in the coastal waters of Hebei Province in western Bohai Sea, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuguang; Lou, Sha; Kuang, Cuiping; Huang, Wenrui; Chen, Wujun; Zhang, Jianle; Zhong, Guihui

    2011-10-01

    Sources of pollution discharges and water quality samples at 27 stations in 2006 in the coastal waters of Hebei Province, western Bohai Sea, have been analyzed in this study. Pollutant loads from industrial sewages have shown stronger impact on the water environment than those from the general sewages. Analysis indicates that pollution of COD is mainly resulted from land-based point pollutant sources. For phosphate concentration, non-point source pollution from coastal ocean (fishing and harbor areas) plays an important role. To assess the water quality conditions, Organic Pollution Index and Eutrophication Index have been used to quantify the level of water pollution and eutrophication conditions. Results show that pollution was much heavier in the dry season than flood season in 2006. Based on COD and phosphate concentrations, results show that waters near Shahe River, Douhe River, Yanghe River, and Luanhe River were heavily polluted. Water quality in the Qinhuangdao area was better than those in the Tangshan and Cangzhou areas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Microbial water quality before and after the repair of a failing onsite wastewater treatment system adjacent to coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, K.E.; Habteselassie, M.Y.; Denene, Blackwood A.; Noble, R.T.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: The objective was to assess the impacts of repairing a failing onsite wastewater treatment system (OWTS, i.e., septic system) as related to coastal microbial water quality. Methods and Results: Wastewater, groundwater and surface water were monitored for environmental parameters, faecal indicator bacteria (total coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci) and the viral tracer MS2 before and after repairing a failing OWTS. MS2 results using plaque enumeration and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) often agreed, but inhibition limited the qRT-PCR assay sensitivity. Prerepair, MS2 persisted in groundwater and was detected in the nearby creek; postrepair, it was not detected. In groundwater, total coliform concentrations were lower and E.??coli was not detected, while enterococci concentrations were similar to prerepair levels. E.??coli and enterococci surface water concentrations were elevated both before and after the repair. Conclusions: Repairing the failing OWTS improved groundwater microbial water quality, although persistence of bacteria in surface water suggests that the OWTS was not the singular faecal contributor to adjacent coastal waters. A suite of tracers is needed to fully assess OWTS performance in treating microbial contaminants and related impacts on receiving waters. Molecular methods like qRT-PCR have potential but require optimization. Significance and Impact of Study: This is the first before and after study of a failing OWTS and provides guidance on selection of microbial tracers and methods. ?? 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology ?? 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Hydrology and water quality of two first order forested watersheds in coastal South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.M. Amatya; M. Miwa; C.A. Harrison; C.C. Trettin; G. Sun

    2006-01-01

    Two first-order forested watersheds (WS 80 and WS 77) on poorly drained pine-hardwood stands in the South Carolina Coastal Plain have been monitored since mid-1960s to characterize the hydrology, water quality and vegetation dynamics. This study examines the flow and nutrient dynamics of these two watersheds using 13 years (1 969-76 and 1977-81) of data prior to...

  17. Sanitary and aesthetic quality of Egyptian coastal waters of Aqaba Gulf, Suez Gulf and Red Sea

    OpenAIRE

    A. Farag; El-Shenawy, M.; Zaky, M.

    2006-01-01

    During the course of 7 years (1998-2004), five field trips were performed annually in January, march, May, July and September. 1400 water samples (200 samples/year) were collected from 40 coastal sites covering the recreational areas as well as different hot spots and some protectorate areas. Hydrochemical parameters including temperature, salinity, pH and dissolved oxygen as well as bacteriological parameters including total coliforms, E. coli and fecal streptococci were investigated. Invers...

  18. The First Record of Three Cymothoid Isopods from Red Sea Fishes, Yemeni Coastal Waters

    OpenAIRE

    A.B. Al-Zubaidy; F.T. Mhaisen

    2013-01-01

    A total of 680 fish specimens belonging to 31 species from the Yemeni coastal waters of the Red Sea were inspected for the poorly studied isopod infestations. Three isopod species of the suborder Cymothoida, family Cymothoidae were detected. These are Nerocila orbignyi (Guérin-Méneville, 1832) from both Moolgarda seheli and Liza aurata, Cymothoa exigua Schioedte and Meinert, 1884 from both Lutjanus gibbus and Chelon macrolepis and Ceratothoa capri (Trilles, 1964) from C. macrolepis. All these...

  19. Multiple Antibiotic Resistances of Vibrio Isolates from Coastal and Brackish Water Areas

    OpenAIRE

    S. Manjusha; G. B. Sarita; K. K. Elyas; Chandrasekaran, M.

    2005-01-01

    An experiment was designed to assess the occurrence of multiple antibiotic resistances in Vibrio spp. from different (brackish and marine) environments. Water samples from nine marine landing sites and two coastal inland aquaculture farms were screened for the Vibrio spp. and assessed their resistance to twenty-two different antibiotics, which are commonly encountered in the aquatic ecosystem. Tissue samples (shrimp, mussel and sepia) were tested from the sampling site wit...

  20. Heavy metals in a latin american coastal lagoon - sediments, water and macrophytes

    OpenAIRE

    Ambrozic, Nada

    2015-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado, Ecohidrologia, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade do Algarve, 2015 Coastal lagoons are considered to be some of the most productive ecosystems on Earth, providing a wide range of ecosystem services and resources. Jacunem lagoon, ES, Brazil, was studied to evaluate the impact of anthropogenic activities on heavy metal concentrations in sediments, water and macrophytes (Eichhornia crassipes and Typha domingensis). In order to verify the presence of heav...

  1. Spatial and temporal variation of water quality in the coastal lagoons of Sinaloa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paez-Osuna, F.; Lopez-Aguiar, L. K.; Del Río-Chuljak, A.; Ruiz-Fernandez, A. C.

    2007-05-01

    The Mexican state of Sinaloa has 656 km of coastline and 221,600 ha of coastal lagoons, and is characterized by a high fishing and agriculture activity. It is well known that agricultural activities constitute a major factor affecting the water quality in the coastal waters. The current study focused on the 6 more important coastal lagoons of Sinaloa (Topolobampo-Ohuira-Santa María, Navachiste-San Ignacio-Macapule, Santa María-La Reforma, Altata-Ensenada del Pabellón, Ceuta and Teacapán-Agua Brava) with the aim to evaluate the water quality spatial and temporal variation at the lagoons (physico-chemical parameters, nutrients (N, P and Si), dissolved oxygen, total suspended solids and chlorophyll a) and to assess its eutrophication status. The water samples were collected in several stations at each lagoon (between 9 and 23 stations depending on the lagoon area) at low and high tides, during three different weather periods (dry-warm, rainy and dry-cold seasons) between May 2004 and April 2005. Mean concentrations of nutrients (μM), dissolved oxygen (mg/L) and chlorophyll a (mg/m3) obtained for each variable were comparable between lagoons (total N=51±45; total P= 2.5±1.5; Si=23±31; DO=6.7±1.8; Chll=1.7±1.9) although seasonal and spatial differences were observed at each lagoon. The nutrient concentrations measured fell in the typical concentration intervals for coastal lagoons; however, critical sampling points were identified and related to direct discharges of untreated effluents from municipal wastes, aquaculture farms and agriculture drain ditches.

  2. Land-margin ecosystem hydrologic data for the coastal Everglades, Florida, water years 1996-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Gordon H.; Smith, Thomas J.; Balentine, Karen M.

    2014-01-01

    Mangrove forests and salt marshes dominate the landscape of the coastal Everglades (Odum and McIvor, 1990). However, the ecological effects from potential sea-level rise and increased water flows from planned freshwater Everglades restoration on these coastal systems are poorly understood. The National Park Service (NPS) proposed the South Florida Global Climate Change Project (SOFL-GCC) in 1990 to evaluate climate change and the effect from rising sea levels on the coastal Everglades, particularly at the marsh/mangrove interface or ecotone (Soukup and others, 1990). A primary objective of SOFL-GCC project was to monitor and synthesize the hydrodynamics of the coastal Everglades from the upstream freshwater marsh to the downstream estuary mangrove. Two related hypotheses were set forward (Nuttle and Cosby, 1993): 1. There exists hydrologic conditions (tide, local rainfall, and upstream water deliveries), which characterize the location of the marsh/mangrove ecotone along the marine and terrestrial hydrologic gradient; and 2. The marsh/mangrove ecotone is sensitive to fluctuations in sea level and freshwater inflow from inland areas. Hydrologic monitoring of the SOFL-GCC network began in 1995 after startup delays from Hurricane Andrew (August 1992) and organizational transfers from the NPS to the National Biological Survey (October 1993) and the merger with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Biological Research Division in 1996 (Smith, 2004). As the SOFL-GCC project progressed, concern by environmental scientists and land managers over how the diversion of water from Everglades National Park would affect the restoration of the greater Everglades ecosystem. Everglades restoration scenarios were based on hydrodynamic models, none of which included the coastal zone (Fennema and others, 1994). Modeling efforts were expanded to include the Everglades coastal zone (Schaffranek and others, 2001) with SOFL-GCC hydrologic data assisting the ecological modeling needs. In 2002

  3. Water exchange between Algeciras Bay and the Strait of Gibraltar: A study based on HF coastal radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chioua, J.; Dastis, C.; González, C. J.; Reyes, E.; Mañanes, R.; Ruiz, M. I.; Álvarez, E.; Yanguas, F.; Romero, J.; Álvarez, O.; Bruno, M.

    2017-09-01

    This study analyses the water mass exchanges at subinertial scale between Algeciras Bay and the adjacent Strait of Gibraltar. The mechanisms triggering this exchange process is investigated with the aid of recently-acquired data on surface currents obtained using a system of HF coastal radars deployed on the eastern side of the Strait, and remotely-sensed images of sea surface temperature (SST) and chlorophyll from the MODIS sensor of the Aqua satellite. HF radar data on surface currents are analyzed by the application of real empirical orthogonal function (EOF) decomposition, which produces three EOF modes explaining more than 70% of the variance of the surface currents at the mouth of the Bay (modes 2, 3, and 6). Mode 2 is related to the fluctuations of the Atlantic Jet in the central zone of the Strait, mainly due to a combined effect of the atmospheric pressure fluctuations in the Western Mediterranean Sea and local wind in the eastern side of the Strait; mode 3 is related to the coastal currents induced by zonal wind forcing on the north-western coast of the Strait and Alboran Sea; and mode 6 seems to be related to water transport induced by winds blowing with a significant north component into and out of the Bay.

  4. Optimum contracted-for water supply for hotels in arid coastal regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamei, A; von Münch, E; van der Zaag, P; Imam, E

    2009-01-01

    Hotels in arid coastal areas use mainly desalinated water for their domestic water demands, and treated wastewater for irrigating green areas. Private water companies supply these hotels with their domestic water needs. There is normally a contractual agreement stating a minimum requirement that has to be supplied by the water company and that the hotel management has to pay for regardless of its actual consumption ("contracted-for water supply"). This paper describes a model to determine what value a hotel should choose for its contracted-for water supply in order to minimize its total annual water costs. An example from an arid coastal tourism-dominated city is presented: Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt.The managers of hotels with expected high occupancy rates (74% and above) can contract for more than 80%. On the other hand, hotels with expected lower occupancy rates (60% and less) can contract for less than 70% of the peak daily domestic water demand. With a green area ratio of 40 m(2)/room or less, an on-site wastewater treatment plant can satisfy the required irrigation demand for an occupancy rate as low as 42%. Increasing the ratio of green irrigated area to 100 m(2)/room does not affect the contracted-for water supply at occupancy rates above 72%; at lower occupancy rates, however, on-site treated wastewater is insufficient for irrigating the green areas. Increasing the green irrigated area to 120 m(2)/room increases the need for additional water, either from externally sourced treated wastewater or potable water. The cost of the former is much lower than the latter (0.58 versus 1.52 to 2.14 US$/m(3) in the case study area).

  5. Nearshore marine fish diversity in southern California using trawl information from the Southern California Coastal Water Research Project.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a point file of mean fish diversity within 5 minute grid cells. The Shannon Index of diversity was calculated from Southern California Coastal Water Research...

  6. Occurrence of swarms of Sagitta enflata (Chaetognatha) and Pleurobrachia globosa (Ctenophora) in the coastal waters of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Goswami, S.C.

    Swarms of Chaetognatha @iSagitta enflata@@ Grassi and Ctenophore @iPleurobrachia globosa@@. Moser were studied in coastal waters of Goa. These two forms together constituted 90 to 94% of total biomass. Medusae and Siphonophora were the other main...

  7. Geographical information system analysis for oceanographic parameters in the coastal waters of Goa, India - A case study

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suryanarayana, A.; Joglekar, V.V.

    A geographical information system (GIS) is used to create oceanography database and to do the spatial analysis of physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the coastal waters of Goa, India. Vector maps depicting distributions of currents...

  8. Monsoonal variability in abiotic parameters in coastal waters off Trivandrum evokes press and pulse response in biotic variables

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subina, N.S.; Bhosle, S.; Nair, S.; Lokabharathi, P.A.

    ANOVA showed significant variation in environmental parameters with time during monsoon. Principal component analysis of the abiotic variables revealed salinity, nitrite and nitrate to be the three driving attributes of the coastal waters during...

  9. Diurnal variability of heat fluxes over the coastal waters off Visakhapatnam during post-monsoon and winter seasons

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramu, Ch V.; Bharathi, G.; Sadhuram, Y.; Prasad, K.V.S.R.

    Diurnal variability of heat fluxes in the coastal waters of Visakhapatnam has been studied during post-monsoon (Oct, 2006) and winter (Jan-Feb, 2007) seasons utilizing the surface meteorological data and radiation measurements on-board CRV Sagar...

  10. Effects of sewage water on bio-optical properties and primary production of coastal systems in West Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stæhr, Peter Anton; Waite, A.M.; Markager, Svend Stiig

    2009-01-01

    Relationships between key phytoplankton attributes including Chl a-specific light absorption, pigment composition and concentration, photosynthesis, primary production and community structure were studied in two open shallow nutrient-poor coastal systems receiving similar amounts of sewage water....

  11. SEDIMENT PROPERTIES and Other Data from FIXED PLATFORM From Coastal Waters of California from 19780411 to 19781203 (NODC Accession 8000315)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sediment properties and other data from FIXED PLATFORM From Coastal Waters of California from April 11 to December 3, 1978. This data set consists of the results of...

  12. Physical characteristics of the coastal waters between Navapur and Umbharat, West coast of India. Part 1. Current pattern

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Swamy, G.N.; Sarma, R.V.; Suryanarayana, A.

    Surface and bottom current patterns of the coastal waters between Navapur and Umbharat (Maharashtra-Gujarat Industrial Belt) are described in relation to tides and other environmental parameters. The results of the analysis of the frequency...

  13. Physical measurements including temperature profiles of coastal Waters off Central California in October 2006 (NODC Accession 0019214)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical measurements of Coastal Waters off Central California in October 2006. Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California, Technical Report NPS-OC-07-002. This...

  14. DNA barcoding of mudskippers (Boleophthalmus dussumeri, Periophthalmus waltoni and Scartelaos teneus from Bushehr coastal waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ahmad Ghasemi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mudskippers are important in many biological and ecotoxicological studies and recognized as potentioal Biomarker in environmental monitoring and assessments of coastal waters in tropical and subtropical ecosystems. DNA Barcoding technique was used to identify the exact species of mudskippers in the Persian Gulf from Coastal waters of Bushehr province. This technique may provide faster detecting and giving a lot of information about the taxonomy of species. Samples were collected from four areas including Genaveh, Shif, Delawar and Mond in Bushehr province. According to morphological properties three species (Boleophthalmus dussumeri, Periophthalmus waltoni and Scartelaos teneus were identified. In order to barcoding, mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase of the fish was sequenced. COI sequence analysis of ten specimens from each species indicates that B. dussumeri, P. waltoni and S. teneus have genetic differences in amount of 17.8%. Maximum genetic differences were calculated between B. dussumeri, P. waltoni (19.1% and minimum genetic differences were observed between P. waltoni and S. teneus (11.8%. These amounts of genetic differences among the studied mudskippers, approve the presence of three species in Bushehr coastal waters. COI sequence comparison and phylogenetic tree of each studied species with other mudskippers clustered these species in the same genus. In molecular obtained data confirmed the present morphological classification methods for these species.

  15. Predicting Spectral and PAR Light Attenuation in Greenlandic Coastal Waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, Ciarán; Stedmon, Colin A.; Markager, Stiig

    present models for spectral and PAR (photosynthetically active radiation) attenuation in two contrasting Greenlandic fjords, Godthåbsfjord (SW Greenland) and Young Sound (NE Greenland). The fjords differ in the character and concentrations of optically active components present: dissolved organic material...... (CDOM), phytoplankton pigments and inorganic particles. These differences are due in part to hydrography and to the sources of meltwater: respectively, fjord-terminating and land-terminating glaciers. We present a model to explain the variation in spectral and PAR irradiance in terms of the variation...

  16. Predicting spectral and PAR light attenuation in Greenlandic coastal waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, Ciarán; Markager, Stiig; Stedmon, Colin

    present models for spectral and PAR (photosynthetically active radiation) attenuation in two contrasting Greenlandic fjords, Godthåbsfjord (SW Greenland) and Young Sound (NE Greenland). The fjords differ in the character and concentrations of optically active components present: dissolved organic material...... (CDOM), phytoplankton pigments and inorganic particles. These differences are due in part to hydrography and to the sources of meltwater: respectively, fjord-terminating and land-terminating glaciers. We present a model to explain the variation in spectral and PAR irradiance in terms of the variation...

  17. Petroleum oil and mercury pollution from shipwrecks in Norwegian coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndungu, Kuria; Beylich, Björnar A; Staalstrøm, André; Øxnevad, Sigurd; Berge, John A; Braaten, Hans Fredrik Veiteberg; Schaanning, Morten; Bergstrøm, Rune

    2017-09-01

    Worldwide there are tens of thousands of sunken shipwrecks lying on the coastal seabed. These potentially polluting wrecks (PPW) are estimated to hold 3-25milliont of oil. Other hazardous cargo in PPW includes ordnance, chemicals and radioactive waste. Here, we present and discuss studies on mercury (Hg) and oil pollution in coastal marine sediment caused by two of the >2100 documented PPW in Norwegian marine waters. The German World War II (WWII) submarine (U-864) lies at about 150m below the sea surface, near the Norwegian North Sea island of Fedje. The submarine is estimated to have been carrying 67t of elemental Hg, some of which has leaked on to surrounding sediment. The total Hg concentration in bottom surface sediment within a 200m radius of the wreckage decreases from 100g/kgd.w. at the wreckage hotspot to about 1mg/kgd.w. at 100m from the hotspot. The second wreck is a German WWII cargo ship (Nordvard), that lies at a depth of ca. 30m near the Norwegian harbor of Moss. Oil leakage from Nordvard has contaminated the bottom coastal sediment with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The findings from this study provide useful insight to coastal administration authorities involved in assessing and remediating wreck-borne pollution from any of the tens of thousands of sunken shipwrecks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Optical Proxies for Terrestrial Dissolved Organic Matter in Estuaries and Coastal Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher L. Osburn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical proxies, especially DOM fluorescence, were used to track terrestrial DOM fluxes through estuaries and coastal waters by comparing models developed for several coastal ecosystems. Key to using optical properties is validating and calibrating them with chemical measurements, such as lignin-derived phenols - a proxy to quantify terrestrial DOM. Utilizing parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC, and comparing models statistically using the OpenFluor database (http://www.openfluor.org we have found common, ubiquitous fluorescing components which correlate most strongly with lignin phenol concentrations in several estuarine and coastal environments. Optical proxies for lignin were computed for the following regions: Mackenzie River Estuary, Atchafalaya River Estuary, Charleston Harbor, Chesapeake Bay, and Neuse River Estuary. The slope of linear regression models relating CDOM absorption at 350 nm (a350 to DOC and to lignin, varied 5 to 10 fold among systems. Where seasonal observations were available from a region, there were distinct seasonal differences in equation parameters for these optical proxies. Despite variability, overall models using single linear regression were developed that related dissolved organic carbon (DOC concentration to CDOM (DOC = 40×a350+138; R2 = 0.77; N = 130 and lignin (Σ8 to CDOM (Σ8 = 2.03×a350-0.5; R2 = 0.87; N = 130. This wide variability suggested that local or regional optical models should be developed for predicting terrestrial DOM flux into coastal oceans and taken into account when upscaling to remote sensing observations and calibrations.

  19. Changes in Septic Tank Effluent Due to Water Softener Use

    OpenAIRE

    Hogan, Patrick Lynn

    2012-01-01

    The compatibility of home water softeners and septic tanks is of concern for the on-site wastewater treatment community. Research has shown that high sodium levels in activated sludge plants can lead to deflocculation and poor effluent quality. Therefore, it is logical to assume that high sodium levels that result from the exchange of calcium and magnesium for sodium in home softeners could give rise to poor effluent quality from septic tanks, leading to shortened lives of drain fields. Addit...

  20. Hygienic investigation of coastal waters of the upper Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möse, J R; Mascher, F; Pichler-Semmelrock, F; Köck, M; Reinthaler, F F

    1990-05-01

    In the course of the bathing season of 1989, investigations of bathing waters were carried out in two-week intervals. From the point of view of public health, the chemical-physical and microbiological results do not suggest objections against bathing at the beach areas investigated (Grado, Lignano). However, these favorable results do not imply intact ecological conditions. National and international standards are designed for humans and allow only very limited conclusions about the living conditions of the marine ecosystem. This also means that ecological investigations are not sufficient to permit conclusions about hygienic conditions. In spite of this seeming contradiction, hygienic and ecological concerns are clearly identical. Hygienic measures must not be limited to local "cosmetic" corrections but must target foremost unfavorable basic conditions.

  1. An appraisal of biological responses and network of environmental interactions in non-mining and mining impacted coastal waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, C.E.G.; Malik, A.; Jineesh, V.K.; Fernandes, S.O.; Das, A.; Pandey, S.S.; Kanolkar, G.; Sujith, P.P.; Velip, D.; Shaikh, S.; Helekar, S.; Gonsalves, M.J.B.D.; Nair, S.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    are apparently affected (Xua et al. 2004). Moreover, anthropogenic impacts are reported to cause environmental degradation and the rate of degradation depends on the local and regional characteristics (Morales- Ojeda et al. 2010). The coastal waters of Goa...% higher NO3--N and PO43--P concentrations in GOA. Such signatures have been previously reported in various coastal waters and ascribed to nutrient input through riverine and sewage discharge (Xu 1989; Cloern 2001; Apple et al. 2008; Morales-Ojeda et al...

  2. Information theoretic perspective on coastal water-quality monitoring and management near an offshore industrial park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ta-Kang; Yu, Jin-Li; Chen, Chung-Ling; Wei, Ping-Sheng

    2012-08-01

    A semi-continuous water-quality monitoring system was installed in Yunlin Offshore Industrial Park (YOIP), the largest industrial park in Taiwan, in 2007 to provide real-time water-quality information such as pH, water depth, dissolved oxygen, temperature, turbidity, conductivity, and chlorophyll. To interpret the large quantities of high-frequency data generated by this system, information theory was applied for data analysis and extraction of useful information for further coastal water-quality management. Information theory is a branch of applied mathematics that involves the quantification of information. Shannon entropy is a key measure of information that was calculated in this study to reveal the inherent uncertainty of water-quality information. The applicability of Shannon entropy for signaling possible coastal pollution events in the YOIP was explored and results showed that it provides new insight into the inherent uncertainty or randomness of the original data. Specially, when Shannon entropy was high, multiple instable readings were observed for turbidity and salinity. This indicates that Shannon entropy may be a useful new tool for exploratory data analysis. It can be used as a supplementary indicator along with the original environmental data to signify some episodes of water-quality degradation.

  3. Offshore Stratigraphic Controls on Salt-Water Intrusion in Los Angeles Area Coastal Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, B. D.; Ponti, D. J.; Ehman, K. D.; Tinsley, J. C.; Reichard, E. G.

    2002-12-01

    Ground water is a major component of the water supply for the ~10 million residents of Los Angeles County. Ground water pumping, linked to population growth since the early 1900's, caused water levels to decline, reversed seaward hydraulic gradients in some coastal aquifers, and resulted in salt water intrusion. United States Geological Survey geologists and hydrologists are working cooperatively with local water agencies to (1) understand and model the process of salt-water intrusion in this siliciclastic, structurally complex basin, and (2) identify potential pathways for the salt-water intrusion. We collected over 2000 trackline-km of single- and multi-channel intermediate- and high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles (60 to 5000 Hz) from the Los Angeles/Long Beach Harbor complex and the adjacent San Pedro shelf to develop a 3-dimensional stratigraphic model of the coastal aquifer system. These data define stratal geometries, paleo-channels, and fault traces in the offshore that are potential pathways of salt-water intrusion. The offshore seismic-reflection profiles correlate with onshore geophysical and borehole data collected from four nearby drill sites that were cored continuously to depths ranging to 400 meters. These core holes provide detailed 1-dimensional reference sections that furnish stratigraphic, age, and facies control for the seismic-reflection profiles. The coastal aquifer system is described using sequence stratigraphic concepts as units deposited during eustatic sea level fluctuations during the Pleistocene to Recent. Seismic-reflection profiles identify sequence boundaries, and hence aquifer and aquitard units, by the truncation and onlap of reflectors. If and where the sequences crop out on the sea floor provides a potential pathway for intrusion. The youngest unit, the Gaspur aquifer, is intruded with salt water and consists of at least two flat-lying sequences, each marked by basal gravelly sands deposited by the ancestral Los Angeles

  4. Removal of phenanthrene from coastal waters by green tide algae Ulva prolifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cui; Lu, Jian; Wu, Jun; Luo, Yongming

    2017-12-31

    Ulva prolifera (U. prolifera) has been frequently involved in terrible algal proliferation in coastal areas. Although it is known to be associated with green tide, its contribution to the natural attenuation of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in seawater has not been evaluated. In this study, the removal of phenanthrene using U. prolifera collected from coastal water with green tide blooming was investigated. The results showed that phenanthrene could be removed efficiently in the presence of both the live and heat-killed U. prolifera. The phenanthrene concentrations of the live algae treatment decreased smoothly from 10.00 to 0.80μgL -1 through the whole process, while those of the heat-killed algae treatment decreased sharply from 10.0 to 2.71μgL -1 in one day and kept constantly after that. The in situ monitoring and visualizing using laser confocal scanning microscopy (LCSM) confirmed the accumulation of phenanthrene in U. prolifera. The increase in nutrient and temperature led to the increase of phenanthrene removal rate, while the salinity had less influence on the removal of phenanthrene. The removal efficiency by U. prolifera had a good linear relationship with phenanthrene initial concentration (r 2 =0.999) even at 100μgL -1 which was higher than its environmentally relevant concentrations. High removal efficiency (91.3%) was observed when the initial phenanthrene concentration was set at environmental relevant concentration (5μgL -1 ). Results of this study demonstrate a potential new natural attenuation process for typical PAHs in coastal water during the outbreak of green tide. These findings indicate that the outbreak of harmful green tide algae may bring positive environmental benefits in the terms of the removal of harmful organic pollutants from coastal waters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Phytoplankton blooms in estuarine and coastal waters: Seasonal patterns and key species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstensen, Jacob; Klais, Riina; Cloern, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Phytoplankton blooms are dynamic phenomena of great importance to the functioning of estuarine and coastal ecosystems. We analysed a unique (large) collection of phytoplankton monitoring data covering 86 coastal sites distributed over eight regions in North America and Europe, with the aim of investigating common patterns in the seasonal timing and species composition of the blooms. The spring bloom was the most common seasonal pattern across all regions, typically occurring early (February–March) at lower latitudes and later (April–May) at higher latitudes. Bloom frequency, defined as the probability of unusually high biomass, ranged from 5 to 35% between sites and followed no consistent patterns across gradients of latitude, temperature, salinity, water depth, stratification, tidal amplitude or nutrient concentrations. Blooms were mostly dominated by a single species, typically diatoms (58% of the blooms) and dinoflagellates (19%). Diatom-dominated spring blooms were a common feature in most systems, although dinoflagellate spring blooms were also observed in the Baltic Sea. Blooms dominated by chlorophytes and cyanobacteria were only common in low salinity waters and occurred mostly at higher temperatures. Key bloom species across the eight regions included the diatoms Cerataulina pelagica and Dactyliosolen fragilissimus and dinoflagellates Heterocapsa triquetra and Prorocentrum cordatum. Other frequent bloom-forming taxa were diatom genera Chaetoceros, Coscinodiscus, Skeletonema, and Thalassiosira. Our meta-analysis shows that these 86 estuarine-coastal sites function as diatom-producing systems, the timing of that production varies widely, and that bloom frequency is not associated with environmental factors measured in monitoring programs. We end with a perspective on the limitations of conclusions derived from meta-analyses of phytoplankton time series, and the grand challenges remaining to understand the wide range of bloom patterns and

  6. The "shallow-waterness" of the wave climate in European coastal regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håkon Christensen, Kai; Carrasco, Ana; Bidlot, Jean-Raymond; Breivik, Øyvind

    2017-07-01

    In contrast to deep water waves, shallow water waves are influenced by bottom topography, which has consequences for the propagation of wave energy as well as for the energy and momentum exchange between the waves and the mean flow. The ERA-Interim reanalysis is used to assess the fraction of wave energy associated with shallow water waves in coastal regions in Europe. We show maps of the distribution of this fraction as well as time series statistics from eight selected stations. There is a strong seasonal dependence and high values are typically associated with winter storms, indicating that shallow water wave effects can occasionally be important even in the deeper parts of the shelf seas otherwise dominated by deep water waves.

  7. Impact of Stormwater Discharges on Water Quality in Coastal Marine Protected Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiff, Kenneth; Luk, Brenda; Gregorio, Dominic

    2015-09-01

    Marine protected areas worldwide limit harvest to protect sensitive fisheries, but rarely do they address water quality goals that may have equally demonstrable impacts. California has over 500 coastal shoreline miles of marine protected areas designated as Areas of Special Biological Significance (ASBS), but receives untreated wet weather runoff discharges from over 1600 storm drain outfalls. The goal of this study was to assess the extent and magnitude of water quality impacts in ASBS following storm events. A stratified probabilistic design was used for sampling receiving water shorelines near (discharge) and far (non-discharge) from storm drain outfalls. In general, reasonably good water quality exists in California's ASBS following storm events. Many of the target analytes measured did not exceed water quality standards. The post-storm concentrations of most constituents in discharge and non-discharge strata of ASBS were similar. The three potentially problematic parameters identified were total PAH, chromium, and copper.

  8. The geographical conditions of intensity of salty waters intrusions to coastal lakes on Polish Southern Baltic coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieslinski, R.

    2009-04-01

    geographical conditions, especially on hydrographical and hydrological ones, which determine their variability and distribution. The objects of research have been chosen to be the two largest coastal lakes in the Polish section of the southern Baltic shore, i.e. Łebsko and Gardno. References: Ataie-Ashtiani, B., Volkerand, R.E., Lockington, D.A. (1999) Tidal effects on sea water intrusion in unconfined aquifers, Journal of Hydrology, 216 (1-2), 17-31. Cieśliński R., Drwal J. (2005) Quasi - estuary processes and consequences for human activity, South Baltic, Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 62, 477 - 485. De Louw, P., Oude Essink, G. (2001) Salinisation of the northern coastel area of the netherlands due to land subsidence and sea level rise. In: Vijay P. Singh (eds), Coastal Environment and Water Quality (ed. by Y. Jun Xu & V. P. Singh), 424 - 434. Water Resources Publications. Demirel, Z. (2004) The history and evaluation of saltwater intrusion into a coastal aquifer in Mersin, Turkey, Journal of Environmental Management, 70 (3), 275-282. Drwal, J., Cieśliński, R. (2007) Coastal lakes and marine intrusions on the southern Baltic coast, Oceanological and Hydrobiological Studies, XXXVI (2), 61 - 75. Grassi, S., Netti, R. (2000) Sea water intrusion and mercury pollution of some coastal aquifers in the province of Grosseto (Southern Tuscany — Italy), Journal of Hydrology, 237 (3-4), 198-211. Hsing-Juh, L., Xiao-Xun, D., Kwang-Tsao, S., Huei-Meei, S., Wen-Tseng, L., Hwey-Lian, H., Lee-Shing, F., Jia-Jang, H. (2006) Trophic structure and functioning in a eutrophic and poorly flushed lagoon in southwestern Taiwan, Marine environmental research, 62 (1), 61-82. Ishitobi, Y., Kamiya, H., Yokoyama, K., Kumagai, M., Okuda, S. (1999) Physical Conditions of Saline Water Intrusion into a Coastal Lagoon, Lake Shinji, Japanese Journal of Limnology, 4, 439-452. Uncles, R. J. , Stephens, J. A., Smith, R. E. (2002) The dependence of estuarine turbidity on tidal intrusion length

  9. Appraising the extractable tidal energy resource of the UK's western coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Nick; Walkington, Ian; Burrows, Richard; Wolf, Judith

    2013-02-28

    A two-dimensional west coast tidal model, built on the ADCIRC platform (an unstructured grid two-dimensional depth-integrated shallow water model), has been developed to examine the scope for reliable and fully predictable electricity generation from UK coastal waters using an ambitious combination of estuary barrages, tidal lagoons and tidal stream generator arrays. The main emphasis has been towards conjunctive operation of major estuary barrages, initially including the presence of pilot-scale tidal stream developments, though ambitious exploitation of extensive tidal streams has also been explored.

  10. Process analysis and economics of drinking water production from coastal aquifers containing chromophoric dissolved organic matter and bromide using nanofiltration and ozonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhani, R; McVicker, R; Spangenberg, C; Rosso, D

    2012-01-01

    In regions characterized by water scarcity, such as coastal Southern California, groundwater containing chromophoric dissolved organic matter is a viable source of water supply. In the coastal aquifer of Orange County in California, seawater intrusion driven by coastal groundwater pumping increased the concentration of bromide in extracted groundwater from 0.4 mg l⁻¹ in 2000 to over 0.8 mg l⁻¹ in 2004. Bromide, a precursor to bromate formation is regulated by USEPA and the California Department of Health as a potential carcinogen and therefore must be reduced to a level below 10 μg l⁻¹. This paper compares two processes for treatment of highly coloured groundwater: nanofiltration and ozone injection coupled with biologically activated carbon. The requirement for bromate removal decreased the water production in the ozonation process to compensate for increased maintenance requirements, and required the adoption of catalytic carbon with associated increase in capital and operating costs per unit volume. However, due to the absence of oxidant addition in nanofiltration processes, this process is not affected by bromide. We performed a process analysis and a comparative economic analysis of capital and operating costs for both technologies. Our results show that for the case studied in coastal Southern California, nanofiltration has higher throughput and lower specific capital and operating cost, when compared to ozone injection with biologically activate carbon. Ozone injection with biologically activated carbon, compared to nanofiltration, has 14% higher capital cost and 12% higher operating costs per unit water produced while operating at the initial throughput. Due to reduced ozone concentration required to accommodate for bromate reduction, the ozonation process throughput is reduced and the actual cost increase (per unit water produced) is 68% higher for capital cost and 30% higher for operations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Water quality in the surficial aquifer near agricultural areas in the Delaware Coastal Plain, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Brandon J.; Mensch, Laura L.; Denver, Judith M.; Cruz, Roberto M.; Nardi, Mark R.

    2017-07-27

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Delaware Department of Agriculture, developed a network of wells to monitor groundwater quality in the surficial aquifer of the Delaware Coastal Plain. Well-drained soils, a flat landscape, and accessible water in the Delaware Coastal Plain make for a productive agricultural setting. As such, agriculture is one of the largest industries in the State of Delaware. This setting enables the transport of chemicals from agriculture and other land uses to shallow groundwater. Efforts to mitigate nutrient transport to groundwater by the implementation of agricultural best management practices (BMPs) have been ongoing for several decades. To measure the effectiveness of BMPs on a regional scale, a network of 48 wells was designed to measure shallow groundwater quality (particularly nitrate) over time near agricultural land in the Delaware Coastal Plain. Water characteristics, major ions, nutrients, and dissolved gases were measured in groundwater samples collected from network wells during fall 2014. Wells were organized into three groups based on their geochemical similarity and these groups were used to describe nitrate and chloride concentrations and factors that affect the variability among the groups. The results from this study are intended to establish waterquality conditions in 2014 to enable comparison of future conditions and evaluate the effectiveness of agricultural BMPs on a regional scale.

  12. Analytical characterization of selective benthic flux components in estuarine and coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jeffrey N.

    2011-01-01

    Benthic flux is the rate of flow across the bed of a water body, per unit area of bed. It is forced by component mechanisms, which interact. For example, pressure gradients across the bed, forced by tide, surface gravity waves, density gradients, bed–current interaction, turbulence, and terrestrial hydraulic gradients, drive an advective benthic flux of water and constituents between estuarine and coastal waters, and surficial aquifers. Other mechanisms also force benthic flux, such as chemical gradients, bioturbation, and dispersion. A suite of component mechanisms force a total benthic flux at any given location, where each member of the suite contributes a component benthic flux. Currently, the types and characteristics of component interactions are not fully understood. For example, components may interact linearly or nonlinearly, and the interaction may be constructive or destructive. Benthic flux is a surface water–groundwater interaction process. Its discharge component to a marine water body is referred to, in some literature, as submarine groundwater discharge. Benthic flux is important in characterizing water and constituent budgets of estuarine and coastal systems. Analytical models to characterize selective benthic flux components are reviewed. Specifically, these mechanisms are for the component associated with the groundwater tidal prism, and forced by surface gravity wave setup, surface gravity waves on a plane bed, and the terrestrial hydraulic gradient. Analytical models are applied to the Indian River Lagoon, Florida; Great South Bay, New York; and the South Atlantic Bight in South Carolina and portions of North Carolina.

  13. Optical Algorithms at Satellite Wavelengths for Total Suspended Matter in Tropical Coastal Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Muñoz-Caravaca

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Is it possible to derive accurately Total Suspended Matter concentration or its proxy, turbidity, from remote sensing data in tropical coastal lagoon waters? To investigate this question, hyperspectral remote sensing reflectance, turbidity and chlorophyll pigment concentration were measured in three coral reef lagoons. The three sites enabled us to get data over very diverse environments: oligotrophic and sediment-poor waters in the southwest lagoon of New Caledonia, eutrophic waters in the Cienfuegos Bay (Cuba, and sediment-rich waters in the Laucala Bay (Fiji. In this paper, optical algorithms for turbidity are presented per site based on 113 stations in New Caledonia, 24 stations in Cuba and 56 stations in Fiji. Empirical algorithms are tested at satellite wavebands useful to coastal applications. Global algorithms are also derived for the merged data set (193 stations. The performances of global and local regression algorithms are compared. The best one-band algorithms on all the measurements are obtained at 681 nm using either a polynomial or a power model. The best two-band algorithms are obtained with R412/R620, R443/R670 and R510/R681. Two three-band algorithms based on Rrs620.Rrs681/Rrs412 and Rrs620.Rrs681/Rrs510 also give fair regression statistics. Finally, we propose a global algorithm based on one or three bands: turbidity is first calculated from Rrs681 and then, if < 1 FTU, it is recalculated using an algorithm based on Rrs620.Rrs681/Rrs412. On our data set, this algorithm is suitable for the 0.2-25 FTU turbidity range and for the three sites sampled (mean bias: 3.6 %, rms: 35%, mean quadratic error: 1.4 FTU. This shows that defining global empirical turbidity algorithms in tropical coastal waters is at reach.

  14. Seasonal population dynamics and trophic role of planktonic nanoflagellates in coastal surface waters of the Southern Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piwosz, Kasia; Pernthaler, Jakob

    2010-02-01

    We investigated the temporal dynamics and trophic role of different nanoflagellates in surface waters of the Gulf of Gdańsk (Baltic Sea) between April and October 2007. Two 18S rRNA gene clone libraries were constructed from samples collected in spring and summer, and weekly changes in the abundances of five phylogenetic groups were studied by fluorescence in situ hybridization with newly designed probes. Stramenopiles affiliated with MAST-6 and Pedinellales were most numerous in spring but rare in summer. Both groups formed short-lived blooms during a sudden drop of salinity due to riverine influx (from 7.1 to 6.2 practical salinity units). The analysis of food vacuole content suggested that MAST-6 nanoflagellates were herbivorous, whereas bacterivory was found both in plastidic and aplastidic pedinellid populations. Members of an uncultured lineage of aplastidic, bacterivorous cercozoans distantly related to Ebria tripartita were more abundant in summer when water temperatures exceeded 17 degrees C. Multicellular trophonts and/or free-living single cell stages of two lineages of Group 1 parasitic Syndiniales (alveolates) were present in spring and early summer. One of these alveolate populations repeatedly peaked before and after the freshwater influx, but was conspicuously absent throughout the period of decreased salinity. Our results indicate that nanoflagellate populations in coastal surface waters may form short-lived blooms that can only be detected by high-frequency sampling, and that may be related both to seasonal development and to sporadic (e.g. mixing) events. In view of their trophic diversity we moreover suggest that nanoflagellates in eutrophic coastal waters should not be regarded as a single functional unit.

  15. Drinking cholera: salinity levels and palatability of drinking water in coastal Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Stephen Lawrence; Tamason, Charlotte Crim; Hoque, Bilqis Amin; Jensen, Peter Kjaer Mackie

    2015-04-01

    To measure the salinity levels of common water sources in coastal Bangladesh and explore perceptions of water palatability among the local population to investigate the plausibility of linking cholera outbreaks in Bangladesh with ingestion of saline-rich cholera-infected river water. Hundred participants took part in a taste-testing experiment of water with varying levels of salinity. Salinity measurements were taken of both drinking and non-drinking water sources. Informal group discussions were conducted to gain an in-depth understanding of water sources and water uses. Salinity levels of non-drinking water sources suggest that the conditions for Vibrio cholerae survival exist 7-8 days within the local aquatic environment. However, 96% of participants in the taste-testing experiment reported that they would never drink water with salinity levels that would be conducive to V. cholerae survival. Furthermore, salinity levels of participant's drinking water sources were all well below the levels required for optimal survival of V. cholerae. Respondents explained that they preferred less salty and more aesthetically pleasing drinking water. Theoretically, V. cholerae can survive in the river systems in Bangladesh; however, water sources which have been contaminated with river water are avoided as potential drinking water sources. Furthermore, there are no physical connecting points between the river system and drinking water sources among the study population, indicating that the primary driver for cholera cases in Bangladesh is likely not through the contamination of saline-rich river water into drinking water sources. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Aerospace remote sensing of the coastal zone for water quality and biotic productivity applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, E. B.; Harriss, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    Remote sensing can provide the wide area synoptic coverage of surface waters which is required for studies of such phenomena as river plume mixing, phytoplankton dynamics, and pollutant transport and fate, but which is not obtainable by conventional oceanographic techniques. The application of several remote sensors (aircraftborne and spacecraftborne multispectral scanners, passive microwave radiometers, and active laser systems) to coastal zone research is discussed. Current measurement capabilities (particulates, chlorophyll a, temperature, salinity, ocean dumped materials, other pollutants, and surface winds and roughness) are defined and the results of recent remote sensing experiments conducted in the North Atlantic coastal zone are presented. The future development of remote sensing must rely on an integrated laboratory research program in optical physics. Recent results indicate the potential for separation of particulates into subsets by remote sensors.

  17. Integrating wastewater reuse in water resources management for hotels in arid coastal regions - Case Study of Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamei, A; van der Zaag, P; Imam, E

    2009-01-01

    Hotels in arid coastal areas use mainly desalinated water (using reverse osmosis) for their domestic water supply, and treated wastewater for irrigating green areas. Private water companies supply these hotels with their potable and non-potable water needs. There is normally a contractual agreement stating a minimum amount of water that has to be supplied by the water company and that the hotel management has to pay for regardless of its actual consumption ("contracted-for water supply"). Hotels have to carefully analyse their water requirements in order to determine which percentage of the hotel's peak water demand should be used in the contract in order to reduce water costs and avoid the risk of water shortage. This paper describes a model to optimise the contracted-for irrigation water supply with the objective function to minimise total water cost to hotels. It analyses what the contracted-for irrigation water supply of a given hotel should be, based on the size of the green irrigated area on one hand and the unit prices of the different types of water on the other hand. An example from an arid coastal tourism-dominated city is presented: Sharm El Sheikh (Sharm), Egypt. This paper presents costs of wastewater treatment using waste stabilisation ponds, which is the prevailing treatment mechanism in the case study area for centralised plants, as well as aerobic/anaerobic treatment used for decentralised wastewater treatment plants in the case study area. There is only one centralised wastewater treatment plant available in the city exerting monopoly and selling treated wastewater to hotels at a much higher price than the actual cost that a hotel would bear if it treated its own wastewater. Contracting for full peak irrigation demand is the highest total cost option. Contracting for a portion of the peak irrigation demand and complementing the rest from desalination water is a cheaper option. A better option still is to complement the excess irrigation demand

  18. 7 CFR 610.12 - Equations for predicting soil loss due to water erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equations for predicting soil loss due to water... ASSISTANCE Soil Erosion Prediction Equations § 610.12 Equations for predicting soil loss due to water erosion. (a) The equation for predicting soil loss due to erosion for both the USLE and the RUSLE is A = R × K...

  19. Submarine Groundwater Discharge and Coastal Water Quality on the Kona Coast: The Land Use Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knee, K. L.; Street, J. H.; Grossman, E. G.; Boehm, A. B.; Paytan, A.

    2008-12-01

    For several decades, the Kona, or western, coast of the island of Hawai'i (Hawai'i, USA) has been recognized as a region of exceptionally high submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). Maintaining good water quality on the Kona coast is important for the local coral reef ecosystems and tourism-based economy. However, rapid development in the recent past and planned development in the near future may pose a threat to coastal waters. In this study, we quantified SGD-related fluxes of freshwater, nutrients and trace metals into the coastal ocean at 12 sites on the Kona coast. Radium-224 activity, silica concentration, and salinity were used as groundwater tracers, and a mass-balance approach was used to estimate fluxes. The relation between fresh groundwater quality and land use was also investigated. Fresh SGD was pervasive along the Kona coast, occurring to a measurable extent at 11 of 12 study sites. However, the volume percent of fresh groundwater at coastal ocean sites varied considerably, from 0-47%, indicating that SGD affects some sites much more than others. Inverse, linear relationships between salinity and concentrations of nitrate+nitrite, phosphate, and silica in the coastal ocean indicated conservative behavior and suggested that nutrients are diluted or advected away from shore faster than they can be used biologically. Neither the population density nor the percentage of urbanized, agricultural, forested or bare land in the vicinity of the study sites influenced groundwater nutrient concentrations; however, sites closest to golf courses had significantly higher concentrations of nitrate+nitrite. Relations between land use and trace metal concentrations in groundwater were also investigated.

  20. Numerical model of the circulation and dispersion in the east Adriatic coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beg Paklar, Gordana; Dzoic, Tomislav; Koracin, Darko; Matijevic, Slavica; Grbec, Branka; Ivatek-Sahdan, Stjepan

    2017-04-01

    The Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) was implemented to reproduce physical properties of the area around submarine outlet Stobrec in the middle Adriatic coastal area. ROMS model run was forced with realistic atmospheric fields obtained from meteorological model Aladin, climatological river discharges, tides and dynamics of the surrounding area imposed at the open boundaries. Atmospheric forcing included momentum, heat and water fluxes calculated interactively from the Aladin surface fields during ROMS model simulations. Simulated fields from the Adriatic and shelf scale models were used to prescribe the initial and open boundary conditions for fine resolution coastal domain. Model results were compared with available CTD measurements and discussed in the light of the climatological circulation and thermohaline properties of the middle Adriatic coastal area. Variability in the circulation is related to the prevailing atmospheric conditions, changes in the hydrological conditions and water mass exchange at the open boundaries. Basic features of the coastal circulation are well reproduced by the ROMS model, as well as temperatures and salinities which are within corresponding seasonal intervals, although with lower stratification than measured ones. In order to reproduce dispersion of the passive tracer the ROMS model was coupled with Lagrangian dispersion model. Multiyear monitoring of the physical, chemical and biological parameters around the sewage outlet was used to assess the quality of the dispersion model results. Among measured parameters, redox potential of the surface sediment layer was selected to be compared with model results as its negative values are direct consequence of increased organic matter input that can be attributed to the sewage system inflow.

  1. Satellite Assessment of Bio-Optical Properties of Northern Gulf of Mexico Coastal Waters Following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohrenz, Steven E; Cai, Wei-Jun; Chen, Xiaogang; Tuel, Merritt

    2008-07-10

    The impacts of major tropical storms events on coastal waters include sediment resuspension, intense water column mixing, and increased delivery of terrestrial materials into coastal waters. We examined satellite imagery acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) ocean color sensor aboard the Aqua spacecraft following two major hurricane events: Hurricane Katrina, which made landfall on 29 August 2005, and Hurricane Rita, which made landfall on 24 September. MODIS Aqua true color imagery revealed high turbidity levels in shelf waters immediately following the storms indicative of intense resuspension. However, imagery following the landfall of Katrina showed relatively rapid return of shelf water mass properties to pre-storm conditions. Indeed, MODIS Aqua-derived estimates of diffuse attenuation at 490 nm (K_490) and chlorophyll (chlor_a) from mid-August prior to the landfall of Hurricane Katrina were comparable to those observed in mid-September following the storm. Regions of elevated K_490 and chlor_a were evident in offshore waters and appeared to be associated with cyclonic circulation (cold-core eddies) identified on the basis of sea surface height anomaly (SSHA). Imagery acquired shortly after Hurricane Rita made landfall showed increased water column turbidity extending over a large area of the shelf off Louisiana and Texas, consistent with intense resuspension and sediment disturbance. An interannual comparison of satellite-derived estimates of K_490 for late September and early October revealed relatively lower levels in 2005, compared to the mean for the prior three years, in the vicinity of the Mississippi River birdfoot delta. In contrast, levels above the previous three year mean were observed off Texas and Louisiana 7-10 d after the passage of Rita. The lower values of K_490 near the delta could be attributed to relatively low river discharge during the preceding months of the 2005 season. The elevated levels off Texas and

  2. Satellite Assessment of Bio-Optical Properties of Northern Gulf of Mexico Coastal Waters Following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merritt Tuel

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of major tropical storms events on coastal waters include sediment resuspension, intense water column mixing, and increased delivery of terrestrial materials into coastal waters. We examined satellite imagery acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS ocean color sensor aboard the Aqua spacecraft following two major hurricane events: Hurricane Katrina, which made landfall on 29 August 2005, and Hurricane Rita, which made landfall on 24 September. MODIS Aqua true color imagery revealed high turbidity levels in shelf waters immediately following the storms indicative of intense resuspension. However, imagery following the landfall of Katrina showed relatively rapid return of shelf water mass properties to pre-storm conditions. Indeed, MODIS Aqua-derived estimates of diffuse attenuation at 490 nm (K_490 and chlorophyll (chlor_a from mid-August prior to the landfall of Hurricane Katrina were comparable to those observed in mid-September following the storm. Regions of elevated K_490 and chlor_a were evident in offshore waters and appeared to be associated with cyclonic circulation (cold-core eddies identified on the basis of sea surface height anomaly (SSHA. Imagery acquired shortly after Hurricane Rita made landfall showed increased water column turbidity extending over a large area of the shelf off Louisiana and Texas, consistent with intense resuspension and sediment disturbance. An interannual comparison of satellite-derived estimates of K_490 for late September and early October revealed relatively lower levels in 2005, compared to the mean for the prior three years, in the vicinity of the Mississippi River birdfoot delta. In contrast, levels above the previous three year mean were observed off Texas and Louisiana 7-10 d after the passage of Rita. The lower values of K_490 near the delta could be attributed to relatively low river discharge during the preceding months of the 2005 season. The elevated levels

  3. Satellite Assessment of Bio-Optical Properties of Northern Gulf of Mexico Coastal Waters Following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohrenz, Steven E.; Cai, Wei-Jun; Chen, Xiaogang; Tuel, Merritt

    2008-01-01

    The impacts of major tropical storms events on coastal waters include sediment resuspension, intense water column mixing, and increased delivery of terrestrial materials into coastal waters. We examined satellite imagery acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) ocean color sensor aboard the Aqua spacecraft following two major hurricane events: Hurricane Katrina, which made landfall on 29 August 2005, and Hurricane Rita, which made landfall on 24 September. MODIS Aqua true color imagery revealed high turbidity levels in shelf waters immediately following the storms indicative of intense resuspension. However, imagery following the landfall of Katrina showed relatively rapid return of shelf water mass properties to pre-storm conditions. Indeed, MODIS Aqua-derived estimates of diffuse attenuation at 490 nm (K_490) and chlorophyll (chlor_a) from mid-August prior to the landfall of Hurricane Katrina were comparable to those observed in mid-September following the storm. Regions of elevated K_490 and chlor_a were evident in offshore waters and appeared to be associated with cyclonic circulation (cold-core eddies) identified on the basis of sea surface height anomaly (SSHA). Imagery acquired shortly after Hurricane Rita made landfall showed increased water column turbidity extending over a large area of the shelf off Louisiana and Texas, consistent with intense resuspension and sediment disturbance. An interannual comparison of satellite-derived estimates of K_490 for late September and early October revealed relatively lower levels in 2005, compared to the mean for the prior three years, in the vicinity of the Mississippi River birdfoot delta. In contrast, levels above the previous three year mean were observed off Texas and Louisiana 7-10 d after the passage of Rita. The lower values of K_490 near the delta could be attributed to relatively low river discharge during the preceding months of the 2005 season. The elevated levels off Texas and

  4. Virus Effect on Marine Synechococcus Spp. Loss in Subtropical Western Pacific Coastal Waters During Winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An-Yi Tsai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about microbial processes and the effect that viruses have on Synechococcus spp. in aquatic environments. This study investigated diel variations in the Synechococcus spp. abundance in three size-fractionated water samples (200, 10, and 2 μmμm fractions. Experiments diluting Synechococcus spp. with virus-free water (30 kDa filtrate in winter months were performed. We found Synechococcus spp. to be more abundant in virus-diluted water than in the other fractions during night time. These results suggest that protozoan grazing did not contribute importantly to a reduction in Synechococcus spp. abundance but that viral lysis more likely caused Synechococcus spp. mortality in these marine coastal waters during winter.

  5. Concentrations of metallic elements in kidney, liver, and lung tissue of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin Tursiops aduncus from coastal waters of Zanzibar, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapunda, Edgar C; Othman, Othman C; Akwilapo, Leonard D; Bouwman, Hindrik; Mwevura, Haji

    2017-09-15

    Concentrations of metallic elements in kidney, liver and lung tissues of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins Tursiops aduncus from coastal waters of Zanzibar were determined using inductively coupled plasma - optical emission spectroscopy. Cadmium, chromium, copper, and zinc were quantifiable in all tissues at concentration ranges of 0.10-150, 0.08-3.2, 1.1-88 and 14-210μg/g dry mass, respectively. Copper and zinc was significantly higher in liver, and females had significantly higher Cd in liver, and chromium in lung. Generally, T. aduncus dolphins from coastal waters around Zanzibar carry low concentrations of metals compared with dolphins from other areas. Cadmium increased significantly with age in kidney and lung. Copper decreased significantly with age in liver, probably due to foetal metallothionein. This study supplied baseline data against which future trends in marine mammals in the Indian Ocean, the world's third largest, can be assessed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of tropical cyclones on the evolution of the monsoon-driven upwelling system in the coastal waters of the northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Binxin; Li, Yunhai; Li, Jiufa; Shu, Fangfang; He, Jia

    2017-12-01

    An upwelling system exists in the coastal waters of the northern South China Sea (NSCS), a region that is frequently affected by tropical cyclones in summer. This study investigates the evolution of the NSCS monsoon-driven upwelling system and the effects of the Talim and Doksuri tropical cyclones on the system using in situ observational data obtained at three mooring stations, one land-based meteorological station, and concurrent satellite remote sensing data for the NSCS coastal waters from May to July 2012. The results show that the occurrence and evolution of the upwelling system were mainly controlled by the Asian southwest monsoon, while the eastward current also made important contributions to the upwelling intensity. A decrease in the bottom water temperature and shifts in the along-shore and cross-shore currents were direct evidence of the establishment, existence, and recovery of this upwelling. Tropical cyclones have significant impacts on hydrodynamics and can thus influence the evolution of the NSCS upwelling system by changing the local wind and current fields. Variations in water level and local current systems impeded the development of upwelling during tropical cyclones Talim and Doksuri in the study area, which have low-frequency fluctuations of approximately 2-10 days. These variations were the results of the coupled interactions between local wind fields, coastal trapped waves, and other factors. The hydrodynamic environment of the marine water (including coastal upwelling system) rapidly recovered to normal sea conditions after each cyclone passed due to the relatively short duration of the impact of a tropical cyclone on the dynamic environment of the waters.

  7. A grid enabled Monte Carlo hyperspectral synthetic image remote sensing model (GRID-MCHSIM) for coastal water quality algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Gen-Tao; Dove, Martin; Ballard, Stuart; Bostater, Charles; Frame, Ian

    2006-09-01

    Previous studies indicate that parallel computing for hyperspectral remote sensing image generation is feasible. However, due to the limitation of computing ability within single cluster, one can only generate three bands and a 1000*1000 pixels image in a reasonable time. In this paper, we discuss the capability of using Grid computing where the so-called eScience or cyberinfrastructure is utilized to integrate distributed computing resources to act as a single virtual computer with huge computational abilities and storage spaces. The technique demonstrated in this paper demonstrates the feasibility of a Grid-Enabled Monte Carlo Hyperspectral Synthetic Image Remote Sensing Model (GRID-MCHSIM) for coastal water quality algorithm.

  8. Bioassessment of trace element contamination of Mediterranean coastal waters using the seagrass Posidonia oceanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richir, J; Salivas-Decaux, M; Lafabrie, C; Lopez y Royo, C; Gobert, S; Pergent, G; Pergent-Martini, C

    2015-03-15

    A large scale survey of the trace element (TE) contamination of Mediterranean coastal waters was performed from the analysis of Ag, As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni and Pb in the bioindicator Posidonia oceanica, sampled at 110 sites differing by their levels of exposure to contaminants. The holistic approach developed in this study, based on the combined utilization of several complementary monitoring tools, i.e. water quality scale, pollution index and spatial analysis, accurately assessed the TE contamination rate of Mediterranean coastal waters. In particular, the mapping of the TE contamination according to a new proposed 5-level water quality scale precisely outlined the contamination severity along Mediterranean coasts and facilitated interregional comparisons. Finally, the reliability of the use of P. oceanica as bioindicator species was again demonstrated through several global, regional and local detailed case studies. NB: The designations employed and the presentation of the information in this document do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the authors concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sensitivity analysis of a data assimilation technique for hindcasting and forecasting hydrodynamics of a complex coastal water body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Lei; Hartnett, Michael

    2017-02-01

    Accurate forecasting of coastal surface currents is of great economic importance due to marine activities such as marine renewable energy and fish farms in coastal regions in recent twenty years. Advanced oceanographic observation systems such as satellites and radars can provide many parameters of interest, such as surface currents and waves, with fine spatial resolution in near real time. To enhance modelling capability, data assimilation (DA) techniques which combine the available measurements with the hydrodynamic models have been used since the 1990s in oceanography. Assimilating measurements into hydrodynamic models makes the original model background states follow the observation trajectory, then uses it to provide more accurate forecasting information. Galway Bay is an open, wind dominated water body on which two coastal radars are deployed. An efficient and easy to implement sequential DA algorithm named Optimal Interpolation (OI) was used to blend radar surface current data into a three-dimensional Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) model. Two empirical parameters, horizontal correlation length and DA cycle length (CL), are inherent within OI. No guidance has previously been published regarding selection of appropriate values of these parameters or how sensitive OI DA is to variations in their values. Detailed sensitivity analysis has been performed on both of these parameters and results presented. Appropriate value of DA CL was examined and determined on producing the minimum Root-Mean-Square-Error (RMSE) between radar data and model background states. Analysis was performed to evaluate assimilation index (AI) of using an OI DA algorithm in the model. AI of the half-day forecasting mean vectors' directions was over 50% in the best assimilation model. The ability of using OI to improve model forecasts was also assessed and is reported upon.

  10. Atmospheric Corrections and Multi-Conditional Algorithm for Multi-Sensor Remote Sensing of Suspended Particulate Matter in Low-to-High Turbidity Levels Coastal Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéfani Novoa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The accurate measurement of suspended particulate matter (SPM concentrations in coastal waters is of crucial importance for ecosystem studies, sediment transport monitoring, and assessment of anthropogenic impacts in the coastal ocean. Ocean color remote sensing is an efficient tool to monitor SPM spatio-temporal variability in coastal waters. However, near-shore satellite images are complex to correct for atmospheric effects due to the proximity of land and to the high level of reflectance caused by high SPM concentrations in the visible and near-infrared spectral regions. The water reflectance signal (ρw tends to saturate at short visible wavelengths when the SPM concentration increases. Using a comprehensive dataset of high-resolution satellite imagery and in situ SPM and water reflectance data, this study presents (i an assessment of existing atmospheric correction (AC algorithms developed for turbid coastal waters; and (ii a switching method that automatically selects the most sensitive SPM vs. ρw relationship, to avoid saturation effects when computing the SPM concentration. The approach is applied to satellite data acquired by three medium-high spatial resolution sensors (Landsat-8/Operational Land Imager, National Polar-Orbiting Partnership/Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite and Aqua/Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer to map the SPM concentration in some of the most turbid areas of the European coastal ocean, namely the Gironde and Loire estuaries as well as Bourgneuf Bay on the French Atlantic coast. For all three sensors, AC methods based on the use of short-wave infrared (SWIR spectral bands were tested, and the consistency of the retrieved water reflectance was examined along transects from low- to high-turbidity waters. For OLI data, we also compared a SWIR-based AC (ACOLITE with a method based on multi-temporal analyses of atmospheric constituents (MACCS. For the selected scenes, the ACOLITE-MACCS difference was

  11. Water-table height and microtopography control biogeochemical cycling in an Arctic coastal tundra ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipson, D. A.; Zona, D.; Raab, T. K.; Bozzolo, F.; Mauritz, M.; Oechel, W. C.

    2012-01-01

    Drained thaw lake basins (DTLB's) are the dominant land form of the Arctic Coastal Plain in northern Alaska. The presence of continuous permafrost prevents drainage and so water tables generally remain close to the soil surface, creating saturated, suboxic soil conditions. However, ice wedge polygons produce microtopographic variation in these landscapes, with raised areas such as polygon rims creating more oxic microenvironments. The peat soils in this ecosystem store large amounts of organic carbon which is vulnerable to loss as arctic regions continue to rapidly warm, and so there is great motivation to understand the controls over microbial activity in these complex landscapes. Here we report the effects of experimental flooding, along with seasonal and spatial variation in soil chemistry and microbial activity in a DTLB. The flooding treatment generally mirrored the effects of natural landscape variation in water-table height due to microtopography. The flooded portion of the basin had lower dissolved oxygen, lower oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) and higher pH, as did lower elevation areas throughout the entire basin. Similarly, soil pore water concentrations of organic carbon and aromatic compounds were higher in flooded and low elevation areas. Dissolved ferric iron (Fe(III)) concentrations were higher in low elevation areas and responded to the flooding treatment in low areas, only. The high concentrations of soluble Fe(III) in soil pore water were explained by the presence of siderophores, which were much more concentrated in low elevation areas. All the aforementioned variables were correlated, showing that Fe(III) is solubilized in response to anoxic conditions. Dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) concentrations were higher in low elevation areas, but showed only subtle and/or seasonally dependent effects of flooding. In anaerobic laboratory incubations, more CH4 was produced by soils from low and flooded areas, whereas anaerobic CO2

  12. Optical assessment of colored dissolved organic matter and its related parameters in dynamic coastal water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Palanisamy; Varunan, Theenathayalan; Nagendra Jaiganesh, S. N.; Sahay, Arvind; Chauhan, Prakash

    2016-06-01

    Prediction of the curve of the absorption coefficient of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and differentiation between marine and terrestrially derived CDOM pools in coastal environments are hampered by a high degree of variability in the composition and concentration of CDOM, uncertainties in retrieved remote sensing reflectance and the weak signal-to-noise ratio of space-borne instruments. In the present study, a hybrid model is presented along with empirical methods to remotely determine the amount and type of CDOM in coastal and inland water environments. A large set of in-situ data collected on several oceanographic cruises and field campaigns from different regional waters was used to develop empirical methods for studying the distribution and dynamics of CDOM, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and salinity. Our validation analyses demonstrated that the hybrid model is a better descriptor of CDOM absorption spectra compared to the existing models. Additional spectral slope parameters included in the present model to differentiate between terrestrially derived and marine CDOM pools make a substantial improvement over those existing models. Empirical algorithms to derive CDOM, DOC and salinity from remote sensing reflectance data demonstrated success in retrieval of these products with significantly low mean relative percent differences from large in-situ measurements. The performance of these algorithms was further assessed using three hyperspectral HICO images acquired simultaneously with our field measurements in productive coastal and lagoon waters on the southeast part of India. The validation match-ups of CDOM and salinity showed good agreement between HICO retrievals and field observations. Further analyses of these data showed significant temporal changes in CDOM and phytoplankton absorption coefficients with a distinct phase shift between these two products. Healthy phytoplankton cells and macrophytes were recognized to directly contribute to the

  13. Precipitable water vapor characterization in the coastal regions of China based on ground-based GPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaoyang; Zhou, Xinghua; Liu, Yanxiong; Zhou, Dongxu; Zhang, Huayi; Sun, Weikang

    2017-12-01

    Water vapor plays an important role in climate change; thus, studying the spatial distribution and temporal variation of precipitable water vapor (PWV) in the coastal regions of China would help researchers to understand the climate characteristics of those regions. In this paper, 6-year 1-h interval PWV were derived from 27 Global Positioning System stations observations of Chinese coastal GPS observation network, surface meteorological data and European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ERA-Interim) reanalysis products. The present study provides the use of these data to investigate the spatial-temporal variability of water vapor throughout the coastal regions of China. Latitude is the main factor affecting the spatial distribution of GPS-derived PWV; that is, PWV decreased by about 1.5 mm for each 1° increase of latitude. For regions at the same latitude, a region that is relatively close to the ocean will have a higher content of PWV. The PWV in the southeastern and southwestern coastal regions of China is significantly higher in summer; this may be influenced by the southeastern and southwestern water vapor inflow corridors. The PWV obviously varies monthly, reaching a minimum in January; however, the timing of the maximum varied but usually appeared in June, July or August and was affected by the monsoons. The PWV varies largely between summer and winter with a larger gradient of change in PWV with latitude in winter than in summer. The positive correlation coefficient between PWV and the surface temperature varied in different seasons; this is related to the changes of temperature and the horizontal motion of water vapor. Use of the Fast Fourier Transform method showed that the PWV time series data have multi-scale characteristics. The amplitude and phase of the PWV time series in annual, semiannual, four month and seasonal cycles were extracted through harmonic wave analysis. The amplitude of four month and seasonal cycles did not pass

  14. An optical water type framework for selecting and blending retrievals from bio-optical algorithms in lakes and coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Timothy S; Dowell, Mark D; Bradt, Shane; Verdu, Antonio Ruiz

    2014-03-05

    Bio-optical models are based on relationships between the spectral remote sensing reflectance and optical properties of in-water constituents. The wavelength range where this information can be exploited changes depending on the water characteristics. In low chlorophyll- a waters, the blue/green region of the spectrum is more sensitive to changes in chlorophyll- a concentration, whereas the red/NIR region becomes more important in turbid and/or eutrophic waters. In this work we present an approach to manage the shift from blue/green ratios to red/NIR-based chlorophyll- a algorithms for optically complex waters. Based on a combined in situ data set of coastal and inland waters, measures of overall algorithm uncertainty were roughly equal for two chlorophyll- a algorithms-the standard NASA OC4 algorithm based on blue/green bands and a MERIS 3-band algorithm based on red/NIR bands-with RMS error of 0.416 and 0.437 for each in log chlorophyll- a units, respectively. However, it is clear that each algorithm performs better at different chlorophyll- a ranges. When a blending approach is used based on an optical water type classification, the overall RMS error was reduced to 0.320. Bias and relative error were also reduced when evaluating the blended chlorophyll- a product compared to either of the single algorithm products. As a demonstration for ocean color applications, the algorithm blending approach was applied to MERIS imagery over Lake Erie. We also examined the use of this approach in several coastal marine environments, and examined the long-term frequency of the OWTs to MODIS-Aqua imagery over Lake Erie.

  15. Detection of a Planktothrix agardhii Bloom in Portuguese Marine Coastal Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Churro

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria blooms are frequent in freshwaters and are responsible for water quality deterioration and human intoxication. Although, not a new phenomenon, concern exists on the increasing persistence, scale, and toxicity of these blooms. There is evidence, in recent years, of the transfer of these toxins from inland to marine waters through freshwater outflow. However, the true impact of these blooms in marine habitats has been overlooked. In the present work, we describe the detection of Planktothrix agardhii, which is a common microcystin producer, in the Portuguese marine coastal waters nearby a river outfall in an area used for shellfish harvesting and recreational activities. P. agardhii was first observed in November of 2016 in seawater samples that are in the scope of the national shellfish monitoring system. This occurrence was followed closely between November and December of 2016 by a weekly sampling of mussels and water from the sea pier and adjacent river mouth with salinity ranging from 35 to 3. High cell densities were found in the water from both sea pier and river outfall, reaching concentrations of 4,960,608 cells·L−1 and 6810.3 × 106 cells·L−1 respectively. Cultures were also established with success from the environment and microplate salinity growth assays showed that the isolates grew at salinity 10. HPLC-PDA analysis of total microcystin content in mussel tissue, water biomass, and P. agardhii cultures did not retrieve a positive result. In addition, microcystin related genes were not detected in the water nor cultures. So, the P. agardhii present in the environment was probably a non-toxic strain. This is, to our knowledge, the first report on a P. agardhii bloom reaching the sea and points to the relevance to also monitoring freshwater harmful phytoplankton and related toxins in seafood harvesting and recreational coastal areas, particularly under the influence of river plumes.

  16. Assessing and modeling sediment mobility in estuarine and coastal settings due to extreme climate events from natural short-lived isotope distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaleb, Bassam; Hillaire-Marcel, Claude; Ruiz Fernandez, Ana-Carolina; Sanchez Cabeza, Joan-Albert

    2016-04-01

    provide simple models governing these processes under relatively high sedimentation rates, i.e., when Ra-diffusion from the sediment towards the water column may be neglected. In sites characterized by extreme sedimentologival events, 228Th/232Th profiles depict departures from this model, thus bearing information on the timing and processes involved. Examples from the Saguenay Fjord (Canada) illustrate the case of fast-deposited layers due to floods, whereas examples from estuaries and coastal areas of Sinaloa show evidence for re-suspension and/or erosion events linked notably to storminess and/or land use changes. In the first case, the fast accumulation of flood layers has sealed most of the early 20th-century contamination, whereas in the second case, erosion and re-suspension events led to either some removal of sediments contaminated by heavy metals, or their secondary release into the environment.

  17. Seasonal variability of phytoplankton blooms in the coastal waters along the East coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preethi Latha, T.; Rao, K. H.; Amminedu, E.; Nagamani, P. V.; Choudhury, S. B.; Lakshmi, E.; Sridhar, P. N.; Dutt, C. B. S.; Dhadwal, V. K.

    2014-11-01

    Bay of Bengal (BOB) is a semi enclosed tropical basin located in the north eastern part of the Indian Ocean with high influence of fresh water discharge from major rivers and rainfall. Bay of Bengal (BOB) is highly influenced by monsoons and represents a natural laboratory to study the effect of fresh water fluxes on the marine ecosystem. Bay of Bengal (BOB) is very low in productivity often with the observations of Phytoplankton Blooms. Phytoplankton blooms are one of the prominent features of biological variability in the coastal ecosystems such as estuaries, lagoons, bays, and tidal rivers with rapid production and accumulation of phytoplankton biomass in the ocean. These blooms usually respond to changing physical forcings originating in the coastal ocean like tides, currents and river runoff and to the atmospheric forcing like wind. These physical forcings have different timescales of variability, so algal blooms can be short-term episodic events, recurrent seasonal phenomena, or rare events associated with exceptional climatic or hydrologic conditions. Bloom events and their variability on spatial & temporal scales monitoring through field measurements is difficult. Based on this key hypothesis an effort is made to understand the seasonal and spatial variability of Phytoplankton Blooms along the East Coast of India. In this paper we present the bloom dynamics in their context to the chlorophyll concentration along with species composition and abundance in estuarine and near shore coastal waters of Godavari basin using Oceansat-2 Ocean Colour Monitor (OCM). The initial results revealed that the quasi permanent phytoplankton blooms initiates in the month of mid- February and evolves for a period of two months and then slowly starts decaying by the mid of May month. The results also stand as a base for the study of influence of Phytoplankton Blooms on the carbon flux estimations and bio-geo-chemical processes in the Bay of Bengal.

  18. Study of water mixing in the coastal waters of the western Taiwan Strait based on radium isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men, Wu; Jiang, Yuwu; Liu, Guangshan; Wang, Fenfen; Zhang, Yusheng

    2016-02-01

    Radium is considered to be a useful tracer for studying the physical processes of seawater. In this work, three naturally occurring radium isotopes, (224)Raex, (226)Ra and (228)Ra, were measured in the coastal zone of the western Taiwan Strait during the summer seasons. Based on the distributions of the three radium isotopes and the salinity, we conclude that the water mixing pattern in the study area in summer consists of diluted water flowing from the Jiulong River to the open sea towards the east and southeast, and open sea seawater flowing inward from south to north. The submarine ground water discharges in the estuarine region, as suggested by the radium and salinity data. The residence times of the Jiulong River estuary, ranging from 7 to 49 d, were estimated using the radium isotope pairs (224)Raex and (226)Ra. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evidence of local and regional freshening of Northeast Greenland coastal waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejr, Mikael K.; Stedmon, Colin A; Bendtsen, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    The supply of freshwater to fjord systems in Greenland is increasing as a result of climate change-induced acceleration in ice sheet melt. However, insight into the marine implications of the melt water is impaired by lack of observations demonstrating the fate of freshwater along the Greenland...... observational evidence of a significant freshening on decadal scale of the waters surrounding the ice sheet and comes from a region where ice sheet melt has been less significant. It implies that ice sheet dynamics in Northeast Greenland could be of key importance as freshwater is retained in southward flowing...... coast and providing evaluation basis for ocean models. Here we present 13 years of summer measurements along a 120 km transect in Young Sound, Northeast Greenland and show that sub-surface coastal waters are decreasing in salinity with an average rate of 0.12 ± 0.05 per year. This is the first...

  20. Prevalence of multiple pollutants in selected Tamil Nadu coastal waters, Southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Abdul Muthalif

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The sea water samples from five different coastal cities (Chennai S1, Cuddalore S2, Nagappattinam S3, Tuticorin S4 and Kanyakumari S5 in Tamil Nadu were collected during premonsoon 2015 for physiochemical, microbiological and trace metal studies. The high bacterial load in the study sites indicated that which received enormous waste materials from different sources like land materials, municipal discharges, agricultural and industrial discharges, and more visits. The higher pollution index (PI ratio (>1 were observed in all sampling sites which indicated the human fecal matters were responsible for sea water pollution. The statistical approach (correlation explained that the physiochemical and trace metal parameters are not supporting the microbial growth in large extend. Based on the report, this study was suggesting that throughout impoundment is needed to protect fresh water sources.

  1. Evidence of local and regional freshening of Northeast Greenland coastal waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejr, Mikael K.; Stedmon, Colin A; Bendtsen, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    The supply of freshwater to fjord systems in Greenland is increasing as a result of climate change-induced acceleration in ice sheet melt. However, insight into the marine implications of the melt water is impaired by lack of observations demonstrating the fate of freshwater along the Greenland...... coast and providing evaluation basis for ocean models. Here we present 13 years of summer measurements along a 120 km transect in Young Sound, Northeast Greenland and show that sub-surface coastal waters are decreasing in salinity with an average rate of 0.12 ± 0.05 per year. This is the first...... observational evidence of a significant freshening on decadal scale of the waters surrounding the ice sheet and comes from a region where ice sheet melt has been less significant. It implies that ice sheet dynamics in Northeast Greenland could be of key importance as freshwater is retained in southward flowing...

  2. Microfouling communities from pelagic and benthic marine plastic debris sampled across Mediterranean coastal waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Masó

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study used scanning electron microscopy to characterize the organisms colonizing marine plastic debris collected from pelagic and benthic habitats across Mediterranean coastal waters of Greece, Italy and Spain. A total of 42 fragments of plastic were collected during the COMSOM experimental cruise, 16 from the seafloor and 26 from surface waters. The results showed that diatoms were the most abundant organisms on both pelagic and benthic plastics. The diatom Ceratoneis closterium, frequently observed on surface plastics (73%, is a harmful microalgae associated with mucilage events in the Mediterranean. The abundance of marine plastic in coastal and oceanic waters may provide new habitats that offer an easy substrate for these invasive organisms. Furthermore, the colonization of these new environments might reduce the success of life strategies, or drive the organisms out of their essential habitat by dispersion and rafting phenomena. The results of the present work highlight the need to increase our knowledge of the consequences of colonization of plastics introduced into the marine environment, and the need to raise awareness of the potential impacts of debris accumulation on biodiversity of marine ecosystems.

  3. Development of a GNSS Buoy for Monitoring Water Surface Elevations in Estuaries and Coastal Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Pin Lin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS buoy that utilizes a Virtual Base Station (VBS combined with the Real-Time Kinematic (RTK positioning technology was developed to monitor water surface elevations in estuaries and coastal areas. The GNSS buoy includes a buoy hull, a RTK GNSS receiver, data-transmission devices, a data logger, and General Purpose Radio Service (GPRS modems for transmitting data to the desired land locations. Laboratory and field tests were conducted to test the capability of the buoy and verify the accuracy of the monitored water surface elevations. For the field tests, the GNSS buoy was deployed in the waters of Suao (northeastern part of Taiwan. Tide data obtained from the GNSS buoy were consistent with those obtained from the neighboring tide station. Significant wave heights, zero-crossing periods, and peak wave directions obtained from the GNSS buoy were generally consistent with those obtained from an accelerometer-tilt-compass (ATC sensor. The field tests demonstrate that the developed GNSS buoy can be used to obtain accurate real-time tide and wave data in estuaries and coastal areas.

  4. Land Use Patterns and Fecal Contamination of Coastal Waters in Western Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norat, Jose

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Environmental Health of the Graduate School of Public Health of the Medical Sciences Campus, University of Puerto Rico (UPR-RCM) conducted this research project on how different patterns of land use affect the microbiological quality of rivers flowing into Mayaguez Bay in Western Puerto Rico. Coastal shellfish growing areas, stream and ocean bathing beaches, and pristine marine sites in the Bay are affected by the discharge of the three study rivers. Satellite imagery was used to study watershed land uses which serve as point and nonpoint sources of pathogens affecting stream and coastal water users. The study rivers drain watersheds of different size and type of human activity (including different human waste treatment and disposal facilities). Land use and land cover in the study watersheds were interpreted, classified and mapped using remotely sensed images from NASA's Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM). This study found there is a significant relationship between watershed land cover and microbiological water quality of rivers flowing into Mayaguez Bay in Western Puerto Rico. Land covers in the Guanajibo, Anasco, and Yaguez watersheds were classified into forested areas, pastures, agricultural zones and urban areas so as to determine relative contributions to fecal water contamination. The land cover classification was made processing TM images with IDRISI and ERDAS software.

  5. Development of a GNSS Buoy for Monitoring Water Surface Elevations in Estuaries and Coastal Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Pin; Huang, Ching-Jer; Chen, Sheng-Hsueh; Doong, Dong-Jiing; Kao, Chia Chuen

    2017-01-18

    In this work, a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) buoy that utilizes a Virtual Base Station (VBS) combined with the Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) positioning technology was developed to monitor water surface elevations in estuaries and coastal areas. The GNSS buoy includes a buoy hull, a RTK GNSS receiver, data-transmission devices, a data logger, and General Purpose Radio Service (GPRS) modems for transmitting data to the desired land locations. Laboratory and field tests were conducted to test the capability of the buoy and verify the accuracy of the monitored water surface elevations. For the field tests, the GNSS buoy was deployed in the waters of Suao (northeastern part of Taiwan). Tide data obtained from the GNSS buoy were consistent with those obtained from the neighboring tide station. Significant wave heights, zero-crossing periods, and peak wave directions obtained from the GNSS buoy were generally consistent with those obtained from an accelerometer-tilt-compass (ATC) sensor. The field tests demonstrate that the developed GNSS buoy can be used to obtain accurate real-time tide and wave data in estuaries and coastal areas.

  6. Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-04-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project, Pacific Northwest Laboratory reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Certain radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the 1964--1966 time period. This report summarizes the literature and database review and the results of the preliminary dose estimates.

  7. Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-11-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project, Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the period 1964 through 1966. This report summarizes the literature and database reviews and the results of the preliminary dose estimates.

  8. Nitrogen uptake by size-fractionated plankton in permanently well-mixed temperate coastal waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wafar, M.V.M.; L'Helguen, S.; Raikar, V.; Maguernd, J.-F.; Le

    by size-fractionated plankton in permanently well-mixed temperate coastal waters MOHIDEEN WAFAR 1, *, STE ´ PHANE L’HELGUEN, VARSHA RAIKAR 1 , JEAN-FRANC¸OIS MAGUER AND PIERRE LE CORRE LABORATOIRE DE CHIMIE MARINE, INSTITUT UNIVERSITAIRE EUROPE ´ EN DE LA... with our earlier paper (Le Corre et al.,1996) we use the term ‘netplankton’ for the 15–200 mmfraction, ‘nanoplankton’ for the 1–15 mm fraction and ‘picoplank- ton’ for the <1 mm fraction. Uptake rates, Chl a and PON were calculated by difference...

  9. Anionic detergent, LAS pollution in coastal surface water of the Turkish Straits System

    OpenAIRE

    Balcıoğlu, Esra Billur

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In this study anionic detergent, LAS concentration was surveyed in the coastal surface water of the Turkish Straits System (TSS) in January and August of 2012. Samples were taken at 15 stations in the TSS, which consists of Straits of Istanbul and Çanakkale and the Sea of Marmara. The mean value of LAS was found for January in the Istanbul Strait as 22.88 μg/L, in the Çanakkale Strait as 24.24 μg/L, in the Sea of Marmara Sea as 26.06 μg/L and for August in the Istanbul Strait as 43.4...

  10. Characterization of a Vibrio cholerae phage isolated from the coastal water of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talledo, Miguel; Rivera, Irma N G; Lipp, Erin K; Neale, Angela; Karaolis, David; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R

    2003-05-01

    A Vibrio cholerae bacteriophage, family Myoviridae, was isolated from seawater collected from the coastal water of Lima, Peru. Genome size was estimated to be 29 kbp. The temperate phage was specific to V. cholerae and infected 12/13 V. cholerae O1 strains and half of the four non-O1/non-O139 strains tested in this study. Vibrio cholerae O139 strains were resistant to infection and highest infection rates were obtained in low nutrient media amended with NaCl or prepared using seawater as diluent.

  11. Influence of Microsprinkler Irrigation Amount on Water, Soil, and pH Profiles in a Coastal Saline Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Chu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Microsprinkler irrigation is a potential method to alleviate soil salinization. After conducting a homogeneous, highly saline, clayey, and coastal soil from the Bohai Gulf in northern China in a column experiment, the results show that the depth of the wetting front increased as the water amount applied increased, low-salinity and low-SAR enlarged after irrigation and water redistribution, and the soil pH increased with an increase in irrigation amount. We concluded that a water amount of 207 mm could be used to reclaim the coastal saline soil in northern China.

  12. Influences of riverine and upwelling waters on the coastal carbonate system off Central Chile and their ocean acidification implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Cristian A.; Contreras, Paulina Y.; Pérez, Claudia A.; Sobarzo, Marcus; Saldías, Gonzalo S.; Salisbury, Joe

    2016-06-01

    A combined data set, combining data from field campaigns and oceanographic cruises, was used to ascertain the influence of both river discharges and upwelling processes, covering spatial and temporal variation in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and aragonite saturation state. This work was conducted in one of the most productive river-influenced upwelling areas in the South Pacific coasts (36°S). Additionally, further work was also conducted to ascertain the contribution of different DIC sources, influencing the dynamics of DIC along the land-ocean range. Six sampling campaigns were conducted across seven stations at the Biobío River basin, covering approximately 200 km. Three research cruises were undertaken simultaneously, covering the adjacent continental shelf, including 12 sampling stations for hydrographic measurements. Additionally, six stations were also sampled for chemical analyses, covering summer, winter, and spring conditions over 2010 and 2011. Our results evidenced that seaward extent of the river plume was more evident during the winter field campaign, when highest riverine DIC fluxes were observed. The carbonate system along the river-ocean continuum was very heterogeneous varying over spatial and temporal scales. High DIC and pCO2 were observed in river areas with larger anthropogenic effects. CO2 supersaturation at the river plume was observed during all campaigns due to the influence of low pH river waters in winter/spring and high-pCO2 upwelling waters in summer. δ13CDIC evidenced that main DIC sources along the river and river plume corresponded to the respiration of terrestrial organic matter. We have linked this natural process to the carbonate saturation on the adjacent river-influenced coastal area, suggesting that Ωaragonite undersaturation in surface/subsurface waters is largely modulated by the influence of both river discharge and coastal upwelling events in this productive coastal area. Conditions of low Ωaragonite might impact

  13. How Subsurface Water Technologies (SWT) can Provide Robust, Effective, and Cost-Efficient Solutions for Freshwater Management in Coastal Zones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurbier, K.G.; Raat, K.J.; Paalman, M.; Oosterhof, A.T.; Stuyfzand, P.J.

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater resources in coastal zones are limited while demands are high, resulting in problems like seasonal water shortage, overexploitation of freshwater aquifers, and seawater intrusion. Three subsurface water technologies (SWT) that can provide robust, effective, and cost-efficient solutions to

  14. Sensitivity of stream flow and water table depth to potential climatic variability in a coastal forested watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhaohua Dai; Carl Trettin; Changsheng Li; Devendra M. Amatya; Ge Sun; Harbin Li

    2010-01-01

    A physically based distributed hydrological model, MIKE SHE, was used to evaluate the effects of altered temperature and precipitation regimes on the streamflow and water table in a forested watershed on the southeastern Atlantic coastal plain. The model calibration and validation against both streamflow and water table depth showed that the MIKE SHE was applicable for...

  15. Integrated modelling of nitrate loads to coastal waters and land rent applied to catchment-scale water management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refsgaard, A; Jacobsen, T; Jacobsen, B; Ørum, J-E

    2007-01-01

    The EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires an integrated approach to river basin management in order to meet environmental and ecological objectives. This paper presents concepts and full-scale application of an integrated modelling framework. The Ringkoebing Fjord basin is characterized by intensive agricultural production and leakage of nitrate constitute a major pollution problem with respect groundwater aquifers (drinking water), fresh surface water systems (water quality of lakes) and coastal receiving waters (eutrophication). The case study presented illustrates an advanced modelling approach applied in river basin management. Point sources (e.g. sewage treatment plant discharges) and distributed diffuse sources (nitrate leakage) are included to provide a modelling tool capable of simulating pollution transport from source to recipient to analyse the effects of specific, localized basin water management plans. The paper also includes a land rent modelling approach which can be used to choose the most cost-effective measures and the location of these measures. As a forerunner to the use of basin-scale models in WFD basin water management plans this project demonstrates the potential and limitations of comprehensive, integrated modelling tools.

  16. The origin of high sodium bicarbonate waters in the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, M.D.

    1950-01-01

    Some sodium bicarbonate waters at depth in the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains have the same bicarbonate content as the shallower calcium bicarbonate waters in the same formation and appear to be the result of replacement of calcium by sodium through the action of base-exchange minerals. Others, however, contain several hundred parts per million more of bicarbonate than any of the calcium bicarbonate waters and much more bicarbonate than can be attributed to solution of calcium carbonate through the action of carbon dioxide derived from the air and soil. As the waters in the Potomac group (Cretaceous) are all low in sulphate and as the environmental conditions under which the sediments of the Potomac group were deposited do not indicate that large amounts of sulphate are available for solution, it does not seem probable that carbon dioxide generated by chemical or biochemical breakdown of sulphate is responsible for the high sodium bicarbonate waters in this area. Sulphate as a source of oxygen is not necessary for the generation of carbon dioxide by carbonaceous material. Oxygen is an important constituent of carbonaceous material and carbon dioxide is a characteristic decomposition product of such material-as, for example, peat and lignite. Experimental work showed that distilled water, calcium bicarbonate water, and sodium bicarbonate water, after contact with lignite, calcium carbonate, and permutite (a base-exchange material), had all increased greatly in sodium bicarbonate content and had become similar in chemical character and in mineral content to high sodium bicarbonate waters found in the Coastal Plain. The tests indicated that carbonaceous material can act as a source of carbon dioxide, which, when dissolved in water, enables it to take into solution more calcium carbonate. If base-exchange materials are also present to replace calcium with sodium, a still greater amount of bicarbonate can be held in solution. The presence of carbonaceous material

  17. Apparent losses due to domestic water meter under-registration in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    By combining these results with the average age of meters in South Africa, estimated from the National Water Demand Archive, it was possible to estimate the average meter under-registration due to meter aging. The study concluded that apparent losses due to water meter under-registration are around 5% of consumption ...

  18. Apparent losses due to domestic water meter under-registration in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-10-05

    Oct 5, 2015 ... By combining these results with the average age of meters in South Africa, estimated from the National Water Demand. Archive, it was possible to estimate the average meter under-registration due to meter aging. The study concluded that apparent losses due to water meter under-registration are around ...

  19. Evaluation of Surface Hydrological Connectivity Between a Forested Coastal Wetland and Regulated Waters of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, D. D.; Wilcox, B. P.; Jacob, J. S.; Sipocz, A.; Munster, C.

    2008-12-01

    Rapid urbanization, industry, and agriculture have put enormous developmental pressure on coastal forested wetlands along the Texas coast. At least 97,000 acres of freshwater forested wetlands on the Texas coast have been lost since 1955, amid much larger losses of other coastal wetland types (TPWD-Texas Wetlands Conservation Plan, 1996). Some coastal wetlands are protected by federal regulations under the Clean Water Act in an effort to maintain wetland hydrological and ecological services, such as water quality improvement and flood control. However, federal protection of many important coastal wetlands is dependent upon documented proof of a hydrologic connection to federally protected Waters of the United States and reasonable influence on the quality of those waters. This study focuses on a 13 acre catchment of coastal flatwoods wetland with an ambiguous legal status because of a possible , but undocumented, hydrologic connection to regulated Waters of the United States. Documentation of the hydrologic connectivity of this type of wetland is critical because of the geographic extent of similar wetlands and their contributions to water quality. The objective of the study was to determine if a hydrologic connection exists, and if so, to quantify the strength of the connection. A surface connection was established based on runoff and rainfall data collected since April of 2005, with the wetland discharging surface water directly into an adjacent protected wetland. The connection was weak during dry years, but in years with average rainfall, surface runoff accounted for a much more significant portion of the water budget. These results suggest that runoff water from similar wetlands contributes directly to protected wetland waters, and may influence water quality downstream.

  20. Avoiding the Water-Climate-Poverty Trap: Adaptive Risk Management for Bangladesh's Coastal Embankments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    Our recent research on water security (Sadoff et al., 2015, Dadson et al., 2015) has revealed the dynamic relationship between water security and human well-being. A version of this dynamic is materialising in the coastal polder areas of Khulna, Bangladesh. Repeated coastal floods increase salinity, wipe out agricultural yields for several years and increase out-migration. As a tool to help inform and target future cycles of investment in improvements to the coastal embankments, in this paper we propose a dynamical model of biophysical processes and human well-being, which downscales our previous research to the Khulna region. State variables in the model include agricultural production, population, life expectancy and child mortality. Possible infrastructure interventions include embankment improvements, groundwater wells and drainage infrastructure. Hazard factors include flooding, salinization and drinking water pollution. Our system model can be used to inform adaptation decision making by testing the dynamical response of the system to a range of possible policy interventions, under uncertain future conditions. The analysis is intended to target investment and enable adaptive resource reallocation based on learning about the system response to interventions over the seven years of our research programme. The methodology and paper will demonstrate the complex interplay of factors that determine system vulnerability to climate change. The role of climate change uncertainties (in terms of mean sea level rise and storm surge frequency) will be evaluated alongside multiple other uncertain factors that determine system response. Adaptive management in a 'learning system' will be promoted as a mechanism for coping with climate uncertainties. References:Dadson, S., Hall, J.W., Garrick, D., Sadoff, C. and Grey, D. Water security, risk and economic growth: lessons from a dynamical systems model, Global Environmental Change, in review.Sadoff, C.W., Hall, J.W., Grey, D

  1. Morphological characters and DNA barcoding of Syngnathus schlegeli in the coastal waters of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi; Zhang, Yan; Han, Zhiqiang; Song, Na; Gao, Tianxiang

    2017-05-01

    A Syngnathus species widely distributed in Chinese seas was permanently identified as Syngnathus acus by native ichthyologists, but the taxonomic description about this species was inadequate and lacking conclusively molecular evidence. To identify this species, 357 individuals of this species from the coastal waters of Dandong, Yantai, Qingdao and Zhoushan were collected and measured. Morphological results showed that these slender specimens were mainly brownish, usually mottled with pale. Standard length ranged from 117 mm to 213 mm with an average length of 180.3 mm. The above characters were consistent with S. schlegeli distributed in Japan but colored differently from and much smaller than typical S. acus reported in Europe. Thus, morphological studies revealed that this species was previously misidentified as S. acus and might be S. schlegeli in reality. In addition, a fragment of cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene of mitochondrial DNA was also sequenced for species identification, and 15 COI sequences belonging to different Syngnathus species were also used for the molecular identification. COI sequences of our specimens had the minimum genetic distance from recognized S. schlegeli from Japan and clustered with it firstly. The phylogenetic analysis similarly suggested that the species previously identified as S. acus in the coastal waters of China was S. schlegeli actually.

  2. Evidence of microplastics in samples of zooplankton from Portuguese coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frias, J P G L; Otero, V; Sobral, P

    2014-04-01

    Records of high concentrations of plastic and microplastic marine debris floating in the ocean have led to investigate the presence of microplastics in samples of zooplankton from Portuguese coastal waters. Zooplankton samples collected at four offshore sites, in surveys conducted between 2002 and 2008, with three different sampling methods, were used in this preliminary study. A total of 152 samples were processed and microplastics were identified in 93 of them, corresponding to 61% of the total. Costa Vicentina, followed by Lisboa, were the regions with higher microplastic concentrations (0.036 and 0.033 no. m⁻³) and abundances (0.07 and 0.06 cm³ m⁻³), respectively. Microplastic: zooplankton ratios were also higher in these two regions, which is probably related to the proximity of densely populated areas and inputs from the Tejo and Sado river estuaries. Microplastics polymers were identified using Micro Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (μ-FTIR), as polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP) and polyacrylates (PA). The present work is the first report on the composition of microplastic particles collected with plankton nets in Portuguese coastal waters. Plankton surveys from regular monitoring campaigns conducted worldwide may be used to monitor plastic particles in the oceans and constitute an important and low cost tool to address marine litter within the scope of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (2008/56/EC). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Larval dispersion of the estuarine crab Neohelice granulata in coastal marine waters of the Southwest Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas, Claudia; Luppi, Tomás; Spivak, Eduardo; Schejter, Laura

    2009-08-01

    The estuarine brachyuran crab Neohelice granulata export their larvae from the parental intertidal population of the Mar Chiquita coastal lagoon, and probably other populations, to marine waters. The degree of larval dispersion or self-recruitment of populations is unknown. We evaluated the presence of all larval stages of N. granulata in coastal waters of Argentina between 37.9° and 35.8° S, at two different spatial scales: a broad scale of tens to hundreds of kilometers from the Río de la Plata estuary in the north, to Mar Chiquita lagoon in the south, and a small scale of hundreds of meters to some kilometers around the mouth of Mar Chiquita, during spring and summer. Additionally, we registered the larval composition and density at San Clemente creek population, in Samborombon Bay (Río de la Plata estuary), every 3 h along a 30-hour period. Evidence indicates that larval release of N. granulata is temporally synchronized with nocturnal ebb tides and all development from Zoea I to Zoea IV occur in areas close to the parental population, even with very different oceanographic characteristics. A possible mechanism based on salinity selection and wind-driven transport is proposed for such behavior, and some considerations related to the connectivity of present populations are made.

  4. Ecological evaluation of transitional and coastal waters: A marine benthic macrophytes-based model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. ORFANIDIS

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A model to estimate the ecological status and identify restoration targets of transitional and coastal waters was developed. Marine benthic macrophytic species (seaweeds, seagrasses were used to indicate shifts in the aquatic ecosystem from the pristine state with late-successional species (Ecological State Group I to the degraded state with opportunistic (ESG II species. The first group comprises species with a thick or calcareous thallus, low growth rates and long life cycles (perennials, whereas the second group includes sheet-like and filamentous species with high growth rates and short life cycles (annuals. Seagrasses were included in the first group, whereas Cyanophyceae and species with a coarsely branched thallus were included in the second group. The evaluation of ecological status into five categories from high to bad includes a cross comparison in a matrix of the ESGs and a numerical scoring system (Ecological Evaluation Index. The model could allow comparisons, ranking and setting of priorities at regional and national levels fulfilling the requirements of the EU Water Frame Directive. A successful application of the model was realized in selected lagoons of the Macedonian and Thrace region (North Greece and in the Saronic Gulf coastal ecosystems (Central Greece.

  5. Characterization of Terrestrial Discharges into Coastal Waters with Thermal Imagery from a Hierarchical Monitoring Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Ferrara

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The hierarchical use of remotely-sensed imagery from satellites, and then proximally-sensed imagery from helicopter sand drones, can provide a range of spatial and temporal coverage that supports water quality monitoring of complex pollution scenarios. Methods: The study used hierarchical satellite-, helicopter-, and drone-acquired thermal imagery of coastal plumes ranging from 3 to 300 m, near Naples, Italy, and captured temporally- and spatially-overlapping in situ samples to correlate thermal and water quality parameters in each plume and the seawater. Results: In situ sampling determined that between-plume salinity varied by 37%, chlorophyll-a varied by 356%, dissolved oxygen varied by 81%, and turbidity varied by 232%. The radiometric temperature, Trad, for the plume area of interest had a correlation of 0.81 with salinity, 0.74 with chlorophyll-a, 0.98 with dissolved oxygen, and −0.61 with turbidity. Conclusion: This study established hierarchical use of remote and proximal thermal imagery can provide monitoring of complex coastal areas.

  6. Fortnightly atmospheric tides forced by spring and neap tides in coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Shinsuke; Isobe, Atsuhiko; Miyao, Yasuyuki

    2015-05-18

    The influence of sea surface temperature (SST) on atmospheric processes over the open ocean has been well documented. However, atmospheric responses to SST in coastal waters are poorly understood. Oceanic stratification (and consequently, SST) in coastal waters largely depends on the fortnightly spring-neap tidal cycle, because of variations in vertical tidal mixing. Here we investigate how changes in SST during the fortnightly tidal cycle affect the lower-level atmosphere over the Seto Inland Sea, Japan. We use a combination of in situ measurements, satellite observations and a regional atmospheric model. We find that the SST in summer shows cool (warm) anomalies over most of the inland sea during spring (neap) tides. Additionally, surface air temperature is positively correlated with the SST as it varies during the fortnightly tidal cycle. Moreover, the fortnightly spring-neap cycle also influences the surface wind speed because the atmospheric boundary layer becomes stabilized or destabilized in response to the difference between air temperature and SST.

  7. The elimination of Salmonella typhimurium in coastal waters with various levels of microbiologically hygienic contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaus, H; Heinemeyer, E A

    1994-12-01

    The biotic elimination of Salmonella typhimurium in coastal sea water is primarily caused by protozoa. The elimination is usually faster in summer than in winter and in the vicinity of waste water outlets partially faster than in coastal areas with less contamination. When the rate of elimination is measured twice in succession in the same sample (primary/secondary culture) the second reduction is considerably faster. This activation is attributed to the multiplication of protozoa (predator-prey-effect). The activation is also possible through E. coli in concentrations such as those found in waste from sewage treatment plants or by Salmonella typhimurium themselves and vice versa. After 12 hours incubation the number of E. coli in the primary culture was still about 58% of the original quantity and 12 hours after a renewed inoculation in the secondary culture only 1%. When salmonella were added to the primary culture it was already impossible to detect E. coli after 12 hours in the secondary culture. Salmonella showed comparable tendencies, although the elimination of salmonella was clearly slower than the elimination of E. coli even after activation with salmonella. In the primary culture E. coli is already recultivatable in a smaller quantity than salmonella. Furthermore the addition of Cycloheximide to the secondary culture provides a considerably better protection for salmonella than for E. coli, so that it can be assumed that other or additional factors are involved in the elimination of E. coli.

  8. Monitoring coastal water quality in a municipal beach in Paphos-Cyprus using ASTER image data and spectral signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diofantos, Hadjimitsis G.; Marinos, Hadjimitsis G.; Athos, Agapiou; Kyriacos, Themistocleous

    2009-09-01

    Using remote sensing data to assess the quality of water bodies has proven to be successful not only in inland waters but to coastal water areas as shown by several others conducted studies. The main objective of this study is to use ASTER data to evaluate the potential of using such remotely sensed digital data, to extract information that help in the monitoring system for Cyprus coastal water quality, especially in municipal beaches that are included in the Blue Flag Programme. Reflectance signature of municipal coastal water is monitored using a GER 1500 field spectroradiometer. Simultaneous measurements of turbidity, temperature have been acquired. E-coli values have been retrieved through the sampling procedure. Such coastal water quality assessment can assist the Blue-Flag Programme in the area under investigation. ASTER images can be programmed for summer acquisitions in which Blue-Flag Programme is active so this can be considered an advantage and can be used by the local authorities as a systematic monitoring tool. It has been found after correlating the SS, Turbidity with the water reflectance obtained using the GER 1500 that high correlation was occurred for the wavelength region that corresponds to ASTER band 2 and band 3 respectively (r2>0.80 ). Temporal and spatial variations can be monitored from satellite images as shown from the in-situ validated spectroradiometric measurements.

  9. Application of Landsat 8 for Monitoring Impacts of Wastewater Discharge on Coastal Water Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca C. Trinh

    2017-10-01

    of using Landsat 8 TIRS and OLI sensors for the monitoring of SST and surface chl-a concentrations at high spatial resolution in nearshore waters and highlights the value of these sensors for assessing the environmental effects of wastewater discharge in a coastal environment.

  10. The Influence of Water Column Hypoxia on the Behaviour of Manganese and Iron in Sandy Coastal Marine Sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansen, K. D.; Kristensen, E.; Jensen, E. M. H.

    2002-10-01

    The influence of bottom water hypoxia on manganese, iron and sulfur biogeochemistry was examined in sandy sediment from the shallow coastal lagoon, Fællesstrand, Denmark. The organic-poor sediment at Fællesstrand experiences occasional coverage of floating macroalgae and variable degrees of hypoxia at the sediment-water interface, resulting in dramatic changes in metal behaviour. The narrow peaks and steep gradients in Mn and Fe oxides as well as porewater Mn 2+ and Fe 2+ observed in the upper 2-3 cm of the sediment under fully oxic conditions indicate intense metal reduction-oxidation cycles. The Fe zones were generally displaced about 1 cm downwards compared with the Mn zones due to differences in reactivity. At lowered O 2 conditions in the overlying water, Mn oxides gradually disappeared followed by Fe oxides. The subsequent diffusive loss of Mn 2+ and Fe 2+ to the overlying water was inversely related to the O 2 concentration in the overlying water. The ability of the sediment to retain upward diffusion of H 2S (sulfide retaining capacity) gradually disappeared at lowered O 2 concentrations in a temporal pattern closely related to the changes in reactive Mn and Fe present. The sulfide retaining capacity is sustained for about 14 days under anoxia in Fællesstrand sediment. After 28 days of anoxia, 30-35% of the total Mn and Fe pools initially present in the sediment was lost. Despite the relatively low metal content, this organic-poor sediment may withstand hypoxic conditions in the bottom water (e.g. caused by coverage with floating macroalgae) and is thus capable of maintaining an intact benthic community for extended periods of time.

  11. Water budget and the role of land-sea interactions of a coastal wetland at the German Baltic Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronstert, Axel; Thomas, Graeff; Konrad, Miegel; Selle, Benny; Thomas, Salzmann; Christian, Franck

    2017-04-01

    Coastal low moors are characteristic elements of the landscapes along Germany's Baltic Sea coastline. Under natural conditions, their hydrological peculiarities include exchange processes between the fens and the Baltic Sea. Due to human interventions such as the construction of dunes and dykes, drainage systems and lately also renaturation measures, their hydrological regime has been changed various times during the past centuries. The nature reserve "Hütelmoor und Heiligensee" northeast of the city Rostock has been selected as a natural observatory, instrumented with a number of measurement devices, and is therefore well-suited for investigating the effects of past and future changes. This contribution presents the observational programme and aims at identifying the relevant hydrological processes that affect the water balance of such wetlands. The investigations are based on a monitoring network measuring groundwater levels and electric conductivity within the moor's body since 2009, as well as on measurements of the surface water fluxes across the catchment boundaries and of meteorological parameters. The measurements enable the identification of the governing hydrological processes and patterns. On the basis of a system water budgeting approach we derived balancing of the different water flows across the system's borders (precipitation, evapotranspiration, inflows from the neighbouring parts of the catchment area, subterranean exchange processes with the Baltic Sea and the area's superficial discharge). Furthermore, the episodic input of salty water in case of heavy storm tides may provide a natural tracer. This tracer allows to better identify both vertical processes in the lowland (precipitation, evaporation and rising groundwater levels) as well as lateral transport processes (such as, e.g., water fluxes between groundwater bodies and the area`s trench system or land-sea interactions).

  12. Assessing the variability in extreme high water levels and the implications for coastal flood risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Niall; Lewis, Matthew; Wadey, Matthew; Haigh, Ivan

    2014-05-01

    Assessing the variability in extreme high water levels and the implications for coastal flood risk In this research we assess the temporal variability in the time-series of extreme water levels at 44 A- Class tide gauges around the UK. Extreme (> 99th percentile) storm tide events, sampled from water level measurements taken every 15 minutes between 1993 and 2012, were analysed at each site, and the variability in elevation relative to a given event storm tide peak was quantified. The magnitude of the variability in the time-series was found to be both spatially variable across the UK, and temporally variable relative to the time of the high water. Boundary water levels associated with a range of event magnitudes at case study locations around the UK were used to force two-dimensional hydrodynamic models to examine the importance of storm tide time-series uncertainty to flood risk predictions. The comparison of inundation extent, depth, and number of buildings affected demonstrated the importance of accurately defining the duration and magnitude of defence exceedance. For example, given a current 1 in 200 year event magnitude at Portsmouth (UK), the predicted number of buildings inundated differed by more than 30% when contrasting simulations forced with the 5th percentile time-series relative to those forced with the 95th percentile time-series. The results clearly indicate that variability in the time-series of the storm tide can have considerable influence upon the duration and magnitude by which defences are exceeded, hence with implications for coastal flood risk assessments. Therefore, further evaluating and representing this uncertainty in future flood risk assessments is vital, while the 5th and 95th percentile time-series defined in this research provide a tool for coastal flood modellers. Only defence overflow-induced inundation was examined in this research. However, it is expected that variability in storm tide time-series will also have important

  13. Ammonia-oxidizing Archaea in the Arctic Ocean and Antarctic coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalanetra, Karen M; Bano, Nasreen; Hollibaugh, James T

    2009-09-01

    We compared abundance, distributions and phylogenetic composition of Crenarchaeota and ammonia-oxidizing Archaea (AOA) in samples collected from coastal waters west of the Antarctic Peninsula during the summers of 2005 and 2006, with samples from the central Arctic Ocean collected during the summer of 1997. Ammonia-oxidizing Archaea and Crenarchaeota abundances were estimated from quantitative PCR measurements of amoA and 16S rRNA gene abundances. Crenarchaeota and AOA were approximately fivefold more abundant at comparable depths in the Antarctic versus the Arctic Ocean. Crenarchaeota and AOA were essentially absent from the Antarctic Summer Surface Water (SSW) water mass (0-45 m depth). The ratio of Crenarchaeota 16S rRNA to archaeal amoA gene abundance in the Winter Water (WW) water mass (45-105 m depth) of the Southern Ocean was much lower (0.15) than expected and in sharp contrast to the ratio (2.0) in the Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) water mass (105-3500 m depth) immediately below it. We did not observe comparable segregation of this ratio by depth or water mass in Arctic Ocean samples. A ubiquitous, abundant and polar-specific crenarchaeote was the dominant ribotype in the WW and important in the upper halocline of the Arctic Ocean. Our data suggest that this organism does not contain an ammonia monooxygenase gene. In contrast to other studies where Crenarchaeota populations apparently lacking amoA genes are found in bathypelagic waters, this organism appears to dominate in well-defined, ammonium-rich, near-surface water masses in polar oceans.

  14. Remote measurement of water color in coastal waters. [spectral radiance data used to obtain quantitative values for chlorophyll and turbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldon, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to develop procedure to obtain quantitative values for chlorophyll and turbidity in coastal waters by observing the changes in spectral radiance of the backscattered spectrum. The technique under consideration consists of Examining Exotech model 20-D spectral radiometer data and determining which radiance ratios best correlated with chlorophyll and turbidity measurements as obtained from analyses of water samples and sechi visibility readings. Preliminary results indicate that there is a correlation between backscattered light and chlorophyll concentration and secchi visibility. The tests were conducted with the spectrometer mounted in a light aircraft over the Mississippi Sound at altitudes of 2.5K, 2.8K and 10K feet.

  15. Association of urban runoff with coastal water quality in Orange County, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwight, Ryan H; Semenza, Jan C; Baker, Dean B; Olson, Betty H

    2002-01-01

    The associations between storm events, urban runoff, and coastal water quality have not been well investigated. A temporal and spatial analysis of 2 years of data was conducted to determine associations between urban river discharge and indicator bacteria levels for Southern California beaches and evaluate the contribution of anomalous precipitation to the association. Data show beaches next to rivers had the highest bacterial levels in both wet and dry seasons. Bacterial levels rose substantially across all sites during wet months, and river discharge and bacterial levels were all highest during the winter with the most rainfall. Precipitation was significantly associated (Spearman rank bivariate correlation, P swimming at beaches near rivers may pose a significant public health risk. The strong association found between precipitation and water pollution may be relevant to studies of potential health effects associated with climate change.

  16. 33 CFR 203.61 - Emergency water supplies due to contaminated water source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... provide emergency supplies of clean water to any locality confronted with a source of contaminated water... interests to provide normal supplies of water. (9) State, tribal, and local governments must make full use... interests are responsible for restoration of the routine supply of clean drinking water, including...

  17. Landscape scale assessment of soil and water salinization processes in agricultural coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elen Bless, Aplena; Follain, Stéphane; Coiln, François; Crabit, Armand

    2017-04-01

    Soil salinization is among main land degradation process around the globe. It reduces soil quality, disturbs soil function, and has harmful impacts on plant growth that would threaten agricultural sustainability, particularly in coastal areas where mostly susceptible on land degradation because of pressure from anthropogenic activities and at the same time need to preserve soil quality for supporting food production. In this presentation, we present a landscape scale analysis aiming to assess salinization process affecting wine production. This study was carried out at Serignan estuary delta in South of France (Languadoc Roussillon Region, 43˚ 28'N and 3˚ 31'E). It is a sedimentary basin near coastline of Mediterranean Sea. Field survey was design to characterize both space and time variability of soil and water salinity through water electrical conductivity (ECw) and soil 1/5 electrical conductivity (EC1/5). For water measurements, Orb River and groundwater salinity (piezometers) were determined and for soil 1737 samples were randomly collected from different soil depths (20, 50, 80, and 120 cm) between year 2012 and 2016 and measured. In order to connect with agricultural practices observations and interviews with farmers were conducted. We found that some areas combining specific criteria presents higher electrical conductivity: positions with lower elevation (a.s.l), Cambisols (Calcaric) / Fluvisols soil type (WRB) and dominated clay textures. These observations combined with geochemical determination and spatial analysis confirm our first hypothesis of sea salt intrusion as the main driven factor of soil salinity in this region. In this context, identification of salinization process, fine determination of pedological specificities and fine understanding of agricultural practices allowed us to proposed adaptation strategies to restore soil production function. Please fill in your abstract text. Key Words: Salinity, Coastal Agriculture, Landscape, Soil, Water

  18. POLLUTION AND SEA WATER IN THALASSOTHERAPY CENTERS OF TUNISIA (SW MEDITERRANEAN COASTAL?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donia BOUCHOUICHA-SMIDA

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The practice of thalassotherapy in Tunisia has been possible while applying statement of Decree 92-129 published July 13, 1992 setting standards and conditions for implementation and exploitation of thalassotherapy centers (TCs, modified and replaced by Decree 2001-1081 of May 14, 2001 and Decree 2006-3174 published November 30, 2006 according to Tunisian standard 126.05 (2007. Recently, this Tunisian standard was origin of the international standard ISO 17680. Concerning quality of seawater used by TCs, these standards require the assay: trace metals (cadmium (Cd, lead (Pb, arsenic (As, mercury (Hg, selenium (Se and chromium (Cr, total hydrocarbons (THC, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, surface active substances to the methylene blue. The legislation (ISO 17680 cited limits concentration not exceeded. Concerning sewage sea water, Decree 3174-2006 of 30 November 2006 requires that seawater discharged into the marine environment, complies with the Tunisian standard NT 106 002 on liquid discharges in the receiving environment. In part, through the application of these standards, Tunisia was, after France, second destination for thalassotherapy. Thus, to maintain this privileged position and even more advanced in this field, the National Office of Thermalism and Hydrotherapy (NOTH applied standards ISO 17680 and monitored pollutants concentrations of sea water, which is the main tool for working thalassotherapy centers (TCs. Hence, this study is the first, nationally and internationally, assessing the impact of anionic detergents, heavy metals (cadmium (Cd, Pb, As, Hg, Se and Cr, total hydrocarbons (THC and detergents (anionic substances on seawater quality used by six TCs situated in four coastal regions from north to south (Hammamet, Sousse, Monastir and Mehdia during four months (from May to September 2014. The pollutants concentrations monitored varying among TCs and months. Indeed, Cd concentrations ranged from 1 to 5.10-3 mg.l-1, Pb

  19. Phytoplankton community structure and nitrogen nutrition in Leeuwin Current and coastal waters off the Gascoyne region of Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Christine E.; Waite, Anya M.; Thompson, Peter A.; Pattiaratchi, Charitha B.

    2007-04-01

    Within the coastal waters of the eastern Indian Ocean adjacent to Western Australia, we tested the hypothesis that regenerated production (and, by inference, the microbial food web) would predominate in oligotrophic Leeuwin Current (LC) and offshore (OS) surface waters. Conversely, we expected that new production would be more important within the ˜5 times more productive shelf countercurrents (Ningaloo and Capes Currents; NC&CC) and the LC&OS deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM). Phytoplankton species composition and abundance were assessed using both light microscopy and chemotaxonomic methods, and isotopic nitrogen uptake experiments ( 15NO 3-, 15NH 4+) were performed at trace (0.05 μM) and saturating (5.0 μM) levels. Phytoplankton community structure was statistically distinct between LC&OS and countercurrent regions. Picoplankton (unicellular cyanobacteria and prochlorophytes) accounted for a mean of 55-65% of pigment biomass in LC&OS waters, with haptophytes as the other primary contributor (21-32%). Conversely, within countercurrent and shelf regions, diatoms (up to 22%) and haptophytes (up to 57%) were more abundant, although cyanobacteria still played an important role (up to 40% of pigment biomass). Absolute NO 3- uptake rates for all samples ranged between 0.5 and 7.1 nmol L -1 h -1, and in countercurrent waters were not significantly different at the surface (3.0±2.1 nmol L -1 h -1; mean±SD) compared to the DCM (2.7±2.3 nmol L -1 h -1). However, in LC&OS waters, rates were significantly lower at the surface (1.2±0.7 nmol L -1 h -1) than the DCM (3.9±2.5 nmol L -1 h -1; p=0.05). These values represent conservative estimates for the region due to methodological difficulties encountered with nitrogen uptake experiments in these oligotrophic waters. In contrast with the distinct community composition between different water types, mean estimates of the f-ratio were similar across sampling depths and water types: 0.17±0.07 at the surface and 0.16±0.06 at

  20. A new species, Gerres septemfasciatus (Perciformes: Gerreidae) from the Chinese coastal waters of the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Yan, Yunrong

    2009-09-01

    We describe a new species of gerreid fish, Gerres septemfasciatus, based on four specimens collected from the northern South China Sea. G. septemfasciatus most closely resembles G. limbatus in general appearance. However, G. septemfasciatus is distinguished from the latter and other congeners by having 3 to 3.5 scales between the base of the fifth dorsal spine and lateral line. This species has a distinctive color pattern, including 7-8 regular, vertical, blue-grayish bands on its side. The distribution of this species is currently known to include the Chinese coastal waters of the South China Sea, but may be also include the coastal waters of southeastern Asia.

  1. Cryptosporidium and Giardia detection in environmental waters of southwest coastal areas of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisuphanunt, Mayuna; Karanis, Panagiotis; Charoenca, Naowarut; Boonkhao, Narongsak; Ongerth, Jerry E

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate water samples collected in coastal areas of Southern Thailand in the years of 2005 and 2008 for their contamination by the protozoan parasites Cryptosporidium and Giardia. One hundred eighteen water samples of different origin were collected from six Tsunami affected southern provinces of Thailand in early 2005, and they have been analyzed using standardized methodology. Fifteen out of 118 samples (12.7%) were positive for Cryptosporidium spp. and nine (7.6%) positive for Giardia spp. Additional 42 samples from two same areas were examined 3 years later, in the early 2008. Five out of 42 (11.9%) samples were positive for Cryptosporidium spp., and three out of 42 (7.1%) were positive for Giardia spp.. Both protozoans were found in reservoir, river/canal, and pond waters. It appears no significant differences (p < 0.05) between Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts levels during the two monitoring periods; however, the number of the investigated areas and samples in the second period was significantly less than in the first period. This is the first description on Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts in water sources of Thailand, and it suggests the need for water quality control in the interest of public health safety.

  2. WATER EXPLORATION IN COASTAL KARST BY THE METHOD OF DOUBLE GRADIENT MAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krešimir Jelić

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Water exploration at several localities of the Adriatic karst sea-shore band was carried out by the dual gradient mapping of apparent electrical resistivity. By this method controlling the resistivity relation with depth by constant electric stream fields of different depth actions, the anomalies were obtained with apparent resistivity which can be related to deep karst fault zones, used as communication of water from coast background with off-shore springs and submarine springs. The advantage of this method in comparison with the usual geoelectric exploration methods of water in karst is, that electric fields are kept constant by lateral control of the apparent resistivity at some depth interval, which decreases the impact of surface inhomogenuities and electrically visible infrastructural constructions in urban environment on the correct interpretation of measured anomalies. The sea water as a big mass with low resistivity represents a disadvantage for geoelectrical exploration on the sea shore, which masks the explored anomalies at depth. Although, this anomalies can be recognised by this method. The report discusses the case of a successful exploration on the coastal area upwards of Opatija, where efforts have been made for many years to trap water flowing out of many off-shore and submarine springs (the paper is published in Croatian.

  3. Sources of sediment to the coastal waters of the Southern California Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrick, J.A.; Farnsworth, K.L.

    2009-01-01

    The sources of sediment to the Southern California Bight were investigated with new calculations and published records of sediment fluxes, both natural and anthropogenic. We find that rivers are by far the largest source of sediment, producing over 10 ?? 106 t/yr on average, or over 80% of the sediment input to the Bight. This river flux is variable, however, over both space and time. The rivers draining the Transverse Ranges produce sediment at rates approximately an order of magnitude greater than the Peninsular Ranges (600-1500 t/km2/yr versus rivers represent only 23% of the total Southern California watershed drainage area, they are responsible for over 75% of the total sediment flux. River sediment flux is ephemeral and highly pulsed due to the semiarid climate and the influence of infrequent large storms. For more than 90% of the time, negligible amounts of sediment are discharged from the region's rivers, and over half of the post-1900 sediment load has been discharged during events with recurrence intervals greater than 10 yr. These rare, yet important, events are related to the El Ni??o-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), and the majority of sediment flux occurs during ENSO periods. Temporal trends in sediment discharge due to land-use changes and river damming are also observed. We estimate that there has been a 45% reduction in suspended-sediment flux due to the construction of dams. However, pre-dam sediment loads were likely artificially high due to the massive land-use changes of coastal California to rangeland during the nineteenth century. This increase in sediment production is observed in estuarine deposits throughout coastal California, which reveal that sedimentation rates were two to ten times higher during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries than during pre-European colonization. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  4. Superoxide-mediated Fe(II) formation from organically complexed Fe(III) in coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Manabu; Ito, Hiroaki; Rose, Andrew L.; Waite, T. David; Omura, Tatsuo

    2008-12-01

    Fe(III) complexed by organic ligands (Fe(III)L) is the primary form of dissolved Fe in marine and coastal environments. Superoxide, typically produced in biological and photochemical processes, is one of the reducing agents that contributes to transformation of Fe(III)L to bioavailable, free dissolved Fe(II) (Fe(II)'). In this work, the kinetics of superoxide-mediated Fe(II)' formation from Fe(III)L in a simulated coastal water system were investigated and a comprehensive kinetic model was developed using citrate and fulvic acid as exemplar Fe-binding ligands. To simulate a coastal environment in laboratory experiments, Fe(III)L samples with various ligand/Fe ratios were incubated for 5 min to 1 week in seawater medium. At each ratio and incubation time, the rate of superoxide-mediated Fe(II)' formation was determined in the presence of the strong Fe(II) binding ligand ferrozine by spectrophotometrically measuring the ferrous-ferrozine complex generated at a constant concentration of superoxide. The Fe(II)' formation rate generally decreased with incubation time, as Fe(III)L gradually dissociated to form less reactive Fe(III) oxyhydroxide. However, when the ligand/Fe ratio was sufficiently high, the dissociation of Fe(III)L (and subsequent Fe precipitation) was suppressed and Fe(II)' was formed at a higher rate. The rate of Fe(II)' produced during the experiment was explained by the kinetic model. The model confirmed that both the ligand/Fe ratio and incubation time have a significant effect on the pathway via which Fe(II)' is formed from Fe(III)-fulvic acid complexes.

  5. Experimental evidence of nitrogen control on pCO2 in phosphorus-enriched humic and clear coastal lagoon waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Bittencourt Peixoto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Natural and human-induced controls on carbon dioxide (CO2 in tropical waters may be very dynamic (over time and among or within ecosystems considering the potential role of warmer temperatures intensifying metabolic responses and playing a direct role on the balance between photosynthesis and respiration. The high magnitude of biological processes at low latitudes following eutrophication by nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P inputs into inland waters may be a relevant component of the C cycle, showing controls on partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2 that are still poorly understood. Here we assessed the strength of N control on pCO2 in P-enriched humic and clear coastal lagoons waters, using four experimental treatments in microcosms: control (no additional nutrients and three levels of N additions coupled to P enrichments. In humic coastal lagoon waters, a persistent CO2 supersaturation was reported in controls and all nutrient-enriched treatments, ranging from 24-fold to fourfold the atmospheric equilibrium value. However, both humic and clear coastal lagoon waters only showed significant decreases in pCO2 in relation to the controlled microcosms in the two treatments with higher N addition levels. Additionally, clear coastal lagoon water microcosms showed a shift from CO2 sources to CO2 sinks, in relation to the atmosphere. Only in the two more N-enriched treatments did pCO2 substantially decrease, from 650 µatm in controls and less N-enriched treatments to 10 µatm in more N-enriched microcosms. Humic substrates and N inputs can modulate pCO2 even in P-enriched coastal lagoon waters, thereby being important drivers on CO2 outgassing from inland waters.

  6. NASA COAST and OCEANIA Airborne Missions in Support of Ecosystem and Water Quality Research in the Coastal Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guild, Liane S.; Hooker, Stanford B.; Kudela, Raphael; Morrow, John; Russell, Philip; Myers, Jeffrey; Dunagan, Stephen; Palacios, Sherry; Livingston, John; Negrey, Kendra; hide

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, coastal marine ecosystems are exposed to land-based sources of pollution and sedimentation from anthropogenic activities including agriculture and coastal development. Ocean color products from satellite sensors provide information on chlorophyll (phytoplankton pigment), sediments, and colored dissolved organic material. Further, ship-based in-water measurements and emerging airborne measurements provide in situ data for the vicarious calibration of current and next generation satellite ocean color sensors and to validate the algorithms that use the remotely sensed observations. Recent NASA airborne missions over Monterey Bay, CA, have demonstrated novel above- and in-water measurement capabilities supporting a combined airborne sensor approach (imaging spectrometer, microradiometers, and a sun photometer). The results characterize coastal atmospheric and aquatic properties through an end-to-end assessment of image acquisition, atmospheric correction, algorithm application, plus sea-truth observations from state-of-the-art instrument systems. The primary goal of the airborne missions was to demonstrate the following in support of calibration and validation exercises for satellite coastal ocean color products: 1) the utility of a multi-sensor airborne instrument suite to assess the bio-optical properties of coastal California, including water quality; and 2) the importance of contemporaneous atmospheric measurements to improve atmospheric correction in the coastal zone. Utilizing an imaging spectrometer optimized in the blue to green spectral domain enables higher signal for detection of the relatively dark radiance measurements from marine and freshwater ecosystem features. The novel airborne instrument, Coastal Airborne In-situ Radiometers (C-AIR) provides measurements of apparent optical properties with high dynamic range and fidelity for deriving exact water leaving radiances at the land-ocean boundary, including radiometrically shallow aquatic

  7. Understanding spatial variability in extreme estuarine water levels to inform better coastal management practise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyddon, Charlotte; Plater, Andy, ,, Prof.; Brown, Jenny, ,, Dr.; Leonardi, Nicoletta, ,, Dr.

    2017-04-01

    Coastal zones worldwide are subject to short term, local variations in sea-level, particularly communities and industries developed on estuaries. Astronomical high tides, meteorological storm surges and increased river flow present a combined flood hazard. This can elevate water level at the coast above predicted levels, generating extreme water levels. These contributions can also interact to alter the phase and amplitude of tides and surges, and thus cause significant mismatches between the predicted and observed water level. The combined effect of tide, surge, river flow and their interactions are the key to understanding and assessing flood risk in estuarine environments for design purposes. Delft3D-FLOW, a hydrodynamic model which solves the unsteady shallow-water equation, is used to access spatial variability in extreme water levels for a range of historical events of different severity within the Severn Estuary, southwest England. Long-term tide gauge records from Ilfracombe and Mumbles and river level data from Sandhurst are analysed to generate a series of extreme water level events, representing the 90th, 95th and 99th percentile conditions, to force the model boundaries. To separate out the time-varying contributions of tidal, fluvial, meteorological processes and their interactions the model is run with different physical forcing. A low pass filter is applied to "de-tide" the residual water elevation, to separate out the time-varying meteorological residual and the tide-surge interactions within the surge. The filtered surge is recombined with the predicted tide so the peak occurs at different times relative to high water. The resulting time series are used to force the model boundary to identify how the interactive processes influence the timing of extreme water level across the estuarine domain. This methodology is first validated using the most extreme event on record to ensure that modelled extreme water levels can be predicted with confidence

  8. Water levels in, extent of freshwater in, and water withdrawal from eight major confined aquifers, New Jersey Coastal Plain, 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacombe, Pierre J.; Rosman, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Water levels in 722 wells in the Coastal Plain of New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and northeastern Delaware were measured during October and November 1993 and were used to define the potentiometric surface of the eight major confined aquifers of the area. Isochlors (lines of equal chloride concentration) for 250 and 10,000 milligrams per liter are included to show the extent of freshwater in each of the aquifers. Estimated water withdrawals from the eight major confined aquifers are reported for 1978-94. Water-withdrawal and water-level maps including isochlors were constructed for the Cohansey aquifer of Cape May County, the Atlantic City 800-foot sand, the Piney Point aquifer, the Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer, the Englishtown aquifer system, the Upper Potomac-Raritan-Magothy, the Middle and undifferentiated Potomac-Raritan-Magothy, and the Lower Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifers. From 1988 to 1993, water levels near the center of the large cones of depression in the Middlesex-Monmouth County area rose as much as 120 ft in the Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer and Englishtown aquifer system, 40 ft in the Upper Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer, and 96 ft in the Middle and undifferentiated Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifers. Large cones of depression in the potentiometric surface of aquifers of the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system in the Burlington-Camden-Gloucester area remained at about the same altitude; that is, the potentiometric surface neither rose nor fell in the aquifers by more than 5 feet. In the same area, water levels in the Englishtown aquifer system were static, whereas the water levels in the Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer declined 5 to 20 feet, forming an expanded cone of depression. Water levels in the Cohansey, Atlantic City 800-foot sand, and Piney Point aquifers declined by 1 to 10 feet during 1988?93.

  9. High Ice Water Concentrations in the 19 August 2015 Coastal Mesoconvective System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Fred H.; Harrah, Steven; Switzer, George F.; Strickland, Justin K.; Hunt, Patricia J.

    2017-01-01

    During August 2015, NASA's DC-8 research aircraft was flown into High Ice Water Content (HIWC) events as part of a three-week campaign to collect airborne radar data and to obtain measurements from microphysical probes. Goals for this flight campaign included improved characterization of HIWC events, especially from an airborne radar perspective. This paper focuses on one of the flight days, in which a coastal mesoscale convective system (MCS) was investigated for HIWC conditions. The system appears to have been maintained by bands of convection flowing in from the Gulf of Mexico. These convective bands were capped by a large cloud canopy, which masks the underlying structure if viewed from an infrared sensing satellite. The DC-8 was equipped with an IsoKinetic Probe that measured ice concentrations of up to 2.3 g m(exp -3) within the cloud canopy of this system. Sustained measurements of ice crystals with concentrations exceeding 1 g m(exp -3) were encountered for up to ten minutes of flight time. Airborne Radar reflectivity factors were found to be weak within these regions of high ice water concentrations, suggesting that Radar detection of HIWC would be a challenging endeavor. This case is then investigated using a three-dimensional numerical cloud model. Profiles of ice water concentrations and radar reflectivity factor demonstrate similar magnitudes and scales between the flight measurements and model simulation. Also discussed are recent modifications to the numerical model's ice-microphysics that are based on measurements during the flight campaign. The numerical model and its updated ice-microphysics are further validated with a simulation of a well-known case of a supercell hailstorm measured during the Cooperative Convective Precipitation Experiment. Differences in HIWC between the continental supercell and the coastal MCS are discussed.

  10. Biogeography of wood-boring crustaceans (Isopoda: Limnoriidae established in European coastal waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luísa M S Borges

    Full Text Available Marine wood-borers of the Limnoriidae cause great destruction to wooden structures exposed in the marine environment. In this study we collated occurrence data obtained from field surveys, spanning over a period of 10 years, and from an extensive literature review. We aimed to determine which wood-boring limnoriid species are established in European coastal waters; to map their past and recent distribution in Europe in order to infer species range extension or contraction; to determine species environmental requirements using climatic envelopes. Of the six species of wood-boring Limnoria previously reported occurring in Europe, only Limnoria lignorum, L. quadripunctata and L. tripunctata are established in European coastal waters. L. carinata and L. tuberculata have uncertain established status, whereas L. borealis is not established in European waters. The species with the widest distribution in Europe is Limnoria lignorum, which is also the most tolerant species to a range of salinities. L. quadripunctata and L. tripunctata appear to be stenohaline. However, the present study shows that both L. quadripunctata and L. tripunctata are more widespread in Europe than previous reports suggested. Both species have been found occurring in Europe since they were described, and their increased distribution is probably the results of a range expansion. On the other hand L. lignorum appears to be retreating poleward with ocean warming. In certain areas (e.g. southern England, and southern Portugal, limnoriids appear to be very abundant and their activity is rivalling that of teredinids. Therefore, it is important to monitor the distribution and destructive activity of these organisms in Europe.

  11. Defining restoration targets for water depth and salinity in wind-dominated Spartina patens (Ait.) Muhl. coastal marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, J.A.; LaPeyre, Megan K.; Caldwell, Andral W.; Piazza, Sarai C.; Thom, C.; Winslow, C.

    2009-01-01

    Coastal wetlands provide valued ecosystem functions but the sustainability of those functions often is threatened by artificial hydrologic conditions. It is widely recognized that increased flooding and salinity can stress emergent plants, but there are few measurements to guide restoration, management, and mitigation. Marsh flooding can be estimated over large areas with few data where winds have little effect on water levels, but quantifying flooding requires hourly measurements over long time periods where tides are wind-dominated such as the northern Gulf of Mexico. Estimating salinity of flood water requires direct daily measurements because coastal marshes are characterized by dynamic salinity gradients. We analyzed 399,772 hourly observations of water depth and 521,561 hourly observations of water salinity from 14 sites in Louisiana coastal marshes dominated by Spartina patens (Ait.) Muhl. Unlike predicted water levels, observed water levels varied monthly and annually. We attributed those observed variations to variations in river runoff and winds. In stable marshes with slow wetland loss rates, we found that marsh elevation averaged 1 cm above mean high water, 15 cm above mean water, and 32 cm above mean low water levels. Water salinity averaged 3.7 ppt during April, May, and June, and 5.4 ppt during July, August, and September. The daily, seasonal, and annual variation in water levels and salinity that were evident would support the contention that such variation be retained when designing and operating coastal wetland management and restoration projects. Our findings might be of interest to scientists, engineers, and managers involved in restoration, management, and restoration in other regions where S. patens or similar species are common but local data are unavailable.

  12. MODIFIED FINITE ELEMENT TRANSPORT MODEL, FETRA, FOR SEDIMENT AND RAOIONUCLIDE MIGRATION IN OPEN COASTAL WATERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ,

    1979-08-01

    The finite element model, FETRA, simulates transport of sediment and radionuclides (and other contaminants, such as heavy metals, pesticides, and other toxic substances) in surface water bodies. The model is an unsteady, two-dimensional (longitudinal and lateral} model which consists of the following three submodels coupled to include sediment-contaminant interactions: 1) sediment transport submodel, 2} dissolved contaminant transport submodel, and 3) particulate contaminant (contaminant adsorbed by sediment) transport submodel. Under the current phase of the study, FETRA was modified to include sediment-wave interaction in order to extend the applicability of the model to coastal zones and large lakes (e.g., the Great Lakes) where wave actions can be one of the dominant mechanisms to transport sediment and toxic contaminant. FETRA was further modified to handle both linear and quadratic approximations to velocity and depth distributions in order to be compatible with various finite element hydrodynamic models (e.g., RMA II and CAFE) which supply hydrodynamic input data to FETRA. The next step is to apply FETRA to coastal zones to simulate transport of sediment and radionuclides with their interactions in order to test and verify the model under marine and large lacustrine environments.

  13. Evaluation of uptake kinetics during a wastewater diversion into nearshore coastal waters in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudela, Raphael M.; Howard, Meredith D. A.; Hayashi, Kendra; Beck, Carly

    2017-02-01

    The global eutrophication of coastal ecosystems from anthropogenic nutrients is one of the most significant issues affecting changes to coastal oceans today. A three-week diversion of wastewater effluent from the normal offshore discharge pipe (7 km offshore, 56 m depth) to a shorter outfall located in 16 m water (2.2 km offshore) as part of the 2012 Orange County Sanitation District Diversion provided an opportunity to evaluate the impacts of anthropogenic nitrogen on phytoplankton community response. Nitrogen uptake kinetic parameters were used to evaluate the short-term physiological response of the phytoplankton community to the diverted wastewater and to determine if potential ammonium suppression of nitrate uptake was observed. Despite expectations, there was a muted response to the diversion in terms of biomass accumulation and ambient nutrients remained low. At ambient nitrogen concentrations, calculated uptake rates strongly favored ammonium. During the diversion based on the kinetic parameters determined during short-term experiments, the phytoplankton community was using all three N substrates at low concentrations, and had the capacity to use urea, then ammonium, and then nitrate at high concentrations. Ammonium suppression of nitrate uptake was evident throughout the experiment, with increasing suppression through time. Despite this interaction, there was evidence for simultaneous utilization of nitrate, ammonium, and urea during the experiment. The general lack of phytoplankton response as evidenced by low biomass during the diversion was therefore not obviously linked to changes in uptake rates, physiological capacity, or ammonium suppression of nitrate uptake.

  14. Evaluation of coastal waters receiving fish processing waste: Lota Bay as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahumada, Ramón; Rudolph, Anny; Contreras, Sergio

    2004-01-01

    Liquid wastes from the fish meal and oil processing industries produce serious environmental impacts in coastal embayments on the coasts of Chile and Peru. This article presents an analysis of an environmental monitoring program at Lota Bay, a shallow coastal indentation in central Chile (37 degrees S) exposed to industrial fishing activity. The study of the environmental impact produced by waste effluents permitted making an evaluation of the bay's capacity for seasonal recovery from this impact. Seasonal cruises were carried out during 1994 and in 1996, 1997, and 1998. Variables analyzed included salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, ammonium concentration and surface oil and grease. The hydrographic regime of Lota Bay follows a seasonal pattern, where, typical of most SE pacific embayments, waters from subsuperficial oxygen minimum zones moved into the bay. The percentages of dissolved oxygen were critical in the area of organic waste discharge. The impact of wastewater is related to the type and status of the fishery, including: (i) overloads of plant production lines, (ii) maintenance and cleaning of installations, and (iii) degree of shipboard fishing conservation. Major alterations were observed in summer, when the highest discharge of organic load occurred. In winter, an improvement in the re-aeration conditions reduced the impact. Remedial measures implemented beginning in 1997 arose from the monitoring program and had to be separated into two recovery factors including (a) internal management of plants and (b) treatment of plant effluents.

  15. Wastewater injection, aquifer biogeochemical reactions, and resultant groundwater N fluxes to coastal waters: Kā'anapali, Maui, Hawai'i.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fackrell, Joseph K; Glenn, Craig R; Popp, Brian N; Whittier, Robert B; Dulai, Henrietta

    2016-09-15

    We utilize N and C species concentration data along with δ(15)N values of NO3(-) and δ(13)C values of dissolved inorganic C to evaluate the stoichiometry of biogeochemical reactions (mineralization, nitrification, anammox, and denitrification) occurring within a subsurface wastewater plume that originates as treated wastewater injection and enters the coastal waters of Maui as submarine groundwater discharge. Additionally, we compare wastewater effluent time-series data, injection rates, and treatment history with submarine spring discharge time-series data. We find that heterotrophic denitrification is the primary mechanism of N loss within the groundwater plume and that chlorination for pathogen disinfection suppresses microbial activity in the aquifer responsible for N loss, resulting in increased coastal ocean N loading. Replacement of chlorination with UV disinfection may restore biogeochemical reactions responsible for N loss within the aquifer and return N-attenuating conditions in the effluent plume, reducing N loading to coastal waters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of the health status of a coastal ecosystem in southeast Mexico: Assessment of water quality, phytoplankton and submerged aquatic vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Silveira, Jorge A; Morales-Ojeda, Sara M

    2009-01-01

    The coastal environment of the Yucatan Peninsula (SE, Mexico) includes a wide variety of ecosystems ranging from mangroves to coral reefs, resulting in a heterogeneous landscape. Specifically, the marine system is characterized by environmental differences which respond to regional and local forcing functions such as marine currents and groundwater discharges (GD). Such functional characteristics were used here to define four subregions across the Yucatan coast and diagnose the health status of this coastal marine ecosystem. To achieve this goal, we conducted an analysis and integration of water quality variables, an eutrophic assessment, evaluated changes in submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV), and analyzed the community structure and distribution of harmful phytoplankton. The first step was to determine the reference values for each subregion based on data previously collected from 2002 to 2006 along the coast of Yucatan, 200m offshore. The trophic index (TRIX) and Canadian index for aquatic life (CCMEWQI) were used to diagnose each subregion and then the ASSETS approach was conducted for Dzilam and Progreso, sampling localities on each end of the health status continuum (those with the best and worst conditions). Overall, results indicated that the marine coastal ecosystem of Yucatan is in good condition; however, differences were observed between subregions that can be attributed to local forcing functions and human impacts. Specifically, the central region (zone HZII, Progreso-Telchac) showed symptoms of initial eutrophication due to nutrient inputs from human activities. The eastern region (zone HZ III, Dzilam-Las Bocas) showed a meso-eutrophic condition linked to natural groundwater discharges, while the other two subregions western (zone HZI Celestun-Palmar) and caribbean (zone HZ IV Ria Lagartos-El Cuyo) exhibited symptoms of oligo-mesotrophic condition. These findings may be considered baseline information for coastal ecosystem monitoring programs in

  17. The California Seafloor and Coastal Mapping Program – Providing science and geospatial data for California's State Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine; Dartnell, Peter; Hartwell, Stephen; Cochran, Susan; Watt, Janet

    2017-01-01

    The California Seafloor and Coastal Mapping Program (CSCMP) is a collaborative effort to develop comprehensive bathymetric, geologic, and habitat maps and data for California's State Waters. CSCMP began in 2007 when the California Ocean Protection Council (OPC) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) allocated funding for high-resolution bathymetric mapping, largely to support the California Marine Life Protection Act and to update nautical charts. Collaboration and support from the U.S. Geological Survey and other partners has led to development and dissemination of one of the world's largest seafloor-mapping datasets. CSCMP provides essential science and data for ocean and coastal management, stimulates and enables research, and raises public education and awareness of coastal and ocean issues. Specific applications include:•Delineation and designation of marine protected areas•Characterization and modeling of benthic habitats and ecosystems•Updating nautical charts•Earthquake hazard assessments•Tsunami hazard assessments•Planning offshore infrastructure•Providing baselines for monitoring change•Input to models of sediment transport, coastal erosion, and coastal flooding•Regional sediment management•Understanding coastal aquifers•Providing geospatial data for emergency response

  18. Control of pH of retained water in the coastal waste disposal site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hem Ramrav

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available After landfilling of wastes is completed, the stabilization of landfilled ground requires much time and cost. Therefore, this study aimed to control the pH of retained water in the coastal waste disposal sites during landfilling process, by conducting field surveys and laboratory experiments. In field surveys, we investigated the changes of retained water quality such as pH, salinity, and dissolved oxygen. The results show the pH of retained water has risen to about 10 when the volume of landfilled wastes reached about 25% of landfill capacity. In lowing the pH, we considered a low-cost method by pumping seawater from the adjacent sea into the landfill. The mechanism in this method is that, H+ dissociated from HCO3- in the fresh seawater react with OH- eluted from wastes would result in pH decrease. The laboratory experiments were conducted to verify the effect on pH change by adding fresh seawater to alkalized seawater. As a result, the effect of injecting fresh seawater into alkalized seawater with pH higher than 9 was confirmed. Therefore, this treatment method is suggested to enable the disposal sites to be used promptly after landfilling is completed, by adding fresh seawater to purify the retained water and waste at low cost during landfilling process.

  19. Empirical Modeling of Stream Water Quality for Complex Coastal-Urban Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amin, S.; Abdul-Aziz, O.

    2013-12-01

    This study develops an understanding of the relative influence of land uses, surface hydrology, groundwater, seawater, and upstream contributions on the in-stream water quality of six highly urbanized, complex urban watersheds of South Florida by analyzing seasonal (Winter, Spring, Summer, and Fall) time-series of field data. We first explored the correlations among quality parameters (i.e., total nitrogen, total phosphorus, dissolved oxygen and specific conductance) and their changes with distance and time. Principle component analysis was then conducted to investigate the mutual correlations and potential group formations among the predictor and response variables. The findings were leveraged to develop regression-based non-linear empirical models for explaining stream water quality in relation to internal (land uses and hydrology) and external (upstream contribution, seawater) sources and drivers. In-stream dissolved oxygen and total phosphorus in the watersheds were dictated by internal stressors, while external stressors were dominant for total nitrogen and specific conductance. The research findings provide important insights into the dominant stressors of seasonal stream water quality of complex coastal-urban watersheds under a changing environment. The research tools will be useful for developing proactive monitoring and seasonally exclusive management strategies for urban stream water quality improvement in South Florida and around the world.

  20. [Effects of harmful algal bloom on bio-optical properties of coastal water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Zhao, Dong-Zhi; Yang, Jian-Hong; Liu, Yong-Jian; Wang, Xiang; Zou, Xiao-Ge

    2011-10-01

    Effects of harmful algal bloom (HAB) on bio-optical properties of coastal waters were studied. Bio-optical data were collected from 11 stations in the Dalian Bay, for an analysis of variable characteristics of biological factors, reflectance and absorption spectra as responses to HAB. The results indicated that, (1) the HAB which occurred in the Dalian Bay was caused by picophytoplankton. (2) Remote sensing reflectance showed an obvious difference with the normal waters: the strong absorption of the high concentration chlorophyll-a leaded to two reflection dips near 440 and 632 nm bands, a much larger fluorescence peak height around the red band accompanied by a "red shift", a sharp peak of oxygen response at 760 nm, and an enhanced reflection peak of suspended matter in the near-infrared band. (3) In addition, effects of HAB on absorption coefficient spectrum mainly reflected in the numerical size and much stronger absorption of ocean color constituents than the normal waters had been found, the a(ph) (440), a(ph) (675), a(d) (440) and a(g) (440) increased to 13.4, 14.5, 5.0 and 3.8 times of the values of normal waters, respectively. Variation features of bio-optical elements were examined and identified when HAB occurred in the Dalian Bay, which provides a way to monitor HAB by satellite remote sensing.

  1. Uncertainties and applications of satellite-derived coastal water quality products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guangming; DiGiacomo, Paul M.

    2017-12-01

    Recent and forthcoming launches of a plethora of ocean color radiometry sensors, coupled with increasingly adopted free and open data policies are expected to boost usage of satellite ocean color data and drive the demand to use these data in a quantitative and routine manner. Here we review factors that introduce uncertainties to various satellite-derived water quality products and recommend approaches to minimize the uncertainty of a specific product. We show that the regression relationships between remote-sensing reflectance and water turbidity (in terms of nephelometric units) established for different regions tend to converge and therefore it is plausible to develop a global satellite water turbidity product derived using a single algorithm. In contrast, solutions to derive suspended particulate matter concentration are much less generalizable; in one case it might be more accurate to estimate this parameter based on satellite-derived particulate backscattering coefficient, whereas in another the nonagal particulate absorption coefficient might be a better proxy. Regarding satellite-derived chlorophyll concentration, known to be subject to large uncertainties in coastal waters, studies summarized here clearly indicate that the accuracy of classical reflectance band-ratio algorithms depends largely on the contribution of phytoplankton to total light absorption coefficient as well as the degree of correlation between phytoplankton and the dominant nonalgal contributions. Our review also indicates that currently available satellite-derived water quality products are restricted to optically significant materials, whereas many users are interested in toxins, nutrients, pollutants, and pathogens. Presently, proxies or indicators for these constituents are inconsistently (and often incorrectly) developed and applied. Progress in this general direction will remain slow unless, (i) optical oceanographers and environmental scientists start collaborating more closely

  2. Estimation of underwater visibility in coastal and inland waters using remote sensing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulshreshtha, Anuj; Shanmugam, Palanisamy

    2017-04-01

    An optical method is developed to estimate water transparency (or underwater visibility) in terms of Secchi depth (Z sd ), which follows the remote sensing and contrast transmittance theory. The major factors governing the variation in Z sd , namely, turbidity and length attenuation coefficient (1/(c + K d ), c = beam attenuation coefficient; K d  = diffuse attenuation coefficient at 531 nm), are obtained based on band rationing techniques. It was found that the band ratio of remote sensing reflectance (expressed as (R rs (443) + R rs (490))/(R rs (555) + R rs (670)) contains essential information about the water column optical properties and thereby positively correlates to turbidity. The beam attenuation coefficient (c) at 531 nm is obtained by a linear relationship with turbidity. To derive the vertical diffuse attenuation coefficient (K d ) at 531 nm, K d (490) is estimated as a function of reflectance ratio (R rs (670)/R rs (490)), which provides the bio-optical link between chlorophyll concentration and K d (531). The present algorithm was applied to MODIS-Aqua images, and the results were evaluated by matchup comparisons between the remotely estimated Z sd and in situ Z sd in coastal waters off Point Calimere and its adjoining regions on the southeast coast of India. The results showed the pattern of increasing Z sd from shallow turbid waters to deep clear waters. The statistical evaluation of the results showed that the percent mean relative error between the MODIS-Aqua-derived Z sd and in situ Z sd values was within ±25%. A close agreement achieved in spatial contours of MODIS-Aqua-derived Z sd and in situ Z sd for the month of January 2014 and August 2013 promises the model capability to yield accurate estimates of Z sd in coastal, estuarine, and inland waters. The spatial contours have been included to provide the best data visualization of the measured, modeled (in situ), and satellite-derived Z sd products. The modeled and satellite

  3. Blood is Thicker than Water: The Evolution of Coastal Management in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Glavovic, B.C.

    2002-01-01

    Like people in many nations, South Africans value their coastal resources and are striving to manage them more effectively (Cicin-Sain & Knecht 1998; CMPP 1998, 2000; Glavovic 2000 a, b, c; Glavovic et al. 2001). The White Paper for Sustainable Coastal Development in South Africa aims to promote sustainable coastal development through integrated coastal management. This new policy represents a marked shift from earlier views of the coast and how it should be mana...

  4. Distribution of biochemical constituents in the surface sediments of western coastal Bay of Bengal: Influence of river discharge and water column properties

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kumar, B.S.K.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Krishna, M.S.

    of discharged water and associated biogeochemical processes in the water column. The northwest (NW) region of coastal Bay of Bengal was influenced by discharges from Ganges river while peninsular (monsoonal) rivers influenced the southwest (SW) region. The NW...

  5. Numerical analyses of soft bottom invertebrates to diagnose the pollution in tropical coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkantra, Sadanand N; Rodrigues, Nimi R

    2004-01-01

    Soft bottom benthic organisms especially polychaetes are known to adapt as r or k selected strategies to different gradients of pollution. This will result in changes of benthic community structure from that of normal structure. There are a number of techniques to assess the impact of pollution on benthic community structure. Hence, to test this hypotheses some of the univariate and multivariate techniques were applied to soft bottom macro-invertebrates data of coastal waters of Mangalore, central west coast of India, a hot-spot area. Univariate techniques such as Pearson Rosenberg Model (PRM), abundance biomass comparison curve (ABC), geometrical class distribution, dominance-diversity curve, benthic community structure indices and multivariate techniques such as cluster classification, multidimensional scaling (MDS) and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to discriminate and diagnose the disturbance among the sites. Effectiveness and applicability of some of the above techniques are highlighted and discussed with the present set of data for environmental impact assessment studies.

  6. Coupling bacterioplankton populations and environment to community function in coastal temperate waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traving, S. J.; Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel; Knudsen-Leerbeck, H.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterioplankton play a key role in marine waters facilitating processes important for carbon cycling. However, the influence of specific bacterial populations and environmental conditions on bacterioplankton community performance remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to identify...... drivers of bacterioplankton community functions, taking into account the variability in community composition and environmental conditions over seasons, in two contrasting coastal systems. A Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) analysis of the biological and chemical data obtained from...... utilization capacity could not be directly linked to the community dynamics. The overall importance of dissolved organic matter (DOM) parameters in the LASSO models indicate that bacterioplankton respond to the present substrate landscape, with a particular importance of nitrogenous DOM. The identification...

  7. Antiviral Activities and Putative Identification of Compounds in Microbial Extracts from the Hawaiian Coastal Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jing; Trapido-Rosenthal, Hank; Wang, Jun; Wang, Youwei; Li, Qing X.; Lu, Yuanan

    2012-01-01

    Marine environments are a rich source of significant bioactive compounds. The Hawaiian archipelago, located in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, hosts diverse microorganisms, including many endemic species. Thirty-eight microbial extracts from Hawaiian coastal waters were evaluated for their antiviral activity against four mammalian viruses including herpes simplex virus type one (HSV-1), vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), vaccinia virus and poliovirus type one (poliovirus-1) using in vitro cell culture assay. Nine of the 38 microbial crude extracts showed antiviral potencies and three of these nine microbial extracts exhibited significant activity against the enveloped viruses. A secosteroid, 5α(H),17α(H),(20R)-beta-acetoxyergost-8(14)-ene was putatively identified and confirmed to be the active compound in these marine microbial extracts. These results warrant future in-depth tests on the isolation of these active elements in order to explore and validate their antiviral potential as important therapeutic remedies. PMID:22611351

  8. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in thirteen shark species from offshore and coastal waters of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Kyung; Kim, Sang-Jo; Jeong, Yunsun; Lee, Sunggyu; Jeong, Woochang; Lee, Won-Chan; Choy, Eun-Jung; Kang, Chang-Keun; Moon, Hyo-Bang

    2015-06-15

    Limited reports are available on polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in sharks. In this study, PBDEs were measured in dorsal muscles (n=105) from 13 shark species collected from offshore and coastal waters of Korea. The PBDE concentrations varied greatly not only among species but also within species of sharks. The major PBDE congeners detected in our samples were BDEs 47, 28, 99, 153, 100, and 154. Concentrations of PBDEs in sharks in this study were lower than those reported for previous studies. The high PBDE concentrations were found for aggressive shark species. Inter-species differences in the concentrations and accumulation profiles of PBDEs are explained by differences in feeding habits and sampling locations. Several contributing factors such as growth velocity, trophic level, and local contamination may affect the bioaccumulation of PBDEs in sharks. The present study provides baselines for the occurrence and accumulation status of PBDEs in various shark species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Biomarkers and heavy metal bioaccumulation in mussels transplanted to coastal waters of the Beagle Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarratano, Erica; Duarte, Claudia A; Amin, Oscar A

    2010-03-01

    Mussels coming from a mussel farm at Brown Bay (Beagle Channel) were transplanted to four sites inside Ushuaia Bay for 2 and 4 weeks. The objective of this study was to assess the quality of coastal waters of Ushuaia Bay by measuring catalase activity, lipid peroxidation, total lipid content, bioaccumulation of heavy metals and condition index in transplanted mussel Mytilus edulis chilensis. Biomarkers except condition index showed significant differences among exposure times as well as among tissues. Digestive gland presented the highest catalase activity, malondialdehyde level and total lipid content. Digestive gland also was the main target tissue of accumulation of iron and copper, while gill accumulated the highest levels of zinc. A principal component analyzes with the whole set of data allowed to separate stations based on physicochemical conditions and biochemical responses of each studied area. (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Occurrence of butyltin compounds in the waters of selected lakes, rivers and coastal environments from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, G B; Zhou, Q F; Liu, J Y; Wu, D J

    2001-01-01

    The presence of butyltin compounds was investigated for the first time in selected lakes, rivers and coastal environments of China. Aqueous samples were pretreated by the technique of headspace solid phase micro-extraction after hydride generation with sodium tetrahydroborate (NaBH4). Quantitative measurement of tributyltin (TBT), dibutyltin (DBT) and monobutyltin (MBT) concentrations were accomplished by capillary gas chromatography with flame photometric detector using quartz surface-induced luminescence. Experimental data demonstrated the widespread occurrence of butyltin compounds in the Chinese aquatic environment. In some locations, the concentrations of TBT were higher than the acute and chronic toxicity threshold of sensitive fresh water or marine organisms. Although DBT and MBT (which mainly come from the degradation of TBT), are less toxic, their occurrence can still affect the ecosystem over a long time frame.

  11. Antiviral Activities and Putative Identification of Compounds in Microbial Extracts from the Hawaiian Coastal Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanan Lu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Marine environments are a rich source of significant bioactive compounds. The Hawaiian archipelago, located in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, hosts diverse microorganisms, including many endemic species. Thirty-eight microbial extracts from Hawaiian coastal waters were evaluated for their antiviral activity against four mammalian viruses including herpes simplex virus type one (HSV-1, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV, vaccinia virus and poliovirus type one (poliovirus-1 using in vitro cell culture assay. Nine of the 38 microbial crude extracts showed antiviral potencies and three of these nine microbial extracts exhibited significant activity against the enveloped viruses. A secosteroid, 5α(H,17α(H,(20R-beta-acetoxyergost-8(14-ene was putatively identified and confirmed to be the active compound in these marine microbial extracts. These results warrant future in-depth tests on the isolation of these active elements in order to explore and validate their antiviral potential as important therapeutic remedies.

  12. Retrieval of absorption and backscattering coefficients from HJ-1A/CCD imagery in coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Quan, Wenting; Yao, Guoqing; Cui, Tingwei

    2013-03-11

    A simple semi-analytical model (SAB) was developed for computing a(560) and b(b)(550) from HJ-1A/CCD images. By comparison with field measurements, the SAB model produces 5.3-23.5% uncertainty for a(560) and b(b)(550) retrievals. The a(560) and b(b)(550) are also retrieved from satellite images. The match-up analysis results indicate that a(560) and b(b)(550) may be derived from the HJ-1A/CCD images with respective uncertainties of 29.84 and 21.35%. These findings imply that, provided that an atmospheric correction scheme for the green bands is available, the extensive database of HJ-1A/CCD imagery may be used for the quantitative monitoring of optical properties in coastal waters.

  13. A drifter for measuring water turbidity in rivers and coastal oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, Ross; Reading, Dean; Ridd, James; Campbell, Sean; Ridd, Peter

    2015-02-15

    A disposable instrument for measuring water turbidity in rivers and coastal oceans is described. It transmits turbidity measurements and position data via a satellite uplink to a processing server. The primary purpose of the instrument is to help document changes in sediment runoff from river catchments in North Queensland, Australia. The 'river drifter' is released into a flooded river and drifts downstream to the ocean, measuring turbidity at regular intervals. Deployment in the Herbert River showed a downstream increase in turbidity, and thus suspended sediment concentration, while for the Johnstone River there was a rapid reduction in turbidity where the river entered the sea. Potential stranding along river banks is a limitation of the instrument. However, it has proved possible for drifters to routinely collect data along 80 km of the Herbert River. One drifter deployed in the Fly River, Papua New Guinea, travelled almost 200 km before stranding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Co-occurrence of phycocyanin- and phycoerythrin-rich Synechococcus in subtropical estuarine and coastal waters of Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongbin; Jing, Hongmei; Wong, Thomas H C; Chen, Bingzhang

    2014-02-01

    Phylogenetic diversity of Synechococcus with different pigmentation in subtropical estuarine and coastal waters of Hong Kong was revealed by the phylogeny of cpcBA and cpeBA operons encoding for phycocyanin (PC) and phycoerythrin (PE). Synechococcus containing only PC (PC-rich Synechococcus) dominated at the estuarine station in summer, whereas PE-rich marine Synechococcus containing both PC and PE (PE-rich Synechococcus) dominated in the coastal waters. Our PC sequences are closely related to freshwater strains but differed from Baltic Sea strains, implying that they were from river discharge. Among PE-rich Synechococcus, clones grouping with strains containing only phycoerythrobilin (PEB-only) were abundant in July, while clones grouping with strains possessing a low content of phycourobilin (PUB) in addition to PEB (low PUB/PEB) were more abundant in January at both stations. Clones of high PUB/PEB types were only presented at the coastal station, but were not detected at the estuarine station. The much higher diversity of both PC-rich and PE-rich Synechococcus, as compared with the Baltic Sea, and the occurrence of the high PUB/PEB strains indicate the high dynamic nature of this subtropical estuarine-coastal environment with strong mixing of water masses ranging from Pearl River plume to oceanic South China Sea water. Our results of phylogenetic study agreed well with flow cytometric counts, which revealed the coexistence of PC-rich and PE-rich Synechococcus in the subtropical coastal waters and the dominance of the former type in the estuarine waters during summer high freshwater discharge. These results indicate that picocyanobacteria, particularly PC-rich Synechococcus, which has long been overlooked, are an important part of the primary production, and they could play an important role in the microbial food web in estuarine ecosystems. © 2013 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Modelling potential production of macroalgae farms in UK and Dutch coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, Johan; Ruardij, Piet; Mooney, Karen; Kerrison, Philip; O'Connor, Nessa E.; Gorman, Emma; Timmermans, Klaas; Wright, Serena; Kelly, Maeve; Hughes, Adam D.; Capuzzo, Elisa

    2018-02-01

    There is increasing interest in macroalgae farming in European waters for a range of applications, including food, chemical extraction for biofuel production. This study uses a 3-D numerical model of hydrodynamics and biogeochemistry to investigate potential production and environmental effects of macroalgae farming in UK and Dutch coastal waters. The model included four experimental farms in different coastal settings in Strangford Lough (Northern Ireland), in Sound of Kerrera and Lynn of Lorne (north-west Scotland) and in the Rhine plume (the Netherlands), as well as a hypothetical large-scale farm off the UK north Norfolk coast. The model could not detect significant changes in biogeochemistry and plankton dynamics at any of the farm sites averaged over the farming season. The results showed a range of macroalgae growth behaviours in response to simulated environmental conditions. These were then compared with in situ observations where available, showing good correspondence for some farms and less good correspondence for others. At the most basic level, macroalgae production depended on prevailing nutrient concentrations and light conditions, with higher levels of both resulting in higher macroalgae production. It is shown that under non-elevated and interannually varying winter nutrient conditions, farming success was modulated by the timings of the onset of increasing nutrient concentrations in autumn and nutrient drawdown in spring. Macroalgae carbohydrate content also depended on nutrient concentrations, with higher nutrient concentrations leading to lower carbohydrate content at harvest. This will reduce the energy density of the crop and thus affect its suitability for conversion into biofuel. For the hypothetical large-scale macroalgae farm off the UK north Norfolk coast, the model suggested high, stable farm yields of macroalgae from year to year with substantial carbohydrate content and limited environmental effects.

  16. A metaproteomic assessment of winter and summer bacterioplankton from Antarctic Peninsula coastal surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Timothy J; Long, Emilie; Evans, Flavia; DeMaere, Mathew Z; Lauro, Federico M; Raftery, Mark J; Ducklow, Hugh; Grzymski, Joseph J; Murray, Alison E; Cavicchioli, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    A metaproteomic survey of surface coastal waters near Palmer Station on the Antarctic Peninsula, West Antarctica, was performed, revealing marked differences in the functional capacity of summer and winter communities of bacterioplankton. Proteins from Flavobacteria were more abundant in the summer metaproteome, whereas winter was characterized by proteins from ammonia-oxidizing Marine Group I Crenarchaeota. Proteins prevalent in both seasons were from SAR11 and Rhodobacterales clades of Alphaproteobacteria, as well as many lineages of Gammaproteobacteria. The metaproteome data were used to elucidate the main metabolic and energy generation pathways and transport processes occurring at the microbial level in each season. In summer, autotrophic carbon assimilation appears to be driven by oxygenic photoautotrophy, consistent with high light availability and intensity. In contrast, during the dark polar winter, the metaproteome supported the occurrence of chemolithoautotrophy via the 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate cycle and the reverse tricarboxylic acid cycle of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria, respectively. Proteins involved in nitrification were also detected in the metaproteome. Taurine appears to be an important source of carbon and nitrogen for heterotrophs (especially SAR11), with transporters and enzymes for taurine uptake and degradation abundant in the metaproteome. Divergent heterotrophic strategies for Alphaproteobacteria and Flavobacteria were indicated by the metaproteome data, with Alphaproteobacteria capturing (by high-affinity transport) and processing labile solutes, and Flavobacteria expressing outer membrane receptors for particle adhesion to facilitate the exploitation of non-labile substrates. TonB-dependent receptors from Gammaproteobacteria and Flavobacteria (particularly in summer) were abundant, indicating that scavenging of substrates was likely an important strategy for these clades of Southern Ocean bacteria

  17. Managing for No Net Loss of Ecological Services: An Approach for Quantifying Loss of Coastal Wetlands due to Sea Level Rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassakian, Jennifer; Jones, Ann; Martinich, Jeremy; Hudgens, Daniel

    2017-05-01

    Sea level rise has the potential to substantially alter the extent and nature of coastal wetlands and the critical ecological services they provide. In making choices about how to respond to rising sea level, planners are challenged with weighing easily quantified risks (e.g., loss of property value due to inundation) against those that are more difficult to quantify (e.g., loss of primary production or carbon sequestration services provided by wetlands due to inundation). Our goal was to develop a cost-effective, appropriately-scaled, model-based approach that allows planners to predict, under various sea level rise and response scenarios, the economic cost of wetland loss-with the estimates proxied by the costs of future restoration required to maintain the existing level of wetland habitat services. Our approach applies the Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model to predict changes in wetland habitats over the next century, and then applies Habitat Equivalency Analysis to predict the cost of restoration projects required to maintain ecological services at their present, pre-sea level rise level. We demonstrate the application of this approach in the Delaware Bay estuary and in the Indian River Lagoon (Florida), and discuss how this approach can support future coastal decision-making.

  18. Managing for No Net Loss of Ecological Services: An Approach for Quantifying Loss of Coastal Wetlands due to Sea Level Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassakian, Jennifer; Jones, Ann; Martinich, Jeremy; Hudgens, Daniel

    2017-05-01

    Sea level rise has the potential to substantially alter the extent and nature of coastal wetlands and the critical ecological services they provide. In making choices about how to respond to rising sea level, planners are challenged with weighing easily quantified risks (e.g., loss of property value due to inundation) against those that are more difficult to quantify (e.g., loss of primary production or carbon sequestration services provided by wetlands due to inundation). Our goal was to develop a cost-effective, appropriately-scaled, model-based approach that allows planners to predict, under various sea level rise and response scenarios, the economic cost of wetland loss—with the estimates proxied by the costs of future restoration required to maintain the existing level of wetland habitat services. Our approach applies the Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model to predict changes in wetland habitats over the next century, and then applies Habitat Equivalency Analysis to predict the cost of restoration projects required to maintain ecological services at their present, pre-sea level rise level. We demonstrate the application of this approach in the Delaware Bay estuary and in the Indian River Lagoon (Florida), and discuss how this approach can support future coastal decision-making.

  19. River export of nutrients to the coastal waters of China: the MARINA model to assess sources, effects and solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strokal, Maryna

    2016-01-01

    Rivers export increasing amounts of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) to the coastal waters of China. This causes eutrophication problems that can damage living organisms when oxygen levels drop and threaten human health through toxic algae. We know that these problems result from human activities on

  20. Diurnal variations in depth profiles of UV-induced DNA damage and inhibition of bacterioplankton production in tropical coastal waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, PM; Poos, JJ; Scheper, BB; Boelen, P; van Duyl, FC

    2002-01-01

    In this study, diurnal changes in bacterial production and DNA damage in bacterio-plankton (measured as cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers, CPDs) incubated in bags at different depths in tropical coastal waters were investigated. The DNA damage and inhibition of the bacterial production was highest at

  1. Spatial and temporal distribution of fungi and wood-borers in the coastal tropical waters of Goa, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vishwakiran, Y; Thakur, N.L.; Raghukumar, S.; Yennawar, P.L.; Anil, A.C.

    , the occurrence of marine lignicolous fungi and wood borers in mango (Mangifera indica Linn.) panel submerged at three test sites along the Mandovi and Zuari estuarine systems in the coastal waters of Goa, India is studied during different seasons. A total of 33...

  2. Future Trends in Nutrient Export to the Coastal Waters of South America: Implications for Occurrence of Eutrophication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struijk, F.; Kroeze, C.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze future trends in nutrient export to the coastal waters of South America, with a special focus on the causes of nutrient export and their potential effects. Nutrient Export from Watersheds (NEWS) model results for South America are presented, including trends in human activities and the

  3. Corrosion of metals and alloys in the coastal and deep waters of the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sawant, S.S.; Venkat, K.; Wagh, A.B.

    Corrosion rate of mild steel (MS), stainless steel (SS), copper, brass and cupro-nickel has been determinEd. by exposing metallic coupons in coastal and oceanic waters of the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal. Amongst the metals and alloys under study...

  4. Low temporal variation in the intact polar lipid composition of North Sea coastal marine water reveals limited chemotaxonomic value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandsma, J.; Hopmans, E.C.; Philippart, C.J.M.; Veldhuis, M.J.W.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.S.

    2012-01-01

    Temporal variations in the abundance and composition of intact polar lipids (IPLs) in North Sea coastal marine water were assessed over a one-year seasonal cycle, and compared with environmental parameters and the microbial community composition. Sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG) was the most

  5. Photo-production of dissolved inorganic carbon from dissolved organic matter in contrasting coastal waters in the southwestern Taiwan Strait, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Weidong; Yang, Liyang; Yu, Xiangxiang; Zhai, Weidong; Hong, Huasheng

    2012-01-01

    Photo-production of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) from chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is an important transformation process in marine carbon cycle, but little is known about this process in Chinese coastal systems. This study investigated an estuarine water sample and a coastal seawater sample from the subtropical waters in southeast of China. Water samples were exposed to natural sunlight and the absorption and fluorescence of CDOM as well as the DIC concentration were measured in the summer of 2009. The estuarine water had higher CDOM level, molecular weight and proportion of humic-like fluorescent components than the seawater that exhibited abundant tryptophan-like fluorescent component. After a 3-day irradiation, the CDOM level decreased by 45% in the estuarine water and 20% in the seawater, accompanied with a decrease in the molecular weight and aromaticity of DOM which was inferred from an increase in the absorption spectral slope parameter. The photo-degradation rates of all the five fluorescent components were also notable, in particular two humic-like components (C4 and C5) were removed by 78% and 69% in the estuarine water and by 69% and 56% in the seawater. The estuarine water had a higher photo-production rate of DIC than the seawater (4.4 vs. 2.5 micromol/(L x day)), in part due to its higher CDOM abundance. The differences in CDOM compositions between the two types of waters might be responsible for the higher susceptibility of the estuarine water to photo-degradation and hence could also affect the photo-production process of DIC.

  6. A new methodology to assess antimicrobial resistance of bacteria in coastal waters; pilot study in a Mediterranean hydrosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almakki, Ayad; Estèves, Kevin; Vanhove, Audrey S.; Mosser, Thomas; Aujoulat, Fabien; Marchandin, Hélène; Toubiana, Mylène; Monfort, Patrick; Jumas-Bilak, Estelle; Licznar-Fajardo, Patricia

    2017-10-01

    The global resistome of coastal waters has been less studied than that of other waters, including marine ones. Here we develop an original method for characterizing the antimicrobial resistance of bacterial communities in coastal waters. The method combines the determination of a new parameter, the community Inhibitory Concentration (c-IC) of antibiotics (ATBs), and the description of the taxonomic richness of the resistant bacteria. We test the method in a Mediterranean hydrosystem, in the Montpellier region, France. Three types of waters are analyzed: near coastal river waters (Lez), lagoon brackish waters (Mauguio), and lake freshwaters (Salagou). Bacterial communities are grown in vitro in various conditions of temperature, salinity, and ATB concentrations. From these experiments, we determine the concentrations of ATB that decrease the bacterial community abundance by 50% (c-IC50) and by 90% (c-IC90). In parallel, we determine the taxonomic repertory of the resistant growing bacteria communities (repertory of Operational Taxonomic Units [OTU]). Temperature and salinity influence the abundance of the cultivable bacteria in presence of ATBs and hence the c-ICs. Very low ATB concentrations can decrease the bacterial abundance significantly. Beside a few ubiquitous genera (Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Shewanella, Vibrio), most resistant OTUs are specific of a type of water. In brackish water, resistant OTUs are more diverse and their community structure less vulnerable to ATBs than those in freshwater. We anticipate that c-IC measurement combined with taxonomic description can be applied to any littoral region to characterize the resistant bacterial communities in the coastal waters. This would help us to evaluate the vulnerability of aquatic ecosystems to antimicrobial pressure.

  7. Distribution of Abundant and Active Planktonic Ciliates in Coastal and Slope Waters Off New England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J. Tucker

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite their important role of linking microbial and classic marine food webs, data on biogeographical patterns of microbial eukaryotic grazers are limited, and even fewer studies have used molecular tools to assess active (i.e., those expressing genes community members. Marine ciliate diversity is believed to be greatest at the chlorophyll maximum, where there is an abundance of autotrophic prey, and is often assumed to decline with depth. Here, we assess the abundant (DNA and active (RNA marine ciliate communities throughout the water column at two stations off the New England coast (Northwest Atlantic—a coastal station 43 km from shore (40 m depth and a slope station 135 km off shore (1,000 m. We analyze ciliate communities using a DNA fingerprinting technique, Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE, which captures patterns of abundant community members. We compare estimates of ciliate communities from SSU-rDNA (abundant and SSU-rRNA (active and find complex patterns throughout the water column, including many active lineages below the photic zone. Our analyses reveal (1 a number of widely-distributed taxa that are both abundant and active; (2 considerable heterogeneity in patterns of presence/absence of taxa in offshore samples taken 50 m apart throughout the water column; and (3 three distinct ciliate assemblages based on position from shore and depth. Analysis of active (RNA taxa uncovers biodiversity hidden to traditional DNA-based approaches (e.g., clone library, rDNA amplicon studies.

  8. Water-level conditions in the confined aquifers of the New Jersey Coastal Plain, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depaul, Vincent T.; Rosman, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater-level altitudes in 10 confined aquifers of the New Jersey Coastal Plain were measured and evaluated to provide an overview of regional groundwater conditions during fall 2008. Water levels were measured in more than 900 wells in New Jersey, eastern Pennsylvania, and northern Delaware and potentiometric surface maps prepared for the confined Cohansey aquifer of Cape May County, the Rio Grande water-bearing zone, the Atlantic City 800-foot sand, the Piney Point, Vincentown, and the Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifers, the Englishtown aquifer system, and the Upper, Middle, and Lower aquifers of the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system. In 2008, the highest water-level altitudes were observed in the Vincentown aquifer (median, 78 ft) and the lowest in the Atlantic City 800-foot sand (median, -45 ft). Persistent, regionally extensive cones of depression were present within the potentiometric surfaces of the Englishtown aquifer system in east-central New Jersey, the Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer in east-central and southern New Jersey, the Upper, Middle, and Lower Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifers in southern New Jersey, and the Atlantic City 800-foot sand in the southeastern part of the State. Cones of depression in the potentiometric surfaces of the Upper Potomac-Raritan-Magothy and the Piney Point aquifers in east-central and southwestern New Jersey had broadened and deepened since 2003.

  9. Hyperspectral and Multispectral Retrieval of Suspended Sediment in Shallow Coastal Waters Using Semi-Analytical and Empirical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochi Zhou

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Natural lagoons and estuaries worldwide are experiencing accelerated ecosystem degradation due to increased anthropogenic pressure. As a key driver of coastal zone dynamics, suspended sediment concentration (SSC is difficult to monitor with adequate spatial and temporal resolutions both in the field and using remote sensing. In particular, the spatial resolutions of currently available remote sensing data generated by satellite sensors designed for ocean color retrieval, such as MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer or SeaWiFS (Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor, are too coarse to capture the dimension and geomorphological heterogeneity of most estuaries and lagoons. In the present study, we explore the use of hyperspectral (Hyperion and multispectral data, i.e., the Landsat TM (Thematic Mapper and ETM+ (Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus, ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer, and ALOS (Advanced Land Observing Satellite, to estimate SSC through semi-analytical and empirical approaches in the Venice lagoon (Italy. Key parameters of the retrieval models are calibrated and cross-validated by matching the remote sensing estimates of SSC with in situ data from a network of water quality sensors. Our analysis shows that, despite the higher spectral resolution, hyperspectral data provide limited advantages over the use of multispectral data, mainly due to information redundancy and cross-band correlation. Meanwhile, the limited historical archive of hyperspectral data (usually acquired on demand severely reduces the chance of observing high turbidity events, which are relatively rare but critical in controlling the coastal sediment and geomorphological dynamics. On the contrary, retrievals using available multispectral data can encompass a much wider range of SSC values due to their frequent acquisitions and longer historical archive. For the retrieval methods considered in this study, we find that the semi

  10. Assessment Of Physico-Chemical Property Of Water Samples From Port Harcourt Bonny And Opobo Coastal Areas For Sustainable Coastal Tourism Development In Rivers State Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obinwanne

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study evaluated some physico-chemical properties of water samples from Port Harcourt Bonny and Opobo to determine the safety of water from the areas for sustainable coastal tourism development in Rivers State Nigeria. Three water samples were collected with three sterilized plastic containers with a capacity of 25cl which were subjected to laboratory tests to know their constituents. The parameters tested were appearance temperature colour turbidity conductivity PH alkalinity lead Pb Chromium Cr Cadmium Cd Ammonia BODs and Dissolved Oxygen. The results of the water samples were compared with World Health Organization WHO water quality standard and the Nigeria National Water Quality standard to determine the safety of the water for human consumption and tourism development. The study revealed that Port Harcourt site has more prospects for tourism development more than Opobo study site because the Ph alkalinity and BODs levels were lower than that of Opobo making the water safer except that the amount of dissolved oxygen was a little high in Opobo and turbidity was not detected in Opobo. The study revealed that Bonny water was very dense in appearance dark brown in colour highly turbid basic and with mean concentration of the heavy metals Lead chromium and cadmium higher than the recommended World Health Organization WHO water quality standard and the Nigeria National Water Quality standard and therefore not safe for drinking and swimming. Treated portable water should be provided for the people of Port Harcourt Opobo and Bonny especially people from Bonny area and development of tourism in the state to save the people and tourists from imminent danger of fecal contaminants and toxic substances.

  11. Measurement of water transfer and swelling stress in the buffer material due to temperature gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, H. [ITC, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Chijimatsu, M.; Fujita, A.

    1999-03-01

    Coefficients concerning the water transfer in the buffer material was obtained by empirically giving a temperature gradient, and the swelling stress was measured when water was soaked in the sample under the uniform temperature and temperature gradient conditions. The distributions of temperature and water in the buffer material empirically given a temperature gradient were measured to deduce water diffusion constant due to the temperature gradient. The diffusion constant was the order of 10{sup -8} cm{sup 2}/s/degC. As a result of a equitemperature soaking test, it was found that the swelling stress of the part where soaktion was slow was greater than that of the part with fast soaking at a stage of non-uniform water distribution. The water soaking quantity to the sample and swelling stress reached a stationary state after 7000 hours and the water distribution in the whole sample was found saturated. (H. Baba)

  12. Heavy metal contamination in bore water due to industrial pollution and polluted and non polluted sea water intrusion in Thoothukudi and Tirunelveli of South Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthiyasekar, C; Neelakantan, M A; Poongothai, S

    2010-12-01

    This study investigates the pollution vulnerability of bore water in the coastal region of Tirunelveli and Thoothukudi in the state of Tamilnadu, India. There are no industries in the Tirunelveli Coastal area whereas there are many industries in SIPCOT (State Industries Promotion Corporation of Tamilnadu) Thoothukudi, and coastal area of Thoothukudi. Bore water from the SIPCOT, coastal area of Thoothukudi and Tirunelveli were collected periodically from July 2006 to May 2008 for this study. These samples were tested and analyzed to find the concentrations of sodium, magnesium, aluminium, potassium, calcium, copper, cadmium, mercury and lead. The toxic cadmium concentration was found in the range of 0.00-0.22 mg Kg⁻¹ at SIPCOT 2 in November 2007, mercury 0.00-0.024 mg Kg⁻¹ and lead 0.00-0.02 mg Kg⁻¹ in SIPCOT 2 in January 2008. The level of contamination is higher than the WHO limits of drinking water standards; but copper and aluminium content are within the limit. On the other hand, the samples taken from bores in Tirunelveli coastal area are non-polluted, and the analysis shows that all the metals are within the limits of WHO standard.

  13. Particle backscattering variability in the coastal waters of Bay of Bengal: A case study along off Kakinada and Yanam Regions

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Latha, P.T.; Nagamani, P.V.; Rao, B.S.; Amarendra, P.; Rao, K.H.; Choudhury, S.B.; Dash, S.K.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.

    and functioning of the pelagic eco- systems [3], [9]. However, many questions are still unresolved concerning the variability and controls on bbp. Many researchers studied the spectral behavior of bbp and its relationship with chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration.... Large uncertainties remain, in particular about bbp in the coastal oceanic waters. One way to progres- sively answer these questions is to analyze more concurrent in-situ measurements of bbp and other in-water constituents and their concentrations...

  14. Seasonal variability in bio-optical properties along the coastal waters off Cochin

    KAUST Repository

    Vishnu, P.S.

    2017-12-15

    Strong seasonal upwelling, downwelling, changes in current patterns and the volume of freshwater discharge from Cochin Estuary defines the coastal waters off Cochin. These coastal waters were investigated through monthly sampling efforts during March 2015 to February 2016 to study the seasonal and spatial variability in bio-optical properties for the four different seasons mainly Spring Inter Monsoon (SIM), South West Monsoon (SWM), Fall Inter Monsoon (FIM) and Winter Monsoon (WM). The Barmouth region is the meeting place where freshwater from Cochin Estuary directly enters to the sea through a single narrow outlet, was dominated by highly turbid waters during the entire period of study. Among the four seasons, chlorophyll a (Chl_a) concentration showed a high value during SWM, ranged from 2.90 to 11.66 mg m−3 with an average value of 6.56 ± 3.51 mg m−3. During SIM the distribution of coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is controlled by decomposition of phytoplankton biomass and the river discharge, whereas during SWM the temporal distribution of CDOM is controlled only by river discharge. The highest value for CDOM spectral slope (SCDOM) was observed during SWM, ranged from 0.013 to 0.020 nm−1 with an average value of 0.015 ± 0.002 nm−1. During WM, the high SCDOM with lower aCDOM (443) indicates the photo-degradation affects the absorption characteristics of CDOM. The observed nonlinearity between Chl_a and the ratio of phytoplankton absorption aph (443)/aph (670) indicating the packaging effect and changes in the intercellular composition of pigments. During the study period, aph (670) was strongly correlated with Chl_a than aph (443), which explains the accessory pigment absorption dominating more than Chl_a in the blue part of the spectrum. Similarly, the results obtained from seasonal bio-optical data indicating that Chl_a significantly contributes light attenuation of the water column during SIM, whereas detritus (ad

  15. Influence of microorganism content in suspended particles on the particle–water partitioning of mercury in semi-enclosed coastal waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Jiyi [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Global Bioresources Research Center, Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology (KIOST), Ansan 426-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyunji [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Seunghee, E-mail: shan@gist.ac.kr [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-01

    It is known that particle scavenging of mercury (Hg) can be affected by the abundance of particulate organic matter in coastal waters. However, the role of living organic particles in Hg scavenging is not yet completely understood. In this study, we hypothesized that an abundance of living organic particles (i.e., phytoplankton and bacteria) would influence the particle–water partitioning of Hg in coastal waters. Surface seawater samples were collected from eight stations in Gwangyang Bay, Korea, in three seasons (November 2009, April 2010, and October 2010) for the determination of concentrations of suspended particulate matter (including chlorophyll-a and bacteria), and Hg in unfiltered and filtered waters. We found that more Hg partitioned toward particulate matter when phytoplankton biomass, indicated from the chlorophyll-a concentration in a particle, was higher. In the low algal season, when [chlorophyll-a] < 0.6 μg L{sup −1}, the bacterial number, instead of chlorophyll-a concentration in particle, showed a positive correlation with the particle–water partition coefficient of Hg. Overall, microbial abundance seems to play a critical role in particle scavenging of Hg in coastal water. Taking this result in light of Hg in pristine coastal zones, we predict that increases in algal biomass amplify the potential for algae to transfer Hg to marine food chains. - Highlights: • Abundance of phytoplankton and bacteria influenced particle–water partitioning of Hg. • More Hg partitioned toward particles when microorganism biomass in particle is large. • Increases of algal biomass may enhance Hg bioaccumulation in coastal ecosystem.

  16. Coastal circulation and water column properties off Kalaupapa National Historical Park, Molokai, Hawaii, 2008-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storlazzi, Curt D.; Presto, Katherine; Brown, Eric K.

    2011-01-01

    More than 2.2 million measurements of oceanographic forcing and the resulting water-column properties were made off U.S. National Park Service's Kalaupapa National Historical Park on the north shore of Molokai, Hawaii, between 2008 and 2010 to understand the role of oceanographic processes on the health and sustainability of the area's marine resources. The tides off the Kalaupapa Peninsula are mixed semidiurnal. The wave climate is dominated by two end-members: large northwest Pacific winter swell that directly impacts the study site, and smaller, shorter-period northeast trade-wind waves that have to refract around the peninsula, resulting in a more northerly direction before propagating over the study site. The currents primarily are alongshore and are faster at the surface than close to the seabed; large wave events, however, tend to drive flow in a more cross-shore orientation. The tidal currents flood to the north and ebb to the south. The waters off the peninsula appear to be a mix of cooler, more saline, deeper oceanic waters and shallow, warmer, lower-salinity nearshore waters, with intermittent injections of freshwater, generally during the winters. Overall, the turbidity levels were low, except during large wave events. The low overall turbidity levels and rapid return to pre-event background levels following the cessation of forcing suggest that there is little fine-grained material. Large wave events likely inhibit the settlement of fine-grained sediment at the site. A number of phenomena were observed that indicate the complexity of coastal circulation and water-column properties in the area and may help scientists and resource managers to better understand the implications of the processes on marine ecosystem health.

  17. Spatial and temporal trends in summertime climate and water quality indicators in the coastal embayments of Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheuban, J. E.; Williamson, S.; Costa, J. E.; Glover, D. M.; Jakuba, R. W.; McCorkle, D. C.; Neill, C.; Williams, T.; Doney, S. C.

    2016-01-01

    Degradation of coastal ecosystems by eutrophication is largely defined by nitrogen loading from land via surface water and groundwater flows. However, indicators of water quality are highly variable due to a myriad of other drivers, including temperature and precipitation. To evaluate these drivers, we examined spatial and temporal trends in a 22-year record of summer water quality data from 122 stations in 17 embayments within Buzzards Bay, MA (USA), collected through a citizen science monitoring program managed by Buzzards Bay Coalition. To identify spatial patterns across Buzzards Bay's embayments, we used a principle component and factor analysis and found that rotated factor loadings indicated little correlation between inorganic nutrients and organic matter or chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentration. Factor scores showed that embayment geomorphology in addition to nutrient loading was a strong driver of water quality, where embayments with surface water inputs showed larger biological impacts than embayments dominated by groundwater influx. A linear regression analysis of annual summertime water quality indicators over time revealed that from 1992 to 2013, most embayments (15 of 17) exhibited an increase in temperature (mean rate of 0.082 ± 0.025 (SD) °C yr-1) and Chl a (mean rate of 0.0171 ± 0.0088 log10 (Chl a; mg m-3) yr-1, equivalent to a 4.0 % increase per year). However, only seven embayments exhibited an increase in total nitrogen (TN) concentration (mean rate 0.32 ± 0.47 (SD) µM yr-1). Average summertime log10(TN) and log10(Chl a) were correlated with an indication that the yield of Chl a per unit total nitrogen increased with time suggesting the estuarine response to TN may have changed because of other stressors such as warming, altered precipitation patterns, or changing light levels. These findings affirm that nitrogen loading and physical aspects of embayments are essential in explaining the observed ecosystem response. However, climate

  18. Assessment of anthropogenic inputs in the surface waters of the southern coastal area of Sfax during spring (Tunisia, Southern Mediterranean Sea)

    OpenAIRE

    Driraa, Z.; Kmiha-Megdichea, S.; Sahnounb, H.; Hammamic, A.; Allouched, N.; TEDETTI, Marc; Ayadia, H.

    2016-01-01

    The coastal marine area of Sfax (Tunisia), which is well-known for its high productivity and fisheries, is also subjected to anthropogenic inputs from diverse industrial, urban and agriculture activities. We investigated the spatial distribution of physical, chemical and biogeochemical parameters in the surface waters of the southern coastal area of Sfax. Pertinent tracers of anthropogenic inputs were identified. Twenty stations were sampled during March 2013 in the vicinity of the coastal ar...

  19. Phytoplankton absorption predicts patterns in primary productivity in Australian coastal shelf waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, C. M.; Cherukuru, N.; Hardman-Mountford, N. J.; Everett, J. D.; McLaughlin, M. J.; Davies, K. P.; Van Dongen-Vogels, V.; Ralph, P. J.; Doblin, M. A.

    2017-06-01

    The phytoplankton absorption coefficient (aPHY) has been suggested as a suitable alternate first order predictor of net primary productivity (NPP). We compiled a dataset of surface bio-optical properties and phytoplankton NPP measurements in coastal waters around Australia to examine the utility of an in-situ absorption model to estimate NPP. The magnitude of surface NPP (0.20-19.3 mmol C m-3 d-1) across sites was largely driven by phytoplankton biomass, with higher rates being attributed to the microplankton (>20 μm) size class. The phytoplankton absorption coefficient aPHY for PAR (photosynthetically active radiation; āPHY)) ranged from 0.003 to 0.073 m-1, influenced by changes in phytoplankton community composition, physiology and environmental conditions. The aPHY coefficient also reflected changes in NPP and the absorption model-derived NPP could explain 73% of the variability in measured surface NPP (n = 41; RMSE = 2.49). The absorption model was applied to two contrasting coastal locations to examine NPP dynamics: a high chlorophyll-high variation (HCHV; Port Hacking National Reference Station) and moderate chlorophyll-low variation (MCLV; Yongala National Reference Station) location in eastern Australia using the GIOP-DC satellite aPHY product. Mean daily NPP rates between 2003 and 2015 were higher at the HCHV site (1.71 ± 0.03 mmol C m-3 d-1) with the annual maximum NPP occurring during the austral winter. In contrast, the MCLV site annual NPP peak occurred during the austral wet season and had lower mean daily NPP (1.43 ± 0.03 mmol C m-3 d-1) across the time-series. An absorption-based model to estimate NPP is a promising approach for exploring the spatio-temporal dynamics in phytoplankton NPP around the Australian continental shelf.

  20. Calling in the cold: pervasive acoustic presence of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae in Antarctic coastal waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilse Van Opzeeland

    Full Text Available Humpback whales migrate between relatively unproductive tropical or temperate breeding grounds and productive high latitude feeding areas. However, not all individuals of a population undertake the annual migration to the breeding grounds; instead some are thought to remain on the feeding grounds year-round, presumably to avoid the energetic demands of migration. In the Southern Hemisphere, ice and inclement weather conditions restrict investigations of humpback whale presence on feeding grounds as well as the extent of their southern range. Two years of near-continuous recordings from the PerenniAL Acoustic Observatory in the Antarctic Ocean (PALAOA, Ekström Iceshelf, 70°31'S, 8°13'W are used to explore the acoustic presence of humpback whales in an Antarctic coastal area. Humpback whale calls were present during nine and eleven months of 2008 and 2009, respectively. In 2008, calls were present in January through April, June through August, November and December, whereas in 2009, calls were present throughout the year, except in September. Calls occurred in un-patterned sequences, representing non-song sound production. Typically, calls occurred in bouts, ranging from 2 to 42 consecutive days with February, March and April having the highest daily occurrence of calls in 2008. In 2009, February, March, April and May had the highest daily occurrence of calls. Whales were estimated to be within a 100 km radius off PALAOA. Calls were also present during austral winter when ice cover within this radius was >90%. These results demonstrate that coastal areas near the Antarctic continent are likely of greater importance to humpback whales than previously assumed, presumably providing food resources year-round and open water in winter where animals can breathe.

  1. Calling in the cold: pervasive acoustic presence of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in Antarctic coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Opzeeland, Ilse; Van Parijs, Sofie; Kindermann, Lars; Burkhardt, Elke; Boebel, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    Humpback whales migrate between relatively unproductive tropical or temperate breeding grounds and productive high latitude feeding areas. However, not all individuals of a population undertake the annual migration to the breeding grounds; instead some are thought to remain on the feeding grounds year-round, presumably to avoid the energetic demands of migration. In the Southern Hemisphere, ice and inclement weather conditions restrict investigations of humpback whale presence on feeding grounds as well as the extent of their southern range. Two years of near-continuous recordings from the PerenniAL Acoustic Observatory in the Antarctic Ocean (PALAOA, Ekström Iceshelf, 70°31'S, 8°13'W) are used to explore the acoustic presence of humpback whales in an Antarctic coastal area. Humpback whale calls were present during nine and eleven months of 2008 and 2009, respectively. In 2008, calls were present in January through April, June through August, November and December, whereas in 2009, calls were present throughout the year, except in September. Calls occurred in un-patterned sequences, representing non-song sound production. Typically, calls occurred in bouts, ranging from 2 to 42 consecutive days with February, March and April having the highest daily occurrence of calls in 2008. In 2009, February, March, April and May had the highest daily occurrence of calls. Whales were estimated to be within a 100 km radius off PALAOA. Calls were also present during austral winter when ice cover within this radius was >90%. These results demonstrate that coastal areas near the Antarctic continent are likely of greater importance to humpback whales than previously assumed, presumably providing food resources year-round and open water in winter where animals can breathe.

  2. Spatio-temporal variability in hydro-chemical characteristics of coastal waters of Salimpur, Chittagong along the Bay of Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avijit Talukder

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Diverse seasonal characteristics of hydro-chemical parameters in the coastal zone are significantly related to aquaculture development. In this paper, general water quality condition derived from laboratory analysis from the coastal waters of Salimpur, Chittagong is presented. Samples were collected from onshore and offshore site of two adjacent coastal locations named as North Salimpur (experimental location and South Kattoli (control during a monsoon and a dry season spanning 2013-14. The spatio-temporal variability of studied parameters were found as air temperature 26.5-32.5 ˚C, water temperature 23-33 °C, pH 7.1-7.9, DO 4.29-7.11 mg/L, BOD 1.10-3.25 mg/L, salinity 1.6-21 ppt, EC 3.40-35.68 mS/cm, TDS 2.02-21.99 g/L, TSS 0.62-2.76 g/L, transparency 4.5-14 cm, precipitation 64-1992 mm, NO2-N 1.94-2.58 µg/L, PO4-P 0.45-1.84 µg/L, SiO3-Si 130.46-956.31 µg/L during investigation period. Average values of physicochemical parameters were found to be in compliance with standard guidelines. The ship breaking activities near experimental location possess negative impacts on local geomorphology, freshwater inputs, precipitation and aquatic environment as well. Moreover, wind driven forces, tidal action, wave characteristics and changes in monsoon pattern regulate the coastal processes. This research suggests the importance of regular monitoring to assess present status of water quality and future prospect of aquaculture in the Chittagong coastal zone.

  3. Developments in Earth observation for the assessment and monitoring of inland, transitional, coastal and shelf-sea waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Andrew N; Hunter, Peter D; Spyrakos, Evangelos; Groom, Steve; Constantinescu, Adriana Maria; Kitchen, Jonathan

    2016-12-01

    The Earth's surface waters are a fundamental resource and encompass a broad range of ecosystems that are core to global biogeochemical cycling and food and energy production. Despite this, the Earth's surface waters are impacted by multiple natural and anthropogenic pressures and drivers of environmental change. The complex interaction between physical, chemical and biological processes in surface waters poses significant challenges for in situ monitoring and assessment and often limits our ability to adequately capture the dynamics of aquatic systems and our understanding of their status, functioning and response to pressures. Here we explore the opportunities that Earth observation (EO) has to offer to basin-scale monitoring of water quality over the surface water continuum comprising inland, transition and coastal water bodies, with a particular focus on the Danube and Black Sea region. This review summarises the technological advances in EO and the opportunities that the next generation satellites offer for water quality monitoring. We provide an overview of algorithms for the retrieval of water quality parameters and demonstrate how such models have been used for the assessment and monitoring of inland, transitional, coastal and shelf-sea systems. Further, we argue that very few studies have investigated the connectivity between these systems especially in large river-sea systems such as the Danube-Black Sea. Subsequently, we describe current capability in operational processing of archive and near real-time satellite data. We conclude that while the operational use of satellites for the assessment and monitoring of surface waters is still developing for inland and coastal waters and more work is required on the development and validation of remote sensing algorithms for these optically complex waters, the potential that these data streams offer for developing an improved, potentially paradigm-shifting understanding of physical and biogeochemical processes

  4. Investigation into the Distribution of Ballast Water Tracers in Coastal Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    1998) and exchange with sediment porewaters (Burdige et al., 2004; Skoog et al., 1996), and removal due to bleaching by sunlight (Green and Blough...The production of extracellular organic matter by littoral marine algae. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol., 3: 290-309. Skoog , A. et al., 1996. Early

  5. Monitoring of ocean surface algal blooms in coastal and oceanic waters around India.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tholkapiyan, M.; Shanmugam, P.; Suresh, T.

    -510nm) and increased reflectance in the green (500-565nm) by working in terms of the ratios in these two wavelength domains, although being erroneously retrieved by these algorithms in optically more complex waters (Shanmugam 2011). However...-water algal blooms) because of a sharp rise in radiances (or reflectances) between 670 and 780nm (due to increased pigment contents similar to land vegetation). This imposes major constraints on the use of the present atmospheric correction algorithms...

  6. Multi-scalar interactions between infrastructure, smallholder water management, and coastal dynamics in the Bengal Delta, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, K. G.; Brondizio, E.; Roy, K.; Syvitski, J. P.

    2016-12-01

    Because of their low-lying elevations and large number of inhabitants and infrastructure, river deltas are ground zero for climate change impacts, particularly from sea-level rise and storm surges. The increased vulnerability of downstream delta communities to coastal flooding as a result of upstream engineering has been acknowledged for decades. What has received less attention is the sensitivity of deltas to the interactions of these processes and increasing intensity of cultivation and irrigation in their coastal regions. Beyond basin-scale damming, regional infrastructure affects the movement of sediment and water on deltas, and combined with upstream modifications may exacerbate the risk of expanded tidal flooding, erosion of arable land, and salinization of soils and groundwater associated with sea level rise. To examine the social-biophysical feedbacks associated with regional-scale infrastructure, smallholder water management practices and coastal dynamics, a nested framework was applied to two districts of the coastal southwest region of Bangladesh. The two districts vary in tidal range, salinity, freshwater availability and socioeconomic structures, and are spatially varied in farmer's adaptations. Both districts contain numerous large embankment systems initially designed to protect cropland from tidal flooding, but that have been poorly maintained since their construction in the 1960's. The framework was co-produced using local-level stakeholder input collected during group interviews with rural farmers in 8 villages within the two districts, and explicitly accounts for engineered and natural biophysical variables as well as governance and institutional structures at 3 levels of analysis. Household survey results indicate that the presence or absence of embankments as a result of poor management and dynamic coastal processes is the primary control on freshwater availability and thus influences farming strategies, socioeconomic conditions and social

  7. Environmental health aspects of drinking water-borne outbreak due to karst flooding: case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dura, Gyula; Pándics, Tamás; Kádár, Mihály; Krisztalovics, Katalin; Kiss, Zoltánné; Bodnár, Judit; Asztalos, Agnes; Papp, Erzsébet

    2010-09-01

    Climate change may increase the incidence of waterborne diseases due to extreme rainfall events, and consequent microbiological contamination of the water source and supply. As a result of the complexity of the pathways from the surface to the consumer, it is difficult to detect an association between rainfall and human disease. The water supply of a Hungarian city, Miskolc (174,000 inhabitant), is mainly based on karstic water, a vulnerable underground water body. A large amount of precipitation fell on the catchment area of the karstic water source, causing an unusually strong karstic water flow and flooding, and subsequent microbiological contamination. The presence of several potential sources of contamination in the protective zone of the karstic water source should be emphasized. The water supplier was unprepared to treat the risk of waterborne outbreak caused by an extreme weather event. Public health intervention and hygienic measures were taken in line with epidemiological actions, focusing on the protection of consumers by providing safe drinking water. The contamination was identified, and measures were taken for risk reduction and prevention. This case study underlines the increasing importance of preparedness for extreme water events in order to protect the karstic water sources and to avoid waterborne outbreaks.

  8. Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in water and sediment from the coastal regions of Shandong peninsula, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yi; Wang, Shiliang; Cao, Xuezhi; Cao, Yuanxin; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Hui; Liu, Jinfeng

    2017-03-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have been observed in various environmental matrices globally in recent years. In this study, the levels, spatial distribution tendencies, and partitioning characteristics of the target 12 PFAAs were investigated in water and sediment from the coastal regions of Shandong peninsula in China, and two sediment core samples were also collected to study the vertical and historical variation of PFAAs. The ranges (means) of total PFAA concentrations were 23.69-148.48 ng/L (76.11 ng/L) in the water and 1.30-11.17 ng/g (5.93 ng/g) in the surface sediment, respectively. Among the target 12 PFAAs, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was the dominant component in water, followed by perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA). PFOS, perfluoroundecanoic acid, and PFOA were the dominant components in sediment. For their spatial distribution, higher levels of PFAAs were found at the locations close to much developed cities. The PFAA concentrations showed an overall decreasing tendency with depth increase in the two sediment cores, which indicates that the extent of PFAAs pollution is aggravating trend in recent years. Results of the partition coefficient (K d ) show that the compounds with longer carbon chains (C ≥ 7) generally had higher K d values, which suggest that long-chain PFAAs are prone to be adsorbed by sediment. In addition, the Log K d of PFHxA, PFOA, and PFOS were significantly and positively correlated to the salinity of the water. The results of risk assessment suggest appreciable risk of PFAAs to the local ecosystem.

  9. Coastal upwelling supplies oxygen-depleted water to the Columbia River estuary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Curtis Roegner

    Full Text Available Low dissolved oxygen (DO is a common feature of many estuarine and shallow-water environments, and is often attributed to anthropogenic nutrient enrichment from terrestrial-fluvial pathways. However, recent events in the U.S. Pacific Northwest have highlighted that wind-forced upwelling can cause naturally occurring low DO water to move onto the continental shelf, leading to mortalities of benthic fish and invertebrates. Coastal estuaries in the Pacific Northwest are strongly linked to ocean forcings, and here we report observations on the spatial and temporal patterns of oxygen concentration in the Columbia River estuary. Hydrographic measurements were made from transect (spatial survey or anchor station (temporal survey deployments over a variety of wind stresses and tidal states during the upwelling seasons of 2006 through 2008. During this period, biologically stressful levels of dissolved oxygen were observed to enter the Columbia River estuary from oceanic sources, with minimum values close to the hypoxic threshold of 2.0 mg L(-1. Riverine water was consistently normoxic. Upwelling wind stress controlled the timing and magnitude of low DO events, while tidal-modulated estuarine circulation patterns influenced the spatial extent and duration of exposure to low DO water. Strong upwelling during neap tides produced the largest impact on the estuary. The observed oxygen concentrations likely had deleterious behavioral and physiological consequences for migrating juvenile salmon and benthic crabs. Based on a wind-forced supply mechanism, low DO events are probably common to the Columbia River and other regional estuaries and if conditions on the shelf deteriorate further, as observations and models predict, Pacific Northwest estuarine habitats could experience a decrease in environmental quality.

  10. Review of water intake screening options for coastal water users with recommendations for Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, D.L.

    1979-05-01

    The large volumes of water withdrawn at both the warm and cold water intakes of an OTEC plant must be screened to remove organisms and debris which could clog the heat exchangers. The recent literature on screening technology is reviewed. In addition, various screen manufacturers and coastal facilities which use large volumes of seawater were visited to determine the operating experience with present screen technology. Static screens (particularly the Johnson Division, UOP profile wire screen and the Royce Equipment Company carrousel screen) have the potential advantage for OTEC for operating in a completely submerged state and of being cheaper to operate and maintain than traveling screens. However, there is no operational history with these static screens for large intake systems. The most promising traveling screen options for OTEC are the dual flow screens. They offer more screening surface and less head loss than through flow screens of similar size. They also have been operated in seawater for large intake systems. More detailed designs of potential OTEC plants, particurlarly screen wells, conduit and surge tank construction and head losses need to be determined before the best alternative intake screen can be selected. 38 references.

  11. Enhancing moderate-resolution ocean color products over coastal/inland waters (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlevan, Nima; Schott, John R.; Zibordi, Giuseppe

    2016-10-01

    With the successful launch of Landsat-8 in 2013 followed by a very recent launch of Sentinel-2A, we are entering a new area where frequent moderate resolution water quality products over coastal/inland waters will be available to scientists and operational agencies. Although designed for land observations, the Operational Land Imager (OLI) has proven to provide high-fidelity products in these aquatic systems where coarse-resolution ocean color imagers fail to provide valid observations. High-quality, multi-scale ocean color products can give insights into the biogeochemical/physical processes from the upstream in watersheds, into near-shore regions, and further out in ocean basins. In this research, we describe a robust cross-calibration approach, which facilitates seamless ocean color products at multi scales. The top-of-atmosphere (TOA) OLI imagery is cross-calibrated against near-simultaneous MODIS and VIIRS ocean color observations in high-latitude regions. This allows for not only examining the overall relative performance of OLI but also for characterizing non-uniformity (i.e., banding) across its swath. The uncertainty of this approach is, on average, found to be less than 0.5% in the blue channels. The adjustments made for OLI TOA reflectance products are then validated against in-situ measurements of remote sensing reflectance collected in research cruises or at the AERONET-OC.

  12. Marine mammals and debris in coastal waters of British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Rob; Ashe, Erin; O'Hara, Patrick D

    2011-06-01

    Entanglement in and ingestion of synthetic marine debris is increasingly recognized worldwide as an important stressor for marine wildlife, including marine mammals. Studying its impact on wildlife populations is complicated by the inherently cryptic nature of the problem. The coastal waters of British Columbia (BC), Canada provide important habitat for marine mammal species, many of which have unfavorable conservation status in the US and Canada. As a priority-setting exercise, we used data from systematic line-transect surveys and spatial modeling methods to map at-sea distribution of debris and 11 marine mammal species in BC waters, and to identify areas of overlap. We estimated abundance of 36,000 (CIs: 23,000-56,600) pieces of marine debris in the region. Areas of overlap were often far removed from urban centers, suggesting that the extent of marine mammal-debris interactions would be underestimated from opportunistic sightings and stranding records, and that high-overlap areas should be prioritized by stranding response networks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Response of phytoplankton and bacterial biomass during a wastewater effluent diversion into nearshore coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, David A.; Gellene, Alyssa G.; Smith, Jayme; Seubert, Erica L.; Campbell, Victoria; Sukhatme, Gaurav S.; Seegers, Bridget; Jones, Burton H.; Lie, Alle A. Y.; Terrado, Ramon; Howard, Meredith D. A.; Kudela, Raphael M.; Hayashi, Kendra; Ryan, John; Birch, James; Demir-Hilton, Elif; Yamahara, Kevan; Scholin, Chris; Mengel, Michael; Robertson, George

    2017-02-01

    A 3-week diversion of the Orange County Sanitation District effluent discharge into nearshore waters off Newport Beach, CA constituted a considerable injection of secondarily-treated effluent into the coastal ecosystem. The location ≈1.6 km from shore, shallow water depth (≈16 m), volume and nutrient content of the discharge (≈5.3 × 108 L day-1 of effluent with inorganic nitrogen concentration >2 mM) during the diversion raised concerns regarding the potential for stimulating phytoplankton blooms and, in particular, blooms of toxic species. Remarkably, phytoplankton standing stocks during the event and shortly thereafter did not reach values associated even with minor blooms historically observed in the region (generally algae increased mid-diversion, and cyanobacteria (Synechococcus, Prochlorococcus) increased near the end of the diversion. Concentrations of domoic acid (a phycotoxin commonly present in the area) remained near or below detection throughout the diversion, and abundances of potentially-harmful algal species were unresponsive. Bacterial biomass increased during the diversion, and equaled or exceeded total phytoplankton biomass in most samples. Abundances of microbial grazers were also elevated during the diversion. We speculate that nutrient uptake by the bacterial biomass, acting in concert with or a response to a negative effect of disinfection byproducts associated with chlorination on phytoplankton physiology, played a significant role in muting the response of the phytoplankton to nutrients released in the effluent.

  14. Spatial pattern of spring phytoplankton community in the coastal waters of northern Zhejiang, East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ran; Cai, Yanhong; Wei, Yongjie; Li, Xiaoming

    2017-04-01

    The spatial pattern of phytoplankton community can indicate potential environmental variation in different water bodies. In this context, spatial pattern of phytoplankton community and its response to environmental and spatial factors were studied in the coastal waters of northern Zhejiang, East China Sea using multivariate statistical techniques. Results showed that 94 species belonging to 40 genera, 5 phyla were recorded (the remaining 9 were identified to genus level) with diatoms being the most dominant followed by dinoflagellates. Hierarchic