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Sample records for coal water mixtures

  1. The production of high load coal-water mixtures on the base of Kansk-Achinsk Coal Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demidov, Y.; Bruer, G.; Kolesnikova, S. [Research and Design Institute for Problems of Development of Kansk-Achinsk Coal Basin (KATEKNilugol), Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-01

    The results of the {open_quotes}KATEKNIIugol{close_quotes} work on the problems of high load coal-water mixtures are given in this article. General principles of the mixture production, short characteristics of Kansk-Achinsk coals, the experimental results of the coal mixture production on a test-industrial scale, the suspension preparation on the base of coal mixtures, technical-economical indexes of tested coal pipeline variants based on Kansk-Achinsk coals are described.

  2. The rheodynamics and combustion of coal-water mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdukov, A.P.; Popov, V.I.; Tomilov, V.G.; Fedosenko, V.D. [Russian Academy of Science, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Inst. of Thermophysics (Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Science)

    2002-05-01

    Investigation methods for characteristics of movement along the tubes, combustion dynamics and gasification of separate drops were developed for the coal-water mixtures (CWM). The following parameters were determined on the basis of laser heating: thermometric, pyrometric and concentration dynamics of single-drop combustion, complete combustion times, duration of temperature phases of combustion, as well as the moment and temperature of ignition. Information on the combustion mass velocity and gasification products was also obtained using laser heating. 6 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Flow loop studies with AMAX coal-water mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wildman, D.J.; Ekmann, J.M.

    1984-03-01

    The coal-water mixtures (CWM) with a stabilizer and the CWM without stabilizers were successfully transported through a flow loop facility under a variety of conditions. The handling characteristics of both CWM were reasonable. The mix tank mixer was not needed during nontesting hours to prevent settling of either material. After several days of transporting the nonstabilized material in the loop facility, the viscosity-reducing agent became ineffective. It was necessary to increase the concentration of the viscosity-reducing agent. The material with stabilizer could not be transported through the loop facility at mass flow rates greater than 209 lb/min until overnight shearing of the CWM in the tank. The CWM without a stabilizer appeared to be slightly shear-thickening, whereas the stabilized CWM initially exhibited shear-thinning behavior. The pressure losses measured for the nonstabilized material were similar to the pressure losses measured for CWM prepared at PETC with three or four percent higher concentration of Pittsburgh seam coal. Tests performed with the stabilized CWM experienced pressure losses similar to CWM prepared at PETC with Pittsburgh seam coal of five to seven percent higher concentration. Tests 1A, 2A, 1B, and 2B were not included in the comparison of in-house-prepared CWM due to differences in pretest handling procedures. 1 figure, 2 tables.

  4. Use of coal-water mixtures in blast furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malgarini, G; Giuli, M; Davide, A; Carlesi, C [Centro Sviluppo Materiali, Rome (Italy); Italsider, Genoa [Italy; Deltasider, Piombino [Italy

    1989-03-01

    At the present time, an ironworks blast furnace employing a pulverized coal injection (PCI) system is in operation at the Piombino Works (Italy). A wide development, within this industry, of PCI techniques is expected in the near future to limit, as much as possible, the rebuilding of coke ovens. Research activities and industrial trials aimed at maximizing the use of coal injection into blast furnaces are in course of development. This paper uses flowsheets to illustrate such a system and provides graphs to indicate the economic convenience of PCI systems as compared with systems using naphtha as an injected fuel.

  5. Effect of dispersing and stabilizing additives on rheological characteristics of the upgraded brown coal water mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umar, Datin Fatia; Muta'alim; Usui, Hiromoto; Komoda, Yoshiyuki

    2009-01-01

    Upgraded brown coal water mixture (UBCWM) preparation by using an Indonesian upgraded coal produced by upgraded brown coal (UBC) process, was carried out to study the effect of dispersing and stabilizing additives on rheological behavior of the UBCWM. Three kinds of anionic dispersing additives, naphthalene sulfonic formaldehyde condensate (NSF), poly (meth) acrylate (PMA) and poly styrene sulfonic acid (PSS) and three kinds of stabilizing additives, carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC), rhansam gum (S-194) and gellan gum (S-60) were used in this study. Results indicate that the addition of NSF 0.3 wt.% together with S-194 0.01 wt.% is effective in preparing UBCWM with good slurryability and stability, based on its rheological characteristics with the apparent viscosity at shear rate of 100 s - 1 and yield stress at zero point of shear rate. The rheological behavior of all of the UBCWM that prepared, exhibits non-Newtonian Bingham plastic. From the economical point of view, the price of S-194 is expensive. On the other hand, CMC is cheap and abundant. Therefore, the addition of CMC 0.01 wt.% together with NSF 0.3 wt.% is also effective in preparing UBCWM with good fluidity and stability. (author)

  6. Development of a pulsed coal combustor fired with CWM (coal-water mixture): Phase 3, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansour, M.N.; Durai-Swamy, K.

    1986-11-01

    This report presents the results of an R and D program aimed at developing a new burner technology for coal-water mixture (CWM) fuels to enable the substitution of these new fuels in utility and industrial boilers and process heaters currently firing oil and gas. The application of pulse combustion to CWM fuels is chosen to alleviate many of the physical plant and environmental constraints presently associated with the direct use of these fuels in equipment designed for oil and gas firing. Pulse combustion has been shown to be capable of high-intensity burning of coal for acceptably complete combustion within relatively small equipment volumes. It also has the inherent capability to agglomerate ash particles, thus rendering ash more easily separable from the combustion gas prior to its entrance into the convective section of the boiler or heater, thereby reducing ash buildup and pluggage. Pulse combustion is also well-suited to staged combustion for NO/sub x/ control and has excellent potential for enhanced in-furnace SO/sub 2/ removal due to the enhanced levels of mass transfer brought about by the vigorous flow oscillations. The primary objective of the Phase 2 work was to develop a detailed program for laboratory development and evaluation of the pulse CWM combustor and system design concepts. 112 refs., 40 figs., 94 tabs.

  7. Effect of sodium aromatic sulfonate group in anionic polymer dispersant on the viscosity of coal-water mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toshio Kakui; Hidehiro Kamiya [Lion Corporation, Tokyo (Japan). Chemicals Research Laboratories, Chemicals Division

    2004-06-01

    This paper focused on the effect of sodium aromatic sulfonate in anionic polymer dispersants on the viscosity of coal-water mixtures (CWMs) with a Tatung coal powder. To determine the optimum molecular structure of a polymer dispersant for the minimum viscosity of a CWM, various anionic co-polymers with different hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups or different molecular weights were prepared, using various types of monomers. Anionic co-polymers with sodium aromatic sulfonate, such as sodium styrene-sulfonate and sodium naphthalene-sulfonate, reduced the viscosity of dense CWMs. In particular, a co-polymer of sodium styrene-sulfonate and sodium acrylate with a molar ratio of 70:30 and a molecular weight of {approximately} 10 000 gave the minimum viscosity of a 70 wt % CWM. To obtain a low viscosity for a CWM, a large electrostatic repulsive force with an absolute value of the zeta potential of the coal particles of {gt} 70 mV and {gt} 6.5 mg/g of adsorbed polymer on the coal surface were needed. The mixture of sodium polystyrene-sulfonate and sodium polyacrylate with a weight ratio of 50:50 also gave a low viscosity of 70 wt % CWM. On the basis of the results, the adsorption behavior of polymer dispersants on the coal surface is examined by measuring the wettability of coal powder pellets. 27 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Challenge of coal-liquid mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peirce, T

    1985-09-01

    The near-term prospect for coal-water (CWMs) mixtures as a convenient replacement fuel for UK oil-fired plant is discussed. Specific use of CWMs in industrial water-tube boilers is presented. The article shows how such developments complement the introduction of new, modern coal-designed industrial combustion equipment in the form of fully automatic stokers and fluidized bed combustion systems. Topics presented include properties and preparation of CWM, combustion characteristics of CWM, and boiler conversion. 9 references, 4 figures.

  9. Coke from partially briquetted preheated coal mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belitskii, A.N.; Sklyar, M.G.; Toryanik, Eh.I.; Bronshtein, A.P.

    1988-07-01

    Analyzes effects of partial coal charge briquetting on coking and on quality of coke for metallurgy. Effects of mixing hot coal briquets on temperature and moisture of coal were investigated on an experimental scale in a coking plant. Coal with a moisture content of 12% was used. Coking mixture consisted of 30% briquets and 70% crushed coal. Fifteen minutes after briquet mixing with coal, the mean coal charge temperature increased to 100-105 C and moisture content was lower than 2-5%. Results of laboratory investigations were verified by tests on a commercial scale. Experiments showed briquetting of weakly caking or non-caking coal charge components to be an efficient way of preventing coke quality decline. Adding 15-20% briquets consisting of weakly caking coal did not influence coke quality. Mixing hot coal briquets reduced moisture content in crushed coal, increased its temperature and reduced coking time.

  10. Fluidized Bed Gasification of Coal-Oil and Coal-Water-Oil Slurries by Oxygen –Steam and Oxygen-CO2 Mixtures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Karel; Pohořelý, Michael; Jeremiáš, Michal; Kameníková, Petra; Hartman, Miloslav; Skoblia, S.; Šyc, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 1 (2012), s. 16-26 ISSN 0378-3820 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B08048; GA MŠk 7C08034 Grant - others:RFCR(XE) CT-2010-00009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : fluidized bed * gasification * coal slurries Subject RIV: JE - Non-nuclear Energetics, Energy Consumption ; Use Impact factor: 2.816, year: 2012 http://www.scopus.com/record/display.url?eid=2-s2.0-82455175439&origin=resultslist&sort=plf-f&src=s&st1=svoboda%2ck&sid=ikNGw6d45E-yyuMoDwlGiWn%3a420&sot=b&sdt=b&sl=22&s=AUTHOR-NAME%28svoboda%2ck%29&relpos=1&relpos=1&searchTerm=AUTHOR-NAME(svoboda,k)

  11. WATER- AND COAL GASIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Nazarov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the results of gas analysis it has been established that water- and coal gasification is rather satisfactorily described by three thermo-chemical equations. One of these equations is basic and independent and the other two equations depend on the first one.The proposed process scheme makes it possible to explain the known data and also permits to carry out the gasification process and obtain high-quality hydrogen carbon-monoxide which is applicable for practical use.

  12. Briquetting of Coke-Brown Coal Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ïurove Juraj

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the research of briquetting a coke-brown coal composite The operation consists of the feeding crushed coal and coke to moulds and pressing into briquettes which have been made in the Laboratories at the Mining Faculty of Technical University of Košice (Slovakia. In this research, all demands will be analyzed including the different aspects of the mechanical quality of briquettes, the proportion of fine pulverulent coal and coke in bricks, the requirements for briquetting the coke-brown coal materials.

  13. Studies for the stabilization of coal-oil mixtures. Final report, August 1978-May 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botsaris, G.D.; Glazman, Y.M.; Adams-Viola, M.

    1981-01-01

    A fundamental understanding of the stabilization of coal-oil mixtures (COM) was developed. Aggregation of the coal particles was determined to control both the sedimentation and rheological properties of the COM. Sedimentation stability of COM prepared with coal, 80% < 200 mesh, is achieved by particle aggregation, which leads to the formation of a network of particles throughout the oil. The wettability of coal powders was evaluated by the Pickering emulsion test and a spherical agglomeration test to assess its effect on the stability of various COM formulations. Sedimentation stability of hydrophilic coal-oil-water mixtures (COWM) involves the formation of water bridges between the coal particles, while less stabilization of oleophilic COWM is achieved by the formation of an emulsion. Anionic SAA were least sensitive to the coal type and enhanced the aggregation stability of the suspension. The effect of cationic SAA, nonionic SAA and polymer additives depended upon the specific chemical structure of the SAA, the water content of the COM and the type of coal. The sedimentation stability of ultrafine COM was not directly due to the fineness of the powder but due to the formation of a network of flocculated particles.

  14. Properties of Direct Coal Liquefaction Residue Modified Asphalt Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Ji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this paper are to use Direct Coal Liquefaction Residue (DLCR to modify the asphalt binders and mixtures and to evaluate the performance of modified asphalt mixtures. The dynamic modulus and phase angle of DCLR and DCLR-composite modified asphalt mixture were analyzed, and the viscoelastic properties of these modified asphalt mixtures were compared to the base asphalt binder SK-90 and Styrene-Butadiene-Styrene (SBS modified asphalt mixtures. The master curves of the asphalt mixtures were shown, and dynamic and viscoelastic behaviors of asphalt mixtures were described using the Christensen-Anderson-Marasteanu (CAM model. The test results show that the dynamic moduli of DCLR and DCLR-composite asphalt mixtures are higher than those of the SK-90 and SBS modified asphalt mixtures. Based on the viscoelastic parameters of CAM models of the asphalt mixtures, the high- and low-temperature performance of DLCR and DCLR-composite modified asphalt mixtures are obviously better than the SK-90 and SBS modified asphalt mixtures. In addition, the DCLR and DCLR-composite modified asphalt mixtures are more insensitive to the frequency compared to SK-90 and SBS modified asphalt mixtures.

  15. Catalytic Gasification of Coal using Eutectic Salt Mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atul Sheth; Pradeep Agrawal; Yaw D. Yeboah

    1998-12-04

    The objectives of this study are to: identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and conduct an analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process. A review of the collected literature was carried out. The catalysts which have been used for gasification can be roughly classified under the following five groups: alkali metal salts; alkaline earth metal oxides and salts; mineral substances or ash in coal; transition metals and their oxides and salts; and eutectic salt mixtures. Studies involving the use of gasification catalysts have been conducted. However, most of the studies focused on the application of individual catalysts. Only two publications have reported the study of gasification of coal char in CO2 and steam catalyzed by eutectic salt mixture catalysts. By using the eutectic mixtures of salts that show good activity as individual compounds, the gasification temperature can be reduced possibly with still better activity and gasification rates due to improved dispersion of the molten catalyst on the coal particles. For similar metal/carbon atomic ratios, eutectic catalysts were found to be consistently more active than their respective single salts. But the exact roles that the eutectic salt mixtures play in these are not well understood and details of the mechanisms remain unclear. The effects of the surface property of coals and the application methods of eutectic salt mixture catalysts with coal chars on the reactivity of gasification will be studied. Based on our preliminary evaluation of the literature, a ternary

  16. CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dr. Yaw D. Yeboah; Dr. Yong Xu; Dr. Atul Sheth; Dr. Pradeep Agrawal

    2001-01-01

    The Gas Research Institute (GRI) estimates that by the year 2010, 40% or more of U.S. gas supply will be provided by supplements including substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. These supplements must be cost competitive with other energy sources. The first generation technologies for coal gasification e.g. the Lurgi Pressure Gasification Process and the relatively newer technologies e.g. the KBW (Westinghouse) Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, U-Gas Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, British Gas Corporation/Lurgi Slagging Gasifier, Texaco Moving-Bed Gasifier, and Dow and Shell Gasification Processes, have several disadvantages. These disadvantages include high severities of gasification conditions, low methane production, high oxygen consumption, inability to handle caking coals, and unattractive economics. Another problem encountered in catalytic coal gasification is deactivation of hydroxide forms of alkali and alkaline earth metal catalysts by oxides of carbon (CO(sub x)). To seek solutions to these problems, a team consisting of Clark Atlanta University (CAU, a Historically Black College and University, HBCU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) proposed to identify suitable low melting eutectic salt mixtures for improved coal gasification. The research objectives of this project were to: Identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; Assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; Evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; Determine catalyst dispersion at high carbon conversion levels; Evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; Evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and Conduct an analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process

  17. CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Yaw D. Yeboah; Dr. Yong Xu; Dr. Atul Sheth; Dr. Pradeep Agrawal

    2001-12-01

    The Gas Research Institute (GRI) estimates that by the year 2010, 40% or more of U.S. gas supply will be provided by supplements including substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. These supplements must be cost competitive with other energy sources. The first generation technologies for coal gasification e.g. the Lurgi Pressure Gasification Process and the relatively newer technologies e.g. the KBW (Westinghouse) Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, U-Gas Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, British Gas Corporation/Lurgi Slagging Gasifier, Texaco Moving-Bed Gasifier, and Dow and Shell Gasification Processes, have several disadvantages. These disadvantages include high severities of gasification conditions, low methane production, high oxygen consumption, inability to handle caking coals, and unattractive economics. Another problem encountered in catalytic coal gasification is deactivation of hydroxide forms of alkali and alkaline earth metal catalysts by oxides of carbon (CO{sub x}). To seek solutions to these problems, a team consisting of Clark Atlanta University (CAU, a Historically Black College and University, HBCU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) proposed to identify suitable low melting eutectic salt mixtures for improved coal gasification. The research objectives of this project were to: Identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; Assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; Evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; Determine catalyst dispersion at high carbon conversion levels; Evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; Evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and Conduct an analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process.

  18. Water pollution profile of coal washeries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, R.K.; Singh, Gurdeep

    1995-01-01

    Environmental problems in coal mining industry is increased with the demand of good quality of coal through coal washing/beneficiation activities. The coal washeries in general have been identified as one of the serious sources of water pollution particularly of Damodar river. Coal washeries though are designed on close water circuit, most of these however, fail to operate on close water circuit thus resulting in enormous quantity of effluents containing coal fines as well. This apart from posing serious water pollution problem also results into economic losses. The present study attempts to provide an insight into water pollution profile from coal washeries in Jharia coalfield. Various process parameters/unit operations in coal washing are also described. Effluents from various selected coal washeries of Jharia coalfield are sampled and analysed over a period of six months during 1993. Suspended solids, oil and grease and COD in the washery effluents are identified as the three major water quality parameters causing lots of concern for Damodar river pollution. Reasons for unavoidable discharge of effluents containing coal fines are also described. (author). 14 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs

  19. Supercritical Water Mixture (SCWM) Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Michael C.; Hegde, Uday G.

    2012-01-01

    The subject presentation, entitled, Supercritical Water Mixture (SCWM) Experiment, was presented at the International Space Station (ISS) Increment 33/34 Science Symposium. This presentation provides an overview of an international collaboration between NASA and CNES to study the behavior of a dilute aqueous solution of Na2SO4 (5% w) at near-critical conditions. The Supercritical Water Mixture (SCWM) investigation, serves as important precursor work for subsequent Supercritical Water Oxidation (SCWO) experiments. The SCWM investigation will be performed in DECLICs High Temperature Insert (HTI) for the purpose of studying critical fluid phenomena at high temperatures and pressures. The HTI includes a completely sealed and integrated test cell (i.e., Sample Cell Unit SCU) that will contain approximately 0.3 ml of the aqueous test solution. During the sequence of tests, scheduled to be performed in FY13, temperatures and pressures will be elevated to critical conditions (i.e., Tc = 374C and Pc = 22 MPa) in order to observe salt precipitation, precipitate agglomeration and precipitate transport in the presence of a temperature gradient without the influences of gravitational forces. This presentation provides an overview of the motivation for this work, a description of the DECLIC HTI hardware, the proposed test sequences, and a brief discussion of the scientific research objectives.

  20. Accurate thermodynamic characterization of a synthetic coal mine methane mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernández-Gómez, R.; Tuma, D.; Villamañán, M.A.; Mondéjar, M.E.; Chamorro, C.R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Accurate density data of a 10 components synthetic coal mine methane mixture are presented. • Experimental data are compared with the densities calculated from the GERG-2008 equation of state. • Relative deviations in density were within a 0.2% band at temperatures above 275 K. • Densities at 250 K as well as at 275 K and pressures above 10 MPa showed higher deviations. -- Abstract: In the last few years, coal mine methane (CMM) has gained significance as a potential non-conventional gas fuel. The progressive depletion of common fossil fuels reserves and, on the other hand, the positive estimates of CMM resources as a by-product of mining promote this fuel gas as a promising alternative fuel. The increasing importance of its exploitation makes it necessary to check the capability of the present-day models and equations of state for natural gas to predict the thermophysical properties of gases with a considerably different composition, like CMM. In this work, accurate density measurements of a synthetic CMM mixture are reported in the temperature range from (250 to 400) K and pressures up to 15 MPa, as part of the research project EMRP ENG01 of the European Metrology Research Program for the characterization of non-conventional energy gases. Experimental data were compared with the densities calculated with the GERG-2008 equation of state. Relative deviations between experimental and estimated densities were within a 0.2% band at temperatures above 275 K, while data at 250 K as well as at 275 K and pressures above 10 MPa showed higher deviations

  1. Morphological and Strength Properties of Tanjung Bin Coal Ash Mixtures for Applied in Geotechnical Engineering Work

    OpenAIRE

    Awang, Abd. Rahim; Marto, Aminaton; Makhtar, Ahmad Maher

    2012-01-01

    In Malaysia, coal has been used as a raw material to generate electricity since 1988. In the past, most of the wastage of coal burning especially the bottom ash was not managed properly as it was dumped in the waste pond and accumulated drastically.This paper focuses on some properties of coal ash mixtures (fly  ash and bottom ash mixtures) from Tanjung Bin power plant. The characteristics studied were morphological properties, compaction behaviour and strength properties. Strength properties...

  2. Mine Water Treatment in Hongai Coal Mines

    OpenAIRE

    Dang Phuong Thao; Dang Vu Chi

    2018-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is recognized as one of the most serious environmental problem associated with mining industry. Acid water, also known as acid mine drainage forms when iron sulfide minerals found in the rock of coal seams are exposed to oxidizing conditions in coal mining. Until 2009, mine drainage in Hongai coal mines was not treated, leading to harmful effects on humans, animals and aquatic ecosystem. This report has examined acid mine drainage problem and techniques for acid mine ...

  3. Mine Water Treatment in Hongai Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Phuong Thao; Dang, Vu Chi

    2018-03-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is recognized as one of the most serious environmental problem associated with mining industry. Acid water, also known as acid mine drainage forms when iron sulfide minerals found in the rock of coal seams are exposed to oxidizing conditions in coal mining. Until 2009, mine drainage in Hongai coal mines was not treated, leading to harmful effects on humans, animals and aquatic ecosystem. This report has examined acid mine drainage problem and techniques for acid mine drainage treatment in Hongai coal mines. In addition, selection and criteria for the design of the treatment systems have been presented.

  4. Mine Water Treatment in Hongai Coal Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dang Phuong Thao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Acid mine drainage (AMD is recognized as one of the most serious environmental problem associated with mining industry. Acid water, also known as acid mine drainage forms when iron sulfide minerals found in the rock of coal seams are exposed to oxidizing conditions in coal mining. Until 2009, mine drainage in Hongai coal mines was not treated, leading to harmful effects on humans, animals and aquatic ecosystem. This report has examined acid mine drainage problem and techniques for acid mine drainage treatment in Hongai coal mines. In addition, selection and criteria for the design of the treatment systems have been presented.

  5. Sorption characteristic of coal as regards of gas mixtures emitted in the process of the self-heating of coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojtacha-Rychter Karolina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most challenging tasks in the coal mining sector is the detection of endogenous fire risks. Under field conditions, the distance between the points where samples for the analyses are collected and the actual place where coal self-heating takes place may be quite remote. Coal is a natural sorbent with a diverse character of pore structures which are surrounded by fractures and cleavage planes constituting ideal spaces for the flow and adsorption of gases. The gases (methane, ethane, ethylene, propane, propylene, acetylene, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen released from the source of fire migrate through the seam and may be subject to adsorption, or they may cause the desorption of gases accumulated in coal. Therefore, the values of reference sample concentrations may be overstated or understated, respectively. The objective of this experimental study was to investigate the adsorption phenomena accompanying the flow of a multi-component gas mixture through a coal bed which may occur in situ. The research was conducted by means of a method based on a series of calorimetric/chromatographic measurements taken to determine the amount of gases released during coal heating at various temperatures under laboratory conditions. Based on the results obtained in the course of the experiments, it was concluded that the amount of gas adsorbed in the seam depends on the type of coal and the gas. Within the multi-component gas mixture, hydrocarbons demonstrated the largest sorption capacity, especially as concerns propylene.

  6. Water pollution control for underground coal gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humenick, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    Water pollution arising from underground gasification of coal is one of the important considerations in the eventual commercialization of the process. Because many coal seams which are amenable to in situ gasification are also ground-water aquifers, contaminants may be released to these ground waters during and after gasification. Also, when product gas is processed above ground for use, wastewater streams are generated which are too polluted to be discharged. The purpose of this paper is to characterize the nature of the groundwater and above-ground pollutants, discuss the potential long and short-term effects on ground water, propose control and restoration strategies, and to identify potential wastewater treatment schemes

  7. Determination of heavy water in heavy water - light water mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanhueza M, A.

    1986-01-01

    A description about experimental methodology to determine isotopic composition of heavy water - light water mixtures is presented. The employed methods are Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, for measuring heavy water concentrations from 0 to 100% with intervals of 10% approx., and mass Spectrometry, for measuring heavy water concentrations from 0.1 to 1% with intervals of 0.15% approx., by means of an indirect method of Dilution. (Author)

  8. A method for producing a water and coal suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutase, T.; Khongo, T.; Minemura, N.; Nakai, S.; Ogura, K.; Savada, M.

    1983-08-30

    Coal dust (100 parts with a 95 to 99 percent content of particles with a size of 7 to 150 micrometers) is loaded into a mixture of hydrocarbon oil (1 to 20 parts) and water (300 to 1,000 parts) and mixed for 3 to 5 minutes at a rotation frequency of 1,800 to 1,500 per minute. The agglomerates of the coal dust and hydrocarbon (Uv) (100 parts) produced in this manner are then mixed with water (25 to 60 parts), an anion surfacant (PAV) (from 0.1 to 2 parts) which has high dispersion activity and a nonionogenic surfacant (0.1 to 2 parts) which has an HLB indicator of from 7 to 17 (preferably 13) to ensure a high consistency of the aqueous suspension of high quality coal, characterized by high fluidity (dynamic viscosity from 0.5 to 1.4 pascals times seconds). It is preferable to use a heavy oil fraction, kerosene, residue from oil distillation or an anthracite coal resin as the hydrocarbon oil. Separation of the ash from the suspension is increased by adding the surfacants and a water soluble inorganic salt which provides for an alkalinity of the aqueous solution (a pH of 7). It is recommended that a salt of alkylbenzolsulfo acid, a sodium salt of polyoxyethylenalkylphenolsulfo acid, sodium laurylsulfate, ammonium lauryl sulfate polyoxyethylensorbitantristearate, polyoxyethylenlaurylic acid, polyoxyethylennonylphenol ether or polyoxyethyllauric ether be used as the surfacant.

  9. Radiolytic decomposition of water-ethanol mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baquey, Charles

    1968-07-01

    This research thesis addresses the study of the behaviour of binary mixtures submitted to ionizing radiations, and notably aims, by studying the case of water-ethanol mixtures, at verifying solutions proposed by previously published works on the origin of hydrogen atoms and of molecular hydrogen, on the intervention of excited atoms, and on the origin of products appearing under radiolysis. The experimental part of this work consists in the dosing of products formed in water-ethanol mixtures irradiated in presence or absence of nitrate, hydrogen, hydrocarbon, acetaldehyde, 2-3 butanediol and nitrite. Results are discussed and interpreted in terms of acetaldehyde efficiency, 2-3 butanediol efficiencies, and hydrocarbon efficiencies in pure ethanol, and in water-ethanol mixtures. The influence of the presence of nitrate ions in mixtures is also discussed

  10. Reactivity of North Bohemian coals in coprocessing of coal/oil mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebor, G.; Cerny, J.; Maxa, D.; Blazek, J. [Inst. of Chemical Technology, Prague (Czechoslovakia); Sykorova, I. [Inst. of Rock Structure and Mechanics, Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    Autoclave experiments with North Bohemian coal were done in order to evaluate their reactivity in coprocessing with petroleum vacuum residue, Selected coals were comprehensively characterized by using a number of analytical methods. While the coals were of similar geological origin, some of their characteristics differed largely from one coal to another. Despite the differences in physical and chemical structure, the coals provided very similar yields of desired reaction products. The yields of a heavy non- distillable fraction and/or an insoluble solid residue were, under experimental conditions, largely affected by retrogressive reactions (coking). The insoluble solid fractions were examined microscopically under polarized light.

  11. Preparation of fuels and chemical products from mixtures of coal and petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krichko, A A; Yulin, M K

    1973-01-01

    The distillate to 320/sup 0/C from the liquid phase hydrogenation of a 1 : 1 coal-Arlan petroleum mixture was processed to yield phenols 3.4 percent, high aromatics gasoline 81.2 percent, C/sub 1/--C/sub 4/ alkanes 13.5 percent, H/sub 2/S 0.5 percent, and water 1.0 percent. Thus, C/sub 6/--C/sub 8/ phenols were separated from the fraction distilling to 240/sup 0/C, and the phenol-free fraction and the 240 to 320/sup 0/C fraction were hydrofined over an aluminum-cobalt-molybdenum catalyst at 400/sup 0/C and 50 atm. Distillation gave a gasoline fraction, which was reformed, and a 180 to 320/sup 0/C fraction, which was hydrocracked at 380/sup 0/C and 40 atm on a zeolite catalyst.

  12. Survey of state water laws affecting coal slurry pipeline development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogozen, M.B.

    1980-11-01

    This report summarizes state water laws likely to affect the development of coal slurry pipelines. It was prepared as part of a project to analyze environmental issues related to energy transportation systems. Coal slurry pipelines have been proposed as a means to expand the existing transportation system to handle the increasing coal shipments that will be required in the future. The availability of water for use in coal slurry systems in the coal-producing states is an issue of major concern.

  13. Cancer risk estimation for mixtures of coal tars and benzo(a)pyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaylor, D.W.; Culp, S.J.; Goldstein, L.S.; Beland, F.A.

    2000-01-01

    Two-year chronic bioassays were conducted by using B6C3F1 female mice fed several concentrations of two different mixtures of coal tars from manufactured gas waste sites or benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). The purpose of the study was to obtain estimates of cancer potency of coal tar mixtures, by using conventional regulatory methods, for use in manufactured gas waste site remediation. A secondary purpose was to investigate the validity of using the concentration of a single potent carcinogen, in this case benzo(a)pyrene, to estimate the relative risk for a coal tar mixture. The study has shown that BaP dominates the cancer risk when its concentration is greater than 6,300 ppm in the coal tar mixture. In this case the most sensitive tissue site is the forestomach. Using low-dose linear extrapolation, the lifetime cancer risk for humans is estimated to be: Risk -4 (ppm coal tar in total diet) + 240 x 10 -4 (ppm BaP in total diet), based on forestomach tumors. If the BaP concentration in the coal tar mixture is less than 6,300 ppm, the more likely case, then lung tumors provide the largest estimated upper limit of risk, Risk -4 (ppm coal tar in total diet), with no contribution of BaP to lung tumors. The upper limit of the cancer potency (slope factor) for lifetime oral exposure to benzo(a)pyrene is 1.2 x 10 -3 per microg per kg body weight per day from this Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) study compared with the current value of 7.3 x 10 -3 per microg per kg body weight per day listed in the US EPA Integrated Risk Information System

  14. Possibility of obtaining hydrogen from coal/waste-tyre mixture

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kříž, Vlastimil; Brožová, Zuzana; Přibyl, Oldřich; Sýkorová, Ivana

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 11 (2008), s. 1069-1075 ISSN 0378-3820 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA105/07/1407 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : hydrogen * coal * waste tyres Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 2.066, year: 2008 www.elsevier.com/locate/fuproc/

  15. PURIFICATION AND ENRICHMENT OF BIOGAS IN ASH-WATER MIXTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Brudniak

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Biogas, produced in an aerobic digestion process, is a mixture of gases, and that is why its inexpensive and effective valorisation is essential. Research on this process is necessary in order to use biogas as a renewable energy source. The aim of this thesis is to present methods of biogas purification and enrichment in the fly ash - water mixture, that is generated on the base of fly ash produced during burning coal in power industry. Experience presented that the fly ash absorbs CO2 and H2S, even in conventional conditions. The absorption efficiency depends not only on the chemical composition of the ash but also on its physical properties. There was also a strong neutralization of alkaline waste combustion.

  16. Pool Boiling of Hydrocarbon Mixtures on Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boee, R.

    1996-09-01

    In maritime transport of liquefied natural gas (LNG) there is a risk of spilling cryogenic liquid onto water. The present doctoral thesis discusses transient boiling experiments in which liquid hydrocarbons were poured onto water and left to boil off. Composition changes during boiling are believed to be connected with the initiation of rapid phase transition in LNG spilled on water. 64 experimental runs were carried out, 14 using pure liquid methane, 36 using methane-ethane, and 14 using methane-propane binary mixtures of different composition. The water surface was open to the atmosphere and covered an area of 200 cm{sup 2} at 25 - 40{sup o}C. The heat flux was obtained by monitoring the change of mass vs time. The void fraction in the boiling layer was measured with a gamma densitometer, and a method for adapting this measurement concept to the case of a boiling cryogenic liquid mixture is suggested. Significant differences in the boil-off characteristics between pure methane and binary mixtures revealed by previous studies are confirmed. Pure methane is in film boiling, whereas the mixtures appear to enter the transitional boiling regime with only small amounts of the second component added. The results indicate that the common assumption that LNG will be in film boiling on water because of the high temperature difference, may be questioned. Comparison with previous work shows that at this small scale the results are influenced by the experimental apparatus and procedures. 66 refs., 76 figs., 28 tabs.

  17. Ecological aspects of water coal fuel transportation and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna SHVORNIKOVA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the aspects of influence of transportation process and burning of water coal fuel on an ecological condition of environment. Also mathematical dependences between coal ash level and power consumption for transportation are presented.

  18. Demonstration of Pressurizing Coal/Biomass Mixtures Using Posimetric Solids Pump Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westendorf, Tiffany; Acharya, Harish; Cui, Zhe; Furman, Anthony; Giammattei, Mark; Rader, Jeff; Vazquez, Arturo

    2012-12-31

    This document is the Final Technical Report for a project supported by U.S. DOE NETL (Contract No. DE-FE0000507), GE Global Research, GE Energy, and Idaho National Laboratory (INL). This report discusses key project accomplishments for the period beginning August 7, 2009 and ending December 31, 2012. In this project, pressurized delivery of coal/biomass mixtures using GE Posimetric* solids pump technology was achieved in pilot scale experiments. Coal/biomass mixtures containing 10-50 wt% biomass were fed against pressures of 65-450 psi. Pressure capability increased with decreasing biomass content for a given pump design, and was linked to the interaction of highly compressible coal/biomass mixtures with the pump outlet design. Biomass pretreatment specifications for particle size and moisture content were defined based on bench-scale flowability, compressibility, friction, and permeability experiments that mimic the behavior of the Posimetric pump. A preliminary economic assessment of biomass pretreatment and pump operation for coal/biomass mixtures (CBMs) was conducted.

  19. Coal mining and water quality: Criciuma's case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Lincoln

    1999-01-01

    The coal mining in the Santa Catarina Coal-Basin started in 1885 and since them it has been causing serious damage to the environment, specially the water resources, causing several problems like sedimentation and acidification of the rivers that supply the region, and compromising the agricultural-industry and fishery. The mining is also responsible for several professional diseases. The region was considered, in 1980, the '14th Critical Area' to the Pollution Control and Environmental Quality Conservation. Only in the beginning of the 80's, after the publication of the 917 Interministerial Resolution (July, 1982), the first official actions were taken, in order to minimize the environmental impact due to the coal mining industry. With that scenario, the region was chosen as one of the study areas of the 'National Center of Control of Mining Pollution', derived from an agreement between the Departamento Nacional de Producao Mineral - DNPM and the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). The present study is part of the set of studies that have been realized in the region, with the aim of evaluating the environmental impact caused by the coal mining industry, and to suggest actions (to the miners) in order to minimize the environmental problems. This study presents a review of the occupation process of the Criciuma region, its connection to the coal industry, the progress of the mineral and environmental legislation, and the periodic monitoring of environmental parameters (physic-chemical analysis of the Mae Luzia and Sangao rivers, and the drainage from two coal mines) during the period of three years. This period began before the setting of environmental restrictions, going up to after the adoption of reclamation actions. The results allow to conclude that, during the period studied, there was no improvement in the river water characteristics, despite the adoption of reclamation actions. This behaviour may be due to the following factors: there are several

  20. Properties of sodium lignosulfonate as dispersant of coal water slurry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Dongjie; Qiu, Xueqing; Zhou, Mingsong; Lou, Hongming

    2007-01-01

    In order to use lignosulfonates (a by-product of pulp and paper processes) as an effective dispersant of coal water slurry five purified sodium lignosulfonate (SL) samples with different molecular weights were prepared by fractionation using ultrafiltration and dialysis. The effect of SL on the apparent viscosity of coal water slurry (CWS) was investigated. The adsorption behavior of the SL on the coal water interface has much greater effect on the viscosity of coal water slurry. The higher adsorption amount and compact adsorption film of SL on the coal surface help reduce the viscosity of CWS, and the zeta potential is also an important factor, which is influenced by the sulfonic and carboxyl group contents of the lignosulfonate molecule. Furthermore, the SL with its molecular weight ranging from 10,000 to 30,000 has both a higher adsorbed amount and zeta potential on the coal surface and the best effect on reducing the viscosity of the coal water slurry

  1. Adsorption kinetics of CO2, CH4, and their equimolar mixture on coal from the Black Warrior Basin, West-Central Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruszkiewicz, M.S.; Naney, M.T.; Blencoe, J.G.; Cole, D.R.; Pashin, J.C.; Carroll, R.E.

    2009-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the adsorption kinetic behavior of pure and mixed gases (CO2, CH4, approximately equimolar CO2 + CH4 mixtures, and He) on a coal sample obtained from the Black Warrior Basin at the Littleton Mine (Twin Pine Coal Company), Jefferson County, west-central Alabama. The sample was from the Mary Lee coal zone of the Pottsville Formation (Lower Pennsylvanian). Experiments with three size fractions (45-150????m, 1-2??mm, and 5-10??mm) of crushed coal were performed at 40????C and 35????C over a pressure range of 1.4-6.9??MPa to simulate coalbed methane reservoir conditions in the Black Warrior Basin and provide data relevant for enhanced coalbed methane recovery operations. The following key observations were made: (1) CO2 adsorption on both dry and water-saturated coal is much more rapid than CH4 adsorption; (2) water saturation decreases the rates of CO2 and CH4 adsorption on coal surfaces, but it appears to have minimal effects on the final magnitude of CO2 or CH4 adsorption if the coal is not previously exposed to CO2; (3) retention of adsorbed CO2 on coal surfaces is significant even with extreme pressure cycling; and (4) adsorption is significantly faster for the 45-150????m size fraction compared to the two coarser fractions. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  2. Effect of flotation on preparation of coal-water slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, K.; Laskowski, J.S. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    In order to study the effect of flotation reagents on the properties of coal-water slurry, a sub-bituminous coal was cleaned via either forward flotation or reverse flotation. The froth product from the forward flotation, obtained with the use of diesel oil and MIBC, and the tailings of the reverse flotation, carried out with dextrin-tannic acid depressants and dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride collector, were used in the preparation of coal-water slurries. It was shown that while it was possible to obtain the coal-water slurry with a high-solids content from the coal rendered hydrophilic (tailings from the coal reverse flotation), in the case of the hydrophobic product (froth product from the forward flotation) a dispersing agent was required to obtain the coal-water slurry of the same high-solids content.

  3. Southern Coal Corporation Clean Water Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Coal Corporation is a coal mining and processing company headquartered in Roanoke, VA. Southern Coal Corporation and the following 26 affiliated entities are located in Alabama, Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia and West Virginia

  4. Detonation limits of clouds of coal dust in mixtures of oxygen and nitrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, D.H.; Fearnley, P.J.; Nettleton, M.A.

    1987-09-01

    Ignition and the subsequent acceleration of flame in clouds of coal dust dispersed in mixtures of oxygen and nitrogen have been studied. Two coal sizes, 24 and 54 ..mu..m, in concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 0.22 kg/m/sup 3/ were employed. Flame acceleration and the approach to transition to a stable detonation were monitored by a combination of microwave interferometry and pressure measurements. Flame and shock velocities up to 1.85 km/sec were observed. Ignition distances were found to be independent of the concentrations of dust and oxygen and particle size.

  5. Chemical and fuel products from mixtures of coal and petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krichko, A A; Yulin, M K

    1973-01-01

    From a 1:1 coal-petroleum low-pressure (less than 100 atm) hydrogenation product, C/sub 6-8/ phenols comprising 7.4 percent of the product distilling below 240/sup 0/C were extracted with 10 percent aqueous caustic soda and hydrofined at 325/sup 0/C and 20 atm on cobalt molybdenum alumina catalyst. The combined 240/sup 0/ to 320/sup 0/C and less than or equal to 240/sup 0/C neutral fractions were hydrofined at 400/sup 0/C and 50 atm on cobalt molybdenum alumina catalyst, and the gasoline comprising 42.8 percent of the catalyzate hydroreformed at 490/sup 0/C and 50 atm to raise the octane number from 50.4 to 81.8 to 91.3 and increase the aromatics content from 9.0 to 55.6 percent. Gasoline of 78.5 to 90.5 octane number was prepared by hydrocracking the 180 to 320/sup 0/C catalyzate fraction at 380/sup 0/C and 40 atm on a molybdenum hydrogen sodium yttrium zeolite catalyst greatly favoring C/sub 3-4/ hydrocarbons in the gaseous products (9.0 percent).

  6. Structure of steam water mixture spray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsuhashi, Yuki; Mizutani, Hiroya; Sanada, Toshiyuki; Saito, Takayuki

    2008-01-01

    The flow structure of steam and water mixture spray is studied both numerically and experimentally. The velocity and pressure profiles of the single phase flow are calculated using numerical methods. Using calculated flow fields, the droplet behavior is predicted by the one-way interaction model. This numerical analysis clarifies that the droplets are still accelerated after they are sprayed from the nozzle. In the experiments, the spray of the mixture is observed by using ultra high-speed video camera, and the velocity field is measured by using PIV technique. Along with this PIV velocity field measurement, the velocities and diameters of droplets are measured by phase Doppler anemometry. Furthermore, mixing process of steam and water, and atomization process of liquid film are observed through the transparent nozzle. The high-speed photography observation reveals that the flow inside the nozzle forms the annular flow and the most of the liquid film is atomized at the nozzle outlet. Finally, the optimum method of processing mixture of steam and water is proposed. (author)

  7. Coal upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, S. [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-15

    This report examines current technologies and those likely to be used to produce cleaner coal and coal products, principally for use in power generation and metallurgical applications. Consideration is also given to coal production in the leading coal producing countries, both with developed and developing industries. A range of technologies are considered. These include the coal-based liquid fuel called coal water mixture (CWM) that may compete with diesel, the production of ultra-clean coal (UCC) and coal liquefaction which competes with oil and its products. Technologies for upgrading coal are considered, especially for low rank coals (LRC), since these have the potential to fill the gap generated by the increasing demand for coal that cannot be met by higher quality coals. Potential advantages and downsides of coal upgrading are outlined. Taking into account the environmental benefits of reduced pollution achieved through cleaner coal and reduced transport costs, as well as other positive aspects such as a predictable product leading to better boiler design, the advantages appear to be significant. The drying of low rank coals improves the energy productively released during combustion and may also be used as an adjunct or as part of other coal processing procedures. Coal washing technologies vary in different countries and the implications of this are outlined. Dry separation technologies, such as dry jigging and electrostatic separation, are also described. The demonstration of new technologies is key to their further development and demonstrations of various clean coal technologies are considered. A number of approaches to briquetting and pelletising are available and their use varies from country to country. Finally, developments in upgrading low rank coals are described in the leading coal producing countries. This is an area that is developing rapidly and in which there are significant corporate and state players. 81 refs., 32 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Coupling Effect of Intruding Water and Inherent Gas on Coal Strength Based on the Improved (Mohr-Coulomb Failure Criterion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiyu Lu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available When employing hydraulic processes to increase gas drainage efficiency in underground coal mines, coal seams become a three-phase medium, containing water intruding into the coal pores with the inherent occurrence of gas. This can change the stress state of the coal and cause instability. This work studied the mechanical properties of coal containing water and gas and derived an appropriate failure criterion. Based on mixture theory of unsaturated porous media, the effective stress of coal, considering the interaction of water and gas, was analyzed, and the failure criterion established by combining this with the Mohr–Coulomb criterion. By introducing the stress factor of matrix suction and using fitted curves of experimentally determined matrix suction and moisture content, the relationships between coal strength, gas pressure, and moisture content were determined. To verify the established strength theory, a series of triaxial compression strength tests of coal containing water and gas were carried out on samples taken from the Songzao, Pingdingshan, and Tashan mines in China. The experimental results correlated well with the theoretical predictions. The results showed a linear decrease in the peak strength of coal with increasing gas pressure and an exponential reduction in peak strength with increasing moisture content. The strength theory of coal containing water and gas can become an important part of multiphase medium damage theory.

  9. Coal-water slurries containing petrochemicals to solve problems of air pollution by coal thermal power stations and boiler plants: An introductory review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrienko, Margarita A; Strizhak, Pavel A

    2018-02-01

    This introductory study presents the analysis of the environmental, economic and energy performance indicators of burning high-potential coal water slurries containing petrochemicals (CWSP) instead of coal, fuel oil, and natural gas at typical thermal power stations (TPS) and a boiler plant. We focus on the most hazardous anthropogenic emissions of coal power industry: sulfur and nitrogen oxides. The research findings show that these emissions may be several times lower if coal and oil processing wastes are mixed with water as compared to the combustion of traditional pulverized coal, even of high grades. The study focuses on wastes, such as filter cakes, oil sludge, waste industrial oils, heavy coal-tar products, resins, etc., that are produced and stored in abundance. Their deep conversion is very rare due to low economic benefit. Effective ways are necessary to recover such industrial wastes. We present the cost assessment of the changes to the heat and power generation technologies that are required from typical power plants for switching from coal, fuel oil and natural gas to CWSPs based on coal and oil processing wastes. The corresponding technological changes pay off after a short time, ranging from several months to several years. The most promising components for CWSP production have been identified, which provide payback within a year. Among these are filter cakes (coal processing wastes), which are produced as a ready-made coal-water slurry fuel (a mixture of flocculants, water, and fine coal dust). These fuels have the least impact on the environment in terms of the emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides as well as fly ash. An important conclusion of the study is that using CWSPs based on filter cakes is worthwhile both as the main fuel for thermal power stations and boiler plants and as starting fuel. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of Water on Coal Strength | Singh | Momona Ethiopian Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water content is one of the most important factors influencing the rock strength. The present study has been conducted to see how coal strength changes under dry and water saturated conditions. The study reveals that the strength of coal decreases with increasing moisture. For rock mechanics and rock engineering ...

  11. Advanced Systems for Preprocessing and Characterizing Coal-Biomass Mixtures as Next-Generation Fuels and Feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karmis, Michael [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Luttrell, Gerald [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Ripepi, Nino [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Bratton, Robert [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Dohm, Erich [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2014-09-30

    The research activities presented in this report are intended to address the most critical technical challenges pertaining to coal-biomass briquette feedstocks. Several detailed investigations were conducted using a variety of coal and biomass feedstocks on the topics of (1) coal-biomass briquette production and characterization, (2) gasification of coal-biomass mixtures and briquettes, (3) combustion of coal-biomass mixtures and briquettes, and (4) conceptual engineering design and economic feasibility of briquette production. The briquette production studies indicate that strong and durable co-firing feedstocks can be produced by co-briquetting coal and biomass resources commonly available in the United States. It is demonstrated that binderless coal-biomass briquettes produced at optimized conditions exhibit very high strength and durability, which indicates that such briquettes would remain competent in the presence of forces encountered in handling, storage and transportation. The gasification studies conducted demonstrate that coal-biomass mixtures and briquettes are exceptional gasification feedstocks, particularly with regard to the synergistic effects realized during devolatilization of the blended materials. The mixture combustion studies indicate that coal-biomass mixtures are exceptional combustion feedstocks, while the briquette combustion study indicates that the use of blended briquettes reduces NOx, CO2, and CO emissions, and requires the least amount of changes in the operating conditions of an existing coal-fired power plant. Similar results were obtained for the physical durability of the pilot-scale briquettes compared to the bench-scale tests. Finally, the conceptual engineering and feasibility analysis study for a commercial-scale briquetting production facility provides preliminary flowsheet and cost simulations to evaluate the various feedstocks, equipment selection and operating parameters.

  12. Coal-water fuels - a clean coal solution for Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljubicic, B.; Willson, W.; Bukurov, Z.; Cvijanovic, P.; Stajner, K.; Popovic, R.

    1993-01-01

    Eastern Europe currently faces great economic and environmental problems. Among these problems is energy provision. Coal reserves are large but cause pollution while oil and gas need to be used for export. Formal 'clean coal technologies' are simply too expensive to be implemented on a large scale in the current economic crisis. The promised western investment and technological help has simply not taken place, western Europe must help eastern Europe with coal technology. The cheapest such technology is coal-water fuel slurry. It can substitute for oil, but research has not been carried out because of low oil prices. Coal-water fuel is one of the best methods of exploiting low rank coal. Many eastern European low rank coals have a low sulfur content, and thus make a good basis for a clean fuel. Italy and Russia are involved in such a venture, the slurry being transported in a pipeline. This technology would enable Russia to exploit Arctic coal reserves, thus freeing oil and gas for export. In Serbia the exploitation of sub-Danube lignite deposits with dredging mining produced a slurry. This led to the use and development of hot water drying, which enabled the removal of many of the salts which cause problems in pulverized fuel combustion. The system is economic, the fuel safer to transport then oil, either by rail or in pipelines. Many eastern European oil facilities could switch. 24 refs

  13. Coal washery effluent treatment for material recovery and water reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, N.N.; Chaudhuri, M.

    1980-10-01

    Th effluent from coal washeries consisting mainly of coal fines is normally discharged to inland surface waters and causes severe river pollution with substantial loss of good quality coking coal. The study reported in this paper was undertaken to characterize the effluents from several coal washeries and to evaluate the potential of using various coagulants and coagulant aids for clarification of the effluent with a view to recovery of the coal fines and reuse of the clarified effluent. It has been demonstrated that higher recovery of coal fines can be achieved by using coagulants like alum or ferric chloride with or without coagulant aids with an added advantage of reuse of the clarified effluent in the washery.

  14. Moisture sorption in mixtures of biopolymer, disaccharides and water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sman, van der R.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    The moisture sorption of ternary mixtures of biopolymer, sugar and water is investigated by means of the Free-Volume-Flory-Huggins (FVFH) theory. The earlier FVFH theory developed for binary mixtures of biopolymer/water and sugar/water has to be modified to account for two effects: 1) the change in

  15. Utilizing Philippine Calatrava coal-diesel oil mixture (CDOM) as alternative fuel for industrial steam generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archie B. Maglaya [De La Salle University, Manila (Philippines). Department of Mechanical Engineering

    2005-01-01

    The fast depletion of fuel oil and the continuous increase in the demand for power is a global issue. In the Philippines, the demand for diesel oil is expected to increase significantly in a 20-year period as projected by the Department of Energy. In line with the Philippine Government's thrust to lessen the dependence on imported energy, the agenda for the search for alternative fuel is highly prioritized. Thus, this paper presents the results of the study on performance analysis and efficiency test of a diesel oil fired industrial steam generator using Philippine Calatrava coal-diesel oil mixture (CDOM) as alternative fuel. A computer program was developed in HyperText Markup Language (HTML{copyright}) and JavaScript{copyright} to aid the computation of the adiabatic flame temperature from the governing system of equations based on the heat interaction between CDOM fuel, combustion air and products of combustion to determine the most desirable alternative fuel. Actual experimentation for the determination of CDOM fuel properties was also conducted to verify the alternative fuel selected through theoretical calculations. Results showed that the CDOM fuel with a particle size passing 75 {mu}m (-200 mesh) sieve having a proportion of 5% pulverized coal-95% diesel oil and 10% pulverized coal-90% diesel oil could be handled throughout the test with no degradation of the industrial steam generator. The steam generator efficiency using diesel oil is close to the steam generator efficiency using both CDOM fuels. 20 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. NOx, FINE PARTICLE AND TOXIC METAL EMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE/COAL MIXTURES: A SYSTEMATIC ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jost O.L. Wendt

    2002-08-15

    This research project focuses on pollutants from the combustion of mixtures of dried municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and coal. The objective is to determine the relationship between (1) fraction sludge in the sludge/coal mixture, and (2) combustion conditions on (a) NOx concentrations in the exhaust, (b) the size segregated fine and ultra-fine particle composition in the exhaust, and (c) the partitioning of toxic metals between vapor and condenses phases, within the process. The proposed study will be conducted in concert with an existing ongoing research on toxic metal partitioning mechanisms for very well characterized pulverized coals alone. Both high NOx and low NOx combustion conditions will be investigated (unstaged and staged combustion). Tradeoffs between CO2 control, NOx control, and inorganic fine particle and toxic metal emissions will be determined. Previous research has yielded data on trace metal partitioning for MSS by itself, with natural gas assist, for coal plus MSS combustion together, and for coal alone. We have re-evaluated the inhalation health effects of ash aerosol from combustion of MSS both by itself and also together with coal. We have concluded that ash from the co-combustion of MSS and coal is very much worse from an inhalation health point of view, than ash from either MSS by itself or coal by itself. The reason is that ZnO is not the ''bad actor'' as had been suspected before, but the culprit is, rather, sulfated Zn. The MSS supplies the Zn and the coal supplies the sulfur, and so it is the combination of coal and MSS that makes that process environmentally bad. If MSS is to be burned, it should be burned without coal, in the absence of sulfur.

  17. High temperature solvent extraction of oil shale and bituminous coal using binary solvent mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetz, G.K.E. [Lehrstuhl fuer Geologie, Geochemie und Lagerstaetten des Erdoels und der Kohle, RWTH Aachen (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    A high volatile bituminous coal from the Saar Basin and an oil shale from the Messel deposit, both Germany, were extracted with binary solvent mixtures using the Advanced Solvent Extraction method (ASE). Extraction temperature and pressure were kept at 100 C, respectively 150 C, and 20,7 MPa. After the heating phase (5 min) static extractions were performed with mixtures (v:v, 1:3) of methanol with toluene, respectively trichloromethane, for further 5 min. Extract yields were the same or on a higher level compared to those from classical soxhlet extractions (3 days) using the same solvents at 60 C. Comparing the results from ASE with those from supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) the extract yields were similar. Increasing the temperature in ASE releases more soluble organic matter from geological samples, because compounds with higher molecular weight and especially more polar substances were solubilized. But also an enhanced extraction efficiency resulted for aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons which are used as biomarkers in Organic Geochemistry. Application of thermochemolysis with tetraethylammonium hydroxide (TEAH) using pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) on the extraction residues shows clearly that at higher extraction temperatures minor amounts of free fatty acids or their methyl esters (original or produced by ASE) were trapped inside the pore systems of the oil shale or the bituminous coal. ASE offers a rapid and very efficient extraction method for geological samples reducing analysis time and costs for solvents. (orig.)

  18. Reconstruction of the aero-mixture channels of the pulverized coal plant of the 100MW power plant unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanovic Vladan B.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available After the last revitalization of thermal power block of 100 MW in TPP “Kostolac A”, made in the year 2004, during the operation of the plant, pulverized coal deposition often occurred in horizontal sections of the aero-mixture channels. Deposition phenomenon manifested itself in places ahead of spherical compensators in the direction of flow of pulverized coal to the burners, due to unfavorable configuration of these channels. Coal dust deposited in the channels dried and spontaneously combusted, causing numerous damage to channels and its isolation as well as the frequent stoppage of the operation for necessary interventions. The paper presents the original solution of reconstruction of aero-mixture channels which prevented deposition of coal dust and its eventual ignition. In this way the reliability of the mill plant is maximized and higher availability of boiler and block as a whole is achieved.

  19. Energy-Saving Vibration Impulse Coal Degradation at Finely Dispersed Coal-Water Slurry Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moiseev V.A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical and experimental research results of processes of finely dispersed coal-water slurry preparation for further generation of energetic gas in direct flow and vortex gas generator plants have been presented. It has been stated that frequency parameters of parabolic vibration impulse mill influence degradation degree. Pressure influence on coal parameters in grinding cavity has been proven. Experimental researches have proven efficiency of vibration impulse mill with unbalanced mass vibrator generator development. Conditions of development on intergranular walls of coal cracks have been defined.

  20. Mercury distribution in coals influenced by magmatic intrusions, and surface waters from the Huaibei Coal Mining District, Anhui, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Zhicao; Liu, Guijian; Sun, Ruoyu; Wu, Dun; Wu, Bin; Zhou, Chuncai

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Hg concentrations in coal and surface water samples were determined. • Hg is enriched in the Huaibei coals. • Magmatic activities imparted influences on Hg content and distribution. • Hg contents in surface waters are relative low at the present status. - Abstract: The Hg concentrations in 108 samples, comprising 81 coal samples, 1 igneous rock, 2 parting rock samples and 24 water samples from the Huaibei Coal Mining District, China, were determined by cold-vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The abundance and distribution of Hg in different coal mines and coal seams were studied. The weighted average Hg concentration for all coal samples in the Huaibei Coalfield is 0.42 mg/kg, which is about twice that of average Chinese coals. From southwestern to northeastern coalfield, Hg concentration shows a decreasing trend, which is presumably related to magmatic activity and fault structures. The relatively high Hg levels are observed in coal seams Nos. 6, 7 and 10 in the southwestern coal mines. Correlation analysis indicates that Hg in the southwestern and southernmost coals with high Hg concentrations is associated with pyrite. The Hg concentrations in surface waters in the Huaibei Coal Mining District range from 10 to 60 ng/L, and display a decreasing trend with distance from a coal waste pile but are lower than the regulated levels for Hg in drinking water

  1. Co-pyrolysis of waste tire/coal mixtures for smokeless fuel, maltenes and hydrogen-rich gas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bičáková, Olga; Straka, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Co-pyrolysis of waste tires/coal mixtures yields mainly smokeless fuel (55–74 wt%). • Alternatively, the smokeless fuel can serve as carbonaceous sorbent. • The obtained tar contained maltenes (80–85 wt%) and asphaltenes (6–8 wt%). • Tar from co-pyrolysis can serve as heating oil or a source of maltenes for repairing of asphalt surfaces. • The hydrogen-rich gas was obtained (61–65 vol% H_2, 24–25 vol% CH_4, 1.4–2 vol% CO_2). - Abstract: The processing of waste tires with two different types of bituminous coal was studied through the slow co-pyrolysis of 1 kg of waste tire/coal mixtures with 15, 30 and 60 wt% waste tires on a laboratory scale. The waste tire/coal mixtures were pyrolysed using a quartz reactor in a stationary bed. The mixtures were heated at a rate 5 °C/min up to the final temperature of 900 °C with a soaking time of 30 min at the required temperature. The mass balance of the process and the properties of the coke and tar obtained were evaluated, further, the influence of the admixture in the charge on the amount and composition of the obtained coke and tar was determined. It was found that the smokeless fuel/carbonaceous sorbent and a high yield of tar for further use can be obtained through the slow co-pyrolysis. The obtained tars contained mostly maltenes (80–85 wt%). FTIR analysis showed that the maltenes from the co-pyrolysis of coal/waste tires exhibited significantly lower aromaticity as compared with that from coal alone. The gas obtained from pyrolysis or co-pyrolysis of waste tire/coal mixtures contained a high amount of hydrogen (above 60 vol%) and methane (above 20 vol%).

  2. The increase in extraction yields of coals by water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Iino; T. Takanohashi; C. Li; N. Kashimura; K. Masaki; T. Shishido; I. Saito; H. Kumagai [Institute for Energy Utilization, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Ibaraki (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    We have reported that the water treatments of bituminous coals at 600 K for 1 h increased their extraction yields greatly (Energy Fuels, 2005, 18, 1414). In this paper the effect of coal rank on the extraction yields enhancement by the water treatment has been investigated using four Argonne Premium coals, i.e., Pocahontas No. 3 (PO), Upper Freeport (UF), Illinois No.6 (IL), and Beulah Zap (BZ) coals with C % (daf) in the range 67 - 90%. All the coals used show that the water treatments at 600 K increased the extraction yields greatly with a 1:1 carbon disulfide / N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone mixed solvent (CS2 / NMP) at room temperature. While, the water treatments at 500 K or the heat treatments at 600 K without water gave little increase in the yields. Characterizations of the water-treated coals were carried out from ultimate and proximate compositions, FT-IR spectrum, solvent swelling, NMR relaxation time, and viscoelasticity behavior. The effect of extraction temperature on the extraction yield enhancement was also investigated using polar NMP or non-polar 1-MN solvent. From these results it is concluded that for high coal rank coals the loosening of non-covalent bonds is responsible for the extraction yields enhancement by the water treatment. The loosening non-covalent bonds may be {pi}-{pi} interactions between aromatic rings for PO, and both {pi}-{pi} interactions and hydrogen bonds for UF. While, for lower rank IL and BZ, which showed decrease in O% and hydrogen-bonded OH, the yield enhancements may be due to the loosening of hydrogen bonds and the removal of oxygen functional groups. 9 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  3. 226Ra adsorption on active coals from waste waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panturu, E.; Georgescu, D.P.; Serban, N.; Filip, D.; Radulescu, R.

    2000-01-01

    During the mining and extraction of uranium, the principle means of protection measurement is to prevent uranium and its products diffusing into the environment. The main carriers of radioactive elements in the environment are air and water. Therefore, reduction of the pollution at a uranium mine can be achieved by the treatment of waste waters contaminated with 226 Ra Radium contaminated waste waters represent a major biological risk. This paper presents the results of the study of the sorption of 226 Ra on active coal mechanisme and the influence of the physical and chemical characteristics of fluid. The 226 Ra removal from the residue pond water at the uranium ore processing plant was studied using eight types of indigenous active coals. The experimental results for each type of active coal and their effect on removal of 226 Ra from waste waters are presented in this paper. (author)

  4. Increase in extraction yields of coals by water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masashi Iino; Toshimasa Takanohashi; Chunqi Li; Haruo Kumagai [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba (Japan). Institute for Energy Utilization

    2004-10-01

    The effect of water treatment at 500 and 600 K on solvent extractions of Pocahontas No. 3 (PO), Upper Freeport (UF), and Illinois No. 6 (IL) coals was investigated. All the coals used show that the water treatments at 600 K increased the extraction yields greatly in the extractions with a 1:1 carbon disulfide/N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (CS{sub 2}/NMP) mixed solvent, NMP, or 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MN). However, the water treatments at 500 K and the heat treatments at 600 K without water gave only a slight increase in the yields. Characterizations of the water-treated coals were performed using ultimate and proximate compositions, Fourier transform infrared analysis, solvent swelling, nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation time, and viscoelasticity behavior. The swelling degree in methanol and toluene was increased by the water treatment at 600 K, suggesting that crosslinks become loosened by the treatment. The results of infrared analysis and the extraction temperature dependency of the extraction yields with NMP and 1-MN suggest that the loosening of {pi} - interactions, and of both {pi} - interactions and hydrogen bonds, are responsible for the yield enhancements for PO and UF coals, respectively. However, for IL coal, which exhibited a decrease in oxygen content and the amount of hydrogen-bonded OH, suggesting the occurrence of some chemical reactions, the yield enhancements may be due to the relaxation of hydrogen bonds and the removal of oxygen functional groups, such as the breaking of ether bonds. 17 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Impacts of Coal Seam Gas (Coal Bed Methane) Extraction on Water Resources in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, David

    2017-04-01

    While extraction of methane from shale gas deposits has been the principal source of the recent expansion of the industry in the United States, in Australia extraction of methane from coal bed methane deposits (termed 'coal seam gas' in Australia) has been the focus to date. The two sources of methane share many of the same characteristics including the potential requirement for hydraulic fracturing. However, as coal seam gas deposits generally occur at shallower depths than shale gas, the potential impacts of extraction on surface and groundwater resources may be of even greater concern. In Australia, an Independent Expert Scientific Committee (IESC) has been established to provide scientific advice to federal and state government regulators on the impact that coal seam gas and large coal mining developments may have on water resources. This advice is provided to enable decisions to be informed by the best available science about the potential water-related impacts associated with these developments. To support this advice, the Australian Government Department of the Environment has implemented a programme of research termed 'bioregional assessments' to investigate these potential impacts. A bioregional assessment is defined as a scientific analysis of the ecology, hydrology, geology and hydrogeology of a bioregion with explicit assessment of the potential direct, indirect and cumulative impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining development on water resources. These bioregional assessments are currently being carried out across large portions of eastern Australia underlain by coal reserves. Further details of the programme and results to date can be found at http://www.bioregionalassessments.gov.au. The bioregional assessment programme has modelled the impacts of coal seam gas development on surface and groundwater resources in three regions of eastern Australia, namely the Clarence-Moreton, Gloucester, and Namoi regions. This presentation will discuss the

  6. Modeling of the flame propagation in coal-dust- methane air mixture in an enclosed sphere volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krainov, A Yu; Moiseeva, K M

    2016-01-01

    The results of the numerical simulation of the flame front propagation in coal-dust- methane-air mixture in an enclosed volume with the ignition source in the center of the volume are presented. The mathematical model is based on a dual-velocity two-phase model of the reacting gas-dispersion medium. The system of equations includes the mass-conversation equation, the impulse-conversation equation, the total energy-conversation equation of the gas and particles taking into account the thermal conductivity and chemical reactions in the gas and on the particle surface, mass-conversation equation of the mixture gas components considering the diffusion and the burn-out and the particle burn-out equation. The influence of the coal particle mass on the pressure in the volume after the mixture burn out and on the burn-out time has been investigated. It has been shown that the burning rate of the coal-dust methane air mixtures depends on the coal particle size. (paper)

  7. Analysis of the use of coal tar as a binder in bituminous mixtures, using Marshall and Ramcodes methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochoa-Díaz, R

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an alternative use of coal tar, a by-product of the steel industry, given the problems of accumulation and negative environmental impact. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze the incorporation of coal tar as a binder in paving mixtures. First, this paper presents the origin, description of the main characteristics, and properties of tar. Then, this paper evaluates the mix of coal tar by means of the RAMCODES and Marshall methodologies to determine its resistance. The results of the tests explain the physical and mechanical properties of the mix. Taking into account the results of both methods, this paper makes a comparison to determine the suitability of the RAMCODES methodology in the mix design. Finally, it analyzes the alternatives to coal tar that can be used as binders in bituminous mixes for pavement and the advantages of their uses under some specific conditions

  8. Disposing of coal combustion residues in inactive surface mines: Effects on water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, A.G.; Ackman, T.E.

    1994-01-01

    The disposal of coal combustion residues (CCR) in surface and underground coal mines can provide a stable, low-maintenance alternative to landfills, benefiting the mining and electric power industries. The material may be able to improve water quality at acid generating abandoned or reclaimed coal mine sites. Most combustion residues are alkaline, and their addition to the subsurface environment could raise the pH, limiting the propagation of pyrite oxidizing bacteria and reducing the rate of acid generation. Many of these CCR are also pozzolanic, capable of forming cementitious grouts. Grouts injected into the buried spoil may decrease its permeability and porosity, diverting water away from the pyritic material. Both mechanisms, alkaline addition and water diversion, are capable of reducing the amount of acid produced at the disposal site. The US Bureau of Mines is cooperating in a test of subsurface injection of CCR into a reclaimed surface mine. Initially, a mixture of fly ash, lime, and acid mine drainage (AMD) sludge was injected. Lime was the source of calcium for the formation of the pozzolanic grout. Changes in water quality parameters (pH, acidity, anions, and trace metals) in water samples from wells and seeps indicate a small but significant improvement after CCR injection. Changes in the concentration of heavy metals in the water flowing across the site were apparently influenced by the presence of flyash

  9. Effects of complex organic mixtures of coal liquid on cardiovascular function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Springer, D.L.; Sasser, L.B.; Zangar, R.C.; Mahlum, D.D.

    1986-01-01

    The most common diseases in the US are those involving the cardiovascular system. Exposure to certain environmental chemicals and complex mixtures may be involved in some aspects of cardiovascular disease. They have previously reported that high-boiling coal liquids resulted in several affects related to the cardiovascular system of the rate when exposed via whole-body inhalation to the mixture. The most striking observation was a dose dependent elevation in arterial blood pressure for heavy distillate (HD) exposed rates compared to control animals at 2 weeks. They also noted an increase in heart rate and plasma and blood volume. Additional rats were evaluated 6 weeks after exposure, to determine whether these effects represented permanent changes in cardiovascular function, and the effects appeared to be reversible after this longer period. During the past year they have completed the assays of the studies initiated previously and have addressed some possible factors which could explain the effects that they observed. Electrolytes in plasma of rats exposed to the HD were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Plasma aldosterone and angiotensin were measured by radioimmunoassays, and plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein were evaluated with an Abbott VP bichromatic chemistry analyzer. In addition, a comparison of the blood pressure of control rats and rats fed a restricted diet were made, to determine if the anorexia which resulted from HD exposure could be responsible for the changes they observed in cardiovascular function

  10. Concentration of viruses from water on bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakhe, S.B.; Parhad, N.M.

    1988-05-01

    The potential of bituminous coal for adsorption of viruses, using poliovirus as a model, was investigated. Influence of pH of water on the adsorption of viruses on a coal bed with and without addition of cation (Al/sup 3 +/) indicated that poliovirus could be adsorbed efficiently at pH 5 in presence of AlCl/sub 3/ at a concentration of 0.0005 M. studies on the effect of different concentrations of monovalent, divalent and trivalent cations showed that the trivalent cation was more effective and was required at a lower concentration than other cations tested. A coal bed of 1.5 g could adsorb as high as 204,000 PFU from water based on the absence of virus in the filtrate. Total organic carbon content of the water did not interfere in virus adsorption to coal. The results obtained indicated that a bituminous coal bed could be used as one of the methods for efficient concentration of viruses from water. 31 refs., 8 tabs.

  11. In Developping a Bench-Scale Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor to Burn High Ash Brazilian Coal-Dolomites Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Behainne, Jhon Jairo; Hory, Rogério Ishikawa; Goldstein, Leonardo; Bernárdez Pécora, Araí Augusta

    This work considers some of the questions in burning high ash Brazilian coal-dolomite mixtures in a bench-scale circulating fluidized bed combustor (CFBC). Experimental tests were performed with the CE4500 coal from Santa Catarina State, in southern Brazil, with a Sauter mean diameter d p =43 μm. The coal particles were mixed with dolomite particles of d p = 111 μm and this fuel mixture was fed into the circulating fluidized reactor, previously loaded with quartz sand particles of d p =353 μm. This inert material was previously heated by the combustion of liquefied petroleum gas up to the ignition temperature of the fuel mixture. The CFBC unit has a 100mm internal diameter riser, 4.0m high, as well as a 62.8mm internal diameter downcomer. The loop has a cyclone, a sampling valve to collect particles and a 62.8mm internal diameter L-valve to recirculate the particles in the loop. A screw feeder with a rotation control system was used to feed the fuel mixture to the reactor. The operational conditions were monitored by pressure taps and thermocouples installed along the loop. A data acquisition system showed the main operational conditions to control. Experimental tests performed put in evidence the problems found during bed operation, with special attention to the solids feed device, to the L-valve operation, to particle size, solids inventory, fluidized gas velocity, fuel mixture and recirculated solids feeding positions.

  12. Preparation and combustion of coal-water fuel from the Sin Pun coal deposit, southern Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    In response to an inquiry by the Department of Mineral Resources in Thailand, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) prepared a program to assess the responsiveness of Sin Pun lignite to the temperature and pressure conditions of hot-water drying. The results indicate that drying made several improvements in the coal, notably increases in heating value and carbon content and reductions in equilibrium moisture and oxygen content. The equilibrium moisture content decreased from 27 wt% for the raw coal to about 15 wt% for the hot-water-dried (HWD) coals. The energy density for a pumpable coal-water fuel (CWF) indicates an increase from 4500 to 6100 Btu/lb by hot-water drying. Approximately 650 lb of HWD Sin Pun CWF were fired in the EERC`s combustion test facility. The fuel burned extremely well, with no feed problems noted during the course of the test. Fouling and slagging deposits each indicated a very low rate of ash deposition, with only a dusty layer formed on the cooled metal surfaces. The combustor was operated at between 20% and 25% excess air, resulting in a flue gas SO{sub 2} concentration averaging approximately 6500 parts per million.

  13. Mathematical model for water quality impact assessment and its computer application in coal mine water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundararajan, M.; Chakraborty, M.K.; Gupta, J.P.; Saxena, N.C.; Dhar, B.B.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model to assess the Water Quality Impact in coal mine or in river system by accurate and rational method. Algorithm, flowchart and computer programme have been developed upon this model to assess the quality of coal mine water. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Technique of complex slime water treatment of coal-mining branch

    OpenAIRE

    Solodov, G. А.; Zhbyr, Е. V.; Papin, А. V.; Nevedrov, А. V.

    2007-01-01

    The possibility of complex slime water treatment at coal-mining and coal-treating plants producing marketable products: power-generating concentrate, coal-water fuel, magnetic fraction, industrial water is shown. A basic process flowsheet of slime water treatment presenting a united technological complex is suggested.

  15. FINE PARTICAL AND TOXIC METAL EMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE/COAL MIXTURES: A SYSTEMATIC ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jost O.L. Wendt; Wayne S. Seames; Art Fernandez

    2003-09-21

    This research project focuses on pollutants from the combustion of mixtures of dried municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and pulverized coal. The objective was to determine potential tradeoffs between CO{sub 2} mitigation through using a CO{sub 2} neutral fuel, such as municipal sewage sludge, and the emergence of other potential problems such as the emission of toxic fly ash particles. The work led to new insight into mechanisms governing the partitioning of major and trace metals from the combustion of sewage sludge, and mixtures of coal and sewage sludge. The research also showed that the co-combustion of coal and sewage sludge emitted fine particulate matter that might potentially cause greater lung injury than that from the combustion of either coal alone or municipal sewage sludge alone. The reason appeared to be that the toxicity measured required the presence of large amounts of both zinc and sulfur in particles that were inhaled. MSS provided the zinc while coal provided the sulfur. Additional research showed that the toxic effects could most likely be engineered out of the process, through the introduction of kaolinite sorbent downstream of the combustion zone, or removing the sulfur from the fuel. These results are consequences of applying ''Health Effects Engineering'' to this issue. Health Effects Engineering is a new discipline arising out of this work, and is derived from using a collaboration of combustion engineers and toxicologists to mitigate the potentially bad health effects from combustion of this biomass fuel.

  16. Acoustic properties of organic acid mixtures in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macavei, I.; Petrisor, V.; Auslaender, D.

    1974-01-01

    The variation of the rate of propagation of ultrasounds in organic acid mixtures in water points to structural changes caused by interactions that take place under conditions of thermal agitation, at different acid concentrations. At the same time, a difference is found in the changes in velocity as a function of the length of the carbon chain of the acids in the mixture as a result of their effect on the groups of water molecules associated by hydrogen bonds.

  17. Structural transition in alcohol–water binary mixtures: A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    Abstract. The strengthening of the hydrogen bonding (H-bond) network as well as transition from the tetrahedral-like water network to the zigzag chain structure of alcohol upon increasing the alcohol con- centration in ethanol–water and tertiary butanol (TBA) – water mixtures have been studied by using both steady state ...

  18. Singlet oxygen reactivity in water-rich solvent mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Sousa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The 3-methylindole (3MI oxygenation sensitized by psoralen (PSO has been investigated in 100%, 20% and 5% O2-saturated water/dioxane (H2O/Dx mixtures. The lowering of the ¹O2* chemical rate when water (k chem∆3MI = 1.4 × 109 M-1 s-1 is replaced by deuterated water (k chem∆3MI = 1.9 × 108 M-1 s-1 suggests that hydrogen abstraction is involved in the rate determining step. A high dependence of the chemical rate constant on water concentration in H2O/Dx mixtures was found showing that water molecules are absolutely essential for the success of the 3MI substrate oxidation by ¹O2* in water-rich solvent mixtures.

  19. Thermal analysis evaluation of the reactivity of coal mixtures for injection in the blast furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lourdes Ilha Gomes

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI is an important standard technology replacing coke partially by pulverized coal into the blast furnace that allows a significant reduction of hot metal costs and environmental impact, contributing to a decrease of coke requirements for ironmaking. Coals typically used in this process in Brazil are, at current time, exclusively imported from many countries, although economic important coal-measures occur in the southern part of the country. The Brazilian coals have a low rank, higher contents of inert components, proportioning nocoking properties and an expected high reactivity. Due to these caractheristics, these coals could be used for injection in the blast furnaces in order to decrease the dependency on high cost imported coals. The efficiency in the combustion and the coal reactivity are considered important parameters in the blast furnace, since a larger amount of char (unburned coal causes severe problems to the furnace operation. The aim of the present work is to compare the reactivity of a south Brazilian coal, obtained from Faxinal mine, with two imported coals and the blends of the Brazilian coal with the imported ones. The reactivity of these coals and their blends were evaluated in a thermogravimetric analyzer. In the experiments, various mass ratios of Faxinal coal and the imported coals were used to compose the blends. The gasification reaction with pure CO2 was conducted under isothermal conditions at 1050 °C and atmospheric pressure. The experimental results show the greater reactivity of the Faxinal coal. The additive behavior was confirmed. The blends with a composition of up to 50% Faxinal coal have parameters according to the usual limits used for PCI.

  20. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF FORECASTING FOR OUTCOMES IN VICTIMS OF METHANE-COAL MIXTURE EXPLOSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Y. Fistal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND. The severity of the victims’ state  in the early period after the combined  trauma (with the prevalence of a thermal  injury is associated with the development of numerous  changes  in all organs and systems  which make proper  diagnosis  of complications and estimation of lethal  outcome  probability extremely  difficult to be performed.MATERIAL AND METHODS. The article  presents a mathematical model  for predicting  lethal  outcomes  in victims of methanecoal mixture explosion, based on case histories of 220 miners who were treated at the Donetsk Burn Center in 1994–2012.RESULTS. It was revealed  that  the  probability  of lethal  outcomes  in victims of methane-coal mixture  explosion was statistically significantly affected  with the  area  of deep  burns  (p<0.001, and  the  severe traumatic brain injury (p<0.001. In the probability of lethal  outcomes,  tactics  of surgical treatment for burn wounds in the early hours after the injury was statistically significant (p=0.003. It involves the primary debridement of burn wounds in the period of burn shock with the simultaneous closure of affected  surfaces with temporary biological covering.CONCLUSION. These neural network models are easy to practice and may be created  for the most common pathologic conditions  frequently encountered in clinical practice.

  1. Development of liquefaction process of coal and biomass in supercritical water; Chorinkaisui wo mochiita sekitan biomass doji ekika process no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonaka, H.; Matsumura, Y.; Tsutsumi, A.; Yoshida, K. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Masuno, Y.; Inaba, A. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Liquefaction of coal and biomass in supercritical water has been investigated, in which strong solubilization force of supercritical water against hydrocarbons is utilized. Free radicals are formed through the cleavage of covalent bonds in coal under the heating condition at around 400{degree}C during coal liquefaction. It is important to stabilize these unstable intermediate products by hydrogen transfer. On the other hand, hydrogen is not required for the liquefaction of biomass having higher H/C atomic ratio and oxygen content than those of coal. Co-liquefaction of coal and biomass was conducted using supercritical water, in which excess hydrogen from the liquefaction of biomass would be transferred to coal, resulting in the effective liquefaction of coal. Mixture of coal and cellulose was liquefied in supercritical water at 390{degree}C under the pressure of 25 MPa using a semi-continuous reactor, and the results were compared with those from the separate liquefaction of them. The co-liquefaction of coal and cellulose did not show any difference in the residue yield from the separate liquefaction of these, but led to the increased production of compounds with lower molecular weight. The liquefaction was completed in 15 minutes. 5 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Coal and tire burning mixtures containing ultrafine and nanoparticulate materials induce oxidative stress and inflammatory activation in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparotto, Juciano; Somensi, Nauana; Caregnato, Fernanda F; Rabelo, Thallita K; DaBoit, Kátia; Oliveira, Marcos L S; Moreira, José C F; Gelain, Daniel P

    2013-10-01

    Ultra-fine and nano-particulate materials resulting from mixtures of coal and non-coal fuels combustion for power generation release to the air components with toxic potential. We evaluated toxicological and inflammatory effects at cellular level that could be induced by ultrafine/nanoparticles-containing ashes from burning mixtures of coal and tires from an American power plant. Coal fly ashes (CFA) samples from the combustion of high-S coal and tire-derived fuel, the latter about 2-3% of the total fuel feed, in a 100-MW cyclone utility boiler, were suspended in the cell culture medium of RAW 264.7 macrophages. Cell viability, assessed by MTT reduction, SRB incorporation and contrast-phase microscopy analysis demonstrated that CFA did not induce acute toxicity. However, CFA at 1mg/mL induced an increase of approximately 338% in intracellular TNF-α, while release of this proinflammatory cytokine was increased by 1.6-fold. The expression of the inflammatory mediator CD40 receptor was enhanced by 2-fold, the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) had a 5.7-fold increase and the stress response protein HSP70 was increased nearly 12-fold by CFA at 1mg/mL. Although CFA did not induce cell death, parameters of oxidative stress and reactive species production were found to be altered at several degrees, such as nitrite accumulation (22% increase), DCFH oxidation (3.5-fold increase), catalase (5-fold increase) and superoxide dismutase (35% inhibition) activities, lipoperoxidation (4.2 fold-increase) and sulfhydryl oxidation (40% decrease in free SH groups). The present results suggest that CFA containing ultra-fine and nano-particulate materials from coal and tire combustion may induce sub-chronic cell damage, as they alter inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters at the molecular and cellular levels, but do not induce acute cell death. © 2013.

  3. Research on water pollution induced by coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Q.; Dong, D.; Fu, Y.; Bai, X.; Sun, Z. [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China). Dept of Resource Exploitation Engineering

    2002-01-01

    Water environment problems induced by mining were studied. Influences of coal mining on runoff of rivers and on water sources were discussed. And the forming mechanism of acid water was analysed. The result shows that the mining activity is gradually changing the co-environment of adjacent areas, especially the water. With the water sources being continually polluted, the underground water has some poisonous or harmful ions in the process of dynamic exchange of water. The falling level of water table results in an increase of depression cone, and the seepage of rivers and the increasing range of acid water have more or less influence on water sources. All these are threatening the normal life of human beings. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Effect of Water on Coal Strength

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    1. INTRODUCTION. The knowledge of the mechanisms of the interaction of water with rock and its effects on rock properties is of paramount importance in geotechnical engineering. The presence of water at site of large projects such as dams, canals, caverns, highways and underground reservoirs are always a significant ...

  5. The Evaluation of Metals and Other Substances Released into Coal Mine Accrual Waters on the Wasatch Plateau Coal Field, Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Seierstad, Alberta J.; Adams, V. Dean; Lamarra, Vincent A.; Hoefs, Nancy J.; Hinchee, Robert E.

    1983-01-01

    Six sites on the Wasatch Plateau were chosen representing subsurface coal mines which were discharging or collecting accrual water on this coal field. Water samples were collected monthly at these sites for a period of 1 year (May 1981 to April 1982). Samples were taken before and after each mine's treatment system. Water sampels were analyzed for major anions and cations, trace metals, physical properaties, nutri...

  6. Study on dynamic multi-objective approach considering coal and water conflict in large scale coal group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Qing; Lu, Li

    2018-01-01

    In the process of coal mining, destruction and pollution of groundwater in has reached an imminent time, and groundwater is not only related to the ecological environment, but also affect the health of human life. Similarly, coal and water conflict is still one of the world's problems in large scale coal mining regions. Based on this, this paper presents a dynamic multi-objective optimization model to deal with the conflict of the coal and water in the coal group with multiple subordinate collieries and arrive at a comprehensive arrangement to achieve environmentally friendly coal mining strategy. Through calculation, this paper draws the output of each subordinate coal mine. And on this basis, we continue to adjust the environmental protection parameters to compare the coal production at different collieries at different stages under different attitude of the government. At last, the paper conclude that, in either case, it is the first arrangement to give priority to the production of low-drainage, high-yield coal mines.

  7. Products used for treatment of water intended for human consumption - pyrolyzed coal material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-03-11

    This European Standard is applicable to pyrolyzed coal material used for treatment of water intended for human consumption. It describes the characteristics of pyrolyzed coal material and specifies the requirements and the corresponding test methods for pyrolyzed coal material. It gives information on its use in water treatment.

  8. Coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teissie, J.; Bourgogne, D. de; Bautin, F.

    2001-12-01

    Coal world production represents 3.5 billions of tons, plus 900 millions of tons of lignite. 50% of coal is used for power generation, 16% by steel making industry, 5% by cement plants, and 29% for space heating and by other industries like carbo-chemistry. Coal reserves are enormous, about 1000 billions of tons (i.e. 250 years of consumption with the present day rate) but their exploitation will be in competition with less costly and less polluting energy sources. This documents treats of all aspects of coal: origin, composition, calorific value, classification, resources, reserves, production, international trade, sectoral consumption, cost, retail price, safety aspects of coal mining, environmental impacts (solid and gaseous effluents), different technologies of coal-fired power plants and their relative efficiency, alternative solutions for the recovery of coal energy (fuel cells, liquefaction). (J.S.)

  9. Response of steam-water mixtures to pressure transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, L.M.

    1985-01-01

    During the transition phase of a hypothetical core-disruptive accident in a liquid-metal fast breeder reactor, melting fuel-steel mixtures may begin to boil, resulting in a two-phase mixture of molten reactor fuel and steel vapor. Dispersal of this mixture by pressure transients may prevent recriticality of the fuel material. This paper describes the results of a series of experiments that investigated the response of two-phase mixtures to pressure transients. Simulant fluids (steam/water) were used in a transparent 10.2-cm-dia, 63.5-cm-long acrylic tube. The pressure transient was provided by releasing pressurized nitrogen from a supply tank. The data obtained are in the form of pressure-time records and high-speed movies. The varied parameters are initial void fraction (10% and 40%) and transient pressure magnitude (3.45 and 310 kPa)

  10. Synthesis of nanoporous carbons from mixtures of coal tar pitch and furfural and their application as electrode materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrova, B.; Tsyntsarski, B.; Budinova, T.; Petrov, N.; Ania, C.O.; Parra, J.B.; Mladenov, M.; Tzvetkov, P.

    2010-11-15

    Synthetic nanoporous carbons are prepared by polymerization of mixtures containing coal tar pitch and furfural in different proportions, followed by carbonization of obtained solid product and steam activation of the carbonizate. The chemical composition of the initial mixture significantly affects the physicochemical properties (surface area, pore structure, electro resistance and amount of oxygen-containing groups on the surface) of the obtained materials. The incorporation of oxygen in the precursor mixture by means of furfural, has a strong influence in the synthetic step; increasing the furfural content facilitates the formation of a solid product characterized by a large oxygen content. Moreover, the solid product is more reactive towards activation as the furfural content increases, giving rise to nanoporous carbons with large surface areas and unique chemical features (high density of oxygen functionalities of basic nature). These nanoporous carbons have been investigated as electrodes in electrochemical applications. (author)

  11. Supercritical water gasification of Victorian brown coal: Experimental characterisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Doki; Aye, Lu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Vic 3010 (Australia); Sanderson, P. John; Lim, Seng [CSIRO Minerals, Clayton, Vic 3168 (Australia)

    2009-05-15

    Supercritical water gasification is an innovative thermochemical conversion method for converting wet feedstocks into hydrogen-rich gaseous products. The non-catalytic gasification characteristics of Victorian brown coal were investigated in supercritical water by using a novel immersion technique with quartz batch reactors. Various operating parameters such as temperature, feed concentration and reaction time were varied to investigate their effect on the gasification behaviour. Gas yields, carbon gasification efficiency and the total gasification efficiency increased with increasing temperature and reaction time, and decreasing feed concentration. The mole fraction of hydrogen in the product gases was lowest at 600 C, and increased to over 30 % at a temperature of 800 C. Varying parameters, especially reaction time, did not improve the coal utilisation for gas production significantly and the measured data showed a large deviation from the equilibrium level. (author)

  12. Microwave Determination of Water Mole Fraction in Humid Gas Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuccaro, R.; Gavioso, R. M.; Benedetto, G.; Madonna Ripa, D.; Fernicola, V.; Guianvarc'h, C.

    2012-09-01

    A small volume (65 cm3) gold-plated quasi-spherical microwave resonator has been used to measure the water vapor mole fraction x w of H2O/N2 and H2O/air mixtures. This experimental technique exploits the high precision achievable in the determination of the cavity microwave resonance frequencies and is particularly sensitive to the presence of small concentrations of water vapor as a result of the high polarizability of this substance. The mixtures were prepared using the INRIM standard humidity generator for frost-point temperatures T fp in the range between 241 K and 270 K and a commercial two-pressure humidity generator operated at a dew-point temperature between 272 K and 291 K. The experimental measurements compare favorably with the calculated molar fractions of the mixture supplied by the humidity generators, showing a normalized error lower than 0.8.

  13. Wetting behavior of mixtures of water and nonionic polyoxyethylene alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chih-Kang; Chen, Li-Jen

    2005-07-19

    Five binary water + C4Ej mixtures, water + n-C4E0, water + 2-C4E0, water + iso-C4E0, water + n-C4E1, and water + iso-C4E1, were chosen to perform the surface/interfacial tension measurements over the experimental temperature range from 10 to 85 degrees C at the normal pressure by using a homemade pendent drop/bubble tensiometer. The symbol CiEj is the abbreviation of a nonionic polyoxyethylene alcohol CiH(2i+1)(OCH2CH2)jOH. The wetting behavior of the CiEj-rich phase at the interface separating gas and the aqueous phase is systematically examined according to the wetting coefficient resulting from the experimental data of surface/interfacial tensions measurements. For those systems with a lower critical solution temperature, for example, water + n-C6E2, water + n-C4E1, and water + iso-C4E1, a wetting transition from partial wetting to nonwetting is always observed when the system is brought to close to its lower critical solution temperature. On the other hand, to start with a partial wetting CiEj-rich phase, a wetting transition from partial wetting to complete wetting is always observed when the system is driven to approach its upper critical solution temperature. The effect of hydrophobicity of CiEj on the wetting behavior of the CiEj-rich phase at the interface separating gas and the aqueous phase was carefully investigated by using five sets of mixtures: (1) water + n-C4E0, water + n-C5E0, and water + n-C6E0; (2) water + 2-C4E0 and water + 2-C5E0; (3) water + 2-C4E0 and water + n-C4E0; (4) water + n-C4E1, water + n-C5E1, and water + n-C6E1; (5) water + n-C4E0 and water + n-C4E1. The CiEj-rich phase would tend to drive away from complete wetting (or nonwetting) to partial wetting with an increase in the hydrophobicity of CiEj in the binary water + CiEj system. All the wetting behavior observed in the water + CiEj mixtures is consistent with the prediction of the critical point wetting theory of Cahn.

  14. Wettability determination by contact angle measurements: hvbB coal-water system with injection of synthetic flue gas and CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojai Kaveh, Narjes; Rudolph, E Susanne J; Wolf, Karl-Heinz A A; Ashrafizadeh, Seyed Nezameddin

    2011-12-01

    Geological sequestration of pure carbon dioxide (CO(2)) in coal is one of the methods to sequester CO(2). In addition, injection of CO(2) or flue gas into coal enhances coal bed methane production (ECBM). The success of this combined process depends strongly on the wetting behavior of the coal, which is function of coal rank, ash content, heterogeneity of the coal surface, pressure, temperature and composition of the gas. The wetting behavior can be evaluated from the contact angle of a gas bubble, CO(2) or flue gas, on a coal surface. In this study, contact angles of a synthetic flue gas, i.e. a 80/20 (mol%) N(2)/CO(2) mixture, and pure CO(2) on a Warndt Luisenthal (WL) coal have been determined using a modified pendant drop cell in a pressure range from atmospheric to 16 MPa and a constant temperature of 318 K. It was found that the contact angles of flue gas on WL coal were generally smaller than those of CO(2). The contact angle of CO(2) changes from water-wet to gas-wet by increasing pressure above 8.5 MPa while the one for the flue gas changes from water-wet to intermediate-wet by increasing pressure above 10 MPa. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Using coal mine saline water to produce chlorine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnot, W; Turek, M; Walburg, Z

    1979-01-01

    Utilizing hard coal mine waters with salt concentration reaching 140 kg/mat3 in the chemical industry would significantly reduce the cost of protecting the natural environment from salt. The Institute of Chemistry and Inorganic Technology of the Silesian Technical University in Gliwice developed an efficient technology of producing chorine from underground black coal mine waters. A scheme of the technology is explained: double stage brine purification with magnesium hydroxide as by-product. During the first stage magnesium is precipitated using sodium hydroxide; after increasing salt content in the brine calcium and a low percentage of magnesium are removed by lye-sodium method. During the second stage sedimentation rate increases to 1.4 mm/s, and volume of sludge is only 1%. Magnesium hydroxide is removed using a method patented in Poland (after adding a flocculant magnesium hydroxide is left untouched). Only at a later stage does sedimentation occur. The proposed technology of utilizing mine water will be tested in an experimental plant which will be built at the Ziemowit black coal mine. (7 refs.) (In Polish)

  16. Water activity changes of multicomponent food mixture during processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Štencl

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Water activity of multicomponent food mixture was analysed and measured. Samples of dry fermented sausages with two different starter cultures (Pediococcus pentosaceus + Staphylococcus carnosus and Staphylococcus carnosus + Staphylococcus xylosus + Lactobacillus farciminis were tested during ripening (21 days and storing (91 days. The basic raw materials were the same for all samples: lean beef meat, lean pork and pork fat in equal parts, nitrite salt mixture (2.5 %, and sugars (1.0 %. The method used for water activity tests was indirect manometric in a static environment. Moisture content of samples was measured using halogen dryer. The course of water activity and moisture content of sausages was variable during ripening and steady during storage. Diagrams showed gradual decrease of both parameters. Mathematical models of water activity and moisture content for storage of dry fermented sausages were developed and statistically verified. The influence of starter cultures was not significant.

  17. Microstructure and hydrogen bonding in water-acetonitrile mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountain, Raymond D

    2010-12-16

    The connection of hydrogen bonding between water and acetonitrile in determining the microheterogeneity of the liquid mixture is examined using NPT molecular dynamics simulations. Mixtures for six, rigid, three-site models for acetonitrile and one water model (SPC/E) were simulated to determine the amount of water-acetonitrile hydrogen bonding. Only one of the six acetonitrile models (TraPPE-UA) was able to reproduce both the liquid density and the experimental estimates of hydrogen bonding derived from Raman scattering of the CN stretch band or from NMR quadrupole relaxation measurements. A simple modification of the acetonitrile model parameters for the models that provided poor estimates produced hydrogen-bonding results consistent with experiments for two of the models. Of these, only one of the modified models also accurately determined the density of the mixtures. The self-diffusion coefficient of liquid acetonitrile provided a final winnowing of the modified model and the successful, unmodified model. The unmodified model is provisionally recommended for simulations of water-acetonitrile mixtures.

  18. Minimally refined biomass fuel. [carbohydrate-water-alcohol mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, R.K.; Hirschfeld, T.B.

    1981-03-26

    A minimally refined fluid composition, suitable as a fuel mixture and derived from biomass material, is comprised of one or more water-soluble carbohydrates such as sucrose, one or more alcohols having less than four carbons, and water. The carbohydrate provides the fuel source; water-solubilizes the carbohydrate; and the alcohol aids in the combustion of the carbohydrate and reduces the viscosity of the carbohydrate/water solution. Because less energy is required to obtain the carbohydrate from the raw biomass than alcohol, an overall energy savings is realized compared to fuels employing alcohol as the primary fuel.

  19. Proceedings of the international symposium on coal - science, technology, industry, business, environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narasimhan, K.S.; Sen, S. [eds.

    1996-12-31

    Papers were presented which covered the areas of coal science, advanced coal preparation, coal utilization, coal chemicals and the environment. These included carbon aromaticity, mineral studies, utilization of low rank coals, bioconversion of methane, swelling of coals, photocatalytic activity, flotation and effects of oxidation, microbial desulfurization, deashing, briquetting, commercial scale conversion of coal to fuels and chemicals, role of coal in iron and steel making, coal-water mixtures, dyes and chemical products, nitrogen oxides emissions and pollution control. 45 papers have been abstracted separately for the IEA Coal Research CD-ROM.

  20. Solution Thermodynamics of Lysine Clonixinate in Some Ethanol + Water Mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado, Daniel R.; Martínez, Fleming; Gutiérrez, Rahumir A.

    2012-01-01

    The solubility of lysine clonixinate (LysClon) in several ethanol + water mixtures was determined at 293.15 to 313.15 K. The thermodynamic functions, Gibbs energy, enthalpy, and entropy of solution and of mixing were obtained from these solubility data by using the van’t Hoff and Gibbs equations. In general this drug exhibit good solubility and the greatest value was obtained in the mixture 0.60 in mass fraction of ethanol. A non-linear enthalpy–entropy relationship was observed from ...

  1. Bio-assessment of water pollution in coal belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, P.K.

    1998-01-01

    Water pollution in coal belt has attracted attention of scientists as well as general people. Implication of water pollution on bio-system is still a more important issue and a lot of information has been accumulated. Apart from conventional methods of pollution monitoring, bio-monitoring is comparatively a new approach and a proper methodology is still in pipeline. The present study reviews various methods of bio-monitoring and compare various methodologies suggested at population level with conventional methods. The results indicated that the bio-assessment methodology can be a tool and hence be developed. (author)

  2. Power cycles with ammonia-water mixtures as working fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorin, Eva

    2000-05-01

    It is of great interest to improve the efficiency of power generating processes, i.e. to convert more of the energy in the heat source to power. This is favorable from an environmental point of view and can also be an economic advantage. To use an ammonia-water mixture instead of water as working fluid is a possible way to improve the efficiency of steam turbine processes. This thesis includes studies of power cycles with ammonia-water mixtures as working fluid utilizing different kinds of heat sources for power and heat generation. The thermophysical properties of the mixture are also studied. They play an important role in the calculations of the process performance and for the design of its components, such as heat exchangers. The studies concern thermodynamic simulations of processes in applications suitable for Swedish conditions. Available correlations for the thermophysical properties are compared and their influence on simulations and heat exchanger area predictions is investigated. Measurements of ammonia-water mixture viscosities using a vibrating wire viscometer are also described. The studies performed show that power cycles with ammonia-water mixtures as the working fluid are well suited for utilization of waste heat from industry and from gas engines. The ammonia-water power cycles can give up to 32 % more power in the industrial waste heat application and up to 54 % more power in the gas engine bottoming cycle application compared to a conventional Rankine steam cycle. However, ammonia-water power cycles in small direct-fired biomass-fueled cogeneration plants do not show better performance than a conventional Rankine steam cycle. When different correlations for the thermodynamic properties are used in simulations of a simple ammonia-water power cycle the difference in efficiency is not larger than 4 %, corresponding to about 1.3 percentage points. The differences in saturation properties between the correlations are, however, considerable at high

  3. Underground coal mine subsidence impacts on surface water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stump, D.E. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that subsidence from underground coal mining alters surface water discharge and availability. The magnitude and areal extent of these impacts are dependent on many factors, including the amount of subsidence, topography, geology, climate, surface water - ground water interactions, and fractures in the overburden. There alterations may have positive and/or negative impacts. One of the most significant surface water impacts occurred in July 1957 near West Pittston, Pennsylvania. Subsidence in the Knox Mine under the Coxton Yards of the Lehigh Valley Railroad allowed part of the discharge in the Susquehanna River to flow into the mine and create a crater 200 feet in diameter and 300 feet deep. Fourteen railroad gondola cars fell into the hole which was eventually filled with rock, sand, and gravel. Other surface water impacts from subsidence may include the loss of water to the ground water system, the gaining of water from the ground water system, the creation of flooded subsidence troughs, the increasing of impoundment storage capacity, the relocation of water sources (springs), and the alteration of surface drainage patterns

  4. Review of coal-water fuel pulverization technology and atomization quality registration methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenkov Andrey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Possibilities of coal-water fuel application in industrial power engineering are considered and described. Two main problems and disadvantages of this fuel type are suggested. The paper presents information about liquid fuel atomization technologies and provides data on nozzle type for coal-water fuel pulverization. This article also mentions some of the existing technologies for coal-water slurry spraying quality determination.

  5. Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva-Aguilar Martín

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Metals are ubiquitous pollutants present as mixtures. In particular, mixture of arsenic-cadmium-lead is among the leading toxic agents detected in the environment. These metals have carcinogenic and cell-transforming potential. In this study, we used a two step cell transformation model, to determine the role of oxidative stress in transformation induced by a mixture of arsenic-cadmium-lead. Oxidative damage and antioxidant response were determined. Metal mixture treatment induces the increase of damage markers and the antioxidant response. Loss of cell viability and increased transforming potential were observed during the promotion phase. This finding correlated significantly with generation of reactive oxygen species. Cotreatment with N-acetyl-cysteine induces effect on the transforming capacity; while a diminution was found in initiation, in promotion phase a total block of the transforming capacity was observed. Our results suggest that oxidative stress generated by metal mixture plays an important role only in promotion phase promoting transforming capacity.

  6. New prospects of VESUVIO applied to measurements in water mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Palomino, L. A.; Dawidowski, J.; Blostein, J. J.; Cuello, G. J.

    2014-12-01

    We present new measurements on mixtures of light and heavy water in the spectrometer VESUVIO (Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, UK), and analyze them from the perspective of different kind of applications. We perform a single detector analysis and show the multiple scattering and attenuation corrections with the aim to employ them in mass- spectrometry. We also show the capabilities to perform transmission measurements to determine total cross sections of an acceptable quality by means of its transmission monitor.

  7. New prospects of VESUVIO applied to measurements in water mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palomino, L A Rodríguez; Dawidowski, J; Blostein, J J; Cuello, G J

    2014-01-01

    We present new measurements on mixtures of light and heavy water in the spectrometer VESUVIO (Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, UK), and analyze them from the perspective of different kind of applications. We perform a single detector analysis and show the multiple scattering and attenuation corrections with the aim to employ them in mass- spectrometry. We also show the capabilities to perform transmission measurements to determine total cross sections of an acceptable quality by means of its transmission monitor

  8. Analytical Model of Water Flow in Coal with Active Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemek, Jakub; Stopa, Jerzy

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents new analytical model of gas-water flow in coal seams in one dimension with emphasis on interactions between water flowing in cleats and coal matrix. Coal as a flowing system, can be viewed as a solid organic material consisting of two flow subsystems: a microporous matrix and a system of interconnected macropores and fractures. Most of gas is accumulated in the microporous matrix, where the primary flow mechanism is diffusion. Fractures and cleats existing in coal play an important role as a transportation system for macro scale flow of water and gas governed by Darcy's law. The coal matrix can imbibe water under capillary forces leading to exchange of mass between fractures and coal matrix. In this paper new partial differential equation for water saturation in fractures has been formulated, respecting mass exchange between coal matrix and fractures. Exact analytical solution has been obtained using the method of characteristics. The final solution has very simple form that may be useful for practical engineering calculations. It was observed that the rate of exchange of mass between the fractures and the coal matrix is governed by an expression which is analogous to the Newton cooling law known from theory of heat exchange, but in present case the mass transfer coefficient depends not only on coal and fluid properties but also on time and position. The constant term of mass transfer coefficient depends on relation between micro porosity and macro porosity of coal, capillary forces, and microporous structure of coal matrix. This term can be expressed theoretically or obtained experimentally. W artykule zaprezentowano nowy model matematyczny przepływu wody i gazu w jednowymiarowej warstwie węglowej z uwzględnieniem wymiany masy między systemem szczelin i matrycą węglową. Węgiel jako system przepływowy traktowany jest jako układ o podwójnej porowatości i przepuszczalności, składający się z mikroporowatej matrycy węglowej oraz z

  9. Radium-bearing waters in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomza, I.; Lebecka, J.; Pluta, I.

    1986-01-01

    Natural waters with a high radium content occuring in underground workings of coal mines in Upper Silesia are described. Above 1500 water samples from carbonifereous aquifers were taken and the concentration of 226 Ra was measured. In about 100 samples also uranium was determined. The 226 Ra concentration varied in a wide range from 0.01 kBq/m 3 to 270 kBq/m 3 , while the uranium content was usually much lower than one could expect from the equilibrium between radium and uranium. It was observed that the 226 Ra concentration increases with mineralization of water, however the correlation was rather poor. Two types of radium-bearing waters were distinguished. Waters type A - containing Ba 2+ ions and waters type B - containing SO 4 2- ions. Waters type A are always reach in radium and usually have higher concentration of 226 Ra than waters type B. The described waters have one of the highest radium concentration which have been found so far in the natural environment. (author)

  10. China's coal-fired power plants impose pressure on water resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Xinxin; Liu, Junguo; Tang, Yu; Zhao, Xu; Yang, Hong; Gerbens-Leenes, P.W.; Vliet, van Michelle T.H.; Yan, Jinyue

    2017-01-01

    Coal is the dominant fuel for electricity generation around the world. This type of electricity generation uses large amounts of water, increasing pressure on water resources. This calls for an in-depth investigation in the water-energy nexus of coal-fired electricity generation. In China,

  11. Coal-bed methane water effects on dill and essential oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumping water from coal seams decreases the pressure in the seam and in turn releases trapped methane; this is the most common and economic way of methane extraction. The water that is pumped out is known as coal-bed methane water (CBMW), which is high in sodium and other salts. In past 25 years, th...

  12. Brownian motion probe for water-ethanol inhomogeneous mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Kazuki; Judai, Ken

    2017-12-01

    Brownian motion provides information regarding the microscopic geometry and motion of molecules, insofar as it occurs as a result of molecular collisions with a colloid particle. We found that the mobility of polystyrene beads from the Brownian motion in a water-ethanol mixture is larger than that predicted from the liquid shear viscosity. This indicates that mixing water and ethanol is inhomogeneous in micron-sized probe beads. The discrepancy between the mobility of Brownian motion and liquid mobility can be explained by the way the rotation of the beads in an inhomogeneous viscous solvent converts the translational movement.

  13. Water effects of the use of western coal for electrical production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, E.A.

    1980-02-01

    Water may be a constraint on the expanded development of coal resources in the semi-arid western United States. Water allocation in the West has been determined by the appropriative rights doctrine which allows perpetual use of water sources by those who first claim it for beneficial purposes. This has had the effect of placing a dominative interest in water allocation in one economic sector: agriculture. New water sources are available to coal producers but political and economic problems must be overcome. Water is required by every phase of coal development. Mines use water for dust control and land reclamation. Coal slurry pipelines would use water as a transport medium. Steam electric power plants use water for cooling, cleaning, and in the boiler. Coal gasification plants would use water for cooling, cleaning, and as a material input. In addition to these direct uses of water by coal development, the people who build and operate the development demand water for domestic and recreational purposes. The quantity of water required for a given element of a coal development is site specific and dependent on many factors. The available literature cites a range of estimates of the amount of water required for each type of development. The width of this range seems related to the stage of development of the particular technology. Estimates of water requirements for various schemes to provide an average electrical load of 9 GWe to a load center 1000 miles from western mines are shown in Table 5.

  14. Process and apparatus to dry and to preheat coal or coal mixtures and the subsequent coking by the use of non- or weakly baking bituminous coals and/or carbon sources. Verfahren und Vorrichtung zur Trocknung bzw. Vorerhitzung von Kohle oder Kohlemischungen und anschliessender Verkokung unter Verwendung nicht oder nur schwachbackender Steinkohlen und/oder Kohlenstofftraegern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echterhoff, J.; Frick, H.; Schaper, A.; Mohmeyer, H.

    1982-03-25

    A process and an apparatus for the drying and the subsequent coking of non- or weakly baking bituminous coals is described. The coal is compressed by stamping. For preventing the oxidation of the coal grain the coal is kept in contact with an inert medium on the entire path to the coke oven. Water vapor from the coal drying is used as the inert medium.

  15. Calorimetric and relaxation properties of xylitol-water mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elamin, Khalid; Sjöström, Johan; Jansson, Helén; Swenson, Jan

    2012-03-01

    We present the first broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS) and differential scanning calorimetry study of supercooled xylitol-water mixtures in the whole concentration range and in wide frequency (10-2-106 Hz) and temperature (120-365 K) ranges. The calorimetric glass transition, Tg, decreases from 247 K for pure xylitol to about 181 K at a water concentration of approximately 37 wt. %. At water concentrations in the range 29-35 wt. % a plentiful calorimetric behaviour is observed. In addition to the glass transition, almost simultaneous crystallization and melting events occurring around 230-240 K. At higher water concentrations ice is formed during cooling and the glass transition temperature increases to a steady value of about 200 K for all higher water concentrations. This Tg corresponds to an unfrozen xylitol-water solution containing 20 wt. % water. In addition to the true glass transition we also observed a glass transition-like feature at 220 K for all the ice containing samples. However, this feature is more likely due to ice dissolution [A. Inaba and O. Andersson, Thermochim. Acta, 461, 44 (2007)]. In the case of the BDS measurements the presence of water clearly has an effect on both the cooperative α-relaxation and the secondary β-relaxation. The α-relaxation shows a non-Arrhenius temperature dependence and becomes faster with increasing concentration of water. The fragility of the solutions, determined by the temperature dependence of the α-relaxation close to the dynamic glass transition, decreases with increasing water content up to about 26 wt. % water, where ice starts to form. This decrease in fragility with increasing water content is most likely caused by the increasing density of hydrogen bonds, forming a network-like structure in the deeply supercooled regime. The intensity of the secondary β-relaxation of xylitol decreases noticeably already at a water content of 2 wt. %, and at a water content above 5 wt. % it has been replaced by a

  16. Water vulnerabilities for existing coal-fired power plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D.; Kuiper, J.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-08-19

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the Existing Plants Research Program's overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. Water consumption by all users in the United States over the 2005-2030 time period is projected to increase by about 7% (from about 108 billion gallons per day [bgd] to about 115 bgd) (Elcock 2010). By contrast, water consumption by coal-fired power plants over this period is projected to increase by about 21% (from about 2.4 to about 2.9 bgd) (NETL 2009b). The high projected demand for water by power plants, which is expected to increase even further as carbon-capture equipment is installed, combined with decreasing freshwater supplies in many areas, suggests that certain coal-fired plants may be particularly vulnerable to potential water demand-supply conflicts. If not addressed, these conflicts could limit power generation and lead to power disruptions or increased consumer costs. The identification of existing coal-fired plants that are vulnerable to water demand and supply concerns, along with an analysis of information about their cooling systems and related characteristics, provides information to help focus future research and development (R&D) efforts to help ensure that coal-fired generation demands are met in a cost-effective manner that supports sustainable water use. This study identified coal-fired power plants that are considered vulnerable to water demand and supply issues by using a geographical information system (GIS) that facilitated the analysis of plant-specific data for more than 500 plants in the NETL's Coal Power Plant Database (CPPDB) (NETL 2007a) simultaneously with 18 indicators of water demand and supply. Two types of demand indicators were

  17. Steam coal processing technology: handling, high-order processing, COM, meth-coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamata, H.; Onodera, J.

    1982-01-01

    Topics covered include: various handling techologies (overland and marine transport, storage, water removal, drying, comminution and sizing); various coal processing technologies (gravity concentration, magnetic separation, multi-stage flotation, liquid-phase pelletizing, chemical processing); production methods for coal-oil mixtures (COM), their physical properties, stability, storage, transport, advantages, plus recent trends in research and development; production of coal-methanol slurry (meth-coal), its stability, storage, transport, utilization and environmental problems, plus latest trends in research and development. (In Japanese)

  18. Assessment of ground-water contamination by coal-tar derivatives, St. Louis Park area, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hult, M.F.

    1984-01-01

    Operation of a coal-tar distillation and wood-preserving facility in St. Louis Park, Minnesota, during 1918-72 contaminated ground water with coal-tar derivatives and inorganic chemicals. Coal-tar derivatives entered the groundwater system through three major paths: (1) Spills and drippings that percolated to the water table, (2) surface runoff and plant process water that was discharged to wetlands south of the former plant site, and (3) movement of coal tar directly into bedrock aquifers through a multiaquifer well on the site.

  19. Development of life cycle water-demand coefficients for coal-based power generation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Babkir; Kumar, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We develop water consumption and withdrawals coefficients for coal power generation. • We develop life cycle water footprints for 36 coal-based electricity generation pathways. • Different coal power generation technologies were assessed. • Sensitivity analysis of plant performance and coal transportation on water demand. - Abstract: This paper aims to develop benchmark coefficients for water consumption and water withdrawals over the full life cycle of coal-based power generation. This study considered not only all of the unit operations involved in the full electricity generation life cycle but also compared different coal-based power generating technologies. Overall this study develops the life cycle water footprint for 36 different coal-based electricity generation pathways. Power generation pathways involving new technologies of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or ultra supercritical technology with coal transportation by conventional means and using dry cooling systems have the least complete life cycle water-demand coefficients of about 1 L/kW h. Sensitivity analysis is conducted to study the impact of power plant performance and coal transportation on the water demand coefficients. The consumption coefficient over life cycle of ultra supercritical or IGCC power plants are 0.12 L/kW h higher when conventional transportation of coal is replaced by coal-log pipeline. Similarly, if the conventional transportation of coal is replaced by its transportation in the form of a slurry through a pipeline, the consumption coefficient of a subcritical power plant increases by 0.52 L/kW h

  20. Treatment of the oily produced water (OPW using coagulant mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hosny

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of the oily produced water (OPW before injection into oil reservoirs is necessary to reduce formation damage. This can be done using chemo-physical process to minimize the oil droplets in water. In this respect, this work aims to extract natural polymer (chitosan from shrimp shells and mix it with coagulants (chitosan/carboxy methyl cellulose and chitosan/aluminum sulfate to adsorb oil from OPW. Adsorption experiments were carried out in batch mode firstly to choose the best coagulants in water treatment, also to investigate the effects of pH on the adsorption uptake, adsorbent dosage, coagulant mixture doses and contact time. It was found that the oil removal by chitosan reached 96.35% and 59% at pH = 4 and pH = 9, respectively. The ability of chitosan to remove oil was increased after adding different coagulants CMC/or aluminum sulfate at average mixing time between 30 and 60 min. It was also found that the highest removal efficiency of chitosan/CMC is 99% at (90% chitosan: 10% CMC and chitosan/Al2(SO43 is 85% at (80% chitosan: 20% Al2(SO43. The SEM photographs of chitosan, chitosan/CMC and chitosan/Al2(SO43 mixture as oil removal showed that chitosan/Al2(SO43 lies between chitosan alone and chitosan/CMC mixture. Generally chitosan/CMC characterized significantly by its high ability to adsorb petroleum oil and suspended solids from OPW, additionally, reduces the economic cost of water treatment.

  1. Spectra of single-bubble sonoluminescence in water and glycerin-water mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaitan, D.F.; Atchley, A.A.; Lewia, S.D.; Carlson, J.T.; Maruyama, X.K.; Moran, M.; Sweider, D.

    1996-01-01

    A single gas bubble, acoustically levitated in a standing-wave field and oscillating under the action of that field, can emit pulses of blue-white light with duration less than 50 ps. Measurements of the spectrum of this picosecond sonoluminescence with a scanning monochrometer are reported for air bubbles levitated in water and in glycerin-water mixtures. While the spectrum has been reported previously by others for air bubbles in water, the spectrum for air bubbles in water-glycerin mixtures has not. Expected emission lines from glycerin were conspicuously absent, suggesting a different mechanism for light production in single-bubble sonoluminescence. Other conclusions are the spectrum for air bubbles in water is consistent with that previously reported, the radiated energy decreases as the glycerin concentration increases, and the peak of the spectrum appears to shift to longer wavelengths for the water-glycerin mixtures. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  2. Glass polymorphism in glycerol–water mixtures: II. Experimental studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachler, Johannes; Fuentes-Landete, Violeta; Jahn, David A.; Wong, Jessina; Giovambattista, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    We report a detailed experimental study of (i) pressure-induced transformations in glycerol–water mixtures at T = 77 K and P = 0–1.8 GPa, and (ii) heating-induced transformations of glycerol–water mixtures recovered at 1 atm and T = 77 K. Our samples are prepared by cooling the solutions at ambient pressure at various cooling rates (100 K s–1–10 K h–1) and for the whole range of glycerol mole fractions, χ g. Depending on concentration and cooling rates, cooling leads to samples containing amorphous ice (χ g ≥ 0.20), ice (χ g ≤ 0.32), and/or “distorted ice” (0 HDA). PIA of ice domains within the glycerol–water mixtures is shown to be possible only up to χ g ≈ 0.32 (T = 77 K). This is rather surprising since it has been known that at χ g HDA upon compression. Upon heating samples recovered at 1 atm, we observe a rich phase behavior. Differential scanning calorimetry indicates that only at χ g ≤ 0.15, the water domains within the sample exhibit polyamorphism, i.e., the HDA-to-LDA (low-density amorphous ice) transformation. At 0.15 HDA domains. All samples (χ g ≤ 0.38) show: the crystallization of amorphous ice domains, followed by the glass transition of the vitrified glycerol–water domains and, finally, the melting of ice at high temperatures. Our work exemplifies the complex “phase” behavior of glassy binary mixtures due to phase-separation (ice formation) and polyamorphism, and the relevance of sample preparation, concentration as well as cooling rates. The presence of the distorted ice (called “interphase” by us) also explains the debated “drift anomaly” upon melting. These results are compatible with the high-pressure study by Suzuki and Mishima indicating disappearance of polyamorphism at P ≈ 0.03–0.05 GPa at χ g ≈ 0.12–0.15 [J. Chem. Phys., 2014, 141, 094505]. PMID:27044677

  3. Behavior of water gel permissibles in coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribovich, J.; Watson, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the successful use of water gel permissibles, since their introduction in 1970, with an emphasis on some problems of behavior in their field application. One is the metal clip or ties used to seal the water gel package. Miners are occasionally hit by the 2.4 mm metal wire expelled from boreholes in normal shooting operations. Manufacturers have consequently reduced the mass of the metal ties by 25-50%, providing a partial solution. Another problem concerned two reported instances of misfired water gel burning after coal shooting operations. Extensive tests have offered no satisfactory solution as yet, except to point up a principal shortcoming of water gels: that of pressure desensitization. Two other factors affecting sensitivity, and possibly resulting in misfires, are low temperature and aging. There is a decline in air-gap sensitivity with prolonged storage but all approved water gels seem capable of meeting requirements for long periods under normal storage conditions. Low temperature tests indicate the majority of water gels become insensitive to a No. 6 EBC at temperatures easily attained in cold weather storage. An attempt was made to determine the minimum temperature at which a nitroglycerin-sensitized permisslbe could be initiated with a No. 8 cap; a particularly granular one was initiated as low as minus 196 C. (5 refs.) (In English)

  4. Environmental impact of coal mining and coal seam gas production on surface water quality in the Sydney basin, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A; Strezov, V; Davies, P; Wright, I

    2017-08-01

    The extraction of coal and coal seam gas (CSG) will generate produced water that, if not adequately treated, will pollute surface and groundwater systems. In Australia, the discharge of produced water from coal mining and related activities is regulated by the state environment agency through a pollution licence. This licence sets the discharge limits for a range of analytes to protect the environment into which the produced water is discharged. This study reports on the impact of produced water from coal mine activities located within or discharging into high conservation environments, such as National Parks, in the outer region of Sydney, Australia. The water samples upstream and downstream from the discharge points from six mines were taken, and 110 parameters were tested. The results were assessed against a water quality index (WQI) which accounts for pH, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, total dissolved solids, total phosphorus, nitrate nitrogen and E .coli. The water quality assessment based on the trace metal contents against various national maximum admissible concentration (MAC) and their corresponding environmental impacts was also included in the study which also established a base value of water quality for further study. The study revealed that impacted water downstream of the mine discharge points contained higher metal content than the upstream reference locations. In many cases, the downstream water was above the Australia and New Zealand Environment Conservation Council and international water quality guidelines for freshwater stream. The major outliers to the guidelines were aluminium (Al), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn). The WQI of surface water at and downstream of the discharge point was lower when compared to upstream or reference conditions in the majority of cases. Toxicology indices of metals present in industrial discharges were used as an additional tool to assess water quality, and the newly

  5. A computerized coal-water slurry transportation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljubicic, B.R.; Trostad, B. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Bukurov, Z.; Cvijanovic, P. [Univ. of Novi Sad (Yugoslavia)

    1995-12-01

    Coal-water fuel (CWF) technology has been developed to the point where full-scale commercialization is just a matter of gaining sufficient market confidence in the price stability of alternate fossil fuels. In order to generalize alternative fuel cost estimates for the desired combinations of processing and/or transportation, a great deal of flexibility is required owing to the understood lack of precision in many of the newly emerging coal technologies. Previously, decisions regarding the sequential and spatial arrangement of the various process steps were made strictly on the basis of experience, simplified analysis, and intuition. Over the last decade, computer modeling has progressed from empirically based correlation to that of intricate mechanistic analysis. Nomograms, charts, tables, and many simple rules of thumb have been made obsolete by the availability of complex computer models. Given the ability to view results graphically in real or near real time, the engineer can immediately verify, from a practical standpoint, whether the initial assumptions and inputs were indeed valid. If the feasibility of a project is being determined in the context of a lack of specific data, the ability to provide a dynamic software-based solution is crucial. Furthermore, the resulting model can be used to establish preliminary operating procedures, test control logic, and train plant/process operators. Presented in this paper is a computerized model capable of estimating the delivered cost of CWF. The model uses coal-specific values, process and transport requirements, terrain factors, and input costs to determine the final operating configuration, bill of materials, and, ultimately, the capital, operating, and unit costs.

  6. Cosolvent effect on the dynamics of water in aqueous binary mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xia; Zhang, Lu; Jin, Tan; Zhang, Qiang; Zhuang, Wei

    2018-04-01

    Water rotational dynamics in the mixtures of water and amphiphilic molecules, such as acetone and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), measured by femtosecond infrared, often vary non-monotonically as the amphiphilic molecule's molar fraction changes from 0 to 1. Recent study has attributed the non-ideal water rotation with concentration in DMSO-water mixtures to different microscopic hydrophilic-hydrophobic segregation structure in water-rich and water-poor mixtures. Interestingly, the acetone molecule has very similar molecular structure to DMSO, but the extremum of the water rotational time in the DMSO-water mixtures significantly shifts to lower concentration and the rotation of water is much faster than those in acetone-water mixtures. The simulation results here shows that the non-ideal rotational dynamics of water in both mixtures are due to the frame rotation during the interval of hydrogen bond (HB) switchings. A turnover of the frame rotation with concentration takes place as the structure transition of mixture from the hydrogen bond percolation structure to the hydrophobic percolation structure. The weak acetone-water hydrogen bond strengthens the hydrophobic aggregation and accelerates the relaxation of the hydrogen bond, so that the structure transition takes places at lower concentration and the rotation of water is faster in acetone-water mixture than in DMSO-water mixture. A generally microscopic picture on the mixing effect on the water dynamics in binary aqueous mixtures is presented here.

  7. Methane recovery from coal mine gas using hydrate formation in water-in-oil emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Dong-Liang; Ding, Kun; Lu, Yi-Yu; Yan, Jin; Zhao, Wei-Long

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A water-in-oil emulsion was developed for CH_4 separation from coal mine methane gas. • Stable W/O emulsions were obtained with water cut in the range of (10–70%). • Gas hydrates nucleated faster with the reduction of water–oil volume ratio. • Gas uptake increased with the decrease of water–oil volume ratio. • CH_4 recovery was greatly enhanced by hydrate formation in W/O emulsions. - Abstract: In this work, a water-in-oil (W/O) emulsion was developed using liquid water, mineral oil, Sorbitan monooleate (Span 80), and cyclopentane. It was employed to enhance gas hydrate formation for CH_4 separation from a simulated coal mine methane (CMM) gas (30 mol% CH_4, 60 mol% N_2, and 10 mol% O_2). The stability test at atmospheric pressure and at a high pressure of 3.5 MPa showed that stable W/O emulsions were obtained when the water–oil volume ratio (WOR) was below 80%. The emulsified droplets size was measured with WOR ranging from 10% to 70%. Then kinetic experiments of CH_4 separation by hydrate formation in W/O emulsions were carried out at 273.6 K and (3.5–5.0) MPa in batch operation. The results indicated that water–oil volume ratio is a key factor that affects the kinetics of gas hydrate formation from the CMM gas mixture. Hydrate nucleation was observed to occur faster while WOR was decreased, and gas uptake increased significantly with the decrease of WOR. CH_4 concentration in the recovered gas mixture was increased to 52 mol% as compared to 30 mol% in the original gas mixture through one-stage hydrate formation in the W/O emulsions. It was found that the experimental conditions of 273.6 K, 3.5 MPa and WOR = 30% were favorable for CH_4 recovery from the CMM gas. The CH_4 recovery obtained under these conditions was 43%. It was higher than those obtained at WOR = 10% and 70%, and was greatly increased as compared with those obtained in the same reactor with the presence of TBAB (26%) and CP (33%).

  8. Mixtures of coal ash and compost as substrates for highbush blueberry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, B.L.; Zimmerman, R.H. [ARS, Beltsville, MD (USA). USDA Henry A Wallace Beltsville Agriculture Research Center, Fruit Lab.

    2002-07-01

    Bottom ash from a coal-fired power plant and two composts were tested as components of soil-free media and as soil amendments for growing highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.). Combinations of ash and compost were compared to Berryland sand, and Manor clay loam, and compost amended Manor clay loam. The pH of all treatment media was adjusted to 4.5 with sulfur at the beginning of the experiment. In 1997, plants of 'Bluecrop' and 'Sierra' were planted in 15-dm{sup 3} pots containing the pH-adjusted treatment media. The first substantial crop was harvested in 1999. At the end of the 1999 season, one half of the plants were destructively harvested for growth analysis. The remaining plants were cropped again in 2000. Yield and fruit size data were collected in both seasons, and leaf and fruit samples were collected in 1999 for elemental analysis. The presence of coal ash or composted biosolids in the media had no detrimental effect on leaf or fruit elemental content. Total growth and yield of both cultivars was reduced in clay loam soil compared to Berryland sand, whereas growth and yield of plants in coal ash-compost was similar to or exceeded that of plants in Berryland sand.

  9. Water Extraction from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce C. Folkedahl; Greg F. Weber; Michael E. Collings

    2006-06-30

    The overall objective of this program was to develop a liquid disiccant-based flue gas dehydration process technology to reduce water consumption in coal-fired power plants. The specific objective of the program was to generate sufficient subscale test data and conceptual commercial power plant evaluations to assess process feasibility and merits for commercialization. Currently, coal-fired power plants require access to water sources outside the power plant for several aspects of their operation in addition to steam cycle condensation and process cooling needs. At the present time, there is no practiced method of extracting the usually abundant water found in the power plant stack gas. This project demonstrated the feasibility and merits of a liquid desiccant-based process that can efficiently and economically remove water vapor from the flue gas of fossil fuel-fired power plants to be recycled for in-plant use or exported for clean water conservation. After an extensive literature review, a survey of the available physical and chemical property information on desiccants in conjunction with a weighting scheme developed for this application, three desiccants were selected and tested in a bench-scale system at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC). System performance at the bench scale aided in determining which desiccant was best suited for further evaluation. The results of the bench-scale tests along with further review of the available property data for each of the desiccants resulted in the selection of calcium chloride as the desiccant for testing at the pilot-scale level. Two weeks of testing utilizing natural gas in Test Series I and coal in Test Series II for production of flue gas was conducted with the liquid desiccant dehumidification system (LDDS) designed and built for this study. In general, it was found that the LDDS operated well and could be placed in an automode in which the process would operate with no operator intervention or

  10. Elaboration of new ceramic microfiltration membranes from mineral coal fly ash applied to waste water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedidi, Ilyes; Saïdi, Sami; Khemakhem, Sabeur; Larbot, André; Elloumi-Ammar, Najwa; Fourati, Amine; Charfi, Aboulhassan; Salah, Abdelhamid Ben; Amar, Raja Ben

    2009-12-15

    This work aims to develop a new mineral porous tubular membrane based on mineral coal fly ash. Finely ground mineral coal powder was calcinated at 700 degrees C for about 3 h. The elaboration of the mesoporous layer was performed by the slip-casting method using a suspension made of the mixture of fly-ash powder, water and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The obtained membrane was submitted to a thermal treatment which consists in drying at room temperature for 24 h then a sintering at 800 degrees C. SEM photographs indicated that the membrane surface was homogeneous and did not present any macrodefects (cracks, etc...). The average pore diameter of the active layer was 0.25 microm and the thickness was around 20 microm. The membrane permeability was 475 l/h m(2) bar. This membrane was applied to the treatment of the dying effluents generated by the washing baths in the textile industry. The performances in term of permeate flux and efficiency were determined and compared to those obtained using a commercial alumina microfiltration membrane. Almost the same stabilised permeate flux was obtained (about 100 l h(-1)m(-2)). The quality of permeate was almost the same with the two membranes: the COD and color removal was 75% and 90% respectively.

  11. Association of saponins in water and water-gelatine mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarnthein-Graf, Carlo; La Mesa, Camillo

    2004-08-15

    The solution properties of a commercial saponin obtained from Quillaja Bark (QBS), have been investigated in a wide range of experimental conditions in water and in the presence of moderate amounts of porcine skin gelatine, GEL. Saponins are surface active and form micelles at very low concentration. Significant changes in the solution dielectric properties are concomitant to micelle formation. The combination of thermodynamic, spectroscopic, transport and dielectric methods characterises the micelle formation, giving information on interactions between the components. NMR relaxation times, NMR self-diffusion and dielectric measurements were used. Micelle aggregation numbers, inferred from light scattering, indicate the formation of relatively large aggregates. No evidence for interactions between protein and surfactant was obtained. This is presumably due to the limited ionisation of acidic groups on the surfactant, which does not allow significant electrostatic binding with the protein.

  12. Association of saponins in water and water-gelatine mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarnthein-Graf, Carlo; La Mesa, Camillo

    2004-01-01

    The solution properties of a commercial saponin obtained from Quillaja Bark (QBS), have been investigated in a wide range of experimental conditions in water and in the presence of moderate amounts of porcine skin gelatine, GEL. Saponins are surface active and form micelles at very low concentration. Significant changes in the solution dielectric properties are concomitant to micelle formation. The combination of thermodynamic, spectroscopic, transport and dielectric methods characterises the micelle formation, giving information on interactions between the components. NMR relaxation times, NMR self-diffusion and dielectric measurements were used. Micelle aggregation numbers, inferred from light scattering, indicate the formation of relatively large aggregates. No evidence for interactions between protein and surfactant was obtained. This is presumably due to the limited ionisation of acidic groups on the surfactant, which does not allow significant electrostatic binding with the protein

  13. Preparation of thiol-functionalized activated carbon from sewage sludge with coal blending for heavy metal removal from contaminated water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Xing, Xing; Li, Jiao; Shi, Mei; Lin, Aijun; Xu, Congbin; Zheng, Jianzhong; Li, Ronghua

    2018-03-01

    Sewage sludge produced from wastewater treatment is a pressing environmental issue. Mismanagement of the massive amount of sewage sludge would threat our valuble surface and shallow ground water resources. Use of activated carbon prepared from carbonization of these sludges for heavy metal removal can not only minimize and stabilize these hazardous materials but also realize resources reuse. In this study, thiol-functionalized activated carbon was synthesized from coal-blended sewage sludge, and its capacity was examined for removing Cu(II), Pb(II), Cd(II) and Ni(II) from water. Pyrolysis conditions to prepare activated carbons from the sludge and coal mixture were examined, and the synthesized material was found to achieve the highest BET surface area of 1094 m 2 /g under 500 °C and 30 min. Batch equilibrium tests indicated that the thiol-functionalized activated carbon had a maximum sorption capacity of 238.1, 96.2, 87.7 and 52.4 mg/g for Pb(II), Cd(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II) removal from water, respectively. Findings of this study suggest that thiol-functionalized activated carbon prepared from coal-blended sewage sludge would be a promising sorbent material for heavy metal removal from waters contaminated with Cu(II), Pb(II), Cd(II) and Ni(II). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Using random forest for the risk assessment of coal-floor water inrush in Panjiayao Coal Mine, northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dekang; Wu, Qiang; Cui, Fangpeng; Xu, Hua; Zeng, Yifan; Cao, Yufei; Du, Yuanze

    2018-04-01

    Coal-floor water-inrush incidents account for a large proportion of coal mine disasters in northern China, and accurate risk assessment is crucial for safe coal production. A novel and promising assessment model for water inrush is proposed based on random forest (RF), which is a powerful intelligent machine-learning algorithm. RF has considerable advantages, including high classification accuracy and the capability to evaluate the importance of variables; in particularly, it is robust in dealing with the complicated and non-linear problems inherent in risk assessment. In this study, the proposed model is applied to Panjiayao Coal Mine, northern China. Eight factors were selected as evaluation indices according to systematic analysis of the geological conditions and a field survey of the study area. Risk assessment maps were generated based on RF, and the probabilistic neural network (PNN) model was also used for risk assessment as a comparison. The results demonstrate that the two methods are consistent in the risk assessment of water inrush at the mine, and RF shows a better performance compared to PNN with an overall accuracy higher by 6.67%. It is concluded that RF is more practicable to assess the water-inrush risk than PNN. The presented method will be helpful in avoiding water inrush and also can be extended to various engineering applications.

  15. Dielectric properties of water in Triton X-100 (nonionic detergent)-water mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asami, Koji

    2007-01-01

    Dielectric measurements were carried out for mixtures of Triton X-100 (TX, a nonionic detergent with a poly(ethylene oxide) chain) and water with or without electrolytes over a frequency range of 1 MHz to 10 GHz to study the structure and dynamics of water molecules in the mixtures. Dielectric relaxation was found above 100 MHz, being assigned to the dielectric relaxation of water. The intensity of the dielectric relaxation was proportional to the water content above 0 deg. C. Below the freezing temperature of bulk water, the relaxation intensity decreased at TX concentrations (C TX ) below 50 wt% at -10 deg. Cand below 60 wt% at -20 deg. Cbecause frozen water shifts the dielectric relaxation to a frequency region far below 1 MHz. This indicated that there is no bulk water at C TX above 50 wt% and that at least two water molecules per ethylene oxide (EO) unit are tightly associated with the ethylene oxide chain. The low-frequency conductivity of the mixtures of TX and electrolyte solutions was well represented by Bruggeman's mixture equation at C TX below 40 wt%, if two water molecules per EO unit form an insulating shell surrounding TX micelles

  16. Effect of hydraulic retention time on the biodegradation of complex phenolic mixture from simulated coal wastewater in hybrid UASB reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramakrishnan, Anushuya [Centre for Environmental Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India); Gupta, Sudhir Kumar [Centre for Environmental Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India)], E-mail: skgupta@iitb.ac.in

    2008-05-01

    This study describes the feasibility of anaerobic treatment of complex phenolics mixture from a simulated synthetic coal wastewater using four identical 13.5 L (effective volume) bench scale hybrid up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (HUASB) (combining UASB + anaerobic filter) reactors at four different hydraulic retention times (HRT) under mesophilic (27 {+-} 5 {sup o}C) conditions. Synthetic coal wastewater with an average chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 2240 mg/L and phenolics concentration of 752 mg/L was used as substrate. The phenolics contained phenol (490 mg/L); m-, o-, p-cresols (123.0, 58.6, 42 mg/L); 2,4-, 2,5-, 3,4- and 3,5-dimethyl phenols (6.3, 6.3, 4.4 and 21.3 mg/L) as major phenolic compounds. The study demonstrated that at optimum HRT, 24 h, and phenolic loading rate of 0.75 g COD/(m{sup 3}-d), the phenolics and COD removal efficiency of the reactors were 96% and 86%, respectively. Bio-kinetic models were applied to data obtained from experimental studies in hybrid UASB reactor. Grau second-order multi-component substrate removal model was best fitted to the hybrid UASB reactor. The second-order substrate removal rate constant (k{sub 2(s)}) was found as 1.72 h{sup -1} for the hybrid reactor treating complex phenolic mixture. Morphological examination of the sludge revealed rod-type Methanothrix-like, cells to be dominant on the surface.

  17. Effect of hydraulic retention time on the biodegradation of complex phenolic mixture from simulated coal wastewater in hybrid UASB reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramakrishnan, Anushuya; Gupta, Sudhir Kumar

    2008-01-01

    This study describes the feasibility of anaerobic treatment of complex phenolics mixture from a simulated synthetic coal wastewater using four identical 13.5 L (effective volume) bench scale hybrid up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (HUASB) (combining UASB + anaerobic filter) reactors at four different hydraulic retention times (HRT) under mesophilic (27 ± 5 o C) conditions. Synthetic coal wastewater with an average chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 2240 mg/L and phenolics concentration of 752 mg/L was used as substrate. The phenolics contained phenol (490 mg/L); m-, o-, p-cresols (123.0, 58.6, 42 mg/L); 2,4-, 2,5-, 3,4- and 3,5-dimethyl phenols (6.3, 6.3, 4.4 and 21.3 mg/L) as major phenolic compounds. The study demonstrated that at optimum HRT, 24 h, and phenolic loading rate of 0.75 g COD/(m 3 -d), the phenolics and COD removal efficiency of the reactors were 96% and 86%, respectively. Bio-kinetic models were applied to data obtained from experimental studies in hybrid UASB reactor. Grau second-order multi-component substrate removal model was best fitted to the hybrid UASB reactor. The second-order substrate removal rate constant (k 2(s) ) was found as 1.72 h -1 for the hybrid reactor treating complex phenolic mixture. Morphological examination of the sludge revealed rod-type Methanothrix-like, cells to be dominant on the surface

  18. Slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.; Viani, Brian

    2013-01-29

    A slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures includes the steps of dissolving the gas mixture and carbon dioxide in water providing a gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture; adding a porous solid media to the gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture forming a slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media; heating the slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media producing steam; and cooling the steam to produce purified water and carbon dioxide.

  19. Solvation structures of lithium halides in methanol–water mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Atanu; Dixit, Mayank Kumar; Tembe, B.L.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Potentials of mean force for Li + -halides are calculated in methanol–water mixtures. • Stable CIP for x methanol = 1.0 becomes unstable at and below x methanol = 0.75. • The Li + ion is preferentially solvated by methanol molecules. • The halide ions are preferentially solvated by water molecules. - Abstract: The potentials of mean force (PMFs) for the ion pairs, Li + −Cl − , Li + −Br − and Li + −I − have been calculated in five methanol–water compositions. The results obtained are verified by trailing the trajectories and calculating the ion pair distance residence times. Local structures around the ions are studied using the radial distribution functions, density profiles, orientational correlation functions, running coordination numbers and excess coordination numbers. The major change in PMF is observed as the methanol mole fraction (x methanol ) is changed from 1.0 to 0.75. The stable contact ion pair occurring for x methanol = 1.0 becomes unstable at and below x methanol = 0.75. The preferential solvation data show that the halide ions are always preferentially solvated by water molecules. Although the lithium ion is preferentially solvated by methanol molecules, there is significant affinity towards water molecules as well

  20. Solubility of the Proteinogenic α-Amino Acids in Water, Ethanol, and Ethanol-Water Mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bowden, Nathan A.; Sanders, Johan P.M.; Bruins, Marieke E.

    2018-01-01

    The addition of organic solvents to α-amino acids in aqueous solution could be an effective method in crystallization. We reviewed the available data on the solubility of α-amino acids in water, water-ethanol mixtures, and ethanol at 298.15 K and 0.1 MPa. The solubility of l-alanine, l-proline,

  1. The detection of the coal roof interface by use of high pressure water

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    A device whereby water jets can be used to detect the interface between coal and the overlying roof rock is described. Once this identification is made this distance can be measured using instruments such as the autofocus systems recently developed in the photographic industry. Experiments carried out show that the device can discriminate between coal and rock at coal thicknesses up to 8 inches. An autofocus system was examined which indicates accuracies of better than 0.1 inches.

  2. Cleaning and dewatering fine coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Roe-Hoan; Eraydin, Mert K.; Freeland, Chad

    2017-10-17

    Fine coal is cleaned of its mineral matter impurities and dewatered by mixing the aqueous slurry containing both with a hydrophobic liquid, subjecting the mixture to a phase separation. The resulting hydrophobic liquid phase contains coal particles free of surface moisture and droplets of water stabilized by coal particles, while the aqueous phase contains the mineral matter. By separating the entrained water droplets from the coal particles mechanically, a clean coal product of substantially reduced mineral matter and moisture contents is obtained. The spent hydrophobic liquid is separated from the clean coal product and recycled. The process can also be used to separate one type of hydrophilic particles from another by selectively hydrophobizing one.

  3. The Development of Environmentally Friendly Technologies of Using Coals and Products of Their Enrichment in the Form of Coal Water Slurries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murko, Vasily; Hamalainen, Veniamin

    2017-11-01

    The article presents the current state of the technology for production and combustion of fuel coal water slurries in Russia and foreign countries. Experimental and industrial facilities show the technological and economic efficiency of using this technology for disposal of wastes resulting after coal processing and enrichment. The feasibility studies of use of the technology at large Kuzbass thermal power stations are presented. The possibility of solving a serious environmental problem of reducing storage of the most toxic waste of coal enrichment in the location areas of coal washing plants and coal mining enterprises is demonstrated.

  4. Coproduction of transportation fuels in advanced IGCCs via coal and biomass mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Qin; Rao, Ashok; Samuelsen, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Coproduction of electricity and transportation fuels with carbon capture. • Switchgrass biomass is cofed with bituminous coal or lignite. • Cost of Fischer–Tropsch liquids is comparable to longer term price projections of crude oil. • Ethanol costs more than gasoline but greenhouse gas emissions will be lower. • Cost of hydrogen is lower than the DoE announced goal of $3/kg. - Abstract: Converting abundant fossil resources of coal to alternative transportation fuels is a promising option for countries heavily dependent on petroleum imports if plants are equipped with carbon capture for sequestration and cofed with biomass (30% by weight of the total feed on a dry basis), an essentially carbon neutral fuel, without penalizing the process economics excessively. A potential exists to improve both thermal efficiency and economics of such plants by taking advantage of the synergies of coproducing electricity using advanced technologies under development. Three types of transportation fuels are considered. Fischer–Tropsch (F–T) liquids consisting predominantly of waxes could be processed in existing refineries while displacing petroleum and the refined products introduced into the market place at the present time or in the near term without requiring changes to the existing infrastructure. Ethanol could potentially serve in the not so distant future (or phased in by blending with conventional liquid fuels). Hydrogen which could play a dominant role in the more distant future being especially suitable to the fuel cell hybrid vehicle (FCHV). Two types of coal along with biomass cofeed are evaluated; bituminous coal at $42.0/dry tonne, lignite at $12.0/dry tonne, and switchgrass at $99.0/dry tonne. The calculated cost for F–T liquids ranged from $77.8/bbl to $86.6/bbl (or $0.0177 to 0.0197/MJ LHV) depending on the feedstock, which is comparable to the projected longer term market price of crude oil at ∼$80/bbl when supply and demand reach a

  5. Combustion characteristics of nanoaluminum, liquid water, and hydrogen peroxide mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabourin, J.L.; Yetter, R.A. [The Pennsylvania State University, Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, University Park, PA 16801 (United States); Risha, G.A. [The Pennsylvania State University, Division of Business and Engineering, Altoona, PA 16601 (United States); Son, S.F. [Purdue University, School of Mechanical Engineering, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Tappan, B.C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2008-08-15

    An experimental investigation of the combustion characteristics of nanoaluminum (nAl), liquid water (H{sub 2}O{sub (l)}), and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) mixtures has been conducted. Linear and mass-burning rates as functions of pressure, equivalence ratio ({phi}), and concentration of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in H{sub 2}O{sub (l)} oxidizing solution are reported. Steady-state burning rates were obtained at room temperature using a windowed pressure vessel over an initial pressure range of 0.24 to 12.4 MPa in argon, using average nAl particle diameters of 38 nm, {phi} from 0.5 to 1.3, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentrations between 0 and 32% by mass. At a nominal pressure of 3.65 MPa, under stoichiometric conditions, mass-burning rates per unit area ranged between 6.93 g/cm{sup 2} s (0% H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and 37.04 g/cm{sup 2} s (32% H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), which corresponded to linear burning rates of 9.58 and 58.2 cm/s, respectively. Burning rate pressure exponents of 0.44 and 0.38 were found for stoichiometric mixtures at room temperature containing 10 and 25% H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, respectively, up to 5 MPa. Burning rates are reduced above {proportional_to}5 MPa due to the pressurization of interstitial spaces of the packed reactant mixture with argon gas, diluting the fuel and oxidizer mixture. Mass burning rates were not measured above {proportional_to}32% H{sub 2}O{sub 2} due to an anomalous burning phenomena, which caused overpressurization within the quartz sample holder, leading to tube rupture. High-speed imaging displayed fingering or jetting ahead of the normal flame front. Localized pressure measurements were taken along the sample length, determining that the combustion process proceeded as a normal deflagration prior to tube rupture, without significant pressure buildup within the tube. In addition to burning rates, chemical efficiencies of the combustion reaction were determined to be within approximately 10% of the theoretical maximum under all conditions

  6. Coal-bed methane water: effects on soil properties and camelina productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Every year the production of coal-bed natural gas in the Powder River Basin results in the discharge of large amounts of coal-bed methane water (CBMW) in Wyoming; however, no sustainable disposal methods for CBMW are currently available. A greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate the potential to ...

  7. Treating mine waters in the Lorraine coal field - feedback from the La Houve treatment plant

    OpenAIRE

    Koeberlé , Nicolas; Levicki , Roger; Kaiser , Joël; Heitz , Sonia

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Coal extraction in the Lorraine coal field ended in 2004, after 150 years of mining. Stopping of mine drainage pumping caused the flooding of 180 million m3 of mine cavities. After around 2 to 5 years of filling, pumping became necessary to keep pace with rising levels of iron‐containing water. The elevated levels of iron mineralisation in the mine water are such that the water cannot be discharged directly into the natural environment, making treatment a necessity. In...

  8. Water fog inerting of hydrogen-air mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalosh, R.G.; Bajpai, S.N.

    1982-01-01

    Laboratory tests have been conducted to determine the effects of water fog density, droplet diameter and temperature on the lower flammable limit (LFL) of hydrogen-air-steam mixtures. Five different fog nozzles were used to generate dense fogs with volume mean drop diameters ranging from 20 micro-meters to 115 micro-meters. At 20 0 C, these nozzles marginally raised the hydrogen LFL from 4.0 vol.% hydrogen to typically 4.8%, with one exceptional nozzle producing an LFL of 7.2%. At 50 0 C, the LFL in the presence of dense fog ranged from 5.0 to 7.9%, while at 70 0 C, the range was 5.9 to 8.5%. Fog densities required to achieve a given level of partial inerting increased with approximately the second power of average drop diameter, as predicted by a theoretical flame quenching analysis

  9. Increasing the dust separation efficiency by water spray during the operation of coal combines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feskov, M I; Kurdyukov, A N

    1974-08-01

    Possibilities of efficient wet dust separation around coal combines and their working members are described. The water consumption for dust separation around working members ranges from 0.3 to 1 l/cu m dust-laden air. The working member can be isolated from his surroundings by plastic walls or shields, while water or air curtains are rather unreliable. Such isolation requires a considerable increase in the water expenditure to improve the wettability of the coal particles by humidifying the air. Laboratory experiments revealed improved wettability and sedimentability of coal particles in humid air.

  10. Cold water injection into two-phase mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    This report presents the results of a review of the international literature regarding the dynamic loadings associated with the injection of cold water into two-phase mixtures. The review placed emphasis on waterhammer in nuclear power plants. Waterhammmer incidence data were reviewed for information related to thermalhydraulic conditions, underlying causes and consequential damage. Condensation induced waterhammer was found to be the most significant consequence of injecting cold water into a two-phase system. Several severe waterhammer incidents have been attributed to slug formation and steam bubble collapse under conditions of stratified steam and cold water flows. These phenomena are complex and not well understood. The current body of experimental and analytical knowledge is not large enough to establish maps of expected regimes of condensation induced waterhammer. The Electric Power Research Institute, in the United States, has undertaken a major research and development programme to develop the knowledge base for this area. The limited models and data currently available show that mechanical parameters are as important as thermodynamic conditions for the initiation of condensation induced waterhammer. Examples of bounds for avoiding two-phase waterhammer are given. These bounds are system specific and depend upon parameters such as pump capacity, pipe length and pipe orientation

  11. High resolution conductometry for isotopic assay of deuterium in mixtures of heavy water and light water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ananthanarayanan, R.; Sahoo, P.; Murali, N.

    2014-01-01

    A PC based high resolution conductivity monitoring technique has been deployed for determination of isotopic purity of heavy water in samples containing heavy water and light water mixtures using pulsating sensor based conductivity monitoring instrument. The technique involves accurate determination of conductivities of a series of specially treated heavy water and light water mixtures of various compositions at a constant solution temperature. The shift in conductivity (Δκ), which is the difference between conductivities of composite mixture after and before the formation of a typical complex compound (boric acid–mannitol complex in this case), shows a smooth and reproducible decreasing trend with increase in percentage composition of heavy water. This relation, which is obtained by appropriate calibration, is used in the software program for direct display of isotopic purity of heavy water. The technique is examined for determination of percentage composition of heavy water in the entire range of concentration (0-100 %) with reasonable precision (relative standard deviation, RSD ≤1.5 %). About 1 mL of sample is required for each analysis and analysis is completed within a couple of minutes after pretreatment of sample. The accuracy in measurement is ≤1.75 %. (author)

  12. Coal consumption minimizing by increasing thermal energy efficiency at ROMAG-PROD Heavy Water Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preda, Marius Cristian

    2006-01-01

    ROMAG-PROD Heavy Water Plant is a large thermal energy consumer using almost all the steam output from ROMAG-TERMO Power Plant - the steam cost weight in the total heavy water price is about 40%. The steam consumption minimizing by modernization of isotopic exchange facilities and engineering development in ROMAG-PROD Heavy Water Plant results in an corresponding decrease of coal amount burned at ROMAG-TERMO boilers. This decrease could be achieved mainly by the followings ways: - Facility wrappings integrity; - High performance heat exchangers; - Refurbished heat insulations; - Modified condenser-collecting pipeline routes; - High performance steam traps; - Heat electric wire. When coal is burned in Power Plant burners to obtain thermal energy, toxic emissions results in flue gases, such as: - CO 2 and NO x with impact on climate warming; - SO 2 which results in ozone layer thinning effect and in acid rain falls. From the value of steam output per burned coal: 1 GCal steam = 1.41 tone steam = 0.86 thermal MW = 1.1911 tones burned coal (lignite), it is obvious that by decreasing the thermal energy consumption provided for ROMAG PROD, a coal amount decrease is estimated at about 45 t/h, or about 394,200 t/year coal, which means about 10% of the current coal consumption at ROMAG-TERMO PP. At the same time, by reducing the burned coal amount, an yearly decrease in emissions into air to about 400,000 tones CO 2 is expected

  13. Increase in extraction yields of coals by water treatment: Beulah-Zap lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masashi Iino; Toshimasa Takanohashi; Takahiro Shishido; Ikuo Saito; Haruo Kumagai [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2007-01-15

    In a previous paper, we have reported that water pretreatments of Argonne premium coals, Pocahontas No. 3 (PO), Upper Freeport (UF), and Illinois No. 6 (IL) at 600 K increased greatly the room-temperature extraction yields with a 1:1 carbon disulfide/N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (CS{sub 2}/NMP) mixed solvent. In this paper, the water treatment of Beulah-Zap (BZ) lignite has been carried out and the results obtained were compared with those for the three bituminous coals above. The extraction yields of BZ with CS{sub 2}/NMP increased from 5.5% for the raw coal to 21.7% by the water treatment at 600 K. Similar to the other three coals, the water treatments at 500 K gave little increase in the yields. The larger decrease in oxygen content and hydrogen-bonded OH and the increase in the methanol swelling ratio by the water treatment suggest that the yield enhancements for BZ are attributed to the removal of oxygen functional groups and the breaking of hydrogen bonds to a greater extent than that for IL. From the characterizations of the treated coals and the extraction temperature dependency of their extraction yields, it is suggested that, for high-coal-rank coals, PO and UF, the breaking of noncovalent bonds such as {pi}-{pi} interactions between aromatic layers and hydrogen bonds is responsible for the extraction yield enhancements. 14 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Influence of surface water accumulations of the Stupnica creek on underground coal mining in the Durdevic coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valjarevic, R; Urosevic, V

    1986-01-01

    Discusses hydrological, geological and mining conditions at the Durdevic underground coal mine. A landslide at a spoil bank dammed the creek flowing above the mine. Two exploratory boreholes (62 m and 68 m) were drilled for hydrological investigations. Water coloring techniques, chemical water analysis, measurement of underground water level and water flow were used to determine whether a sudden inrush of rainfall and accumulated surface water could endanger the mine. Underground water inflow to mine rooms varies from 110-200 m/sup 3//min, depending on the season. Diversion of the creek bed with the accumulated water and accumulation and subsequent drainage of surface water via large diameter concrete pipes were considered as possible ways of improving safety in the mine. Details of these projects are included. 4 refs.

  15. Investigation of a separation process involving liquid-water-coal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Jr, D V; Burry, W

    1987-01-01

    A liquid-liquid-solid separation procedure wherein a water-oil-coal-mineral matter slurry is allowed to come to equilibrium through mechanical agitation has for many years been applied to the separation of coal from mineral matter. The product is a black cottage cheese-like mass of agglomerated coal particles and oil suspended in the excess water which supports the dispersed mineral matter particles. A liquid bridge model which was proposed by earlier investigators is reviewed critically and used to estimate the free energy per unit area of the separation of coals of different ranks. Observations of the kinetics of the process suggest that the simple liquid bridge model is insufficient, probably due to the heterogeneous surfaces of the coal. An alternative model is proposed. 14 references.

  16. Raw-materials mixtures from waste of the coal industry for production of ceramic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galpern, E I [Scientific-Manufacturing Enterprise ` ` Ceramics` ` , Donetsk (Ukraine); Pashchenko, L V [Inst. of Physical, Organic and Coal Chemistry of NASU, Donetsk (Ukraine)

    1998-09-01

    The liquidation of waste dumps on the surface of mining enterprises and realization of measures by environment protection of air and aquatic basins are connected to the complex processing of mining mass. The main directions of utilization of mining rocks and coal wastes realized in Ukraine industry are: - filling of mines worked-out area by grouting solutions; - ceramic brick, porous filling materials and binding materials production; - road-making, construction of hydrostructures and industrial objects; - output of concrete items predominantly for using in mining conditions. The peculiarity of wastes using in above-mentioned fields is the possibility of their mass application in quantities commensurable with valumes of their yields. The experience of enterprises work which process mining rocks into building materials by burning method (ceramic brick, porous aggregates of concretes as aggloporite, expanded clay aggregate) has shown that unconstant and, as the rule, exceeding norms content of carbon and sulphur in the rock results to deterioration of products quality and technological factors of production. Unstability of carbon content in raw material makes the burning process hardly operated. Obtained products having residual carbon in the view of coke residue are often characterized by lower physical-mechanical characteristics. (orig./SR)

  17. Thermal properties of phosphoric acid-doped polybenzimidazole membranes in water and methanol-water mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nores-Pondal, Federico J.; Corti, Horacio R. [Grupo de Pilas de Combustible, Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Av. General Paz 1499, B1650KNA San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (Argentina); Buera, M. Pilar [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (Argentina); Departamento de Industrias, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Av. Cantilo s/n, Ciudad Universitaria (1428) Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2010-10-01

    The thermal properties of phosphoric acid-doped poly[2-2'-(m-phenylene)-5-5' bi-benzimidazole] (PBI) and poly[2,5-benzimidazole] (ABPBI) membranes, ionomeric materials with promising properties to be used as electrolytes in direct methanol and in high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells, were studied by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) technique in the temperature range from -145 C to 200 C. The DSC scans of samples equilibrated in water at different relative humidities (RH) and in liquid water-methanol mixtures were analyzed in relation to glass transition, water crystallization/melting and solvent desorption in different temperature regions. The thermal relaxation observed in the very low temperature region could be ascribed to the glass transition of the H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}-H{sub 2}O mixture confined in the polymeric matrix. After cooling the samples up to -145 C, frozen water was detected in PBI and ABPBI at different RH, although at 100% RH less amount of water had crystallized than that observed in Nafion membranes under the same conditions. Even more important is the fact that the freezing degree of water is much lower in ABPBI membranes equilibrated in liquid water-methanol mixtures than that observed for PBI and, in a previous study, for Nafion. Thus, apart from other well known properties, acid-doped ABPBI emerges as an excellent ionomer for applications in direct methanol fuel cells working in cold environments. (author)

  18. Effect of organized assemblies. Part 4. Formulation of highly concentrated coal-water slurry using a natural surfactant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debadutta Das; Sagarika Panigrahi; Pramila K. Misra; Amalendu Nayak [Sambalpur University, Orissa (India). Centre of Studies in Surface Science and Technology

    2008-05-15

    Coal-water slurry has received considerable research nowadays due to its ability in substituting energy sources. The present work reports the formulation of highly concentrated coal-water slurry using a natural occurring surface active compound, saponin, extracted from the fruits of plant Sapindous laurifolia. The isolation of saponin from the plant and its surface activity has been discussed. The rheological characteristics of coal-water slurry have been investigated as a function of coal loading, ash content of coal, pH, temperature, and amount of saponin. The viscosity of the slurry and zeta potential are substantially decreased with concomitant shift of the isoelectric point of coal on adsorption of saponin to it. In the presence of 0.8% of saponin, coal-water slurry containing 64% weight fraction of coal could be achieved. The slurry is stable for a period of as long as 1 month in contrast to 4-5 h in the case of bare coal-water slurry. The results confirm the use of saponin as a suitable additive for coal-water slurry similar to the commercially available additive such as sodium dodecyl sulfate. Basing on the effect of pH on the zeta potential and viscosity of slurry, a suitable mechanism for saponin-coal interaction and orientation of saponin at the coal-water interface has been proposed. 47 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Influence of Coal Ash Leachates and Emergent Macrophytes on Water Quality in Wetland Microcosms

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Influence of Coal Ash Leachates and Emergent Macrophytes on Water Quality in Wetland Microcosms. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Olson,...

  20. Application of brown coal activated mechanically at disposal of heavy metal from waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brezovska, M.

    2003-01-01

    Sorptive characteristics of activated brown coal from mine of Novaky and impact of mechanical activation on sorption of heavy metals from water were examined. Experimental results indicate suitable choice and good absorption ability of used material

  1. Coal-water slurry fuel internal combustion engine and method for operating same

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillian, Michael H.

    1992-01-01

    An internal combustion engine fueled with a coal-water slurry is described. About 90 percent of the coal-water slurry charge utilized in the power cycle of the engine is directly injected into the main combustion chamber where it is ignited by a hot stream of combustion gases discharged from a pilot combustion chamber of a size less than about 10 percent of the total clearance volume of main combustion chamber with the piston at top dead center. The stream of hot combustion gases is provided by injecting less than about 10 percent of the total coal-water slurry charge into the pilot combustion chamber and using a portion of the air from the main combustion chamber that has been heated by the walls defining the pilot combustion chamber as the ignition source for the coal-water slurry injected into the pilot combustion chamber.

  2. Environmental indicators of the combustion of prospective coal water slurry containing petrochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrienko, Margarita A; Nyashina, Galina S; Strizhak, Pavel A

    2017-09-15

    Negative environmental impact of coal combustion has been known to humankind for a fairly long time. Sulfur and nitrogen oxides are considered the most dangerous anthropogenic emissions. A possible solution to this problem is replacing coal dust combustion with that of coal water slurry containing petrochemicals (CWSP). Coal processing wastes and used combustible liquids (oils, sludge, resins) are promising in terms of their economic and energy yield characteristics. However, no research has yet been conducted on the environmental indicators of fuels based on CWSP. The present work contains the findings of the research of CO, CO2, NOx, SOx emissions from the combustion of coals and CWSPs produced from coal processing waste (filter cakes). It is demonstrated for the first time that the concentrations of dangerous emissions from the combustion of CWSPs (carbon oxide and dioxide), even when combustible heavy liquid fractions are added, are not worse than those of coal. As for the concentration of sulfur and nitrogen oxides, it is significantly lower for CWSPs combustion as compared to coals. The presented research findings illustrate the prospects of the wide use of CWSPs as a fuel that is cheap and beneficial, in terms of both energy output and ecology, as compared to coal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Design Concepts for Co-Production of Power, Fuels & Chemicals Via Coal/Biomass Mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, A. D.; Chen, Q.; Samuelsen, G. S.

    2012-09-30

    The overall goal of the program is to develop design concepts, incorporating advanced technologies in areas such as oxygen production, feed systems, gas cleanup, component separations and gas turbines, for integrated and economically viable coal and biomass fed gasification facilities equipped with carbon capture and storage for the following scenarios: (i) coproduction of power along with hydrogen, (ii) coproduction of power along with fuels, (iii) coproduction of power along with petrochemicals, and (iv) coproduction of power along with agricultural chemicals. To achieve this goal, specifically the following objectives are met in this proposed project: (i) identify advanced technology options and innovative preliminary design concepts that synergistically integrate plant subsections, (ii) develop steady state system simulations to predict plant efficiency and environmental signature, (iii) develop plant cost estimates by capacity factoring major subsystems or by major equipment items where required, and then capital, operating and maintenance cost estimates, and (iv) perform techno- economic analyses for the above described coproduction facilities. Thermal efficiencies for the electricity only cases with 90% carbon capture are 38.26% and 36.76% (HHV basis) with the bituminous and the lignite feedstocks respectively. For the coproduction cases (where 50% of the energy exported is in the form of electricity), the electrical efficiency, as expected, is highest for the hydrogen coproduction cases while lowest for the higher alcohols (ethanol) coproduction cases. The electrical efficiencies for Fischer-Tropsch coproduction cases are slightly higher than those for the methanol coproduction cases but it should be noted that the methanol (as well as the higher alcohol) coproduction cases produce the finished coproduct while the Fischer-Tropsch coproduction cases produce a coproduct that requires further processing in a refinery. The cross comparison of the thermal

  4. Solution enthalpies of alkali metal halides in water and heavy water mixtures with dimethyl sulfoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, G.I.

    1994-01-01

    Solution enthalpies of CsF, LiCl, NaI, CsI and some other halides of alkali metals and tetrabutylammonium have been measured by the method of calorimetry. Standard solution enthalpies of all alkali metals (except rubidium) halides in water and heavy water mixtures with dimethylsulfoxide at 298.15 K have been calculated. Isotopic effects in solvation enthalpy of the electrolytes mentioned in aqueous solutions of dimethylsulfoxide have been discussed. 29 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  5. Mutagenicity and genotoxicity of coal fly ash water leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Rajarshi; Mukherjee, Anita

    2009-03-01

    Fly ash is a by-product of coal-fired electricity generation plants. The prevalent practice of disposal is as slurry of ash and water to storage or ash ponds located near power stations. This has lain to waste thousands of hectares of land all over the world. Since leaching is often the cause of off-site contamination and pathway of introduction into the human environment, a study on the genotoxic effects of fly ash leachate is essential. Leachate prepared from the fly ash sample was analyzed for metal content, and tested for mutagenicity and genotoxicity. Analyses of metals show predominance of the metals-sodium, silicon, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, zinc, and sulphate. The Ames Salmonella mutagenicity assay, a short-term bacterial reverse mutation assay, was conducted on two-tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium strains TA97a and TA102. For genotoxicity, the alkaline version of comet assay on fly ash leachate was carried in vitro on human blood cells and in vivo on Nicotiana plants. The leachate was directly mutagenic and induced significant (Ppercentage (%), tail length (mum), and olive tail moment (arbitrary units). Our results indicate that leachate from fly ash dumpsites has the genotoxic potential and may lead to adverse effects on vegetation and on the health of exposed human populations.

  6. Formation of grooves during the breakdown of a coal block by a water jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shavlovskii, S.S.

    1979-02-01

    A description is given of a method of coal excavation which provides for the initial formation of a grooved slit along the width of the opening equal in height to the diameter of the sinkhole. The formation of a groove in the coal block and the excavation of coal by water jets using the grooved crater method are illustrated in diagrams. Data are given on changes in the performance of the hydraulic jet in coal excavation in relation to the distance between the nozzle and the face and at given pressures in front of the nozzle. Functional relationships were mathematically constructed for the performance of the water jet in dimensionless coordinates. Data are also given on the comparative performance of a water jet when coal is excavated by the grooved funnel method and by hydraulic fracturing. The analytical computations indicate that the hydraulic fracturing of a coal block by water jets is economical with respect to the consumption of electric power and the unit rate of coal extraction, in addition to being a safe method. 4 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  7. Environmental geochemistry of acid mine drainage water at Indus coal mine at Lakhra, Sindh Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddique, I.; Shah, M.T.

    2000-01-01

    The annual coal production of Pakistan is about 3,637, 825 tones which is about 6% of the country's energy resources, out of this 1,241, 965 tones of coal was produced/ mined from the Lakhra coal field, District Dadu, Sindh which after the Thar coal field is the second largest coal field of Pakistan. At this coal field more than 58 mining companies are engaged in exploring the hidden wealth of the country. The problem of acid mine drainage, is caused by the passage or seepage of water, through mines where iron disulfides, usually pyrites, are exposed to the oxidizing action of water, air and bacteria, is the main problem faced by the mining companies. The geochemical analysis of acid mine drainage water collected from Indus coal mine no. 6 shows that beside its higher pH, total Dissolved Solids and Sulfates, it also posses higher amount of heavy metals like Cd, Cu, Pb, Co, Ni and Fe. This acid mine drainage water not only damages the mine structures but is also harmful to soil and ecology. (author)

  8. Tritium in the underground waters of the Karazheera coal deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panin, M.S.; Artamonova, H.N.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The Karazheera coal deposit is the unique geological object due to it's location on the Balapan site of the former Semipalatinsk nuclear polygon (SNP) with its wide range of underground nuclear tests fulfilled here (more than 130 explosions). That is why some radiological problems may appear with the geological ones which take place in the open mining work of the deposit. The radio-active pollution of SNP has been actively discussed in scientific literature for a long time. The present report evaluates the radio-active tritium pollution ( 3 H) of the deposit's underground waters. That very component of nature is subjected to radiation pollution in large extent after underground nuclear tests. 3 H radio-active isotope with 12-13 year period of half-decay. 3 H is generated in the result of nuclear reactions caused by cosmic radiation and nuclear reactions of explosions. The total number of 3 H on the globe comes to 12 kg. The content of 3 H has been studied in underground waters of self-pouring wells number 76, 82, springs and dipholes of the deposit. It has been fixed that concentration of 3 H in the deposit is fluctuating within 0.4-37.9 tritium units (TU) while the average content 10.3 TU (1 TU - 3.2x10 -12 Curie/liter). The analysis of 3 H decay shows that its maximum concenliaiion has been fixed in the deposit 82 (37.9 TU) and in diphole (32.3 TU). The background content of 3 H in water was evaluated on the level of 1-8 TU till 1945. In the result of nuclear weapon tests the background has been considerably increased and according to First data (1994) it is corresponded to 23 TU. The average content of the 3 H in underground waters of Karazheera is half the size of this index (10.3 TU). It comprises 3.3x10 -11 and it is more lower than quota 4x10 -6 Ci/l. It is considered that the content of more than 10 TU in waters is caused by thermal nuclear test. Precipitations fallen after 1961 are presented in subsoil waters containing of 20 TU or more

  9. Methane Explosion Mitigation in Coal Mines by Water Mist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikhradze, Nikoloz; Mataradze, Edgar; Chikhradze, Mikheil; Krauthammer, Ted; Mansurov, Zulkhair; Alyiev, Erhan

    2017-12-01

    Statistics shows that the majority of accidents with fatal outcome are caused by methane and/or coal dust explosion. This leads to assume that contemporary counter-explosion systems of various designs cannot be considered effective. Considering the growing threat of methane explosion in the coming years along with the development of deeper levels, the improvement of a system for protecting people in underground opening appears urgent. This paper focuses on technical solutions to be used in designing a protective system for minimizing the consequences of methane explosions in coalmines. The new protective system consists of three main modules: i) a high-speed shock wave suppression section; ii) a suppression section with a long-term action and iii) a system activating device. The shock wave suppressor contains a 200 litre volume water tank with a built-in gas generator and nozzles. It is activated after 12ms from the blast moment, the duration of discharge is 40 s. The suppression section with a long-term action contains a 2000 litre volume water tank, a high-pressure pump, a hydraulic accumulator, solenoid valves, and a system of pipes with built-in nozzles. It is activated after 4 s from the blast moment, the duration of discharge is 8 min. The activation device includes a detection block containing sensors, an emergency signal generation module, a signal transmission module, a signal receiving module and a power supply module. The system operates in a waiting mode and activates immediately upon the receipt of the start signal generated by the detector. The paper also addresses the preliminary results of the system prototype testing in the tunnel.

  10. Biogeochemical interactions between of coal mine water and gas well cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulliver, D. M.; Gardiner, J. B.; Kutchko, B. G.; Hakala, A.; Spaulding, R.; Tkach, M. K.; Ross, D.

    2017-12-01

    Unconventional natural gas wells drilled in Northern Appalachia often pass through abandoned coal mines before reaching the Marcellus or Utica formations. Biogeochemical interactions between coal mine waters and gas well cements have the potential to alter the cement and compromise its sealing integrity. This study investigates the mineralogical, geochemical, and microbial changes of cement cores exposed to natural coal mine waters. Static reactors with Class H Portland cement cores and water samples from an abandoned bituminous Pittsburgh coal mine simulated the cement-fluid interactions at relevant temperature for time periods of 1, 2, 4, and 6 weeks. Fluids were analyzed for cation and anion concentrations and extracted DNA was analyzed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and shotgun sequencing. Cement core material was evaluated via scanning electron microscope. Results suggest that the sampled coal mine water altered the permeability and matrix mineralogy of the cement cores. Scanning electron microscope images display an increase in mineral precipitates inside the cement matrix over the course of the experiment. Chemistry results from the reaction vessels' effluent waters display decreases in dissolved calcium, iron, silica, chloride, and sulfate. The microbial community decreased in diversity over the 6-week experiment, with Hydrogenophaga emerging as dominant. These results provide insight in the complex microbial-fluid-mineral interactions of these environments. This study begins to characterize the rarely documented biogeochemical impacts that coal waters may have on unconventional gas well integrity.

  11. Influence of mechanical activation on the synthesis of Sr-Celsian employing a precursor mixture containing coal fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Badillo, C. M.; Lopez-Cuevas, J.; Rodriguez-Galicia, J. L.; Gutierrez-Chavarria, C. A.; Pech-Canul, M. I.

    2013-05-01

    Strontium aluminosilicate, SrAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 8} (SAS), was synthesized by a solid state reaction using coal fly ash (CFA) as main raw material. A precursor mixture of SrCO{sub 3}, CFA and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was mechanically-activated for times of up to 12 h using an attrition mill, and subsequently sintered at temperatures of 900-1300 degree centigrade. The CFA and the mechanical activation were employed with the aim to promote the transformation from the hexagonal (Sr-Hexacelsian) into the monoclinic (Sr-Celsian) polymorphic form of SAS, since the latter phase is associated with better physical and mechanical properties but the former tends to be the first one to appear. The mean particle size, the crystallite size and the temperature at the end of the curve of weight loss (Tf) decreased, while the specific surface area and the degree of amorphization increased, with increasing milling time. Samples milled for at least 4 h and then sintered at 1100 degree centigrade achieved full transformation into Sr-Celsian. The same result was obtained for sintering temperatures higher than 1100 degree centigrade, independently of milling time. An increment in both the milling time and the sintering temperature allowed us to improve the densification and the mechanical properties of the synthesized materials. (Author) 24 refs.

  12. Influence of mechanical activation on the synthesis of Sr-Celsian employing a precursor mixture containing coal fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Badillo, C. M.; Lopez-Cuevas, J.; Rodriguez-Galicia, J. L.; Gutierrez-Chavarria, C. A.; Pech-Canul, M. I.

    2013-06-01

    Strontium aluminosilicate, SrAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 8} (SAS), was synthesized by a solid state reaction using coal fly ash (CFA) as main raw material. A precursor mixture of SrCO{sub 3}, CFA and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was mechanically-activated for times of up to 12 h using an attrition mill, and subsequently sintered at temperatures of 900-1300 degree centigrade. The CFA and the mechanical activation were employed with the aim to promote the transformation from the hexagonal (Sr-Hexacelsian) into the monoclinic (Sr-Celsian) polymorphic form of SAS, since the latter phase is associated with better physical and mechanical properties but the former tends to be the first one to appear. The mean particle size, the crystallite size and the temperature at the end of the curve of weight loss (Tf) decreased, while the specific surface area and the degree of amorphization increased, with increasing milling time. Samples milled for at least 4 h and then sintered at 1100 degree centigrade achieved full transformation into Sr-Celsian. The same result was obtained for sintering temperatures higher than 1100 degree centigrade, independently of milling time. An increment in both the milling time and the sintering temperature allowed us to improve the densification and the mechanical properties of the synthesized materials. (Author)

  13. Influence of mechanical activation on the synthesis of Sr-Celsian employing a precursor mixture containing coal fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Badillo, C. M.; Lopez-Cuevas, J.; Rodriguez-Galicia, J. L.; Gutierrez-Chavarria, C. A.; Pech-Canul, M. I.

    2013-01-01

    Strontium aluminosilicate, SrAl 2 Si 2 O 8 (SAS), was synthesized by a solid state reaction using coal fly ash (CFA) as main raw material. A precursor mixture of SrCO 3 , CFA and Al 2 O 3 was mechanically-activated for times of up to 12 h using an attrition mill, and subsequently sintered at temperatures of 900-1300 degree centigrade. The CFA and the mechanical activation were employed with the aim to promote the transformation from the hexagonal (Sr-Hexacelsian) into the monoclinic (Sr-Celsian) polymorphic form of SAS, since the latter phase is associated with better physical and mechanical properties but the former tends to be the first one to appear. The mean particle size, the crystallite size and the temperature at the end of the curve of weight loss (Tf) decreased, while the specific surface area and the degree of amorphization increased, with increasing milling time. Samples milled for at least 4 h and then sintered at 1100 degree centigrade achieved full transformation into Sr-Celsian. The same result was obtained for sintering temperatures higher than 1100 degree centigrade, independently of milling time. An increment in both the milling time and the sintering temperature allowed us to improve the densification and the mechanical properties of the synthesized materials. (Author)

  14. Improvement in water-slurry circulation at the Chumakovskaya coal preparation plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabokov, A.K.; Fedotov, B.P.; Mitlash, V.V.

    1988-02-01

    The Chumakovskaya coal preparation plant (Donetskugleobogashchenie association) was put into operation in 1935. It processes 570 t/h of coal slurry with an ash content of 38.6% and produces grade T coal for coking and power generation. Coal preparation technology used is described. Shortcomings of the system cause 130 kg of high ash slurries to be recirculated per m/sup 3/ of hydrocyclone drain. Mathematical analysis of the present process and of two improved variants is presented. The analysis permits variants for clarification of the recirculated water to be developed and evaluated and the best one to be selected. The optimum variant permits the amount of thin recirculated slurry to be reduced to 48% and the amount of granular slurry to 13%. Implementation of this variant at the Chumakovskaya coal preparation plant will ensure annual savings of 20,000 rubles.

  15. Isentropic compressibilities of (amide + water) mixtures: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papamatthaiakis, Dimitris; Aroni, Fryni; Havredaki, Vasiliki

    2008-01-01

    The density and ultrasonic velocity of aqueous solutions of formamide (FA), N-methylformamide (NMF), N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA), pyrrolidin-2-one (PYR), N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP), and their pure phases have been measured at 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure. Densities and ultrasonic velocities in pure amides have been also measured at the temperature range 288.15 K to 308.15 K for the computation of their thermal expansivities. Isentropic compressibility, intermolecular free length, relative association, apparent molar compressibility, as well as the excess quantities, ultrasonic velocity, isentropic compressibility, intermolecular free length, have been evaluated and fitted to the Redlich-Kister type equation. The deviation from ideal mixing law in ultrasonic velocity is positive while the deviations in isentropic compressibility and intermolecular free length are negative for all (amide + water) mixtures. This behavior reveals the nature and the magnitude of intermolecular interactions between the amide-water molecules. The sequence of superimposed curves of various ultrasonic parameters vs. the amide mole fraction is related to the strength of interactions between the unlike molecules and the role of -CH 3 substitution in amides. The comparison of ultrasonic to volumetric properties reveals differences on the position of the extrema and their relation with the degree of substitution while the interpretation of these differences is discussed. Two different approaches on the computation of excess functions, applied in this work, brought out a difference in the magnitude of deviations and a partial reversion to the sequence of amides curves suggesting a different estimation in terms of deviations from ideal mixing law and therefore of the relative molecular interactions

  16. Research on preventive technologies for bed-separation water hazard in China coal mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Herong; Tong, Shijie; Qiu, Weizhong; Lin, Manli

    2018-03-01

    Bed-separation water is one of the major water hazards in coal mines. Targeted researches on the preventive technologies are of paramount importance to safe mining. This article studied the restrictive effect of geological and mining factors, such as lithological properties of roof strata, coal seam inclination, water source to bed separations, roof management method, dimensions of mining working face, and mining progress, on the formation of bed-separation water hazard. The key techniques to prevent bed-separation water-related accidents include interception, diversion, destructing the buffer layer, grouting and backfilling, etc. The operation and efficiency of each technique are corroborated in field engineering cases. The results of this study will offer reference to countries with similar mining conditions in the researches on bed-separation water burst and hazard control in coal mines.

  17. The influence of atomizer internal design and liquid physical properties on effervescent atomizing of coal-water slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Meng; Duan, Yufeng [Southeast Univ., Nanjing (China). Inst. of Thermal Engineering

    2013-07-01

    This study investigated the dependence of effervescent atomizing of coal-water slurry (CWS) on atomizer internal design and fluid properties. Results demonstrate that internal design of atomizer and fluid properties directly affect the two-phase flow pattern inside the atomizer which consequently affects the spray quality. The influence of mixing chamber length on spray quality is not significant at the ALR of 0.15 except for spray 0.75 glycerol/0.248 water/0.002 xanthan mixture. The same trend also found in the effect of angle of aeration holes at ALR of 0.15. Large diameter of the inclined aeration holes shows small SMD for water. The consistency index of fluids has no effect on the spray quality and Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) increases when polymer additions were added to the glycerin-water mixture. The radial profile of SMD for spray water are almost flat, however, the largest SMD can be obtained at the edge of spray for three other fluids.

  18. Performance on Water Stability of Cement-Foamed Asphalt Cold Recycled Mixture

    OpenAIRE

    Li Junxiao; Fu Wei; Zang Hechao

    2018-01-01

    Through designing the mixture proportion of foamed asphalt cold in-place recycled mixture combined with the water stability experiment, it shows that the addition of cement can obviously improve foamed asphalt mixture’s water stability and the best cement admixture is between 1% ~ 2%; Using digital imaging microscope and SEM technology, the mechanism of increasing on the intensity of foamed asphalt mixture resulted by adding cement was analyzed. It revealed that the cement hydration products ...

  19. Public drinking water violations in mountaintop coal mining areas of West Virginia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountaintop coal mining (MTM) has adverse impacts on surface and ground water quality. Instances of domestic well water contamination from mining activities have been documented, but possible mining impacts on public water treatment systems are unknown. We analyzed the U.S. Envir...

  20. Influences of Coal Ash Leachates and Emergent Macrophytes on Water Quality in Wetland Microcosms

    Science.gov (United States)

    The storage of coal combustion residue (CCR) in surface water impoundments may have an impact on nearby water quality and aquatic ecosystems. CCR contains leachable trace elements that can enter nearby waters through spills and monitored discharge. It is important, therefore, to ...

  1. Environmentally relevant chemical mixtures of concern in waters of United States tributaries to the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Sarah M.; Brigham, Mark E.; Kiesling, Richard L.; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.; Jorgenson, Zachary G.

    2018-01-01

    The North American Great Lakes are a vital natural resource that provide fish and wildlife habitat, as well as drinking water and waste assimilation services for millions of people. Tributaries to the Great Lakes receive chemical inputs from various point and nonpoint sources, and thus are expected to have complex mixtures of chemicals. However, our understanding of the co‐occurrence of specific chemicals in complex mixtures is limited. To better understand the occurrence of specific chemical mixtures in the US Great Lakes Basin, surface water from 24 US tributaries to the Laurentian Great Lakes was collected and analyzed for diverse suites of organic chemicals, primarily focused on chemicals of concern (e.g., pharmaceuticals, personal care products, fragrances). A total of 181 samples and 21 chemical classes were assessed for mixture compositions. Basin wide, 1664 mixtures occurred in at least 25% of sites. The most complex mixtures identified comprised 9 chemical classes and occurred in 58% of sampled tributaries. Pharmaceuticals typically occurred in complex mixtures, reflecting pharmaceutical‐use patterns and wastewater facility outfall influences. Fewer mixtures were identified at lake or lake‐influenced sites than at riverine sites. As mixture complexity increased, the probability of a specific mixture occurring more often than by chance greatly increased, highlighting the importance of understanding source contributions to the environment. This empirically based analysis of mixture composition and occurrence may be used to focus future sampling efforts or mixture toxicity assessments. 

  2. Renal Cell Toxicity of Water-Soluble Coal Extracts from the Gulf Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, A. S.; Ford, S.; Ihnat, M.; Gallucci, R. M.; Philp, P. R.

    2017-12-01

    In the Gulf Coast, many rural residents rely on private well water for drinking, cooking, and other domestic needs. A large portion of this region contains lignite coal deposits within shallow aquifers that potentially leach organic matter into the water supply. It is proposed that the organic matter leached from low-rank coal deposits contributes to the development of kidney disease, however, little work has been done to investigate the toxicity of coal extracts. In this study, human kidney cells (HK-2) were exposed to water-soluble extracts of Gulf Coast Coals to assess toxicity. Cell viability was measured by direct counts of total and necrotic cells. A dose-response curve was used to generate IC50 values, and the extracts showed significant toxicity that ranged from 0.5% w/v to 3% w/v IC50. The most toxic extract was from Louisiana where coal-derived organic material has been previously linked to high incidents of renal pelvic cancer (RPC). Although the toxic threshold measured in this study is significantly higher than the concentration of organic matter in the groundwater, typically affected areas may consume contaminated water over a lifetime. It is possible that the cumulative toxic effects of coal-derived material contribute to the development of disease.

  3. Coal beneficiation by gas agglomeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelock, Thomas D.; Meiyu, Shen

    2003-10-14

    Coal beneficiation is achieved by suspending coal fines in a colloidal suspension of microscopic gas bubbles in water under atmospheric conditions to form small agglomerates of the fines adhered by the gas bubbles. The agglomerates are separated, recovered and resuspended in water. Thereafter, the pressure on the suspension is increased above atmospheric to deagglomerate, since the gas bubbles are then re-dissolved in the water. During the deagglomeration step, the mineral matter is dispersed, and when the pressure is released, the coal portion of the deagglomerated gas-saturated water mixture reagglomerates, with the small bubbles now coming out of the solution. The reagglomerate can then be separated to provide purified coal fines without the mineral matter.

  4. Scenario-Based Analysis on Water Resources Implication of Coal Power in Western China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahai Yuan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently, 58% of coal-fired power generation capacity is located in eastern China, where the demand for electricity is strong. Serious air pollution in China, in eastern regions in particular, has compelled the Chinese government to impose a ban on the new construction of pulverized coal power plants in eastern regions. Meanwhile, rapid economic growth is thirsty for electric power supply. As a response, China planned to build large-scale coal power bases in six western provinces, including Inner Mongolia, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Xinjiang, Ningxia and Gansu. In this paper, the water resource implication of the coal power base planning is addressed. We find that, in a business-as-usual (BAU scenario, water consumption for coal power generation in these six provinces will increase from 1130 million m3 in 2012 to 2085 million m3 in 2020, experiencing nearly a double growth. Such a surge will exert great pressure on water supply and lead to serious water crisis in these already water-starved regions. A strong implication is that the Chinese Government must add water resource constraint as a critical point in its overall sustainable development plan, in addition to energy supply and environment protection. An integrated energy-water resource plan with regionalized environmental carrying capacity as constraints should be developed to settle this puzzle. Several measures are proposed to cope with it, including downsizing coal power in western regions, raising the technical threshold of new coal power plants and implementing retrofitting to the inefficient cooling system, and reengineering the generation process to waterless or recycled means.

  5. The Rheology of a Three Component System: COAL/WATER/#4 Oil Emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmartin, Barbara Jean

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the rheology of a three component system, coal/water/#4 oil emulsions (COW), in which the third component, water, was present in a significant concentration, and to determine the applicability of existing theories from suspension rheology to the three component system studied. In a coal/water/oil emulsion, free coal particles adhere to the surface of the water droplets, preventing their coagulation, while the larger coal particles reside in the matrix of stabilized water droplets. The use of liquid fuels containing coal is a means of utilizing our nation's coal reserves while conserving oil. These fuels can be burned in conventional oil-fired furnaces. In this investigation, a high sulfur, high ash, bituminous coal was used, along with a heavy #4 oil to prepare the emulsions. The coal was ground to a log-normal distribution with an average particle size of 62 microns. A Haake RV3 concentric cylinder viscometer, with a ribbed measuring system, was used to determine the viscosity of the emulsions. A physical pendulum settling device measured the shift in center of mass of the COW as a function of time. The flow behavior of the fuel in pipes was also tested. In interpreting the data from the viscometer and the pipe flow experiments, a power law analysis was used in the region from 30 s('-1) to 200 s('-1). Extrapolation methods were used to obtain the low and high shear behavior of the emulsions. In the shear rate region found in boiler feed systems, COW are shear thinning with a flow behavior index of 0.7. The temperature dependent characteristic of the emulsions studied were similar and followed an Arrhenius type relationship. The viscosity of the COW decreases with increasing coal average particle size and is also a function of the width of the size distribution used. The type of coal used strongly influences the rheology of the fuel. The volatile content and the atomic oxygen to nitrogen ratio of the coal are the most

  6. Study of acid-base properties in various water-salt and water-organic solvent mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, M.

    1969-01-01

    Acid-base reactions have been studied in water-salt mixtures and water organic solvent-mixtures. It has been possible to find some relations between the displacement of the equilibria and the numerical value of water activity in the mixture. First have been studied some equilibria H + + B ↔ HB + in salt-water mixtures and found a relation between the pK A value, the solubility of the base and water activity. The reaction HO - + H + ↔ H 2 O has been investigated and a relation been found between pK i values, water activity and the molar concentration of the salt in the mixture. This relation is the same for every mixture. Then the same reactions have been studied in organic solvent-water mixtures and a relation found in the first part of the work have been used with success. So it has been possible to explain easily some properties of organic water-mixture as the shape of the curves of the Hammett acidity function Ho. (authors) [fr

  7. Solubility of the Proteinogenic α-Amino Acids in Water, Ethanol, and Ethanol–Water Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The addition of organic solvents to α-amino acids in aqueous solution could be an effective method in crystallization. We reviewed the available data on the solubility of α-amino acids in water, water–ethanol mixtures, and ethanol at 298.15 K and 0.1 MPa. The solubility of l-alanine, l-proline, l-arginine, l-cysteine, and l-lysine in water and ethanol mixtures and the solubility of l-alanine, l-proline, l-arginine, l-cysteine, l-lysine, l-asparagine, l-glutamine, l-histidine, and l-leucine in pure ethanol systems were measured and are published here for the first time. The impact on the solubility of amino acids that can convert in solution, l-glutamic acid and l-cysteine, was studied. At lower concentrations, only the ninhydrin method and the ultraperfomance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method yield reliable results. In the case of α-amino acids that convert in solution, only the UPLC method was able to discern between the different α-amino acids and yields reliable results. Our results demonstrate that α-amino acids with similar physical structures have similar changes in solubility in mixed water/ethanol mixtures. The solubility of l-tryptophan increased at moderate ethanol concentrations. PMID:29545650

  8. Hydrate-based methane separation from coal mine methane gas mixture by bubbling using the scale-up equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Jing; Xu, Chun-Gang; Xia, Zhi-Ming; Chen, Zhao-Yang; Li, Xiao-Sen

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Hydrate-based methane separation was achieved in the large scale using SHW-II. •Bubbling method was beneficial to reduce energy consumption. •The optimal conditions were determined. •The morphology and flow characteristic of hydrate formation were filmed. -- Abstract: In this work, the hydrate-based methane (CH 4 ) separation from coal mine methane (CMM) gas mixture was carried out by bubbling with a scale-up equipment (SHW-II). The influences of gas/liquid volume ratios (0.25 and 0.60), gas bubble sizes (diameter: 20, 50 and 100 μm) and gas flow rates (7.50, 16.13 and 21.50 mL/min/L) on gas consumption and CH 4 recovery were systematically investigated at 277.15 K and 1.50 MPa. The hydrate formation morphology was filmed by a camera and the hydrate structure was determined by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD). Gas bubbles generated when gas mixture flowed into bulk solution through a bubble plate from the bottom of SHW-II. Initially, the gas hydrates formed at the bubble boundary and grew up as the shell around the bubble with the continuously rising of the gas bubble, and finally accumulated in the interface between the gaseous phase and solution. The experimental results showed that the THF/CH 4 /N 2 hydrate in SHW-II presented structure II (sII). The gas/liquid volume ratio, gas bubble size and gas flow rate had influences on gas consumption and CH 4 recovery. The increase of gas/liquid volume ratio resulted in the decrease of gas consumption and CH 4 recovery, while the increase of gas flow rate caused the decrease of gas consumption. Both the maximum gas consumption and CH 4 recovery were achieved at the gas bubble with diameter of 50 μm. The optimal operating condition for large-scale CH 4 separation via clatharate hydrate was comprehensively defined as the gas/liquid volume ratio of 0.25, the gas bubble diameter of 50 μm and the gas flow rate of 16.13 mL/min/L at 277.15 K and 1.50 MPa.

  9. Effects of coal composition and flotation reagents on the water resistance of binderless briquettes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motaung, S.R.; Mangena, S.J.; de Korte, G.J. [Syngas & Coal Technology, Sasolburg (South Africa)

    2007-10-15

    The difference in the physical properties, particularly the water resistance or wet strength, of the binderless coal briquettes produced from flotation feed and concentrate was investigated using six bituminous coals from two collieries in the Witbank Coalfield. The coal samples were analyzed for their proximate, petrographic, and mineralogical properties. The presence, in the flotation concentrates, of the reagents used during the froth flotation process was also investigated using gas chromatography. Pillow-shaped binderless briquettes were produced from coal samples at various moisture contents and a pressure of approximately 17 MPA using a Komarek B-100A double-roll press. The briquettes were tested for some physical properties (i.e., dry- and wet-compressive strengths), which were thereafter compared with the properties determined for the coal samples. The binderless briquettes produced from the flotation concentrates were more water-resistant than those produced from the flotation feed. The flotation feed and concentrates of the coals tested were found to have similar petrographic properties. As expected, the ash and kaolinite contents were found to be lower in the flotation concentrates than in the flotation feed. Flotation reagents were detected in the flotation concentrates from both collieries. From the results obtained it is concluded that the increased water resistance of the binderless briquettes produced from flotation concentrates of the coals tested is due to a combination of the fineness of the coal particles, assisted by the amount of reactive macerals (most particularly vitrinite) with the lower ash and kaolinite contents, together with the presence of the flotation reagents, particularly the collector, in the flotation concentrate.

  10. Hydrochemistry and coal mining activity induced karst water quality degradation in the Niangziguan karst water system, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaobo; Li, Xue; Gao, Xubo

    2016-04-01

    Hydrogeochemical analysis, statistical analysis, and geochemical modeling were employed to evaluate the impacts of coal mining activities on karst water chemistry in Niangziguan spring catchment, one of the largest karst springs in Northern China. Significant water quality deterioration was observed along the flow path, evidenced from the increasing sulfate, nitrate, and TDS content in karst water. Karst water samples are Ca-Mg-HCO3 type in the recharge areas, Ca-Mg-HCO3-SO4 type in the coal mining areas, and Ca-Mg-SO4-HCO3/HCO3-SO4 type in the rural areas and discharge areas. A four-factor principal component analysis (PCA) model is conducted which explains over 82.9% of the total variation. Factor 1, which explained the largest portion (45.33%) of the total variance, reveals that coal mining activities and natural water-rock interaction as the primary factors controlling karst water quality. Anthropogenic effects were recognized as the secondary factor with high positive loadings for NO3 (-) and Cl(-) in the model. The other two factors are co-precipitation removal of trace elements and silicate mineral dissolution, which explained 20.96% of the total variance. A two-end mixing modeling was proposed to estimate the percentage of coal wastewater giving on karst water chemistry, based on the groundwater sulfate chemistry constrains rather than sulfur isotopes. Uncertainty of sulfur isotope sources led to an overestimation of coal mining water contribution. According to the results of the modeling, the contribution of coal mining waste on karst water chemistry was quantified to be from 27.05 to 1.11% which is ca. three times lower than the values suggested using a sulfur isotope method.

  11. How much water is required for coal power generation: An analysis of gray and blue water footprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaotian; Yang, Donglu; Shen, Xiaoxu; Zhai, Yijie; Zhang, Ruirui; Hong, Jinglan

    2018-04-28

    Although water resource shortage is closely connected with coal-based electricity generation, relevant water footprint analyses remain limited. This study aims to address this limitation by conducting a water footprint analysis of coal-based electricity generation in China for the first time to inform decision-makers about how freshwater consumption and wastewater discharge can be reduced. In China, 1 kWh of electricity supply obtained 1.78 × 10 -3  m 3 of gray water footprint in 2015, and the value is 1.3 times the blue water footprint score of 1.35 × 10 -3  m 3 /kWh. Although water footprint of 1 kWh of electricity supply decreased, the national total gray water footprint increased significantly from 2006 to 2015 with increase in power generating capacity. An opposite trend was observed for blue water footprint. Indirect processes dominated the influence of gray water footprint, whereas direct freshwater consumption contributed 63.6% to blue water footprint. Ameliorating key processes, including transportation, direct freshwater consumption, direct air emissions, and coal washing could thus bring substantial environmental benefits. Moreover, phosphorus, mercury, hexavalent chromium, arsenic, COD, and BOD 5 were key substances of gray water footprint. Results indicated that the combination of railway and water transportation should be prioritized. The targeted transition toward high coal washing rate and pithead power plant development provides a possibility to relieve environmental burdens, but constraints on water resources in coal production sites have to be considered. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Reuse of Produced Water from CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery, Coal-Bed Methane, and Mine Pool Water by Coal-Based Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knutson, Chad [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Dastgheib, Seyed A. [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Yang, Yaning [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Ashraf, Ali [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Duckworth, Cole [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Sinata, Priscilla [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Sugiyono, Ivan [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Shannon, Mark A. [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Werth, Charles J. [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Power generation in the Illinois Basin is expected to increase by as much as 30% by the year 2030, and this would increase the cooling water consumption in the region by approximately 40%. This project investigated the potential use of produced water from CO2 enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) operations; coal-bed methane (CBM) recovery; and active and abandoned underground coal mines for power plant cooling in the Illinois Basin. Specific objectives of this project were: (1) to characterize the quantity, quality, and geographic distribution of produced water in the Illinois Basin; (2) to evaluate treatment options so that produced water may be used beneficially at power plants; and (3) to perform a techno-economic analysis of the treatment and transportation of produced water to thermoelectric power plants in the Illinois Basin. Current produced water availability within the basin is not large, but potential flow rates up to 257 million liters per day (68 million gallons per day (MGD)) are possible if CO2-enhanced oil recovery and coal bed methane recovery are implemented on a large scale. Produced water samples taken during the project tend to have dissolved solids concentrations between 10 and 100 g/L, and water from coal beds tends to have lower TDS values than water from oil fields. Current pretreatment and desalination technologies including filtration, adsorption, reverse osmosis (RO), and distillation can be used to treat produced water to a high quality level, with estimated costs ranging from $2.6 to $10.5 per cubic meter ($10 to $40 per 1000 gallons). Because of the distances between produced water sources and power plants, transportation costs tend to be greater than treatment costs. An optimization algorithm was developed to determine the lowest cost pipe network connecting sources and sinks. Total water costs increased with flow rate up to 26 million liters per day (7 MGD), and the range was from $4 to $16 per cubic meter

  13. CALCULATION OF REACTION COMPLETENESS AND SUBSTANCE TRANSFORMATION AT WATER-COAL GASIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Nazarov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Process of water-coal gasification is satisfactorily described by three thermal and chemical equations; using these equations composition of gasification product (water carbon monoxide gas has been calculated in accordance with a temperature. Results of the calculations are presented in the form of charts. 

  14. Enteric virus removal from water by coal-based sorbents: development of low-cost water filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhuri, M.; Sattar, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    Using poliovirus type 1 (Sabin) and dechlorinated tap water, several coal-based sorbents were tested for their capacity to remove viruses from water. The sorbents included bituminous coal from Giridih, India, pretreated/impregnated with either alum, ferric hydroxide, lime or manganese dioxide. Filtrasorb-400, commercially available active carbon, was used as a reference. In batch tests, with input virus concentration of 2.34-2.83x10/sup 6/ PFU/1 and sorbent concentration of 10 g/l, alum pretreated coal removed about 96% of the virus when pH of the water was between 6.3 and 8.9. Virus sorption was rapid and a plateau was reached in 30 min. Compared with the active carbon, alum pretreated coal exhibited greater sorption energy and about one log higher limiting poliovirus sorption capacity. Downflow column study indicated the potential of alum pretreated coal as a filter media for removing enteric viruses from water. A previous study showed this sorbent to be capable of removing enteric bacteria as well. Water filters prepared from such low-cost material may prove useful for domestic use in rural areas of India and other developing countries. 19 refs.

  15. [Emission Characteristics of Water-Soluble Ions in Fumes of Coal Fired Boilers in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yue-qi; Ma, Zhao-hui; Feng, Ya-jun; Wang, Chen; Chen, Yuan-yuan; He, Ming

    2015-06-01

    Selecting coal fired boilers with typical flue gas desulfurization and dust extraction systems in Beijing as the study objects, the issues and characteristics of the water-soluble ions in fumes of coal fired boilers and theirs influence factors were analyzed and evaluated. The maximum mass concentration of total water-soluble ions in fumes of coal fired boilers in Beijing was 51.240 mg x m(-3) in the benchmark fume oxygen content, the minimum was 7.186 mg x m(-3), and the issues of the water-soluble ions were uncorrelated with the fume moisture content. SO4(2-) was the primary characteristic water-soluble ion for desulfurization reaction, and the rate of contribution of SO4(2-) in total water-soluble ions ranged from 63.8% to 81.0%. F- was another characteristic water-soluble ion in fumes of thermal power plant, and the rate of contribution of F- in total water-soluble ions ranged from 22.2% to 32.5%. The fume purification technologies significantly influenced the issues and the emission characteristics of water-soluble ions in fumes of coal fired boilers. Na+ was a characteristic water-soluble ion for the desulfurizer NaOH, NH4+ and NO3+ were characteristic for the desulfurizer NH4HCO3, and Mg2+ was characteristic for the desulfurizer MgO, but the Ca2+ emission was not increased by addition of the desulfurizer CaO or CaCO3 The concentrations of NH4+ and NO3- in fumes of thermal power plant were lower than those in fumes of industrial or heating coal fired boilers. The form of water-soluble ions was significantly correlated with fume temperature. The most water-soluble ions were in superfine state at higher fume temperature and were not easily captured by the filter membrane.

  16. Deep subsurface drip irrigation using coal-bed sodic water: part I. water and solute movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bern, Carleton R.; Breit, George N.; Healy, Richard W.; Zupancic, John W.; Hammack, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Water co-produced with coal-bed methane (CBM) in the semi-arid Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana commonly has relatively low salinity and high sodium adsorption ratios that can degrade soil permeability where used for irrigation. Nevertheless, a desire to derive beneficial use from the water and a need to dispose of large volumes of it have motivated the design of a deep subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) system capable of utilizing that water. Drip tubing is buried 92 cm deep and irrigates at a relatively constant rate year-round, while evapotranspiration by the alfalfa and grass crops grown is seasonal. We use field data from two sites and computer simulations of unsaturated flow to understand water and solute movements in the SDI fields. Combined irrigation and precipitation exceed potential evapotranspiration by 300-480 mm annually. Initially, excess water contributes to increased storage in the unsaturated zone, and then drainage causes cyclical rises in the water table beneath the fields. Native chloride and nitrate below 200 cm depth are leached by the drainage. Some CBM water moves upward from the drip tubing, drawn by drier conditions above. Chloride from CBM water accumulates there as root uptake removes the water. Year over year accumulations indicated by computer simulations illustrate that infiltration of precipitation water from the surface only partially leaches such accumulations away. Field data show that 7% and 27% of added chloride has accumulated above the drip tubing in an alfalfa and grass field, respectively, following 6 years of irrigation. Maximum chloride concentrations in the alfalfa field are around 45 cm depth but reach the surface in parts of the grass field, illustrating differences driven by crop physiology. Deep SDI offers a means of utilizing marginal quality irrigation waters and managing the accumulation of their associated solutes in the crop rooting zone.

  17. Development of bricks with incorporation of coal ash and sludge from water treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Mauro Valerio da

    2011-01-01

    Sludge from treatment water Brazilian plant station are, frequently, disposed and launched directly in the water bodies, causing a negative impact in the environment. Also, coal ashes is produced by burning of coal in coal-fired power stations and is the industrial solid waste most generated in southern Brazil: approximately 4 million tons/y. The efficient disposal of coal ashes is an issue due to its massive volume and harmful risks to the environment. The aim of this work was study the feasibility of incorporating these two industrial wastes in a mass used in the manufacture of ecological bricks. Samples of fly ashes from a cyclone filter from a coal-fired power plant located at Figueira County in Parana State, Brazil and waterworks sludge of Terra Preta County in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, were used in the study. Fly ash-sludge and fly ash-sludge-soil-cement bricks were molded and tested, according to the Brazilians Standards. The materials were characterized by physical-chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, morphological analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and granulometric analysis. The results indicate that the waterworks sludge and coal ashes have potential to be used on manufacturing soil-cement pressed bricks according to the of Brazilians Standards NBR 10836/94. (author)

  18. Study of Physical Properties for Sodium acetate with Water and Water - Acetone mixtures at Different Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mohammed Abbas

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study binary and ternary solutions are prepared by using the sodium acetate concentrations (0.1, 0.125, 0.2, 0.25, 0.4, 0.5, 0.8, 1 M in water and acetone –water mixtures .The important parameters such as apparent molal volume, the partial molal volume transfer,  apparent  molal compressibility, free energy of activation of viscous flow and thermodynamic activation parameter (enthalpy and entropy determined of sodium acetate in water , 20%, 40% ,60% and 80% V/V acetone –water mixtures at 298.15K, 303.15K, and 308.15K from density and viscosity measurements espectively. The limiting apparent molal volumes and experimental slopes were derived from the Masson equation, have been interpreted in terms of solute–solvent and solute–solute interactions  respectively. The viscosity data were analyzed using theJones–Dole equation and the derived parameter B - coefficient has also been interpreted in terms of solute–solvent interactions in the solutions.

  19. Task 27 -- Alaskan low-rank coal-water fuel demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    Development of coal-water-fuel (CWF) technology has to-date been predicated on the use of high-rank bituminous coal only, and until now the high inherent moisture content of low-rank coal has precluded its use for CWF production. The unique feature of the Alaskan project is the integration of hot-water-drying (HWD) into CWF technology as a beneficiation process. Hot-water-drying is an EERC developed technology unavailable to the competition that allows the range of CWF feedstock to be extended to low-rank coals. The primary objective of the Alaskan Project, is to promote interest in the CWF marketplace by demonstrating the commercial viability of low-rank coal-water-fuel (LRCWF). While commercialization plans cannot be finalized until the implementation and results of the Alaskan LRCWF Project are known and evaluated, this report has been prepared to specifically address issues concerning business objectives for the project, and outline a market development plan for meeting those objectives.

  20. Performance on Water Stability of Cement-Foamed Asphalt Cold Recycled Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Junxiao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Through designing the mixture proportion of foamed asphalt cold in-place recycled mixture combined with the water stability experiment, it shows that the addition of cement can obviously improve foamed asphalt mixture’s water stability and the best cement admixture is between 1% ~ 2%; Using digital imaging microscope and SEM technology, the mechanism of increasing on the intensity of foamed asphalt mixture resulted by adding cement was analyzed. It revealed that the cement hydration products contained in the foamed asphalt mixture hydrolyzed into space mesh structure and wrapped up the aggregate particle, this is the main reason that the cement can enhance the mixture’s intensity as well as the water stability. This research provides reference for cement admixture’s formulation in the designing of foamed asphalt cold in-place recycled mixture.

  1. Plasmachemical synthesis of nanopowders of yttria and zirconia from dispersed water-salt-organic mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoselov, Ivan; Karengin, Alexander; Shamanin, Igor; Alyukov, Evgeny; Gusev, Alexander

    2018-03-01

    Article represents results on theoretical and experimental research of yttria and zirconia plasmachemical synthesis in air plasma from water-salt-organic mixtures "yttrium nitrate-water-acetone" and "zirconyl nitrate-water-acetone". On the basis of thermotechnical calculations the influence of organic component on lower heat value and adiabatic combustion temperature of water-salt-organic mixtures as well as compositions of mixtures providing their energy-efficient plasma treatment were determined. The calculations found the influence of mass fraction and temperature of air plasma supporting gas on the composition of plasma treatment products. It was determined the conditions providing yttria and zirconia plasmachemical synthesis in air plasma. During experiments it was b eing carried out the plasmachemical synthesis of yttria and zirconia powders in air plasma flow from water -salt-organic mixtures. Analysis of the results for obtained powders (scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, BET analysis) confirm nanostructure of yttria and zirconia.

  2. Coal trends and prospects in Malaysia. Malaysia no sekitan doko to mitoshi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husin, T. (Tenaga Nasional Berhad (Malaysia))

    1993-03-01

    This paper describes problems in coal development and coal processing techniques used in Malaysia. Malaysia has a national organization placing importance on maximizing natural gas source development, but no such an organization is available for coal. Necessity exists in developing transportation infrastructures that can transport coal at a competitive price from coal mines to users inside and outside the country. Majority of the Merit Pila coal is produced in mines with relatively thin coal beds, which raise production cost higher. Coal resources are mostly of low calorific power. Since the coal resource development is a new economic activity, it requires training of people in related areas, and frameworks of legislative regulation. Important in coal development is to select technologies that can meet environmental requirements and stand with competitions in the world coal markets. New coal processing technologies available for discussion in coal refining processes include relaxed gasification or pyrolysis, coal liquefaction, coal-water mixture to mix coal powder and water with additives, coal pretreatment techniques, coal cleaning techniques, and fluidized bed combustion. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  3. Investigation of the efect of the coal particle sizes on the interfacial and rheological properties of coal-water slurry fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kihm, K.D.; Deignan, P. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of particle size on coal-water slurry (CWS) surface tension properties. Two different coal powder samples of different size ranges were obtained through sieving of coal from the Upper Elkhorn Seam. The surfactant (anionic DDBS-soft, dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid) concentration varied from 0 to 1.0% in weight while the coal loading remained at 40% in weight for all the cases. A du Nouy ring tensiometer and a maximum bubble pressure tensiometer measured the static and dynamic surface tensions, respectively, The results show that both static and dynamic surface tensions tend to increase with decreasing coal particle sizes suspended in CWS fuels. Examination of the peak pressure, minimum pressure, surfactant diffusion time, and dead time were also made to correlate these microscopic pressure behavior with the macroscopic dynamic surface tension and to examine the accuracy of the experiment.

  4. Coal blending preparation for non-carbonized coal briquettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widodo; Fatimah, D.; Estiaty, L. M.

    2018-02-01

    Referring to the national energy policy targets for the years 2025, the government has launched the use of coal briquettes as an alternative energy replacement for kerosene and firewood. Non-carbonized briquettes in the form of coal briquettes as well as bio-coal briquettes are used in many small-medium industries and households, and are rarely used by large industries. The standard quality of coal briquettes used as raw material for non-carbonized briquettes is a minimum calorific value of 4,400 kcal/kg (adb); total sulfur at a maximum of 1% (adb), and water content at plants), the environment of deposition, and the geological conditions of the surrounding area, so that the coal deposits in each region will be different as well as the amount and also the quality. Therefore, the quantity and the quality of coal in each area are different to be eligible in the making of briquettes to do blending. In addition to the coal blending, it is also necessary to select the right materials in the making of coal briquettes and bio-coal briquettes. The formulation of the right mixture of material in the making of briquettes, can be produced of good quality and environmental friendly.

  5. Microphase Separation in Oil-Water Mixtures Containing Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tasios, Nikos; Samin, Sela; van Roij, Rene; Dijkstra, Marjolein

    2017-01-01

    We develop a lattice-based Monte Carlo simulation method for charged mixtures capable of treating dielectric heterogeneities. Using this method, we study oil-water mixtures containing an antagonistic salt, with hydrophilic cations and hydrophobic anions. Our simulations reveal several phases with a

  6. Characterization of liquid products from the co-cracking of ternary and quaternary mixture of petroleum vacuum residue, polypropylene, Samla coal and Calotropis Procera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Ahmaruzzaman; D.K. Sharma [Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi (India). Centre for Energy Studies

    2008-08-15

    The co-cracking of the petroleum vacuum residue (XVR) with polypropylene (PP), Samla coal (SC) and Calotropis procera (CL) has been carried out in a batch reactor under isothermal conditions at atmospheric pressure. The liquids obtained by co-cracking have been characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography, {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), {sup 13}C NMR, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and inductively coupled argon plasma analyses. It was found that the liquid products obtained from the co-cracking of ternary and quaternary mixtures of the petroleum vacuum residue with polypropylene, coal and C. procera contained less than 1 ppm of Ni and V. The HPLC analyses indicates that the liquids obtained from the cracking of ternary mixture of XVR+PP+CL were mainly aliphatic in nature (saturates content 87.4%). NMR analyses showed that the aromatic carbon contents decreased (15.0%) in the liquid products derived from the co-cracking of quaternary mixtures of XVR+PP+SC+CL compared to their theoretical averages (taking the averages of aromatic carbon contents of the liquids from XVR, PP, SC and CL individually). The overall results indicated that there exists a definite interaction of reactive species when XVR, PP, SC and CL were co-cracked together. 27 refs., 5 tabs.

  7. The pH Value of Fungicide, Insecticide and Mineral Fertilizer Mixtures Depending on Water Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušanka Inđić

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the effect of water quality on the pH value of fungicides, insecticides, mineral fertilizers and their mixtures. The fungicides propineb (Antracol WP-70 and mancozeb (Dithane M-70, insecticides pirimiphos-methyl (Actellic-50 and imidacloprid(Confidor 200-SL, several fertilizers (Ferticare I, Ferticare II, Ferticare III and Wuxal Super and their mixtures were analyzed for pH value under laboratory conditions using a potentiometric pH meter. Measurements were made directly after preparation or mixing with tap and well water and 24 hours later. Tap water exhibited a neutral reaction. A slightly alkaline reaction of well water was mostlikely due to high ammonium content. The suspensions of Antracol WP-70 exhibited slightly alkaline reactions with both water types during 24 hours. The spray liquids of Dithane M-70 mixed with tap or well water had neutral reaction after preparation and slightly alkaline reaction after 24 hours. The emulsions of Actellic-50 showed neutral reaction with both water types, followed by a pH increase in tap water after 24 hours. The solutions of Confidor200-SL had a slightly alkaline reaction after mixing and the pH value increased with both water types after 24 hours. It is therefore recommended to apply these insecticides directly after preparation. Mineral fertilizers considerably reduced pH values of the fungicide and insecticide components in double and triple mixtures, especially Ferticare nutrients which had a moderately acid reaction. Wuxal Super had a neutral reaction with both water types.The mixtures with well water increased pH values, which indicates that water pH does affect the pH value of the mixture. Both individual fertilizers and all mixtures (double and triple with Ferticare had pH values between 2.4 and 6, which allows their active liquids to be stored for 12 to 24 hours. The suspensions (Antracol WP-70, double and triple mixtures, emulsions (Actellic-50 and Actellic-50+Wuxal Super

  8. Water use at pulverized coal power plants with postcombustion carbon capture and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Haibo; Rubin, Edward S; Versteeg, Peter L

    2011-03-15

    Coal-fired power plants account for nearly 50% of U.S. electricity supply and about a third of U.S. emissions of CO(2), the major greenhouse gas (GHG) associated with global climate change. Thermal power plants also account for 39% of all freshwater withdrawals in the U.S. To reduce GHG emissions from coal-fired plants, postcombustion carbon capture and storage (CCS) systems are receiving considerable attention. Current commercial amine-based capture systems require water for cooling and other operations that add to power plant water requirements. This paper characterizes and quantifies water use at coal-burning power plants with and without CCS and investigates key parameters that influence water consumption. Analytical models are presented to quantify water use for major unit operations. Case study results show that, for power plants with conventional wet cooling towers, approximately 80% of total plant water withdrawals and 86% of plant water consumption is for cooling. The addition of an amine-based CCS system would approximately double the consumptive water use of the plant. Replacing wet towers with air-cooled condensers for dry cooling would reduce plant water use by about 80% (without CCS) to about 40% (with CCS). However, the cooling system capital cost would approximately triple, although costs are highly dependent on site-specific characteristics. The potential for water use reductions with CCS is explored via sensitivity analyses of plant efficiency and other key design parameters that affect water resource management for the electric power industry.

  9. On the use of mixture toxicity assessment in REACH and the water framework directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Syberg, Kristian; Jensen, T.S.; Cedergreen, Nina

    2009-01-01

      This review seeks to connect the scientific theory of mixture toxicity to its implementation within different regulatory frameworks. The aim is to demonstrate how mixture toxicity assessment can be more thoroughly integrated into the European chemical regulations, REACH and the Water Framework...... of how the methods could be applied within REACH and WFD. It is concluded that oncentration addition should be applied as a default model for mixture toxicity assessment. Furthermore, it is concluded that REACH and WFD only include mixture toxicity assessments in specific situations. However, it is shown...

  10. The methods of receiving coal water suspension and its use as the modifying additive in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyantuyev, S. L.; Urkhanova, L. A.; Lkhasaranov, S. A.; Stebenkova, Y. Y.; Khmelev, A. B.; Kondratenko, A. S.

    2017-01-01

    Results of research of the coal water suspension (CWS) from a cake received in the electrodigit ways in the fluid environment and gas are given in article and also the possibilities of its use as the modifying additive in concrete are considered. Use of a coal cake is perspective as it is a withdrawal of the coal and concentrating enterprises and has extremely low cost. Methods of receiving CWS and possibility of formation of carbon nanomaterials (CNM) are given in their structure. Research and the analysis of a microstructure of a surface of exemplars before electrodigit processing, their element structure, dependence of durability of a cement stone on a look and quantity of an additive of CWS is conducted. For modification of cement the carbon nanomaterials received from the following exemplars of water coal suspensions were used: foams from a cake from a scrubber of the plasma modular reactor, coal water suspension from a cake from electrodigit installation. The product which can find further application for a power engineering as fuel for combustion, and also in structural materials science, in particular, as the modifying additive in concrete allows to receive these methods.

  11. The influence of water mixtures on the dermal absorption of glycol ethers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traynor, Matthew J.; Wilkinson, Simon C.; Williams, Faith M.

    2007-01-01

    Glycol ethers are solvents widely used alone and as mixtures in industrial and household products. Some glycol ethers have been shown to have a range of toxic effects in humans following absorption and metabolism to their aldehyde and acid metabolites. This study assessed the influence of water mixtures on the dermal absorption of butoxyethanol and ethoxyethanol in vitro through human skin. Butoxyethanol penetrated human skin up to sixfold more rapidly from aqueous solution (50%, 450 mg/ml) than from the neat solvent. Similarly penetration of ethoxyethanol was increased threefold in the presence of water (50%, 697 mg/ml). There was a corresponding increase in apparent permeability coefficient as the glycol ether concentration in water decreased. The maximum penetration rate of water also increased in the presence of both glycol ethers. Absorption through a synthetic membrane obeyed Fick's Law and absorption through rat skin showed a similar profile to human skin but with a lesser effect. The mechanisms for this phenomenon involves disruption of the stratum corneum lipid bilayer by desiccation by neat glycol ether micelles, hydration with water mixtures and the physicochemical properties of the glycol ether-water mixtures. Full elucidation of the profile of absorption of glycol ethers from mixtures is required for risk assessment of dermal exposure. This work supports the view that risk assessments for dermal contact scenarios should ideally be based on absorption data obtained for the relevant formulation or mixture and exposure scenario and that absorption derived from permeability coefficients may be inappropriate for water-miscible solvents

  12. Development of seasonal heat storage based on stable supercooling of a sodium acetate water mixture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Fan, Jianhua; Andersen, Elsa

    2012-01-01

    A number of heat storage modules for seasonal heat storages based on stable supercooling of a sodium acetate water mixture have been tested by means of experiments in a heat storage test facility. The modules had different volumes and designs. Further, different methods were used to transfer heat...... to and from the sodium acetate water mixture in the modules. By means of the experiments: • The heat exchange capacity rates to and from the sodium acetate water mixture in the heat storage modules were determined for different volume flow rates. • The heat content of the heat storage modules were determined....... • The reliability of the supercooling was elucidated for the heat storage modules for different operation conditions. • The reliability of a cooling method used to start solidification of the supercooled sodium acetate water mixture was elucidated. The method is making use of boiling CO2 in a small tank in good...

  13. Cultivar Mixture Cropping Increased Water Use Efficiency in Winter Wheat under Limited Irrigation Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunqi Wang

    Full Text Available The effects of cultivar mixture cropping on yield, biomass, and water use efficiency (WUE in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. were investigated under non-irrigation (W0, no irrigation during growth stage, one time irrigation (W1, irrigation applied at stem elongation and two times irrigation (W2, irrigation applied at stem elongation and anthesis conditions. Nearly 90% of cultivar mixture cropping treatments experienced an increase in grain yield as compared with the mean of the pure stands under W0, those for W1 and W2 were 80% and 85%, respectively. Over 75% of cultivar mixture cropping treatments got greater biomass than the mean of the pure stands under the three irrigation conditions. Cultivar mixture cropping cost more water than pure stands under W0 and W1, whereas the water consumption under W2 decreased by 5.9%-6.8% as compared with pure stands. Approximately 90% of cultivar mixtures showed an increase of 5.4%-34.5% in WUE as compared with the mean of the pure stands, and about 75% of cultivar mixtures had 0.8%-28.5% higher WUE than the better pure stands under W0. Similarly, there were a majority of mixture cropping treatments with higher WUE than the mean and the better one of the pure stands under W1 and W2. On the whole, proper cultivar mixture cropping could increase yield and WUE, and a higher increase in WUE occurred under limited irrigation condition.

  14. Increased Coal Replacement in a Cement Kiln Burner by Feeding a Mixture of Solid Hazardous Waste and Shredded Plastic Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Ariyaratne, W. K. Hiromi; Melaaen, Morten Christian; Tokheim, Lars-André

    2013-01-01

    The present study aims to find the maximum possible replacement of coal by combined feeding of plastic waste and solid hazardous waste mixed with wood chips (SHW) in rotary kiln burners used in cement kiln systems. The coal replacement should be achieved without negative impacts on product quality, emissions or overall operation of the process. A full-scale experiment was carried out in the rotary kiln burner of a cement kiln by varying SHW and plastic waste feeding rates. Experimental result...

  15. Apparatus for the separation of water from water-steam mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judith, H.; Schwerdtner, O. von.

    1975-01-01

    Steam flowing from the high-pressure part of a saturated-steam turbine of nuclear power stations to the preheater or steam directly passing off to the low-pressure part contains a high amount of moisture. This is removed by a separating device in the overflow pipe working as an axial cyclon. To this end a twist generator with radially mounted guide vanes forces a twisting movement on the water-steam mixture whereby the water component is thrown towards the wall of the overflow pipe. Behind the twist generator the overflow pipe is provided with ring slots or annular gaps through which the centrifuged water gets into water collecting chambers concentrically surrounding the overflow pipe. The main water seperation results from the first annular gap through centrifugal effects. The rest is removed by steam suction through the other gaps. For steam suction purposes, i.e. in order to produce an underpressure, the collecting chambers of these gaps are connected with the overflow pipe behind the twist generators by means of a suction pipe. In order to also remove small water droplets without increasing the twist, an agglomerator is installed in the overflow pipe before the twist generator. It consists of baffle or guide plates within an elliptic intermediate piece in a bend of the overflow pipe. Therefore the flanks of the guide plates run parallel to the flow direction of the steam. (DG/PB) [de

  16. Decorporation of mixture of strontium and cesium isotopes with domestic mineral waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavov, S.; Filev, G.; Kiradzhiev, G.

    1990-01-01

    The possibilities of Bulgarian mineral waters to decorporate mixtures of strontium and cesium radioisotopes, simultaneous entering the body, were studied. A modified effect in respect to radioactive strontium was found. Modification of the effect of mixing two diferent types of mineral waters was not proven. No effect was found of potassium-containing mineral water on radioactive cesium kinetics. 1 tab., 7 refs

  17. Systems and Methods for Determining Water-Cut of a Fluid Mixture

    KAUST Repository

    Karimi, Muhammad Akram; Shamim, Atif; Arsalan, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Provided in some embodiments are systems and methods for measuring the water content (or water-cut) of a fluid mixture. Provided in some embodiments is a water-cut sensor system that includes a helical T-resonator, a helical ground conductor, and a

  18. Systems and Methods for Determining Water-Cut of a Fluid Mixture

    KAUST Repository

    Karimi, Muhammad Akram; Shamim, Atif; Arsalan, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Provided in some embodiments are systems and methods for measuring the water content (or water-cut) of a fluid mixture. Provided in some embodiments is a water-cut sensor system that includes a T-resonator, a ground conductor, and a separator. The T

  19. New Approach to Study the Ignition Processes of Organic Coal-Water Fuels in an Oxidizer Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valiullin T.R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To converge the conditions of organic water-coal fuel composition combustion in the typical power equipment we developed a new approach and installed an experimental setup, eliminating the traditional fixing the fuel droplets on the thermocouples or rods. Specialized cone-shaped chamber was used to implement the process of lingering of organic water-coal fuel droplets. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the lingering of organic water-coal fuel droplets were established. We determined the parameters of the system (droplet size of 0.4-0.6 mm, temperatures 823-903 K and the velocity of the oxidizer flow 1.5-6 m/s at which the droplets were consistently ignited in the process of lingering. Minimum temperatures and ignition delay times of organic water-coal fuel droplets based on brown coal, used motor, turbine, transformer oils, kerosene, gasoline and water were defined.

  20. Water-powder mixtures at the onset of flowing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunger, M.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Al-Mattarneh, H.; Mustapha, K.N.; Nuruddin, M.F.

    2008-01-01

    The knowledge of water demands of the manifold concrete ingredients is of vital interest for the design of concrete mixes. Physical properties like workability or strength and durability in hardened state are controlled by the total water content. Water demand is defined as the volumetric ratio of

  1. Solution thermodynamics and preferential solvation of sulfamethazine in (methanol + water) mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, Daniel R.; Almanza, Ovidio A.; Martínez, Fleming; Peña, María A.; Jouyban, Abolghasem; Acree, William E.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Solubility of sulfamethazine (SMT) was measured in (methanol + water) mixtures. • SMT solubility was correlated with Jouyban–Acree model. • Gibbs energy, enthalpy, and entropy of dissolution of SMT were calculated. • Non-linear enthalpy–entropy relationship was observed for SMT. • Preferential solvation of SMT by methanol was analyzed by using the IKBI method. - Abstract: The solubility of sulfamethazine (SMT) in {methanol (1) + water (2)} co-solvent mixtures was determined at five different temperatures from (293.15 to 313.15) K. The sulfonamide exhibited its highest mole fraction solubility in pure methanol (δ 1 = 29.6 MPa 1/2 ) and its lowest mole fraction solubility in water (δ 2 = 47.8 MPa 1/2 ) at each of the five temperatures studied. The Jouyban–Acree model was used to correlate/predict the solubility values. The respective apparent thermodynamic functions Gibbs energy, enthalpy, and entropy of solution were obtained from the solubility data through the van’t Hoff and Gibbs equations. Apparent thermodynamic quantities of mixing were also calculated for this drug using values of the ideal solubility reported in the literature. A non-linear enthalpy–entropy relationship was noted for SMT in plots of both the enthalpy vs. Gibbs energy of mixing and the enthalpy vs. entropy of mixing. These plots suggest two different trends according to the slopes obtained when the composition of the mixtures changes. Accordingly, the mechanism for SMT transfer processes in water-rich mixtures from water to the mixture with 0.70 in mass fraction of methanol is entropy driven. Conversely, the mechanism is enthalpy driven in mixtures whenever the methanol composition exceeds 0.70 mol fraction. An inverse Kirkwood–Buff integral analysis of the preferential solvation of SMT indicated that the drug is preferentially solvated by water in water-rich mixtures but is preferentially solvated by methanol in methanol-rich mixtures.

  2. Comparing grey water versus tap water and coal ash versus perlite on growth of two plant species on green roofs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agra, Har'el; Solodar, Ariel; Bawab, Omar; Levy, Shay; Kadas, Gyongyver J; Blaustein, Leon; Greenbaum, Noam

    2018-08-15

    Green roofs provide important ecosystem services in urban areas. In Mediterranean and other semi-arid climate regions, most perennial plants on green roofs need to be irrigated during the dry season. However, the use of freshwater in such regions is scarce. Therefore, the possibility of using grey water should be examined. Coal ash, produced primarily from the burning of coal in power plants, constitutes an environmental contaminant that should be disposed. One option is to use ash as a growing substrate for plants. Here, we compare the effects of irrigating with grey- versus tap-water and using ash versus perlite as growing substrates in green roofs. The study was conducted in northern Israel in a Mediterranean climate. The design was full factorial with three factors: water-type (grey or tap-water)×substrate-type (coal ash vs perlite)×plant species (Phyla nodiflora, Convolvulus mauritanicus or no-plant). The development of plants and the quality of drainage water along the season, as well as quality of the used substrates were monitored. Both plant species developed well under all the experimental conditions with no effect of water type or substrate type. Under all treatments, both plant species enhanced electrical conductivity (EC) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the drainage water. In the summer, EC and COD reached levels that are unacceptable in water and are intended to be reused for irrigation. We conclude that irrigating with grey water and using coal ash as a growth substrate can both be implemented in green roofs. The drainage from tap water as well as from grey water can be further used for irrigating the roof, but for that, COD and EC levels must be lowered by adding a sufficient amount of tap water before reusing. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Purification of mine water of radium - The implementation of the technology in a coal mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalupnik, S.

    2002-01-01

    In underground coal mines in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin there are inflows of highly mineralised waters containing radium isotopes. These waters cause radioactive pollution of the natural environment in mining areas. Therefore cleaning of saline waters of radium is very important. Two types of radium-bearing waters were distinguished - one type containing radium and barium ions, but no sulphates (type A) and another one in which radium and sulphate ions are present but no barium (type B). A very efficient and inexpensive method of purification of saline waters, of Ba 2+ and Ra 2+ ions was developed and implemented in two coal mines. As the result of used technology, based on application of phosphogypsum as the cleaning agent, a significant decrease of radium discharge was achieved - daily of about 120 MBq of 226 Ra and 80 MBq of 228 Ra. Another type of radium waters does not contain barium ions, but contains sulphate ions SO 4 2- . There is no carrier for co-precipitation of radium so radium is transported with discharged waters to main rivers. Different method of purification from radium must be applied for such waters. Laboratory and field experiments were performed, and a cleaning method was chosen. For purification of saline waters - waste products from other industrial processes are applied. The method of purification have been applied in full technical scale in coal mine with very good results - of about 6 m 3 /min of radium-bearing waters is cleaned. Whole this process takes place in underground old workings without any contact of mining crew with radioactive deposits, which are produced during the process. As a result radium amount released to the natural environment was significantly diminished - approximately of about 90 MBq of 226 Ra per day and 150 MBq of 228 Ra. (author)

  4. Dynamics and structure of water-bitumen mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemarchand, Claire; Greenfield, Michael L.; Hansen, Jesper Schmidt

    2016-01-01

    Systems of Cooee bitumen and water up to 4% mass are studied by molecular dynamics simulations. The cohesive energy density of the system is shown to decrease with an increasing water content. This decrease is due mainly to an increase in the interaction energy which is not high enough to counter......Systems of Cooee bitumen and water up to 4% mass are studied by molecular dynamics simulations. The cohesive energy density of the system is shown to decrease with an increasing water content. This decrease is due mainly to an increase in the interaction energy which is not high enough...... droplets being more stable at the highest temperature simulated. The droplet is mainly located close to the saturates molecules in bitumen. Finally, it is shown that the water dynamics is much slower in bitumen than in pure water because it is governed by the diffusion of the droplet and not of the single...

  5. Shale gas vs. coal: Policy implications from environmental impact comparisons of shale gas, conventional gas, and coal on air, water, and land in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenner, Steffen; Lamadrid, Alberto J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the major environmental impacts of shale gas, conventional gas and coal on air, water, and land in the United States. These factors decisively affect the quality of life (public health and safety) as well as local and global environmental protection. Comparing various lifecycle assessments, this paper will suggest that a shift from coal to shale gas would benefit public health, the safety of workers, local environmental protection, water consumption, and the land surface. Most likely, shale gas also comes with a smaller GHG footprint than coal. However, shale gas extraction can affect water safety. This paper also discusses related aspects that exemplify how shale gas can be more beneficial in the short and long term. First, there are technical solutions readily available to fix the most crucial problems of shale gas extraction, such as methane leakages and other geo-hazards. Second, shale gas is best equipped to smoothen the transition to an age of renewable energy. Finally, this paper will recommend hybrid policy regulations. - Highlights: ► We examine the impacts of (un)conventional gas and coal on air, water, and land. ► A shift from coal to shale gas would benefit public health. ► Shale gas extraction can affect water safety. ► We discuss technical solutions to fix the most crucial problems of shale gas extraction. ► We recommend hybrid regulations.

  6. Radiation-induced heterogeneous polymerization of acrylamide in acetone and acetone--water mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, T.; Sekiya, H.; Machi, S.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of temperature, dose rate, and monomer concentration on the heterogeneous polymerization of acrylamide in acetone--water mixtures have been studied. Heterogeneous polymerization takes place in mixtures containing less than 60 vol-percent water. The polymerization is steady in acetone and nonsteady in mixtures containing 10 to 50 vol-percent water. The average rate of polymerization is highest in mixtures with about 20 vol-percent water. Polymer molecular weight increases with the increasing water content in the range 0 to 10 vol-percent and does not change in the range of 30 to 70 vol-percent water. For the polymerization in acetone and an acetone-water 60/40 mixture, the activation energies are 2.3 and -1.8 kcal/mole, the dose rate exponents of rate are 0.78 and 0.52, and the monomer concentration exponents of rate are 0.5 and 1.6, respectively. The polymer molecular weight increases with decreasing dose rate, decreasing temperature, and increasing monomer concentration. These results are discussed in connection with the mechanism of heterogeneous polymerization and the solvent effect

  7. Reducing water freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants : approaches used outside the United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D. (Environmental Science Division)

    2011-05-09

    Coal-fired power plants consume huge quantities of water, and in some water-stressed areas, power plants compete with other users for limited supplies. Extensive use of coal to generate electricity is projected to continue for many years. Faced with increasing power demands and questionable future supplies, industries and governments are seeking ways to reduce freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants. As the United States investigates various freshwater savings approaches (e.g., the use of alternative water sources), other countries are also researching and implementing approaches to address similar - and in many cases, more challenging - water supply and demand issues. Information about these non-U.S. approaches can be used to help direct near- and mid-term water-consumption research and development (R&D) activities in the United States. This report summarizes the research, development, and deployment (RD&D) status of several approaches used for reducing freshwater consumption by coal-fired power plants in other countries, many of which could be applied, or applied more aggressively, at coal-fired power plants in the United States. Information contained in this report is derived from literature and Internet searches, in some cases supplemented by communication with the researchers, authors, or equipment providers. Because there are few technical, peer-reviewed articles on this topic, much of the information in this report comes from the trade press and other non-peer-reviewed references. Reducing freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants can occur directly or indirectly. Direct approaches are aimed specifically at reducing water consumption, and they include dry cooling, dry bottom ash handling, low-water-consuming emissions-control technologies, water metering and monitoring, reclaiming water from in-plant operations (e.g., recovery of cooling tower water for boiler makeup water, reclaiming water from flue gas desulfurization [FGD] systems), and

  8. Research and development to prepare and characterize robust coal/biomass mixtures for direct co-feeding into gasification systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix, Larry [Inst. Of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Farthing, William [Inst. Of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Hoekman, S. Kent [Inst. Of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2014-12-31

    This project was initiated on October 1, 2010 and utilizes equipment and research supported by the Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, under Award Number DE- FE0005349. It is also based upon previous work supported by the Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, under Award Numbers DOE-DE-FG36-01GOl1082, DE-FG36-02G012011 or DE-EE0000272. The overall goal of the work performed was to demonstrate and assess the economic viability of fast hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) for transforming lignocellulosic biomass into a densified, friable fuel to gasify like coal that can be easily blended with ground coal and coal fines and then be formed into robust, weather-resistant pellets and briquettes.

  9. Influence of mechanical activation on the synthesis of Sr-Celsian employing a precursor mixture containing coal fly ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López-Badillo, C. M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Strontium aluminosilicate, SrAl2Si2O8 (SAS, was synthesized by a solid state reaction using coal fly ash (CFA as main raw material. A precursor mixture of SrCO3, CFA and Al2O3 was mechanically-activated for times of up to 12 h using an attrition mill, and subsequently sintered at temperatures of 900-1300 °C. The CFA and the mechanical activation were employed with the aim to promote the transformation from the hexagonal (Sr-Hexacelsian into the monoclinic (Sr-Celsian polymorphic form of SAS, since the latter phase is associated with better physical and mechanical properties but the former tends to be the first one to appear. The mean particle size, the crystallite size and the temperature at the end of the curve of weight loss (Tf decreased, while the specific surface area and the degree of amorphization increased, with increasing milling time. Samples milled for at least 4 h and then sintered at 1100 °C achieved full transformation into Sr-Celsian. The same result was obtained for sintering temperatures higher than 1100 °C, independently of milling time. An increment in both the milling time and the sintering temperature allowed us to improve the densification and the mechanical properties of the synthesized materials.Aluminosilicato de estroncio, SrAl2Si2O8 (SAS, fue sintetizado por reacción en el estado sólido empleando ceniza volante (CFA como materia prima principal. Una mezcla precursora de SrCO3, CFA y Al2O3 fue activada mecánicamente por tiempos de hasta 12 h en un molino de atrición, y después sinterizada a temperaturas de 900-1300 °C. El empleo de la CFA y la activación mecánica tuvieron el propósito de promover la transformación polimórfica de la fase hexagonal (Hexacelsiana de Sr a la monoclínica (Celsiana de Sr del SAS, ya que esta última se asocia con mejores propiedades físicas y mecánicas pero la primera tiende a aparecer primero. El tamaño promedio de partícula y de cristalita, así como la temperatura al

  10. Rheology of Colombian coal-water slurry fuels: Effect of particle-size distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pulido, J E; Rojas, C P; Acero, G [Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga (Colombia)

    1996-12-31

    Coal-water slurry fuels (CWSF`s) have been prepared and characterized in a research project in Colombia, sponsored by Colciencias and Ecocarbon, in order to evaluate the effects of the different composition variables on the behavior during preparation and pipe line transportation. The authors have previously presented details describing the characteristics of the slurry fuels prepared with five types of Colombian thermal coals and the influence of their chemical composition on the optimum particle-size distribution (PSD) required to prepare highly loaded and workable CWSF`s. The formulation and design of flow systems of suspensions with high solids content, such as the CWSF`s, require a detailed rheological knowledge of the suspension in terms of the governing parameters related to PSD, coal content, surface chemistry of the particles and dispersants used to stabilize the slurries. Important studies on these aspects have been reviewed and carried out experimentally by other authors specially devoted to the correlations between apparent viscosity, solids content and average coal particle-size. One of the targets to obtain an optimum control on the viscosity and flow properties of the CWSF`s must be based in correlating the Theological constants for the prevailing model of viscosity law to the characteristic parameters of the particle-size distribution and to the coal content in the slurry. In spite of the effect of PSD on the rheology of highly-loaded coal slurries have been long recognized as significant, the specific influence of the various PSD`s on the parameters of the Theological model continues to receive attention to further understanding in order to improve the slurry formulations for a specified purpose on preparation and hydraulic handling. This paper reports the results of an experimental technique of examining the various PSD`s on coal slurry fuel rheology, taking special attention for the effect on the parameters of the rheological model.

  11. Thermophysical Properties of Fluid Latent Heat Storage Material using Urea-Water Mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokamura, Taku; Ohkubo, Hidetoshi; Ashizawa, Kiyonori

    This study is concerned with the measurement of thermophysical properties of a urea-water mixture with the aim of adopting the mixture as a latent heat storage material for air-conditioning systems. The urea-water mixture is made of natural substances and has a good fluidity. The urea concentration in the mixture was controlled by measuring the refractive index of the mixture. Being a multi-component substance, a urea-water solution has a liquid-solid co-existent phase on a phase-diagram. Therefore, the liquidus temperature was measured to establish a relationship between the fraction of the solid-phase and temperature. Furthermore, apparent values of specific heat and coefficient of viscosity were measured in the two-phase region where the solid phase is ice. The apparent specific heat and coefficient of viscosity were measure by using an adiabatic calorimeter and a stirring torque meter respectively. The results revealed that the urea-water mixture can probably be used as a latent heat storage material of good fluidity.

  12. Communication: Hydrogen bonding interactions in water-alcohol mixtures from X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, Royce K.; Smith, Jacob W.; Saykally, Richard J., E-mail: saykally@berkeley.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA and Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2016-05-21

    While methanol and ethanol are macroscopically miscible with water, their mixtures exhibit negative excess entropies of mixing. Despite considerable effort in both experiment and theory, there remains significant disagreement regarding the origin of this effect. Different models for the liquid mixture structure have been proposed to address this behavior, including the enhancement of the water hydrogen bonding network around the alcohol hydrophobic groups and microscopic immiscibility or clustering. We have investigated mixtures of methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol with water by liquid microjet X-ray absorption spectroscopy on the oxygen K-edge, an atom-specific probe providing details of both inter- and intra-molecular structure. The measured spectra evidence a significant enhancement of hydrogen bonding originating from the methanol and ethanol hydroxyl groups upon the addition of water. These additional hydrogen bonding interactions would strengthen the liquid-liquid interactions, resulting in additional ordering in the liquid structures and leading to a reduction in entropy and a negative enthalpy of mixing, consistent with existing thermodynamic data. In contrast, the spectra of the isopropanol-water mixtures exhibit an increase in the number of broken alcohol hydrogen bonds for mixtures containing up to 0.5 water mole fraction, an observation consistent with existing enthalpy of mixing data, suggesting that the measured negative excess entropy is a result of clustering or micro-immiscibility.

  13. Communication: Hydrogen bonding interactions in water-alcohol mixtures from X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Royce K.; Smith, Jacob W.; Saykally, Richard J.

    2016-05-01

    While methanol and ethanol are macroscopically miscible with water, their mixtures exhibit negative excess entropies of mixing. Despite considerable effort in both experiment and theory, there remains significant disagreement regarding the origin of this effect. Different models for the liquid mixture structure have been proposed to address this behavior, including the enhancement of the water hydrogen bonding network around the alcohol hydrophobic groups and microscopic immiscibility or clustering. We have investigated mixtures of methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol with water by liquid microjet X-ray absorption spectroscopy on the oxygen K-edge, an atom-specific probe providing details of both inter- and intra-molecular structure. The measured spectra evidence a significant enhancement of hydrogen bonding originating from the methanol and ethanol hydroxyl groups upon the addition of water. These additional hydrogen bonding interactions would strengthen the liquid-liquid interactions, resulting in additional ordering in the liquid structures and leading to a reduction in entropy and a negative enthalpy of mixing, consistent with existing thermodynamic data. In contrast, the spectra of the isopropanol-water mixtures exhibit an increase in the number of broken alcohol hydrogen bonds for mixtures containing up to 0.5 water mole fraction, an observation consistent with existing enthalpy of mixing data, suggesting that the measured negative excess entropy is a result of clustering or micro-immiscibility.

  14. Maximum solid concentrations of coal water slurries predicted by neural network models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Jun; Li, Yanchang; Zhou, Junhu; Liu, Jianzhong; Cen, Kefa

    2010-12-15

    The nonlinear back-propagation (BP) neural network models were developed to predict the maximum solid concentration of coal water slurry (CWS) which is a substitute for oil fuel, based on physicochemical properties of 37 typical Chinese coals. The Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm was used to train five BP neural network models with different input factors. The data pretreatment method, learning rate and hidden neuron number were optimized by training models. It is found that the Hardgrove grindability index (HGI), moisture and coalification degree of parent coal are 3 indispensable factors for the prediction of CWS maximum solid concentration. Each BP neural network model gives a more accurate prediction result than the traditional polynomial regression equation. The BP neural network model with 3 input factors of HGI, moisture and oxygen/carbon ratio gives the smallest mean absolute error of 0.40%, which is much lower than that of 1.15% given by the traditional polynomial regression equation. (author)

  15. Presence of Trifolium repens promotes complementarity of water use and N facilitation in diverse grass mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline eHernandez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Legume species promote productivity and increase the digestibility of herbage in grasslands. Considerable experimental data also indicate that communities with legumes produce more above-ground biomass than is expected from monocultures. While it has been attributed to N facilitation, evidence to identify the mechanisms involved is still lacking and the role of complementarity in soil water acquisition by vertical root differentiation remains unclear. We used a 20-month mesocosm experiment to investigate the effects of species richness (single species, two- and five-species mixtures and functional diversity (presence of the legume Trifolium repens on a set of traits related to light, N and water use and measured at community level. We found a positive effect of Trifolium presence and abundance on biomass production and complementarity effects in the two-species mixtures from the second year. In addition the community traits related to water and N acquisition and use (leaf area, N, water-use efficiency and deep root growth were higher in the presence of Trifolium. With a multiple regression approach, we showed that the traits related to water acquisition and use were with N the main determinants of biomass production and complementarity effects in diverse mixtures. At shallow soil layers, lower root mass of Trifolium and higher soil moisture should increase soil water availability for the associated grass species. Conversely at deep soil layer, higher root growth and lower soil moisture mirror soil resource use increase of mixtures. Altogether, these results highlight N facilitation but almost soil vertical differentiation and thus complementarity for water acquisition and use in mixtures with Trifolium. Contrary to grass-Trifolium mixtures, no significant over-yielding was measured for grass mixtures even those having complementary traits (short and shallow vs tall and deep. Thus, vertical complementarity for soil resources uptake in mixtures

  16. Presence of Trifolium repens Promotes Complementarity of Water Use and N Facilitation in Diverse Grass Mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Pauline; Picon-Cochard, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Legume species promote productivity and increase the digestibility of herbage in grasslands. Considerable experimental data also indicate that communities with legumes produce more above-ground biomass than is expected from monocultures. While it has been attributed to N facilitation, evidence to identify the mechanisms involved is still lacking and the role of complementarity in soil water acquisition by vertical root differentiation remains unclear. We used a 20-months mesocosm experiment to investigate the effects of species richness (single species, two- and five-species mixtures) and functional diversity (presence of the legume Trifolium repens) on a set of traits related to light, N and water use and measured at community level. We found a positive effect of Trifolium presence and abundance on biomass production and complementarity effects in the two-species mixtures from the second year. In addition the community traits related to water and N acquisition and use (leaf area, N, water-use efficiency, and deep root growth) were higher in the presence of Trifolium. With a multiple regression approach, we showed that the traits related to water acquisition and use were with N the main determinants of biomass production and complementarity effects in diverse mixtures. At shallow soil layers, lower root mass of Trifolium and higher soil moisture should increase soil water availability for the associated grass species. Conversely at deep soil layer, higher root growth and lower soil moisture mirror soil resource use increase of mixtures. Altogether, these results highlight N facilitation but almost soil vertical differentiation and thus complementarity for water acquisition and use in mixtures with Trifolium. Contrary to grass-Trifolium mixtures, no significant over-yielding was measured for grass mixtures even those having complementary traits (short and shallow vs. tall and deep). Thus, vertical complementarity for soil resources uptake in mixtures was not only

  17. Vibrational Energy Relaxation in Water-Acetonitrile Mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cringus, Dan; Yeremenko, Sergey; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.; Wiersma, Douwe A.; Kobayashi, Takayoshi; Kobayashi, Tetsuro; Nelson, Keith A.; Okada, Tadashi; Silvestri, Sandro De

    2004-01-01

    IR pump-probe spectroscopy is used to study the effect of hydrogen bonding on the vibrational energy relaxation pathways. Hydrogen bonding accelerates the population relaxation from 12ps in diluted acetonitrile solution to 700fs in bulk water.

  18. Geohydrology and potential effects of coal mining in 12 coal-lease areas, Powder River structural basin, northeastern Wyoming. Water Resources Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogg, J.L.; Martin, M.W.; Daddow, P.B.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the report is to describe the geohydrology of 12 coal-lease areas in the Powder River structural basin in relation to the mining proposed for each area. The description of the geohydrology of each of the lease areas focuses on the shallow ground-water system and includes identification of recharge and discharge areas, directions of ground-water movement, and potential effects of mining. The shallow ground-water system in the Powder River structural basin is not well defined because of the discontinuous nature of the aquifers in the basin. Understanding the ground-water hydrology of these 12 coal-lease areas will improve understanding of the shallow ground-water system in the basin. The first part of the report is a description of the general geohydrology of the Wyoming part of the Powder River structural basin. The second part of the report is a general discussion of the effects of coal mining on ground-water hydrology. The third part of the report contains site-specific discussions of the ground-water hydrology and potential effects of mining for each of the 12 coal-lease areas

  19. A comparison of circulating fluidised bed combustion and gasification power plant technologies for processing mixtures of coal, biomass and plastic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIlveen-Wright, D.R.; Huang, Y.; McMullan, J.T.; Pinto, F.; Franco, C.; Gulyurtlu, I.; Armesto, L.; Cabanillas, A.; Caballero, M.A.; Aznar, M.P.

    2006-01-01

    Environmental regulations concerning emission limitations from the use of fossil fuels in large combustion plants have stimulated interest in biomass for electricity generation. The main objective of the present study was to examine the technical and economic viability of using combustion and gasification of coal mixed with biomass and plastic wastes, with the aim of developing an environmentally acceptable process to decrease their amounts in the waste stream through energy recovery. Mixtures of a high ash coal with biomass and/or plastic using fluidised bed technologies (combustion and gasification) were considered. Experiments were carried out in laboratory and pilot plant fluidised bed systems on the combustion and air/catalyst and air/steam gasification of these feedstocks and the data obtained were used in the techno-economic analyses. The experimental results were used in simulations of medium to large-scale circulating fluidised bed (CFB) power generation plants. Techno-economic analysis of the modelled CFB combustion systems showed efficiencies of around 40.5% (and around 46.5% for the modelled CFB gasification systems) when fuelled solely by coal, which were only minimally affected by co-firing with up to 20% biomass and/or wastes. Specific investments were found to be around $2150/kWe to $2400/kWe ($1350/kWe to $1450/kWe) and break-even electricity selling prices to be around $68/MWh to $78/MWh ($49/MWh to $54/MWh). Their emissions were found to be within the emission limit values of the large combustion plant directive. Fluidised bed technologies were found to be very suitable for co-firing coal and biomass and/or plastic waste and to offer good options for the replacement of obsolete or polluting power plants. (author)

  20. Dielectric relaxation and hydrogen bonding interaction in xylitol-water mixtures using time domain reflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rander, D. N.; Joshi, Y. S.; Kanse, K. S.; Kumbharkhane, A. C.

    2016-01-01

    The measurements of complex dielectric permittivity of xylitol-water mixtures have been carried out in the frequency range of 10 MHz-30 GHz using a time domain reflectometry technique. Measurements have been done at six temperatures from 0 to 25 °C and at different weight fractions of xylitol (0 xylitol-water can be well described by Cole-Davidson model having an asymmetric distribution of relaxation times. The dielectric parameters such as static dielectric constant and relaxation time for the mixtures have been evaluated. The molecular interaction between xylitol and water molecules is discussed using the Kirkwood correlation factor ( g eff ) and thermodynamic parameter.

  1. Terahertz sensing of highly absorptive water-methanol mixtures with multiple resonances in metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min; Singh, Leena; Xu, Ningning; Singh, Ranjan; Zhang, Weili; Xie, Lijuan

    2017-06-26

    Terahertz sensing of highly absorptive aqueous solutions remains challenging due to strong absorption of water in the terahertz regime. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a cost-effective metamaterial-based sensor integrated with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for highly absorptive water-methanol mixture sensing. This metamaterial has simple asymmetric wire structures that support multiple resonances including a fundamental Fano resonance and higher order dipolar resonance in the terahertz regime. Both the resonance modes have strong intensity in the transmission spectra which we exploit for detection of the highly absorptive water-methanol mixtures. The experimentally characterized sensitivities of the Fano and dipole resonances for the water-methanol mixtures are found to be 160 and 305 GHz/RIU, respectively. This method provides a robust route for metamaterial-assisted terahertz sensing of highly absorptive chemical and biochemical materials with multiple resonances and high accuracy.

  2. Purification of waters and elimination of organochloric insecticides by means of active coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRAGAN MARINOVIĆ

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Pollution of water and the determination of the degree of its pollution with numerous physical, chemical and biological polluters have become general, ever increasing social and health related problems. Within this study, the concentrations of some most frequently used organochloric insecticides (OCI: a-hexachlorocyclohexane (a-HCH, γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (lindane, heptachlor, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, dichlorodiphenyl trichlorethane (DDT were investigated. OCI are highly toxic substances for the human population and their effective elimination from the environment is of paramount interest. To determine the OCI concentration in water samples, the EPA–608 method and the liquid–liquid extraction principle were applied. A procedure for OCI elimination was realized by passing the water over four columns filled with various active coals: KRF, K-81/B, NORIT ROW-0.8 and AQUA SORB CS. These active coals are carbonized coconut shells activated by different procedures. The obtained results indicated that best purification of potable and waste water achieved using a column with Norit Row-0.8 filling. Research proved that small quantities of OCI can also be effectively removed using a Norit Row-0.8 active coal filled column, without altering the organoleptic properties of the water, which meets the requirements of water purification processes.

  3. Chloraminated Concentrated Drinking Water for Disinfection Byproduct Mixtures Research: Evaluating Free Chlorine Contact Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Complex mixtures of disinfection by-products (DBPs) are formed when the disinfectant oxidizes constituents (e.g., natural organic matter (NOM) and organic pollutants) present in the source water. Since 1974, over 600 DBPs have been identified in drinking water, yet a large portio...

  4. Chloramination of Concentrated Drinking Water for Disinfection Byproduct Mixtures Creation- Indianapolis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Complex mixtures of disinfection by-products (DBPs) are formed when the disinfectant oxidizes constituents (e.g., natural organic matter (NOM) and organic pollutants) found in the source water. Since 1974, over 600 DBPs have been identified in drinking water. Despite intense iden...

  5. Phase Behavior of a Phospholipid/Fatty Acid/Water Mixture Studied in Atomic Detail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knecht, Volker; Mark, Alan E.; Marrink, Siewert-Jan

    2006-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been used to study the phase behavior of a dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC)/palmitic acid (PA)/water 1:2:20 mixture in atomic detail. Starting from a random solution of DPPC and PA in water, the system adopts either a gel phase at temperatures below similar

  6. Treatment of waste water containing solid particles (coal-ash-water suspensions) from 500 MW blocks of brown coal power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgenstern, H

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents a technological scheme and details on efficiency of the waste water cleaning installation in the 4 x 500 MW Boxberg III brown coal power plant. The power plant waste water contains between 0.1 and 100 kg of solids per m/sup 3/ of waste water; it requires cleaning to the environmental standard of up to 30 mg/l. The water cleaning installation consists of a coarse grain settling tank 30.7 m long, four one chamber thickeners with a 22 m diameter each, using aluminium sulfate as flocculent, and a water purification basin. The coarse grain settling tank is furnished with a continuously working chain scraper for removal of up to 100 m/sup 3//d of sludge from the bottom of the tank. Technological parameters of the settling tank are provided. Details of the tank's water cleaning performance are compared to the coarse grain settling tank at the Hagenwerder power plant. A list of the percentage of grain sizes removed from waste waters at both power plants is given. It is concluded that 85% of solids are removed from the Boxberg III waste water at the first water purification stage with a coarse grain settling tank and that use of continuously working chain scrapers is successful for removal of sludge with high water content and with a high content of fines in the grain size below 0.1 mm.

  7. Cultivation-independent analysis of archaeal and bacterial communities of the formation water in an Indian coal bed to enhance biotransformation of coal into methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Durgesh Narain; Kumar, Ashok; Tripathi, Anil Kumar [Banaras Hindu Univ., Varanasi (India). School of Biotechnolgy; Sarbhai, Munish Prasad [Oil and Natural Gas Commission, Ahmedabad (India). Inst. of Reservoir Studies

    2012-02-15

    Biogenic origin of the significant proportion of coal bed methane has indicated the role of microbial communities in methanogenesis. By using cultivation-independent approach, we have analysed the archaeal and bacterial community present in the formation water of an Indian coal bed at 600-700 m depth to understand their role in methanogenesis. Presence of methanogens in the formation water was inferred by epifluorescence microscopy and PCR amplification of mcrA gene. Archaeal 16S rRNA gene clone library from the formation water metagenome was dominated by methanogens showing similarity to Methanobacterium, Methanothermobacter and Methanolinea whereas the clones of bacterial 16S rRNA gene library were closely related to Azonexus, Azospira, Dechloromonas and Thauera. Thus, microbial community of the formation water consisted of predominantly hydrogenotrophic methanogens and the proteobacteria capable of nitrogen fixation, nitrate reduction and polyaromatic compound degradation. Methanogenic potential of the microbial community present in the formation water was elucidated by the production of methane in the enrichment culture, which contained 16S rRNA gene sequences showing close relatedness to the genus Methanobacterium. Microcosm using formation water as medium as well as a source of inoculum and coal as carbon source produced significant amount of methane which increased considerably by the addition of nitrite. The dominance of Diaphorobacter sp. in nitrite amended microcosm indicated their important role in supporting methanogenesis in the coal bed. This is the first study indicating existence of methanogenic and bacterial community in an Indian coal bed that is capable of in situ biotransformation of coal into methane. (orig.)

  8. Indomethacin solubility estimation in 1,4-dioxane + water mixtures by the extended hildebrand solubility approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller A Ruidiaz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Extended Hildebrand Solubility Approach (EHSA was successfully applied to evaluate the solubility of Indomethacin in 1,4-dioxane + water mixtures at 298.15 K. An acceptable correlation-performance of EHSA was found by using a regular polynomial model in order four of the W interaction parameter vs. solubility parameter of the mixtures (overall deviation was 8.9%. Although the mean deviation obtained was similar to that obtained directly by means of an empiric regression of the experimental solubility vs. mixtures solubility parameters, the advantages of EHSA are evident because it requires physicochemical properties easily available for drugs.

  9. Optimum combination of water drainage, water supply and eco-environment protection in coal-accumulated basin of North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武强; 董东林; 石占华; 武雄; 孙卫东; 叶责钧; 李树文; 刘金韬

    2000-01-01

    The conflict among water drainage, water supply and eco-environment protection is getting more and more serious due to the irrational drainage and exploitation of ground water resources in coal-accumulated basins of North China. Efficient solutions to the conflict are to maintain long-term dynamic balance between input and output of the ground water basins, and to try to improve resourcification of the mine water. All solutions must guarantee the eco-environment quality. This paper presents a new idea of optimum combination of water drainage, water supply and eco-environment protection so as to solve the problem of unstable mine water supply, which is caused by the changeable water drainage for the whole combination system. Both the management of hydraulic techniques and constraints in economy, society, ecology, environment, industrial structural adjustments and sustainable developments have been taken into account. Since the traditional and separate management of different departments of water drainage,

  10. Sound speed models for a noncondensible gas-steam-water mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ransom, V.H.; Trapp, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    An analytical expression is derived for the homogeneous equilibrium speed of sound in a mixture of noncondensible gas, steam, and water. The expression is based on the Gibbs free energy interphase equilibrium condition for a Gibbs-Dalton mixture in contact with a pure liquid phase. Several simplified models are discussed including the homogeneous frozen model. These idealized models can be used as a reference for data comparison and also serve as a basis for empirically corrected nonhomogeneous and nonequilibrium models

  11. Analysis of hydrogen-deuterium mixtures and of mixtures of heavy-water and light-water by means of a mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chenouard, J.; Gueron, J.; Roth, E.

    1951-07-01

    The differences between hydrogen and deuterium with respect to the capture of thermal neutrons (hydrogen = 0.31 barn; deuterium 0.00065 barn) explains the interest of detecting small variations of the isotopic composition of the heavy waters used in the Chatillon nuclear pile. The aim of this report is to describe and discuss the method used since more than a year for the dosimetry of heavy waters. After a recall of the principle of mass spectroscopy analysis of deuterium-hydrogen mixtures, the preciseness of the results is presented and the balancing method used for the determination of the isotopic composition of hydrogen-deuterium mixtures is explained in detail. Finally, a brief comparison of the preciseness of mass spectroscopy measurements with the analyses made with other methods is performed. Some calculations and the tables of results are presented in appendixes. (J.S.)

  12. Feasibility of using the water from the abandoned and flooded coal mines as an energy resource for space heating

    OpenAIRE

    Athresh, AP

    2017-01-01

    This research project aims to study the feasibility of using the water from the abandoned and flooded coal mines for space heating applications using a Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) in open loop configuration and take a conceptual idea to a commercial deployment level. The flooded coal mines are the legacy that has been left behind after the three centuries of continuous operations by the coal mining industry. The closure of all coal mines in the UK has led to the flooding of all those aband...

  13. On the density and viscosity of (water + dimethylsulphoxide) binary mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmen Grande, Maria del; Julia, Jorge Alvarez; Garcia, Mariano; Marschoff, Carlos M.

    2007-01-01

    Density and viscosity of (water + dimethylsulphoxide) were measured precisely over the whole composition range at T = (298.15, 303.15, 308.15, 313.15, and 318.15) K. Differences between values from different authors are clarified and more reliable partial molar volumes are obtained

  14. Abating coal tar seepage into surface water bodies using sheet piles with sealed interlocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collingwood, B.I.; Boscardin, M.D.; Murdock, R.F.

    1995-01-01

    A former coal tar processing facility processed crude coal tar supplied from manufactured gas plants in the area. Coal-tar-contaminated ground water from the site was observed seeping through an existing timber bulkhead along a tidal river and producing a multicolored sheen on the surface of the river. As part of a short-term measure to abate the seepage into the river, 64-m long anchored sheet pile wall with sheet pile wing walls at each end was constructed inland of the of the timber bulkhead. The sheet piles extended to low-permeability soils at depth and the interlocks of the sheet piles were provided with polyurethane rubber seals. Based on postconstruction observations for leakage and sheens related to leakage, the steel sheet piles with polyurethane rubber interlock seals appeared to provide a successful seal and abate coal-tar-contaminated ground water seepage into the river. The tie rod penetration sealing proved to be a more problematic detail, but through several postconstruction grouting episodes, an effective seal was produced

  15. Radium balance in discharge waters from coal mines in Poland the ecological impact of underground water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalupnik, S.; Wysocka, M.

    2008-01-01

    Saline waters from underground coal mines in Poland often contain natural radioactive isotopes, mainly 226 Ra from the uranium decay series and 228 Ra from the thorium series. More than 70% of the total amount of radium remains underground as radioactive deposits due to spontaneous co-precipitation or water treatment technologies, but several tens of MBq of 226 Ra and even higher activity of 228 Ra are released daily into the rivers along with the other mine effluents from all Polish coal mines. Mine waters can have a severe impact on the natural environment, mainly due to its salinity. Additionally high levels of radium concentration in river waters, bottom sediments and vegetation were also observed. Sometimes radium concentrations in rivers exceeded 0.7 kBq/m 3 , which was the permitted level for wastewaters under Polish law. The investigations described here were carried out for all coal mines and on this basis the total radium balance in effluents has been calculated. Measurements in the vicinity of mine settling ponds and in rivers have given an opportunity to study radium behaviour in river waters and to assess the degree of contamination. For removal of radium from saline waters a method of purification has been developed and implemented in full technical scale in two of Polish coal mines. The purification station in Piast Colliery was unique, the first underground installation for the removal of radium isotopes from saline waters. Very good results have been achieved - approximately 6 m 3 /min of radium-bearing waters were treated there, more than 100 MBq of 226 Ra and 228 Ra remained underground each day. Purification has been started in 1999, therefore a lot of experiences have been gathered during this period. Since year 2006, a new purification station is working in another colliery, Ziemowit, at the level -650 meters. Barium chloride is used as a cleaning , agent, and amount of water to be purified is reaching 9 m 3 /min. Technical measures such as

  16. Slurry burner for mixture of carbonaceous material and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodd, D.G.; Walker, R.J.

    1985-11-05

    The present invention is intended to overcome the limitations of the prior art by providing a fuel burner particularly adapted for the combustion of carbonaceous material-water slurries which includes a stationary high pressure tip-emulsion atomizer which directs a uniform fuel into a shearing air flow as the carbonaceous material-water slurry is directed into a combustion chamber, inhibits the collection of unburned fuel upon and within the atomizer, reduces the slurry to a collection of fine particles upon discharge into the combustion chamber, and regulates the operating temperature of the burner as well as primary air flow about the burner and into the combustion chamber for improved combustion efficiency, no atomizer plugging and enhanced flame stability.

  17. Influence of water-soaking time on the acoustic emission characteristics and spatial fractal dimensions of coal under uniaxial compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Zheqiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The water-soaking time affects the physical and mechanical properties of coals, and the temporal and spatial evolution of acoustic emissions reflects the fracture damage process of rock. This study conducted uniaxial compression acoustic emissions tests of coal samples with different water-soaking times to investigate the influence of water-soaking time on the acoustic emissions characteristics and spatial fractal dimensions during the deformation and failure process of coals. The results demonstrate that the acoustic emissions characteristics decrease with increases in the water-soaking time. The acoustic emissions spatial fractal dimension changes from a single dimensionality reduction model to a fluctuation dimensionality reduction model, and the stress level of the initial descending point of the fractal dimension increases. With increases in the water-soaking time, the destruction of coal transitions from continuous intense failure throughout the process to a lower release of energy concentrated near the peak strength.

  18. Evidence for phase separation of ethanol-water mixtures at the hydrogen terminated nanocrystalline diamond surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Stoffel D; Drijkoningen, Sien; Saitner, Marc; Boyen, Hans-Gerd; Wagner, Patrick; Larsson, Karin; Haenen, Ken

    2012-07-28

    Interactions between ethanol-water mixtures and a hydrophobic hydrogen terminated nanocrystalline diamond surface, are investigated by sessile drop contact angle measurements. The surface free energy of the hydrophobic surface, obtained with pure liquids, differs strongly from values obtained by ethanol-water mixtures. Here, a model which explains this difference is presented. The model suggests that, due to a higher affinity of ethanol for the hydrophobic surface, when compared to water, a phase separation occurs when a mixture of both liquids is in contact with the H-terminated diamond surface. These results are supported by a computational study giving insight in the affinity and related interaction at the liquid-solid interface.

  19. Coal seam gas water: potential hazards and exposure pathways in Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navi, Maryam; Skelly, Chris; Taulis, Mauricio; Nasiri, Shahram

    2015-01-01

    The extraction of coal seam gas (CSG) produces large volumes of potentially contaminated water. It has raised concerns about the environmental health impacts of the co-produced CSG water. In this paper, we review CSG water contaminants and their potential health effects in the context of exposure pathways in Queensland's CSG basins. The hazardous substances associated with CSG water in Queensland include fluoride, boron, lead and benzene. The exposure pathways for CSG water are (1) water used for municipal purposes; (2) recreational water activities in rivers; (3) occupational exposures; (4) water extracted from contaminated aquifers; and (5) indirect exposure through the food chain. We recommend mapping of exposure pathways into communities in CSG regions to determine the potentially exposed populations in Queensland. Future efforts to monitor chemicals of concern and consolidate them into a central database will build the necessary capability to undertake a much needed environmental health impact assessment.

  20. Co-pyrolysis of waste tire/coal mixtures for smokeless fuel, maltenes and hydrogen-rich gas production

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bičáková, Olga; Straka, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 116, MAY 15 (2016), s. 203-213 ISSN 0196-8904 Grant - others:OPPK(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/21538 Program:OPPK Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : waste tires * coal * co-pyrolysis * smokeless fuel * tar * hydrogen -rich gas Subject RIV: DM - Solid Waste and Recycling Impact factor: 5.589, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0196890416300991

  1. Physico-chemical fracturing and cleaning of coal. [Treatment with CO/sub 2/ in water at high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapienza, R.S.; Slegeir, W.A.R.

    1983-09-30

    This invention relates to a method of producing a crushable coal and reducing the metallic values in coal represented by Si, Al, Ca, Na, K, and Mg, which comprises contacting a coal/water mix in a weight ratio of from about 4:1 to 1:6 in the presence of CO/sub 2/ at pressures of about 100 to 1400 psi and a minimum temperature of about 15/sup 0/C for a period of about one or more hours to produce a treated coal/water mix. In the process the treated coal/water mix has reduced values for Ca and Mg of up to 78% over the starting mix and the advantageous CO/sub 2/ concentration is in the range of about 3 to 30 g/L. Below 5 g/L CO/sub 2/ only small effects are observed and above 30 g/L no further special advantages are achieved. The coal/water ratios in the range 1:2 to 2:1 are particularly desirable and such ratios are compatible with coal water slurry applications.

  2. Low temperature combustion of organic coal-water fuel droplets containing petrochemicals while soaring in a combustion chamber model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valiullin Timur R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the integral characteristics (minimum temperature, ignition delay times of stable combustion initiation of organic coal-water fuel droplets (initial radius is 0.3-1.5 mm in the oxidizer flow (the temperature and velocity varied in ranges 500-900 K, 0.5-3 m/s. The main components of organic coal-water fuel were: brown coal particles, filter-cakes obtained in coal processing, waste engine, and turbine oils. The different modes of soaring and ignition of organic coal-water fuel have been established. The conditions have been set under which it is possible to implement the sustainable soaring and ignition of organic coal-water fuel droplets. We have compared the ignition characteristics with those defined in the traditional approach (based on placing the droplets on a low-inertia thermocouple junction into the combustion chamber. The paper shows the scale of the influence of heat sink over the thermocouple junction on ignition inertia. An original technique for releasing organic coal-water fuel droplets to the combustion chamber was proposed and tested. The limitations of this technique and the prospects of experimental results for the optimization of energy equipment operation were also formulated.

  3. Thermodynamics of Surfactants, Block Copolymers and Their Mixtures in Water: The Role of the Isothermal Calorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lisi, Rosario; Milioto, Stefania; Muratore, Nicola

    2009-01-01

    The thermodynamics of conventional surfactants, block copolymers and their mixtures in water was described to the light of the enthalpy function. The two methodologies, i.e. the van’t Hoff approach and the isothermal calorimetry, used to determine the enthalpy of micellization of pure surfactants and block copolymers were described. The van’t Hoff method was critically discussed. The aqueous copolymer+surfactant mixtures were analyzed by means of the isothermal titration calorimetry and the enthalpy of transfer of the copolymer from the water to the aqueous surfactant solutions. Thermodynamic models were presented to show the procedure to extract straightforward molecular insights from the bulk properties. PMID:19742173

  4. Memorandum of Understanding on Surface Coal Mining Operations Resulting in Placement of Excess Spoil Fills in the Waters of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    MOU on Surface Coal Mining Operations establishes a process for improving coordination in the review of permit applications required for surface coal mining and reclamation in waters of the United States

  5. The impacts of coal refuse/fly ash bulk bends on water quality and plant growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewar, B.R.; Daniels, W.L. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    There is considerable interest in the beneficial reuse of coal fly ash as a soil amendment on coal refuse piles. One method of application would be to blend the coal refuse and the fly ash before deposition in a refuse pile. A field experiment was initiated to measure the effects of bulk blending fly ash with coal refuse on water quality and plant growth parameters. Fly ash (class F) from three sources were used in the experiment. Two of the fly ashes were acidic and the third was alkaline. Trenches were excavated in a coal refuse pile to a depth of 2 m and the refuse was blended with fly ash and then returned to the trench. In other plots the ash was applied as a surface amendment. A treatment of a bulk blend of 5% (w/w) rock phosphate was also included in the experiment. Large volume lysimeters were installed in some trenches to collect the leachates. The fly ash treatments appear to improve the quality of the leachates when compared to the leachates from the untreated plots. The fly ash amended treatments have lower leachate concentrations of Fe and Al. Initially the fly ash treatments showed high levels of leachate B, however those levels have decreased with time. Millet (Setaria italica) yields from the first year of the experiment were highest n the alkaline fly ash and rock phosphate blended plots. In the second growing season, the two bulk blends with alkaline fly ash had the highest yields. In the third growing season all treatments had higher yield levels than the untreated control plots. The positive effects of the fly ash on leachate quality were attributed to the alkalinity of the ash, and the increase in yield was attributed to the increases in water holding capacity due to fly ash treatments.

  6. Electrodialysis reversal: Process and cost approximations for treating coal-bed methane waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sajtar, E.T.; Bagley, D.M. [University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Brackish waters with total dissolved solids (TDS) concentrations less than 10,000 mg/L are extracted from coal-beds in the Wyoming Powder River basin to facilitate the production of coal-bed methane. These waters frequently require treatment before disposal or use. Electrodialysis reversal (EDR) has not yet been used to treat these waters but this technology should be suitable. The question is whether EDR would be cost-effective. The purpose of this work, then, was to develop models for predicting the cost of EDR for brackish waters. These models, developed from data available in the literature, were found to predict actual EDR costs as a function of TDS removal, influent flow rate, chemical rejection efficiency, water recovery, electricity use, and labor cost within 10% of reported values. The total amortized cost for removing 1,000 mg/L of TDS from 10,000 m{sup 3}/day of influent assuming no concentrate disposal costs was predicted to range from $0.23/m{sup 3} to $0.85/m{sup 3} and was highly dependent on capital cost and facility life. Concentrate disposal costs significantly affected total treatment cost, providing a total treatment cost range from $0.38/m{sup 3} to $6.38/m{sup 3}, depending on concentrate disposal cost and water recovery. Pilot demonstrations of EDR in the Powder River basin should be conducted to determine the achievable water recovery when treating these waters.

  7. Effects of coal mining on ground and surface water quality, Monongalia County, West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbett, R G

    1977-07-01

    Water quality data are compared. Areas disturbed extensively either by surface or underground mining for bituminous coal in Monongalia County, West Virginia yield water of poorer quality than similar terrain which is not so disturbed. Specifically, the disturbed areas yield hard water of the calcium-sulfate or calcium-magnesium-sulfate type which is low in pH, high in iron and aluminum, and which contains trace elements one or more orders of magnitude greater than water from undisturbed terrain. These hard waters differ from the more common type of hard waters in that sulfate rather than bicarbonate is the dominant anion. As such they may provide further insight into factors affecting the relationship between water hardness and cardiovascular disease rates. The necessary additional data are being collected.

  8. Glass polymorphism in glycerol-water mixtures: I. A computer simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, David A; Wong, Jessina; Bachler, Johannes; Loerting, Thomas; Giovambattista, Nicolas

    2016-04-28

    We perform out-of-equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of water-glycerol mixtures in the glass state. Specifically, we study the transformations between low-density (LDA) and high-density amorphous (HDA) forms of these mixtures induced by compression/decompression at constant temperature. Our MD simulations reproduce qualitatively the density changes observed in experiments. Specifically, the LDA-HDA transformation becomes (i) smoother and (ii) the hysteresis in a compression/decompression cycle decreases as T and/or glycerol content increase. This is surprising given the fast compression/decompression rates (relative to experiments) accessible in MD simulations. We study mixtures with glycerol molar concentration χ(g) = 0-13% and find that, for the present mixture models and rates, the LDA-HDA transformation is detectable up to χ(g) ≈ 5%. As the concentration increases, the density of the starting glass (i.e., LDA at approximately χ(g) ≤ 5%) rapidly increases while, instead, the density of HDA remains practically constant. Accordingly, the LDA state and hence glass polymorphism become inaccessible for glassy mixtures with approximately χ(g) > 5%. We present an analysis of the molecular-level changes underlying the LDA-HDA transformation. As observed in pure glassy water, during the LDA-to-HDA transformation, water molecules within the mixture approach each other, moving from the second to the first hydration shell and filling the first interstitial shell of water molecules. Interestingly, similar changes also occur around glycerol OH groups. It follows that glycerol OH groups contribute to the density increase during the LDA-HDA transformation. An analysis of the hydrogen bond (HB)-network of the mixtures shows that the LDA-HDA transformation is accompanied by minor changes in the number of HBs of water and glycerol. Instead, large changes in glycerol and water coordination numbers occur. We also perform a detailed analysis of the effects that

  9. Activity coefficients of NaF in (glucose+water) and (sucrose+water) mixtures at 298.15 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Luis, Felipe [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Universidad de La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)]. E-mail: ffhelu@ull.es; Galleguillos, Hector R. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad de Antofagasta, Antofagasta (Chile); Vazquez, Mario V. [Instituto de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellin (Colombia)

    2004-11-01

    The activity coefficients of NaF in (glucose+water) and (sucrose+water) mixtures were experimentally determined at 298.15 K from electromotive force measurements of the following electrochemical cell containing two ion selective electrodes (ISEs):Na-ISE|NaF(m),sugar(Y),H2O(100-Y)|F-ISEThe molality (m) varied between ca. 0.01 mol.kg{sup -1} and saturation, while the mass fractions of sugar in the mixture (Y) were 0, 0.10, 0.20, 0.30 and 0.40. The values for electromotive force were analyzed using different models for describing the variations of the activity coefficients with concentration, including an extended Debye-Huckel, the Pitzer and the Scatchard equations. Results obtained with the different models were in good agreement. Once E{sup -}bar was determined, the mean coefficients of ionic activity for NaF, the free energy of transference from the water to the (sugar+water) mixture, and the primary NaF hydration number were calculated. The variation of these magnitudes with the composition of the mixture is comparative discussed in terms of the ion-solvent and ion-ion interactions with results from the literature for NaCl in (glucose+water) and (sucrose+water) systems.

  10. Problems in assessing the risks of mixtures of contaminants in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderslice, R.R.; Orme, J.; Ohanian, E.V.; Sonich-Mullin, C.

    1989-01-01

    In conducting risk assessments on drinking water contaminants, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) attempts to evaluate all available toxicity data to develop Health Advisory (HA) and Maximum Contaminant Level Goal (MCLG) values. The EPA often has grappled with the issues surrounding the toxicity of chemical mixtures, including radioactive contaminants, nitrate/nitrite, and trihalomethanes (THMs). In evaluating the toxicity of chemical mixtures, the EPA's immediate concern is whether the individual HA values and MCLGs are protecting public health when multiple contaminants are present in drinking water. Potential toxic interactions between drinking water contaminants are difficult to predict because experimental studies are generally performed only at high doses relative to environmental levels. Although the contamination of drinking water involves mixtures of contaminants, drinking water regulations are generally based on an assessment of the risks of individual contaminants. This paper discusses three issues of major concern to the EPA: the synergistic effects of solvent mixtures, vehicle effects in laboratory studies, and setting standards for essential trace nutrients where the absorption and/or toxicity are affected by an individual's nutritional status or other dietary components. 12 references

  11. Scintillating Cocktail Mixtures and the Role of Water on the Optophysical Properties.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordaro, Joseph Gabriel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Feng, Patrick L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Mengesha, Wondwosen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Murtagh, Dustin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Anstey, Mitchell [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Two types of water - containing liquid scinti llation mixtures were prepared in the present work. In the first, m ixtures of 2 - phenylethanol, water, diphenyl phosphate, sodium phenyl phosphate dibasic dihydrate, and the dye 2,5 - diphenyloxazole (PPO) have been investigated as liquid scintillators. In th e second system, nonionic and mixed surfactant systems were investigated in conjunction with water and small amounts of toluene. In both cases, increasing amounts of water led to reductions in the scintillation light yield. Understanding what factors contr ibute to this phenomenon is the focus of this report. Changes in the solution microphase structure, diminishing aromatic content of the cocktail mixtures, and inefficient energy transfer to the dye a ppear to be responsible for the decreased light yield as more water is added . In the 2 - phenylethanol system, the observed experimental results are consistent with the formation of a bicontinuous microemulsion at higher water concentrations, which incorporates PPO and shields it from the quenching effects of the increasing polar matrix. Evidence for this proposed phase chan ge c ome s from light scattering data, photo - and x - ray luminescence measurements, and optical transparency measurements . In the surfactant - based system, the quenching effect of water was found to be less than both commercially - available dioxane - naphthalene mixtures used for scintillation counting as well as the 2 - phenylethanol mixtures described above. The effect of different surfactant mixtures and concentrations were studied, revealing a benefic ial effect upon the scintillation light yield for mixed surfactant mixtures. These results are interpreted in the context of r eactive radical species formation following water ionization , which leads to light - yield quenching in aqueous systems . The presenc e of surfactant(s) in these mixtures enables the formation of organic - rich regions that are spatially separated from the

  12. Effect of structural heterogeneity water-coal fuel conditions and characteristics of ignition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syrodoy S.V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the particle ignition of coal-water fuel (CWF with a joint course of the main processes of a thermal (thermal conductivity, evaporation, filtration heat and mass transfer, thermal decomposition of the organic part has been solved. According to the results of numerical simulation ways of describing the extent of the influence of the thermophysical properties on the characteristics and conditions of ignition WCF have been set.

  13. Advanced gasifier and water gas shift technologies for low cost coal conversion to high hydrogen syngas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Andrew Kramer [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2016-09-30

    The Gas Technology Institute (GTI) and team members RTI International (RTI), Coanda Research and Development, and Nexant, are developing and maturing a portfolio of technologies to meet the United States Department of Energy (DOE) goals for lowering the cost of producing high hydrogen syngas from coal for use in carbon capture power and coal-to-liquids/chemicals. This project matured an advanced pilot-scale gasifier, with scalable and commercially traceable components, to readiness for use in a first-of-a-kind commercially-relevant demonstration plant on the scale of 500-1,000 tons per day (TPD). This was accomplished through cold flow simulation of the gasifier quench zone transition region at Coanda and through an extensive hotfire gasifier test program on highly reactive coal and high ash/high ash fusion temperature coals at GTI. RTI matured an advanced water gas shift process and catalyst to readiness for testing at pilot plant scale through catalyst development and testing, and development of a preliminary design basis for a pilot scale reactor demonstrating the catalyst. A techno-economic analysis was performed by Nexant to assess the potential benefits of the gasifier and catalyst technologies in the context of power production and methanol production. This analysis showed an 18%reduction in cost of power and a 19%reduction in cost of methanol relative to DOE reference baseline cases.

  14. Surface coal mining effects on ground water recharge

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1990-01-01

    ... Areas Water Science and Technology Board Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C., 1990 i Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original authoritative the typesetting-specific the as from created publication files XML from other t...

  15. An investigation on characterizing dense coal-water slurry with ultrasound: theoretical and experimental method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, M.H.; Su, M.X.; Dong, L.L.; Shang, Z.T.; Cai, X.S. [Shanghai University of Science & Technology, Shanghai (China)

    2010-07-01

    Particle size distribution and concentration in particulate two-phase flow are important parameters in a wide variety of industrial areas. For the purpose of online characterization in dense coal-water slurries, ultrasonic methods have many advantages such as avoiding dilution, the capability for being used in real time, and noninvasive testing, while light-based techniques are not capable of providing information because optical methods often require the slurry to be diluted. In this article, the modified Urick equation including temperature modification, which can be used to determine the concentration by means of the measurement of ultrasonic velocity in a coal-water slurry, is evaluated on the basis of theoretical analysis and experimental study. A combination of the coupled-phase model and the Bouguer-Lambert-Beer law is employed in this work, and the attenuation spectrum is measured within the frequency region from 3 to 12 MHz. Particle size distributions of the coal-water slurry at different volume fractions are obtained with the optimum regularization technique. Therefore, the ultrasonic technique presented in this work brings the possibility of using ultrasound for online measurements of dense slurries.

  16. Clustering mechanism of ethanol-water mixtures investigated with photothermal microfluidic cantilever deflection spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoraishi, M. S.; Hawk, J. E.; Phani, Arindam; Khan, M. F.; Thundat, T.

    2016-04-01

    The infrared-active (IR) vibrational mode of ethanol (EtOH) associated with the asymmetrical stretching of the C-C-O bond in pico-liter volumes of EtOH-water binary mixtures is calorimetrically measured using photothermal microfluidic cantilever deflection spectroscopy (PMCDS). IR absorption by the confined liquid results in wavelength dependent cantilever deflections, thus providing a complementary response to IR absorption revealing a complex dipole moment dependence on mixture concentration. Solvent-induced blue shifts of the C-C-O asymmetric vibrational stretch for both anti and gauche conformers of EtOH were precisely monitored for EtOH concentrations ranging from 20-100% w/w. Variations in IR absorption peak maxima show an inverse dependence on induced EtOH dipole moment (μ) and is attributed to the complex clustering mechanism of EtOH-water mixtures.

  17. Use of Water-Fuel Mixture in Diesel Engines at Fishing Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klyus, Oleg; Bezyukov, O.

    2017-06-01

    The paper presents the laboratory test results determining physical parameters of fuel mixture made up of petroleum diesel oil, rapeseed oil methyl esters (up to 20%) and water (up to 2.5%). The obtained parameters prove that adding bio-components (rapeseed oil methyl esters) and water to fuel does not result in deterioration of their physical and chemical properties and are comparable to base fuel parameters, namely petroleum diesel oil. The mixture was a subject of bench testing with the use of a self-ignition engine by means of pre-catalytic fuel treatment. The treatment process consisted in fuel - catalytically active material direct contact on the atomizer body. At the comparable operational parameters for the engine, the obtained exhaust gases opacity was lower up to 60% due to the preliminary fuel mixture treatment in relation to the factory-made fuel injection system using petroleum diesel oil.

  18. USE OF WATER-FUEL MIXTURE IN DIESEL ENGINES AT FISHING VESSELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg KLYUS

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the laboratory test results determining physical parameters of fuel mixture made up of petroleum diesel oil, rapeseed oil methyl esters (up to 20% and water (up to 2.5%. The obtained parameters prove that adding bio-components (rapeseed oil methyl esters and water to fuel does not result in deterioration of their physical and chemical properties and are comparable to base fuel parameters, namely petroleum diesel oil. The mixture was a subject of bench testing with the use of a self-ignition engine by means of pre-catalytic fuel treatment. The treatment process consisted in fuel – catalytically active material direct contact on the atomizer body. At the comparable operational parameters for the engine, the obtained exhaust gases opacity was lower up to 60% due to the preliminary fuel mixture treatment in relation to the factory-made fuel injection system using petroleum diesel oil.

  19. Body ion loss as a bioindicator of water quality impaired by coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grippo, R.S.; Dunson, W.A.

    1994-01-01

    Protection of surface waters receiving discharges from coal mines is currently based on performance standards set by the EPA after passage of the Clean Water Act. These standards were technology-driven and reflect the Best Achievable Control Technology (BAT) available at the time of promulgation. Changes proposed as part of the upcoming reauthorization of the US Clean Water Act suggest that such technology-based standards may be reevaluated in light of more recent information on the toxicological effect of mine discharges on aquatic biota. The authors present here a physiological-based method for evaluating the site-specific toxicity of mine-derived discharges into receiving waters. They tested the usefulness of the body ion loss rate bioassay by exposing fathead minnows, brook charr and stoneflies to coal mine-impacted waters (elevated acidity and trace metals) in the field and to artificial mine water (AMW) in the laboratory. Body ion loss rate was significantly correlated with levels of mine pollution in the field. Body ion loss measured in AMW revealed strong interactions between metals and acid. Because the test animals exhibited differing levels of sensitivity to mine discharge, the selection of an appropriate organism for the body ion loss bioassay may vary depending on the (1) physical characteristics, (2) chemical characteristics and (3) pre-existing level of mine impact of the receiving waters

  20. Managing produced water from coal seam gas projects: implications for an emerging industry in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Peter J; Gore, Damian B; Khan, Stuart J

    2015-07-01

    This paper reviews the environmental problems, impacts and risks associated with the generation and disposal of produced water by the emerging coal seam gas (CSG) industry and how it may be relevant to Australia and similar physical settings. With only limited independent research on the potential environmental impacts of produced water, is it necessary for industry and government policy makers and regulators to draw upon the experiences of related endeavours such as mining and groundwater extraction accepting that the conclusions may not always be directly transferrable. CSG is widely touted in Australia as having the potential to provide significant economic and energy security benefits, yet the environmental and health policies and the planning and regulatory setting are yet to mature and are continuing to evolve amidst ongoing social and environmental concerns and political indecision. In this review, produced water has been defined as water that is brought to the land surface during the process of recovering methane gas from coal seams and includes water sourced from CSG wells as well as flowback water associated with drilling, hydraulic fracturing and gas extraction. A brief overview of produced water generation, its characteristics and environmental issues is provided. A review of past lessons and identification of potential risks, including disposal options, is included to assist in planning and management of this industry.

  1. Glass polymorphism in glycerol–water mixtures: I. A computer simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, David A.; Wong, Jessina; Bachler, Johannes; Loerting, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We perform out-of-equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of water–glycerol mixtures in the glass state. Specifically, we study the transformations between low-density (LDA) and high-density amorphous (HDA) forms of these mixtures induced by compression/decompression at constant temperature. Our MD simulations reproduce qualitatively the density changes observed in experiments. Specifically, the LDA–HDA transformation becomes (i) smoother and (ii) the hysteresis in a compression/decompression cycle decreases as T and/or glycerol content increase. This is surprising given the fast compression/decompression rates (relative to experiments) accessible in MD simulations. We study mixtures with glycerol molar concentration χ g = 0–13% and find that, for the present mixture models and rates, the LDA–HDA transformation is detectable up to χ g ≈ 5%. As the concentration increases, the density of the starting glass (i.e., LDA at approximately χ g ≤ 5%) rapidly increases while, instead, the density of HDA remains practically constant. Accordingly, the LDA state and hence glass polymorphism become inaccessible for glassy mixtures with approximately χ g > 5%. We present an analysis of the molecular-level changes underlying the LDA–HDA transformation. As observed in pure glassy water, during the LDA-to-HDA transformation, water molecules within the mixture approach each other, moving from the second to the first hydration shell and filling the first interstitial shell of water molecules. Interestingly, similar changes also occur around glycerol OH groups. It follows that glycerol OH groups contribute to the density increase during the LDA–HDA transformation. An analysis of the hydrogen bond (HB)-network of the mixtures shows that the LDA–HDA transformation is accompanied by minor changes in the number of HBs of water and glycerol. Instead, large changes in glycerol and water coordination numbers occur. We also perform a detailed analysis of the

  2. Structure and Dynamics of Urea/Water Mixtures Investigated by Vibrational Spectroscopy and Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, J. K.; Buchanan, L. E.; Schmidt, J. R.; Zanni, M. T.; Skinner, J. L.

    2013-01-01

    Urea/water is an archetypical “biological” mixture, and is especially well known for its relevance to protein thermodynamics, as urea acts as a protein denaturant at high concentration. This behavior has given rise to an extended debate concerning urea’s influence on water structure. Based on a variety of methods and of definitions of water structure, urea has been variously described as a structure-breaker, a structure-maker, or as remarkably neutral towards water. Because of its sensitivity to microscopic structure and dynamics, vibrational spectroscopy can help resolve these debates. We report experimental and theoretical spectroscopic results for the OD stretch of HOD/H2O/urea mixtures (linear IR, 2DIR, and pump-probe anisotropy decay) and for the CO stretch of urea-D4/D2O mixtures (linear IR only). Theoretical results are obtained using existing approaches for water, and a modification of a frequency map developed for acetamide. All absorption spectra are remarkably insensitive to urea concentration, consistent with the idea that urea only very weakly perturbs water structure. Both this work and experiments by Rezus and Bakker, however, show that water’s rotational dynamics are slowed down by urea. Analysis of the simulations casts doubt on the suggestion that urea immobilizes particular doubly hydrogen bonded water molecules. PMID:23841646

  3. Prospects for coal: technical developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaye, W G; Peirce, T J

    1983-07-01

    This article summarises the reasons for predicting an increase in the use of coal as an industrial energy source in the United Kingdom. The development of efficient and reliable coal-burning techniques is therefore of great importance. Various techniques are then discussed, including conventional combustion systems, fluidised bed combustion systems, fluidised bed boilers and furnaces, coal and ash handling, coal-liquid mixtures, coal gasification and coal liquefaction. (4 refs.)

  4. Dielectric relaxation studies of some primary alcohols and their mixture with water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.S.; Yaqub, M.

    2003-01-01

    The complex dielectric constant of ethyl alcohol, methyl alcohol and 1- propanol and their mixtures with water of different concentration, (0 to 100% by weight) at the temperature of 303K has been evaluated, within the frequency range of (100KHz- 100 MHz). Moreover, the viscosity mu of each alcohol and its mixture with water have been measured at this temperature. The dielectric properties have been evaluated by Hartshorn and Ward apparatus. The purpose of this work is to study the influence of aliphatic group, size and shape on the extent of hydrogen bonding and also to obtain the thermodynamic data on hydrogen bond formation in the pure liquid state and its mixture. The width of the semicircle plot determines the distribution of average relaxation time. Dielectric relaxation time in pure alcohols and their water mixture has been calculated from the respected Cole-Cole plot and dielectric data. A single relaxation time of 117.16ps has been obtained for the molecules of pure methanol, whereas, the dielectric data of prophyl alcohol which indicates the viscosity water have been measured at the temperature 303 K. The dielectric properties in distribution of relaxation time, which is in good agreement with the Davidson-cole representation. The molecules in liquid mixture within frequency range, the mixture has more than one relaxation item, leading to the shortening of main relaxation time as compared with the pure alcohol and broadening of the complex permitivity spectra. The dependence of the dielectric relaxation on composition shows a remarkable behavior. Results are discussed in the light of H-bonded molecules. (author)

  5. PETROBRAS green petroleum coke used as partial replacement for coal injected mixtures in blast furnaces; Utilizacao do coque verde de petroleo da PETROBRAS em substituicao parcial ao carvao mineral das misturas injetadas em altos fornos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Agenor Medrado da; Medrado, Swami Botelho; Noblat, Sebastiao Jorge Xavier [Companhia Siderurgia Nacional. CSN. Gerencia Geral de Processos Siderurgicos. RJ (Brazil)], e-mails: ams@csn.com.br, swami@csn.com.br, s.noblat@csn.com.br; Carvalho Junior, Joao Andrade de [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho. Faculdade de Engenharia de Guaratingueta. Departamento de Energia, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: joao@feg.unesp.br

    2010-04-15

    The PETROBRAS produced green petroleum coke (GPC) is a carbon rich fuel, virtually ash-free, with low sulfur content and is a fuel suitable to replace metallurgical coke in blast furnaces. The GPC was tested in a pulverized coal injection simulator built in the Volta Redonda research center. It presented a low burning efficiency due to low volatile material content and high substitution rate by the carbon content. The industrial-scale tests were carried out in blast furnaces with up to 50% PETROBRAS GPC in the coal blends, which has never been done before in the steel industry. The injected coal/CVP mixtures produced no negative side effects in the blast furnace grinding systems, pneumatic conveying or operating process. The mixture burning process inside the blast furnace, showed a decrease in fuel consumption, with a significant reduction in metallurgical coke consumption. The industrial-scale tests of the GPC mixtures did not reach the 70% maximum for lack of the GPC feedstock, it being necessary to continue with standard coal mixtures. (author)

  6. Structural and energetic properties of La3+ in water/DMSO mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagna, Maria; Spezia, Riccardo; Bodo, Enrico

    2017-11-01

    By using molecular dynamics based on a custom polarizable force field, we have studied the solvation of La3+ in an equimolar mixture of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) with water. An extended structural analysis has been performed to provide a complete picture of the physical properties at the basis of the interaction of La3+ with both solvents. Through our simulations we found that, very likely, the first solvation shell in the mixture is not unlike the one found in pure water or pure DMSO and contains 9 solvent molecules. We have also found that the solvation is preferentially due to DMSO molecules with the water initially present in first shell quickly leaving to the bulk. The dehydration process of the first shell has been analyzed by both plain MD simulations and a constrained dynamics approach; the free energy profiles for the extraction of water from first shell have also been computed.

  7. Pervaporation Separation of Water-Ethanol Mixtures Using Organic-Inorganic Nanocomposite Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preyssler type heteropolyacid viz., H14[NaP5W30O110] incorporated chitosan nanocomposite membranes (NCMs) were prepared by solution casting, characterized using a variety of techniques and employed in the pervaporation separation of water-ethanol mixtures as a function of feed wa...

  8. Water-Methanol Mixtures with non-Lorentz-Berthelot Combining Rules: A Feasibility Study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moučka, F.; Nezbeda, Ivo

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 159, 1 Sp.I:Sl (2011), s. 47-51 ISSN 0167-7322 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : water-alcohol mixtures * non-Lorentz-Berthelot rules * excess mixing properties Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.580, year: 2011

  9. Distribution of concentration of coarse particle-water mixture in horizontal smooth pipe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlasák, Pavel; Chára, Zdeněk; Konfršt, Jiří; Krupička, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 6 (2016), s. 1040-1047 ISSN 0008-4034 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP105/10/1574 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : coarse particle-water mixture * gamma-ray radiometry * concentration distribution * horizontal conveying Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.356, year: 2016

  10. Dissociation constants of phosphoric acid in dimethylformamide-water mixtures at 298.15 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safonova, L. P.; Fadeeva, Yu. A.; Pryakhin, A. A.

    2009-10-01

    The dissociation constants of phosphoric acid (p K 1 and p K 2) in water-dimethylformamide (DMFA) mixtures (0-0.65 mole fractions of DMFA) were determined at 298.15 K by potentiometric titration. The extrapolation of these data to pure DMFA and the comparative calculation method were used to estimate the dissociation constants of the acid in DMFA.

  11. On the Origin of Microheterogeneity : A Mass Spectrometric Study of Dimethyl Sulfoxide-Water Binary Mixture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shin, Dong Nam; Wijnen, Jan W.; Engberts, Jan B.F.N.; Wakisaka, Akihiro

    2001-01-01

    We have studied the microscopic solvent structure of dimethyl sulfoxide-water mixtures and its influence on the solvation structure of solute from a clustering point of View, by means of a specially designed mass spectrometric system. It was observed that the propensity to the cluster formation is

  12. Lewis acid-catalyzed depolymerization of soda lignin in supercritical ethanol/water mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Güvenatam, Burcu; Heeres, Erik H.J.; Pidko, Evgeny A.; Hensen, Emiel J M

    2016-01-01

    The depolymerization of lignin model compounds and soda lignin by super Lewis acidic metal triflates has been investigated in a mixture of ethanol and water at 400 °C. The strong Lewis acids convert representative model compounds for the structure-forming linkages in lignin, namely α-O-4, 5-O-4

  13. Distribution of concentration of coarse particle-water mixture in horizontal smooth pipe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlasák, Pavel; Chára, Zdeněk; Konfršt, Jiří; Krupička, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 6 (2016), s. 1040-1047 ISSN 0008-4034 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP105/10/1574 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : coarse particle- water mixture * gamma-ray radiometry * concentration distribution * horizontal conveying Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.356, year: 2016

  14. Determining origin of underground water in coal mines by means of natural isotopes and other geochemical parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolenec, T; Pezdic, J; Herlec, U; Kuscer, D; Mitrevski, G [Institut Josef Stefan, Ljubljana (Yugoslavia)

    1989-07-01

    Presents a preliminary report on origin of water in Slovenian brown coal mines. Water, coal and strata samples from the Hrastnik and Ojstro mines were analyzed for changes in chemical composition. Water samples were also analyzed for changes in isotopic composition and inorganic carbon and sulfur contents. Chemical, isotopic and geochemical techniques are described and results are presented with 21 diagrams. An attempt is made to explain the origin and age of water flowing from mine aquifers into mine rooms, and to explain the interdependence of surface and underground water flow. 10 refs.

  15. Historical releases of mercury to air, land, and water from coal combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streets, David G; Lu, Zifeng; Levin, Leonard; Ter Schure, Arnout F H; Sunderland, Elsie M

    2018-02-15

    Coal combustion is one of the largest contemporary sources of anthropogenic mercury (Hg). It releases geologically sequestered Hg to the atmosphere, and fly ash can contaminate terrestrial and aquatic systems. We estimate that coal combustion has released a cumulative total of 38.0 (14.8-98.9, 80% C.I.) Gg (gigagrams, 10 9 g or thousand tonnes) of Hg to air, land, and water up to the year 2010, most of which (97%) has occurred since 1850. The rate of release has grown by two orders of magnitude from 0.01Ggyr -1 in 1850 to 1Ggyr -1 in 2010. Geographically, Asia and Europe each account for 32% of cumulative releases and an additional 18% is from North America. About 26.3 (10.2-68.3) Gg, 71% of the total, were directly emitted to the atmosphere, mostly from the industrial (45%) and power generation (36%) sectors, while the remainder was disposed of to land and water bodies. While Europe and North America were the major contributing regions until 1950, Asia has surpassed both in recent decades. By 2010, Asia was responsible for 69% of the total releases of Hg from coal combustion to the environment. Control technologies installed on major emitting sources capture mainly particulate and divalent Hg, and therefore the fraction of elemental Hg in emissions from coal combustion has increased over time from 0.46 in 1850 to 0.61 in 2010. About 11.8 (4.6-30.6) Gg of Hg, 31% of the total, have been transferred to land and water bodies through the disposal or utilization of Hg-containing combustion waste and collected fly ash/FGD waste; approximately 8.8Gg of this Hg have simply been discarded to waste piles or ash ponds or rivers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Equilibrium approach towards water resource management and pollution control in coal chemical industrial park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiuping; Hou, Shuhua; Xie, Heping; Lv, Chengwei; Yao, Liming

    2018-08-01

    In this study, an integrated water and waste load allocation model is proposed to assist decision makers in better understanding the trade-offs between economic growth, resource utilization, and environmental protection of coal chemical industries which characteristically have high water consumption and pollution. In the decision framework, decision makers in a same park, each of whom have different goals and preferences, work together to seek a collective benefit. Similar to a Stackelberg-Nash game, the proposed approach illuminates the decision making interrelationships and involves in the conflict coordination between the park authority and the individual coal chemical company stockholders. In the proposed method, to response to climate change and other uncertainties, a risk assessment tool, Conditional Value-at-Risk (CVaR) and uncertainties through reflecting parameters and coefficients using probability and fuzzy set theory are integrated in the modeling process. Then a case study from Yuheng coal chemical park is presented to demonstrate the practicality and efficiency of the optimization model. To reasonable search the potential consequences of different responses to water and waste load allocation strategies, a number of scenario results considering environmental uncertainty and decision maker' attitudes are examined to explore the tradeoffs between economic development and environmental protection and decision makers' objectives. The results are helpful for decision/police makers to adjust current strategies adapting for current changes. Based on the scenario analyses and discussion, some propositions and operational policies are given and sensitive adaptation strategies are presented to support the efficient, balanced and sustainable development of coal chemical industrial parks. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Water desalting schemes when using heat gas-vapor mixture in front of contact condenser

    OpenAIRE

    Kuznetsova, Svitlana A.

    2016-01-01

    Ukraine is a country with low quality of fresh water; there are regions with its deficiency. One of the possible solutions to this problem is the desalination of the brackish water from surface and groundwater sources by using heat of the mixture before the contact condenser in gas-steam turbine plants. The plants produce electricity and heat energy for the needs of the industrial, agricultural complexes and the population of Kherson, Nikolaev and Odessa regions. The studies were carried out ...

  18. Easy prediction of the refractive index for binary mixtures of ionic liquids with water or ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rilo, E.; Domínguez-Pérez, M.; Vila, J.; Segade, L.; García, M.; Varela, L.M.; Cabeza, O.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We measure refractive index, n, in seven systems formed by IL + water or ethanol. ► Independently, theoretical estimations of the refractive index values were performed. ► To do that we use Gladstone–Dale and Newton models, relating n and density. ► We calculate density of each system from the value of the pure components. ► The agreement between experimental and calculated n values is about 99.8%. - Abstract: In this paper, we demonstrate that it is possible to know the refractive index, n D , of every given mixture of 1-alkyl-3methyl imidazolium tetrafluoroborate with water and ethanol just from the knowledge of the refractive index and density of pure components. To do that, we measured n D for seven different mixtures in all range of existing concentrations and, independently, we deduce n D theoretically. Both sets of values differ less than a 0.2% on average. The theoretical deduction takes into account that these mixtures are quasi-ideal from the molar volume point of view, as recently published, and so density for any composition of the mixture can be obtained with a precision better than 0.5% from the pure compounds value. Now we simply apply Newton or Gladstone–Dale models, which relate the refractive index of a binary mixture with its density from the value of both pure components, without any fitting parameter. Both models are very similar in form and in the values they deduce (less than a 0.2% of difference), but while that of Newton performs slightly better for ethanol mixtures, the model of Gladstone–Dale gives some better results for aqueous mixtures. We think that these results can be extended to the majority of ionic liquid plus solvent systems.

  19. Natural radionuclides in waste water discharged from coal-fired power plants in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janković, Marija M; Todorović, Dragana J; Sarap, Nataša B; Krneta Nikolić, Jelena D; Rajačić, Milica M; Pantelić, Gordana K

    2016-12-01

    Investigation of the natural radioactivity levels in water around power plants, as well as in plants, coal, ash, slag and soil, and to assess the associated radiation hazard is becoming an emerging and interesting topic. This paper is focused on the results of the radioactivity analysis in waste water samples from five coal-fired power plants in Serbia (Nikola Tesla A, Nikola Tesla B, Kolubara, Morava and Kostolac), which were analyzed in the period 2003-2015. River water samples taken upstream and downstream from the power plants, drain water and overflow water were analyzed. In the water samples gamma spectrometry analysis was performed as well as determination of gross alpha and beta activity. Natural radionuclide 40 K was detected by gamma spectrometry, while the concentrations of other radionuclides, 226 Ra, 235 U and 238 U, usually were below the minimum detection activity (MDA). 232 Th and artificial radionuclide 137 Cs were not detected in these samples. Gross alpha and beta activities were determined by the α/β low level proportional counter Thermo Eberline FHT 770 T. In the analyzed samples, gross alpha activity ranged from MDA to 0.47 Bq L - 1 , while the gross beta activity ranged from MDA to 1.55 Bq L - 1 .

  20. Low flows and water temperature risks to Asian coal power plants in a warming world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Byers, E.; Parkinson, S.; Wanders, N.; Wada, Y.; Bielicki, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    Thermoelectric power generation requires cooling, normally provided by wet cooling systems. The withdrawal and discharge of cooling water are subject to regulation. Therefore, operation of power plants may be vulnerable to changes in streamflow and rises in water temperatures. In Asia, about 489 GW of coal-fired power plants are currently under construction, permitted, or announced. Using a comprehensive dataset of these planned coal power plants (PCPPs) and cooling water use models, we investigated whether electricity generation at these power plants will be limited by streamflow and water temperature. Daily streamflow and water temperature time series are from the high-resolution (0.08ox0.08o) runs of the PCRGLOBWB hydrological model, driven by downscaled meteorological forcing from five global climate models. We compared three climate change scenarios (1.5oC, 2oC, and 3oC warming in global mean temperature) and three cooling system choice scenarios (freshwater once-through, freshwater cooling tower, and "business-as-usual" - where a PCPP uses the same cooling system as the nearest existing coal power plant). The potential available capacity of the PCPPs increase slightly from the 1.5oC to the 2oC and 3oC warming scenario due to increase in streamflow. The once-through cooling scenario results in virtually zero available capacity at the PCPPs. The other two cooling scenarios result in about 20% of the planned capacity being unavailable under all warming scenarios. Hotspots of the most water-limited PCPPs are in Pakistan, northwestern India, northwestern and north-central China, and northern Vietnam, where most of the PCPPs will face 30% to 90% unavailable nameplate capacity on annual average. Since coal power plants cannot operate effectively when the capacity factor falls below a minimum load level (about 20% to 50%), the actual limitation on generation capacity would be larger. In general, the PCPPs that will have the highest limitation on annual average

  1. P USE EFFICIENCY BY CORN (Zea mays L. IN ULTISOL DUE TO APPLICATION OF COAL FLY ASH-CHICKEN MANURE MIXTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Hermawan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Low P availability is the main constraint for crops on acidic soil such as an Ultisols due to high soil P sorption. The objective of current research was to determine the effect of coal fly ash-chicken manure mixture application on P use efficiency by corn (Zea mays L. in Ultisols. The research were arranged according to Factorial Completely Randomized Design with three replicates. The treatments tested were the rates of FA-CM mixture (w/w of 1:1 that consisted of 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 tons ha-1, and P fertilizer rates that consisted of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 times of P requirement to achieve of 0.2 μg P mL-1 in soil solution (equivalence to 0, 87, 174, 261 and 348 kg P2O5 ha-1. Results of current research showed that P use efficiency by corn on Ultisols had been increased through the addition of FA-CM in combination with P fertilization at the rate of 87 kg P2O5 ha-1. The optimum rate of FA-CM in combination with P fertilizer at the rate of 87 kg P2O5 ha-1 is 28.60 tons ha-1, with P uptake efficiency of 42.41 % and agronomic P efficiency of 82.53 mg shoot dry weight/mg P from fertilizer.

  2. Electron drift velocities in He and water mixtures: Measurements and an assessment of the water vapour cross-section sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urquijo, J. de; Juárez, A. M.; Basurto, E.; Ness, K. F.; Robson, R. E.; White, R. D.; Brunger, M. J.

    2014-01-01

    The drift velocity of electrons in mixtures of gaseous water and helium is measured over the range of reduced electric fields 0.1–300 Td using a pulsed-Townsend technique. Admixtures of 1% and 2% water to helium are found to produce negative differential conductivity (NDC), despite NDC being absent from the pure gases. The measured drift velocities are used as a further discriminative assessment on the accuracy and completeness of a recently proposed set of electron-water vapour cross-sections [K. F. Ness, R. E. Robson, M. J. Brunger, and R. D. White, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 024318 (2012)]. A refinement of the momentum transfer cross-section for electron-water vapour scattering is presented, which ensures self-consistency with the measured drift velocities in mixtures with helium to within approximately 5% over the range of reduced fields considered

  3. Analysis of the Harmfulness of Water-Inrush from Coal Seam Floor Based on Seepage Instability Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A theory of seepage instability was used to estimate the harmfulness of water-inrush from a coal seam floor in a particular coal mine of the Mining Group, Xuzhou.Based on the stratum column chart in this coal mine, the distribution of stress in mining floors when the long-wall mining was respectively pushed along to 100 m and to 150 m was simulated by using the numerical software (RFPA2D).The permeability parameters of the coal seam floor are described given the relationship between permeability parameters.Strain and the water-inrush-indices were calculated.The water-inrush-index was 67.2% when the working face was pushed to 100 m, showing that water-inrush is possible and it was 1630% when the working face was pushed to 150 m, showing that water-inrush is quite probable.The results show that as long-wall mining is pushed along, the failure zone is enlarged, the strain increased, and fissures developed correspondingly, resulting in the formation of water-inrush channels.Accompanied by the failure of the strata, the permeability increased exponentially.In contrast, the non-Darcy flow β factor and the acceleration coefficient decreased exponentially, while the increase in the water-inrush-index was nearly exponential and the harmfulness of water-inrush in the coal mine increased accordingly.

  4. Treatment of sulphated water of surface origin produced by an open pit coal mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Campos-Sánchez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to select the most suitable method of treatment of sulfated water produced by an open pit coal mine in Venezuela. Samples of water taken on surface, middle and bottom of water bodies in three areas were subjected to basic, gravimetric, volumetric and colorimetric analysis. The results indicated that the pH is within limits permitted by current environmental regulations, while total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, and sulfates exceed the normed values. The aerobic wetland method was selected as the most efficient for the removal of sulfates, depending on the physicochemical characteristics of the sulphated waters from the mine and because they are systems that use natural energy to purify water, its construction and maintenance costs Is significantly inferior to the conventional treatments and because, being replicas of natural ecosystems, they are integrated to the environment.

  5. Characterization of Activated Carbon from Coal and Its Application as Adsorbent on Mine Acid Water Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Hardianti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthracite and Sub-bituminous as activated carbon raw material had been utilized especially in mining field as adsorbent of dangerous heavy metal compound resulted in mining activity. Carbon from coal was activated physically and chemically in various temperature and particle sizes. Characterization was carried out in order to determine the adsorbent specification produced hence can be used and applied accordingly. Proximate and ultimate analysis concluded anthracite has fixed carbon 88.91% while sub-bituminous 49.05%. NaOH was used in chemical activation while heated at 400-500°C whereas physical activation was conducted at 800-1000°C. Activated carbon has high activity in adsorbing indicated by high iodine number resulted from analysis. SEM-EDS result confirmed that activated carbon made from coal has the quality in accordance to SNI and can be used as adsorbent in acid water treatment.

  6. Cyclone reburn using coal-water fuel: Pilot-scale development and testing. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckhart, C.F.; DeVault, R.F.

    1991-10-01

    There is an ongoing effort to develop retrofit technologies capable of converting oil- and/or gas-fired boilers to coal combustion. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of an improved portion of a previously developed retrofit system designed for the purpose of converting oil/gas boilers. This improvement would almost entirely eliminate the use of premium fuels, thereby significantly increasing the economical attractiveness of the system. Specifically, the goals in this program were to replace natural gas as a reburning fuel with coal-water fuel (CWF). The advantages of such a system include: (1) increased return on investment (ROI) for conversions; (2) nearly complete elimination of premium oil or gas fuel; (3) a more integrated approach to the conversion of oil- or gas-designed boilers to CWF.

  7. Cyclone reburn using coal-water fuel: Pilot-scale development and testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckhart, C.F.; DeVault, R.F.

    1991-10-01

    There is an ongoing effort to develop retrofit technologies capable of converting oil- and/or gas-fired boilers to coal combustion. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of an improved portion of a previously developed retrofit system designed for the purpose of converting oil/gas boilers. This improvement would almost entirely eliminate the use of premium fuels, thereby significantly increasing the economical attractiveness of the system. Specifically, the goals in this program were to replace natural gas as a reburning fuel with coal-water fuel (CWF). The advantages of such a system include: (1) increased return on investment (ROI) for conversions; (2) nearly complete elimination of premium oil or gas fuel; (3) a more integrated approach to the conversion of oil- or gas-designed boilers to CWF.

  8. Investigations concerning the mechanism of action of brown-coal coke particles in aerobic biological waste water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieger, W.

    1990-01-01

    At the start of this work experience with the use of brown coal coke in the activated sludge process was lacking entirely. It therefore was necessary to carry through preliminary experiments in order to practically test the effect of Grown-coal coke. In two technical-scale experiments and a pilot test, very good results were obtained with the application of brown-coal coke to activated sludge. These, and previously published results, permitted to evolve moodel concepts of the mechanism of action of coal, especially brown coal coke, in activated sludge. According to these concepts the coal particles act as buffers and a temporary adsorbent of oxygen and waste water constituents. This in turn stimulates the colonization of the surface with microorganisms. In order to corroborate these model concepts, the - adsorption and desorption of solved oxygen to coal in a watery medium and - the effect of coal over a longer period of time were investigated. The results in essence confirm the model concepts. (UWa) [de

  9. Mercury and trace element contents of Donbas coals and associated mine water in the vicinity of Donetsk, Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolker, A.; Panov, B.S.; Panov, Y.B.; Landa, E.R.; Conko, K.M.; Korchemagin, V.A.; Shendrik, T.; McCord, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    Mercury-rich coals in the Donets Basin (Donbas region) of Ukraine were sampled in active underground mines to assess the levels of potentially harmful elements and the potential for dispersion of metals through use of this coal. For 29 samples representing c11 to m3 Carboniferous coals, mercury contents range from 0.02 to 3.5 ppm (whole-coal dry basis). Mercury is well correlated with pyritic sulfur (0.01 to 3.2 wt.%), with an r2 of 0.614 (one outlier excluded). Sulfides in these samples show enrichment of minor constituents in late-stage pyrite formed as a result of interaction of coal with hydrothermal fluids. Mine water sampled at depth and at surface collection points does not show enrichment of trace metals at harmful levels, indicating pyrite stability at subsurface conditions. Four samples of coal exposed in the defunct open-cast Nikitovka mercury mines in Gorlovka have extreme mercury contents of 12.8 to 25.5 ppm. This coal was formerly produced as a byproduct of extracting sandstone-hosted cinnabar ore. Access to these workings is unrestricted and small amounts of extreme mercury-rich coal are collected for domestic use, posing a limited human health hazard. More widespread hazards are posed by the abandoned Nikitovka mercury processing plant, the extensive mercury mine tailings, and mercury enrichment of soils extending into residential areas of Gorlovka.

  10. Regularities of thermochemical characteristics of 1-1, 2-1, 3-1 electrolyte solutions in dimethyl sulfoxide-water and propylene carbonate water mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorob'ev, A.F.; Monaenkova, A.S.; AlekseeV, G.I.

    1987-01-01

    In an air-tight tilting calorimeter with an isothermal casing enthalpies of praseodymium chloride solution in water, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) - water mixtures, contaning 3.86 and 18.53 mol.% DMSO, and propylene carbonate (PC) - water mixtures, containing 1.85 and 3.23 mol.% PC are measured. The enthalpies of praseodymium chloride solution in the given mixtures in case of infinite solution dilution are determined. Solvation enthalpies of praseodymium and neodymium chlorides, as well as alkali earth metal and magnesium chlorides in water and DMSO - water and PC - water mixtures are calculated. Regularities in thermochemical characteristics of solutions of the given salts in DMSO - water and PC - water mixtures are discussed

  11. Muddy water substitutes for coal; Grumsevann erstatter kull

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stensvold, Tore

    2003-07-01

    The awful, muddy water of the third largest river in the world is becoming a considerable power source for China. The Yangtze River is being harnessed, slowly but surely. Ten years have passed since they cut the first sod and now the first turbines are producing power in what will be the world's biggest hydropower plant. From 2009 the Three Gorges Plant will supply 84.60 TWh per year, but this is not enough to meet the power demand in one of the fastest growing economies of the world. China plans to build 2000 new small-scale power stations and some tens of large power stations every year. It was in 1993 that Chinese authorities defied the world opinion and decided to develop the dam and power station at Three Gorges. The opposition from the Western world has essentially focused on the forced relocation of 1.2 million people, the complex environmental consequences, and the catastrophe that would result if the dam should burst.

  12. Heavy metal accumulation in hot water tanks in a region experiencing coal waste pollution and comparison between regional water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wigginton, A.; McSpirit, S.; Sims, C.D. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Biology

    2007-10-15

    In 2000, a coal slurry impoundment failure in Martin County, Kentucky, caused concerns about contaminants entering municipal water supplies. Water samples taken from impacted and reference area hot water tanks often exceeded US EPA drinking water guidelines. Concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Pb had maxima of 119; 51.9; 154; 170,000; 976,000; 8,710; and 12,700 {mu}g/L, respectively. Significantly different metal accumulation between counties indicated this procedure's utility for assessing long-term municipal water quality. Correlations between metal concentrations were strong and consistent for As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Co, and Fe indicating that some metals accumulate proportionally with others.

  13. The utilization of a pressurized-graphite/water/oxygen mixture for irradiated graphite incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonini, G.; Perotin, J.P.; Charlot, P.

    1992-01-01

    The authors demonstrate the interest of the utilization of a pressurized-graphite/water/oxygen mixture in the incineration of irradiated graphite. The aqueous phase comes in the form of a three-dimensional system that traps pressurized oxygen, the pulverulent solid being dispersed at the liquid/gas interfaces. These three-phasic formulations give the following advantages: reduction of the apparent viscosity of the mixture in comparison with a solid/liquid mixture at the same solid concentration; reduction of the solid/liquid interactions; self-pulverizability. thus promoting reduction of the flame length utilization of conventional burners; reduction of the flue gas flow rate; complete thermal destruction of graphite. (author)

  14. Chemical mixtures in untreated water from public-supply wells in the U.S.--occurrence, composition, and potential toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toccalino, Patricia L; Norman, Julia E; Scott, Jonathon C

    2012-08-01

    Chemical mixtures are prevalent in groundwater used for public water supply, but little is known about their potential health effects. As part of a large-scale ambient groundwater study, we evaluated chemical mixtures across multiple chemical classes, and included more chemical contaminants than in previous studies of mixtures in public-supply wells. We (1) assessed the occurrence of chemical mixtures in untreated source-water samples from public-supply wells, (2) determined the composition of the most frequently occurring mixtures, and (3) characterized the potential toxicity of mixtures using a new screening approach. The U.S. Geological Survey collected one untreated water sample from each of 383 public wells distributed across 35 states, and analyzed the samples for as many as 91 chemical contaminants. Concentrations of mixture components were compared to individual human-health benchmarks; the potential toxicity of mixtures was characterized by addition of benchmark-normalized component concentrations. Most samples (84%) contained mixtures of two or more contaminants, each at concentrations greater than one-tenth of individual benchmarks. The chemical mixtures that most frequently occurred and had the greatest potential toxicity primarily were composed of trace elements (including arsenic, strontium, or uranium), radon, or nitrate. Herbicides, disinfection by-products, and solvents were the most common organic contaminants in mixtures. The sum of benchmark-normalized concentrations was greater than 1 for 58% of samples, suggesting that there could be potential for mixtures toxicity in more than half of the public-well samples. Our findings can be used to help set priorities for groundwater monitoring and suggest future research directions for drinking-water treatment studies and for toxicity assessments of chemical mixtures in water resources. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Photothermal microfluidic cantilever deflection spectroscopy reflecting clustering mechanism of ethanol water mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoraishi, Maryam; Hawk, John; Thundat, Thomas

    Aqueous mixture of alcohol is a typical prototype for biomolecules, micelle formation, and structural stability of proteins. Therefore, Short chain alcohols such as EtOH have been used as a simple model for understanding of more complex aqueous biomolecules. Here we study vibrational energy peaks of EtOH water binary mixtures using micromechanical calorimetric spectroscopy using bimaterial microfluidic cantilevers (BMC). The IR spectra of EtOH-water are experimentally collected employing a BMC as concentration of EtOH changes from 20-100 wt%. As concentration of EtOH varies in the mixture, considerable shifts in the wavenumber at IR absorption peak maxima are reported. The experimentally measured shifts in the wavenumber at IR absorption peak maxima are related to changes in dipole moment (μ) of EtOH at different concentration. The relationship between IR absorption wavenumber for both anti and gauche conformers of EtOH, and inverse dipole moment, 1/ μ, of EtOH at different concentrations follows a power law dependence. Our technique offers a platform to investigate dipole effect on molecular vibrations of mixtures in confined picoliter volumes, previously unexplored with other analytical techniques due to limitations of volume under study.

  16. Spraying system with water delivery to the cutter element working in conjunction with the GPK coal combine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-04-01

    Technical specifications of the system are given. The system is used to reduce air dustiness when driving preparatory workings. Operational tests carried out in the Donets and Karaganda coal basins show that spraying system with water delivery to the zone where rock or coal is cut is from 2 to 2.5 times more effective than other spraying systems. It is recommended that the described spraying system be serially produced. (In Russian)

  17. Effect of sewage sludge on formation of acidic ground water at a reclaimed coal mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, C.A.

    1998-01-01

    Data on rock, ground water, vadose water, and vadose gas chemistry were collected for two years after sewage sludge was applied at a reclaimed surface coal mine in Pennsylvania to determine if surface-applied sludge is an effective barrier to oxygen influx, contributes metals and nutrients to ground water, and promotes the acidification of ground water. Acidity, sulfate, and metals concentrations were elevated in the ground water (6- to 21-m depth) from spoil relative to unmined rock because of active oxidation of pyrite and dissolution of aluminosilicate, carbonate, and Mn-Fe-oxide minerals in the spoil. Concentrations of acidity, sulfate, metals (Fe, Mn, Al, Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn), and nitrate, and abundances of iron-oxidizing bacteria were elevated in the ground water from sludge-treated spoil relative to untreated spoil having a similar mineral composition; however, gaseous and dissolved oxygen concentrations did not differ between the treatments. Abundances of iron-oxidizing bacteria in the ground water samples were positively correlated with concentrations of ammonia, nitrate, acidity, metals, and sulfate. Concentrations of metals in vadose water samples (oxidation of pyrite by nitrate. Thus, sewage sludge added to pyritic spoil can increase the growth of iron-oxidizing bacteria, the oxidation of pyrite, and the acidification of ground water. Nevertheless, the overall effects on ground water chemistry from the sludge were small and probably short-lived relative to the effects from mining only.

  18. Application of coal-water fuel technology in the People`s Republic of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novelli, G. [International Centre for Scientific Culture (World Laboratory), Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1993-12-31

    Under the auspices of the ICSC - World Laboratory of Losanna presided by Prof. A. Zichichi, an important Project was launched on 1988 dealing with the feasibility study of coal-water fuel technology in China. The study, that is starting now with the last phase, will be completed in the 1993. The paper will report on the general line of the study and the status of the project. This is related to a complete program including: the slurry production near the coal open air mine in the region of Shemnu (new Mongolia), the transportation by pipeline for about 800 km. of 7 millions of tons/year of dry coal in form of CWF, and some possible direct utilization during the route until the final destination in one of the ports of Yellow sea. This is for the time been the biggest commercial project in the world on this area and was developed using the experiences of more than 50 italian and chinese scientists, technologists and experts coming from important and specialized italian companies under the drive of Snamprogetti (including the experiences of ENEL, Ansaldo, Laviosa, etc.) and chinese organization from the Graduate School, CUMT; Institute of Mechanics CAS; Institute of Photochemistry, CAS; in R.P.C.

  19. Water Redistribution, Temperature Change and CO2 Diffusion of Reconstruction Soil Profiles Filled with Gangue in Coal Mining Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S.; Zhan, H.; Chen, X.; Hu, Y.

    2017-12-01

    There were a great many projects of reconstruction soil profile filled with gangue to restore ecological environment and land resources in coal mining areas. A simulation experimental system in laboratory was designed for studying water transport and gas-heat diffusion of the reconstruction soil as to help the process of engineering and soil-ripening technology application. The system could be used for constantly measuring soil content, temperature and soil CO2 concentration by laid sensors and detectors in different depth of soil column. The results showed that soil water infiltration process was slowed down and the water-holding capacity of the upper soil was increased because of good water resistance from coal gangue layer. However, the water content of coal gangue layer, 10% approximately, was significantly lower than that of topsoil for the poor water-holding capacity of gangue. The temperature of coal gangue layer was also greater than that of soil layer and became easily sustainable temperature gradient under the condition with heating in reconstruction soil due to the higher thermal diffusivity from gangue, especially being plenty of temperature difference between gangue and soil layers. The effects of heated from below on topsoil was small, which it was mainly influenced from indoor temperature in the short run. In addition, the temperature changing curve of topsoil is similar with the temperature of laboratory and its biggest fluctuation range was for 2.89°. The effects of aerating CO2 from column bottom on CO2 concentration of topsoil soil was also very small, because gas transport from coal gangue layers to soil ones would easily be cut off as so to gas accumulated below the soil layer. The coal gangue could have a negative impact on microbial living environment to adjacent topsoil layers and declined microorganism activities. The effects of coal gangue on topsoil layer were brought down when the cove soil thickness was at 60 cm. And the influences

  20. Characterization of two-phase mixture (petroleum, salted water or gas) by gamma radiation transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichlt, Jair Romeu

    2003-01-01

    A mathematical description was accomplished to determine the discrimination of a substance in a two-phase mixture, for one beam system, using the five energy lines (13.9, 17.8,26.35 and 59,54 keV) of the 241 Am source. The mathematical description was also accomplished to determine the discrimination of two substances in a three-phase mixture, for a double beam system.. he simulated mixtures for the one beam system were petroleum/salted water or gas. The materials considered in these simulations were: four oils types, denominated as A, B, Bell and Generic, one kind of natural gas and salted water with the following salinities: 35.5, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 kg/m 3 of Na Cl. The simulation for the one beam system consisted of a box with acrylic walls and other situation with a box of epoxi walls reinforced with fiber of carbon. The epoxi with carbon fiber was used mainly due to the fact that this material offers little attenuation to the fotons and it resists great pressures. With the results of the simulations it was calculated tables of minimum discrimination for each possible two-phase mixture with petroleum, gas and salted water at several salinities. These discrimination tables are the theoretical forecasts for experimental measurements, since they supply the minimum mensurable percentage for each energy line, as well as the ideal energy for the measurement of each mixture, or situation. The simulated discrimination levels were tested employing experimental arrangements with conditions and materials similar to those of the simulations, for the case of box with epoxi wall reinforced with carbon fiber, at the energies of 20.8 and 59.54 keV. It was obtained good results. For example, for the mixture of salted water (35.5 kg/m 3 ) in paraffin (simulating the petroleum), it was obtained an experimental discrimination minimum of 10% of salted water for error statistics of 5% in I and I o , while the theoretical simulation foresaw the same discrimination level

  1. Hydrogeology, water chemistry, and subsidence of underground coal mines at Huntsville, Missouri, July 1987 to December 1988. Water Resources Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blevins, D.W.; Ziegler, A.C.

    1992-01-01

    Underground coal mining in and near Huntsville, in Randolph County in north-central Missouri, began soon after 1831. Mining in the Huntsville area was at its peak during 1903 and continued until 1966 when the last underground mine was closed and the economically recoverable coals under Huntsville had been mostly, if not completely, removed. The now abandoned mines are of concern to the public and to various State and Federal agencies for two reasons: (1) mine drainage acidifies streams and leaves large, soft, dangerous deposits of iron oxyhydroxides at mine springs and on streambeds (data on file at the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Land Reclamation Commission), and (2) collapse of mine cavities sometimes causes surface subsidence resulting in property damage or personal injury. To address these concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, in 1987 initiated a study to: determine the location of mine springs, the seasonal variation of stream-water chemistry, and the effects of underground-mine water on flow and water quality of nearby ground water and receiving streams; and identify areas susceptible to surface subsidence because of mine collapse. The purpose of the report is to present the findings and data collected for the study

  2. Structural investigation of water-acetonitrile mixtures: An ab initio, molecular dynamics and X-ray diffraction study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bako, Imre; Megyes, Tuende; Palinkas, Gabor

    2005-01-01

    In this work, we present a study on water-acetonitrile (AN) mixtures by molecular dynamics ab initio and X-ray diffraction techniques. Comparison of the experimental total G(r) functions of the mixtures with the results of molecular dynamics simulation shows an overall good agreement. The properties of hydrogen bonded clusters (water clusters, and water-AN clusters) in these mixtures have been determined. Two different types of AN-water dimers were identified by ab initio quantum chemical calculation. One of these structures proved to be a true H-bonded dimer and the other a dipole bound dimer

  3. Heterogeneous structure and solvation dynamics of DME/water binary mixtures: A combined spectroscopic and simulation investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Mahanta, Debasish; Rana, Debkumar; Patra, Animesh; Mukherjee, Biswaroop; Mitra, Rajib Kumar

    2018-05-01

    Water is often found in (micro)-heterogeneous environments and therefore it is necessary to understand their H-bonded network structure in such altered environments. We explore the structure and dynamics of water in its binary mixture with relatively less polar small biocompatible amphiphilic molecule 1,2-Dimethoxyethane (DME) by a combined spectroscopic and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation study. Picosecond (ps) resolved fluorescence spectroscopy using coumarin 500 as the fluorophore establishes a non-monotonic behaviour of the mixture. Simulation studies also explore the various possible H-bond formations between water and DME. The relative abundance of such different water species manifests the heterogeneity in the mixture.

  4. Ignition of an organic water-coal fuel droplet floating in a heated-air flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiullin, T. R.; Strizhak, P. A.; Shevyrev, S. A.; Bogomolov, A. R.

    2017-01-01

    Ignition of an organic water-coal fuel (CWSP) droplet floating in a heated-air flow has been studied experimentally. Rank B2 brown-coal particles with a size of 100 μm, used crankcase Total oil, water, and a plasticizer were used as the main CWSP components. A dedicated quartz-glass chamber has been designed with inlet and outlet elements made as truncated cones connected via a cylindrical ring. The cones were used to shape an oxidizer flow with a temperature of 500-830 K and a flow velocity of 0.5-5.0 m/s. A technique that uses a coordinate-positioning gear, a nichrome thread, and a cutter element has been developed for discharging CWSP droplets into the working zone of the chamber. Droplets with an initial size of 0.4 to 2.0 mm were used. Conditions have been determined for a droplet to float in the oxidizer flow long enough for the sustainable droplet burning to be initiated. Typical stages and integral ignition characteristics have been established. The integral parameters (ignition-delay times) of the examined processes have been compared to the results of experiments with CWSP droplets suspended on the junction of a quick-response thermocouple. It has been shown that floating fuel droplets ignite much quicker than the ones that sit still on the thermocouple due to rotation of an CWSP droplet in the oxidizer flow, more uniform heating of the droplet, and lack of heat drainage towards the droplet center. High-speed video recording of the peculiarities of floatation of a burning fuel droplet makes it possible to complement the existing models of water-coal fuel burning. The results can be used for a more substantiated modeling of furnace CWSP burning with the ANSYS, Fluent, and Sigma-Flow software packages.

  5. Strontium isotope study of coal utilization by-products interacting with environmental waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivak-Birndorf, Lev J; Stewart, Brian W; Capo, Rosemary C; Chapman, Elizabeth C; Schroeder, Karl T; Brubaker, Tonya M

    2012-01-01

    Sequential leaching experiments on coal utilization by-products (CUB) were coupled with chemical and strontium (Sr) isotopic analyses to better understand the influence of coal type and combustion processes on CUB properties and the release of elements during interaction with environmental waters during disposal. Class C fly ash tended to release the highest quantity of minor and trace elements-including alkaline earth elements, sodium, chromium, copper, manganese, lead, titanium, and zinc-during sequential extraction, with bottom ash yielding the lowest. Strontium isotope ratios ((87)Sr/(86)Sr) in bulk-CUB samples (total dissolution of CUB) are generally higher in class F ash than in class C ash. Bulk-CUB ratios appear to be controlled by the geologic source of the mineral matter in the feed coal, and by Sr added during desulfurization treatments. Leachates of the CUB generally have Sr isotope ratios that are different than the bulk value, demonstrating that Sr was not isotopically homogenized during combustion. Variations in the Sr isotopic composition of CUB leachates were correlated with mobility of several major and trace elements; the data suggest that arsenic and lead are held in phases that contain the more radiogenic (high-(87)Sr/(86)Sr) component. A changing Sr isotope ratio of CUB-interacting waters in a disposal environment could forecast the release of certain strongly bound elements of environmental concern. This study lays the groundwork for the application of Sr isotopes as an environmental tracer for CUB-water interaction. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  6. July 2011 Memorandum: Improving EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations Under the Clean Water Act, National Environmental Policy Act, and the Environmental Justice Executive Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memorandum: Improving EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations Under the Clean Water Act, National Environmental Policy Act, and the Environmental Justice Executive Order, July 21, 2011

  7. Heat transfer and pressure drop for air-water mixtures in an isoflux vertical annulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattab, M.; El-Sallak, M.; Morcos, S.M.; Salama, A.

    1996-01-01

    Heat transfer and pressure drop in flows of air-water mixtures have been investigated experimentally in an isoflux vertical annulus. The superficial liquid Reynolds number, as a reference parameter, varied from 4500 to 30 000, at different values of gas-to-liquid superficial velocity ratios up to 20 and surface heat fluxes from 50 to 240 kW/m 2 . Enhancement of the two-phase heat transfer coefficient is pronounced particularly at low liquid superficial velocities. The results are correlated and compared with some models of two-phase, two-component flows for air-water mixtures within their range of validity. Satisfactory agreement is obtained from the trend of the experimental data. (orig.) [de

  8. Excess molar enthalpies for binary mixtures of different amines with water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ruilei; Chen, Jian; Mi, Jianguo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Isothermal excess molar enthalpies for binary mixtures of different amines with water. • The Redlich–Kister equation and the NRTL model was used to fit the experimental data. • The excess molar enthalpies were discussed with different structures of amines. - Abstract: The isothermal excess molar enthalpies for binary mixtures of different amines with water were measured with a C-80 Setaram calorimeter. The experimental results indicate that the excess molar enthalpy is related to the molecular structure. The experimental excess molar enthalpies were satisfactorily fitted with the Redlich–Kister equation. They were also used to test the suitability of the NRTL model, and the deviations are a little larger than the R–K equation

  9. Chemical mixtures in untreated water from public-supply wells in the U.S. - Occurrence, composition, and potential toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toccalino, Patricia L., E-mail: ptocca@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), 6000 J Street, Placer Hall, Sacramento, California 95819 (United States); Norman, Julia E., E-mail: jnorman@usgs.gov [USGS, 2130 SW 5th Avenue, Portland, Oregon 97201 (United States); Scott, Jonathon C., E-mail: jon@usgs.gov [USGS, 202 NW 66th Street, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73116 (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Chemical mixtures are prevalent in groundwater used for public water supply, but little is known about their potential health effects. As part of a large-scale ambient groundwater study, we evaluated chemical mixtures across multiple chemical classes, and included more chemical contaminants than in previous studies of mixtures in public-supply wells. We (1) assessed the occurrence of chemical mixtures in untreated source-water samples from public-supply wells, (2) determined the composition of the most frequently occurring mixtures, and (3) characterized the potential toxicity of mixtures using a new screening approach. The U.S. Geological Survey collected one untreated water sample from each of 383 public wells distributed across 35 states, and analyzed the samples for as many as 91 chemical contaminants. Concentrations of mixture components were compared to individual human-health benchmarks; the potential toxicity of mixtures was characterized by addition of benchmark-normalized component concentrations. Most samples (84%) contained mixtures of two or more contaminants, each at concentrations greater than one-tenth of individual benchmarks. The chemical mixtures that most frequently occurred and had the greatest potential toxicity primarily were composed of trace elements (including arsenic, strontium, or uranium), radon, or nitrate. Herbicides, disinfection by-products, and solvents were the most common organic contaminants in mixtures. The sum of benchmark-normalized concentrations was greater than 1 for 58% of samples, suggesting that there could be potential for mixtures toxicity in more than half of the public-well samples. Our findings can be used to help set priorities for groundwater monitoring and suggest future research directions for drinking-water treatment studies and for toxicity assessments of chemical mixtures in water resources. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We assessed mixtures in untreated groundwater samples from public

  10. Geochemical evolution of acidic ground water at a reclaimed surface coal mine in western Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta,, Charles A.

    1991-01-01

    Concentrations of dissolved sulfate and acidity in ground water increase downflow in mine spoil and underlying bedrock at a reclaimed surface coal mine in the bituminous field of western Pennsylvania. Elevated dissolved sulfate and negligible oxygen in ground water from bedrock about 100 feet below the water table suggest that pyritic sulfur is oxidized below the water table, in a system closed to oxygen. Geochemical models for the oxidation of pyrite (FeS2) and production of sulfate (SO42-) and acid (H+) are presented to explain the potential role of oxygen (O2) and ferric iron (Fe3+) as oxidants. Oxidation of pyrite by O2 and Fe3+ can occur under oxic conditions above the water table, whereas oxidation by Fe3+ also can occur under anoxic conditions below the water table. The hydrated ferric-sulfate minerals roemerite [Fe2+Fe43+(SO4)4·14H2O], copiapite [Fe2+Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2·20H20], and coquimbite [Fe2(SO4)3·9H2O] were identified with FeS2 in coal samples, and form on the oxidizing surface of pyrite in an oxic system above the water table. These soluble ferric-sulfate 11 salts11 can dissolve with recharge waters or a rising water table releasing Fe3+, SO42-. and H+, which can be transported along closed-system ground-water flow paths to pyrite reaction sites where O2 may be absent. The Fe3+ transported to these sites can oxidize pyritic sulfur. The computer programs WATEQ4F and NEWBAL were used to compute chemical speciation and mass transfer, respectively, considering mineral dissolution and precipitation reactions plus mixing of waters from different upflow zones. Alternative mass-balance models indicate that (a) extremely large quantities of O2, over 100 times its aqueous solubility, can generate the observed concentrations of dissolved SO42- from FeS2, or (b) under anoxic conditions, Fe3+ from dissolved ferric-sulfate minerals can oxidize FeS2 along closed-system ground-water flow paths. In a system open to O2, such as in the unsaturated zone, the aqueous

  11. Effect of ozone and granular activated coal (GAC) on the bioactivity of drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallanko, Jarmo; Iivari, Pekka; Heiska, Eeva

    2009-02-15

    In this research, the appearance of easily biodegradable organic material in ozonation and granular activated coal (GAC) filtration was studied. The amount of bioactivity was measured by conventional AOC analyses used in two different modes and also using quite a new growth potential (GP) method. GAC filtration without ozone doubled the amount of AOC of the chemically treated surface water, whereas by ozonation with GAC filtration it was possible to halve the amount of the AOC. The measurement of GP was noticeably simpler than measuring AOC, but for wider use more parallel studies are needed for the comparability of the results of the analysis.

  12. Potentiometric pKa Determination of Piroxicam and Tenoxicam in Acetonitrile-Water Binary Mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Çubuk Demiralay, Ebru; Yılmaz, Hülya

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Ionization constant (pKa) is one among the parameter to be estimated with accuracy, irrespective of solubility constraints. In the present study, acid-base behaviour of the piroxicam and tenoxicam was studied. By using the potentiometric method, pKa values of piroxicam and tenoxicam have been determined in different percentage of acetonitrile-water binary mixtures (acetonitrile content between 30 and 45% in volume). Aqueous pKa values of these compounds were calculated by mole fract...

  13. Thermodynamics of mixing of sodium naproxen and procaine hydrochloride in ethanol + water cosolvent mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Mora Guerrero, Carolina Del Pilar

    2010-01-01

    Thermodynamic functions Gibbs energy, enthalpy, and entropy of mixing of sodium naproxen and procaine hydrochloride were evaluated. Mixing quantities were calculated based on fusion calorimetric values obtained from differential scanning calorimetry measurements and equilibrium solubility values reported in the literature for both drugs in ethanol + water mixtures. By means of enthalpy-entropy compensation analysis, non-linear ΔH°mix vs. ΔG°mix plots were obtained which indicates different me...

  14. The (water + acetonitrile) mixture revisited: A new approach for calculating partial molar volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmen Grande, Maria del; Julia, Jorge Alvarez; Barrero, Carmen R.; Marschoff, Carlos M.; Bianchi, Hugo L.

    2006-01-01

    Density and viscosity of (water + acetonitrile) mixtures were measured over the whole composition range at the temperatures: (298.15, 303.15, 308.15, 313.15, and 318.15) K. A new mathematical approach was developed which allows the calculation of the derivatives of density with respect to composition avoiding the appearance of local discontinuities. Thus, reliable partial molar volumes and thermal expansion coefficients were obtained

  15. Correlation of vapor - liquid equilibrium data for acetic acid - isopropanol - water - isopropyl acetate mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Mandagarán

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A correlation procedure for the prediction of vapor - liquid equilibrium of acetic acid - isopropanol - water - isopropyl acetate mixtures has been developed. It is based on the NRTL model for predicting liquid activity coefficients, and on the Hayden-O'Connell second virial coefficients for predicting the vapor phase of systems containing association components. When compared with experimental data the correlation shows a good agreement for binary and ternary data. The correlation also shows good prediction for reactive quaternary data.

  16. Solubility of Stevioside and Rebaudioside A in water, ethanol and their binary mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana S. Celaya

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the solubility of Stevioside and Rebaudioside A in different solvents (ethanol, water, ethanol:water 30:70 and ethanol:water 70:30, supersaturated solutions of pre-crystalized steviol glycosides were maintained at different temperatures (from 5 °C to 50 °C to reach equilibrium. Under these conditions significant differences were found in the extent of solubility. Rebaudioside A was poorly soluble in ethanol and water, and Stevioside was poorly soluble in water. Solvent mixtures more effectively promoted solubilisation, and a significant effect of temperature on solubility was observed. The two steviol glycosides showed higher solubilities and this behavior was promoted by the presence of the other sweetener. The polarity indices of the solvents were determined, and helped to explain the observed behavior. Several solute-solvent and solute-solute interactions can occur, along with the incidence of a strong affinity between solvents. The obtained results are in accordance with technological applications of ethanol, water and their binary mixtures for Stevioside and Rebaudioside A separations.

  17. Electrochemical study of chemical properties in ethanolamine and its mixtures with water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grall, M.

    1964-12-01

    This work is concerned with the study of acid-base reactions and of complex formation in ethanolamine and its mixtures with water. The ionic product of the solvent has been determined by an electro-chemical study of the H + /H 2 system. The reduction curves for ethanolamine-water mixtures, for different acidities, have made it possible to follow the variations in the size of the pH domain as a function of the composition of the solvent. The form of this variation has been explained on the basis of the dielectric constant and the solvation of the proton by the ethanolamine. In the second part, the electrochemical systems of mercury have been studied by anodic polarography. In order to establish a parallel between the acid-base reactions and complex formation reactions, we have studied the stability of Hg (CN) 2 in water-ethanolamine mixtures. It has been possible to deduce the law for the variation of pK c with solvent composition. The representative graph of this function passes through a minimum for a proportion of about 50 per cent of ethanolamine as in the case of acids. This variation has been explained by the predominating influence of ε for ethanolamine propositions of over 50 per cent and by that of the solvation of Hg 2+ for proportions of under 50 per cent. (author) [fr

  18. The Metastability and Nucleation Thresholds of Ibuprofen in Ethanol and Water-Ethanol Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdur Rashid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the crystallization of ibuprofen [((RS-2-(4-(2-methylpropyl phenyl propanoic acid] from ethanol and water-ethanol mixtures it is necessary to know the nucleation limits of its solutions. In the absence of crystals, nucleation will seldom occur below the PNT (primary nucleation threshold. If crystals are present, nucleation will seldom occur until below the lower SNT (secondary nucleation threshold. Below the SNT, crystals will still grow with negligible nucleation. PNT and SNT values (expressed as relative supersaturation σ have been measured at 10, 25, and 40°C for ibuprofen in ethanol and in a range of mixtures of different ethanol (E/water (W ratios. The induction times were determined from observing the times to nucleate for a range of different supersaturated solutions at a given temperature and E/W ratio. As expected, lowering the supersaturation leads to longer induction times. In ethanol, the SNT values are small and thus the secondary metastable zone width (MSZW is relatively narrow with a 1 h SNT relative supersaturation typically about σ ~ 0.05. The 1 h PNT values are much larger with values for σ around 0.3. In aqueous ethanolic mixtures at 25°C, both the PNT and SNT decrease as the water content increases.

  19. Experimental studies on seasonal heat storage based on stable supercooling of a sodium acetate water mixture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Dragsted, Janne; Fan, Jianhua

    2011-01-01

    to transfer heat to and from the module have been tested. Further, a solidification start method, based on a strong cooling of a small part of the salt water mixture in the module by boiling CO2 in a small brass tank in good thermal contact to the outer side of the module wall, has been tested. Tests......Laboratory tests of a 230 l seasonal heat storage module with a sodium acetate water mixture have been carried out. The aim of the tests is to elucidate how best to design a seasonal heat storage based on the salt water mixture, which supercools in a stable way. The module can be a part...... of a seasonal heat storage, that will be suitable for solar heating systems which can fully cover the yearly heat demand of Danish low energy buildings. The tested module has approximately the dimensions 2020 mm x 1285 mm x 80 mm. The module material is steel and the wall thickness is 2 mm. Different methods...

  20. Biological reclamation of coal mine spoils without topsoil: an amendment study with domestic raw sewage and grass-legume mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiti, S.K.; Saxena, N.C. [Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad (India). Centre of Mining Environment

    1997-12-31

    A range of tree species were successfully established and grown on spoil site irrigated with domestic raw sewage in India. The heavy metals content in leaves, stem wood, stem bark root wood and root bark differ between species. In general, heavy metals like Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, and Pb were accumulated more in Eucalyptus then Melia, however only Co accumulated maximum in Acacia. Increase trend was reported in respect of Na, K, Fe, Zn, Cu in grass and vegetables which were grown at a sewage fed farm. However, in all the cases micronutrients and heavy metals contents did not reach the critical limits to produce any phytotoxic effect. Irrigation with raw sewage had no adverse effect on chemical properties of spoil over the 3 year period. This study shows that raising vegetation on spoil material in mining areas irrigated with raw sewage is feasible. However, irrigation by raw sewage caused the accumulation of heavy metals in different plant parts. These plants are not of the fodder type and thus are not entering directly into ecological food chains, hence they can act as heavy metals sinks. On the basis of the Grass-legume experimental study, it may be concluded that N accumulation of coal mine spoil related with nature of spoil, prevailing climate and legume used. In a tropical climate N accumulation rate was found higher than in a temperate one. Addition of phosphorus fertilizer is essential for the reclamation of many mine spoils because even after three years available P level can remain deficient. Available K was found to be sufficient after three years.

  1. Trends and outlook of coal energy in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zainal Abidin Husin (Tenaga Nasional Berhad, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia). Fuel and Materials Management Dept.)

    1993-03-01

    Current energy policy in Malaysia is directed towards development of natural gas resources although there is a strategy to diversify energy sources to gas, hydro, coal and oil. By the year 2000, however, coal could emerge as a major energy source. The author advocates the need for a policy direction for the coal industry - for exploration, mine planning, mixing methods, transport and regulations to ensure occupational health and safety. Malaysia has abundant coal resources but most are in Sarawak and Sabah whereas the bulk of energy demand is in the Peninsula Malaysia. A table defines known coal resources in Malaysia and a map shows their location. To ensure successful development of the coal industry, technologies must be developed to meet environmental requirements and global market competition. Several emerging technologies are mentioned: production of process-derived fuel and coal-derived liquid from sub-bituminous coal, coal liquefaction, manufacture of coal water mixture, coal beneficiation, and fluidised bed combustion. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  2. Dynamics of glycerine and water transport across human skin from binary mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, S A; Kasting, G B

    2017-04-01

    Skin transport properties of glycerine and water from binary mixtures contacting human skin were determined to better understand the mechanism of skin moisturization by aqueous glycerine formulations. Steady-state permeation for 3 H 2 O and 14 C-glycerine across split-thickness human skin in vitro and desorption dynamics of the same permeants in isolated human stratum corneum (HSC) were experimentally determined under near equilibrium conditions. These data were compared to a priori values developed in the context of a thermodynamic model for binary mixtures of glycerine and water and a previously determined water sorption isotherm for HSC. This allowed the estimation of diffusion and partition coefficients for each permeant in the HSC, as well as HSC thickness, as a function of composition of the contacting solution. These data may be used to estimate water retention and associated HSC swelling related to the absorption and slow release of glycerine from the skin. It took 6+ days for glycerine to completely desorb from HSC immersed in glycerine/water binary solutions. Desorption of both 3 H 2 O and 14 C-glycerine from HSC was slower in pure water than from binary mixtures, a result that is largely explained by the greater swelling of HSC in water. Parametric relationships were developed for water and glycerine intradiffusivities in HSC as functions of HSC water content, and a mutual diffusion coefficient was estimated by analogy with glycerine/water binary solutions. The intradiffusivity of 14 C-glycerine in HSC as inferred from sorption/desorption experiments was shown to be approximately 10-fold less than that inferred from permeation experiments, whereas the corresponding values for 3 H 2 O were comparable. These studies confirm that glycerine enters HSC in substantial quantities and has a long residence time therein. The coupling between bulk water and glycerine transport projected from binary solution data suggests the net effect of glycerine is to slow water

  3. Corrosion of API 5L B and X52 in crude oil/water/gas mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perdomo, J J; Gonzalez, J J; Viloria, A; De Veer, H; De Abreu, Y

    2000-02-01

    Laboratory and field tests were conducted to evaluate the corrosion behavior of API 5L grade B and X52 steels using Furrial's crude oil in the presence of water and gas containing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S). The results suggest that the corrosiveness of this crude oil/water/gas mixture is not detrimental to either steel. However, pitting corrosion was observed. The low general corrosion rates measured were attributed to the natural inhibiting properties of the crude oil.

  4. Pervaporation separation of ethanol-water mixtures using polyethylenimine composite membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neidlinger, H.H.; Schissel, P.O.; Orth, R.A.

    1985-06-19

    Synthetic, organic, polymeric membranes were prepared from polyethylenimine for use with pervaporation apparatus in the separation of ethanol-water mixtures. The polymeric material was prepared in dilute aqueous solution and coated onto a polysulfone support film, from which excess polymeric material was subsequently removed. Cross-links were then generated by limited exposure to toluene-2,4-diisocyanate solution, after which the prepared membrane was heat-cured. The resulting membrane structures showed high selectivity in permeating ethanol or water over a wide range of feed concentrations. 2 tabs.

  5. Criticality characteristics of mixtures of plutonium, silicon dioxide, Nevada tuff, and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, R.; Myers, W.; Hayes, D.

    1997-01-01

    The nuclear criticality characteristics of mixtures of plutonium, silicon dioxide, and water (Part A) or plutonium, silicon dioxide, Nevada Yucca Mountain tuff, and water (Part B) have become of interest because of the appearance of recent papers on the subject. These papers postulate that if excess weapons plutonium is vitrified into a silicate log and buried underground, a self-sustaining neutron chain reaction may develop given sufficient time and interaction with the burial medium. Moreover, given specific geologic actions resulting in postulated configurations, the referenced papers state that nuclear explosions could occur with multi-kiloton yields or yields equivalent to hundreds of tons of TNT

  6. Long-life of a bubble on the surface of a water-alcohol mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rage, Gibran; Hernandez-Sanchez, J. Federico; Wilhelmus, Monica M.; Zenit, Roberto

    2016-11-01

    The lifetime of superficial bubbles has been used traditionally to determine the alcohol content in destilled beverages and spirits. With the proper alcohol content, the bubbles, known as pearls, have a particularly long life which is much longer than that in either pure water or pure ethanol. To understand this peculiar behavior, we conducted controlled experiments in water-ethanol mixtures and in samples of mezcal, an artisanal agave spirit. We assess the effect of the changes in viscosity, surface tension and density of the liquids. Also, we analyzed the effects of surfactants and evaporation rate differences, which lead to Marangoni convection in the draining film.

  7. Corrosion of API 5L B and X52 in crude oil/water/gas mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perdomo, J.J.; Gonzalez, J.J.; Viloria, A.; De Veer, H.; De Abreu, Y.

    2000-02-01

    Laboratory and field tests were conducted to evaluate the corrosion behavior of API 5L grade B and X52 steels using Furrial's crude oil in the presence of water and gas containing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S). The results suggest that the corrosiveness of this crude oil/water/gas mixture is not detrimental to either steel. However, pitting corrosion was observed. The low general corrosion rates measured were attributed to the natural inhibiting properties of the crude oil.

  8. Enthalpy of solution of potassium iodide in the water-formamide-dimethyl sulfoxide mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belova, L.N.; Solov'ev, S.N.; Vorob'ev, A.F.

    1985-01-01

    Solution enthalpies are measured for potassium iodide in the water-formamide-dimethyl sulfoxide mixtures in a sealed oscillating calorimeter with an isothermal shell at a constant water molar fraction equal to 0.3; 0.5 and 0.7 at 298.15 K. A diagram of the dependence of solution enthalpies on the of mixed solvent composition is plotted. Deviations of experimental solution enthalpies from the calculated ones are negative over the entire concentration range studied, which testifies to the preferable solvatation of electrolyte by the formid and dimthyl sulfoxide molecules

  9. Evaluation of water resources around Barapukuria coal mine industrial area, Dinajpur, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howladar, M. Farhad; Deb, Pulok Kanti; Muzemder, A. T. M. Shahidul Huqe; Ahmed, Mushfique

    2014-09-01

    Water is a very important natural resource which can be utilized in renewable or non-renewable forms but before utilizing, the evaluation of the quality of this resource is crucial for a particular use. However, the problems of water quality are more severe in areas where the mining and mineral processes' industries are present. In mining processes, several classes of wastes are produced which may turn into ultimately the sources of water quality and environmental degradation. In consequences, the evaluations of water quality for livestock, drinking, irrigation purposes and environmental implications have been carried out around the Barapukuria Coal Mining Industry under different methods and techniques such as primarily the field investigation; secondly the laboratory chemical analysis and thirdly justified the suitability of the laboratory analysis with statistical representation and correlation matrix, Schoeller plot, Piper's Trilinear diagram, Expanded Durov diagram, Wilcox diagram, US salinity diagram, Doneen's chart and others. The results of all surface and ground water samples analysis show that the characteristics and concentrations of all the major physical and chemical parameters such as pH, EC, TDS, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Fetotal, Cl-, HCO3 -, CO3 2- and SO4 2- are varied from one sample to other but well analogous with the WHO and EQS standard limit for all purposes in the area where the abundance of the major ions is as follows: Ca2+ > Na+ > Mg2+ > K+ > Fetotal = HCO3 - > SO4 2- > Cl- > CO3 2-. The graphical exposition of analytical data demonstrates two major hydrochemical facies for example: calcium-bicarbonate (Ca2+- HCO3 -) and magnesium-bicarbonate (Mg2+- HCO3 -) type facies which directly support the shallow recently recharged alkaline water around the industry. The calculated values for the evaluation classification of water based on TDS, Na%, EC, SAR, PI, RSC, MH, and TH replicate good to excellent use of water for livestock, drinking and

  10. Numerical study of saturation steam/water mixture flow and flashing initial sub-cooled water flow inside throttling devices

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a Computational Fluid-Dynamics (CFD) approach to model this phenomenon inside throttling devices is proposed. To validate CFD results, different nozzle geometries are analyzed, comparing numerical results with experimental data. Two cases are studied: Case 1: saturation steam/water mixture flow inside 2D convergent-divergent nozzle (inlet, outlet and throat diameter of nozzle are 0.1213m, 0.0452m and 0.0191m respectively). In this benchmark, a range of total inle...

  11. Mechanism of influence water vapor on combustion characteristics of propane-air mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larionov, V. M.; Mitrofanov, G. A.; Sachovskii, A. V.; Kozar, N. K.

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses the results of an experimental study of the effect of water vapor at the flame temperature. Propane-butane mixture with air is burning on a modified Bunsen burner. Steam temperature was varied from 180 to 260 degrees. Combustion parameters changed by steam temperature and its proportion in the mixture with the fuel. The fuel-air mixture is burned in the excess air ratio of 0.1. It has been established that the injection of steam changes the characteristics of combustion fuel-air mixture and increase the combustion temperature. The concentration of CO in the combustion products is substantially reduced. Raising the temperature in the combustion zone is associated with increased enthalpy of the fuel by the added steam enthalpy. Reducing the concentration of CO is caused by decrease in the average temperature in the combustion zone by applying steam. Concentration of active hydrogen radicals and oxygen increases in the combustion zone. That has a positive effect on the process of combustion.

  12. Northern Cheyenne Reservation Coal Bed Natural Resource Assessment and Analysis of Produced Water Disposal Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaochang Wo; David A. Lopez; Jason Whiteman Sr.; Bruce A. Reynolds

    2004-07-01

    Coalbed methane (CBM) development in the Powder River Basin (PRB) is currently one of the most active gas plays in the United States. Monthly production in 2002 reached about 26 BCF in the Wyoming portion of the basin. Coalbed methane reserves for the Wyoming portion of the basin are approximately 25 trillion cubic feet (TCF). Although coal beds in the Powder River Basin extend well into Montana, including the area of the Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation, the only CBM development in Montana is the CX Field, operated by the Fidelity Exploration, near the Wyoming border. The Northern Cheyenne Reservation is located on the northwest flank of the PRB in Montana with a total land of 445,000 acres. The Reservation consists of five districts, Lame Deer, Busby, Ashland, Birney, and Muddy Cluster and has a population of 4,470 according to the 2000 Census. The CBM resource represents a significant potential asset to the Northern Cheyenne Indian Tribe. Methane gas in coal beds is trapped by hydrodynamic pressure. Because the production of CBM involves the dewatering of coalbed to allow the release of methane gas from the coal matrix, the relatively large volume of the co-produced water and its potential environmental impacts are the primary concerns for the Tribe. Presented in this report is a study conducted by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and the Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology (MBMG) in partnership with the Northern Cheyenne Tribe to assess the Tribe’s CBM resources and evaluate applicable water handling options. The project was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) through the Native American Initiative of the National Petroleum Technology Office, under contract DEAC07- 99ID13727. Matching funds were granted by the MBMG in supporting the work of geologic study and mapping conducted at MBMG.

  13. Hydrophobic hydration and the anomalous partial molar volumes in ethanol-water mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Ming-Liang; Te, Jerez; Cendagorta, Joseph R.; Miller, Benjamin T.; Brooks, Bernard R.; Ichiye, Toshiko

    2015-01-01

    The anomalous behavior in the partial molar volumes of ethanol-water mixtures at low concentrations of ethanol is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. Previous work indicates that the striking minimum in the partial molar volume of ethanol V E as a function of ethanol mole fraction X E is determined mainly by water-water interactions. These results were based on simulations that used one water model for the solute-water interactions but two different water models for the water-water interactions. This is confirmed here by using two more water models for the water-water interactions. Furthermore, the previous work indicates that the initial decrease is caused by association of the hydration shells of the hydrocarbon tails, and the minimum occurs at the concentration where all of the hydration shells are touching each other. Thus, the characteristics of the hydration of the tail that cause the decrease and the features of the water models that reproduce this type of hydration are also examined here. The results show that a single-site multipole water model with a charge distribution that mimics the large quadrupole and the p-orbital type electron density out of the molecular plane has “brittle” hydration with hydrogen bonds that break as the tails touch, which reproduces the deep minimum. However, water models with more typical site representations with partial charges lead to flexible hydration that tends to stay intact, which produces a shallow minimum. Thus, brittle hydration may play an essential role in hydrophobic association in water

  14. Preliminary assessment of the health and environmental effects of coal utilization in the midwest. Volume I. Energy scenarios, technology characterizations, air and water resource impacts, and health effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    An initial evaluation of the major health and environmental issues associated with increased coal use in the six midwestern states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin is presented. Using an integrated assessment approach, the evaluation proceeds from a base-line scenario of energy demand and facility siting for the period 1975 to 2020. Emphasis is placed on impacts from coal extraction, land reclamation, coal combustion for electrical generation, and coal gasification. The range of potential impacts and constraints is illustrated by a second scenario that represents an expected upper limit for coal utilization in Illinois. Included are: (1) a characterization of the energy demand and siting scenarios, coal related technologies, and coal resources, and (2) the related impacts on air quality, water availability, water quality, and human health.

  15. Effect of sewage sludge on formation of acidic ground water at a reclaimed coal mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cravotta, C.A. III

    1998-01-01

    Data on rock, ground water, vadose water, and vadose gas chemistry were collected for two years after sewage sludge was applied at a reclaimed surface coal mine in Pennsylvania to determine if surface-applied sludge is an effective barrier to oxygen influx, contributes metals and nutrients to ground water, and promotes the acidification of ground water. Acidity, sulfate, and metals concentrations were elevated in the ground water from spoil relative to unmined rock because of active oxidation of pyrite and dissolution of aluminosilicate, carbonate, and Mn-Fe-oxide minerals in the spoil. Concentrations of acidity, sulfate, metals (Fe, Mn, Al, Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn), and nitrate, and abundances of iron-oxidizing bacteria were elevated in the ground water from sludge-treated spoil relative to untreated spoil having a similar mineral composition; however, gaseous and dissolved oxygen concentrations did not differ between the treatments. Abundances of iron-oxidizing bacteria in the ground water samples were positively correlated with concentrations of ammonia, nitrate, acidity, metals, and sulfate. Concentrations of metals in vadose water samples (< 5-m depth) from sludge-treated spoil (pH 5.9) were not elevated relative to untreated spoil (pH 4.4). In contrast, concentrations of nitrate were elevated in vadose water samples from sludge-treated spoil, frequently exceeding 10 mg/L. Downgradient decreases in nitrate to less than 3 mg/L and increases in sulfate concentrations in underlying ground water could result from oxidation of pyrite by nitrate. Thus, sewage sludge added to pyritic spoil can increase the growth of iron-oxidizing bacteria, the oxidation of pyrite, and the acidification of ground water. Nevertheless, the overall effects on ground water chemistry from the sludge were small and probably short-lived relative to the effects from mining only

  16. Organic substances in produced and formation water from unconventional natural gas extraction in coal and shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orem, William H.; Tatu, Calin A.; Varonka, Matthew S.; Lerch, Harry E.; Bates, Anne L.; Engle, Mark A.; Crosby, Lynn M.; McIntosh, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Organic substances in produced and formation water from coalbed methane (CBM) and gas shale plays from across the USA were examined in this study. Disposal of produced waters from gas extraction in coal and shale is an important environmental issue because of the large volumes of water involved and the variable quality of this water. Organic substances in produced water may be environmentally relevant as pollutants, but have been little studied. Results from five CBM plays and two gas shale plays (including the Marcellus Shale) show a myriad of organic chemicals present in the produced and formation water. Organic compound classes present in produced and formation water in CBM plays include: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heterocyclic compounds, alkyl phenols, aromatic amines, alkyl aromatics (alkyl benzenes, alkyl biphenyls), long-chain fatty acids, and aliphatic hydrocarbons. Concentrations of individual compounds range from gas shale unimpacted by production chemicals have a similar range of compound classes as CBM produced water, and TOC levels of about 8 mg/L. However, produced water from the Marcellus Shale using hydraulic fracturing has TOC levels as high as 5500 mg/L and a range of added organic chemicals including, solvents, biocides, scale inhibitors, and other organic chemicals at levels of 1000 s of μg/L for individual compounds. Levels of these hydraulic fracturing chemicals and TOC decrease rapidly over the first 20 days of water recovery and some level of residual organic contaminants remain up to 250 days after hydraulic fracturing. Although the environmental impacts of the organics in produced water are not well defined, results suggest that care should be exercised in the disposal and release of produced waters containing these organic substances into the environment because of the potential toxicity of many of these substances.

  17. Effect of sewage sludge on formation of acidic ground water at a reclaimed coal mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, C.A.

    1998-01-01

    Data on rock, ground water, vadose water, and vadose gas chemistry were collected for two years after sewage sludge was applied at a reclaimed surface coal mine in Pennsylvania to determine if surface-applied sludge is an effective barrier to oxygen influx, contributes metals and nutrients to ground water, and promotes the acidification of ground water. Acidity, sulfate, and metals concentrations were elevated in the ground water (6- to 21-m depth) from spoil relative to unmined rock because of active oxidation of pyrite and dissolution of aluminosilicate, carbonate, and Mn-Fe-oxide minerals in the spoil. Concentrations of acidity, sulfate, metals (Fe, Mn, Al, Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn), and nitrate, and abundances of iron-oxidizing bacteria were elevated in the ground water from sludge-treated spoil relative to untreated spoil having a similar mineral composition; however, gaseous and dissolved oxygen concentrations did not differ between the treatments. Abundances of iron-oxidizing bacteria in the ground water samples were positively correlated with concentrations of ammonia, nitrate, acidity, metals, and sulfate. Concentrations of metals in vadose water samples (water samples from sludge-treated spoil, frequently exceeding 10 mg/L. Downgradient decreases in nitrate to less than 3 mg/L and increases in sulfate concentrations in underlying ground water could result from oxidation of pyrite by nitrate. Thus, sewage sludge added to pyritic spoil can increase the growth of iron-oxidizing bacteria, the oxidation of pyrite, and the acidification of ground water. Nevertheless, the overall effects on ground water chemistry from the sludge were small and probably short-lived relative to the effects from mining only.

  18. Extraction of Betulin, Trimyristin, Eugenol and Carnosic Acid Using Water-Organic Solvent Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulgentius N. Lugemwa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A solvent system consisting of ethyl acetate, ethyl alcohol and water, in the volume ratio of 4.5:4.5:1, was developed and used to extract, at room temperature, betulin from white birch bark and antioxidants from spices (rosemary, thyme, sage, and oregano and white oak chips. In addition, under reflux conditions, trimyristin was extracted from nutmeg using the same solvent system, and eugenol from olives was extracted using a mixture of salt water and ethyl acetate. The protocol demonstrates the use of water in organic solvents to extract natural products from plants. Measurement of the free-radical scavenging activity using by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH indicated that the extraction of plant material using ethyl acetate, ethyl alcohol and water (4.5:4.5:1, v/v/v was exhaustive when carried out at room temperature for 96 h.

  19. Environmental impact of coal ash on tributary streams and nearshore water or Lake Erie. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, K.G.

    1978-08-01

    The environmental impact of coal ash disposal at a landfill site in north-central Chautauqua County, New York was studied from June 1975 through July 1977. Water samples taken from wells, ponds, and streams at 67 sites were analyzed for specific conductance, pH, alkalinity, arsenic, calcium, cadmium, chloride, chromium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, selenium, sodium, sulfate and zinc. Evidence suggests that ponds at the landfill were high in Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, and SO/sub 4/ compared to control pands. A stream adjacent to the site contained greater Mn (207 ug/1) and SO/sub 4/ (229 ppm) than control streams. Shallow alkaline test wells in the landfill had elevated As, Ca, and Se. Acid-neutral test wells had elevated As, Ca, Cr, Mg and Mn. Household wells in the vicinity of the landfill showed no evident contamination from the landfill. Average iron concentrations in the biota were tripled, and manganese concentrations doubled in biota affected by the coal ash dump. However, any effects of the disposal area on the distribution of the biota could not be separated from effects of varying environment factors such as water movements, substrate composition and food availability. No harmful effects could be demonstrated on the biota in the creek which flowed past the disposal area.

  20. The economic pre-treatment of coal mine drainage water with caustic and ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyden, B H; Nador, L; Addleman, S; Jeston, L

    2017-09-01

    Coal mine drainage waters are low in pH with varying amounts of iron and manganese and are generally brackish. The Austar Coal Mine in NSW, Australia, sought alternatives to their current lime dosing as the pre-treatment before the downstream reverse osmosis plant. Undesirable operating aspects of the current system include manganese and gypsum scaling/fouling, the need for anti-scalants and reduced water recovery. Thirteen processes for acid mine drainage were initially considered. The preferred process of caustic and ozone for Mn(II) oxidation was pilot tested at up to 0.74 kL/hr at the mine site. Under proper conditions and no aeration, about 81 per cent of the Fe could be removed (initially at 156 mg/L) as green rust. Supplemental aeration followed first-order kinetics and allowed 99.9 per cent Fe(II) oxidation and removal but only with a hydraulic residence time of about 47 minutes. The addition of supplemental Cu catalyst improved Fe removal. Ozone applied after caustic was effective in stoichiometrically oxidising recalcitrant Mn(II) and any remaining Fe(II). Control of the ozonation was achieved using the oxidation reduction potential during oxidation of the Mn(II) species. The use of caustic, followed by ozone, proved economically comparable to the current lime pre-treatment.

  1. Utilization of coal-water fuels in fire-tube boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommer, T.M.; Melick, T.A.

    1991-01-01

    The Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER), in cooperation with the University of Alabama and Jim Walter Resources, has been awarded a DOE contract to retrofit an existing fire-tube boiler with a coal-water slurry firing system. Recognizing that combustion efficiency is the principle concern when firing slurry in fire-tube boilers, EER has focused the program on innovative approaches for improving carbon burnout without major modifications to the boiler. This paper reports on the program which consists of five tasks. Task 1 provides for the design and retrofit of the host boiler to fire coal-water slurry. Task 2 is a series of optimization tests that will determine the effects of adjustable parameters on boiler performance. Task 3 will perform about 1000 hours of proof-of-concept system tests. Task 4 will be a comprehensive review of the test data in order to evaluate the economics of slurry conversions. Task 5 will be the decommissioning of the test facility if required

  2. Ignition of a floating droplet of organic coal-water fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakoryakov, V. E.; Kuznetsov, G. V.; Strizhak, P. A.

    2016-06-01

    The results of experimental investigations are presented for the ignition of droplets (particles) of organic coal-water fuels (OCWFs) floating in a flow of an oxidizer using a special combustion chamber from high-temperature quartz glass. The temperature and the velocity of motion of the oxidizer vary in the ranges of 500-900 K and 0.5-3 m/s. The initial sizes (radii) of fuel droplets amounted to 0.3-1.5 mm. As the basic OCWF components, particles (of 80-100 µm in size) of brown coal "B2," water, mazut, and waste castor and compressor oils are used. With use of the system of high-velocity video registration, the conditions providing for floating of OCWF particles without initiation of burning and with the subsequent steady ignition are established. Four modes of OCWF-droplet ignition with different trajectories of their motion in the combustion chamber are singled out. The times of the OCWF-ignition delay in dependence on the size of fuel particles and oxidizer temperatures are determined. The deviations of the OCWF-ignition-delay times obtained under conditions of suspension of a droplet on the thermocouple junction and while floating in the oxidizer flow are established.

  3. Evaluation of treated black liquor used as dispersant of concentrated coal-water slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingsong Zhou; Qian Kong; Bing Pan; Xueqing Qiu; Dongjie Yang; Hongming Lou [South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China). State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering

    2010-03-15

    The paper making waste liquor is a great water pollution source and much work has been done over the years to overcome this challenge. We present here a solution of black liquor used as dispersant of coal-water slurry (abbreviated as CWS) following chemical treatment. The treated black liquor (abbreviated as TBL) is used to prepare CWS for three bituminous coals, and the factors influencing its dispersing ability and the properties of CWS are investigated. The results show that the increasing sulfonating agent and formaldehyde dosage increase the sulfonic group content while reducing the molecular weight of TBL. The comparison with a naphthalene dispersant shows that TBL has a similar or better dispersing ability, and the large quantity of sulfonic groups engrafted in lignin molecules and the markedly increase of molecular weight are considered the key reason for the excellent performance of TBL. Moreover, the change of the molecular configuration from globular to flocculent in solution observed by TEM is also considered as an important reason for the excellent dispersing effect of TBL for CWS. 25 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  4. Identification of hazards for water environment in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin caused by the discharge of salt mine water containing particularly harmful substances and radionuclides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Bondaruk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Upper Silesian urban-industrial agglomeration is one of the most industrialized areas in Europe. The intense industrialization should be attributed mostly to the presence of coal and other minerals deposits and its extraction. Mining areas of hard coal mines comprise approximately 25% of the total catchment area of watercourses in the area of Upper Silesian Coal Basin, including the river basin of the Upper Oder River and the Little Vistula River. The mining, its scope and depth, duration of mining works, extraction systems being used and the total volume of the drainage fundamentally affect the conditions of groundwater and surface water in the studied area. In this paper, an overall characteristics of the coal mining industry in the area of USCB was made, including the issues of its influence on water environment in the light of the requirements of the Water Framework Directive (WFD and its guidelines transposed into Polish law. An analysis of the collected data, obtained from collieries, relating to the quantity and quality of water flowing into the workings and discharged to surface watercourses, was performed. An approach to the requirements for wastewater discharge into the environment by these enterprises was presented regarding the physicochemical parameters, possible harmful substances and radionuclides measured in mine waters. The main goal of the paper is to recognize the condition of surface water bodies in the area of Upper Silesian Coal Basin and to make the assessment of the biological condition using Ecological Risk Assessment and bioindication methods.

  5. Estimation of water-coal surface interaction during heat treatment of coal by use of FTir and DSC; FTir to DSC wo mochiita sekitan-mizu kan sogo sayo no teiryoteki hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, K.; Mae, K.; Morozumi, F.; Kusakawa, T. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    1997-10-30

    The authors have recently presented a method to estimate the strength distribution of hydrogen bondings in coal using FTir and DSC. The method was applied to estimate the strength of coal-water interaction in two different coals and to estimate the enthalpy change deriving from the change in hydrogen bondings during the desorption of water. The estimated enthalpy change was compared with the total enthalpy change estimated by DSC measurement to examine the importance of hydrogen bondings during the desertion of water. 1 ref., 6 figs.

  6. The effect of stirring on the heterogeneous nucleation of water and of clathrates of tetrahydrofuran/water mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.W. Wilson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The statistics of liquid-to-crystal nucleation are measured for both water and for clathrate-forming mixtures of tetrahydrofuran (THF and water using an automatic lag time apparatus (ALTA. We measure the nucleation temperature using this apparatus in which a single sample is repeatedly cooled, nucleated and thawed. The effect of stirring on nucleation has been evaluated numerically and is discussed. We find that stirring of the solution makes no difference to the nucleation temperature of a given solution in a given tube.

  7. Amide-induced phase separation of hexafluoroisopropanol-water mixtures depending on the hydrophobicity of amides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamuku, Toshiyuki; Wada, Hiroshi; Kawatoko, Chiemi; Shimomura, Takuya; Kanzaki, Ryo; Takeuchi, Munetaka

    2012-06-21

    Amide-induced phase separation of hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP)-water mixtures has been investigated to elucidate solvation properties of the mixtures by means of small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), (1)H and (13)C NMR, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The amides included N-methylformamide (NMF), N-methylacetamide (NMA), and N-methylpropionamide (NMP). The phase diagrams of amide-HFIP-water ternary systems at 298 K showed that phase separation occurs in a closed-loop area of compositions as well as an N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) system previously reported. The phase separation area becomes wider as the hydrophobicity of amides increases in the order of NMF amides due to the hydrophobic interaction gives rise to phase separation of the mixtures. In contrast, the disruption of HFIP clusters causes the recovery of the homogeneity of the ternary systems. The present results showed that HFIP clusters are evolved with increasing amide content to the lower phase separation concentration in the same mechanism among the four amide systems. However, the disruption of HFIP clusters in the NMP and DMF systems with further increasing amide content to the upper phase separation concentration occurs in a different way from those in the NMF and NMA systems.

  8. Experimental investigation of moderately high temperature water source heat pump with non-azeotropic refrigerant mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shengjun; Wang, Huaixin; Guo, Tao [Department of Thermal Energy and Refrigeration Engineering, School of Mechanical Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2010-05-15

    Experimental investigations were carried out on non-azeotropic refrigerant mixtures, named M1A (mass fraction of 20%R152a and 80%R245fa), M1B (mass fraction of 37% R152a and 63%R245fa) and M1C (mass fraction of 50%R152a and 50%R245fa), based on a water-to-water heat pump system in the condensing temperature range of 70-90 C with a cycle temperature lift of 45 C. Performance of R245fa was tested for comparison. Unfair factors in experimental comparative evaluation research with the same apparatus were identified and corrected. Experimental cycle performance of the mixtures were tested and compared with improved experimental assessment methodology. The results show that all of the mixtures deliver higher discharge temperature, higher heating capacity, higher COP and higher {epsilon}{sub h,c} than R245fa. M1B presents the most excellent cycle performance and is recommended as working fluid for moderate/high temperature heat pump. (author)

  9. Assessing the effect, on animal model, of mixture of food additives, on the water balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Mariola; Kuchlewska, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine, on the animal model, the effect of modification of diet composition and administration of selected food additives on water balance in the body. The study was conducted with 48 males and 48 females (separately for each sex) of Wistar strain rats divided into four groups. For drinking, the animals from groups I and III were receiving water, whereas the animals from groups II and IV were administered 5 ml of a solution of selected food additives (potassium nitrate - E 252, sodium nitrite - E 250, benzoic acid - E 210, sorbic acid - E 200, and monosodium glutamate - E 621). Doses of the administered food additives were computed taking into account the average intake by men, expressed per body mass unit. Having drunk the solution, the animals were provided water for drinking. The mixture of selected food additives applied in the experiment was found to facilitate water retention in the body both in the case of both male and female rats, and differences observed between the volume of ingested fluids and the volume of excreted urine were statistically significant in the animals fed the basal diet. The type of feed mixture provided to the animals affected the site of water retention - in the case of animals receiving the basal diet analyses demonstrated a significant increase in water content in the liver tissue, whereas in the animals fed the modified diet water was observed to accumulate in the vascular bed. Taking into account the fact of water retention in the vascular bed, the effects of food additives intake may be more adverse in the case of females.

  10. Interaction enthalpies of solid human serum albumin with water-dioxane mixtures: comparison with water and organic solvent vapor sorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirotkin, Vladimir A.; Faizullin, Djihanguir A.

    2004-01-01

    Enthalpy changes (ΔH tot ) on the immersion of dehydrated human serum albumin (HSA) into water-dioxane mixtures have been measured using a Setaram BT-2.15 calorimeter at 298 K. Thermodynamic activity of water was varied from 0 to 1. Calorimetric results are discussed together with the FTIR-spectroscopic data on water and organic solvent vapor adsorption/desorption isotherms on solid HSA. Dioxane sorption exhibits a pronounced hysteresis. Calorimetric and dioxane desorption dependencies consist of two parts. No dioxane sorption was observed in low water activity region (a w tot values are close to zero. At water activity about 0.5 the sharp exothermic drop of the interaction enthalpy values was observed. This exothermic drop is accompanied by the sharp increase in the amount of sorbed dioxane and additional water sorption (compared with that for pure water). Dioxane adsorption branch resembles a smooth curve. In this case, solid HSA binds more than 300 mol dioxane/mol HSA at low water activities. By using a water activity-based comparison we distinguished between dioxane-assisted and dioxane-competitive effect on water sorption. The obtained results demonstrate that the hydration 'history' of solid protein is an important factor that controls as the state of protein macromolecule as well as the sorption of low-molecular organic molecules

  11. α-chymotrypsin in water-acetone and water-dimethyl sulfoxide mixtures: Effect of preferential solvation and hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirotkin, Vladimir A; Kuchierskaya, Alexandra A

    2017-10-01

    We investigated water/organic solvent sorption and residual enzyme activity to simultaneously monitor preferential solvation/hydration of protein macromolecules in the entire range of water content at 25°C. We applied this approach to estimate protein destabilization/stabilization due to the preferential interactions of bovine pancreatic α-chymotrypsin with water-acetone (moderate-strength H-bond acceptor) and water-DMSO (strong H-bond acceptor) mixtures. There are three concentration regimes for the dried α-chymotrypsin. α-Chymotrypsin is preferentially hydrated at high water content. The residual enzyme activity values are close to 100%. At intermediate water content, the dehydrated α-chymotrypsin has a higher affinity for acetone/DMSO than for water. Residual enzyme activity is minimal in this concentration range. The acetone/DMSO molecules are preferentially excluded from the protein surface at the lowest water content, resulting in preferential hydration. The residual catalytic activity in the water-poor acetone is ∼80%, compared with that observed after incubation in pure water. This effect is very small for the water-poor DMSO. Two different schemes are operative for the hydrated enzyme. At high and intermediate water content, α-chymotrypsin exhibits preferential hydration. However, at intermediate water content, in contrast to the dried enzyme, the initially hydrated α-chymotrypsin possesses increased preferential hydration parameters. At low water content, no residual enzyme activity was observed. Preferential binding of DMSO/acetone to α-chymotrypsin was detected. Our data clearly demonstrate that the hydrogen bond accepting ability of organic solvents and the protein hydration level constitute key factors in determining the stability of protein-water-organic solvent systems. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Acoustic Levitator Power Device: Study of Ethylene-Glycol Water Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccamo, M. T.; Cannuli, A.; Calabrò, E.; Magazù, S.

    2017-05-01

    Acoustic levitator power device is formed by two vertically and opposed high output acoustic transducers working at 22 kHz frequency and produces sound pressure levels of 160 dB. The acoustic waves are monitored from an oscilloscope using a signal amplifier. The ability to perform contactless measurements, avoidance of undesired contamination from the container, are some of advantages of this apparatus. Acoustic levitation can be also used for sample preparation of high concentrated mixtures starting from solutions. In the present paper, an acoustic levitator power device is employed to collect data on levitated water mixtures of Ethylene Glycol (EG) which are then analysed by Infra-Red spectroscopy. The study allows to follow the drying process versus time and to obtain a gel-like compound characterized by an extended chemical crosslinking.

  13. Dielectric Properties of Binary Solvent Mixtures of Dimethyl Sulfoxide with Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li-Jun; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Huang, Ka-Ma; Jia, Guo-Zhu; Shang, Hui

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the dielectric properties of water-dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) mixtures with different mole ratios have been investigated in the range of 1 GHz to 40 GHz at 298 K by using a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Only one dielectric loss peak was observed in the frequency range and the relaxation in these mixtures can be described by a single relaxation time of the Davidson-Cole. It was observed that within experimental error the dielectric relaxation can be described by the Debye-like model (β ≈ 1, S.M. Puranik, et al. J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 1992, 88, 433 – 435). In general, the results are very consistent with the experimental measurements. PMID:19399247

  14. Dielectric Properties of Binary Solvent Mixtures of Dimethyl Sulfoxide with Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Jun Yang

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the dielectric properties of water-dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO mixtures with different mole ratios have been investigated in the range of 1 GHz to 40 GHz at 298 K by using a molecular dynamics (MD simulation. Only one dielectric loss peak was observed in the frequency range and the relaxation in these mixtures can be described by a single relaxation time of the Davidson-Cole. It was observed that within experimental error the dielectric relaxation can be described by the Debye-like model (β ≈ 1, S.M. Puranik, et al. J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans.1992, 88, 433 - 435. In general, the results are very consistent with the experimental measurements.

  15. Photonic crystal based sensor for organic solvents and for solvent-water mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenzl, Christoph; Hirsch, Thomas; Wolfbeis, Otto S

    2012-12-12

    Monodisperse polystyrene nanoparticles with a diameter of 173 nm were incorporated into a polydimethylsiloxane matrix where they display an iridescent color that can be attributed to the photonic crystal effect. The film is of violet color if placed in plain water, but turns to red in the presence of the non-polar solvent n-hexane. Several solvents were studied in some detail. We show that such films are capable of monitoring the water content of ethanol/water mixtures, where only 1% (v/v) of water leads to a shift of the peak wavelength of reflected light by 5 nm. The method also can be applied to determine, both visually and instrumentally, the fraction of methanol in ethanol/methanol mixtures. Here, a fraction of 1% of methanol (v/v) results in a wavelength shift of 2 nm. The reflected wavelength is not influenced by temperature changes nor impeded by photobleaching. The signal changes are fully reversible and response times are <1 s.

  16. Photonic Crystal Based Sensor for Organic Solvents and for Solvent-Water Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto S. Wolfbeis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Monodisperse polystyrene nanoparticles with a diameter of 173 nm were incorporated into a polydimethylsiloxane matrix where they display an iridescent color that can be attributed to the photonic crystal effect. The film is of violet color if placed in plain water, but turns to red in the presence of the non-polar solvent n-hexane. Several solvents were studied in some detail. We show that such films are capable of monitoring the water content of ethanol/water mixtures, where only 1% (v/v of water leads to a shift of the peak wavelength of reflected light by 5 nm. The method also can be applied to determine, both visually and instrumentally, the fraction of methanol in ethanol/methanol mixtures. Here, a fraction of 1% of methanol (v/v results in a wavelength shift of 2 nm. The reflected wavelength is not influenced by temperature changes nor impeded by photobleaching. The signal changes are fully reversible and response times are <1 s.

  17. Ecotoxicological study of pharmaceutical mixture in water solution and its treatability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tominaga, Flavio K.; Boiani, Nathalia F.; Granieri, Reginaldo I.; Borrely, Sueli I.

    2015-01-01

    Residual pharmaceuticals are found in natural waters as well as in wastewater and in drinkable water treatment plants. In the environment such compounds may affect aquatic biota, biodiversity and cause severe risks to human health due to synergistic effects and represent environmental risks. The anti-inflammatory diclofenac and the antidepressant fluoxetine are some of the compounds found in surface water. They present persistent physicochemical properties and low biodegradability and can not be completely removed by conventional water treatments. Advanced Oxidation Processes are reported as efficient possibility for removing organic compounds and toxicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the acute toxicity of the mixture of pharmaceutical diclofenac and fluoxetine on Vibrio fischeri marine bacteria. An industrial electron beam accelerator was used as the radiation source. The radiation induced degradation of the organic matter was determined by Total Organic Carbon analysis. Samples were exposed to different radiation doses: 2.5 kGy; 5.0 kGy; 7.5 kGy and 10 kGy. The toxicity values allow classifying the mixture as very toxic. After irradiation the toxicity decreased. (author)

  18. Ecotoxicological study of pharmaceutical mixture in water solution and its treatability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tominaga, Flavio K.; Boiani, Nathalia F.; Granieri, Reginaldo I.; Borrely, Sueli I., E-mail: flavio_tominaga@hotmail.com, E-mail: naty_boiani@hotmail.com, E-mail: rigranie@ipen.br, E-mail: sborrely@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Residual pharmaceuticals are found in natural waters as well as in wastewater and in drinkable water treatment plants. In the environment such compounds may affect aquatic biota, biodiversity and cause severe risks to human health due to synergistic effects and represent environmental risks. The anti-inflammatory diclofenac and the antidepressant fluoxetine are some of the compounds found in surface water. They present persistent physicochemical properties and low biodegradability and can not be completely removed by conventional water treatments. Advanced Oxidation Processes are reported as efficient possibility for removing organic compounds and toxicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the acute toxicity of the mixture of pharmaceutical diclofenac and fluoxetine on Vibrio fischeri marine bacteria. An industrial electron beam accelerator was used as the radiation source. The radiation induced degradation of the organic matter was determined by Total Organic Carbon analysis. Samples were exposed to different radiation doses: 2.5 kGy; 5.0 kGy; 7.5 kGy and 10 kGy. The toxicity values allow classifying the mixture as very toxic. After irradiation the toxicity decreased. (author)

  19. Contamination of settling ponds and rivers as a result of discharge of radium-bearing waters from Polish coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalupnik, S; Michalik, B; Wysocka, M; Skubacz, K; Mielnikow, A

    2001-01-01

    Saline waters from underground coal mines in Poland often contain natural radioactive isotopes, mainly 226Ra from the uranium decay series and 228Ra from the thorium series. Approximately 40% of the total amount of radium remains underground as radioactive deposits, but 225 MBq of 226Ra and 400 MBq of 228Ra are released daily into the rivers along with the other mine effluents from all Polish coal mines. Technical measures such as inducing the precipitation of radium in gobs, decreasing the amount of meteoric inflow water into underground workings, etc. have been undertaken in several coal mines, and as a result of these measures, the total amount of radium released to the surface waters has diminished by about 60% during the last 5-6 years. Mine water can have a severe impact on the natural environment, mainly due to its salinity. However, associated high levels of radium concentration in river waters, bottom sediments and vegetation have also been observed. Sometimes radium concentrations in rivers exceed 0.7 kBq/m3, which is the permitted level for waste waters under Polish law. The extensive investigations described here were carried out for all coal mines and on this basis the total radium balance in the effluents has been calculated. Measurements in the vicinity of mine settling ponds and in rivers have given us an opportunity to study radium behaviour in river waters and to assess the degree of contamination. Solid waste materials with enhanced natural radioactivity have been produced in huge amounts in the power and coal industries in Poland. As a result of the combustion of coal in power plants, low-radioactive waste materials are produced, with 226Ra concentration seldom exceeding a few hundreds of Bq/kg. A different situation is observed in coal mines, where, as a result of precipitation of radium from radium-bearing waters, highly radioactive deposits are formed. Sometimes the radioactivity of such materials is extremely high; precipitates from coal

  20. On issue of increasing profitability of automated energy technology complexes for preparation and combustion of water-coal suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brylina, O. G.; Osintsev, K. V.; Prikhodko, YU S.; Savosteenko, N. V.

    2018-03-01

    The article considers the issues of energy technological complexes economy increase on the existing techniques of water-coal suspensions preparation and burning basis due to application of highly effective control systems of electric drives and neurocontrol. The automated control system structure for the main boiler components is given. The electric drive structure is disclosed by the example of pumps (for transfer of coal-water mash and / or suspension). A system for controlling and diagnosing a heat and power complex based on a multi-zone regulator is proposed. The possibility of using neural networks for implementing the control algorithms outlined in the article is considered.

  1. Thermophysical properties of binary mixtures of {ionic liquid 2-hydroxy ethylammonium acetate + (water, methanol, or ethanol)}

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, Victor H.; Mattedi, Silvana; Martin-Pastor, Manuel; Aznar, Martin; Iglesias, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → This paper reports the density and speed of sound data of binary mixtures {2-hydroxy ethylammonium acetate + (water, or methanol, or ethanol)} measured between the temperatures (298.15 and 313.15) K at atmospheric pressure. → The aggregation, dynamic behavior, and hydrogen-bond network were studied using thermo-acoustic, X-ray, and NMR techniques. → The Peng-Robinson equation of state, coupled with the Wong-Sandler mixing rule using the COSMO-SAC model predicted the density of the solutions with relative mean deviations below than 3.0%. - Abstract: In this work, density and speed of sound data of binary mixtures of an ionic liquid consisting of {2-hydroxy ethylammonium acetate (2-HEAA) + (water, methanol, or ethanol)} have been measured throughout the entire concentration range, from the temperature of (288.15 to 323.15) K at atmospheric pressure. The excess molar volumes, variations of the isentropic compressibility, the apparent molar volume, isentropic apparent molar compressibility, and thermal expansion coefficient were calculated from the experimental data. The excess molar volumes were negative throughout the whole composition range. Compressibility data in combination with low angle X-ray scattering and NMR measurements proved that the presence of micelles formed due to ion pair interaction above a critical concentration of the ionic liquid in the mixtures. The Peng-Robinson equation of state coupled with the Wong-Sandler mixing rule and COSMO-SAC model was used to predict densities and the calculated deviations were lower than 3%, for binary mixtures in all composition range.

  2. Effect of water side deposits on the energy performance of coal fired thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatt, M. Siddhartha

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the effects of water side deposits in the 210 MW coal fired thermal power plant components (viz., boiler, turbine, feed water heaters, condensers and lube oil coolers) on the energy efficiency of these components and that of the overall system at 100% maximum continuous rating (MCR). The origin, composition and rate of build up of deposits on the water side are presented. A linear growth rate of deposits is assumed for simplicity. The effects of the reduction in heat transfer, increased pressure drop and increased pumping power/reduced power output in the components are quantified in the form of curve fits as functions of the deposit thickness (μm). The reduction in heat transfer in the boiler components is in the range of 0.2-2.0% under normal scaling. The increased pumping power is of the order of 0.6-7.6% in the boiler components, 29% in the BFP circuit, 26% in the LPH circuit, 21% in the HPH circuit and 18% in the lube oil cooler circuits. The effects on the overall coal fired plant is quantified through functional relations between the efficiencies and the notional deposit thickness. The sensitivity indices to the notional deposit thickness are: boiler efficiency: -0.0021% points/μm, turbine circuit efficiency: -0.0037% points/μm, auxiliary power efficiency: -0.00129% points/μm, gross overall efficiency: -0.0039% points/μm and net overall efficiency: -0.0040% points/μm. The overall effect of scale build up is either increased power input of ∼68 kW/μm (at a constant power output) or decreased power output ∼25 kW/μm (at a constant power input). Successful contaminant control techniques are highlighted. Capacity reduction effects due to water side deposits are negligible

  3. Mechanical model of water inrush from coal seam floor based on triaxial seepage experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yihui Pang; Guofa Wang; Ziwei Ding

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the mechanism of confined water inrush from coal seam floor, the main influences on permeability in the process of triaxial seepage experiments were analyzed with methods such as laboratory experiments, theoretical analysis and mechanical model calculation. The crack extension rule and the ultimate destruction form of the rock specimens were obtained. The mechanism of water inrush was explained reasonably from mechanical point of view. The practical criterion of water inrush was put forward. The results show that the rock permeability ‘‘mutation’’ phe-nomenon reflects the differences of stress state and cracks extension rate when the rock internal crack begins to extend in large-scale. The rock ultimate destruction form is related to the rock lithology and the angle between crack and principal stress. The necessary condition of floor water inrush is that the mining pressure leads to the extension and transfixion of the crack. The sufficient condition of floor water inrush is that the confined water’s expansionary stress in normal direction and shear stress in tangential direction must be larger than the internal stress in the crack. With the two conditions satisfied at the same time, the floor water inrush accident will occur.

  4. Distilling coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blythe, F C

    1914-09-14

    In the destructive distillation of bituminous coal, heavy hydrocarbon oil, such as petroleum, kerosine, shale oil, and heavy tar oil, obtained in some cases during the process, is added to the coal, which is then distilled under pressure and at a comparatively low temperature regulated so as to produce a large proportion of hydrocarbon oils and a small proportion of permanent gas. In one method, about 5 to 10 parts of hydrocarbon oil are mixed with 100 parts of crushed or ground coal, and the mixture is heated in a closed vessel, provided in some cases with an agitator, under a pressure of about 60 lb/in/sup 2/, and the temperature may be gradually raised to 350/sup 0/C and then to about 500/sup 0/C. The heating may be by means of superheated steam with or without external heat.

  5. Bioregional Assessments: Determining the Impacts of Coal Resource Development on Water Resources in Australia through Groundwater, Surface Water and Ecological Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, L. J.; Post, D. A.; Crosbie, R.; Holland, K.

    2017-12-01

    While extraction of methane from shale gas deposits has been the principal source of the recent expansion of the industry in the United States, in Australia extraction of methane from coal bed methane deposits (termed `coal seam gas' in Australia) has been the focus to date. The two sources of methane share many of the same characteristics including the potential requirement for hydraulic fracturing. However, as coal seam gas deposits generally occur at shallower depths than shale gas, the potential impacts of extraction on surface and groundwater resources may be of even greater concern. The Australian Federal Government commissioned a multi-disciplinary programme of bioregional assessments to improve understanding of the potential impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining activities on water resources and water-dependent assets across six bioregions Australia. A bioregional assessment is a transparent scientific analysis of the ecology, hydrology, geology and hydrogeology of a bioregion with explicit assessment of the potential direct, indirect and cumulative impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining development on water resources. The first step in the analysis is to establish the most likely scenario for coal development in each region and establish a causal pathway linking coal development to impacts to the social, economic and ecological functioning of water resources. This forms the basis for a sequence of probabilistic geological, hydrogeological, hydrological and ecological models to quantify the probability of potential impacts. This suite of models is developed independent of the proponents and regulators of coal resource developments and so can provide unbiased information to all stakeholders. To demonstrate transparency of the modelling, all inputs, outputs and executables will be available from http://www.bioregionalassessments.gov.au. The analysis delineated a zone of potential hydrological change for each region, outside of which impacts

  6. Deep subsurface drip irrigation using coal-bed sodic water: part II. geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bern, Carleton R.; Breit, George N.; Healy, Richard W.; Zupancic, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Waters with low salinity and high sodium adsorption ratios (SARs) present a challenge to irrigation because they degrade soil structure and infiltration capacity. In the Powder River Basin of Wyoming, such low salinity (electrical conductivity, EC 2.1 mS cm-1) and high-SAR (54) waters are co-produced with coal-bed methane and some are used for subsurface drip irrigation(SDI). The SDI system studied mixes sulfuric acid with irrigation water and applies water year-round via drip tubing buried 92 cm deep. After six years of irrigation, SAR values between 0 and 30 cm depth (0.5-1.2) are only slightly increased over non-irrigated soils (0.1-0.5). Only 8-15% of added Na has accumulated above the drip tubing. Sodicity has increased in soil surrounding the drip tubing, and geochemical simulations show that two pathways can generate sodic conditions. In soil between 45-cm depth and the drip tubing, Na from the irrigation water accumulates as evapotranspiration concentrates solutes. SAR values >12, measured by 1:1 water-soil extracts, are caused by concentration of solutes by factors up to 13. Low-EC (-1) is caused by rain and snowmelt flushing the soil and displacing ions in soil solution. Soil below the drip tubing experiences lower solute concentration factors (1-1.65) due to excess irrigation water and also contains relatively abundant native gypsum (2.4 ± 1.7 wt.%). Geochemical simulations show gypsum dissolution decreases soil-water SAR to 14 and decreasing EC in soil water to 3.2 mS cm-1. Increased sodicity in the subsurface, rather than the surface, indicates that deep SDI can be a viable means of irrigating with sodic waters.

  7. COAL CONVERSION WASTEWATER TREATMENT BY CATALYTIC OXIDATION IN SUPERCRITICAL WATER; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillip E. Savage

    1999-01-01

    Wastewaters from coal-conversion processes contain phenolic compounds in appreciable concentrations. These compounds need to be removed so that the water can be discharged or re-used. Catalytic oxidation in supercritical water is one potential means of treating coal-conversion wastewaters, and this project examined the reactions of phenol over different heterogeneous oxidation catalysts in supercritical water. More specifically, we examined the oxidation of phenol over a commercial catalyst and over bulk MnO(sub 2), bulk TiO(sub 2), and CuO supported on Al(sub 2) O(sub 3). We used phenol as the model pollutant because it is ubiquitous in coal-conversion wastewaters and there is a large database for non-catalytic supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) with which we can contrast results from catalytic SCWO. The overall objective of this research project is to obtain the reaction engineering information required to evaluate the utility of catalytic supercritical water oxidation for treating wastes arising from coal conversion processes. All four materials were active for catalytic supercritical water oxidation. Indeed, all four materials produced phenol conversions and CO(sub 2) yields in excess of those obtained from purely homogeneous, uncatalyzed oxidation reactions. The commercial catalyst was so active that we could not reliably measure reaction rates that were not limited by pore diffusion. Therefore, we performed experiments with bulk transition metal oxides. The bulk MnO(sub 2) and TiO(sub 2) catalysts enhance both the phenol disappearance and CO(sub 2) formation rates during SCWO. MnO(sub 2) does not affect the selectivity to CO(sub 2), or to the phenol dimers at a given phenol conversion. However, the selectivities to CO(sub 2) are increased and the selectivities to phenol dimers are decreased in the presence of TiO(sub 2) , which are desirable trends for a catalytic SCWO process. The role of the catalyst appears to be accelerating the rate of formation of

  8. Coal induced production of a rhamnolipid biosurfactant by Pseudomonas stutzeri, isolated from the formation water of Jharia coalbed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Durgesh Narain; Tripathi, Anil Kumar

    2013-01-01

    A strain of Pseudomonas stutzeri was isolated form an enrichment of perchlorate reducing bacteria from the formation water collected from an Indian coalbed which solubilized coal and produced copious amount of biosurfactant when coal was added to the medium. It produced maximum biosurfactant with lignite coal followed by olive oil and soybean oil which was able to emulsify several aromatic hydrocarbons including kerosene oil, diesel oil, hexane, toluene etc. Haemolytic test, growth inhibition of Bacillus subtilis and FTIR analysis showed rhamnolipid nature of the biosurfactant. The stability of the coal induced biosurfactant in pH range of 4-8 and up to 25% NaCl concentration and 100 °C temperature suggests that due to its ability to produce biosurfactant and solubilize coal P. stutzeri may be useful in the coalbed for in situ biotransformation of coal into methane and in the bioremediation of PAHs from oil contaminated sites including marine environments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Natural gas adsorption on coal in anhydrous and in water saturated conditions: study of the adsorbed quantities and of the isotopic fractionation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caja, M.

    2000-02-01

    In order to understand the influence of adsorption in the migration of natural gas in sedimentary basins. we have developed an experimental device to measure the quantity of gas adsorbed on organic matter. We quantify the isotopic and chemical fractionation due to adsorption of natural gas on coal at representative gas field conditions (20 - 200 deg C and 1 - 1000 bar). These effects are investigated for gas / solid systems and for gas dissolved in water/water saturated solid systems. The solid sample considered in this work is a natural coal of Carboniferous age, taken from a mine in Lorraine, France. Its maturity corresponds to the end of the diagenesis zone. A first set of high pressure methane adsorption experiments on dry coal are compared with measurements done by another laboratory on the same solid. This allowed us to validate the experimental procedure. This measurements performed in the presence of water have shown that methane adsorption is significant even in presence of water. We have developed a simple adsorption model (Langmuir model in which fugacity is used in stead of partial pressure) in order to represent this phenomena. For a depth profile we compare the part of methane adsorbed on sedimentary rocks organic matter to methane dissolved in pore water. A second set of experiments realised on a multicomponent gas (C1, C2, C3, C4, CO 2 ) shows a preferential adsorption of carbon dioxide, but no significant fractionation on hydrocarbon gases of the mixture has been observed. Adsorption experiments of methane on dry medium and on water saturated medium yield on the same result: adsorption equilibrium do not induce a significant isotopic fractionation between 13 CH 4 and 12 CH 4 . However, we observe a significant fractionation during gas desorption. The interpretation is that we are not at equilibrium and diffusion phenomena is superimposed on adsorption. From this study two important geological consequences can be drawn. First. for rocks containing

  10. The SONICHAR coal mine and electricity production thermal plant in Tchirozerine (Niger. Chemical analysis of drainage waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-06-01

    After a brief presentation of the coal mining and electricity production activities of the SONICHAR, and the related concerns about the environmental impacts of these activities, this document reports analyses performed on mine drainage waters, and on water samples coming from a pit located upstream the mine effluent and from a pit close to this effluent. Different sulfates and metals display much higher contents than those admitted for drinkable water in Europe

  11. Systems and Methods for Determining Water-Cut of a Fluid Mixture

    KAUST Repository

    Karimi, Muhammad Akram

    2017-03-02

    Provided in some embodiments are systems and methods for measuring the water content (or water-cut) of a fluid mixture. Provided in some embodiments is a water-cut sensor system that includes a T-resonator, a ground conductor, and a separator. The T-resonator including a feed line, and an open shunt stub conductively coupled to the feed line. The ground conductor including a bottom ground plane opposite the T-resonator and a ground ring conductively coupled to the bottom ground plane, with the feed line overlapping at least a portion of the ground ring. The separator including a dielectric material disposed between the feed line and the portion of the ground ring overlapped by the feed line, and the separator being adapted to electrically isolate the T-resonator from the ground conductor.

  12. Systems and Methods for Determining Water-Cut of a Fluid Mixture

    KAUST Repository

    Karimi, Muhammad Akram

    2017-12-07

    Provided in some embodiments are systems and methods for measuring the water content (or water-cut) of a fluid mixture. Provided in some embodiments is a water-cut sensor system that includes a helical T-resonator, a helical ground conductor, and a separator provided at an exterior of a cylindrical pipe. The helical T-resonator including a feed line, and a helical open shunt stub conductively coupled to the feed line. The helical ground conductor including a helical ground plane opposite the helical open shunt stub and a ground ring conductively coupled to the helical ground plane. The feed line overlapping at least a portion of the ground ring, and the separator disposed between the feed line and the portion of the ground ring overlapped by the feed line to electrically isolate the helical T-resonator from the helical ground conductor.

  13. Eco-Friendly Superwetting Material for Highly Effective Separations of Oil/Water Mixtures and Oil-in-Water Emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chih-Feng; Yang, Sheng-Yi; Kuo, Shiao-Wei

    2017-02-20

    Because the treatment of oily wastewater, generated from many industrial processes, has become an increasing environmental concern, the search continues for simple, inexpensive, eco-friendly, and readily scalable processes for fabricating novel materials capable of effective oil/water separation. In this study we prepared an eco-friendly superhydrophilic and underwater superoleophobic polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-modified cotton that mediated extremely efficient separations of mixtures of oil/water and oil/corrosive solutions. This PVP-modified cotton exhibited excellent antifouling properties and could be used to separate oil/water mixtures continuously for up to 20 h. Moreover, the compressed PVP-modified cotton could separate both surfactant-free and -stabilized oil-in-water emulsions with fluxes of up to 23,500 L m -2 h -1 bar -1 -a level one to two orders of magnitude higher than that possible when using traditional ultrafiltration membranes having similar rejection properties. The high performance of our PVP-modified cotton and its green, low-energy, cost-effective preparation suggest its great potential for practical applications.

  14. Structure of ionic liquid-water mixtures at interfaces: x-ray and neutron reflectometry studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauw, Yansen; Rodopoulos, Theo; Horne, Mike; Follink, Bart; Hamilton, Bill; Knott, Robert; Nelson, Andy

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Fundamental studies on the effect of water in ionic liquids are necessary since the overall performance of ionic liquids in many industrial applications is often hampered by the presence of water.[1] Based on this understanding, the surface and interfacial structures of 1-butyl-1methylpyrrolidinium trifluoromethylsulfonylimide [C4mpyr][NTf2] ionic liquid-water mixtures were probed using x-ray and neutron reflectometry techniques. At the gas-liquid surface, a thick cation+water layer was detected next to the phase boundary, followed by an increasing presence of anion towards the bulk. The overall thickness of the surface exhibits non-monotonic trends with an increasing water content, which explains similar phenomenological trends in surface tension reported in the literature.[2] At an electrified interface, the interfacial structure of pure ionic liquids probed by neutron reflectometry shows similar trends to those predicted by a mean-field model.[3] However, the presence of water within the electrical double-layer is less obvious, although it is widely known that water reduces electrochemical window of ionic liquids. To shed light on this issue, further studies are currently in progress.

  15. Toxicity reduction for pharmaceuticals mixture in water by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boiani, Nathalia Fonseca; Tominaga, Flavio Kiyoshi; Borrely, Sueli Ivone

    2015-01-01

    The incorrect disposal of products is committing the environment quality once the aquatic environment is the main vehicle for dispersion of pollutants. Among the highlighted contaminants there are the pharmaceuticals, which are also released to the aquatic environment through the domestic sewage, hospitals and effluents. The monitoring of these pharmaceuticals in the environment has grown, showing many of them as persistent pollutants. Pharmaceuticals from different therapeutic classes have been detected in domestic sewage, surface water and groundwater around the world. Several studies evidenced Fluoxetine Hydrochloride residues in waters. Another important product is the Propranolol, used for heart disease treatments as far as fluoxetine is applied for treating mental diseases. The objective of this study was to apply the radiation processing for the abatement of pollutant in waters. Electron beam accelerator was used during irradiation of the mixture (Propranolol + Fluoxetine Hydrochloride) in aqueous solution. Acute toxicity assays were carried out for Vibrio fischeri marine bacterium, 15 minutes exposure. The results showed that irradiation (2.5kGy and 5.0kGy) enhanced the average effective concentration of the mixture, which means reduction of toxicity (56.34%, 55.70% respectively). Inverse effect was obtained with 7.5 kGy and 10 kGy. (author)

  16. Toxicity reduction for pharmaceuticals mixture in water by electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boiani, Nathalia Fonseca; Tominaga, Flavio Kiyoshi; Borrely, Sueli Ivone, E-mail: flavio_tominaga@hotmail.com, E-mail: sborrely@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The incorrect disposal of products is committing the environment quality once the aquatic environment is the main vehicle for dispersion of pollutants. Among the highlighted contaminants there are the pharmaceuticals, which are also released to the aquatic environment through the domestic sewage, hospitals and effluents. The monitoring of these pharmaceuticals in the environment has grown, showing many of them as persistent pollutants. Pharmaceuticals from different therapeutic classes have been detected in domestic sewage, surface water and groundwater around the world. Several studies evidenced Fluoxetine Hydrochloride residues in waters. Another important product is the Propranolol, used for heart disease treatments as far as fluoxetine is applied for treating mental diseases. The objective of this study was to apply the radiation processing for the abatement of pollutant in waters. Electron beam accelerator was used during irradiation of the mixture (Propranolol + Fluoxetine Hydrochloride) in aqueous solution. Acute toxicity assays were carried out for Vibrio fischeri marine bacterium, 15 minutes exposure. The results showed that irradiation (2.5kGy and 5.0kGy) enhanced the average effective concentration of the mixture, which means reduction of toxicity (56.34%, 55.70% respectively). Inverse effect was obtained with 7.5 kGy and 10 kGy. (author)

  17. Problems of hydrogen - water vapor - inert gas mixture use in heavy liquid metal coolant technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ul'yanov, V.V.; Martynov, P.N.; Gulevskij, V.A.; Teplyakov, Yu.A.; Fomin, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    The reasons of slag deposit formation in circulation circuits with heavy liquid metal coolants, which can cause reactor core blockage, are considered. To prevent formation of deposits hydrogen purification of coolant and surfaces of circulation circuit is used. It consists in introduction of gaseous mixtures hydrogen - water vapor - rare gas (argon or helium) directly into coolant flow. The principle scheme of hydrogen purification and the processes occurring during it are under consideration. Measures which make it completely impossible to overlap of the flow cross section of reactor core, steam generators, pumps and other equipment by lead oxides in reactor facilities with heavy liquid metal coolants are listed [ru

  18. Effects of clustering structure on volumetric properties of amino acids in (DMSO + water) mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Aimin; Liu Chunli; Ma Lin; Tong Zhangfa; Lin Ruisen

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Together with static light scattering measurement, volumetric properties of glycine, L-alanine and L-serine were determined and utilized to reveal the microscopic solvent structure of (DMSO + water) mixtures and its influence on the interaction between DMSO and amino acids from a clustering point of view. The results demonstrated that the interaction between amino acids and DMSO was greatly related to the clustering structure of the mixed solvent and that amino acids interacted with already established solvent clusters. Hydrophobic aggregating of DMSO lead to a decrease in the hydrophobic effect of DMSO and the hydrophobic–hydrophilic and hydrophobic–hydrophobic interaction with amino acids, which was reflected by the solvation of proteins. Highlights: ► Determine volumetric properties of three amino acids in aqueous DMSO in details. ► Static light scattering measurement for clustering structure of aqueous DMSO. ► Volumetric behaviour of amino acids depends on clustering structure of aqueous DMSO. ► Clustering structure of aqueous DMSO influences solvation of protein and cellulose. - Abstract: For a better understanding on the functions of DMSO in biological systems at a relatively lower concentration, apparent molar volumes of three typical amino acids, glycine, L-alanine and L-serine in (DMSO + water) mixtures were determined and the transfer volumes from water to the mixtures were evaluated. Together with static light scattering measurement, the results were utilised to reveal the microscopic solvent structure of (DMSO + water) mixtures and its influence on the interaction between DMSO and amino acids from a clustering point of view. The results demonstrate that the interaction between amino acids and DMSO is greatly related to the clustering structure of the mixed solvent and that amino acids interacted with already established solvent clusters. The linear dependence of transfer volume of amino acids on DMSO concentration up to 2

  19. Spectral luminescence studies of eosin solvation in water-alcohol mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketsle, G.A.; Levshin, L.V.; Mel' nikov, G.V.; Saletskii, A.M.

    1987-11-01

    The authors investigate the effects of solvation of eosin molecules in binary water-propanol mixtures with the goal of assessing eosin as a candidate dye laser material. The fluorescence was measured with a Hitachi spectrofluorimeter and the absorption spectra were taken on a Specord spectrophotometer. Absorption and fluorescence were measured for different amounts of propanol in the solvent. Data are also given on excitation and de-excitation kinetics between ground and excited states. Values for quantum yields of fluorescence and phosphorescence, average excited state lifetime, and molecular volume of the dye with the solvated shell are tabulated.

  20. Thermally excited capillary waves at vapor/liquid interfaces of water-alcohol mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaknin, David; Bu Wei; Sung, Jaeho; Jeon, Yoonnam; Kim, Doseok

    2009-01-01

    The density profiles of liquid/vapor interfaces of water-alcohol (methanol, ethanol and propanol) mixtures were studied by surface-sensitive synchrotron x-ray scattering techniques. X-ray reflectivity and diffuse scattering measurements, from the pure and mixed liquids, were analyzed in the framework of capillary wave theory to address the characteristic length scales of the intrinsic roughness and the shortest capillary wavelength (alternatively, the upper wavevector cutoff in capillary wave theory). Our results establish that the intrinsic roughness is dominated by average interatomic distances. The extracted effective upper wavevector cutoff indicates capillary wave theory breaks down at distances of the order of bulk correlation lengths.

  1. Visual study of air--water mixtures flowing inside serpentine tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farukhi, M.N.; Parker, J.D.

    1974-01-01

    Hydrodynamic behavior of air-water mixtures flowing inside serpentine tubes, with bends in the vertical plane, was investigated. Flow visualization was accomplished by injecting dye into the liquid phase and recording the events on color slides and color movies. For certain combinations of gas and liquid flow rates, in the annular type flow regime, ''film inversion'' was observed in the bend as well as in the straight section immediately downstream of the bend. A new flow regime map particularly applicable to two phase flow inside serpentine tubes is presented. (U.S.)

  2. Removal of benzaldehyde from a water/ethanol mixture by applying scavenging techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitic, Aleksandar; Skov, Thomas; Gernaey, Krist V.

    2017-01-01

    A presence of carbonyl compounds is very common in the food industry. The nature of such compounds is to be reactive and thus many products involve aldehydes/ketones in their synthetic routes. By contrast, the high reactivity of carbonyl compounds could also lead to formation of undesired compounds......, such as genotoxic impurities. It can therefore be important to remove carbonyl compounds by implementing suitable removal techniques, with the aim of protecting final product quality. This work is focused on benzaldehyde as a model component, studying its removal from a water/ethanol mixture by applying different...

  3. 2D-Ising critical behavior in mixtures of water and 3-methylpyridine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadakane, Koichiro; Iguchi, Kazuya; Nagao, Michihiro; Seto, Hideki

    2011-01-01

    The effect of an antagonistic salt on the phase behavior and nanoscale structure of a mixture of D 2 O and 3-methylpyridine was investigated by visual inspection and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The addition of the antagonistic salt, namely sodium tetraphenylborate (NaBPh 4 ), induces the shrinking of the two-phase region in contrast to the case in which a normal (hydrophilic) salt is added. Below the phase separation point, the SANS profiles cannot be described by the Ornstein-Zernike function owing to the existence of a long-range periodic structure. With increasing salt concentration, the critical exponents change from the values of 3D-Ising and approach those of 2D-Ising. These results suggest that the concentration fluctuation of the mixture of solvents is limited to a quasi two-dimensional space by the periodic structure induced by the adding the salt. The same behaviors were also observed in mixtures composed of water, 3-methylpyridine, and ionic surfactant.

  4. Investigation of the effects of various water mediums on desulfurization and deashing of a coal sample by flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayhan, F.D. [Dicle University, Diyarbakir (Turkey)

    2009-08-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of various water mediums on desulfurization and deashing of a coal sample using flotation. For this purpose, experimental studies were conducted on a coal sample containing high ash and sulfur contents. The effects of pH, solid concentration, collector amount and frother amount on the flotation were investigated separately in Mediterranean Sea water, Cermik thermal spring water, snow water and tap water. Flotation, results indicated that, when comparing the various water mediums, the following order for the ash content was obtained: snow water < Cermik thermal spring water < tap water < the Mediterranean Sea water. For the reduction of total sulfur, the following order was obtained: snow water > Cermik thermal spring water > Mediterranean Sea water > tap water. When snow water was used as a flotation medium, it was found that a concentrate containing 3.01% total sulfur and 27.64% ash with a total sulfur reduction of 57.06% was obtained from a feed containing 7.01% total sulfur and 4.1.17% ash.

  5. The comparative analysis of heat transfer efficiency in the conditions of formation of ash deposits in the boiler furnaces, with taking into account the crystallization of slag during combustion of coal and water-coal fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomatov, V. V.; Kuznetsov, G. V.; Syrodoy, S. V.

    2017-11-01

    The results of the numerical simulation of heat transfer from the combustion products of coal and coal-water fuels (CWF) to the internal environment. The mathematical simulation has been carried out on the sample of the pipe surfaces of the combustion chamber of the boiler unit. The change in the characteristics of heat transfer (change of thermochemical characteristics) in the conditions of formation of the ash deposits have been taken into account. According to the results of the numerical simulation, the comparative analysis of the efficiency of heat transfer has been carried out from the furnace environment to the inside pipe coolant (water, air, or water vapor) from the combustion of coal and coal-water fuels. It has been established that, in the initial period of the boiler unit operation during coal fuel combustion the efficiency of heat transfer from the combustion products of the internal environment is higher than when using CWF. The efficiency of heat transfer in CWF combustion conditions is more at large times (τ≥1.5 hours) of the boiler unit. A significant decrease in heat flux from the combustion products to the inside pipe coolant in the case of coal combustion compared to CWF has been found. It has been proved that this is due primarily to the fact that massive and strong ash deposits are formed during coal combustion.

  6. Using low-field NMR to infer the physical properties of glassy oligosaccharide/water mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeberhardt, Kasia; Bui, Quang D; Normand, Valéry

    2007-03-01

    Low-field NMR (LF-NMR) is usually used as an analytical technique, for instance, to determine water and oil contents. For this application, no attempt is made to understand the physical origin of the data. Here we build a physical model to explain the five fit parameters of the conventional free induction decay (FID) for glassy oligosaccharide/water mixtures. The amplitudes of the signals from low-mobility and high-mobility protons correspond to the density of oligosaccharide protons and water protons, respectively. The relaxation time of the high-mobility protons is described using a statistical model for the probability that oligosaccharide hydroxyl groups form multiple hydrogen bonds. The variation of energy of the hydrogen bond is calculated from the average bond distance and the average angle contribution. Applying the model to experimental data shows that hydrogen atoms screen the water oxygen atoms when two water molecules solvate a single hydroxyl group. Furthermore, the relaxation time of the oligosaccharide protons is independent of its molecular weight and the water content. Finally, inversion of the FID using the inverse Laplace transform gives the continuous spectrum of relaxation times, which is a fingerprint of the oligosaccharide.

  7. Thermo-hydraulic behavior of saturated steam-water mixture in pressure vessel during injection of cold water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aya, Izuo; Kobayashi, Michiyuki; Inasaka, Fujio; Nariai, Hideki.

    1983-01-01

    The thermo-hydraulic behavior of saturated steam water mixture in a pressure vessel during injection of cold water was experimentally investigated with the Facility for Mixing Effect of Emergency Core Cooling Water. The dimensions of the pressure vessel used in the experiments were 284mm ID and 1,971mm height. 11 experiments were conducted without blowdown in order to comprehend the basic process excluding the effect of blowdown at injection of cold water. The initial pressure and water level, the injection flow rate and the size of injection nozzle were chosen as experimental parameters. Temperatures and void fractions at 6 elevations as well as pressure in the pressure vessel were measured, and new data especially on the pressure undershoot just after the initation of water injection and the vertical distribution of temperature and void fraction were gotten. The transients of pressure, average temperature and void fraction were caluculated using single-volume analysis code BLODAC-1V which is based on thermal equilibrium and so-called bubble gradient model. Some input parameters included in the analysis code were evaluated through the comparison of analysis with experimental data. Moreover, the observed pressure undershoot which is evaluated to be induced by a time lag of vapourization in water due to thermal nonequilibrium, was also discussed with the aid of another simple analysis model. (author)

  8. Reaction of methane with coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, K.; Batts, B.D.; Wilson, M.A.; Gorbaty, M.L.; Maa, P.S.; Long, M.A.; He, S.J.X.; Attala, M.I. [Macquarie University, Macquarie, NSW (Australia). School of Chemistry

    1997-10-01

    A study of the reactivities of Australian coals and one American coal with methane or methane-hydrogen mixtures, in the range 350-400{degree}C and a range of pressures (6.0-8.3 MPa, cold) is reported. The effects of aluminophosphates (AIPO) or zeolite catalysts, with and without exchanged metals, on reactivity have also been examined. Yields of dichloromethane extractable material are increased by using a methane rather than a nitrogen atmosphere and different catalysts assist dissolution to various extends. It appears that surface exchanged catalysts are effective, but incorporating metals during AIPO lattice formation is detrimental. Aluminium phosphate catalysts are unstable to water produced during coal conversion, but are still able to increase extraction yields. For the American coal, under methane-hydrogen and a copper exchanged zeolite, 51.5% conversion was obtained, with a product selectivity close to that obtained under hydrogen alone, and with only 2% hydrogen consumption. The conversion under methane-hydrogen was also to that obtained under hydrogen alone, while a linear dependence of conversion on proportion of methane would predict a 43% conversion under methane-hydrogen. This illustrates a synergistic effect of the methane-hydrogen atmosphere for coal liquefaction using this catalyst systems. 31 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  9. Preliminary evaluation of ground-water contamination by coal-tar derivatives, St. Louis Park area, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hult, Marc F.; Schoenberg, Michael E.

    1984-01-01

    Operation of a coal-tar distillation and wood-preserving plant from 1918 to 1972 in St. Louis Park, a suburb of Minneapolis, Minn., resulted in ground-water contamination. This preliminary evaluation presents an overview of the problem based on the results of the first year (1979) of an ongoing study.

  10. Content of arsenic, selenium, mercury in the coal, food, clay and drinking water on the Zhaotong fluorosis area, eastern Yunnan Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Kun-li; Li Hui-jie; Chen Tong-bin (and others) [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research

    2008-03-15

    About 160 samples of coal, corn, capsicum and drinking water were collected from the endemic fluorosis area of Zhenxiong and Weixin County, Zhaotong City of Yunnan Province, to determine the arsenic (As), selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) content by AAF-800. The study found that the As content in the main coal seam from the Late Permian coal mines in Zhaotong City is 8.84 mg/kg and some civil coal can reach 89.09 mg/kg. The Se and Hg in the coal samples of Late Permian is lower, but Se and Hg are more concentrated in the pyritic coal balls and the pyritic gangue of the coal seam. The As content in corn and capsicum dried by coal-burning is more than 0.7 mg/kg, the natural standard amount of arsenic content permitted in food by China. The Se and Hg content in corn dried by coal-burning is lower than the natural standard of Se and Hg content in food in China but the Se and Hg content of capsicum dried by coal-burning exceeds the amount permitted by the natural standard for food in China. Clay, used as an additive for the coal-burning process and as a binder in making briquettes, contains a high content of As, generally more than 16 mg/kg. However, the Se and Hg content of clay itself are low. The As, Se and Hg content of drinking water are lower than the natural standard of As, Se and Hg content in the drinking water. So, there is high-As content coal and high-As content dried corn and capsicum in the endemic fluorosis area of Zhaotong City of Yunnan Province. The high As content of the dried corn and capsicum might have originated from the high arsenic content of burnt coal and clay. 30 refs., 4 tabs.

  11. Distribution coefficients for chemical components of a coal-oil/water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picel, K C; Stamoudis, V C; Simmons, M S

    1988-09-01

    Distribution coefficients (K/sub D/) were measured by equilibrating a coal oil comparative reference material (CRM-1) with water and then separating the oil and water phases. Aqueous phase concentrations were determined by direct analysis of this phase, while organic phase concentrations were determined from the original oil composition by difference. The log K/sub D/ values obtained for acidic and basic components were generally <3, while those for the neutral components ranged from 3 to 6. For aromatic hydrocarbons, strong correlations were observed between log K/sub D/ and log S/sub w/ (water solubility), and between log K/sub D/ and log K/sub o//sub w/ (octanol/water partition coefficient). Alkylated benzenes had significantly higher K/sub D/s than did unsubstituted aromatics of similar molecular weight. Examination of homologs revealed an increase of 0.307 log K/sub D/ units per additional carbon atom for polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons having from 10 to 16 carbons. Alkyl substituent effects determined for various sets of homologs ranged from 0.391 to 0.466 log K/sub d/ units per -CH/sub 2/- group added. 38 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. Water use/reuse and wastewater management practices at selected Canadian coal fired generating stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kissel, R.

    1984-08-01

    Recommended Codes of Practice are currently being developed by Environment Canada aimed at ensuring that the aquatic environment is not significantly impacted upon by wastewater discharges from steam electric generating stations. A study was carried out to: develop a reliable data base of the physical and chemical characteristics of water and wastewater streams at representative generating stations; study advanced water reuse/recirculation and wastewater management to evaluate their potential future use in power generating stations; and to examine and evaluate the relevant aspects of best practical technology as proposed by Environment Canada in the Recommended Codes of Practice. Studies were carried out at Dalhousie Generating Station (GS), New Brunswick, Poplar River GS, Saskatchewan, Battle River GS, Alberta, and Milner GS, Alberta. The studies included on-site flow monitoring and sampling, chemical analyses, treatability studies and engineering analyses of water and wastewater systems. Extensive chemical characterizations of the water and wastewater streams were completed. Some problems were identified with the recirculating bottom ash system at Dalhousie which was a significant wastewater producer, coal pile runoff which caused significant wastewater, and iron which was the principal discharge criteria metal. 14 refs., 41 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Coal background paper. Coal demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Statistical data are presented on coal demands in IEA and OECD member countries and in other countries. Coal coaking and coaking coal consumption data are tabulated, and IEA secretariat's coal demand projections are summarized. Coal supply and production data by countries are given. Finally, coal trade data are presented, broken down for hard coal, steam coal, coking coal (imports and export). (R.P.)

  14. Explosive treatment of Illinois No.6 coal with a mixed solvent of water and cyclohexanol; Mizu-cyclohexanol kongo yozai ni yoru Illinois tan no bakusai shori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, T.; Takada, H.; Asami, K.; Yano, M. [Osaka City University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    Coal was treated at high temperature under high pressure in the binary system mixed solvent of water and organic solvent, and the solvent treated coal was liquefied. When the treated coal was treated again by the explosive method in which high temperature and pressure were released immediately, the oil yield was higher than that by the normal method in which high temperature and pressure were reduced gradually to room temperature and atmospheric pressure. In this study, an explosive treatment unit with increased scale of sample amount was newly fabricated. Illinois No.6 coal was treated by the explosive method in a mixed solvent of water and cyclohexanol using this unit. Changes in shape on the surface, specific surface area, and functional groups were analyzed. The explosively treated coal contained more amount of low boiling point components than the normally treated coal. It was suggested that the oil yield of explosively treated coal increased due to the liquefaction of these components during the successive hydrogenation process. For the explosively treated coal, micro pores were fractured by the rapid change in the volume of solvent molecules, and the specific surface area was smaller than that of the normally treated coal. When the treatment temperature was increased from 300{degree}C to 350{degree}C, specific surface areas of both the treated coals increased. 2 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Temperature Induced Solubility Transitions of Various Poly(2-oxazolines in Ethanol-Water Solvent Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanneke M. L. Lambermont-Thijs

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The solution behavior of a series of poly(2-oxazolines with different side chains, namely methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, isopropyl, n-butyl, isobutyl, pentyl, hexyl, heptyl, octyl, nonyl, phenyl and benzyl, are reported in ethanol-water solvent mixtures based on turbidimetry investigations. The LCST transitions of poly(2-oxazolines with propyl side chains and the UCST transitions of the poly(2-oxazolines with more hydrophobic side chains are discussed in relation to the ethanol-water solvent composition and structure. The poly(2-alkyl-2-oxazolines with side chains longer than propyl only dissolved during the first heating run, which is discussed and correlated to the melting transition of the polymers.

  16. Drift velocity studies at a time projection chamber for various water contents in the gas mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoever, F.W.

    2007-03-01

    For the answer of different open questions in high energy physics the construction of a linear e + e - collider with a c. m. energy of up to one TeV is prepared. With this is connected a comprehensive development on detectors, which must satisfy the requirements of the planned experiments. For the track chamber a TPC is considered. Hereby it deals with a gas-based concept, which has already been proved in past experiments and which is at time further developed by means of test chambers. The composition of the gas mixtureplays hereby an important role. Impurities of the gas mixture, especially by oxygen and water from the ambient air are a fact, which occurs every time in the development phase and can scarcely be avoided. From this arose the motivation to study directly the effects of this impurities. The object of the present thesis are correlations between drift velocity and water content in the chamber gas of a TPC

  17. Evaporation phase change processes of water/methanol mixtures on superhydrophobic nanostructured surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Cheng-Kun; Lu, Yen-Wen

    2011-07-01

    Evaporation phenomena are a critical and frequently seen phase change process in many heat transfer applications. In this paper, we study the evaporation process of a sessile droplet on two topologically different surfaces, including smooth and nanostructured surfaces. The nanostructured surface has an array of high-aspect-ratio nanowires (height/diameter ~ 125) and is implemented by using a simple template-based nanofabrication method. It possesses superhydrophobicity (>140°) and low contact angle hysteresis (1.2-2.1°), allowing the liquid droplets to remain in the 'fakir' state throughout the evaporation processes. Sessile droplets of deionized (DI) water and water/methanol binary mixture test liquids with their contact angles and base diameters are monitored. The results show that the nanostructures play a critical role in the droplet dynamics during evaporation.

  18. Evaporation phase change processes of water/methanol mixtures on superhydrophobic nanostructured surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, Cheng-Kun; Lu, Yen-Wen

    2011-01-01

    Evaporation phenomena are a critical and frequently seen phase change process in many heat transfer applications. In this paper, we study the evaporation process of a sessile droplet on two topologically different surfaces, including smooth and nanostructured surfaces. The nanostructured surface has an array of high-aspect-ratio nanowires (height/diameter ∼ 125) and is implemented by using a simple template-based nanofabrication method. It possesses superhydrophobicity (>140°) and low contact angle hysteresis (1.2–2.1°), allowing the liquid droplets to remain in the 'fakir' state throughout the evaporation processes. Sessile droplets of deionized (DI) water and water/methanol binary mixture test liquids with their contact angles and base diameters are monitored. The results show that the nanostructures play a critical role in the droplet dynamics during evaporation

  19. Oxidative polymerization of lignins by laccase in water-acetone mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiţigău, Ionița Firuța; Peter, Francisc; Boeriu, Carmen Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    The enzymatic oxidative polymerization of five technical lignins with different molecular properties, i.e. Soda Grass/Wheat straw Lignin, Organosolv Hardwood Lignin, Soda Wheat straw Lignin, Alkali pretreated Wheat straw Lignin, and Kraft Softwood was studied. All lignins were previously fractionated by acetone/water 50:50 (v/v) and the laccase-catalyzed polymerization of the low molecular weight fractions (Mw Reactivity of lignin substrates in laccase-catalyzed reactions was determined by monitoring the oxygen consumption. The oxidation reactions in 50% acetone in water mixture proceed with high rate for all tested lignins. Polymerization products were analyzed by size exclusion chromatography, FT-IR, and (31)P-NMR and evidence of important lignin modifications after incubation with laccase. Lignin polymers with higher molecular weight (Mw up to 17500 g/mol) were obtained. The obtained polymers have potential for applications in bioplastics, adhesives and as polymeric dispersants.

  20. Enthalpies of potassium iodide dissolution in dimethyl acetamide mixtures with water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Privalova, N.M.; Gritsenko, S.I.; Vorob'ev, A.F.

    1986-01-01

    Enthalpies of potassium iodide dissolution in mixed dimethyl acetamide - water solvent at 298.15 K in the whole range of dimethyl acetamide compositions are measured by the calorimetric method. From the plots of KI dissolution enthalpy dependence and dependence of experimental ΔH p∞ 0 value deviations from calculational ones on solvent composition, as well as from the results of calculation of solvate shell composition of potassium iodide ions in the mixed solvent, it is obvious that in the region of 0-15 mol% concentrations of dimethyl acetamide insufficient enrichment of solvate ion shells by dimethyl acetamide (DMAA) occurs, in the region of 15-40 mol% DMAA compositions enrichment of solvate shells of ions by water occurs, in the region of 40-100 mol% DMAA enrichment of solvate ion shells by the organic component in comparison with mixture compostion occurs. Maximum enrichment of solvate ion shells by mixture components in three above mentioned regions of the mixed solvent occurs at 10, 30 and 80 mol% DMAA concentrations

  1. Thermal expansion of coking coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlik, M.; Klimek, J. (Vyzkumny a Zkusebni Ustav Nova Hut, Ostrava (Czechoslovakia))

    1992-12-01

    Analyzes expansion of coal mixtures in coke ovens during coking. Methods for measuring coal expansion on both a laboratory and pilot plant scale are comparatively evaluated. The method, developed, tested and patented in Poland by the Institute for Chemical Coal Processing in Zabrze (Polish standard PN-73/G-04522), is discussed. A laboratory device developed by the Institute for measuring coal expansion is characterized. Expansion of black coal from 10 underground mines in the Ostrava-Karvina coal district and from 9 coal mines in the Upper Silesia basin in Poland is comparatively evaluated. Investigations show that coal expansion reaches a maximum for coal types with a volatile matter ranging from 20 to 25%. With increasing volatile matter in coal, its expansion decreases. Coal expansion increases with increasing swelling index. Coal expansion corresponds with coal dilatation. With increasing coal density its expansion increases. Coal mixtures should be selected in such a way that their expansion does not cause a pressure exceeding 40 MPa. 11 refs.

  2. Life cycle assessment ultra-clean micronized coal-water-oil fuel preparation and its usage in diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, X.; Wang, Z.; Novelli, G.; Benedetti, B. [China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China)

    2005-08-15

    The study described the preparation of ultra-clean micronized coal-water-oil fuel (UCMWOF) and its usage in diesel engine. The production and usage of UCMCWOF and diesel oil, on a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) basis, were evaluated. A comparison between the two systems shows that beside reducing of photochemical ozone creation potential and rest indicators in UCMCWOF increase. This predicates that the system of UCMCWOF is characterized by high global environmental impact, but its local impacts are lower if compared with the use of diesel and traditional coal. 3 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Efficiency of water removal from water/ethanol mixtures using supercritical carbon dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Rodrigues

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Techniques involving supercritical carbon dioxide have been successfully used for the formation of drug particles with controlled size distributions. However, these processes show some limitations, particularly in processing aqueous solutions. A diagram walking algorithm based on available experimental data was developed to evaluate the effect of ethanol on the efficiency of water removal processes under different process conditions. Ethanol feeding was the key parameter resulting in a tenfold increase in the efficiency of water extraction.

  4. Pronounced microheterogeneity in a sorbitol-water mixture observed through variable temperature neutron scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Shin G; Soper, Alan K; Khodadadi, Sheila; Curtis, Joseph E; Krueger, Susan; Cicerone, Marcus T; Fitch, Andrew N; Shalaev, Evgenyi Y

    2012-04-19

    In this study, the structure of concentrated d-sorbitol-water mixtures is studied by wide- and small-angle neutron scattering (WANS and SANS) as a function of temperature. The mixtures are prepared using both deuterated and regular sorbitol and water at a molar fraction of sorbitol of 0.19 (equivalent to 70% by weight of regular sorbitol in water). Retention of an amorphous structure (i.e., absence of crystallinity) is confirmed for this system over the entire temperature range, 100-298 K. The glass transition temperature, Tg, is found from differential scanning calorimetry to be approximately 200 K. WANS data are analyzed using empirical potential structure refinement, to obtain the site-site radial distribution functions (RDFs) and coordination numbers. This analysis reveals the presence of nanoscaled water clusters surrounded by (and interacting with) sorbitol molecules. The water clusters appear more structured compared to bulk water and, especially at the lowest temperatures, resemble the structure of low-density amorphous ice (LDA). Upon cooling to 100 K the peaks in the water RDFs become markedly sharper, with increased coordination number, indicating enhanced local (nanometer-scale) ordering, with changes taking place both above and well below the Tg. On the mesoscopic (submicrometer) scale, although there are no changes between 298 and 213 K, cooling the sample to 100 K results in a significant increase in the SANS signal, which is indicative of pronounced inhomogeneities. This increase in the scattering is partly reversed during heating, although some hysteresis is observed. Furthermore, a power law analysis of the SANS data indicates the existence of domains with well-defined interfaces on the submicrometer length scale, probably as a result of the appearance and growth of microscopic voids in the glassy matrix. Because of the unusual combination of small and wide scattering data used here, the present results provide new physical insight into the

  5. Coal combustion technology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Z.X.

    1994-01-01

    Coal is the most important energy source in China, the environmental pollution problem derived from coal burning is rather serious in China. The present author discusses coal burning technologies both in boilers and industrial furnaces and their relations with environmental protection problems in China. The technological situations of Circulating Fluidized Bed Coal Combustor, Pulverized Coal Combustor with Aerodynamic Flame Holder and Coal Water Slurry Combustion have been discussed here as some of the interesting problems in China only. (author). 3 refs

  6. Flow dependent water quality impacts of historic coal and oil shale mining in the Almond River catchment, Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haunch, Simon; MacDonald, Alan M.; Brown, Neil; McDermott, Christopher I.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A GIS map of coal and oil shale mining in the Almond basin was constructed. • Water quality data confirms the continued detrimental impact of historic mining. • Oil shale mining is confirmed as a contributor to poor surface water quality. • Surface water flow affects mine contaminant chemistry, behaviour and transport. • River bed iron precipitate is re-suspended and transported downstream at high flow. - Abstract: The Almond River catchment in Central Scotland has experienced extensive coal mining during the last 300 years and also provides an example of enduring pollution associated with historic unconventional hydrocarbon exploitation from oil shale. Detailed spatial analysis of the catchment has identified over 300 abandoned mine and mine waste sites, comprising a significant potential source of mine related contamination. River water quality data, collected over a 15 year period from 1994 to 2008, indicates that both the coal and oil shale mining areas detrimentally impact surface water quality long after mine abandonment, due to the continued release of Fe and SO 4 2- associated with pyrite oxidation at abandoned mine sites. Once in the surface water environment Fe and SO 4 2- display significant concentration-flow dependence: Fe increases at high flows due to the re-suspension of river bed Fe precipitates (Fe(OH) 3 ); SO 4 2- concentrations decrease with higher flow as a result of dilution. Further examination of Fe and SO 4 loading at low flows indicates a close correlation of Fe and SO 4 2- with mined areas; cumulative low flow load calculations indicate that coal and oil shale mining regions contribute 0.21 and 0.31 g/s of Fe, respectively, to the main Almond tributary. Decreases in Fe loading along some river sections demonstrate the deposition and storage of Fe within the river channel. This river bed Fe is re-suspended with increased flow resulting in significant transport of Fe downstream with load values of up to 50 g/s Fe

  7. Candidate for solar power: a novel desalination technology for coal bed methane produced water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattler, Allan; Hanley, Charles; Hightower, Michael; Wright, Emily; Wallace, Sam; Pohl, Phillip; Donahe, Ryan; Andelman, Marc

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory and field developments are underway to use solar energy to power a desalination technology - capacitive deionization - for water produced by remote Coal Bed Methane (CBM) natural gas wells. Due to the physical remoteness of many CBM wells throughout the Southwestern U>S> as shown in Figure 1, this approach may offer promise. This promise is not only from its effectiveness in removing salt from CBM water and allowing it to be utilized for various applications, but also for its potentially lower energy consumption compared Figure 1: Candidate remote well sites for planned field implementation of new PV-powered desalination process: (a) Raton Basin and (b) San Juan Basin, New Mexico to other technologies, such as reverse osmosis. This coupled with the remoteness (Figure 1) of thousands these wells, makes them more feasible for use with photovoltaic (solar, electric, PV) systems. Concurrent laboratory activities are providing information about the effectiveness of this technology and of the attender energy requirements of this technology under various produced water qualities and water reuse applications, such as salinity concentrations and water flows. These parameters are being used to drive the design of integrated PV-powered desalination systems. Full-scale field implementations are planned, with data collection and analysis designed to optimize the system design for practical remote applications. Earlier laboratory (and very recent laboratory) studies of capacitive deionization have shown promise at common CBM salinity levels. The technology may require less energy. be less susceptible to fouling and is more compact than equivalent reverse osmosis (RO) systems. The technology uses positively and negatively charged electrodes to attract charged ions in a liquid, such as dissolved salts, metals, and some organics, to the electrodes. This concentrates the ions at the electrodes and reduced the ion concentrations in the liquid. This paper discusses the

  8. Solubility and preferential solvation of some n-alkyl-parabens in methanol + water mixtures at 298.15 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cárdenas, Zaira J.; Jiménez, Daniel M.; Delgado, Daniel R.; Almanza, Ovidio A.; Jouyban, Abolghasem; Martínez, Fleming; Acree, William E.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Parabens equilibrium solubility was determined in methanol + water binary mixtures at 298.15 K. • Solubility values were correlated with the Jouyban-Acree model. • Preferential solvation parameters were derived by using the IKBI method. • δx 1,3 values are negative in water-rich mixtures but positive in the other mixtures. - Abstract: Methyl, ethyl and propyl parabens equilibrium solubility was determined in (methanol + water) binary mixtures at 298.15 K. The mole fraction solubility of these compounds increased in 503 (from 2.40 × 10 −4 to 0.121), 1377 (from 9.86 × 10 −5 to 0.136) and 4597 (from 3.73 × 10 −5 to 0.171) times when passing from neat water to neat methanol, for methyl, ethyl and propyl parabens, respectively. All these solubility values were correlated with the Jouyban-Acree model. Preferential solvation parameters by methanol (δx 1,3 ) of these parabens were derived from their thermodynamic solution properties using the inverse Kirkwood-Buff integrals (IKBI) method. For all compounds δx 1,3 values are negative in water-rich mixtures but positive in mixtures with methanol mole fraction greater than 0.32. It is conjecturable that in the former case the hydrophobic hydration around non-polar groups of parabens plays a relevant role in the solvation. Besides, the preferential solvation of these solutes by methanol in mixtures of similar co-solvent compositions and in methanol-rich mixtures could be explained in terms of the higher basic behaviour of methanol.

  9. Simulation of water recovery and its effect on settlement of open-cut coal mine back-fill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naderian, A.R.; Williams, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Open-cut coal mine back-fill usually undergoes significant settlement due to inundation by surface water infiltration and groundwater rise. The rate and magnitude of inundation settlement is difficult to predict and quantify due to the large number of contributing factors. Consequently, none of the available settlement models and theories has been able to successfully describe the inundation settlement occurring in back-filled open-cut coal mines. A combination of laboratory and numerical simulation of settlement is a valuable means of estimating the inundation settlement of back-fill. The settlements predicted by this simulation are in good agreement with previous observations of inundation settlement in open-cut coal mine back-fill. 11 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab

  10. Strong cooperative effect of oppositely charged surfactant mixtures on their adsorption and packing at the air-water interface and interfacial water structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Khoi T; Nguyen, Tuan D; Nguyen, Anh V

    2014-06-24

    Remarkable adsorption enhancement and packing of dilute mixtures of water-soluble oppositely-charged surfactants, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and dodecyl amine hydrochloride (DAH), at the air-water interface were observed by using sum frequency generation spectroscopy and tensiometry. The interfacial water structure was also observed to be significantly influenced by the SDS-DAH mixtures, differently from the synergy of the single surfactants. Most strikingly, the obtained spectroscopic evidence suggests that the interfacial hydrophobic alkyl chains of the binary mixtures assemble differently from those of single surfactants. This study highlights the significance of the cooperative interaction between the headgroups of oppositely charged binary surfactant systems and subsequently provides some insightful observations about the molecular structure of the air-aqueous interfacial water molecules and, more importantly, about the packing nature of the surfactant hydrophobic chains of dilute SDS-DAH mixtures of concentration below 1% of the CMC.

  11. Synthesis of Zeolite from Coal Fly Ash: Its Application as Water Sorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasert Pavasant

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Coal fly ash (CFA was used as raw material for zeolite synthesis by fusion method. In detail, it was mixed with NaOH (with ratio of 2.25 and treated under various temperatures. Synthesized zeolite was characterized using various techniques i.e. X-rayfluorescence (XRF, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and BET surface area analysis. It was found that the surface area of synthesized zeolite were in the range of 49.407-69.136 m2/g depending on the preparing condition, compared to the surface area of CFA about 17.163 m2/g. In addition, according to the XRD result, it was proven that the form of zeolite was Sodium Aluminum Silicate Hydrate (1.08Na2O.Al2O3.1.68SiO2.1.8H2O. The synthesized zeolite was then applied as water sorbent to remove water from ethanol solution (95%. The testing results revealed that the optimal fusion temperature was 450.C, which provided maximum percentage of water removal from ethanol solution (from 95% ethanol to 99.25% ethanol. For comparison, commercial-grade molecular sieve was also tested and was found to increase ethanol concentration from 95% to 99.61%. Hence, it is concluded that our synthesized zeolite provides comparable performance to the commercial-grade molecular sieve.

  12. Hydrologic and water quality characteristics of a partially-flooded, abandoned underground coal mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aljoe, W.W.

    1994-01-01

    The hydrologic and water quality characteristics of a partially flooded, abandoned underground coal mine near Latrobe, PA, were studied to support the development of techniques for in situ abatement of its acidic discharge. A quantitative understanding of the conditions affecting discharge flow was considered to be very important in this regard. Statistical analysis of hydrologic data collected at the site shows that the flow rate of the main discharge (a borehole that penetrates the mine workings just behind a set of portal seals) is a linear function of the height of the mine pool above the borehole outlet. Seepage through or around the portal seals is collected by a set of french drains whose discharge rate is largely independent of the mine pool elevation. This seepage was enhanced after a breakthrough that occurred during a period of unusually high pool levels. The mine pool recharge rate during winter is about 2.5 times greater than that of any other season; recharge rates during spring, summer, and fall are approximately equal. Mine pool and discharge water quality information, along with bromide tracer tests, suggest that the original main entries discharge primarily to the french drains, while the borehole carries the discharge from an unmonitored set of entries northwest of the mains. The water quality of the east french drain discharge may have been improved substantially after seepage through the alkaline materials used to construct the portal seals

  13. Investigating the effects of methanol-water vapor mixture on a PBI-based high temperature PEM fuel cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Araya, Samuel Simon; Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Nielsen, Heidi Venstrup

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of methanol and water vapor on the performance of a high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell (HT-PEMFC). A H3PO4-doped polybenzimidazole (PBI) membrane electrode assembly (MEA), Celtec P2100 of 45 cm2 of active surface area from BASF was employed....... A long-term durability test of around 1250 h was performed, in which the concentrations of methanol-water vapor mixture in the anode feed gas were varied. The fuel cell showed a continuous performance decay in the presence of vapor mixtures of methanol and water of 5% and 8% by volume in anode feed...

  14. Dynamic and thermodynamic characteristics associated with the glass transition of amorphous trehalose-water mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Lindong; Elliott, Gloria D

    2014-06-21

    The glass transition temperature Tg of biopreservative formulations is important for predicting the long-term storage of biological specimens. As a complementary tool to thermal analysis techniques, which are the mainstay for determining Tg, molecular dynamics simulations have been successfully applied to predict the Tg of several protectants and their mixtures with water. These molecular analyses, however, rarely focused on the glass transition behavior of aqueous trehalose solutions, a subject that has attracted wide scientific attention via experimental approaches. Important behavior, such as hydrogen-bonding dynamics and self-aggregation has yet to be explored in detail, particularly below, or in the vicinity of, Tg. Using molecular dynamics simulations of several dynamic and thermodynamic properties, this study reproduced the supplemented phase diagram of trehalose-water mixtures (i.e., Tg as a function of the solution composition) based on experimental data. The structure and dynamics of the hydrogen-bonding network in the trehalose-water systems were also analyzed. The hydrogen-bonding lifetime was determined to be an order of magnitude higher in the glassy state than in the liquid state, while the constitution of the hydrogen-bonding network exhibited no noticeable change through the glass transition. It was also found that trehalose molecules preferred to form small, scattered clusters above Tg, but self-aggregation was substantially increased below Tg. The average cluster size in the glassy state was observed to be dependent on the trehalose concentration. Our findings provided insights into the glass transition characteristics of aqueous trehalose solutions as they relate to biopreservation.

  15. Lampung natural zeolite filled cellulose acetate membrane for pervaporation of ethanol-water mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iryani, D. A.; Wulandari, N. F.; Cindradewi, AW; Ginting, S. Br; Ernawati, E.; Hasanudin, U.

    2018-03-01

    Pervaporation of ethanol–water can be cost-competitive in the production of renewable biomass ethanol. For the purpose of improving the pervaporation performance of polymeric membranes, we prepared cellulose acetate (CA) filled Lampung Natural Zeolite (LNZ) membranes by incorporating LNZ into CA for pervaporation separation of ethanol-water mixtures. The characteristics and performance of these filled membranes in the varied ratio of CA:LNZ (30:0, 30:5, 30:10, 30: 20, 20:20 and 40:10) wt% were investigated. The prepared membranes were characterized for pervaporation membrane performance such as %water content and membrane swelling degree. Further, the permeation flux and selectivity of membrane were also observed. The results of investigation show that water content of membrane tends to increase with increase of LNZ content. However, the swelling degree of membrane decrease compared than that of CA control membrane. The permeation flux and the selectivity of membranes tend to increase continuously. The CA membrane with ratio of CA:LNZ 30:20 shows the highest selectivity of 80.42 with a permeation flux of 0.986 kg/(m2 h) and ethanol concentration of 99.08 wt%.

  16. Stabilization of heavy oil-water emulsions using a bio/chemical emulsifier mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahbakhsh, A.; Taghizadeh, M.; Movagharnejad, K. [Chemical Engineering Department, Babol University of Technology, Babol (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yakhchali, B. [National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    In this study, the viscosity reduction of heavy oil has been investigated through the formation of oil-water emulsion using a bio/chemical emulsifier mixture. Four bioemulsifiers from indigenous Rhodococcus ergthropolis and Bacillus licheniformis strains were used to stabilize a highly-viscous oil-in-water emulsion. The Taguchi method with an L{sub 9} orthogonal array design was used to investigate the effect of various control factors on the formation of the oil/water emulsions. An emulsion with lowest viscosity was formed using ACO4 strain. The substantial stability of the oil-in-water emulsion allows the heavy oil to be transported practically over long distances or remain stationary for a considerable period of time prior to utilization. As the result of Taguchi analysis, the temperature and concentration of the emulsifier had a significant influence on viscosity reduction of the emulsion. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Neutron absorption profile in a reactor moderated by different mixtures of light and heavy waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, Mohamed E.; Aly, Mohamed N.; Gaber, Fatma A.; Dorrah, Mahmoud E.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We studied neutron absorption spectra in a mixed water moderated reactor. • Changing D 2 O% in moderator induced neutron energy spectral shift. • Most of the neutrons absorbed in control rods were epithermal. • Control rods worth changes were not proportional to changes of D 2 O% in moderator. • Control rod arrangement influenced the neutronic behavior of the reactor. - Abstract: A Monte-Carlo parametric study was carried out to investigate the neutron absorption profile in a model of LR-0 reactor when it is moderated by different mixtures of heavy/light waters at molecular ratios ranging from 0% up to 100% D 2 O at increments of 10% in D 2 O. The tallies included; neutron absorption profiles in control rods and moderator, and neutron capture profile in 238 U. The work focused on neutron absorption in control rods entailing; total mass of control rods needed to attain criticality, neutron absorption density and total neutron absorption in control rods at each of the studied mixed water moderators. The aim was to explore whether thermal neutron poisons are the most suitable poisons to be used in control rods of nuclear reactors moderated by mixed heavy/light water moderators

  18. Thermodynamic analysis of a new combined cooling and power system using ammonia–water mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jiangfeng; Wang, Jianyong; Zhao, Pan; Dai, Yiping

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new combined cooling and power system is proposed. • Exergy destruction analysis is used to identify irreversibility of components in system. • Thermodynamic parameter analysis is performed for system. - Abstract: In order to achieve both power and cooling supply for users, a new combined cooling and power system using ammonia–water mixture is proposed to utilizing low grade heat sources, such as industrial waste heat, solar energy and geothermal energy. The proposed system combines a Kalina cycle and an ammonia–water absorption refrigeration cycle, in which the ammonia–water turbine exhaust is delivered to a separator to extract purer ammonia vapor. The purer ammonia vapor enters an evaporator to generate refrigeration output after being condensed and throttled. Mathematical models are established to simulate the combined system under steady-state conditions. Exergy destruction analysis is conducted to display the exergy destruction distribution in the system qualitatively and the results show that the major exergy destruction occurs in the heat exchangers. Finally a thermodynamic sensitivity analysis is performed and reveals that with an increase in the pressure of separator I or the ammonia mass fraction of basic solution, thermal efficiency and exergy efficiency of the system increase, whereas with an increase in the temperature of separator I, the ammonia–water turbine back pressure or the condenser II pressure, thermal efficiency and exergy efficiency of the system drop.

  19. Reproductive toxicity of a mixture of regulated drinking-water disinfection by-products in a multigenerational rat bioassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND:Trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloaretic acids (HAAs) are regulated disinfection by-products (DBPs); their joint reproductive toxicity in drinking water is unknown.OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate a drinking water mixture of the four regulated THMs and five regulated HAAs ...

  20. Study of precipitation processes of strontium and barium nitrates in mixtures of water-with dimethylformamide and dimethylsulfoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliseeva, O.V.; Abakshin, V.A.; Barannikov, V.P.; Krestov, G.A.

    1994-01-01

    The investigation into phase equilibriums diagrams in the barium (strontium) nitrate-water-dimethylsulfoxide and barium nitrate-water dimethylformamide systems has been pursued at 298, 15 K for the estimation of outlook for use of mixed aqua-organic solvents during the production of mixture form high temperature superconductors by means of coprecipitation or crystallization. 4 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Joint verification project on environmentally friendly coal utilization systems. Joint verification project on the water-saving coal preparation system; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kyodo jissho jigyo. Shosuigata sentan system kyodo jissho jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    In this verification project, clean technology which should be spread in China was verified and the base structure for its spread was prepared for the purpose of controlling emissions of environmental pollutants associated with the coal utilization in China and of contributing to secure energy acquisition of Japan. As joint verification projects, a general rehabilitation type coal preparation system was installed in the Wangfenggang coal preparation plant, and a central control coal preparation system was installed in the Qingtan coal preparation plant. In the former, a system is verified in which optimum operation, water-saving, high quality, and heightening of efficiency can be obtained by introducing two computing systems for operation control and quality control, various measuring instruments, and analyzers to coal preparation plants where analog operation is conducted helped by Russia and Porland and have problems about quality control. In the latter, a central control system achieving water saving is verified by introducing rapid ash meters, scales, desitometers and computers to coal preparation plants having zigzag or heavy-fluid cyclon and connecting various kinds of information through network. For fiscal 1994, investigation and study were conducted. 51 figs., 9 tabs.

  2. Determination of mixture coefficients in tests simulating channels of a fuel assembly in a water cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, W.R.

    1983-09-01

    Here, the mixture coefficients are determined in tests which simulate two symmetric and two assymetric coolant channels of a water cooled reactor. It was studies the effects of coolant flow and of the distance among the coolant channels on these coefficients. The technique used to determine the mixture coefficients was to introduce a tracer (methylene blue) into the flow. The determination of the tracer concentration at the end of the channels was made by means of spectrophotometric analysis. (author)

  3. Water resources and the hydrologic effects of coal mining in Washington County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Donald R.; Felbinger, John K.; Squillace, Paul J.

    1993-01-01

    Washington County occupies an area of 864 square miles in southwestern Pennsylvania and lies within the Pittsburgh Plateaus Section of the Appalachian Plateaus physiographic province. About 69 percent of the county population is served by public water-supply systems, and the Monongahela River is the source for 78 percent of the public-supply systems. The remaining 31 percent of the population depends on wells, springs, and cisterns for its domestic water supply. The sedimentary rocks of Pennsylvanian and Permian age that underlie the county include sandstone, siltstone, limestone, shale, and coal. The mean reported yield of bedrock wells ranges from 8.8 gallons per minute in the Pittsburgh .Formation to 46 gallons per minute in the Casselman Formation. Annual water-level fluctuations usually range from less than 3 ft (feet) beneath a valley to about 16 ft beneath a hilltop. Average hydraulic conductivity ranges from 0.01 to 18 ft per day. Water-level fluctuations and aquifer-test results suggest that most ground water circulates within 150 ft of land surface. A three-dimensional computer flow-model analysis indicates 96 percent of the total ground-water recharge remains in the upper 80 to 110 ft of bedrock (shallow aquifer system). The regional flow system (more than 250ft deep in the main valley) receives less than 0.1 percent of the total ground-water recharge from the Brush Run basin. The predominance of the shallow aquifer system is substantiated by driller's reports, which show almost all water bearing zones are less than 150ft below land surface. The modeling of an unmined basin showed that the hydrologic factors that govern regional groundwater flow can differ widely spatially but have little effect on the shallow aquifers that supply water to most domestic wells. However, the shallow aquifers are sensitive to hydrologic factors within this shallow aquifer system (such as ground-water recharge, hydraulic conductivity of the streamaquifer interface, and

  4. pH induced polychromatic UV treatment for the removal of a mixture of SMX, OTC and CIP from water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avisar, D.; Lester, Y.; Mamane, H.

    2010-01-01

    Water and wastewater effluents contain a vast range of chemicals in mixtures that have different chemical structures and characteristics. This study presents a treatment technology for the removal of mixtures of antibiotic residues (sulfamethoxazole (SMX), oxtetracycline (OTC) and ciprofloxacin (CIP)) from contaminated water. The treatment combines pH modification of the water to an optimal value, followed by a photolytic treatment using direct polychromatic ultraviolet (UV) irradiation by medium pressure UV lamp. The pH adjustment of the treated water leads to structural modifications of the pollutant's molecule thus may enhance direct photolysis by UV light. Results showed that an increase of water pH from 5 to 7 leads to a decrease in degradation rate of SMX and an increase in degradation rate of OTC and CIP, when studied separately and not in a mixture. Thus, the optimal pH values for UV photodegradation in a mixture, involve initial photolysis at pH 5 and then gradually changing the pH from 5 to 7 during the UV exposure. For example, this resulted in 99% degradation of SMX at pH 5 and enhanced degradation of OTC and CIP from 54% and 26% to 91% and 96% respectively when pH was increased from 5 to 7. Thus the pH induced photolytic treatment has a potential in improving treatment of antibiotics in mixtures.

  5. pH induced polychromatic UV treatment for the removal of a mixture of SMX, OTC and CIP from water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avisar, D., E-mail: droravi@post.tau.ac.il [Hydro-chemistry Laboratory, Geography and the Environment, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Lester, Y. [Hydro-chemistry Laboratory, Geography and the Environment, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); School of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Mamane, H. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2010-03-15

    Water and wastewater effluents contain a vast range of chemicals in mixtures that have different chemical structures and characteristics. This study presents a treatment technology for the removal of mixtures of antibiotic residues (sulfamethoxazole (SMX), oxtetracycline (OTC) and ciprofloxacin (CIP)) from contaminated water. The treatment combines pH modification of the water to an optimal value, followed by a photolytic treatment using direct polychromatic ultraviolet (UV) irradiation by medium pressure UV lamp. The pH adjustment of the treated water leads to structural modifications of the pollutant's molecule thus may enhance direct photolysis by UV light. Results showed that an increase of water pH from 5 to 7 leads to a decrease in degradation rate of SMX and an increase in degradation rate of OTC and CIP, when studied separately and not in a mixture. Thus, the optimal pH values for UV photodegradation in a mixture, involve initial photolysis at pH 5 and then gradually changing the pH from 5 to 7 during the UV exposure. For example, this resulted in 99% degradation of SMX at pH 5 and enhanced degradation of OTC and CIP from 54% and 26% to 91% and 96% respectively when pH was increased from 5 to 7. Thus the pH induced photolytic treatment has a potential in improving treatment of antibiotics in mixtures.

  6. Coal - 97

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1997-01-01

    The report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1996. Some information about techniques, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from SCB have also been used. The use of steam coal for heating purposes during 1996 was 1,2 mill tons and 50% higher than in 1995. The increase is probably temporary and due to high prices of electricity because of lack of water power. The co-generation plants were the main users of coal. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. Probably the use of steam coal will go down in the immediate years both in the heat generating and the co-generation plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hotwater plants and 11 co-generation plants. 1996 these figures are 3 and 12. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in the industry has been constant at the level 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. The import of metallurgical coal in 1996 was 1,6 mill tons like the year before. 1,2 mill tons coke were produced. The coke consumption in the industry was 1,5 mill tons. 0,3 mill tons of coke were imported. The average price of steam coal imported in Sweden in 1996 was 340 SEK/ton or 2% higher than in 1995. For the world, the average import price was 51,5 USD/ton, nearly the same as the year before. The contract prices for delivery during 1997 are about equal as the end of 1996. All Swedish plants meet their emission limits of dust, SO 2 and NO x given by county administrations or concession boards

  7. Thermodynamics of DL-alanine solvation in water-dimethylsulfoxide mixtures at 298.15 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, S.; Mahali, K.; Mondal, S.; Dolui, B. K.

    2015-04-01

    In this study we mainly discuss the transfer Gibbs free energy Δ G {/t 0}( i) and Δ S {/t 0}( i)entropy of DL-alanine at 298.15 K and consequently the involved chemical transfer free energy (Δ G {/t,ch 0}( i)) and entropy ( TΔ S {/t,ch 0}( i)) in aqueous mixtures of dimethylsulfoxide are discussed to clarify the solvation chemistry of DL-alanine. For the evaluation of these energy terms, solubility of this amino acid has been measured by formol titrimetry at five equidistant temperatures i.e., from 288.15 to 308.15 K in different composition of this mixed solvent system. The various solvent parameters as well as thermodynamic parameters like molar volume, density, dipole moment and solvent diameter of this solvent system have also been reported here. The chemical effects of the transfer Gibbs energies (Δ G {/t,ch 0}( i)) and entropies of transfer ( TΔ S {/t,ch 0}( i)) have been obtained after elimination of cavity effect and dipole-dipole interaction effects from the total transfer energies. Here the chemical contribution of transfer energetics of DL-alanine is mainly guided by the composite effects of increased dispersion interaction, basicity effect and decreased acidity, hydrogen bonding effects, hydrophilic hydration and hydrophobic hydration of aqueous DMSO mixtures as compared to that of reference solvent, water.

  8. Importance of the virtual mass force in accelerating steam/water mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, Y.F.; Kazimi, M.S.

    1987-01-01

    Virtual mass force is one of the forces that must be considered against accelerating a dispersed fluid flowing in the bulk of a continuous fluid. This force depends on the geometry of the interface and the flow pattern of the two fluids. For dilute two-phase flow mixtures where the bubbles are singly dispersed, the value of the virtual mass force coefficient is dependent on the geometry of the bubble. However, for high void fraction cases, such as depressurization initiated by a pipe break in light water reactors, more intense interaction is expected between the two phase and, therefore, the value of the virtual mass force must be well defined. The effects of implementing the virtual mass force term in the momentum equations of a two-fluid model may be significant for improving the stability of the solution of the conservation equations, the accuracy of the numerical results, and the computation time. In the current work, a new stability criterion is derived after implementing Hancox's model for the virtual mass force in the momentum equations of the six-equation two-phase flow model of TERMIT. A one-dimensional blow-down in a horizontal pipe is considered to investigate the importance of incorporating the virtual mass force in accelerating mixtures flows

  9. Arsenic remediation of drinking water using iron-oxide coated coal bottom ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MATHIEU, JOHANNA L.; GADGIL, ASHOK J.; ADDY, SUSAN E.A.; KOWOLIK, KRISTIN

    2010-06-01

    We describe laboratory and field results of a novel arsenic removal adsorbent called 'Arsenic Removal Using Bottom Ash' (ARUBA). ARUBA is prepared by coating particles of coal bottom ash, a waste material from coal fired power plants, with iron (hydr)oxide. The coating process is simple and conducted at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. Material costs for ARUBA are estimated to be low (~;;$0.08 per kg) and arsenic remediation with ARUBA has the potential to be affordable to resource-constrained communities. ARUBA is used for removing arsenic via a dispersal-and-removal process, and we envision that ARUBA would be used in community-scale water treatment centers. We show that ARUBA is able to reduce arsenic concentrations in contaminated Bangladesh groundwater to below the Bangladesh standard of 50 ppb. Using the Langmuir isotherm (R2 = 0.77) ARUBA's adsorption capacity in treating real groundwater is 2.6x10-6 mol/g (0.20 mg/g). Time-to-90percent (defined as the time interval for ARUBA to remove 90percent of the total amount of arsenic that is removed at equilibrium) is less than one hour. Reaction rates (pseudo-second-order kinetic model, R2>_ 0.99) increase from 2.4x105 to 7.2x105 g mol-1 min-1 as the groundwater arsenic concentration decreases from 560 to 170 ppb. We show that ARUBA's arsenic adsorption density (AAD), defined as the milligrams of arsenic removed at equilibrium per gram of ARUBA added, is linearly dependent on the initial arsenic concentration of the groundwater sample, for initial arsenic concentrations of up to 1600 ppb and an ARUBA dose of 4.0 g/L. This makes it easy to determine the amount of ARUBA required to treat a groundwater source when its arsenic concentration is known and less than 1600 ppb. Storing contaminated groundwater for two to three days before treatment is seen to significantly increase ARUBA's AAD. ARUBA can be separated from treated water by coagulation and clarification, which is expected to

  10. Synchronized droplet size measurements for Coal-Water-Slurry (CWS) diesel sprays of an electronically-controlled fuel injection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihm, K. D.; Terracina, D. P.; Payne, S. E.; Caton, J. A.

    Experiments were completed to study intermittent coal-water slurry (CWS) fuel sprays injected from an electronically-controlled accumulator injector system. A laser diffraction particle analyzing (LDPA) technique was used to measure the spray diameters (Sauter mean diameter, SMD) assuming the Rosin-Rammler two parameter model. In order to ensure an accurate synchronization of the measurement with the intermittent sprays, a new synchronization technique was developed using the light extinction signal as a triggering source for the data taking initiation. This technique allowed measurement of SMD's near the spray tip where the light extinction was low and the data were free from the multiscattering bias. Coal-water slurry fuel with 50% coal loading in mass containing 5 (mu)m mass median diameter coal particulates was considered. Injection pressures ranging from 28 to 110 MPa, two different nozzle orifice diameters, 0.2 ad 0.4 mm, and four axial measurement locations from 60 to 120 mm from the nozzle orifice were studied. Measurements were made for pressurized (2.0 MPa in gauge) and for ambient chamber conditions. The spray SMD showed an increase with the distance of the axial measurement location and with the ambient gas density, and showed a decrease with increasing injection pressure. A correlation of the Sauter mean diameter with the injection conditions was determined. The results were also compared with previous SMD correlations that were available only for diesel fuel sprays.

  11. Arsenic removal from water using a novel amorphous adsorbent developed from coal fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kaihua; Zhang, Dongxue; Zhang, Kai

    2016-01-01

    A novel effective adsorbent of alumina/silica oxide hydrate (ASOH) for arsenic removal was developed through simple chemical reactions using coal fly ash. The iron-modified ASOH with enhancing adsorption activity was further developed from raw fly ash based on the in situ technique. The adsorbents were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, scanning electron micrograph, laser particle size and Brunauer-Emmet-Teller surface area. The results show that the adsorbents are in amorphous and porous structure, the surface areas of which are 8-12 times that of the raw ash. The acidic hydrothermal treatment acts an important role in the formation of the amorphous structure of ASOH rather than zeolite crystal. A series of adsorption experiments for arsenic on them were studied. ASOH can achieve a high removal efficiency for arsenic of 96.4% from water, which is more than 2.5 times that of the raw ash. Iron-modified ASOH can enhance the removal efficiency to reach 99.8% due to the in situ loading of iron (Fe). The condition of synthesis pH = 2-4 is better for iron-modified ASOH to adsorb arsenic from water.

  12. The effect of zeolite treatment by acids on sodium adsorption ratio of coal seam gas water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Ozdemir, Orhan; Hampton, Marc A; Nguyen, Anh V; Do, Duong D

    2012-10-15

    Many coal seam gas (CSG) waters contain a sodium ion concentration which is too high relative to calcium and magnesium ions for environment acceptance. Natural zeolites can be used as a cheap and effective method to control sodium adsorption ratio (SAR, which is a measure of the relative preponderance of sodium to calcium and magnesium) due to its high cation exchange capacity. In this study, a natural zeolite from Queensland was examined for its potential to treat CSG water to remove sodium ions to lower SAR and reduce the pH value. The results demonstrate that acid activated zeolite at 30%wt solid ratio can reduce the sodium content from 563.0 to 182.7 ppm; the pH from 8.74 to 6.95; and SAR from 70.3 to 18.5. Based on the results of the batch experiments, the sodium adsorption capacity of the acid-treated zeolite is three times greater than that of the untreated zeolite. Both the untreated and acid-treated zeolite samples were characterized using zeta potential, surface characterization, DTA/TG and particle size distribution in order to explain their adsorption behaviours. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Radiation Shielding of Lunar Regolith/Polyethylene Composites and Lunar Regolith/Water Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Quincy F.; Gersey, Brad; Wilkins, Richard; Zhou, Jianren

    2011-01-01

    Space radiation is a complex mixed field of ionizing radiation that can pose hazardous risks to sophisticated electronics and humans. Mission planning for lunar exploration and long duration habitat construction will face tremendous challenges of shielding against various types of space radiation in an attempt to minimize the detrimental effects it may have on materials, electronics, and humans. In late 2009, the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) discovered that water content in lunar regolith found in certain areas on the moon can be up to 5.6 +/-2.8 weight percent (wt%) [A. Colaprete, et. al., Science, Vol. 330, 463 (2010). ]. In this work, shielding studies were performed utilizing ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) and aluminum, both being standard space shielding materials, simulated lunar regolith/ polyethylene composites, and simulated lunar regolith mixed with UHMWPE particles and water. Based on the LCROSS findings, radiation shielding experiments were conducted to test for shielding efficiency of regolith/UHMWPE/water mixtures with various percentages of water to compare relative shielding characteristics of these materials. One set of radiation studies were performed using the proton synchrotron at the Loma Linda Medical University where high energy protons similar to those found on the surface of the moon can be generated. A similar experimental protocol was also used at a high energy spalation neutron source at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). These experiments studied the shielding efficiency against secondary neutrons, another major component of space radiation field. In both the proton and neutron studies, shielding efficiency was determined by utilizing a tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) behind various thicknesses of shielding composite panels or mixture materials. Preliminary results from these studies indicated that adding 2 wt% water to regolith particles could increase shielding of

  14. Zeolite Synthesized from Coal Fly Ash Produced by a Gasification Process for Ni2+ Removal from Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixin Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There are increasing demands and great potential of coal gasification in China, but there is a lack of studies focused on the disposal and utilization of coal fly ash produced by the gasification process. In this study, a coal fly ash sample derived from a gasifier in Jincheng, China, was utilized as raw material for the synthesis of zeolite by alkali fusion followed by hydrothermal treatments. The effects of operation conditions on the cation exchange capacity (CEC of synthesized zeolite were investigated. The synthesized zeolite with the highest CEC (270.4 meq/100 g, with abundant zeolite X and small amount of zeolite A, was produced by 1.5 h alkali fusion under 550 °C with NaOH/coal fly ash ratio 1.2 g/g followed by 15 h hydrothermal treatment under 90 °C with liquid/solid ratio 5 mL/g and applied in Ni2+ removal from water. The removal rate and the adsorption capacity of Ni2+ from water by the synthesized zeolite were determined at the different pH, contact time, adsorbent dose and initial Ni2+ concentration. The experimental data of adsorption were interpreted in terms of Freundlich and Langmuir equations. The adsorption of Ni2+ by the synthesized zeolite was found to fit sufficient using the Langmuir isotherm. More than 90% of Ni2+ in water could be removed by synthesized zeolite under the proper conditions. We show that the coal fly ash produced by the gasification process has great potential to be used as an alternative and cheap source in the production of adsorbents.

  15. Criticality characteristics of mixtures of plutonium, silicon dioxide, Nevada tuff, and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, R.G.; Myers, W.; Stratton, W.

    1996-01-01

    The major objective of this study has been to examine the possibility of a nuclear explosion should 50 to 100 kg of plutonium be mixed with SiO 2 , vitrified, placed within a heavy steel container, and buried in the material known as Nevada tuff. To accomplish this objective, the authors have created a survey of critical states or configurations of mixtures of plutonium, SiO 2 , tuff, and water and examined these data to determine those configurations that might be unstable or autocatalytic. They have identified regions of criticality instability with the possibility of autocatalytic power behavior. Autocatalytic behavior is possible but improbable, for a very limited range of wet systems

  16. Ultrasound- and Temperature-Induced Gelation of Gluconosemicarbazide Gelator in DMSO and Water Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mothukunta Himabindu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We have developed amphiphilic supramolecular gelators carrying glucose moiety that could gel a mixture of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO and water upon heating as well as ultrasound treatment. When the suspension of gluconosemicarbazide was subjected to ultrasound treatment, gelation took place at much lower concentrations compared to thermal treatment, and the gels transformed into a solution state at higher temperatures compared to temperature-induced gels. The morphology was found to be influenced by the nature of the stimulus and presence of salts such as KCl, NaCl, CaCl2 and surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulphate at a concentration of 0.05 M. The gel exhibited impressive tolerance to these additives, revealing the stability and strength of the gels. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR revealed the presence of the intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions while differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and rheological studies supported better mechanical strength of ultrasound-induced (UI gels over thermally-induced (TI gels.

  17. Condensation heat transfer correlation for water-ethanol vapor mixture flowing through a plate heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Weiqing; Hu, Shenhua; Ma, Xiangrong; Zhou, Feng

    2018-04-01

    Condensation heat transfer coefficient (HTC) as a function of outlet vapor quality was investigated using water-ethanol vapor mixture of different ethanol vapor concentrations (0%, 1%, 2%, 5%, 10%, 20%) under three different system pressures (31 kPa, 47 kPa, 83 kPa). A heat transfer coefficient was developed by applying multiple linear regression method to experimental data, taking into account the dimensionless numbers which represents the Marangoni condensation effects, such as Re, Pr, Ja, Ma and Sh. The developed correlation can predict the condensation performance within a deviation range from -22% to 32%. Taking PHE's characteristic into consideration and bringing in Ma number and Sh number, a new correlation was developed, which showed a much more accurate prediction, within a deviation from -3.2% to 7.9%.

  18. Critical masses of bare homogeneous spherical UO2-water mixtures at intermediate enrichments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rendon, G.L.; Stratton, W.

    1999-01-01

    Critical masses of bare homogeneous spherical UO 2 -water mixtures at various intermediate fissile enrichments determined by multigroup, transport theory is presented. This work was performed to provide support for particular issues encountered by the nuclear industry when operating in the intermediate enrichment regime, namely, the validation of codes used to set criticality safety limits. Validation is normally performed with a comparison of computational results and applicable experiments. However, this may be difficult in some cases because of the lack of sufficient applicable experiments in the intermediate enrichment range. If a large extension of the area of applicability from an experiment to the desired application exists, then an alternative means for validation must be employed. Ideal interpretations of standard ANSI/ANS 8.1 Section 4.3 (1983) implies that perhaps an independent code and data system may be employed for validation purposes

  19. Bioremediation potential of a tropical soil contaminated with a mixture of crude oil and production water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Vanessa Marques; Santos, Silvia Cristina Cunha Dos Santos; Casella, Renata da Costa; Vital, Ronalt Leite; Sebastin, Gina Vasquez; Seldin, Lucy

    2008-12-01

    A typical tropical soil from the northeast of Brazil, where an important terrestrial oil field is located, was accidentally contaminated with a mixture of oil and saline production water. To study the bioremediation potential in this area, molecular methods based on PCR-DGGE were used to determine the diversity of the bacterial communities in bulk and in contaminated soils. Bacterial fingerprints revealed that the bacterial communities were affected by the presence of the mixture of oil and production water, and different profiles were observed when the contaminated soils were compared with the control. Halotolerant strains capable of degrading crude oil were also isolated from enrichment cultures obtained from the contaminated soil samples. Twenty-two strains showing these features were characterized genetically by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) and phenotypically by their colonial morphology and tolerance to high NaCl concentrations. Fifteen ARDRA groups were formed. Selected strains were analyzed by 16S rDNA sequencing, and Actinobacteria was identified as the main group found. Strains were also tested for their growth capability in the presence of different oil derivatives (hexane, dodecane, hexadecane, diesel, gasoline, toluene, naphthalene, o-xylene, and p-xylene) and different degradation profiles were observed. PCR products were obtained from 12 of the 15 ARDRA representatives when they were screened for the presence of the alkane hydroxylase gene (alkB). Members of the genera Rhodococcus and Gordonia were identified as predominant in the soil studied. These genera are usually implicated in oil degradation processes and, as such, the potential for bioremediation in this area can be considered as feasible.

  20. On-line component ratio measurement of oil/gas/water mixtures using an admittance sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, J A

    1984-01-01

    The operator of a production platform is primarily interested in which types of fluids a well is producing and how quickly these different components are being produced. The component ratio and production rate of a well vary during the life of a field. To optimize production, measurement of each well's output is thus desirable. Current designs for subsea production systems lack means of continuously measuring three-component flows. A new method of component ratio measurement is described. The fraction of oil, gas and water flowing between two insulated electrode plates is determined by measuring both the electrical conductance and suseptance across the sensor. A preliminary evaluation of the new measurement system has been performed using a process oil/ water/air mixture. The method is not limited to small pipe diameters. The only possible limitation is that for low velocities in very large pipe diameters an in-line mixer may be required. Advantages of this new system are that real-time measurement of void fraction and water content is possible if a non-intrusive rugged sensor is used, and there are no range limitations, as each component may be measured for any given concentration. 4 references.

  1. Palladium-catalyzed hydrodehalogenation of 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene in water-ethanol mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wee, Hun-Young [Department of Civil Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Cunningham, Jeffrey A. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States)], E-mail: cunning@eng.usf.edu

    2008-06-30

    Palladium-catalyzed hydrodehalogenation (HDH) was applied for destroying 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene (TeCB) in mixtures of water and ethanol. This investigation was performed as a critical step in the development of a new technology for clean-up of soil contaminated by halogenated hydrophobic organic contaminants. The main goals of the investigation were to demonstrate the feasibility of the technology, to determine the effect of the solvent composition (water:ethanol ratio), and to develop a model for the kinetics of the dehalogenation process. All experiments were conducted in a batch reactor at ambient temperature under mild hydrogen pressure. The experimental results are all consistent with a Langmuir-Hinshelwood model for heterogeneous catalysis. Major findings that can be interpreted within the Langmuir-Hinshelwood framework include: (1) the rate of hydrodehalogenation depends strongly on the solvent composition, increasing as the water fraction of the solvent increases; (2) the HDH rate increases as the catalyst concentration in the reactor increases; (3) when enough catalyst is present, the HDH reaction appears to follow first-order kinetics, but the kinetics appear to be zero-order at low catalyst concentrations. TeCB is converted rapidly and quantitatively to benzene, with only trace concentrations of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene appearing as a reactive intermediate. The results obtained here have important implications for the further development of the proposed soil remediation technology, and may also be important for the treatment of other hazardous waste streams.

  2. Palladium-catalyzed hydrodehalogenation of 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene in water-ethanol mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wee, Hun-Young; Cunningham, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    Palladium-catalyzed hydrodehalogenation (HDH) was applied for destroying 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene (TeCB) in mixtures of water and ethanol. This investigation was performed as a critical step in the development of a new technology for clean-up of soil contaminated by halogenated hydrophobic organic contaminants. The main goals of the investigation were to demonstrate the feasibility of the technology, to determine the effect of the solvent composition (water:ethanol ratio), and to develop a model for the kinetics of the dehalogenation process. All experiments were conducted in a batch reactor at ambient temperature under mild hydrogen pressure. The experimental results are all consistent with a Langmuir-Hinshelwood model for heterogeneous catalysis. Major findings that can be interpreted within the Langmuir-Hinshelwood framework include: (1) the rate of hydrodehalogenation depends strongly on the solvent composition, increasing as the water fraction of the solvent increases; (2) the HDH rate increases as the catalyst concentration in the reactor increases; (3) when enough catalyst is present, the HDH reaction appears to follow first-order kinetics, but the kinetics appear to be zero-order at low catalyst concentrations. TeCB is converted rapidly and quantitatively to benzene, with only trace concentrations of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene appearing as a reactive intermediate. The results obtained here have important implications for the further development of the proposed soil remediation technology, and may also be important for the treatment of other hazardous waste streams

  3. Method of extracting iodine from liquid mixtures of iodine, water and hydrogen iodide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysels, Karol J.

    1979-01-01

    The components of a liquid mixture consisting essentially of HI, water and at least about 50 w/o iodine are separated in a countercurrent extraction zone by treating with phosphoric acid containing at least about 90 w/o H.sub.3 PO.sub.4. The bottom stream from the extraction zone is substantially completely molten iodine, and the overhead stream contains water, HI, H.sub.3 PO.sub.4 and a small fraction of the amount of original iodine. When the water and HI are present in near-azeotropic proportions, there is particular advantage in feeding the overhead stream to an extractive distillation zone wherein it is treated with additional concentrated phosphoric acid to create an anhydrous HI vapor stream and bottoms which contain at least about 85 w/o H.sub.3 PO.sub.4. Concentration of these bottoms provides phosphoric acid infeed for both the countercurrent extraction zone and for the extractive distillation zone.

  4. METHANOL REMOVAL FROM METHANOL-WATER MIXTURE USING ACTIVATED SLUDGE, AIR STRIPPING AND ADSORPTION PROCESS: COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SALAM K. AL-DAWERY

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An experimental research has been carried out in order to examine the removal of methanol from methanol-water mixtures using three different methods; activated sludge; activated carbon and air stripping. The results showed that the methanol was totally consumed by the bacteria as quickly as the feed entered the activated sludge vessel. Air stripping process has a limited ability for removing of methanol due to strong intermolecular forces between methanol and water; however, the results showed that the percentage of methanol removed using air pressure at 0.5 bar was higher than that of using air pressure of 0.25 bar. Removal of methanol from the mixture with a methanol content of 5% using activated carbon was not successful due to the limited capacity of the of the activated carbon. Thus, the activated sludge process can be considered as the most suitable process for the treatment of methanol-water mixtures.

  5. Supercritical Water Mixture (SCWM) Experiment in the High Temperature Insert-Reflight (HTI-R)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Michael C.; Hegde, Uday G.; Garrabos, Yves; Lecoutre, Carole; Zappoli, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Current research on supercritical water processes on board the International Space Station (ISS) focuses on salt precipitation and transport in a test cell designed for supercritical water. This study, known as the Supercritical Water Mixture Experiment (SCWM) serves as a precursor experiment for developing a better understanding of inorganic salt precipitation and transport during supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) processes for the eventual application of this technology for waste management and resource reclamation in microgravity conditions. During typical SCWO reactions any inorganic salts present in the reactant stream will precipitate and begin to coat reactor surfaces and control mechanisms (e.g., valves) often severely impacting the systems performance. The SCWM experiment employs a Sample Cell Unit (SCU) filled with an aqueous solution of Na2SO4 0.5-w at the critical density and uses a refurbished High Temperature Insert, which was used in an earlier ISS experiment designed to study pure water at near-critical conditions. The insert, designated as the HTI-Reflight (HTI-R) will be deployed in the DECLIC (Device for the Study of Critical Liquids and Crystallization) Facility on the International Space Station (ISS). Objectives of the study include measurement of the shift in critical temperature due to the presence of the inorganic salt, assessment of the predominant mode of precipitation (i.e., heterogeneously on SCU surfaces or homogeneously in the bulk fluid), determination of the salt morphology including size and shapes of particulate clusters, and the determination of the dominant mode of transport of salt particles in the presence of an imposed temperature gradient. Initial results from the ISS experiments will be presented and compared to findings from laboratory experiments on the ground.

  6. Isentropic expansion and related thermodynamic properties of non-ionic amphiphile-water mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, João Carlos R; Douhéret, Gérard; Davis, Michael I; Fjellanger, Inger Johanne; Høiland, Harald

    2008-01-28

    A concise thermodynamic formalism is developed for the molar isentropic thermal expansion, ES,m = ( partial differential Vm/ partial differential T)(Sm,x), and the ideal and excess quantities for the molar, apparent molar and partial molar isentropic expansions of binary liquid mixtures. Ultrasound speeds were determined by means of the pulse-echo-overlap method in aqueous mixtures of 2-methylpropan-2-ol at 298.15 K over the entire composition range. These data complement selected extensive literature data on density, isobaric heat capacity and ultrasound speed for 9 amphiphile (methanol, ethanol, propan-1-ol, propan-2-ol, 2-methylpropan-2-ol, ethane-1,2-diol, 2-methoxyethanol, 2-ethoxyethanol or 2-butoxyethanol)-water binary systems, which form the basis of tables listing molar and excess molar isobaric expansions and heat capacities, and molar and excess molar isentropic compressions and expansions at 298.15 K and at 65 fixed mole fractions spanning the entire composition range and fine-grained in the water-rich region. The dependence on composition of these 9 systems is graphically depicted for the excess molar isobaric and isentropic expansions and for the excess partial molar isobaric and isentropic expansions of the amphiphile. The analysis shows that isentropic thermal expansion properties give a much stronger response to amphiphile-water molecular interactions than do their isobaric counterparts. Depending on the pair property-system, the maximum excess molar isentropic value is generally twenty- to a hundred-fold greater than the corresponding maximum isobaric value, and occurs at a lower mole fraction of the amphiphile. Values at infinite dilution of the 9 amphiphiles in water are given for the excess partial molar isobaric heat capacity, isentropic compression, isobaric expansion and isentropic expansion. These values are interpreted in terms of the changes occurring when amphiphile molecules cluster into an oligomeric form. Present results are discussed

  7. Influence of coal ash and slag dumping on dump waste waters of the Kostolac power plants (Serbia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovic, A.; Djinovic, J. [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2006-10-01

    The content of selected trace and major elements in the river water used for transport, as well as in the subcategories of the waste waters (overflow and drainage) were analyzed in order to establish the influence of transport and dumping of coal ash and slag from the 'Kostolac A' and 'Kostolac B' power plants located 100 km from Belgrade (Serbia). It was found that during transport of coal ash and slag to the dump, the water used for transport becomes enriched with manganese, nickel, zinc, chromium, vanadium, titanium, cobalt, arsenic, aluminum, and silicon, while more calcium, iron, cadmium, and lead are adsorbed by the ash and slag than is released from them. There is also an equilibrium between the release and adsorption processes of copper and magnesium during transport. The vertical penetration of the water used for transport results in a release of calcium, magnesium, manganese, and cadmium to the environment, while iron, nickel, zinc, chromium, copper, lead, vanadium, titanium, cobalt, and arsenic are adsorbed by the fractions of coal ash and slag in the dump.

  8. Limits to co-combustion of coal and eucalyptus due to water availability in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, Bettina Susanne; Szklo, Alexandre; Schaeffer, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Brazil holds reserves of high ash coal that can only be used in mine-mouth plants. • Water scarcity requires the use of wet or dry cooling systems in several regions. • The co-firing of 30 wt% eucalyptus is possible regarding the biomass availability. • Biomass cultivation would aggravate the water scarcity in several regions. - Abstract: Brazil has favorable edaphoclimatic conditions for the cultivation of biomass for energy. On the other hand, the country plans to expand its thermal power park using fossil fuels, including Brazil’s high ash coal. This study estimates the potential of co-firing biomass from energy forests in power plants fired with Brazilian coal in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, focusing on the limits given by biomass and water availability. Results show that the state holds coal reserves that could support a potential of approximately 8 GW. Referring to limits due to water availability, different outcomes were found for the various coal fields in Rio Grande do Sul. The Candiota coal field, which represents the most important coal field, holding a capacity of 4 GW, shows severe restrictions for water availability that would be aggravated by intense eucalyptus cultivation

  9. Mechanism of the action of water glass in the flotation of Karaganda coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlasova, N S; Shchegoleva, E N

    1979-01-01

    The effectiveness of activated waterglass in the flotation of coals containing a considerable amount of clay is governed basically by the selctivity of the silicic acid and its dissociation products in relation to the coal surface and the surface of the dirt, as well as its stability and the degree of hydration of the fixed layer of reagent.

  10. Characterization of coal types by their content of volatile matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholz, A. (Ruhrkohle A.G., Essen (Germany, F.R.). Qualitaetsstelle)

    1979-08-01

    First of all, the difference between mineral content and ash content, the effect of minerals on the content of volatile matter and the connection between the ash and volatile matter contents is examined. Then three processes are described, to determine the content of organic fuels in the volatile matter of hard coal. The results are compared and the applicability of the processes is assessed. The conversion formulae recommended for the ASTM and NCB classifications are examined regarding their applicability to German types of coal. Finally an equation is proposed, in order to calculate the estimated value for the content of water and mineral free fuel in volatile matter. Apart from the content of volatile matter in water free coal, one only needs the figures ash content and the mineral factor for this. The equation can also be used for mixtures the usability of the equation is tested for Ruhr coal.

  11. Activity coefficients of CaCl{sub 2} in (maltose + water) and (lactose + water) mixtures at 298.15 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuo Kelei [School of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, Henan 453007 (China)], E-mail: klzhuo@263.net; Liu Hongxun; Zhang Honghao; Liu Yaohui; Wang Jianji [School of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, Henan 453007 (China)

    2008-05-15

    Activity coefficients of CaCl{sub 2} in disaccharide {l_brace}(maltose, lactose) + water{r_brace} mixtures at 298.15 K were determined by cell potentials. The molalities of CaCl{sub 2} ranged from about 0.01 mol . kg{sup -1} to 0.20 mol . kg{sup -1}, the mass fractions of maltose from 0.05 to 0.25, and those of lactose from 0.025 to 0.125. The cell potentials were analyzed by using the Debye-Hueckel extended equation and the Pitzer equation. The activity coefficients obtained from the two theoretical models are in good agreement with each other. Gibbs free energy interaction parameters (g{sub ES}) and salting constants (k{sub S}) were also obtained. These were discussed in terms of the stereo-chemistry of saccharide molecules and the structural interaction model.

  12. Activity coefficients of CaCl2 in (maltose + water) and (lactose + water) mixtures at 298.15 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuo Kelei; Liu Hongxun; Zhang Honghao; Liu Yaohui; Wang Jianji

    2008-01-01

    Activity coefficients of CaCl 2 in disaccharide {(maltose, lactose) + water} mixtures at 298.15 K were determined by cell potentials. The molalities of CaCl 2 ranged from about 0.01 mol . kg -1 to 0.20 mol . kg -1 , the mass fractions of maltose from 0.05 to 0.25, and those of lactose from 0.025 to 0.125. The cell potentials were analyzed by using the Debye-Hueckel extended equation and the Pitzer equation. The activity coefficients obtained from the two theoretical models are in good agreement with each other. Gibbs free energy interaction parameters (g ES ) and salting constants (k S ) were also obtained. These were discussed in terms of the stereo-chemistry of saccharide molecules and the structural interaction model

  13. Comparative conductimetric studies of salicylic acid in methanol–water mixtures at 25 °C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Chaaraoui

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Conductivity data of salicylic acid in methanol–water mixtures were measured at 25 °C. The data were analyzed in two methods, the Hsia–Fuoss’s and Fuoss 78’s conductance equations and a comparison was made. The two methods concern the derivation of thermodynamic association constants and limiting molar conductivities for all solvent compositions. The limiting equivalent conductance decreases with the increase of methanol content in the binary mixtures over the whole range of the solvent composition, but the variation does not give a constant value of Walden product. The electrolytes were found to be practically completely associated in all studied solvent mixtures. The association constant of acid decreases with the increase in relative permittivity of the mixtures. The values of ionic coefficients of self diffusion and the ionic conductance at infinite solutions were estimated.

  14. Optimal operation for 3 control parameters of Texaco coal-water slurry gasifier with MO-3LM-CDE algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Cuiwen; Zhang, Yakun; Gu, Xingsheng [Ministry of Education, East China Univ. of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China). Key Lab. of Advanced Control and Optimization for Chemical Processes

    2013-07-01

    Optimizing operation parameters for Texaco coal-water slurry gasifier with the consideration of multiple objectives is a complicated nonlinear constrained problem concerning 3 BP neural networks. In this paper, multi-objective 3-layer mixed cultural differential evolution (MO-3LM-CDE) algorithms which comprise of 4 multi-objective strategies and a 3LM-CDE algorithm are firstly presented. Then they are tested in 6 benchmark functions. Finally, the MO-3LM-CDE algorithms are applied to optimize 3 control parameters of the Texaco coal-water slurry gasifier in methanol production of a real-world chemical plant. The simulation results show that multi-objective optimal results are better than the respective single-objective optimal operations.

  15. Bench-Scale and Pilot-Scale Treatment Technologies for the Removal of Total Dissolved Solids from Coal Mine Water: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coal mine water (CMW) is typically treated to remove suspended solids, acidity, and soluble metals, but high concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS) have been reported to impact the environment at several CMW discharge points. Consequently, various states have establishe...

  16. Enantiomeric profiling of a chemically diverse mixture of chiral pharmaceuticals in urban water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, S.; Bagnall, J.; Kasprzyk-Hordern, B.

    2017-01-01

    . - Highlights: • Chiral drugs present in wastewater and receiving waters enriched with one enantiomeric form. • Stereoselective microbial degradation observed in receiving water and activated sludge microcosms. • Preferential degradation of S(+)-, R(+)- & S(+)- amphetamines, beta-blockers & antidepressants respectively. • Desmethyl metabolites showed higher degradation rate and stereoselectivity. • Metabolites enriched with enantiomers of opposite configuration to their parent compounds. - Enantiomeric profiling of chemically diverse mixtures of chiral pharmaceuticals in urban water shows high stereoselectivity of environmental processes.

  17. Coal 95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1995-01-01

    The report deals with the use of coal and coke in Sweden during 1994. Some information about technology, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from Statistics Sweden have also been used.The use of steam coal for heating purposes has been unchanged during 1994 at a level of 1 Mtons. The production in the cogeneration plants has been constant, but has increased for electricity production. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. The use of steam coal will probably go down in the next years both for heat and cogeneration plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water and 11 cogeneration plants. 1994 these figures are 3 and 12. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in industry has been constant at the level 0.7 Mtons. The import of metallurgical coal in 1993 was 1.6 Mtons, like 1992. Import of 0.3 Mtons of coke gives the total consumption of coke in industry as 1.5 Mtons. the average price of steam coal imported to Sweden was 317 SEK/ton, 3% higher than 1993. All Swedish plants meet their emission limit of dust, SO 2 and NO x as given by county administrations or concession boards. The cogeneration plants all have some SO 2 removal system. The biggest cogeneration plant (Vaesteraas) has recently invested in a SCR NO x cleaning system. Most other plants use low NO x burners or SNR injection systems based on ammonia or urea. 2 figs, 13 tabs

  18. Coal mining and water quality: Criciuma's case; Mineracao de carvao e a qualidade da agua: o caso de Criciuma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Lincoln

    1999-07-01

    The coal mining in the Santa Catarina Coal-Basin started in 1885 and since them it has been causing serious damage to the environment, specially the water resources, causing several problems like sedimentation and acidification of the rivers that supply the region, and compromising the agricultural-industry and fishery. The mining is also responsible for several professional diseases. The region was considered, in 1980, the '14th Critical Area' to the Pollution Control and Environmental Quality Conservation. Only in the beginning of the 80's, after the publication of the 917 Interministerial Resolution (July, 1982), the first official actions were taken, in order to minimize the environmental impact due to the coal mining industry. With that scenario, the region was chosen as one of the study areas of the 'National Center of Control of Mining Pollution', derived from an agreement between the Departamento Nacional de Producao Mineral - DNPM and the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). The present study is part of the set of studies that have been realized in the region, with the aim of evaluating the environmental impact caused by the coal mining industry, and to suggest actions (to the miners) in order to minimize the environmental problems. This study presents a review of the occupation process of the Criciuma region, its connection to the coal industry, the progress of the mineral and environmental legislation, and the periodic monitoring of environmental parameters (physic-chemical analysis of the Mae Luzia and Sangao rivers, and the drainage from two coal mines) during the period of three years. This period began before the setting of environmental restrictions, going up to after the adoption of reclamation actions. The results allow to conclude that, during the period studied, there was no improvement in the river water characteristics, despite the adoption of reclamation actions. This behaviour may be due to the following factors: there are several

  19. Early diagenetic high-magnesium calcite and dolomite indicate that coal balls formed in marine or brackish water: Stratigraphic and paleoclimatic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Coal balls are carbonate and pyrite permineralizations of peat that contain three-dimensional plant fossils preserved at the cellular level. Coal balls, which occur in Pennsylvanian and earliest Permian equatorial coals, provide a detailed record of terrestrial ecology and tropical climate during the Late Paleozoic Ice Age; yet their depositional environment remains controversial. The exquisite preservation of some coal-ball fossils, e.g. pollen with pollen tubes and leaves with mesophyll, indicates rapid formation. The presence of abundant, cement-filled, void spaces within and between the plant debris in most coal balls indicates that they formed in uncompacted peat, near the surface of the mire. Botanical, taphonomic and isotopic evidence point to a freshwater origin for coal balls. The nearest living relatives of coal ball plants (modern lycopsids, sphenopsids, marratialean ferns and conifers) grow in fresh water. Coal-ball peat contains a high percentage of aerial debris, similar to modern freshwater peat. The stable oxygen isotopes of coal-ball carbonate (δ18O = 16 to 3 per mil) suggest a freshwater origin. However, the widespread occurrence of marine invertebrates and early diagenetic framboidal pyrite in coal balls suggests that many formed in close proximity to marine water. Indeed, carbonate petrology points to a marine or brackish water origin for the first-formed carbonate cements in coal balls. Petrographic and geochemical (microprobe) analysis of coal-ball carbonates in Pennsylvanian coals from the midcontinent of North America (Western Interior Basin, West Pangaea) and the Ruhr and Donets Basins (East Pangaea) indicate that the first formed carbonate is either radaxial, nonstochiometric dolomite or high magnesium calcite (9 - 17 mol % MgCO3, indicating precipitation in marine or brackish water. Although both primary dolomite and high magnesium calcite can form in lacustrine settings, the lakes in which these minerals form occur in carbonate terranes

  20. Mixtures of lecithin and bile salt can form highly viscous wormlike micellar solutions in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chih-Yang; Oh, Hyuntaek; Wang, Ting-Yu; Raghavan, Srinivasa R; Tung, Shih-Huang

    2014-09-02

    The self-assembly of biological surfactants in water is an important topic for study because of its relevance to physiological processes. Two common types of biosurfactants are lecithin (phosphatidylcholine) and bile salts, which are both present in bile and involved in digestion. Previous studies on lecithin-bile salt mixtures have reported the formation of short, rodlike micelles. Here, we show that lecithin-bile salt micelles can be further induced to grow into long, flexible wormlike structures. The formation of long worms and their resultant entanglement into transient networks is reflected in the rheology: the fluids become viscoelastic and exhibit Maxwellian behavior, and their zero-shear viscosity can be up to a 1000-fold higher than that of water. The presence of worms is further confirmed by data from small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering and from cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM). We find that micellar growth peaks at a specific molar ratio (near equimolar) of bile salt:lecithin, which suggests a strong binding interaction between the two species. In addition, micellar growth also requires a sufficient concentration of background electrolyte such as NaCl or sodium citrate that serves to screen the electrostatic repulsion of the amphiphiles and to "salt out" the amphiphiles. We postulate a mechanism based on changes in the molecular geometry caused by bile salts and electrolytes to explain the micellar growth.

  1. The properties of anion-exchange resines in mixtures of organic solvents and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naveh, J.

    1978-02-01

    The behaviour of anion-exchange resins in water and mixtures of organic solvents and water was studied with special reference to the swelling of the polymer and to the density and enthalpy changes accompanying the swelling. A linear dependence was found between the swelling of dry resin and 1/X (X being the nominal cross-linking percent of the polymer). This dependence is interpreted theoretically. The nominal cross-linking percent,defined by the quantity ratio of the components, is corrected for real cross-linking percent. For the swelling of the resin in dilute aqueous alcohols, a preference for the alcohol was found which is enhanced as the molecular weight of the alcohol increases. Moreover, for certain mole fractions, the preference of the perchlorate form of the resin is greater than that of the chloride form. The temperature dependence of the swelling was measured and the invasion of an electrolyte (LiCl), dissolved in the aqueous-organic phase, into the resine phase was determined. Contrary to what usually happens in pure aqueous phase, where the electrolyte is rejected in accordance with the Donnan law, an almost total invasion of the electrolyte into the resin phase occurs. (author)

  2. Thermodynamic studies of hydriodic acid in ethylene glycol-water mixtures from electromotive force measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsemongy, M.M.; Abdel-Khalek, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    The standard potentials of the Ag-AgI electrode in twenty ethylene glycol-water mixtures covering the whole range of solvent composition have been determined from the e.m.f. measurements of the cell Pt|H 2 (g, 1atm)| HOAc(m 1 ), NaOAc(m 2 ), KI(m 3 ), solvent|AgI|Ag at nine different temperatures ranging from 15 to 55 0 C. The temperature variation of the standard e.m.f. has been utilized to compute the standard thermodynamic functions for the cell reaction, the primary medium effects of various solvents upon HI, and the standard thermodynamic quantities for the transfer of HI, from the standard state in water to the standard states in the respective solvent media. The chemical effects of solvents on the transfer process have been obtained by subtracting the electrostatic contributions from the total transfer quantities. The results have been discussed in the light of ion-solvent interactions as well as the structural changes of the solvents. (Author)

  3. Genotoxicity of a Low-Dose Nitrosamine Mixture as Drinking Water Disinfection Byproducts in NIH3T3 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-Yan; Qin, Ming; Dong, Lei; Lv, Jia-Ying; Wang, Xia

    2017-01-01

    N - nitrosamines (NAms), which can arise as byproducts of disinfection agents, are reportedly found in drinking water, and their potential carcinogenicity is a concern; however, little research exists regarding the genotoxicity or carcinogenicity of NAms exposure as a low-dose mixture. The three most common NAms components in China's drinking water are N -nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N -nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) and N -nitrosomethylethylamine (NMEA). Thus, we measured the genotoxic and carcinogenic potential of these compounds and measured the cell cycle and gene expression. The data show that exposure to the NAms-mixture doubled the revertants in the TA98 and TA100 S. typhimurium strains and increased the DNA double-strand breaks and the micronuclear frequency in the NIH3T3 cells compared to a single exposure. After long-term NAms mixture exposure, a malignant transformation of NIH3T3 and a significantly increased G2/M distribution were observed. Furthermore, P53, CDK1, P38, CDC25A and CyclinB expressions were down-regulated in the NAms-mixture exposure group; however, P21 and GADD45A genes were up-regulated. Interestingly, the CHK1/CHK2 and CDC25A genes had two responses, depending on the NAms concentrations. Thus, we observed mutagenic, genotoxic and carcinogenic effects after a low-dose NAms-mixture exposure in drinking water, and DNA repair and apoptosis pathways may contribute to these adverse effects.

  4. Evaluating Complex Mixtures in the Zebrafish Embryo by Reconstituting Field Water Samples: A Metal Pollution Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen D. G. Michiels

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Accurately assessing the toxicity of complex, environmentally relevant mixtures remains an important challenge in ecotoxicology. The goal was to identify biological effects after exposure to environmental water samples and to determine whether the observed effects could be explained by the waterborne metal mixture found in the samples. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to water samples of five different sites originating from two Flemish (Mol and Olen, Belgium metal contaminated streams: “Scheppelijke Nete” (SN and “Kneutersloop” (K, and a ditch (D, which is the contamination source of SN. Trace metal concentrations, and Na, K, Mg and Ca concentrations were measured using ICP-MS and were used to reconstitute site-specific water samples. We assessed whether the effects that were observed after exposure to environmental samples could be explained by metal mixture toxicity under standardized laboratory conditions. Exposure to “D” or “reconstituted D” water caused 100% mortality. SN and reconstituted SN water caused similar effects on hatching, swim bladder inflation, growth and swimming activity. A canonical discriminant analysis confirmed a high similarity between both exposure scenarios, indicating that the observed toxicity was indeed primarily caused by metals. The applied workflow could be a valuable approach to evaluate mixture toxicity that limits time and costs while maintaining biological relevance.

  5. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Coal Oil Point, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Conrad, James E.; Lorenson, T.D.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Greene, H. Gary; Endris, Charles A.; Seitz, Gordon G.; Finlayson, David P.; Sliter, Ray W.; Wong, Florence L.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Gutierrez, Carlos I.; Leifer, Ira; Yoklavich, Mary M.; Draut, Amy E.; Hart, Patrick E.; Hostettler, Frances D.; Peters, Kenneth E.; Kvenvolden, Keith A.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Fong, Grace; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology. The Offshore of Coal Oil Point map area lies within the central Santa Barbara Channel region of the Southern California Bight. This geologically complex region forms a major biogeographic transition zone, separating the cold-temperate Oregonian province north of Point Conception from the warm-temperate California province to the south. The map area is in the southern part of the Western Transverse Ranges geologic province, which is north of the California Continental Borderland. Significant clockwise rotation—at least 90°—since the early Miocene has been proposed for the Western Transverse Ranges province, and geodetic studies indicate that the region is presently undergoing north-south shortening. Uplift rates (as much as 2.0 mm/yr) that are based on studies of onland marine terraces provide further evidence of significant shortening. The cities of Goleta and Isla Vista, the main population centers in the map area, are in the western part of a contiguous urban area that extends eastward through Santa Barbara to Carpinteria. This urban area is on the south flank of the east-west-trending Santa Ynez Mountains, on coalescing alluvial fans and uplifted marine terraces underlain by folded and

  6. Investigation of coal combustion by-product utilization for oyster reef development in Texas bay waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, W.B. Jr.; Ray, S.M.; Landry, A.M. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Houston Lighting and Power Company (HL and P), Texas A and M University at Galveston and JTM Industries, Inc. initiated research in May 1988 and coordinated it with state and federal resource protection agencies to investigate the use of certain HL and P coal combustion by-products (CCBP) for enhancing and creating oyster reefs. Initial research involved determining and optimum mix design based on compressive strength, leaching potential, biofouling success, and cost. CCBP material was found to exceed compressive strength criterion (300 psi for at sign 14 days) and was not a significant leaching source. Candidate mix designs and oyster shell controls were exposed to hatchery-reared oyster larvae to determine spat setability and biofouling success. Larvae setting on CCBP substrate developed into spat and grew at a rate comparable to that for larvae on controls. Since all candidate mix designs exhibited excellent biofouling, an optimum design was chosen based on strength and material cost factors. Chemical analyses conducted to determine materials did not significantly contribute to the trace element load in oysters. Development of oyster cultch material was initiated with input from commercial 2.5 to 7.6 cm (1 to 3 inch) diameter pellets which are irregularly shaped and rough textured. These pellets greatly enhance water circulation, provide maximum setting potential for oyster larvae, and maximize the surface area to volume potential of the CCBP material

  7. Effect of water treatment under ultrasonic irradiation on the solubilities of coals in a CS{sub 2}/NMP mixed solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan-Min Liu; Zhi-Min Zong; Ji-Xian Jia; Yao-Guo Huang; Hong Zhang; Bin Huang; Xian-Yong Wei [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China). School of Chemical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    Five Chinese coals were subject to water treatment (WT) at 75{sup o}C under ultrasonic irradiation (UI). The resulting water-extractable fraction (WEF) in the aqueous solution was extracted with benzene. The treated and untreated coals were extracted with a CS{sub 2}/NMP mixed solvent (1:1 by vol) under UI at room temperature. The results show that only small amount of WEF is extractable with benzene and that WT increases coal solubility in the CS{sub 2}/NMP mixed solvent only to small extent. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Grouting mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klyusov, A A; Bakshutov, V S; Kulyavtsev, V A

    1980-10-23

    A grouting mixture is proposed for low-temperature boreholes. The mixture contains cement, beta gypsum polyhydrate, and calcium chloride, so as to increase the water resistance and strength properties of expanding brick at conditions from 20 to -5/sup 0/ C, the components are in the following ratios: (by wt.-%): cement, 77.45-88.06; beta gypsum polyhydrate, 9.79-19.36; calcium chloride, 2.15-3.19. Grouting mortar for cold boreholes serves as the cement.

  9. Coal -98

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1998-01-01

    The following report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1997. Some information about technic, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from SCB have also been used. The use of steam coal for heating purposes during 1997 was 730 000 tons and about 500 000 tons lower than in 1996. The extremely high figures of 1996 were due to twice the production of electricity because of lack of hydro power. The co-generation plants were the main users of coal. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. Probably the use of steam coal will go down in the immediate years both in the heat generating and the co-generating plants. Some foreign analysts, however, estimate a doubled use of coal for energy use after 2020 because of the plans to phase out the nuclear power. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water plants and 11 co-generation plants. 1997 these figures are 2 and 8. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in the industry has been constant at the level 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. The import of metallurgical coal in 1997 was 1.6 mill tons like the year before. 1.2 mill tons coke were produced. The coke consumption in the industry was 1.5 Mill tons. 0.3 mill tons of coke were imported. Several other plants have plans to replace the coal with forest fuels, waste fuels and NG. Even the biggest plant, Vaesteraas, has plans to build a block for bio fuels. Helsingborg has started to use wood pellets. The pellets replace most of the coal for the heat production in the co-generation plant. Norrkoeping Kraft AB has taken a fluid bed boiler for different fuels in operation, leading to more than half the coal consumption compared with previous years. They have also rebuilt one of their travelling grates for bio fuels. Stockholm

  10. Interactions of Plutonium Dioxide with Water and Oxygen-Hydrogen Mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haschke, J.M.; Allen, T.H.

    1999-01-01

    Pressure-volume-temperature data and mass spectrometric results obtained during exposure of PuO 2 to D 2 O show that the dioxide reacts with water at room temperature to produce a higher oxide (PuO 2+x )and H 2 . Results demonstrate that PuO 2+x is the thermodynamically stable oxide in air. The absence of O 2 at detectable levels in the gas phase implies that radiolytic decomposition of water to the elements is not a significant reaction. The rate of the PuO 2 +H 2 O reaction is 6±4 nmol H 2 /m 2 day, a value that is independent of the H 2 O concentration on the oxide over a range that extends from fractional monolayer coverage to saturation by liquid water. Evaluation of literature data shows that oxide compositions in excess of PuO 2.25 are attained, but the maximum value of x is unknown. During exposure of PuO 2 to a 2:1 D 2 :O 2 mixture at room temperature, the elements combine by a process consistent with a surface-catalyzed reaction. Water is simultaneously formed by the H 2 +O 2 reaction and consumed by the PuO 2 + H 2 O reaction and accumulates until the opposing rates are equal. Thereafter, PuO 2+x is formed at a constant rate by the water-catalyzed PuO 2 + O 2 reaction. The failure of earlier attempts to prepare higher oxides of plutonium is discussed and the catalytic cycle that promotes the reaction of PuO 2 with O 2 is described. Implications of the results for extended storage and environmental chemistry of oxide are examined. Moisture-catalyzed oxidation of PuO 2 accounts f