WorldWideScience

Sample records for coal tar impacted

  1. Coal tar in dermatology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roelofzen, J.H.J.; Aben, K.K.H.; Van Der Valk, P.G.M.; Van Houtum, J.L.M.; Van De Kerkhof, P.C.M.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands). Dept. of Dermatology

    2007-07-01

    Coal tar is one of the oldest treatments for psoriasis and eczema. It has anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antipruritic and antimitotic effects. The short-term side effects are folliculitis, irritation and contact allergy. Coal tar contains carcinogens. The carcinogenicity of coal tar has been shown in animal studies and studies in occupational settings. There is no clear evidence of an increased risk of skin tumors or internal tumors. Until now, most studies have been fairly small and they did not investigate the risk of coal tar alone, but the risk of coal tar combined with other therapies. New, well-designed, epidemiological studies are necessary to assess the risk of skin tumors and other malignancies after dermatological use of coal tar.

  2. Mineralization Of PAHs In Coal-Tar Impacted Aquifer Sediments And Associated Microbial Community Structure Investigated With FISH

    Science.gov (United States)

    The microbial community structure and mineralization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a coal-tar contaminated aquifer were investigated spatially using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and in laboratory-scale incubations of the aquifer sediments. DAPI-detect...

  3. Coal tar phototherapy for psoriasis reevaluated: erythemogenic versus suberythemogenic ultraviolet with a tar extract in oil and crude coal tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, N.J.; Wortzman, M.S.; Breeding, J.; Koudsi, H.; Taylor, L.

    1983-06-01

    Recent studies have questioned the therapeutic value of coal tar versus ultraviolet (UV) radiation and their relative necessity in phototherapy for psoriasis. In this investigation, different aspects of tar phototherapy have been studied in single-blind bilateral paired comparison studies. The effects of 1% crude coal tar were compared with those of petrolatum in conjunction with erythemogenic and suberythemogenic doses of ultraviolet light (UVB) using a FS72 sunlamp tubed cabinet. Crude coal tar was clinically superior to petrolatum with suberythemogenic ultraviolet. With the erythemogenic UVB, petrolatum was equal in efficacy to crude coal tar. Suberythemogenic UVB was also used adjunctively to compare the effects of a 5% concentration of a tar extract in an oil base to 5% crude coal tar in petrolatum or the oil base without tar. The tar extract in oil plus suberythemogenic UVB produced significantly more rapid improvement than the oil base plus UVB. The direct bilateral comparison of equal concentrations of tar extract in oil base versus crude coal tar in petrolatum in a suberythemogenic UV photo regimen revealed no statistical differences between treatments. In a study comparing tar extract in oil and the oil base without ultraviolet radiation, the tar extract in oil side responded more rapidly.

  4. Coal tar: past, present and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thami, G.P.; Sarkar, R. [Government Medical College & Hospital, Chandigarh (India). Dept. of Dermatology & Venerology

    2002-03-01

    Crude coal tar has been used in the treatment of dermatoses for many decades. In the last few years its use has been limited to skin diseases such as psoriasis and chronic dermatitis. Newer topical modalities for psoriasis are being used increasingly for treatment, but have failed to replace crude coal tar as a first-line treatment of psoriasis. The authors review the pharmacology, chemistry and use of crude coal tar in order to reappraise its role as a therapeutic agent in dermatology.

  5. Cancer fear over coal tar products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    Discusses a report by Dutch researchers which suggests that the regular use of coal tar shampoos may significantly increase the risk of cancer due to the high levels of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the products. The PAH exposure of volunteers using a coal tar anti-dandruff shampoo was studied by measuring the amount of hydroxypyrene, a PAH breakdown product in their urine. Volunteers who had used the shampoo excreted high levels of hydroxypyrene the day after exposure. Excretion by the control group using a non-coal tar anti-dandruff shampoo remained constant. 1 ref., 1 fig.

  6. Biogeochemical gradients above a coal tar DNAPL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherr, Kerstin E., E-mail: kerstin.brandstaetter-scherr@boku.ac.at [University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna (BOKU), Department IFA-Tulln, Institute for Environmental Biotechnology, Konrad Lorenz Strasse 20, 3430 Tulln (Austria); Backes, Diana [University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna (BOKU), Department IFA-Tulln, Institute for Environmental Biotechnology, Konrad Lorenz Strasse 20, 3430 Tulln (Austria); Scarlett, Alan G. [University of Plymouth, Petroleum and Environmental Geochemistry Group, Biogeochemistry Research Centre, Drake Circus, Plymouth, Devon PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Lantschbauer, Wolfgang [Government of Upper Austria, Directorate for Environment and Water Management, Division for Environmental Protection, Kärntner Strasse 10-12, 4021 Linz (Austria); Nahold, Manfred [GUT Gruppe Umwelt und Technik GmbH, Ingenieurbüro für Technischen Umweltschutz, Plesching 15, 4040 Linz (Austria)

    2016-09-01

    Naturally occurring distribution and attenuation processes can keep hydrocarbon emissions from dense non aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL) into the adjacent groundwater at a minimum. In a historically coal tar DNAPL-impacted site, the de facto absence of a plume sparked investigations regarding the character of natural attenuation and DNAPL resolubilization processes at the site. Steep vertical gradients of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, microbial community composition, secondary water quality and redox-parameters were found to occur between the DNAPL-proximal and shallow waters. While methanogenic and mixed-electron acceptor conditions prevailed close to the DNAPL, aerobic conditions and very low dissolved contaminant concentrations were identified in three meters vertical distance from the phase. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC × GC–MS) proved to be an efficient tool to characterize the behavior of the present complex contaminant mixture. Medium to low bioavailability of ferric iron and manganese oxides of aquifer samples was detected via incubation with Shewanella alga and evidence for iron and manganese reduction was collected. In contrast, 16S rDNA phylogenetic analysis revealed the absence of common iron reducing bacteria. Aerobic hydrocarbon degraders were abundant in shallow horizons, while nitrate reducers were dominating in deeper aquifer regions, in addition to a low relative abundance of methanogenic archaea. Partial Least Squares – Canonical Correspondence Analysis (PLS-CCA) suggested that nitrate and oxygen concentrations had the greatest impact on aquifer community structure in on- and offsite wells, which had a similarly high biodiversity (H’ and Chao1). Overall, slow hydrocarbon dissolution from the DNAPL appears to dominate natural attenuation processes. This site may serve as a model for developing legal and technical strategies for the treatment of DNAPL-impacted sites where contaminant plumes are

  7. Mineralization of PAHs in coal-tar impacted aquifer sediments and associated microbial community structure investigated with FISH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, S.W.; Ong, S.K.; Moorman, T.B. [Iowa State University, Ames, IA (USA)

    2007-11-15

    The microbial community structure and mineralization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a coal-tar contaminated aquifer were investigated spatially using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and in laboratory-scale incubations of the aquifer sediments. DAPI-detected microbial populations in the contaminated sediments were three orders of magnitude greater than nearby uncontaminated sediments, suggesting growth on coal-tar constituents in situ. Actinobacteria, {beta}- and {gamma}-Proteobacteria, and Flavobacteria dominated the in situ aerobic (> 1 mg l{sup -1} dissolved oxygen) microbial community, whereas sulfate-reducing bacteria comprised 37% of the microbial community in the sulfidogenic region of the aquifer. Rapid mineralization of naphthalene and phenanthrene were observed in aerobic laboratory microcosms and resulted in significant enrichment of {beta}- and {gamma}-Proteobacteria potentially explaining their elevated presence in situ. Nitrate- and sulfate-limited mineralization of naphthalene in laboratory microcosms occurred to a small degree in aquifer sediments from locations where groundwater chemistry indicated nitrate- and sulfate-reduction, respectively. The results of this study suggest that FISH may be a useful tool for providing a link between laboratory microcosms and groundwater measurements made in situ necessary to better demonstrate the potential for natural attenuation at complex PAH contaminated sites.

  8. VAPOR PRESSURES AND HEATS OF VAPORIZATION OF PRIMARY COAL TARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric M. Suuberg; Vahur Oja

    1997-07-01

    This project had as its main focus the determination of vapor pressures of coal pyrolysis tars. It involved performing measurements of these vapor pressures and from them, developing vapor pressure correlations suitable for use in advanced pyrolysis models (those models which explicitly account for mass transport limitations). This report is divided into five main chapters. Each chapter is a relatively stand-alone section. Chapter A reviews the general nature of coal tars and gives a summary of existing vapor pressure correlations for coal tars and model compounds. Chapter B summarizes the main experimental approaches for coal tar preparation and characterization which have been used throughout the project. Chapter C is concerned with the selection of the model compounds for coal pyrolysis tars and reviews the data available to us on the vapor pressures of high boiling point aromatic compounds. This chapter also deals with the question of identifying factors that govern the vapor pressures of coal tar model materials and their mixtures. Chapter D covers the vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of primary cellulose tars. Chapter E discusses the results of the main focus of this study. In summary, this work provides improved understanding of the volatility of coal and cellulose pyrolysis tars. It has resulted in new experimentally verified vapor pressure correlations for use in pyrolysis models. Further research on this topic should aim at developing general vapor pressure correlations for all coal tars, based on their molecular weight together with certain specific chemical characteristics i.e. hydroxyl group content.

  9. Phototoxic keratoconjunctivitis from coal-tar pitch volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmett, E A; Stetzer, L; Taphorn, B

    1977-11-25

    Roofers working with coal-tar pitch develop burning eyes and conjunctivitis which they subjectively associate with sun exposure. A coal-tar pitch distillate instilled in the conjunctivae of rabbits produced minimal or mild irritation in the absence of ultraviolet radiation, but irradiation with long-ultraviolet produced marked photophobia and severe keratoconjunctivitis.

  10. Final Safety Assessment of Coal Tar as Used in Cosmetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Coal Tar is a semisolid by-product obtained in the destructive distillation of bituminous coal, which functions in cosmetic products as a cosmetic biocide and denaturant-antidandruff agent is also listed as a function, but this is considered an over-the-counter (OTC) drug use. In 2002, Coal Tar was reported to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to be used in four formulations, all of which appear to be OTC drug products. Coal Tar is monographed by the FDA as Category I (safe and effective) OTC drug ingredient for use in the treatment of dandruff, seborrhoea, and psoriasis. Coal Tar is absorbed through the skin of animals and humans and is systemically distributed. Although the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel believes that Coal Tar use as an antidandruff ingredient in OTC drug preparations is adequately addressed by the FDA regulations, the Panel also believes that the appropriate concentration of use of Coal Tar in cosmetic formulations should be that level that does not have a biological effect in the user. Additional data needed to make a safety assessment include product types in which Coal Tar is used (other than as an OTC drug ingredient), use concentrations, and the maximum concentration that does not induce a biological effect in users.

  11. Gc/ms analysis of coal tar composition produced from coal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    foundation for the further processing and utilization of coal tar. ... After dust removal and tar separation, the coal gas entered into the next waste ... multiplier tube voltage at 500 V, scan range form m/z 40 to 650 at 3 scan/s was used, solvent.

  12. Biodegradation of naphthalene from coal tar. Research progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghoshal, S.; Ramaswami, A.; Luthy, R.G.

    1994-02-07

    Biodegradation experiments were conducted to evaluate the mineralization of naphthalene released from coal tar entrapped in microporous silica media. Tests were performed with two coal tars recovered from former manufactured gas plant sites. Results from these tests showed that the degradation end point for naphthalene was significantly lower than the total amount of naphthalene present in coal tar. The role of physico-chemical and biological processes on the rate of biotransformation of naphthalene was evaluated. Mass transfer rates for dissolution of naphthalene from entrapped coal tar were measured in batch, flow-through systems. The rate of naphthalene mass transfer from the coal tar was found to be significantly greater than the rate of naphthalene biomineralization in batch slurry reactors. This implied that the rate acting factor for the biodegradation process was related to biokinetic phenomena rather than mass transfer processes. Further tests indicated that conditions inhibitory to bacteria limited the biodegradation of naphthalene, and in some cases the inhibition was reversible upon dilution of the reactor contents.

  13. 29 CFR 1910.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. 1910.1002... Hazardous Substances § 1910.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. As used in § 1910.1000 (Table Z-1), coal tar pitch volatiles include the fused polycyclic hydrocarbons which volatilize from...

  14. Uptake of pyrene in a breast-fed child of a mother treated with coal tar.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheepers, P.T.J.; Houtum, J.L.M. van; Anzion, R.B.M.; Harder, R.; Bos, R.P.; Valk, P.G.M. van der

    2009-01-01

    A woman was treated for atopic dermatitis with coal tar containing ointments. Coal tar containing ointments contain genotoxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Over a period of 50 days the accumulated dose of different coal tar containing ointments treatments corresponded to 993 mg of pyrene and 464

  15. Quantitative analysis of phenol and alkylphenols in Brazilian coal tar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina Bastos Caramão

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this work is the identification and quantification of phenolic compounds in coal tar samples from a ceramics factory in Cocal (SC, Brazil. The samples were subjected to preparative scale liquid chromatography, using Amberlyst A-27TM ion-exchange resin as stationary phase. The fractions obtained were classified as "acids" and "BN" (bases and neutrals. The identification and quantification of phenols, in the acid fraction, was made by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Nearly twenty-five phenols were identified in the samples and nine of them were also quantified. The results showed that coal tar has large quantities of phenolic compounds of industrial interest.

  16. Estimating thermodynamic properties of coal, char, tar and ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisermann, W.; Johnson, P. Conger, W.L.

    1980-01-01

    Methods of predicting the specific heat, enthalpy, and entropy of coal, char, tar and ash as a function of temperature and material composition are presented. The standard entropy of coal is approximated by comparing the behaviour of the standard entropies of a number of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons as a function of the variables H/(C + N), O/(C + N), N/(C + N), and S/(C + N), where the variables are the atomic fractions of the respective elements. The standard entropy of a bituminous coal was found to be about 20 kJ/kmol carbon K and of the char to be about 10 kJ/kmol carbon K. Estimates of the enthalpy difference between 273 K and temperatures above 273 K deviated from published data by about 8.49% for chars and 8.55% for coals on the average. Maximum deviations of 18.3% and 17.6% respectively were found.

  17. Contact sensitivity to newsprint: a rare manifestation of coal tar allergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illchyshyn, A.; Cartwright, P.H.; Smith, A.G.

    1987-07-01

    Contact dermatitis due to coal tar is infrequently reported in spite of the fact that it consists of a mixture of 10,000 constituents, and is still often used to treat both eczema and psoriasis. Discusses patient with coal tar sensitivity in whom the source of exacerbation of her dermatitis is shown to be newsprint, a common product containing coal tar-derived material. 6 refs.

  18. Is dermatologic usage of coal tar carcinogenic? A review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pion, I.A.; Koenig, K.L.; Lim, H.W. [New York VA Medical Center, New York, NY (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Coal tar ointments have been used for decades in the treatment of various dermatoses, most notably eczema and psoriasis. Occupational exposure to coal tar poses an increased risk of developing cutaneous malignancies. The evidence of an increased risk of skin cancer in humans, as a result of dermatologic usage of tar, however, is conflicting. A consensus on the carcinogenicity of tar was sought. The existing literature (in vitro, animal and human studies) on this subject was reviewed. The carcinogenicity of coal tar was clearly demonstrated by in vitro and animal studies, and appears to be potentiated by concomitant use of ultraviolet radiation. Systemic absorption of mutagens from topically applied tar has been demonstrated in humans. Epidemiologic studies in humans, however, have not definitively shown an increase in skin cancer with therapeutic use of tar. Conclusive evidence for the carcinogenicity of tar used in dermatologic practice is lacking. Further controlled studies are necessary. 49 refs., 1 tab.

  19. Assessment of ground-water contamination by coal-tar derivatives, St. Louis Park area, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hult, M.F.

    1984-01-01

    Operation of a coal-tar distillation and wood-preserving facility in St. Louis Park, Minnesota, during 1918-72 contaminated ground water with coal-tar derivatives and inorganic chemicals. Coal-tar derivatives entered the groundwater system through three major paths: (1) Spills and drippings that percolated to the water table, (2) surface runoff and plant process water that was discharged to wetlands south of the former plant site, and (3) movement of coal tar directly into bedrock aquifers through a multiaquifer well on the site.

  20. Dermal uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons after hairwash with coal-tar shampoo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schooten, F.-J. van; Moonen, E.J.C.; Rhijnsburger, E.; Agen, B. van; Thijssen, H.H.W.; Kleinjans, J.C.S. [University of Limburg, Maastricht (Netherlands). Dept. of Health Risk Analysis and Toxicology

    1994-11-26

    Describes an experiment to assess the dermal uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) after hairwashing with coal tar antidandruff shampoo. The urinary excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OH-P), a PAH metabolile was used to assess internal dose of PAH. A single use of coal tar shampoo resulted in increased 1-OH-P excretion in all members of the experimental group compared with the control group using a non-coal tar antidandruff shampoo. It is suggested that repeated use of coal tar shampoo would result in a high internal dose of carcinogenic PAH. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  1. Isolation and structural determination of mutagenic substances in coal tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosuge, T.; Zenda, H.; Nukaya, H.; Terada, A.; Okamoto, T.; Shudo, K.; Yamaguchi, K.; Iitaka, Y.; Sugimura, T.

    1982-04-01

    Eleven compounds that were mutagenic to Salmonella typhimurim TA98 were isolated from a basic fraction of coal tar. These were six aminopolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (1-aminofluoranthene, 1- and 3-aminophenanthrene, 1- and 2-aminopyrene and 5-aminobenz(hALPHA)anthracene) and five aza-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (phenaleno(1,9-gh)quinoline, pyrido(3,2-c)carbazole, quino(3,2-c)carbazole, benzo(h)naphtho(2,1,8-delfquinoline and benzo(de)naphthol(1,8-gh)quinoline).

  2. Dissolution and transport of coal tar compounds in fractured clay-rich residuum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vulava, Vijay M.; McKay, Larry D.; Broholm, Mette Martina

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the dissolution and transport of organic contaminants from a crude coal tar mixture in a monolith of fractured clay-rich residuum. An electrolyte solution was eluted through the residuum monolith containing a small emplaced source of coal tar under biologically inhibited and mildl...

  3. 29 CFR 1926.1102 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. 1926.1102 Section 1926.1102 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... Hazardous Substances § 1926.1102 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. Note: The...

  4. 29 CFR 1915.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. 1915.1002 Section 1915.1002 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1915.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. Note:...

  5. No Increased Risk of Cancer after Coal Tar Treatment in Patients with Psoriasis or Eczema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofzen, Judith H. J.; Aben, Katja K. H.; Oldenhof, Ursula T. H.; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan; Alkemade, Hans A.; van de Kerkhof, Peter C. M.; van der Valk, Pieter G. M.; Kiemeney, Lambertus A. L. M.

    Coal tar is an effective treatment for psoriasis and eczema, but it contains several carcinogenic compounds. Occupational and animal studies have shown an increased risk of cancer after exposure to coal tar. Many dermatologists have abandoned this treatment for safety reasons, although the risk of

  6. PAHs and organic matter partitioning and mass transfer from coal tar particles to water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhabib, Karim; Simonnot, Marie-Odile; Sardin, Michel

    2006-10-01

    The coal tar found in contaminated soils of former manufactured gas plants and coking plants acts as a long-term source of PAHs. Organic carbon and PAH transfer from coal tar particles to water was investigated with closed-looped laboratory column experiments run at various particle sizes and temperatures. Two models were derived. The first one represented the extraction process at equilibrium and was based on a linear partitioning of TOC and PAHs between coal tar and water. The partition coefficient was derived as well as the mass of extractable organic matter in the particles. The second model dealt with mass transfer. Particle diffusion was the limiting step; organic matter diffusivity in the coal tar was then computed in the different conditions. A good consistency was obtained between experimental and computed results. Hence, the modeling of PAH migration in contaminated soils at the field scale requires taking into account coal tar as the source-term for PAH release.

  7. [Compositions and structure characterizations of coal tar refined soft pitch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Li-Juan; Zhao, Xue-Fei; Lai, Shi-Quan; Cheng, Jun-Xia; Lu, Yi-Qiang

    2009-08-01

    High temperature coal tar was used as raw materials, and was distilled to 280 degrees C for getting coal tar soft pitch. Then refined soft pitch was obtained by solvent extracting and subsequent settlement method. Its soft point was 32 degrees C; the group compositions consisted of 53.67% heptane soluble, 39.47% heptane insoluble but toluene soluble, 6.86% toluene insoluble and 0.06% quinoline insoluble. The relative average molecular weight was about 292. Its average molecular formula was C22.22 H16.32 N0.12 S0.06 O0.33; the total content of heteroatom was less than 1. IR analytic results showed that its heteroatom O existed in the R-O-R and Ar-O-R structure; its heteroatom N existed in the R-NH-R and -N=, with the latter being primary. Its average structure was obtained by improved Brown-Lander model: five-membered condensed rings. UV analysis indicated that the majority was linear arrangement, and the minority was surface arrangement; namely, the chemical structure of the samples was mainly the cata-condensed structure, while the minority was peri-condensation.

  8. Estimating thermodynamic properties of coal, char, tar and ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisermann, W.; Johnson, P.; Conger, W.L.

    1980-01-01

    Methods for predicting the specific heat, enthalpy, and entropy of coal, char, tar and ash as a function of temperature and material composition are presented. The standard entropy of coal is approximated by comparing the behavior of the standard entropies of a number of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons as a function of the variables H/(C + N), O/(C + N), N/(C + N), and S/(C + N), where the variables are the atomic fractions of the respective elements. The standard entropy of a bituminous coal was found to be about 20 kJ/kmol carbon K and of the char to be about 10 kJ/kmol carbon K. Estimates of the enthalpy difference between 273 K and temperatures above 273 K deviated from published data by about 8.49% for chars and 8.55% for coals on the average. Maximum deviations of 18.3% and 17.6% respectively were found. 10 figures, 4 tables.

  9. Beach tar accumulation, transport mechanisms, and sources of variability at Coal Oil Point, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Sontro, Tonya S; Leifer, Ira; Luyendyk, Bruce P; Broitman, Bernardo R

    2007-09-01

    A new field method for tar quantification was used at Coal Oil Point (COP), California to study the mechanisms transporting oil/tar from the nearby COP natural marine hydrocarbon seep field. This method segregates tar pieces into six size classes and assigns them an average mass based on laboratory or direct field measurements. Tar accumulation on the 19,927m(2) survey area was well resolved spatially by recording tar mass along twelve transects segmented into 4-m(2) blocks and then integrating over the survey area. A seasonal trend was apparent in total tar in which summer accumulations were an order of magnitude higher than winter accumulations. Based on multiple regression analyses between environmental data and tar accumulation, 34% of tar variability is explained by a combination of onshore advection via wind and low swell height inhibiting slick dispersion.

  10. Carbazole is a naturally occurring inhibitor of angiogenesis and inflammation isolated from antipsoriatic coal tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack L. Arbiser; Baskaran Govindarajan; Traci E. Battle; Rebecca Lynch; David A. Frank; Masuko Ushio-Fukai; Betsy N. Perry; David F. Stern; G. Tim Bowden; Anquan Liu; Eva Klein; Pawel J. Kolodziejski; N. Tony Eissa; Chowdhury F. Hossain; Dale G. Nagle [Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States). Department of Dermatology

    2006-06-15

    Coal tar is one of the oldest and an effective treatment for psoriasis. Coal tar has been directly applied to the skin, or used in combination with UV light as part of the Goeckerman treatment. The use of coal tar has caused long-term remissions in psoriasis, but has fallen out of favor because the treatment requires hospitalization and coal tar is poorly acceptable aesthetically to patients. Thus, determining the active antipsoriatic component of coal tar is of considerable therapeutic interest. We fractionated coal tar into its components, and tested them using the SVR angiogenesis inhibitor assay. Treatment of SVR endothelial cells with coal tar fractions resulted in the isolation of a single fraction with antiangiogenic activity. The active antiangiogenic compound in coal tar is carbazole. In addition to antiangiogenic activity, carbazole inhibited the production of inflammatory IL-15 by human mononuclear cells. IL-15 is elevated in psoriasis and is thought to contribute to psoriatic inflammation. Carbazole treatment also reduced activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which is proinflammatory and elevated in psoriasis. The effect of carbazole on upstream pathways in human psoriasis was determined, and carbazole was shown to inhibit signal transducer and activator of transcription (stat)3-mediated transcription, which has been shown to be relevant in human psoriasis. IL-15, iNOS, and stat3 activation require the activation of the small GTPase rac for optimal activity. Carbazole was found to inhibit rac activation as a mechanism for its inhibition of downstream inflammatory and angiogenic pathways. Given its antiangiogenic and anti-inflammatory activities, carbazole is likely a major component of the antipsoriatic activity of coal tar. Carbazole and derivatives may be useful in the therapy of human psoriasis.

  11. Kinetics of mesophase transformation of coal tar pitch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shui, H.; Feng, Y.; Shen, B.; Gao, J. [East China Institute of Metallurgy, Maanshan (China)

    1998-05-01

    A study on the kinetics of mesophase transformation of two coal tar pitches (CTP) with different primary quinoline-insoluble (QI) content is reported. It showed that the meosphase transformation of CTP studied was an autocatalytic type reaction. The rate law and rate constants for the mesophase transformation at holding temperature of 390{degree}C, 410{degree}C and 450{degree}C were determined and the rate constants of mesophase transformation follow the Arrhenius equation. Primary QI of CTP decreases the activation energy from 210.1 kJ/mol to 175.8 kJ/mol, and the pre-exponential factor from 2.12 x 10{sup 13} 1/h to 6.29 x 10{sup 10} 1/h; its influence on the rate constants is irregular. 8 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. A comparison of thermal conversion process for several coal tar pitches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Y.; Shui, H.; Yuan, X. [East China Metallurgical Institute, Ma`anshan (China)

    1995-03-01

    The property and constituents of coal tar pitch are of great importance to the production of raw material for needle coke. Structural constituents of five coal tar pitches were determined using {sup 1}H-NMR. Besides, thermal conversion process of these pitches in which primary quinoline in soluble fraction was removed by centrifugal separation method was also investigated. The experimental results show Baogang (I) and Meishan coal tar pitches meet the requirements of raw material for needle coke. The thermal conversion data was correlated with structural parameters. 6 refs.,1 fig., 1 tab.

  13. Flexural impact behavior of reinforced concrete with modified coal tar pitch carbon fiber%煤沥青碳紐维混凝土的抗弯冲击性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春艳; 王朝进; 董凤波; 胡敏

    2014-01-01

    本文采用自由落锤抗弯冲击装置研究了改性煤沥青碳纤维混凝土的抗弯冲击性能。随着纤维掺量的增加,混凝土冲击性能显著提高。纤维体积掺量为0.076%时,改性煤沥青碳纤维混凝土的初裂冲击次数、破坏冲击次数分别比素混凝土提高1458%、1462%,当掺量大于0.076%时,冲击韧性不再明显提高。%Flexural impact behavior of reinforced concrete with modified coal tar pitch carbon fiber was studied by free drop hammer device in this paper. The results showed that impact behavior of concrete was improved significantly with increase of fiber volume content. When it was 0.076%, first crack impact and fracture impact times of carbon fiber reinforced concrete were increased 1458%and 1462%than that of plain concrete. However, when more than 0.076%, impact behavior of fiber concrete was no longer improved.

  14. Dermatological exposure to coal tar and bladder cancer risk: a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofzen, J.H.; Aben, K.K.H.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Valk, P.G. van der; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Coal tar ointments are used as treatment of various skin diseases, especially psoriasis and eczema. These ointments contain several carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Metabolites of these polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are excreted in the urine and therefore, dermatological

  15. Dermatological exposure to coal tar and bladder cancer risk: a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofzen, J.H.; Aben, K.K.H.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Valk, P.G. van der; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Coal tar ointments are used as treatment of various skin diseases, especially psoriasis and eczema. These ointments contain several carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Metabolites of these polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are excreted in the urine and therefore, dermatological

  16. Production of Mesophase Pitch from Coal Tar and Petroleum Pitches using Supercritical Fluid Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZEL, Mustafa Z.

    2002-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) is currently being investigated as a possible technique in the production of high quality mesophase pitch from coal tar and petroleum pitches. Mesophase pitch is used to make high technology products, such as carbon fibre. The conventional production of mesophase pitch initially involves the removal of low molecular weight species from coal tar and petroleum pitches. The remaining residue is then transformed into a mesophase pitch through a polym...

  17. Relation Between PAHs and Coal-Tar-Based Pavement Sealant in Urban Environments (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, B. J.; van Metre, P. C.

    2010-12-01

    Since 2003, coal-tar-based sealant products have come under increased scrutiny as a source of PAHs in urban environments. Sealant (or sealcoat) is the black, shiny substance often applied to asphalt pavement, in particular parking lots and driveways, for esthetic and maintenance purposes. Coal-tar-based sealant, one of the two primary pavement sealant types on the market, typically is 20-35 percent coal-tar pitch, a known carcinogen that is more than 50 percent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The PAH content of the coal-tar-based sealant product is about 1,000 times that of a similar, asphalt-based product, on average. This difference is reflected in regional differences in sealant use and PAH concentrations in pavement dust. In the central and eastern U.S., where the coal-tar-based formulation is prevalent, ΣPAH in mobile particles from sealed pavement have been shown to be about 1,000 times higher than in the western U.S., where the asphalt-based formulation is prevalent (the median ΣPAH concentrations are 2,200 mg/kg in the central and eastern U.S. and 2.1 mg/kg in the western U.S.). Source apportionment modeling indicates that, in the central and eastern U.S., particles from sealed pavement are contributing the majority of the PAHs in recently deposited (post-1990) lake sediment, with implications for ecological health, and that coal-tar-based sealant is the primary cause of upward trends in PAHs in U.S. urban lakes. From the standpoint of human health, research indicates that mobile particles from parking lots with coal-tar-based sealant are tracked indoors, resulting in elevated PAH concentrations in house dust. Coal-tar-based sealcoat being applied to an asphalt parking lot at the University of Texas Pickle Research Center.

  18. Flood-induced transport of PAHs from streambed coal tar deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulava, Vijay M; Vaughn, D Syreeta; McKay, Larry D; Driese, Steven G; Cooper, Lee W; Menn, Fu-Min; Levine, Norman S; Sayler, Gary S

    2017-01-01

    We assessed whether coal tar present in contaminated streambed sediments can be mobilized by flood events and be re-deposited in an adjacent floodplain. The study was conducted within a contaminated urban stream where coal tar wastes were released into a 4-km reach from a coke plant in Chattanooga, Tennessee, USA. Sediments containing visible amounts of coal tar were dredged from the streambed in 1997-98 and 2007 as part of a cleanup effort. However, post-dredging sampling indicated that very high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) remained in streambed sediments. Sampling of sediments in the floodplain at two sites downstream of the coke plant indicated that high concentrations of PAHs were also present in the floodplain, even though no coal tar was observed in the samples. Age-dating of the floodplain sediments using (137)Cs indicated that peak PAH concentrations were contemporary with coke plant operations. While there was little or any direct contamination of the floodplain sediments by coal tar, sediment contamination was likely a result of deposition of suspended streambed sediments containing sorbed PAHs. A flood model developed to delineate the extent of flooding in various flood recurrence scenarios confirmed the potential for contaminated streambed sediments to be transported into the adjacent floodplain. It was hypothesized that coal tar, which was visibly "sticky" during dredging-based stream cleanup, may act as a binding agent for streambed sediments, decreasing mobility and transport in the stream. Therefore, coal tar is likely to remain a persistent contaminant source for downstream reaches of the stream and the adjacent floodplain during flood events. This study also showed that even after excavation of tar-rich streambed sediments, PAH contaminated non-tarry sediments may be a source of flood-related contamination in the adjacent flood plain. A conceptual framework was developed to delineate specific mechanisms that can

  19. Role of weathered coal tar pitch in the partitioning of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in manufactured gas plant site sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Muhammad F; Ghosh, Upal; Kreitinger, Joseph P

    2006-09-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in manufactured gas plant (MGP) site sediments are often associated with carbonaceous particles that reduce contaminant bioavailability. Although black carbon inclusive partitioning models have been proposed to describe elevated PAH partitioning behavior, questions remain on the true loading and association of PAHs in different particle types in industrially impacted sediments. In the studied MGP sediments, the light density organic particles (coal, coke, wood, and coal tar pitch) comprised 10-20% of the total mass and 70-95% of the PAHs. The remainder of the PAHs in sediment was associated with the heavy density particles (i.e., sand, silt, and clays). Among the different particle types, coal tar pitch (quantified by a quinoline extraction method) contributed the most to the bulk sediment PAH concentration. Aqueous partition coefficients for PAHs measured using a weathered pitch sample from the field were generally an order of magnitude higher than reported for natural organic matter partitioning, and match well with theoretical predictions based on a coal tar-water partitioning model. A pitch-partitioning inclusive model is proposed that gives better estimates of the measured site-specific PAH aqueous equilibrium values than standard estimation based on natural organic matter partitioning only. Thus, for MGP impacted sediments containing weathered pitch particles, the partitioning behavior may be dominated by the sorption characteristics of pitch and not by natural organic matter or black carbon.

  20. Topical tazarotene vs. coal tar in stable plaque psoriasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, U.; Kaur, I.; Dogra, S.; De, D.; Kumar, B. [Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education & Research, Chandigarh (India)

    2010-07-15

    The efficacy of topical tazarotene has not previously been compared with the conventional topical treatment of crude coal tar (CCT) in stable plaque psoriasis. In this nonblinded side-to-side comparison study, patients with chronic stable plaque psoriasis, who had bilaterally symmetrical plaques on the limbs, applied 0.1% tazarotene gel on the right side and 5% CCT ointment on the left side once daily for 12 weeks followed by an 8-week treatment-free follow up period. Severity of psoriatic lesions and response to treatment was evaluated by scoring erythema, scaling and induration (ESI). Of 30 patients recruited, 27 could be assessed. In the per-protocol analysis, the mean percentage reduction in ESI score at the end of the treatment period was 74.15% {+-} 9.43 and 77.37% {+-} 10.93 with tazarotene and CCT, respectively (P {gt} 0.05). A reduction in ESI score of {gt} 75% was seen in 11 (40.74%) and 16 (59.26%) patients with tazarotene and CCT, respectively, at the end of 12 weeks. Side-effects were seen in 48.14% of patients treated with tazarotene, but in no patient treated with CCT. Tazarotene 0.1% gel has comparable clinical efficacy to CCT 5% ointment. CCT ointment remains a cost-effective therapy for plaque psoriasis.

  1. Effect of tar fractions from coal gasification on nickel-yttria stabilized zirconia and nickel-gadolinium doped ceria solid oxide fuel cell anode materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente, E.; Berrueco, C.; Millan, M.; Brandon, N. P.

    2013-11-01

    The allowable tar content in gasification syngas is one of the key questions for the exploitation of the full potential of fuel cell concepts with integrated gasification systems. A better understanding of the interaction between tars and the SOFC anodes which leads to carbon formation and deposition is needed in order to design systems where the extent of gas cleaning operations is minimized. Model tar compounds (toluene, benzene, naphthalene) have been used in experimental studies to represent those arising from biomass/coal gasification. However, the use of toluene as a model tar overestimates the negative impact of a real gasification tar on SOFC anode degradation associated with carbon formation. In the present work, the effect of a gasification tar and its distillation fractions on two commercially available fuel cell anodes, Ni/YSZ (yttria stabilized zirconia) and Ni/CGO (gadolinium doped ceria), is reported. A higher impact of the lighter tar fractions was observed, in terms of more carbon formation on the anodes, in comparison with the whole tar sample. The characterization of the recovered tars after contact with the anode materials revealed a shift towards a heavier molecular weight distribution, reinforcing the view that these fractions have reacted on the anode.

  2. Beneficial use of the upwelling phenomenon in coal-tar remediation efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oudijk, G.; Coler, M. [Hydrotechnology Consultants, Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Manufactured gas plants (MGPs) were in operation in the State of New Jersey from about 1850 until the early 1930s. Large gas holders constructed of steel, commonly emplaced deep in the subsurface, were used to produce and store the gas. One by-product of coal gasification is a dense, viscous substance known as coal-tar which is commonly the source of many environmental problems in New Jersey. Coal-tar was often disposed of haphazardly and due to its high density, migrated downward causing significant contamination of groundwater supplies. Pools of coal-tar may be encountered at the bottom of an aquifer, becoming a continuous source of groundwater contamination. The purpose of this paper is to show that the physical phenomena observed during the upwelling of saline water, such as in coastal aquifers, can be applied in coal-tar recovery operations. Field data of coal-tar upwelling from an MGP site in New Jersey are applied to the salt water upwelling methodologies used in coastal aquifers. 2 ref.

  3. Toxicity of coal-tar and asphalt sealants to eastern newts, Notophthalmus viridescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bommarito, Thomas; Sparling, Donald W; Halbrook, Richard S

    2010-09-01

    Between 1970 and 2000 the concentration of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (TPAH) in several lakes across the country increased whereas those of other persistent organic pollutants (POPs) tended to remain stable or declined. Urbanized watersheds experienced greater rises in TPAH concentration compared to non-urban lakes. Sources for urban PAHs include industrial wastes, vehicular exhausts and oil leaks and sealants from pavement surfaces. Both coal-tar and asphalt sealants are used to protect surfaces but runoff from surfaces coated with coal-tar can have mean concentrations of 3500 mg TPAHs kg(-1), much higher than runoff from asphalt-sealed or cement surfaces. Unaltered parent compounds of PAHs can have many lethal and sublethal toxic effects, but oxidation and UV radiation can alter the toxicity of these compounds, sometimes creating degradates that are many times more toxic than parent compounds. The purposes of this study were to determine if coal-tar sealants can be toxic to adult eastern newts (Notophthalmus viridescens) and to compare the toxicity of coal-tar sealant to that of asphalt sealant. Newts were exposed to sediments containing dried sealants ranging from 0 mg kg(-1) to 1500 mg kg(-1) under simultaneous exposure to UV radiation and visible light to determine concentration/response relationships. No significant mortality occurred with any treatment. Significant effects due to sealants included decreased righting ability and diminished liver enzyme activities. Coal-tar sealant was more effective in inducing these changes than was asphalt sealant.

  4. Toxicity of coal-tar and asphalt sealants to eastern newts, Notophthalmus viridescens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bommarito, T.; Sparling, D.W.; Halbrook, R.S. [South Illinois University, Carbondale, IL (United States). Cooperative Wildlife Research Laboratory

    2010-09-15

    Between 1970 and 2000 the concentration of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (TPAH) in several lakes across the country increased whereas those of other persistent organic pollutants (POPs) tended to remain stable or declined. Urbanized watersheds experienced greater rises in TPAH concentration compared to non-urban lakes. Sources for urban PAHs include industrial wastes, vehicular exhausts and oil leaks and sealants from pavement surfaces. Both coal-tar and asphalt sealants are used to protect surfaces but runoff from surfaces coated with coal-tar can have mean concentrations of 3500 mg TPAHs kg{sup -1}, much higher than runoff from asphalt-sealed or cement surfaces. Unaltered parent compounds of PAHs can have many lethal and sublethal toxic effects, but oxidation and UV radiation can alter the toxicity of these compounds, sometimes creating degradates that are many times more toxic than parent compounds. The purposes of this study were to determine if coal-tar sealants can be toxic to adult eastern newts (Notophthalmus viridescens) and to compare the toxicity of coal-tar sealant to that of asphalt sealant. Newts were exposed to sediments containing dried sealants ranging from 0 mg kg{sup -1} to 1500 mg kg{sup -1} under simultaneous exposure to UV radiation and visible light to determine concentration/response relationships. No significant mortality occurred with any treatment. Significant effects due to sealants included decreased righting ability and diminished liver enzyme activities. Coal-tar sealant was more effective in inducing these changes than was asphalt sealant.

  5. Analysis of coal tar pitch and smoke extract components and their cytotoxicity on human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhitao; Wu, Yongjun; Zhao, Yong; Wang, Lixia; Zhu, Hansong; Qin, Lijuan; Feng, Feifei; Wang, Wei; Wu, Yiming

    2011-02-28

    Coal tar pitch and its smoke are considered hazardous by-products and common pollutant generated from coal industry processing. In this study, coal tar pitch and its smoke extracts were characterized by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) with dimethylsulfoxide. We identified only 0.3025% of components in the total coal tar pitch using GC/MS. Among 18 identified compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has the highest relative abundance (0.19%). The remaining components were composed of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heterocyclic compounds and alkenes. In contrast, among 38 coal tar pitch smoke extract constituents that have been profiled, 87.91% were PAHs, and the remaining 12.09% were composed of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heterocyclic compounds and alkenes. The cytotoxic effect of coal tar pitch and its smoke extracts on BEAS-2B cells were also evaluated by MTT assay. BEAS-2B cells exposed to coal tar pitch showed a non dose-dependent U-shaped cytotoxicity with a dosage for maximal inhibitory of 3.75 mg/L. In contrast, BEAS-2B cells exposed to coal tar pitch smoke extracts showed a dose dependent cytotoxicity with a LC(50) of 8.64 mg/L. Our study demonstrated the significant different composition and cytotoxicity of coal tar pitch and its extracts, suggesting two different underlying mechanisms that are pending future investigation.

  6. Preparation of organic light-emitting diode using coal tar pitch, a low-cost material, for printable devices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yamaoka, Miki; Asami, Shun-Suke; Funaki, Nayuta; Kimura, Sho; Yingjie, Liao; Fukuda, Takeshi; Yamashita, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    We have identified coal tar pitch, a very cheap organic material made from coal during the iron-making process, as a source from which could be obtained emissive molecules for organic light-emitting diodes...

  7. Mechanical characterization of Portland cement mortars containing petroleum or coal tar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcés, P.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses experimental data on the flexural and compressive strength of Portland cement mortars containing additions or cement replacements consisting in petroleum or coal tar, by-products of the oil and coal industries. The materials studied were two coal (BACA and BACB and two petroleum (BPP and BPT tars. The results show that it is feasible to use such materials as a partial replacement for cement in mortar manufacture. This should lead to the design of a new sustainable product that will contribute to lowering the environmental impact of construction materials while at the same time opening up an avenue for the re-use of this type of industrial by-products.En este artículo se presentan datos experimentales de resistencia a flexión y a compresión de morteros de cemento Portland con adición y sustitución de breas de petróleo y de alquitrán de carbón, que son subproductos de la industria del carbón o del petróleo. Los materiales estudiados son breas de alquitrán de carbón A (BACA y B (BACB, y dos breas de petróleo (BPP y (BPT. Los datos demuestran la viabilidad del uso de estas breas en la fabricación de morteros con menores contenidos de cemento, permitiendo diseñar un nuevo material sostenible con el medio ambiente y que contribuya a reducir el impacto ambiental de los materiales de construcción, hecho que permite abrir una nueva vía de valorización de estos subproductos.

  8. Coal tar creosote abuse by vapour inhalation presenting with renal impairment and neurotoxicity: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiemstra, Thomas F; Bellamy, Christopher OC; Hughes, Jeremy H

    2007-01-01

    A 56 year old aromatherapist presented with advanced renal failure following chronic coal tar creosote vapour inhalation, and a chronic tubulo-interstitial nephritis was identified on renal biopsy. Following dialysis dependence occult inhalation continued, resulting in seizures, ataxia, cognitive impairment and marked generalised cerebral atrophy. We describe for the first time a case of creosote abuse by chronic vapour inhalation, resulting in significant morbidity. Use of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-containing wood preservative coal tar creosote is restricted by many countries due to concerns over environmental contamination and carcinogenicity. This case demonstrates additional toxicities not previously reported with coal tar creosote, and emphasizes the health risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure. PMID:17892538

  9. Technology for the production of Zero Q.I pitch from coal tar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik, K.; Kumar, K. Rajesh; Rao, C. V. Nageswara; Kumar, B. Vinod; Murty, J. V. S.

    2013-06-01

    Zero Quinoline Insolubles (Q.I) pitch is a special type of pitch obtained from pre-treatment of coal tar, which is converted into pitch. This is used for impregnation of electrodes for improving the strength, electrical properties and also used as a pre-cursor for Mesophase pitch for producing Mesophase pitch based carbon fibers, carbon foam, and Meso carbon micro beads. This paper discusses the technology of Q.I separation from Coal Tar by using decantation of Coal Tar mixed with Heavy Creosote Oil (HC Oil) at different temperatures. By this method we were able to produce the Zero Q.I pitch with a Q.I value of 0.1%.

  10. Coal tar creosote abuse by vapour inhalation presenting with renal impairment and neurotoxicity: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiemstra Thomas F

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A 56 year old aromatherapist presented with advanced renal failure following chronic coal tar creosote vapour inhalation, and a chronic tubulo-interstitial nephritis was identified on renal biopsy. Following dialysis dependence occult inhalation continued, resulting in seizures, ataxia, cognitive impairment and marked generalised cerebral atrophy. We describe for the first time a case of creosote abuse by chronic vapour inhalation, resulting in significant morbidity. Use of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-containing wood preservative coal tar creosote is restricted by many countries due to concerns over environmental contamination and carcinogenicity. This case demonstrates additional toxicities not previously reported with coal tar creosote, and emphasizes the health risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure.

  11. Preparation and Morphological Study of Coal-tar-based Carbon Foam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xin-ying; ZHU Jiang-jiang; ZHANG Chang-xing; WANG Yi-min; WANG Yan-ping; YU Ming-fang

    2006-01-01

    A novel process for fabricating coal-tar pitch derived carbon foam was introduced. The coal-tar based mesophase pitch was characterized by Infrared Spectrum and Wide Angle X-ray Diffraction. Scanning Electron Microscope was used for the morphological study of carbon foam. The results showed that the pitch foam with pores of 300 - 500 μm and low density of 0.2 - 0.5 g/cm-3 could be successfully fabricated and further carbonized and graphtized to obtain a novel carbon foam.

  12. Skin cancer in patients with psoriasis treated with coal tar. A 25-year follow-up study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pittelkow, M.R.; Perry, H.O.; Muller, S.A.; Maughan, W.Z.; O' Brien, P.C.

    1981-08-01

    For many years, crude coal tar has been used for the treatment of psoriasis. The possible carcinogenic effect of crude coal tar and ultraviolet (UV) radiation (Goeckerman regimen), considered individually or in combination, has been of some concern to physicians. A 25-year follow-up study was completed on 280 patients with psoriasis who were hospitalized and treated with crude coal tar and UV radiation at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn, during the years 1950 through 1954. The results of this study suggest that the incidence of skin cancer is not appreciably increased above the expected incidence for the general population when patients are treated with coal tar ointments. It seems that the Goeckerman regimen (topical crude coal tar combined with UV radiation) can be used with minimal risk for skin cancer in the treatment of psoriasis.

  13. UTILIZATION OF ACTIVATED ZEOLITE AS MOLECULAR SIEVE IN CHROMATOGRAPHIC COLUMN FOR SEPARATION OF COAL TAR COMPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Retno Nurotul Wahidiyah

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Application of activated zeolite (ZAA as molecular sieve to separate compounds of coal tar from vaccum fractional distillation, have been done. The size of zeolite was 10-20 mesh and used as solid phase in column chromatography with length of 30 cm. The first step of the research was coal pyrolisis and the product (tar was distillated by fractional column and vaccum system at reduced pressure 44 cmHg and maximum temperature at 200 oC. The distillate from this procedure was flowed to the column chromatography of zeolite (ZAA. The compound absorbed by zeolite was eluted with varying solvents, i.e: CCl4, acetone and ethanol. Each fraction was then analyzed by gas chromatography. The results showed, zeolite have a capability to separate the compounds of tar and it tends to absorb medium hydrocarbon. The nonpolar eluent [CCl4] gives the better result in eluting tar compound than polar (ethanol or medium polar eluents (acetone.   Keywords: zeolite, coal tar, column chromatography

  14. 国内煤焦油市场分析%Market analysis of domestic coal tar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张婕

    2012-01-01

    分析了国内煤焦油产量、消费情况及地区的分布状况,论述了深加工和炭黑行业是煤焦油的主要消费方向。近2年来,受宏观调控、经济增长放缓等因素的影响,深加工和炭黑行业呈现弱势运行。%Analysis is done to domestic coal tar about its output, consumption and regional distribution. Further processing and carbon black industry are the main consumer of coal tar. The further processing of tar and carbon black industry have been running weakly in the recent two years due to the slowing economic growth affected by macro regulation.

  15. Coal tar induces AHR-dependent skin barrier repair in atopic dermatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaard, E.H. van den; Bergboer, J.G.M.; Vonk-Bergers, M.; Vlijmen-Willems, I.M. van; Hato, S.V.; Valk, P.G. van der; Schroder, J.M.; Joosten, I.; Zeeuwen, P.L.J.M.; Schalkwijk, J.

    2013-01-01

    Topical application of coal tar is one of the oldest therapies for atopic dermatitis (AD), a T helper 2 (Th2) lymphocyte-mediated skin disease associated with loss-of-function mutations in the skin barrier gene, filaggrin (FLG). Despite its longstanding clinical use and efficacy, the molecular

  16. Addressing airborne pollutant exposure at the source: an example of coal tar pitch volatiles (CTPV)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pretorius, Cecilia J

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Personal exposure concentrations to coal tar pitch volatiles (CTPV) were a concern in a workplace and the cause of the exposure was thought to be a particular raw material; as per the conventional belief. All the raw materials were analysed...

  17. 179 Extraction of Coal-tar Pitch by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Meyer

    Extraction of Coal-tar Pitch by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide. .... methanol in vials that were cooled with a mixture of ice and sodium chloride to avoid the loss of .... The data produced by our experiments may be utilised in a kinetic study of the.

  18. Coal-tar-based pavement sealcoat, polycyclic aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), and environmental health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, B.J.; Van Metre, P.C.

    2011-01-01

    Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have identified coal-tar-based sealcoat-the black, viscous liquid sprayed or painted on asphalt pavement such as parking lots-as a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in urban areas for large parts of the Nation. Several PAHs are suspected human carcinogens and are toxic to aquatic life.

  19. PAHs underfoot: Contaminated dust from coal-tar sealcoated pavement is widespread in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, P.C.; Mahler, B.J.; Wilson, J.T.

    2009-01-01

    We reported in 2005 that runoff from parking lots treated with coal-tar-based sealcoat was a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to streams in Austin, Texas. Here we present new data from nine U. S. cities that show nationwide patterns in concentrations of PAHs associated with sealcoat Dust was swept from parking lots in six cities in the central and eastern U. S., where coal-tar-based sealcoat dominates use, and three cities in the western U. S., where asphalt-based sealcoat dominates use. For six central and eastern cities, median ?? PAH concentrations in dust from sealcoated and unsealcoated pavement are 2200 and 27 mg/kg, respectively. For three western cities, median ?? PAH concentrations in dust from sealcoated and unsealcoated pavement are similar and very low (2. 1 and 0. 8 mg/kg, respectively). Lakes in the central and eastern cities where pavement was sampled have bottom sediments with higher PAH concentrations than do those in the western cities relative to degree of urbanization. Bottom-sediment PAH assemblages are similar to those of sealcoated pavement dust regionally, implicating coal-tar-based sealcoat as a PAH source to the central and eastern lakes. Concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene in dust from coal-tar sealcoated pavement and adjacent soils greatly exceed generic soil screening levels, suggesting that research on human-health risk is warranted.

  20. Simulation of Low-Temperature Coal Tar Hydrocracking in Supercritical Gasoline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Lei; Liu Zongkuan; Gu Zhaolin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper was preliminary design of the process for low-temperature coal tar hydrocracking in supercritical gasoline based on Aspen Plus with the concept of energy self-sustainability. In order to ensure the correct-ness and accuracy of the simulation, we did the following tasks: selecting reasonable model compounds for low-tem-perature coal tar; describing the nature of products gasoline and diesel accurately; and conifrming the proper property study method for each block by means of experience and trial. The purpose of energy self-sustainability could be pos-sibly achieved, on one hand, by using hot stream to preheat cold stream and achieving temperature control of streams, and on the other hand, by utilizing gas (byproduct of the coal tar hydrocracking) combustion reaction to provide energy. Results showed that the whole process could provide a positive net power of about 609 kW·h for processing the low-temperature coal tar with a lfowrate of 2 268 kg/h. The total heat recovery amounted to 2 229 kW·h, among which 845 kW·h was obtained from the gas combustion reaction, and 1 116 kW·h was provided by the reactor’s outlet stream, with the rest furnished by hot streams of the products gasoline, diesel and residue. In addition, the process lfow sheet could achieve products separation well, and speciifcally the purity of product gasoline and diesel reached 97.2% and 100%, respectively.

  1. A thermoanalytical study of the co-pyrolysis of coal-tar pitch and petroleum pitch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Perez; M. Granda; R. Santamaria; T. Morgan; R. Menendez [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Oviedo (Spain)

    2004-06-01

    Four pitch blends were prepared at laboratory scale by mixing a coal-tar pitch and a petroleum pitch in several proportions (CTP:PP 85:15, 70:30, 55:45 and 40:60). Single pitches and blends were characterized by standard procedures, infrared spectroscopy and size exclusion chromatography. Pyrolysis behaviour and interactions between the two pitches in the blends were studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DTG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results show that blending does not alter the composition of pitches. However, the TG/DTG curves reveal that coal-tar pitch and petroleum pitch interact actively during pyrolysis, modifying the temperature of initial weight loss and the temperature of the maximum rate of weight loss. Primary quinoline-insoluble particles present in coal-tar pitch and transferable hydrogen seem to be the main factors responsible for these modifications. The DSC curves show that the presence of coal-tar pitch in the blends reduces the reactivity of the petroleum pitch and shifts the exothermic peaks observed at the temperature of the cracking/polymerization reactions ({gt}400{sup o}C) to lower temperatures. 18 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Coal tar residues produce both DNA adducts and oxidative DNA damage in human mammary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadon, S A; Sumerel, J; Minton, T A; Tischler, A

    1995-12-01

    In the present study we compare the metabolic activation of coal tar, as measured by the production of both DNA adducts and oxidative DNA damage, with that of a single carcinogen that is a constituent of this complex mixture in human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC). We find that a significant level of DNA adducts, detected by 32P-postlabeling, are formed in HMEC following exposure to coal tar residues. This treatment also results in the generation of high levels of oxidative DNA damage, as measured by the production of one type of oxidative base modification, thymine glycols. The amounts of both DNA adducts and thymine varied considerably between the various coal tar residues and did not correlate with either the total amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) or the amount of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) present in the residue. Fractionating the residue from one of the sites by sequential extraction with organic solvents indicated that while the ability to produce both types of DNA damage was contained mostly in a hexane-soluble fraction, a benzene-soluble fraction produced high levels of reactive oxygens relative to the number of total DNA adducts. We find that the total amount of PAH or B[a]P present in the coal tars from the various sites was not a predictor of the level of total DNA damage formed.

  3. 21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740.18... posing a risk of cancer. (a) The principal display panel of the label and any labeling accompanying a... your skin and has been determined to cause cancer in laboratory animals. (b) Hair dyes containing...

  4. Implication of Coal Tar and Asphalt on Black Carbon Quantification in Urban Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Werth, C. J.; Ligouis, B.; Razzaque, M.

    2008-12-01

    Sorption to black carbon (BC) is an important process that controls the transport and fate of persistent organic pollutants in aquatic environments. Efforts have been made to measure BC in different environmental matrices including aerosols, soils, and sediments; however, few studies have attempted to evaluate BC in dust from urban streets or parking lots, which can be an important BC source in urban lake sediments. Methods to quantify BC in soils and sediments usually involve the removal of non-BC carbonaceous materials with chemical and/or thermal oxidation followed by elemental analysis. The presence of coal tar pitch and asphalt in urban pavement dust is hypothesized to potentially result in an overestimate of BC. The primary objectives of this research are to identify the distribution of BC in a small urban watershed and to investigate the potential interference from coal tar and asphalt on BC quantification by method intercomparison. Samples were collected from the Lake Como watershed in Fort Worth, Texas. They include dust from coal-tar-sealed and unsealed parking lots and residential streets, soils from residential and commercial areas, stream bed sediments, and lake sediment cores. After density separation, samples were subjected to sequential chemical treatments and thermal treatment. Commercial coal tar pitch and asphalt products were subjected to these same treatments for comparison. BC contents quantified with chemical treatment and chemo-thermal oxidation at 375°C (CTO-375) were compared with those characterized using organic petrography. The chemical treatment predicted greater BC contents than organic petrography in all samples, and the greatest difference is in the sealed parking lot dust. CTO-375 method also predicted greater BC content in this sample than organic petrography. Commercial coal tar pitch was resistant to thermal oxidation and both coal tar pitch and asphalt were resistant to the chemical treatment. These results indicate that

  5. Composition and Dissolution of a Migratory, Weathered Coal Tar Creosote DNAPL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin E. Scherr

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Opaque, viscous tars derived from the carbonization of fossile carbon feedstocks, such coal tars and creosote, are long-term sources of groundwater contamination, predominantly with poly- and heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH. The dissolution, ageing and migratory behavior of dense, non aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL coal tar blobs and pools forming at the aquitard is not sufficiently understood to estimate the risk and adequately design groundwater treatment measures at a contaminated site. In this study, we investigate the composition and dissolution of a migrated, aged creosote DNAPL and corresponding experimental and groundwater profiles using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC-MS. GC-FID unresolved compounds were attributed to methylated homocyclic species using GCxGC-MS in the Methylanthracene weight range. Equilibrium concentrations were estimated using Raoult’s law, assuming non-ideal behavior. Low molecular weight compounds were found to be prevalent even after decades of weathering, with Naphthalene (8% by mass representing the most abundant identified compound, contrary to the expected preferential depletion of hydrophilic compounds. Morevoer, dimethylnaphthalenes were relatively more abundant in the aqueous boundary layer than in the DNAPL. DNAPL migration over 400m with the groundwater flow effected lower viscosity and specific gravity of the migrated phase body in a superposition of weathering, transport and aquifer chromatography effects. Based on a decomposition of analysed and estimated constituents using the group contribution approach, reference DNAPL values for activity coefficients γi were used to model aqueous solubilities for selected compounds. Anthracene was close to its theoretical precipitation limit in the bulk DNAPL. While laboratory and modelled DNAPL dissolution behavior agree well, field data imply the presence of specific interfacial in situ processes significantly impacting dissolution

  6. Potential contributions of asphalt and coal tar to black carbon quantification in urban dust, soils, and sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Mahler, B.J.; Van Metre, P.C.; Ligouis, B.; Werth, C.J.

    2010-01-01

    Measurements of black carbon (BC) using either chemical or thermal oxidation methods are generally thought to indicate the amount of char and/or soot present in a sample. In urban environments, however, asphalt and coal-tar particles worn from pavement are ubiquitous and, because of their pyrogenic origin, could contribute to measurements of BC. Here we explored the effect of the presence of asphalt and coal-tar particles on the quantification of BC in a range of urban environmental sample types, and evaluated biases in the different methods used for quantifying BC. Samples evaluated were pavement dust, residential and commercial area soils, lake sediments from a small urban watershed, and reference materials of asphalt and coal tar. Total BC was quantified using chemical treatment through acid dichromate (Cr2O7) oxidation and chemo-thermal oxidation at 375??C (CTO-375). BC species, including soot and char/charcoal, asphalt, and coal tar, were quantified with organic petrographic analysis. Comparison of results by the two oxidation methods and organic petrography indicates that both coal tar and asphalt contribute to BC quantified by Cr2O7 oxidation, and that coal tar contributes to BC quantified by CTO-375. These results are supported by treatment of asphalt and coal-tar reference samples with Cr2O7 oxidation and CTO-375. The reference asphalt is resistant to Cr2O7 oxidation but not to CTO-375, and the reference coal tar is resistant to both Cr2O7 oxidation and CTO-375. These results indicate that coal tar and/or asphalt can contribute to BC measurements in samples from urban areas using Cr2O7 oxidation or CTO-375, and caution is advised when interpreting BC measurements made with these methods. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Potential contributions of asphalt and coal tar to black carbon quantification in urban dust, soils, and sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Y.; Mahler, B.J.; Van Metre, P.C.; Ligouis, B.; Werth, C.J. [University of Illinois Urbana Champaign, Urbana, IL (USA). Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

    2010-12-01

    Measurements of black carbon (BC) using either chemical or thermal oxidation methods are generally thought to indicate the amount of char and/or soot present in a sample. In urban environments, however, asphalt and coal-tar particles worn from pavement are ubiquitous and, because of their pyrogenic origin, could contribute to measurements of BC. Here we explored the effect of the presence of asphalt and coal-tar particles on the quantification of BC in a range of urban environmental sample types, and evaluated biases in the different methods used for quantifying BC. Samples evaluated were pavement dust, residential and commercial area soils, lake sediments from a small urban watershed, and reference materials of asphalt and coal tar. Total BC was quantified using chemical treatment through acid dichromate (Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7}) oxidation and chemo-thermal oxidation at 375{sup o}C (CTO-375). BC species, including soot and char/charcoal, asphalt, and coal tar, were quantified with organic petrographic analysis. Comparison of results by the two oxidation methods and organic petrography indicates that both coal tar and asphalt contribute to BC quantified by Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7} oxidation, and that coal tar contributes to BC quantified by CTO-375. These results are supported by treatment of asphalt and coal-tar reference samples with Cr2O7 oxidation and CTO-375. The reference asphalt is resistant to Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7} oxidation but not to CTO-375, and the reference coal tar is resistant to both Cr2O7 oxidation and CTO-375. These results indicate that coal tar and/or asphalt can contribute to BC measurements in samples from urban areas using Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7} oxidation or CTO-375, and caution is advised when interpreting BC measurements made with these methods.

  8. Potential contributions of asphalt and coal tar to black carbon quantification in urban dust, soils, and sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yaning; Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Ligouis, Bertrand; Werth, Charles J.

    2010-12-01

    Measurements of black carbon (BC) using either chemical or thermal oxidation methods are generally thought to indicate the amount of char and/or soot present in a sample. In urban environments, however, asphalt and coal-tar particles worn from pavement are ubiquitous and, because of their pyrogenic origin, could contribute to measurements of BC. Here we explored the effect of the presence of asphalt and coal-tar particles on the quantification of BC in a range of urban environmental sample types, and evaluated biases in the different methods used for quantifying BC. Samples evaluated were pavement dust, residential and commercial area soils, lake sediments from a small urban watershed, and reference materials of asphalt and coal tar. Total BC was quantified using chemical treatment through acid dichromate (Cr 2O 7) oxidation and chemo-thermal oxidation at 375 °C (CTO-375). BC species, including soot and char/charcoal, asphalt, and coal tar, were quantified with organic petrographic analysis. Comparison of results by the two oxidation methods and organic petrography indicates that both coal tar and asphalt contribute to BC quantified by Cr 2O 7 oxidation, and that coal tar contributes to BC quantified by CTO-375. These results are supported by treatment of asphalt and coal-tar reference samples with Cr 2O 7 oxidation and CTO-375. The reference asphalt is resistant to Cr 2O 7 oxidation but not to CTO-375, and the reference coal tar is resistant to both Cr 2O 7 oxidation and CTO-375. These results indicate that coal tar and/or asphalt can contribute to BC measurements in samples from urban areas using Cr 2O 7 oxidation or CTO-375, and caution is advised when interpreting BC measurements made with these methods.

  9. The use of solvents for purifying industrial naphthalene from coal tar distilled oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azpiroz, Gonzalez; Blanco, C. Gutierrez; Banciella, Casal [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC c/Francisco Pintado Fe, 26, 33011 Oviedo (Spain)

    2008-02-15

    The organic chemistry industry is based on organic compounds derived from coal, petroleum and gas. Coal tars derived from the carbonisation process are complex mixtures, of which the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) are the main component. One of the most important PAH's is naphthalene, which represents between 10 to 12% of the sample. In recent years, new applications for industrial naphthalene have been developed. However, the naphthalene required for high level industry must be extremely pure. New routes in the purification process are being studied to reduce the economic cost and environmental impact resulting from the increase in demand for pure naphthalene. Any alternative method to that of sublimation for purification in the distillation process and/or catalytic hydrogenation must improve the quality of industrial naphthalene, to make it suitable for the new applications. In the present work, an alternative method for purifying industrial naphthalene has been investigated. A new process based on extraction with solvents such as phosphoric acid and acetic acid is reported and discussed. Industrial naphthalene was purified by means of a new technique and the stability and good properties of the product were verified. (author)

  10. Effect of the bioemulsifier emulsan on naphthalene mineralization from coal tar in aqueous systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skubal, K.L.; Luthy, R.G.

    1994-09-01

    Coal tar in aerobic aqueous systems was treated with purified emulsan, the anionic heteropolysaccharide bioemulsifier produced by Acinetobacter calcoaceticus RAG-1; with inocula of various concentrations of stationary phase RAG-1 cells; or with cell-free broth from stationary phase RAG-1 cultures. Naphthalene mineralization by a mixed PAH-degrading population was measured by recovering {sup 14}CO{sub 2} evolved during biotransformation of the [{sup 14}C]naphthalene-labeled coal tar. There was no evidence of naphthalene mineralization by RAG- 1 cells alone. The addition of emulsan, RAG-1 inocula, or cell-free broth to systems containing the PAH-degrading population did not significantly affect naphthalene mineralization in any of the systems tested. Coal tar in these experiments was present either as a free dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL), or as DNAPL imbibed into microporous silica particles. Emulsification of the tar was not observed in either case. The presence or absence of microporous silica did not affect the extent or rate of naphthalene mineralization, nor did the concentration of RAG-1 inocula or the amount of broth added. The addition of cell-free broth, emulsan, or RAG-1 cells late in the experiments did not yield significantly different results compared to initial addition of these substances. Thus, emulsan and related fractions from RAG-1 cultures were ineffective in altering naphthalene mineralization in this study.

  11. Preparation of organic light-emitting diode using coal tar pitch, a low-cost material, for printable devices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki Yamaoka

    Full Text Available We have identified coal tar pitch, a very cheap organic material made from coal during the iron-making process, as a source from which could be obtained emissive molecules for organic light-emitting diodes. Coal tar pitch was separated by simple dissolution in organic solvent, and subsequent separation by preparative thin-layer chromatography was used to obtain emissive organic molecules. The retardation factor of preparative thin-layer chromatography played a major role in deciding the emission characteristics of the solution as photoluminescence spectra and emission-excitation matrix spectra could be controlled by modifying the solution preparation method. In addition, the device characteristics could be improved by modifying the solution preparation method. Two rounds of preparative thin-layer chromatography separation could improve the luminance of organic light-emitting diodes with coal tar pitch, indicating that less polar components are favorable for enhancing the luminance and device performance. By appropriate choice of the solvent, the photoluminescence peak wavelength of separated coal tar pitch could be shifted from 429 nm (cyclohexane to 550 nm (chloroform, and consequently, the optical properties of the coal tar pitch solution could be easily tuned. Hence, the use of such multicomponent materials is advantageous for fine-tuning the net properties at a low cost. Furthermore, an indium tin oxide/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:poly(styrenesulfonate/coal tar pitch/LiF/Al system, in which the emissive layer was formed by spin-coating a tetrahydrofuran solution of coal tar pitch on the substrate, showed a luminance of 176 cd/m(2. In addition, the emission spectrum of coal tar pitch was narrowed after the preparative thin-layer chromatography process by removing the excess emissive molecules.

  12. Preparation of organic light-emitting diode using coal tar pitch, a low-cost material, for printable devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaoka, Miki; Asami, Shun-Suke; Funaki, Nayuta; Kimura, Sho; Yingjie, Liao; Fukuda, Takeshi; Yamashita, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    We have identified coal tar pitch, a very cheap organic material made from coal during the iron-making process, as a source from which could be obtained emissive molecules for organic light-emitting diodes. Coal tar pitch was separated by simple dissolution in organic solvent, and subsequent separation by preparative thin-layer chromatography was used to obtain emissive organic molecules. The retardation factor of preparative thin-layer chromatography played a major role in deciding the emission characteristics of the solution as photoluminescence spectra and emission-excitation matrix spectra could be controlled by modifying the solution preparation method. In addition, the device characteristics could be improved by modifying the solution preparation method. Two rounds of preparative thin-layer chromatography separation could improve the luminance of organic light-emitting diodes with coal tar pitch, indicating that less polar components are favorable for enhancing the luminance and device performance. By appropriate choice of the solvent, the photoluminescence peak wavelength of separated coal tar pitch could be shifted from 429 nm (cyclohexane) to 550 nm (chloroform), and consequently, the optical properties of the coal tar pitch solution could be easily tuned. Hence, the use of such multicomponent materials is advantageous for fine-tuning the net properties at a low cost. Furthermore, an indium tin oxide/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate)/coal tar pitch/LiF/Al system, in which the emissive layer was formed by spin-coating a tetrahydrofuran solution of coal tar pitch on the substrate, showed a luminance of 176 cd/m(2). In addition, the emission spectrum of coal tar pitch was narrowed after the preparative thin-layer chromatography process by removing the excess emissive molecules.

  13. Topical coal tar alone and in combination with oral methotrexate in management of psoriasis : a retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad PVS

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty five patients admitted with psoriasis were analysed. 16 patients received 20% crude coal tar and 19 patients received 20% crude coal tar along with methotrexate in a weekly oral schedule (15mg/wk. After 4 weeks of therapy there was total clearence in 52.6% of the patients with combination therapy, whereas only 12.5% of the patients with conventional therapy achieved this.

  14. Understanding the fate and transport of petroleum hydrocarbons from coal tar within gasholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulon, Frédéric; Orsi, Roberto; Turner, Claire; Walton, Chris; Daly, Paddy; Pollard, Simon J T

    2009-02-01

    Coal tars have been identified as posing a threat to human health due to their toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic characteristics. Workers involved in former gasholders decommissioning are potentially exposed to relevant concentrations of volatile and semi-volatile hydrocarbons upon opening up derelict tanks and during tar excavation/removal. While information on contaminated sites air-quality and its implications on medium-long term exposure is available, acute exposure issues associated with the execution of critical tasks are less understood. Calculations indicated that the concentration of a given contaminant in the gasholder vapour phase only depends on the coal tar composition, being only barely affected by the presence of water in the gasholder and the tar volume/void space ratio. Fugacity modelling suggested that risk-critical compounds such as benzene, naphthalene and other monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons may gather in the gasholder air phase at significant concentrations. Gasholder emissions were measured on-site and compared with the workplace exposure limits (WELs) currently in use in UK. While levels for most of the toxic compounds were far lower than WELs, benzene air-concentrations where found to be above the accepted threshold. In addition due to the long exposure periods involved in gasholder decommissioning and the significant contribution given by naphthalene to the total coal tar vapour concentration, the adoption of a WEL for naphthalene may need to be considered to support operators in preventing human health risk at the workplace. The Level I fugacity approach used in this study demonstrated its suitability for applications to sealed environments such as gasholders and its further refining could provide a useful tool for land remediation risk assessors.

  15. Groundwater contamination by organic bases derived from coal-tar wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, W.E.; Rostad, C.E.; Garbarino, J.R.; Hult, M.F.

    1983-01-01

    A fluid sample from a shallow aquifer contaminated by coal-tar wastes was analyzed for organic bases. The sample consisted of a mixture of aqueous and oily-tar phases. The phases were separated by centrifugation and filtration. Organic bases were isolated from each phase by pH adjustment and solvent extraction. Organic bases in the oily-tar phase were further purified by neutral-alumina, micro-column adsorption chromatography. Separation and identification of the organic bases in each phase were achieved by using capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-computer (GC-MS-COM) and probe distillation-high resolution mass spectrometry (PD-HRMS) techniques. Organic bases present in the aqueous phase included primary aromatic amines (such as aniline, alkylated anilines, and naphthylamines) as well as azaarenes (such as alkylated pyridines, quinolines, acridine, and benzoquinolines). The oily-tar phase contained acridine, benzacridines, dibenzacridines, and numerous other azaarenes, the elemental compositions of which were determined by PD-HRMS. Azaarenes in the oily-tar phase, varying in size from 6 to 12 rings, are reported for the first time. The origin and environmental significance of these compounds are discussed. ?? 1983.

  16. Ground-water contamination by organic bases derived from coal-tar wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Wilfred E.; Rostad, Colleen E.; Garbarino, John R.; Hult, Marc F.

    1983-01-01

    A fluid sample from a shallow aquifer contaminated by coal-tar wastes was analyzed for organic bases. The sample consisted of a mixture of aqueous and oily-tar phases. The phases were separated by centrifugation and filtration. Organic bases were isolated from each phase by pH adjustment and solvent extraction. Organic bases in the oily-tar phase were further purified by neutral-alumina, micro-column adsorption chromatography. Separation and identification of the organic bases in each phase were achieved by using capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-computer (GC-MS-COM) and probe distillation-high resolution mass spectrometry (PD-HRMS) techniques. Organic bases present in the aqueous phase included primary aromatic amines (such as aniline, alkylated anilines, and naphthylamines) as well as azaarenes (such as alkylated pyridines, quinolines, acridine, and benzoquinolines). The oily-tar phase contained acridine, benzacridines, dibenzacridines, and numerous other azaarenes, the elemental compositions of which were determined by PD-HRMS. Azaarenes in the oily-tar phase, varying in size from 6 to 12 rings, are reported for the first time. The origin and environmental significance of these compounds are discussed.

  17. The migration and monitoring of viscous NAPLs (coal tar and creosote) in the subsurface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, R. [Intera Engineering Ltd., Heidelberg, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    The high viscosity of nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) such as creosote and coal tar complicates efforts to monitor their mobility at contaminated sites. Viscous NAPLs can remain mobile for many decades after their application as a wood preservative, or after the closure of the facilities in which they were generated. NAPL-wet pathways in the subsurface can also lead to errors in residual saturation measurements. This abstract discussed issues related to creeping flow and the low seepage rates that are not accounted for using traditional measuring methods. Examples of creeping flow and the monitoring techniques used to assess it were presented for sites in British Columbia and Florida. The drainage of viscous NAPLs during water table declines was also considered, and a case study of a coal tar-removal procedures using polymer surfactant flooding was presented.

  18. Coal-tar pavement sealants might substantially increase children's PAH exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, E. Spencer; Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.

    2012-01-01

    Dietary ingestion has been identified repeatedly as the primary route of human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), seven of which are classified as probable human carcinogens (B2 PAHs) by the U.S. EPA. Humans are exposed to PAHs through ingestion of cooked and uncooked foods, incidental ingestion of soil and dust, inhalation of ambient air, and absorption through skin. Although PAH sources are ubiquitous in the environment, one recently identified PAH source stands out: Coal-tar-based pavement sealant—a product applied to many parking lots, driveways, and even playgrounds primarily in the central, southern, and eastern U.S.—has PAH concentrations 100–1000 times greater than most other PAH sources. It was reported recently that PAH concentrations in house dust in residences adjacent to parking lots with coal-tar-based sealant were 25 times higher than in residences adjacent to unsealed asphalt parking lots.

  19. Rheological behavior of coal-tar pitch modified with p-methyl benzaldehyde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Qi-lang; Li Tie-hu [Fuzhou University, Fuzhou (China). College of Materials Science and Engineering

    2007-10-15

    The chemical structures and morphologies of the pitches, including the parent coal tar pitch and the modified pitch, were analysed using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy. The rheological properties of the modified pitch were measured using a rotating coaxial-cylinder viscometer. It was found that many micro-fibers are uniformly distributed in the modified pitch due to the polymerisation between coal tar pitch and p-methyl benzaldebyde (PMB). The apparent viscosity of the modified pitch is 78-548 mPa.S over the temperature range 150-210{sup o}C when the shear rate is 100 s{sup -1}, indicating that the modified pitch has good rheological properties. The viscous activation energy E of the modified pitch becomes large with the decrease of toluene- soluble content and the apparent viscosity becomes small with the increase of shear rate. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. A pragmatic approach to standard setting--the example of coal tar products and asphalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, J P; Haines, A T; Verma, D K

    1989-01-01

    This article will outline a pragmatic approach directed to incorporating key elements of a scientific review of the literature and derive a proposal for an occupational exposure standard for coal tar, coal tar pitch, creosote, petroleum pitch, bitumen and asphalt, six substances which contain polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. Five approaches to the standard setting process are reviewed and their strengths and weaknesses discussed. Unfortunately there does not exist an acceptable epidemiological data set, other than the coke oven emission studies, on which to base a valid and reliable risk assessment model. Based on comparative potency experiments of complex mixtures, consideration of the state-of-the-art sampling and analytical methods, prevention of acute human health effects, and current existing standards for these substances throughout the world, a set of recommended exposure standards are derived for health policy makers.

  1. Occupational exposure to coal tar pitch volatiles, benzo/a/pyrene and dust in tyre production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogaczewska, T; Ligocka, D

    1994-01-01

    Occupational exposure to coal tar pitch volatiles (CTPVs), benzo/a/pyrene (BaP) and dust was evaluated by means of individual measurements carried out in 80 workers and by stationary measurements on 16 work-posts in two divisions of the tyre producing plant. Dust and coal tar pitch volatiles concentrations in the air were determinated by the gravimetric method, measured, in the case of CPTVs, benzene-soluble fraction (BSF) with ultrasonic extraction. Benzo/a/pyrene analysis was performed using high performance liquid chromato-graphy (HPLC) with a spectrofluorimetric detector. It was found that nearly all personal sampling results for BaP were within the range 90%) which exceeded the admissible value (4 mg/m3) was found mainly only in the workers of the Semiproducts Division at some work-posts.

  2. Calcipotriol versus coal tar: a prospective randomized study in stable plaque psoriasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, V.; Kaur, I.; Kumar, B. [Postgraduate Institute of Medicinal Education & Research, Chandigarh (India)

    2003-10-01

    Topical therapies are the first line of treatment for patients with stable plaque psoriasis (SPP) affecting a limited body surface area. Very few trials comparing newer agents, such as 0.005% topical calcipotriol, with conventional modes of therapy, such as coal tar ointment, have been reported. A prospective, right-left randomized, investigator-blinded study with a 12-week treatment period and an 8-week follow-up period was performed. It was found that 0.005% calcipotriol ointment produced a faster initial response and had better cosmetic acceptability in patients, although after a long period of treatment, i.e. 12 weeks, 5% coal tar ointment had comparable efficacy. There was no statistically significant difference in the relapse rates between the two modalities.

  3. Importance of heterocylic aromatic compounds in monitored natural attenuation for coal tar contaminated aquifers: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Philipp; Sagner, Anne; Tiehm, Andreas; Martus, Peter; Wendel, Thomas; Grathwohl, Peter

    2011-11-01

    NSO heterocycles (HET) are typical constituents of coal tars. However, HET are not yet routinely monitored, although HET are relatively toxic coal tar constituents. The main objectives of the study is therefore to review previous studies and to analyse HET at coal tar polluted sites in order to assess the relevance of HET as part of monitored natural attenuation (MNA) or any other long-term monitoring programme. Hence, natural attenuation of typical HET (indole, quinoline, carbazole, acridine, methylquinolines, thiophene, benzothiophene, dibenzothiophene, benzofuran, dibenzofuran, methylbenzofurans, dimethylbenzofurans and xanthene) were studied at three different field sites in Germany. Compound-specific plume lengths were determined for all main contaminant groups (BTEX, PAH and HET). The results show that the observed plume lengths are site-specific and are above 250 m, but less than 1000 m. The latter, i.e. the upper limit, however mainly depends on the level of investigation, the considered compound, the lowest measured concentration and/or the achieved compound-specific detection limit and therefore cannot be unequivocally defined. All downstream contaminant plumes exhibited HET concentrations above typical PAH concentrations indicating that some HET are generally persistent towards biodegradation compared to other coal tar constituents, which results in comparatively increased field-derived half-lives of HET. Additionally, this study provides a review on physicochemical and toxicological parameters of HET. For three well investigated sites in Germany, the biodegradation of HET is quantified using the centre line method (CLM) for the evaluation of bulk attenuation rate constants. The results of the present and previous studies suggest that implementation of a comprehensive monitoring programme for heterocyclic aromatic compounds is relevant at sites, if MNA is considered in risk assessment and for remediation.

  4. Volatilization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from coal-tar-sealed pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Majewski, Michael S.; Mahler, Barbara J.; Foreman, William T.; Braun, Christopher L.; Wilson, Jennifer T.; Burbank, Teresa L.

    2012-01-01

    Coal-tar-based pavement sealants, a major source of PAHs to urban water bodies, are a potential source of volatile PAHs to the atmosphere. An initial assessment of volatilization of PAHs from coal-tar-sealed pavement is presented here in which we measured summertime gas-phase PAH concentrations 0.03 m and 1.28 m above the pavement surface of seven sealed (six with coal-tar-based sealant and one with asphalt-based sealant) and three unsealed (two asphalt and one concrete) parking lots in central Texas. PAHs also were measured in parking lot dust. The geometric mean concentration of the sum of eight frequently detected PAHs (ΣPAH8) in the 0.03-m samples above sealed lots (1320 ng m-3) during the hottest part of the day was 20 times greater than that above unsealed lots (66.5 ng m-3). The geometric mean concentration in the 1.28-m samples above sealed lots (138 ng m-3) was five times greater than above unsealed lots (26.0 ng m-3). Estimated PAH flux from the sealed lots was 60 times greater than that from unsealed lots (geometric means of 88 and 1.4 μg m-2 h-1, respectively). Although the data set presented here is small, the much higher estimated fluxes from sealed pavement than from unsealed pavement indicate that coal-tar-based sealants are emitting PAHs to urban air at high rates compared to other paved surfaces.

  5. Volatilization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from coal-tar-sealed pavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C; Majewski, Michael S; Mahler, Barbara J; Foreman, William T; Braun, Christopher L; Wilson, Jennifer T; Burbank, Teresa L

    2012-06-01

    Coal-tar-based pavement sealants, a major source of PAHs to urban water bodies, are a potential source of volatile PAHs to the atmosphere. An initial assessment of volatilization of PAHs from coal-tar-sealed pavement is presented here in which we measured summertime gas-phase PAH concentrations 0.03 m and 1.28 m above the pavement surface of seven sealed (six with coal-tar-based sealant and one with asphalt-based sealant) and three unsealed (two asphalt and one concrete) parking lots in central Texas. PAHs also were measured in parking lot dust. The geometric mean concentration of the sum of eight frequently detected PAHs (ΣPAH(8)) in the 0.03-m samples above sealed lots (1320 ng m(-3)) during the hottest part of the day was 20 times greater than that above unsealed lots (66.5 ng m(-3)). The geometric mean concentration in the 1.28-m samples above sealed lots (138 ng m(-3)) was five times greater than above unsealed lots (26.0 ng m(-3)). Estimated PAH flux from the sealed lots was 60 times greater than that from unsealed lots (geometric means of 88 and 1.4 μg m(-2) h(-1), respectively). Although the data set presented here is small, the much higher estimated fluxes from sealed pavement than from unsealed pavement indicate that coal-tar-based sealants are emitting PAHs to urban air at high rates compared to other paved surfaces. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Cancer risk from incidental ingestion exposures to PAHs associated with coal-tar-sealed pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, E. Spencer; Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.

    2012-01-01

    Recent (2009-10) studies documented significantly higher concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in settled house dust in living spaces and soil adjacent to parking lots sealed with coal-tar-based products. To date, no studies have examined the potential human health effects of PAHs from these products in dust and soil. Here we present the results of an analysis of potential cancer risk associated with incidental ingestion exposures to PAHs in settings near coal-tar-sealed pavement. Exposures to benzo[a]pyrene equivalents were characterized across five scenarios. The central tendency estimate of excess cancer risk resulting from lifetime exposures to soil and dust from nondietary ingestion in these settings exceeded 1 × 10–4, as determined using deterministic and probabilistic methods. Soil was the primary driver of risk, but according to probabilistic calculations, reasonable maximum exposure to affected house dust in the first 6 years of life was sufficient to generate an estimated excess lifetime cancer risk of 6 × 10–5. Our results indicate that the presence of coal-tar-based pavement sealants is associated with significant increases in estimated excess lifetime cancer risk for nearby residents. Much of this calculated excess risk arises from exposures to PAHs in early childhood (i.e., 0–6 years of age).

  7. Mass Transfer Coefficientin Stirred Tank for p-Cresol Extraction Process from Coal Tar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardhyanti, D. S.; Tyaningsih, D. S.; Afifah, S. N.

    2017-04-01

    Indonesia is a country that has a lot of coal resources. The Indonesian coal has a low caloric value. Pyrolysis is one of the process to increase the caloric value. One of the by-product of the pyrolysis process is coal tar. It contains a lot of aliphatic or aromatic compounds such asp-cresol (11% v/v). It is widely used as a disinfectant. Extractionof p-Cresol increases the economic value of waste of coal. The aim of this research isto study about mass tranfer coefficient in the baffled stirred tank for p-Cresolextraction from coal tar. Mass transfer coefficient is useful for design and scale up of industrial equipment. Extraction is conducted inthe baffled stirred tank equipped with a four-bladed axial impeller placed vertically in the vessel. Sample for each time processing (5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30minutes) was poured into a separating funnel, settled for an hour and separated into two phases. Then the two phases were weighed. The extract phases and raffinate phases were analyzed by Spectronic UV-Vis. The result showed that mixing speed of p-Cresol extraction increasesthe yield of p-Cresol and the mass transfer coefficient. The highest yield of p-Cresol is 49.32% and the highest mass transfer coefficient is 4.757 x 10-6kg/m2s.

  8. Mass transfer in stirred tank for phenolic extraction from coal tar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardhyanti, Dewi Selvia; Wibowo, Bahy; Rafiqi, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Coal production in Indonesia on 2014 reached 368.9 million tons. The used of coal utilization using pyrolysis process to produce coal tar is 15.8% by weight. Coal tar solution containing phenol as much as 8.06% (v / v) were extracted using a solvent of 80 % methanol. Time extraction is conducted for 30 minutes by making every 5 minutes. Samples are then separated to form two layers so that become layer of extract and raffinate. Extract and raffinate layer was then tested by using UV - Vis sektrofotometer so that the data obtained experimental results.The reserach about phenomenon and models of mass transfering and taking the phenol compound from coal tir is less. The result shows, the highest extracted of concentration phenol in 40°C, tank diameter 9cm, stirrer diameter 3,5cm, stirring speed of 250rpm and at 20 minutes extraction time got 2,35% concentration of phenol. Thus, the increasing temperature and stirred velocity will increase phenol concentration. In other hand, decreasing tank diameter will increase phenol concentration.

  9. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speight, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    Accomplishments for the past quarter are presented for the following five tasks: oil shale; tar sand; coal; advanced exploratory process technology; and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research covers oil shale process studies. Tar sand research is on process development of Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) Process. Coal research covers: coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts;advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO[sub 2] HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process; NMR analysis of samples from the ocean drilling program; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; and solid state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens.

  10. Characterization of Coal Tar Pitch and Paving Pitch by UV, EA and NMR%Characterization of Coal Tar Pitch and Paving Pitch by UV,EA and NMR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Yan-hua; FENG Rui-jie; CAO Su-mei; LIU Xiang-yong; GAO Ting; PAN Zhi-quan

    2011-01-01

    In order to enlarge the use of coal tar pitch(CTP) in paving road, CTP and 60th paving pitch (PP) were extracted by n-heptane, toluene and ethanol step by step in a Soxhlet apparatus. The three fractions of CTP and PP were detected using UV-absorption(UV-A) ,elemental analyses(EA) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) firstly as a whole unit after quality characterization of physical nature of CTP and PP were finished. The CTP had more saturate aliphatie and residue compounds dissolved in ethanol. On the other hand there were more continental type structures of aromatic ring than that of PP. There was almost no residue in PP after extracted by ethanol. The results explained why CTP was crisp in cold winter and was soften in summer. The following research will focus on how to change the chemical construction of CTP into the relative similar structures with those of PP through adding polymer.

  11. 煤沥青应用研究综述%On the Application of Coal Tar Pitch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高天秀

    2014-01-01

    煤沥青是煤炭经高温热分解后的副产物煤焦油经进一步蒸馏加工后的产物,煤沥青组成极为复杂,具有稳定的性能,以煤沥青为原料,经过进一步加工后可获得一系列重要的高附加值衍生产品;综述了煤沥青用作煤沥青涂料、筑路沥青、炭素工业浸渍剂和粘结剂以及中间相煤沥青等方面的应用原理和进展。%Coal tar pitch is a byproduct distillation heavy residue of high temperature carbonization of coal tar after all kinds of light fraction extracted .The composition of coal tar pitch is very complex ,and it has high performance .After further processing ,a series of important high value-added products will be obtained from coal tar pitch .Coal tar pitch as coating materials ,paving materials and impregnating and binder were reviewed in this paper .

  12. Implications of Use of Coal-Tar-Based Pavement Sealcoat on Urban Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, P. C.

    2015-12-01

    Coal-tar-based (CT) sealcoat is used to protect and improve the appearance of asphalt pavement of driveways and parking lots primarily in the central and eastern U.S. and in Canada. CT sealcoat typically is 20 to 35% crude coal tar or coal-tar pitch and contains from 50,000 to 100,000 mg/kg polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), about 1,000 times more than asphalt-based (AS) sealcoat or asphalt itself. Tires and snowplows abrade the friable sealcoat surface into fine particles—median total PAH concentrations in dust from CT-sealcoated pavement are 2,200 mg/kg compared to a median concentration of 11 mg/kg for dust from unsealed pavement. Use of CT sealcoat has several implications for urban streams and lakes. Source apportionment modeling has indicated that, in regions where CT sealcoat is prevalent, particles from sealcoated pavement are contributing the majority of the PAHs to recently deposited lake sediment, often resulting in sediment concentrations above toxicity thresholds based on effects-based sediment quality guidelines. Acute 2-day laboratory toxicity testing of simulated runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement to a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia) and fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) demonstrated that toxicity continues for samples collected for weeks or months following sealcoat application and that toxicity is enhanced by exposure to UV light. Using the fish-liver cell line RTL-W1, runoff collected as much as 36 days following CT-sealcoat application has been demonstrated to cause DNA damage and impair DNA repair capacity. These results demonstrate that CT runoff is a potential hazard to aquatic ecosystems and that exposure to sunlight can enhance toxicity and genetic damage. Recent research has provided direct evidence that restricting use of CT sealcoat in a watershed can lead to a substantial reduction in PAH concentrations in receiving water bodies.

  13. PAH volatilization following application of coal-tar-based pavement sealant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Majewski, Michael S.; Mahler, Barbara J.; Foreman, William T.; Braun, Christopher L.; Wilson, Jennifer T.; Burbank, Teresa L.

    2012-01-01

    Coal-tar-based pavement sealants, a major source of PAHs to urban water bodies, have recently been identified as a source of volatile PAHs to the atmosphere. We tracked the volatilization of PAHs for 1 year after application of a coal-tar-based pavement sealant by measuring gas-phase PAH concentrations above the pavement surface and solid-phase PAH concentrations in sealant scraped from the surface. Gas-phase concentrations at two heights (0.03 and 1.28 m) and wind speed were used to estimate volatilization flux. The sum of the concentrations of eight frequently detected PAHs (ΣPAH8) in the 0.03-m sample 1.6 h after application (297,000 ng m-3) was about 5000 times greater than that previously reported for the same height above unsealed parking lots (66 ng m-3). Flux at 1.6 h after application was estimated at 45,000 μg m-2 h-1 and decreased rapidly during the 45 days after application to 160 μg m-2 h-1. Loss of PAHs from the adhered sealant also was rapid, with about a 50% decrease in solid-phase ΣPAH8 concentration over the 45 days after application. There was general agreement, given the uncertainties, in the estimated mass of ΣPAH8 lost to the atmosphere on the basis of air sampling (2–3 g m-2) and adhered sealant sampling (6 g m-2) during the first 16 days after application, translating to a loss to the atmosphere of one-quarter to one-half of the PAHs in the sealcoat product. Combining the estimated mass of ΣPAH8 released to the atmosphere with a national-use estimate of coal-tar-based sealant suggests that PAH emissions from new coal-tar-based sealcoat applications each year (~1000 Mg) are larger than annual vehicle emissions of PAHs for the United States.

  14. A study on the effect of heat treatment temperature on mesophase development in coal tar pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Neha; Shah, Raviraj K.; Shrivastava, Rakesh; Datar, Manoj

    2013-06-01

    In the present study, a zero quinoline insoluble (QI) isotropic coal tar pitch was taken for the preparation of mesophase pitch. The pitch was heated in inert atmosphere at different heat treatment temperatures keeping same heating rate and soaking time to study the formation, growth and coalescence of mesophase spheres in the pitch. Such pitches were characterized for insoluble content (QI & TI), mesophase content, sulphur content, weight loss in inert atmosphere, softening point, coking value (CVC), C/H ratio etc. Results show that the insoluble content (QI & TI) and mesophase content of pitch increase with increase of heat treatment temperature.

  15. Prostaglandin precursors in plasma phospholipids of patients with psoriasis: effects of treatment with coal tar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, A M; Horrobin, D F; Manku, M S; Huang, Y S

    1984-05-01

    Plasma phospholipids of patients with psoriasis have significantly reduced levels of dihomogammalinolenic acid (20:3n-6), arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) and adrenic acid (22:4n-6), the precursors of the 1, 2 and homo-2 series of prostaglandins (PGs). Concentrations of the 3 series PG precursor, eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) were normal. Hospital treatment with a coal tar regime produced a rise in 20:3n-6 to levels which were significantly above normal.

  16. Further Processing of Coal Tar Pitch%煤焦油沥青深加工利用综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永林; 李好管

    2001-01-01

    Further Processing of coal tar pitch to raise the additionalvalue is one of key subjects in coal tar pro cessing. This paper discusses the present situation of coal tar pitch derived products such as modified pitch, paving pitch, coatings, carbon fiber, needle-coke.%概述了国外煤焦油沥青深加工利用现状,并对改质沥青(浸渍剂、粘结剂)、筑路沥青、涂料、碳纤维、针状焦等煤沥青深加工产品的技术开发、生产及应用进行了分析。

  17. The effects of topical corticosteroids and a coal tar preparation on dithranol-induced irritation in patients with psoriasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swinkels, O.Q.J.; Kucharekova, M.; Prins, M.; Gerritsen, M.J.P.; van der Valk, P.G.M.; van de Kerkhof, P.C.M. [University of Nijmegen, Nijmegen (Netherlands). Medical Center

    2003-02-01

    Dithranol has been a mainstay in the treatment of psoriasis for more than 80 years. Although a safe approach, the irritation of the clinically uninvolved perilesional skin remains a major limitation of this treatment. Corticosteroids and coal tar solution have an anti-inflammatory potential. The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical and cell-biological effects of two topical corticosteroids and a coal tar preparation on dithranol-irritated skin. The expression of epidermal proliferation, differentiation and inflammation markers and the clinical irritation scores indicate that the application of a high potency corticosteroid is the best approach to minimise dithranol irritation.

  18. Isolation of a highly mutagenic aminophenanthrene from a coal gasification process tar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, D A; Stamoudis, V C; Peak, M J; Boparai, A S

    1986-02-01

    A major portion of the mutagenic activity associated with products and by-products of coal conversion can be ascribed to nitrogen-containing bases. We improved the extraction efficiencies for three- to five-ring aromatic bases by extracting them with a mixture of methanol and aqueous HCl, rather than with aqueous HCl alone. A complex mutagenic basic fraction of a coal gasification process tar was successively fractionated using cation exchange and reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The fractions were assayed for mutagenic activity and were chemically analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Aminophenanthrenes were identified as major contributors to the mutagenicity of the basic fraction. Aminonaphthalenes, aminobiphenyls, and their alkyl homologs were also present but were not detected as principal mutagens.

  19. Coal-tar-based sealcoated pavement: a major PAH source to urban stream sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, Amy E; Nguyen, Minh H; Baidar, Sunil; Sak, Peter B

    2014-02-01

    We used land-use analysis, PAH concentrations and assemblages, and multivariate statistics to identify sediment PAH sources in a small (~1303 km(2)) urbanizing watershed located in South-Central, Pennsylvania, USA. A geographic information system (GIS) was employed to quantify land-use features that may serve as PAH sources. Urban PAH concentrations were three times higher than rural levels, and were significantly and highly correlated with combined residential/commercial/industrial land use. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to group sediments with similar PAH assemblages, and correlation analysis compared PAH sediment assemblages to common PAH sources. The strongest correlations were observed between rural sediments (n = 7) and coke-oven emissions sources (r = 0.69-0.78, n = 5), and between urban sediments (n = 22) and coal-tar-based sealcoat dust (r = 0.94, n = 47) suggesting that coal-tar-based sealcoat is an important urban PAH source in this watershed linked to residential and commercial/industrial land use.

  20. Microstructural investigations of carbon foams derived from modified coal-tar pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzvetkov, George; Tsyntsarski, Boyko; Balashev, Konstantin; Spassov, Tony

    2016-10-01

    This work reports the microstructural evaluation of carbon foams derived from coal-tar pitch precursors treated with H2SO4 and HNO3 and finally annealed at 1000°C and 2000°C. Our experimental investigations combine scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and micro-spot near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (μ-NEXAFS) spectroscopy. This set of complementary techniques provides detailed structural and chemical information of the surface and the bulk of the carbon foams. The high-resolution microscopy data indicate the formation of carbonaceous amorphous microspheres (average diameters of 0.28±0.01μm) embedded in the partially graphitized carbon foam matrix at 1000°C. The microspheres are enriched with sp-bonded species and their microstructural characteristics depend on the reagent (nitric vs. sulfuric acid) used for pitch treatment. A complete chemical transformation of the microspheres at temperatures >1000°C occurs and at 2000°C they are spectroscopically identical with the bulk material (sp(2)- and sp(3)-hybridised forms of carbon). The microstructure-property relationship is exemplified by the compressive strength measurements. These results allow a better description of coal-tar pitch-derived carbon foams at the atomic level, and may account for a better understanding of the processes during graphitization step.

  1. Estrogen receptor- and aryl hydrocarbon receptor- mediated activities of a coal-tar creosote

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fielden, M.R.; Wu, Z.F.; Sinal, C.J.; Jury, H.H.; Bend, J.R.; Hammond, G.L.; Zacharewski, T.R. [Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (USA). Dept. of Biochemistry

    2000-05-01

    A coal-tar creosote was examined for estrogen receptor (ER)- and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated activity using a battery of mechanistically based assays. In vitro, creosote was found to bind the mouse ER, bind to the human sex hormone-binding globulin, and elicit partial agonist activity in reporter gene assays in transiently transfected MCF-7 cells. Based on competitive binding to the mouse ER, creosote contains approximately 165 mg/L of estradiol- equivalents. Creosote effectively transformed the AhR in vitro and induced a Cyp 1a1-regulated luciferase reporter gene in transiently transfected Hepa 1c1c7 cells. Based on dose-response curves, creosote contains approximately 730 mg/L of dioxin-equivalents. Creosote did not exhibit any AhR-mediated antiestrogenic activity in vitro. In vivo, creosote significantly induced liver pentoxyresorufin O- depentylation and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylation (EROD) in a dose-dependent manner in ovariectomized (OVX) ICR mice, but did not increase uterine weight wet or vaginal cornification, due possibly to AhR-mediated antiestrogenic activity. In OVX DBA/2 mice, a strain less responsive to AhR ligands, creosote induced liver EROD to a lesser extent, but still did not show an increase in uterine wet weight or vaginal cornification. These results demonstrate that coal- tar creosote exhibits AhR- and ER-mediated activity in vitro, but its dioxinlike activity may suppress estrogenic response in vivo.

  2. Coal-tar-based parking lot sealcoat: an unrecognized source of PAH to settled house dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Barbara J; Metre, Peter C Van; Wilson, Jennifer T; Musgrove, Marylynn; Burbank, Teresa L; Ennis, Thomas E; Bashara, Thomas J

    2010-02-01

    Despite much speculation, the principal factors controlling concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in settled house dust (SHD) have not yet been identified. In response to recent reports that dust from pavement with coal-tar-based sealcoat contains extremely high concentrations of PAH, we measured PAH in SHD from 23 apartments and in dust from their associated parking lots, one-half of which had coal-tar-based sealcoat (CT). The median concentration of total PAH (T-PAH) in dust from CT parking lots (4760 microg/g, n = 11) was 530 times higher than that from parking lots with other pavement surface types (asphalt-based sealcoat, unsealed asphalt, concrete [median 9.0 microg/g, n = 12]). T-PAH in SHD from apartments with CT parking lots (median 129 microg/g) was 25 times higher than that in SHD from apartments with parking lots with other pavement surface types (median 5.1 microg/g). Presence or absence of CT on a parking lot explained 48% of the variance in log-transformed T-PAH in SHD. Urban land-use intensity near the residence also had a significant but weaker relation to T-PAH. No other variables tested, including carpeting, frequency of vacuuming, and indoor burning, were significant.

  3. Microporous Organic Polymers Based on Hyper-Crosslinked Coal Tar: Preparation and Application for Gas Adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hui; Ding, Lei; Bai, Hua; Li, Lei

    2017-02-08

    Hyper-crosslinked polymers (HCPs) are promising materials for gas capture and storage, but high cost and complicated preparation limit their practical application. In this paper, a new type of HCPs (CTHPs) was synthesized through a one-step mild Friedel-Crafts reaction with low-cost coal tar as the starting material. Chloroform was utilized as both solvent and crosslinker to generate a three-dimensional crosslinked network with abundant micropores. The maximum BET surface area of the prepared CTHPs could reach up to 929 m(2)  g(-1) . Owing to the high affinity between the heteroatoms on the coal-tar building blocks and the CO2 molecules, the adsorption capacity of CTHPs towards CO2 reached up to 14.2 wt % (1.0 bar, 273 K) with a high selectivity (CO2 /N2 =32.3). Furthermore, the obtained CTHPs could adsorb 1.27 wt % H2 at 1.0 bar and 77.3 K, and also showed capacity for the capture of high organic vapors at room temperature. In comparison with other reported porous organic polymers, CTHPs have the advantages of low-cost, easy preparation, and high gas-adsorption performance, making them suitable for mass production and practical use in the future.

  4. Estrogen receptor- and aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated activities of a coal-tar creosote

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fielden, M.R.; Wu, Z.F.; Sinal, C.J.; Jury, H.H.; Bend, J.R.; Hammond, G.L.; Zacharewski, T.R.

    2000-05-01

    A coal-tar creosote was examined for estrogen receptor (ER)- and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated activity using a battery of mechanistically based assays. In vitro, creosote was found to bind to the mouse ER, bind to the human sex hormone-binding globulin, and elicit partial agonist activity in reporter gene assays in transiently transfected MCF-7 cells. Based on competitive binding to the mouse ER, creosote contains approximately 165 mg/L of estradiol-equivalents. Creosote effectively transformed the AhR in vitro and induced a Cyplal-regulated luciferase reporter gene in transiently transfected Hepa 1c1c7 cells. Based on dose-response curves, creosote contains approximately 730 mg/L of dioxin-equivalents. Creosote did not exhibit any AhR-mediated antiestrogenic activity in vitro. In vivo, creosote significantly induced liver pentoxyresorufin O-depentylation and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylation (EROD) in a dose-dependent manner in ovariectomized (OVX) ICR mice, but did not increase uterine weight wet or vaginal cornification, due possibly to AhR-mediated antiestrogenic activity. In OVX DBA/2 mice, a strain less responsive to AhR ligands, creosote induced liver EROD to a lesser extent, but still did not show an increase in uterine wet weight or vaginal cornification. These results demonstrate that coal-tar creosote exhibits AhR- and ER-mediated activity in vitro, but its dioxinlike activity may suppress estrogenic responses in vivo.

  5. Investigation on the carcinogenic effects of coal tar pitch in rat respiratory tract by intratracheal instillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, F; Wang, L; Zhao, Q; Zhu, Q; Wu, Y; Chen, C; Syrjänen, S; Syrjänen, K

    1992-02-01

    The effects of coal tar pitch (CTP) on the tracheobronchial mucosa of Wistar rats were studied. Three groups of animals received 10 weekly intratracheal instillations of CTP at the cumulative doses of 6.48, 136.56 and 200 mg respectively. The control group of rats received 10 weekly intratracheal instillations of charcoal powder at a cumulative dose of 20 mg. The study in which the animals were killed serially revealed that CTP had conspicuous damage on the respiratory system of rats, especially on the bronchiolo-alveolar areas. The lesions induced by CTP ranged from hyperplastic, metaplastic and dysplastic changes to extensive cancers. These lesions were usually multifocal, and were more severe in the rats receiving higher dosages of CTP. The deposition of CTP particles within or adjacent to these lesions could be readily identified. Lung cancers occurred in 12.5% (4/32) and 25% (10/40) of the rats treated with 136.56 and 200 mg of CTP, whereas no tumors were found in control rats and the rats that received 6.48 mg of CTP. The overall cancer incidence significantly related to the cumulative dose of CTP. The histological types of lung cancers consisted of squamous cell carcinomas (10 out of the 14 lung cancers), adenocarcinoma (1/14), and combined squamous and adenocarcinomas (3/14). The development of CTP-induced rat lung cancers appears to derive from the hyperplasias of bronchiolo-alveolar epithelium, and processing stages of squamous metaplasias and/or dysplasias to carcinomas. The present results confirmed the carcinogenic effects of CTP on the respiratory system of rats, and provided experimental evidence for human lung carcinogenesis, particularly in those occupationally exposed to coal tars or tar products.

  6. Coliquefaction of coal, tar sand bitumen and plastic (interaction among coal, bitumen and plastic); Sekitan/tar sand bitumen/plastic no kyoekika ni okeru kyozon busshitsu no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, H.; Okuyama, Y.; Matsubara, K. [NKK Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Kamo, T.; Sato, Y. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    For the improvement of economy, coliquefaction of coal, tar sand bitumen and plastic was performed under low hydrogen pressure, to investigate the influence of interaction among these on the liquefaction characteristics. For comparison, coliquefaction was also performed under the hydrogen pressure same as the NEDOL process. In addition, for clarifying its reaction mechanism, coliquefaction of dibenzyl and plastic was performed as a model experiment, to illustrate the distribution of products and composition of oil, and to discuss the interaction between dibenzyl and various plastics, and between various plastics. Under direct coal liquefaction conditions, coprocessing of Tanito Harum coal, Athabasca tar sand and plastic was carried out under low hydrogen pressure with an autoclave. The observed value of oil yield was higher than the calculated value based on the values from separate liquefaction of coal and plastic, which suggested the interaction between coal and the mixed plastic. The results of coliquefaction of coal, tar sand bitumen and plastic could be explained from the obtained oil yield and its composition by the coliquefaction of dibenzyl and plastic. 2 refs., 3 tabs.

  7. Coal-tar-based pavement sealcoat and PAHs: implications for the environment, human health, and stormwater management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Crane, Judy L.; Watts, Alison W.; Scoggins, Mateo; Williams, E. Spencer

    2012-01-01

    Coal-tar-based sealcoat products, widely used in the central and eastern U.S. on parking lots, driveways, and even playgrounds, are typically 20-35% coal-tar pitch, a known human carcinogen that contains about 200 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds. Research continues to identify environmental compartments—including stormwater runoff, lake sediment, soil, house dust, and most recently, air—contaminated by PAHs from coal-tar-based sealcoat and to demonstrate potential risks to biological communities and human health. In many cases, the levels of contamination associated with sealed pavement are striking relative to levels near unsealed pavement: PAH concentrations in air over pavement with freshly applied coal-tar-based sealcoat, for example, were hundreds to thousands of times higher than those in air over unsealed pavement. Even a small amount of sealcoated pavement can be the dominant source of PAHs to sediment in stormwater-retention ponds; proper disposal of such PAH-contaminated sediment can be extremely costly. Several local governments, the District of Columbia, and the State of Washington have banned use of these products, and several national and regional hardware and home-improvement retailers have voluntarily ceased selling them.

  8. Coal-tar-based pavement sealcoat and PAHs: implications for the environment, human health, and stormwater management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Barbara J; Metre, Peter C Van; Crane, Judy L; Watts, Alison W; Scoggins, Mateo; Williams, E Spencer

    2012-03-20

    Coal-tar-based sealcoat products, widely used in the central and eastern U.S. on parking lots, driveways, and even playgrounds, are typically 20-35% coal-tar pitch, a known human carcinogen that contains about 200 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds. Research continues to identify environmental compartments-including stormwater runoff, lake sediment, soil, house dust, and most recently, air-contaminated by PAHs from coal-tar-based sealcoat and to demonstrate potential risks to biological communities and human health. In many cases, the levels of contamination associated with sealed pavement are striking relative to levels near unsealed pavement: PAH concentrations in air over pavement with freshly applied coal-tar-based sealcoat, for example, were hundreds to thousands of times higher than those in air over unsealed pavement. Even a small amount of sealcoated pavement can be the dominant source of PAHs to sediment in stormwater-retention ponds; proper disposal of such PAH-contaminated sediment can be extremely costly. Several local governments, the District of Columbia, and the State of Washington have banned use of these products, and several national and regional hardware and home-improvement retailers have voluntarily ceased selling them.

  9. A hydrophobic ammonia-oxidizing archaeon of the Nitrosocosmicus clade isolated from coal tar-contaminated sediment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jung, Man-Young; Kim, Jong-Geol; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/07401370X; Rijpstra, W Irene C; Madsen, Eugene L; Kim, So-Jeong; Hong, Heeji; Si, Ok-Ja; Kerou, Melina; Schleper, Christa; Rhee, Sung-Keun

    2016-01-01

    A wide diversity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) within the phylum Thaumarchaeota exists and plays a key role in the N cycle in a variety of habitats. In this study, we isolated and characterized an ammonia-oxidizing archaeon, strain MY3, from a coal tar-contaminated sediment. Phylogenetically,

  10. 流化床热解煤焦油的降黏研究%Viscosity reduction of coal tar from fluidized bed pyrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余盼龙; 方梦祥; 唐巍; 王勤辉; 骆仲泱

    2013-01-01

    对循环流化床热电气焦油多联产热解所得煤焦油流动性差的问题采取了一系列的降黏研究.通过X射线衍射测试可以排除室温下蜡结晶影响煤焦油黏度的可能,对比了煤焦油和煤沥青的黏度和族组分差异,考察了喹啉不溶物对软化点的影响,结果表明,采取馏分油降黏是合理的.分别添加四种馏分油对煤焦油进行了降黏实验,通过色谱质谱联机分析馏分油的成分,认为既含亲水基又含憎水基的分子具有很好的降黏效果,而且含量越多降黏效果越好.通过添加四种单组分化合物的降黏实验和分析,进一步验证了所得到的降黏理论,而且可以判断同时含有亲水基和憎水基的分子降黏效果优于只含憎水基不含亲水基的分子.%For the poor fluidity of coal tar generated from circulating fluidized bed polygeneration system, a series of research was carried out to decrease the viscosity. Through the analysis of X-ray diffraction, the possibility that the wax crystal increases the viscosity at room temperature was excluded. The viscosity and contents between coal tar and coal tar pitch were compared, and the impact of quinoline insoluble on the softening point was also investigated. The results reveal that it is reasonable to employ the distillates to decrease the viscosity of coal tar. Four kinds of distillates were blended in the coal tar to improve the fluidity, and the composition of the distillates was gotten through the GC-MS analysis. It is concluded that the molecule which contains both hydrophilic groups and hydrophobic groups possesses a great effect on the viscosity reduction, and the more the amount, the better the viscosity reduction. Four kinds of mono-component additives were tested, and the theory was verified. For the viscosity reduction, the molecule with both groups is better than that with only hydrophobic groups.

  11. Study on non-isothermal kinetics for modified coal tar pitch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.; Shui, H.; Feng, Y. [East China Institute of Metallurgy, Maanshan (China). Dept of Chemical Engineering

    2001-04-01

    The non-isothermal kinetics for the mesophase transformation of Baogang-I coal tar pitch (I-CTP), soft pitch consisted of I-CTP and 18% phenanthrene residue oil (PRO) or I-CTP and 30% PRO have been studied in a thermal conversion unit. Kinetic parameters were calculated by using and integral method. Results showed that the process of mesophase pitch transformation could be described in first order reaction. The activation energy of I-CTP is 175.36 kJ/mol. But adding 30% PRO, which improved the reactivity of I-CTP with activation energy 138.07 kJ/mol, is not beneficial to the mesophase transformation. 7 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Study of the modification of coal-tar pitch with p-methyl benzaldehyde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qilang Lin; Tiehu Li; Yongbin Ji; Wenzhi Wang; Xiaoxian Wang [Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an (China). Department of Materials Science and Engineering

    2005-02-01

    Coal-tar pitch is modified with p-methyl benzaldehyde (PMB) in the presence of p-toluene sulfonic acid (PTS). The main characteristics of the modified pitches such as coking value, softening point and solubility are studied in this paper. The molecular structures of the modified pitches are studied using FT-IR and {sup 1}H-NMR spectroscopy techniques. In addition, the morphologies of the modified pitches are inspected with SEM, and the optical textures of resultant semi-cokes are characterized by polarized-light microscopy. Results show that the modified pitches have much higher coking value and {beta}-resins content than the parent pitch. There exist many microfibers with a uniform distribution in the modified pitches. Moreover, the modification results in an improvement in the optical textures of resultant semi-cokes. 28 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Monitoring coal-tar pitch composition changes during air-blowing by gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, A; Blanco, C; Santamaría, R; Granda, M; Blanco, C G; Menéndez, R

    2004-02-13

    A series of air-blown coal-tar pitches was studied by GC and GC-MS in order to achieve a deeper understanding of the behaviour of the different pitch components during air-blowing. Compounds present in the parent pitch were identified and quantified and then compared to those present in the air-blown pitches. The compounds observed were identical before and after the treatments, but the concentration of each compound changed with the treatment to a different extent depending on its molecular structure and consequently its reactivity to oxygen. The most reactive compounds were those with a mehylene-bridge in a five member ring, followed by those with a methyl group in their structure.

  14. Mechanism of co-pyrolysis of coal-tar pitch with polyvinylpyridine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grzyb, B.; Machnikowski, J. [Institute of Chemistry and Technology of Petroleum and Coal, Wroclaw University of Technology, Gdanska 7/9, 50-344 Wroclaw (Poland); Weber, J.V. [Laboratoire de Chimie et Applications, Universite de Metz-IUT, /Rue V. Demange, 57-500 Saint Avold (France)

    2004-08-01

    Co-pyrolysis of coal-tar pitch and poly(4-vinylpyridine) cross-linked with 25wt.% of divinylbenzene (PVP) or the oxidized form of the co-polymer (PVPox) was studied as a possible way of manufacturing of carbonaceous materials enriched in nitrogen. Interactions of pitch with polymers were evaluated using thermogravimetry, elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy in the DRIFT mode, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and optical microscopy. The tendency to depolymerization of PVP on heat treatment results in a little effect of the polymer on the thermal behaviour of the blend. PVPox is a stronger modifier of pitch carbonization behaviour and much more efficient source of nitrogen in the co-pyrolysis. The principal chemical interaction between pitch and PVPox is the dehydrogenative polymerization of pitch constituents induced by polymer oxygen groups. The oxidation of PVP does not affect the nitrogen functionalities transformation on pyrolysis.

  15. Porous carbon nanosheets from coal tar for high-performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaojun; Ma, Hao; Wang, Jingxian; Xie, Yuanyang; Xiao, Nan; Qiu, Jieshan

    2017-07-01

    A hydroxide-template strategy coupled with in-situ chemical activation is reported for the first time to fabricate porous carbon nanosheets (PCNSs) from coal tar. The thin PCNSs feature abundant short pores accessible for fast ion transport and high specific surface area up to 3235 m2 g-1 for ion adsorption. As electrodes for supercapacitors, the PCNSs show a high capacitance of 296.2 F g-1 at 0.05 A g-1 in 6 M KOH electrolyte, an excellent rate performance with a capacitance of 220.7 F g-1 at 20 A g-1 and a superior cycle stability with over 97.2% capacitance retention after 11000 charge-discharge cycles at 3.5 A g-1. This work paves a new way for efficient fabrication of sheet-like carbon materials with tuned porous structure from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons for high performance supercapacitors.

  16. Release of HCN, NH{sub 3} and HNCO from the thermal gas-phase cracking of coal pyrolysis tars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledesma, E.B.; Li, C.-Z.; Nelson, P.F.; Mackie, J.C. [CSIRO, North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Division of Coal and Energy Technology

    1998-05-01

    The release of HCN, NH{sub 3} and HNCO from the thermal cracking of coal tars produced by rapid pyrolysis has been investigated using a quartz fluidized-bed reactor coupled to a quartz tubular-flow reactor. Primary pyrolysis at 600{degree}C in the fluidized-bed reactor generated the tars which were subsequently thermally decomposed in the tubular reactor in the temperature range of 600-1000{degree}C. HNCO was the initial gaseous N-containing species to be evolved, its formation commencing from 600{degree}C. HNCO was found to be a significant N-containing product of tar cracking and some previous measurements of NH{sub 3} yields during coal pyrolysis are probably the sum of the yields of NH{sub 3} and HNCO. Both HCN and NH{sub 3} start to appear from above 700{degree}C. While NH{sub 3} reaches a maximum at 850{degree}C, HCN continues to increase at higher temperatures. It is suggested that NH{sub 3} may be formed from the interactions of N-containing species with donatable H on the soot surface. FTIR analyses of the tars demonstrate that increases in the temperature of pyrolysis result in a decrease in aromatic substitution. Kinetic parameters for the release of tar-N species as HCN were determined by measurement of HCN yields and by assuming that the reaction was first order in tar-N. An overall global rate expression of 10{sup 6} exp(-140 {+-} 15/RT)s{sup -1} was derived from the data. The rate expression suggests that nitrogen release during tar cracking is a complex process. 31 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil contaminated with coal tar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondrej Tischler

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are a group of serious contaminants of air, water soil and sediments. Persistence and accumulation of PAHs in the environment is due to their hydrophobicity and hence low solubility and bioavailability to microbial action. This work presents an evidence of biodegradation of PAHs in a soil sample taken from a coal gasification plant contaminated with coal tar. The degradation of the contaminant by indigenous microorganisms was studied under aerobic conditions at 15 ºC in a laboratory glass column. The oxidation kinetic of organic carbon was monitored by measuring the oxygen consumption rate and the carbon dioxide production rate. The biodegradation rates observed were in the range of 0.2 to 7 mg C kg-1 h-1. Approximately 14 000 mg kg-1 of the total organic carbon was completely mineralized to CO2 during 6 months. The sum of 16 EPA PAHs decreased from the initial concentration of 21 331 mg kg-1 to the value of 2 774 mg kg-1after 6 months of biodegradation. The thermogravimetric analysis revealed a 34 % weight decrease of organic mater content during the 6-month degradation period.

  18. Removal of phenol by powdered activated carbon prepared from coal gasification tar residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiong-Lei; Shen, Jun; Niu, Yan-Xia; Wang, Yu-Gao; Liu, Gang; Sheng, Qing-Tao

    2017-04-10

    Coal gasification tar residue (CGTR) is a kind of environmentally hazardous byproduct generated in fixed-bed coal gasification process. The CGTR extracted by ethyl acetate was used to prepare powdered activated carbon (PAC), which is applied later for adsorption of phenol. The results showed that the PAC prepared under optimum conditions had enormous mesoporous structure, and the iodine number reached 2030.11 mg/g, with a specific surface area of 1981 m(2)/g and a total pore volume of 0.92 ml/g. Especially, without loading other substances, the PAC, having a strong magnetism, can be easily separated after it adsorbs phenol. The adsorption of phenol by PAC was studied as functions of contact time, temperature, PAC dosage, solution concentration and pH. The results showed a fast adsorption speed and a high adsorption capacity of PAC. The adsorption process was exothermic and conformed to the Freundlich models. The adsorption kinetics fitted better to the pseudo-second-order model. These results show that CGTR can be used as a potential adsorbent of phenols in wastewater.

  19. Experimental Study of Integrated Ebullated-bed and Fixed-bed for Hydrotreating Mid-Low Temperature Coal Tar to Clean Fuel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Zhaohui; Yang Tao; Fang Xiangchen

    2016-01-01

    A new hydrotreating technology integrating the ebullated-bed (EB) and the fixed-bed (FB) hydrogenation was proposed to investigate the efficiency for hydrotreating mid- low-temperature coal tar to clean fuel, and multiple tests at the bench scale were carried out. The results showed that the distillates obtained from EB reactors were greatly upgraded and could meet the requirements of FB unit without discarding any tail oil. The naphtha produced from FB reactors could be fed to the catalytic reforming unit, while a high quality diesel was also obtained. The unconverted oil (UCO) could be fur-ther hydrocracked to clean fuel. It is found that the removal of impurities from the coal tar oil is related with the molecular aggregation structure and composition of the coal tar. Application of the integrated hydrotreating technology to the high-temperature coal tar processing demonstrated that more than half of heavy components could be effectively upgraded.

  20. 煤焦油的分离和优质煤沥青的制备%Separation and High-quality Coal-tar Pitch Preparation from Coal Tar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周建石; 魏贤勇; 李鹏; 丛兴顺; 窦有权; 宗志敏

    2011-01-01

    Coal tar is extracted sequentially in self-designed batch extractor at 25 ℃. The lightweight components are separated through a few columns chromatography. Meanwhile GC and GC/MS are used to analyze and classify the main compounds. Furthermore naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene and acearylenes are separated out from the lightweight components. Heavyweight components are prepared high-quality coal-tar pitches by R-134 evaporator device after reextracting small molecular compounds and the structural properties of coal-tar pitches are analyzed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.%常温下(25℃)使用自行设计的萃取装置对煤焦油进行分步萃取,所得轻质组分经过柱层析多级分离,使用气相色谱(GC)和气质联用(GC/MS)归类分析煤焦油中的主要化合物,分离出萘、菲、蒽、荧蒽、芘和醋芳烯等化合物纯品.所得重质组分经反萃取去除小分子后,通过R- 134蒸发器装置制备优质煤沥青,并使用红外光谱仪(FT-IR)分析其结构特性.

  1. Evaluation of the relationship between PAH content and mutagenic activity of fumes from roofing and paving asphalts and coal tar pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, M L; Beatty, P W; Fetzer, J C; Glickman, A H; McGinnis, E L

    1993-11-01

    Fume condensates from asphalt and coal tar pitch were evaluated to determine if polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) composition, crude oil source, or temperature at which the fume was generated correlated with mutagenic activity. The fume condensates were tested for mutagenic activity using a modified Ames Test. Benzo[a]pyrene (BP) and other PAHs were detected in all samples. The concentration of BP in coal tar pitch was 18,100 ppm while the concentration in asphalt was less than 6 ppm. Coal tar fumes contained between two and three orders of magnitude more BP, as well as other PAH species, than asphalt fumes. Coal tar fume condensates were also approximately 100 times more mutagenic than those of asphalt. Generation temperature, crude oil source, and/or process conditions affected the PAH concentrations but not the mutagenicity in roofing asphalt fume condensates. With paving asphalt fumes, PAH content and mutagenicity varied with crude oil source but not with processing conditions; due to limited data, it was not possible to determine the effect of generation temperature. Coal tar pitch fumes generated at 316 degrees C contained significantly higher concentrations of PAHs than those generated at 232 degrees C and the mutagenic activity generally paralleled the PAH content. A subset of the paving asphalts demonstrated good correlation between mutagenicity and three- to seven-ring PAH content. These results indicate that asphalt fumes are far less mutagenic than coal tar fumes. Asphalt fumes differ in their ability to induce mutagenic activity, and, most likely, in their potential carcinogenicity.

  2. Myeloperoxidase - 463A variant reduces benzo(a)pyrene diol epoxide DNA adducts in skin of coal tar treated patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas, M.; Godschalk, R.; Alexandrov, K.; Cascorbi, I.; Kriek, E.; Ostertag, J.; Van Schooten, F.J.; Bartsch, H. [German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany). Div. of Toxicology & Cancer Risk Factors

    2001-07-01

    The skin of atopic dermatitis patients provides an excellent model to study the role of inflammation in benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) activation, since these individuals are often topically treated with ointments containing high concentrations of BaP. The authors determined, by HPLC with fluorescence detection, the BaP diol epoxide (BPDE)-DNA adduct levels in human skin after topical treatment with coal tar and their modulation by the -453G into A myeloperoxidase (MPO) polymorphism, which reduces MPO mRNA expression. The data show for the first time: (i) the in vivo formation of BPDE-DNA adducts in human skin treated with coal tar; (ii) that the MPO-463AA/AG genotype reduced BPDE-DNA adduct levels in human skin.

  3. Preparation of mesophase from coal tar pitch%煤焦油沥青制备中间相

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arshad Hussain Wazir; Lutfullah Kaka Khail; Ghosia Lutfullah; Imtiaz Ahmad

    2003-01-01

    煤焦油沥青在微型高压釜中、氮气氛下,通过改变反应温度和停留时间,制取了中间相沥青(MP).采用FTIR、偏光显微镜、XRD和SEM对MP进行了表征,表明煤焦油沥青经脱氢缩合反应转变成MP.其最佳反应条件为400℃、7h.%Mesophase pitch (MP) was produced by heating coal tar pitch in a microautoclave furnace at various temperatures and residence times under nitrogen atmosphere. FTIR, Polarized Light Microscopy, XRD and SEM were employed to characterize MP, indicating that the coal tar pitch was transformed into MP through dehydrogenative condensation reactions. The optimum yield was found at 400℃ and 7h

  4. Mortality among employees of an Ontario factory that manufactured construction materials using chrysotile asbestos and coal tar pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, M M

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes mortality in a cohort of 324 men exposed to chrysotile asbestos and coal tar pitch used in the manufacture of electrical conduit pipe from a mixture of newsprint, bentonite, and asbestos. One death in a factory worker was attributed to pleural mesothelioma, and long-term employees experienced an increased risk of lung cancer (Standardized Mortality Ratio (SMR) 221; six deaths) and non-malignant respiratory disease (SMR 215; four deaths). In a case-control analysis, men whose jobs involved adding asbestos to the mix of raw materials were found to have a risk of lung cancer sevenfold higher (lower 95% confidence limit: 2.3) than men who had never worked at this job. Exposure to coal tar pitch is presumed to be responsible for the death of one worker from squamous cell carcinoma of the scrotum.

  5. Physical characteristics of cold cured anthracite/coke breeze briquettes prepared from a coal tar acid resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoms, L.J.; Snape, C.E.; Taylor, D. [University of Strathclyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom). Dept. of Pure and Applied Chemistry

    1999-11-01

    Phenolic resins were synthesised using the whole coal tar acid fraction of the oil from a low temperature carbonisation process. A series of briquettes were prepared using a number of coal tar acid concentrations, cured at ambient temperature with various concentrations of sulphuric acid and were subjected to a variety of physical tests. Excellent briquettes, in terms of mechanical strength, water-proofing characteristics and thermal degradation, were produced with both nominally 10 and 9% w/w resole solution and acid concentrations down to 1.8 M, corresponding to sulphur addition in the briquettes of ca. 0.2% w/w. Briquettes bound with 8% w/w resole solution, however, required stronger acid concentrations to satisfy the test conditions. When the briquettes were combusted up to 850{degree}C, they retained their core shape after 70% weight loss. 16 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. "无钠低灰"煤沥青对预焙阳极质量的改善%"Sodium-free and Low-ash" Coal Tar Pitch on Prebaked Anode Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢林峰; 徐香

    2011-01-01

    Shanxi Coking Co., Ltd. imported from Germany, super-centrifuge for removing water and slag, and licensed from France the advanced alkali IRH coal tar processing technology, the coal tar pitch thus produced had no sodium and with only little ash. The paper expatiates on the impact on the quality of the prebaked anode by the sodium ion and ash that exist in the coal tar pitch. Through analysis of the ash in the "sodium-free and low-ash" coal tar pitch and the sodium ion content, it can be predicted that the anode carbon consumption shall be reduced by 15kg/t of aluminum in the electroanalysis process of aluminum. This is a new way for the utilization of the excellent coal tar pitch.%介绍了山西焦化股份有限公司采用德国进口超级离心机脱水脱渣,引进法国IRH先进的后加碱煤焦油加工技术,生产的"无钠低灰"煤沥青产品质量指标.详细阐述了煤沥青在预焙阳极生产中的作用,重点分析了煤沥青中的灰分和钠离子对预焙阳极质量的影响.通过分析"无钠低灰"煤沥青的灰分及钠离子含量的数据,预测在电解铝过程中,该煤沥青可降低阳极炭耗约15kg/t铝,为优质煤沥青的利用找到一条出路.

  7. Monitoring the synthesis of new pitches from coal tar and its fractions by chromatography and related techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo, J; Fernández, A L; Prada, V; Granda, M; Menéndez, R

    1999-07-23

    The aim of this paper is to study the applications of chromatography and related techniques in the transformation of coal-derived products into pitches for specific uses. Anthracene oil, tar and pitch were thermally treated in the presence of air (and sulfur in the case of anthracene oil) in order to cause the polymerization/condensation of their components. The evolution of the components of the parent materials during the treatments was monitored by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-atomic emission detection, probe mass spectrometry and size-exclusion chromatography. From the results obtained, possible mechanisms for the transformation of coal-derived products into new pitches were established.

  8. Formation of DNA adducts in the skin of psoriasis patients, in human skin in organ culture, and in mouse skin and lung following topical application of coal-tar and juniper tar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoket, B; Horkay, I; Kósa, A; Páldeák, L; Hewer, A; Grover, P L; Phillips, D H

    1990-02-01

    Preparations of coal-tar and juniper tar (cade oil) that are used in the treatment of psoriasis are known to contain numerous potentially carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Evidence of covalent binding to DNA by components of these mixtures was sought in a) human skin biopsy samples from 12 psoriasis patients receiving therapy with these agents, b) human skin explants maintained in organ culture and treated topically with the tars, and c) the skin and lungs of mice treated with repeated doses of the formulations following the regimen used in the clinic. DNA was isolated from the human and mouse tissues and digested enzymically to mononucleotides. 32P-Post-labeling analysis revealed the presence of aromatic DNA adducts in the biopsy samples at levels of up to 0.4 fmol total adducts/microgram DNA. Treatment of human skin in organ culture produced similar levels of adducts, while treatment with dithranol, a non-mutagenic therapeutic agent, resulted in chromatograms indistinguishable from those from untreated controls. In mouse skin, coal-tar ointment and juniper tar gave similar DNA adduct levels, with a similar time-course of removal: maximum levels (0.5 fmol/microgram DNA) at 24 h after the final treatment declined rapidly to 0.05 fmol/microgram at 7 d, thereafter declining slowly over the succeeding 25 d. However, while coal-tar ointment produced only very low levels of adducts in mouse lung (less than 0.03 fmol/microgram DNA), juniper tar produced adducts at a high level (0.7 fmol/microgram DNA) that were persistent in this tissue. These results provide direct evidence for the formation of potentially carcinogenic DNA damage in human and mouse tissue by components of these therapeutic tar preparations.

  9. Reactions of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons with chlorine and chlorine dioxide in coal tar lined pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkel, T.; Maier, M.; Sacher, F.; Maier, D. [University of Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany). Engler Bunte Institut

    1997-12-31

    In the presence of disinfectants, PAH are remobilised from the coal tar lining of water distribution mains. Reactions of the PAH with chlorine and chlorine dioxide can lead to chlorinated PAH that might show higher mutagenic effects that the parent PAH. Detection limits in the lower nanogram-per-litre level for the determination of PAH and chlorinated PAH were achieved by using solid phase micro extraction and a gas chromatographic mass spectrometric device. Thus, the reactions of four PAH (anthracene, fluoranthene, fluorene and phenanthrene) with chlorine and chlorine dioxide under conditions and at concentrations of common practice in the drinking water distribution system could be investigated. In batch experiments with demineralised and drinking water at pH 7, the concentrations of fluoranthene, fluorene and phenanthrene remained constant, whereas anthracene reacted quantitatively with both disinfectants. The reaction of anthracene followed by pseudo-first order kinetics. In these reactions no chlorinated products could be detected, only monohydroxyanthracene and anthraquinone were identified. The toxic effect of a set of chlorinated and oxidised PAH was also examined.

  10. Kinetic study of mesophase transformation of coal tar pitches by programmed heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shui, H.; Feng, Y.; Shen, B.; Gao, J. [East China Institute of Metallurgy, Maanshan (China)

    1999-12-01

    The kinetics of mesophase transformation of three coal tar pitches were studied in a thermal conversion unit by means of programmed heating technique. The kinetic parameters were calculated and a method of the first order kinetic model of subsection was put forward. The first stage occurring at temperature roughly below 470{degree}C is the main stage of formation and development of mesophase. Cracking and dehydrogenation, and condensation polymerization take place, the active energy is up to 245{approximately}280kJ/mol. The second stage takes place above 470{degree}C is the stage of coalescence and rearrangement of mesophase, the active energy decreased to about 6kJ/mol. There is a close relation between the mesophase transformation and the structure of pitches. It has higher reactivity and rate of mesophase transformation for the pitch with more alkyl side chain and results in a large amount of mosaic optical microstructure in the thermal conversion residue, because the mesophase sphere has not enough time to coalescence and rearrange. The naphthenic structure pitch can promote the development and coalescence of mesophase. 7 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Determination of coal tar and creosote constituents in the aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, R C; Aneiro, K M

    1997-07-11

    Creosote and its parent material, coal tar, are complex mixtures. Upon release their components fractionate into the air, water, soil/sediment and biota; as a function of their physical and chemical properties. Therefore, assessment of their fate and concentrations in the environment must consider a wide variety of both compounds and matrices. Analyses are typically complicated, consisting of sample extraction, purification and chromatography-based final characterization steps. Several new techniques have been introduced to reduce or simplify the number of steps, solvent and time required. Recently developed extraction methods include supercritical fluid, accelerated solvent, microwave and solid-phase microextraction. On-line purification and coupling of extraction and chromatography have also emerged. HPLC and GC remain the major tools for performing the final separations. Application of mass spectrometry has increased as more reliable, versatile and less expensive units have become available, such as the ion trap and mass selective detectors. Fluorescence and diode array UV, in concert with HPLC, and C-, S- and N-selective gas chromatographic detectors are also being applied.

  12. Coal-tar-based parking lot sealcoat: An unrecognized source of PAH to settled house dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, B.J.; Van Metre, P.C.; Wilson, J.T.; Musgrove, M.; Burbank, T.L.; Ennis, T.E.; Bashara, T.J.

    2010-01-01

    Despite much speculation, the principal factors controlling concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in settled house dust (SHD) have not yet been identified. In response to recent reports that dust from pavement with coaltar-based sealcoat contains extremely high concentrations of PAH, we measured PAH in SHD from 23 apartments and in dust from their associated parking lots, one-half of which had coal-tar-based sealcoat (CT). The median concentration of total PAH (T-PAH) in dust from CT parking lots (4760 ??g/g, n = 11) was 530 times higher than that from parking lots with other pavement surface types (asphalt-based sealcoat, unsealed asphalt, concrete [median 9.0 ??g/g, n = 12]). T-PAH in SHD from apartments with CT parking lots (median 129 ??g/g) was 25 times higher than that in SHD from apartments with parking lots with other pavement surface types (median 5.1 ??g/g). Presence or absence of CT on a parking lot explained 48% of the variance in log-transformed T-PAH in SHD. Urban land-use intensity near the residence also had a significant but weaker relation to T-PAH. No other variables tested, including carpeting, frequency of vacuuming, and indoor burning, were significant. ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

  13. Response of microbial activities and diversity to PAHs contamination at coal tar contaminated land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaohui; Sun, Yujiao; Ding, Aizhong; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Dayi

    2015-04-01

    Coal tar is one of the most hazardous and concerned organic pollutants and the main hazards are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The indigenous microorganisms in soils are capable to degrade PAHs, with essential roles in biochemical process for PAHs natural attenuation. This study investigated 48 soil samples (from 8 depths of 6 boreholes) in Beijing coking and chemistry plant (China) and revealed the correlation between PAHs contamination, soil enzyme activities and microbial community structure, by 16S rRNA denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). At the site, the key contaminants were identified as naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene and anthracene, and the total PAHs concentration ranged from 0.1 to 923.9 mg/kg dry soil. The total PAHs contamination level was positively correlated (psoil), showing the significant response of microbial population and degrading functions to the organic contamination in soils. The PAHs contamination stimulated the PAHs degrading microbes and promoted their biochemical roles in situ. The positive relationship between bacteria count and dehydrogenase activities (psoil microbial functions at the PAHs heavily contaminated sites, offering deeper understanding on the roles of indigenous microbial community in natural attenuation process.

  14. Embryotoxic and teratogenic effects of aqueous extracts of tar from a coal gasification electrostatic precipitator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, T W; Dumont, J N; Clark, B R; Buchanan, M V

    1982-01-01

    Aqueous extracts of tar from a coal gasification electrostatic precipitator were tested for its toxic and teratogenic potential in vitro on embryos of the amphibian Xenopus laevis. The 96-h LC50 and EC50 were determined to be 0.83% and 0.48%, respectively. The developmental stage of normal-appearing exposed embryos is not affected by increasing concentrations of the extract. Embryo growth, however, is significantly reduced at concentrations as low as 0.25%. Motility and pigmentation were effectively reduced relative to controls by extract concentrations of 0.5% and greater. Exposed embryos are shorter and stockier than controls. Malformations of head, eyes, viscera, and spine are common, and cartilage formation is abnormal. The epidermis is often hyperplastic, and large blisters occur over the somatic surface. The severity of abnormal development is directly related to the concentration of the toxicant to which the embryos are exposed. Chemical analysis shows that the aqueous extracts contain phenols, furans, monoaromatic and diaromatic hydrocarbons, and mono- and diazaarenes and/or monoaromatic amines.

  15. Influence of laminar flow on preorientation of coal tar pitch structural units: Raman microspectroscopic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, O.; Jehlička, J.; Pokorný, J.; Rouzaud, J. N.

    2003-08-01

    In order to estimate the role of laminar flow of viscous, aromatic matter of carbonaceous precursor on microtextural preorientation in pregraphitization stage, we performed experiments with coal tar pitch (CTP). The principal hypothesis of preorientation of basic structural units (BSUs) in the case of laminar flow (pressure impregnation of CTP into porous matrix) and secondary release of volatiles during carbonization were studied. Glass microplates, planar porous medium with average distance between single microplates 5 μm were used as suitable porous matrix. Samples of CTP were carbonized up to 2500 °C. Optical microscopy reveals large flow domains in the sample of cokes carbonized between glass microplates. Raman microspectroscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) show that at nanometric scale, the samples do not support the proposed hypotheses. With increasing temperature of pyrolysis, the graphitization of CTP impregnated into porous matrix proceeds to lower degree of structural ordering in comparison with single pyrolyzed CTP. This is explained by the release of volatile matter during carbonization in geometrically restricted spaces. More evident structural changes were discovered with the sample of single coke, where parts of fine grain mosaics, relicts of 'so called QI parts', reveal higher structural organization, in comparison with large and prolonged flow domains, similar to flow domains of cokes from microplates.

  16. Urinary 1-naphthol and 1-pyrenol as indicators of exposure to coal tar products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkilä, P; Luotamo, M; Pyy, L; Riihimäki, V

    1995-01-01

    Chemical exposure of assemblers handling creosote-impregnated wood and of a single worker chiselling coal tar pitch layer was assessed by measuring airborne naphthalene and various polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and by measurement of urinary excretion of 1-naphthol and 1-pyrenol. The sum concentration of PAHs and of 4-6 aromatic ring-containing PAHs were high, 440 micrograms/m3 and 290 micrograms/m3, respectively, when chiselling. In the assembler's workplace, the PAH concentrations were about 1/50 of this value. Regarding airborne naphthalene concentrations the situation was reversed (assemblers, 1000 micrograms/m3; chiseller, 160 micrograms/m3). Correspondingly, the assemblers' urinary 1-napthol concentrations were 15-20 times higher than those of the chiseller. The urinary 1-pyrenol concentration of the chiseller was 2-4 times higher than among the assemblers. As the estimated pyrene inhalation doses among the assemblers could account for only about 2%-25% of the 24-h pyrenol excretion in urine, the skin was presumably the main route of uptake. For an assessment of the exposure to PAHs, air measurements, monitoring of metabolites in urine and preferably also data on the composition of the skin-contaminating product are needed.

  17. Evolution of bacterial community during bioremediation of PAHs in a coal tar contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lors, C.; Ryngaert, A.; Perie, F.; Diels, L.; Damidot, D. [University of Lille, Lille (France)

    2010-11-15

    The monitoring of a windrow treatment applied to soil contaminated by mostly 2, 3- and 4-ring PAHs produced by coal tar distillation was performed by following the evolution of both PAH concentration and the bacterial community. Total and PAH-degrading bacterial community structures were followed by 165 rRNA PCR-DGGE in parallel with quantification by bacterial counts and 16 PAH measurements. Six months of biological treatment led to a strong decrease in 2-, 3- and 4-ring PAH concentrations (98, 97 and 82%, respectively). This result was associated with the activity of bacterial PAH-degraders belonging mainly to the Gamma proteobacteria, in particular the Enterobacteria and Pseudomonas genera which were detected over the course of the treatment. This group was considered to be a good bioindicator to determine the potential PAH biodegradation of contaminated soil. Conversely other species like the Beta proteobacteria were detected after 3 months when 2-, 3- and 4-ring PAHs were almost completely degraded. Thus presence of the Beta proteobacteria group could be considered a good candidate indicator to estimate the endpoint of biotreatment of this type of PAH contaminated soil.

  18. Research on Emulsion of Coal Tar%煤焦油乳化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马卓慧

    2011-01-01

    Binding relative literature reprots,the selection of emulsifier and emulsification process of coal tar are explored.The emulsifier selection need considering emulsifier types,emulsifier remixed,cosolvent,et al.The emulsification process need considering emulsified equipment such as mechanical stirring,colloid mill,homogenizer,ultrasonic wave method et al,the emulsification methods such as transfer phase emulsion,natural emulsifying,generation of complex interface,alternate dosing method are considered.In order to provide reference for workers of relative filed.%结合相关的文献报道,从理论上探讨了煤焦油乳化剂、乳化过程的选择,乳化剂的选择要考虑乳化剂的类型、乳化剂的复配、助溶剂等。乳化过程的选择要考虑乳化设备如机械搅拌、胶体磨、均化器、超声波法等;考虑乳化方法如转相乳化法、自然乳化分散法、界面复合物生成法、轮流加液法等。以期为相关领域的工作者提供借鉴。

  19. Comparative Study of the Modification of Coal Tar Pitch for Higher Carbonization Yield and Better Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文娟; 李铁虎; 卢萌; 侯翠岭

    2013-01-01

    Parent coal tar pitch (CTP) was modified with boric acid (BA), cinnamaldehyde (CMA) and the mixture of BA and CMA, respectively. The parent CTP and three modified CTPs were characterized by elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The four samples were carbonized at different temperatures and resultant carbonized products were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and polarized-light microscopy. The results show that the morphologies and carbonization behaviors of the parent CTP and modified CTPs are quite different. The carbonization yield of the CTP modified with the mixture of BA and CMA is higher than that of CTP modified with BA or CMA only. In addition, the modification of CTP with 7 g of BA and 10 ml of CMA results in an increase in carbonization yield by 5.64%. During the pyrolysis of modified CTPs, the dehydration of BA or the distillation of CMA occurs at the tem-perature lower than 300 °C, and methyl and methylene groups of the modified CTPs disappear gradually as tem-perature rises. Furthermore, the modification of CTP by the mixture of BA and CMA results in more intensive mesophase spheres than other modified CTPs, and the modified CTP is easier to be carbonized to form graphitic carbon.

  20. Research investigations in oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, and advanced fuels research: Volume 1 -- Base program. Final report, October 1986--September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, V.E.

    1994-05-01

    Numerous studies have been conducted in five principal areas: oil shale, tar sand, underground coal gasification, advanced process technology, and advanced fuels research. In subsequent years, underground coal gasification was broadened to be coal research, under which several research activities were conducted that related to coal processing. The most significant change occurred in 1989 when the agreement was redefined as a Base Program and a Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP). Investigations were conducted under the Base Program to determine the physical and chemical properties of materials suitable for conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels, to test and evaluate processes and innovative concepts for such conversions, to monitor and determine environmental impacts related to development of commercial-sized operations, and to evaluate methods for mitigation of potential environmental impacts. This report is divided into two volumes: Volume 1 consists of 28 summaries that describe the principal research efforts conducted under the Base Program in five topic areas. Volume 2 describes tasks performed within the JSRP. Research conducted under this agreement has resulted in technology transfer of a variety of energy-related research information. A listing of related publications and presentations is given at the end of each research topic summary. More specific and detailed information is provided in the topical reports referenced in the related publications listings.

  1. 64. Study on the DNA damage induced by coal tar pitch fume extracts in rat alveolar macrophage and it's mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The carcinogenic mechanism of coal tar pitch (CTP) as a recognized carcinogen has been studying. It is widely believed that the carcinogenicity of CTP is based on the genotoxicity of CTP. In the process of carcinogenesis caused by extrinsic chemical substance, the DNA damage mainly occurred in the initiation phase. UP to now, the most sensitive detecting endpoint for DNA damage is to detect DNA single strand breaks. The single cell gel electrophoresis has been rapidly becoming a widely used analytical procedure during the last few years, which can detect DNA strand breaks. The method is a fast, relatively inexpensive, easy to perform, non-radioactive, and very sensitive method. This method suits to different tests in vitro or in vivo. Virtually any eukaryotic cell, which could be made into single cell suspensions, can be processed for analysis of DNA damage using the single cell gel electrophoresis. The aim of the study is to investigate the role of DNA damage induced by CTP fume in rat AM, to examine the changes of ROS, MDA and SOD, and to explore the mechanism of DNA damage by CTP fume. The present study is in favor of studying the mechanism of mutagenesis and carcinogenesis induced by CTP. Method: The healthy male Wistar rats were anesthetized intraperitoneally with 40 mg pentobarbital sodium per kilogram of body weight. The animals were exanguinated by excising femoral, and collected the rat alveolar macrophage by Joseph's method. The concentration of AM had been regulated to 1.5×106 cell/ml. AMs, which had been cultured in 24-well culture plate, were divided into 4 groups. These cells were exposured to 5.0 μg/ml extracts of coal tar pitch fume, and contacted with 500 μM, 1 000 μM, and 2 000 μM of GSH respectively. These cells were divided into 4 groups. After incubation 24 hours, the indexes that had been used above were measured. Results: ①The DNA strand breaks induced by coal tar pitch fume extracts: After undergoing electrophoresis, the

  2. Formation and fate of PAH during the pyrolysis and fuel-rich combustion of coal primary tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledesma, E.B.; Kalish, M.A.; Nelson, P.F.; Wornat, M.J.; Mackie, J.C. [CSIRO, North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Division of Energy Technology

    2000-11-01

    The formation and fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) during the pyrolysis and fuel-rich combustion of primary tar generated under rapid heating conditions have been studied. Experiments were performed using a quartz two-stage reactor consisting of a fluidized-bed reactor coupled to a tubular-flow reactor. Primary tar was produced in the fluidized-bed reactor by rapid coal pyrolysis at 600{degree}C. The freshly generated tar was subsequently reacted in the tubular-flow reactor at 1000{degree}C under varying oxygen concentrations covering the range from pyrolysis to stoichiometric oxidation. PAH species present in the tars recovered from the tubular-flow reactor were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Twenty-seven PAH species varying from 2-ring to 9-ring structures, were identified, including benzenoid PAH, fluoranthene benzologues and indene benzologues. The majority of PAH species identified from pyrolysis were also identified in the samples collected from oxidation experiments. However, three products, 9-fluorenone, cyclopenta(def)phenanthrene and indeno (1,2,3-cd) fluoranthene, were produced only during oxidizing conditions. The addition of a small amount of oxygen brought about measurable increases in the yields of the indene benzologues and 9-fluorenone, but the yields of all PAH products decreased at high oxygen concentrations, in accordance with their destruction by oxidation. Possible formation and destruction mechanisms of PAH under fuel-rich conditions have been discussed. 46 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Influence of dermal exposure to ultraviolet radiation and coal tar (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) on the skin aging process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borska, Lenka; Andrys, Ctirad; Krejsek, Jan; Palicka, Vladimir; Vorisek, Viktor; Hamakova, Kvetoslava; Kremlacek, Jan; Borsky, Pavel; Fiala, Zdenek

    2016-03-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and crude coal tar (CCT) containing PAHs can accelerate the skin-aging process (SAP). However, UVR induces the formation of an important protective factor in SAP (vitamin D). To determine the relation of SAP to selected risks and benefits of combined dermal exposure to UVR and coal tar (PAHs). The study group consisted of patients with chronic stable plaque psoriasis and treated by Goeckerman therapy (GT; daily dermal application of UVR and 5% CCT ointment). The levels of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), oxidative stress (DNA and RNA damage), genotoxic damage (chromosomal aberration in peripheral lymphocytes; ABC), 25-hydroxy-vitamin D [25(OH)D] and the PASI score were evaluated before and after GT. Intensive dermal absorption of PAHs was confirmed by increased levels of 1-OHP (pcoal tar (PAHs) enhances the level of oxidative stress and genotoxic damage and thus contributes to SAP. However, the exposure is very effective as a treatment and elevates the production of 25(OH)D, the protective factor in SAP. According to our results, UVR is probably a more hazardous factor in SAP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 煤焦油制中温沥青的族组分及结构表征%Compositions and structure characterization of coal tar pitches prepared from different coal tar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔保银; 张伟; 崔海涛; 李振荣; 赵亮富

    2016-01-01

    The characters of molecular structures of coal-tar pitches from different coal tar, medium coal tar pitch (MCP, prepared from medium temperature coal tar) and high coal tar pitch (HCP, prepared from high temperature coal tar), are analyzed using solvent extraction, elemental analysis, Fourier infrared spectrum (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance hydrogen spectrum (1H—NMR) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The results indicate that the average molecular formulas of MCP and HCP are C36.01H34.56N0.35S0.13O2.28 and C46.90H24.12N0.41S0.23O0.54, and their soft points are 77.6 ℃ and 86.2 ℃, respectively. In MCP, its group composition consists of 17.34%heptane soluble, 66.94%heptane insoluble but toluene soluble and 0.95% quinoline insoluble fractions. Composition analy-sis of HCP indicates that the contents of heptane soluble, and heptane insoluble but toluene soluble fractions are 16.86% and 39.97%, respectively, and quinoline insoluble matter is 11.89%. In comparison with HCP, MCP possesses lower aromatization, more alkyl and naphthenic groups. Their average structures are deduced by improved Brown-Lander model. According to above results, corresponding suggestions on the use of MCP are proposed.%采用溶剂抽提法、元素分析法、傅里叶红外光谱(FTIR)、核磁共振氢谱(1H-NMR)、凝胶渗透色谱法(GPC)对中温煤焦油制备的煤沥青(MCP)和高温煤焦油制备的煤沥青(HCP)组成结构进行研究。研究结果表明:MCP 和HCP 的平均分子式分别为C36.01H34.56N0.35S0.13O2.28,C46.90H24.12N0.41S0.23O0.54;软化点分别为77.6℃,86.2℃。MCP的族组成:庚烷可溶物17.34%,庚烷不溶甲苯可溶物66.94%,喹啉不溶物含量为0.95%。 HCP的族组成:庚烷可溶物16.86%,庚烷不溶甲苯可溶物39.97%,喹啉不溶物含量为11.89%。与HCP相比,MCP中脂肪侧链、环烷结构较多,芳构化程度较低。采用改进的Brown-Lander模型计算分子平均结构参数,推测出两种

  5. BTX production by in-situ contact reforming of low-temperature tar from coal with zeolite-derived catalysts; Zeolite kei shokubai wo mochiita sekitan teion tar no sesshoku kaishitsu ni yoru BTX no seisei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsunaga, T.; Fuda, K.; Murakami, K.; Kyo, M.; Hosoya, S.; Kobayashi, S. [Akita University, Akita (Japan). Mining College

    1996-10-28

    On BTX production process from low-temperature tar obtained by pyrolysis of coal, the effect of exchanged metallic species and reaction temperature were studied using metallic ion-exchanged Y-zeolite as catalyst. In experiment, three kinds of coals with different produced tar structures such as Taiheiyo and PSOC-830 sub-bituminous coals and Loy Yang brown coal were used. Y-zeolite ion-exchanged with metal chloride aqueous solution was used as catalyst. Zn{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+} and In{sup 3+} were used as metal ions to be exchanged. The experiment was conducted by heating a pyrolysis section up to 600{degree}C for one hour after preheating a contact reforming section up to a certain proper temperature. As a result, the Ni system catalyst was effective for BTX production from aromatic-abundant tar, while the Zn system one from lower aromatic tar. In general, relatively high yields of toluene and xylene were obtained at lower temperature, while those of benzene at higher temperature. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Biological monitoring of human exposure to coal tar. Urinary mutagenicity assays and analytical determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clonfero, E; Jongeneelen, F; Zordan, M; Levis, A G

    1990-01-01

    The mutagenicity of urine extracts from anode plant workers exposed to coal tar pitch volatiles and non-smoking psoriatic patients treated with coal tar applications and UV light (Goeckermann regimen), was determined by the plate incorporation assay and the fluctuation test employing Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 in the presence of rat liver post-mitochondrial fractions and deconjugating enzymes. The levels of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and of a marker metabolite of pyrene (1-hydroxypyrene) were determined in the urine of the same subjects. Both the occupational and in particular the therapeutic exposure to coal tar resulted in clear increases in urinary levels of PAH metabolites as compared to unexposed subjects. The level of 1-hydroxypyrene in the urine samples was comparable to or even greater than the corresponding level of total PAHs, indicating a poor recovery of PAH metabolites for this method. Following treatment with coal tar, most of the psoriatic patients excreted clearly increased levels of mutagens in their urine, while non-smoking anode plant workers showed no increase in urinary mutagenicity. The minimum levels of PAH metabolites corresponding to a significant increase in urinary mutagenicity varied from sample to sample, presumably depending on interfering factors present in different amounts in the extracts. Nonetheless the urine samples which were clearly mutagenic presented elevated levels of PAH metabolites, suggesting that the mutagenicity assays lack sufficient sensitivity to allow their application in the biological monitoring of most occupational exposures to coal tar.

  7. Processing and Utilization of Coal Tar Pitch%煤焦油沥青加工应用的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵鹏程; 姚婷; 杨宏伟; 周建石; 李召良

    2013-01-01

    Coal tar pitch is the residue after extraction of the light components from coal tar. The research of modified coal tar pitch has been continuously developing due to more stable performance, higher carbon content and lower price. In this paper, characteristics and composition of coal tar pitch were summarized. And main application of modified coal tar pitch in carbon products, graphite electrode, needle coke, mesophase pitch, carbon fiber, paint and fuel oil was introduced.%  煤焦油沥青是把煤焦油中的轻质组分提取后剩余的残渣,由于其性能相对比较稳定,煤焦油的碳含量高,价格低廉,所以煤焦油改质沥青的研究得到了不断的发展;概述了煤焦油沥青的性质和组成;总结了改质沥青在碳素制品、石墨电极、针状焦、中间相、碳纤维、涂料和燃料油等领域的应用。

  8. Biological exposure limit for occupational exposure to coal tar pitch volatiles at cokeovens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongeneelen, F J

    1992-01-01

    Biological monitoring is an efficient tool in the evaluation of exposure to chemical agents. However, the dose-response of adverse health effects using biological exposure indices and biological limit values are rarely available. This paper presents an estimation of the occupational exposure limit value of 1-hydroxypyrene in urine, a biological exposure indicator of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). A large-scale study of the exposure of cokeoven workers to PAH, in which both air sampling (benzene soluble matter and individual PAH including benzo(a)pyrene) and biological monitoring (1-hydroxypyrene in urine) were applied, made it possible to establish an empirical mathematical relationship between the air sampling data and biological monitoring data. It was calculated that cokeoven workers with a urinary concentration of 1-hydroxypyrene of 2.3 mumol/mol creatinine after a 3-day working period equals the airborne threshold limit value (TLV) of coal tar pitch volatiles (CTPV). Epidemiological studies have quantified the relative risk of lung cancer for topside and non-topside cokeoven workers. The published environmental exposure data of topside and non-topside cokeoven workers were used to determine the time-average exposure. The data of 1-hydroxypyrene in the urine of cokeoven workers and data of epidemiological studies from different coke plants were combined according to the concentrations of PAH in the air. Thus, it was possible to establish an indirect relationship between lung cancer mortality risk and the biological exposure indicator for cokeoven workers. Exposure at the level of the suggested tentative biological exposure limit (BEL) of 2.3 mumol/mol creatinine is estimated to be equal to a relative risk of lung cancer of approximately 1.3.

  9. Genetic monitoring of aluminum workers exposed to coal tar pitch volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heussner, J C; Ward, J B; Legator, M S

    1985-03-01

    A group of 50 workers exposed to coal tar pitch volatiles (CTPV) in an aluminum reduction plant and a group of 50 non-exposed workers were selected to evaluate the genotoxic effects of CTPV exposure. A battery of tests was performed on 3 different body fluids; urine, blood and semen. Urine samples were evaluated for mutagenic constituents using the Ames/Salmonella assay. Cultured lymphocytes from blood samples were used to perform cytogenetic analysis. Semen samples were used to measure sperm count, percent abnormal sperm morphology and frequency of sperm carrying double fluorescent bodies (2-F). 14 of 28 (50%) exposed workers and 7 of 36 (19.4%) non-exposed workers had mutagenic urine. This difference was significant (p less than 0.01). Among the non-smokers a significantly higher percentage of workers who were exposed had positive urine (36%) compared to the non-exposed workers (5%) (p less than 0.05). Among the exposed group, more mechanics had mutagenic urine than did other types of workers. Overall chromosome aberration rates were similar in both exposed and non-exposed workers. Among exposed workers a significant inverse correlation (p less than 0.05) between age and chromatid aberration rate was observed. Results of semen analysis failed to detect differences between exposed and non-exposed workers. Results of these tests lend support to a battery approach to genetic monitoring and suggest a link between exposure to CTPV and genotoxic effects. Detection of exposure to mutagens at an early time offers an opportunity for disease prevention by the reduction of exposure.

  10. PAH concentrations in lake sediment decline following ban on coal-tar-based pavement sealants in Austin, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Mahler, Barbara J.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have concluded that coal-tar-based pavement sealants are a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban settings in large parts of the United States. In 2006, Austin, TX, became the first jurisdiction in the U.S. to ban the use of coal-tar sealants. We evaluated the effect of Austin’s ban by analyzing PAHs in sediment cores and bottom-sediment samples collected in 1998, 2000, 2001, 2012, and 2014 from Lady Bird Lake, the principal receiving water body for Austin urban runoff. The sum concentration of the 16 EPA Priority Pollutant PAHs (∑PAH16) in dated core intervals and surficial bottom-sediment samples collected from sites in the lower lake declined about 44% from 1998–2005 to 2006–2014 (means of 7980 and 4500 μg kg–1, respectively), and by 2012–2014, the decline was about 58% (mean of 3320 μg kg–1). Concentrations of ∑PAH16 in bottom sediment from two of three mid-lake sites decreased by about 71 and 35% from 2001 to 2014. Concentrations at a third site increased by about 14% from 2001 to 2014. The decreases since 2006 reverse a 40-year (1959–1998) upward trend. Despite declines in PAH concentrations, PAH profiles and source-receptor modeling results indicate that coal-tar sealants remain the largest PAH source to the lake, implying that PAH concentrations likely will continue to decline as stocks of previously applied sealant gradually become depleted.

  11. Diversity of 16S rRNA and dioxygenase genes detected in coal-tar-contaminated site undergoing active bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, M.; Khanna, S. [NIIT Univ, Neemrana (India). Dept. of Biotechnology & Bioinformation

    2010-04-15

    In order to develop effective bioremediation strategies for polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) degradation, the composition and metabolic potential of microbial communities need to be better understood, especially in highly PAH contaminated sites in which little information on the cultivation-independent communities is available. Coal-tar-contaminated soil was collected, which consisted of 122-122.5 mg g{sup -1} total extractable PAH compounds. Biodegradation studies with this soil indicated the presence of microbial community that is capable of degrading the model PAH compounds viz naphthalene, phenanthrene and pyrene at 50 ppm each. PCR clone libraries were established from the DNA of the coal-tar-contaminated soil, targeting the 16S rRNA to characterize (I) the microbial communities, (ii) partial gene fragment encoding the Rieske iron sulfur center {alpha}-subunit) common to all PAH dioxygenase enzymes and (iii) {beta}-subunit of dioxygenase. Phylotypes related to Proteobacteria ({Alpha}-, {Epsilon}- and Gammaproteobacteria), Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Gemmatimonadetes and Deinococci were detected in 16S rRNA derived clone libraries. Many of the gene fragment sequences of alpha-subunit and beta-subunit of dioxygenase obtained from the respective clone libraries fell into clades that are distinct from the reference dioxygenase gene sequences. Presence of consensus sequence of the Rieske type (2Fe2S) cluster binding site suggested that these gene fragments encode for {alpha}-subunit of dioxygenase gene. Sequencing of the cloned libraries representing {alpha}-subunit gene fragments (Rf1) and beta-subunit of dioxygenase showed the presence of hitherto unidentified dioxygenase in coal-tar-contaminated soil.

  12. [Detection of sister chromatic exchange in workers exposed to coal tar pitch and to coke oven volatiles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Chen, C; Wu, Y; Xu, Y

    1998-07-01

    In order to know the changes of genetic toxicological effects on workers occupationally exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), sister chromatic exchange(SCE) was detected by the methods of peripheral lymphocyte culture in 23 workers exposed to coal tar pitch (CTP) and in 19 workers exposed to coke oven volatiles (COV) and 12 normal controls. The results suggested that the SCE in occupational workers was significantly higher than that in controls (11.31 vs 6.37, P 0.05). It is indicated that CTP and COV caused strong genetic toxicity and injury to chromosome.

  13. Charge/discharge characteristics of the coal-tar pitch carbon as negative electrode in Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Sik

    The charge/discharge characteristics were studied for the coal-tar pitch-based carbon (CTPC), which was pyrolyzed under the condition to form anisotropic mesophase pitch and then heat treated at temperatures ranging from 500 to 1300°C in N 2 atmosphere. As the heat treatment temperature increased, the reversible capacity for the CTPC increased progressively up to 1000°C, while the irreversible capacity decreased continuously. Carbons synthesized through the extraction of anisotropic mesophases showed higher reversible and lower irreversible capacities than the directly pyrolyzed ones.

  14. Comparison of Soxhlet and Shake Extraction of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Coal Tar Polluted Soils Sampled in the Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardt, Bo; Holst, Helle; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1994-01-01

    This study compares three extraction methods for PAHs in coal tar polluted soil: 3-times repeated shaking of the soil with dichloromethane-methanol (1:1), Soxhlet extraction with dichloromethane, and Soxhlet extraction with dichloromethane followed by Soxhlet extraction with methanol....... The extraction efficiencies were determined for ten selected PAHs in triplicate samples of six soils sampled at former gasworks sites. The samples covered a wide range of PAH concentrations, from 0.6 to 397 mg/kg soil. Soxhlet extraction with dichloromethane followed by Soxhlet extraction with methanol...

  15. 浅析降低剩余氨水含油的措施%Some measures on reducing the content of tar in coal water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李少源; 孙宝东

    2013-01-01

    剩余氨水焦油含量高影响了蒸氨系统及污水处理系统的正常运行,在引进微孔陶瓷过滤器后,针对除焦油器存在的问题,通过工艺优化和设备改进,降低了剩余氨水焦油含量,保证了生产正常运行。%High content of tar in coal water effects normal operations of ammonia distillation system and waste water treatment system .After microporous ceramic filter is introduced ,some shortcomings of coal tar remover are proved through process optimization and equipment improvement to reduce the content of tar in coal water and ensure normal operation .

  16. Study of the Coal Tar Pitch Paving on Road Modified by Nano-material%纳米改性路用煤沥青的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭建国; 任真; 郭建平; 李玉霞

    2011-01-01

    The coal tar pitch was modified by nano material,and the influence of nano material,high molecular polymer,temperature,dispersion method on the properties of coal tar pitch were studied.The optimized technology and formula of modified coal tar pitch was got,which maybe applied in practically on the road.%利用纳米材料对路用煤沥青进行改性,考查了纳米材料,高分子聚合物,温度,分散方式对煤沥青的性能影响,得到了改性路用煤沥青的优化工艺和配方,可应用于实际道路的铺设。

  17. The analysis and application of the residuum from coal tar%煤焦油中渣相的分析及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金洁; 刘春法; 单长春; 严天祥; 陈晓锋

    2012-01-01

    分析了煤焦油中渣相的性质,其具有很强的反应性,可作为一些沥青反应添加剂使用,并在应用方面做了一些阐述.%The property of the residuum from coal tar was analysed , and it was found that the residuum has the powerful reactivity, which can be used as annexing agent of pitch action. The application of the residuum from coal tar was also expounded.

  18. Molecular mass ranges of coal tar pitch fractions by mass spectrometry and size-exclusion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, F; Morgan, T J; George, A; Bull, I D; Herod, A A; Millan, M; Kandiyoti, R

    2009-07-01

    A coal tar pitch was fractionated by solvent solubility into heptane-solubles, heptane-insoluble/toluene-solubles (asphaltenes), and toluene-insolubles (preasphaltenes). The aim of the work was to compare the mass ranges of the different fractions by several different techniques. Thermogravimetric analysis, size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) and UV-fluorescence spectroscopy showed distinct differences between the three fractions in terms of volatility, molecular size ranges and the aromatic chromophore sizes present. The mass spectrometric methods used were gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), pyrolysis/GC/MS, electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI-FTICRMS) and laser desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LD-TOFMS). The first three techniques gave good mass spectra only for the heptane-soluble fraction. Only LDMS gave signals from the toluene-insolubles, indicating that the molecules were too involatile for GC and too complex to pyrolyze into small molecules during pyrolysis/GC/MS. ESI-FTICRMS gave no signal for toluene-insolubles probably because the fraction was insoluble in the methanol or acetonitrile, water and formic acid mixture used as solvent to the ESI source. LDMS was able to generate ions from each of the fractions. Fractionation of complex samples is necessary to separate smaller molecules to allow the use of higher laser fluences for the larger molecules and suppress the formation of ionized molecular clusters. The upper mass limit of the pitch was determined as between 5000 and 10,000 u. The pitch asphaltenes showed a peak of maximum intensity in the LDMS spectra at around m/z 400, in broad agreement with the estimate from SEC. The mass ranges of the toluene-insoluble fraction found by LDMS and SEC (400-10,000 u with maximum intensity around 2000 u by LDMS and 100-9320 u with maximum intensity around 740 u by SEC) are higher than those for the asphaltene fraction (200-4000 u with

  19. Aromatic DNA adducts in human white blood cells and skin after dermal application of coal tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godschalk, R.W.L.; Ostertag, J.U.; Moonen, E.J.C.; Neumann, H.A.M.; Kleinjans, J.C.S.; Schooten, F.J. van [University of Maastricht, Maastricht (Netherlands). Dept. of Health Risk Analysis and Toxicology

    1998-09-01

    A group of eczema patients topically treated with coal tar (CT) ointments was used as a model population to examine the applicability of DNA adducts in white blood cell (WBC) subpopulations as a measure of dermal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Aromatic DNA adducts were examined by {sup 32}P-postlabeling in exposed skin and WBC subsets, and urinary excretion of PAH metabolites was determined to assess the whole-body burden. The median urinary excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene and 3-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene was 0.39 and 0.01 {mu}mol/mol creatinine respectively, before the dermal application of CT ointments. After treatment for 1 week, these levels increased to 139.7 and 1.18 {mu}mol/mol creatinine respectively, indicating that considerable amounts of PAHs were absorbed. Median aromatic DNA adduct levels were significantly increased in skin from 2.9 adduct/10{sup 8} nucleotides before treatment to 63.3 adducts/10{sup 8} nt after treatment with CT, in monocytes from 0.28 to 0.86 adducts/10{sup 8} nt, in lymphocytes from 0.33 to 0.89 adducts/10{sup 8} nt and in granulocytes from 0.28 to 0.54 adducts/10{sup 8} nt. A week after stopping the CT treatment, the DNA adduct levels in monocytes and granulocytes were reduced to 0.38 and 0.38 adducts/10{sup 8} nt respectively, whereas the adduct levels in lymphocytes remained enhanced. Total DNA adduct levels in skin correlated with the adduct levels in monocytes and lymphocytes. Excretion of urinary metabolites during the first week of treatment was correlated with the percentage of the skin surface treated with CT ointment and decreased within a week after the cessation of treatment. 3-Hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene excretion, correlated with the levels of DNA adducts in skin that comigrated with benzo(a)pyrene-diol-epoxide-DNA. This study indicates that the DNA adduct levels in mononuclear WBCs can possibly be used as a surrogate for skin DNA after dermal exposure to PAHs. 34 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  20. PAH Concentrations Decline Following 2006 Ban on Coal-Tar-Based Pavement Sealants in Austin, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, P. C.; Mahler, B. J.

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies have concluded that coal-tar-based pavement sealants (CT sealants) are a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in non-industrial urban settings in the United States. In 2006, Austin, TX, became the first jurisdiction in the U.S. to ban the use of CT sealants. We evaluated PAH concentrations following the ban by analyzing sediment cores collected from Lady Bird Lake in 2012; Lady Bird Lake impounds the Colorado River in central Austin and receives runoff from much of the greater Austin area. The mean sum concentration of the 16 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Priority Pollutant PAHs (∑PAH16) in one of two 2012 sediment cores analyzed for PAHs declined 75% from before 2006 (mean of 4 samples=8,090 μg kg-1) to 2012 (mean of 2 samples=2,030 μg kg-1), reversing a 40-year (1959-1999) upward trend in PAH concentrations that was previously documented. The downward trend in PAH concentrations in the seven uppermost 1 cm sampling intervals in the first 2012 core was statistically significant (r=0.93, p-value=0.002). Post-2008 PAH trends in the second 2012 core were similar (significant downward trend in the six uppermost 1 cm sampling intervals and mean 2012 ∑PAH16 of 2,390 μg kg-1); however, pre-2007 sediment did not appear to have been preserved in this core likely because of the effects of flooding on sediment deposition and mixing at this site--the largest flood on the Colorado River in Austin in 20 years was in 2007. On the basis of a comparison of lake-sediment PAH profiles to 22 PAH source profiles, the PAH loading to lake sediment continues to be dominated by CT sealants. The continued dominance of proportional PAH loading by CT sealants in spite of decreased concentrations since 2006 might be because legacy CT sealant and contaminated soils and sediments continue to yield PAHs to runoff. A previous study using source-receptor modeling concluded that CT sealants were the largest PAH source to 40 urban lakes studied in the

  1. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and azaarenes in runoff from coal-tar- and asphalt-sealcoated pavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Barbara J; Van Metre, Peter C; Foreman, William T

    2014-05-01

    Coal-tar-based sealcoat, used extensively on parking lots and driveways in North America, is a potent source of PAHs. We investigated how concentrations and assemblages of PAHs and azaarenes in runoff from pavement newly sealed with coal-tar-based (CT) or asphalt-based (AS) sealcoat changed over time. Samples of simulated runoff were collected from pavement 5 h to 111 d following application of AS or CT sealcoat. Concentrations of the sum of 16 PAHs (median concentrations of 328 and 35 μg/L for CT and AS runoff, respectively) in runoff varied relatively little, but rapid decreases in concentrations of azaarenes and low molecular weight PAHs were offset by increases in high molecular weight PAHs. The results demonstrate that runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement, in particular, continues to contain elevated concentrations of PAHs long after a 24-h curing time, with implications for the fate, transport, and ecotoxicological effects of contaminants in runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement.

  2. Newest research progress of coal tar pitch%煤沥青的最新研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党阿磊; 李铁虎; 张文娟; 赵廷凯; 方长青; 王珍

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the research progress for analytical method of coal tar pitch and the preparation of pitch-based mesophase, mesocarbon microbeads, carbon foam, activated carbon, needle coke and high-performance carbon / carbon composite matrix as a raw material at home and abroad in recent decades. Moreover, the potential applications and future trends of coal tar pitch are predicted in this paper.%综述了最近几十年国内外对煤沥青的主要分析方法和以它为原料在制备沥青基中间相、中间相炭微球、针状焦、活性炭、泡沫炭和高性能炭/炭复合材料基体方面的研究和进展,展望了其在材料领域潜在的应用前景和未来发展的趋势.

  3. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and azaarenes in runoff from coal-tar- and asphalt-sealcoated pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Foreman, William T.

    2014-01-01

    Coal-tar-based sealcoat, used extensively on parking lots and driveways in North America, is a potent source of PAHs. We investigated how concentrations and assemblages of PAHs and azaarenes in runoff from pavement newly sealed with coal-tar-based (CT) or asphalt-based (AS) sealcoat changed over time. Samples of simulated runoff were collected from pavement 5 h to 111 d following application of AS or CT sealcoat. Concentrations of the sum of 16 PAHs (median concentrations of 328 and 35 μg/L for CT and AS runoff, respectively) in runoff varied relatively little, but rapid decreases in concentrations of azaarenes and low molecular weight PAHs were offset by increases in high molecular weight PAHs. The results demonstrate that runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement, in particular, continues to contain elevated concentrations of PAHs long after a 24-h curing time, with implications for the fate, transport, and ecotoxicological effects of contaminants in runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement.

  4. Evaluation of the health risk resulting from exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in coal-tar shampoo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mennes, W.C.; Van Veen, M.P.; Kroese, E.D.; Speijers, G.J.A.

    1996-10-01

    Shampoos may contain as much as 56 mg benzo(a)pyrene (BaP)/kg product. Based on a human dermal uptake study, it is plausible that BaP and other PAHs become systemically available after a single use of coal-tar shampoos. Because several PAHs, among which BaP are considered to be carcinogenic substances, the safety of these products has been questioned. Dermal exposure results in skin tumours, but after inhalatory or oral exposure besides to local tumour formation, systemic tumours are found as well. In this report, an estimate of external dermal exposure to BaP has been generated by application of a mathematical model. This estimate was the starting point in an assessment of the additional risk on local skin tumours after contact with a coal-tar shampoo containing 56 mg BaP/kg product. In this assessment it was assumed that this shampoo was used three times weekly. Four different risk estimates were derived, namely for contact times of 1 or 5 minutes per event and for life-time or 40 years of use. 4 tabs., 3 appendices, 15 refs.

  5. Influence of coal-tar sealcoat and other carbonaceous materials on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon loading in an urban watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yaning; Van Metre, Peter C; Mahler, Barbara J; Wilson, Jennifer T; Ligouis, Bertrand; Razzaque, M D Muhit; Schaeffer, David J; Werth, Charles J

    2010-02-15

    Carbonaceous material (CM) particles are the principal vectors transporting polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) into urban waters via runoff; however, characteristics of CM particles in urban watersheds and their relative contributions to PAH contamination remain unclear. Our objectives were to identify the sources and distribution of CM particles in an urban watershed and to determine the types of CMs that were the dominant sources of PAHs in the lake and stream sediments. Samples of soils, parking lot and street dust, and streambed and lake sediment were collected from the Lake Como watershed in Fort Worth, Texas. Characteristics of CM particles determined by organic petrography and a significant correlation between PAH concentrations and organic carbon in coal tar, asphalt, and soot indicate that these three CM particle types are the major sources and carriers of PAHs in the watershed. Estimates of the distribution of PAHs in CM particles indicate that coal-tar pitch, used in some pavement sealcoats, is a dominant source of PAHs in the watershed, and contributes as much as 99% of the PAHs in sealed parking lot dust, 92% in unsealed parking lot dust, 88% in commercial area soil, 71% in streambed sediment, and 84% in surficial lake sediment.

  6. Fabrication method and microstructural characteristics of coal-tar-pitch-based 2D carbon/carbon composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeeli, Mohammad; Khosravi, Hamed; Mirhabibi, Alireza

    2015-02-01

    The lignin-cellulosic texture of wood was used to produce two-dimensional (2D) carbon/carbon (C/C) composites using coal tar pitch. Ash content tests were conducted to select two samples among the different kinds of woods present in Iran, including walnut, white poplar, cherry, willow, buttonwood, apricots, berry, and blue wood. Walnut and white poplar with ash contents of 1.994wt% and 0.351wt%, respectively, were selected. The behavior of these woods during pyrolysis was investigated by differential thermal analysis (DTA) and thermo gravimetric (TG) analysis. The bulk density and open porosity were measured after carbonization and densification. The microstructural characteristics of samples were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The results indicate that the density of both the walnut and white poplar is increased, and the open porosity is decreased with the increasing number of carbonization cycles. The XRD patterns of the wood charcoal change gradually with increasing pyrolysis temperature, possibly as a result of the ultra-structural changes in the charcoal or the presence of carbonized coal tar pitch in the composite's body.

  7. Influence of coal-tar sealcoat and other carbonaceous materials on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon loading in an urban watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Van Metre, P.C.; Mahler, B.J.; Wilson, J.T.; Ligouis, B.; Razzaque, M.; Schaeffer, D.J.; Werth, C.J.

    2010-01-01

    Carbonaceous material (CM) particles are the principal vectors transporting polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) into urban waters via runoff; however, characteristics of CM particles in urban watersheds and their relative contributions to PAH contamination remain unclear. Our objectives were to identify the sources and distribution of CM particles in an urban watershed and to determine the types of CMs that were the dominant sources of PAHs in the lake and stream sediments. Samples of soils, parking lot and street dust, and streambed and lake sediment were collected from the Lake Como watershed in Fort Worth, Texas. Characteristics of CM particles determined by organic petrography and a significant correlation between PAH concentrations and organic carbon in coal tar, asphalt, and soot indicate that these three CM particle types are the major sources and carriers of PAHs in the watershed. Estimates of the distribution of PAHs in CM particles indicate that coal-tar pitch, usedinsomepavementsealcoats, isadominant source of PAHs in the watershed, and contributes as much as 99% of the PAHs in sealed parking lot dust, 92% in unsealed parking lot dust, 88% in commercial area soil, 71% in streambed sediment, and 84% in surficial lake sediment. ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

  8. DNA adducts in skin biopsies and 1-hydroxypyrene in urine of psoriasis patients and healthy volunteers following treatment with coal tar.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendricksen-Roelofzen, J.H.J.; Valk, P.G.M. van der; Godschalk, R.; Dettbarn, G.; Seidel, A.; Golsteijn, L.; Anzion, R.B.; Aben, K.K.H.; Schooten, F.J.L. van; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Scheepers, P.T.J.

    2012-01-01

    Coal tar ointments (CTO) are frequently used in the treatment of psoriasis and eczema, but CTO contain carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). PAH are absorbed and metabolized in the skin. In psoriasis, the skin barrier is altered and therefore, absorption and metabolism of PAH may diff

  9. DNA adducts in skin biopsies and 1-hydroxypyrene in urine of psoriasis patients and healthy volunteers following treatment with coal tar.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendricksen-Roelofzen, J.H.J.; Valk, P.G.M. van der; Godschalk, R.; Dettbarn, G.; Seidel, A.; Golsteijn, L.; Anzion, R.B.; Aben, K.K.H.; Schooten, F.J.L. van; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Scheepers, P.T.J.

    2012-01-01

    Coal tar ointments (CTO) are frequently used in the treatment of psoriasis and eczema, but CTO contain carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). PAH are absorbed and metabolized in the skin. In psoriasis, the skin barrier is altered and therefore, absorption and metabolism of PAH may diff

  10. 热等离子体热解煤焦油制乙炔%Coal tar pyrolysis to acetylene in thermal plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李轩; 韩建涛; 吴昌宁; 郭屹; 颜彬航; 程易

    2014-01-01

    The pyrolysis of coal tar using thermal plasma provides a direct and cleaner route to produce acetylene with low hazardous emission, since the ultra-high temperatures and concentrated active species in thermal plasma can easily decompose solid/liquid/gas feedstock into smaller molecules. Experiments were carried out in a lab-scale thermal plasma test platform to investigate the effects of key operating conditions including the sample inject temperature, plasma atmosphere, and coal tar specific enthalpy on the performance of coal tar pyrolysis. The results demonstrated that coal tar can be rapidly cracked to acetylene and other light gases in the thermal plasma reactor. The viscosity of coal tar can be decreased by pre-heated, thereby increasing the mix efficiency between coal tar and thermal plasma jet. The increased hydrogen concentration in plasma working gases improves the coal tar conversion and the yield of acetylene, and reduces coking as well. Higher specific input power of coal tar leads to higher coal tar conversion, acetylene yield and the yields of light gases. 86.3% coal tar conversions, 24.6%acetylene yields and 51.7% yield of light gases were obtained in the optimal experiment. In addition, plasma pyrolysis process can generate ethylene as by-products, and the concentration ratio of ethylene to acetylene can be used to predict the gas reaction temperature.%利用热等离子高温、高焓等特性热解煤焦油制乙炔是一条清洁高效的乙炔生产技术。在实验室对热等离子体热解煤焦油反应中的原料进样温度、反应气氛、输入比焓等关键因素展开了研究。结果表明,热等离子体可将煤焦油直接转化为乙炔及其他小分子气态产品,预热煤焦油可改善其流动性从而提高煤焦油和等离子体射流的初始混合效率;氢等离子体的加入可显著提高煤焦油转化率和乙炔收率并减少结焦;随着输入比焓的增加,煤焦油转化率、乙炔收率

  11. Mortality among workers exposed to coal tar pitch volatiles and welding emissions: an exercise in epidemiologic triage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, M; Maizlish, N; Park, R; Mirer, F

    1985-11-01

    The United Automobile Workers International Union has established a system of epidemiologic triage to evaluate patterns of mortality among groups of union members. In response to worker concerns, the Union examined mortality at a metal stamping plant, using a method which linked pension records with the State of Michigan computerized death registry. The observed proportion of malignant neoplasms was nearly twice that expected (95% Confidence Limits 1.36, 2.62). Two- to five-fold excess proportional mortality from cancer of the digestive organs, lung cancer, and leukemia accounted for most of the overall excess. Strong associations were found between lung and digestive organ cancer and employment as maintenance welders or millwrights in the plant (odds ratios greater than 10). High levels of six polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with mutagenic and carcinogenic properties were found during hot coal tar application to wood block floors, work conducted by the high-risk groups. These levels were substantially reduced following the purchase of new tar pots. The example demonstrates that epidemiologic tools can play a valuable role in occupational health decision making, but care must be taken to avoid mechanical reliance on quantitative testing and to acknowledge the important role of social and political value judgments in the establishment of responsible public policy.

  12. 低温煤热解焦油产率和品质影响因素研究%Influencing factors of coal tar yield and quality from low-temperature coal pyrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗青; 郑化安; 张生军; 李学强; 陈静升; 张志刚

    2014-01-01

    煤焦油是低温煤热解技术的主要产物,是重要的化工原料,其产率和品质是评价煤热解工艺的重要指标。从原煤性质(煤种和煤粒径)、热解反应器结构形式及热解工艺条件(原煤预处理、热解温度、压力、升温速率、停留时间、热解气氛及催化剂)等方面综合分析了煤热解焦油产率和品质的影响因素,认为通过优选煤种和热解反应器,对煤样进行适当预处理,选择合适的工艺操作条件和引入加氢催化热解等有助于提高焦油产率和品质。%Coal tar,the main product of low-temperature coal pyrolysis,is an essential chemical material.The yield and quality of coal tar is an important indicator to evaluate the pyrolysis.Investigate the influencing factors of coal tar yield and quality from the aspects of raw coal characteristics such as coal types and coal particle size,structure of pyrolysis reactors and technical conditions including raw coal pretreat-ment,reaction temperature and pressure,heating rate,gas residence time,reaction atmosphere and catalysts.The results show that the yield and quality of coal tar can be improved by using proper coal and pyrolysis reactors,choosing appropriate technical conditions,adopting cat-alytic hydrogenation pyrolysis and the like.

  13. Effect of the polymerization with formaldehyde on the thermal reactivity of a low-temperature coal tar pitch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jose L. Crespo; Ana Arenillas; Jose A. Vin; Roberto Garcia; Colin E. Snape; Sabino R. Moinelo [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (CSIC), Oviedo (Spain)

    2005-04-01

    The influence of polymerization with formaldehyde on the thermal reactivity of a low-temperature coal tar pitch has been investigated. The mechanism and extent of the polymerization depends on the catalyst used, the greatest extent of polymerization being achieved under basic catalytic conditions. After the polymerization treatment, samples were carbonized at 420{sup o}C and the products were characterized by optical microscopy. According to the results, polymerization with formaldehyde increases the reactivity of the pitch, giving rise to increased carbonization yields and leading to the formation of the mesophase with milder conditions. The polymerization process also affects the morphology of the resultant anisotropic material, giving rise to the formation of irregularly shaped mesophase particles and reducing the optical texture size of the anisotropic domains, giving mosaic texture, especially when basic catalysis is used. 36 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. [Studies on the Ras p21 levels in workers exposed to coal tar pitch and coke oven volatiles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Wu, Y; Chen, C

    1998-09-30

    To study the effects of serum p21 levels on the health of coal tar pitch(CTP) and coke oven volatiles (COV) workers recognized as the high risk population of pulmonary carcinoma, serum p21 levels among 24 cases of CTP workers, 25 cases of COV workers and 12 cases of normal control were detected with the method of Western Blotting. The results showed that the mean serum p21 level in exposed group was significantly higher than that in the normal control (366.8 vs 1270.7, P < 0.001). In the COV workers, serum p21 level in coke furnace workers was remarkably higher than that in the workers with other types of work. There were no differences for p21 among workers with different work years and between workers with or without smoking history. It indicates that CTP and COV can cause the p21 protein level increase in the occupational population.

  15. High energy density capacitor using coal tar pitch derived nanoporous carbon/MnO{sub 2} electrodes in aqueous electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomko, Timothy [Energy and Mineral Engineering, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Rajagopalan, Ramakrishnan; Lanagan, Michael [Materials Research Institute, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Foley, Henry C. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    Asymmetric aqueous electrochemical capacitors with energy densities as high as 22 Wh kg{sup -1}, power densities of 11 kW kg{sup -1} and a cell voltage of 2 V were fabricated using cost effective, high surface carbon derived from coal tar pitch and manganese dioxide. The narrow pore size distribution of the activated carbon (mean pore size {proportional_to}0.8 nm) resulted in strong electroadsorption of protons making them suitable for use as negative electrodes. Amorphous manganese dioxide anodes were synthesized by chemical precipitation method with high specific capacitance (300 F g{sup -1}) in aqueous electrolytes containing bivalent cations. The fabricated capacitors demonstrated excellent cyclability with no signs of capacitance fading even after 1000 cycles. (author)

  16. Analysis of coal tar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon LC-fractions by capillary SFC on a liquid crystalline stationary phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kithinji, J.P.; Raynor, M.W.; Egia, B.; Davies, I.L.; Bartle, K.D.; Clifford, A.A. (University of Leeds, Leeds (UK). School of Chemistry)

    1990-01-01

    Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) on a capillary column coated with a smectic mesomorphic crystalline phase is shown to exhibit a typical turnover effect (retention versus column temperature) for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at lower temperatures than are found on a methylpolysiloxane phase. Liquid chromatography is used to separate various fractions from a coal tar, which are analyzed by high resolution capillary SFC. Different density and temperature programs were investigated to optimize the separations. Simultaneous density and temperature programs gave the best results, and this is thought to be due to increased solute diffusion coefficients which yield highly efficient separations for the high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The separation mechanism is based on the shape of the liquid crystalline phase, solubility, volatility, and molecular geometry of the PAHs.

  17. Research Progress of Technologies for Tar Production during Coal Pyrolysis%煤热解制焦油的工艺研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺新福; 杨蕾; 吴红菊; 周安宁

    2014-01-01

    Coal pyrolysis was an important technique for coal conversion.Coal tar , one of the products , was an important raw material for liquid fuels and chemicals.The technologies including pretreatment of coal , change of atmosphere , catalytic pyrolysis and catalytic hydropyrolysis , co -pyrolysis with other material and novel integrated pyrolysis technology were stated that can improve tar yield during coal pyrolysis process , the factors that effected tar yield and the mechanisms were discussed , as well as the advantages and disadvantages of each processes.%煤热解是一种重要的煤炭分质利用技术,中低温热解焦油是制取液体燃料和化学品的重要原料。本文从对煤进行预处理、改变热解气氛、催化热解与催化加氢热解、煤与其它物质共热解、新型耦合热解工艺等方面综述了煤热解制焦油的工艺研究进展,探讨了影响煤热解过程焦油产率的因素及机理,并对各工艺进行了评价。

  18. Pharmacological coal tar induces G:C to T:A transversion mutations in the skin of Muta{trademark} mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, U.; Thein, N.; Moller, P.; Wallin, H. [National Institute of Occupational Health, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2001-07-01

    Coal tar is a by-product of the distillation of coal. It consists of a complex chemical mixture of aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons, with high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzo(a)pyrene. It has previously been shown that single painting on skin of mice increases the mutation frequency 16 times in murine epidermis cells. Here, the mutations by DNA sequencing are determined. Coal tar was found to primarily induce G:C to T:A transversions and one-base pair deletions of G:C base pairs. More than half of the mutations were at CpG sites. The mutational spectrum is in agreement with that of benzo(a)pyrene and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures.

  19. Characterisation of dense non-aqueous phase liquids of coal tar using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauchotte-Lindsay, Caroline; McGregor, Laura; Richards, Phil; Kerr, Stephanie; Glenn, Aliyssa; Thomas, Russell; Kalin, Robert

    2013-04-01

    Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC) is a recently developed analytical technique in which two capillary columns with different stationary phases are placed in series enabling planar resolution of the analytes. The resolution power of GCxGC is one order of magnitude higher than that of one dimension gas chromatography. Because of its high resolution capacity, the use of GCxGC for complex environmental samples such as crude oils, petroleum derivatives and polychlorinated biphenyls mixtures has rapidly grown in recent years. We developed a one-step method for the forensic analysis of coal tar dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) from former manufactured gas plant (FMGP) sites. Coal tar is the by-product of the gasification of coal for heating and lighting and it is composed of thousands of organic and inorganic compounds. Before the boom of natural gases and oils, most towns and cities had one or several manufactured gas plants that have, in many cases, left a devastating environmental print due to coal tar contamination. The fate of coal tar DNAPLs, which can persist in the environment for more than a hundred years, is therefore of crucial interest. The presented analytical method consists of a unique clean-up/ extraction stage by pressurized liquid extraction and a single analysis of its organic chemical composition using GCxGC coupled with time of flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS). The chemical fingerprinting is further improved by derivatisation by N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) of the tar compounds containing -OH functions such as alcohols and carboxylic acids. We present here how, using the logical order of elution in GCxGC-TOFMS system, 1) the identification of never before observed -OH containing compounds is possible and 2) the isomeric selectivity of an oxidation reaction on a DNAPL sample can be revealed. Using samples collected at various FMGP sites, we demonstrate how this GCxGC method enables the simultaneous

  20. Experimental study on delayed coking process with coal tar pitch%煤焦油沥青延迟焦化工艺试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪彬; 黄新龙; 李节; 刘淑芳

    2012-01-01

    在选定的条件下,对煤焦油沥青进行了延迟焦化工艺试验,结果表明:以煤沥青直接作为焦化进料时,可以获得质量分数为10% ~ 20%的液体产品;以煤沥青混兑蒽油为延迟焦化进料时,其液体收率大幅提高,达到28.89%,同时改善了加热炉进料性质,从而可延长装置的运行周期.由于以煤沥青作为焦化的进料,其所产的焦炭符合石油焦1B的标准,可在炼铝工业中使用,从而提高了煤沥青的附加值,增加了煤焦油加工企业的经济效益.针对煤沥青焦化液体产品性质差的特点,应采用较高氢分压、较高反应温度和较低空速对其进行加氢处理.%The experiment of delayed coking of coal tar pitch has been performed at the selected conditions. The results showed that the liquid product yield of 10% to 20% could be achieved with the feed of coal tar pitch, and it could be greatly increased to 28. 89% with the coal tar pitch feed mixed with anthracene oil. The feed properties of heaters were improved and operating cycle of the unit was extended. As the coal tar pitch was used as the feed of delayed coker, the coke product met the 1B standard for petroleum coke, which could be used in aluminum industry. As the result, the added value of coal tar pitch was raised and the economic benefits of the company were improved. The liquid products from coal tar pitch coking should be hydro-treated at a higher hydrogen partial pressure, higher reactor temperature and lower space velocity because of the low quality.

  1. Aqueous extraction of phenol from tar resulting from pyrolysis of Kansk-Achinsk Basin brown coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motovilova, N.N.; Stolyarova, T.Y.; Itskovich, V.A.; Proskuryakov, V.A.

    1988-12-10

    The degree of extraction of phenol from the tar fraction from HSP of KAC with a phenol content of 10-20 wt% is practically independent of the initial concentration of phenol in the organic raw material, increases with increase in the volume of the extractant, reaching 80% at the first stage with a phenol content of 20 wt% in the raw material and a 20:1 water:raw material volumetric ratio, and sharply increases with increase in the pH of the aqueous phase, reaching 99 wt% at pH 12. 7 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  2. Contribution of PAHs from coal-tar pavement sealcoat and other sources to 40 U.S. lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Mahler, Barbara J.

    2010-01-01

    Contamination of urban lakes and streams by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has increased in the United States during the past 40 years. We evaluated sources of PAHs in post-1990 sediments in cores from 40 lakes in urban areas across the United States using a contaminant mass-balance receptor model and including as a potential source coal-tar-based (CT) sealcoat, a recently recognized source of urban PAH. Other PAH sources considered included several coal- and vehicle-related sources, wood combustion, and fuel-oil combustion. The four best modeling scenarios all indicate CT sealcoat is the largest PAH source when averaged across all 40 lakes, contributing about one-half of PAH in sediment, followed by vehicle-related sources and coal combustion. PAH concentrations in the lakes were highly correlated with PAH loading from CT sealcoat (Spearman's rho=0.98), and the mean proportional PAH profile for the 40 lakes was highly correlated with the PAH profile for dust from CT-sealed pavement (r=0.95). PAH concentrations and mass and fractional loading from CT sealcoat were significantly greater in the central and eastern United States than in the western United States, reflecting regional differences in use of different sealcoat product types. The model was used to calculate temporal trends in PAH source contributions during the last 40 to 100 years to eight of the 40 lakes. In seven of the lakes, CT sealcoat has been the largest source of PAHs since the 1960s, and in six of those lakes PAH trends are upward. Traffic is the largest source to the eighth lake, located in southern California where use of CT sealcoat is rare.

  3. 煤沥青对不同变质程度煤成焦性能的影响%EFFECT OF COAL TAR PITCH ON THE COKING PERFORMANCES FROM DIFFERENT RANK OF COALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白永建; 许德平; 王永刚

    2013-01-01

    To study the co-carbonization between coal tar pitch and different rank of coal, experiments of charring between 5% and 10% of coal tar pitch and coals were studied, which were test in coke oven of 40 kg. The results showed that, the microstructures of cokes charred from different rank of coals and coal tar pitch were different. The pitch increased the Optical Texture Index (OTI) of the coke from low rank of coals and high rank of coals, and had little effect on that from middle rank of coals. The mechanical behaviors of cokes charred from different rank of coals and coal tar pitch were also different. The cokes from low rank of coals had high mechanical strength because of obviously dissolution; the cokes from middle rank of coals had little effect with pitch; however, the pitch obviously improves the mechanical capacities and thermal properties of the coke charred from high rank of coals.%为了考察煤沥青与不同变质程度煤的共炭化特性,利用40 kg小焦炉模拟炼焦试验,进行了单种煤5%与10%的煤沥青添加的各煤种的炭化研究.研究结果表明,沥青对不同变质程度煤生成焦炭的显微结构影响不同,对低变质程度的中低黏结性煤,增加了焦炭光学组织指数OTI;对黏结组分充足的中等变质程度煤的OTI影响较小;对高变质程度煤OTI影响显著.沥青对不同变质程度煤生成焦炭的机械性能影响不同.对低变质程度的中低黏结性煤,溶解作用较明显,对机械强度有较大改善;对黏结组分充足的中等变质程度煤的成焦性能影响较小;对高变质程度煤成焦性能影响最为明显,可显著改善焦炭机械性能和热性质.

  4. Danger in the nursery : impact on birds of tar sands oil development in Canada's boreal forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, J. [Boreal Songbird Initiative, Seattle, WA (United States); Casey-Lefkowitz, S.; Chavarria, G. [Natural Resources Defense Council, New York, NY (United States); Dyer, S. [Pembina Institute, Drayton Valley, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This report discussed the impacts of tar sands oil development in Canada's boreal forest. The Canadian boreal forest is one of the world's most important breeding areas for migratory birds, with 1 billion to 3 billion individual birds from at least 300 species known to regularly breed there. Approximately 30 per cent of all shorebirds and 30 per cent of all landbirds that breed in the United States and Canada do so within the boreal. The section of the boreal forest that sits over the tar sands region of Alberta is rapidly being fragmented by oil development. As much as 34 to 66 per cent of the Canadian boreal forest, up to 438 million acres, may no longer be intact. In Alberta, 86 per cent of the boreal forest is no longer considered intact, thus putting valuable bird habitat at risk. This report first provided background information on Canada's boreal forest as North America's nesting bird destination. It then reviewed the dangers created by tar sands operations for boreal birds. It noted that tar sands mining destroys boreal bird habitat; tailings ponds trap birds in oil waste; tar sands drilling fragments bird habitat; tar sands water withdrawals harm wetlands and water habitats; and tar sands toxins weaken and kill boreal birds. The impacts of tar sands pipelines and refineries were also discussed along with global warming impacts on boreal birds and the path forward for habitat protection. It was recommended that Alberta should implement a moratorium on new tar sands lease sales, and that Alberta and Canada should halt project approvals until long-term mitigation strategies and conservation measures are in place. refs., tabs., figs.

  5. 煤沥青作为筑路材料的研究进展%Progress of the Study on Coal Tar Pitch as a Road Paving Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵普; 薛永兵; 李秉正; 曹东伟; 张海燕

    2012-01-01

    The composition and properties of the coal tar pitch (CTP) were reviewed and the advantages and disadvantages of the CTP used as road paving material was discussed in this paper. To improve the properties mentioned above, a modified paving material combining coal tar pitch with petroleum asphalt was investigated, and its application prospect was discussed.%简述了煤沥青的组成和性质,综述了煤沥青改性后用作筑路材料、煤沥青和石油沥青混合料用作筑路材料的研究进展及其毒性防治,展望了筑路用煤沥青材料的研究新方向及应用前景.

  6. 煤沥青型焦制备与固结机理%Preparation and mechanism of formed coke with coal tar pitch as binder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永斌; 钟强; 姜涛; 李骞; 徐斌

    2016-01-01

    以煤沥青为黏结剂,对焦粉型焦制备新工艺及其固结机理进行研究。研究结果表明:助剂BJ可激发煤沥青中芳香烃等化合物的活性,使煤沥青常温下具有黏结性,实现型焦的冷压成型,其湿块2 m落下强度大于50次;超细磨填充料可填充煤沥青收缩产生的孔隙,充实煤沥青炭化骨架,强化型焦的炭化固结;煤沥青最大的热分解挥发速率和热缩聚速率分别出现在336℃和629℃,湿块经370℃挥发15 min及600℃炭化30 min后制备的型焦抗压强度达20 MPa;煤沥青在挥发和炭化中解脱除H和N等并吸收O缩聚形成C—C键的炭化骨架,其C与H的物质的量比由1.69提高至2.80,C与O的物质的量比由91.77降低至67.23;型焦炭化块主要由C及少量O构成,煤沥青形成的C—C键炭化骨架将焦炭颗粒牢固地黏结成块,使得型焦内部结构紧密、均质性好。%Preparation and mechanism of formed coke with coal tar pitch as binder were studied. The results show that assistant reagent BJ can excite the activity of aromatic compounds of coal tar pitch and make coal tar pitch have the cold state cohesiveness, which realizes briquetting of coke breeze at room temperature without heating process. The drop resistance of the wet briquette is 50 times per 2 m. Filling material of ultrafine particle can fill the pore produced by shrinkage of coal tar pitch, enrich the skeleton of coal tar pitch, intensify carbonization consolidation of formed coke, and improve the strength of formed coke. The best thermal decomposition rate and thermal decomposition rate of coal tar pitch appear at 336℃and 629℃, respectively. The compressive strength of formed coke volatilized at 370℃for 15 min and carbonized at 550℃for 30 min is 20 MPa. Through volatilization and carbonization, the molar rate of C and H in coal tar pitch increases from 1.69 to 2.80 and molar rate of C and O decreases from 91.77 to 67.23. The formed

  7. Concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Azaarenes in Runoff from Freshly Applied Coal-Tar-Based Pavement Sealcoat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, B. J.; Van Metre, P. C.

    2013-12-01

    Coal-tar-based sealcoat (CT-sealcoat) is extensively applied to asphalt parking lots and driveways in the U.S. and Canada. Toxicity to fish and invertebrates of runoff from pavement to which CT-sealcoat has been freshly applied has been reported, but relatively little is known about how concentrations of chemicals in runoff change in the hours to days following sealcoat application. We measured the concentrations of 16 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Priority Pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 7 azaarenes in 9 samples of simulated runoff from a coal-tar-sealed test plot collected at increasing intervals from 5 hours to 16 weeks following application. Azaarenes, several of which are common constituents in coal-tar pitch, and their oxidized derivatives, azaarones, are an emerging group of little-studied heterocyclic chemicals. Runoff samples were collected by spraying 25 L of a diluted groundwater to 10 m2 on sealed pavement and retrieving the runoff downgradient where the runoff pooled against spill berms. Unfiltered samples were analyzed by GC/MS following liquid-liquid extraction. In the first sample (t=5 hr), phenanthrene had the highest concentration (130 μg/L) among the 16 PAHs. Concentrations of the lower molecular weight (LMW) PAHs (2 and 3 ring) decreased during the 16 weeks following application, and concentrations of the higher molecular weight (HMW) PAHs (4 to 6 ring) increased, coincident with an increase in the concentration of suspended particulates. In the final sample (t=16 weeks), fluoranthene had the highest concentration (36 μg/L) among the 16 PAHs. Of the azaarenes measured, concentrations of acridine and carbazole (107 and 750 μg/L, respectively) in the initial sample exceeded those of any of the PAHs measured except phenanthrene; acridine and carbazole concentrations decreased over the 5 weeks to <5% of their initial values. Samples of dried sealcoat were analyzed the day of application and 5 weeks later. Samples were

  8. Estimation of risk of developing bladder cancer among workers exposed to coal tar pitch volatiles in the primary aluminum industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, C; Armstrong, B; Thériault, G; Brodeur, J

    1995-03-01

    To confirm the relationship between exposure to coal tar pitch volatiles and bladder cancer among primary aluminum production workers, we carried out a case-control study among blue-collar workers who had worked more than 1 year between 1950-1979 in a major plant using mostly the Soderberg process in the Province of Québec. Cases of bladder cancer (ICD code 188) diagnosed between 1970-1979 (n = 69) were mostly included in a previously reported study. To these were added cases diagnosed between 1980-1988 (n = 69). Each case was matched to three controls on date of birth, date of hiring, and length of service at the company. Smoking habits were assessed from the medical records at the company. Benzene-soluble matter (BSM) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) were used as indicators of environmental exposure to coal tar pitch volatiles in the workplace. The estimated risk for current smokers was 2.63 (95% C.I. 1.29-5.37). Estimates of risk by occupational exposure were adjusted for smoking. Men who had worked in the Soderberg potrooms were at higher risk of developing the disease, the risk increasing with the time spent in these departments. Similarly, a strong association between risk and cumulative exposure to BSM or to BaP was observed. The risks associated with cumulative exposure to BSM (mg/m3-years) and to BaP (microgram/m3-years) were described with mathematical models. Using a linear model (1 + bx) and lagging 10 years before the diagnosis, BaP cumulative exposure was a better indicator of risk than BSM cumulative exposure. The risk for each year of exposure to BaP at a concentration of 1 microgram/m3 increased by 1.7% (0.8%-3.2%). Using the same model for BSM, a worker exposed to the current threshold limit value of 0.2 mg/m3 for 40 years will sustain a risk of 2.22 (1.56-3.48). Comparison of risks according to different periods of diagnosis (1970-1979 vs. 1980-1988) did not reveal any significant temporal changes on risk estimates.

  9. The development of an improved method for the determination of coal tar pitch volatiles (CTPV) in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scobbie, E; Dabill, D W; Groves, J A

    1998-01-01

    Test samples were collected at a range of sites using the MDHS 68 sampler, a 7-hole sampler, and a cyclone respirable-dust sampler. Glass fibre, Zefluor, Fluoropore and silver (0.8 and 5 microns) filters were compared for weighing error, handling characteristics, and amount collected. The effects of a carbon back-up, of extraction solvent, and of analytical method were studied. The current HSE method for the sampling and analysis of coal tar pitch volatiles, MDHS 68 has been reviewed. It is recommended that the MDHS 68 sampler be replaced by a 7-hole head containing a silver or PTFE filter (approximately 1 micron pore size), with a graphitized carbon back-up if efficient collection of 2 to 4-ring PAHs is required. Cyclohexane is recommended as the extraction solvent. Methods of analysis which quantify the fume as a whole (MDHS 68, u.v., ELSD) were shown to give a response which varied according to the type of CTPV generating process. Therefore analysis of specific PAHs of occupational interest, by GC-MS or HPLC is recommended.

  10. On the reaction of some bacteria and fungi on coal tar creosote. Zur Verhalten einiger Bakterien und Pilze gegenueber Steinkohlenteeroel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, O.; Dittberner, D.; Faix, O. (Universitaet Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany). Ordinariat fuer Holzbiologie)

    1991-01-01

    To contribute to the waste management of wood preservatives, the biodegradability of coal tar creosote by bacteria and fungi has been investigated. Microorganisms comprised 24 bacterial strains and 31 fungi from different systematic and ecological groups as well as isolates from contaminated soils. Based on countings of viable cells, the experiments with various nutrient media, methods of cultivation, preservative concentrations, and organic solvents yielded some bacteria which could grow in the presence of creosote: {ital Aeromonas hydrophila}, {ital Flavobacterium} sp., {ital Pseudomonas arvilla}, {ital P. fluorescens}, and {ital P. putida}. The white-rot fungi {ital Bjerkandera adusta}, {ital Heterobasidion annosum}, {ital Hirschioporus abietinus}, {ital Lentinula edodes}, {ital Peniophora gigantea}, {ital Pleurotus ostreatus}, {ital Schizophyllum commune}, and {ital Trametes versicolor}, the brown-rot fungus {ital Lentinus lepideus}, the staining fungi {ital Ceratocystis piceae} and {ital Stereum sanguinolentum}, and the moulds {ital Paecilomyces variotii} and {ital Trichoderma viride} also grew with creosote. To prepare samples for IR-measurements, continuous extraction of creosote from the nutrient liquid by percolation with methylene chloride was suitable. However, the IR-spectra of creosote did not show any measurable changes after incubation with 16 bacterial strains and 6 fungi. 42 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Size-exclusion chromatography of large molecules from coal liquids, petroleum residues, soots, biomass tars and humic substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herod, Alan A; Zhuo, Yuqun; Kandiyoti, Rafael

    2003-06-30

    Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) using 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) as eluent has been calibrated using various standard polymers and model compounds and applied to the analysis of extracts of coal, petroleum and kerogens, to petroleum vacuum residues, soots, biomass tars and humic substances. Three separate columns of different molecular mass (MM) ranges were used, with detection by UV absorption; an evaporative light scattering detector was used for samples with no UV absorption. Fractionation was useful to separate signal from the less abundant high-mass material, which was normally masked by the strong signal from the more abundant low-mass material in the absence of fractionation. Fractionation methods used to isolate high-mass materials before SEC analysis included planar chromatography, column chromatography and solvent solubility. The apparently large molecules were concentrated into the fractions not soluble in common solvents and were relatively immobile in planar chromatography. All samples and fractions contained some material excluded from the column porosity. Evidence from other techniques suggests that the excluded material is of different structures from that of the resolved material rather than consisting of aggregates of small molecules. We speculate that the excluded material may elute early because the structures of this material are three-dimensional rather than planar or near planar.

  12. Research investigations in oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, and advanced fuels research: Volume 2 -- Jointly sponsored research program. Final report, October 1986--September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, V.E.

    1994-09-01

    Numerous studies have been conducted in five principal areas: oil shale, tar sand, underground coal gasification, advanced process technology, and advanced fuels research. In subsequent years, underground coal gasification was broadened to be coal research, under which several research activities were conducted that related to coal processing. The most significant change occurred in 1989 when the agreement was redefined as a Base Program and a Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP). Investigations were conducted under the Base Program to determine the physical and chemical properties of materials suitable for conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels, to test and evaluate processes and innovative concepts for such conversions, to monitor and determine environmental impacts related to development of commercial-sized operations, and to evaluate methods for mitigation of potential environmental impacts. This report is divided into two volumes: Volume 1 consists of 28 summaries that describe the principal research efforts conducted under the Base Program in five topic areas. Volume 2 describes tasks performed within the JSRP. Research conducted under this agreement has resulted in technology transfer of a variety of energy-related research information. A listing of related publications and presentations is given at the end of each research topic summary. More specific and detailed information is provided in the topical reports referenced in the related publications listings.

  13. 煤的理化性质对生物质和煤共热解焦油性质的影响%Effects of coal physicochemical on tar characteristics during co-pyrolysis of biomass and coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐初阳; 张德祥; 鲁锡兰

    2016-01-01

    Saw dust,Heishan coal and Shenmu coal were chosen as raw materials.Co-pyrolysis experiments of biomass and coals were performed with difference blending ratios in a tubular furnace.The effects of saw dust additives were investigated and compared upon the co-pyrolysis yields of tar,water and light tar.Then,the thermogravimetric analyses of raw materials and the structure of coals was tested by 13C NMR.The yield and quality mechanisms of co-pyrolysis tar were further discussed,based on the yield comparison of pyrolytic products,thermal chemical reactivity of raw materials and the structure of coals.The results indicated that significant interactions of saw dust and coals increased the yield of light tar and decreased the water yield in the proper blending ratios during copyrolysis.Moreover,the aliphatic hydrocarbon of light tar was derived from alkyl radicals of the pyrolysis of biomass and coal.And the generation of pyrolytic water was inhibited because aromatic radicals of coal were converted to creosotes by the hydroxyl radicals from biomass pyrolysis.%将木屑分别与黑山煤、神木煤以不同比例掺混,利用自制热解干馏炉进行共热解实验.比较木屑的添加对共热解焦油、水和轻质焦油产率的不同影响,结合煤和生物质的热重分析结果与煤的13C核磁共振分析表征,探讨煤的结构、煤和生物质的热化学反应特性,对共热解焦油产率和品质的作用机理.结果表明:在一定配比范围内,木屑和煤之间的交互作用明显提高了共热解焦油中轻质组分的产率,同时热解水产率低于计算值;轻质焦油中的脂肪烃组分主要由木屑和煤热解产生的烷基自由基相互化合生成;煤热解产生的芳烃类自由基由于与生物质热解产生的羟基自由基生成杂酚化合物,从而抑制了热解水的生成.

  14. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research. Quarterly technical progress report, January--March 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    Accomplishments for the past quarter are briefly described for the following areas of research: oil shale; tar sand; coal; advanced exploratory process technology; and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale and tar sand researches cover processing studies. Coal research includes: coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology covers: advanced process concepts; advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW{sup TM} field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; operation and evaluation of the CO{sub 2} HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid-state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin tight gas sands; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process; oil field waste cleanup using tank bottom recovery process; remote chemical sensor development; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; solid-state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens; and development of an effective method for the clean-up of natural gas.

  15. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research. Quarterly technical progress report, October--December 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speight, J.G.

    1992-12-31

    Accomplishments for the past quarter are presented for the following five tasks: oil shale; tar sand; coal; advanced exploratory process technology; and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research covers oil shale process studies. Tar sand research is on process development of Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) Process. Coal research covers: coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts;advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO{sub 2} HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process; NMR analysis of samples from the ocean drilling program; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; and solid state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens.

  16. Topical tar: Back to the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paghdal, K.V.; Schwartz, R.A. [University of Medicine & Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, NJ (United States)

    2009-08-15

    The use of medicinal tar for dermatologic disorders dates back to the ancient times. Although coal tar is utilized more frequently in modern dermatology, wood tars have also been widely employed. Tar is used mainly in the treatment of chronic stable plaque psoriasis, scalp psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and seborrheic dermatitis, either alone or in combination therapy with other medications, phototherapy, or both. Many modifications have been made to tar preparations to increase their acceptability, as some dislike its odor, messy application, and staining of clothing. One should consider a tried and true treatment with tar that has led to clearing of lesions and prolonged remission times. Occupational studies have demonstrated the carcinogenicity of tar; however, epidemiologic studies do not confirm similar outcomes when used topically. This article will review the pharmacology, formulations, efficacy, and adverse effects of crude coal tar and other tars in the treatment of selected dermatologic conditions.

  17. Distribution of Fe types in medium temperature coal tar%中温煤焦油中类型Fe的分布特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王磊; 李冬; 黄江流; 毕瑶; 朱永红; 袁扬

    2016-01-01

    对中温煤焦油中各种类型的Fe进行分离,采用ICP测定煤焦油中各种类型Fe的含量,利用SEM、EDX、FTIR、XRD、元素分析等手段对煤焦油中甲苯不溶物进行表征。实验结果表明,煤焦油中甲苯不溶物Fe含量占总Fe含量的66.64%(w),油溶性Fe含量占总Fe含量的33.03%(w),水溶性Fe含量总Fe含量的0.33%(w)。表征结果显示,煤焦油中甲苯不溶物芳构化程度较高,有机物多为稠环芳烃类物质,Fe可能与含有硫、氮、氧等杂原子的稠环芳烃类物质相结合;甲苯不溶物中少量的Fe存在于黏土类矿物质中,这部分无机矿物质可能来源于煤炼焦时带入的灰分。%Different types of Fe in medium temperature coal tar were separated and determined by means of ICP. Toluene-insolubles in the coal tar were characterized by means of SEM,EDX,FTIR, XRD and element analysis. The experimental results showed that,toluene-insoluble Fe,oil-soluble Fe and water-soluble Fe in the coal tar were 66.64%(w),33.03%(w) and 0.33%(w) of the total Fe content,respectively. The characterization results showed that the toluene-insolubles in the coal tar had high degree of aromatization and contained a lot of polycyclic aromatics. Fe might be combined with the polycyclic aromatics containing sulfur,nitrogen,oxygen and other heteroatoms. A small amount of Fe in the toluene-insolubles existed in clay-like inorganic minerals which might derive from coking coal ash.

  18. Biological monitoring as a useful tool for the detection of a coal-tar contamination in bitumen-exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raulf-Heimsoth, M.; Angerer, J.; Pesch, B.; Marczynski, B.; Hahn, J.U.; Spickenheuer, A.; Preuss, R.; Ruhl, R.; Rode, P.; Bruning, T. [Institute at the Ruhr University of Bochum, Bochum (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    In our research project entitled 'Chemical irritative and/or genotoxic effect of fumes of bitumen under high processing temperatures on the airways,' 73 mastic asphalt workers exposed to fumes of bitumen and 49 construction nonexposed workers were analyzed and compared with respect to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exposure and exposure-related health effects. In order to assess the internal exposure the monohydroxylated metabolites of pyrene, 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), and phenanthrene, 1-, 2- and 9-, and 3- and 4-hydroxyphenanthrene (OHPH) were determined in pre- and post-shift urinary samples. Significantly higher concentrations 1-OHP and OHPH were detected in the post-shift urine samples of 7 mastic asphalt workers working on the same construction site compared to the reference workers and all other 66 mastic asphalt workers. The adjusted mean OHPH in the reference, 66 mastic worker, and 7 worker subgroups was 1022, 1544, and 12919 ng/g creatinine (crn) respectively, indicating a marked rise in the 7 worker subgroup. In addition, there was a more than 12-fold increase of PAH metabolites from pre- to post-shift in these 7 workers, whereas in the other mastic asphalt workers there was only a twofold rise in PAH-metabolite concentration between pre- and post-shift values. The analysis of a drilling core from the construction site of the seven workers led to the detection of the source for this marked PAH exposure during the working shift as being coal tar plates, which were, without knowledge of the workers and coordinators, the underground material of the mastic asphalt layer. The evaluation of the stationary workplace concentration showed enhanced levels of phenanthrene, pyrene, fluorene, anthracene, and acenaphthene during working shifts at the construction site of these seven workers. Our study shows that biological monitoring is also a useful tool for the detection of unrecognized sources with high PAH concentrations.

  19. Biological monitoring as a useful tool for the detection of a coal-tar contamination in bitumen-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika; Angerer, Jürgen; Pesch, Beate; Marczynski, Boleslaw; Hahn, Jens Uwe; Spickenheuer, Anne; Preuss, Ralf; Rühl, Reinhold; Rode, Peter; Brüning, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In our research project entitled "Chemical irritative and/or genotoxic effect of fumes of bitumen under high processing temperatures on the airways," 73 mastic asphalt workers exposed to fumes of bitumen and 49 construction nonexposed workers were analyzed and compared with respect to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exposure and exposure-related health effects. In order to assess the internal exposure the monohydroxylated metabolites of pyrene, 1- hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), and phenanthrene, 1-, 2- and 9-, and 3- and 4-hydroxyphenanthrene (OHPH) were determined in pre- and post-shift urinary samples. Significantly higher concentrations 1-OHP and OHPH were detected in the post-shift urine samples of 7 mastic asphalt workers working on the same construction site compared to the reference workers and all other 66 mastic asphalt workers. The adjusted mean OHPH in the reference, 66 mastic worker, and 7 worker subgroups was 1022, 1544, and 12919 ng/g creatinine (crn) respectively, indicating a marked rise in the 7 worker subgroup. In addition, there was a more than 12-fold increase of PAH metabolites from pre- to post-shift in these 7 workers, whereas in the other mastic asphalt workers there was only a twofold rise in PAH-metabolite concentration between pre- and post-shift values. The analysis of a drilling core from the construction site of the seven workers led to the detection of the source for this marked PAH exposure during the working shift as being coal tar plates, which were, without knowledge of the workers and coordinators, the underground material of the mastic asphalt layer. The evaluation of the stationary workplace concentration showed enhanced levels of phenanthrene, pyrene, fluorene, anthracene, and acenaphthene during working shifts at the construction site of these seven workers. Our study shows that biological monitoring is also a useful tool for the detection of unrecognized sources with high PAH concentrations.

  20. Study on the thermal polymerization of coal tar pitch%煤沥青热聚合研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯质壮; 宋淑群; 金俊杰; 陈明鸣

    2013-01-01

    The mesophase pitch was synthesized from coal tar pitch by thermal polymerization.The influences of thermal polymerization temperature and time on the group composition and optical microstructure of the mesophase pitch have been studied.The reaction mechanism was investigated and the optimum reaction conditions for preparing the mesophase pitch were obtained.The results indicated that under certain conditions,excellent mesophase pitch can be synthesized by low temperature,long time or high temperature,short time.At 360 ℃ for 5h,the mesophase spherulites prepared by thermal polymerization are dispersed,while the mesophase spherulites prepared at 380 ℃ for 4h are concentrated.Research shows that the optimum reaction conditions are temperature of 380 ℃ and making time of 4h.In the paper,the synthesized mesophase pitch could be an excellent precursor for advanced carbon materials,which could provide a new route to the preparation of new carbon materials,and be helpful for the comprehensive utilization of coal resources.%以煤沥青为原料,采用直接热聚合工艺制备出优质中间相沥青.研究了热聚合温度及保温时间对中间相沥青族组成及光学组织结构等性能的影响,并对反应机理进行了深入研究,得到了制备中间相沥青的最佳工艺条件.研究表明,在一定条件下,通过热聚合,在低温、长时间或高温、短时间都能制备优质中间相沥青.在360℃、5h条件下制备的中间相球晶较小,分布较分散;而在380℃、4h条件下制备的球晶较大,分布较集中.制备的中间相可作为高级炭材料的优质前躯体,为制取高质量的新型炭材料提供了一条新的途径,对煤炭资源的综合利用具有十分重要的意义.

  1. STUDY ON THE MODIFICATION OF COAL TAR PITCH FOR CARBON PRECURESOR%炭材料用基体前驱体沥青的改性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林起浪; 李铁虎; 单玲; 陈彦

    2001-01-01

    首次以二乙烯基苯为交联剂,在酸性催化剂的作用下对煤沥青进行了改性研究,同时对改性后的煤沥青进行显微结构和耐热性分析。研究结果表明:改性后的煤沥青不仅出现大量的中间相小球,而且耐热性优良,可作为炭材料优质的基体前驱体。%Modification of coal tar pitch as a carbon precursor was studied using divinylbenzene (DVB) as a cross-linking agent by the aid of acid catalyst. The microstructure and thermostability of modified coal tar pitch had been studied. It was indicated that the modified coal pitch, which had not only a great deal of mesophase microbead but good thermostability as well, can be qualified to be an excellent carbon precursor.

  2. Impacts of Coal Seam Gas (Coal Bed Methane) and Coal Mining on Water Resources in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    Mining of coal bed methane deposits (termed ';coal seam gas' in Australia) is a rapidly growing source of natural gas in Australia. Indeed, expansion of the industry is occurring so quickly that in some cases, legislation is struggling to keep up with this expansion. Perhaps because of this, community concern about the impacts of coal seam gas development is very strong. Responding to these concerns, the Australian Government has recently established an Independent Expert Scientific Committee (IESC) to provide advice to the Commonwealth and state regulators on potential water-related impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining developments. In order to provide the underlying science to the IESC, a program of ';bioregional assessments' has been implemented. One aim of these bioregional assessments is to improve our understanding of the connectivity between the impacts of coal seam gas extraction and groundwater aquifers, as well as their connection to surface water. A bioregional assessment can be defined as a scientific analysis of the ecology, hydrology, geology and hydrogeology of a bioregion, with explicit assessment of the potential direct, indirect and cumulative impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining development on water resources. These bioregional assessments are now being carried out across large portions of eastern Australia which are underlain by coal reserves. This presentation will provide an overview of the issues related to the impacts of coal seam gas and coal mining on water resources in Australia. The methodology of undertaking bioregional assessments will be described, and the application of this methodology to six priority bioregions in eastern Australia will be detailed. Preliminary results of the program of research to date will be assessed in light of the requirements of the IESC to provide independent advice to the Commonwealth and State governments. Finally, parallels between the expansion of the industry in Australia with that

  3. 煤焦油沥青树脂黏结剂的制备研究%Preparation of coal tar pitch resin binder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何莹; 高源; 刘书林; 赵雪飞

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the coal tar pitch resin was synthesized by using coal tar as raw materials, paraformaldehyde as the cross- linker, under the role of acidic catalyst of p- toluenesulfonic acid. By the orthogonal experiment, the effects of the amounts of cross- linking agent and catalyst, reaction temperature and time on the properties of the sythesized samples were investigated. The results show that the reaction temperature and time could be decreased by increasing the contents of crosslinking agent and catalyst. All the indexes, including softening point, coking value and bond strength of coal tar pitch resin,could be obviously improved by increasing the reaction temperature and time.%采用交联合成法,以煤焦油为原料,多聚甲醛为交联剂,在酸性催化剂对甲苯磺酸的作用下制备煤焦油沥青树脂.采用正交试验法研究了交联剂量、催化剂量、反应温度和反应时间对合成煤焦油沥青树脂的影响.结果表明,增加交联剂量和催化剂量可以起到降低反应温度和缩短反应时间的效果;煤焦油沥青树脂的软化点、结焦值和黏结强度等指标均随反应温度升高和反应时间延长而明显增加.

  4. Coal tar pitch volatiles and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exposures in expansion joint-making operations on a construction site: a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence A. Kurtz; Dave K. Verma; Dru Sahai [McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (Canada). Program in Occupational Health and Environmental Medicine

    2003-07-01

    This case study describes occupational exposures to coal tar pitch volatiles (CTPV) as benzene soluble fraction (BSF), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and total particulates at a unique operation involving the use of coal tar in the making of expansion joints in construction of a multi-level airport parking garage. A task-based exposure assessment approach was used. A set of 32 samples was collected and analyzed for total particulate and CTPV-BSF. Twenty samples of this set were analyzed for PAHs. Current American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)(reg. sign) respective threshold limit value-time weighted average (TLV-TWA) for insoluble particulates not otherwise specified (PNOS) is 10 mg/m{sup 3} as inhalable dust, which roughly corresponds to 4 mg/m{sup 3} total particulate; for CTPV as BSF the TLV is 0.2 mg/m{sup 3}, and for specific PAHs such as benzo(a)-pyrene (B(a)P), ACGIH suggests keeping exposure as low as practicable. The recommended Swedish exposure limit for B(a)P is 2 mg/m{sup 3}. The highest exposure levels measured were 12.8 mg/m{sup 3} for total particulates, 1.9 mg/m{sup 3} for coal tar pitch volatiles as BSF, and 12.8 mg/m{sup 3} for B(a)P. Several of the CTPV-BSF results were over the TLV of 0.2 mg/m{sup 3}. The data set is limited; therefore, caution should be used in its interpretation.

  5. Coal tar pitch volatiles and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exposures in expansion joint-making operations on a construction site: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Lawrence A; Verma, Dave K; Sahai, Dru

    2003-07-01

    This case study describes occupational exposures to coal tar pitch volatiles (CTPV) as benzene soluble fraction (BSF), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and total particulates at a unique operation involving the use of coal tar in the making of expansion joints in construction of a multi-level airport parking garage. A task-based exposure assessment approach was used. A set of 32 samples was collected and analyzed for total particulate and CTPV-BSF. Twenty samples of this set were analyzed for PAHs. Current American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH(R)) respective threshold limit value-time weighted average (TLV-TWA) for insoluble particulates not otherwise specified (PNOS) is 10 mg/m(3) as inhalable dust, which roughly corresponds to 4 mg/m(3) total particulate; for CTPV as BSF the TLV is 0.2 mg/m(3), and for specific PAHs such as benzo(a)-pyrene (B[a]P), ACGIH suggests keeping exposure as low as practicable. The recommended Swedish exposure limit for B(a)P is 2 microg/m(3). The highest exposure levels measured were 12.8 mg/m(3) for total particulate, 1.9 mg/m(3) for coal tar pitch volatiles as BSF, and 12.8 microg/m(3) for B(a)P. Several of the CTPV-BSF results were over the TLV of 0.2 mg/m(3). The data set is limited; therefore, caution should be used in its interpretation.

  6. Effect of coal tar pitch modified by sulfur as a binder on the mechanical and tribological properties of bronze-impregnated carbon-matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Huijun [School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, No. 37, Xue Yuan Road, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100191 (China); Luo Ruiying, E-mail: ryluo@buaa.edu.cn [School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, No. 37, Xue Yuan Road, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2011-03-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Sulfur addition increased the softening point and carbon yield of coal tar pitch. {yields} The mechanical properties of the composites reached a maximum at 7 wt. % of sulfur. {yields} The friction coefficient rose monotonously with increasing the content of sulfur. {yields} The wear rate of the composites reached a minimum at 7 wt. % of sulfur. {yields} The wear mechanism of composites was adhesive wear, abrasive wear and oxidative wear. - Abstract: Bronze-impregnated carbon-matrix composites were prepared through compression molding, carbonization and impregnation. The mechanism of sulfuration was studied, and the effect of coal tar pitch modified by sulfur as a binder on the mechanical and tribological properties of composites was investigated by varying the content of sulfur. The results showed that the sulfur addition increased the softening point, carbon yield and C/H atomic ratio of coal tar pitch but decreased the toluene solubility and quinoline solubility due to the dehydrogenating polymerization of pitch molecules. The micro-hardness, bending strength and compressive strength of the composites were enhanced by increasing the mass percentage of sulfur and reached a maximum of 160 HV, 132.82 MPa and 293 MPa at 7 wt. % of sulfur, respectively. However, both the hardness and strength of the composites decreased as the content of sulfur increased beyond 7 wt. %. The friction coefficient value of composites increased monotonously, but the wear rate decreased with increasing sulfur content; subsequently, the wear rate reached a minimum of 3.045 x 10{sup -7} mm{sup 3}/Nm at 7 wt. % of sulfur and then ascended. The wear mechanisms of the composites were adhesive wear, abrasive wear and oxidative wear. However, adhesive wear and oxidative wear occurred slightly for the composites with the binder modified by sulfur.

  7. Exposure to runoff from coal-tar-sealed pavement induces genotoxicity and impairment of DNA repair capacity in the RTL-W1 fish liver cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kienzler, Aude, E-mail: aude.kienzler@entpe.fr [Université de Lyon, UMR LEHNA 5023, USC INRA, ENTPE, rue Maurice Audin, Vaulx-en-Velin F-69518 (France); Mahler, Barbara J., E-mail: bjmahler@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey, 1505 Ferguson Lane, Austin, TX 78754 (United States); Van Metre, Peter C., E-mail: pcvanmet@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey, 1505 Ferguson Lane, Austin, TX 78754 (United States); Schweigert, Nathalie [Université de Lyon, UMR LEHNA 5023, USC INRA, ENTPE, rue Maurice Audin, Vaulx-en-Velin F-69518 (France); Devaux, Alain, E-mail: alain.devaux@entpe.fr [Université de Lyon, UMR LEHNA 5023, USC INRA, ENTPE, rue Maurice Audin, Vaulx-en-Velin F-69518 (France); Bony, Sylvie, E-mail: bony@entpe.fr [Université de Lyon, UMR LEHNA 5023, USC INRA, ENTPE, rue Maurice Audin, Vaulx-en-Velin F-69518 (France)

    2015-07-01

    Coal-tar-based (CTB) sealcoat, frequently applied to parking lots and driveways in North America, contains elevated concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and related compounds. The RTL-W1 fish liver cell line was used to investigate two endpoints (genotoxicity and DNA-repair-capacity impairment) associated with exposure to runoff from asphalt pavement with CTB sealcoat or with an asphalt-based sealcoat hypothesized to contain about 7% CTB sealcoat (AS-blend). Genotoxic potential was assessed by the Formamido pyrimidine glycosylase (Fpg)-modified comet assay for 1:10 and 1:100 dilutions of runoff samples collected from 5 h to 36 d following sealcoat application. DNA-repair capacity was assessed by the base excision repair comet assay for 1:10 dilution of samples collected 26 h and 36 d following application. Both assays were run with and without co-exposure to ultraviolet-A radiation (UVA). With co-exposure to UVA, genotoxic effects were significant for both dilutions of CTB runoff for three of four sample times, and for some samples of AS-blend runoff. Base excision repair was significantly impaired for CTB runoff both with and without UVA exposure, and for AS-blend runoff only in the absence of UVA. This study is the first to investigate the effects of exposure to the complex mixture of chemicals in coal tar on DNA repair capacity. The results indicate that co-exposure to runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement and UVA as much as a month after sealcoat application has the potential to cause genotoxicity and impair DNA repair capacity. - Highlights: • Co-exposure to runoff from coal-tar-sealcoated pavement and UVA caused DNA damage. • Significant genotoxicity occurred with a 1:100 dilution of runoff. • Runoff collected up to 36 d following coal-tar-sealcoat application was genotoxic. • Exposure to runoff from sealed pavement impaired an important DNA repair pathway. • Repair capacity was impaired with a 1:10 dilution of runoff (1:100 not

  8. Dandruff, seborrheic dermatitis, and psoriasis drug products containing coal tar and menthol for over-the-counter human use; amendment to the monograph. Final rule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-03-15

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final rule amending the final monograph (FM) for over-the-counter (OTC) dandruff, seborrheic dermatitis, and psoriasis drug products to include the combination of 1.8 percent coal tar solution and 1.5 percent menthol in a shampoo drug product to control dandruff. FDA did not receive any comments or data in response to its previously proposed rule to include this combination. This final rule is part of FDA's ongoing review of OTC drug products.

  9. Observation of cyclopenta-fused and ethynyl-substituted PAH during the fuel-rich combustion of primary tar from a bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledesma, E.B.; Kalish, M.A.; Wornat, M.J.; Nelson, P.F.; Mackie, J.C. [Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (USA). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

    1999-12-01

    High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet-visible (UV) diode-array detection was used to analyze the condensed-phase products from the fuel-rich combustion, at 1000{degree}C, of bituminous coal primary tar. Experiments were performed using a quartz two-stage reactor consisting of a fluidized-bed reactor coupled to a tubular-flow reactor. Eight cyclopenta-fused polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (CP-PAH) were identified, four of which have never before been observed as products of a bituminous coal and have also never been observed from the fuel-rich combustion of any coal: cyclopent(hi)acephenanthrylene, cyclopenta(cd)fluoranthene, dicyclopenta(cd, jk) pyrene, cylopenta(bc)coronene. In addition to these CP-PAH, two ethynyl-substituted PAH, 2-ethynylnaphthalene and 1-ethynylacenaphthylene, were identified for the first time as bituminous coal products. Yields of individual CP-PAH spanned a range of 4 orders of magnitude. Out of the eight CP-PAH identified, acenaphthylene was found to be the most abundant under all conditions investigated. CP-PAH of higher ring number were present in successively lower amounts, consistent with CP-PAH formation via hydrocarbon growth reactions. CP-PAH yields decreased with increasing oxygen concentration, indicating that rates of CP-PAH oxidation exceeded those of CP-PAH formation under the conditions investigated. Possible mechanisms of CP-PAH formation are discussed, but the complexity of the starting fuel precludes definitive delineation of the reaction pathways leading to CP-PAH and ethynyl-substituted PAH during the fuel-rich combustion of tar. 31 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  10. 芳香族硝基化合物改性煤沥青研究%Modification of coal tar pitch with aromatic nitro-compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱莉莉; 许斌; 惠大陆; 田钮; 黄艳

    2012-01-01

    以煤沥青为原料,通过添加不同含量的芳香族硝基化合物对煤沥青进行改性处理,采用TG、CO2反应性、XRD和SEM对改性沥青焦进行表征.结果表明,芳香族硝基化合物有效地促进了煤沥青在炭化过程中的焦化缩聚,使产物沥青焦结构更加致密,并在一定程度上改变了沥青焦的氧化行为,从而显著提高了沥青黏结焦的抗氧化性能.%Coal tar pitch was modified by adding different kinds of aromatic nitro-compounds. Modified pitch cokes were characterized by using TG, CO2 reactivity, XRD and SEM measurements. The results show that nitro-compounds substantially enhance coking condensation of coal tar pitch which leads to the formation of denser pitch coke- Nitro-compounds effectively changed the oxidation behavior of modified pitch coke. The oxidation resistance of modified pitch coke has been evidently improved.

  11. HYDROGEN-ACCEPTING MODIFICATION OF COAL TAR PITCH ROAD BINDER%煤沥青筑路油受氢改质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金鸣林; 冯安祖

    2000-01-01

    The change in group component of the coal tar pitch road binder modified by tired rubber with reaction time and its modified mechanism were studied.The average structural parameters of the coal-tar-pitch ,solvent oil and modified road binder were calculated by Brown-Lander formula using NMR, ultimate analysis and average molecular weight.Results showed that the TS(toluene soluble of the binder modified with rubber)increased from 45.0% to 61.5%,HS(heptane soluble)decreased from 27.0% to 14.4%,TIS(toluene insoluble)decreased from 28.0% to 24.1% as compared with the binder without rubber.In contrast of the 1H-NMR of the group components of the rubber with those of the road binder,there were the same H pulses at δ=5.5 & 5.3.It was considered that the rubber,as a hydrogen donor,might take part in the modification of coal tar pitch and formed a new asphaltine.It was the hydrogen-accepting function of the coal tar pitch that the quality of the coal tar pitch road binder was improved.%研究了煤沥青在供氢剂(再生橡胶)的作用下,族组成随反应时间的变化规律及其受氢改质机理。利用核磁共振、元素分析、分子量测定等手段,计算得到了煤沥青、溶剂油以及改质筑路油等的平均结构参数。结果表明:与空白样对比,加入再生橡胶使得筑路油中沥青质含量由45.0%增加到61.5%,软沥青由27.0%降低到14.4%,不溶物由28.0%降低到24.1%。对比橡胶和筑路油族组成的1H-NMR谱图可发现,在化学位移δ=5.5和5.3处均有H质子峰出现,表明橡胶参与了改质反应,形成了新的沥青质。橡胶在改质过程中作为供氢媒介参与筑路油的热解反应,正是煤沥青的受氢作用改善了筑路油的质量。

  12. 烟煤快速加氢热解研究 Ⅲ.焦油组成考察%FLASH HYDROPYROLYSIS OF BITUMINOUS COAL Ⅲ. RESEARCH ON FLASH HYDROPYROLYSIS TAR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    在高压气流床反应装置上对东胜煤快速加氢热解制取焦油试样,研究了热解温度对焦油主要组分的影响,并与高温焦炉焦油进行比较。实验表明: 加氢热解焦油的液态烃得率达15%以上,是高温焦炉焦油得率的二倍;油馏分高,沥青质少;酚类化合物和纯缩合多环芳烃含量高,脂肪烃含量低,纯缩合多环芳烃烷基衍生物组成较简单。加氢热解改善了焦油的品质,提高了得率。%Tar sample obtained by flash hydropyrolysis (FHP) from Dongshen coal at high pressure entrained reactor was investigated. An effect of falsh hydropyrolysis temperature on main components in tar was studied and the quality of tar was compared with high temperature coke oven tar. The results showed: the yields of liquid hydrocarbon in FHP tar were more than 15%, which is twofold of that in coke oven tar; the FHP tar has superior oil fraction, i.e., minor pitch, superior phenol components and pure condensed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, and minor aliphatic hydrocarbon. The components of the FHP tar were simpler than that of high temperature coke oven tar. Therefore, FHP improved quantity and quality of tar.

  13. Potential impacts to perennial springs from tar sand mining, processing, and disposal on the Tavaputs Plateau, Utah, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, William P.; Frederick, Logan E.; Millington, Mallory R. [University of Utah, Department of Geology & Geophysics, Salt lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Vala, David [Murray High School, Murray, UT 84107 (United States); Reese, Barbara K. [Butler Middle School, Cottonwood Heights, UT 84121 (United States); Freedman, Dina R. [Hillside Middle School, Salt Lake City, UT 84108 (United States); Stenten, Christina J. [Draper Park Middle School, Draper, UT 84020 (United States); Trauscht, Jacob S.; Tingey, Christopher E.; Kip Solomon, D.; Fernandez, Diego P.; Bowen, Gabriel J. [University of Utah, Department of Geology & Geophysics, Salt lake City, UT 84112 (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Similar to fracking, the development of tar sand mining in the U.S. has moved faster than understanding of potential water quality impacts. Potential water quality impacts of tar sand mining, processing, and disposal to springs in canyons incised approximately 200 m into the Tavaputs Plateau, at the Uinta Basin southern rim, Utah, USA, were evaluated by hydrogeochemical sampling to determine potential sources of recharge, and chemical thermodynamic estimations to determine potential changes in transfer of bitumen compounds to water. Because the ridgetops in an area of the Tavaputs Plateau named PR Spring are starting to be developed for their tar sand resource, there is concern for potential hydrologic connection between these ridgetops and perennial springs in adjacent canyons on which depend ranching families, livestock, wildlife and recreationalists. Samples were collected from perennial springs to examine possible progression with elevation of parameters such as temperature, specific conductance, pH, dissolved oxygen, isotopic tracers of phase change, water-rock interaction, and age since recharge. The groundwater age dates indicate that the springs are recharged locally. The progression of hydrogeochemical parameters with elevation, in combination with the relatively short groundwater residence times, indicate that the recharge zone for these springs includes the surrounding ridges, and thereby suggests a hydrologic connection between the mining, processing, disposal area and the springs. Estimations based on chemical thermodynamic approaches indicate that bitumen compounds will have greatly enhanced solubility in water that comes into contact with the residual bitumen–solvent mixture in disposed tailings relative to water that currently comes into contact with natural tar. - Highlights: • The potential water quality impacts of the first US tar sand development are considered. • Analyses of perennial springs in adjacent canyons indicate hydrologic

  14. Fractionation of a coal tar pitch by ultra-filtration, and characterization by size exclusion chromatography, UV-fluorescence and laser desorption-mass spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthe George; Trevor J. Morgan; Patricia Alvarez; Marcos Millan; Alan A. Herod; Rafael Kandiyoti [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2010-10-15

    Ultra-filtration (UF) provides a new way of generating narrow bands of sample in the fractionation of coal and petroleum-derived liquids. It allows larger quantities of high-mass fractions to be recovered, making more detailed investigations possible, through the use of techniques requiring larger amounts of sample. In this work, UF-separated fractions have been used to study molecular mass distributions of a coal tar pitch, used as laboratory standard. The pitch was fractionated by solvent solubility into three fractions. These were further fractionated by ultra-filtration, using membranes specific to protein molecular sizes classed as '1 kDa', '5 kDa', '10 kDa' and '100 kDa'. Planar chromatography was used as a tertiary fractionation method, to sub-divide the UF-fractions. The various fractions were examined by size exclusion chromatography (SEC), UV-fluorescence spectroscopy and laser desorption-mass spectrometry (LD-MS). There was good agreement between mass estimates based on SEC and LD-MS of the smaller UF-fractions, with evidence for the presence of material with molecular masses ranging between 800 and 10,000 u. Examining the largest UF fractions of the pitch-pyridine-insoluble sample also gave clear evidence for material with molecular masses above 10,000 u. Taken together, however, the LD-MS data showed progressively diminishing differences, as the sizes of the UF membranes, and the likely molecular masses of the sample fractions, increased. One likely explanation is incomplete sampling during the laser desorption procedure. The evidence suggests that the upper mass limit detectable for these and similar samples by LD-MS has been reached. Despite these reservations, LD-MS appears as the best method to date, for investigating the mass ranges of samples derived from coal tar pitch and heavy petroleum fractions. 51 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Study on Modification of Coal Tar Pitch and Structure of Mesophase%煤沥青的改性及中间相结构研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解小玲; 赵彩霞; 曹青; 靳利娥; 张怀平

    2012-01-01

    以对甲苯磺酸(PTS)为催化剂,研究了改性温度、时间和改性剂苯甲醛用量对改性煤沥青(MCTP)中间相显微结构产生的影响.研究表明,当苯甲醛/煤沥青(CTP)质量比为30/100、反应温度为150℃和反应时间为15h时得到的MCTP,其中间相呈不完全纤维组织结构;XRD分析表明,通过苯甲醛改性煤沥青,有利于提高中间相光学组织结构的有序性.FT-IR分析表明,改性后芳核骨架振动吸收频率增大,提高了芳核的缩合度;1H-NMR分析表明,改性过程中的改性反应主要发生在HA上,并对改性过程可能发生的反应机理进行了分析.%Coal tar pitch (CTP) has been successfully modified with modifier benzaldehyde in the presence of p-toluene sulfonic acid as catalyst. The main influence factors such as the mass ratio of benzaldehyde to CTP, the temperature and reaction time on optical microstructure of mesophase formed by modified coal tar pitch (MCTP) were observed. The results showed that the optical microstructure of mesophase formed by carbonized MCTP, which was produced when the mass ratio of benzaldehyde to CTP was 0. 3, the modified reaction kept for 15 h at 150 ℃, has the characteristic with incomplete fibrous structure. The result of XRD revealed that order of optical microstructure of mesophase was enhanced through modifying coal tar pitch. The results from FT-IR analysis indicated that the degree of condensation of aromatic ring increased according to the increment of vibration frequency of aromatic ring. The spectra from 1 H-NMR indicated that the polymerization reaction mainly occurred in the Ha position of aromatic rings. The possible reaction mechanism was proposed.

  16. Progress in synthesis and applications of functional carbon materials from coal tar pitch%煤沥青基功能碳材料的研究现状及前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖南; 邱介山

    2016-01-01

    Coal tar pitch is abundant as a byproduct of coke production in iron-steel industry in China. However,the traditional methods cannot efficiently convert coal tar pitch into value-added products and how to make effective use of coal tar pitch remains a big challenge. This review has summarized several techniques for further processing of coal tar pitch,with a focus on the synthesis and applications of high performance functional materials including mesophase pitch, porous carbons, carbon fibers,two dimensional nano-sized carbon materials and carbon based composites. This review highlights that the strongπ-π interactions between highly condensed polycyclic aromatic molecules in coal tar pitch is the bottle-neck that hinders the efficient conversion of coal tar pitch into functional carbon materials with tuned structure and properties. The molecular structure and properties of coal tar pitch can be improved through catalytic condensation,oxidization orco-pyrolysis. With coal tar pitch as precursor,methods including templating, physical/chemical activation, surface induction and catalytic graphitization have been developed for the controlled synthesis of high performance carbon materials. Novel methods that can tune the molecular structure of coal tar pitch are highly demanded to improve the performance of coal tar pitch based carbon materials and related researches should be intensified.%我国煤沥青资源丰富,但深加工技术落后,产品附加值低,实现煤沥青高附加值利用是亟待解决的重大课题。本文介绍了以煤沥青为原料合成高性能功能碳材料的主要技术,重点阐述了以煤沥青为原料制备中间相沥青、多孔碳材料、碳纤维、二维纳米碳材料及碳基复合材料的研究进展。分析表明,高芳香性和高缩合度分子结构所引起的强π-π相互作用是阻碍煤沥青基高性能功能碳材料设计合成的瓶颈问题。通过催化聚合、氧化、共热解等技术

  17. Impact of Coal Mining on Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sribas Goswami

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Coal mining adversely affects the eco-system as a whole. On the unstable earth, the unresting mankind constantly uses a variety of resources for daily lives. Coal is recognized to have been the main source of energy in India for many decades and contributes to nearly 27 % of the world’s commercial energy requirement. Coal is mainly mined using two methods- surface or ‘opencast’ and underground mining. The geological condition determines the method of mining. Coal mining is usually associated with the degradation of natural resources and the destruction of habitat. This causes invasive species to occupy the area, thus posing a threat to biodiversity. Huge quantities of waste material are produced by several mining activities in the coal mining region. If proper care is not taken for waste disposal, mining will degrade the surrounding environment. The method of waste disposal affects land, water and air and in turns the quality of life of the people in the adjacent areas. This paper throws lights on the burning issues of coal mines and its impact on the environment.

  18. Removing of Zinc,Aluminum And Iron From Industrial Coal Tar Pitch%从工业煤沥青中脱除锌、铝、铁的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐庆鑫; 和晓才; 翟忠标; 陈家辉; 崔涛

    2014-01-01

    研究了用四氯化碳溶解工业煤沥青脱除锌、铝、铁,考察了煤沥青粒度、液固体积质量比、反应时间、反应温度、溶解次数等对锌、铝、铁脱除率的影响,确定了最佳工艺条件。试验结果表明:在煤沥青粒径150μm、液固体积质量比6∶1、反应温度为室温(20~25℃)、反应时间4 h、溶解反应2次条件下,煤沥青中的锌、铝、铁能有效去除,煤沥青纯度达99.999%;通过蒸馏法回收四氯化碳,温度控制在120℃,四氯化碳回收率达96%。%Removing of zinc ,aluminum and iron with carbon tetrachloride from industrial coal tar pitch was studied .Influence of particle size of coal tar pitch ,the ratio between liquid volume to solid mass , reaction time ,temperature and dissolution times on removing of zinc ,aluminum and iron were examined .T he results show that under the optimal conditions of coal tar pitch particle size of 150μm , the ratio between liquid volume to solid mass of 6 ∶ 1 ,reaction time of 4 h ,room temperature and dissolution 2 times ,zinc ,aluminum and iron in coal tar pitch can be removed effectively and high-purity coal tar pitch which purity is 99 .999% is obtained .The carbon tetrachloride can be recovered by distillation at 120 ℃ .

  19. An open label prospective randomized trial to compare the efficacy of coal tar-salicylic acid ointment versus calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate ointment in the treatment of limited chronic plaque psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujay Khandpur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic plaque psoriasis is a common papulosquamous skin disorder, for which a number of topical agents are being used including coal tar, topical steroids and more recently topical calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate. There is no study comparing purified coal tar preparation with calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate ointment in limited chronic plaque psoriasis. Aims and Objectives: A prospective randomized open label controlled trial to compare the efficacy and safety of topical application of coal tar-salicylic acid ointment with calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate ointment applied once at night for 12 weeks for the treatment of limited chronic plaque psoriasis. Materials and Methods: A total of 62 patients of limited chronic plaque psoriasis (body surface area <10% were randomized into two treatment groups: Group A received topical application of 6% coal tar with 3% salicylic acid ointment and Group B received calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate, once at night for 12 weeks. Results were assessed based on psoriasis area severity index (PASI scores and patient global assessment (PGA at each visit. Results: Mean PASI was significantly lower at week 2 (P = 0.01 and week 4 follow-up (P = 0.05 and the mean reduction in PASI was significantly higher at week 2 (P = 0.02 with calcipotriol/betamethasone than coal tar-salicylic acid, but this difference was not sustained at subsequent follow-up visits. Similarly, PGA scores at weeks 2 and 4 were significantly lower with calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate ointment (P = 0.003 and P = 0.007 respectively. There was no significant difference in any parameter during subsequent follow-up visits or at the end of the treatment phase (12 weeks. Conclusion: Topical nightly application of calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate ointment leads to an initial, more rapid reduction in disease severity, but the overall outcome parameters are comparable in the two treatment groups.

  20. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    Progress made in five areas of research is described briefly. The subtask in oil shale research is on oil shale process studies. For tar sand the subtask reported is on process development. Coal research includes the following subtasks: Coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes the following: Advanced process concepts; advanced mitigation concepts; oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: Organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW{sup TM} field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; operation and evaluation of the CO{sup 2} HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid-state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; characterization of petroleum residua; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process;NMR analysis of samples from the ocean drilling program; oil field waste cleanup using tank bottom recovery process; remote chemical sensor development; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; solid-state NMR analysis of Mowry formation shale from different sedimentary basins; solid-state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens; and development of effective method for the clean-up of natural gas.

  1. Technology assessment: environmental, health, and safety impacts associated with oil recovery from US tar-sand deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, J.I.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Ricker, Y.E.

    1981-10-13

    The tar-sand resources of the US have the potential to yield as much as 36 billion barrels (bbls) of oil. The tar-sand petroleum-extraction technologies now being considered for commercialization in the United States include both surface (above ground) systems and in situ (underground) procedures. The surface systems currently receiving the most attention include: (1) thermal decomposition processes (retorting); (2) suspension methods (solvent extraction); and (3) washing techniques (water separation). Underground bitumen extraction techniques now being field tested are: (1) in situ combustion; and (2) in situ steam-injection procedures. At this time, any commercial tar-sand facility in the US will have to comply with at least 7 major federal regulations in addition to state regulations; building, electrical, and fire codes; and petroleum-industry construction standards. Pollution-control methods needed by tar-sand technologies to comply with regulatory standards and to protect air, land, and water quality will probably be similar to those already proposed for commercial oil-shale systems. The costs of these systems could range from about $1.20 to $2.45 per barrel of oil produced. Estimates of potential pollution-emisson levels affecting land, air, and water were calculated from available data related to current surface and in situ tar-sand field experiments in the US. These data were then extrapolated to determine pollutant levels expected from conceptual commercial surface and in situ facilities producing 20,000 bbl/d. The likelihood-of-occurrence of these impacts was then assessed. Experience from other industries, including information concerning health and ecosystem damage from air pollutants, measurements of ground-water transport of organic pollutants, and the effectiveness of environmental-control technologies was used to make this assessment.

  2. Technology assessment: environmental, health, and safety impacts associated with oil recovery from US tar-sand deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, J.I.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Ricker, Y.E.

    1981-10-13

    The tar-sand resources of the US have the potential to yield as much as 36 billion barrels (bbls) of oil. The tar-sand petroleum-extraction technologies now being considered for commercialization in the United States include both surface (above ground) systems and in situ (underground) procedures. The surface systems currently receiving the most attention include: (1) thermal decomposition processes (retorting); (2) suspension methods (solvent extraction); and (3) washing techniques (water separation). Underground bitumen extraction techniques now being field tested are: (1) in situ combustion; and (2) in situ steam-injection procedures. At this time, any commercial tar-sand facility in the US will have to comply with at least 7 major federal regulations in addition to state regulations; building, electrical, and fire codes; and petroleum-industry construction standards. Pollution-control methods needed by tar-sand technologies to comply with regulatory standards and to protect air, land, and water quality will probably be similar to those already proposed for commercial oil-shale systems. The costs of these systems could range from about $1.20 to $2.45 per barrel of oil produced. Estimates of potential pollution-emisson levels affecting land, air, and water were calculated from available data related to current surface and in situ tar-sand field experiments in the US. These data were then extrapolated to determine pollutant levels expected from conceptual commercial surface and in situ facilities producing 20,000 bbl/d. The likelihood-of-occurrence of these impacts was then assessed. Experience from other industries, including information concerning health and ecosystem damage from air pollutants, measurements of ground-water transport of organic pollutants, and the effectiveness of environmental-control technologies was used to make this assessment.

  3. Determination of toluene insolubles of the coal tar pitch analysis method%煤沥青甲苯不溶物的测定方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓兰; 向柠; 姜峰

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the effect of the testing principles and different test method of toluene insolubles in coal tar pitch on the test results.Several differences between the test methods and accuracy are demonstrated through the math test,and the most appropriate test method is determined.%讨论了甲苯不溶物的测试原理及不同测试方法对测试结果的影响.通过数学检验法论证了几种测试方法之间的差异性及准确性,确定了最合适的测试方法.

  4. 煤沥青改质非等温动力学研究%STUDY ON NON-ISOTHERMAL KINETICS FOR MODIFIED COAL TAR PITCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王锦平; 水恒福; 冯映桐

    2001-01-01

    The non-isothermal kinetics for mesophase transformation of Baogang-I coal tar pitch (I-CTP), soft pitch consisted of I-CTP and 18% phenanthrene residue oil (PRO) or I-CTP and 30% PRO have been studied in a thermal conversion unit. Kinetic parameters were calculated by using an integral method. Results showed that the process of mesophase pitch transformation could be described in first order reaction. The activation energy of I-CTP is 175.36kJ/ mol. But adding 30% PRO, which improved the reactivity of I-CTP with activation energy is 138.07kJ/mol, is not beneficial to mesophase transformation.

  5. Mutagenic activity and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon levels in urine of workers exposed to coal tar pitch volatiles in an anode plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venier, P; Clonfero, E; Cottica, D; Gava, C; Zordan, M; Pozzoli, L; Levis, A G

    1985-05-01

    The mutagenicity of urinary extracts and the excretion of PAH from workers occupationally exposed to coal tar pitch volatiles in an anode plant were analyzed. Mutagenicity of the urinary extracts was measured by means of the plate test using S. typhimurium strain TA 98. After concentration, hydrolysis and reduction of the urine samples, PAH levels were measured by high resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. No significant difference was found in the mutagenicity of the urinary extracts of non-smokers occupationally exposed to PAH as compared with the controls. Low PAH concentrations were found in the urine of the exposed subjects, which lends further support to the negative results obtained with the Ames' test. The increase of urinary PAH excretion, in relation to occupational exposure, was mainly due to the less mutagenic, low molecular weight compounds.

  6. Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by native microflora and combinations of white-rot fungi in a coal-tar contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canet, R.; Birnstingl, J.G.; Malcolm, D.G.; Lopez-Real, J.M.; Beck, A.J. [Inst. of Valenciano Invest. Agency, Valencia (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    Four white-rot fungi (Phanerochaete chrysosporium IMI 232175, Pleurotus ostreatus from the University of Alberta Microfungus Collection IMI 341687, Coriolus versicolor IMI210866 and Wye isolate No. 7) and all possible combinations of two or more of these fungi, were incubated in microcosms containing wheat straw and non-sterile coal-tar contaminated soil to determine their potential to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Biotic and abiotic controls were prepared similarly and PAH concentrations remaining in each microcosm were determined after 8, 16 and 32 weeks by GC-MS following extraction with dichloromethane. The greatest PAH losses were in the biotic control. Soil cultures prepared at the end of the experiment showed that though introduced fungi were still alive, they were unable to thrive and degrade PAH in such a highly contaminated soil and remained in a metabolically inactive form.

  7. 影响煤焦油沥青质测定量的工艺参数%Effect of process parameters on determination of asphaltene from coal tar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田盼盼; 郗小明; 李冬; 孙智慧; 李稳宏

    2014-01-01

    Solvent analysis is a method for quantitative separation of coal tar into toluene insoluble, asphaltene (toluene soluble,pentane insoluble),and oil (pentane soluble). The prime objective was to identify the variables in the procedure,including aromatic solvent type,extraction method,amount of toluene solution concentrate (degree of toluene boil-off) ,alkane solvent type,and ratio of n-heptane to toluene solution concentrate that affected the precipitate obtained for asphaltene content. Substitution of toluene with benzene and extraction method did not have a large effect on the precipitate reported for asphaltene. Heptane was chosen as alkane solvent instead of pentane. However amount of toluene solution concentrate and ratio of n-heptane to toluene solution concentrate did have a large effect on the precipitate reported as asphaltene. Coal tar from northern Shaanxi province was tested. With the suitable time of ultrasonic extraction for 3 hours,toluene solution concentrate of 9mL,a 20-fold of n-heptane over toluene solution concentrate,the asphaltene precipitate determined was 13.4%. The separation conditions of asphaltene determination should be indicated when studying the properties and structure of asphaltene from coal tar,since the coal tar separation technique have a large effect on asphaltene precipitated.%煤焦油通过溶剂分析可定量分离为三部分:甲苯不溶物、沥青质和油相。本文主要研究了煤焦油在此分离过程中芳烃溶剂类型、萃取方法、甲苯溶液浓缩量、烷烃溶剂类型和正庚烷溶剂与甲苯溶液浓缩量的添加比例对煤焦油沥青质沉淀量的影响。结果表明,甲苯溶液浓缩量、正庚烷与甲苯溶液浓缩量的添加比例对沥青质沉淀量的影响较大,萃取方法次之,将苯替换成甲苯影响最小。当选择甲苯溶解煤焦油,超声萃取3h,甲苯溶液浓缩量9mL,正庚烷与甲苯溶液浓缩液的添加比例为20∶1时,煤焦

  8. Study of the Structure of SBS Modified Coal Tar Pitch%SBS改性煤基沥青结构的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李欣; 徐国财; 曹震; 甘颖

    2012-01-01

    以SBS为改性剂,无水三氯化铝为引发剂改性煤基沥青为路用沥青。经测定,改性后沥青的软化点增加,针入度减小。SEM表明,改性沥青比原料沥青结构均匀。IR表明,沥青与SBS发生了化学反应。%Use SBS as modifier,anhydrous aluminum chloride as initiator to modify coal tar pitch for road.It was determined that the increase in softening point of modified asphalt as well as the decrease of penetration.SEM showed that the modified asphalt was more uniform than the raw bitumen structure.IR showed that a chemical reaction occurred between asphalt and SBS.

  9. Exposure to runoff from coal-tar-sealed pavement induces genotoxicity and impairment of DNA repair capacity in the RTL-W1 fish liver cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienzler, Aude; Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Schweigert, Nathalie; Devaux, Alain; Bony, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    Coal-tar-based (CTB) sealcoat, frequently applied to parking lots and driveways in North America, contains elevated concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and related compounds. The RTL-W1 fish liver cell line was used to investigate two endpoints (genotoxicity and DNA-repair-capacity impairment) associated with exposure to runoff from asphalt pavement with CTB sealcoat or with an asphalt-based sealcoat hypothesized to contain about 7% CTB sealcoat (AS-blend). Genotoxic potential was assessed by the Formamido pyrimidine glycosylase (Fpg)-modified comet assay for 1:10 and 1:100 dilutions of runoff samples collected from 5 h to 36 d following sealcoat application. DNA-repair capacity was assessed by the base excision repair comet assay for 1:10 dilution of samples collected 26 h and 36 d following application. Both assays were run with and without co-exposure to ultraviolet-A radiation (UVA). With co-exposure to UVA, genotoxic effects were significant for both dilutions of CTB runoff for three of four sample times, and for some samples of AS-blend runoff. Base excision repair was significantly impaired for CTB runoff both with and without UVA exposure, and for AS-blend runoff only in the absence of UVA. This study is the first to investigate the effects of exposure to the complex mixture of chemicals in coal tar on DNA repair capacity. The results indicate that co-exposure to runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement and UVA as much as a month after sealcoat application has the potential to cause genotoxicity and impair DNA repair capacity.

  10. Structure characterization of asphaltene from medium and low temperature coal tar%中低温煤焦油沥青烯的结构表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜庆阳; 张晶晶; 牛京超; 尚宁波; 孙智慧; 田盼盼; 李稳宏; 李冬

    2014-01-01

    The asphaltene of medium and low temperature coal tar from Shanbei was isolated.The composition and structure of asphaltene from coal tar were characterized by elemental analysis,average relative molecular mass determination,Fourier transform infrared (FTIR)spectroscopy technique and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1 H-NMR),etc.The results show that the average relative molecular mass of the asphaltene is 652,with its average molecule formula of C39.12H31.3N1.26O7.34S0.51.The asphaltene mainly consists of highly condensed aromatic rings with aliphatic side chains and contains amounts of heteroatoms.The average alkyl chain length is 4 and methyl side chains are major substituents in the asphaltene sample.%采用甲苯溶解-正庚烷沉淀的方法从陕北中低温煤焦油中分离出沥青质,通过元素分析、平均相对分子质量、红外光谱分析、1 H-NMR等方法对其进行了分子结构研究。结果表明:该沥青质的平均相对分子质量为652,平均分子式为C39.12H31.3N1.26O7.34S0.51,其主要结构是多环稠合芳香烃并富含杂原子,且芳环上存在链长不一的烷基取代基,平均链长约为4个碳原子,甲基侧链相对较多。

  11. 氢氩等离子体热解煤焦油制乙炔结焦机理分析∗%Coking mechanism during thermal plasma pyrolysis of coal tar to acetylene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李轩; 程炎; 韩建涛; 郭屹; 颜彬航; 程易

    2015-01-01

    氢氩等离子体热解煤焦油在反应过程中产生的结焦物,主要是由气态碳气相沉积和煤焦油缩聚反应产生的。分析表明,结焦物在不同的操作条件下性质具有较大差异,结焦物中的各元素含量和平均粒径也会随着反应条件的变化而出现差异,碳纳米纤维状的结焦物主要在低氢气浓度和低输入比焓条件下产生;片状和球状结焦物主要在高氢气浓度和高输入比焓下产生;结焦物的石墨化程度随着反应气氛中氢气浓度增加而减弱。煤焦油反应过程中的转化程度越高结焦越严重,控制反应温度和提高气相反应中的氢浓度越可以控制反应过程中的结焦。%The coking products are generated by vapor deposition of gaseous carbon and coal tar condensation reactions during the reaction process of thermal plasma pyrolysis of coal tar to a-cetylene. The analysis results indicated that coking products generated at different conditions which showed various characteristics,structures and average particle size,such as coking materi-als of carbon nanofibers were generated at low hydrogen concentration and low coal tar specific enthalpy;plate-shaped and globular-shaped particles were generated at high hydrogen concentra-tion and high coal tar specific enthalpy. The graphitization degree of coking materials decreased at high hydrogen concentration in the plasma working gas. The higher coal tar conversion results in the higher coking degrees. The higher coal tar conversion resulted in the higher coking degrees. The cokes could be reduced by adj usting suitable reaction temperature and increasing hydrogen concentration.

  12. Analysis of low temperature coal tar in Inner Mongolia lignite briquette by GC-MS.%GC-MS在内蒙褐煤型煤块低温煤焦油成分分析中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李香兰; 崔新涛; 张永发

    2012-01-01

    采用蒸馏技术和GC-MS技术,对内蒙褐煤型煤块低温炭化产品低温煤焦油馏分进行了定性定量分析,分析结果表明:内蒙褐煤型煤块的低温煤焦油中≤340℃的馏分占焦油重量的82.88%;>340℃的为沥青,占焦油重量的17.02%.从≤340℃的馏分中定性定量出139种化合物,其中,烃类占焦油的34.38%,以脂肪族烷烃为主,烯烃、环烷烃占少量;酚类占焦油的12.01%,集中在210℃前的馏分;芳烃类占焦油的16.73%,以甲基、乙基、丙基丁基等多烷基苯的取代衍生物为主,分布在各个馏分中,萘和甲基萘的衍生物以及蒽、菲芳烃主要集中在300℃前得馏分;含氧和含氮及杂环化合物分别占焦油的4.61%,0.52%,2.23%.通过研究为褐煤低温焦油的深加工利用提供了基础数据,同时提供了分析褐煤型煤块干馏产生的低温焦油的方法.%Distillation and GC-MS were employed to analysis the coal tar of low-temperature pyrolysis of Inner Mongolia lignite briquette by contrasting with standards, the results showed that the fraction below 340 C in the tar distillates of low temperature brown coal tar accounted for 82. 88% (weight percent) and the other greater than 340'C is pitch accounted for 17. 02%. 139 kinds of compounds were analyzed by qualitative and quantitative methods from the fraction below 340'C. 34. 38% of coal tar are hydrocarbons which are mainly consisted of fat aliphatic hydrocarbon and include few alkene and cycloparaffins. The content of phenolic compounds in coal tar, mainly comes from the fraction below 210"C , is 12. 01%. 16. 73% of coal tar is aromatic compounds which are mainly composed of substitutive derivative of polyalkylbenzene (methyl, ethyl, propyl and butyl etc. ) distributing in all kinds of fractions; and a small amount of aromatic compounds include anthracene, phenanthrene, naphthalene and substitutive derivative of methyl-naphthalene which concentrate in the fraction

  13. Modulation of coal tar pitch for needle coke%针状焦用煤沥青的调制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余文凤; 周霞萍; 徐东升; 尹思聪; 张丕祥

    2011-01-01

    The requirements and modulation methods of raw materials for coal needle coke is introduced. Two kinds of raw material refining processes in industry are discussed. Highlight the technical development of raw materials properties such as components,reactivity,softening point,rheology,residual carbon value and crystallinity at home and abroad. The development prospects of coal tar pitch modulation in China is forecasted.%介绍了煤系针状焦用原料的要求及调制方法,讨论了2种工业上原料精制的工艺,并重点阐述了国内外对原料的组分、反应性、软化点、流变性、残炭值和结晶度等方面的改性研究进展.在此基础上对煤沥青调制研究在国内的发展前景进行了展望.

  14. Impact of air pollution on the occurrence of Rhytisma acerinium "tar-spot" on mapie leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kosiba

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was, to find out whether the occurrence of Rhytisma acerinium and the variability of numbers of the "tar-spot" fungus on Acer platanoides leaves depend on the degree of environmental pollution. A significant variability was found between sites in relation to contents of chemical elements in soils, leaves and numbers of "tar-spots". The similarity of sites presented in dendrograms classified them as industrial, urban-agglomeration and vehicle-transport areas. The factor and PCA analyses showed that two factors differentiate the soil of the sites in respect of Fe, Cu, Co, Mo, Cr, Ni, Cd and N, S, Mn, Pb. In case of leaves of A. platanoides populations differentiate them in respect of N, S, Fe, Pb, Zn, Co, Be, Cr, Cd and Mn, Cu, Mo. The different air pollutions affect significantly the numbers of "tar-spots" on leaves. Sites with the highest contents of elements do not show "tar-spots", and the factors restricting their occurrence are the high contents, mainly of N, S (NOX, SOX and heavy metals. In sites, with the lowest contents of these elements massive infections take place. The occurrence of R. acerinium corresponding with the level of site pollution can be used as a tool for evaluation of the degree of environmental pollution.

  15. Effect of impulse and bedding on impact toughness of coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yong-jiang; WANG Lai-gui; LI Jian-xin

    2008-01-01

    In order to understand the properties of impact toughness of coal at different impact speeds,and the change of impact toughness of lump coal to joint directivity of lump coal,a series of impact tests were conducted on Beijing Da'anshan Lump Coal at different impact speeds and in different impact direction.Through analyzing the test result,it is shown that the change of testing samples is similar when impact is exerted on the vertical bedding and the parallel bedding when the impulse is less than 20 Nos,and the difference increases with the impulse increasing when the impulse is more than 20 Nos.At the same time,the expanding energy of fracture in samples increases with its expanding speed,and the expanding energy of fracture has close relation with the impact direction of the tested samples.And the difference of impact toughness of lump coal produced by different impact direction increase with the impact speed.The fracture surface of lump coal when impact is exerted on the vertical bedding is smooth and the broken block number is fewer;but the fracture surface of lump coal when impact is exerted on the parallel bedding isn't smooth and the broken block number is more,which inflects impact toughness of coal is sensitive to some deficiency.

  16. Effect of impulse and bedding on impact toughness of coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yong-jiang; WANG Lai-gui; LI Jian-xin

    2008-01-01

    In order to understand the properties of impact toughness of coal at different impact speeds, and the change of impact toughness of lump coal to joint directivity of lump coal, a series of impact tests were conducted on Beijing Da'anshan Lump Coal at different impact speeds and in different impact direction. Through analyzing the test result, it is shown that the change of testing samples is similar when impact is exerted on the vertical bedding and the parallel bedding when the impulse is less than 20 Nos, and the difference increases with the impulse increasing when the impulse is more than 20 Nos. At the same time, the expanding energy of fracture in samples increases with its expanding speed, and the expanding energy of fracture has close relation with the impact direction of the tested samples. And the difference of impact toughness of lump coal produced by different im-pact direction increase with the impact speed. The fracture surface of lump coal when im-pact is exerted on the vertical bedding is smooth and the broken block number is fewer; but the fracture surface of lump coal when impact is exerted on the parallel bedding isn't smooth and the broken block number is more, which inflects impact toughness of coal is sensitive to some deficiency.

  17. Cystic squamous cell carcinomas in the lungs of Syrian golden hamsters induced by coal oven flue exhaust mixed with pyrolized tar pitch in combination with benzo(a)pyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittinghausen, S; Dungworth, D L; Dasenbrock, C; Ernst, H; Mohr, U

    1997-02-01

    Among a variety of induced pulmonary tumours, cystic squamous cell carcinomas were observed in five Syrian hamsters that inhaled a mixture of pyrolized tar pitch with coal oven flue exhaust (PCE) and additionally received intratracheal injections of benzo(a)pyrene. The histological appearance of these particular tumours is described, compared to similar tumour types in rats and the susceptibility of both species to inert particles is discussed.

  18. Development and Application of the Coal Tar Low-temperature Extractive Separation Technology%煤焦油低温萃取分离技术的开发与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楚可嘉; 杨其权

    2012-01-01

    介绍了枣庄矿业集团煤化工研究院有限公司与中国矿业大学联合研发的煤焦油低温萃取技术,利用1#溶剂、2#溶剂对煤焦油轻质、重质组分溶解度的不同,快速低能耗地将煤焦油分为轻质和重质两种组分,然后根据不同需要,将轻质组分和重质组分加工为不同产品.该技术克服常规煤焦油分离技术设备装置投资高、占地大、能耗高、环境污染严重等问题,为煤焦油加工探索出一条新的技术路线.%The coal tar low-temperature extractive separation technology co-developed by Zaozhuang Coal Chemical Research Institute Co., Ltd. and China University of Mining and Technology was introduced. The solubility of the solvents 1* and 2* in the light and heavy tar extractions was different, and this helped to divide the tar into light component and heavy component in a quick and energy saving way, from which different products could be processed according to different requirements. The light extraction was processed via catalytic hydrogenation, into high value chemical products as pure benzene, toluene, xylene, etc. while the heavier extraction was processed into needle coke, carbon fiber, mesophase pitch and other high value-added products. It explored a new technology to process coal tar into coal based carbon materials, and this technology could solve effectively the problems of high investment, high energy consumption, severe environmental pollution, etc.

  19. Further processing and prospect of coal tar pitch utilization%煤焦油沥青的深度利用及发展前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆仲泱; 王少鹏; 方梦祥; 王昊; 王勤辉

    2016-01-01

    The improvement in the further processing of coal tar pitch(CTP)is essential to increase its added value. This paper has summarized several techniques for further processing of CTP,with the focus on the preparations of spherical activated carbon,mesophase pitch,carbon fiber,needle coke and so on. We also analyzed the key techniques for several products and introduced progress of those key techniques. Coal tar pitch based spherical activated carbon,general grade carbon fiber and needle coke have been utilized commonly. The difficulty of current research is how to improve the products’ quality and shorten the process time. Besides,the discovery and application of mesophase pitch has expanded the utilization field of traditional carbon material,and enhanced the related performance substantially.%煤焦油沥青的深加工对提高煤焦油沥青利用价值和经济性至关重要。本文主要概述了煤焦油沥青深加工利用的主要技术,重点概述了球形活性炭、中间相沥青、通用级沥青基碳纤维以及针状焦等。对各种产品的关键技术进行了分析,介绍了当前在各项关键技术方面的研究进展。煤焦油沥青基球形活性炭、通用级沥青基碳纤维以及针状焦已经得到了比较广泛的应用,当前研究的难点是提高各项产品的品质,缩短加工周期。另外,中间相沥青的发现与应用拓展了传统碳材料的应用领域,并大幅提高了炭材料的相关性能。

  20. 煤/煤焦油/沥青质的热等离子体裂解特性比较分析%Comparison of pyrolysis performances of coal/coal tar/asphaltene in thermal plasmas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程炎; 颜彬航; 李天阳; 金涌; 程易

    2015-01-01

    针对化石资源劣质化和大宗低价值化工中间产品的反应工程新问题,提出利用热等离子体超高温特性实现极端条件下难利用原料的高效清洁转化,重点探讨并比较了煤化工中的原煤、煤焦油和石油化工中的沥青质的热等离子体裂解特性。通过热等离子体裂解实验室小试装置考察了3种典型原料的裂解行为,结果表明,煤焦油和沥青质具有高于煤的转化率和乙炔收率;建立了基于热力学的热等离子体裂解反应过程的能量平衡分析方法,模拟计算了不同操作条件下各原料在兆瓦级中试装置上的裂解结果,给出了相同等离子体能量注入的条件下不同原料裂解过程的物流和能流关系;并进一步模拟分析了原料间混合裂解的混料配比对裂解气的影响,为热等离子体裂解过程的工业原料筛选和原料混合裂解提供了科学依据。%The chemical reaction engineering nowadays is facing the new challenge from the degraded feedstocks of heavy fossil resources and low-value intermediate chemical products. Thermal plasma technique operated at extreme conditions (e.g., ultra-high temperature) is proposed as a potential means to realize the clean and efficient conversion of materials that are difficult to be handled using the conventional technologies. This work aims to study the pyrolysis performances of representative coal, coal tar and asphaltene materials in thermal plasmas. Experimental investigations were carried out on a lab-scale device to evaluate the pyrolysis characteristics of the feedstocks. The results showed that higher conversion and acetylene yield than coal can be achieved by using coal tar and asphaltene as the feeds. A model to describe the material and energy balances was established based on thermodynamics and the thermal effects in the thermal plasma process. The simulations on 2 MW pilot-plant scales were performed to compare the pyrolysis

  1. Health impacts of coal and coal use: Possible solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelman, R.B.; Orem, W.; Castranova, V.; Tatu, C.A.; Belkin, H.E.; Zheng, B.; Lerch, H.E.; Maharaj, S.V.; Bates, A.L.

    2002-01-01

    Coal will be a dominant energy source in both developed and developing countries for at least the first half of the 21st century. Environmental problems associated with coal, before mining, during mining, in storage, during combustion, and postcombustion waste products are well known and are being addressed by ongoing research. The connection between potential environmental problems with human health is a fairly new field and requires the cooperation of both the geoscience and medical disciplines. Three research programs that illustrate this collaboration are described and used to present a range of human health problems that are potentially caused by coal. Domestic combustion of coal in China has, in some cases, severely affected human health. Both on a local and regional scale, human health has been adversely affected by coals containing arsenic, fluorine, selenium, and possibly, mercury. Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN), an irreversible kidney disease of unknown origin, has been related to the proximity of Pliocene lignite deposits. The working hypothesis is that groundwater is leaching toxic organic compounds as it passes through the lignites and that these organics are then ingested by the local population contributing to this health problem. Human disease associated with coal mining mainly results from inhalation of particulate matter during the mining process. The disease is Coal Worker's Pneumoconiosis characterized by coal dust-induced lesions in the gas exchange regions of the lung; the coal worker's "black lung disease". ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. 复合纳米材料的制备及对路用煤沥青的改性研究%Preparation of nano complicated material and its application for road-paving coal tar pitch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭建国; 任真; 李玉霞; 郭建平

    2012-01-01

    通过水热共沉淀法制备了改性纳米复合材料,利用比表面积、TEM和接触角对其进行了表征.将改性纳米复合材料应用于路用煤沥青的改性中,结果显示该纳米改性煤沥青的性能指标完全达到了90#路用石油沥青指标,可以应用于实际道路的铺设.%Modified nano complicated material is prepared by co-precipitation method and characterized by SBET, TEM and contact angle. The obtained nano complicated material is used for the application for road-paving coal tar pitch. The results show that the property of modified coal tar pitch is better than that of the road-paving 90 pitch. It means that the coal tar pitch modified by nano complicated material can used in paving road.

  3. New directions in the work of the Institute on Industrial Chemistry in the coal-tar chemical industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisicki, Z.

    1983-01-01

    This is a survey of works by the Institute on Industrial Chemistry (Warsaw) in the area of new coal treatment processes (particularly lignite) in chemical raw material by extraction in supercritical conditions and by hydrocracking of extracts. A number of new methods for the chemical use of the coke resin and its components are described.

  4. Research of blended petroleum asphalt and coal tar pitch and its emulsification performance%石油沥青与煤沥青的调和及乳化性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙华东; 范维玉; 张锐; 董夫强; 孔祥军; 梁明; 钱成多; 南国枝

    2014-01-01

    TwO types Of cOal tar pitches and QinhuangdaO AH-90 petrOleum asphalt were blended and emulsified. The influ-ences Of cOal tar pitch types and dOsages On the prOperties Of blended asphalt and emulsified asphalt were investigated. The experimental results shOw that the cOal tar pitches cOntaining a lOt Of tOluene insOluble ( pulverized cOal) lead tO the ductility at 25 ℃ Of the blended asphalt and evapOratiOn residue Of the emulsified asphalt decrease significantly, which cannOt meet the specificatiOn. When the maximal dOsages Of cOal tar pitch l# and 2# are 25% and 20%, the ld and 5d stability results Of the emulsified asphalts meet the standard. At the same cOal tar pitch dOsage, the blended asphalt and its emulsiOn evapOra-tiOn residue by adding cOal tar pitch l # have less penetratiOn at 25 ℃, and have larger ductility at 25 ℃ and sOftening than thOse by adding 2#. With the dOsage Of the twO cOal tar pitches increasing, the blended asphalts and the emulsiOn evapOratiOn residues present the reduced tendency fOr ductility and penetratiOn at 25℃, while the sOftening pOint shOws increasing trend.%将煤沥青与秦皇岛AH-90沥青进行调和及乳化,考察调和沥青及调和后乳化沥青的性质,研究煤沥青的种类及掺量对调和沥青及乳化沥青性质的影响规律。结果表明:煤沥青中大量甲苯不溶物(煤粉)的存在使得调和沥青和乳化沥青蒸发残留物的25℃延度大幅度下降,难以达到标准要求;l #和2#煤沥青最大掺量分别为25%和20%时,乳化沥青的l d和5 d稳定性合格;相同煤沥青掺量时,l#调和沥青及乳化沥青蒸发残留物较相应的2#调和沥青及乳化沥青蒸发残留物的针入度小、25℃延度大、软化点高;随着煤沥青掺量的增大,两种调和沥青及乳化沥青蒸发残留物的25℃延度、针入度都呈现下降趋势,软化点呈升高趋势。

  5. ZnO template strategy for the synthesis of 3D interconnected graphene nanocapsules from coal tar pitch as supercapacitor electrode materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaojun; Li, Xiaojing; Ma, Hao; Han, Jiufeng; Zhang, Hao; Yu, Chang; Xiao, Nan; Qiu, Jieshan

    2017-02-01

    3D interconnected graphene nanocapsules (GNCs) were prepared from diverse aromatic hydrocarbons by a nano-ZnO-template strategy coupled with in-situ KOH activation technique. The as-made graphene networks feature thin carbonaceous shells with well-balanced micropores and mesopores. Such 3D porous networks provide freeways for good electron conduction, short pores for ion fast transport, and abundant micropores for ion adsorption. As the electrodes in supercapacitors, the unique 3D GNCs show a high capacitance of 277 F g-1 at 0.05 A g-1, a good rate performance of 194 F g-1 at 20 A g-1, and an excellent cycle stability with over 97.4% capacitance retention after 15000 cycles in 6 M KOH electrolyte. This synthesis strategy paves a universal way for mass production of 3D graphene materials from diverse aromatic hydrocarbon sources including coal tar pitch and petroleum pitch for high performance supercapacitors as well as support and sorbent.

  6. Estimation of a lifetime unit lung cancer risk for benzo(a)pyrene based on tumour rates in rats exposed to coal tar/pitch condensation aerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, U; Roller, M; Pott, F

    1994-06-01

    Female Wistar rats were exposed to coal tar/pitch condensation (CTP) aerosol containing either 20 or 46 micrograms/m3 benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) among other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) 17 h/day and 5 days/week for 10 or 20 months followed by a clean air period of up to 20 or 10 months, respectively. Based on the inhaled BaP, given as BaP exposure concentration multiplied by the total exposure time, the cumulative dose of inhaled BaP of the 4 exposure groups was 71, 142, 158 and 321 mg BaP/m3 x h and the corresponding lung tumour rates were 4.2, 33.3, 38.9 and 97.2%. There was no lung tumour in the control group. Using the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) linearized multistage model, the lifetime lung tumour risk for rats exposed to 1 microgram/m3 BaP as a constituent of a complex PAH mixture may be 2% or correspondingly 2 per 100,000 with a BaP concentration of 1 ng/m3. The estimation of the unit lung cancer risk for BaP based on epidemiological data from coking plants was 7-9%.

  7. Microbial community structure changes during bioremediation of PAHs in an aged coal-tar contaminated soil by in-vessel composting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antizar-Ladislao, B.; Spanova, K.; Beck, A.J.; Russell, N.J. [University of London Imperial College for Science Technology & Medicine, Ashford (United Kingdom)

    2008-06-15

    The microbial community structure changes of an aged-coal-tar soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated during simulated bioremediation at the laboratory-scale using an in-vessel composting approach. The composting reactors were operated using a logistic three-factor factorial design with three temperatures (T = 38, 55 or 70 {sup o}C), four soil to green-waste amendment ratios (S:GW = 0.6:1, 0.7:1, 0.8:1 or 0.9:1 on a dry weight basis) and three moisture contents (MC = 40%, 60% or 80%). Relative changes in microbial populations were investigated by following the dynamics of phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) signatures using a {sup 13}C-labeled palmitic acid internal standard and sensitive GC/MS analysis during in-vessel composting over 98 days. The results of this investigation indicated that fungal to bacterial PLFA ratios were significantly influenced by temperature (p<0.05), and Gram-positive to Gram-negative bacterial ratios were significantly influenced by temperature (p<0.001) and S:GW ratio (p<0.01) during in-vessel composting. Additionally, the Gram-positive to Gram-negative bacterial ratios were correlated to the extent of PAH losses)<0.005) at 70{sup o}C.

  8. Structural and electrochemical characterisation of nitrogen enriched carbons produced by the co-pyrolysis of coal-tar pitch with polyacrylonitrile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machnikowski, J.; Grzyb, B. [Wroclaw Univ. of Technology, Inst. of Chemistry and Technology of Petroleum and Coal, Wroclaw (Poland); Weber, J.V. [Universite de Metz-IUT, Lab. de Chimie et Application, Saint Avold, 57 (France); Frackowiak, E. [Poznan Univ. of Technology, Inst. of Chemistry and Technical Electrochemistry, Poznan (Poland); Rouzaud, J.N.; Beguin, F. [CNRS-Universite, Centre de Recherche sur la Matiere Divisee, Orleans Cedex 2, 45 (France)

    2004-01-30

    Carbonaceous materials ranging from soft carbons of moderate nitrogen content (up to 2.5 wt.%) to typical hard carbons with an excess of nitrogen (up to 6 wt.%) were produced by carbonisation at 1050 deg C of coal-tar pitch (CTP)-polyacrylonitrile blends with various ratio of the components. The resultant carbons were characterised by elemental analysis, optical and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and sorption of nitrogen and carbon dioxide. The electrochemical lithium insertion has been investigated in these carbons by a galvanostatic technique, using carbon/lithium two-electrode cells. Independently of the nitrogen content, the electrochemical performance of the soft carbons is comparable. The nitrogen enriched hard carbons demonstrate a relatively low value of reversible capacity, due to the absence of available nanopores. On the other hand, the irreversible capacity increases with the proportion of nitrogen, especially in the form of pyridinic groups. The lone pair of electrons contribute to the trapping of solvated lithium cations on these groups which act as active sites for the electrolyte decomposition during the first reduction, leading to an enhanced irreversible capacity. (Author)

  9. Nano-SiC implantation into the structure of carbon/graphite materials made by pyrolysis (carbonization) of the precursor system coal tar pitch/poly(dimethylsiloxane)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czosnek, C.; Wolszczak, J.; Drygas, M.; Gora, M.; Janik, J.F. [AGH University of Science & Technology, Krakow (Poland). Faculty of Fuels & Energy

    2004-03-01

    Conversion of the air-cured poly(dimethylsiloxane) to SiC during co-pyrolysis with a coal tar pitch is studied with reference to the related SiO{sub 2}/pitch system. Each binary mixture is first homogenized at 160{sup o}C followed by carbonization at 500{sup o}C under argon to afford initial carbonizates. In both cases, one part of the initial carbonizate is further pyrolyzed at 1300{sup o}C and another part at 1650{sup o}C under an argon flow resulting in composite products. All products are studied with FT-IR, XRD, and XPS spectroscopic methods supplemented with SEM and 'wet' Si-analyses, when applicable. Carbothermally assisted conversion of both silicon precursors to nanocrystalline SiC embedded in the evolving C-matrix, i.e. nano-SiC/C composites, is evident only after the 1650{sup o}C carbonization stage.

  10. Laboratory differential simulation design method of pressure absorbers for carbonization of phenolate solution by carbon dioxide in coal-tar processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linek, V.; Sinkule, J.; Moucha, T.; Rejl, J.F. [Prague Institute for Chemical Technology, Prague (Czech Republic). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2009-01-15

    A laboratory differential simulation method is used for the design of carbonization columns at coal-tar processing in which phenols are regenerated from phenolate solution by carbon dioxide absorption. The design method is based on integration of local absorption rates of carbon dioxide along the column. The local absorption rates into industrial phenolate mixture are measured in a laboratory model contactor for various compositions of the gas and liquid phases under the conditions that ensure the absorption rates in the laboratory absorber simulate the local rates in the industrial column. On the bases of the calculations, two-step carbonization columns were designed for 30000 t/year of the phenolate solution treatment by carbon dioxide. The absorption proceeds at higher pressure of 500 kPa and temperatures from 50 to 65 C, pure carbon dioxide is used and toluene is added. These conditions have the following favourable effects: (I) significant size reduction of the columns, (ii) it is possible to process more concentrated solutions without danger of silting the columns by crystallization of NaHCO{sub 3} on the packing. (iii) small amount of inert gas is released, (iv) lower alkalinity and better separability of the organic phase (phenols with toluene) from water phase (soda or bicarbonate solution) in separators.

  11. The Economic Impact of Coal Mining in New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peach, James; Starbuck, C.

    2009-06-01

    The economic impact of coal mining in New Mexico is examined in this report. The analysis is based on economic multipliers derived from an input-output model of the New Mexico economy. The direct, indirect, and induced impacts of coal mining in New Mexico are presented in terms of output, value added, employment, and labor income for calendar year 2007. Tax, rental, and royalty income to the State of New Mexico are also presented. Historical coal production, reserves, and price data are also presented and discussed. The impacts of coal-fired electricity generation will be examined in a separate report.

  12. 杂醇油—粗甲醇—煤沥青联产初探%Discussion on the Coproduction of Fusel Oil, Crude Methanol and Coal Tar Pitch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯质壮; 金俊杰

    2013-01-01

    为提高甲醇生产中副产物杂醇油的利用效率,将杂醇油经加压精馏塔和常压精馏塔(双效精馏)后所得的粗甲醇与煤反应制得煤沥青.对制得的煤沥青进行组分分析,发现煤沥青中含有较多芳环,有利于热聚合反应以制备中间相沥青.煤与杂醇油生产煤沥青,可为煤炭资源综合利用和新材料研发提供一条新的途径.%Fusel oil is the by-product from the production of methanol. In order to improve the utilization efficiency of fusel oil, the crude methanol obtained from the pressurized distillation tower and atmospheric distillation tower (double-effect distillation) was reacted with coal to produce coal-tar pitch. The analysis of the coal-tar pitch showed that there were a lot of aromatic rings in it which were beneficial to thermal polymerization to prepare mesophase pitch, and that realized comprehensive utilization of coal and fusel oil.

  13. The impact of steam and current density on carbon formation from biomass gasification tar on Ni/YSZ, and Ni/CGO solid oxide fuel cell anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermelstein, Joshua; Millan, Marcos; Brandon, Nigel

    The combination of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and biomass gasification has the potential to become an attractive technology for the production of clean renewable energy. However the impact of tars, formed during biomass gasification, on the performance and durability of SOFC anodes has not been well established experimentally. This paper reports an experimental study on the mitigation of carbon formation arising from the exposure of the commonly used Ni/YSZ (yttria stabilized zirconia) and Ni/CGO (gadolinium-doped ceria) SOFC anodes to biomass gasification tars. Carbon formation and cell degradation was reduced through means of steam reforming of the tar over the nickel anode, and partial oxidation of benzene model tar via the transport of oxygen ions to the anode while operating the fuel cell under load. Thermodynamic calculations suggest that a threshold current density of 365 mA cm -2 was required to suppress carbon formation in dry conditions, which was consistent with the results of experiments conducted in this study. The importance of both anode microstructure and composition towards carbon deposition was seen in the comparison of Ni/YSZ and Ni/CGO anodes exposed to the biomass gasification tar. Under steam concentrations greater than the thermodynamic threshold for carbon deposition, Ni/YSZ anodes still exhibited cell degradation, as shown by increased polarization resistances, and carbon formation was seen using SEM imaging. Ni/CGO anodes were found to be more resilient to carbon formation than Ni/YSZ anodes, and displayed increased performance after each subsequent exposure to tar, likely due to continued reforming of condensed tar on the anode.

  14. Heat treatment of medium-temperature Sasol-Lurgi gasifier coal-tar pitch for polymerizing to higher value products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Mokoena; T.J. Van der Walt; T.J. Morgan; A.A. Herod; R. Kandiyoti [Sasol Technology (Pty) Ltd., Sasolburg (South Africa). R& amp; D Division

    2008-05-15

    Two coal-derived pitch samples, one a medium temperature pitch from a Sasol-Lurgi gasifier and the other from a high temperature coking process, have been heat treated to induce polymerization, both separately and as a mixture of pitches (co-pyrolysis). The initial pitch samples and the heat-treated samples have been examined by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) in 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP), by UV-fluorescence spectroscopy (UV-F), by solid state {sup 13}C NMR; elemental analyses of the initial pitch samples have been carried out. The Sasol-Lurgi pitch showed larger apparent sizes, more alkyl and carbonyl functions, and smaller polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) groups than the high temperature pitch. Co-pyrolysis of the two pitches indicated that polymerized product from the Sasol-Lurgi pitch can be used as an extender for high-temperature binder pitch. 16 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Impact of Calcium on Pyrolysis and Gasification Characteristics of Brown Coal%钙元素对褐煤热解和气化特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王磊; 余江龙; 尹丰魁; 王冬梅

    2012-01-01

    综述了钙元素对褐煤热解和气化特性的影响,讨论了钙元素对热解产物中挥发分、焦油产率和气体产物分布的影响,以及对褐煤半焦气化的催化作用.结果表明,与酸洗煤相比,热解过程中,钙元素降低焦油产率,提高半焦产率;气化过程中,钙元素的植入提高褐煤半焦的反应活性,缩短了反应时间.高温时钙元素主要以氧化态的形式存在,低温时则不断与半焦基体键合而参与交联反应,少部分挥发.%This paper provides an overview on the impact of calcium on the pyrolysis and gasification characteristics of brown coal. The impact of calcium on the total volatile matter yield, the tar yield and the distribution of gaseous products during pyrolysis as well as its influences on the catalysis of the gasification of brown coal and chars are discussed. It is shown that the tar yield of the Ca-enriched coal is lower than that of the acid-washed coal and the char yield is higher than that of the acid-washed coal in the pyrolysis process. The reactivity of brown coal is increased and the reaction time is shortened in the gasification process because of the calcium implantation into the brown coal. Calcium oxide is the main form existing in the coal at high temperatures, but it is strongly bonded to the char structure and attends cross linking reactions and a small proportion of volatilizes.

  16. Abundance of Dioxygenase Genes Similar to Ralstonia sp. Strain U2 nagAc Is Correlated with Naphthalene Concentrations in Coal Tar-Contaminated Freshwater Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionisi, Hebe M.; Chewning, Christopher S.; Morgan, Katherine H.; Menn, Fu-Min; Easter, James P.; Sayler, Gary S.

    2004-01-01

    We designed a real-time PCR assay able to recognize dioxygenase large-subunit gene sequences with more than 90% similarity to the Ralstonia sp. strain U2 nagAc gene (nagAc-like gene sequences) in order to study the importance of organisms carrying these genes in the biodegradation of naphthalene. Sequencing of PCR products indicated that this real-time PCR assay was specific and able to detect a variety of nagAc-like gene sequences. One to 100 ng of contaminated-sediment total DNA in 25-μl reaction mixtures produced an amplification efficiency of 0.97 without evident PCR inhibition. The assay was applied to surficial freshwater sediment samples obtained in or in close proximity to a coal tar-contaminated Superfund site. Naphthalene concentrations in the analyzed samples varied between 0.18 and 106 mg/kg of dry weight sediment. The assay for nagAc-like sequences indicated the presence of (4.1 ± 0.7) × 103 to (2.9 ± 0.3) × 105 copies of nagAc-like dioxygenase genes per μg of DNA extracted from sediment samples. These values corresponded to (1.2 ± 0.6) × 105 to (5.4 ± 0.4) × 107 copies of this target per g of dry weight sediment when losses of DNA during extraction were taken into account. There was a positive correlation between naphthalene concentrations and nagAc-like gene copies per microgram of DNA (r = 0.89) and per gram of dry weight sediment (r = 0.77). These results provide evidence of the ecological significance of organisms carrying nagAc-like genes in the biodegradation of naphthalene. PMID:15240274

  17. Characterization and organic electric-double-layer-capacitor application of KOH activated coal-tar-pitch-based carbons: Effect of carbonization temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Poo Reum; Lee, Eunji; Kwon, Soon Hyung; Jung, Ji Chul; Kim, Myung-Soo

    2015-12-01

    The present study reports the influence of pre-carbonization on the properties of KOH-activated coal tar pitch (CTP). The change of crystallinity and pore structure of pre-carbonized CTPs as well as their activated carbons (ACs) as function of pre-carbonization temperature are investigated. The crystallinity of pre-carbonized CTPs increases with increasing the carbonization temperature up to 600 °C, but a disorder occurs during the carbonization around 700 °C and an order happens gradually with increasing the carbonization temperatures in range of 800-1000 °C. The CTPs pre-carbonized at high temperatures are more difficult to be activated with KOH than those pre-carbonized at low temperatures due to the increase of micro-crystalline size and the decrease of surface functional groups. The micro-pores and meso-pores are well developed at around 1.0 nm and 2.4 nm, respectively, as the ACs are pre-carbonized at temperatures of 500-600 °C, exhibiting high specific capacitances as electrode materials for electric double layer capacitor (EDLC). Although the specific surface area (SSA) and pore volume of ACs pre-carbonized at temperatures of 900-1000 °C are extraordinary low (non-porous) as compared to those of AC pre-carbonized at 600 °C, their specific capacitances are comparable to each other. The large specific capacitances with low SSA ACs can be attributed to the structural change resulting from the electrochemical activation during the 1st charge above 2.0 V.

  18. Comparative quantitative prevalence of mycobacteria and functionally abundant nidA, nahAc, and nagAc Dioxygenase genes in coal tar contaminated sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennifer M. DeBruyn; Christopher S. Chewning; Gary S. Sayler [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

    2007-08-01

    The Chattanooga Creek Superfund site is heavily contaminated with metals, pesticides, and coal tar with sediments exhibiting high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). High molecular weight PAHs are of concern because of their toxicity and recalcitrance in the environment; as such, there is great interest in microbes, such as fast-growing Mycobacterium spp., capable of degradation of these compounds. Real-time quantitative PCR assays were developed targeting multiple dioxygenase genes to assess the ecology and functional diversity of PAH-degrading communities. These assays target the Mycobacterium nidA, {beta}-proteobacteria nagAc, and {gamma}-proteobacteria nahAc with the specific goal of testing the hypothesis that Mycobacteria catabolic genes are enriched and may be functionally associated with high molecular weight PAH biodegradation in Chattanooga Creek. Dioxygenase gene abundances were quantitatively compared to naphthalene and pyrene mineralization, and temporal and spatial PAH concentrations. nidA abundances ranged from 5.69 x 10{sup 4} to 4.92 x 10{sup 6} copies per gram sediment; nagAc from 2.42 x 10{sup 3} to 1.21 x 10{sup 7}, and nahAc from below detection to 4.01 x 10{sup 6} copies per gram sediment. There was a significantly greater abundance of nidA and nagAc at sites with the greatest concentrations of PAHs. In addition, nidA and nagAc were significantly positively correlated, indicating a coexistence of organisms carrying these genes. A positive relationship was also observed between nidA and nagAc and pyrene mineralization indicating that these genes serve as biomarkers for pyrene degradation. A 16S rDNA clone library of fast-growing Mycobacteria indicated that the population is very diverse and likely plays an important role in attenuation of high molecular weight PAHs from Chattanooga Creek. 35 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Lithium insertion into boron containing carbons prepared by co-pyrolysis of coal-tar pitch and borane-pyridine complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machnikowski, J.; Frackowiak, E.; Kierzek, K.; Waszak, D.; Benoit, R.; Beguin, F. [Wroclaw University of Technology, Wroclaw (Poland)

    2004-03-01

    Carbon materials of boron content ranging from 0.6 to 4 wt.% were synthesized by co-pyrolysis of QI-free coal-tar pitch with the borane-pyridine complex. The growing amount of boron introduced into the carbonaceous material is associated with an increase in nitrogen content and a progressive degradation of structural and textural ordering. The structural variations of the boron-doped materials on heat treatment up to 2500{sup o}C were monitored using X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The intrinsic boron acts effectively as a catalyst of graphitization above 2100{sup o}C. The carbonaceous material with boron content of about 1.5 wt% shows the highest degree of structural ordering after thermal treatment. A high amount of oxygen was found in the graphitized boronated carbons, proving that the incorporated boron induces a strong chemisorption activity of the material when exposed to air. For a series of cokes calcined at 1000 {sup o}C, the most striking effect of increasing the boron content is an increase of irreversible capacity X-irr from 0.2 to 0.7. The reversible capacity (X-rev) amounts to about 1, with a slight tendency to decrease with the boron content. Upon increasing the temperature up to 2500{sup o}C, X-irr decreases to about 0.1 in the graphitic carbons, while X-rev reaches a minimum of 0.4-0.5 at 1700{sup o}C and next increases to a value close to 1 at 2500{sup o}C. In the boron doped graphite, X-irr has a slight tendency to increase with the boron content, due to the simultaneous presence of nitrogen in these materials and their strong affinity for oxygen from the atmosphere.

  20. Underground coal gasification technology impact on coal reserves in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John William Rosso Murillo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In situ coal gasification technology (Underground Coal Gasification–UCG– is an alternative to the traditional exploitation, due to it allows to reach the today’s inaccessible coal reserves’ recovery, to conventional mining technologies. In this article I answer the question on how the today’s reserves available volume, can be increased, given the possibility to exploit further and better the same resources. Mining is an important wealth resource in Colombia as a contributor to the national GDP. According with the Energy Ministry (Ministerio de Minas y Energía [1] mining has been around 5% of total GDP in the last years. This is a significant fact due to the existence of a considerable volume of reserves not accounted for (proved reserves at year 2010 were 6.700 million of tons. Source: INGEOMINAS and UPME, and the coal future role’s prospect, in the world energy production.

  1. 中低温煤焦油模拟蒸馏曲线解析%Simulated distillation curve of medium and low temperature coal tar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐炜; 王世宇

    2014-01-01

    利用Origin软件中的解析功能,将中低温煤焦油样品的模拟蒸馏曲线转化为类实沸点蒸馏曲线。类实沸点蒸馏曲线是模拟蒸馏曲线的导函数曲线,是沸点与相应沸点下物质含量的关系图,与实沸点蒸馏曲线类似。通过类实沸点蒸馏曲线可知,随着终温的升高,轻质组分减少,重油增加,沥青含量由30%左右逐渐增加到50%;在350~420℃类实沸点曲线皆出现波峰,波峰沸点物质含量随着煤样热解终温的升高而依次减少。中低温热解以解聚反应为主,高温高能量有利于高键能键的断裂,低温低能量有利于低键能键的断裂。%Translate the simulated distillation curve of medium and low temperature coal tar into theanalogous actual boiling point distil-lation curve using the analysis function of Origin software.By taking the derivatives of the simulated distillation curve,obtain the analogous actual boiling point distillation curve,which is similar to the actual boiling point distillation curve and shows the relationship between the boiling point and relevant substance content.The curve indicates that as temperature increase,the light component decrease,the heavy oil increase,and the asphalt content increase from 30% to 50%. There are some peak wave of the analogous actual boiling point distillation curve between 350 ℃ and 420 ℃,and the relevant substance content is less in turn with the increase of coal sample terminal pyrolysis temperature.The main reaction of low temperature pyrolysis is depolymerization,high temperature and high energy is good for breakage of high bond energy link,low temperature and low energy is good for breakage of low bond energy link.

  2. The Application of Coal Tar Hydrogenation on the Lurgi Gasifier Technology%煤焦油加氢技术在鲁奇气化工艺上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高玉安

    2012-01-01

    Using the existing hydrogenation technology,we do the hydrogenation purification with the coal tar byproduct which is produced in the process of Lurgi gasifier producting the coal gas,up to eliminate the sulphur,nitrogen,oxygen heteroatoms and hydrogenation saturation process for the olefins,aromatics,unsaturated hydrocarbons,then,both the high quality thenaphtha and fuel oil are producted,the added value of the coal tar is increased and also protect the environment.%对鲁奇炉气化炉生产煤气过程副产的煤焦油,利用现有的加氢工艺技术,进行加氢精制,脱除油中的硫、氮、氧等杂原子及对烯烃、芳烃、不饱和烃等加氢饱和过程,生产出优质的石脑油和燃料油,提高了煤焦油的附加值,并保护了环境。

  3. 溶剂效应对脱除煤沥青中3,4-苯并芘的影响%Solvent effect on removal of benzo[a]pyrene in coal tar pitch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙昱; 廖志远; 苏龙; 曾鹏

    2014-01-01

    研究了单种溶剂、混合溶剂对3,4-苯并芘的溶解选择性及煤沥青溶解量。并以顺丁烯二酸酐为改性剂、硫酸为催化剂,考察了溶剂效应对降低煤沥青中3,4-苯并芘的影响。研究表明,环己烷、甲苯,环己烷、乙酸丁酯组成的混合溶剂具有较好的3,4-苯并芘溶解选择性和合适的煤沥青溶解量。当环己烷∶甲苯=2∶1(体积比)和环己烷∶乙酸丁酯=2∶1(体积比)为反应溶剂时,能够高效地脱除煤沥青中3,4-苯并芘,煤沥青中3,4-苯并芘降低率分别达到88.26%和90.83%。其原因认为是此类溶剂能使包裹在沥青颗粒内部的3,4-苯并芘释放出来,且3,4-苯并芘与改性剂能够形成均相反应体系,大部分不具有致癌性的高相对分子质量环芳烃与改性剂之间形成两相体系,从而提高了改性剂与3,4-苯并芘的有效反应。%The solubility selectivity for benzo[a]pyrene and dissolved amount for coal tar pitch of single solvent,mixed solvents were studied. Using maleic anhydride as modifying agent and sulfuric acid as catalyst,the solvent effect on reducing the concentration of benzo[a]pyrene in coal tar pitch was investigated. The mixed solvents,cyclohexane and toluene,cyclohexane and butyl acetate had appropriate benzo[a]pyrene solubility selectivity and coal tar pitch solubility. When using cyclohexane∶toluene=2∶1(v/v),cyclohexane∶butyl acetate=2∶1(v/v)as reaction solvent, benzo[a]pyrene in coal tar pitch could be removed efficiently,with decreases of 88.26%and 90.83%for benzo[a]pyrene in coal tar pitch respectively. Using these kinds of solvent,benzo[a]pyrene wrapped in coal tar pitch could be released. In addition,a homogeneous system between modifying agent and benzo[a]pyrene was formed,with most non-carcinogenic high molecular weight PAHs and modifying agent forming a two phase system. As a result,the effective reaction between modifying agent and benzo[a]pyrene was greatly

  4. Health impacts of domestic coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finkelman, R.B.

    1999-07-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has concluded that, with the possible exception of mercury, there is no compelling evidence to indicate that emissions from coal-burning electric utility generators cause human health problems. The absence of detectable health problems is in part due to the fact that the coals burned in the US generally contain low to modest concentrations of potentially toxic trace elements and that many coal-burning utilities employ sophisticated pollution control systems that efficiently reduce the emissions of hazardous elements. This is not so in many developing countries, especially in homes where coal is used for heating and cooking. Domestic use of coal can present serious human health problems because the coals are generally mined locally with little regard to their composition and the coals are commonly burned in poorly vented or unvented stoves directly exposing residents to the emissions. In China alone several hundred million people commonly burn raw coal in unvented stoves that permeate their homes with high levels of toxic metals and organic compounds. At least 3,000 people in Guizhou Province in southwest China are suffering from severe arsenic poisoning. The primary source of the arsenic appears to be consumption of chili peppers dried over fires fueled with high-arsenic coal. Coal's in the region contain up to 35,000 ppm arsenic. Chili peppers dried over these high-arsenic coal fires absorb 500 ppm arsenic on average. More than 10 million people in Guizhou Province and surrounding areas suffer from dental and skeletal fluorosis. The excess fluorine is due to eating corn dried over burning briquettes made from high-fluorine coals and high-fluoring clay binders. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons formed during coal combustion are believed to cause or contribute to the high incidence of esophageal and lung cancers in parts of China. Domestic coal combustion has also caused selenium poisoning and possibly mercury

  5. Research Progress on Denitrification Catalysts for Low Temperature Coal Tar Hydrogenation%中低温煤焦油加氢脱氮催化剂研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈繁荣; 杨军

    2015-01-01

    详细介绍了煤焦油加氢技术,将现有煤焦油加氢转化技术划分为轻组分加氢,脱酚加氢,加氢裂化-加氢改质和全馏分加氢四种,分别介绍了每种技术的工艺流程特点和发展状况。阐述了国内外加氢催化剂研究进展,分析了催化剂中活性金属、载体和助剂的种类及对催化剂性能的影响;结合煤焦油加氢催化特点,展望了加氢脱氮催化剂的研究方向,旨在为煤焦油加氢催化剂研究提供一定的理论依据。%The domestic hydro - conversion technologies of coal tar were inwestigated, all technologies were divided into 4 species, such as i. e. hydrofing of light fraction oil, hydrofing of phenol removal fraction oil, oil hydrogenation cracking-hydrogenation modification of oil and hydrofing of whole fraction oil. The process flow and actuality of each species were described separately. The research status of the sulfides of the metals as the active components of the catalysts were introduced and the influences of the type and the active mental, carrier and promoter were described. Combining with the characteristics of catalytic hydrogenation of coal tar, the research direction of denitrification catalysts was prospected. Some theoretical guidance for the research ( design) of coal tar hydro -refining catalyst was provided.

  6. 煤焦油喹啉不溶物压滤脱除和超净沥青制备%Pressure Filtration Removal of QI and Preparation of Ultra-clean Pitch from Coal Tar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳杰; 王永刚; 任浩华; 马伟光; 陈航; 郭相坤; 许德平

    2011-01-01

    以高温煤焦油为原料,在自制小型压滤装置上脱除喹啉不溶物(QI),并对滤后煤焦油进行超临界流体萃取分馏制备超净沥青.结果表明,当滤布孔径1250目、温度125℃、压力0.5MPa时,煤焦油中的QI质量分数可降低到0.037%.对压滤后的焦油进行超临界萃取,所制沥青的QI和甲苯不溶物质量分数分别达到0.10%和20.31%,可满足制备高性能炭素材料前驱体的要求.%Quinoline insolubles (QI) of high temperature coal tar sampled from a coking plant of Shanxi province was removed by a self-made pressure filtration device. Ultra-clean pitch was prepared from the filtered coal tar by utilizing supercritical fluid extraction and fractionation (SFEF). Results indicated that the QI content of the filtered coal tar decreased to 0.037% at the conditions of 1 250 mesh filter cloth, 125℃ and 0.5MPa. And the QI and toluene insoluble (TI) level of ultra-clean pitch from SFEF reached 0.1% and 20.31%, which indicated that the pitch could be used as a premium precursor for high-performance carbon material, especially the needle-coke.

  7. Effect of pretreatment methods of raw material on coking of needle coke from coal tar pitch by delayed coking%原料预处理方法对延迟焦化成焦的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴甦; 王磊; 王小冰; 菜闯

    2012-01-01

    介绍了针状焦的工业生产方法,分析了不同的原料软沥青处理方法以及原料的结构和组成对延迟焦化成焦的影响.%The methods of manufacturing needle coke were introduced. And the effects of different pretreatment methods, the structure and composition of the raw material on the formation of needle coke from coal tar pitch by delayed coking were analyzed.

  8. 中/低温煤焦油酚类化合物的组成研究%STUDY ON THE COMPOSITION OF PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS IN MIDDLE/LOW TEMPERATURE COAL TAR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任洪凯; 邓文安; 李传; 崔文龙

    2013-01-01

    借助GC-MS手段分析陕北中/低温煤焦油酚类化舍物组成和分布情况.通过常减压蒸馏,将陕北中低温煤焦油切割成170℃~230℃,230℃~270℃,270℃~300℃,300℃~340℃和340℃~360℃五个窄馏分并计算收率,并用酸碱抽提法提取各窄馏分中的酚油;通过GC-MS分析了酚油中酚类化合物的组成及分布情况.结果表明,五个窄馏分分别检测出23,23,15,18和10种酚类化合物,酚类化合物占其所在馏分酚油的比率分别为96.89%,60.01%,50.90%,36.51%和36.37%.焦油中所含的酚类化舍物占焦油总量的12.91%,酚类化合物主要为低级酚、C3~C4烷基苯酚和萘酚.%The composition and distribution of phenolic compounds in middle/low temperature coal tar from Northern Shaanxi was investigated by GC-MS. Five fractions were isolated from middle/low temperature coal tar from Northern Shaanxi by distillation into 170 ℃-230 ℃ , 230 ℃-270 ℃, 270 ℃-300 ℃ , 300℃-340 ℃ and 340℃-360℃ respectively and figured out the ratio. Soda wash method was used to extract the phenolic compounds in each fractions and the crude phenols was analyzied by GC-MS. It was found that 23, 23, 15, 18 and 10 types of phenolic compounds corresponding to the crude phenols of the five fractions, which contributed the 96. 89%, 60. 01%, 50. 90%, 36. 51% and 36. 37% of the corresponding crude phenols of the five fractions. And these phenolic compounds accounting for 12. 91% of the low temperature coal tar. The main phenolic compounds in the low temperature coal tar were low-rank phenols,C3-C4 alkyl-phenols and naphthols.

  9. 以煤沥青为原料制备高性能无黏结剂炭材料%Preparation of high-performance binderless carbon material with coal-tar pitch as raw material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于嗣东; 夏金童; 杨胜; 李瑞恒

    2011-01-01

    以煤沥青为原料,利用热缩聚搅拌法制备中间相原料,并对中间相原料进行预处理,以及后续的粉体制备、成型、烧结等工序制备无黏结剂炭材料.实验表明,炭粉A和树脂A的加入对中间相原料的制备有明显的催化作用,而搅拌对中间相原料的制备过程至关重要.研究还比较了不同预处理时间对中间相原料自烧结性能的影响,结果表明,氧化时间为120 min的中间相原料制得的炭材料体积密度为1.61 g/cm,抗折强度为78 MPa,抗压强度为152 MPa.%The binderless carbon material can be produced with coal-tar pitch as the raw material by pre-oxidation of mesophase pitch which was obtained by hot polycondensation mixing method, and subsequent milling, moulding and carbonization sintering processes. The experiment results showed that the addition of carbon powder A and resin A had a clear catalysis,and the mixing process also played a vital role during the formation of mesophase pitch. The impact of different oxidation time on the formation of mesophase pitch was compared. The results showed that the bulk density and the flexural strength, the compressive strength of carbon material produced from mesophase pitch of 120 minutes oxidation reached to 1.61 g/cm3, 78 MPa and 152 MPa, respectively.

  10. CO2 Sequestration in Unmineable Coal Seams: Potential Environmental Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedges, S.W.; Soong, Yee; McCarthy Jones, J.R.; Harrison, D.K.; Irdi, G.A.; Frommell, E.A.; Dilmore, R.M.; Pique, P.J.; Brown, T.D

    2005-09-01

    An initial investigation into the potential environmental impacts of CO2 sequestration in unmineable coal seams has been conducted, focusing on changes in the produced water during enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) production using a CO2 injection process (CO2-ECBM). Two coals have been used in this study, the medium volatile bituminous Upper Freeport coal (APCS 1) of the Argonne Premium Coal Samples series, and an as-mined Pittsburgh #8 coal, which is a high volatile bituminous coal. Coal samples were reacted with either synthetic produced water or field collected produced water and gaseous carbon dioxide at 40 οC and 50 bar to evaluate the potential for mobilizing toxic metals during CO2-ECBM/sequestration. Microscopic and x-ray diffraction analysis of the post-reaction coal samples clearly show evidence of chemical reaction, and chemical analysis of the produced water shows substantial changes in composition. These results suggest that changes to the produced water chemistry and the potential for mobilizing toxic trace elements from coalbeds are important factors to be considered when evaluating deep, unmineable coal seams for CO2 sequestration.

  11. Tar sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLendon, T.R.; Bartke, T.C.

    1990-01-01

    Research on tar sand is briefly discussed. The research program supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE) includes a variety of surface extraction schemes. The University of Utah has process development units (PDU) employing fluidized bed, hot, water-assisted, and fluidized-bed/heat-pipe, coupled combustor technology. Considerable process variable test data have been gathered on these systems: (1) a rotary kiln unit has been built recently; (2) solvent extraction processing is being examined; and (3) an advanced hydrogenation upgrading scheme (hydropyrolysis) has been developed. The University of Arkansas, in collaboration with Diversified Petroleum, Inc., has been working on a fatty acid, solvent extraction process. Oleic acid is the solvent/surfactant. Solvent is recovered by adjusting processing fluid concentrations to separate without expensive operations. Western Research Institute has a PDU-scale scheme called the Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) process, which combines solvent (hot recycle bitumen) and pyrolytic extraction. 14 refs., 19 figs.

  12. Macrophages facilitate coal tar pitch extract-induced tumorigenic transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells mediated by NF-κB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifei Feng

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Chronic respiratory inflammation has been associated with lung cancer. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs play a critical role in the formation of inflammation microenvironment. We sought to characterize the role of TAMs in coal tar pitch extract (CTPE-induced tumorigenic transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells and the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: The expression of TAMs-specific CD68 in lung cancer tissues and paired adjacent tissues from cancer patients was determined using immunostaining. Co-culture of human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B and macrophage-like THP-1 cells were conducted to evaluate the promotive effect of macrophages on CTPE-induced tumorigenic transformation of BEAS-2B cells. BEAS-2B cells were first treated with 2.4 µg/mL CTPE for 72 hours. After removal of CTPE, the cells were continuously cultured either with or without THP-1 cells and passaged using trypsin-EDTA. Alterations of cell cycle, karyotype, colony formation in soft agar and tumor xenograft growth in nude mice of BEAS-2B cells at passages 10, 20 and 30, indicative of tumorigenecity, were determined, respectively. In addition, mRNA and protein levels of NF-κB in BEAS-2B cells were measured with RT-PCR and western blot, respectively. B(aP was used as the positive control. RESULTS: The over-expression of TAMs-specific CD68 around lung tumor tissues was detected and associated with lung cancer progression. The tumorigenic alterations of BEAS-2B cells including increase in cell growth rate, number of cells with aneuploidy, clonogenicity in soft agar, and tumor size in nude mice in vivo occurred at passage 10, becoming significant at passages 20 and 30 of the co-culture following CTPE removal in compared to BEAS-2B cells alone. In addition, the expression levels of NF-κB in BEAS-2B cells were positively correlated to the malignancy of BEAS-2B cells under different conditions of treatment. CONCLUSION: The presence of macrophages

  13. Oxidative Damage to Nucleic Acids and Benzo(apyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide-DNA Adducts and Chromosomal Aberration in Children with Psoriasis Repeatedly Exposed to Crude Coal Tar Ointment and UV Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Borska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a prospective cohort study. Observed group was formed of children with plaque psoriasis (n=19 treated by Goeckerman therapy (GT. The study describes adverse (side effects associated with application of GT (combined exposure of 3% crude coal tar ointment and UV radiation. After GT we found significantly increased markers of oxidative stress (8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine, 8-hydroxyguanosine, and 8-hydroxyguanine, significantly increased levels of benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE DNA adducts (BPDE-DNA, and significantly increased levels of total number of chromosomal aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes. We found significant relationship between (1 time of UV exposure and total number of aberrated cells and (2 daily topical application of 3% crude coal tar ointment (% of body surface and level of BPDE-DNA adducts. The findings indicated increased hazard of oxidative stress and genotoxic effects related to the treatment. However, it must be noted that the oxidized guanine species and BPDE-DNA adducts also reflect individual variations in metabolic enzyme activity (different extent of bioactivation of benzo[a]pyrene to BPDE and overall efficiency of DNA/RNA repair system. The study confirmed good effectiveness of the GT (significantly decreased PASI score.

  14. Removal of benzo[a] pyrene from coal tar pitch with polyethylene glycol%聚乙二醇改性脱除煤沥青中3,4-苯并芘

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖志远; 孙昱; 苏龙; 曾鹏

    2014-01-01

    以聚乙二醇为改性剂,研究在溶剂条件下降低煤沥青中3,4-苯并芘的工艺。研究表明,当混合溶剂V环己烷∶V甲苯=2∶1为反应溶剂、硫酸用量为煤沥青质量的6.67%、聚乙二醇600用量为煤沥青质量的10%、反应温度为80℃、反应时间为5h时,3,4-苯并芘降低率为85.59%。%Using polyethylene glycol as modifying agent ,the process of reducing the content of benzo [ a] pyrene in coal tar pitch under solvent condition is studied .The study shows that when the reac-tion solvent ratio is 2∶1 in volume between cyclohexane and toluene ,the sulfuric acid and polyethy-lene glycol 600 used are 6.67%and 10%in weight of the coal tar pitch respectively ,and the reac-tion takes place under the temperature of 80℃ for 5h, benzo [ a] pyrene can be removed up to 85 .59%.

  15. Qualitative characterization of SRM 1597a coal tar for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and methyl-substituted derivatives via normal-phase liquid chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Walter B; Hayes, Hugh V; Sander, Lane C; Campiglia, Andres D; Wise, Stephen A

    2017-08-01

    A normal-phase liquid chromatography (NPLC) fractionation procedure was developed for the characterization of a complex mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from a coal tar sample (Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1597a). Using a semi-preparative aminopropyl (NH2) LC column, the coal tar sample was separated using NPLC based on the number of aromatic carbons; a total of 14 NPLC fractions were collected. SRM 1597a was analyzed before and after NPLC fractionation by using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) with a 50% phenyl stationary phase. The NPLC-GC/MS method presented in this study allowed for the identification of 72 PAHs and 56 MePAHs. These identifications were based on the NPLC retention times for authentic reference standards, GC retention times for authentic reference standards, and the predominant molecular ion peak in the mass spectrum. Most noteworthy was the determination of dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, which could not be measured directly by GC/MS because of low concentration and co-elution with dibenzo[j,l]fluoranthene. The NPLC-GC/MS procedure also allowed for the tentative identification of 74 PAHs and 117 MePAHs based on the molecular ion peak only. This study represents the most comprehensive qualitative characterization of SRM 1597a to date. Graphical abstract NPLC-GC/MS analysis for the six-ring MM 302 Da PAH isomers in SRM 1597a.

  16. Impacts of Coal Seam Gas (Coal Bed Methane) Extraction on Water Resources in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, David

    2017-04-01

    While extraction of methane from shale gas deposits has been the principal source of the recent expansion of the industry in the United States, in Australia extraction of methane from coal bed methane deposits (termed 'coal seam gas' in Australia) has been the focus to date. The two sources of methane share many of the same characteristics including the potential requirement for hydraulic fracturing. However, as coal seam gas deposits generally occur at shallower depths than shale gas, the potential impacts of extraction on surface and groundwater resources may be of even greater concern. In Australia, an Independent Expert Scientific Committee (IESC) has been established to provide scientific advice to federal and state government regulators on the impact that coal seam gas and large coal mining developments may have on water resources. This advice is provided to enable decisions to be informed by the best available science about the potential water-related impacts associated with these developments. To support this advice, the Australian Government Department of the Environment has implemented a programme of research termed 'bioregional assessments' to investigate these potential impacts. A bioregional assessment is defined as a scientific analysis of the ecology, hydrology, geology and hydrogeology of a bioregion with explicit assessment of the potential direct, indirect and cumulative impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining development on water resources. These bioregional assessments are currently being carried out across large portions of eastern Australia underlain by coal reserves. Further details of the programme and results to date can be found at http://www.bioregionalassessments.gov.au. The bioregional assessment programme has modelled the impacts of coal seam gas development on surface and groundwater resources in three regions of eastern Australia, namely the Clarence-Moreton, Gloucester, and Namoi regions. This presentation will discuss the

  17. Impacts of Coal Seam Gas (Coal Bed Methane) Extraction on Water Resources in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, David

    2016-04-01

    While extraction of methane from shale gas deposits has been the principal source of the recent expansion of the industry in the United States and Europe, in Australia extraction of methane from coal bed methane deposits (termed 'coal seam gas' in Australia) has been the focus to date. The two sources of methane share many of the same characteristics including the potential requirement for hydraulic fracturing. However, as coal seam gas deposits generally occur at shallower depths than shale gas, the potential impacts of extraction on surface and groundwater resources may be of even greater concern. In Australia, an Independent Expert Scientific Committee (IESC) has been established to provide scientific advice to federal and state government regulators on the impact that coal seam gas and large coal mining developments may have on water resources. This advice is provided to enable decisions to be informed by the best available science about the potential water-related impacts associated with these developments. To support this advice, the Australian Government Department of the Environment has implemented a programme of research termed 'bioregional assessments' to investigate these potential impacts. A bioregional assessment is defined as a scientific analysis of the ecology, hydrology, geology and hydrogeology of a bioregion with explicit assessment of the potential direct, indirect and cumulative impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining development on water resources. These bioregional assessments are currently being carried out across large portions of eastern Australia underlain by coal reserves. Further details of the programme and results to date can be found at http://www.bioregionalassessments.gov.au. Surface water and groundwater modelling is now complete for two regions where coal seam gas development may proceed, namely the Clarence-Moreton and Gloucester regions in eastern New South Wales. This presentation will discuss how the results of these

  18. Cytochrome P450 1b1 in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-induced skin carcinogenesis: Tumorigenicity of individual PAHs and coal-tar extract, DNA adduction and expression of select genes in the Cyp1b1 knockout mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddens, Lisbeth K. [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Superfund Research Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Bunde, Kristi L. [College of Veterinary Medicine, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Harper, Tod A. [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); McQuistan, Tammie J. [Superfund Research Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Löhr, Christiane V. [Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); College of Veterinary Medicine, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Bramer, Lisa M. [Applied Statistics and Computational Modeling, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Waters, Katrina M. [Superfund Research Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Tilton, Susan C. [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Superfund Research Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Krueger, Sharon K. [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Superfund Research Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); and others

    2015-09-01

    FVB/N mice wild-type, heterozygous or null for Cyp 1b1 were used in a two-stage skin tumor study comparing PAH, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC), and coal tar extract (CTE, SRM 1597a). Following 20 weeks of promotion with TPA the Cyp 1b1 null mice, initiated with DBC, exhibited reductions in incidence, multiplicity, and progression. None of these effects were observed with BaP or CTE. The mechanism of Cyp 1b1-dependent alteration of DBC skin carcinogenesis was further investigated by determining expression of select genes in skin from DBC-treated mice 2, 4 and 8 h post-initiation. A significant reduction in levels of Cyp 1a1, Nqo1 at 8 h and Akr 1c14 mRNA was observed in Cyp 1b1 null (but not wt or het) mice, whereas no impact was observed in Gst a1, Nqo 1 at 2 and 4 h or Akr 1c19 at any time point. Cyp 1b1 mRNA was not elevated by DBC. The major covalent DNA adducts, dibenzo[def,p]chrysene-(±)-11,12-dihydrodiol-cis and trans-13,14-epoxide-deoxyadenosine (DBCDE-dA) were quantified by UHPLC-MS/MS 8 h post-initiation. Loss of Cyp1 b1 expression reduced DBCDE-dA adducts in the skin but not to a statistically significant degree. The ratio of cis- to trans-DBCDE-dA adducts was higher in the skin than other target tissues such as the spleen, lung and liver (oral dosing). These results document that Cyp 1b1 plays a significant role in bioactivation and carcinogenesis of DBC in a two-stage mouse skin tumor model and that loss of Cyp 1b1 has little impact on tumor response with BaP or CTE as initiators. - Highlights: • Cyp1b1 null mice exhibit lower skin cancer sensitivity to DBC but not BaP or CTE. • Cyp1b1 expression impacts expression of other PAH metabolizing enzymes. • cis/trans-DBCDE-dA ratio significantly higher in the skin than the spleen, lung or liver • Potency of DBC and CTE in mouse skin is higher than predicted by RPFs.

  19. 63. Study on the deletions of the FHIT gene mRNA in murine lung cancer induced by Coal Tar Pitch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that people who were exposed to Coal Tar Pitch (CTP) had a higher incidence of lung cancer than control population. In addition, CTP could induce two kinds of lung cancer in rats and mice. Although CTP is widely considered as a definite carcinogen, the mechanism of carcinogenesis is still unknown. Ohta discovered a new gene-FHIT (Fragile histidine triad) by exon-capture technique in 1996. It was reported that this gene was closely associated with the environmental carcinogen. FHIT gene is a focus for the study of environmental carcinogen acted upon. In our experiment, CTP was heated directly to produce fume to set an environment simulating workplace. Experimental mice were forced to inhale fume of CTP to induce model of lung cancer. Through series killing, the deletion of FHIT gene during tumor genesis was studied. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the molecular genetic event can be used to detect primary lung cancer. It can also provide useful information to infer the FHIT changes in human lung tumor genesis. Methods and materials: 64 Kunming mice were provided by Henan Laboratory Animal Center. They were 4 weeks old and half were male. All the mice were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. Each group had 32 mice. Experimental material was Coal tar pitch, which was produced by Beijing Certain Steel Factory. Experimental mice were put into 50 liter sealed vessel, which the fume was blown into by circulating system, the CTP was heated by electric hot plate at 400℃ until CTP did not produce fume. During experimental period, mouse's diet habit and activities were recorded. The mice in experimental group were exposed to CTP fume for 12 weeks, then half of the mice were executed after stopping inhale CTP fume, the rest were executed in 24th weeks. The wet weight of lung and liver were measured. The specimen of lung was divided into two parts. One part was fixed by 10% formalin. The other was frozen

  20. Study on the phenolic compounds extraction and separation in mid low-temperature coal tar of northern Shaanxi%陕北中低温煤焦油中酚类化合物的提取与分离研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙琪娟; 马晓迅; 孙长顺; 徐军礼

    2013-01-01

    The high content of the phenolic compounds (it is mainly elementary phenolic compounds) in mid low-temperature coal tar of northern Shaanxi, about 1/3 of it. Compared with the composition of the high-temperature coal tar, learn about extraction and separation of phenolic compounds in the high-temperature coal tar,put forward the work and the direction of the research which should be done on extraction and separation of the phenolic compounds in mid low-temperature coal tar.%陕北中低温煤焦油中酚(主要是低级酚)含量高,约占1/3左右.通过与高温煤焦油组成比较,借鉴高温煤焦油中酚类化合物的有关提取与分离情况,提出了中低温煤焦油中酚类的提取与分离方面应开展的工作和研究方向.

  1. Impact of increased coal consumption in the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnham, J.B. (comp.)

    1978-03-01

    The objectives of the National Coal Utilization Assessment are: Identification of the environmental, health and socioeconomic impacts to be expected from the increased use of coal; investigation of mitigation strategies that might be used to manage these impacts; and establishment of working relationships with state and regional agencies and utilities. A number of energy issues were identified in the course of the study. Probably the most significant issues in this region are the siting of coal-fired power plants and the tradeoff in water allocation between energy and agriculture. Choices of coal-fired generation sites and water use determine the level of impacts to air, water, land, terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and human health and socioeconomics. Air quality impacts were studied by incorporating current and projected emission inventories into both short-range and long-range air quality diffusion models. Results indicate that annual average ambient air quality standards will not be exceeded at any of the sites. Surface water supplies are more than adequate to meet the needs of new coal-fired generating plants located in the Columbia or Snake River; however, future conflicts could arise with agriculture over allocation of water rights. Water quality impacts would be minimal, even in the delicate estuarine and coastal sites, under the assumed control and cooling designs. Terrestrial ecosystems do not appear to be threatened as long as specific sites are selected to avoid identified areas of ''critical'' habitat. Impacts on aquatic biota and habitats seem manageable as long as existing regulations are met. Several rare or endangered species are identified. A computer model was used to facilitate the analysis of socioeconomic impacts to be expected from the addition of coal-fired generating capacity at the candidate sites. A number of issues which are still largely unresolved and deserve further attention are mentioned.

  2. Study on the preparation of impregnating pitch from modified coal tar pitch%改质煤沥青制备浸渍剂沥青的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高丽娟; 徐妍; 吴红运; 赵雪飞

    2014-01-01

    The purified pitch with low QI was prepared from modified coal tar pitch through solvent hot filtering process, then im-pregnant pitch were obtained by the method of blowing in N2 to remove off light component. The effects of reaction temperature, re-action time and N2 flow rate on the QI content, softening point and coking value of the impregnant pitch were studied. The experi-mental results showed that, when the reaction condition was 250℃for 40 min with N2 flow of 40 L/h, the obtained products showed the softening point of 88 ℃, QI content of <0.5%, TI content of 22.25%, coking value of 55.77%. Compared with raw materials of pitch, the contents of carbonyl, amine compounds and aromatic structure of impregnant pitch decreased and saturated hydrocarbon structures increased by infrared spectrum analysis. Thermo-gravimetric analysis showed that small molecular components of impreg-nant pitch were more than the raw materials of pith. Viscosity measurement revealed that the viscosity-temperature curve was nega-tive exponent relationship between 130~200℃.%以改质煤沥青为原料经溶剂热过滤法制备低QI净化沥青,再将净化沥青通N2脱掉轻组分制备浸渍剂沥青。以QI含量、软化点和结焦值为指标考察了温度、时间、N2流量等因素的影响。结果表明,在250℃,40 min,N2流量为40 L/h条件下,所得浸渍剂沥青的指标参数为软化点88℃左右,QI含量<0.5%,TI含量为22.25%,结焦值为55.77%。红外光谱分析表明,和原料沥青相比,浸渍剂沥青的羰基类和胺类化合物减少,芳烃结构减少,饱和烃类结构增加;热重分析表明,浸渍剂沥青的小分子含量较原料沥青相对较多;黏度的测定表明,在130~200℃黏温曲线呈现负指数关系。

  3. Effect of graphene oxide nanosheets addition on the coking behavior of coal-tar pitch%添加氧化石墨烯对煤沥青成焦行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡秋红; 林起浪; 陈智明; 马志超

    2013-01-01

    采用TEM观察添加异氰酸苯酯改性的氧化石墨烯(iGONSs)的微观结构,采用TGA研究添加iGONSs前后煤沥青的热解行为,采用偏光显微镜研究添加iGONSs前后煤沥青焦化产物的光学组织,采用XRD研究添加iGONSs对煤沥青焦化产物微晶结构的影响.研究表明,添加iGONSs后,煤沥青的热分解温度变大,热失重率变小,其耐热性能变好;iGONSs对煤沥青碳质中间相的形成起到成核和抑制生长的作用,这使得最终焦化产物的光学各向异性单元尺寸变小;随着iGONSs添加量的增加,焦化产物的微晶层间距增大,平均微晶高度和平均微晶宽度减小.%Microstructure of the addition of phenyl isocyanate-modified graphene oxide nanosheets (iGONSs) was examined using transmission electron microscope(TEM) and physical adsorption analyzer,and thermal behaviors of the coal-tar pitch with different iGONSs contents were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).In addition,the optical texture and micro-crystal structure of resultant coke of the coal-tar pitch with different iGONSs contents were characterized using reflected polarized light microscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD),respectively.The results show that with the addition of iGONSs,the thermal stability of coal-tar pitch increases,the weight loss temperature and coke value are improved.The addition of iGONSs plays a role in both the nucleation and the growth inhibition of carbonaceous mesophase,leading to a decrease in the anisotropic domain size of resultant cokes.With the increase in the amount of iGONSs,the interlayer spacing of the coke increases,while its average crystallite height and average crystallite width decrease.

  4. Column chromatographic separation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in coal tar pitch and its GC/MS analysis%煤焦油沥青中多环芳烃的柱层析分离及其GC—MS分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗道成; 刘俊峰

    2011-01-01

    Coal tar pitch was extracted with isometric carbon disulfide - acetone mixed solvent under ultrasonic radiation and room temperature. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in coal tar pitch were extracted by mixed solvent. The extracts were absorbed by silica gel. The silica gel was eluted with petroleum ether, PAHs in coal tar pitch were separated by using column chromatographic method. A white crystal, a white powder and a colorless crystal (marked as M1, M2, M3 respectively) appeared in three eluents, and M1 ,M2 and M3 were analyzed with GC -MS respectively. The results showed that M1 was mainly composed of 3 - ring PAHs and heterocyclic compounds, M2 was mainly composed of 4 - ring PAHs and heterocyclic compounds, and Ms was composed of 4 - ring or 5 - ring PAHs.%室温下用等体积的二硫化碳-丙酮混合溶剂对煤焦油沥青进行超声辐射萃取,煤焦油沥青中多环芳烃(PAHs)被混合溶剂萃取,用硅胶吸附萃取物,以石油醚为洗脱液洗脱硅胶,采用柱层析法对煤焦油沥青中多环芳烃进行了分离.在定量收取的洗脱液中分别析出了白色晶体、白色粉状物质和无色晶体(分别标记为M1,M2,M3),用气相色谱-质谱联用仪(GC/MS)分别对M1,M2,M3进行了分析,结果表明,M1中主要为3个环的多环芳烃和杂环化合物,M2中主要为4个环的多环芳烃和杂环化合物,M3中全部为4~5个环的多环芳烃.

  5. Effect of Modulated Coal Tar Pitch on Performance of Composite Modified Emulsified Asphalt%调制煤沥青对复合改性乳化沥青性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红亮; 李其祥; 丁浩; 宋健伟; 王智勇; 伍林

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve the performance of modified emulsified asphalt,composite modified emulsified asphalt was prepared by adding modulated coal tar pitch and modified by SBS.Results showed that,with the in-crease of addition of modulated coal tar pitch,the ductility and softening point became better.After adding 20%modulated coal tar pitch,ductility increased to 30 cm,softening point increased to 70 ℃,composite modified e-mulsified asphalt had good performance in high or low temperature.Fluorescence microscopy and infrared spec-tral analysis showed that there were some chemical grafting reactions happened between SBS and asphalt mate-rials in the process of modification besides the physical modification,SBS formed network structure in asphalt material,so modification improved the bonding strength of SBS and asphalt material,and made the asphalt sys-tem more stable.%为提高复合改性乳化沥青的使用性能,采用加入调制煤沥青的方式和用 SBS改性制备复合改性乳化沥青。结果表明,随着调制煤沥青添加量的增加,复合改性乳化沥青的延度和软化点得到改善。当添加20%调制煤沥青后,延度提高至30 cm,软化点升到70℃,复合改性乳化沥青已具有良好的高低温性能。荧光显微图像和红外光谱分析表明,在改性过程中 SBS与沥青材料之间除物理改性外,还发生了某种化学接枝反应形成网络构架,从而提高了 SBS与沥青材料的结合强度,使得沥青体系更加稳定。

  6. Removal of 3,4-Benzopyrene in Coal Tar Pitch and Mechanism Research%脱除煤沥青中3,4-苯并芘及其机理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋健伟; 李其祥; 王红亮; 王智勇; 伍林

    2014-01-01

    Using polyethylene glycol and s-trioxane (proportion 4∶6)as complex modifier,carcinogenic pol-ycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon 3,4-benzopyrene in coal tar pitch was removed by polymer modified method with removal rate of 7 6.0%.The elemental analysis results showed that in modified coal tar pitch,C,S element con-tents decreased,H element content increased,C/H value and aromaticity (fa)decreased,indicated that the sof-tening point of modified coal tar pitch and the stability of the system decreased.IR Spectra analysis indicated that reaction between polyethylene glycol and 3,4-benzopyrene belonged to O-alkylation reaction,reaction be-tween s-trioxane and 3,4-benzopyrene belonged to C-alkylation reaction.%以聚乙二醇和三聚甲醛为复合改性剂,采用聚合物改性法脱除煤沥青中致癌多环芳烃3,4-苯并芘,在复合改性剂比例(聚乙二醇与三聚甲醛的比)为4∶6时脱除率可达76.0%。元素分析结果表明,改性煤沥青的 C、S元素含量降低,H元素含量升高,C/H值和芳香度(fa )降低,说明改性煤沥青的软化点降低、体系的稳定性下降。红外光谱分析结果表明,聚乙二醇与3,4-苯并芘的反应属于 O-烷基化反应,三聚甲醛与3,4-苯并芘的反应属于C-烷基化反应。

  7. 神木低温煤焦油中含氧化合物的分析与鉴定%Analysis and Identification of Oxygen Containing Compounds in Shenmu Low Temperature Coal Tar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿层层; 李术元; 岳长涛; 尚文智

    2013-01-01

    The methods of acid-base separation and extrography were used to separate Shenmu low temperature coal tar into acid fractions, base fractions and five neutral fractions. The molecular structure and mass distribution of oxygen containing compounds in Shenmu low temperature coal tar were investigated by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and negative-ion electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI FT-ICR MS). The results showed that the oxygen containing compounds in acid fractions involved phenols, indanols, naphthols, phenylphenols, fluorenols, phenanthrenols. The oxygen compounds in neutral fraction 4 and 5 involved aliphatic ketones ranging from C10 to C29 and minor aromatic ketones. The class species of O1 , O2, O3 , O4, O5 , O6 were found in Shenmu low temperature coal tar, among which the O2class species had the highest relative abundance.%采用酸碱分离和萃取色谱分离方法将陕西神木地区低温煤焦油分离为酸性组分、碱性组分和5个中性组分.采用气相色谱-质谱(GC-MS)和负离子电喷雾傅里叶变换离子回旋共振质谱(ESI FT-ICR MS)鉴定了神木低温煤焦油酸性组分、中性组分4和中性组分5中含氧化合物的组成与分布.结果表明,神木低温煤焦油酸性组分中含氧化合物主要包括苯酚、茚满酚、萘酚、联苯酚、芴酚、菲酚类化合物;中性组分4和中性组分5中含氧化合物主要包括C10~C29脂肪酮和少量芳香酮.神木低温煤焦油中含氧化合物主要有O1、O2、O3、O4、O5、O6类化合物,其中O2类化合物相对丰度最高.

  8. Experimental Study on NOx Reduction in a Coal-fired Boiler by Reburning Biomass Syngas with Tar%含焦油生物质气再燃还原燃煤锅炉NOx的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷仁豪; 罗永浩; 刘春元; 张睿智; 曹阳

    2012-01-01

    A test rig, consisting of a 10 kW updraft biomass gasifier and a 20 kW pulverized-coal drop tube furnace, was established to investigate the technology of NOx reduction in a coal-fired boiler by reburning biomass syngas with tar under different reburning conditions. Results show that the tar produced in gasification process will crack into hydrocarbon radicals with high heat value, which have a positive effect on NOx reduction. Higher efficiency of NO, reduction may be obtained at lower excess air coefficients and higher reburning temperatures, and in the experiment, the data may get above 80%. The application of bi omass syngas reburning technology may help to handle the tough problem of tar disposal, raise conversion rate of biomass energy, and simultaneously reduce NOx emission from coal-fired boilers.%搭建了10kW上吸式生物质气化炉和20kW煤粉沉降炉组成的生物质气化再燃试验系统,分析了不同再燃条件下含焦油生物质气再燃还原燃煤锅炉NOx的特性.结果表明:气化过程中产生的焦油在再燃过程中会裂解生成高热值的烃类气体,这些烃类气体还原NOx的效果明显;当过量空气系数较小、再燃温度较高时,NOx的还原效率较高,试验中最高还原效率超过80%;采用生物质气化再燃的方式既可以解决焦油难处理的问题,又可以提高生物质能量的转化效率,同时可高效降低燃煤锅炉NOx的排放量.

  9. Impact of Genetic Variations in HIV-1 Tat on LTR-Mediated Transcription via TAR RNA Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larance Ronsard

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 evades host defense through mutations and recombination events, generating numerous variants in an infected patient. These variants with an undiminished virulence can multiply rapidly in order to progress to AIDS. One of the targets to intervene in HIV-1 replication is the trans-activator of transcription (Tat, a major regulatory protein that transactivates the long terminal repeat promoter through its interaction with trans-activation response (TAR RNA. In this study, HIV-1 infected patients (n = 120 from North India revealed Ser46Phe (20% and Ser61Arg (2% mutations in the Tat variants with a strong interaction toward TAR leading to enhanced transactivation activities. Molecular dynamics simulation data verified that the variants with this mutation had a higher binding affinity for TAR than both the wild-type Tat and other variants that lacked Ser46Phe and Ser61Arg. Other mutations in Tat conferred varying affinities for TAR interaction leading to differential transactivation abilities. This is the first report from North India with a clinical validation of CD4 counts to demonstrate the influence of Tat genetic variations affecting the stability of Tat and its interaction with TAR. This study highlights the co-evolution pattern of Tat and predominant nucleotides for Tat activity, facilitating the identification of genetic determinants for the attenuation of viral gene expression.

  10. 对甲基苯甲醛改性煤沥青的改性机理研究%STUDY ON MODIFITION MECHANISM OF THE MODIFIED COAL TAR PITCH WITH 4-METHYL BENZALDEHYDE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋士华; 魏健宁; 马明亮

    2007-01-01

    以对甲基苯甲醛(4-methyl benzaldehyde,简称4-MB)为改性剂,在对甲苯磺酸(PTS)的作用下对煤沥青(Coal Tar Pitch)进行了改性研究.采用傅立叶红外光谱(FT-IR)和核磁共振氢谱(1H-NMR)对煤沥青改性机理进行分析;采用扫描电镜(SEM)观察改性后煤沥青的形貌;采用光学显微镜观察改性沥青热解产物的光学结构.实验结果表明,对甲基苯甲醛在酸性催化剂的催化作用下与煤沥青发生亲电取代反应.

  11. 酚醛树脂改性煤焦油沥青中制得的中间相球体的结构特征%Structural Characteristics of Mesophase Spheres Prepared from Coal Tar Pitch Modified by Phenolic Resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李同起; 刘秀军; 王成扬; 王慧

    2006-01-01

    Mesocarbon microbeads (MCMB) were prepared from coal tar pitch modified by phenolic resin and from the same pitch modified by phenolic resin and hexamethylenetetramine at 440℃ for 1h. By investigating the morphology of mesophase spheres and the structure of the MCMB carbonized at 1000℃ for 1h using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and XRD, it was found that phenolic resin accelerated the formation and coalescence of mesophase spheres. Some of the obtained MCMB were bi- or tri-spheres with the distorted microtextural carbon layers. Hexamethylenetetramine in the pitch modified by phenolic resin accelerated the condensation of phenolic resin and consequently expedited the combination of mesophase spheres, which was proved by the formation of some tetra-spheres. Owing to the cross-linkage of the additives, MCMB with complex structure were obtained.

  12. Impact of RCRA on coal gasification wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-08-01

    Coal conversion processes offer the potential for almost every possible mode of environmental contamination. Potential environmental pollution will occur from huge streams of wastewater, scores of gaseous vents and enormous quantities of solid materials. The nature of the waste streams is of particular concern in view of the recently enacted Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The passage and implementation of RCRA poses new levels of control for the traditional solid waste disposal process and establishes a new set of material standards for hazardous wastes in which conforming materials will require even more stringent controls. Key definitions in the Act which may pertain to coal gasification wastes include hazardous waste, sludge and solid waste. It is the goal of this report to collect, analyze, and interpret data and other technical information relevant to solid waste by-product generation, handling, and disposal at existing and future coal conversion plants. The analysis and interpretation of the collected data has been directed towards identifying gaps in the data, potential problem areas in solid waste disposal in view of RCRA, and needed research activities in the area of solid waste disposal.

  13. Dominant role of the 5' TAR bulge in dimerization of HIV-1 genomic RNA, but no evidence of TAR-TAR kissing during in vivo virus assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalalirad, Mohammad; Saadatmand, Jenan; Laughrea, Michael

    2012-05-08

    The 5' untranslated region of HIV-1 genomic RNA (gRNA) contains two stem-loop structures that appear to be equally important for gRNA dimerization: the 57-nucleotide 5' TAR, at the very 5' end, and the 35-nucleotide SL1 (nucleotides 243-277). SL1 is well-known for containing the dimerization initiation site (DIS) in its apical loop. The DIS is a six-nucleotide palindrome. Here, we investigated the mechanism of TAR-directed gRNA dimerization. We found that the trinucleotide bulge (UCU24) of the 5' TAR has dominant impacts on both formation of HIV-1 RNA dimers and maturation of the formed dimers. The ΔUCU trinucleotide deletion strongly inhibited the first process and blocked the other, thus impairing gRNA dimerization as severely as deletion of the entire 5' TAR, and more severely than deletion of the DIS, inactivation of the viral protease, or most severe mutations in the nucleocapsid protein. The apical loop of TAR contains a 10-nucleotide palindrome that has been postulated to stimulate gRNA dimerization by a TAR-TAR kissing mechanism analogous to the one used by SL1 to stimulate dimerization. Using mutations that strongly destabilize formation of the TAR palindrome duplex, as well as compensatory mutations that restore duplex formation to a wild-type-like level, we found no evidence of TAR-TAR kissing, even though mutations nullifying the kissing potential of the TAR palindrome could impair dimerization by a mechanism other than hindering of SL1. However, nullifying the kissing potential of TAR had much less severe effects than ΔUCU. By not uncovering a dimerization mechanism intrinsic to TAR, our data suggest that TAR mutations exert their effect 3' of TAR, yet not on SL1, because TAR and SL1 mutations have synergistic effects on gRNA dimerization.

  14. In vitro studies of the genotoxic effects of bitumen and coal-tar fume condensates: comparison of data obtained by mutagenicity testing and DNA adduct analysis by 32P-postlabelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Méo, M; Genevois, C; Brandt, H; Laget, M; Bartsch, H; Castegnaro, M

    1996-08-14

    Bitumens contain traces of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), a part of which will end up in the fumes emitted during hot handling of bitumen-containing products, e.g. during roadpaving. Although exposure of workers to these fumes is low, it might lead to health problems. Studies on bitumen fume condensates (BFCs) showed weak to moderate mutagenic activities, but studies on DNA adduct formation have not been reported. Therefore, a study was initiated in which fumes were generated from two road grade bitumens, in such a way that they were representative of the fumes produced in the field. The combined vapour/particulates were tested in vitro for their ability to produce DNA adducts and in modified Ames mutation assays, using a number of different strains. An attempt was made to relate the results to chemical data, such as the content of a number of individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and with a measure for the total PAC content. As a reference material fume condensate from coal-tar (coal-tar pitch volatiles; CTPV) were subjected to the same tests. All fume condensates tested were mutagenic to all strains and induced the formation of DNA adducts. The patterns of DNA adducts, obtained by 32P-postlabelling, arising from the BFCs were qualitatively different from the patterns of adducts obtained from the CTPVs, implying qualitative differences in the nature of the compounds responsible for the formation of these adducts. This is corroborated by the observation that for BFCs quantitative adduct levels are higher than would be expected based on the PAH content. These data thus indicate that the PAHs analysed are not the sole components responsible for adduct formation from BFCs, but that an important contribution comes from other (hetero- and/or substituted-) PACs.

  15. 不同煤焦油沥青与吡啶硼烷反应性能的比较%STUDY OF REACTIVITY BETWEEN DIFFERENT COAL TAR PITCHES AND PYRIDINE-BORANE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽芳; 宋进仁; 要立中; 刘朗

    2001-01-01

    以三种不同的煤焦油沥青为原料,分别与吡啶硼烷反应制备了硼取代中间相沥青。比较了它们的软化点、残炭值、四氢呋喃不溶物(THFI)以及中间相的偏光显微结构。发现煤焦油沥青不同所得结果有显著差别:较高软化点的沥青与吡啶硼烷的反应活性较强,而相同软化点的净化煤焦油沥青与吡啶硼烷具有更强的反应性,所得中间相沥青的软化点、残炭值及四氢呋喃不溶物的含量较高,其偏光显微结构也证实了这一点。%Boron-substituted mesophase pitches were synthesized by co-pyrolysis of different coal tar pitches with pyridine-borane complex.The softing points, coke yields, solubility in tetrahydrofurane (THF) and polarized micrographs were compared. It is found that the results are different. The coal tar pitch with high soffening point after purification had higher reactivity with pyridine-borane, which was proved by the soffening point, coke yield solubitily in THF and polarized microstructure of obtained pitch.

  16. Integrated Biomass Gasification with Catalytic Partial Oxidation for Selective Tar Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lingzhi; Wei, Wei; Manke, Jeff; Vazquez, Arturo; Thompson, Jeff; Thompson, Mark

    2011-05-28

    Biomass gasification is a flexible and efficient way of utilizing widely available domestic renewable resources. Syngas from biomass has the potential for biofuels production, which will enhance energy security and environmental benefits. Additionally, with the successful development of low Btu fuel engines (e.g. GE Jenbacher engines), syngas from biomass can be efficiently used for power/heat co-generation. However, biomass gasification has not been widely commercialized because of a number of technical/economic issues related to gasifier design and syngas cleanup. Biomass gasification, due to its scale limitation, cannot afford to use pure oxygen as the gasification agent that used in coal gasification. Because, it uses air instead of oxygen, the biomass gasification temperature is much lower than well-understood coal gasification. The low temperature leads to a lot of tar formation and the tar can gum up the downstream equipment. Thus, the biomass gasification tar removal is a critical technology challenge for all types of biomass gasifiers. This USDA/DOE funded program (award number: DE-FG36-O8GO18085) aims to develop an advanced catalytic tar conversion system that can economically and efficiently convert tar into useful light gases (such as syngas) for downstream fuel synthesis or power generation. This program has been executed by GE Global Research in Irvine, CA, in collaboration with Professor Lanny Schmidt's group at the University of Minnesota (UoMn). Biomass gasification produces a raw syngas stream containing H2, CO, CO2, H2O, CH4 and other hydrocarbons, tars, char, and ash. Tars are defined as organic compounds that are condensable at room temperature and are assumed to be largely aromatic. Downstream units in biomass gasification such as gas engine, turbine or fuel synthesis reactors require stringent control in syngas quality, especially tar content to avoid plugging (gum) of downstream equipment. Tar- and ash-free syngas streams are a critical

  17. Inland-transport modes for coal and coal-derived energy: an evaluation method for comparing environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertram, K.M.

    1983-06-01

    This report presents a method for evaluating relative environmental impacts of coal transportation modes (e.g., unit trains, trucks). Impacts of each mode are evaluated (rated) for a number of categories of environmental effects (e.g., air pollution, water pollution). The overall environmental impact of each mode is determined for the coal origin (mine-mouth area), the coal or coal-energy product destination (demand point), and the line-haul route. These origin, destination, and en route impact rankings are then combined into a systemwide ranking. Thus the method accounts for the many combinations of transport modes, routes, and energy products that can satisfy a user's energy demand from a particular coal source. Impact ratings and system rankings are not highly detailed (narrowly defined). Instead, environmental impacts are given low, medium, and high ratings that are developed using environmental effects data compiled in a recent Argonne National Laboratory report entitled Data for Intermodal Comparison of Environmental Impacts of Inland Transportation Alternatives for Coal Energy (ANL/EES-TM-206). The ratings and rankings developed for this report are generic. Using the method presented, policy makers can apply these generic data and the analytical framework given to particular cases by adding their own site specific data and making some informed judgements. Separate tables of generic ratings and rankings are developed for transportation systems serving coal power plants, coal liquefaction plants, and coal gasification plants. The final chapter presents an hypothetical example of a site-specific application and adjustment of generic evaluations. 44 references, 2 figures, 14 tables.

  18. Impact of solid discharges from coal usage in the Southwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D G; Straughan, I R

    1978-12-01

    The Southwestern region of the United States is extremely wealthy in low sulfur coal resources which must be eventually utilized in response to national energy balance priorities. Fly ash and scrubber sludge can be safely disposed of using properly managed techniques to ensure that any potential impact from elements such as boron, molybdenum, or selenium is rendered insignificant. Alternative methods of solids utilization are presently being developed. Fly ash is presently being marketed commercially as an additive for concrete manufacture. Successful experiments have been completed to demonstrate the manufacture of commercial-grade wallboard from scrubber sludge. Also, greenhouse studies and field experiments have been conducted to demonstrate increased yields of selected crops grown on typical soils amended with fly ash in amounts ranging from 2% to 8%, by weight. These studies also indicate that barium and strontium may be good monitoring indices for determining atmospheric deposition of fly ash, due to their concentration ratios in soil and vegetation samples. Further studies are being conducted to confirm encouraging irrigation and crop-yield data obtained with fly ash amended soils. Finally, the composition of many fly ashes and soils are similar in the Southwest, and there are no anticipated solid discharges from coal usage which cannot be rendered insignificant with proper management of existing and emerging methods of treatment. Compared with the water availability impact of coal usage in the Southwest, the impact of solid waste discharges are insignificant.

  19. Modification mechanism of coal-tar pitch-based carbon microspheres by an emulsion method with petroleum pitch%石油沥青对乳化法煤沥青基炭微球的改性机理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛运伟; 杨常玲; 吕永根; 荣海琴; 王鹏; 潘鼎

    2008-01-01

    Coal-tar pitch-based carbon microspheres were prepared by adding petroleum pitch using emulsifying pitch-toluene colloidal solution in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) glycerol solution. To clarify the influence of pitch solubility in to ̄luene and its affinity with the hydrophobic methylene groups of PVA on the sphere formation, petroleum pitch ha ̄ving a high affinity with methylene groups was added to the coal tar pitch in different proportions. A model was proposed to tentatively elucidate the sphere formation mechanism. It was found that petroleum pitch addition could improve the sphericity of pitch spheres by stabilizing the surfactant orientation on the interface between pitch molecules and dispersant. Adding petroleum pitch lowered the softening point of mixed pitch and an appropriate amount of addition was needed to ensure a high softening point of mixed pitch spheres above the reaction threshold temperature for air-oxidative stabilization.%通过在煤焦油沥青中添加石油沥青获得沥青甲苯胶体溶液,然后与聚乙烯醇(PVA)的甘油溶液乳化,制备了煤沥青基炭微球.为了阐明沥青在甲苯中的溶解性及其与PVA中憎水的亚甲基亲合力对于微球形成的影响,在煤沥青中添加了不同比例的与PVA中憎水的亚甲基更具亲合力的石油沥青,建立了一个微球成形机理的模型.研究发现,添加石油沥青可以促进乳化液中沥青分子与分散剂界面上表面活性剂分子的取向稳定性,从而明显改善沥青微球的球形度.石油沥青的添加降低了混合后沥青的软化点,为使沥青微球的软化点高于空气氧化始温,需要选择适当的添加比例.

  20. 高原电解铝生产中高水分水合沥青焦油的成因分析%Causes of Formation of High Hydrate Coal Tar Pitch by Asphalt Gas Decontaminating during Aluminum Electrolysis in Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓

    2014-01-01

    Due to the formation of high hydrate coal tar pitch which cannot be used directly, there are technical problems during aluminum electrolysis anode carbon production in plateau. On basis of the practical production, the causes of forming high hydrate coal tar pitch by asphalt gas decontaminating are put forward. The key influencing factors are resistivity, atmospheric pressure, and manufacturing process. These works lay an experimental base for the future research of separation technique of hydrate coal tar pitch.%高原电解铝碳阳极生产中存在沥青烟气净化产生高水分水合焦油而无法直接利用的的技术难题。在研究生产实际的基础上,得出高原电解铝碳阳极生产中沥青烟气净化产生高水分水合沥青焦油的成因,主要为比电阻、气压、生产环节的影响,为进一步研究水合沥青焦油分离技术提供基础。

  1. Buckwheat in Tibet (TAR)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sabine Scheucher

    2004-01-01

    The Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) is one of the poorest provinces in China. Buckwheat is mostly cultivated in areas with sloping infertile land on which other crops cannot be grown. It is a valuable crop in remote and food deficient mountain areas, and the potential of enhanced buckwheat utilization in TAR is high and diverse.

  2. Characteristics of PAH tar oil contaminated soils-Black particles, resins and implications for treatment strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trellu, Clément; Miltner, Anja; Gallo, Rosita; Huguenot, David; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Esposito, Giovanni; Oturan, Mehmet A; Kästner, Matthias

    2017-04-05

    Tar oil contamination is a major environmental concern due to health impacts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and the difficulty of reaching acceptable remediation end-points. Six tar oil-contaminated soils with different industrial histories were compared to investigate contamination characteristics by black particles. Here we provide a simple method tested on 6 soils to visualize and identify large amounts of black particles (BP) as either solid aggregates of resinified and weathered tar oil or various wood/coke/coal-like materials derived from the contamination history. These materials contain 2-10 times higher PAH concentrations than the average soil and were dominantly found in the sand fraction containing 42-86% of the total PAH. The PAH contamination in the different granulometric fractions was directly proportional to the respective total organic carbon content, since the PAH were associated to the carbonaceous particulate materials. Significantly lower (bio)availability of PAH associated to these carbonaceous phases is widely recognized, thus limiting the efficiency of remediation techniques. We provide a conceptual model of the limited mass transfer of PAH from resinated tar oil phases to the water phase and emphasize the options to physically separate BP based on their lower bulk density and slower settling velocity.

  3. Impact of petroleum industry horizontal divestiture on the coal market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, D.L.; Dymond, L.H.; Marris, R.L.

    1979-06-22

    Volume 2 contains appendices as follows: coal supply curves, coal supply model modifications, coal mine financing data, legislative proposals for horizontal divestiture, overview of oil companies in coal industry (including their coal reserves) and the major sources of data and bibliography. (LTN)

  4. Impact of petroleum industry horizontal divestiture on the coal market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, D.L.; Dymond, L.H.; Marris, R.L.

    1979-06-22

    Volume 2 contains appendices as follows: coal supply curves, coal supply model modifications, coal mine financing data, legislative proposals for horizontal divestiture, overview of oil companies in coal industry (including their coal reserves) and the major sources of data and bibliography. (LTN)

  5. Hydrogeological and environmental impact of coal mining, Jharia coalfield, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choubey, V.D. (Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad (India). Dept. of Applied Geology)

    The Jharia coalfield is the most important and active mining region in India, it experiences groundwater inflow and affects groundwater levels in overlying aquifers, and it provides the basis for a conceptual model of the hydrogeological impacts of coal mining. The several sandstone aquifers of the overburden are separated by aquitards that limit vertical hydraulic connection, but the inflow responds to seasonal events and seems to be linked to shallow groundwater behaviour. The mine drainage behaviour suggests a hydraulic connection between the mine and the shallower groundwater system. The greatest declines are directly above the panels, with an immediate response to coal mining. The inflow is localized by natural and induced fracture zones and is mostly into recent workings. The groundwater behaviour is controlled by hydraulic property changes caused by mine-induced fracturing. The hydrological and chemical qualities of the shallow groundwater regime in 13 mining collieries in Mukunda Block have been investigated. Water samples were collected from 30 shallow monitoring dug wells. Rainfall, runoff, and infiltration rates have been calculated in the area. The water-quality plottings were used to interpret the distribution of individual chemical parameters and in predicting the water quality. The underground mine water has been classified as: (1) unconfined groundwater in the calcareous siltstone and sandstone - its composition in Na, Ca, SO{sub 4} and Na-MgHCO{sub 3} with moderate total dissolved solids (TDS)200-1480 ppm; (2) the deep groundwater originating from the coal seams and associated sediments in the near-surface environments - this is a Na-HCO{sub 3} water with higher TDS; and (3) spoil dump waters are essentially Na-HCO{sub 3} with high TDS. This article presents some hydrologic results and conclusions relating to the hydrogeological and environmental impacts of the coal mining in the Jharia coalfield. 19 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Influence of high-energy impact on the physical and technical characteristics of coal fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mal'tsev, L. I.; Belogurova, T. P.; Kravchenko, I. V.

    2017-08-01

    Currently, in the world's large-scale coal-fired power industry, the combustion of pulverized coal is the most widely spread technology of combusting the coals. In recent years, the micropulverization technology for preparation and combustion of the coal has been developed in this field. As applied to the small-scale power industry, the method of combusting the coal in the form of a coal-water slurry has been explored for years. Fine coal powders are produced and used in the pulverized-coal gasification. Therefore, the coal preparation methods that involve high-dispersion disintegration of coals attract the greatest interest. The article deals with the problems of high-energy impact on the coal during the preparation of pulverized-coal fuels and coal-water slurries, in particular, during the milling of the coal in ball drum mills and the subsequent regrinding in disintegrators or the cavitation treatment of the coal-water slurries. The investigations were conducted using samples of anthracite and lignite from Belovskii open-pit mine (Kuznetsk Basin). It is shown that both the disintegration and the cavitation treatment are efficient methods for controlling the fuel characteristics. Both methods allow increasing the degree of dispersion of the coal. The content of the small-sized particles reground by cavitation considerably exceeds the similar figure obtained using the disintegrator. The specific surface area of the coal is increased by both cavitation and disintegration with the cavitation treatment producing a considerably greater effect. Being subjected to the cavitation treatment, most coal particles assume the form of a split characterized by the thermodynamically nonequilibrium state. Under external action, in particular, of temperature, the morphological structure of such pulverized materials changes faster and, consequently, the combustion of the treated coal should occur more efficiently. The obtained results are explained from the physical point of view.

  7. Removal of HCl, NH3, Organic Sulphur and Tar Component from High Temperature Coal Gas%高温煤气中NH3、有机硫、HCl及焦油蒸气的同时脱除

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    豆斌林; 鲁军; 申文琴; 沙兴中; 高晋生

    2001-01-01

    The experiments were designed to remove HCl, NH3, organic sulphur and coal tar component from high temperature coal gas, first separately and individually and then in combination and simultaneously by using a fixed-bed reactor. 1-methylnaphthalene was used as a tar model compound, and CS2 as organic sulphur model compound. The tests show that Ni-3 catalyst is an effective catalyst for NH3 and 1-methylnaphthalene decomposition, Ni-3 catalyst sulphurized is also effective for CS2 conversion, and the self-prepared ECl sorbent displays the highest adsorption capacity for HCl vapor. The simultaneous removal of HCl, NH3, organic sulphur and tar component was studied at the reaction temperature range from 300°C to 550°C. The maximum removal efficiencies are 100%, 100%, 79%, 88% for HCl, 1-methylnaphthalene, NH3, and CS2 respectively.%在固定床反应器中对高温煤气中NH3、有机硫化物、HCl及焦油蒸气4种污染物进行了单独和同时脱除的研究,其中选择CS2和1-甲基萘分别作为高温煤气中有机硫化物和焦油蒸气的模型化合物。研究得出,高温煤气中氨催化分解和1-甲基萘催化裂解的最佳催化剂同为Ni-3催化剂,CS2转化的最佳催化剂为硫化态的Ni-3催化剂,最好的脱氯剂为ECl。在NH3、CS2、HCl及1-甲基萘4种污染物同时存在时,将上述脱除剂组合在一起进行同时脱除实验表明:ECl脱氯剂对HCl的转化率和Ni-3催化剂对1-甲基萘的转化率均为100%,氧化态的Ni-3催化剂对NH3的转化率和硫化态的Ni-3催化剂对CS2的转化率则随温度的升高而增加,在300~550°C之间,氨的最大转化率为79%,CS2的最大转化率为88%。

  8. 黏结剂改质处理提高炭阳极抗氧化性能研究进展%PROGRESS IN THE ENHANCEMENT OF OXIDATION RESISTANCE FOR CARBON ANODE BY MODIFICATION OF COAL-TAR PITCH BINDER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田钮; 惠大陆; 黄艳; 陈永军; 潘康; 许斌

    2012-01-01

    描述了铝电解过程中炭阳极的作用和消耗状况,分析了炭阳极选择性氧化产生的原因,提出了提高煤沥青黏结焦抗氧化性能对于降低铝电解过程中炭阳极过量消耗的意义,介绍了通过添加剂对黏结剂煤沥青进行改质处理来提高炭阳极抗氧化性能的研究现状.%Role and consumption of carbon anode in the aluminium electrolysis were reviewed. Reason for the selective oxidation of carbon anode was analyzed. Importance of reducing excessive consumption of carbon anode by the improvement of oxidation resistance of pitch-based binding coke was suggested. Researches on the enhancement of oxidation resistance for carbon anode by modification of coal-tar pitch binder with some additives were presented.

  9. The high-mass component (>m/z 10 000) of coal tar pitch by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometry and size-exclusion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millan, Marcos; Morgan, Trevor J; Behrouzi, Mahtab; Karaca, Fatma; Galmes, Carolina; Herod, Alan A; Kandiyoti, Rafael

    2005-01-01

    The size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) of acetone-soluble, pyridine-soluble and pyridine-insoluble fractions of a coal tar pitch indicates a bimodal distribution in each fraction. The proportion of high-mass material excluded from the SEC column porosity increases with solvent polarity. The polymer calibration of SEC shows the mass range of the small molecules to be from approximately 100 u to approximately 6000 u, with the mass range of the large excluded molecules above 200 000 u and up to several million u. In contrast, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) shows a similar low-mass range of ion abundances (< m/z 6000), but with a smaller range of high-mass ion abundances, from approximately m/z 10 000 to 100 000. The large molecules may have three-dimensional structures to allow molecules of relatively low mass to behave as if they are of large size in SEC. Laser desorption mass spectrometry of the acetone- and pyridine-soluble fractions produced molecular ions of polycyclic aromatics that can be related to the known compositions from gas chromatography (GC) mass spectrometry. The experimental conditions used to generate the bimodal distribution by MALDI-MS involve reducing the ion signal intensities to avoid overload of the detector and enable detection of the high-mass ions, by reducing the high-mass detector voltage (i.e. sensitivity) and increasing the laser power.

  10. Serum Level of Antibodies (IgG, IgM Against Benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide-DNA Adducts in Children Dermatologically Exposed to Coal Tar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Borský

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Crude coal tar (CCT contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP is metabolized into a highly reactive metabolite benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE that is able to bind to DNA and creates BPDE-DNA adducts. Adducted DNA becomes immunogenic and induces immune response by production of antibodies against BPDE-DNA adducts (Ab-BPDE-DNA. Circulating Ab-BPDE-DNA was proposed as potential biomarker of genotoxic exposure to BaP (PAHs. Goeckerman therapy (GT of psoriasis uses dermal application of CCT ointment (PAHs. In presented study (children with psoriasis treated by GT; n = 19 the therapy significantly increased the level of Ab-BPDE-DNA (EI = 0.29/0.19–0.34 vs. 0.31/0.25–0.40; median/lower–upper quartile; p < 0.01. The results support the idea of Ab-BPDE-DNA level as a possible tentative indicator of exposure, effects and susceptibility of the organism to the exposure of BaP (PAHs.

  11. Identification and quantification of six-ring C₂₆H₁₆ cata-condensed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a complex mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from coal tar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oña-Ruales, Jorge O; Sharma, Arun K; Wise, Stephen A

    2015-12-01

    We applied a combination of normal-phase liquid chromatography (NPLC) with ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for the fractionation, identification, and quantification of six ring C26H16 cata-condensed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs, in the Standard Reference Material 1597a, Complex Mixture of PAHs from Coal Tar. For the characterization analysis, we calculated the GC retention indices of 17 C26H16 PAH authentic reference standards using the Rxi-PAH and DB-5 GC columns. Then, we used NPLC with ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy to isolate the fractions containing the C26H16 PAHs, and subsequently, we used GC/MS to establish the identity and quantity of the C26H16 PAHs using authentic reference standards. Following this procedure, 12 C26H16 cata-condensed PAHs benzo[c]pentaphene, dibenzo[f,k]tetraphene, benzo[h]pentaphene, dibenzo[a,l]tetracene, dibenzo[c,k]tetraphene, naphtho[2,3-c]tetraphene, dibenzo[a,c]tetracene, benzo[b]picene, dibenzo[a,j]tetracene, naphtho[2,1-a]tetracene, dibenzo[c,p]chrysene, and dibenzo[a,f]tetraphene were identified and quantified for the first time, and benzo[c]picene was quantified for the first time in an environmental combustion sample.

  12. The Problems of High Temperature Coal Tar Hydrogenation Operation%关于高温煤焦油加氢操作存在的问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛家立; 郭鲁军; 魏迎春

    2012-01-01

    Mainly described the proces stechnological transformation of high temperature coal tarhydrogenation device, the adjustment of process operation, through the actual operation practice, obtained the relatively safe and stable operation results.%着重叙述了高温煤焦油加氢装置工艺技改、工艺操作的调整,通过系统的实际运行实践,获得了较相对安全平稳的运行成果。

  13. Thermal Cracking of Tars in a Continuously Fed Reactor with Steam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    coal and biomass ) Oxygenated compounds (phenols and acids) TAR , oil, Naptha Pyrolysis gases (CO, H2, CH4, H2O, etc.) CHAR (carbon and inorganics...Fluidized Bed using biomass 8 Tars  Mixture of organic components present in gasification product gas with high molecular weight hydrocarbons [MW...Disable sulfur removal systems FoulingPlugging [Ref. 3: Biomass Gasification – Tar and Particles in Product Gases Sampling and Analysis”, European

  14. Comprehensive database of Manufactured Gas Plant tars. Part B. Aliphatic and aromatic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallacher, Christopher; Thomas, Russell; Lord, Richard; Kalin, Robert M; Taylor, Chris

    2017-08-15

    Coal tars are a mixture of organic and inorganic compounds that were produced as a by-product from the manufactured gas and coke making industries. The composition of the tar produced varies depending on many factors; these include the temperature of production and the type of retort used. As different production processes produce different tars, a comprehensive database of the compounds present within coal tars from different production processes is a valuable resource. Such a database would help to understand how their chemical properties differ and what hazards the compounds present within these tars might pose. This study focuses on the aliphatic and aromatic compounds present in a database of 16 different tars from five different production processes. Samples of coal tar were extracted using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and derivatised post-extraction using N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) with 1% trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS). The derivatised samples were analysed using two-dimensional gas chromatography combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC/TOFMS). A total of 198 individual aliphatic and 951 individual aromatic compounds were detected within 16 tar samples produced by five different production processes. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content of coal tars varies greatly depending on the production process used to obtain the tars and this is clearly demonstrated within the results. The aliphatic composition of the tars provided an important piece of analytical information that would have otherwise been missed with the detection of petrogenic compounds such as alkyl cyclohexanes. The aromatic compositions of the tar samples varied greatly between the different production processes investigated and useful analytical information was obtained about the individual production process groups. Alkyl cyclohexanes were detected in all samples from sites known to operate Carbureted Water Gas plants and not detected in

  15. Combined basal cell carcinoma and Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the scrotum in a patient with occupational exposure to coal tar and dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izikson, L.; Vanderpool, J.; Brodsky, G.; Mihm, M.C.; Zembowicz, A. [Harvard University, Boston, MA (US). Massachusetts General Hospital

    2004-09-01

    The patient was a 77-year-old male former smoker, with history of several basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) in sun-protected areas around the waistline, who presented with another small ulceration on the anterior right upper scrotum near the base of the penis. BCC was suspected clinically and the lesion was treated with cryosurgery. The tumor recurred, became raised, and began to bleed. An excisional biopsy was performed. It showed nodular BCC surrounded by a cellular proliferation of round histiocytic cells with convoluted, lobulated and reniform nuclei and abundant cytoplasm . The patient had no history of exposure to ionizing radiation, chemotherapy, immunosuppressive medications, prior lymphoma or other malignancy. However, he spent 4 years on a ship loading coal into the furnace of a steam engine, during which he slept in adjacent quarters that were covered with coal dust. Additionally, he had a several-year history of occupational skin exposure to machine oil, oil refinery waste, sulfur waste, hydraulic fluid, and asbestos. He also reported a history of nude sunbathing. The scrotal lesion was re-excised and the patient remains disease-free more than 1 year after the diagnosis.

  16. Numerical test and evaluating method of impact trend of rock-coal system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Jin-quan; CHENG Jia-guo; QU Hua; DONG Jian-jun

    2008-01-01

    The impact trend of rock-coal system was studied by the method of accumulat-ing and releasing of deformation energy and interaction of rock-coal system. The system model of roof-coal-floor was established. Based on the RFPA software, rock fracture process analysis system, the numerical test of deformation, fracture and energy transmis-sion of nonlinear and nonhomogeneous rock-coal system, and the numerical test and evaluating method of impact trend of rock-coal system were achieved. When the same coal seam was in different roof and floor conditions, the fracture process of rock-coal sys-tem can be classified as gradual, sudden and delayed fracture three kinds, and their im-pact trend can be classified as void, intense and medium correspondingly. The rock-coal system's impact trend is evaluated by the system impact index μ and burst expanding forms. The criteria μ are μ<1.0, 1.0≤μ<1.5 and μ≥1.5 when the impact trend is void, in-tense or medium, which are tested and verified by the No.2 and No.4 coal seams in Sun-cun mine.

  17. Thermolysis of phenethyl phenyl ether: A model of ether linkages in low rank coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britt, P.F.; Buchanan, A.C. III; Malcolm, E.A.

    1994-09-01

    Currently, an area of interest and frustration for coal chemists has been the direct liquefaction of low rank coal. Although low rank coals are more reactive than bituminous coals, they are more difficult to liquefy and offer lower liquefaction yields under conditions optimized for bituminous coals. Solomon, Serio, and co-workers have shown that: in the pyrolysis and liquefaction of low rank coals, a low temperature cross-linking reaction associated with oxygen functional groups occurs before tar evolution. A variety of pretreatments (demineralization, alkylation, and ion-exchange) have been shown to reduce these retrogressive reactions and increase tar yields, but the actual chemical reactions responsible for these processes have not been defined. In order to gain insight into the thermochemical reactions leading to cross-linking in low rank coal, we have undertaken a study of the pyrolysis of oxygen containing coal model compounds. Solid state NMR studies suggest that the alkyl aryl ether linkage may be present in modest amounts in low rank coal. Therefore, in this paper, we will investigate the thermolysis of phenethyl phenyl ether (PPE) as a model of 0-aryl ether linkages found in low rank coal, lignites, and lignin, an evolutionary precursor of coal. Our results have uncovered a new reaction channel that can account for 25% of the products formed. The impact of reaction conditions, including restricted mass transport, on this new reaction pathway and the role of oxygen functional groups in cross-linking reactions will be investigated.

  18. Semi-Coke and Needle Coke Production with 3-Chloronitrobenzene Modified Coal Tar Pitch%对3-CNB改性煤沥青制备半焦和针状焦性质研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴韵杰; 苏蕾; 曹青; 董亚威; 靳利娥

    2015-01-01

    Coal tar pitch (CTP) is often modified to enhance its potential value. In this study, CTP was modified with 3-chloronitrobenzene (3-CNB), andp-methyl benzenesulfonic was used as the catalyst. The carbonization yield increases and the optical texture of the products show a long-range fibrous structure after modification. Viscosity, soft point, coking value, toluene insoluble (TI) and quinoline insolubles (QIs) originated from coking process were measured. The properties of the intermediate products (semi-coke and needle coke) were analyzed by TG, FT-IR,1H-NMR and XRD. The results reveal that the viscosity andβ-resin content of the modified CTP (MCTP) are increased, and TI, QI and degree of polymerization are increased simultaneously with the increase of 3-CNB.Iar andA880/A1600results from IR studies show that both aromaticity and polymerization of MCTP increase. Moreover,1H-NMR results show that the number ofβ proton andγ proton decreases and the number ofHarandHα increases, which confirms that the aromatic index and aromatic hydrogen are increased. XRD spectra indicate that the interplanar crystal spacing became narrower and the stack height is increased when comparing with those of CTP. These results indirectly confirm that the order of the needle coke is increased. The existence of nitro-group can reduce the density of electronic cloud of metaposition chloride. This property is beneficial for enhancing reaction with compounds containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon.%为提升煤沥青(coal tar pitch-CTP)的潜在价值,以3-氯硝基苯(3-chloronitrobenzene,3-CNB)为改性剂,对甲基苯磺酸为催化剂,对其进行了成功改性。利用偏光显微镜、TG、FT-IR、1H-NMR和XRD对中间产物半焦和针状焦性质进行了分析。偏光显微组织分析表明,改性后煤沥青(modified CTP,MCTP)的碳化产率增加,中间相光学组织呈典型的长程纤维结构;其黏度、β树脂含量、TI和QIs均随3-CNB量的增加而增加

  19. National coal utilization assessment. An integrated assessment of increased coal use in the Midwest: impacts and constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoover, L. John

    1977-10-01

    This study was performed as a part of the Argonne National Laboratory Regional Studies program, which is sponsored by the Department of Energy. The purpose is to assess the impacts and consequences associated with alternative energy options on a regional basis, and to identify and analyze alternative mitigation and solution strategies for increasing the acceptability of these options. The National Coal Utilization Assessment is being conducted as a part of the Regional Studies Program. This particular study is focusing on impacts and constraints on increased coal utilization. In addition, a major focal point for the study is the identification and analysis of alternative solution strategies applicable to these constraints and problems.

  20. Determination of high-molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in high performance liquid chromatography fractions of coal tar standard reference material 1597a via solid-phase nanoextraction and laser-excited time-resolved Shpol'skii spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Walter B.; Alfarhani, Bassam; Moore, Anthony F. T.; Bisson, Cristina; Wise, Stephen A.; Campiglia, Andres D.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an alternative approach for the analysis of high molecular weight – polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HMW-PAHs) with molecular mass 302 Da in complex environmental samples. This is not a trivial task due to the large number of molecular mass 302 Da isomers with very similar chromatographic elution times and similar, possibly even virtually identical, mass fragmentation patterns. The method presented here is based on 4.2 K laser-excited time-resolved Shpol'skii spectroscopy, a high resolution spectroscopic technique with the appropriate selectivity for the unambiguous determination of PAHs with the same molecular mass. The potential of this approach is demonstrated here with the analysis of a coal tar standard reference material (SRM) 1597a. Liquid chromatography fractions were submitted to the spectroscopic analysis of five targeted isomers, namely dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, dibenzo[a,e]pyrene, dibenzo[a,i]pyrene, naphtho[2,3-a]pyrene and dibenzo[a,h]pyrene. Prior to analyte determination, the liquid chromatographic fractions were pre-concentrated with gold nanoparticles. Complete analysis was possible with microliters of chromatographic fractions and organic solvents. The limits of detection varied from 0.05 (dibenzo[a,l]pyrene) to 0.24 μg L−1 (dibenzo[a,e]pyrene). The excellent analytical figures of merit associated to its non-destructive nature, which provides ample opportunity for further analysis with other instrumental methods, makes this approach an attractive alternative for the determination of PAH isomers in complex environmental samples. PMID:26653471

  1. Identification and quantification of seven fused aromatic rings C26H14 peri-condensed benzenoid polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a complex mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from coal tar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oña-Ruales, Jorge O; Ruiz-Morales, Yosadara; Wise, Stephen A

    2016-04-15

    A methodology for the characterization of groups of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using a combination of normal phase liquid chromatography with ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (NPLC/UV-vis) and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used for the identification and quantification of seven fused aromatic rings C26H14 peri-condensed benzenoid polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs, in standard reference material (SRM) 1597a, complex mixture of PAHs from coal tar. The NPLC/UV-vis isolated the fractions based on the number of aromatic carbons and the GC/MS allowed the identification and quantification of five of the nine C26H14 PAH isomers; naphtho[1,2,3,4-ghi]perylene, dibenzo[b,ghi]perylene, dibenzo[b,pqr]perylene, naphtho[8,1,2-bcd]perylene, and dibenzo[cd,lm]perylene using a retention time comparison with authentic reference standards. For the other four benzenoid isomers with no available reference standards the following two approaches were used. First, the annellation theory was used to achieve the potential identification of benzo[qr]naphtho[3,2,1,8-defg]chrysene, and second, the elution distribution in the GC fractions was used to support the potential identification of benzo[qr]naphtho[3,2,1,8-defg]chrysene and to reach the tentative identifications of dibenzo[a,ghi]perylene, naphtho[7,8,1,2,3-pqrst]pentaphene, and anthra[2,1,9,8-opqra]naphthacene. It is the first time that naphtho[1,2,3,4-ghi]perylene, dibenzo[b,ghi]perylene, dibenzo[b,pqr]perylene, naphtho[8,1,2-bcd]perylene, and dibenzo[cd,lm]perylene are quantified, and the first time that benzo[qr]naphtho[3,2,1,8-defg]chrysene is potentially identified, in any sample, in any context.

  2. Effect of refined coal tar pitch by solvent dipping on the structure and electrochemical properties of needle coke%溶剂浸沥精制煤沥青对针状焦的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解小玲; 曹青; 郭良辰; 钟存贵

    2014-01-01

    Coal tar pitch was dipped by heptanes/carbon tetrachloride to extract heteroatom functional groups, and needle coke was prepared by carbonization and calcination. Infrared spectroscopy, polarized light microscopy, XRD and electrochemical station were used to characterize and analyze the microstructure and performance of samples. The effects of heteroatom groups on orientation and microcrystalline structure of mesophase were studied. Results show that heteroatom groups of S and N are effectively removed by pretreatment with n-heptanes/carbon tetrachloride. The orientation degree and electrochemical properties of fibrous needle coke are effectively improved.%以煤沥青为原料,通过庚烷/四氯化碳浸沥抽滤脱除杂原子官能团,经炭化和煅烧制备针状焦。分别用红外光谱、偏光显微镜、XRD、电化学工作站来分析抽提后的沥青,观察半焦显微结构,分析半焦及针状焦的纤维结构和电化学性能,对不同溶剂的提取效果及杂原子官能团对中间相取向和微晶结构的影响进行分析。实验结果表明:经四氯化碳和庚烷混合溶剂预处理后的煤沥清可有效去除S、N,通过炭化、煅烧可得到高取向度的纤维状半焦和针状焦,而且电化学性能也得到了有效提高。

  3. Association behavior of coal tar pitch soluble components in toluene%煤沥青可溶组分在甲苯中缔合行为的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡建宏; 程相林; 李国宁; 武建军; 汲伟; 王永刚; 王柏川

    2014-01-01

    采用流体力学参数法研究了煤沥青可溶组分 TS 在甲苯中的缔合行为,确定了 TS 在甲苯中不同温度下的临界缔合浓度,并计算出缔合过程中成核阶段和成团阶段的缔合动力学参数。结果表明,293~353 K,TS 溶液黏度随浓度的增加而增加,在13~26 g/ L 的浓度时出现了拐点,且拐点随温度升高而沿坐标轴方向右移。成核阶段和成团阶段均为一级缔合反应,两阶段活化能分别为17.25和12.41 kJ/ mol。%The association behavior of coal tar pitch soluble components TS in toluene was studied byhydromechanics method. The critical association concentrations of TS in toluene were obtained by viscosity curves at different temperatures. The kinetics parameters of nucleation and micelle stage in association process were calculated. The results show that the viscosities of TS solution increase with increasing concentrations at 293 a~353 K, and the turning-points appear between 13 and 26 g/L. The turning-points shifted backward along thexis with increasing temperatures. Both the nucleation and micelle stage are first-order associated reaction. The activation energies for the two stages are . and . kJ/mol respectively.

  4. Determination of high-molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in high performance liquid chromatography fractions of coal tar standard reference material 1597a via solid-phase nanoextraction and laser-excited time-resolved Shpol'skii spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Walter B; Alfarhani, Bassam; Moore, Anthony F T; Bisson, Cristina; Wise, Stephen A; Campiglia, Andres D

    2016-02-01

    This article presents an alternative approach for the analysis of high molecular weight - polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HMW-PAHs) with molecular mass 302 Da in complex environmental samples. This is not a trivial task due to the large number of molecular mass 302 Da isomers with very similar chromatographic elution times and similar, possibly even virtually identical, mass fragmentation patterns. The method presented here is based on 4.2K laser-excited time-resolved Shpol'skii spectroscopy, a high resolution spectroscopic technique with the appropriate selectivity for the unambiguous determination of PAHs with the same molecular mass. The potential of this approach is demonstrated here with the analysis of a coal tar standard reference material (SRM) 1597a. Liquid chromatography fractions were submitted to the spectroscopic analysis of five targeted isomers, namely dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, dibenzo[a,e]pyrene, dibenzo[a,i]pyrene, naphtho[2,3-a]pyrene and dibenzo[a,h]pyrene. Prior to analyte determination, the liquid chromatographic fractions were pre-concentrated with gold nanoparticles. Complete analysis was possible with microliters of chromatographic fractions and organic solvents. The limits of detection varied from 0.05 (dibenzo[a,l]pyrene) to 0.24 µg L(-1) (dibenzo[a,e]pyrene). The excellent analytical figures of merit associated to its non-destructive nature, which provides ample opportunity for further analysis with other instrumental methods, makes this approach an attractive alternative for the determination of PAH isomers in complex environmental samples.

  5. Mercury in coal and the impact of coal quality on mercury emissions from combustion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolker, A.; Senior, C.L.; Quick, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    The proportion of Hg in coal feedstock that is emitted by stack gases of utility power stations is a complex function of coal chemistry and properties, combustion conditions, and the positioning and type of air pollution control devices employed. Mercury in bituminous coal is found primarily within Fe-sulfides, whereas lower rank coal tends to have a greater proportion of organic-bound Hg. Preparation of bituminous coal to reduce S generally reduces input Hg relative to in-ground concentrations, but the amount of this reduction varies according to the fraction of Hg in sulfides and the efficiency of sulfide removal. The mode of occurrence of Hg in coal does not directly affect the speciation of Hg in the combustion flue gas. However, other constituents in the coal, notably Cl and S, and the combustion characteristics of the coal, influence the species of Hg that are formed in the flue gas and enter air pollution control devices. The formation of gaseous oxidized Hg or particulate-bound Hg occurs post-combustion; these forms of Hg can be in part captured in the air pollution control devices that exist on coal-fired boilers, without modification. For a given coal type, the capture efficiency of Hg by pollution control systems varies according to type of device and the conditions of its deployment. For bituminous coal, on average, more than 60% of Hg in flue gas is captured by fabric filter (FF) and flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Key variables affecting performance for Hg control include Cl and S content of the coal, the positioning (hot side vs. cold side) of the system, and the amount of unburned C in coal ash. Knowledge of coal quality parameters and their effect on the performance of air pollution control devices allows optimization of Hg capture co-benefit. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Removing of quinoline insoluble in modified coal tar pitch by single solvent-extraction hot filtration%单溶剂萃取热过滤法脱除改质煤沥青的喹啉不溶物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐妍; 高丽娟; 吴红运; 赵雪飞

    2014-01-01

    以鞍钢改质沥青为原料,采用单溶剂萃取法过滤脱除原料沥青中的喹啉不溶物(QI),再用常压蒸馏去除溶剂,得到QI含量小于0.1%的净化沥青。考察了料液比、恒温时间和恒温温度对改质煤沥青QI净化效果的影响。结果表明,净化最佳工艺参数为料液比1∶1.5~1∶3,恒温时间1 h,恒温温度140℃。在最佳工艺条件下得到的净化沥青软化点为62℃,QI含量为0,TI含量为19.1%,结焦值为47.77%。采用红外光谱对净化沥青进行表征,结果表明,原料沥青经过萃取过滤后芳香烃类结构减少,脂肪烃类结构增加。该净化沥青QI较低,结焦残炭率较高,可作为制备浸渍剂沥青、煤基炭纤维等炭素材料的优质原料。%Quinoline insolubles (QI) in raw coal pitch was filtrated and removed by using the single solvent-extraction method in this paper, and then the solvent was removed by atmospheric distillation to obtain refined coal pitch with low QI content (<0.1%). The effects of the ratio of pitch to solvent, thermostatic time and thermostatic temperature on the removal rate of QI in refined coal pitch were investigated. The results showed that the optimum purification process parameters were: the range of solid and solvent of 1∶1.5~1∶3, the constant temperature time of 1 h, and the thermostatic temperature of 140℃. The softening point, QI content, TI con-tent and coking value of refined asphalt under the condition of optimum process were 62℃, 0, 19.1%and 47.77%, respectively. The purification asphalt was characterized by infrared spectrum, which showed that the content of aromatic hydrocarbons decreased and that of fat hydrocarbons increased after extraction filter. This purified tar exhibits low QI and high coking value, which could be used as the quality raw materials for the impregnant pitch and coal based carbon fibers.

  7. Impacts of seaborne trade on coal importing countries: Atlantic market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-15

    In recent years, there has been a convergence of international trade with traditional domestic markets. With imports increasing in many coal-producing regions, the influence of trade on domestic markets has been twofold: firstly, imported coal displaces domestic production, and in doing so, and secondly international price trends may drive prices of what remains of the indigenous market for coal.

  8. The Impact of the Clean Air Acts on Coal Mining Employment in Kentucky

    OpenAIRE

    Hoag, John H.; Reed, J. David

    2002-01-01

    This article provides empirical evidence that environmental legislation affecting coal mining employment passed in 1977 had different effects on Western Kentucky, where the coal is of higher sulfur content, compared to Eastern Kentucky, where coals are of lower sulfur content, while the 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act had no statistically significant impact in either region. The 1977 law generated a statistically significant reduction in West Kentucky employment. In addition, it appears ...

  9. Impacts of TMDLs on coal-fired power plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-04-30

    The Clean Water Act (CWA) includes as one of its goals restoration and maintenance of the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Nation's waters. The CWA established various programs to accomplish that goal. Among the programs is a requirement for states to establish water quality standards that will allow protection of the designated uses assigned to each water body. Once those standards are set, state agencies must sample the water bodies to determine if water quality requirements are being met. For those water bodies that are not achieving the desired water quality, the state agencies are expected to develop total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) that outline the maximum amount of each pollutant that can be discharged to the water body and still maintain acceptable water quality. The total load is then allocated to the existing point and nonpoint sources, with some allocation held in reserve as a margin of safety. Many states have already developed and implemented TMDLs for individual water bodies or regional areas. New and revised TMDLs are anticipated, however, as federal and state regulators continue their examination of water quality across the United States and the need for new or revised standards. This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements its overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. One of the program missions of the DOE's NETL is to develop innovative environmental control technologies that will enable full use of the Nation's vast coal reserves, while at the same time allowing the current fleet of coal-fired power plants to comply with existing and emerging environmental regulations. Some of the parameters for which TMDLs are being developed are components in discharges

  10. 添加稻壳木质素/Si02复合物对煤沥青成焦行为的影响%Effect of lignin/silica hybrid addition on the coking behavior of coal-tar pitch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄蕴青; 林起浪; 马志超; 唐海燕

    2012-01-01

    The thermal behavior of coal-tar pitch with different lignin/silica hybrid (LSH) contents was studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The optical texture and micro-crystal structure of resultant cokes from carbonization of the coal-tar pitch with different LSH contents were characterized by reflected polarized light microscopy and X-ray diffraction(XRD) , respectively. In addition, the microstructure of resultant cokes was investigated using scanning elec- tron microscopy( SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy(EDS). The results show that the thermal stability of coal- tar pitch increases with the addition of LSH. Moreover, the addition of LSH markedly changes the optical texture and microstructure of resultant cokes.%采用TGA研究添加稻壳木质素/SiO2复合物(LSH)前后煤沥青的热行为;采用偏光显微镜和XRD研究稻壳木质素/SiO2复合物对煤沥青焦化产物的光学组织和微晶结构的影响;采用SEM和EDS研究稻壳木质素/SiO:复合物对煤沥青焦化产物结构的影响。研究表明:稻壳木质素/SiO2复合物的添加不仅提高煤沥青的耐热性能,而且显著影响煤沥青焦化产物的光学组织和结构。

  11. INFLUENCE OF ADDITIVE ON THE MODIFICATION ACTION OF COAL-TAR PITCH AND ON THE PROPERTIES OF ITS PITCH COKE%添加剂对煤沥青的改性作用及沥青焦性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪波; 张红波; 谢学华; 陈刚

    2001-01-01

    通过考察添加剂加入量与煤沥青的甲苯不溶物含量、软化点、析焦量以及所得沥青焦的抗氧化性和石墨化活性的关系,探讨了添加剂对煤沥青的改性作用及其对沥青焦性能的影响。实验结果表明:在煤沥青中加入适当的添加剂可提高煤沥青的甲苯不溶物含量和析焦量,加入添加剂的煤沥青炭化后所得沥青焦的抗氧化性和石墨化活性均得到显著提高,但氧化残余物含量有所上升。该沥青焦经2300℃高温石墨化处理后仍表现出优良的抗氧化性。%The effects of additives with various content on the toluene insoluble, softening point and the carbon yield of the coal-tar pitch, the oxidation resistance and the graphitization activity of its pitch coke were investigated. The influence of additives on the modification action of coal-tar pitch and the properties of its pitch coke were discussed. Results showed when a certain amount of additive was added to coal-tar pitch, its toluene insoluble and carbon yield increased, the oxidation resistance and the graphitization activity of its pitch coke can be remarkablely improved. Such coke has a relatively high ash content. After being graphitized at 2300℃, its pitch coke demonstrated good oxidation resistance as well.

  12. Selenium transformation in coal mine spoils: Its environmental impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harness, J.; Atalay, A.; Koll, K.J.; Zhang, H.; Maggon, D.

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this program was to conduct an environmental impact assessment study for selenium from coal mine spoils. The use of in-situ lysimetry to predict selenium speciation, transformation, and mobility under natural conditions was evaluated. The scope of the study was to construct and test field-scale lysimeter and laboratory mini-column to assess mobility and speciation of selenium in coal mine overburden and soil systems; to conduct soil and groundwater sampling throughout the state of Oklahoma for an overall environmental impact assessment of selenium; and to conduct an in-depth literature review on the solubility, speciation, mobility, and toxicity of selenium from various sources. Groundwater and surface soil samples were also collected from each county in Oklahoma. Data collected from the lysimeter study indicated that selenium in the overburden of the abandoned mine site was mainly found in the selenite form. The amount of selenite found was too low and immobile to be of concern to the environment. The spoil had equilibrated long enough (over 50 years) that most of the soluble forms of selenium have already been lost. Examination of the overburden indicated the presence of pyrite crystals that precipitated over time. The laboratory mini-column study indicated that selenite is quite immobile and remained on the overburden material even after leaching with dilute acid. Data from groundwater samples indicated that based on the current permissible level for selenium in groundwater (0.01 mg Se/L), Oklahoma groundwater is widely contaminated with the element. However, according to the new regulation (0.05 mg Se/L), which is to be promulgated in 1992, only 9 of the 77 counties in the state exceed the limit.

  13. Technological and Social Impact Assessment of Resource Extraction: The Case of Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Girard

    1975-01-01

    This paper is a preliminary report of work in progress on the assessment of the social impact of coal extraction. The research is directed at examining the implications for the human community of the underground and surface mining methods of coal extraction. (BT)

  14. Industrial role of coal chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierk, E.A.; Stadelhofer, J.W.

    1983-02-07

    The paper is concerned with the production of coal-based chemicals either from the by-products of coal carbonization, or from synthesis gas manufactured from coal. The potential of coal tar as a raw material for chemicals synthesis forms the basis of the paper. Koppers-Totzek and Lurgi gasification processes and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis are considered, and, finally, coal liquefaction processes are briefly mentioned.

  15. LOCAL IMPACTS OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; BOWERMAN, B.; ADAMS, J.; LIPFERT, D.D.; MORRIS, S.M.; BANDO, A.; ET AL.

    2004-03-30

    A thorough quantitative understanding of the processes of mercury emissions, deposition, and translocation through the food chain is currently not available. Complex atmospheric chemistry and dispersion models are required to predict concentration and deposition contributions, and aquatic process models are required to predict effects on fish. There are uncertainties in all of these predictions. Therefore, the most reliable method of understanding impacts of coal-fired power plants on Hg deposition is from empirical data. A review of the literature on mercury deposition around sources including coal-fired power plants found studies covering local mercury concentrations in soil, vegetation, and animals (fish and cows (Lopez et al. 2003)). There is strong evidence of enhanced local deposition within 3 km of the chlor-alkali plants, with elevated soil concentrations and estimated deposition rates of 10 times background. For coal-fired power plants, the data show that atmospheric deposition of Hg may be slightly enhanced. On the scale of a few km, modeling suggests that wet deposition may be increased by a factor of two or three over background. The measured data suggest lower increases of 15% or less. The effects of coal-fired plants seem to be less than 10% of total deposition on a national scale, based on emissions and global modeling. The following summarizes our findings from published reports on the impacts of local deposition. In terms of excesses over background the following increments have been observed within a few km of the plant: (1) local soil concentration Hg increments of 30%-60%, (2) sediment increments of 18-30%, (3) wet deposition increments of 11-12%, and (4) fish Hg increments of about 5-6%, based on an empirical finding that fish concentrations are proportional to the square root of deposition. Important uncertainties include possible reductions of RGM to Hg(0) in power plant plumes and the role of water chemistry in the relationship between Hg

  16. Health impacts of domestic coal use in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelman, R.B.; Belkin, H.E.; Zheng, B.

    1999-01-01

    Domestic coal combustion has had profound adverse effects on the health of millions of people worldwide. In China alone several hundred million people commonly burn raw coal in unvented stoves that permeate their homes with high levels of toxic metals and organic compounds. At least 3,000 people in Guizhou Province in southwest China are suffering from severe arsenic poisoning. The primary source of the arsenic appears to be consumption of chili peppers dried over fires fueled with high-arsenic coal. Coal samples in the region were found to contain up to 35,000 ppm arsenic. Chili peppers dried over high-arsenic coal fires adsorb 500 ppm arsenic on average. More than 10 million people in Guizhou Province and surrounding areas suffer from dental and skeletal fluorosis. The excess fluorine is caused by eating corn dried over burning briquettes made from high-fluorine coals and high-fluorine clay binders. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons formed during coal combustion are believed to cause or contribute to the high incidence of esophageal and lung cancers in parts of China. Domestic coal combustion also has caused selenium poisoning and possibly mercury poisoning. Better knowledge of coal quality parameters may help to reduce some of these health problems. For example, information on concentrations and distributions of potentially toxic elements in coal may help delineate areas of a coal deposit to be avoided. Information on the modes of occurrence of these elements and the textural relations of the minerals and macerals in coal may help predict the behavior of the potentially toxic components during coal combustion.

  17. Coal use in the People`s Republic of China. Volume 1: Environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatti, N.; Tompkins, M.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Decision and Information Sciences Div.; Carlson, J.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Decision and Information Sciences Div.]|[Illinois State Univ., Normal, IL (United States); Simbeck, D.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Decision and Information Sciences Div.]|[SFA Pacific, Inc., Mountain View, CA (United States)

    1994-11-01

    The People`s Republic of China (hereafter referred to as China) is the largest producer and consumer of coal in the world. Coal makes up 76% and 74% of China`s primary energy consumption and production, respectively. This heavy dependence on coal has come at a high price for China, accounting for a large share of its environmental problems. This report examines the dominance of coal in China`s energy balance, its impact on the environment, and the need for technical and financial assistance, specifically for two distinct aspects: the effect of coal use on the environment and the importance of coal to China`s economy. The results of the analysis are presented in two volumes. Volume 1 focuses on full fuel cycle coal emissions and the environmental effects of coal consumption. Volume 2 provides a detailed analysis by sector of China`s economy and examines the economic impact of constraints on coal use. 51 refs., 19 figs., 15 tabs.

  18. The impact of TTIP agreement on the European Union-United States coal trade potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olkuski Tadeusz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the paper is to assess the impact of currently negotiated TTIP agreement (Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership on the use of hard coal in the EU and the US. Hard coal is the most important fuel in global electricity generation. This also applies to the United States, a leading manufacturer and exporter of this energy source. The US coal is exported to the EU market. The article presents the estimated exports of hard coal from the US to the EU. Due to the fact that price has a major impact on the size of exports, the paper presents the estimated prices, including freight costs, of power coal for the analyzed scenarios. According to one scenario, the US and European prices will be equalized (including freight costs by 2020, while from 2025 on the comparative advantage and competitiveness of the US hard coal will decrease. Taking into account the fact that the export of coal from the United States is free from customs duties, the acceptance of TIPP should not affect the currently existing trade between the two continents and the amount of exported coal. Nevertheless, the question of hard coal economy cannot be separated from other sectors of the energy market, which can be significantly affected by the future agreement.

  19. Marine Tar Residues: a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnock, April M; Hagen, Scott C; Passeri, Davina L

    Marine tar residues originate from natural and anthropogenic oil releases into the ocean environment and are formed after liquid petroleum is transformed by weathering, sedimentation, and other processes. Tar balls, tar mats, and tar patties are common examples of marine tar residues and can range in size from millimeters in diameter (tar balls) to several meters in length and width (tar mats). These residues can remain in the ocean environment indefinitely, decomposing or becoming buried in the sea floor. However, in many cases, they are transported ashore via currents and waves where they pose a concern to coastal recreation activities, the seafood industry and may have negative effects on wildlife. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge on marine tar residue formation, transport, degradation, and distribution. Methods of detection and removal of marine tar residues and their possible ecological effects are discussed, in addition to topics of marine tar research that warrant further investigation. Emphasis is placed on benthic tar residues, with a focus on the remnants of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in particular, which are still affecting the northern Gulf of Mexico shores years after the leaking submarine well was capped.

  20. In situ stabilization/solidification pilot testing of coal tar contaminated sediment focusing on air quality testing program, Sydney, Nova Scotia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raphael, A. [AECOM, Calgary, AB (Canada); Hilchey, J. [AECOM, Sydney, NS (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This paper presented the results of a pilot-scale demonstration project conducted to test air quality contaminant emissions at a remediation project in Sydney, Nova Scotia. In situ sediment solidification/stabilization (S/S) was selected as a remedial solutions for sediments in an estuarine pond contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The aim of the air monitoring program was to determine the emission rates of sediment contaminants that became airborne during remediation activities and to monitor the off-site environmental impacts of the emissions. The pilot project included driving interlocking steel sheet pile (SSP) through the sediment into the underlying natural soils, removing overlying water, homogenizing the sediment, and mixing S/S reagents into the sediment over a period of 4 days at 2 different sites. Air sampling equipment was used to monitor volumetric flow rates, benzene, naphthalene and particulate matter concentrations. Continuous real-time monitoring was used at downwind fence line perimeters and by time-weighted ambient air sampling at 6 community stations near the sites. Results of the study showed that the site-specific benzene and naphthalene emission rates were significantly lower than emission rates calculated using theoretical models. No exceedances of established community air quality limits were observed. 8 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs.

  1. Comprehensive database of Manufactured Gas Plant tars. Part A. Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallacher, Christopher; Thomas, Russell; Lord, Richard; Kalin, Robert M; Taylor, Chris

    2017-08-15

    Coal tars are a mixture of organic and inorganic compounds that were by-products from the manufactured gas and coke making industries. Different manufacturing processes have resulted in the production of distinctly different tar compositions. This study presents a comprehensive database of compounds produced using two-dimensional gas chromatography combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC/TOFMS), analysing 16 tar samples produced by five distinct production processes. Samples of coal tar were extracted using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and derivatised post-extraction using N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) with 1% trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS). The derivatised samples were analysed using two-dimensional gas chromatography combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC/TOFMS). A total of 16 tar samples originating from five different production processes: Low Temperature Horizontal Retorts, Horizontal Retorts, Vertical Retorts, Carbureted Water Gas and Coke Ovens, were analysed. A total of 2369 unique compounds were detected with 948 aromatic compounds, 196 aliphatic compounds, 380 sulfur-containing compounds, 209 oxygen-containing compounds, 262 nitrogen-containing compounds and 15 mixed heterocycles. Derivatisation allowed the detection of 359 unique compounds, the majority in the form of hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, many of which would not have been detected without derivatisation. Of the 2369 unique compounds detected, 173 were found to be present within all samples. A unique comprehensive database of compounds detected within 16 tar samples from five different production processes was produced. The 173 compounds identified within every sample may be of particular importance from a regulatory standpoint. This initial study indicates that different production processes produce tars with different chemical signatures and it can be further expanded upon by in-depth analysis of the different compound

  2. The impact of liberalisation of the electricity market on the hard coal mining sector in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminski, Jacek [Mineral and Energy Economy Research Institute of Polish Academy of Sciences, Energy and Environmental Policy Division, Wybickiego 7, 31-261 Krakow (Poland)

    2009-03-15

    The liberalisation of the electricity market changed the conditions of operation not only for the power industry, but also for related sectors. One of the particularly sensitive industries in Poland is coal mining, which is the result of coal-based structure of electricity generation. As it is more difficult, in the liberalised market, to burden consumers with all the costs, electricity producers are eager to transfer the risk of operation to the suppliers. That increases uncertainty about the future of the hard coal industry. The aim of this paper was to quantitatively estimate the impact that liberalisation of the electricity markets may have on the coal mining sector in Poland. First of all, the possible areas of that impact were identified. Then the model, which involved detailed relations in the impact areas identified, was developed and employed to evaluate the performance of the mining sector. The comparison of scenarios of a monopolistic electricity sector with a liberalised one enabled an estimation of the scale of the impact on the mining sector to be made. The results showed that liberalisation causes decreased coal consumption and decreased operating profits in coal companies. However, some savings in electricity costs are possible for coal producers. (author)

  3. The impact of liberalisation of the electricity market on the hard coal mining sector in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacek Kaminski [Mineral and Energy Economy Research Institute of Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow (Poland). Energy and Environmental Policy Division

    2009-03-15

    The liberalisation of the electricity market changed the conditions of operation not only for the power industry but also for related sectors. One of the particularly sensitive industries in Poland is coal mining, which is the result of coal-based structure of electricity generation. As it is more difficult, in the liberalised market, to burden consumers with all the costs, electricity producers are eager to transfer the risk of operation to the suppliers. That increases uncertainty about the future of the hard coal industry. The aim of this paper was to quantitatively estimate the impact that liberalisation of the electricity markets may have on the coal mining sector in Poland. First of all, the possible areas of that impact were identified. Then the model, which involved detailed relations in the impact areas identified, was developed and employed to evaluate the performance of the mining sector. The comparison of scenarios of a monopolistic electricity sector with a liberalised one enabled an estimation of the scale of the impact on the mining sector to be made. The results showed that liberalisation causes decreased coal consumption and decreased operating profits in coal companies. However, some savings in electricity costs are possible for coal producers. 42 refs., 20 figs., 9 tabs., 1 app.

  4. Environmental impact of coal mining and coal seam gas production on surface water quality in the Sydney basin, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A; Strezov, V; Davies, P; Wright, I

    2017-08-01

    The extraction of coal and coal seam gas (CSG) will generate produced water that, if not adequately treated, will pollute surface and groundwater systems. In Australia, the discharge of produced water from coal mining and related activities is regulated by the state environment agency through a pollution licence. This licence sets the discharge limits for a range of analytes to protect the environment into which the produced water is discharged. This study reports on the impact of produced water from coal mine activities located within or discharging into high conservation environments, such as National Parks, in the outer region of Sydney, Australia. The water samples upstream and downstream from the discharge points from six mines were taken, and 110 parameters were tested. The results were assessed against a water quality index (WQI) which accounts for pH, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, total dissolved solids, total phosphorus, nitrate nitrogen and E .coli. The water quality assessment based on the trace metal contents against various national maximum admissible concentration (MAC) and their corresponding environmental impacts was also included in the study which also established a base value of water quality for further study. The study revealed that impacted water downstream of the mine discharge points contained higher metal content than the upstream reference locations. In many cases, the downstream water was above the Australia and New Zealand Environment Conservation Council and international water quality guidelines for freshwater stream. The major outliers to the guidelines were aluminium (Al), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn). The WQI of surface water at and downstream of the discharge point was lower when compared to upstream or reference conditions in the majority of cases. Toxicology indices of metals present in industrial discharges were used as an additional tool to assess water quality, and the newly

  5. Chromosomal Instability of Human Tracheal Epithelia Cells BEAS-2B Induced by Extract of Coal Tar Pitch Fume%煤焦沥青烟提取物致人支气管上皮细胞BEAS-2B染色体不稳定性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李智涛; 冯艳铭; 王威; 王丽霞; 赵勇; 祝寒松; 吴卫东; 吴逸明

    2011-01-01

    目的 建立煤焦沥青烟提取物诱导的人支气管上皮细胞BEAS-2B株的恶化模型;观察不同时期细胞的染色体不稳定性与细胞恶性转化之间的关系.方法用四唑蓝(MTT)法测定煤焦沥青烟提取物的细胞毒性,以煤焦沥青烟提取物诱导并观察BEAS-2B细胞传代转化过程中的形态学改变;软琼脂克隆形成实验检测细胞恶性转化能力,流式细胞术检测细胞增殖周期变化,核型分析观察细胞染色体不稳定性.结果 煤焦沥青烟提取物的半数致死浓度(LC50)为8.64 mg/L.以诱导剂量(2.0 mg/L)诱导细胞转化,经过30代传代培养,细胞形态发生恶性变化.第30代时,诱导组细胞即能在软琼脂上形成阳性克隆,细胞克隆形成率为21.50‰,明显高于正常对照组和溶剂对照组.流式细胞术检测诱导组G1期细胞比例明显减少,G2/M期细胞比例明显增加.煤焦沥青诱导组从第10代开始细胞二倍体核型的比例明显下降,非整倍体细胞的比例明显增加.随着传代次数增加,染色体不稳定性更明显.细胞克隆形成率和染色体变异的细胞百分比两者呈正相关.结论 煤焦沥青烟提取物可以在体外诱导BEAS-2B细胞产生染色体不稳定性并发生恶化.%Objective To establish a cell model of malignant transformation with human bronchial epithelial cells BEAS-2B induced by extract of coal tar pitch fume and to observe the relationship between chromosome instability and the cell malignant transformation in different cell generations. Methods MTT assay was used to determine the cytotoxicity of the extract of coal tar pitch fume. After induced by coal tar pitch fume extract at 2.0 mg/L, the morphological changes of BEAS-2B cells were observed in their passage and transformation. In every 10 generations the soft agar cell colony formation rate was used to detect the malignant transformation capability, and traditional methods were used to observe the chromosome karyotype

  6. Thrombocytopenia-absent radius (TAR) syndrome: a clinical genetic series of 14 further cases. impact of the associated 1q21.1 deletion on the genetic counselling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houeijeh, Ali; Andrieux, Joris; Saugier-Veber, Pascale; David, Albert; Goldenberg, Alice; Bonneau, Dominique; Fouassier, Marc; Journel, Hubert; Martinovic, Jelana; Escande, Fabienne; Devisme, Louise; Bisiaux, Sophie; Chaffiotte, Caroline; Baux, Mathilde; Kerckaert, Jean-Pierre; Holder-Espinasse, Muriel; Manouvrier-Hanu, Sylvie

    2011-01-01

    Thrombocytopenia-absent radius Syndrome (TAR) is a rare congenital malformation syndrome of complicated transmission. 1q21.1 deletion is necessary but not sufficient for its expression. We report the result of a French multicentric clinical study, and we emphasized on the role of the associated 1q21.1 deletion in the diagnosis and the genetic counselling of our patients. We gathered information on 14 patients presenting with TAR syndrome and referred for genetic counselling in six different university hospitals (8 foetuses, 1 child and 5 adults). Clinical or pathology details, as well as skeletal X-rays were analyzed. Genetic studies were performed by Array-CGH, and Quantitative Multiplex PCR. We demonstrated the very variable phenotypes of TAR syndrome. Female:male ratio was ∼2:1. All patients presented with bilateral radial aplasia/hypoplasia with preserved thumbs. Phocomelia and lower limb anomalies were present in 28% of the cases. We reported the first case of cystic hygroma on affected foetus. 1q21.1 deletions ranging from 330 to 1100 kb were identified in all affected patients. Most of them were inherited from one healthy parent (80%). The identification of a 1q21.1 deletion allowed confirmation of TAR syndrome diagnosis, particularly in foetuses and in atypical phenotypes. Additionally, it allowed accurate genetic counselling, especially when it occurred de novo. These findings allowed discussing the diagnostic criteria and management towards TAR syndrome.

  7. Environmental impact assessment of the incineration of municipal solid waste with auxiliary coal in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Yan; Xing, Wei; Lu, Wenjing

    2012-01-01

    The environmental impacts of waste incineration with auxiliary coal were investigated using the life-cycle-based software, EASEWASTE, based on the municipal solid waste (MSW) management system in Shuozhou City. In the current system, MSW is collected, transported, and incinerated with 250kg of coal......-separated and landfilled, the incineration of rest-waste presents better results on global warming, acidification, nutrient enrichment, and even ecotoxicity in soil. This process is considered a promising solution for MSW management in Shuozhou City. Weighted normalized environmental impacts were assessed based on Chinese...... per ton of waste. Based on observed environmental impacts of incineration, fossil CO2 and heavy metals were primary contributors to global warming and ecotoxicity in soil, respectively. Compared with incinerators using excess coal, incineration with adequate coal presents significant benefits...

  8. Impact of nongray multiphase radiation in pulverized coal combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Somesh; Wu, Bifen; Modest, Michael; Zhao, Xinyu

    2016-11-01

    Detailed modeling of radiation is important for accurate modeling of pulverized coal combustion. Because of high temperature and optical properties, radiative heat transfer from coal particles is often more dominant than convective heat transfer. In this work a multiphase photon Monte Carlo radiation solver is used to investigate and to quantify the effect of nongray radiation in a laboratory-scale pulverized coal flame. The nongray radiative properties of carrier phase (gas) is modeled using HITEMP database. Three major species - CO, CO2, and H2O - are treated as participating gases. Two optical models are used to evaluate radiative properties of coal particles: a formulation based on the large particle limit and a size-dependent correlation. Effect of scattering due to coal particle is also investigated using both isotropic scattering and anisotropic scattering using a Henyey-Greenstein function. Lastly, since the optical properties of ash is very different from that of coal, the effect of ash content on the radiative properties of coal particle is examined. This work used Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE), which is supported by National Science Foundation Grant Number ACI-1053575.

  9. The Economic Impact of Psychological Distress in the Australian Coal Mining Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Rod; Kelly, Brian; Considine, Robyn; Tynan, Ross; Searles, Andrew; Doran, Christopher M

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the economic impact of psychological distress among employees of the Australian Coal Mining Industry. Sample data were gathered from 1456 coal mining staff across eight sites in two Australian states. Two measures were taken of work time lost over four weeks due to psychological distress: (1) full-day absences; (2) presenteeism. Lost work time was valued using hourly wages. Sample data was modeled to estimate annual monetary losses for the Australian Coal Mining Industry. For the sample, estimated annual value of time lost due to psychological distress was $4.9 million ($AUS2015) ($0.61 million per mine), and for the Australian Coal Mining Industry, $153.8 million ($AUS2015). Psychological distress is a significant cost for the Australian Coal Mining Industry. Relevant intervention programs are potentially cost-effective.

  10. National Coal Utilization Assessment. An integrated assessment of increased coal use in the Midwest: impacts and constraints. [14 states Midwest region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-10-01

    This study examines the impacts and constraints to increased coal production and use for a 14-state Midwestern region. The assessment considers technology characteristics, energy supply and demand trends, siting constraints, impacts on water availability and coal reserves, impacts on air and water quality, and ecosystems, effects of trace elements, social and economic impacts, and health risks. The significant air quality constraints to coal use are related to the short-term National Ambient Air Quality Standards, PSD standards, and exposure to sulfates. In general, cumulative water supply in the 14-state region is adequate to satisfy foreseeable energy requirements; however, on a localized basis significant water shortages may develop which could constrain a smaller portion of the energy development. Water quality impacts are primarily restricted to areas with insufficient water resources. Coal mining will continue to have significant effects on water quality in smaller streams draining the major coal regions unless strict control practices are maintained. Coal-conversion plants may cause localized water quality problems; however, the effluent characteristics of these plants are not well-known. A significant amount of the coal development is anticipated to occur in counties with high susceptibility to social and economic impacts. The timing, magnitude, and nature of these impacts could be mitigated by the development of effective management strategies.

  11. Secondary economic impact of acid deposition control legislation in six coal producing states: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, M.J.; Guthrie, S.J.

    1988-12-01

    Among the difficult policy questions on the US environmental agenda is what to do about emissions to the earth's atmosphere of pollutants that may result in ''acid rain''. The Congress has considered several pieces of legislation spelling out potential approaches to the problem and setting goals for emission reduction, mostly emphasizing the control of oxides of sulfur and nitrogen. Significant policy concern is the dollar costs to the nation's economy of achieving the intended effects of the legislation and the potential impacts on economic activity---in particular, losses of both coal mining and secondary service sector employment in states and regions dependent on the mining of high sulfur coal. There are several direct economic effects of regulations such as the acid rain control legislation. One of the more obvious effects was the switching from high sulfur coal to low sulfur coal. This would result in increases in employment and coal business procurements in low sulfur coal mining regions, but also would result in lower employment and lower coal business procurements in high sulfur coal mining areas. The potential negative effects are the immediate policy concern and are the focus of this report. 15 refs., 1 fig., 17 tabs.

  12. Environmental impact assessment for steeply dipping coal beds: North Knobs site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-11-08

    The US Department of Energy is funding an underground coal gasification (UCG) project in steeply dipping coal beds (SDB), at North Knobs, about 8 miles west of Rawlins, Carbon County, Wyoming. The project is being conducted to determine the technical, economic and environmental viability of such a technology. The development of SDB is an interesting target for UCG since such beds contain coals not normally mineable economically by ordinary techniques. Although the underground gasification of SDB has not been attempted in the US, Soviet experience and theoretical work indicate that the gasification of SDB in place offers all the advantages of underground gasification of horizontal coal seams plus some unique characteristics. The steep angle of dip helps to channel the produced gases up dip to offtake holes and permits the ash and rubble to fall away from the reaction zone helping to mitigate the blocking of the reaction zone in swelling coals. The intersection of SDB with the surface makes the seam accessible for drilling and other preparation. The tests at the North Knobs site will consist of three tests, lasting 20, 80 and 80 days, respectively. A total of 9590 tons of coal is expected to be gasified, with surface facilities utilizing 15 acres of the total section of land. The environmental effects of the experiment are expected to be very small. The key environmental impact is potential groundwater contamination by reaction products from coal gasification. There is good evidence that the surrounding coal effectively blocks the migration of these contaminants.

  13. Potential health impacts of burning coal beds and waste banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelman, R.B.

    2004-01-01

    Uncontrolled release of pollutants from burning coal beds and waste banks presents potential environmental and human health hazards. On a global scale, the emissions of large volumes of greenhouse gases from burning coal beds may contribute to climate change that alters ecosystems and patterns of disease occurrence. On regional and local scales, the emissions from burning coal beds and waste banks of acidic gases, particulates, organic compounds, and trace elements can contribute to a range of respiratory and other human health problems. Although there are few published reports of health problems caused by these emissions, the potential for problems can be significant. In India, large numbers of people have been displaced from their homes because of health problems caused by emissions from burning coal beds. Volatile elements such as arsenic, fluorine, mercury, and selenium are commonly enriched in coal deposits. Burning coal beds can volatilize these elements, which then can be inhaled, or adsorbed on crops and foods, taken up by livestock or bioaccumulated in birds and fish. Some of these elements can condense on dust particles that can be inhaled or ingested. In addition, selenium, arsenic, lead, tin, bismuth, fluorine, and other elements condense where the hot gaseous emissions come in contact with ambient air, forming mats of concentrated efflorescent minerals on the surface of the ground. These mats can be leached by rainwater and washed into local water bodies providing other potential routes of exposure. Although there are little data linking burning coal beds and waste banks to known health problems, a possibly analogous situation exists in rural China where mineralized coal burned in a residential environment has caused widespread and severe health problems such as fluorosis and arseniasis. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Environmental Impacts Of Zirab Coal Washing Plant, Mazandaran, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, F.; Esmaeili, A.

    2009-04-01

    Extraction and beneficiation operations associated with coal mining increase the rate of chemical reaction of waste material to air and water media. Zirab coal washing plant is located on the bank of the Cherat stream in Mazandaran province, Iran. coal Mined from central Alborz coalfield mines is not suitable for use in Iranian Steel Corporation. Hence, coal ash content is reduced by physical and chemical processes in this plant. These processes leave a large quantity of liquid and solid wastes that accumulate in waste dump and tailing dam. sediment and water samples taken from Sheshrudbar and Cherat streams and also from Talar river show high concentration of Cd, Mo and As in water samples of coal washing plant and the associated drainage. Eh-pH diagrams revealed the chemical species of elements in water. The enrichment factor and geoaccumulation index show that Cd, Hg, Mo and V are enriched in bottom sediments of the coal washing plant and decrease with increasing distance from the plant. Sequential extraction analysis Results of three sediment samples of Cherat stream show that silicate bound is the major phase in samples taken before and after the plant, but adjacent to the plant, organic bound is dominant. The high concentration of Cd and Mo in the water soluble phase, is noticeable and may result in high mobility and bioavailability of these elements. Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon tests on six samples, before and after the coal washing plant support the obtained results. Keywords: Zirab; coal washing plant; Sequential extraction analysis; Mann-whitney; Wilcoxon; Enrichment factor; Geoaccumulation index.

  15. Potential health impacts of burning coal beds and waste banks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finkelman, Robert B. [U.S. Geological Survey, Mail Stop 956 National Center, 12201 Sunrise Valley Drive, Reston, VA 20192 (United States)

    2004-07-12

    Uncontrolled release of pollutants from burning coal beds and waste banks presents potential environmental and human health hazards. On a global scale, the emissions of large volumes of greenhouse gases from burning coal beds may contribute to climate change that alters ecosystems and patterns of disease occurrence. On regional and local scales, the emissions from burning coal beds and waste banks of acidic gases, particulates, organic compounds, and trace elements can contribute to a range of respiratory and other human health problems. Although there are few published reports of health problems caused by these emissions, the potential for problems can be significant. In India, large numbers of people have been displaced from their homes because of health problems caused by emissions from burning coal beds. Volatile elements such as arsenic, fluorine, mercury, and selenium are commonly enriched in coal deposits. Burning coal beds can volatilize these elements, which then can be inhaled, or adsorbed on crops and foods, taken up by livestock or bioaccumulated in birds and fish. Some of these elements can condense on dust particles that can be inhaled or ingested. In addition, selenium, arsenic, lead, tin, bismuth, fluorine, and other elements condense where the hot gaseous emissions come in contact with ambient air, forming mats of concentrated efflorescent minerals on the surface of the ground. These mats can be leached by rainwater and washed into local water bodies providing other potential routes of exposure. Although there are little data linking burning coal beds and waste banks to known health problems, a possibly analogous situation exists in rural China where mineralized coal burned in a residential environment has caused widespread and severe health problems such as fluorosis and arseniasis.

  16. Weaving Ecosystem Service Assessment into Environmental Impact Assessments of Thar Coal Field: Impact of Coal Mining on Socio-Ecological Systems of Rural Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hina, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Research takes into account Block II Mining and Power Plant Project of Thar Coal field in Pakistan by carrying out ecosystem service assessment of the region to identify the impact on important ecosystem service losses and the contribution of mining companies to mitigate the socio-economic problems as a part of their Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). The study area includes 7 rural settlements, around 921 households and 7000 individuals, dependent on agriculture and livestock for their livelihoods. Currently, the project has adopted the methods of strip mining (also called open-cut mining, open-cast mining, and stripping), undergoing removing the overburden in strips to enable excavation of the coal seams. Since the consequences of mine development can easily spill across community and ecological boundaries, the rising scarcity of some ecosystem services makes the case to examine both project impact and dependence on ecosystem services. A preliminary Ecosystem Service review of Thar Coal Field identifies key ecosystems services owing to both high significance of project impact and high project dependence are highlighted as: the hydrogeological study results indicate the presence of at least three aquifer zones: one above the coal zone (the top aquifer), one within the coal and the third below the coal zone. Hence, Water is identified as a key ecosystem service to be addressed and valued due to its high dependency in the area for livestock, human wellbeing, agriculture and other purposes. Crop production related to agricultural services, in association with supply services such as soil quality, fertility, and nutrient recycling and water retention need to be valued. Cultural services affected in terms of land use change and resettlement and rehabilitation factors are recommended to be addressed.

  17. The current situation of impact of coal mine developing on environment in China and government proposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Yang [China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China). Ministry of Land and Resources

    2005-07-01

    Current environmental problems caused by coal mining in China, the importance of management of the environment, impact of coal mining on land and water resources, and upcoming coal development are discussed. It is suggested that the government should act in two ways: take responsibility for management of reclamation of mines existing before 1986, and set up mechanisms to protect the environment, starting with the publishing of relevant laws and regulations. Methods for solving environmental issues include: prepare a practical plan, establish an environmental control fund, establish a special fund to protect the environment, and develop new ways to combine protection of the biological environment and land reclamation. 5 refs., 3 tabs.

  18. Long Term Environment and Economic Impacts of Coal Liquefaction in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, Jerald [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2014-03-31

    The project currently is composed of six specific tasks – three research tasks, two outreach and training tasks, and one project management and communications task. Task 1 addresses project management and communication. Research activities focused on Task 2 (Describe and Quantify the Economic Impacts and Implications of the Development and Deployment of Coal-to-Liquid Facilities in China), Task 3 (Development of Alternative Coal Gasification Database), and Task 4 (Geologic Carbon Management Options). There also were significant activities related to Task 5 (US-China Communication, Collaboration, and Training on Clean Coal Technologies) as well as planning activity performed in support of Task 6 (Training Programs).

  19. Pyrolysis of Indonesian coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachimoellah; Endah [Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopemba, Surabaya (Indonesia). Department of Chemical Engineering; Karaman, N.; Kusuma, S.A. [UPN Surabaya, (Indonesia). Department of Chemical Engineering

    1997-04-01

    It has been estimated that there is 36 billion tons of coal resource potential in Indonesia. Over 21.4 billion tons is classified as low rank (lignitic) coal. The coal deposits are located mainly in Sumatra and Kalimantan. As an energy source, low rank coals are not widely used, because of their high moisture content, low calorific value and variable ash content. One of the key questions for utilizing low rank coal is whether lignite can be upgraded into another form which is more economically viable. In this study tests were carried out in a pilot plant fixed bed pyrolysis reactor unit provided with hopper, electric heater, coolers and product receivers. The yield of char, tar and gases was found to depend on temperature which also affected the composition of gas produced. Results also indicated the temperature and particle size giving maximum tar yield, gas concentration, and the atmosphere of inert nitrogen. 1 tab., 2 figs., 10 refs.

  20. Juniper tar poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koruk, Suda Tekin; Ozyilkan, Esin; Kaya, Pinar; Colak, Dilsen; Donderici, Omer; Cesaretli, Yildirim

    2005-01-01

    Juniper tar (cade oil) is distilled from the branches and wood of Juniperus oxycedrus. It contains etheric oils, triterpene and phenols, and is used for many purposes in folk medicine. A case is reported of a previously healthy man who ingested a spoonful of home-made extract of Juniperus oxycedrus. The poisoning caused fever, severe hypotension, renal failure, hepatotoxicity, and severe cutaneous burns on the face. After supportive and symptomatic treatment, the patient improved and was discharged in a good condition on the eleventh day.

  1. Selective separation of aromatic hydrocarbons from low temperature coal tar%低温煤焦油中特定芳烃组分的选择性分离

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜广策; 张生娟; 王永刚; 王中奇; 林雄超; 许德平

    2015-01-01

    以研究低温煤焦油中特定芳烃组分的选择性分离为目标,通过预处理分离酚类化合物和富集特定芳烃组分,采用多元溶剂萃取方法选择性分离芳烃和非芳烃组分,采用Hansen溶度参数理论进行多元溶剂的设计和萃取条件的优化。结果表明,溶剂对原料焦油的选择性随Hansen溶度参数“距离”(Ra)增加而增大,萃取能力则相反。研究得到的多元萃取剂是含水量为体积分数6%的 N,N-二甲基甲酰胺溶液,优化萃取条件是温度25℃、剂/油比6:1。萃余物经多次萃取进一步分离芳烃组分,萃出物经甲酰胺多次萃取以分离出杂环化合物和极性组分。芳烃组分在最终分离产物中的质量分数为94%,其总萃取收率为95%。另外非芳烃化合物、杂环化合物和其他极性组分也在本过程中得到了有效富集。%This study was to achieve selective separation of specific aromatic hydrocarbons from low temperature coal tar. The feedstock was pretreated to separate phenols and enrich specific aromatic hydrocarbons, and then extracted by multiple solvents to separate selectively aromatic and non-aromatic hydrocarbons. The extraction conditions were optimized by the theory of Hansen solubility parameter. Selectivity of the extraction process was enhanced with the rise of Hansen solubility distance (Ra), while dissolving capacity decreased with the increase of Ra. The multiple solvents suggested in the study were dimethyl formamide (DMF)+6%water (volume fraction), and the optimized extraction condition was 25℃ and solvent/oil ratio of 6:1. The raffinate was extracted repeatedly under the optimized condition to collect residual aromatic hydrocarbons. The extract was extracted by formamide repeatedly to increase the concentration of aromatics and separate heterocyclic compounds and other polar components. Consequently, the mass percentage of aromatic hydrocarbons in the product was ca. 95%and the

  2. Sulfur in Coal and Its Environmental Impact from Yanzhou Mining District, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘桂建; 彭子成; 杨萍玥; 王桂梁

    2001-01-01

    Sulfur is one of the hazardous elements in coal. The concentrations of sulfur are rela tively high in coal. The major forms of sulfur in coal are pyritic, organic and sulfate. Pyritic and organic sulfur generally account for the bulk of sulfur in coal. Elemental sulfur also occurs in coal, but only in trace to minor amounts. When coals are burned, leached and washed, sul fur will be released in the form of sulfide and H2S, which then react with O2, waterand other substances to change into vitriol, and in some places it may form acid rain. And they will im pact water environment, acidify the soil and do great harm to plants and human health. In this paper, on the basis of the data from the Yanzhou mining district, the distribution and concen trations of sulfur are analyzed and the existing forms of sulfur are studied. The variation of sul fur and its impact on the environments also are described when coal is used.

  3. Comprehensive database of Manufactured Gas Plant tars. Part C. Heterocyclic and hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallacher, Christopher; Thomas, Russell; Lord, Richard; Kalin, Robert M; Taylor, Chris

    2017-08-15

    Coal tars are a mixture of organic and inorganic compounds that were by-products from the manufactured gas and coke making industries. The tar compositions varied depending on many factors such as the temperature of production and the type of retort used. For this reason a comprehensive database of the compounds found in different tar types is of value to understand both how their compositions differ and what potential chemical hazards are present. This study focuses on the heterocyclic and hydroxylated compounds present in a database produced from 16 different tars from five different production processes. Samples of coal tar were extracted using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and derivatized post-extraction using N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) with 1% trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS). The derivatized samples were analysed using two-dimensional gas chromatography combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC/TOFMS). A total of 865 heterocyclic compounds and 359 hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected in 16 tar samples produced by five different processes. The contents of both heterocyclic and hydroxylated PAHs varied greatly with the production process used, with the heterocyclic compounds giving information about the feedstock used. Of the 359 hydroxylated PAHs detected the majority would not have been be detected without the use of derivatization. Coal tars produced using different production processes and feedstocks yielded tars with significantly different heterocyclic and hydroxylated contents. The concentrations of the individual heterocyclic compounds varied greatly even within the different production processes and provided information about the feedstock used to produce the tars. The hydroxylated PAH content of the samples provided important analytical information that would otherwise not have been obtained without the use of derivatization and GCxGC/TOFMS. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. The Influence Of Supply Chain And Strategic Orientation Through Competitive Strategy AndIts Impact On Coal Business Performance Studies On Coal Company In Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendra Gunawan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Coal is one of the alternative energy sources instead of petroleum. It results in the coal mining industry as an industry that is highly prospective. But the growth of coal production both domestics and export coal sales in the period 2005-2012 was experiencing turbulence tends to decrease. The decline in world coal prices directly impact the business performance of coal mining companies of Indonesia. Preliminary survey results show the phenomenon of the weak performance of the business due to the coal mining industry management tends not yet fully capable of formulating competitive strategy appropriated. In addition there is a weakness for supply chain management and strategic orientation. On that basis then do research on supply chains and strategic orientation on competitive strategy and its implications on the business performance of the coal mining industry in Indonesia. The study was conducted using an explanatory method. Duration of the study is the time horizon which is cross sectionone shoots. Objects of research are taking by sampling that takes part members of the population to be studied. The results show that the supply chain strategic orientation and competitive strategy on coal mining companies in Indonesia are generally located in either category but found that business performance in general cannot be expressed well so that the cause of the low performance achieved during this business. It shows the implementation of all activities associated with the business activity has not gone as expected.

  5. Short contact therapy in psoriasis Tar vs Anthralin

    OpenAIRE

    Kar P

    1994-01-01

    Thirty cases (group I) having psoriasis were studied with a view to assess the efficacy of combination of short contact coal tar therapy, sunrays exposure and short contact anthralin therapy. Results were compared with thirty patients (group II) with psoriasis using anthralin paste as per Ingram technique as control. The combined short contact therapy in group I patients with intensive 90 to 120 minutes treatment sessions done once in every alternate day resulted in complete clearing in 19 (6...

  6. A STUDY OF EVALUATION OF ECOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF COAL MINING SUBSIDENCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何国清; 顾强

    1990-01-01

    The land disturbance and its ecological impacts are the most significant one in the environmental problems which arise from increase of coal mining, processing and utilization. And the environmental impact assessment as one of the most powerful planning tools has been playing a good part in the environment protection in China. This paper, based on EIA experience,diseribes the methods of identification, prediction and analysis of the impacts of mining subsidence, the operational procedures and mitigating measures likely to take.

  7. TAR syndrome with orofacial clefting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midro, A; Hubert, E; Preferansow, J; Iwaszkiewicz-Pawłowska, A

    1993-01-01

    A case of TAR syndrome with bilateral cleft lip and palate is presented. Bilateral symmetric focomelia, normal thumbs among five fingers of hands, synostosis of IVth and Vth metacarpal bones and some defects of lower limbs with associated thrombocytopenia were noted. Dysmorphic facial features included hypertelorism, epicanthus, blue sclerae, broad nasal root, micrognathia, low-set ears, sparse blond hair. To our knowledge this patient represents an unusual association of TAR syndrome with orofacial clefting. A common background of TAR and Roberts/SC syndrome is suggested.

  8. Environmental impact assessment and selenium transformation in coal mine spoils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atalay, A.; Koll, K.J.

    1991-06-01

    This quarterly report addresses the continued field investigation of a selected coal mining site in Oklahoma. Table 1 (appendix) portrays all the data (field measurements) taken at the Henryetta experimental site. An analysis of this data would be useful in providing information for potential Se migration from a coal mining site and the distribution of Se in a soil profile of land reclaimed to its pristine state. Also addressed is the methodology developed (1) for SeO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} and SeO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}} adsorption on selected soils, (2) leachate migration through a cell column using soil samples from the Henryetta reclamation site, and (3) chemical transformation of SeO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} under harsh chemical and conditions.

  9. The impact of disposal and treatment of coal mining wastes on environment and farmland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Zhengfu; Dong, Jihong; Lei, Shaogang; Leng, Hailong; Mu, Shouguo; Wang, Hui

    2009-08-01

    In China, coal mining wastes have traditionally been dumped in cone-shaped heaps that have the potential to pollute air, soil and water environments and landscapes through dust generation, leachate production, self-ignition and as a consequence of an absence of vegetation cover. Since 1980s, the disposal technique for coal mining wastes has been changing and in many instances the wastes are now transported directly to subsided land as a fill to enable the reuse of that land. Thus, today, both coal mining waste dumps from the past and filled subsided lands are in existence. However, the comparative impacts of these different disposal techniques on the environment and farmland productivity have not been studied in detail. Using Dongtan (DT), Nantun (NT) and Xinglongzhuang (XLZ) coal mines as examples, the components of coal mining wastes and their potential pollution contribution to soil, surface water and ground water are tested in-situ. The results show that contaminants are released after self-ignition and weathering of coal mining wastes, but they are not above the allowable environmental standards. However, despite these findings, more and closer attention needs to be paid to the mobility, transportation and accumulation of these contaminants in the environment over time.

  10. National Coal Utilization Assessment. a preliminary assessment of the health and environmental effects of coal utilization in the Midwest. Volume I. Energy scenarios, technology characterizations, air and water resource impacts, and health effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    This report presents an initial evaluation of the major health and environmental issues associated with increased coal use in the six midwestern states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin. Using an integrated assessment approach, the evaluation proceeds from a base-line scenario of energy demand and facility siting for 1975-2020. Emphasis is placed on impacts from coal extraction, land reclamation, coal combustion for electrical generation, and coal gasification. The range of potential impacts and constraints is illustrated by a second scenario that represents an expected upper limit for coal utilization in Illinois. The following are among the more significant issues identified and evaluated in this study: If environmental and related issues can be resolved, coal will continue to be a major source of energy for the Midwest; existing sulfur emission constraints will increase use of western coal; the resource requirements and environmental impacts of coal utilization will require major significant environmental and economic tradeoffs in site selection; short-term (24-hr) ambient standards for sulfur dioxide will limit the sizes of coal facilities or require advanced control technologies; an impact on public health may result from long-range transport of airborne sulfur emissions from coal facilities in the Midwest; inadequately controlled effluents from coal gasification may cause violations of water-quality standards; the major ecological effects of coal extraction are from pre-mining and post-reclamation land use; and sulfur dioxide is the major potential contributor to effects on vegetation of atmospheric emissions from coal facilities.

  11. LOCAL IMPACTS OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; BOWERMAN, B.; ADAMS, J.; MILIAN, L.; LIPFERT, F.; SUBRAMANIAM, S.; BLAKE, R.

    2005-09-21

    Mercury is a neurotoxin that accumulates in the food chain and is therefore a health concern. The primary human exposure pathway is through fish consumption. Coal-fired power plants emit mercury and there is uncertainty over whether this creates localized hot spots of mercury leading to substantially higher levels of mercury in water bodies and therefore higher exposure. To obtain direct evidence of local deposition patterns, soil and vegetations samples from around three U.S. coal-fired power plants were collected and analyzed for evidence of hot spots and for correlation with model predictions of deposition. At all three sites, there was no correlation between modeled mercury deposition and either soil concentrations or vegetation concentrations. It was estimated that less than 2% of the total mercury emissions from these plants deposited within 15 km of these plants. These small percentages of deposition are consistent with the literature review findings of only minor perturbations in environmental levels, as opposed to hot spots, near the plants. The major objective of the sampling studies was to determine if there was evidence for hot spots of mercury deposition around coal-fired power plants. From a public health perspective, such a hot spot must be large enough to insure that it did not occur by chance, and it must increase mercury concentrations to a level in which health effects are a concern in a water body large enough to support a population of subsistence fishers. The results of this study suggest that neither of these conditions has been met.

  12. Development and start up of a co-injection system of coal tar/natural gas in blast furnace no. 4; Desarrollo y puesta en operacion de un sistema de co-inyeccion de alquitran/gas natural en el alto horno no. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcon Rodriguez, Manuel I.; Mata Esparza, Hector Rolando; Arevalo Ballesteros, Gerardo [Altos Hornos de Mexico S. A., Coahuila (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    The crisis has attracted the world`s attention on the need for energy conservation and the development in a greater extent the utilization of carbon base fuels and other energy sources (nuclear energy). Being a blast furnace, not only an energy consumer but also an energy producer, the greatest contribution to the pig iron cost is the energy needed to melt and reduce to metallic state the iron ores, this energy is mainly derived from coke. The dependence on coal via the coking plant to produce first fusion iron is incremented day after day as a result of the high levels of production. Altos Hornos de Mexico (AHMSA), contemplated within its strategic plan, the reduction in the production of its coking plants derived from the natural aging of its furnaces, consequently the shortage of coke for productions higher than 2.6 MMT of pig iron is pending. The injection of fuels into a blast furnace through its nozzles is a technology used for the diminishing the coke consumption of coke, its use implies a change in the philosophy of the blast furnace operation, and is currently employed in most of the blast furnaces of the world. AHMSA taking advantage of coal tar production (approx. 130 tons/day) in its coking plants decided the design and put into operation a co-injection system of coal tar and natural gas. The activities tending to carry out this project were initiated on April 1993, performing all of them with its own resources, completing them on July 18, 1993, day on which the injection of coal tar/natural gas in blast furnace No. 4 in a stable form. To date (October 1993), the coal tar injection has been increased up to 36 kg/ton of pig iron. During the injection periods, the presence of operational, mechanical and instrumentation problems have not been an obstacle for the evolution on the injection, fulfilling its function of substituting coke in a replacing relationship of 1:1, i.e. 1 kg of coal tar per each kg of coke, without affecting the product quality

  13. Development and start up of a co-injection system of coal tar/natural gas in blast furnace no. 4; Desarrollo y puesta en operacion de un sistema de co-inyeccion de alquitran/gas natural en el alto horno no. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcon Rodriguez, Manuel I.; Mata Esparza, Hector Rolando; Arevalo Ballesteros, Gerardo [Altos Hornos de Mexico S. A., Coahuila (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    The crisis has attracted the world`s attention on the need for energy conservation and the development in a greater extent the utilization of carbon base fuels and other energy sources (nuclear energy). Being a blast furnace, not only an energy consumer but also an energy producer, the greatest contribution to the pig iron cost is the energy needed to melt and reduce to metallic state the iron ores, this energy is mainly derived from coke. The dependence on coal via the coking plant to produce first fusion iron is incremented day after day as a result of the high levels of production. Altos Hornos de Mexico (AHMSA), contemplated within its strategic plan, the reduction in the production of its coking plants derived from the natural aging of its furnaces, consequently the shortage of coke for productions higher than 2.6 MMT of pig iron is pending. The injection of fuels into a blast furnace through its nozzles is a technology used for the diminishing the coke consumption of coke, its use implies a change in the philosophy of the blast furnace operation, and is currently employed in most of the blast furnaces of the world. AHMSA taking advantage of coal tar production (approx. 130 tons/day) in its coking plants decided the design and put into operation a co-injection system of coal tar and natural gas. The activities tending to carry out this project were initiated on April 1993, performing all of them with its own resources, completing them on July 18, 1993, day on which the injection of coal tar/natural gas in blast furnace No. 4 in a stable form. To date (October 1993), the coal tar injection has been increased up to 36 kg/ton of pig iron. During the injection periods, the presence of operational, mechanical and instrumentation problems have not been an obstacle for the evolution on the injection, fulfilling its function of substituting coke in a replacing relationship of 1:1, i.e. 1 kg of coal tar per each kg of coke, without affecting the product quality

  14. Impact assessment of coal mines in Erai watershed of Chandrapur district using geoinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, S A; Katpatal, Y B

    2008-10-01

    The industrial development and growing population in India is in demand of more energy. Coal based thermal power generation is a major source of energy and is expanding at a very high rate leading to over exploitation of coal reserves, which is causing adverse impacts on the environment. Remote sensing and GIS techniques have been found to be useful in mapping and monitoring of dynamic changes taking place due to mining activity. Satellite based environmental impact assessment involves various aspects, such as land use, water resources, land degradation, etc. These studies help in formulating environmental management plan for the mining sector. Coal mines in Erai watershed of Chandrapur district so far have lost 2139.68 hectares of land constituting a fertile agriculture land, reserve forest, protected forest and natural river course of Erai river, Upsa nala and Motaghat nala severely affecting the watershed eco-system. Therefore, an in-depth impact assessment study of coal mines in Erai watershed of Chandrapur district was carried out using geoinformatics and the results are presented in this paper.

  15. Impact of coal structural heterogeneity on the nonideal sorption of organic contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xin; Fu, Heyun; Li, Yuan; Mao, Jingdong; Zheng, Shourong; Zhu, Dongqiang

    2011-06-01

    Carbonaceous geosorbents (black carbon, coal, and humin/kerogen) play a primary role in the nonideal sorption (isotherm nonlinearity, hysteresis, and multiphasic kinetics) of hydrophobic organic chemicals by soils and sediments. The present study investigated the impact of coal structural heterogeneity on sorption/desorption of two model monoaromatic compounds (1,3-dichlorobenzene and 1,3-dinitrobenzene). Due to the higher degree of aromaticity and condensation, anthracite showed stronger sorption affinity and nonlinearity and slower sorption kinetics than lignite. Removal of humic substances by alkali extraction and/or mineral fraction by acidification did not much affect organic carbon-normalized sorption coefficient to the coal, suggesting nearly complete accessibility of adsorption sites on the condensed organic carbon. However, the treatments greatly increased sorption kinetics and meanwhile alleviated hysteresis of 1,3-dinitrobenzene, as compared with the original lignite. These observations were attributed to the enhanced exposure of high-energy adsorption sites on the condensed organic carbon after exfoliating the surface coverage by humic substances and minerals. An empirical biphasic pseudo-second-order model consisting of a fast sorption phase and a slow sorption phase adequately quantified the overall sorption kinetics for the coal sorbents. The results indicated that the condensed organic carbon, in combination with other structural components, controls the nonideal sorption of unburned coal. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  16. Understanding the Contribution of Mining and Transportation to the Total Life Cycle Impacts of Coal Exported from the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Mutchek

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The construction of two marine bulk terminals in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States are currently under review and would open up additional thermal coal exports to Asia on the order of almost 100 million additional tonnes per year. The major exporters of coal to Asian markets include Indonesia and Australia. This life cycle analysis (LCA seeks to understand the role of transportation and mining in the cradle-to-busbar environmental impacts of coal exports from the Powder River Basin (PRB to Asian countries, when compared to the competitor countries. This LCA shows that: (1 the most significant greenhouse gas (GHG impacts in the cradle-to-busbar life cycle of coal for power generation come from the combustion of coal in a power plant, even when 90% carbon capture is applied; (2 for non-GHG air impacts, power plant combustion impacts are less dominant and variations in upstream impacts (mining and transportation are more important; and (3 when comparing impacts between countries, upstream impacts vary for both GHG and non-GHG results, but conclusions that rank countries cannot be made. Future research should include expansion to include non-air impacts, potential consequential effects of coal exports, and a better understanding around the characterization of non-GHG ocean transport impacts.

  17. Comparative study on the impact of coal and uranium mining, processing, and transportation in the western United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandquist, G.M.

    1979-06-01

    A comparative study and quantitative assessment of the impacts, costs and benefits associated with the mining, processing and transportation of coal and uranium within the western states, specifically Arizona, California, Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington and Wyoming are presented. The western states possess 49% of the US reserve coal base, 67% of the total identified reserves and 82% of the hypothetical reserves. Western coal production has increased at an average annual rate of about 22% since 1970 and should become the major US coal supplier in the 1980's. The Colorado Plateau (in Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico and Utah) and the Wyoming Basin areas account for 72% of the $15/lb U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ resources, 76% of the $30/lb, and 75% of the $50/lb resources. It is apparent that the West will serve as the major supplier of domestic US coal and uranium fuels for at least the next several decades. Impacts considered are: environmental impacts, (land, water, air quality); health effects of coal and uranium mining, processing, and transportation; risks from transportation accidents; radiological impact of coal and uranium mining; social and economic impacts; and aesthetic impacts (land, air, noise, water, biota, and man-made objects). Economic benefits are discussed.

  18. Catalytic pyrolysis of tars. A kinetic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faundez, J.; Garcia, X.; Gordon, A. [Universidad de Concepcion (Chile). Dept. de Ingeniera Quimica

    1997-12-31

    A kinetic model to describe the catalytic pyrolysis of tars is proposed and validated through pyrolysis of two tars of different characteristics and origin. Calcinated limestone (11 m{sup 2}/g) was used as catalyst. The model assumes that tars are composed of two pseudo-components: (i) heavy tar, and (ii) light tar. Tar pyrolysis is described by two simultaneous chemical reactions; catalyst deactivation due to carbon deposition is also considered. After mathematical resolution, expressions for product`s concentration as functions of residence time, selectivity and the deactivation were obtained. (orig.)

  19. DETERMINATION OF WATER CONTENT IN PYROLYTIC TARS USING COULOMETRIC KARL-FISHER TITRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Jílková

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The liquid organic fraction of pyrolytic tar has a high energy value which makes possible its utilization as an energy source. However, before utilization, it is crucial to remove water from the liquid fraction. The presence of water reduces the energy value of pyrolytic tars. Water separation from the organic tar fraction is a complex process, since an emulsion can be readily formed. Therefore, after phase separation, it is important to know the residual water content in the organic phase and whether it is necessary to further dry it. The results presented in this manuscript focus on a water determination in liquid products from coal and biomass pyrolysis by a coulometric Karl‑Fischer titration. The Coulometric Karl‑Fischer titration is often used for a water content determination in gaseous, liquid and solid samples. However, to date, this titration method has not been used for a water determination in tars. A new water determination method, which has been tested on different types of tar, has been developed. The Coulometric Karl‑Fischer titration is suitable for tar samples with a water content not greater than 5 wt. %. The obtained experimental results indicate that the new introduced method can be used with a very good repeatability for a water content determination in tars.

  20. Impact Analysis of Air Pollutant Emission Policies on Thermal Coal Supply Chain Enterprises in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopeng Guo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Spurred by the increasingly serious air pollution problem, the Chinese government has launched a series of policies to put forward specific measures of power structure adjustment and the control objectives of air pollution and coal consumption. Other policies pointed out that the coal resources regional blockades will be broken by improving transportation networks and constructing new logistics nodes. Thermal power takes the largest part of China’s total installed power generation capacity, so these policies will undoubtedly impact thermal coal supply chain member enterprises. Based on the actual situation in China, this paper figures out how the member enterprises adjust their business decisions to satisfy the requirements of air pollution prevention and control policies by establishing system dynamic models of policy impact transfer. These dynamic analyses can help coal enterprises and thermal power enterprises do strategic environmental assessments and find directions of sustainable development. Furthermore, the policy simulated results of this paper provide the Chinese government with suggestions for policy-making to make sure that the energy conservation and emission reduction policies and sustainable energy policies can work more efficiently.

  1. Genetic relation of adamantanes from extracts and semicoking tars of lignites with the initial biological material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platonov, V.V.; Shvykin, A.Y.; Proskuryakov, V.A.; Podshibyakin, S.I. [Lev Tolstoi State Pedagogical University, Tula (Russian Federation)

    1999-11-01

    A genetic relation was revealed of adamantanes from extracts and semicoking tars of lignites with the relic terpenoid and steroid compounds. Probable pathways are suggested for transformation of the initial natural structures into adamantanes. The qualitative and quantitative compositions of adamantanes from crude oil and coal are compared.

  2. Assessing the environmental impacts of using demineralized coal for electricity generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Morten; Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Laurent, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    generation will affect the environment.The results showed that demineralization in some cases were beneficial for regional impacts such asparticulate matter formation because emission of particles and SO2 were reduce. In the contrary globalimpacts such as climate change did not benefit from demineralization......The energy sector is the source of two-thirds of global greenhouse-gas emissions, and is the main target ofclimate policies among authorities and governments. The share of fossil coals (hard coal and lignite) in world total net electricity generation is 40% in 2010. Demineralization or ash removal...... in alkaline and acidic solution to dissolve and remove the ash. This process is well-studied on lab scale but has only to a small extent been tried on a full scale. This assessment is conducted as an aid for further developing thetechnology, allowing for early identification of environmental impacts...

  3. The impact of the financial crisis on the global seaborne hard coal market. Are there implications for the future?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rademacher, Maggi; Braun, Raphael [E.ON Kraftwerke GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    The global financial crisis in 2008 sent commodity markets spinning which caused demand to erode, price levels to quickly plummet and project financing costs to rise. In this paper, the authors examine the impacts the economic slowdown has had on the global seaborne hard coal market looking at the impacts for both coking (metallurgical) and thermal (steam) coals including pricing, supply availability, demand and aggregated mine level production costs. The hard coal market experienced a significant slow down; the commodity has bounced back strongly in 2010 driven by strong Asian demand at growth rates above historic levels and strong projections for the future. (orig.)

  4. Environmental impact of coal industry and thermal power plants in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, U C

    2004-01-01

    Coal is the only natural resource and fossil fuel available in abundance in India. Consequently, it is used widely as a thermal energy source and also as fuel for thermal power plants producing electricity. India has about 90,000 MW installed capacity for electricity generation, of which more than 70% is produced by coal-based thermal power plants. Hydro-electricity contributes about 25%, and the remaining is mostly from nuclear power plants (NPPs). The problems associated with the use of coal are low calorific value and very high ash content. The ash content is as high as 55-60%, with an average value of about 35-40%. Further, most of the coal is located in the eastern parts of the country and requires transportation over long distances, mostly by trains, which run on diesel. About 70% oil is imported and is a big drain on India's hard currency. In the foreseeable future, there is no other option likely to be available, as the nuclear power programme envisages installing 20,000 MWe by the year 2020, when it will still be around 5% of the installed capacity. Hence, attempts are being made to reduce the adverse environmental and ecological impact of coal-fired power plants. The installed electricity generating capacity has to increase very rapidly (at present around 8-10% per annum), as India has one of the lowest per capita electricity consumptions. Therefore, the problems for the future are formidable from ecological, radio-ecological and pollution viewpoints. A similar situation exists in many developing countries of the region, including the People's Republic of China, where coal is used extensively. The paper highlights some of these problems with the data generated in the author's laboratory and gives a brief description of the solutions being attempted. The extent of global warming in this century will be determined by how developing countries like India manage their energy generation plans. Some of the recommendations have been implemented for new plants

  5. Environmental Impact of Restructuring of the Coal Industry in the Rostov Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Zhukova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Negative anthropogenesis impact on environment is now felt especially sharply and gains global character. One of the most large-scale subjects of the economic environment doing harm to environment are the enterprises of an coal complex as they in large volumes throw out the polluting substances and in high volumes take natural resources. However the field of activity of such enterprises is a priority for national economy, and difficult interchangeability of energy raw material resources demands from the state and the coal enterprises of development within realization of complete branch ecological-economic policy of the economic mechanism of stimulation of ecologically sustainable development of the coal complex. In the conditions of an economic crisis, threat of world recession and external economic pressure upon the forefront there are two priority economic tasks: maintaining economic and social stability and promote economic growth of the Russian economy and its regions. Along with attempts to stabilize the preserved and newly opened businesses, and really putting their place in the market economy, it is necessary to overcome the whole complex of socio-economic and environmental impacts of restructuring. The neutralization of the negative environmental impact of the closure of coal enterprises, as well as warning of emerging environmental hazards require large material costs. To reduce costs requires a comprehensive, scientifically sound approach to solving this global problem. Significant reserve to reduce the negative impact of ecological consequences of liquidation of mines on the environment is the task of the use of related natural resources, which are currently the sources of pollution of the biosphere.

  6. Mice housed on coal dust-contaminated sand: A model to evaluate the impacts of coal mining on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero-Gallardo, Karina; Olivero-Verbel, Jesus

    2016-03-01

    Coal dust is the most important air pollutant in coal mining in regards to producing deleterious health effects. It permeates the surrounding environment threatening public health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxic effects associated with exposure to sand contaminated with coal dust particles below 38 μm in diameter, obtained from a mineral sample collected in the largest coal mine in South America, La Loma, Cesar, Colombia. Sterilized sand was spiked with coal dust to obtain concentrations ranging from zero to 4% coal dust. To model natural exposure, mice were housed for eight weeks in boxes containing this mixture as bedding after which, they were euthanized and blood and tissue samples were collected. Real time PCR analysis revealed an increase in Cyp1A1 mRNA for living on sand with coal dust concentrations greater than 2% compared to mice living on sand without coal dust. Unexpectedly, for mice on coal dust-polluted sand, Sod1, Scd1 and Nqo1 hepatic mRNA were downregulated. The Comet assay in peripheral blood cells and the micronucleus test in blood smears, showed a significant potential genotoxic effect only at the highest coal dust concentration. Histopathological analysis revealed vascular congestion and peribronchial inflammation in the lungs. A dose-response relationship for the presence of hepatic steatosis, vacuolization and nuclei enlargements was observed in the exposed animals. The data suggest living on a soil polluted with coal dust induces molecular, cellular and histopathological changes in mice. Accordingly, the proposed model can be used to identify deleterious effects of exposure to coal dust deposited in soils that may pose health risks for surrounding wildlife populations.

  7. Environmental Impact Assessment of Onyeama Coal Mine in Enugu, Southeastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezemokwe, D.E

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Heavy-metal concentration levels in water, coal wastes, soil and background soil were determined with a view to assessing the degree of contamination and environmental impact due to coal mining activities around Onyeama coal mine. A total of 58 samples comprising 11 water, 11 coal wastes, 22 soils and 14 background soils were collected and analyzed. Various physico-chemical characteristics of water analyzed include pH, alkalinity, total hardness, total dissolved solids (TDS, sulphate, chloride, calcium and magnesium. Chemical analysis of water, coal wastes, soil and background soil samples were undertaken to determine concentrations of Cd, Cr, Ni, Cu, Co, Pb, Zn, As, Mn and Fe using an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The Enrichment Factor (EF and Pollution Index (PI results indicate significant enrichments of Cd, Pb and Ni in all the media examined compared with other elements studied. In water, the concentrations of Fe (3.13 mg/l, Cd (0.33 mg/l, Ni (1.30 mg/l, Cr (0.12 mg/l and As (0.07 mg/l exceeded the recommended values (1.0, 0.003, 0.02, 0.05 and 0.01mg/l respectively for potable water. In coal waste samples, Cd (2.52mg/kg is high with health risk level of 5. Cu (2.81mg/kg, Co (1.57 mg/kg and As (0.19 mg/kg moderately polluted the environment. In soil, high mean concentration levels are recorded for Cd (5.56 mg/kg and Pb (3.15 mg/kg, moderate to low levels for Cr (1.88 mg/kg, Cu (1.70 mg/kg, Co (0.44mg/kg, Mn (0.99mg/kg and As (0.16 mg/kg. Concentration of metals in the four media examined indicated that the level of pollution is in descending order as shown: soil medium >>>coal wastes medium >> water medium> background soil medium. Reference to World Health Organization standards, the observed trend in the concentration of the metals in the media, will pose health problems to humans and may impact adversely on the ecological, agricultural as well as underground water systems.

  8. Treating tar sands formations with karsted zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

    2010-03-09

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. The tar sands formation may have one or more karsted zones. Methods may include providing heat from one or more heaters to one or more karsted zones of the tar sands formation to mobilize fluids in the formation. At least some of the mobilized fluids may be produced from the formation.

  9. Quality and Environmental Impact Assessment of Coal Deposits of Punjab Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *1S. Imad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Major coal fields in Punjab Province are located in the Salt and Surghar ranges, whose collective reserves are 235 million tons. Representative coal samples were collected from Makarwal, Kallar Kahar and Dandot for assessment of quality and its impact on environment during combustion. The coal was classified as sub-bituminous type on the basis of proximate analysis. Average measured calorific values were noted 6801, 5624 and 6415 Btu/lb for Makarwal, Kallar Kahar and Dandot samples respectively. Moderate moisture, volatiles, fixed carbon and low ash designate it as suitable material for electric generation and cement manufacturing. The average sulfur content of all samples was appeared as 5.13%, which is high for power generation and other allied industries. The combustion of this coal may pose threat to the environment in the region due to the presence of high sulfur and other trace elements like Al, Cr, Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Sn, and Ni in appreciable quantities. Appropriate measure is essential to substantially reduce sulfur and these trace elements before using it in the power generation plants and other industries of Pakistan

  10. Identifying Catchment-Scale Predictors of Coal Mining Impacts on New Zealand Stream Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapcott, Joanne E.; Goodwin, Eric O.; Harding, Jon S.

    2016-03-01

    Coal mining activities can have severe and long-term impacts on freshwater ecosystems. At the individual stream scale, these impacts have been well studied; however, few attempts have been made to determine the predictors of mine impacts at a regional scale. We investigated whether catchment-scale measures of mining impacts could be used to predict biological responses. We collated data from multiple studies and analyzed algae, benthic invertebrate, and fish community data from 186 stream sites, including un-mined streams, and those associated with 620 mines on the West Coast of the South Island, New Zealand. Algal, invertebrate, and fish richness responded to mine impacts and were significantly higher in un-mined compared to mine-impacted streams. Changes in community composition toward more acid- and metal-tolerant species were evident for algae and invertebrates, whereas changes in fish communities were significant and driven by a loss of nonmigratory native species. Consistent catchment-scale predictors of mining activities affecting biota included the time post mining (years), mining density (the number of mines upstream per catchment area), and mining intensity (tons of coal production per catchment area). Mining was associated with a decline in stream biodiversity irrespective of catchment size, and recovery was not evident until at least 30 years after mining activities have ceased. These catchment-scale predictors can provide managers and regulators with practical metrics to focus on management and remediation decisions.

  11. Identifying Catchment-Scale Predictors of Coal Mining Impacts on New Zealand Stream Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapcott, Joanne E; Goodwin, Eric O; Harding, Jon S

    2016-03-01

    Coal mining activities can have severe and long-term impacts on freshwater ecosystems. At the individual stream scale, these impacts have been well studied; however, few attempts have been made to determine the predictors of mine impacts at a regional scale. We investigated whether catchment-scale measures of mining impacts could be used to predict biological responses. We collated data from multiple studies and analyzed algae, benthic invertebrate, and fish community data from 186 stream sites, including un-mined streams, and those associated with 620 mines on the West Coast of the South Island, New Zealand. Algal, invertebrate, and fish richness responded to mine impacts and were significantly higher in un-mined compared to mine-impacted streams. Changes in community composition toward more acid- and metal-tolerant species were evident for algae and invertebrates, whereas changes in fish communities were significant and driven by a loss of nonmigratory native species. Consistent catchment-scale predictors of mining activities affecting biota included the time post mining (years), mining density (the number of mines upstream per catchment area), and mining intensity (tons of coal production per catchment area). Mining was associated with a decline in stream biodiversity irrespective of catchment size, and recovery was not evident until at least 30 years after mining activities have ceased. These catchment-scale predictors can provide managers and regulators with practical metrics to focus on management and remediation decisions.

  12. Approaches for controlling air pollutants and their environmental impacts generated from coal-based electricity generation in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Changqing; Hong, Jinglan; Ren, Yixin; Wang, Qingsong; Yuan, Xueliang

    2015-08-01

    This study aims at qualifying air pollutants and environmental impacts generated from coal-based power plants and providing useful information for decision makers on the management of coal-based power plants in China. Results showed that approximately 9.03, 54.95, 62.08, and 12.12% of the national carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter emissions, respectively, in 2011were generated from coal-based electricity generation. The air pollutants were mainly generated from east China because of the well-developed economy and energy-intensive industries in the region. Coal-washing technology can simply and significantly reduce the environmental burden because of the relativity low content of coal gangue and sulfur in washed coal. Optimizing the efficiency of raw materials and energy consumption is additional key factor to reduce the potential environmental impacts. In addition, improving the efficiency of air pollutants (e.g., dust, mercury, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides) control system and implementing the strict requirements on air pollutants for power plants are important ways for reducing the potential environmental impacts of coal-based electricity generation in China.

  13. Effect of synergism between biomass and coal during co-pyrolysis in a free fall reactor on tar components%自由落下床中生物质与煤共热解的协同效应对焦油组成的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏立纲; 张丽; 徐绍平

    2012-01-01

    The liquid products from co-pyrolysis of Dayan lignite (DY) and legume straw (LS) and from pyrolysis of the single fuel were classified into asphalts, phenols, aliphatic, aromatics and polar fractions by solvent extraction-column chromatography. Compared with the calculated yield of asphalts, i. e. the mass weighted mean value 19. 0% from pyrolysis of the single coal and biomass, the experimental yield from co-pyrolysis decreased to 11.4% , and the aromaticity of the co-pyrolysis asphalts increased. At the same time, the yield of light molecular weight phenols, methylphenol, dimethylphenol and their derivatives increased at about 5% during the co-pyrolysis; while the content of aliphatic hydrocarbons with long chains decreased. The content of decalins was 43.37% in aromatic fraction of the co-pyrolysis tar, whereas it was almost not found in the tars from pyrolysis of the individual fuel. These results verified that the synergy existed during co-pyrolysis of coal and biomass under the experimental conditions. It was contributed to the reactions such as hydropyrolysis and hydrogenation during co-pyrolysis of coal and biomass under the hydrogen atmosphere mainly supplied by biomass pyrolysis. Co-pyrolysis of coal and biomass favors producing low molecular weight compounds and improving the quality of the liquid product.%利用溶剂萃取-柱层析方法,将自由落下床中豆秸与大雁褐煤共热解以及单种原料热解的液体产品分为沥青烯、酚类、脂肪烃类、芳香烃类和极性物等组分.结果表明,共热解的沥青烯产率为11.4%,低于根据煤和生物质单独热解的质量加权平均计算值19.0%,且芳香性增大;与计算值相比,低分子量的酚类、甲基苯酚、二甲基苯酚及其衍生物的含量提高了5%;而且长侧链的脂肪烃含量减少.共热解焦油的芳香类组分中十氢萘的质量分数是43.37%,但其在单一原料热解焦油中并没有被检测到.热解油分析结果表

  14. An investigation of the preparation of coal tar-and petroleum-based pitch spheres and their oxidation stabilization%煤沥青微球和石油沥青微球的制备及其氧化稳定化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕春祥; 凌立成; 吴刚平; 刘庆丰; 李永红; 李开喜

    2004-01-01

    采用浮化法由芳香添加剂与高软化点沥青混合物制备了沥青球.通过热重差热分析研究了不同沥青种类、不同添加剂/高软化点沥青比例和不同结构的沥青球在空气中的氧化稳定化行为.结果表明:芳香添加剂可以大大降低成球沥青的软化点,促进氧化稳定化;与煤沥青球相比,石油沥青球更易氧化,但氧化的沥青球表面成为双扩散的障碍,从而抑制沥青球的氧化稳定化;增加芳香添加剂含量,使沥青球氧化反应易于进行.%Oxidation-stabilized pitch spheres were prepared from pitch spheres, which were obtained by emulsifying spheroidizing mixtures of aromatic additive, such as naphthalene, and high soft-point pitch from coal and petroleum. Thermogravimetric analysis, differential gravimetric and differential scanning calorimetric analysis were employed to investigate the stabilization behavior of pitch spheres in air in relation to the type of pitch, ratios of aromatic additive to high soft-point pitch, and structures of pitch spheres. It is found that an aromatic additive can greatly reduce the softening point of pitch and promote stabilization. Petroleum pitch based spheres are more liable to oxidation compared to coal tar pitch based ones. The oxidized surface of pitch spheres acts as a diffusion barrier that inhibits the oxidation stabilization, which is alleviated by increasing the amount of aromatic additive.

  15. Environmental impacts of the Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston coal ash spill. 2. Effect of coal ash on methylmercury in historically contaminated river sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deonarine, Amrika; Bartov, Gideon; Johnson, Thomas M; Ruhl, Laura; Vengosh, Avner; Hsu-Kim, Heileen

    2013-02-19

    The Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston coal ash spill in December 2008 deposited approximately 4.1 million m(3) of fly ash and bottom ash into the Emory and Clinch River system (Harriman, Tennessee, U.S.A.). The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of the ash on surface water and sediment quality over an eighteen month period after the spill, with a specific focus on mercury and methylmercury in sediments. Our results indicated that surface water quality was not impaired with respect to total mercury concentrations. However, in the sediments of the Emory River near the coal ash spill, total mercury concentrations were 3- to 4-times greater than sediments several miles upstream of the ash spill. Similarly, methylmercury content in the Emory and Clinch River sediments near the ash spill were slightly elevated (up to a factor of 3) at certain locations compared to upstream sediments. Up to 2% of the total mercury in sediments containing coal ash was present as methylmercury. Mercury isotope composition and sediment geochemical data suggested that elevated methylmercury concentrations occurred in regions where native sediments were mixed with coal ash (e.g., less than 28% as coal ash in the Emory River). This coal ash may have provided substrates (such as sulfate) that stimulated biomethylation of mercury. The production of methylmercury in these areas is a concern because this neurotoxic organomercury compound can be highly bioaccumulative. Future risk assessments of coal ash spills should consider not only the leaching potential of mercury from the wastes but also the potential for methylmercury production in receiving waters.

  16. Environmental benefits of underground coal gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-qin; Liu, Jun-hua; Yu, Li

    2002-04-01

    Environmental benefits of underground coal gasification are evaluated. The results showed that through underground coal gasification, gangue discharge is eliminated, sulfur emission is reduced, and the amount of ash, mercury, and tar discharge are decreased. Moreover, effect of underground gasification on underground water is analyzed and CO2 disposal method is put forward.

  17. Environmental benefits of underground coal gasification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Environmental benefits of underground coal gasification are evaluated. The results showed that through underground coal gasification,gangue discharge is eliminated, sulfur emission is reduced, and the amount of ash, mercury, and tar discharge are decreased. Moreover, effect of underground gasification on underground water is analyzed and CO2 disposal method is put forward.

  18. The impact of coal combustion residue effluent on water resources: a North Carolina example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhl, Laura; Vengosh, Avner; Dwyer, Gary S; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Schwartz, Grace; Romanski, Autumn; Smith, S Daniel

    2012-11-06

    The combustion of coal to generate electricity produces about 130 million tons of coal combustion residues (CCRs) each year in the United States; yet their environmental implications are not well constrained. This study systematically documents the quality of effluents discharged from CCR settling ponds or cooling water at ten sites and the impact on associated waterways in North Carolina, compared to a reference lake. We measured the concentrations of major and trace elements in over 300 samples from CCR effluents, surface water from lakes and rivers at different downstream and upstream points, and pore water extracted from lake sediments. The data show that CCR effluents contain high levels of contaminants that in several cases exceed the U.S. EPA guidelines for drinking water and ecological effects. This investigation demonstrates the quality of receiving waters in North Carolina depends on (1) the ratio between effluent flux and freshwater resource volumes and (2) recycling of trace elements through adsorption on suspended particles and release to deep surface water or pore water in bottom sediments during periods of thermal water stratification and anoxic conditions. The impact of CCRs is long-term, which influences contaminant accumulation and the health of aquatic life in water associated with coal-fired power plants.

  19. 生物质或煤气化焦油脱除研究进展%ADVANCES IN THE RESEARCH ON THE REMOVAL OF TAR IN BIOMASS OR COAL GASIFICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜卡帅; 杨国华; 于春令

    2011-01-01

    The features and progresses of tar removal methods are concluded,and the characteristics of catalysts,inactive reasons and modification measures are deeply discussed.The composition of catalyst(an active catalyst,promoter and support),which can resist the coking,poisoning and sintering,will be focused on the future research.%概述国内外焦油脱除方法的特点及研究现状,着重阐述了催化裂解法中各类催化剂的特性、失活原因以及为减少催化剂失活所采取的相应改性措施,指出采用"载体+活性组分+助剂"的复合整体式方法来合理优化催化剂结构,可以不同程度地解决积碳、烧结和中毒等失活问题,是未来催化剂研究的发展方向。

  20. The influence of partial oxidation mechanisms on tar destruction in TwoStage biomass gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Egsgaard, Helge; Stelte, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    TwoStage gasification of biomass results in almost tar free producer gas suitable for multiple end-use purposes. In the present study, it is investigated to what extent the partial oxidation process of the pyrolysis gas from the first stage is involved in direct and in-direct tar destruction and ...... tar destruction and a high moisture content of the biomass enhances the decomposition of phenol and inhibits the formation of naphthalene. This enhances tar conversion and gasification in the char-bed, and thus contributes in-directly to the tar destruction.......TwoStage gasification of biomass results in almost tar free producer gas suitable for multiple end-use purposes. In the present study, it is investigated to what extent the partial oxidation process of the pyrolysis gas from the first stage is involved in direct and in-direct tar destruction...... and conversion. The study identifies the following major impact factors regarding tar content in the producer gas: oxidation temperature, excess air ratio and biomass moisture content. In a experimental setup, wood pellets were pyrolyzed and the resulting pyrolysis gas was transferred in a heated partial...

  1. Coal in Europe: what future?: prospects of the coal industry and impacts study of the Kyoto Protocol; Charbon en Europe: quel avenir?: perspectives de l'industrie du charbon et etude des impacts du Protocole de Kyoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudianto, E.

    2006-12-15

    From the industrial revolution to the 1960's, coal was massively consumed in Europe and its utilization was constantly raised. In the aftermath of World War II, coal had also an important part in reconstruction of Western Europe's economy. However, since the late 1960's, its demand has been declining. There is a (mis)conception from a number of policy makers that saying coal mining and utilizations in Europe is unnecessary. Therefore in the European Union (EU) Green Paper 2000, coal is described as an 'undesirable' fuel and the production of coal on the basis of economic criteria has no prospect. Furthermore, the commitment to the Kyoto Protocol in reducing greenhouse gases emission has aggravated this view. Faced with this situation, the quest for the future of coal industry (mining and utilization) in the lines of an energy policy is unavoidable. This dissertation did a profound inquiry trying to seek answers for several questions: Does the European Union still need coal? If coal is going to play a part in the EU, where should the EU get the coal from? What should be done to diminish negative environmental impacts of coal mining and utilization? and finally in regard to the CO{sub 2} emission concerns, what will the state of the coal industry in the future in the EU? To enhance the analysis, a system dynamic model, called the Dynamics Coal for Europe (the DCE) was developed. The DCE is an Energy-Economy-Environment model. It synthesizes the perspectives of several disciplines, including geology, technology, economy and environment. It integrates several modules including exploration, production, pricing, demand, import and emission. Finally, the model emphasizes the impact of delays and feed-back in both the physical processes and the information and decision-making processes of the system. The calibration process for the DCE shows that the model reproduces past numbers on the scale well for several variables. Based on the results of this

  2. Characterization of Oxy-combustion Impacts in Existing Coal-fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Bradley [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Davis, Kevin [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Senior, Constance [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Shim, Hong Shim [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Otten, Brydger Van [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Fry, Andrew [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Wendt, Jost [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Eddings, Eric [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Paschedag, Alan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shaddix, Christopher [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cox, William [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States); Tree, Dale [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States)

    2013-09-30

    Reaction Engineering International (REI) managed a team of experts from University of Utah, Siemens Energy, Praxair, Vattenfall AB, Sandia National Laboratories, Brigham Young University (BYU) and Corrosion Management Ltd. to perform multi-scale experiments, coupled with mechanism development, process modeling and CFD modeling, for both applied and fundamental investigations. The primary objective of this program was to acquire data and develop tools to characterize and predict impacts of CO{sub 2} flue gas recycle and burner feed design on flame characteristics (burnout, NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, mercury and fine particle emissions, heat transfer) and operational concerns (fouling, slagging and corrosion) inherent in the retrofit of existing coal-fired boilers for oxy-coal combustion. Experimental work was conducted at Sandia National Laboratories’ Entrained Flow Reactor, the University of Utah Industrial Combustion Research Facility, and Brigham Young University. Process modeling and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling was performed at REI. Successful completion of the project objectives resulted in the following key deliverables: 1) Multi-scale test data from 0.1 kW bench-scale, 100 kW and 200 kW laboratory-scale, and 1 MW semi-industrial scale combustors that describe differences in flame characteristics, fouling, slagging and corrosion for coal combustion under air-firing and oxygen-firing conditions, including sensitivity to oxy-burner design and flue gas recycle composition. 2) Validated mechanisms developed from test data that describe fouling, slagging, waterwall corrosion, heat transfer, char burnout and sooting under coal oxy-combustion conditions. The mechanisms were presented in a form suitable for inclusion in CFD models or process models. 3) Principles to guide design of pilot-scale and full-scale coal oxy-firing systems and flue gas recycle configurations, such that boiler operational impacts from oxy-combustion retrofits are minimized. 4

  3. Preliminary assessment of the health and environmental effects of coal utilization in the midwest. Volume I. Energy scenarios, technology characterizations, air and water resource impacts, and health effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    An initial evaluation of the major health and environmental issues associated with increased coal use in the six midwestern states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin is presented. Using an integrated assessment approach, the evaluation proceeds from a base-line scenario of energy demand and facility siting for the period 1975 to 2020. Emphasis is placed on impacts from coal extraction, land reclamation, coal combustion for electrical generation, and coal gasification. The range of potential impacts and constraints is illustrated by a second scenario that represents an expected upper limit for coal utilization in Illinois. Included are: (1) a characterization of the energy demand and siting scenarios, coal related technologies, and coal resources, and (2) the related impacts on air quality, water availability, water quality, and human health.

  4. Phytotoxicity and Plant Productivity Analysis of Tar-Enriched Biochars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, M. L.; Masiello, C. A.; Dugan, B.; Rudgers, J. A.; Capareda, S. C.

    2008-12-01

    Biochar is one of the three by-products obtained by the pyrolysis of organic material, the other two being syngas and bio-oil. The pyrolysis of biomass has generated a great amount of interest in recent years as all three by-products can be put toward beneficial uses. As part of a larger project designed to evaluate the hydrologic impact of biochar soil amendment, we generated a biochar through fast pyrolysis (less than 2 minutes) of sorghum stock at 600°C. In the initial biochar production run, the char bin was not purged with nitrogen. This inadvertent change in pyrolysis conditions produced a fast-pyrolysis biochar enriched with tars. We chose not to discard this batch, however, and instead used it to test the impact of tar-enriched biochars on plants. A suite of phytotoxicity tests were run to assess the effects of tar-rich biochar on plant germination and plant productivity. We designed the experiment to test for negative effects, using an organic carbon and nutrient-rich, greenhouse- optimized potting medium instead of soil. We used Black Seeded Simpson lettuce (Lactuca sativa) as the test organism. We found that even when tars are present within biochar, biochar amendment up to 10% by weight caused increased lettuce germination rates and increased biomass productivity. In this presentation, we will report the statistical significance of our germination and biomass data, as well as present preliminary data on how biochar amendment affects soil hydrologic properties.

  5. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131668 Chang Huizhen(Key Laboratory of Coalbed Methane Resources and Reservoir Formation Process,CUMT,Ministry of Edu-cation,School of Resource and Earth Science,China University of Mining and Technology,Xuzhou 221008,China);Qin Yong Differences in of Pore Structure of Coals and Their Impact on the Permeability of Coals from the

  6. Environmental impact of manganese due to its leaching from coal fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Bably; Mondal, Kajal K R

    2009-01-01

    In India, so far not much efforts have been made to use coal ash as backfill material in underground/ open cast mines and to predict its subsequent effect on ground water quality. One of the main problems in disposing of big quantities of coal ash is the possible leaching of different pollutants, including manganese. A thorough investigation regarding leaching of manganese from different fly ashes is required to know the impact of manganese due to its leaching from fly ash to ground water as well as surface water. In the present study, short term and long term leaching studies have been carried out on fly ash, bottom ash, pond ash and weathered ash of Chandrapura thermal power plant, Bokaro, Jharkhand and Ramagundam thermal power plant, Ramagundam, Andhra Pradesh. The amount of manganese released in different experiments has been evaluated. The leachate of Chandrapura fly ash has more manganese concentration (0.2001 mg/L) than the leachate of bottom ash, pond ash and weathered ash. A field investigation at Damoda abandoned open cast mine, filled with pond ash of Chandrapura thermal power plant revealed that concentration of manganese in ground water beneath the ash filled mine has been found very high (maximum up to 6.0 mg/L). But its migration to a long distance has not been seen. Remedial measures for coal ash disposal have also been formulated.

  7. Radiological Impact Study of the Coal-Fired Power Plant of Narcea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles, B.; Baeza, A.; Mora, J. a.; Corbacho, J. a.; Trueba, C.; Guillen, J.; Rodriguez, Miralles, Y.

    2014-04-01

    Coal, fuel used in thermal power plants for electricity production, contains variable concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides from natural disintegration series of {sup 2}38U, {sup 2}35U, {sup 2}32Th and also the 40K, which are enhanced in the wastes and coproducts due to the industrial process. For this reason, natural radionuclides which are part of the noncombustible fraction of coal, except those volatiles which incorporate directly to the flue gases, concentrates and are partitioned between fly ashes and bottom ashes. This enhancement could cause, to the workers of the installation and to members of the public around the plant, an increase in the exposure which should be assessed under the radiation protection point of view. Present report collect the results obtained from a screening assessment of the radiological impact derived from the normal operation of the Narcea coal-fired power plant. The project where this assessment was performed is part of a bigger project which is jointly developed by the Unit of Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment (UPRPYMA) of CIEMAT and the Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory of the Extremadura University (LARUEX) in agreement with the Spanish Association of the Electrical Industry (ENUSA). (Author)

  8. The Net Climate Impact of Coal-Fired Power Plant Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindell, D.; Faluvegi, G.

    2010-01-01

    Coal-fired power plants influence climate via both the emission of long-lived carbon dioxide (CO2) and short-lived ozone and aerosol precursors. Using a climate model, we perform the first study of the spatial and temporal pattern of radiative forcing specifically for coal plant emissions. Without substantial pollution controls, we find that near-term net global mean climate forcing is negative due to the well-known aerosol masking of the effects of CO2. Imposition of pollution controls on sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides leads to a rapid realization of the full positive forcing from CO2, however. Long-term global mean forcing from stable (constant) emissions is positive regardless of pollution controls. Emissions from coal-fired power plants until 1970, including roughly 1/3 of total anthropogenic CO2 emissions, likely contributed little net global mean climate forcing during that period though they may have induce weak Northern Hemisphere mid-latitude (NHml) cooling. After that time many areas imposed pollution controls or switched to low sulfur coal. Hence forcing due to emissions from 1970 to 2000 and CO2 emitted previously was strongly positive and contributed to rapid global and especially NHml warming. Most recently, new construction in China and India has increased rapidly with minimal application of pollution controls. Continuation of this trend would add negative near-term global mean climate forcing but severely degrade air quality. Conversely, following the Western and Japanese pattern of imposing air quality pollution controls at a later time could accelerate future warming rates, especially at NHmls. More broadly, our results indicate that due to spatial and temporal inhomogeneities in forcing, climate impacts of multi-pollutant emissions can vary strongly from region to region and can include substantial effects on maximum rate-of-change, neither of which are captured by commonly used global metrics. The method we introduce here to estimate

  9. The net climate impact of coal-fired power plant emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindell, D.; Faluvegi, G.

    2010-04-01

    Coal-fired power plants influence climate via both the emission of long-lived carbon dioxide (CO2) and short-lived ozone and aerosol precursors. Using a climate model, we perform the first study of the spatial and temporal pattern of radiative forcing specifically for coal plant emissions. Without substantial pollution controls, we find that near-term net global mean climate forcing is negative due to the well-known aerosol masking of the effects of CO2. Imposition of pollution controls on sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides leads to a rapid realization of the full positive forcing from CO2, however. Long-term global mean forcing from stable (constant) emissions is positive regardless of pollution controls. Emissions from coal-fired power plants until ~1970, including roughly 1/3 of total anthropogenic CO2 emissions, likely contributed little net global mean climate forcing during that period though they may have induce weak Northern Hemisphere mid-latitude (NHml) cooling. After that time many areas imposed pollution controls or switched to low-sulfur coal. Hence forcing due to emissions from 1970 to 2000 and CO2 emitted previously was strongly positive and contributed to rapid global and especially NHml warming. Most recently, new construction in China and India has increased rapidly with minimal application of pollution controls. Continuation of this trend would add negative near-term global mean climate forcing but severely degrade air quality. Conversely, following the Western and Japanese pattern of imposing air quality pollution controls at a later time could accelerate future warming rates, especially at NHmls. More broadly, our results indicate that due to spatial and temporal inhomogenaities in forcing, climate impacts of multi-pollutant emissions can vary strongly from region to region and can include substantial effects on maximum rate-of-change, neither of which are captured by commonly used global metrics. The method we introduce here to estimate

  10. Impact of coal-carrying trains on particulate matter concentrations in South Delta, British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaoka, K; McKendry, I; Saxton, J; Cottle, P W

    2017-04-01

    Transport of coal by train through residential neighborhoods in Metro Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada may increase the possibility of exposure to particulate matter at different size ranges, with concomitant potential negative health impacts. This pilot study identifies and quantifies train impacts on particulate matter (PM) concentrations at a single location. Field work was conducted during August and September 2014, with the attributes of a subset of passing trains confirmed visually, and the majority of passages identified with audio data. In addition to fixed ground based monitors at distances 15 and 50 m from the train tracks, an horizontally pointing mini-micropulse lidar system was deployed on three days to make backscatter and depolarization measurements in an attempt to identify the zone of influence, and sources, of train-generated PM. Ancillary wind and dust fall data were also utilized. Trains carrying coal are associated with a 5.3 (54%), 4.1 (33%), and 2.6 (17%) μgm(-3) average increase in concentration over a 14 min period compared to the average concentrations over the 10 min prior to and after a train passage ("control" or "background" conditions), for PM3, PM10, and PM20, respectively. In addition, for PM10 and PM20, concentrations during train passages of non-coal-carrying trains were not found to be significantly different from PM concentrations during control conditions. Presence of coal dust particles at the site was confirmed by dust fall measurements. Although enhancements of PM concentrations during 14 min train passages were generally modest, passing coal trains occasionally enhanced concentrations at 50 m from the tracks by ∼100 μgm(-3). Results showed that not every train passage increased PM concentrations, and the effect appears to be highly dependent on wind direction, local meteorology and load related factors. LiDAR imagery suggests that re-mobilization of track-side PM by train-induced turbulence may be a significant

  11. Characterization of Oxy-combustion Impacts in Existing Coal-fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Bradley R. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Fry, Andrew R. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Senior, Constance L. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Shim, Hong Shig [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Otten, Brydger Van [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Wendt, Jost [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Shaddix, Christopher [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tree, Dale [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States)

    2010-06-01

    This report summarizes Year 2 results of a research program designed to use multi-scale experimental studies and fundamental theoretical models to characterize and predict the impacts of retrofit of existing coal-fired utility boilers for oxy-combustion. Year 2 focused extensively on obtaining experimental data from the bench-scale, lab-scale and pilot-scale reactors. These data will be used to refine and validate submodels to be implemented in CFD simulations of full-scale boiler retrofits. Program tasks are on schedule for Year 3 completion. Both Year 2 milestones were completed on schedule and within budget.

  12. Assessment of H-Coal process developments: impact on the performance and economics of a proposed commercial plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talib, A.; Gray, D.; Neuworth, M.

    1984-01-01

    This report assesses the performance of the H-Coal process, a catalytic direct liquefaction process, at a process development and large pilot-plant scale of operation. The assessment focused on the evaluation of operating results from selected long-term successful process development unit (PDU) and pilot plant runs made on Illinois No. 6 coal. The pilot plant has largely duplicated the product yield structure obtained during the PDU runs. Also, the quality of products, particularly liquid products, produced during the pilot plant run is quite comparable to that produced during the PDU runs. This confirms the scalability of the H-Coal ebullated-bed reactor system from a PDU-scale, 3 tons of coal per day, to a large pilot scale, 220 tons of coal per day, plant. The minor product yield differences, such as higher yields of C/sub 3/, C/sub 4/, and naphtha fractions, and lower yields of distillate oils obtained during pilot plant runs as compared to the PDU runs, will not impact the projected technical and economic performance of a first-of-a-kind commercial H-Coal plant. Thus, the process yield and operating data collected during the PDU operations provided an adequate basis for projecting the technical and economic performance of the proposed H-Coal commercial plant. 18 references, 9 figures, 56 tables.

  13. DWPF COAL-CARBON WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA LIMIT EVALUATION BASED ON EXPERIMENTAL WORK (TANK 48 IMPACT STUDY)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D.; Choi, A.

    2010-10-15

    This report summarizes the results of both experimental and modeling studies performed using Sludge Batch 10 (SB10) simulants and FBSR product from Tank 48 simulant testing in order to develop higher levels of coal-carbon that can be managed by DWPF. Once the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) process starts up for treatment of Tank 48 legacy waste, the FBSR product stream will contribute higher levels of coal-carbon in the sludge batch for processing at DWPF. Coal-carbon is added into the FBSR process as a reductant and some of it will be present in the FBSR product as unreacted coal. The FBSR product will be slurried in water, transferred to Tank Farm and will be combined with sludge and washed to produce the sludge batch that DWPF will process. The FBSR product is high in both water soluble sodium carbonate and unreacted coal-carbon. Most of the sodium carbonate is removed during washing but all of the coal-carbon will remain and become part of the DWPF sludge batch. A paper study was performed earlier to assess the impact of FBSR coal-carbon on the DWPF Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) operation and melter off-gas flammability by combining it with SB10-SB13. The results of the paper study are documented in Ref. 7 and the key findings included that SB10 would be the most difficult batch to process with the FBSR coal present and up to 5,000 mg/kg of coal-carbon could be fed to the melter without exceeding the off-gas flammability safety basis limits. In the present study, a bench-scale demonstration of the DWPF CPC processing was performed using SB10 simulants spiked with varying amounts of coal, and the resulting seven CPC products were fed to the DWPF melter cold cap and off-gas dynamics models to determine the maximum coal that can be processed through the melter without exceeding the off-gas flammability safety basis limits. Based on the results of these experimental and modeling studies, the presence of coal-carbon in the sludge feed to DWPF is found to have

  14. Integrated Biomass Gasification with Catalytic Partial Oxidation for Selective Tar Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lingzhi; Wei, Wei; Manke, Jeff; Vazquez, Arturo; Thompson, Jeff; Thompson, Mark

    2011-05-28

    Biomass gasification is a flexible and efficient way of utilizing widely available domestic renewable resources. Syngas from biomass has the potential for biofuels production, which will enhance energy security and environmental benefits. Additionally, with the successful development of low Btu fuel engines (e.g. GE Jenbacher engines), syngas from biomass can be efficiently used for power/heat co-generation. However, biomass gasification has not been widely commercialized because of a number of technical/economic issues related to gasifier design and syngas cleanup. Biomass gasification, due to its scale limitation, cannot afford to use pure oxygen as the gasification agent that used in coal gasification. Because, it uses air instead of oxygen, the biomass gasification temperature is much lower than well-understood coal gasification. The low temperature leads to a lot of tar formation and the tar can gum up the downstream equipment. Thus, the biomass gasification tar removal is a critical technology challenge for all types of biomass gasifiers. This USDA/DOE funded program (award number: DE-FG36-O8GO18085) aims to develop an advanced catalytic tar conversion system that can economically and efficiently convert tar into useful light gases (such as syngas) for downstream fuel synthesis or power generation. This program has been executed by GE Global Research in Irvine, CA, in collaboration with Professor Lanny Schmidt's group at the University of Minnesota (UoMn). Biomass gasification produces a raw syngas stream containing H2, CO, CO2, H2O, CH4 and other hydrocarbons, tars, char, and ash. Tars are defined as organic compounds that are condensable at room temperature and are assumed to be largely aromatic. Downstream units in biomass gasification such as gas engine, turbine or fuel synthesis reactors require stringent control in syngas quality, especially tar content to avoid plugging (gum) of downstream equipment. Tar- and ash-free syngas streams are a critical

  15. Biomass gasification in ABFB : Tar mitigation

    OpenAIRE

    Vera, Nemanova

    2014-01-01

    Biomass gasification may be an attractive alternative for meeting future energy demand. Although gasification is a mature technology, it has yet to be fully commercialised due to tar formation. This study focuses on the tar mitigation in gas produced in an atmospheric bubbling fluidised bed (ABFB) gasification system. Previous studies indicated significant tar variability along the system. In this work the experimental procedure has been improved for reliable results and better understanding ...

  16. User-Friendly Tool to Calculate Economic Impacts from Coal, Natural Gas, and Wind: The Expanded Jobs and Economic Development Impact Model (JEDI II); Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegen, S.; Goldberg, M.; Milligan, M.

    2006-06-01

    In this paper we examine the impacts of building new coal, gas, or wind plants in three states: Colorado, Michigan, and Virginia. Our findings indicate that local/state economic impacts are directly related to the availability and utilization of local industries and services to build and operate the power plant. For gas and coal plants, the economic benefit depends significantly on whether the fuel is obtained from within the state, out of state, or some combination. We also find that the taxes generated by power plants can have a significant impact on local economies via increased expenditures on public goods.

  17. Telomere damage effect of human tracheal epithelial cells induced by POT1 RNA interference and coal tar pitch extract%POT1 RNA干扰与煤焦沥青烟提取物对BEAS-2B细胞端粒的损伤效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建功; 王思华; 李小龙; 姚武; 燕贞; 吴拥军; 吴逸明; 王威

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of down regulation of protection of telomere 1 (POT1) and Coal Tar Pitch on the telomere damage of human bronchial epithelial cells(BEAS-2B) caused by CTP.Methods BEAS-2B cells were cultured respectively in CTP group,dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) solvent control group and blank control group,and then,they were RNA interferenced in POT1 gene in the 1st,the 10th,the 20th and the 30th generations,the telomere length,the mRNAs expression of POT1 and human telomerase reverse transcriptase(hTERT),and proteins expression of POT1 and hTERT were detected.Results Compared with control group,suppression of POT1 gene could reduce the mRNA expression of hTERT(F =25.008,P <0.001),and the relative length of telomere DNA was shorterned(F =14.617,P =0.001).With the increase of cell culture generation,the relative length of telomere DNA was shortern (F =15.988,P <0.001).Conclusions Inhibiting the expression of POT1 gene can further the telomeredamage of BASE-2B cells by%目的 探讨永生化人支气管上皮细胞(human bronchial epithelial cells,BEAS-2B)端粒保卫蛋白1(protection of telomere 1,POTl)的表达下调与煤焦沥青(coal tar pitch,CTP)致端粒损伤的作用.方法 BEAS-2B细胞以CTP组,二甲基亚砜(dimethylsulfoxide,DMSO)溶剂对照组和空白对照组分别进行培养.培养至1代、10代、20代和30代时分别对细胞进行POT1基因RNA干扰,然后进行端粒长度、POT1和人端粒酶逆转录酶(human telomerase reverse transcriptase,hTERT)的mRNA及蛋白表达情况的检测.结果 与对照组相比,抑制POT1基因的表达可导致hTERT的mRNA表达水平下调(F=25.008,P<0.001),端粒DNA相对长度缩短(F=14.617,P=0.001),随着培养代数的增加,端粒DNA相对长度缩短(F=15.988,P<0.001).结论 抑制POT1基因表达可间接促进CTP对BASE-2B细胞的端粒损伤作用.

  18. Biogeophysical and Biogeochemical Climate Impacts of Mountaintop Coal Mining in Southern Appalachia USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, J.; Campbell, J.; Snyder, M. A.; Cirbus-Sloan, L.

    2013-12-01

    Mountaintop coal mining (MCM) practices are a controversial energy extraction approach that is common in the southern Appalachian forest region (SAFR) producing approximately one third of coal in the United States. The biogeochemical consequences of MCM practices on existing terrestrial carbon stocks and future carbon sequestration rates have been the focus of our recent study. Using terrestrial carbon data and modeling, our findings suggest that removal of temperature forests and soils during mining and reclamation to grassland land use has resulted in emissions of 0.4 Pg CO2 from MCM lands over the past 40 years. In our on-going developments, we are combining these biogeochemical climate impacts with the unstudied biogeophysical climate impacts of this extreme and widespread MCM land-use change. Here we develop land-use change maps for MCM practices and consider the change in temperature and albedo that results using remote sensing data. These land-use change maps provide a starting point for regional climate simulations that can be used to further characterize the biogeophysical consequences of MCM. Our biogeochemical and biogeophysical results are being integrated into a life cycle assessment and scenario predictions for future mining rates and future reclamation practices, e.g., grassland reclamation versus reforestation, for the next 90 years.

  19. Characterization of Oxy-combustion Impacts in Existing Coal-fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley Adams; Andrew Fry; Constance Senior; Hong Shim; Huafeng Wang; Jost Wendt; Christopher Shaddix

    2009-06-30

    This report summarizes Year 1 results of a research program designed to use multi-scale experimental studies and fundamental theoretical models to characterize and predict the impacts of retrofit of existing coal-fired utility boilers for oxy-combustion. Through the course of Year 1 activities, great progress was made toward understanding the issues associated with oxy-combustion retrofit of coal-fired boilers. All four Year 1 milestones and objectives have been, or will be, completed on schedule and within budget. Progress in the four milestone areas may be summarized as follows: • University of Utah has performed size segregated ash composition measurements in the Oxy-Fuel Combustor (OFC). These experiments indicate that oxy-combustion retrofit may impact ash aerosol mineral matter composition. Both flame temperature and flue gas composition have been observed to influence the concentration of calcium, magnesium and iron in the fine particulate. This could in turn impact boiler fouling and slagging. • Sandia National Labs has shown that char oxidation rate is dependent on particle size (for sizes between 60 and 100 microns) by performing fundamental simulations of reacting char particles. These predictions will be verified by making time-resolved optical measurements of char particle temperature, velocity and size in bench-scale experiments before the end of Year 1. • REI and Siemens have completed the design of an oxy-research burner that will be mounted on University of Utah’s pilot-scale furnace, the L1500. This burner will accommodate a wide range of O2, FGR and mixing strategies under conditions relevant for utility boiler operation. Through CFD modeling of the different burner designs, it was determined that the key factor influencing flame stabilization location is particle heat-up rate. The new oxy-research burner and associated equipment is scheduled for delivery before the end of Year 1. • REI has completed a literature survey of slagging and

  20. 单核巨噬细胞在煤焦沥青烟提取物诱导永生化人支气管上皮细胞恶变中的作用%The Effects of monocyte-macrophages on malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells induced by extracts from coal tar pitch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周凡静; 张少峰; 冯斐斐; 燕贞; 王威; 吴逸明

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨单核巨噬细胞(THP-1)在煤焦沥青烟提取物(coal tar pitch,CTP)致永生化人支气管上皮细胞(human bronchial epithelial cells,BEAS-2B)恶变过程中的作用及肿瘤坏死因子α(tumor necrosis factor alpha,TNF-α)在该过程中的表达.方法 以THP-1和BEAS-2B为研究对象,设立CTP组、苯并(a)芘[B(a)P]组(阳性对照组)、二甲亚砜对照组(溶剂对照组)、BEAS-2B与THP-1共培养组,建立细胞恶性变模型.应用软琼脂集落形成实验、染色体数目畸变分析、流式细胞仪测定细胞周期中不同培养时期(10、20、30代)细胞的恶变情况,利用ELISA方法测定CTP组及共培养组细胞培养上清中TNF-α的含量.结果 染色体数目异常在实验的早期(10代)已经显现,表现为非整倍体和多倍体比例增加,二倍体数目减少.在第20代:共培养组克隆形成率(17.63‰±0.97‰)明显高于CTP组(13.94‰±0.84‰)和阳性对照组组(12.96‰± 1.62‰),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);共培养组S期细胞比例(44.49%±0.68%)明显高于CTP组(38.19%±1.26%)和阳性对照组(36.41%±1.19%),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).共培养组细胞培养上清中TNF-α含量明显高于CTP组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 THP-1能够加速CTP诱导的BEAS-2B恶变,增加TNF-α的表达水平.%Objective To study the effects of monocyte-macrophages (THP-1) in malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) cells induced by coal tar pitch (CTP) and the expression of TNF-α in the process of the cell malignant transformation.Methods BEAS-2B cells and THP-1 Cells were divided into four groups:coal tar pitch (CTP) group,benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] group,dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) group,BEAS-2B and THP-1 co-culture (co-culture group) group.Carcinogenesis model was established.The soft agar colony formation,chromosome aberrations and cell cycle tests were used to detect the cellular malignant transformation.The ELISA

  1. Thermal reactions of polymer chains with coal structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Straka; J. Nahunkova [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic). Institute of Rock Structure and Mechanics

    2003-07-01

    The thermal decompositions of polyethylene, polystyrene and polyamide 6 in the presence of coal was studied by DSC and TGA methods and reactions of these polymers with coal were described. Tars and cokes obtained were characterized and mass balance of the process expressed. Polyethylene decomposes by a free radical mechanism and the major products are 1-alkenes, {alpha},{omega}-alkadienes and n-alkanes. In the presence of coal, formed unsaturated products are adsorbed on the inner surface of coal and semicoke. Maximum weight losses of the coal-polyethylene mixture occur at higher temperature in comparison with that from the decomposition of polyethylene alone. Further, thermal reactions of coal with polystyrene were studied. In the range of 410 490{sup o}C a thermal degradation of coal proceeded, simultaneously, with decomposition of polystyrene. Because coal is a strong H-donor, unsaturated products of polystyrene decomposition (mainly styrene) was hydrogenated by coal. Some aromatic products of polystyrene decomposition reacted with the coal tar structures and new aromatics were formed. That is why the conversion time of polystyrene decomposition was much higher in the presence of coal. The yields of tar from copyrolysis with styrene polymers are higher in comparison with pyrolysis of coal alone. Also composition of tar is changed. Finally, reactions of coal with polyamide 6 were investigated. During the thermal degradation of coal the decomposition of polyamide 6 occurs and {epsilon}-caprolactam and the cyclic dimer are formed. The {epsilon}-caprolactam formation is promoted by water and hydrogen from coal degradation as due to high content of hydrogen coal acts as a strong H- and water donor. Under high-temperature conditions of copyrolysis beside a-caprolactam mainly carbon oxides, methane, aliphatic hydrocarbons, simple aromatics and stable oil are formed. 8 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. Hydrothermal pretreatment of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, D.S.

    1989-12-21

    We have examined changes in Argonne Premium samples of Wyodak coal following 30 min treatment in liquid water at autogenous pressures at 150{degrees}, 250{degrees}, and 350{degrees}C. In most runs the coal was initially dried at 60{degrees}C/1 torr/20 hr. The changes were monitored by pyrolysis field ionization mass spectrometry (py-FIMS) operating at 2.5{degrees}C/min from ambient to 500{degrees}C. We recorded the volatility patterns of the coal tars evolved over that temperature range, and in all cases the tar yields were 25%--30% of the starting coal on mass basis. There was essentially no change after the 150{degrees}C treatment. Small increases in volatility were seen following the 250{degrees}C treatment, but major effects were seen in the 350{degrees} work. The tar quantity remained unchanged; however, the volatility increased so the temperature of half volatility for the as-received coal of 400{degrees}C was reduced to 340{degrees}C. Control runs with no water showed some thermal effect, but the net effect from the presence of liquid water was clearly evident. The composition was unchanged after the 150{degrees} and 250{degrees}C treatments, but the 350{degrees} treatment brought about a 30% loss of oxygen. The change corresponded to loss of the elements of water, although loss of OH'' seemed to fit the analysis data somewhat better. The water loss takes place both in the presence and in the absence of added water, but it is noteworthy that the loss in the hydrothermal runs occurs at p(H{sub 2}O) = 160 atm. We conclude that the process must involve the dehydration solely of chemically bound elements of water, the dehydration of catechol is a specific, likely candidate.

  3. Sydney Tar Ponds Remediation: Experience to China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fan; Bryson, Ken A.

    2009-01-01

    The infamous "Sydney Tar Ponds" are well known as one of the largest toxic waste sites of Canada, due to almost 100 years of steelmaking in Sydney, a once beautiful and peaceful city located on the east side of Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia. This article begins with a contextual overview of the Tar Ponds issue including a brief introduction and…

  4. PRODUCTION OF CARBON PRODUCTS USING A COAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dady Dadyburjor; Philip R. Biedler; Chong Chen; L. Mitchell Clendenin; Manoj Katakdaunde; Elliot B. Kennel; Nathan D. King; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2004-08-31

    This Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored project developed carbon products, using mildly hydrogenated solvents to extract the organic portion of coal to create synthetic pitches, cokes, carbon foam and carbon fibers. The focus of this effort was on development of lower cost solvents, milder hydrogenation conditions and improved yield in order to enable practical production of these products. This technology is needed because of the long-term decline in production of domestic feedstocks such as petroleum pitch and coal tar pitch. Currently, carbon products represents a market of roughly 5 million tons domestically, and 19 million tons worldwide. Carbon products are mainly derived from feedstocks such as petroleum pitch and coal tar pitch. The domestic supply of petroleum pitch is declining because of the rising price of liquid fuels, which has caused US refineries to maximize liquid fuel production. As a consequence, the long term trend has a decline in production of petroleum pitch over the past 20 years. The production of coal tar pitch, as in the case of petroleum pitch, has likewise declined significantly over the past two decades. Coal tar pitch is a byproduct of metallurgical grade coke (metcoke) production. In this industry, modern metcoke facilities are recycling coal tar as fuel in order to enhance energy efficiency and minimize environmental emissions. Metcoke production itself is dependent upon the production requirements for domestic steel. Hence, several metcoke ovens have been decommissioned over the past two decades and have not been replaced. As a consequence sources of coal tar are being taken off line and are not being replaced. The long-term trend is a reduction in coal tar pitch production. Thus import of feedstocks, mainly from Eastern Europe and China, is on the rise despite the relatively large transportation cost. To reverse this trend, a new process for producing carbon products is needed. The process must be

  5. Transient Climate Impacts for Scenarios of Aerosol Emissions from Asia: A Story of Coal versus Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandey, B. S.; Cheng, H.; Wang, C.

    2014-12-01

    Projections of anthropogenic aerosol emissions are uncertain. In Asia, it is possible that emissions may increase if business continues as usual, with economic growth driving an increase in coal burning. But it is also possible that emissions may decrease rapidly due to the widespread adoption of cleaner technology or a shift towards non-coal fuels, such as natural gas. In this study, the transient climate impacts of three aerosol emissions scenarios are investigated: an RCP4.5 (Representative Concentration Pathway 4.5) control; a scenario with reduced Asian anthropogenic aerosol emissions; and a scenario with enhanced Asian anthropogenic aerosol emissions. A coupled atmosphere-ocean configuration of CESM (Community Earth System Model), including CAM5 (Community Atmosphere Model version 5), is used. Enhanced Asian aerosol emissions are found to delay global mean warming by one decade at the end of the century. Aerosol-induced suppression of the East Asian and South Asian summer monsoon precipitation occurs. The enhanced Asian aerosol emissions also remotely impact precipitation in other parts of the world: over the Sahel, West African monsoon precipitation is suppressed; and over Australia, austral summer monsoon precipitation is enhanced. These remote impacts on precipitation are associated with a southward shift of the ITCZ. The aerosol-induced sea surface temperature (SST) response appears to play an important role in the precipitation changes over South Asia and Australia, but not over East Asia. These results indicate that energy production in Asia, through the consequent aerosol emissions and associated radiative effects, might significantly influence future climate both locally and globally.

  6. Survey of the potential environmental and health impacts in the immediate aftermath of the coal ash spill in Kingston, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laura Ruhl; Avner Vengosh; Gary S. Dwyer; Heileen Hsu-Kim; Amrika Deonarine; Mike Bergin; Julia Kravchenko [Duke University, Durham, NC (United States). Division of Earth and Ocean Sciences

    2009-08-15

    An investigation of the potential environmental and health impacts in the immediate aftermath of one of the largest coal ash spills in U.S. history at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Kingston coal-burning power plant has revealed three major findings. First, the surface release of coal ash with high levels of toxic elements (As = 75 mg/kg; Hg = 150 {mu}g/kg) and radioactivity ({sup 226}Ra + {sup 228}Ra = 8 pCi/g) to the environment has the potential to generate resuspended ambient fine particles (<10 {mu}m) containing these toxics into the atmosphere that may pose a health risk to local communities. Second, leaching of contaminants from the coal ash caused contamination of surface waters in areas of restricted water exchange, but only trace levels were found in the downstream Emory and Clinch Rivers due to river dilution. Third, the accumulation of Hg- and As-rich coal ash in river sediments has the potential to have an impact on the ecological system in the downstream rivers by fish poisoning and methylmercury formation in anaerobic river sediments. 61 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Mechanistic study on the plastic phenomena of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomura, M.; Kidena, K.; Hiro, M.; Murata, S. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry

    2000-08-01

    Highly coking coal, Goonyella coal, and slightly coking coal, Witbank coal, were submitted to ruthenium ion catalyzed oxidation (RICO) reaction to clarify the structural features of the two coals. Expected structural differences between the two coking coals were meagre but interesting. Witbank coal has a slightly larger amount of longer methylene bridges (C15-C25) and longer alkyl chains (C15-C30) than Goonyella coal. NMR spectra gave information on the average aromatic ring size: Goonyella coal has larger aromatic rings than Witbank coal. Two steps of heat treatment of the coals were performed: the first step is heating to the softening temperature, and the second step is heating the resulting sample to resolidification temperature. Witbank coal gave a larger amount of tar in the first step of the heating than Goonyella coal, while Goonyella coal gave a larger amount of tar in the second step of the heating compared with the corresponding fraction of Witbank coal. These suggest that a larger amount of metaplast, which is indispensable for the appearance of fluidity, could be produced during the plastic range (the temperature range from the softening temperature to the resolidification temperature) in the case of Goonyella coal, this leading to its higher Gieseler maximum fluidity. These two coking coals have the same amount of transferable hydrogen. Therefore, Witbank coal is supposed to consume large amounts of transferable hydrogen for the formation of tar during the heating to softening temperature, probably via oxygen functional group related reactions and carbon-carbon bond breaking reactions. Due to a lower amount of transferable hydrogen in the char, subsequent bond cleavage reactions at the plastic range lead to recombination to show a low value of its Gieseler maximum fluidity, although the three-dimensional structure framework of Witbank coal collapses to a small extent. 29 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Environmental impact of coal ash on tributary streams and nearshore water or Lake Erie. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, K.G.

    1978-08-01

    The environmental impact of coal ash disposal at a landfill site in north-central Chautauqua County, New York was studied from June 1975 through July 1977. Water samples taken from wells, ponds, and streams at 67 sites were analyzed for specific conductance, pH, alkalinity, arsenic, calcium, cadmium, chloride, chromium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, selenium, sodium, sulfate and zinc. Evidence suggests that ponds at the landfill were high in Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, and SO/sub 4/ compared to control pands. A stream adjacent to the site contained greater Mn (207 ug/1) and SO/sub 4/ (229 ppm) than control streams. Shallow alkaline test wells in the landfill had elevated As, Ca, and Se. Acid-neutral test wells had elevated As, Ca, Cr, Mg and Mn. Household wells in the vicinity of the landfill showed no evident contamination from the landfill. Average iron concentrations in the biota were tripled, and manganese concentrations doubled in biota affected by the coal ash dump. However, any effects of the disposal area on the distribution of the biota could not be separated from effects of varying environment factors such as water movements, substrate composition and food availability. No harmful effects could be demonstrated on the biota in the creek which flowed past the disposal area.

  9. Recovery of novel bacterial diversity from a forested wetland impacted by reject coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brofft, Jennifer E; McArthur, J Vaun; Shimkets, Lawrence J

    2002-11-01

    Sulphide mineral mining together with improperly contained sulphur-rich coal represents a significant environmental problem caused by leaching of toxic material. The Savannah River Site's D-area harbours a 22-year-old exposed reject coal pile (RCP) from which acidic, metal rich, saline runoff has impacted an adjacent forested wetland. In order to assess the bacterial community composition of this region, composite sediment samples were collected at three points along a contamination gradient (high, middle and no contamination) and processed for generation of bacterial and archaeal 16S rDNA clone libraries. Little sequence overlap occurred between the contaminated (RCP samples) and unimpacted sites, indicating that the majority of 16S rDNAs retrieved from the former represent organisms selected by the acidic runoff. Archaeal diversity within the RCP samples consisted mainly of sequences related to the genus Thermoplasma and to sequences of a novel type. Bacterial RCP libraries contained 16S rRNA genes related to isolates (Acidiphilium sp., Acidobacterium capsulatum, Ferromicrobium acidophilium and Leptospirillum ferrooxidans) and environmental clones previously retrieved from acidic habitats, including ones phylogenetically associated with organisms capable of sulphur and iron metabolism. These libraries also exhibited particularly novel 16S rDNA types not retrieved from other acid mine drainage habitats, indicating that significant diversity remains to be detected in acid mine drainage-type systems.

  10. Environmental impact of differently remediated hard coal overburden and tailings dumps a few decades after remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willscher, S. [Technical Univ. of Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Waste Management and Contaminated Site Treatment; Hertwig, T. [BEAK Consultants GmbH, Freiburg (Germany); Felix, M.; Sohr, A. [Saxonian State Dept. of Environment, Agriculture and Geology, Freiburg (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Coal mining in the Saxony region of Germany has caused heavy metal and arsenic pollution in adjacent groundwater and surface waters. Coal waste dumping sites are leaching heavy metals and metalloids in the form of fine precipitates into local rivers. This paper studied the different remediation strategies used at 3 different dump sites in the area. The aim of the study was to determine the environmental impact of the dumps and evaluate the long-term effects of remediation measures. The dumps consisted of coarse to fine-grained materials from former processing activities, and contained pyrite in varying concentrations. Samples from different depth as well as groundwater samples were taken from the sites and investigated for their mechanical, geological, geochemical, biogeochemical, and physico-chemical characteristics. Seepage formation rates and contaminant loads at the dump sites were compared. The study showed that the revegetation of dump surfaces can help to prevent against erosion, but cannot prevent acid mine drainage (AMD) generation. The additional seals and covers placed at 2 of the dumps resulted in a high reduction of seepage waters, and almost no acidification of dump materials. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  11. Recovery of novel bacterial diversity from a forested wetland impacted by reject coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brofft, J.E.; McArthur, J.V.; Shimkets, L.J. [University of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Microbiology

    2002-07-01

    Sulphide mineral mining together with improperly contained sulphur-rich coal represents a significant environmental problem caused by leaching of toxic material. The Savannah River Site's D-area harbours a 22-year-old exposed reject coal pile (RCP) from which acidic, metal rich, saline runoff has impacted an adjacent forested wetland. In order to assess the bacterial community composition of this region, composite sediment samples were collected at three points along a contamination gradient (high, middle and no contamination) and processed for generation of bacterial and archaeal 16S rDNA clone libraries. Little sequence overlap occurred between the contaminated (RCP samples) and unimpacted sites, indicating that the majority of 16S rDNAs retrieved from the former represent organisms selected by the acidic runoff. Archaeal diversity within the RCP samples consisted mainly of sequences related to the genus Thermoplasma and to sequences of a novel type. Bacterial RCP libraries contained 16S rRNA genes related to isolates (Acidiphilium sp., Acidobacterium capsulatum, Ferromicrobium acidophilium and Leptospirillum ferrooxidans) and environmental clones previously retrieved from acidic habitats, including ones phylogenetically associated with organisms capable of sulphur and iron metabolism. These libraries also exhibited particularly novel 16S rDNA types not retrieved from other acid mine drainage habitats, indicating that significant diversity remains to be detected in acid mine drainage-type systems.

  12. The net climate impact of coal-fired power plant emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Shindell

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Coal-fired power plants influence climate via both the emission of long-lived carbon dioxide (CO2 and short-lived ozone and aerosol precursors. Using a climate model, we perform the first study of the spatial and temporal pattern of radiative forcing specifically for coal plant emissions. Without substantial pollution controls, we find that near-term net global mean climate forcing is negative due to the well-known aerosol masking of the effects of CO2. Imposition of pollution controls on sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides leads to a rapid realization of the full positive forcing from CO2, however. Long-term global mean forcing from stable (constant emissions is positive regardless of pollution controls. Emissions from coal-fired power plants until ~1970, including roughly 1/3 of total anthropogenic CO2 emissions, likely contributed little net global mean climate forcing during that period though they may have induce weak Northern Hemisphere mid-latitude (NHml cooling. After that time many areas imposed pollution controls or switched to low-sulfur coal. Hence forcing due to emissions from 1970 to 2000 and CO2 emitted previously was strongly positive and contributed to rapid global and especially NHml warming. Most recently, new construction in China and India has increased rapidly with minimal application of pollution controls. Continuation of this trend would add negative near-term global mean climate forcing but severely degrade air quality. Conversely, following the Western and Japanese pattern of imposing air quality pollution controls at a later time could accelerate future warming rates, especially at NHmls. More broadly, our results indicate that due to spatial and temporal inhomogenaities in forcing, climate impacts of multi-pollutant emissions can vary strongly from region to region and can include substantial effects on maximum rate-of-change, neither of which are captured by

  13. DWPF COAL-CARBON WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA LIMIT EVALUATION BASED ON EXPERIMENTAL WORK (TANK 48 IMPACT STUDY)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D.; Choi, A.

    2010-10-15

    This report summarizes the results of both experimental and modeling studies performed using Sludge Batch 10 (SB10) simulants and FBSR product from Tank 48 simulant testing in order to develop higher levels of coal-carbon that can be managed by DWPF. Once the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) process starts up for treatment of Tank 48 legacy waste, the FBSR product stream will contribute higher levels of coal-carbon in the sludge batch for processing at DWPF. Coal-carbon is added into the FBSR process as a reductant and some of it will be present in the FBSR product as unreacted coal. The FBSR product will be slurried in water, transferred to Tank Farm and will be combined with sludge and washed to produce the sludge batch that DWPF will process. The FBSR product is high in both water soluble sodium carbonate and unreacted coal-carbon. Most of the sodium carbonate is removed during washing but all of the coal-carbon will remain and become part of the DWPF sludge batch. A paper study was performed earlier to assess the impact of FBSR coal-carbon on the DWPF Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) operation and melter off-gas flammability by combining it with SB10-SB13. The results of the paper study are documented in Ref. 7 and the key findings included that SB10 would be the most difficult batch to process with the FBSR coal present and up to 5,000 mg/kg of coal-carbon could be fed to the melter without exceeding the off-gas flammability safety basis limits. In the present study, a bench-scale demonstration of the DWPF CPC processing was performed using SB10 simulants spiked with varying amounts of coal, and the resulting seven CPC products were fed to the DWPF melter cold cap and off-gas dynamics models to determine the maximum coal that can be processed through the melter without exceeding the off-gas flammability safety basis limits. Based on the results of these experimental and modeling studies, the presence of coal-carbon in the sludge feed to DWPF is found to have

  14. Social impact assessment of the proposed Dodds-RoundHill coal gasification project : project report : executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkins, J.R. (ed.)

    2009-07-01

    A public disclosure document was released for a proposed Dodds-RoundHill coal gasification project in January 2007, and the project was placed on hold in 2008 given some uncertainty around its future. However, there was a general sense that a project of this nature would be proposed for this coal-rich region at some point in the future. This report presented the results of a project completed by 14 graduate and undergraduate students in a social impact assessment course in 2009 at the University of Alberta. The purpose of the project was to learn specific concepts and methods for social impact assessment by undertaking such an assessment for the proposed Dodds-RoundHill coal gasification project, located southeast of Edmonton, Alberta. The 4 major components of a social impact assessment include scoping of relevant social indicators; social impacts within municipalities; social impacts within the farming region; and a comparative case study of social impacts. All of the research participants indicated that the project would have an impact on their community.

  15. Impact of heat and mass transfer during the transport of nitrogen in coal porous media on coal mine fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Bobo; Zhou, Fubao

    2014-01-01

    The application of liquid nitrogen injection is an important technique in the field of coal mine fire prevention. However, the mechanism of heat and mass transfer of cryogenic nitrogen in the goaf porous medium has not been well accessed. Hence, the implementation of fire prevention engineering of liquid nitrogen roughly relied on an empirical view. According to the research gap in this respect, an experimental study on the heat and mass transfer of liquid nitrogen in coal porous media was proposed. Overall, the main mechanism of liquid nitrogen fire prevention technology in the coal mine is the creation of an inert and cryogenic atmosphere. Cryogenic nitrogen gas vapor cloud, heavier than the air, would cause the phenomenon of "gravity settling" in porous media firstly. The cryogen could be applicable to diverse types of fires, both in the openings and in the enclosures. Implementation of liquid nitrogen open-injection technique in Yangchangwan colliery achieved the goals of fire prevention and air-cooling. Meanwhile, this study can also provide an essential reference for the research on heat and mass transfer in porous media in the field of thermal physics and engineering.

  16. Characteristics of Pyrolytic Topping in Fluidized Bed for Different Volatile Coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, R.; Dong, L.; Xu, G. W.

    Coal is generally combusted or gasified directly to destroy completely the chemical structures, such as aromatic rings containing in volatile coals including bituminite and lignite. Coal topping refers to a process that extracts chemicals with aromatic rings from such volatile coals in advance of combustion or gasification and thereby takes advantage of the value of coal as a kind of chemical structure resource. CFB boiler is the coal utilization facility that can be easily retrofitted to implement coal topping. A critical issue for performing coal topping is the choice of the pyrolytic reactor that can be different types. The present study concerns fluidized bed reactor that has rarely been tested for use in coal topping. Two different types of coals, one being Xiaolongtan (XLT) lignite and the other Shanxi (SX) bituminous, were tested to clarify the yield and composition of pyrolysis liquid and gas under conditions simulating actual operations. The results showed that XLT lignite coals had the maximum tar yield in 823-873K and SX bituminite realized its highest tar yield in 873-923K. Overall, lignite produced lower tar yield than bituminous coal. The pyrolysis gas from lignite coals contained more CO and CO2 and less CH4, H2 and C2+C3 (C2H4, C2H6, C3H6, C3H8) components comparing to that from bituminous coal. TG-FTIR analysis of tars demonstrated that for different coals there are different amounts of typical chemical species. Using coal ash of CFB boiler, instead of quartz sand, as the fluidized particles decreased the yields of both tar and gas for all the tested coals. Besides, pyrolysis in a reaction atmosphere simulating the pyrolysis gas (instead of N2) resulted also in higher production of pyrolysis liquid.

  17. Selenium transformation in coal mine spoils: Its environmental impact assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harness, J.; Atalay, A.; Koll, K.J.; Zhang, H.; Maggon, D.

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this program was to conduct an environmental impact assessment study for selenium from coal mine spoils. The use of in-situ lysimetry to predict selenium speciation, transformation, and mobility under natural conditions was evaluated. The scope of the study was to construct and test field-scale lysimeter and laboratory mini-column to assess mobility and speciation of selenium in coal mine overburden and soil systems; to conduct soil and groundwater sampling throughout the state of Oklahoma for an overall environmental impact assessment of selenium; and to conduct an in-depth literature review on the solubility, speciation, mobility, and toxicity of selenium from various sources. Groundwater and surface soil samples were also collected from each county in Oklahoma. Data collected from the lysimeter study indicated that selenium in the overburden of the abandoned mine site was mainly found in the selenite form. The amount of selenite found was too low and immobile to be of concern to the environment. The spoil had equilibrated long enough (over 50 years) that most of the soluble forms of selenium have already been lost. Examination of the overburden indicated the presence of pyrite crystals that precipitated over time. The laboratory mini-column study indicated that selenite is quite immobile and remained on the overburden material even after leaching with dilute acid. Data from groundwater samples indicated that based on the current permissible level for selenium in groundwater (0.01 mg Se/L), Oklahoma groundwater is widely contaminated with the element. However, according to the new regulation (0.05 mg Se/L), which is to be promulgated in 1992, only 9 of the 77 counties in the state exceed the limit.

  18. 12th international conference on coal science. Coal - contributing to sustainable world development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The theme of the conference was: coal - contributing to sustainable world. Papers dealt with combustion, coal cleaning, surface analysis, coal sustainability and research, metallurgical coke, structural studies, ash utilization, SEM analysis, liquefaction, pulverized coal injection, power plant emissions, analytical techniques, gasification, thermal analysis, weathering, self-heating and dust explosion, low rank coal gasification, geochemistry and trace elements, petrographic studies, CO{sub 2} mitigation, low rank coal pyrolysis, gas sorption, pyrolysis, synthesis gas, low rank coal drying, biomass pyrolysis, gas cleaning, underground gasification, activated carbon, pyrolysis and char reactivity, gasification model studies, agglomerated and slurry fuels, co-pyrolysis, and tar products and effluents. The poster papers are also included. The papers have been abstracted separately on the IEA Clean Coal Centre Coal Abstracts database.

  19. Mitigating the impacts of coal/energy development in the western states: training manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    A hypothetical case study is presented at the workshop involving a western county called Bittersweet County, a typical town - Hassig Junction - and an unincorporated area in the county - Fred's Corner. The county will shortly be affected by the construction of a coal-fired generating plant and the opening of a strip mine. Working in small groups participants examined the growth implications of these developments, assessed potential problems and developed a strategy for solving them. They worked first on a range of likely impacts as a member of a County/Community Impact Task Force. Later they focused on specific problems associated with water supply, wastewater treatment, roads, schools, solid waste disposal and public safety. A range of alternatives and their associated costs and environmental impacts were considered. Priorities and a plan for implementing them were worked out, looking at local as well as state and federal sources of assistance. Finally, in a role playing simulation participants moved through twelve years of growth and development. Land development and public investment decisions were made. Opportunities for negotiation with energy companies were available. Local and state referendums also guide Bittersweet County's progress through this period.

  20. The impacts of combustion emissions on air quality and climate - From coal to biofuels and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, Jeffrey S.; Marley, Nancy A.

    Combustion processes have inherent characteristics that lead to the release in the environment of both gaseous and particulate pollutants that have primary and secondary impacts on air quality, human health, and climate. The emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and biofuels and their atmospheric impacts are reviewed here with attention given to the emissions of the currently regulated pollutant gasses, primary aerosols, and secondary aerosol precursors as well as the emissions of non-regulated pollutants. Fuels ranging from coal, petroleum, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), natural gas, as well as the biofuels; ethanol, methanol, methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE), and biodiesel, are discussed in terms of the known air quality and climate impacts of the currently regulated pollutants. The potential importance of the non-regulated emissions of both gasses and aerosols in air quality issues and climate is also discussed with principal focus on aldehydes and other oxygenated organics, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and nitrated organics. The connection between air quality and climate change is also addressed with attention given to ozone and aerosols as potentially important greenhouse species.

  1. Exploratory and heuristic investigation into the impact of inconsistent accounting practices in the coal-extraction industry - a survey approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coffee, C.D.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of these inconsistent accounting practices and to consider the relative significance of the basic accounting conventions of matching and realization in producing the inconsistent accounting practices. An expert opinion survey is employed as a measurement instrument. A purposive sampling plan is developed, using judgment to obtain a representative group of individuals who are expert in the financial accounting practices of coal-extraction companies. This group consists of the chief financial officers of 183 coal-producing companies and 54 representatives of national accounting firms. Included in the group are representatives from the 99 largest coal-producing companies in the United States and 54 individuals in public accounting from each of the traditional big eight national accounting firms. An overall response rate of 53% was obtained, including a 79% response from the national accounting firm personnel. The findings of the expert opinion survey support the conclusion that inconsistent accounting practices in the coal industry may seriously impair users' ability to compare financial results of coal producers. The findings support the need for authoritative or quasi-authoritative accounting standards.

  2. Nanominerals and potentially hazardous elements from coal cleaning rejects of abandoned mines: Environmental impact and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fdez-Ortiz de Vallejuelo, Silvia; Gredilla, Ainara; da Boit, Kátia; Teixeira, Elba C; Sampaio, Carlos H; Madariaga, Juan Manuel; Silva, Luis F O

    2017-02-01

    Soils around coal mining are important reservoir of hazardous elements (HEs), nanominerals, and ultrafine compounds. This research reports and discusses the soil concentrations of HEs (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in coal residues of abandoned mines. To assess differences regarding environmental impact and risk assessment between coal abandoned mines from the Santa Catarina state, eighteen coal cleaning rejects with different mineralogical and chemical composition, from eight abandoned mines were collected. Nanominerals and ultra-fine minerals from mining-contaminated areas were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM), providing new information on the mineralogy and nano-mineralogy of these coal residues. The total contents of 57 elements (HEs, alkali metals, and rare earth elements) were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The calculation of NWACs (Normalized Average Weighted Concentration), together with the chemometric analysis by Principal component analysis (PCA) confirmed the variability of the samples regarding their city and their mine of origin. Moreover, the results confirmed the existence of hotspots in mines near urban areas.

  3. Mining-related environmental impacts of carbon mitigation; Coal-based carbon capture and sequestration and wind-enabling transmission expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grubert, Emily

    2010-09-15

    Carbon mitigation can occur by preventing generation of greenhouse gases or by preventing emissions from entering the atmosphere. Accordingly, increasing the use of wind energy or carbon capture and storage (CCS) at coal-fired power plants could reduce carbon emissions. This work compares the direct mining impacts of increased coal demand associated with CCS with those of increased aluminum demand for expanding transmission systems to enable wind power incorporation. Aluminum needs for expanded transmission probably represent a one-time need for about 1.5% of Jamaica's annual bauxite production, while CCS coal needs for the same mitigation could almost double US coal demand.

  4. Steam reforming of tars at low temperature and elevated pressure for model tar component naphthalene

    OpenAIRE

    Speidel, Michael; Fischer, Holger

    2016-01-01

    A process of pressurized gasification and power generation in a hybrid system of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and gas turbine enables an efficient use of biomass. This process requires tar reforming in order to protect the SOFC from plugging. Tars must be converted at 5 bar absolute pressure (bara) while avoiding secondary steam reforming of methane in order to reduce the required heat input for the tar reformer. This can be realized at low reforming temperatures (

  5. MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS LOCAL IMPACTS ON HUMAN HEALTH RISK.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; BOWERMAN, B.; ADAMS, J.; LIPFERT, F.; MORRIS, S.M.; BANDO, A.; PENA, R.; BLAKE, R.

    2005-12-01

    A thorough quantitative understanding of the processes of mercury emissions, deposition, and translocation through the food chain is currently not available. Complex atmospheric chemistry and dispersion models are required to predict concentration and deposition contributions, and aquatic process models are required to predict effects on fish. However, there are uncertainties in all of these predictions. Therefore, the most reliable method of understanding impacts of coal-fired power plants on Hg deposition is from empirical data. A review of the literature on mercury deposition around sources including coal-fired power plants found studies covering local mercury concentrations in soil, vegetation, and animals (fish and cows). There is strong evidence of enhanced local deposition within 3 km of the chlor-alkali plants, with elevated soil concentrations and estimated deposition rates of 10 times background. For coal-fired power plants, the data show that atmospheric deposition of Hg may be slightly enhanced. On the scale of a few km, modeling suggests that wet deposition may be increased by a factor of two or three over background. The measured data suggest lower increases of 15% or less. The effects of coal-fired plants seem to be less than 10% of total deposition on a national scale, based on emissions and global modeling. The following summarizes our findings from published reports on the impacts of local deposition. In terms of excesses over background the following increments have been observed within a few km of the plant: (1) local soil concentration Hg increments of 30%-60%, (2) sediment increments of 18-30%, (3) wet deposition increments of 11-12%, and (4) fish Hg increments of about 5-6%, based on an empirical finding that fish concentrations are proportional to the square root of deposition. Important uncertainties include possible reductions of RGM to Hg{sub 0} in power plant plumes and the role of water chemistry in the relationship between Hg

  6. MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS LOCAL IMPACTS ON HUMAN HEALTH RISK.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; BOWERMAN, B.; ADAMS, J.; LIPFERT, F.; MORRIS, S.M.; BANDO, A.; PENA, R.; BLAKE, R.

    2005-12-01

    A thorough quantitative understanding of the processes of mercury emissions, deposition, and translocation through the food chain is currently not available. Complex atmospheric chemistry and dispersion models are required to predict concentration and deposition contributions, and aquatic process models are required to predict effects on fish. However, there are uncertainties in all of these predictions. Therefore, the most reliable method of understanding impacts of coal-fired power plants on Hg deposition is from empirical data. A review of the literature on mercury deposition around sources including coal-fired power plants found studies covering local mercury concentrations in soil, vegetation, and animals (fish and cows). There is strong evidence of enhanced local deposition within 3 km of the chlor-alkali plants, with elevated soil concentrations and estimated deposition rates of 10 times background. For coal-fired power plants, the data show that atmospheric deposition of Hg may be slightly enhanced. On the scale of a few km, modeling suggests that wet deposition may be increased by a factor of two or three over background. The measured data suggest lower increases of 15% or less. The effects of coal-fired plants seem to be less than 10% of total deposition on a national scale, based on emissions and global modeling. The following summarizes our findings from published reports on the impacts of local deposition. In terms of excesses over background the following increments have been observed within a few km of the plant: (1) local soil concentration Hg increments of 30%-60%, (2) sediment increments of 18-30%, (3) wet deposition increments of 11-12%, and (4) fish Hg increments of about 5-6%, based on an empirical finding that fish concentrations are proportional to the square root of deposition. Important uncertainties include possible reductions of RGM to Hg{sub 0} in power plant plumes and the role of water chemistry in the relationship between Hg

  7. Solvent deasphalting process of vacuum residue blended with coal tar based on the molecular management by atmospheric extraction%基于分子管理的渣油掺炼煤焦油常压溶剂脱沥青效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隆建; 王基铭; 沈本贤; 凌昊; 卢俊财

    2011-01-01

    考察了渣油(VR)掺炼煤焦油(CT)溶剂脱沥青过程效果的变化,优化了实验条件.结果表明,在最佳实验条件[萃取温度30.0℃,溶剂比6∶1(体积/质量)]下,当VR掺炼质量分数为10%的CT时,脱沥青油(DAO)收率较未掺炼者提高2.02个百分点,镍和钒总含量下降5μg/g,硫含量略有下降,氮含量基本不变.VR掺炼CT后黏度降低,胶体稳定性下降.实验所得脱油沥青为硬沥青,采用外掺油浆对其进行调和,随油浆加入质量分数的增加,调和沥青的延度、针入度增大,软化点降低,沥青性质得到改善.%The effect of solvent deasphalting process of vacuum residue (VR) blended with coal tar(CT) was studied and the experimental conditions were optimized. The results showed that under the conditions of extraction temperature 30.0 ℃ and solvent ratio 6:1 (volume/mass), the yield of deasphalted oil from VR blended with mass fraction of CT of 10% was 2.02 percentage points higher than that from VR,the content of Ni and V decreased by 5 μg/g,sulfur content reduced slightly,and the content of nitrogen unchanged litter. The viscosity and colloid stability of VR declined when VR blended with CT. The deoiled asphalt obtained from the experiments was hard, which was modified by slurry oil. The penetration and ductility of the modified asphalt increased, land softening point decreased with increasing slurry oil. The modified asphalt was improved significantly.

  8. Impacts of seaborne trade on coal importing countries – Pacific market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-08-15

    In recent years, there has been a convergence of international trade with traditional domestic markets. As imports continue to increase in many coal producing regions, the influence of trade on domestic markets has been twofold. Firstly, imported coal displaces domestic production and, secondly, international price trends may drive prices of what remains of the indigenous market for coal. While international trade does not provide any additional benefits in terms of reduced CO2 at coalfired power stations, importing coal provides many benefits, such as cost savings, improved coal quality, enhanced supply diversity, and often fills a gap which domestic supply is unable to fulfil. This report examines how coal markets have evolved over the decades with utilities and heavy industry moving away from their seemingly secure yet captive markets of domestic coal to procuring more supplies from the international market to satisfy the need of cost reduction and better and consistent quality of fuel product. The various factors that have led to a rise in popularity of seaborne traded coal, and the future of domestically produced coal in the Pacific market are discussed. This is in one of three reports which examine the changing trends in coal imports over the long term in three geographical regions: a global perspective, the Atlantic market and the Pacific market.

  9. Cogasification of Coal and Biomass: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Brar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been significant research interest in cogasification of coal and various types of biomass blends to improve biomass gasification by reducing the tar content in the product gas. In addition, ash present in biomass catalyzes the gasification of coal. However, due to the fibrous nature of biomass and the large difference in gasification temperature of coal and biomass, cogasification in existing systems presents technical challenges. This paper documents research studies conducted on the cogasification of various types of coal and biomass using different types of gasifiers under various sets of operating conditions. In addition, the influence of cogasification on upstream and downstream processing is presented.

  10. Mercury and Air Toxic Element Impacts of Coal Combustion By-Product Disposal and Utilizaton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Hassett; Loreal Heebink; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Tera Buckley; Erick Zacher; Mei Xin; Mae Sexauer Gustin; Rob Jung

    2007-03-31

    The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) conducted a multiyear study to evaluate the impact of mercury and other air toxic elements (ATEs) on the management of coal combustion by-products (CCBs). The ATEs evaluated in this project were arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, and selenium. The study included laboratory tasks to develop measurement techniques for mercury and ATE releases, sample characterization, and release experiments. A field task was also performed to measure mercury releases at a field site. Samples of fly ash and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials were collected preferentially from full-scale coal-fired power plants operating both without and with mercury control technologies in place. In some cases, samples from pilot- and bench-scale emission control tests were included in the laboratory studies. Several sets of 'paired' baseline and test fly ash and FGD materials collected during full-scale mercury emission control tests were also included in laboratory evaluations. Samples from mercury emission control tests all contained activated carbon (AC) and some also incorporated a sorbent-enhancing agent (EA). Laboratory release experiments focused on measuring releases of mercury under conditions designed to simulate CCB exposure to water, ambient-temperature air, elevated temperatures, and microbes in both wet and dry conditions. Results of laboratory evaluations indicated that: (1) Mercury and sometimes selenium are collected with AC used for mercury emission control and, therefore, present at higher concentrations than samples collected without mercury emission controls present. (2) Mercury is stable on CCBs collected from systems both without and with mercury emission controls present under most conditions tested, with the exception of vapor-phase releases of mercury exposed to elevated temperatures. (3) The presence of carbon either from added AC or from unburned coal can result in mercury

  11. Short contact therapy in psoriasis Tar vs Anthralin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kar P

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty cases (group I having psoriasis were studied with a view to assess the efficacy of combination of short contact coal tar therapy, sunrays exposure and short contact anthralin therapy. Results were compared with thirty patients (group II with psoriasis using anthralin paste as per Ingram technique as control. The combined short contact therapy in group I patients with intensive 90 to 120 minutes treatment sessions done once in every alternate day resulted in complete clearing in 19 (63.3% patients, 3 (10% showed more than 50% clearing of lesions, 6 (20% had 21-50% improvement of lesions, one (3.3% had 5-20% improvement and disease got worse in one (3.3% case. The average rate of clearance of lesions started to appear between 10-22 days with a mean of 16 days. In group II out of 30 patients using anthralin paste every day, 16 (53.3% showed complete clearing of lesions, 5 (16.6% showed more than 50% clearing of lesions, 4 (13.3% had 21-50% improvement of lesions, two (6.6% patients had 5-20% improvement of lesions and the disease got worse in 3 (10% cases. The average rate of clearance of lesions started to appear between 18-28 days with a mean of 23 days. The combined short contact therapy schedule allows minimal time away from work, decreased hours per week in contact with coal tar and anthralin, decreased cost and a low risk of side effects.

  12. Impacts of the Minamata Convention for Mercury Emissions from Coal-fired Power Generation in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giang, A.; Stokes, L. C.; Streets, D. G.; Corbitt, E. S.; Selin, N. E.

    2014-12-01

    We explore the potential implications of the recently signed United Nations Minamata Convention on Mercury for emissions from coal-fired power generation in Asia, and the impacts of these emissions changes on deposition of mercury worldwide by 2050. We use qualitative interviews, document analysis, and engineering analysis to create plausible technology scenarios consistent with the Convention, taking into account both technological and political factors. We translate these scenarios into possible emissions inventories for 2050, based on IPCC development scenarios, and then use the GEOS-Chem global transport model to evaluate the effect of these different technology choices on mercury deposition over geographic regions and oceans. We find that China is most likely to address mercury control through co-benefits from technologies for SO2, NOx, and particulate matter (PM) capture that will be required to attain its existing air quality goals. In contrast, India is likely to focus on improvements to plant efficiency such as upgrading boilers, and coal washing. Compared to current technologies, we project that these changes will result in emissions decreases of approximately 140 and 190 Mg/yr for China and India respectively in 2050, under an A1B development scenario. With these emissions reductions, simulated average gross deposition over India and China are reduced by approximately 10 and 3 μg/m2/yr respectively, and the global average concentration of total gaseous mercury (TGM) is reduced by approximately 10% in the Northern hemisphere. Stricter, but technologically feasible, requirements for mercury control in both countries could lead to an additional 200 Mg/yr of emissions reductions. Modeled differences in concentration and deposition patterns between technology suites are due to differences in both the mercury removal efficiency of technologies and their resulting stack speciation.

  13. Environmental assessment: tar sand in situ steam injection experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    A field experiment is planned for the in situ recovery of bitumen from tar sand. The site is located on a ten acre site 6.5 miles West of Vernal, Utah, and the experiment will last about six months. The experiment will utilize steam to lower the viscosity of the bitumen and drive it into production wells where it is recovered. Due to the small scale of this experiment, the impact of the proposed action will be minimal. Impact on local biological life will be minimal. The experiment will have no effect on aquatic habitats. No rare or endangered biological species will be affected by the experiment.

  14. Impact of petrographic properties on the burning behavior of pulverized coal using a drop tube furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Biswas; N. Choudhury; S. Ghosal; T. Mitra; A. Mukherjee; S.G. Sahu; M. Kumar [Jadavpur University, Dhanbad (India). Central Fuel Research Institute]. sb_cfri@yahoo.co.in

    2007-12-15

    The combustion behavior of three Indian coals of different rank with wide variation in ash content and maceral compositions were studied using a drop tube furnace (DTF). Each coal was pulverized into a specific size (80% below 200 mesh) and fed into the DTF separately. The DTF runs were carried out under identical conditions for all of the coals. The carbon burnout was found out from the chemical analyses of the feed coals and the char samples collected from different ports of the DTF. Char morphology analyses was carried on the burnout residues of the top port. The top port results show better burnout of the lower rank coals which however was not observed in the last port. An attempt has been made to account for this variation in terms of rank and petrographic parameters of the respective coals. 20 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  15. Laboratory evaluation of selected tar sand asphalts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Button, J.W.; Epps, J.A.; Gallaway, B.M.

    1980-12-01

    Three tar sand asphalts of similar grades prepared from one syncrude by three different refining methods were characterized by tests commonly used to specify paving asphalts together with certain special tests. Asphalt-aggregate mixtures were prepared using these asphalts and tested in the laboratory to determine strength stiffness stability, tensile properties, temperature effects and water susceptibility. Comparison of the tar sand asphalt properties to conventional petroleum asphalt properties reveal no striking differences.

  16. Treating tar sands formations with dolomite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Karanikas, John Michael

    2010-06-08

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. The tar sands formation may include dolomite and hydrocarbons. Methods may include providing heat at less than the decomposition temperature of dolomite from one or more heaters to at least a portion of the formation. At least some of the hydrocarbon fluids are mobilized in the formation. At least some of the hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  17. COAL MINING OPERATIONS AND ITS IMPACT ON SECTORAL AND REGIONAL AREA: EVIDENCE OF EAST KALIMANTAN, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rian Hilmawan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mining sector plays important roles for Indonesian economic performance, especially in East Kalimantan. This study investigates: (a whether economic linkages of the mining sector related with other economic sectors in East Kalimantan, (b who gets benefit from such mining activities; (c how is the impact of mining sector for rural and urban households; and (d what happens if coal mining, oil and gas productions are completely depleted. The quantitative analysis framework using Input-Output and Social Accounting Matrix Tables in period 2009-2010 has been implemented as main data set. The result shows that mining sector was underdeveloped sector in East Kalimantan, including Kutai Kartanegara district. Activities from mining sector tended to give benefit for the owners of capital, which is larger than that benefit for workers employed. Structural Path Analysis (SPA shows that urban households gain the greatest advantages from the activities of this sector. The result also shows that the total output decreased by 65.12% when the mining, oil and gas dissapeared. A drastic reducing income after mining and oil and gas era will have an impact on the decline in the purchasing power in the region. However, the interesting finding of this research shows that the loss of mining and oil or gas sectors actually increases the strength of employment multiplier by 19%.

  18. Upgraded Coal Interest Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evan Hughes

    2009-01-08

    The Upgraded Coal Interest Group (UCIG) is an EPRI 'users group' that focuses on clean, low-cost options for coal-based power generation. The UCIG covers topics that involve (1) pre-combustion processes, (2) co-firing systems and fuels, and (3) reburn using coal-derived or biomass-derived fuels. The UCIG mission is to preserve and expand the economic use of coal for energy. By reducing the fuel costs and environmental impacts of coal-fired power generation, existing units become more cost effective and thus new units utilizing advanced combustion technologies are more likely to be coal-fired.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot B. Kennel; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-07-13

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. The Hydrotreatment Facility is being prepared for trials with coal liquids. Raw coal tar distillate trials have been carried out by heating coal tar in the holding tank in the Hydrotreatment Facility. The liquids are centrifuged to warm the system up in preparation for the coal liquids. The coal tar distillate is then recycled to keep the centrifuge hot. In this way, the product has been distilled such that a softening point of approximately 110 C is reached. Then an ash test is conducted.

  20. Impacts of coal burning on ambient PM2.5 pollution in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qiao; Cai, Siyi; Wang, Shuxiao; Zhao, Bin; Martin, Randall V.; Brauer, Michael; Cohen, Aaron; Jiang, Jingkun; Zhou, Wei; Hao, Jiming; Frostad, Joseph; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.; Burnett, Richard T.

    2017-04-01

    High concentration of fine particles (PM2.5), the primary concern about air quality in China, is believed to closely relate to China's large consumption of coal. In order to quantitatively identify the contributions of coal combustion in different sectors to ambient PM2. 5, we developed an emission inventory for the year 2013 using up-to-date information on energy consumption and emission controls, and we conducted standard and sensitivity simulations using the chemical transport model GEOS-Chem. According to the simulation, coal combustion contributes 22 µg m-3 (40 %) to the total PM2. 5 concentration at national level (averaged in 74 major cities) and up to 37 µg m-3 (50 %) in the Sichuan Basin. Among major coal-burning sectors, industrial coal burning is the dominant contributor, with a national average contribution of 10 µg m-3 (17 %), followed by coal combustion in power plants and the domestic sector. The national average contribution due to coal combustion is estimated to be 18 µg m-3 (46 %) in summer and 28 µg m-3 (35 %) in winter. While the contribution of domestic coal burning shows an obvious reduction from winter to summer, contributions of coal combustion in power plants and the industrial sector remain at relatively constant levels throughout the year.

  1. Comparing Statewide Economic Impacts of New Generation from Wind, Coal, and Natural Gas in Arizona, Colorado, and Michigan: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegen, S.

    2005-08-01

    With increasing concerns about energy independence, job outsourcing, and risks of global climate change, it is important for policy makers to understand all impacts from their decisions about energy resources. This paper assesses one aspect of the impacts: direct economic effects. The paper compares impacts to states from equivalent new electrical generation from wind, natural gas, and coal. Economic impacts include materials and labor for construction, operations, maintenance, fuel extraction, and fuel transport, as well as project financing, property tax, and landowner revenues. We examine spending on plant construction during construction years, in addition to all other operational expenditures over a 20-year span. Initial results indicate that adding new wind power can be more economically effective than adding new gas or coal power, and that a higher percentage of dollars spent on coal and gas will leave the state. For this report, we interviewed industry representatives and energy experts, in addition to consulting government documents, models, and existing literature. The methodology for this research can be adapted to other contexts for determining economic effects of new power generation in other states and regions.

  2. Comparing Statewide Economic Impacts of New Generation from Wind, Coal, and Natural Gas in Arizona, Colorado, and Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegen, S.

    2006-05-01

    With increasing concerns about energy independence, job outsourcing, and risks of global climate change, it is important for policy makers to understand all impacts from their decisions about energy resources. This paper assesses one aspect of the impacts: direct economic effects. The paper compares impacts to states from equivalent new electrical generation from wind, natural gas, and coal